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Sample records for absorption spectroscopy measurements

  1. Atmospheric Measurements by Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Hongming; Wu, Tao; Coeur-Tourneur, Cécile; Fertein, Eric; Gao, Xiaoming; Zhao, Weixiong; Zhang, Weijun; Chen, Weidong

    2015-04-01

    Since the last decade, atmospheric environmental monitoring has benefited from the development of novel spectroscopic measurement techniques owing to the significant breakthroughs in photonic technology from the UV to the infrared spectral domain [1]. In this presentation, we will overview our recent development and applications of cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy techniques for in situ optical monitoring of chemically reactive atmospheric species (such as HONO, NO3, NO2, N2O5) in intensive campaigns [2] and/or in smog chamber studies [3]. These field deployments demonstrated that modern photonic technologies (newly emergent light sources combined with high sensitivity spectroscopic techniques) can provide a useful tool to improve our understanding of tropospheric chemical processes which affect climate, air quality, and the spread of pollution. Experimental detail and preliminary results will be presented. Acknowledgements. The financial support from the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR) under the NexCILAS (ANR-11-NS09-0002) and the CaPPA (ANR-10-LABX-005) contracts is acknowledged. References [1] X. Cui, C. Lengignon, T. Wu, W. Zhao, G. Wysocki, E. Fertein, C. Coeur, A. Cassez,L. Croisé, W. Chen, et al., "Photonic Sensing of the Atmosphere by absorption spectroscopy", J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Transfer 113 (2012) 1300-1316 [2] T. Wu, Q. Zha, W. Chen, Z. XU, T. Wang, X. He, "Development and deployment of a cavity enhanced UV-LED spectrometer for measurements of atmospheric HONO and NO2 in Hong Kong", Atmos. Environ. 95 (2014) 544-551 [3] T. Wu, C. Coeur-Tourneur, G. Dhont,A. Cassez, E. Fertein, X. He, W. Chen,"Application of IBBCEAS to kinetic study of NO3 radical formation from O3 + NO2 reaction in an atmospheric simulation chamber", J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Transfer 133 (2014)199-205

  2. DOAS (differential optical absorption spectroscopy) urban pollution measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Robert K.; Vossler, T. L.

    1991-05-01

    During July and August of 1990, a differential optical absorption spectrometer (DOAS) made by OPSIS Inc. was used to measure gaseous air pollutants over three separate open paths in Atlanta, GA. Over path 1 (1099 m) and path 2 (1824 m), ozone (03), sulfur dioxide (SO2) nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrous acid (HNO2) formaldehyde (HCHO), benzene, toluene, and o-xylene were measured. Nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH3) were monitored over path 3 (143 m). The data quality and data capture depended on the compound being measured and the path over which it was measured. Data quality criteria for each compound were chosen such that the average relative standard deviation would be less than 25%. Data capture ranged from 43% for o-xylene for path 1 to 95% for ozone for path 2. Benzene, toluene, and o-xylene concentrations measured over path 2, which crossed over an interstate highway, were higher than concentrations measured over path 1, implicating emissions from vehicles on the highway as a significant source of these compounds. Federal Reference Method (FRN) instruments were located near the DOAS light receivers and measurements of 03, NO2, and NO were made concurrently with the DOAS. Correlation coefficients greater than 0.85 were obtained between the DOAS and FRM's; however, there was a difference between the mean values obtained by the two methods for 03 and NO. A gas chromatograph for measuring volatile organic compounds was operated next to the FRN's. Correlation coefficients of about 0.66 were obtained between the DOAS and GC measurements of benzene and o- xylene. However, the correlation coefficient between the DOAS and GC measurements of toluene averaged only 0.15 for the two DOAS measurement paths. The lack of correlation and other factors indicate the possibility of a localized source of toluene near the GC. In general, disagreements between the two measurement methods could be caused by atmospheric inhomogeneities or interferences in the DOAS and other methods.

  3. The temperature measurement research for high-speed flow based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, Yue; Jin, Yi; Jiang, Hong-liang; Zhai, Chao

    2013-09-01

    Due to the particularity of the high-speed flow, in order to accurately obtain its' temperature, the measurement system should has some characteristics of not interfereing with the flow, non-contact measurement and high time resolution. The traditional measurement method cannot meet the above requirements, however the measurement method based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) technology can meet the requirements for high-speed flow temperature measurement. When the near-infared light of a specific frequency is through the media to be measured, it will be absorbed by the water vapor molecules and then the transmission light intensity is detected by the detector. The temperature of the water vapor which is also the high-speed flow temperature, can be accurately obtained by the Beer-Lambert law. This paper focused on the research of absorption spectrum method for high speed flow temperature measurement with the scope of 250K-500K. Firstly, spectral line selection method for low temperature measurement of high-speed flow is discussed. Selected absorption lines should be isolated and have a high peak absorption within the range of 250-500K, at the same time the interference of the other lines should be avoided, so that a high measurement accuracy can be obtained. According to the near-infrared absorption spectra characteristics of water vapor, four absorption lines at the near 1395 nm and 1409 nm are selected. Secondly, a system for the temperature measurement of the water vapor in the high-speed flow is established. Room temperature are measured through two methods, direct absorption spectroscopy (DAS) and wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) ,the results show that this system can realize on-line measurement of the temperature and the measurement error is about 3%. Finally, the system will be used for temperature measurement of the high-speed flow in the shock tunnel, its feasibility of measurement is analyzed.

  4. Measurement of Absorption Coefficient of Paraformaldehyde and Metaldehyde with Terahertz Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Xia, T.; Chen, Q.; Sun, Q.; Deng, Y.; Wang, C.

    2018-03-01

    The characteristic absorption spectra of paraformaldehyde and metaldehyde in the terahertz frequency region are obtained by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). In order to reduce the absorption of terahertz (THz) wave by water vapor in the air and the background noise, the measurement system was filled with dry air and the measurements were conducted at the temperature of 24°C. Meanwhile, the humidity was controlled within 10% RH. The THz frequency domain spectra of samples and their references from 0 to 2.5 THz were analyzed via Fourier transform. The refractive index and absorption coefficients of the two aldehydes were calculated by the model formulas. From 0.1 to 2.5 THz, there appear two weak absorption peaks at 1.20 and 1.66 THz in the absorption spectra of paraformaldehyde. Only one distinct absorption peak emerges at 1.83 THz for metaldehyde. There are significant differences between the terahertz absorption coefficients of paraformaldehyde and metaldehyde, which can be used as "fingerprints" to identify these substances. Furthermore, the relationship between the average absorption coefficients and mass concentrations was investigated and the average absorption coefficient-mass concentration diagrams of paraformaldehyde and metaldehyde were shown. For paraformaldehyde, there is a linear relationship between the average absorption coefficient and the natural logarithm of mass concentration. For metaldehyde, there exists a simpler linear relationship between the average absorption coefficient and the mass concentration. Because of the characteristics of THz absorption of paraformaldehyde and metaldehyde, the THz-TDS can be applied to the qualitative and quantitative detection of the two aldehydes to reduce the unpredictable hazards due to these substances.

  5. The visible absorption spectrum of NO3 measured by high-resolution Fourier transform spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orphal, J.; Fellows, C. E.; Flaud, P.-M.

    2003-02-01

    The visible absorption spectrum of the nitrate radical NO3 has been measured using high-resolution Fourier transform spectroscopy. The spectrum was recorded at 294 K using a resolution of 0.6 cm-1 (corresponding to 0.026 nm at 662 nm) and covers the 12600-21500 cm-1 region (465-794 nm). Compared to absorption spectra of NO3 recorded previously, the new data show improvements concerning absolute wavelength calibration (uncertainty 0.02 cm-1), and spectral resolution. A new interpretation and model of the temperature dependence of the strong (0-0) band around 662 nm are proposed. The results are important for long-path tropospheric absorption measurements of NO3 and optical remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere from space.

  6. Cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) system for measuring atmospheric mercury using differential absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, A.; Obrist, D.; Moosmuller, H.; Moore, C.

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric elemental mercury (Hg0) is a globally pervasive element that can be transported and deposited to remote ecosystems where it poses — particularly in its methylated form — harm to many organisms including humans. Current techniques for measurement of atmospheric Hg0 require several liters of sample air and several minutes for each analysis. Fast-response (i.e., 1 second or faster) measurements would improve our ability to understand and track chemical cycling of mercury in the atmosphere, including high frequency Hg0 fluctuations, sources and sinks, and chemical transformation processes. We present theory, design, challenges, and current results of our new prototype sensor based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) for fast-response measurement of Hg0 mass concentrations. CRDS is a direct absorption technique that implements path-lengths of multiple kilometers in a compact absorption cell using high-reflectivity mirrors, thereby improving sensitivity and reducing sample volume compared to conventional absorption spectroscopy. Our sensor includes a frequency-doubled, dye-laser emitting laser pulses tunable from 215 to 280 nm, pumped by a Q-switched, frequency tripled Nd:YAG laser with a pulse repetition rate of 50 Hz. We present how we successfully perform automated wavelength locking and stabilization of the laser to the peak Hg0 absorption line at 253.65 nm using an external isotopically-enriched mercury (202Hg0) cell. An emphasis of this presentation will be on the implementation of differential absorption measurement whereby measurements are alternated between the peak Hg0 absorption wavelength and a nearby wavelength "off" the absorption line. This can be achieved using a piezo electric tuning element that allows for pulse-by-pulse tuning and detuning of the laser "online" and "offline" of the Hg absorption line, and thereby allows for continuous correction of baseline extinction losses. Unexpected challenges with this approach included

  7. Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) using Targets: SO2 and NO2 Measurements in Montevideo City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louban, Ilia; Píriz, Gustavo; Platt, Ulrich; Frins, Erna

    2008-04-01

    SO2 and NO2 were remotely measured in a main street of Montevideo city using Multiaxis-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) combined with on-field selected targets. Target-based measurements are the basis of a new experimental procedure called Topographic Target Light scattering-DOAS (TOTAL-DOAS) that provides a well define absorption path to measure the near surface distribution of trace gases in the boundary layer. It combines the measurement principles of the long-path DOAS and zenith-scattered sunlight DOAS, within the near UV and VIS spectral range. We give a general description of the procedure and present first results of the 2006 campaign at Montevideo.

  8. Measurement of temperature profiles in flames by emission-absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, F. S.; Arnold, C. B.; Lindquist, G. H.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to explore the use of infrared and ultraviolet emission-absorption spectroscopy for determination of temperature profiles in flames. Spectral radiances and absorptances were measured in the 2.7-micron H2O band and the 3064-A OH band in H2/O2 flames for several temperature profiles which were directly measured by a sodium line-reversal technique. The temperature profiles, determined by inversion of the infrared and ultraviolet spectra, showed an average disagreement with line-reversal measurements of 50 K for the infrared and 200 K for the ultraviolet at a temperature of 2600 K. The reasons for these discrepancies are discussed in some detail.

  9. Measurement of He neutral temperature in detached plasmas using laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aramaki, M.; Tsujihara, T.; Kajita, S.; Tanaka, H.; Ohno, N.

    2018-01-01

    The reduction of the heat load onto plasma-facing components by plasma detachment is an inevitable scheme in future nuclear fusion reactors. Since the control of the plasma and neutral temperatures is a key issue to the detached plasma generation, we have developed a laser absorption spectroscopy system for the metastable helium temperature measurements and used together with a previously developed laser Thomson scattering system for the electron temperature and density measurements. The thermal relaxation process between the neutral and the electron in the detached plasma generated in the linear plasma device, NAGDIS-II was studied. It is shown that the electron temperature gets close to the neutral temperature by increasing the electron density. On the other hand, the pressure dependence of electron and neutral temperatures shows the cooling effect by the neutrals. The possibility of the plasma fluctuation measurement using the fluctuation in the absorption signal is also shown.

  10. [Study of high temperature water vapor concentration measurement method based on absorption spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiu-ying; Liu, Jian-guo; He, Jun-feng; He, Ya-bai; Zhang, Guang-le; Xu, Zhen-yu; Gang, Qiang; Wang, Liao; Yao, Lu; Yuan, Song; Ruan, Jun; Dai, Yun-hai; Kan, Rui-feng

    2014-12-01

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) has been developed to realize the real-time and dynamic measurement of the combustion temperature, gas component concentration, velocity and other flow parameters, owing to its high sensitivity, fast time response, non-invasive character and robust nature. In order to obtain accurate water vapor concentration at high temperature, several absorption spectra of water vapor near 1.39 μm from 773 to 1273 K under ordinary pressure were recorded in a high temperature experiment setup using a narrow band diode laser. The absorbance of high temperature absorption spectra was calculated by combined multi-line nonlinear least squares fitting method. Two water vapor absorption lines near 7154.35 and 7157.73 cm(-1) were selected for measurement of water vapor at high temperature. A model method for high temperature water vapor concentration was first proposed. Water vapor concentration from the model method at high temperature is in accordance with theoretical reasoning, concentration measurement standard error is less than 0.2%, and the relative error is less than 6%. The feasibility of this measuring method is verified by experiment.

  11. Dynamic Optoelectronic Properties in Perovskite Oxide Thin Films Measured with Ultrafast Transient Absorption & Reflectance Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolin, Sergey Y.

    -dependent, variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry and time-resolved ultrafast optical spectroscopy on a type I heterostructure, we clarify thermal and electronic contributions to spectral transients in LaFeO3. Upon comparison to thermally-derived static spectra of LaFeO3, we find that thermal contributions dominate the transient absorption and reflectance spectra above the band gap. A transient photoinduced absorption feature below the band gap at 1.9 eV is not reproduced in the thermally derived spectra and has significantly longer decay kinetics from the thermallyinduced features; therefore, this long lived photoinduced absorption is likely derived, at least partially, from photoexcited carriers with lifetimes much longer than 3 nanoseconds. LaFeO3 has a wide band gap of 2.4 eV but its absorption can be decreased with chemical substitution of Sr for Fe to make it more suitable for various applications. This type of A-site substitution is a common route to change static optical absorption in perovskite oxides, but there are no systematic studies looking at how A-site substitution changes dynamic optoelectronic properties. To understand the relationship between composition and static and dynamic optical properties we worked with the model system of La1-xSrxFeO 3-delta epitaxial films grown on LSAT, uncovering the effects of A-site cation substitution and oxygen stoichiometry. Variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to measure static optical properties, revealing a linear increase in absorption coefficient at 1.25 eV and a red-shifting of the optical absorption edge with increasing Sr fraction. The absorption spectra can be similarly tuned through the introduction of oxygen vacancies, indicating the critical role that nominal Fe valence plays in optical absorption. Dynamic optoelectronic properties were studied with ultrafast transient reflectance spectroscopy with broadband visible (1.6 eV to 4 eV) and near-infrared (0.9 eV to 1.5 eV) probes. The sign of the reflectance

  12. First total-absorption spectroscopy measurement on the neutron-rich Cu isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naqvi, F.; Spyrou, A.; Liddick, S. N.; Larsen, A. C.; Guttormsen, M.; Bleuel, D. L.; Campo, L. C.; Couture, A.; Crider, B. P.; Dombos, A. C.; Ginter, T.; Lewis, R.; Mosby, S.; Perdikakis, G.; Prokop, C. P.; Quinn, S. J.; Renstrom, T.; Rubio, B.; Siem, S.

    2015-10-01

    The first beta-decay studies of 73-71Cu isotopes using the Total Absorption Spectroscopy (TAS) will be reported. The Cu isotopes have one proton outside the Z = 28 shell and hence are good candidates to probe the single-particle structure in the region.Theories predict weakening of the Z = 28 shell gap due to the tensor interaction between the valence πν single-particle orbitals. Comparing the beta-decay strength distributions in the daughter Zn isotopes to the theoretical calculations will provide a stringent test of the predictions. The experiment was performed at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) employing the TAS technique with the Summing NaI(Tl) detector, while beta decays were measured in the NSCL beta-counting system. The experimentally obtained total absorption spectra for the neutron-rich Cu isotopes will be presented and the implications of the extracted beta-feeding intensities will be discussed.

  13. Towards a standard for the dynamic measurement of pressure based on laser absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Douglass, K O; Olson, D A

    2016-01-01

    We describe an approach for creating a standard for the dynamic measurement of pressure based on the measurement of fundamental quantum properties of molecular systems. From the linewidth and intensities of ro-vibrational transitions we plan on making an accurate determination of pressure and temperature. The goal is to achieve an absolute uncertainty for time-varying pressure of 5 % with a measurement rate of 100 kHz, which will in the future serve as a method for the traceable calibration of pressure sensors used in transient processes. To illustrate this concept we have used wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS), due to inherent advantages over direct absorption spectroscopy, to perform rapid measurements of carbon dioxide in order to determine the pressure. The system records the full lineshape profile of a single ro-vibrational transition of CO2 at a repetition rate of 4 kHz and with a systematic measurement uncertainty of 12 % for the linewidth measurement. A series of pressures were measured at a rate of 400 Hz (10 averages) and from these measurements the linewidth was determined with a relative uncertainty of about 0.5 % on average. The pressures measured using WMS have an average difference of 0.6 % from the absolute pressure measured with a capacitance diaphragm sensor. PMID:27881884

  14. Optical Measurement of Radiocarbon below Unity Fraction Modern by Linear Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fleisher, Adam J; Long, David A; Liu, Qingnan; Gameson, Lyn; Hodges, Joseph T

    2017-09-21

    High-precision measurements of radiocarbon ( 14 C) near or below a fraction modern 14 C of 1 (F 14 C ≤ 1) are challenging and costly. An accurate, ultrasensitive linear absorption approach to detecting 14 C would provide a simple and robust benchtop alternative to off-site accelerator mass spectrometry facilities. Here we report the quantitative measurement of 14 C in gas-phase samples of CO 2 with F 14 C < 1 using cavity ring-down spectroscopy in the linear absorption regime. Repeated analysis of CO 2 derived from the combustion of either biogenic or petrogenic sources revealed a robust ability to differentiate samples with F 14 C < 1. With a combined uncertainty of 14 C/ 12 C = 130 fmol/mol (F 14 C = 0.11), initial performance of the calibration-free instrument is sufficient to investigate a variety of applications in radiocarbon measurement science including the study of biofuels and bioplastics, illicitly traded specimens, bomb dating, and atmospheric transport.

  15. NO2 trace measurements by optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventrillard-Courtillot, I.; Foldes, T.; Romanini, D.

    2009-04-01

    In order to reach the sub-ppb NO2 detection level required for environmental applications in remote areas, we are developing a spectrometer that exploits a technique that we introduced several years ago, named Optical-Feedback Cavity-Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (OF-CEAS) [1]. It allows very sensitive and selective measurements, together with the realization of compact and robust set-ups as was subsequently demonstrated during measurements campaigns in harsh environments [2,3]. OF-CEAS benefits from the optical feedback (OF) to efficiently inject a cw-laser in a high finesse cavity (typically F >10 000). Absorption spectra are acquired on a small spectral region (~1 cm-1) that enables selective and quantitative measurements at a fast acquisition rate (~10 Hz) with a detection limit of several 10-10 cm-1 as reported in this paper. Spectra are obtained with high spectral resolution (~150 MHz) and are self calibrated by cavity rind-down measurements regularly performed (typically every second). Therefore, OF-CEAS appears very attractive for NO2 trace detection. This work is performed in the blue spectral region where NO2 has intense electronic transitions. Our setup involves a commercial extended cavity diode laser (ECDL) working at room temperature around 411nm. A first setup was developed [4] to demonstrate that OF sensitivity of ECDL is fully consistent with this technique, initially introduced with distributed feedback diode lasers in the near infrared region. In this paper we will report on a new set-up developed for in-situ measurements with proper mechanical, acoustic and thermal insulation. Additionally, new data processing was implemented allowing real time concentration measurements. It is based on a reference spectra recorded under controlled conditions by OF-CEAS and used later to fit the observed spectra. We will present measurements performed with calibrated NO2 reference samples demonstrating a good linearity of the apparatus. The minimum detectable

  16. Concentration measurement of NO using self-absorption spectroscopy of the γ band system in a pulsed corona discharge.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Xiaodong; Ding, Yanjun; Peng, Zhimin; Luo, Rui

    2012-07-10

    Nitric oxide (NO) concentrations were measured using the γ band system spectrum based on the strong self-absorption effect of NO in pulsed corona discharges. The radiative transitional intensities of the NO γ band were simulated based on the theory of molecular spectroscopy. The intensities of some bands, especially γ(0,0) and γ(1,0), are weakened by the self-absorption. The correlations between the spectral self-absorption intensities and NO concentration were validated using a modified Beer-Lambert law with a combined factor K relating the branching ratio and the NO concentration, and a nonlinear index α that is applicable to the broadband system. Optical emissive spectra in pulsed corona discharges in NO and N2/He mixtures were used to evaluate the two parameters for various conditions. Good agreement between the experimental and theoretical results verifies the self-absorption behavior seen in the UV spectra of the NO γ bands.

  17. Absorption spectroscopy of microalgae, cyanobacteria, and dissolved organic matter: Measurements in an integrating sphere cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogosyan, S. I.; Durgaryan, A. M.; Konyukhov, I. V.; Chivkunova, O. B.; Merzlyak, M. N.

    2009-12-01

    A device for integrating cavity absorption measurements (ICAM) with an internal diameter of 80 mm suitable for field research is described. The spectral features of the light absorption by some cyanobacteria, green algae, and diatoms in the integrating sphere were studied and the dependences of the absorption on the cell concentration were determined in comparison with the conventional measurements in a 1-cm cuvette. The sensitivity of the chlorophyll estimation with the ICAM reached 0.2-0.5 mg m-3. The results of the ICAM application for the direct analysis of the natural phytoplankton and dissolved organic (“yellow“) matter in the Black Sea and the Sea of Japan are described.

  18. Electronic structure measurements of metal-organic solar cell dyes using x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Phillip S.

    The focus of this thesis is twofold: to report the results of X-ray absorption studies of metal-organic dye molecules for dye-sensitized solar cells and to provide a basic training manual on X-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques and data analysis. The purpose of our research on solar cell dyes is to work toward an understanding of the factors influencing the electronic structure of the dye: the choice of the metal, its oxidation state, ligands, and cage structure. First we study the effect of replacing Ru in several common dye structures by Fe. First-principles calculations and X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the C 1s and N 1s edges are combined to investigate transition metal dyes in octahedral and square planar N cages. Octahedral molecules are found to have a downward shift in the N 1s-to-pi* transition energy and an upward shift in C 1s-to-pi* transition energy when Ru is replaced by Fe, explained by an extra transfer of negative charge from Fe to the N ligands compared to Ru. For the square planar molecules, the behavior is more complex because of the influence of axial ligands and oxidation state. Next the crystal field parameters for a series of phthalocyanine and porphyrins dyes are systematically determined using density functional calculations and atomic multiplet calculations with polarization-dependent X-ray absorption spectra. The polarization dependence of the spectra provides information on orbital symmetries which ensures the determination of the crystal field parameters is unique. A uniform downward scaling of the calculated crystal field parameters by 5-30% is found to be necessary to best fit the spectra. This work is a part of the ongoing effort to design and test new solar cell dyes. Replacing the rare metal Ru with abundant metals like Fe would be a significant advance for dye-sensitized solar cells. Understanding the effects of changing the metal centers in these dyes in terms of optical absorption, charge transfer, and electronic

  19. A new endstation at the Swiss Light Source for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements of liquid solutions.

    PubMed

    Brown, Matthew A; Redondo, Amaia Beloqui; Jordan, Inga; Duyckaerts, Nicolas; Lee, Ming-Tao; Ammann, Markus; Nolting, Frithjof; Kleibert, Armin; Huthwelker, Thomas; Müächler, Jean-Pierre; Birrer, Mario; Honegger, Juri; Wetter, Reto; Wörner, Hans Jakob; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A

    2013-07-01

    A new liquid microjet endstation designed for ultraviolet (UPS) and X-ray (XPS) photoelectron, and partial electron yield X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopies at the Swiss Light Source is presented. The new endstation, which is based on a Scienta HiPP-2 R4000 electron spectrometer, is the first liquid microjet endstation capable of operating in vacuum and in ambient pressures up to the equilibrium vapor pressure of liquid water at room temperature. In addition, the Scienta HiPP-2 R4000 energy analyzer of this new endstation allows for XPS measurements up to 7000 eV electron kinetic energy that will enable electronic structure measurements of bulk solutions and buried interfaces from liquid microjet samples. The endstation is designed to operate at the soft X-ray SIM beamline and at the tender X-ray Phoenix beamline. The endstation can also be operated using a Scienta 5 K ultraviolet helium lamp for dedicated UPS measurements at the vapor-liquid interface using either He I or He II α lines. The design concept, first results from UPS, soft X-ray XPS, and partial electron yield XAS measurements, and an outlook to the potential of this endstation are presented.

  20. Measurement of transient gas flow parameters by diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bolshov, M A; Kuritsyn, Yu A; Liger, V V

    2015-04-30

    An absorption spectrometer based on diode lasers is developed for measuring two-dimension maps of temperature and water vapour concentration distributions in the combustion zones of two mixing supersonic flows of fuel and oxidiser in the single run regime. The method of measuring parameters of hot combustion zones is based on detection of transient spectra of water vapour absorption. The design of the spectrometer considerably reduces the influence of water vapour absorption along the path of a sensing laser beam outside the burning chamber. The optical scheme is developed, capable of matching measurement results in different runs of mixture burning. Amore » new algorithm is suggested for obtaining information about the mixture temperature by constructing the correlation functions of the experimental spectrum with those simulated from databases. A two-dimensional map of temperature distribution in a test chamber is obtained for the first time under the conditions of plasma-induced combusion of the ethylene – air mixture. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)« less

  1. Non-uniform temperature and species concentration measurements in a laminar flame using multi-band infrared absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Liu Hao; Lau, Lok Yin; Ren, Wei

    2017-03-01

    We report in situ measurements of non-uniform temperature, H2O and CO2 concentration distributions in a premixed methane-air laminar flame using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). A mid-infrared, continuous-wave, room-temperature interband cascade laser (ICL) at 4183 nm was used for the sensitive detection of CO2 at high temperature.The H2O absorption lines were exploited by one distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser at 1343 nm and one ICL at 2482 nm to achieve multi-band absorption measurements with high species concentration sensitivity, high temperature sensitivity, and immunity to variations in ambient conditions. A novel profile-fitting function was proposed to characterize the non-uniform temperature and species concentrations along the line-of-sight in the flame by detecting six absorption lines of CO2 and H2O simultaneously. The flame temperature distribution was measured at different heights above the burner (5-20 mm), and compared with the thermocouple measurement with heat-transfer correction. Our TDLAS measured temperature of the central flame was in excellent agreement (<1.5% difference) with the thermocouple data.The TDLAS results were also compared with the CFD simulations using a detailed chemical kinetics mechanism (GRI 3.0) and considering the heat loss to the surroundings.The current CFD simulation overpredicted the flame temperature in the gradient region, but was in excellent agreement with the measured temperature and species concentration in the core of the flame.

  2. Broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet spectral region for measurements of nitrogen dioxide and formaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washenfelder, R. A.; Attwood, A. R.; Flores, J. M.; Zarzana, K. J.; Rudich, Y.; Brown, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    Formaldehyde (CH2O) is the most abundant aldehyde in the atmosphere, and it strongly affects photochemistry through its photolysis. We describe simultaneous measurements of CH2O and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) using broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet spectral region. The light source consists of a continuous-wave diode laser focused into a Xenon bulb to produce a plasma that emits high-intensity, broadband light. The plasma discharge is optically filtered and coupled into a 1 m optical cavity. The reflectivity of the cavity mirrors is 0.99930 ± 0.00003 (1- reflectivity = 700 ppm loss) at 338 nm, as determined from the known Rayleigh scattering of He and zero air. This mirror reflectivity corresponds to an effective path length of 1.43 km within the 1 m cell. We measure the cavity output over the 315-350 nm spectral region using a grating monochromator and charge-coupled device array detector. We use published reference spectra with spectral fitting software to simultaneously retrieve CH2O and NO2 concentrations. Independent measurements of NO2 standard additions by broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy and cavity ring-down spectroscopy agree within 2 % (slope for linear fit = 1.02 ± 0.03 with r2 = 0.998). Standard additions of CH2O measured by broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy and calculated based on flow dilution are also well correlated, with r2 = 0.9998. During constant mixed additions of NO2 and CH2O, the 30 s measurement precisions (1σ) of the current configuration were 140 and 210 pptv, respectively. The current 1 min detection limit for extinction measurements at 315-350 nm provides sufficient sensitivity for measurement of trace gases in laboratory experiments and ground-based field experiments. Additionally, the instrument provides highly accurate, spectroscopically based trace gas detection that may complement higher precision techniques based on non

  3. Measurements of liquid film thickness, concentration, and temperature of aqueous urea solution by NIR absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, R.; Jeffries, J. B.; Dreier, T.; Schulz, C.

    2016-01-01

    A multi-wavelength near-infrared (NIR) diode laser absorption sensor has been developed and demonstrated for real-time monitoring of the thickness, solute concentration, and temperature of thin films of urea-water solutions. The sensor monitors the transmittance of three near-infrared diode lasers through the thin liquid film. Film thickness, urea mass fraction, and liquid temperature were determined from measured transmittance ratios of suitable combinations of lasers. Available laser wavelengths were selected depending on the variation of the NIR absorption spectrum of the solution with temperature and solute concentration. The spectral database was measured by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer in the range 5500-8000 cm-1 for urea solutions between 5 and 40 wt% and temperatures between 298 and 338 K. A prototype sensor was constructed, and the sensor concept was first validated with measurements using a calibration cell providing liquid layers of variable thickness (200-1500 µm), urea mass fraction (5-40 wt%) and temperature (298-318 K). Temporal variations of film thickness and urea concentration were captured during the constant-temperature evaporation of a liquid film deposited on an optically polished heated quartz flat.

  4. Sensor for headspace pressure and H2O concentration measurements in closed vials by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Tingdong; Wang, Guishi; Cao, Zhensong; Zhang, Weijun; Gao, Xiaoming

    2014-07-01

    The concentration of H2O and the pressure in the headspace of vials are simultaneously measured by a tunable diode laser sensor based on absorption spectroscopy techniques. The 7168.437 cm-1 spectral line of H2O is chosen as the sensing transition for its strong absorption strength and being reasonably far away from its neighboring molecular transitions. In order to prevent interference absorption by ambient water vapor in the room air, a difference between the measured signal and the referenced signal is used to calculate the pressure and H2O concentration in the headspace of vials, eliminating the need for inert gas purges and calibration with known gas. The validation of the sensor is conducted in a static vial, yielding an accuracy of 1.23% for pressure and 3.81% for H2O concentration. The sensitivity of the sensor is estimated to be about 2.5 Torr for pressure and 400 ppm for H2O concentration over a 3 cm absorption path length respectively. Accurate measurements for commercial freeze-dried products demonstrate the in-line applications of the sensor for the pharmaceutical industry.

  5. Laser absorption spectroscopy for measurement of He metastable atoms of a microhollow cathode plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Keisuke; Kamebuchi, Kenta; Kakutani, Jiro; Matsuoka, Leo; Namba, Shinichi; Fujii, Keisuke; Shikama, Taiichi; Hasuo, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

    We generated a 0.3-mm-diameter DC, hollow-cathode helium discharge in a gas pressure range of 10-80 kPa. In discharge plasmas, we measured position-dependent laser absorption spectra for helium 23S1-23P0 transition with a spatial resolution of 55 µm. From the results of the analysis of the measured spectra using Voigt functions and including both the Doppler and collision broadening, we produced two-dimensional maps of the metastable 23S1 atomic densities and gas temperatures of the plasmas. We found that, at all pressures, the gas temperatures were approximately uniform in space with values in the range of 400-1500 K and the 23S1 atomic densities were ˜1019 m-3. We also found that the two-dimensional density distribution profiles became ring-shaped at high gas pressures, which is qualitatively consistent with the two-dimensional fluid simulation results.

  6. VUV absorption spectroscopy measurements of the role of fast neutral atoms in a high-power gap breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filuk, A. B.; Bailey, J. E.; Cuneo, M. E.; Lake, P. W.; Nash, T. J.; Noack, D. D.; Maron, Y.

    2000-12-01

    The maximum power achieved in a wide variety of high-power devices, including electron and ion diodes, z pinches, and microwave generators, is presently limited by anode-cathode gap breakdown. A frequently discussed hypothesis for this effect is ionization of fast neutral atoms injected throughout the anode-cathode gap during the power pulse. We describe a newly developed diagnostic tool that provides a direct test of this hypothesis. Time-resolved vacuum-ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy is used to directly probe fast neutral atoms with 1-mm spatial resolution in the 10-mm anode-cathode gap of the SABRE 5 MV, 1 TW applied-B ion diode. Absorption spectra collected during Ar RF glow discharges and with CO2 gas fills confirm the reliability of the diagnostic technique. Throughout the 50-100 ns ion diode pulses no measurable neutral absorption was seen, setting upper limits of (0.12-1.5)×1014 cm-3 for ground-state fast neutral atom densities of H, C, N, O, and F. The absence of molecular absorption bands also sets upper limits of (0.16-1.2)×1015 cm-3 for common simple molecules. These limits are low enough to rule out ionization of fast neutral atoms as a breakdown mechanism. Breakdown due to ionization of molecules is also found to be unlikely. This technique can now be applied to quantify the role of neutral atoms in other high-power devices.

  7. VUV absorption spectroscopy measurements of the role of fast neutral atoms in high-power gap breakdown

    SciTech Connect

    FILUK,A.B.; BAILEY,JAMES E.; CUNEO,MICHAEL E.

    The maximum power achieved in a wide variety of high-power devices, including electron and ion diodes, z pinches, and microwave generators, is presently limited by anode-cathode gap breakdown. A frequently-discussed hypothesis for this effect is ionization of fast neutral atoms injected throughout the anode-cathode gap during the power pulse. The authors describe a newly-developed diagnostic tool that provides the first direct test of this hypothesis. Time-resolved vacuum-ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy is used to directly probe fast neutral atoms with 1 mm spatial resolution in the 10 mm anode-cathode gap of the SABRE 5 MV, 1 TW applied-B ion diode. Absorption spectramore » collected during Ar RF glow discharges and with CO{sub 2} gas fills confirm the reliability of the diagnostic technique. Throughout the 50--100 ns ion diode pulses no measurable neutral absorption is seen, setting upper limits of 0.12--1.5 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup {minus}3} for ground state fast neutral atom densities of H, C, N, O, F. The absence of molecular absorption bands also sets upper limits of 0.16--1.2 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}3} for common simple molecules. These limits are low enough to rule out ionization throughout the gap as a breakdown mechanism. This technique can now be applied to quantify the role of neutral atoms in other high-power devices.« less

  8. Bioacoustic Absorption Spectroscopy (ASIAEX)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-30

    source level of 170 dB re 1 µPa at 1 m for 24 hours. This source will weigh less than 220 ponds, including batteries, and excluding the anchor and float...in the proposed collaborative effort. Dr. Masahiko Furusawa of the University of Tokyo (Fisheries), Japan’s leading authority on fisheries acoustics...about 20 water depths (~ 1.2 km in 60 m of water) at frequencies of 1 to 2 kHz. RESULTS I reviewed the measurements and times of frequency selective

  9. Development of a Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy System Using HighLuminance LED for Measurement of NO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuchi, Tetsuo; Nayuki, Takuya; Mori, Hideto; Goto, Naohiko; Fujii, Takashi; Nemoto, Koshichi

    A differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) system for measurement of atmospheric NO2 was developed. The system uses a battery-operated, high luminance LED and a fiber-coupled spectrometer, and is portable. Laboratory experiments using a gas cell of length 0.22 m with varying NO2 concentrations were performed to evaluate the sensitivity of the DOAS system. The DOAS measurement results are in agreement with NO2 concentrations obtained simultaneously by a FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infrared) system for NO2 concentrations down to 20 ppm. Experiments with an optical path length of 93 m were also performed, and NO2 concentrations down to 0.20 ppm were measured. Since measurement of atmospheric NO2, which is in the order of several tens of ppb, requires optical path lengths of several hundred m, system improvements to improve the signal detection are necessary.

  10. Thermal Boundary Layer Effects on Line-of-Sight Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) Gas Concentration Measurements.

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhechao; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker

    2018-06-01

    The effects of thermal boundary layers on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) measurement results must be quantified when using the line-of-sight (LOS) TDLAS under conditions with spatial temperature gradient. In this paper, a new methodology based on spectral simulation is presented quantifying the LOS TDLAS measurement deviation under conditions with thermal boundary layers. The effects of different temperature gradients and thermal boundary layer thickness on spectral collisional widths and gas concentration measurements are quantified. A CO 2 TDLAS spectrometer, which has two gas cells to generate the spatial temperature gradients, was employed to validate the simulation results. The measured deviations and LOS averaged collisional widths are in very good agreement with the simulated results for conditions with different temperature gradients. We demonstrate quantification of thermal boundary layers' thickness with proposed method by exploitation of the LOS averaged the collisional width of the path-integrated spectrum.

  11. Measurement of nitrous acid (HONO) by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Hongming; Maamary, Rabih; Gao, Xiaoming; Sigrist, Markus W.; Fertein, Eric; Chen, Weidong

    2016-04-01

    Spectroscopic detection of short-lived gaseous nitrous acid (HONO) at 1254.85 cm-1 was realized by off-beam coupled quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) in conjunction with an external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCL). High sensitivity monitoring of HONO was performed within a very small gas-sample volume (of ~40 mm3) allowing a significant reduction (of about 4 orders of magnitude) of air sampling residence time which is highly desired for accurate quantification of chemically reactive short-lived species. Calibration of the developed QEPAS-based HONO sensor was carried out by means of lab-generated HONO samples whose concentrations were determined by simultaneous measurements of direct HONO absorption spectra in a 109.5 m multipass cell using a distributed feedback (DBF) QCL. A minimum detection limit (MDL @ SNR=1) of 66 ppbv HONO was achieved at 70 mbar using a laser output power of 50 mW and 1 s integration time, which corresponded to a normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient of 3.6×10-8 cm-1.W/Hz1/2. This MDL was down to 7 ppbv at the optimal integration time of 150 s. The corresponding minimum detected absorption coefficient (SNR=1) is ~1.1×10-7 cm-1 (MDL: ~3 ppbv) in 1 s and ~1.1×10-8 cm-1 (MDL~330 pptv) in 150 s, respectively, with 1 W laser power. Acknowledgements The authors acknowledge financial supports from the CaPPA project (ANR-10-LABX-005) and the CPER CLIMIBIO program. References H. Yi, R. Maamary, X. Gao, M. W. Sigrist, E. Fertein, W. Chen, "Short-lived species detection of nitrous acid by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy", Appl. Phys. Lett. 106 (2015) 101109

  12. Advances in Methane Isotope Measurements via Direct Absorption Spectroscopy with Applications to Oil and Gas Source Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yacovitch, T. I.; Herndon, S. C.; Roscioli, J. R.; Petron, G.; Shorter, J. H.; Jervis, D.; McManus, J. B.; Nelson, D. D.; Zahniser, M. S.; Kolb, C. E., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Instrumental developments in the measurement of multiple isotopes of methane (12CH4, 13CH4 and 12CH3D) are presented. A first generation 8-micron instrument quantifies 12CH4 and 13CH4 at a 1-second rate via tunable infrared direct absorption spectroscopy (TILDAS). A second generation instrument uses two 3-micron intraband cascade lasers in an Aerodyne dual laser chassis for simultaneous measurement of 12CH4, 13CH4 and 12CH3D. Sensitivity and noise performance improvements are examined. The isotopic signature of methane provides valuable information for emission source identification of this greenhouse gas. A first generation spectrometer has been deployed in the field on a mobile laboratory along with a sophisticated 4-tank calibration system. Calibrations are done on an agressive schedule, allowing for the correction of measured isotope ratios to an absolute isotope scale. Distinct isotopic signatures are found for a number of emission sources in the Denver-Julesburg Basin: oil and gas gathering stations, compressor stations and processing plants; a municipal landfill, and dairy/cattle operations. The isotopic signatures are compared with measured ethane/methane ratios. These direct absorption measurements have larger uncertainties than samples measured via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, but have several advantages over canister sampling methods: individual sources of short duration are easier to isolate; calibrated isotope ratio results are available immediately; replicate measurements on a single source are easily performed; and the number of sources sampled is not limited by canister availability and processing time.

  13. Transport Measurements and Synchrotron-Based X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Iron Silicon Germanide Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmarhoumi, Nader; Cottier, Ryan; Merchan, Greg; Roy, Amitava; Lohn, Chris; Geisler, Heike; Ventrice, Carl, Jr.; Golding, Terry

    2009-03-01

    Some of the iron-based metal silicide and germanide phases have been predicted to be direct band gap semiconductors. Therefore, they show promise for use as optoelectronic materials. We have used synchrotron-based x-ray absorption spectroscopy to study the structure of iron silicon germanide films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. A series of Fe(Si1-xGex)2 thin films (2000 -- 8000å) with a nominal Ge concentration of up to x = 0.04 have been grown. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements have been performed on the films. The nearest neighbor co-ordination corresponding to the β-FeSi2 phase of iron silicide provides the best fit with the EXAFS data. Temperature dependent (20 < T < 350 K) magneto transport measurements were done on the Fe(Si1-xGex)2 thin films via Van Der Paw (VDP) Hall configuration using a 0.5-1T magnetic field and a current of 10-200 μA through indium ohmic contacts, the Hall coefficient was calculated. Results suggest semiconducting behavior of the films which is consistent with the EXAFS results.

  14. The detection of carbon dioxide leaks using quasi-tomographic laser absorption spectroscopy measurements in variable wind

    DOE PAGES

    Levine, Zachary H.; Pintar, Adam L.; Dobler, Jeremy T.; ...

    2016-04-13

    Laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) has been used over the last several decades for the measurement of trace gasses in the atmosphere. For over a decade, LAS measurements from multiple sources and tens of retroreflectors have been combined with sparse-sample tomography methods to estimate the 2-D distribution of trace gas concentrations and underlying fluxes from point-like sources. In this work, we consider the ability of such a system to detect and estimate the position and rate of a single point leak which may arise as a failure mode for carbon dioxide storage. The leak is assumed to be at a constant ratemore » giving rise to a plume with a concentration and distribution that depend on the wind velocity. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability of our approach to detect a leak using numerical simulation and also present a preliminary measurement.« less

  15. Simultaneous optimization method for absorption spectroscopy postprocessing.

    PubMed

    Simms, Jean M; An, Xinliang; Brittelle, Mack S; Ramesh, Varun; Ghandhi, Jaal B; Sanders, Scott T

    2015-05-10

    A simultaneous optimization method is proposed for absorption spectroscopy postprocessing. This method is particularly useful for thermometry measurements based on congested spectra, as commonly encountered in combustion applications of H2O absorption spectroscopy. A comparison test demonstrated that the simultaneous optimization method had greater accuracy, greater precision, and was more user-independent than the common step-wise postprocessing method previously used by the authors. The simultaneous optimization method was also used to process experimental data from an environmental chamber and a constant volume combustion chamber, producing results with errors on the order of only 1%.

  16. Simultaneous CO concentration and temperature measurements using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy near 2.3 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sane, Anup; Satija, Aman; Lucht, Robert P.; Gore, Jay P.

    2014-10-01

    Simultaneous measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) mole fraction and temperature using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) near 2.3 μm are reported. The measurement method uses ro-vibrational transitions [R(27): v″ = 1 → v' = 3] and [R(6): v″ = 0 → v' = 2] in the first overtone band of CO near 2.3 μm (~4,278 cm-1). The measurements were performed in the post flame environment of fuel rich premixed ethylene-air flames with a N2 co-flow, stabilized over a water cooled McKenna burner. Non-uniformity in the temperature and CO mole fraction, along the absorption line of sight, in the mixing layer of the co-flow, was considered during data analysis. The TDLAS based temperature measurements (±80 K) were in good agreement with those obtained using N2 vibrational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (±20 K), and the CO mole fraction measurements were in good agreement with the equilibrium values, for equivalence ratios lower than 1.8. A signal to noise ratio of 45 was achieved at an equivalence ratio of 1 for a CO concentration of 0.8 % at 1,854 K.

  17. Extension of wavelength-modulation spectroscopy to large modulation depth for diode laser absorption measurements in high-pressure gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hejie; Rieker, Gregory B.; Liu, Xiang; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.

    2006-02-01

    Tunable diode laser absorption measurements at high pressures by use of wavelength-modulation spectroscopy (WMS) require large modulation depths for optimum detection of molecular absorption spectra blended by collisional broadening or dense spacing of the rovibrational transitions. Diode lasers have a large and nonlinear intensity modulation when the wavelength is modulated over a large range by injection-current tuning. In addition to this intensity modulation, other laser performance parameters are measured, including the phase shift between the frequency modulation and the intensity modulation. Following published theory, these parameters are incorporated into an improved model of the WMS signal. The influence of these nonideal laser effects is investigated by means of wavelength-scanned WMS measurements as a function of bath gas pressure on rovibrational transitions of water vapor near 1388 nm. Lock-in detection of the magnitude of the 2f signal is performed to remove the dependence on detection phase. We find good agreement between measurements and the improved model developed for the 2f component of the WMS signal. The effects of the nonideal performance parameters of commercial diode lasers are especially important away from the line center of discrete spectra, and these contributions become more pronounced for 2f signals with the large modulation depths needed for WMS at elevated pressures.

  18. VUV absorption spectroscopy measurements of the role of fast neutral atoms in a high-power gap breakdown

    SciTech Connect

    Filuk, A. B.; Bailey, J. E.; Cuneo, M. E.

    The maximum power achieved in a wide variety of high-power devices, including electron and ion diodes, z pinches, and microwave generators, is presently limited by anode-cathode gap breakdown. A frequently discussed hypothesis for this effect is ionization of fast neutral atoms injected throughout the anode-cathode gap during the power pulse. We describe a newly developed diagnostic tool that provides a direct test of this hypothesis. Time-resolved vacuum-ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy is used to directly probe fast neutral atoms with 1-mm spatial resolution in the 10-mm anode-cathode gap of the SABRE 5 MV, 1 TW applied-B ion diode. Absorption spectra collected duringmore » Ar RF glow discharges and with CO{sub 2} gas fills confirm the reliability of the diagnostic technique. Throughout the 50--100 ns ion diode pulses no measurable neutral absorption was seen, setting upper limits of (0.12--1.5)x10{sup 14}cm{sup -3} for ground-state fast neutral atom densities of H, C, N, O, and F. The absence of molecular absorption bands also sets upper limits of (0.16--1.2)x10{sup 15}cm{sup -3} for common simple molecules. These limits are low enough to rule out ionization of fast neutral atoms as a breakdown mechanism. Breakdown due to ionization of molecules is also found to be unlikely. This technique can now be applied to quantify the role of neutral atoms in other high-power devices.« less

  19. High sensitivity liquid phase measurements using broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (BBCEAS) featuring a low cost webcam based prism spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhechao; Engstrom, Julia; Wong, Donald; Islam, Meez; Kaminski, Clemens F

    2013-11-07

    Cavity enhanced techniques enable high sensitivity absorption measurements in the liquid phase but are typically more complex, and much more expensive, to perform than conventional absorption methods. The latter attributes have so far prevented a wide spread use of these methods in the analytical sciences. In this study we demonstrate a novel BBCEAS instrument that is sensitive, yet simple and economical to set up and operate. We use a prism spectrometer with a low cost webcam as the detector in conjunction with an optical cavity consisting of two R = 0.99 dielectric mirrors and a white light LED source for illumination. High sensitivity liquid phase measurements were made on samples contained in 1 cm quartz cuvettes placed at normal incidence to the light beam in the optical cavity. The cavity enhancement factor (CEF) with water as the solvent was determined directly by phase shift cavity ring down spectroscopy (PS-CRDS) and also by calibration with Rhodamine 6G solutions. Both methods yielded closely matching CEF values of ~60. The minimum detectable change in absorption (αmin) was determined to be 6.5 × 10(-5) cm(-1) at 527 nm and was limited only by the 8 bit resolution of the particular webcam detector used, thus offering scope for further improvement. The instrument was used to make representative measurements on dye solutions and in the determination of nitrite concentrations in a variation of the widely used Griess Assay. Limits of detection (LOD) were ~850 pM for Rhodamine 6G and 3.7 nM for nitrite, respectively. The sensitivity of the instrument compares favourably with previous cavity based liquid phase studies whilst being achieved at a small fraction of the cost hitherto reported, thus opening the door to widespread use in the community. Further means of improving sensitivity are discussed in the paper.

  20. Part per trillion nitric oxide measurement by optical feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy in the mid-infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventrillard, Irène; Gorrotxategi-Carbajo, Paula; Romanini, Daniele

    2017-06-01

    While nitric oxide (NO) is being monitored in various fields of application, there is still a lack of available instruments at a sub-ppb level of sensitivity. We report on the first application of Optical Feedback Cavity-Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (OF-CEAS) to NO trace gas analysis, with a room-temperature quantum-cascade laser at 5.26 µm (1900.5 cm^{-1}). A detection limit of 60 ppt is reached in a single measurement performed in 140 ms. The stability of the instrument allows to average for 10 s down to 8.3 ppt, limited by drift of etalon fringes in the spectra. This work opens the path towards new applications notably in breath analysis and environment sciences.

  1. Hot Carrier Dynamics in the X Valley in Si and Ge Measured by Pump-IR-Probe Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, W. B.; Cavicchia, M. A.; Alfano, R. R.

    1996-01-01

    Si is the semiconductor of choice for nanoelectronic roadmap into the next century for computer and other nanodevices. With growing interest in Si, Ge, and Si(sub m)Ge(sub n) strained superlattices, knowledge of the carrier relaxation processes in these materials and structures has become increasingly important. The limited time resolution for earlier studies of carrier dynamics in Ge and Si, performed using Nd:glass lasers, was not sufficient to observe the fast cooling processes. In this paper, we present a direct measurement of hot carrier dynamics in the satellite X valley in Si and Ge by time-resolved infrared(IR) absorption spectroscopy, and show the potential of our technique to identify whether the X valley is the lowest conduction valley in semiconductor materials and structures.

  2. Measurement of free radical kinetics in pulsed plasmas by UV and VUV absorption spectroscopy and by modulated beam mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunge, G.; Bodart, P.; Brihoum, M.; Boulard, F.; Chevolleau, T.; Sadeghi, N.

    2012-04-01

    This paper reviews recent progress in the development of time-resolved diagnostics to probe high-density pulsed plasma sources. We focus on time-resolved measurements of radicals' densities in the afterglow of pulsed discharges to provide useful information on production and loss mechanisms of free radicals. We show that broad-band absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet spectral domain and threshold ionization modulated beam mass spectrometry are powerful techniques for the determination of the time variation of the radicals' densities in pulsed plasmas. The combination of these complementary techniques allows detection of most of the reactive species present in industrial etching plasmas, giving insights into the physico-chemistry reactions involving these species. As an example, we discuss briefly the radicals' kinetics in the afterglow of a SiCl4/Cl2/Ar discharge.

  3. High quality x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements with long energy range at high pressure using diamond anvil cell

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, X.; Newville, M.; Prakapenka, V.B.

    We describe an approach for acquiring high quality x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy spectra with wide energy range at high pressure using diamond anvil cell (DAC). Overcoming the serious interference of diamond Bragg peaks is essential for combining XAFS and DAC techniques in high pressure research, yet an effective method to obtain accurate XAFS spectrum free from DAC induced glitches has been lacking. It was found that these glitches, whose energy positions are very sensitive to the relative orientation between DAC and incident x-ray beam, can be effectively eliminated using an iterative algorithm based on repeated measurements over amore » small angular range of DAC orientation, e.g., within {+-}3{sup o} relative to the x-ray beam direction. Demonstration XAFS spectra are reported for rutile-type GeO{sub 2} recorded by traditional ambient pressure and high pressure DAC methods, showing similar quality at 440 eV above the absorption edge. Accurate XAFS spectra of GeO{sub 2} glass were obtained at high pressure up to 53 GPa, providing important insight into the structural polymorphism of GeO{sub 2} glass at high pressure. This method is expected be applicable for in situ XAFS measurements using a diamond anvil cell up to ultrahigh pressures.« less

  4. High quality x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements with long energy range at high pressure using diamond anvil cell.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xinguo; Newville, Matthew; Prakapenka, Vitali B; Rivers, Mark L; Sutton, Stephen R

    2009-07-01

    We describe an approach for acquiring high quality x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy spectra with wide energy range at high pressure using diamond anvil cell (DAC). Overcoming the serious interference of diamond Bragg peaks is essential for combining XAFS and DAC techniques in high pressure research, yet an effective method to obtain accurate XAFS spectrum free from DAC induced glitches has been lacking. It was found that these glitches, whose energy positions are very sensitive to the relative orientation between DAC and incident x-ray beam, can be effectively eliminated using an iterative algorithm based on repeated measurements over a small angular range of DAC orientation, e.g., within +/-3 degrees relative to the x-ray beam direction. Demonstration XAFS spectra are reported for rutile-type GeO2 recorded by traditional ambient pressure and high pressure DAC methods, showing similar quality at 440 eV above the absorption edge. Accurate XAFS spectra of GeO2 glass were obtained at high pressure up to 53 GPa, providing important insight into the structural polymorphism of GeO2 glass at high pressure. This method is expected be applicable for in situ XAFS measurements using a diamond anvil cell up to ultrahigh pressures.

  5. Hemodynamic measurements in rat brain and human muscle using diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Guoqiang; Durduran, Turgut; Furuya, D.; Lech, G.; Zhou, Chao; Chance, Britten; Greenberg, J. H.; Yodh, Arjun G.

    2003-07-01

    Measurement of concentration, oxygenation, and flow characteristics of blood cells can reveal information about tissue metabolism and functional heterogeneity. An improved multifunctional hybrid system has been built on the basis of our previous hybrid instrument that combines two near-infrared diffuse optical techniques to simultaneously monitor the changes of blood flow, total hemoglobin concentration (THC) and blood oxygen saturation (StO2). Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) monitors blood flow (BF) by measuring the optical phase shifts caused by moving blood cells, while diffuse photon density wave spectroscopy (DPDW) measures tissue absorption and scattering. Higher spatial resolution, higher data acquisition rate and higher dynamic range of the improved system allow us to monitor rapid hemodynamic changes in rat brain and human muscles. We have designed two probes with different source-detector pairs and different separations for the two types of experiments. A unique non-contact probe mounted on the back of a camera, which allows continuous measurements without altering the blood flow, was employed to in vivo monitor the metabolic responses in rat brain during KCl induced cortical spreading depression (CSD). A contact probe was used to measure changes of blood flow and oxygenation in human muscle during and after cuff occlusion or exercise, where the non-contact probe is not appropriate for monitoring the moving target. The experimental results indicate that our multifunctional hybrid system is capable of in vivo and non-invasive monitoring of the hemodynamic changes in different tissues (smaller tissues in rat brain, larger tissues in human muscle) under different conditions (static versus moving). The time series images of flow during CSD obtained by our technique revealed spatial and temporal hemodynamic changes in rat brain. Two to three fold longer recovery times of flow and oxygenation after cuff occlusion or exercise from calf flexors in a

  6. Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy Sensor for Calibration Free Humidity Measurements in Pure Methane and Low CO2 Natural Gas.

    PubMed

    Nwaboh, Javis Anyangwe; Pratzler, Sonja; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker

    2017-05-01

    We report a new direct tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (dTDLAS) sensor for absolute measurements of H 2 O in methane, ethane, propane, and low CO 2 natural gas. The sensor is operated with a 2.7 µm DFB laser, equipped with a high pressure single pass gas cell, and used to measure H 2 O amount of substance fractions in the range of 0.31-25 000 µmol/mol. Operating total gas pressures are up to 5000 hPa. The sensor has been characterized, addressing the traceability of the spectrometric results to the SI and the evaluation of the combined uncertainty, following the guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM). The relative reproducibility of H 2 O amount of substance fraction measurements at 87 µmol/mol is 0.26% (0.23 µmol/mol). The maximum precision of the sensor was determined using a H 2 O in methane mixture, and found to be 40 nmol/mol for a time resolution of 100 s. This corresponds to a normalized detection limit of 330 nmol mol -1 ·m Hz -1/2 . The relative combined uncertainty of H 2 O amount fraction measurements delivered by the sensor is 1.2%.

  7. Evaluation of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for in-process water vapor mass flux measurements during freeze drying.

    PubMed

    Gieseler, Henning; Kessler, William J; Finson, Michael; Davis, Steven J; Mulhall, Phillip A; Bons, Vincent; Debo, David J; Pikal, Michael J

    2007-07-01

    The goal of this work was to demonstrate the use of Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) as a noninvasive method to continuously measure the water vapor concentration and the vapor flow velocity in the spool connecting a freeze-dryer chamber and condenser. The instantaneous measurements were used to determine the water vapor mass flow rate (g/s). The mass flow determinations provided a continuous measurement of the total amount of water removed. Full load runs of pure water at different pressure and shelf temperature settings and a 5% (w/w) mannitol product run were performed in both laboratory and pilot scale freeze dryers. The ratio of "gravimetric/TDLAS" measurements of water removed was 1.02 +/- 0.06. A theoretical heat transfer model was used to predict the mass flow rate and the model results were compared to both the gravimetric and TDLAS data. Good agreement was also observed in the "gravimetric/TDLAS" ratio for the 5% mannitol runs dried in both freeze dryers. The endpoints of primary and secondary drying for the product runs were clearly identified. Comparison of the velocity and mass flux profiles between the laboratory and pilot dryers indicated a higher restriction to mass flow for the lab scale freeze dryer. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. OH absorption spectroscopy in a flame using spatial heterodyne spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartula, Renata J.; Ghandhi, Jaal B.; Sanders, Scott T.; Mierkiewicz, Edwin J.; Roesler, Fred L.; Harlander, John M.

    2007-12-01

    We demonstrate measurements of OH absorption spectra in the post-flame zone of a McKenna burner using spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (SHS). SHS permits high-resolution, high-throughput measurements. In this case the spectra span ~308-310 nm with a resolution of 0.03 nm, even though an extended source (extent of ~2×10-7 m2 rad2) was used. The high spectral resolution is important for interpreting spectra when multiple absorbers are present for inferring accurate gas temperatures from measured spectra and for monitoring weak absorbers. The present measurement paves the way for absorption spectroscopy by SHS in practical combustion devices, such as reciprocating and gas-turbine engines.

  9. Remote measurement of high preeruptive water vapor emissions at Sabancaya volcano by passive differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kern, Christoph; Masias, Pablo; Apaza, Fredy; Reath, Kevin; Platt, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Water (H2O) is by far the most abundant volcanic volatile species and plays a predominant role in driving volcanic eruptions. However, numerous difficulties associated with making accurate measurements of water vapor in volcanic plumes have limited their use as a diagnostic tool. Here we present the first detection of water vapor in a volcanic plume using passive visible-light differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). Ultraviolet and visible-light DOAS measurements were made on 21 May 2016 at Sabancaya Volcano, Peru. We find that Sabancaya's plume contained an exceptionally high relative water vapor abundance 6 months prior to its November 2016 eruption. Our measurements yielded average sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates of 800–900 t/d, H2O emission rates of around 250,000 t/d, and an H2O/SO2 molecular ratio of 1000 which is about an order of magnitude larger than typically found in high-temperature volcanic gases. We attribute the high water vapor emissions to a boiling-off of Sabancaya's hydrothermal system caused by intrusion of magma to shallow depths. This hypothesis is supported by a significant increase in the thermal output of the volcanic edifice detected in infrared satellite imagery leading up to and after our measurements. Though the measurement conditions encountered at Sabancaya were very favorable for our experiment, we show that visible-light DOAS systems could be used to measure water vapor emissions at numerous other high-elevation volcanoes. Such measurements would provide observatories with additional information particularly useful for forecasting eruptions at volcanoes harboring significant hydrothermal systems.

  10. Remote measurement of high preeruptive water vapor emissions at Sabancaya volcano by passive differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Christoph; Masias, Pablo; Apaza, Fredy; Reath, Kevin A.; Platt, Ulrich

    2017-05-01

    Water (H2O) is by far the most abundant volcanic volatile species and plays a predominant role in driving volcanic eruptions. However, numerous difficulties associated with making accurate measurements of water vapor in volcanic plumes have limited their use as a diagnostic tool. Here we present the first detection of water vapor in a volcanic plume using passive visible-light differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). Ultraviolet and visible-light DOAS measurements were made on 21 May 2016 at Sabancaya Volcano, Peru. We find that Sabancaya's plume contained an exceptionally high relative water vapor abundance 6 months prior to its November 2016 eruption. Our measurements yielded average sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates of 800-900 t/d, H2O emission rates of around 250,000 t/d, and an H2O/SO2 molecular ratio of 1000 which is about an order of magnitude larger than typically found in high-temperature volcanic gases. We attribute the high water vapor emissions to a boiling-off of Sabancaya's hydrothermal system caused by intrusion of magma to shallow depths. This hypothesis is supported by a significant increase in the thermal output of the volcanic edifice detected in infrared satellite imagery leading up to and after our measurements. Though the measurement conditions encountered at Sabancaya were very favorable for our experiment, we show that visible-light DOAS systems could be used to measure water vapor emissions at numerous other high-elevation volcanoes. Such measurements would provide observatories with additional information particularly useful for forecasting eruptions at volcanoes harboring significant hydrothermal systems.

  11. Two instruments based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) to measure accurate ammonia concentrations in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volten, H.; Bergwerff, J. B.; Haaima, M.; Lolkema, D. E.; Berkhout, A. J. C.; van der Hoff, G. R.; Potma, C. J. M.; Wichink Kruit, R. J.; van Pul, W. A. J.; Swart, D. P. J.

    2011-08-01

    We present two Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) instruments built at RIVM, the RIVM DOAS and the miniDOAS. Both instruments provide virtually interference free measurements of NH3 concentrations in the atmosphere, since they measure over an open path, without suffering from inlet problems or interference problems by ammonium aerosols dissociating on tubes or filters. They measure concentrations up to at least 200 μg m-3, have a fast response, low maintenance demands, and a high up-time. The RIVM DOAS has a high accuracy of typically 0.15 μg m-3 for ammonia over 5-min averages and over a total light path of 100 m. The miniDOAS has been developed for application in measurement networks such as the Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network (LML). Compared to the RIVM DOAS it has a similar accuracy, but is significantly reduced in size, costs, and handling complexity. The RIVM DOAS and miniDOAS results showed excellent agreement (R2 = 0.996) during a field measurement campaign in Vredepeel, the Netherlands. This measurement site is located in an agricultural area and is characterized by highly variable, but on average high ammonia concentrations in the air. The RIVM-DOAS and miniDOAS results were compared to the results of the AMOR instrument, a continuous-flow wet denuder system, which is currently used in the LML. Averaged over longer time spans of typically a day the (mini)DOAS and AMOR results agree reasonably well, although an offset of the AMOR values compared to the (mini)DOAS results exists. On short time scales the (mini)DOAS shows a faster response and does not show the memory effects due to inlet tubing and transport of absorption fluids encountered by the AMOR. Due to its high accuracy, high uptime, low maintenance and its open path, the (mini)DOAS shows a good potential for flux measurements by using two (or more) systems in a gradient set-up and applying the aerodynamic gradient technique.

  12. Two instruments based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) to measure accurate ammonia concentrations in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volten, H.; Bergwerff, J. B.; Haaima, M.; Lolkema, D. E.; Berkhout, A. J. C.; van der Hoff, G. R.; Potma, C. J. M.; Wichink Kruit, R. J.; van Pul, W. A. J.; Swart, D. P. J.

    2012-02-01

    We present two Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) instruments built at RIVM: the RIVM DOAS and the miniDOAS. Both instruments provide virtually interference-free measurements of NH3 concentrations in the atmosphere, since they measure over an open path, without suffering from inlet problems or interference problems by ammonium aerosols dissociating on tubes or filters. They measure concentrations up to at least 200 μg m-3, have a fast response, low maintenance demands, and a high up-time. The RIVM DOAS has a high accuracy of typically 0.15 μg m-3 for ammonia for 5-min averages and over a total light path of 100 m. The miniDOAS has been developed for application in measurement networks such as the Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network (LML). Compared to the RIVM DOAS it has a similar accuracy, but is significantly reduced in size, costs, and handling complexity. The RIVM DOAS and miniDOAS results showed excellent agreement (R2 = 0.996) during a field measurement campaign in Vredepeel, the Netherlands. This measurement site is located in an agricultural area and is characterized by highly variable, but on average high ammonia concentrations in the air. The RIVM-DOAS and miniDOAS results were compared to the results of the AMOR instrument, a continuous-flow wet denuder system, which is currently used in the LML. Averaged over longer time spans of typically a day, the (mini)DOAS and AMOR results agree reasonably well, although an offset of the AMOR values compared to the (mini)DOAS results exists. On short time scales, the (mini)DOAS shows a faster response and does not show the memory effects due to inlet tubing and transport of absorption fluids encountered by the AMOR. Due to its high accuracy, high uptime, low maintenance and its open path, the (mini)DOAS shows a good potential for flux measurements by using two (or more) systems in a gradient set-up and applying the aerodynamic gradient technique.

  13. Measurements of water molecule density by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy in dielectric barrier discharges with gas-water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachibana, Kunihide; Nakamura, Toshihiro; Kawasaki, Mitsuo; Morita, Tatsuo; Umekawa, Toyofumi; Kawasaki, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

    We measured water molecule (H2O) density by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) for applications in dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) with a gas-water interface. First, the effects of water temperature and presence of gas flow were tested using a Petri dish filled with water and a gas injection nozzle. Second, the TDLAS system was applied to the measurements of H2O density in two types of DBDs; one was a normal (non-inverted) type with a dielectric-covered electrode above a water-filled counter electrode and the other was an inverted type with a water-suspending mesh electrode above a dielectric-covered counter electrode. The H2O density in the normal DBD was close to the density estimated from the saturated vapor pressure, whereas the density in the inverted DBD was about half of that in the former type. The difference is attributed to the upward gas flow in the latter type, that pushes the water molecules up towards the gas-water interface.

  14. Optically detected X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements as a means of monitoring corrosion layers on copper.

    PubMed

    Dowsett, Mark G; Adriaens, Annemie; Jones, Gareth K C; Poolton, Nigel; Fiddy, Steven; Nikitenko, Sergé

    2008-11-15

    XANES and EXAFS information is conventionally measured in transmission through the energy-dependent absorption of X-rays or by observing X-ray fluorescence, but secondary fluorescence processes, such as the emission of electrons and optical photons (e.g., 200-1000 nm), can also be used as a carrier of the XAS signatures, providing complementary information such as improved surface specificity. Where the near-visible photons have a shorter range in a material, the data will be more surface specific. Moreover, optical radiation may escape more readily than X-rays through liquid in an environmental cell. Here, we describe a first test of optically detected X-ray absorption spectroscopy (ODXAS) for monitoring electrochemical treatments on copper-based alloys, for example, heritage metals. Artificially made corrosion products deposited on a copper substrate were analyzed in air and in a 1% (w/v) sodium sesquicarbonate solution to simulate typical conservation methods for copper-based objects recovered from marine environments. The measurements were made on stations 7.1 and 9.2 MF (SRS Daresbury, UK) using the mobile luminescence end station (MoLES), supplemented by XAS measurements taken on DUBBLE (BM26 A) at the ESRF. The ODXAS spectra usually contain fine structure similar to that of XAS spectra measured in X-ray fluorescence. Importantly, for the compounds examined, the ODXAS is significantly more surface specific, and >98% characteristic of thin surface layers of 0.5-1.5-microm thickness in cases where X-ray measurements are dominated by the substrate. However, EXAFS and XANES from broadband optical measurements are superimposed on a high background due to other optical emission modes. This produces statistical fluctuations up to double what would be expected from normal counting statistics because the data retain the absolute statistical fluctuation in the original raw count, while losing up to 70% of their magnitude when background is removed. The problem may be

  15. Volcanic CO2 mapping and flux measurements at Campi Flegrei by Tunable Diode Laser absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedone, Maria; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Giudice, Gaetano; Grassa, Fausto; Chiodini, Giovanni; Valenza, Mariano

    2014-05-01

    Near-infrared room-temperature Tunable Diode Lasers (TDL) have recently found increased usage in atmospheric chemistry and air monitoring research, but applications in Volcanology are still limited to a few examples. Here, we explored the potentiality of a commercial infrared laser unit (GasFinder 2.0 from Boreal Laser Ltd) to measurement of volcanic CO2 flux emissions. Our field tests were conducted at Campi Flegrei (near Pozzuoli, Southern Italy), where the GasFinder was used (during three campaigns in October 2012, January 2013 and May 2013) to repeatedly measure the path-integrated concentrations of CO2 along cross-sections of the atmospheric plumes of the two main fumarolic fields in the area (Solfatara and Pisciarelli). By using ad-hoc designed field-set-up and a tomographic post-processing routine, we resolved, for each of the 2 manifestations, the contour maps of CO2 concentrations in their atmospheric plumes, from the integration of which (and after multiplication by the plumes' transport speeds) the CO2 fluxes were finally obtained [1]. The so-calculated fluxes average of 490 tons/day, which agrees well with independent evaluations of Aiuppa et al. (2013) [2] (460 tons/day on average), and support a significant contribution of fumaroles to the total CO2 budget. The cumulative (fumarole [this study] +soil [2]) CO2 output from Campi Flegrei is finally evaluated at 1600 tons/day. The application of lasers to volcanic gas studies is still an emerging (though intriguing) research field, and requires more testing and validation experiments. We conclude that TDL technique may valuably assist CO2 flux quantification at a number of volcanic targets worldwide. [1] Pedone M. et al. (2013) Gold2013:abs:5563, Goldschmidt Conference, session 11a. [2] Aiuppa A. et al. (2013) Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. doi: 10.1002/ggge.20261. [3] Chiodini G. et al. (2010) Journal of Geophysical Research, Volume 115, B03205. doi:10.1029/2008JB006258.

  16. Development of a portable active long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy system for volcanic gas measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vita, Fabio; Kern, Christoph; Inguaggiato, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Active long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-DOAS) has been an effective tool for measuring atmospheric trace gases for several decades. However, instruments were large, heavy and power-inefficient, making their application to remote environments extremely challenging. Recent developments in fibre-coupling telescope technology and the availability of ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDS) have now allowed us to design and construct a lightweight, portable, low-power LP-DOAS instrument for use at remote locations and specifically for measuring degassing from active volcanic systems. The LP-DOAS was used to measure sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from La Fossa crater, Vulcano, Italy, where column densities of up to 1.2 × 1018 molec cm−2 (~ 500 ppmm) were detected along open paths of up to 400 m in total length. The instrument's SO2 detection limit was determined to be 2 × 1016 molec cm−2 (~ 8 ppmm), thereby making quantitative detection of even trace amounts of SO2 possible. The instrument is capable of measuring other volcanic volatile species as well. Though the spectral evaluation of the recorded data showed that chlorine monoxide (ClO) and carbon disulfide (CS2) were both below the instrument's detection limits during the experiment, the upper limits for the X / SO2 ratio (X = ClO, CS2) could be derived, and yielded 2 × 10−3 and 0.1, respectively. The robust design and versatility of the instrument make it a promising tool for monitoring of volcanic degassing and understanding processes in a range of volcanic systems.

  17. UV laser long-path absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorn, Hans-Peter; Brauers, Theo; Neuroth, Rudolf

    1994-01-01

    Long path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) using a picosecond UV laser as a light source was developed in our institute. Tropospheric OH radicals are measured by their rotational absorption lines around 308 nm. The spectra are obtained using a high resolution spectrograph. The detection system has been improved over the formerly used optomechanical scanning device by application of a photodiode array which increased the observed spectral range by a factor of 6 and which utilizes the light much more effectively leading to a considerable reduction of the measurement time. This technique provides direct measurements of OH because the signal is given by the product of the absorption coefficient and the OH concentration along the light path according to Lambert-Beers law. No calibration is needed. Since the integrated absorption coefficient is well known the accuracy of the measurement essentially depends on the extent to which the OH absorption pattern can be detected in the spectra. No interference by self generated OH radicals in the detection lightpath has been observed. The large bandwidth (greater than 0.15 nm) and the high spectral resolution (1.5 pm) allows absolute determination of interferences by other trace gas absorptions. The measurement error is directly accessible from the absorption-signal to baseline-noise ratio in the spectra. The applicability of the method strongly depends on visibility. Elevated concentrations of aerosols lead to considerable attenuation of the laser light which reduces the S/N-ratio. In the moderately polluted air of Julich, where we performed a number of OH measurement spectra. In addition absorption features of unidentified species were frequently detected. A quantitative deconvolution even of the known species is not easy to achieve and can leave residual structures in the spectra. Thus interferences usually increase the noise and deteriorate the OH detection sensitivity. Using diode arrays for sensitive

  18. Measurement of nitrogen dioxide in cigarette smoke using quantum cascade tunable infrared laser differential absorption spectroscopy (TILDAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shorter, Joanne H.; Nelson, David D.; Zahniser, Mark S.; Parrish, Milton E.; Crawford, Danielle R.; Gee, Diane L.

    2006-04-01

    Although nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) has been previously reported to be present in cigarette smoke, the concentration estimates were derived from kinetic calculations or from measurements of aged smoke, where NO 2 was formed some time after the puff was taken. The objective of this work was to use tunable infrared laser differential absorption spectroscopy (TILDAS) equipped with a quantum cascade (QC) laser to determine if NO 2 could be detected and quantified in a fresh puff of cigarette smoke. A temporal resolution of ˜0.16 s allowed measurements to be taken directly as the NO 2 was formed during the puff. Sidestream cigarette smoke was sampled to determine if NO 2 could be detected using TILDAS. Experiments were conducted using 2R4F Kentucky Reference cigarettes with and without a Cambridge filter pad. NO 2 was detected only in the lighting puff of whole mainstream smoke (without a Cambridge filter pad), with no NO 2 detected in the subsequent puffs. The measurement precision was ˜1.0 ppbV Hz -1/2, which allows a detection limit of ˜0.2 ng in a 35 ml puff volume. More NO 2 was generated in the lighting puff using a match or blue flame lighter (29 ± 21 ng) than when using an electric lighter (9 ± 3 ng). In the presence of a Cambridge filter pad, NO 2 was observed in the gas phase mainstream smoke for every puff (total of 200 ± 30 ng/cigarette) and is most likely due to smoke chemistry taking place on the Cambridge filter pad during the smoke collection process. Nitrogen dioxide was observed continuously in the sidestream smoke starting with the lighting puff.

  19. Measurement of atmospheric ammonia at a dairy using differential optical absorption spectroscopy in the mid-ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mount, George H.; Rumburg, Brian; Havig, Jeff; Lamb, Brian; Westberg, Hal; Yonge, David; Johnson, Kristen; Kincaid, Ronald

    Ammonia is the most abundant basic gas in the atmosphere, and after N 2 and N 2O is the most abundant nitrogen-containing specie (Seinfeld and Pandis, 1998. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: from air pollution to climate changes. Wiley, New York). Typical concentrations of ammonia in the boundary layer range from <1 part per billion by volume (ppbv) in the free continental troposphere to parts per million (ppmv) levels over animal waste lagoons and near animal stalls. Agricultural activities are the dominant global source of ammonia emissions and a major environmental concern. In the US, ≈85% of ammonia emissions come from livestock operations (EPA Trends, 1998. www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/trends98/chapter2.pdf). Dairy farms constitute a large fraction of the livestock inventory. Current estimates of ammonia emissions to the atmosphere are characterized by a high degree of uncertainty, and so it is very important to obtain better estimates of ammonia emissions. We are working at the Washington State University research dairy to quantify ammonia emissions and investigate the effects of various mitigation strategies on those emissions. We describe here a new instrument utilizing the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique to measure ammonia in the mid-ultraviolet with a detectability limit of about 1 ppb. DOAS avoids many of the problems that have thwarted past ammonia concentration measurements. Initial results show concentrations in the barn/concrete yard areas in the tens of parts per million range, over the slurry lagoons of hundreds of parts per billion to low parts per million, and low parts per million levels after initial slurry applications onto pastureland. Future papers will report on emission fluxes from the various parts of the dairy and the results of mitigation strategies; we show here initial data results. For a recent review of ammonia volatilization from dairy farms, see Bussink and Oenema (Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 51

  20. Measurements of the weak UV absorptions of isoprene and acetone at 261-275 nm using cavity ringdown spectroscopy for evaluation of a potential portable ringdown breath analyzer.

    PubMed

    Sahay, Peeyush; Scherrer, Susan T; Wang, Chuji

    2013-06-26

    The weak absorption spectra of isoprene and acetone have been measured in the wavelength range of 261-275 nm using cavity ringdown spectroscopy. The measured absorption cross-sections of isoprene in the wavelength region of 261-266 nm range from 3.65 × 10⁻²¹ cm².molecule⁻¹ at 261 nm to 1.42 × 10⁻²¹ cm².molecule⁻¹ at 266 nm; these numbers are in good agreement with the values reported in the literature. In the longer wavelength range of 270-275 nm, however, where attractive applications using a single wavelength compact diode laser operating at 274 nm is located, isoprene has been reported in the literature to have no absorption (too weak to be detected). Small absorption cross-sections of isoprene in this longer wavelength region are measured using cavity ringdown spectroscopy for the first time in this work, i.e., 6.20 × 10⁻²³ cm².molecule⁻¹ at 275 nm. With the same experimental system, wavelength-dependent absorption cross-sections of acetone have also been measured. Theoretical detection limits of isoprene and comparisons of absorbance of isoprene, acetone, and healthy breath gas in this wavelength region are also discussed.

  1. Measurements of the Weak UV Absorptions of Isoprene and Acetone at 261–275 nm Using Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy for Evaluation of a Potential Portable Ringdown Breath Analyzer

    PubMed Central

    Sahay, Peeyush; Scherrer, Susan T.; Wang, Chuji

    2013-01-01

    The weak absorption spectra of isoprene and acetone have been measured in the wavelength range of 261–275 nm using cavity ringdown spectroscopy. The measured absorption cross-sections of isoprene in the wavelength region of 261–266 nm range from 3.65 × 10−21 cm2·molecule−1 at 261 nm to 1.42 × 10−21 cm2·molecule−1 at 266 nm; these numbers are in good agreement with the values reported in the literature. In the longer wavelength range of 270–275 nm, however, where attractive applications using a single wavelength compact diode laser operating at 274 nm is located, isoprene has been reported in the literature to have no absorption (too weak to be detected). Small absorption cross-sections of isoprene in this longer wavelength region are measured using cavity ringdown spectroscopy for the first time in this work, i.e., 6.20 × 10−23 cm2·molecule−1 at 275 nm. With the same experimental system, wavelength-dependent absorption cross-sections of acetone have also been measured. Theoretical detection limits of isoprene and comparisons of absorbance of isoprene, acetone, and healthy breath gas in this wavelength region are also discussed. PMID:23803787

  2. Absorption spectroscopy and multi-angle scattering measurements in the visible spectral range for the geographic classification of Italian exravirgin olive oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, Anna G.; Ciaccheri, Leonardo; Cimato, Antonio; Sani, Graziano; Smith, Peter R.

    2004-03-01

    Absorption spectroscopy and multi-angle scattering measurements in the visible spectral range are innovately used to analyze samples of extra virgin olive oils coming from selected areas of Tuscany, a famous Italian region for the production of extra virgin olive oil. The measured spectra are processed by means of the Principal Component Analysis method, so as to create a 3D map capable of clustering the Tuscan oils within the wider area of Italian extra virgin olive oils.

  3. Development of vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy system for wide measurement range of number density using a dual-tube inductively coupled plasma light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Akira; Matsui, Makoto; Yamagiwa, Yoshiki

    2012-12-01

    A vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy system for a wide measurement range of atomic number densities is developed. Dual-tube inductively coupled plasma was used as a light source. The probe beam profile was optimized for the target number density range by changing the mass flow rate of the inner and outer tubes. This system was verified using cold xenon gas. As a result, the measurement number density range was extended from the conventional two orders to five orders of magnitude.

  4. Near simultaneous measurements of NO2 and NO3 over tropics by ground-based absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lal, M.; Chakrabarty, D. K.; Sidhu, J. S.; Das, S. R.

    1994-01-01

    The present study concentrates on measurements of NO2 and NO3. NO2 has been measured during twilight period using zenith sky absorption spectrometric technique in the 436 to 448 nm region. NO3 has been measured during night time using direct moon as a source of light in the 655 to 667 nm region. These measurements have been taken at low latitude station, Ahmedabad (23 deg N, 76 deg E), India for the past two years.

  5. Gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy - GASMAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svanberg, Sune

    2008-09-01

    An overview of the new field of Gas in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy (GASMAS) is presented. GASMAS combines narrow-band diode-laser spectroscopy with diffuse media optical propagation. While solids and liquids have broad absorption features, free gas in pores and cavities in the material is characterized by sharp spectral signatures, typically 10,000 times sharper than those of the host material. Many applications in materials science, food packaging, pharmaceutics and medicine have been demonstrated. So far molecular oxygen and water vapour have been studied around 760 and 935 nm, respectively. Liquid water, an important constituent in many natural materials, such as tissue, has a low absorption at such wavelengths, allowing propagation. Polystyrene foam, wood, fruits, food-stuffs, pharmaceutical tablets, and human sinus cavities have been studied. Transport of gas in porous media can readily be studied by first immersing the material in, e.g., pure nitrogen, and then observing the rate at which normal air, containing oxygen, reinvades the material. The conductance of the sinus connective passages can be measured in this way by flushing the nasal cavity with nitrogen. Also other dynamic processes such as drying of materials can be studied. The techniques have also been extended to remote-sensing applications (LIDAR-GASMAS).

  6. Laser diode absorption spectroscopy for accurate CO(2) line parameters at 2 microm: consequences for space-based DIAL measurements and potential biases.

    PubMed

    Joly, Lilian; Marnas, Fabien; Gibert, Fabien; Bruneau, Didier; Grouiez, Bruno; Flamant, Pierre H; Durry, Georges; Dumelie, Nicolas; Parvitte, Bertrand; Zéninari, Virginie

    2009-10-10

    Space-based active sensing of CO(2) concentration is a very promising technique for the derivation of CO(2) surface fluxes. There is a need for accurate spectroscopic parameters to enable accurate space-based measurements to address global climatic issues. New spectroscopic measurements using laser diode absorption spectroscopy are presented for the preselected R30 CO(2) absorption line ((20(0)1)(III)<--(000) band) and four others. The line strength, air-broadening halfwidth, and its temperature dependence have been investigated. The results exhibit significant improvement for the R30 CO(2) absorption line: 0.4% on the line strength, 0.15% on the air-broadening coefficient, and 0.45% on its temperature dependence. Analysis of potential biases of space-based DIAL CO(2) mixing ratio measurements associated to spectroscopic parameter uncertainties are presented.

  7. Gas Phase Absorption Spectroscopy of C+60 and C+70 in a Cryogenic Ion Trap: Comparison with Astronomical Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, E. K.; Holz, M.; Maier, J. P.; Gerlich, D.; Walker, G. A. H.; Bohlender, D.

    2016-05-01

    Recent low-temperature laboratory measurements and astronomical observations have proved that the fullerene cation {{{C}}}60+ is responsible for four diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). These absorptions correspond to the strongest bands of the lowest electronic transition. The gas phase spectrum below 10 {{K}} is reported here for the full wavelength range encompassed by the electronic transition. The absorption spectrum of {{{C}}}70+, with its origin band at 7959.2 {{\\mathringA }}, has been obtained under similar laboratory conditions. Observations made toward the reddened star {HD} 183143 were used in a specific search for the absorption of these fullerene cations in diffuse clouds. In the case of {{{C}}}60+, one further band in the astronomical spectrum at 9348.5 \\mathringA is identified, increasing the total number of assigned DIBs to five. Numerous other {{{C}}}60+ absorptions in the laboratory spectrum are found to lie below the astronomical detection limit. Special emphasis is placed on the laboratory determination of absolute absorption cross-sections. For {{{C}}}60+ this directly yields a column density, N({{{C}}}60+), of 2× {10}13 {{{cm}}}-2 in diffuse clouds, without the need to rely on theoretical oscillator strengths. The intensity of the {{{C}}}70+ electronic transition in the range 7000-8000 Å is spread over many features of similar strength. Absorption cross-section measurements indicate that even for a similar column density, the individual absorption bands of {{{C}}}70+ will be too weak to be detected in the astronomical spectra, which is confirmed giving an upper limit of 2 {{m\\mathringA }} to the equivalent width. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l’Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  8. Laser continuum source atomic absorption spectroscopy: Measuring the ground state with nanosecond resolution in laser-induced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merten, Jonathan; Johnson, Bruce

    2018-01-01

    A new dual-beam atomic absorption technique is applied to laser-induced plasmas. The technique uses an optical parametric oscillator pseudocontinuum, producing emission that is both wider than the absorption line profile, but narrow enough to allow the use of an echelle spectrograph without order sorting. The dual-beam-in space implementation makes the technique immune to nonspecific attenuation of the probe beam and the structure of the pseudocontinuum. The potential for plasma diagnostics is demonstrated with spatially and temporally resolved measurements of magnesium metastable and lithium ground state optical depths in a laser-induced plasma under reduced pressure conditions. The lithium measurements further demonstrate the technique's potential for isotope ratio measurements.

  9. Towards simultaneous measurements of electronic and structural properties in ultra-fast x-ray free electron laser absorption spectroscopy experiments

    PubMed Central

    Gaudin, J.; Fourment, C.; Cho, B. I.; Engelhorn, K.; Galtier, E.; Harmand, M.; Leguay, P. M.; Lee, H. J.; Nagler, B.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Ozkan, C.; Störmer, M.; Toleikis, S.; Tschentscher, Th; Heimann, P. A.; Dorchies, F.

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly growing ultrafast science with X-ray lasers unveils atomic scale processes with unprecedented time resolution bringing the so called “molecular movie” within reach. X-ray absorption spectroscopy is one of the most powerful x-ray techniques providing both local atomic order and electronic structure when coupled with ad-hoc theory. Collecting absorption spectra within few x-ray pulses is possible only in a dispersive setup. We demonstrate ultrafast time-resolved measurements of the LIII-edge x-ray absorption near-edge spectra of irreversibly laser excited Molybdenum using an average of only few x-ray pulses with a signal to noise ratio limited only by the saturation level of the detector. The simplicity of the experimental set-up makes this technique versatile and applicable for a wide range of pump-probe experiments, particularly in the case of non-reversible processes. PMID:24740172

  10. Towards simultaneous measurements of electronic and structural properties in ultra-fast x-ray free electron laser absorption spectroscopy experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudin, J.; Fourment, C.; Cho, B. I.; Engelhorn, K.; Galtier, E.; Harmand, M.; Leguay, P. M.; Lee, H. J.; Nagler, B.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Ozkan, C.; Störmer, M.; Toleikis, S.; Tschentscher, Th; Heimann, P. A.; Dorchies, F.

    2014-04-01

    The rapidly growing ultrafast science with X-ray lasers unveils atomic scale processes with unprecedented time resolution bringing the so called ``molecular movie'' within reach. X-ray absorption spectroscopy is one of the most powerful x-ray techniques providing both local atomic order and electronic structure when coupled with ad-hoc theory. Collecting absorption spectra within few x-ray pulses is possible only in a dispersive setup. We demonstrate ultrafast time-resolved measurements of the LIII-edge x-ray absorption near-edge spectra of irreversibly laser excited Molybdenum using an average of only few x-ray pulses with a signal to noise ratio limited only by the saturation level of the detector. The simplicity of the experimental set-up makes this technique versatile and applicable for a wide range of pump-probe experiments, particularly in the case of non-reversible processes.

  11. Towards simultaneous measurements of electronic and structural properties in ultra-fast x-ray free electron laser absorption spectroscopy experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Gaudin, J.; Fourment, C.; Cho, B. I.; ...

    2014-04-17

    The rapidly growing ultrafast science with X-ray lasers unveils atomic scale processes with unprecedented time resolution bringing the so called “molecular movie” within reach. X-ray absorption spectroscopy is one of the most powerful x-ray techniques providing both local atomic order and electronic structure when coupled with ad-hoc theory. Collecting absorption spectra within few x-ray pulses is possible only in a dispersive setup. We demonstrate ultrafast time-resolved measurements of the LIII-edge x-ray absorption near-edge spectra of irreversibly laser excited Molybdenum using an average of only few x-ray pulses with a signal to noise ratio limited only by the saturation level ofmore » the detector. The simplicity of the experimental set-up makes this technique versatile and applicable for a wide range of pump-probe experiments, particularly in the case of non-reversible processes.« less

  12. Precision saturated absorption spectroscopy of H3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Yu-Chan; Chang, Yung-Hsiang; Liao, Yi-Chieh; Peng, Jin-Long; Wang, Li-Bang; Shy, Jow-Tsong

    2018-03-01

    In our previous work on the Lamb-dips of the ν2 fundamental band transitions of H3+, the saturated absorption spectrum was obtained by third-derivative spectroscopy using frequency modulation with an optical parametric oscillator (OPO). However, frequency modulation also caused errors in the absolute frequency determination. To solve this problem, we built a tunable offset locking system to lock the pump frequency of the OPO to an iodine-stabilized Nd:YAG laser. With this improvement, we were able to scan the OPO idler frequency precisely and obtain the saturated absorption profile using intensity modulation. Furthermore, ion concentration modulation was employed to subtract the background noise and increase the signal-to-noise ratio. To determine the absolute frequency of the idler wave, the OPO signal frequency was locked to an optical frequency comb. The absolute frequency accuracy of our spectrometer was better than 7 kHz, demonstrated by measuring the wavelength standard transition of methane at 3.39 μm. Finally, we measured 16 transitions of H3+ and our results agree very well with other precision measurements. This work successfully resolved the discrepancies between our previous measurements and other precision measurements.

  13. First calibration measurements of an FTIR absorption spectroscopy system for liquid hydrogen isotopologues for the isotope separation system of fusion power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Groessle, R.; Beck, A.; Bornschein, B.

    2015-03-15

    Fusion facilities like ITER and DEMO will circulate huge amounts of deuterium and tritium in their fuel cycle with an estimated throughput of kg per hour. One important capability of these fuel cycles is to separate the hydrogen isotopologues (H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, T{sub 2}, HD, HT, DT). For this purpose the Isotope Separation System (ISS), using cryogenic distillation, as part of the Tritium Enrichment Test Assembly (TRENTA) is under development at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR) has been selected to prove its capability for online monitoring of the tritium concentration in the liquid phase atmore » the bottom of the distillation column of the ISS. The actual research-development work is focusing on the calibration of such a system. Two major issues are the identification of appropriate absorption lines and their dependence on the isotopic concentrations and composition. For this purpose the Tritium Absorption IR spectroscopy experiment has been set up as an extension of TRENTA. For calibration a Raman spectroscopy system is used. First measurements, with equilibrated mixtures of H{sub 2}, D{sub 2} and HD demonstrate that FTIR can be used for quantitative analysis of liquid hydro-gen isotopologues and reveal a nonlinear dependence of the integrated absorbance from the D{sub 2} concentration in the second vibrational branch of D{sub 2} FTIR spectra. (authors)« less

  14. Measurement of Electronic States of PbS Nanocrystal Quantum Dots Using Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy: The Role of Parity Selection Rules in Optical Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaconescu, Bogdan; Padilha, Lazaro A.; Nagpal, Prashant; Swartzentruber, Brian S.; Klimov, Victor I.

    2013-03-01

    We study the structure of electronic states in individual PbS nanocrystal quantum dots by scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) using one-to-two monolayer nanocrystal films treated with 1, 2-ethanedithiols (EDT). Up to six individual valence and conduction band states are resolved for a range of quantum dot sizes. The measured states’ energies are in good agreement with calculations using the k·p four-band envelope function formalism. A comparison of STS and optical absorption spectra indicates that some of the absorption features can only be explained by asymmetric transitions involving the states of different symmetries (e.g., S and P or P and D), which points towards the relaxation of the parity selection rules in these nanostructures. STS measurements also reveal a midgap feature, which is likely similar to one observed in previous charge transport studies of EDT-treated quantum dot films.

  15. Precision Saturated Absorption Spectroscopy of H3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Yu-chan; Liao, Yi-Chieh; Chang, Yung-Hsiang; Peng, Jin-Long; Shy, Jow-Tsong

    2016-06-01

    In our previous work on the Lamb dips of the νb{2} fundamental band of H3+, the saturated absorption spectrum was obtained by the third-derivative spectroscopy using frequency modulation [1]. However, the frequency modulation also causes error in absolute frequency determination. To solve this problem, we have built an offset-locking system to lock the OPO pump frequency to an iodine-stabilized Nd:YAG laser. With this modification, we are able to scan the OPO idler frequency precisely and obtain the profile of the Lamb dips. Double modulation (amplitude modulation of the idler power and concentration modulation of the ion) is employed to subtract the interference fringes of the signal and increase the signal-to-noise ratio effectively. To Determine the absolute frequency of the idler wave, the pump wave is offset locked on the R(56) 32-0 a10 hyperfine component of 127I2, and the signal wave is locked on a GPS disciplined fiber optical frequency comb (OFC). All references and lock systems have absolute frequency accuracy better than 10 kHz. Here, we demonstrate its performance by measuring one transition of methane and sixteen transitions of H3+. This instrument could pave the way for the high-resolution spectroscopy of a variety of molecular ions. [1] H.-C. Chen, C.-Y. Hsiao, J.-L. Peng, T. Amano, and J.-T. Shy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 263002 (2012).

  16. Aerosol Absorption Measurements in MILAGRO.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Arnott, W. P.; Paredes-Miranda, L.; Barnard, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    to carbonyl- and nitro- functional groups on conjugated and aromatic organic structures (e.g. PAH, and terpene derived products). Using 12-hour fine (0.1-1.0 micron) aerosol samples collected in the field on quartz filters, uv/vis and infrared spectra were obtained in the laboratory using integrating spheres and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, respectively. An inter-comparison of the "real-time" measurements made by the photo-acoustic, aethalometer and MAAP techniques have been described. In addition, the in situ aethalometer (seven-channel) results are compared with continuous integrating sphere uv-visible spectra to examine the angstrom absorption coefficient variance. These results will be briefly overviewed and the specific posters detailing these results will be highlighted highlighted. This work was performed as part of the Department of Energy's Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City under the support of the Atmospheric Science Program. "This researchwas supported by the Office of Science (BER), U. S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64329.

  17. Fast spatially resolved exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) distribution measurements in an internal combustion engine using absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E; Perfetto, Anthony; Geckler, Sam; Partridge, William P

    2015-09-01

    Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in internal combustion engines is an effective method of reducing NOx emissions while improving efficiency. However, insufficient mixing between fresh air and exhaust gas can lead to cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder non-uniform charge gas mixtures of a multi-cylinder engine, which can in turn reduce engine performance and efficiency. A sensor packaged into a compact probe was designed, built and applied to measure spatiotemporal EGR distributions in the intake manifold of an operating engine. The probe promotes the development of more efficient and higher-performance engines by resolving high-speed in situ CO2 concentration at various locations in the intake manifold. The study employed mid-infrared light sources tuned to an absorption band of CO2 near 4.3 μm, an industry standard species for determining EGR fraction. The calibrated probe was used to map spatial EGR distributions in an intake manifold with high accuracy and monitor cycle-resolved cylinder-specific EGR fluctuations at a rate of up to 1 kHz.

  18. Fast Spatially Resolved Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Distribution Measurements in an Internal Combustion Engine Using Absorption Spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E.; ...

    2015-09-01

    One effective method of reducing NO x emissions while improving efficiency is exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in internal combustion engines. But, insufficient mixing between fresh air and exhaust gas can lead to cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder nonuniform charge gas mixtures of a multi-cylinder engine, which can in turn reduce engine performance and efficiency. Furthermore, a sensor packaged into a compact probe was designed, built and applied to measure spatiotemporal EGR distributions in the intake manifold of an operating engine. The probe promotes the development of more efficient and higher-performance engines by resolving high-speed in situ CO 2 concentration at various locationsmore » in the intake manifold. Our study employed mid-infrared light sources tuned to an absorption band of CO 2 near 4.3 μm, an industry standard species for determining EGR fraction. The calibrated probe was used to map spatial EGR distributions in an intake manifold with high accuracy and monitor cycle-resolved cylinder-specific EGR fluctuations at a rate of up to 1 kHz.« less

  19. Wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy with 2 f detection using multiplexed diode lasers for rapid temperature measurements in gaseous flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J. T. C.; Jeffries, J. B.; Hanson, R. K.

    Multiplexed fiber-coupled diode lasers are used to probe second-harmonic line shapes of two near-infrared water absorption features, at 1343 nm and 1392 nm, in order to infer temperatures in gases containing water vapor, such as combustion flows. Wavelength modulation is performed at 170 kHz, and is superimposed on 1-kHz wavelength scans in order to recover full second-harmonic line shapes. Digital waveform generation and lock-in detection are performed using a data-acquisition card installed in a PC. An optimal selection of the modulation indices is shown to greatly simplify data interpretation over extended temperature ranges and to minimize the need for calibration when performing 2 f ratio thermometry. A theoretical discussion of this optimized strategy for 2 f ratio thermometry, as well as results from experimental validations in a heated cell, at pressures up to atmospheric, are presented in order to illustrate the utility of this technique for rapid temperature measurements in gaseous flow fields.

  20. Note: application of a pixel-array area detector to simultaneous single crystal X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements.

    PubMed

    Sun, Cheng-Jun; Zhang, Bangmin; Brewe, Dale L; Chen, Jing-Sheng; Chow, G M; Venkatesan, T; Heald, Steve M

    2014-04-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) are two main x-ray techniques in synchrotron radiation facilities. In this Note, we present an experimental setup capable of performing simultaneous XRD and XAS measurements by the application of a pixel-array area detector. For XRD, the momentum transfer in specular diffraction was measured by scanning the X-ray energy with fixed incoming and outgoing x-ray angles. By selecting a small fixed region of the detector to collect the XRD signal, the rest of the area was available for collecting the x-ray fluorescence for XAS measurements. The simultaneous measurement of XRD and X-ray absorption near edge structure for Pr0.67Sr0.33MnO3 film was demonstrated as a proof of principle for future time-resolved pump-probe measurements. A static sample makes it easy to maintain an accurate overlap of the X-ray spot and laser pump beam.

  1. High spatial resolution measurements of NO2 applying Topographic Target Light scattering-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (ToTaL-DOAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frins, E.; Platt, U.; Wagner, T.

    2008-12-01

    Topographic Target Light scattering - Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (ToTaL-DOAS), also called Target-DOAS, is a novel experimental procedure to retrieve trace gas concentrations present in the low atmosphere. Scattered sunlight (diffuse or specular) reflected from natural or artificial targets located at different distances are analyzed to retrieve the spatial distribution of the concentration of different trace gases like NO2, SO2 and others. We report high spatial resolution measurements of NO2 mixing ratios in the city of Montevideo (Uruguay) observing three buildings as targets with a Mini-DOAS instrument. Our instrument was 146 m, 196 m, and 280 m apart from three different buildings located along a main Avenue. We obtain temporal variation of NO2 mixing ratios between 30 ppb and 65 ppb from measurements of November 2007 and mixing ratios up to 50 ppb from measurements of August and September 2008. Our measurements demonstrate that ToTaL-DOAS observations can be made over relative short distances. In polluted air masses, the retrieved absorption signal was found to be sufficiently strong to allow measurements over distances in the range of several tens of meters.

  2. High spatial resolution measurements of NO2 applying Topographic Target Light scattering-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (ToTaL-DOAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frins, E.; Platt, U.; Wagner, T.

    2008-06-01

    Tomographic Target Light scattering - Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (ToTaL-DOAS), also called Target-DOAS, is a novel experimental procedure to retrieve trace gas concentrations present in the low atmosphere. Scattered sunlight (partially or totally) reflected from natural or artificial targets of similar albedo located at different distances is analyzed to retrieve the concentration of different trace gases like NO2, SO2 and others. We report high spatial resolution measurements of NO2 mixing ratios in the city of Montevideo (Uruguay) observing three buildings as targets with a Mini-DOAS instrument. Our instrument was 146 m apart from the first building, 196 m from the second and 286 m from the third one. All three buildings are located along a main Avenue. We obtain temporal variation of NO2 mixing ratios between 30 ppb and 65 ppb (±2 ppb). Our measurements demonstrate that ToTaL-DOAS measurements can be made over very short distances. In polluted air masses, the retrieved absorption signal was found to be strong enough to allow measurements over distances in the range of several ten meters, and achieve a spatial resolution of 50 m approximately.

  3. A differential optical absorption spectroscopy method for retrieval from ground-based Fourier transform spectrometers measurements of the direct solar beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Yanfeng; Duan, Minzheng; Tian, Wenshou; Min, Qilong

    2015-08-01

    A differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS)-like algorithm is developed to retrieve the column-averaged dryair mole fraction of carbon dioxide from ground-based hyper-spectral measurements of the direct solar beam. Different to the spectral fitting method, which minimizes the difference between the observed and simulated spectra, the ratios of multiple channel-pairs—one weak and one strong absorption channel—are used to retrieve from measurements of the shortwave infrared (SWIR) band. Based on sensitivity tests, a super channel-pair is carefully selected to reduce the effects of solar lines, water vapor, air temperature, pressure, instrument noise, and frequency shift on retrieval errors. The new algorithm reduces computational cost and the retrievals are less sensitive to temperature and H2O uncertainty than the spectral fitting method. Multi-day Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) measurements under clear-sky conditions at two sites (Tsukuba and Bremen) are used to derive xxxx for the algorithm evaluation and validation. The DOAS-like results agree very well with those of the TCCON algorithm after correction of an airmass-dependent bias.

  4. Analyte-induced spectral filtering in femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, Baxter; Nieto-Pescador, Jesus; Gundlach, Lars

    Here, we discuss the influence of spectral filtering by samples in femtosecond transient absorption measurements. Commercial instruments for transient absorption spectroscopy (TA) have become increasingly available to scientists in recent years and TA is becoming an established technique to measure the dynamics of photoexcited systems. Furthermore, we show that absorption of the excitation pulse by the sample can severely alter the spectrum and consequently the temporal pulse shape. This “spectral self-filtering” effect can lead to systematic errors and misinterpretation of data, most notably in concentration dependent measurements. Finally, the combination of narrow absorption peaks in the sample with ultrafast broadbandmore » excitation pulses is especially prone to this effect.« less

  5. Analyte-induced spectral filtering in femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Abraham, Baxter; Nieto-Pescador, Jesus; Gundlach, Lars

    2017-03-06

    Here, we discuss the influence of spectral filtering by samples in femtosecond transient absorption measurements. Commercial instruments for transient absorption spectroscopy (TA) have become increasingly available to scientists in recent years and TA is becoming an established technique to measure the dynamics of photoexcited systems. Furthermore, we show that absorption of the excitation pulse by the sample can severely alter the spectrum and consequently the temporal pulse shape. This “spectral self-filtering” effect can lead to systematic errors and misinterpretation of data, most notably in concentration dependent measurements. Finally, the combination of narrow absorption peaks in the sample with ultrafast broadbandmore » excitation pulses is especially prone to this effect.« less

  6. Remote laser evaporative molecular absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Gary B.; Lubin, Philip; Cohen, Alexander; Madajian, Jonathan; Kulkarni, Neeraj; Zhang, Qicheng; Griswold, Janelle; Brashears, Travis

    2016-09-01

    We describe a novel method for probing bulk molecular and atomic composition of solid targets from a distant vantage. A laser is used to melt and vaporize a spot on the target. With sufficient flux, the spot temperature rises rapidly, and evaporation of surface materials occurs. The melted spot creates a high-temperature blackbody source, and ejected material creates a plume of surface materials in front of the spot. Molecular and atomic absorption occurs as the blackbody radiation passes through the ejected plume. Bulk molecular and atomic composition of the surface material is investigated by using a spectrometer to view the heated spot through the ejected plume. The proposed method is distinct from current stand-off approaches to composition analysis, such as Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), which atomizes and ionizes target material and observes emission spectra to determine bulk atomic composition. Initial simulations of absorption profiles with laser heating show great promise for Remote Laser-Evaporative Molecular Absorption (R-LEMA) spectroscopy. The method is well-suited for exploration of cold solar system targets—asteroids, comets, planets, moons—such as from a spacecraft orbiting the target. Spatial composition maps could be created by scanning the surface. Applying the beam to a single spot continuously produces a borehole or trench, and shallow subsurface composition profiling is possible. This paper describes system concepts for implementing the proposed method to probe the bulk molecular composition of an asteroid from an orbiting spacecraft, including laser array, photovoltaic power, heating and ablation, plume characteristics, absorption, spectrometry and data management.

  7. Absolute atomic oxygen density measurements for nanosecond-pulsed atmospheric-pressure plasma jets using two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, C.; Carter, C.

    2014-12-01

    Nanosecond-pulsed plasma jets that are generated under ambient air conditions and free from confinement of electrodes have become of great interest in recent years due to their promising applications in medicine and dentistry. Reactive oxygen species that are generated by nanosecond-pulsed, room-temperature non-equilibrium He-O2 plasma jets among others are believed to play an important role during the bactericidal or sterilization processes. We report here absolute measurements of atomic oxygen density in a 1 mm-diameter He/(1%)O2 plasma jet at atmospheric pressure using two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Oxygen number density on the order of 1013 cm-3 was obtained in a 150 ns, 6 kV single-pulsed plasma jet for an axial distance up to 5 mm above the device nozzle. Temporally resolved O density measurements showed that there are two maxima, separated in time by 60-70 µs, and a total pulse duration of 260-300 µs. Electrostatic modeling indicated that there are high-electric-field regions near the nozzle exit that may be responsible for the observed temporal behavior of the O production. Both the field-distribution-based estimation of the time interval for the O number density profile and a pulse-energy-dependence study confirmed that electric-field-dependent, direct and indirect electron-induced processes play important roles for O production.

  8. Examination of Cr(VI) treatment by zero-valent iron using in situ, real-time X-ray absorption spectroscopy and Cr isotope measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson-Hanes, Julia H.; Lentz, Adam M.; Amos, Richard T.; Ptacek, Carol J.; Blowes, David W.

    2014-10-01

    A series of replicate flow-through cell experiments was conducted to characterize Cr isotope fractionation during Cr(VI) treatment by granular zero-valent iron (ZVI). Synthetic groundwater containing 50 mg L-1 Cr(VI) was pumped upward through a custom-made cell packed with ZVI under anaerobic conditions. The geochemical evolution of the system was monitored using pH and redox measurements, while aqueous effluent samples were retained for analysis of cations and Cr isotopes. Real-time, in situ X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy collected via a Kapton® window in the cell provided additional information on the speciation of the reaction products. Increases in δ53Cr values corresponding to decreases in Cr(VI) concentration suggested the occurrence of redox processes. Spectroscopic results correlated well with the isotope data, indicating reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). The isotope data did not appear to follow a single trend. A two-stage system was proposed to explain the complex isotope trend, where the rapid Cr removal was associated with very little fractionation (ε = -0.2‰), whereas slower removal was associated with a greater degree of fractionation (ε = -1.2‰ to -1.5‰). Reactive transport modeling was used to quantify distinct isotope fractionation values (ε), differentiated by a significant change in the Cr removal rate.

  9. Impact of NO2 horizontal heterogeneity on tropospheric NO2 vertical columns retrieved from satellite, multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy, and in situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendolia, D.; D'Souza, R. J. C.; Evans, G. J.; Brook, J.

    2013-01-01

    Tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities were retrieved for the first time in Toronto, Canada using three methods of differing spatial scales. Remotely-sensed NO2 vertical column densities, retrieved from multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy and satellite remote sensing, were evaluated by comparison with in situ vertical column densities derived using a pair of chemiluminescence monitors situated 0.01 and 0.5 km above ground level. The chemiluminescence measurements were corrected for the influence of NOz, which reduced the NO2 concentrations at 0.01 and 0.5 km by 8 ± 1% and 12 ± 1%, respectively. The average absolute decrease in the chemiluminescence NO2 measurement as a result of this correction was less than 1 ppb. Good correlation was observed between the remotely sensed and in situ NO2 vertical column densities (Pearson R ranging from 0.68 to 0.79), but the in situ vertical column densities were 27% to 55% greater than the remotely-sensed columns. These results indicate that NO2 horizontal heterogeneity strongly impacted the magnitude of the remotely-sensed columns. The in situ columns reflected an urban environment with major traffic sources, while the remotely-sensed NO2 vertical column densities were representative of the region, which included spatial heterogeneity introduced by residential neighbourhoods and Lake Ontario. Despite the difference in absolute values, the reasonable correlation between the vertical column densities determined by three distinct methods increased confidence in the validity of the values provided by each of the methods.

  10. Determination of gold nanoparticle shape from absorption spectroscopy and ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battie, Yann; Izquierdo-Lorenzo, Irene; Resano-Garcia, Amandine; Naciri, Aotmane En; Akil, Suzanna; Adam, Pierre Michel; Jradi, Safi

    2017-11-01

    A new methodology is developed to determine the shape distribution of gold nanoparticles (NPs) from optical spectroscopic measurements. Indeed, the morphology of Au colloids is deduced by fitting their absorption spectra with an effective medium theory which takes into account the nanoparticle shape distribution. The same procedure is applied to ellipsometric measurements recorded on photoresist films which contain Au NPs. Three spaces (L2, r2, P2) are introduced to interpret the NPs shape distribution. In the P2 space, the sphericity, the prolacity and the oblacity estimators are proposed to quantify the shape of NPs. The r2 space enables the determination of the NP aspect ratio distribution. The distributions determined from optical spectroscopy were found to be in very good agreement with the shape distributions obtained by transmission electron microscopy. We found that fitting absorption or ellipsometric spectra with an adequate effective medium theory, provides a robust tool for measuring the shape and concentration of metallic NPs.

  11. Applications of absorption spectroscopy using quantum cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lizhu; Tian, Guang; Li, Jingsong; Yu, Benli

    2014-01-01

    Infrared laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) is a promising modern technique for sensing trace gases with high sensitivity, selectivity, and high time resolution. Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers, operating in a pulsed or continuous wave mode, have potential as spectroscopic sources because of their narrow linewidths, single mode operation, tunability, high output power, reliability, low power consumption, and compactness. This paper reviews some important developments in modern laser absorption spectroscopy based on the use of quantum cascade laser (QCL) sources. Among the various laser spectroscopic methods, this review is focused on selected absorption spectroscopy applications of QCLs, with particular emphasis on molecular spectroscopy, industrial process control, combustion diagnostics, and medical breath analysis.

  12. Early in-flight detection of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy: a feasible aviation safety measure to prevent potential encounters with volcanic plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, L.; Galle, B.; Kern, C.; Delgado Granados, H.; Conde, V.; Norman, P.; Arellano, S.; Landgren, O.; Lübcke, P.; Alvarez Nieves, J. M.; Cárdenas Gonzáles, L.; Platt, U.

    2011-09-01

    Volcanic ash constitutes a risk to aviation, mainly due to its ability to cause jet engines to fail. Other risks include the possibility of abrasion of windshields and potentially serious damage to avionic systems. These hazards have been widely recognized since the early 1980s, when volcanic ash provoked several incidents of engine failure in commercial aircraft. In addition to volcanic ash, volcanic gases also pose a threat. Prolonged and/or cumulative exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2) or sulphuric acid (H2SO4) aerosols potentially affects e.g. windows, air frame and may cause permanent damage to engines. SO2 receives most attention among the gas species commonly found in volcanic plumes because its presence above the lower troposphere is a clear proxy for a volcanic cloud and indicates that fine ash could also be present. Up to now, remote sensing of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) in the ultraviolet spectral region has been used to measure volcanic clouds from ground based, airborne and satellite platforms. Attention has been given to volcanic emission strength, chemistry inside volcanic clouds and measurement procedures were adapted accordingly. Here we present a set of experimental and model results, highlighting the feasibility of DOAS to be used as an airborne early detection system of SO2 in two spatial dimensions. In order to prove our new concept, simultaneous airborne and ground-based measurements of the plume of Popocatépetl volcano, Mexico, were conducted in April 2010. The plume extended at an altitude around 5250 m above sea level and was approached and traversed at the same altitude with several forward looking DOAS systems aboard an airplane. These DOAS systems measured SO2 in the flight direction and at ±40 mrad (2.3°) angles relative to it in both, horizontal and vertical directions. The approaches started at up to 25 km distance to the plume and SO2 was measured at all times well above the detection limit. In

  13. Early in-flight detection of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy: a feasible aviation safety measure to prevent potential encounters with volcanic plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, L.; Galle, B.; Kern, C.; Delgado Granados, H.; Conde, V.; Norman, P.; Arellano, S.; Landgren, O.; Lübcke, P.; Alvarez Nieves, J. M.; Cárdenas Gonzáles, L.; Platt, U.

    2011-05-01

    Volcanic ash constitutes a risk to aviation, mainly due to its ability to cause jet engines to fail. Other risks include the possibility of abrasion of windshields and potentially serious damage to avionic systems. These hazards have been widely recognized since the early 1980s, when volcanic ash provoked several incidents of engine failure in commercial aircraft. In addition to volcanic ash, volcanic gases also pose a threat. Prolonged and/or cumulative exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2) or sulphuric acid (H2SO4) aerosols potentially affects e.g. windows, air frame and may cause permanent damage to engines. SO2 receives most attention among the gas species commonly found in volcanic plumes because its presence above the lower troposphere is a clear proxy for a volcanic cloud and indicates that fine ash could also be present. Up to now, remote sensing of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) in the ultraviolet spectral region has been used to measure volcanic clouds from ground based, airborne and satellite platforms. Attention has been given to volcanic emission strength, chemistry inside volcanic clouds and measurement procedures were adapted accordingly. Here we present a set of experimental and model results, highlighting the feasibility of DOAS to be used as an airborne early detection system of SO2 in two spatial dimensions. In order to prove our new concept, simultaneous airborne and ground-based measurements of the plume of Popocatépetl volcano, Mexico, were conducted in April 2010. The plume extended at an altitude around 5250 m above sea level and was approached and traversed at the same altitude with several forward looking DOAS systems aboard an airplane. These DOAS systems measured SO2 in the flight direction and at ± 40 mrad (2.3°) angles relative to it in both, horizontal and vertical directions. The approaches started at up to 25 km distance to the plume and SO2 was measured at all times well above the detection limit. In

  14. Early in-flight detection of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy: A feasible aviation safety measure to prevent potential encounters with volcanic plumes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vogel, L.; Galle, B.; Kern, C.; Delgado, Granados H.; Conde, V.; Norman, P.; Arellano, S.; Landgren, O.; Lubcke, P.; Alvarez, Nieves J.M.; Cardenas, Gonzales L.; Platt, U.

    2011-01-01

    Volcanic ash constitutes a risk to aviation, mainly due to its ability to cause jet engines to fail. Other risks include the possibility of abrasion of windshields and potentially serious damage to avionic systems. These hazards have been widely recognized 5 since the early 1980s, when volcanic ash provoked several incidents of engine failure in commercial aircraft. In addition to volcanic ash, volcanic gases also pose a threat. Prolonged and/or cumulative exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2) or sulphuric acid (H2SO4) aerosols potentially affects e.g. windows, air frame and may cause permanent damage to engines. SO2 receives most attention among the gas species commonly found in 10 volcanic plumes because its presence above the lower troposphere is a clear proxy for a volcanic cloud and indicates that fine ash could also be present. Up to now, remote sensing of SO2 via Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) in the ultraviolet spectral region has been used to measure volcanic clouds from ground based, airborne and satellite platforms. Attention has been given to vol- 15 canic emission strength, chemistry inside volcanic clouds and measurement procedures were adapted accordingly. Here we present a set of experimental and model results, highlighting the feasibility of DOAS to be used as an airborne early detection system of SO2 in two spatial dimensions. In order to prove our new concept, simultaneous airborne and ground-based measurements of the plume of Popocatepetl volcano, Mexico, were conducted in April 2010. The plume extended at an altitude around 5250 m above sea level and was approached and traversed at the same altitude with several forward looking DOAS systems aboard an airplane. These DOAS systems measured SO2 in the flight direction and at ±40 mrad (2.3◦) angles relative to it in both, horizontal and vertical directions. The approaches started at up to 25 km distance to 25 the plume and SO2 was measured at all times well above the detection

  15. In situ measurement of CO2 and water vapour isotopic compositions at a forest site using mid-infrared laser absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wada, Ryuichi; Matsumi, Yutaka; Takanashi, Satoru; Nakai, Yuichiro; Nakayama, Tomoki; Ouchi, Mai; Hiyama, Tetsuya; Fujiyoshi, Yasushi; Nakano, Takashi; Kurita, Naoyuki; Muramoto, Kenichiro; Kodama, Naomi

    2016-12-01

    We conducted continuous, high time-resolution measurements of CO2 and water vapour isotopologues ((16)O(12)C(16)O, (16)O(13)C(16)O and (18)O(12)C(16)O for CO2, and H2(18)O for water vapour) in a red pine forest at the foot of Mt. Fuji for 9 days from the end of July 2010 using in situ absorption laser spectroscopy. The δ(18)O values in water vapour were estimated using the δ(2)H-δ(18)O relationship. At a scale of several days, the temporal variations in δ(18)O-CO2 and δ(18)O-H2O are similar. The orders of the daily Keeling plots are almost identical. A possible reason for the similar behaviour of δ(18)O-CO2 and δ(18)O-H2O is considered to be that the air masses with different water vapour isotopic ratios moved into the forest, and changed the atmosphere of the forest. A significant correlation was observed between δ(18)O-CO2 and δ(13)C-CO2 values at nighttime (r(2)≈0.9) due to mixing between soil (and/or leaf) respiration and tropospheric CO2. The ratios of the discrimination coefficients (Δa/Δ) for oxygen (Δa) and carbon (Δ) isotopes during photosynthesis were estimated in the range of 0.7-1.2 from the daytime correlations between δ(18)O-CO2 and δ(13)C-CO2 values.

  16. UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy: Lambert-Beer reloaded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäntele, Werner; Deniz, Erhan

    2017-02-01

    UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy is used in almost every spectroscopy laboratory for routine analysis or research. All spectroscopists rely on the Lambert-Beer Law but many of them are less aware of its limitations. This tutorial discusses typical problems in routine spectroscopy that come along with technical limitations or careless selection of experimental parameters. Simple rules are provided to avoid these problems.

  17. Comparison of tropospheric NO2 vertical columns in an urban environment using satellite, multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy, and in situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendolia, D.; D'Souza, R. J. C.; Evans, G. J.; Brook, J.

    2013-10-01

    Tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities have been retrieved and compared for the first time in Toronto, Canada, using three methods of differing spatial scales. Remotely sensed NO2 vertical column densities, retrieved from multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy and satellite remote sensing, were evaluated by comparison with in situ vertical column densities estimated using a pair of chemiluminescence monitors situated 0.01 and 0.5 km a.g.l. (above ground level). The chemiluminescence measurements were corrected for the influence of NOz, which reduced the NO2 concentrations at 0.01 and 0.5 km by an average of 8 ± 1% and 12 ± 1%, respectively. The average absolute decrease in the chemiluminescence NO2 measurement as a result of this correction was less than 1 ppb. The monthly averaged ratio of the NO2 concentration at 0.5 to 0.01 km varied seasonally, and exhibited a negative linear dependence on the monthly average temperature, with Pearson's R = 0.83. During the coldest month, February, this ratio was 0.52 ± 0.04, while during the warmest month, July, this ratio was 0.34 ± 0.04, illustrating that NO2 is not well mixed within 0.5 km above ground level. Good correlation was observed between the remotely sensed and in situ NO2 vertical column densities (Pearson's R value ranging from 0.72 to 0.81), but the in situ vertical column densities were 52 to 58% greater than the remotely sensed columns. These results indicate that NO2 horizontal heterogeneity strongly impacted the magnitude of the remotely sensed columns. The in situ columns reflected an urban environment with major traffic sources, while the remotely sensed NO2 vertical column densities were representative of the region, which included spatial heterogeneity introduced by residential neighbourhoods and Lake Ontario. Despite the difference in absolute values, the reasonable correlation between the vertical column densities determined by three distinct methods increased confidence in the

  18. Pathlength Determination for Gas in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Liang; Somesfalean, Gabriel; Svanberg, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy (GASMAS) has been extensively studied and applied during recent years in, e.g., food packaging, human sinus monitoring, gas diffusion studies, and pharmaceutical tablet characterization. The focus has been on the evaluation of the gas absorption pathlength in porous media, which a priori is unknown due to heavy light scattering. In this paper, three different approaches are summarized. One possibility is to simultaneously monitor another gas with known concentration (e.g., water vapor), the pathlength of which can then be obtained and used for the target gas (e.g., oxygen) to retrieve its concentration. The second approach is to measure the mean optical pathlength or physical pathlength with other methods, including time-of-flight spectroscopy, frequency-modulated light scattering interferometry and the frequency domain photon migration method. By utilizing these methods, an average concentration can be obtained and the porosities of the material are studied. The last method retrieves the gas concentration without knowing its pathlength by analyzing the gas absorption line shape, which depends upon the concentration of buffer gases due to intermolecular collisions. The pathlength enhancement effect due to multiple scattering enables also the use of porous media as multipass gas cells for trace gas monitoring. All these efforts open up a multitude of different applications for the GASMAS technique. PMID:24573311

  19. The application of UV LEDs for differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiko, Pavel P.; Smirnov, Sergey S.; Samokhvalov, Ignatii V.

    2018-04-01

    Modern UV LEDs represent a potentially very advantageous alternative to thermal light sources, in particular xenon arc lamps, which are the most common light sources in trace gas-analyzers. So, the light-emitting diodes are very attractive for use of as light sources for Long Path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements of trace gases in the open atmosphere. Recent developments in fibre-coupling telescope technology and the availability of ultraviolet light emitting diodes have now allowed us to construct a portable, long path DOAS instrument for use at remote locations and specifically for measuring degassing from active volcanic systems. First of all, we are talking about the measurement of sulphur dioxide, carbon disulphide and, oxides of chlorine and bromine. The parallel measurements of sulfur dioxide using a certified gas analyzer, were conducted and showed good correlation.

  20. Optical re-injection in cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Leen, J. Brian; O’Keefe, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Non-mode-matched cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry (e.g., cavity ringdown spectroscopy and integrated cavity output spectroscopy) is commonly used for the ultrasensitive detection of trace gases. These techniques are attractive for their simplicity and robustness, but their performance may be limited by the reflection of light from the front mirror and the resulting low optical transmission. Although this low transmitted power can sometimes be overcome with higher power lasers and lower noise detectors (e.g., in the near-infrared), many regimes exist where the available light intensity or photodetector sensitivity limits instrument performance (e.g., in the mid-infrared). In this article, we describe a method of repeatedly re-injecting light reflected off the front mirror of the optical cavity to boost the cavity's circulating power and deliver more light to the photodetector and thus increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the absorption measurement. We model and experimentally demonstrate the method's performance using off-axis cavity ringdown spectroscopy (OA-CRDS) with a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser. The power coupled through the cavity to the detector is increased by a factor of 22.5. The cavity loss is measured with a precision of 2 × 10−10 cm−1/\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\sqrt {{\\rm Hz;}}$\\end{document} Hz ; an increase of 12 times over the standard off-axis configuration without reinjection and comparable to the best reported sensitivities in the mid-infrared. Finally, the re-injected CRDS system is used to measure the spectrum of several volatile organic compounds, demonstrating the improved ability to resolve weakly absorbing spectroscopic features. PMID:25273701

  1. Precision atomic beam density characterization by diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Oxley, Paul; Wihbey, Joseph

    2016-09-15

    We provide experimental and theoretical details of a simple technique to determine absolute line-of-sight integrated atomic beam densities based on resonant laser absorption. In our experiments, a thermal lithium beam is chopped on and off while the frequency of a laser crossing the beam at right angles is scanned slowly across the resonance transition. A lock-in amplifier detects the laser absorption signal at the chop frequency from which the atomic density is determined. The accuracy of our experimental method is confirmed using the related technique of wavelength modulation spectroscopy. For beams which absorb of order 1% of the incident lasermore » light, our measurements allow the beam density to be determined to an accuracy better than 5% and with a precision of 3% on a time scale of order 1 s. Fractional absorptions of order 10{sup −5} are detectable on a one-minute time scale when we employ a double laser beam technique which limits laser intensity noise. For a lithium beam with a thickness of 9 mm, we have measured atomic densities as low as 5 × 10{sup 4} atoms cm{sup −3}. The simplicity of our technique and the details we provide should allow our method to be easily implemented in most atomic or molecular beam apparatuses.« less

  2. Precision atomic beam density characterization by diode laser absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Oxley, Paul; Wihbey, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    We provide experimental and theoretical details of a simple technique to determine absolute line-of-sight integrated atomic beam densities based on resonant laser absorption. In our experiments, a thermal lithium beam is chopped on and off while the frequency of a laser crossing the beam at right angles is scanned slowly across the resonance transition. A lock-in amplifier detects the laser absorption signal at the chop frequency from which the atomic density is determined. The accuracy of our experimental method is confirmed using the related technique of wavelength modulation spectroscopy. For beams which absorb of order 1% of the incident laser light, our measurements allow the beam density to be determined to an accuracy better than 5% and with a precision of 3% on a time scale of order 1 s. Fractional absorptions of order 10 -5 are detectable on a one-minute time scale when we employ a double laser beam technique which limits laser intensity noise. For a lithium beam with a thickness of 9 mm, we have measured atomic densities as low as 5 × 10 4 atoms cm -3 . The simplicity of our technique and the details we provide should allow our method to be easily implemented in most atomic or molecular beam apparatuses.

  3. Non-destructive plant health sensing using absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bledsoe, Jim; Manukian, Ara; Pearce, Michael; Weiss, Lee

    1988-01-01

    The sensor group of the 1988 EGM 4001 class, working on NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) project, investigated many different plant health indicators and the technologies used to test them. The project selected by the group was to measure chlorophyll levels using absorption spectroscopy. The spectrometer measures the amount of chlorophyll in a leaf by measuring the intensity of light of a specific wavelength that is passed through a leaf. The three wavelengths of light being used corresponded to the near-IR absorption peaks of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and chlorophyll-free structures. Experimentation showed that the sensor is indeed measuring levels of chlorophyll a and b and their changes before the human eye can see any changes. The detector clamp causes little damage to the leaf and will give fairly accurate readings on similar locations on a leaf, freeing the clamp from having to remain on the same spot of a leaf for all measurements. External light affects the readings only slightly so that measurements may be taken in light or dark environments. Future designs and experimentation will concentrate on reducing the size of the sensor and adapting it to a wider range of plants.

  4. Force-detected nanoscale absorption spectroscopy in water at room temperature using an optical trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parobek, Alexander; Black, Jacob W.; Kamenetska, Maria; Ganim, Ziad

    2018-04-01

    Measuring absorption spectra of single molecules presents a fundamental challenge for standard transmission-based instruments because of the inherently low signal relative to the large background of the excitation source. Here we demonstrate a new approach for performing absorption spectroscopy in solution using a force measurement to read out optical excitation at the nanoscale. The photoinduced force between model chromophores and an optically trapped gold nanoshell has been measured in water at room temperature. This photoinduced force is characterized as a function of wavelength to yield the force spectrum, which is shown to be correlated to the absorption spectrum for four model systems. The instrument constructed for these measurements combines an optical tweezer with frequency domain absorption spectroscopy over the 400-800 nm range. These measurements provide proof-of-principle experiments for force-detected nanoscale spectroscopies that operate under ambient chemical conditions.

  5. Multiplexed absorption tomography with calibration-free wavelength modulation spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Weiwei; Kaminski, Clemens F., E-mail: cfk23@cam.ac.uk

    2014-04-14

    We propose a multiplexed absorption tomography technique, which uses calibration-free wavelength modulation spectroscopy with tunable semiconductor lasers for the simultaneous imaging of temperature and species concentration in harsh combustion environments. Compared with the commonly used direct absorption spectroscopy (DAS) counterpart, the present variant enjoys better signal-to-noise ratios and requires no baseline fitting, a particularly desirable feature for high-pressure applications, where adjacent absorption features overlap and interfere severely. We present proof-of-concept numerical demonstrations of the technique using realistic phantom models of harsh combustion environments and prove that the proposed techniques outperform currently available tomography techniques based on DAS.

  6. UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy: Lambert-Beer reloaded.

    PubMed

    Mäntele, Werner; Deniz, Erhan

    2017-02-15

    UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy is used in almost every spectroscopy laboratory for routine analysis or research. All spectroscopists rely on the Lambert-Beer Law but many of them are less aware of its limitations. This tutorial discusses typical problems in routine spectroscopy that come along with technical limitations or careless selection of experimental parameters. Simple rules are provided to avoid these problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy using quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haibach, Fred; Erlich, Adam; Deutsch, Erik

    2011-06-01

    Block Engineering has developed an absorption spectroscopy system based on widely tunable Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCL). The QCL spectrometer rapidly cycles through a user-selected range in the mid-infrared spectrum, between 6 to 12 μm (1667 to 833 cm-1), to detect and identify substances on surfaces based on their absorption characteristics from a standoff distance of up to 2 feet with an eye-safe laser. It can also analyze vapors and liquids in a single device. For military applications, the QCL spectrometer has demonstrated trace explosive, chemical warfare agent (CWA), and toxic industrial chemical (TIC) detection and analysis. The QCL's higher power density enables measurements from diffuse and highly absorbing materials and substrates. Other advantages over Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy include portability, ruggedness, rapid analysis, and the ability to function from a distance through free space or a fiber optic probe. This paper will discuss the basic technology behind the system and the empirical data on various safety and security applications.

  8. La Saturated Absorption Spectroscopy for Applications in Quantum Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Patrick; Donoghue, Liz; Dungan, Kristina; Liu, Jackie; Olmschenk, Steven

    2015-05-01

    Quantum information may revolutionize computation and communication by utilizing quantum systems based on matter quantum bits and entangled light. Ions are excellent candidates for quantum bits as they can be well-isolated from unwanted external influences by trapping and laser cooling. Doubly-ionized lanthanum in particular shows promise for use in quantum information as it has infrared transitions in the telecom band, with low attenuation in standard optical fiber, potentially allowing for long distance information transfer. However, the hyperfine splittings of the lowest energy levels, required for laser cooling, have not been measured. We present progress and recent results towards measuring the hyperfine splittings of these levels in lanthanum by saturated absorption spectroscopy with a hollow cathode lamp. This research is supported by the Army Research Office, Research Corporation for Science Advancement, and Denison University.

  9. Trace gas absorption spectroscopy using laser difference-frequency spectrometer for environmental application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, W.; Cazier, F.; Boucher, D.; Tittel, F. K.; Davies, P. B.

    2001-01-01

    A widely tunable infrared spectrometer based on difference frequency generation (DFG) has been developed for organic trace gas detection by laser absorption spectroscopy. On-line measurements of concentration of various hydrocarbons, such as acetylene, benzene, and ethylene, were investigated using high-resolution DFG trace gas spectroscopy for highly sensitive detection.

  10. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measured at the Fe K-edge with a reduced intrinsic broadening: x-ray absorption spectroscopy versus resonant inelastic x-ray scattering measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhin, Amélie; Sainctavit, Philippe; Ollefs, Katharina; Sikora, Marcin; Filipponi, Adriano; Glatzel, Pieter; Wilhelm, Fabrice; Rogalev, Andrei

    2016-12-01

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism is measured at the Fe K pre-edge in yttrium iron garnet using two different procedures that allow reducing the intrinsic broadening due to the 1s corehole lifetime. First, deconvolution of XMCD data measured in total fluorescence yield (TFY) with an extremely high signal-to-noise ratio enables a factor of 2.4 to be gained in the XMCD intensity. Ligand field multiplet calculations performed with different values of intrinsic broadening show that deconvolving such high quality XMCD data is similar to reducing the lifetime broadening from a 1s corehole to a 2p corehole. Second, MCD is measured by resonant inelastic x-ray scattering spectroscopy as a function of incident energy and emission energy. Selection of a fixed emission energy, instead of using the TFY, allows enhancing the MCD intensity up to a factor of  ˜4.7. However, this significantly changes the spectral shape of the XMCD signal, which cannot be interpreted any more as an absorption spectrum.

  11. Multi-decade Measurements of the Long-Term Trends of Atmospheric Species by High-Spectral-Resolution Infrared Solar Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, Curtis P.; Chiou, Linda; Goldman, Aaron; Hannigan, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Solar absorption spectra were recorded for the first time in 5 years with the McMath Fourier transform spectrometer at the US National solar Observatory on Kitt Peak in southern Arizona, USA (31.91 N latitude, 111.61 W longitude, 2.09 km altitude). The solar absorption spectra cover 750-1300 and 1850-5000 cm(sup -1) and were recorded on 20 days during March-June 2009. The measurements mark the continuation of a long-term record of atmospheric chemical composition measurements that have been used to quantify seasonal cycles and long-term trends of both tropospheric and stratospheric species from observations that began i 1977. Fits to the measured spectra have been performed, and they indicate the spectra obtained since return to operational status are nearly free of channeling and the instrument line shape function is well reproduced taking into account the measurement parameters. We report updated time series measurements of total columns for six atmospheric species and their analysis for seasonal cycles and long-term trends. An sn example, the time series fit shows a decrease in the annual increase rate i Montreal-Protocol-regulated chlorofluorocarbon CCL2F2 from 1.51 plus or minus 0.38% yr(sup -1) at the beginning of the time span to -1.54 plus or minus 1.28 yr(sup -1) at the end of the time span, 1 sigma, and hence provides evidence for the impact of those regulations on the trend.

  12. Indirect absorption spectroscopy using quantum cascade lasers: mid-infrared refractometry and photothermal spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Marcel; Ruf, Alexander; Fischer, Peer

    2013-11-04

    We record vibrational spectra with two indirect schemes that depend on the real part of the index of refraction: mid-infrared refractometry and photothermal spectroscopy. In the former, a quantum cascade laser (QCL) spot is imaged to determine the angles of total internal reflection, which yields the absorption line via a beam profile analysis. In the photothermal measurements, a tunable QCL excites vibrational resonances of a molecular monolayer, which heats the surrounding medium and changes its refractive index. This is observed with a probe laser in the visible. Sub-monolayer sensitivities are demonstrated.

  13. QSO absorption spectroscopy and baryonic dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirković, Milan M.

    2005-04-01

    The present book should serve a double purpose: first, as an introduction into the host of tightly related topics in astrophysics and cosmology all dealing with the history and evolution of the baryonic matter in the universe. Secondly, it gives argument for still somewhat controversial view that large baryonic reservoirs are present (at least in the low-redshift regime) in form of huge gaseous galactic haloes surrounding normal luminous galaxies, and manifesting through the Lyman-α absorption lines in spectra of background sources. If accepted, this view would profoundly impact our understanding of the galactic structure and evolution, and will deeply influence our views of the future evolution of galactic systems. After an introduction into cosmological jargon and symbols used throughout, and other important introductory material given in Chapter 1, the bulk of the argumentation is given in Chapter 2, which exposes phenomenology of Lyα absorption systems and various theories advanced to account for their physical origin. Chapter 3 deals with models of absorbing gas in the extended haloes of normal galaxies, and Chapter 4 gives a global discussion of main candidates for the reservoirs of the still elusive baryonic dark matter. A set of closely related technical issues which are used at several places in the main narrative are given in the appendices.

  14. High-Speed Multiplexed Spatiotemporally Resolved Measurements of Exhaust Gas Recirculation Dynamics in a Multi-Cylinder Engine Using Laser Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E; Perfetto, Anthony; Geckler, Sam; Partridge, William P

    2016-04-01

    The need for more environmentally friendly and efficient energy conversion is of paramount importance in developing and designing next-generation internal combustion (IC) engines for transportation applications. One effective solution to reducing emissions of mono-nitrogen oxides (NOx) is exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), which has been widely implemented in modern vehicles. However, cylinder-to-cylinder and cycle-to-cycle variations in the charge-gas uniformity can be a major barrier to optimum EGR implementation on multi-cylinder engines, and can limit performance, stability, and efficiency. Precise knowledge and fine control over the EGR system is therefore crucial, particularly for optimizing advanced engine concepts such as reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI). An absorption-based laser diagnostic was developed to study spatiotemporal charge-gas distributions in an IC engine intake manifold in real-time. The laser was tuned to an absorption band of carbon dioxide (CO2), a standard exhaust-gas marker, near 2.7 µm. The sensor was capable of probing four separate measurement locations simultaneously, and independently analyzing EGR fraction at speeds of 5 kHz (1.2 crank-angle degree (CAD) at 1 k RPM) or faster with high accuracy. The probes were used to study spatiotemporal EGR non-uniformities in the intake manifold and ultimately promote the development of more efficient and higher performance engines. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. [The Research for Trace Ammonia Escape Monitoring System Based on Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-fang; Wang, Fei; Yu, Li-bin; Yan, Jian-hua; Cen, Ke-fa

    2015-06-01

    In order to on-line measure the trace ammonia slip of the commercial power plant in the future, this research seeks to measure the trace ammonia by using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy under ambient temperature and pressure, and at different temperatures, and the measuring temperature is about 650 K in the power plant. In recent years lasers have become commercially available in the near-infrared where the transitions are much stronger, and ammonia's spectroscopy is pretty complicated and the overlapping lines are difficult to resolve. A group of ammonia transitions near 4 433.5 cm(-1) in the v2 +v3 combination band have been thoroughly selected for detecting lower concentration by analyzing its absorption characteristic and considering other absorption interference in combustion gases where H2O and CO2 mole fraction are very large. To illustrate the potential for NH3 concentration measurements, predictions for NH3, H2O and CO2 are simultaneously simulated, NH3 absorption lines near 4 433.5 cm(-1) wavelength meet weaker H2O absorption than the commercial NH3 lines, and there is almost no CO2 absorption, all the parameters are based on the HITRAN database, and an improved detection limit was obtained for interference-free NH3 monitoring, this 2.25 μm band has line strengths several times larger than absorption lines in the 1.53 μm band which was often used by NH3 sensors for emission monitoring and analyzing. The measurement system was developed with a new Herriott cell and a heated gas cell realizing fast absorption measurements of high resolution, and combined with direct absorption and wavelenguh modulation based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy at different temperatures. The lorentzian line shape is dominant at ambient temperature and pressure, and the estimated detectivity is approximately 0.225 x 10(-6) (SNR = 1) for the directed absorption spectroscopy, assuming a noise-equivalent absorbance of 1 x 10(-4). The heated cell

  16. Cavity-Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Human Breath Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtas, J.; Tittel, F. K.; Stacewicz, T.; Bielecki, Z.; Lewicki, R.; Mikolajczyk, J.; Nowakowski, M.; Szabra, D.; Stefanski, P.; Tarka, J.

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes two different optoelectronic detection techniques: cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy and photoacoustic spectroscopy. These techniques are designed to perform a sensitive analysis of trace gas species in exhaled human breath for medical applications. With such systems, the detection of pathogenic changes at the molecular level can be achieved. The presence of certain gases (biomarkers), at increased concentration levels, indicates numerous human diseases. Diagnosis of a disease in its early stage would significantly increase chances for effective therapy. Non-invasive, real-time measurements, and high sensitivity and selectivity, capable of minimum discomfort for patients, are the main advantages of human breath analysis. At present, monitoring of volatile biomarkers in breath is commonly useful for diagnostic screening, treatment for specific conditions, therapy monitoring, control of exogenous gases (such as bacterial and poisonous emissions), as well as for analysis of metabolic gases.

  17. Flameless Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy: Effects of Nitrates and Sulfates.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    ATTACHED DDJ~P 1413 EDITION 01 INO, 6 5 IabSoLEr J UjN!LbAa~ A- i SELU 0 IONOF I tG 651 J Flameless Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy: Effects of Nitrates...analytical techniques, flameless atomic absorption is subject to matrix or interference effects. Upon heating, nitrate and sulfate salts decompose to...Eklund and J.E. Smith, Anal Chem, 51, 1205 (1979) R.H. Eklund and J.A. Holcombe, Anal Chim. Acta, 109, 97 (1979) FLAMELESS ATOMIC ABSORPTION

  18. Measurements of the rate constant of HOsub2 + NOsub2 + Nsub2 --> HOsub2NOsub2 + Nsub2 using near-infrared wavelength-modulation spectroscopy and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, L. E.; Okumura, M.; Sander, S. P.; Friedl, R. R.; Miller, C. E.; Sloan, J. J.

    2004-01-01

    Rate coefficients for the reaction HO(sub 2)+ NO(sub 2) + N(sub 2) --> HO(sub 2)NO(sub 2) + N(sub 2) (reaction 1) were measured using simultaneous near-IR and UV spectroscopy from 220 to 298 K and from 45 to 200 Torr.

  19. [The study of CO2 cavity enhanced absorption and highly sensitive absorption spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Pei, Shi-Xin; Gao, Xiao-Ming; Cui, Fen-Ping; Huang, Wei; Shao, Jie; Fan, Hong; Zhang, Wei-Jun

    2005-12-01

    Cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) is a new spectral technology that is based on the cavity ring down absorption spectroscopy. In the present paper, a DFB encapsulation narrow line width tunable diode laser (TDL) was used as the light source. At the center output, the TDL radiation wavelength was 1.573 microm, and an optical cavity, which consisted of two high reflectivity mirrors (near 1.573 microm, the mirror reflectivity was about 0.994%), was used as a sample cell. A wavemeter was used to record the accurate frequency of the laser radiation. In the experiment, the method of scanning the optical cavity to change the cavity mode was used, when the laser frequency was coincident with one of the cavity mode; the laser radiation was coupled into the optical cavity and the detector could receive the light signals that escaped the optical cavity. As a result, the absorption spectrum of carbon dioxide weak absorption at low pressure was obtained with an absorption intensity of 1.816 x 10(-23) cm(-1) x (molecule x cm(-2)(-1) in a sample cell with a length of only 33.5 cm. An absorption sensitivity of about 3.62 x 10(-7) cm(-1) has been achieved. The experiment result indicated that the cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy has the advantage of high sensivity, simple experimental setup, and easy operation.

  20. Measurement of the D/H, 18O/16O, and 17O/16O Isotope Ratios in Water by Laser Absorption Spectroscopy at 2.73 μm

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tao; Chen, Weidong; Fertein, Eric; Masselin, Pascal; Gao, Xiaoming; Zhang, Weijun; Wang, Yingjian; Koeth, Johannes; Brückner, Daniela; He, Xingdao

    2014-01-01

    A compact isotope ratio laser spectrometry (IRLS) instrument was developed for simultaneous measurements of the D/H, 18O/16O and 17O/16O isotope ratios in water by laser absorption spectroscopy at 2.73 μm. Special attention is paid to the spectral data processing and implementation of a Kalman adaptive filtering to improve the measurement precision. Reduction of up to 3-fold in standard deviation in isotope ratio determination was obtained by the use of a Fourier filtering to remove undulation structure from spectrum baseline. Application of Kalman filtering enables isotope ratio measurement at 1 s time intervals with a precision (<1‰) better than that obtained by conventional 30 s averaging, while maintaining a fast system response. The implementation of the filter is described in detail and its effects on the accuracy and the precision of the isotope ratio measurements are investigated. PMID:24854363

  1. Developing a Transdisciplinary Teaching Implement for Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drew, John

    2008-01-01

    In this article I explain why I wrote the set of teaching notes on Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and why they look the way they do. The notes were intended as a student reference to question, highlight and write over as much as they wish during an initial practical demonstration of the threshold concept being introduced, in this case…

  2. Visualizing the Solute Vaporization Interference in Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockery, Christopher R.; Blew, Michael J.; Goode, Scott R.

    2008-01-01

    Every day, tens of thousands of chemists use analytical atomic spectroscopy in their work, often without knowledge of possible interferences. We present a unique approach to study these interferences by using modern response surface methods to visualize an interference in which aluminum depresses the calcium atomic absorption signal. Calcium…

  3. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The Present and the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Walter

    1982-01-01

    The status of current techniques and methods of atomic absorption (AA) spectroscopy (flame, hybrid, and furnace AA) is discussed, including limitations. Technological opportunities and how they may be used in AA are also discussed, focusing on automation, microprocessors, continuum AA, hybrid analyses, and others. (Author/JN)

  4. Measuring Gravitation Using Polarization Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsko, Andrey; Yu, Nan; Maleki, Lute

    2004-01-01

    A proposed method of measuring gravitational acceleration would involve the application of polarization spectroscopy to an ultracold, vertically moving cloud of atoms (an atomic fountain). A related proposed method involving measurements of absorption of light pulses like those used in conventional atomic interferometry would yield an estimate of the number of atoms participating in the interferometric interaction. The basis of the first-mentioned proposed method is that the rotation of polarization of light is affected by the acceleration of atoms along the path of propagation of the light. The rotation of polarization is associated with a phase shift: When an atom moving in a laboratory reference interacts with an electromagnetic wave, the energy levels of the atom are Doppler-shifted, relative to where they would be if the atom were stationary. The Doppler shift gives rise to changes in the detuning of the light from the corresponding atomic transitions. This detuning, in turn, causes the electromagnetic wave to undergo a phase shift that can be measured by conventional means. One would infer the gravitational acceleration and/or the gradient of the gravitational acceleration from the phase measurements.

  5. Direct Absorption Spectroscopy with Electro-Optic Frequency Combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleisher, Adam J.; Long, David A.; Plusquellic, David F.; Hodges, Joseph T.

    2017-06-01

    The application of electro-optic frequency combs to direct absorption spectroscopy has increased research interest in high-agility, modulator-based comb generation. This talk will review common architectures for electro-optic frequency comb generators as well as describe common self-heterodyne and multi-heterodyne (i.e., dual-comb) detection approaches. In order to achieve a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio on the recorded interferogram while allowing for manageable data volumes, broadband electro-optic frequency combs require deep coherent averaging, preferably in real-time. Applications such as cavity-enhanced spectroscopy, precision atomic and molecular spectroscopy, as well as time-resolved spectroscopy will be introduced. D.A. Long et al., Opt. Lett. 39, 2688 (2014) A.J. Fleisher et al., Opt. Express 24, 10424 (2016)

  6. Energy-absorption spectroscopy of unitary Fermi gases in a uniform potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Yu, Zhenhua

    2018-04-01

    We propose to use the energy absorption spectroscopy to measure the kinetic coefficients of unitary Fermi gases in a uniform potential. We show that, in our scheme, the energy absorption spectrum is proportional to the dynamic structure factor of the system. The profile of the spectrum depends on the shear viscosity η , the thermal conductivity κ , and the superfluid bulk viscosity ξ3. We show that extraction of these coefficients from the spectrum is achievable in present experiments.

  7. Methanogenic activity tests by Infrared Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Cruz, Karla; Sepulveda-Jauregui, Armando; Escobar-Orozco, Nayeli; Thalasso, Frederic

    2012-10-01

    Methanogenic activity (MA) tests are commonly carried out to estimate the capability of anaerobic biomass to treat effluents, to evaluate anaerobic activity in bioreactors or natural ecosystems, or to quantify inhibitory effects on methanogenic activity. These activity tests are usually based on the measurement of the volume of biogas produced by volumetric, pressure increase or gas chromatography (GC) methods. In this study, we present an alternative method for non-invasive measurement of methane produced during activity tests in closed vials, based on Infrared Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (MA-TDLAS). This new method was tested during model acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenic activity tests and was compared to a more traditional method based on gas chromatography. From the results obtained, the CH(4) detection limit of the method was estimated to 60 ppm and the minimum measurable methane production rate was estimated to 1.09(.)10(-3) mg l(-1) h(-1), which is below CH(4) production rate usually reported in both anaerobic reactors and natural ecosystems. Additionally to sensitivity, the method has several potential interests compared to more traditional methods among which short measurements time allowing the measurement of a large number of MA test vials, non-invasive measurements avoiding leakage or external interferences and similar cost to GC based methods. It is concluded that MA-TDLAS is a promising method that could be of interest not only in the field of anaerobic digestion but also, in the field of environmental ecology where CH(4) production rates are usually very low. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Simultaneous high-speed gas property measurements at the exhaust gas recirculation cooler exit and at the turbocharger inlet of a multicylinder diesel engine using diode-laser-absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jatana, Gurneesh S; Magee, Mark; Fain, David; Naik, Sameer V; Shaver, Gregory M; Lucht, Robert P

    2015-02-10

    A diode-laser-absorption-spectroscopy-based sensor system was used to perform high-speed (100 Hz to 5 kHz) measurements of gas properties (temperature, pressure, and H(2)O vapor concentration) at the turbocharger inlet and at the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler exit of a diesel engine. An earlier version of this system was previously used for high-speed measurements of gas temperature and H(2)O vapor concentration in the intake manifold of the diesel engine. A 1387.2 N m tunable distributed feedback diode laser was used to scan across multiple H(2)O absorption transitions, and the direct absorption signal was recorded using a high-speed data acquisition system. Compact optical connectors were designed to conduct simultaneous measurements in the intake manifold, the EGR cooler exit, and the turbocharger inlet of the engine. For measurements at the turbocharger inlet, these custom optical connectors survived gas temperatures as high as 800 K using a simple and passive arrangement in which the temperature-sensitive components were protected from high temperatures using ceramic insulators. This arrangement reduced system cost and complexity by eliminating the need for any active water or oil cooling. Diode-laser measurements performed during steady-state engine operation were within 5% of the thermocouple and pressure sensor measurements, and within 10% of the H(2)O concentration values derived from the CO(2) gas analyzer measurements. Measurements were also performed in the engine during transient events. In one such transient event, where a step change in fueling was introduced, the diode-laser sensor was able to capture the 30 ms change in the gas properties; the thermocouple, on the other hand, required 7.4 s to accurately reflect the change in gas conditions, while the gas analyzer required nearly 600 ms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first implementation of such a simple and passive arrangement of high-temperature optical connectors as well

  9. Characterizing caged molecules through flash photolysis and transient absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kao, Joseph P Y; Muralidharan, Sukumaran

    2013-01-01

    Caged molecules are photosensitive molecules with latent biological activity. Upon exposure to light, they are rapidly transformed into bioactive molecules such as neurotransmitters or second messengers. They are thus valuable tools for using light to manipulate biology with exceptional spatial and temporal resolution. Since the temporal performance of the caged molecule depends critically on the rate at which bioactive molecules are generated by light, it is important to characterize the kinetics of the photorelease process. This is accomplished by initiating the photoreaction with a very brief but intense pulse of light (i.e., flash photolysis) and monitoring the course of the ensuing reactions through various means, the most common of which is absorption spectroscopy. Practical guidelines for performing flash photolysis and transient absorption spectroscopy are described in this chapter.

  10. Quantification of atmospheric formaldehyde by infrared absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffnagle, John; Fleck, Derek; Rella, Chris; Kim-Hak, David

    2017-04-01

    Formaldehyde is a toxic, carcinogenic compound that can contaminate ambient air as a result of combustion or outgassing of commercial products such as adhesives used to fabricate plywood and to affix indoor carpeting. Like many small molecules, formaldehyde has an infrared absorption spectrum exhibiting bands of ro-vibrational transitions that are well resolved at low pressure and therefore well suited for optical analysis of formaldehyde concentration. We describe progress in applying cavity ring-down spectroscopy of the 2v5 band (the first overtone of the asymmetric C-H stretch, origin at 1770 nm) to the quantitative analysis of formaldehyde concentration in ambient air. Preliminary results suggest that a sensitivity of 1-2 ppb in a measurement interval of a few seconds, and 0.1-0.2 ppb in a few minutes, should be achievable with a compact, robust, and field-deployable instrument. Finally, we note that recent satellites monitoring snapshots of formaldehyde columns give insights into global formaldehyde production, migration and lifetime. The ability to monitor formaldehyde with a small and portable analyzer has the potential to aid in validation of these snapshots and to provide complementary data to show vertical dispersions with high spatial accuracy.

  11. Absorption and emission spectroscopy of individual semiconductor nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Matthew P.

    The advent of controllable synthetic methods for the production of semiconductor nanostructures has led to their use in a host of applications, including light-emitting diodes, field effect transistors, sensors, and even television displays. This is, in part, due to the size, shape, and morphologically dependent optical and electrical properties that make this class of materials extremely customizable; wire-, rod- and sphere-shaped nanocrystals are readily synthesized through common wet chemical methods. Most notably, confining the physical dimension of the nanostructure to a size below its Bohr radius (aB) results in quantum confinement effects that increase its optical energy gap. Not only the size, but the shape of a particle can be exploited to tailor its optical and electrical properties. For example, confined CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and nanowires (NWs) of equivalent diameter possess significantly different optical gaps. This phenomenon has been ascribed to electrostatic contributions arising from dielectric screening effects that are more pronounced in an elongated (wire-like) morphology. Semiconducting nanostructures have thus received significant attention over the past two decades. However, surprisingly little work has been done to elucidate their basic photophysics on a single particle basis. What has been done has generally been accomplished through emission-based measurements, and thus does not fully capture the full breadth of these intriguing systems. What is therefore needed then are absorption-based studies that probe the size and shape dependent evolution of nanostructure photophysics. This thesis summarizes the single particle absorption spectroscopy that we have carried out to fill this knowledge gap. Specifically, the diameter-dependent progression of one-dimensional (1D) excitonic states in CdSe NWs has been revealed. This is followed by a study that focuses on the polarization selection rules of 1D excitons within single CdSe NWs. Finally

  12. Label free detection of phospholipids by infrared absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Tahsin; Foster, Erick; Vigil, Genevieve; Khan, Aamir A.; Bohn, Paul; Howard, Scott S.

    2014-08-01

    We present our study on compact, label-free dissolved lipid sensing by combining capillary electrophoresis separation in a PDMS microfluidic chip online with mid-infrared (MIR) absorption spectroscopy for biomarker detection. On-chip capillary electrophoresis is used to separate the biomarkers without introducing any extrinsic contrast agent, which reduces both cost and complexity. The label free biomarker detection could be done by interrogating separated biomarkers in the channel by MIR absorption spectroscopy. Phospholipids biomarkers of degenerative neurological, kidney, and bone diseases are detectable using this label free technique. These phospholipids exhibit strong absorption resonances in the MIR and are present in biofluids including urine, blood plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid. MIR spectroscopy of a 12-carbon chain phosphatidic acid (PA) (1,2-dilauroyl-snglycero- 3-phosphate (sodium salt)) dissolved in N-methylformamide, exhibits a strong amide peak near wavenumber 1660 cm-1 (wavelength 6 μm), arising from the phosphate headgroup vibrations within a low-loss window of the solvent. PA has a similar structure to many important phospholipids molecules like phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and phosphatidylserine (PS), making it an ideal molecule for initial proof-of-concept studies. This newly proposed detection technique can lead us to minimal sample preparation and is capable of identifying several biomarkers from the same sample simultaneously.

  13. Circuit Board Analysis for Lead by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in a Course for Nonscience Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weidenhammer, Jeffrey D.

    2007-01-01

    A circuit board analysis of the atomic absorption spectroscopy, which is used to measure lead content in a course for nonscience majors, is being presented. The experiment can also be used to explain the potential environmental hazards of unsafe disposal of various used electronic equipments.

  14. Frequency-domain optical absorption spectroscopy of finite tissue volumes using diffusion theory.

    PubMed

    Pogue, B W; Patterson, M S

    1994-07-01

    The goal of frequency-domain optical absorption spectroscopy is the non-invasive determination of the absorption coefficient of a specific tissue volume. Since this allows the concentration of endogenous and exogenous chromophores to be calculated, there is considerable potential for clinical application. The technique relies on the measurement of the phase and modulation of light, which is diffusely reflected or transmitted by the tissue when it is illuminated by an intensity-modulated source. A model of light propagation must then be used to deduce the absorption coefficient. For simplicity, it is usual to assume the tissue is either infinite in extent (for transmission measurements) or semi-infinite (for reflectance measurements). The goal of this paper is to examine the errors introduced by these assumptions when measurements are actually performed on finite volumes. Diffusion-theory calculations and experimental measurements were performed for slabs, cylinders and spheres with optical properties characteristic of soft tissues in the near infrared. The error in absorption coefficient is presented as a function of object size as a guideline to when the simple models may be used. For transmission measurements, the error is almost independent of the true absorption coefficient, which allows absolute changes in absorption to be measured accurately. The implications of these errors in absorption coefficient for two clinical problems--quantitation of an exogenous photosensitizer and measurement of haemoglobin oxygenation--are presented and discussed.

  15. VUV absorption spectroscopy of bacterial spores and DNA components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiebrandt, Marcel; Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Raguse, Marina; Moeller, Ralf; Awakowicz, Peter; Stapelmann, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    Low-pressure plasmas can be used to inactivate bacterial spores and sterilize goods for medical and pharmaceutical applications. A crucial factor are damages induced by UV and VUV radiation emitted by the plasma. To analyze inactivation processes and protection strategies of spores, absorption spectra of two B. subtilis strains are measured. The results indicate, that the inner and outer coat of the spore significantly contribute to the absorption of UV-C and also of the VUV, protecting the spore against radiation based damages. As the sample preparation can significantly influence the absorption spectra due to salt residues, the cleaning procedure and sample deposition is tested for its reproducibility by measuring DNA oligomers and pUC18 plasmid DNA. The measurements are compared and discussed with results from the literature, showing a strong decrease of the salt content enabling the detection of absorption structures in the samples.

  16. Two-dimensional temperature and carbon dioxide concentration profiles in atmospheric laminar diffusion flames measured by mid-infrared direct absorption spectroscopy at 4.2 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xunchen; Zhang, Guoyong; Huang, Yan; Wang, Yizun; Qi, Fei

    2018-04-01

    We present a multi-line flame thermometry technique based on mid-infrared direct absorption spectroscopy of carbon dioxide at its v_3 fundamental around 4.2 μm that is particularly suitable for sooting flames. Temperature and concentration profiles of gas phase molecules in a flame are important characteristics to understand its flame structure and combustion chemistry. One of the standard laboratory flames to analyze polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and soot formation is laminar non-premixed co-flow flame, but PAH and soot introduce artifact to most non-contact optical measurements. Here we report an accurate diagnostic method of the temperature and concentration profiles of CO2 in ethylene diffusion flames by measuring its v_3 vibrational fundamental. An interband cascade laser was used to probe the R-branch bandhead at 4.2 μm, which is highly sensitive to temperature change, free from soot interference and ambient background. Calibration measurement was carried out both in a low-pressure Herriott cell and an atmospheric pressure tube furnace up to 1550 K to obtain spectroscopic parameters for high-temperature spectra. In our co-flow flame measurement, two-dimensional line-of-sight optical depth of an ethylene/N2 laminar sooting flame was recorded by dual-beam absorption scheme. The axially symmetrical attenuation coefficient profile of CO2 in the co-flow flame was reconstructed from the optical depth by Abel inversion. Spatially resolved flame temperature and in situ CO2 volume fraction profiles were derived from the calibrated CO2 spectroscopic parameters and compared with temperature profiles measured by two-line atomic fluorescence.

  17. Polarization-controlled optimal scatter suppression in transient absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Malý, Pavel; Ravensbergen, Janneke; Kennis, John T. M.; van Grondelle, Rienk; Croce, Roberta; Mančal, Tomáš; van Oort, Bart

    2017-01-01

    Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy is a powerful technique to study fast photo-induced processes, such as electron, proton and energy transfer, isomerization and molecular dynamics, in a diverse range of samples, including solid state materials and proteins. Many such experiments suffer from signal distortion by scattered excitation light, in particular close to the excitation (pump) frequency. Scattered light can be effectively suppressed by a polarizer oriented perpendicular to the excitation polarization and positioned behind the sample in the optical path of the probe beam. However, this introduces anisotropic polarization contributions into the recorded signal. We present an approach based on setting specific polarizations of the pump and probe pulses, combined with a polarizer behind the sample. Together, this controls the signal-to-scatter ratio (SSR), while maintaining isotropic signal. We present SSR for the full range of polarizations and analytically derive the optimal configuration at angles of 40.5° between probe and pump and of 66.9° between polarizer and pump polarizations. This improves SSR by (or compared to polarizer parallel to probe). The calculations are validated by transient absorption experiments on the common fluorescent dye Rhodamine B. This approach provides a simple method to considerably improve the SSR in transient absorption spectroscopy. PMID:28262765

  18. The determination of vanadium in brines by atomic absorption spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crump-Wiesner, Hans J.; Feltz, H.R.; Purdy, W.C.

    1971-01-01

    A standard addition method is described for the determination of vanadium in brines by atomic absorption spectroscopy with a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame. Sample pH is adjusted to 1.0 with concentrated hydrochloric acid and the vanadium is directly extracted with 5% cupferron in methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). The ketone layer is then aspirated into the flame and the recorded absorption values are plotted as a function of the concentration of the added metal. As little as 2.5 ??g l-1 of vanadium can be detected under the conditions of the procedure. Tungsten and tin interfere when present in excess of 5 and 10 ??g ml-1, respectively. The concentrations of the two interfering ions normally found in brines are well below interference levels. ?? 1971.

  19. Determination of traces of silicone defoamer in fruit juices by solvent extraction/atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gooch, E G

    1993-01-01

    Silicone defoamers are used to control foam during the processing of fruit juices. Residual silicones in fruit juices can be separated from the naturally occurring siliceous materials in fruit products and selectively recovered by solvent extraction, after suitable pretreatment. The recovered silicone is measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Silicone concentrations as low as about 1 ppm can be measured. The juices are accurately spiked for recovery studies by the addition of silicone dispersed in D-sorbitol.

  20. Atmospheric absorption measurements in the region of 1 mm wavelength.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emery, R.

    1972-01-01

    A Froome-type plasma-metal-junction device (1962) was used in high-resolution radiation transmission measurements in the atmosphere at wavelengths from 0.5 to 3.0 mm. The experimental and theoretical results for water vapor absorption lines in two submillimeter wavelength windows were compared, showing that this technique provided a much higher wavelength accuracy than more conventional optical-type spectroscopy.

  1. Direct and quantitative broadband absorptance spectroscopy with multilayer cantilever probes

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Wei-Chun; Tong, Jonathan Kien-Kwok; Liao, Bolin; Chen, Gang

    2015-04-21

    A system for measuring the absorption spectrum of a sample is provided that includes a broadband light source that produces broadband light defined within a range of an absorptance spectrum. An interferometer modulates the intensity of the broadband light source for a range of modulation frequencies. A bi-layer cantilever probe arm is thermally connected to a sample arm having at most two layers of materials. The broadband light modulated by the interferometer is directed towards the sample and absorbed by the sample and converted into heat, which causes a temperature rise and bending of the bi-layer cantilever probe arm. A detector mechanism measures and records the deflection of the probe arm so as to obtain the absorptance spectrum of the sample.

  2. Measurement of Total Site Mercury Emissions from a Chlor-Alkali Plant Using Ultraviolet Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy and Cell Room Roof-Vent Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury-cell chlor-alkali plants can emit significant quantities of fugitive elemental mercury vapor to the air as part of production operations and maintenance activities. In the fall of 2006, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a measurement project at a ch...

  3. Improving Optical Absorption Models for Harsh Planetary Atmospheres: Laboratory Spectroscopy at Venus Surface Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Ryan Kenneth; Schroeder, Paul James; Diego Draper, Anthony; Rieker, Gregory Brian

    2018-06-01

    Modelling absorption spectra in high pressure, high temperature environments is complicated by the increased relevance of higher order collisional phenomena (e.g. line mixing, collision-induced absorption, finite duration of collisions) that alter the spectral lineshape. Accurate reference spectroscopy in these conditions is of interest for mineralogy and radiative transfer studies of Venus as well as other dense planetary atmospheres. We present a new, high pressure, high temperature absorption spectroscopy facility at the University of Colorado Boulder. This facility employs a dual frequency comb absorption spectrometer to record broadband (500nm), high resolution (~0.002nm) spectra in conditions comparable to the Venus surface (730K, 90bar). Measurements of the near-infrared spectrum of carbon dioxide at high pressure and temperature will be compared to modeled spectra extrapolated from the HITRAN 2016 database as well as other published models that include additional collisional physics. This comparison gives insight into the effectiveness of existing absorption databases for modeling the lower Venus atmosphere as well as the need to expand absorption models to suit these conditions.

  4. High temperature measurement of water vapor absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefer, Dennis; Lewis, J. W. L.; Eskridge, Richard

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to measure the absorption coefficient, at a wavelength of 10.6 microns, for mixtures of water vapor and a diluent gas at high temperature and pressure. The experimental concept was to create the desired conditions of temperature and pressure in a laser absorption wave, similar to that which would be created in a laser propulsion system. A simplified numerical model was developed to predict the characteristics of the absorption wave and to estimate the laser intensity threshold for initiation. A non-intrusive method for temperature measurement utilizing optical laser-beam deflection (OLD) and optical spark breakdown produced by an excimer laser, was thoroughly investigated and found suitable for the non-equilibrium conditions expected in the wave. Experiments were performed to verify the temperature measurement technique, to screen possible materials for surface initiation of the laser absorption wave and to attempt to initiate an absorption wave using the 1.5 kW carbon dioxide laser. The OLD technique was proven for air and for argon, but spark breakdown could not be produced in helium. It was not possible to initiate a laser absorption wave in mixtures of water and helium or water and argon using the 1.5 kW laser, a result which was consistent with the model prediction.

  5. Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy of silanized silicon quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntermann, Volker; Cimpean, Carla; Brehm, Georg; Sauer, Guido; Kryschi, Carola; Wiggers, Hartmut

    2008-03-01

    Excitonic properties of colloidal silicon quantum dots (Si qdots) with mean sizes of 4nm were examined using stationary and time-resolved optical spectroscopy. Chemically stable silicon oxide shells were prepared by controlled surface oxidation and silanization of HF-etched Si qdots. The ultrafast relaxation dynamics of photogenerated excitons in Si qdot colloids were studied on the picosecond time scale from 0.3psto2.3ns using femtosecond-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy. The time evolution of the transient absorption spectra of the Si qdots excited with a 150fs pump pulse at 390nm was observed to consist of decays of various absorption transitions of photoexcited electrons in the conduction band which overlap with both the photoluminescence and the photobleaching of the valence band population density. Gaussian deconvolution of the spectroscopic data allowed for disentangling various carrier relaxation processes involving electron-phonon and phonon-phonon scatterings or arising from surface-state trapping. The initial energy and momentum relaxation of hot carriers was observed to take place via scattering by optical phonons within 0.6ps . Exciton capturing by surface states forming shallow traps in the amorphous SiOx shell was found to occur with a time constant of 4ps , whereas deeper traps presumably localized in the Si-SiOx interface gave rise to exciton trapping processes with time constants of 110 and 180ps . Electron transfer from initially populated, higher-lying surface states to the conduction band of Si qdots (>2nm) was observed to take place within 400 or 700fs .

  6. Terahertz Absorption and Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy of Solvated Biopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing; Plaxco, Kevin; Allen, S. James

    2006-03-01

    Biopolymers are expected to exhibit broad spectral features in the terahertz frequency range, corresponding to their functionally relevant, global and sub-global collective vibrational modes with ˜ picosecond timescale. Recent advances in terahertz technology have stimulated researchers to employ terahertz absorption spectroscopy to directly probe these postulated collective modes. However, these pioneering studies have been limited to dry and, at best, moist samples. Successful isolation of low frequency vibrational activities of solvated biopolymers in their natural water environment has remained elusive, due to the overwhelming attenuation of the terahertz radiation by water. Here we have developed a terahertz absorption and circular dichroism spectrometer suitable for studying biopolymers in biologically relevant water solutions. We have precisely isolated, for the first time, the terahertz absorption of solvated prototypical proteins, Bovine Serum Albumin and Lysozyme, and made important direct comparison to the existing molecular dynamic simulations and normal mode calculations. We have also successfully demonstrated the magnetic circular dichroism in semiconductors, and placed upper bounds on the terahertz circular dichroism signatures of prototypical proteins in water solution.

  7. Rapid, Time-Division Multiplexed, Direct Absorption- and Wavelength Modulation-Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Alexander; Witzel, Oliver; Ebert, Volker

    2014-01-01

    We present a tunable diode laser spectrometer with a novel, rapid time multiplexed direct absorption- and wavelength modulation-spectroscopy operation mode. The new technique allows enhancing the precision and dynamic range of a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer without sacrificing accuracy. The spectroscopic technique combines the benefits of absolute concentration measurements using calibration-free direct tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (dTDLAS) with the enhanced noise rejection of wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS). In this work we demonstrate for the first time a 125 Hz time division multiplexed (TDM-dTDLAS-WMS) spectroscopic scheme by alternating the modulation of a DFB-laser between a triangle-ramp (dTDLAS) and an additional 20 kHz sinusoidal modulation (WMS). The absolute concentration measurement via the dTDLAS-technique allows one to simultaneously calibrate the normalized 2f/1f-signal of the WMS-technique. A dTDLAS/WMS-spectrometer at 1.37 μm for H2O detection was built for experimental validation of the multiplexing scheme over a concentration range from 50 to 3000 ppmV (0.1 MPa, 293 K). A precision of 190 ppbV was achieved with an absorption length of 12.7 cm and an averaging time of two seconds. Our results show a five-fold improvement in precision over the entire concentration range and a significantly decreased averaging time of the spectrometer. PMID:25405508

  8. Laser absorption spectroscopy applied to monitoring of short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gaoxuan; Shen, Fengjiao; Yi, Hongming; Hubert, Patrice; Deguine, Alexandre; Petitprez, Denis; Maamary, Rabih; Augustin, Patrick; Fourmentin, Marc; Fertein, Eric; Sigrist, Markus W.; Ba, Tong-Nguyen; Chen, Weidong

    2018-06-01

    Enhanced mitigation of short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) has been recently paid more attention in order to provide more sizeable short-term reductions of global warming effects over the next several decades. We overview in this article our recent progress in the development of spectroscopic instruments for optical monitoring of major SLCPs based on laser absorption spectroscopy. Methane (CH4) and black carbon (BC) are the most important SLCPs contributing to the human enhancement of the global greenhouse effect after CO2. We present optical sensing of these two climate-change related atmospheric species to illustrate how "classical" spectroscopy can help to address today's challenging issues: (1) Photoacoustic measurements of BC optical absorption coefficient in order to determine its radiative-forcing related optical parameters (such as mass absorption coefficient, absorption Ångström coefficient) with higher precision (∼7.4% compared to 12-30% for filter-based methods routinely used nowadays). The 1σ (SNR = 1) minimum measurable volumetric mass density of 21 ng/m3 (in 60 s) for black carbon. (2) Direct absorption spectroscopy-based monitoring of methane (CH4) in field campaign to identify pollution source in conjunction with air mass back-trajectory modeling. Using a White-type multipass cell (an effective path-length of 175 m), a 1σ detection limit of 33.3 ppb in 218 s was achieved with a relative measurement precision of 1.1% and an overall measurement uncertainty of about 5.1%. Performance of the custom, lab-based instruments (in terms of detection limits, measurement precision, temporal response, etc.), spectroscopic measurement aspects, experimental details, spectral data processing, analysis and modeling of the observed environmental episode will be presented and discussed.

  9. Laser absorption spectroscopy - Method for monitoring complex trace gas mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, B. D.; Steinfeld, J. I.

    1976-01-01

    A frequency stabilized CO2 laser was used for accurate determinations of the absorption coefficients of various gases in the wavelength region from 9 to 11 microns. The gases investigated were representative of the types of contaminants expected to build up in recycled atmospheres. These absorption coefficients were then used in determining the presence and amount of the gases in prepared mixtures. The effect of interferences on the minimum detectable concentration of the gases was measured. The accuracies of various methods of solution were also evaluated.

  10. [The Diagnostics of Detonation Flow External Field Based on Multispectral Absorption Spectroscopy Technology].

    PubMed

    Lü, Xiao-jing; Li, Ning; Weng, Chun-sheng

    2016-03-01

    Compared with traditional sampling-based sensing method, absorption spectroscopy technology is well suitable for detonation flow diagnostics, since it can provide with us fast response, nonintrusive, sensitive solution for situ measurements of multiple flow-field parameters. The temperature and concentration test results are the average values along the laser path with traditional absorption spectroscopy technology, while the boundary of detonation flow external field is unknown and it changes all the time during the detonation engine works, traditional absorption spectroscopy technology is no longer suitable for detonation diagnostics. The trend of line strength with temperature varies with different absorption lines. By increasing the number of absorption lines in the test path, more information of the non-uniform flow field can be obtained. In this paper, based on multispectral absorption technology, the reconstructed model of detonation flow external field distribution was established according to the simulation results of space-time conservation element and solution element method, and a diagnostic method of detonation flow external field was given. The model deviation and calculation error of the least squares method adopted were studied by simulation, and the maximum concentration and temperature calculation error was 20.1% and 3.2%, respectively. Four absorption lines of H2O were chosen and detonation flow was scanned at the same time. The detonation external flow testing system was set up for the valveless gas-liquid continuous pulse detonation engine with the diameter of 80 mm. Through scanning H2O absorption lines with a high frequency of 10 kHz, the on-line detection of detonation external flow was realized by direct absorption method combined with time-division multiplexing technology, and the reconstruction of dynamic temperature distribution was realized as well for the first time, both verifying the feasibility of the test method. The test results

  11. Single-ended retroreflection sensors for absorption spectroscopy in high-temperature environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melin, Scott T.; Wang, Ze; Neal, Nicholas J.; Rothamer, David A.; Sanders, Scott T.

    2017-04-01

    Novel single-ended sensor arrangements are demonstrated for in situ absorption spectroscopy in combustion and related test articles. A single-ended optical access technique based on back-reflection from a polished test article surface is presented. H2O vapor absorption spectra were measured at 10 kHz in a homogeneous-charge compression-ignition engine using a sensor of this design collecting back-reflection from a polished piston surface. The measured spectra show promise for high-repetition-rate measurements in practical combustion devices. A second sensor was demonstrated based on a modification to this optical access technique. The sensor incorporates a nickel retroreflective surface as back-reflector to reduce sensitivity to beam steering and misalignment. In a propane-fired furnace, H2O vapor absorption spectra were obtained over the range 7315-7550 cm- 1 at atmospheric pressure and temperatures up to 775 K at 20 Hz using an external-cavity diode laser spectrometer. Gas properties of temperature and mole fraction were obtained from this furnace data using a band-shape spectral fitting technique. The temperature accuracy of the band-shape fitting was demonstrated to be ±1.3 K for furnace measurements at atmospheric pressure. These results should extend the range of applications in which absorption spectroscopy sensors are attractive candidates.

  12. Disentangling atomic-layer-specific x-ray absorption spectra by Auger electron diffraction spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Fumihiko; Matsushita, Tomohiro; Kato, Yukako; Hashimoto, Mie; Daimon, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    In order to investigate the electronic and magnetic structures of each atomic layer at subsurface, we have proposed a new method, Auger electron diffraction spectroscopy, which is the combination of x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and Auger electron diffraction (AED) techniques. We have measured a series of Ni LMM AED patterns of the Ni film grown on Cu(001) surface for various thicknesses. Then we deduced a set of atomic-layer-specific AED patterns in a numerical way. Furthermore, we developed an algorithm to disentangle XANES spectra from different atomic layers using these atomic-layer-specific AED patterns. Surface and subsurface core level shift were determined for each atomic layer.

  13. Absorption spectroscopy at the ultimate quantum limit from single-photon states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, R.; Erven, C.; Neville, A.; Berry, M.; O'Brien, J. L.; Cable, H.; Matthews, J. C. F.

    2017-02-01

    Absorption spectroscopy is routinely used to characterise chemical and biological samples. For the state-of-the-art in laser absorption spectroscopy, precision is theoretically limited by shot-noise due to the fundamental Poisson-distribution of photon number in laser radiation. In practice, the shot-noise limit can only be achieved when all other sources of noise are eliminated. Here, we use wavelength-correlated and tuneable photon pairs to demonstrate how absorption spectroscopy can be performed with precision beyond the shot-noise limit and near the ultimate quantum limit by using the optimal probe for absorption measurement—single photons. We present a practically realisable scheme, which we characterise both the precision and accuracy of by measuring the response of a control feature. We demonstrate that the technique can successfully probe liquid samples and using two spectrally similar types of haemoglobin we show that obtaining a given precision in resolution requires fewer heralded single probe photons compared to using an idealised laser.

  14. Hyperspectral tomography based on multi-mode absorption spectroscopy (MUMAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Jinghang; O'Hagan, Seamus; Liu, Hecong; Cai, Weiwei; Ewart, Paul

    2017-10-01

    This paper demonstrates a hyperspectral tomographic technique that can recover the temperature and concentration field of gas flows based on multi-mode absorption spectroscopy (MUMAS). This method relies on the recently proposed concept of nonlinear tomography, which can take full advantage of the nonlinear dependency of MUMAS signals on temperature and enables 2D spatial resolution of MUMAS which is naturally a line-of-sight technique. The principles of MUMAS and nonlinear tomography, as well as the mathematical formulation of the inversion problem, are introduced. Proof-of-concept numerical demonstrations are presented using representative flame phantoms and assuming typical laser parameters. The results show that faithful reconstruction of temperature distribution is achievable when a signal-to-noise ratio of 20 is assumed. This method can potentially be extended to simultaneously reconstructing distributions of temperature and the concentration of multiple flame species.

  15. Absorption spectroscopy setup for determination of whole human blood and blood-derived materials spectral characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel, M. S.; Gnyba, M.; Milewska, D.; Mitura, K.; Karpienko, K.

    2015-09-01

    A dedicated absorption spectroscopy system was set up using tungsten-halogen broadband source, optical fibers, sample holder, and a commercial spectrometer with CCD array. Analysis of noise present in the setup was carried out. Data processing was applied to the absorption spectra to reduce spectral noise, and improve the quality of the spectra and to remove the baseline level. The absorption spectra were measured for whole blood samples, separated components: plasma, saline, washed erythrocytes in saline and human whole blood with biomarkers - biocompatible nanodiamonds (ND). Blood samples had been derived from a number of healthy donors. The results prove a correct setup arrangement, with adequate preprocessing of the data. The results of blood-ND mixtures measurements show no toxic effect on blood cells, which proves the NDs as a potential biocompatible biomarkers.

  16. Mid-infrared laser absorption spectroscopy of NO2 at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sur, Ritobrata; Peng, Wen Yu; Strand, Christopher; Mitchell Spearrin, R.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.; Bekal, Anish; Halder, Purbasha; Poonacha, Samhitha P.; Vartak, Sameer; Sridharan, Arun K.

    2017-01-01

    A mid-infrared quantum cascade laser absorption sensor was developed for in-situ detection of NO2 in high-temperature gas environments. A cluster of spin-split transitions near 1599.9 cm-1 from the ν3 absorption band of NO2 was selected due to the strength of these transitions and the low spectral interference from water vapor within this region. Temperature- and species-dependent collisional broadening parameters of ten neighboring NO2 transitions with Ar, O2, N2, CO2 and H2O were measured and reported. The spectral model was validated through comparisons with direct absorption spectroscopy measurements of NO2 seeded in various bath gases. The performance of the scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS)-based sensor was demonstrated in a combustion exhaust stream seeded with varying flow rates of NO2, achieving reliable detection of 1.45 and 1.6 ppm NO2 by mole at 600 K and 800 K, respectively, with a measurement uncertainty of ±11%. 2σ noise levels of 360 ppb and 760 ppb were observed at 600 K and 800 K, respectively, in an absorption path length of 1.79 m.

  17. High sensitivity background absorption measurements in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannini, Nathan; Silva, Junior R.; Wang, Chengao; Albrecht, Alexander R.; Melgaard, Seth D.; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2015-03-01

    Laser cooling in InGaP|GaAs double heterostructures (DHS) has been a sought after goal. Even though very high external quantum efficiency (EQE) has been achieved, background absorption has remained a bottleneck in achieving net cooling. The purpose of this study is to gain more insight into the source of the background absorption for InGaP|GaAs DHS as well as GaAs|AlGaAs DBRs by employing an excite-probe thermal Z-scan measurement.

  18. Aerosol Absorption Measurements from LANDSAT and CIMEL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Y. J.; Tanre, D.; Karnieli, A.; Remer, L.; Holben, B.

    1999-01-01

    Spectral remote observations of dust properties from space and from the ground create a powerful tool for determination of dust absorption of solar radiation with an unprecedented accuracy. Absorption is a key component in understanding dust impact on climate. We use Landsat space-borne measurements at 0.47 to 2.2 micrometer over Senegal with ground-based sunphotometers to find that Saharan dust absorption of solar radiation is two to four times smaller than in models. Though dust absorbs in the blue, almost no absorption was found for wavelengths greater than 0.6 micrometer. The new finding increases by 50% recent estimated solar radiative forcing by dust and decreases the estimated dust heating of the lower troposphere. Dust transported from Asia shows slightly higher absorption probably due to the presence of black carbon from populated regions. Large-scale application of this method to satellite data from the Earth Observing System can reduce significantly the uncertainty in the dust radiative effects.

  19. Underresolved absorption spectroscopy of OH radicals in flames using broadband UV LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Logan; Gamba, Mirko

    2018-04-01

    A broadband absorption spectroscopy diagnostic based on underresolution of the spectral absorption lines is evaluated for the inference of species mole fraction and temperature in combustion systems from spectral fitting. The approach uses spectrally broadband UV light emitting diodes and leverages low resolution, small form factor spectrometers. Through this combination, the method can be used to develop high precision measurement sensors. The challenges of underresolved spectroscopy are explored and addressed using spectral derivative fitting, which is found to generate measurements with high precision and accuracy. The diagnostic is demonstrated with experimental measurements of gas temperature and OH mole fraction in atmospheric air/methane premixed laminar flat flames. Measurements exhibit high precision, good agreement with 1-D flame simulations, and high repeatability. A newly developed model of uncertainty in underresolved spectroscopy is applied to estimate two-dimensional confidence regions for the measurements. The results of the uncertainty analysis indicate that the errors in the outputs of the spectral fitting procedure are correlated. The implications of the correlation between uncertainties for measurement interpretation are discussed.

  20. Detector absorptivity measuring method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheets, R. E. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring the absorptivity of a radiation detector by making the detector an integral part of a cavity radiometer are described. By substituting the detector for the surface of the cavity upon which the radiation first impinges a comparison is made between the quantity of radiation incident upon the detector and the quantity reflected from the detector. The difference between the two is a measurement of the amount of radiation absorbed by the detector.

  1. Towards higher stability of resonant absorption measurements in pulsed plasmas.

    PubMed

    Britun, Nikolay; Michiels, Matthieu; Snyders, Rony

    2015-12-01

    Possible ways to increase the reliability of time-resolved particle density measurements in pulsed gaseous discharges using resonant absorption spectroscopy are proposed. A special synchronization, called "dynamic source triggering," between a gated detector and two pulsed discharges, one representing the discharge of interest and another being used as a reference source, is developed. An internal digital delay generator in the intensified charge coupled device camera, used at the same time as a detector, is utilized for this purpose. According to the proposed scheme, the light pulses from the reference source follow the gates of detector, passing through the discharge of interest only when necessary. This allows for the utilization of short-pulse plasmas as reference sources, which is critical for time-resolved absorption analysis of strongly emitting pulsed discharges. In addition to dynamic source triggering, the reliability of absorption measurements can be further increased using simultaneous detection of spectra relevant for absorption method, which is also demonstrated in this work. The proposed methods are illustrated by the time-resolved measurements of the metal atom density in a high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge, using either a hollow cathode lamp or another HiPIMS discharge as a pulsed reference source.

  2. Studies of Arctic Middle Atmosphere Chemistry using Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindenmaier, Rodica

    The objective of this Ph.D. project is to investigate Arctic middle atmosphere chemistry using solar infrared absorption spectroscopy. These measurements were made at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) at Eureka, Nunavut, which is operated by the Canadian Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Change (CANDAC). This research is part of the CANDAC/PEARL Arctic Middle Atmosphere Chemistry theme and aims to improve our understanding of the processes controlling the stratospheric ozone budget using measurements of the concentrations of stratospheric constituents. The instrument, a Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, has been specifically designed for high-resolution measurements over a broad spectral range and has been used to measure reactive species, source gases, reservoirs, and dynamical tracers at PEARL since August 2006. The first part of this research focuses on the optimization of ozone retrievals, for which 22 microwindows were studied and compared. The spectral region from 1000 to 1005 cm-1 was found to be the most sensitive in both the stratosphere and troposphere, giving the highest number of independent pieces of information and the smallest total error for retrievals at Eureka. Similar studies were performed in coordination with the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change for nine other species, with the goal of improving and harmonizing the retrieval parameters among all Infrared Working Group sites. Previous satellite validation exercises have identified the highly variable polar conditions of the spring period to be a challenge. In this work, comparisons between the 125HR and ACE-FTS (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier transform spectrometer) from 2007 to 2010 have been used to develop strict criteria that allow the ground and satellite-based instruments to be confidently compared. After applying these criteria, the differences between the two instruments were generally

  3. [Study of cubic boron nitride crystal UV absorption spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-Bo; Jia, Gang; Chen, Gang; Meng, Qing-Ju; Zhang, Tie-Chen

    2008-07-01

    UV absorption spectroscopy of artificial cubic boron nitride (cBN) single crystal flake, synthesized under high-temperature and high-pressure, was studied in the present paper. UV WINLAB spectrometer was used in the experiments, and MOLECULAR SPECTROSCOPY software was used for data analysis. The UV-cBN limit of 198 nm was showed in this test by a special fixture quartz sample. We calculated the energy gap by virtue of the formula: lambda0 = 1.24/E(g) (microm). The energy gap is 6. 26 eV. There are many viewpoints about the gap of cBN. By using the first-principles theory to calculate energy band structure and density of electronic states of cBN, an indirect transition due to electronics in valence band jumping into conduction band by absorbing photon can be confirmed. That leads to UV absorption. The method of calculation was based on the quantum mechanics of CASTEP in the commercial software package of Cerius2 in the Co. Accerlrys in the United States. The theory of CASTEP is based on local density approximation or gradient corrected LDA. The crystal parameter of cBN was input to the quantum mechanics of CASTEP in order to construct the crystal parameter model of cBN. We calculated the energy gap of cBN by the method of gradient corrected LDA. The method underestimates the value of nonconductor by about 1 to 2 eV. We gaot some opinions as follows: cBN is indirect band semiconductor. The energy gap is 4.76 eV, less than our experiment. The reason may be defect that we ignored in calculating process. It was reported that the results by first principles method of calculation of the band generally was less than the experimental results. This paper shows good UV characteristics of cBN because of the good agreement of experimental results with the cBN band width. That is a kind of development prospect of UV photo-electronic devices and high-temperature semiconductor devices.

  4. Titanium-silicon oxide film structures for polarization-modulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Iain E.; Zorn, Stefan; Richter, Gunther; Srot, Vesna; Kelsch, Marion; van Aken, Peter A.; Skoda, Maximilian; Gerlach, Alexander; Spatz, Joachim P.; Schreiber, Frank

    2010-01-01

    We present a titanium-silicon oxide film structure that permits polarization modulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy on silicon oxide surfaces. The structure consists of a ~6 nm sputtered silicon oxide film on a ~200 nm sputtered titanium film. Characterization using conventional and scanning transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray reflectometry is presented. We demonstrate the use of this structure to investigate a selectively protein-resistant self-assembled monolayer (SAM) consisting of silane-anchored, biotin-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). PEG-associated IR bands were observed. Measurements of protein-characteristic band intensities showed that this SAM adsorbed streptavidin whereas it repelled bovine serum albumin, as had been expected from its structure. PMID:20418963

  5. Novel Semi-Parametric Algorithm for Interference-Immune Tunable Absorption Spectroscopy Gas Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Michelucci, Umberto; Venturini, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    One of the most common limits to gas sensor performance is the presence of unwanted interference fringes arising, for example, from multiple reflections between surfaces in the optical path. Additionally, since the amplitude and the frequency of these interferences depend on the distance and alignment of the optical elements, they are affected by temperature changes and mechanical disturbances, giving rise to a drift of the signal. In this work, we present a novel semi-parametric algorithm that allows the extraction of a signal, like the spectroscopic absorption line of a gas molecule, from a background containing arbitrary disturbances, without having to make any assumption on the functional form of these disturbances. The algorithm is applied first to simulated data and then to oxygen absorption measurements in the presence of strong fringes.To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the algorithm enables an unprecedented accuracy particularly if the fringes have a free spectral range and amplitude comparable to those of the signal to be detected. The described method presents the advantage of being based purely on post processing, and to be of extremely straightforward implementation if the functional form of the Fourier transform of the signal is known. Therefore, it has the potential to enable interference-immune absorption spectroscopy. Finally, its relevance goes beyond absorption spectroscopy for gas sensing, since it can be applied to any kind of spectroscopic data. PMID:28991161

  6. Direct absorption spectroscopy sensor for temperature and H2O concentration of flat flame burner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jin-hu; Jin, Xing; Wang, Guang-yu; Qu, Dong-sheng

    2016-01-01

    A tunable diode laser absorption sensor, based on direct absorption spectroscopy and time division multiplexing scheme, was developed to measure H2O concentration and temperature of flat flame burner. At the height of 15mm from the furnace surface, temperature and concentration were measured at different equivalence ratios. Then the distance between the laser and the furnace surface was changed while the equivalence ratio was fixed at 1 and experiments were performed to measure temperature and H2O concentration at every height. At last flame temperatures and H2O concentrations were obtained by simulation and computational analysis and these combustion parameters were compared with the reference. The results showed that the experimental results were in accordance with the reference values. Temperature errors were less than 4% and H2O component concentration errors were less than 5%and both of them reached their maximum when the equivalent ratio was set at 1. The temperature and H2O concentration increased with the height from furnace surface to laser when it varied from 3mm to 9mm and it decreased when it varied from 9mm to 30mm and they reached their maximum at the height of 9mm. Keywords: tunable diode laser, direct absorption spectroscopy

  7. Absorption Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons under Interstellar Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Bradley M.

    1996-01-01

    The presence and importance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, a large family of organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen) in the interstellar medium has already been well established. The Astrochemistry Laboratory at NASA Ames Research Center (under the direction of Louis Allamandola and Scott Sandford) has been the center of pioneering work in performing spectroscopy on these molecules under simulated interstellar conditions, and consequently in the identification of these species in the interstellar medium by comparison to astronomically obtained spectra. My project this summer was twofold: (1) We planned on obtaining absorption spectra of a number of PAHs and their cations in cold (4K) Ne matrices. The purpose of these experiments was to increase the number of different PAHs for which laboratory spectra have been obtained under these simulated interstellar conditions; and (2) I was to continue the planning and design of a new laser facility that is being established in the Astrochemistry laboratory. The laser-based experimental set-up will greatly enhance our capability in examining this astrophysically important class of compounds.

  8. Line Narrowing Parameter Measurement by Modulation Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dharamsi, Amin N.

    1998-01-01

    Accurate Characterization of Oxygen A-Band Line Parameters by Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy with tunable diode lasers is an ongoing research at Old Dominion University, under sponsorship from NASA Langley research Center. The work proposed here will be undertaken under the guidance of Dr. William Chu and Dr. Lamont Poole of the Aerosol Research Branch at NASA Langley-Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. The research was started about two years ago and utilizes wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy with higher harmonic detection, a technique that we developed at Old Dominion University, to obtain the absorption line characteristics of the Oxygen A-band rovibronic lines. Accurate characterization of this absorption band is needed for processing of data that will be obtained in experiments such as the NASA Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) as part of the US Mission to Planet Earth. The research work for Summer Fellowship undertook a measurement of the Dicke line-narrowing parameters of the Oxygen A-Band lines by using wavelength modulation spectroscopy. Our previous theoretical results had indicated that such a measurement could be done sensitively and in a convenient fashion by using this type of spectroscopy. In particular, theoretical results had indicated that the signal magnitude would depend on pressure in a manner that was very sensitive to the narrowing parameter. One of the major tasks undertaken during the summer of 1998 was to establish experimentally that these theoretical predictions were correct. This was done successfully and the results of the work are being prepared for publication. Experimental Results were obtained in which the magnitude of the signal was measured as a function of pressure, for various harmonic detection orders (N = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5). A comparison with theoretical results was made, and it was shown that the agreement between theory and experiment was very good. More importantly, however, it was shown

  9. [Gas pipeline leak detection based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi-Xing; Wang, Jin-Jun; Liu, Bing-Hai; Cai, Ting-Li; Qiao, Li-Feng; Zhang, Yong-Ming

    2009-08-01

    The principle of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and harmonic detection technique was introduced. An experimental device was developed by point sampling through small multi-reflection gas cell. A specific line near 1 653. 7 nm was targeted for methane measurement using a distributed feedback diode laser as tunable light source. The linearity between the intensity of second harmonic signal and the concentration of methane was determined. The background content of methane in air was measured. The results show that gas sensors using tunable diode lasers provide a high sensitivity and high selectivity method for city gas pipeline leak detection.

  10. Infrared absorption and admittance spectroscopy of Ge quantum dots on a strained SiGe layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakimov, A. I.; Nikiforov, A. I.; Timofeev, V. A.; Dvurechenskii, A. V.

    2011-12-01

    A combined infrared absorption and admittance spectroscopy is carried out in examining the energy level structure and the hole emission process in self-assembled Ge quantum dots (QDs) placed on a strained Si0.65Ge0.35 quantum well (QW), which, in turn, is incorporated in a Si matrix. In the midinfrared spectral range, the dots exhibit three dominant absorption bands peaked at 130, 250 and 390 meV. By a comparison between absorption measurements and six-band {\\bf k}\\;{\\bm \\cdot}\\;{\\bf p} calculations, the long-wave (~130 meV) resonance is attributed to a transition from the QD hole ground state to the two-dimensional heavy-hole states confined in the Si0.65Ge0.35 layer. The mid-wave absorption band around 390 meV is ascribed to a transition from the QD hole ground state to the three-dimensional continuum states of the Si matrix. An equivalent absorption cross section for these two types of transitions is determined to be 1.2 × 10-15 cm2 and 1.2 × 10-16 cm2, respectively. The origin of the transmission minimum around 250 meV is more ambiguous. We tentatively propose that it can be due to transition either from the highest heavy-hole subband of the Si0.65Ge0.35 QW to continuum states above the Si barrier or from the dot states to the light-hole and split-off subbands of the Si0.65Ge0.35 layer. The photoinduced bleaching of the near-infrared absorption is detected under interband optical excitation of undoped samples. This finding is explained by blocking the interband transitions inside the dots due to the state filling effect. By using the admittance spectroscopy, the mechanism of hole escape from QDs in the presence of an ac vertical electric field is identified. A thermally activated emission from the QD ground state into the two-dimensional states of the Si0.65Ge0.35 well is observed. From the temperature- and frequency-dependent measurements the QD hole ground state is determined to be located ~160 meV below the heavy-hole subband of the Si0.65Ge0

  11. Diffuse-light absorption spectroscopy by fiber optics for detecting and quantifying the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Ottevaere, H.; Thienpont, H.; Conte, L.; Marega, M.; Cichelli, A.; Attilio, C.; Cimato, A.

    2010-09-01

    A fiber optic setup for diffuse-light absorption spectroscopy in the wide 400-1700 nm spectral range is experimented for detecting and quantifying the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil caused by lower-grade olive oils. Absorption measurements provide spectral fingerprints of authentic and adulterated oils. A multivariate processing of spectroscopic data is applied for discriminating the type of adulterant and for predicting its fraction.

  12. High-performance dispersive Raman and absorption spectroscopy as tools for drug identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawluczyk, Olga; Andrey, Sam; Nogas, Paul; Roy, Andrew; Pawluczyk, Romuald

    2009-02-01

    Due to increasing availability of pharmaceuticals from many sources, a need is growing to quickly and efficiently analyze substances in terms of the consistency and accuracy of their chemical composition. Differences in chemical composition occur at very low concentrations, so that highly sensitive analytical methods become crucial. Recent progress in dispersive spectroscopy with the use of 2-dimensional detector arrays, permits for signal integration along a long (up to 12 mm long) entrance slit of a spectrometer, thereby increasing signal to noise ratio and improving the ability to detect small concentration changes. This is achieved with a non-scanning, non-destructive system. Two different methods using P&P Optica high performance spectrometers were used. High performance optical dispersion Raman and high performance optical absorption spectroscopy were employed to differentiate various acetaminophen-containing drugs, such as Tylenol and other generic brands, which differ in their ingredients. A 785 nm excitation wavelength was used in Raman measurements and strong Raman signals were observed in the spectral range 300-1800 cm-1. Measurements with the absorption spectrometer were performed in the wavelength range 620-1020 nm. Both Raman and absorption techniques used transmission light spectrometers with volume phase holographic gratings and provided sufficient spectral differences, often structural, allowing for drug differentiation.

  13. Demonstration of temperature imaging by H₂O absorption spectroscopy using compressed sensing tomography.

    PubMed

    An, Xinliang; Brittelle, Mack S; Lauzier, Pascal T; Gord, James R; Roy, Sukesh; Chen, Guang-Hong; Sanders, Scott T

    2015-11-01

    This paper introduces temperature imaging by total-variation-based compressed sensing (CS) tomography of H2O vapor absorption spectroscopy. A controlled laboratory setup is used to generate a constant two-dimensional temperature distribution in air (a roughly Gaussian temperature profile with a central temperature of 677 K). A wavelength-tunable laser beam is directed through the known distribution; the beam is translated and rotated using motorized stages to acquire complete absorption spectra in the 1330-1365 nm range at each of 64 beam locations and 60 view angles. Temperature reconstructions are compared to independent thermocouple measurements. Although the distribution studied is approximately axisymmetric, axisymmetry is not assumed and simulations show similar performance for arbitrary temperature distributions. We study the measurement error as a function of number of beams and view angles used in reconstruction to gauge the potential for application of CS in practical test articles where optical access is limited.

  14. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Ron; Carr, Zak; MacLean, Matthew; Dufrene, Aaron; Mehta, Manish

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) measurement of several water transitions that were interrogated during a hot-fire testing of the Space Launch Systems (SLS) sub-scale vehicle installed in LENS II. The temperature of the recirculating gas flow over the base plate was found to increase with altitude and is consistent with CFD results. It was also observed that the gas above the base plate has significant velocity along the optical path of the sensor at the higher altitudes. The line-by-line analysis of the H2O absorption features must include the effects of the Doppler shift phenomena particularly at high altitude. The TDLAS experimental measurements and the analysis procedure which incorporates the velocity dependent flow will be described.

  15. Tunable Diode Laser Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy for Detection of Potassium under Optically Thick Conditions.

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhechao; Steinvall, Erik; Ghorbani, Ramin; Schmidt, Florian M

    2016-04-05

    Potassium (K) is an important element related to ash and fine-particle formation in biomass combustion processes. In situ measurements of gaseous atomic potassium, K(g), using robust optical absorption techniques can provide valuable insight into the K chemistry. However, for typical parts per billion K(g) concentrations in biomass flames and reactor gases, the product of atomic line strength and absorption path length can give rise to such high absorbance that the sample becomes opaque around the transition line center. We present a tunable diode laser atomic absorption spectroscopy (TDLAAS) methodology that enables accurate, calibration-free species quantification even under optically thick conditions, given that Beer-Lambert's law is valid. Analyte concentration and collisional line shape broadening are simultaneously determined by a least-squares fit of simulated to measured absorption profiles. Method validation measurements of K(g) concentrations in saturated potassium hydroxide vapor in the temperature range 950-1200 K showed excellent agreement with equilibrium calculations, and a dynamic range from 40 pptv cm to 40 ppmv cm. The applicability of the compact TDLAAS sensor is demonstrated by real-time detection of K(g) concentrations close to biomass pellets during atmospheric combustion in a laboratory reactor.

  16. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Miaja-Avila, L.; O'Neil, G. C.; Uhlig, J.; ...

    2015-03-02

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ~10 6 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >10 7 laser pulses, wemore » also present data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.« less

  17. Evolution of synchrotron-radiation-based Mössbauer absorption spectroscopy for various isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seto, Makoto; Masuda, Ryo; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Kitao, Shinji; Kurokuzu, Masayuki; Saito, Makina; Hosokawa, Shuuich; Ishibashi, Hiroki; Mitsui, Takaya; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Mibu, Ko

    2017-11-01

    Synchrotron-radiation-based Mössbauer spectroscopy that yields absorption type Mössbauer spectra has been applied to various isotopes. This method enables the advanced measurement by using the excellent features of synchrotron radiation, such as Mössbauer spectroscopic measurement under high-pressures. Furthermore, energy selectivity of synchrotron radiation allows us to measure 40K Mössbauer spectra, of which observation is impossible by using ordinary radioactive sources because the first excited state of 40K is not populated by any radioactive parent nuclides. Moreover, this method has flexibility of the experimental setup that the measured sample can be used as a transmitter or a scatterer, depending on the sample conditions. To enhance the measurement efficiency of the spectroscopy, we developed a detection system in which a windowless avalanche photodiode (APD) detector is combined with a vacuum cryostat to detect internal conversion electrons adding to X-rays accompanied by nuclear de-excitation. In particular, by selecting the emission from the scatterer sample, depth selective synchrotron-radiation-based Mössbauer spectroscopy is possible. Furthermore, limitation of the time window in the delayed components enables us to obtain narrow linewidth in Mössbauer spectra. Measurement system that records velocity dependent time spectra and energy information simultaneously realizes the depth selective and narrow linewidth measurement.

  18. On the regularization for nonlinear tomographic absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Jinghang; Yu, Tao; Xu, Lijun; Cai, Weiwei

    2018-02-01

    Tomographic absorption spectroscopy (TAS) has attracted increased research efforts recently due to the development in both hardware and new imaging concepts such as nonlinear tomography and compressed sensing. Nonlinear TAS is one of the emerging modality that bases on the concept of nonlinear tomography and has been successfully demonstrated both numerically and experimentally. However, all the previous demonstrations were realized using only two orthogonal projections simply for ease of implementation. In this work, we examine the performance of nonlinear TAS using other beam arrangements and test the effectiveness of the beam optimization technique that has been developed for linear TAS. In addition, so far only smoothness prior has been adopted and applied in nonlinear TAS. Nevertheless, there are also other useful priors such as sparseness and model-based prior which have not been investigated yet. This work aims to show how these priors can be implemented and included in the reconstruction process. Regularization through Bayesian formulation will be introduced specifically for this purpose, and a method for the determination of a proper regularization factor will be proposed. The comparative studies performed with different beam arrangements and regularization schemes on a few representative phantoms suggest that the beam optimization method developed for linear TAS also works for the nonlinear counterpart and the regularization scheme should be selected properly according to the available a priori information under specific application scenarios so as to achieve the best reconstruction fidelity. Though this work is conducted under the context of nonlinear TAS, it can also provide useful insights for other tomographic modalities.

  19. Improved Sensitivity of Spectroscopic Quantification of Stable Isotope Content Using Capillary Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, J.; Wilcox Freeburg, E.; Kriesel, J.; Linley, T. J.; Kelly, J.; Coleman, M. L.; Christensen, L. E.; Vance, S.

    2016-12-01

    Spectroscopy-based platforms have recently risen to the forefront for making stable isotope measurements of methane, carbon dioxide, water, or other analytes. These spectroscopy systems can be relatively straightforward to operate (versus a mass spectrometry platform), largely relieve the analyst of mass interference artifacts, and many can be used in the field. Despite these significant advantages, however, existing spectroscopy techniques suffer from a lack of measurement sensitivity that can ultimately limit select applications including spatially resolved and compound-specific measurements. Here we present a capillary absorption spectroscopy (CAS) system that is designed to mitigate sensitivity issues in spectroscopy-based stable isotope evaluation. The system uses mid-wave infrared excitation generated from a continuous wave quantum cascade laser. Importantly, the sample `chamber' is a flexible capillary with a total volume of less than one cc. Proprietary coatings on the internal surface of the fiber improve optical performance, guiding the light to a detector and facilitating high levels of interaction between the laser beam and gaseous analytes. We present data demonstrating that a tapered hollow fiber cell, with an internal diameter that broadens toward the detector, reduces optical feedback to further improve measurement sensitivity. Sensitivity of current hollow fiber / CAS systems enable measurements of only 10's of picomoles CO2 while theoretical improvements should enable measurements of as little as 10's of femtomoles. Continued optimization of sample introduction and improvements to optical feedback are being explored. Software is being designed to provide rapid integration of data and generation of processed isotope measurements using a graphical user interface. Taken together, the sensitivity improvements of the CAS system under development could, when coupled to a laser ablation sampling device, enable up to 2 µm spatial resolution (roughly the

  20. High Sensitivity Absorption Spectroscopy on Ti II VUV Resonance Lines of Astrophysical Interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiese, Lm; Fedchak, Ja; Lawler, Je

    2000-06-01

    The neutral hydrogen regions of the Interstellar Medium (ISM) of our Galaxy and distant galaxies produce simple absorption spectra because most metals are singly ionized and in their ground fine structure level. Elemental abundance measurements and other studies of the ISM rely on accurate atomic oscillator strengths (f-values) for a few key lines in the second spectra of Ti and other metals. The Ti II VUV resonance lines at 1910.6 and 1910.9 Åare important in absorption line systems in which quasars provide the continuum and the ISM of intervening galaxies is observed. Some of these absorption line systems are redshifted to the visible and observed with ground based telescopes. We report the first laboratory measurement of these Ti II VUV resonance lines. Using High Sensitivity Absorption Spectroscopy, we determined f-values for the 1910 Ålines relative to well-known Ti II resonance lines at 3067 and 3384 ÅContinuum radiation from an Aladdin Storage Ring bending magnet at the Synchrotron Radiation Center (SRC) is passed through a discharge plasma containing Ti^+. The transmitted light is analyzed by our 3m vacuum echelle spectrometer equipped with VUV sensitive CCD array. The resolving power of our spectrometer/detector array is 300,000. F-values are determined to within 10%.

  1. Midinfrared laser absorption spectroscopy in coiled hollow optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetzer, Gregory J.; Pittner, Anthony S.; Silkoff, Philip E.

    2003-07-01

    A new nitric oxide (NO) sensor is intended for use in assessment of airway inflammation with applications in asthma diagnosis and management as well as in other health care applications involving inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract and the urogenital organs. The sensor was designed to measure trace quantities of NO in air using the combination of hollow optical waveguides and quantum cascade lasers. The primary application intended is analysis of exhaled breath. The unique marriage of the components and the novel design provides for rapid response to concentration changes while maintaining sensitive measurement capabilities. We achieved a lower detectable limit of 58.8 ppb of NO in N2 with a 0-90% response time of 0.48 s. The QC laser was operated at room temperature in pulsed current mode near 5.4μm. The hollow waveguide used to make these measurements was 9m in length and the inside diameter was 1000μm. The waveguide was coiled with a 15cm radius of curvature and perforated on the interior walls of the coils to allow gas to flow into and out of the waveguide. The sensor can easily be converted to measure other gases in the midinfrared by selecting a QC laser whose output is coincident with the absorption line of interest.

  2. [Signal analysis and spectrum distortion correction for tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy system].

    PubMed

    Bao, Wei-Yi; Zhu, Yong; Chen, Jun; Chen, Jun-Qing; Liang, Bo

    2011-04-01

    In the present paper, the signal of a tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) trace gas sensing system, which has a wavelength modulation with a wide range of modulation amplitudes, is studied based on Fourier analysis method. Theory explanation of spectrum distortion induced by laser intensity amplitude modulation is given. In order to rectify the spectrum distortion, a method of synchronous amplitude modulation suppression by a variable optical attenuator is proposed. To validate the method, an experimental setup is designed. Absorption spectrum measurement experiments on CO2 gas were carried out. The results show that the residual laser intensity modulation amplitude of the experimental system is reduced to -0.1% of its original value and the spectrum distortion improvement is 92% with the synchronous amplitude modulation suppression. The modulation amplitude of laser intensity can be effectively reduced and the spectrum distortion can be well corrected by using the given correction method and system. By using a variable optical attenuator in the TDLAS (tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy) system, the dynamic range requirements of photoelectric detector, digital to analog converter, filters and other aspects of the TDLAS system are reduced. This spectrum distortion correction method can be used for online trace gas analyzing in process industry.

  3. An x-ray absorption spectroscopy study of Cd binding onto a halophilic archaeon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showalter, Allison R.; Szymanowski, Jennifer E. S.; Fein, Jeremy B.; Bunker, Bruce A.

    2016-05-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and cadmium (Cd) isotherm experiments determine how Cd adsorbs to the surface of halophilic archaeon Halobacterium noricense. This archaeon, isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico could be involved with the transport of toxic metals stored in the transuranic waste in the salt mine. The isotherm experiments show that adsorption is relatively constant across the tolerable pH range for H. noricense. The XAS results indicate that Cd adsorption occurs predominately via a sulfur site, most likely sulfhydryl, with the same site dominating all measured pH values.

  4. Tailored Algorithm for Sensitivity Enhancement of Gas Concentration Sensors Based on Tunable Laser Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Rodriguez, Everardo; Guzman-Chavez, Ana Dinora; Baeza-Serrato, Roberto

    2018-06-04

    In this work, a novel tailored algorithm to enhance the overall sensitivity of gas concentration sensors based on the Direct Absorption Tunable Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (DA-ATLAS) method is presented. By using this algorithm, the sensor sensitivity can be custom-designed to be quasi constant over a much larger dynamic range compared with that obtained by typical methods based on a single statistics feature of the sensor signal output (peak amplitude, area under the curve, mean or RMS). Additionally, it is shown that with our algorithm, an optimal function can be tailored to get a quasi linear relationship between the concentration and some specific statistics features over a wider dynamic range. In order to test the viability of our algorithm, a basic C 2 H 2 sensor based on DA-ATLAS was implemented, and its experimental measurements support the simulated results provided by our algorithm.

  5. Mid-infrared multi-mode absorption spectroscopy, MUMAS, using difference frequency generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Northern, Henry; O'Hagan, Seamus; Hamilton, Michelle L.; Ewart, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Multi-mode absorption spectroscopy of ammonia and methane at 3.3 μm has been demonstrated using a source of multi-mode mid-infrared radiation based on difference frequency generation. Multi-mode radiation at 1.56 μm from a diode-pumped Er:Yb:glass laser was mixed with a single-mode Nd:YAG laser at 1.06 μm in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal to produce multi-mode radiation in the region of 3.3 μm. Detection, by direct multi-mode absorption, of NH3 and CH4 is reported for each species individually and also simultaneously in mixtures allowing measurements of partial pressures of each species.

  6. The Importance of Optical Pathlength Control for Plasma Absorption Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruden, Brett A.; Rao, M. V. V. S.; Sharma, Surendra P.; Meyyappan, M.; Partridge, Harry (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An inductively coupled GEC Cell with modified viewing ports has been used to measure in-situ absorption in CF4 plasmas via Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and the results compared to those obtained in a standard viewport configuration. The viewing ports were modified so that the window boundary is inside, rather than outside, of the GEC cell. Because the absorption obtained is a spatially integrated absorption, measurements made represent an averaging of absorbing species inside and outside of the plasma. This modification is made to reduce this spatial averaging and thus allow a more accurate estimation of neutral species concentrations and temperatures within the plasmas. By reducing this pathlength, we find that the apparent CF4 consumption increases from 65% to 95% and the apparent vibrational temperature of CF4 rises by 50-75 K. The apparent fraction of etch product SiF4 decreases from 4% to 2%. The data suggests that these density changes may be due to significant temperature gradients between the plasma and chamber viewports.

  7. Pressure shift coefficient measurements in an RF discharge for Ar 4s[3/2]2—5p[3/2]3 transition with the help of diodelaser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshov, A. K.; Mikheyev, P. A.; Lunev, N. N.; Azyazov, V. N.

    2018-04-01

    Optically pumped all-rare-gas laser (OPRGL) with unique properties were recently proposed with a possibility to obtain the laser power on the order of hundreds of Watts from a cubic centimeter. To provide high laser efficiency, the pumping radiation has to match the absorption spectrum of the rare gas metastables. To meet this condition a reliable diagnostics of the key parameters of the active medium is required and knowledge of the broadening and shift coefficients for corresponding transitions of rare gases is necessary. In this paper, the diode-laser absorption spectroscopy was employed to determine the pressure shift coefficient for 811.5 nm Ar line. The value of obtained coefficient in pure argon reduced to 300 K is -(2.1 ± 0.1) × 10-10 s-1cm3. In the course of the study the pressure broadening coefficient was also evaluated and found to be (2.4 ± 0.5) × 10-10 s-1cm3.

  8. Multi-wavelength differential absorption measurements of chemical species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, David M.

    The probability of accurate detection and quantification of airborne species is enhanced when several optical wavelengths are used to measure the differential absorption of molecular spectral features. Characterization of minor atmospheric constituents, biological hazards, and chemical plumes containing multiple species is difficult when using current approaches because of weak signatures and the use of a limited number of wavelengths used for identification. Current broadband systems such as Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) have either limitations for long-range propagation, or require transmitter power levels that are unsafe for operation in urban environments. Passive hyperspectral imaging systems that utilize absorption of solar scatter at visible and infrared wavelengths, or use absorption of background thermal emission, have been employed routinely for detection of airborne chemical species. Passive approaches have operational limitations at various ranges, or under adverse atmospheric conditions because the source intensity and spectrum is often an unknown variable. The work presented here describes a measurement approach that uses a known source of a low transmitted power level for an active system, while retaining the benefits of broadband and extremely long-path absorption operations. An optimized passive imaging system also is described that operates in the 3 to 4 mum window of the mid-infrared. Such active and passive instruments can be configured to optimize the detection of several hydrocarbon gases, as well as many other species of interest. Measurements have provided the incentive to develop algorithms for the calculations of atmospheric species concentrations using multiple wavelengths. These algorithms are used to prepare simulations and make comparisons with experimental results from absorption data of a supercontinuum laser source. The MODTRAN model is used in preparing the simulations, and also in developing additional

  9. A transmission-grating-modulated pump-probe absorption spectroscopy and demonstration of diffusion dynamics of photoexcited carriers in bulk intrinsic GaAs film.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke; Wang, Wenfang; Chen, Jianming; Wen, Jinhui; Lai, Tianshu

    2012-02-13

    A transmission-grating-modulated time-resolved pump-probe absorption spectroscopy is developed and formularized. The spectroscopy combines normal time-resolved pump-probe absorption spectroscopy with a binary transmission grating, is sensitive to the spatiotemporal evolution of photoinjected carriers, and has extensive applicability in the study of diffusion transport dynamics of photoinjected carriers. This spectroscopy has many advantages over reported optical methods to measure diffusion dynamics, such as simple experimental setup and operation, and high detection sensitivity. The measurement of diffusion dynamics is demonstrated on bulk intrinsic GaAs films. A carrier density dependence of carrier diffusion coefficient is obtained and agrees well with reported results.

  10. Resonant Absorption in GaAs-Based Nanowires by Means of Photo-Acoustic Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petronijevic, E.; Leahu, G.; Belardini, A.; Centini, M.; Li Voti, R.; Hakkarainen, T.; Koivusalo, E.; Guina, M.; Sibilia, C.

    2018-03-01

    Semiconductor nanowires made of high refractive index materials can couple the incoming light to specific waveguide modes that offer resonant absorption enhancement under the bandgap wavelength, essential for light harvesting, lasing and detection applications. Moreover, the non-trivial ellipticity of such modes can offer near field interactions with chiral molecules, governed by near chiral field. These modes are therefore very important to detect. Here, we present the photo-acoustic spectroscopy as a low-cost, reliable, sensitive and scattering-free tool to measure the spectral position and absorption efficiency of these modes. The investigated samples are hexagonal nanowires with GaAs core; the fabrication by means of lithography-free molecular beam epitaxy provides controllable and uniform dimensions that allow for the excitation of the fundamental resonant mode around 800 nm. We show that the modulation frequency increase leads to the discrimination of the resonant mode absorption from the overall absorption of the substrate. As the experimental data are in great agreement with numerical simulations, the design can be optimized and followed by photo-acoustic characterization for a specific application.

  11. The identification of hydrophobic sites on the surface of proteins using absorption difference spectroscopy of bromophenol blue.

    PubMed

    Bertsch, M; Mayburd, A L; Kassner, R J

    2003-02-15

    Hydrophobic sites on the surface of protein molecules are thought to have important functional roles. The identification of such sites can provide information about the function and mode of interaction with other cellular components. While the fluorescence enhancement of polarity-sensitive dyes has been useful in identifying hydrophobic sites on a number of targets, strong intrinsic quenching of Nile red and ANSA dye fluorescence is observed on binding to a cytochrome c('). Fluorescence quenching is also observed to take place in the presence of a variety of other biologically important molecules which can compromise the quantitative determination of binding constants. Absorption difference spectroscopy is shown not to be sensitive to the presence of fluorescence quenchers but sensitive enough to measure binding constants. The dye BPB is shown to bind to the same hydrophobic sites on proteins as polarity-sensitive fluorescence probes. The absorption spectrum of BPB is also observed to be polarity sensitive. A binding constant of 3x10(6)M(-1) for BPB to BSA has been measured by absorption difference spectroscopy. An empirical correlation is observed between the shape of the absorption difference spectrum of BPB and the polarity of the environment. The results indicate that absorption difference spectroscopy of BPB provides a valuable supplement to fluorescence for determining the presence of hydrophobic sites on the surface of proteins as well as a method for measuring binding constants.

  12. ABSORPTION MEASURE DISTRIBUTION IN Mrk 509

    SciTech Connect

    Adhikari, T. P.; Różańska, A.; Sobolewska, M.

    2015-12-20

    In this paper we model the observed absorption measure distribution (AMD) in Mrk 509, which spans three orders of magnitude in ionization level with a single-zone absorber in pressure equilibrium. AMD is usually constructed from observations of narrow absorption lines in radio-quiet active galaxies with warm absorbers. We study the properties of the warm absorber in Mrk 509 using recently published broadband spectral energy distribution observed with different instruments. This spectrum is an input in radiative transfer computations with full photoionization treatment using the titan code. We show that the simplest way to fully reproduce the shape of AMD is tomore » assume that the warm absorber is a single zone under constant total pressure. With this assumption, we found theoretical AMD that matches the observed AMD determined on the basis of the 600 ks reflection grating spectrometer XMM-Newton spectrum of Mrk 509. The softness of the source spectrum and the important role of the free–free emission breaks the usual degeneracy in the ionization state calculations, and the explicit dependence of the depths of AMD dips on density open a new path to the density diagnostic for the warm absorber. In Mrk 509, the implied density is of the order of 10{sup 8} cm{sup −3}.« less

  13. Direct and Quantitative Photothermal Absorption Spectroscopy of Individual Particulates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    1(a). By taking the ratio of the spectral absorption efficiency of the microwire to the corresponding volumetri - cally equivalent thin film, an...of D¼ 983 nm. For further comparison, the theoretical spectral absorption efficiency for a volumetri - cally equivalent (t¼ 983p/4 nm) thin film, Qabs

  14. Ultrafast X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Isochorically Heated Warm Dense Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhorn, Kyle Craig

    This dissertation will present a series of new tools, together with new techniques, focused on the understanding of warm and dense matter. We report on the development of a high time resolution and high detection efficiency x-ray camera. The camera is integrated with a short pulse laser and an x-ray beamline at the Advanced Light Source synchrotron. This provides an instrument for single shot, broadband x-ray absorption spectroscopy of warm and dense matter with 2 picosecond time resolution. Warm and dense matter is created by isochorically heating samples of known density with an ultrafast optical laser pulse, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy probes the unoccupied electronic density of states before the onset of hydrodynamic expansion and electron-ion equilibrium is reached. Measured spectra from a variety of materials are compared with first principle molecular dynamics and density functional theory calculations. In heated silicon dioxide spectra, two novel pre-edge features are observed, a peak below the band gap and absorption within the band gap, while a reduction was observed in the features above the edge. From consideration of the calculated spectra, the peak below the gap is attributed to valence electrons that have been promoted to the conduction band, the absorption within the gap is attributed to broken Si-O bonds, and the reduction above the edge is attributed to an elevated ionic temperature. In heated copper spectra, a time-dependent shift and broadening of the absorption edge are observed, consistent with and elevated electron temperature. The temporal evolution of the electronic temperature is accurately determined by fitting the measured spectra with calculated spectra. The electron-ion equilibration is studied with a two-temperature model. In heated nickel spectra, a shift of the absorption edge is observed. This shift is found to be inconsistent with calculated spectra and independent of incident laser fluence. A shift of the chemical potential

  15. Collison-Induced Absorption of Oxygen Molecule as Studied by High Sensitivity Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashihara, Wataru; Shoji, Atsushi; Kawai, Akio

    2017-06-01

    Oxygen dimol is transiently generated when two oxygen molecules collide. At this short period, the electron clouds of molecules are distorted and some forbidden transition electronic transitions become partially allowed. This transition is called CIA (Collision-induced absorption). There are several CIA bands appearing in the spectral region from UV to near IR. Absorption of solar radiation by oxygen dimol is a small but significant part of the total budget of incoming shortwave radiation. However, a theory predicting the lineshape of CIA is still under developing. In this study, we measured CIA band around 630 nm that is assigned to optical transition, a^{1}Δ_{g}(v=0):a^{1}Δ_{g}(v=0)-X^{3}Σ_{g}^{-}(v=0):X^{3}Σ_{g}^{-}(v=0) of oxygen dimol. CRDS(Cavity Ring-down Spectroscopy) was employed to measure weak absorption CIA band of oxygen. Laser beam around 630 nm was generated by a dye laser that was pumped by a YAG Laser. Multiple reflection of the probe light was performed within a vacuum chamber that was equipped with two high reflective mirrors. We discuss the measured line shape of CIA on the basis of collision pair model.

  16. Wavelength modulation diode laser absorption spectroscopy for high-pressure gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, K.; Chao, X.; Sur, R.; Jeffries, J. B.; Hanson, R. K.

    2013-03-01

    A general model for 1 f-normalized wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy with nf detection (i.e., WMS- nf) is presented that considers the performance of injection-current-tuned diode lasers and the reflective interference produced by other optical components on the line-of-sight (LOS) transmission intensity. This model explores the optimization of sensitive detection of optical absorption by species with structured spectra at elevated pressures. Predictions have been validated by comparison with measurements of the 1 f-normalized WMS- nf (for n = 2-6) lineshape of the R(11) transition in the 1st overtone band of CO near 2.3 μm at four different pressures ranging from 5 to 20 atm, all at room temperature. The CO mole fractions measured by 1 f-normalized WMS-2 f, 3 f, and 4 f techniques agree with calibrated mixtures within 2.0 %. At conditions where absorption features are significantly broadened and large modulation depths are required, uncertainties in the WMS background signals due to reflective interference in the optical path can produce significant error in gas mole fraction measurements by 1 f-normalized WMS-2 f. However, such potential errors can be greatly reduced by using the higher harmonics, i.e., 1 f-normalized WMS- nf with n > 2. In addition, less interference from pressure-broadened neighboring transitions has been observed for WMS with higher harmonics than for WMS-2 f.

  17. SU-F-J-46: Feasibility of Cerenkov Emission for Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Oraiqat, I; Rehemtulla, A; Lam, K

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Cerenkov emission (CE) is a promising tool for online tumor microenvironment interrogation and targeting during radiotherapy. In this work, we utilize CE generated during radiotherapy as a broadband excitation source for real-time absorption spectroscopy. We demonstrate the feasibility of CE spectroscopy using a controlled experiment of materials with known emission/absorption properties. Methods: A water tank is irradiated with 20 MeV electron beam to induce Cerenkov emission. Food coloring dyes (Yellow #5, Red #40, and Blue #1), which have known emission/absorption properties were added to the water tank with increasing concentration (1 drop (0.05 mL), 2 drops, and 4 dropsmore » from a dispenser bottle). The signal is collected using a condensing lens which is coupled into a 20m optical fiber that is fed into a spectrometer that measures the emitted spectra. The resulting spectra from water/food coloring dye solutions were normalized by the reference spectrum, which is the Cerenkov spectrum of pure water, correcting for both the nonlinearity of the broadband Cerenkov emission spectrum as well as the non-uniform spectral response of the spectrometer. The emitted spectra were then converted into absorbance and their characteristics were analyzed. Results: The food coloring dye had a drastic change on the Cerenkov emission, shifting its wavelength according to its visible color. The collected spectra showed various absorbance peaks which agrees with tabulated peak positions of the dyes added within 0.3% for yellow, 1.7% for red, and 0.16% for blue. The CE peak heights proportionally increased as the dye concentration is increased. Conclusion: This work shows the potential for real-time functional spectroscopy using Cerenkov emission during radiotherapy. It was demonstrated that molecule identification as well as relative concentration can be extracted from the Cerenkov emission color shift.« less

  18. Ultraviolet absorption: Experiment MA-059. [measurement of atmospheric species concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, T. M.; Hudson, R. D.; Rawlins, W. T.; Anderson, J.; Kaufman, F.; Mcelroy, M. B.

    1977-01-01

    A technique devised to permit the measurement of atmospheric species concentrations is described. This technique involves the application of atomic absorption spectroscopy and the quantitative observation of resonance fluorescence in which atomic or molecular species scatter resonance radiation from a light source into a detector. A beam of atomic oxygen and atomic nitrogen resonance radiation, strong unabsorbable oxygen and nitrogen radiation, and visual radiation was sent from Apollo to Soyuz. The density of atomic oxygen and atomic nitrogen between the two spacecraft was measured by observing the amount of resonance radiation absorbed when the line joining Apollo and Soyuz was perpendicular to their velocity with respect to the ambient atmosphere. Results of postflight analysis of the resonance fluorescence data are discussed.

  19. Nanosecond Absorption Spectroscopy of Hemoglobin: Elementary Processes in Kinetic Cooperativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofrichter, James; Sommer, Joseph H.; Henry, Eric R.; Eaton, William A.

    1983-04-01

    A nanosecond absorption spectrometer has been used to measure the optical spectra of hemoglobin between 3 ns and 100 ms after photolysis of the CO complex. The data from a single experiment comprise a surface, defined by the time-ordered set of 50-100 spectra. Singular value decomposition is used to represent the observed spectra in terms of a minimal set of basis spectra and the time course of their amplitudes. Both CO rebinding and conformational changes are found to be multiphasic. Prior to the quaternary structural change, two relaxations are observed that are assigned to geminate recombination followed by a tertiary structural change. These relaxations are interpreted in terms of a kinetic model that points out their potential role in kinetic cooperativity. The rapid escape of CO from the heme pocket compared with the rate of rebinding observed for both R and T quaternary states shows that the quaternary structure controls the overall dissociation rate by changing the rate at which the Fe--CO bond is broken. A comparable description of the control of the overall association rates must await a more complete experimental description of the kinetics of the quaternary T state.

  20. Tunable diode laser measurements of HO2NO2 absorption coefficients near 12.5 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, R. D.; Molina, L. T.; Webster, C. R.

    1988-01-01

    A tunable diode laser spectrometer has been used to measure absorption coefficients of peroxynitric acid (HO2NO2) near the 803/cm Q branch. HO2NO2 concentrations in a low-pressure flowing gas mixture were determined from chemical titration procedures and UV absorption spectroscopy. The diode laser measured absorption coefficients, at a spectral resolution of better than 0.001/cm, are about 10 percent larger than previous Fourier transform infrared measurements made at a spectral resolution of 0.06/cm.

  1. Miniaturized King furnace permits absorption spectroscopy of small samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ercoli, B.; Tompkins, F. S.

    1968-01-01

    Miniature King-type furnace, consisting of an inductively heated, small diameter tantalum tube supported in a radiation shield eliminates the disadvantages of the conventional furnace in obtaining absorption spectra of metal vapors.

  2. Absorption Spectroscopy of Mercury's Exosphere During the 2016 Solar Transit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, C. A.; Leblanc, F.; Reardon, K.; Killen, R. M.; Gary, D. E.; Ahn, K.

    2018-05-01

    Solar transits of Mercury provide a rare opportunity to study the exosphere in absorption and a valuable analog to transiting exoplanet studies. This presentation will characterize the sodium exosphere during the 2016 transit.

  3. Laser-induced micro-plasmas in air for incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruth, Albert; Dixneuf, Sophie; Orphal, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    Incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (IBBCEAS) is an experimentally straightforward absorption method where the intensity of light transmitted by an optically stable (high finesse) cavity is measured. The technique is realized using broadband incoherent sources of radiation and therefore the amount of light transmitted by a cavity consisting of high reflectance mirrors (typically R > 99.9%) can be low. In order to find an alternative to having an incoherent light source outside the cavity, an experiment was devised, where a laser-induced plasma in ambient air was generated inside a quasi-confocal cavity by a high-power femtosecond laser. The emission from the laser-induced plasma was utilized as pulsed broadband light source. The time-dependent spectra of the light leaking from the cavity were compared with those of the laser-induced plasma emission without the cavity. It was found that the light emission was sustained by the cavity despite the initially large optical losses caused by the laser-induced plasma in the cavity. The light sustained by the cavity was used to measure part of the S1 ← S0 absorption spectrum of gaseous azulene at its vapour pressure at room temperature in ambient air, as well as the strongly forbidden γ-band in molecular oxygen (b1Σ(2,0) ← X3Σ(0,0)).

  4. Reflectance-mode interferometric near-infrared spectroscopy quantifies brain absorption, scattering, and blood flow index in vivo.

    PubMed

    Borycki, Dawid; Kholiqov, Oybek; Srinivasan, Vivek J

    2017-02-01

    Interferometric near-infrared spectroscopy (iNIRS) is a new technique that measures time-of-flight- (TOF-) resolved autocorrelations in turbid media, enabling simultaneous estimation of optical and dynamical properties. Here, we demonstrate reflectance-mode iNIRS for noninvasive monitoring of a mouse brain in vivo. A method for more precise quantification with less static interference from superficial layers, based on separating static and dynamic components of the optical field autocorrelation, is presented. Absolute values of absorption, reduced scattering, and blood flow index (BFI) are measured, and changes in BFI and absorption are monitored during a hypercapnic challenge. Absorption changes from TOF-resolved iNIRS agree with absorption changes from continuous wave NIRS analysis, based on TOF-integrated light intensity changes, an effective path length, and the modified Beer-Lambert Law. Thus, iNIRS is a promising approach for quantitative and noninvasive monitoring of perfusion and optical properties in vivo.

  5. Reflectance-mode interferometric near-infrared spectroscopy quantifies brain absorption, scattering, and blood flow index in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Borycki, Dawid; Kholiqov, Oybek; Srinivasan, Vivek J.

    2017-01-01

    Interferometric near-infrared spectroscopy (iNIRS) is a new technique that measures time-of-flight- (TOF-) resolved autocorrelations in turbid media, enabling simultaneous estimation of optical and dynamical properties. Here, we demonstrate reflectance-mode iNIRS for noninvasive monitoring of a mouse brain in vivo. A method for more precise quantification with less static interference from superficial layers, based on separating static and dynamic components of the optical field autocorrelation, is presented. Absolute values of absorption, reduced scattering, and blood flow index (BFI) are measured, and changes in BFI and absorption are monitored during a hypercapnic challenge. Absorption changes from TOF-resolved iNIRS agree with absorption changes from continuous wave NIRS analysis, based on TOF-integrated light intensity changes, an effective path length, and the modified Beer–Lambert Law. Thus, iNIRS is a promising approach for quantitative and non-invasive monitoring of perfusion and optical properties in vivo. PMID:28146535

  6. Performance improvements in temperature reconstructions of 2-D tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Doo-Won; Jeon, Min-Gyu; Cho, Gyeong-Rae; Kamimoto, Takahiro; Deguchi, Yoshihiro; Doh, Deog-Hee

    2016-02-01

    Performance improvement was attained in data reconstructions of 2-dimensional tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). Multiplicative Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (MART) algorithm was adopted for data reconstruction. The data obtained in an experiment for the measurement of temperature and concentration fields of gas flows were used. The measurement theory is based upon the Beer-Lambert law, and the measurement system consists of a tunable laser, collimators, detectors, and an analyzer. Methane was used as a fuel for combustion with air in the Bunsen-type burner. The data used for the reconstruction are from the optical signals of 8-laser beams passed on a cross-section of the methane flame. The performances of MART algorithm in data reconstruction were validated and compared with those obtained by Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) algorithm.

  7. Method and apparatus for aerosol particle absorption spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Campillo, Anthony J.; Lin, Horn-Bond

    1983-11-15

    A method and apparatus for determining the absorption spectra, and other properties, of aerosol particles. A heating beam source provides a beam of electromagnetic energy which is scanned through the region of the spectrum which is of interest. Particles exposed to the heating beam which have absorption bands within the band width of the heating beam absorb energy from the beam. The particles are also illuminated by light of a wave length such that the light is scattered by the particles. The absorption spectra of the particles can thus be determined from an analysis of the scattered light since the absorption of energy by the particles will affect the way the light is scattered. Preferably the heating beam is modulated to simplify the analysis of the scattered light. In one embodiment the heating beam is intensity modulated so that the scattered light will also be intensity modulated when the particles absorb energy. In another embodiment the heating beam passes through an interferometer and the scattered light reflects the Fourier Transform of the absorption spectra.

  8. Structural study of aggregated β-carotene by absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Li Ping; Wei, Liang Shu

    2017-10-01

    By UV-visible absorption spectroscope, the aggregated β-carotene in hydrated ethanol was studied in the temperature range of 5 55°C, with different ethanol/water ratio. And the structural evolutions of these aggregates with time were detected. The spectrophotometric analysis showed that the aggregate of β-carotene formed in 1:1 ethanol/water solution transfered from H-type to J-type with temperature increase. In 2:1 ethanol/water solution a new type of aggregate with strong coupling was predicated by the appearing absorption peak located at about 550 nm. In the time scales of 48 houses all the aggregated structures were stable, but the absorption intensity decreased with time. It was concluded that the types of aggregated β-carotene which wouldn't change with time depended on the solvent composition and temperature.

  9. MEASUREMENT OF AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM MECHANICALLY VENTILATED POULTRY HOUSES USING MULTIPATH TUNABLE DIODE LASER SPECTROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ammonia emissions from mechanically ventilated poultry operations are an important environmental concern. Open Path Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy has emerged as a robust real-time method for gas phase measurement of ammonia concentrations in agricultural settings. ...

  10. Oxygen measurement by multimode diode lasers employing gas correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lou, Xiutao; Somesfalean, Gabriel; Chen, Bin; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2009-02-10

    Multimode diode laser (MDL)-based correlation spectroscopy (COSPEC) was used to measure oxygen in ambient air, thereby employing a diode laser (DL) having an emission spectrum that overlaps the oxygen absorption lines of the A band. A sensitivity of 700 ppm m was achieved with good accuracy (2%) and linearity (R(2)=0.999). For comparison, measurements of ambient oxygen were also performed by tunable DL absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) technique employing a vertical cavity surface emitting laser. We demonstrate that, despite slightly degraded sensitivity, the MDL-based COSPEC-based oxygen sensor has the advantages of high stability, low cost, ease-of-use, and relaxed requirements in component selection and instrument buildup compared with the TDLAS-based instrument.

  11. Initial Results of Optical Vortex Laser Absorption Spectroscopy in the HYPER-I Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Shinji; Asai, Shoma; Aramaki, Mitsutoshi; Terasaka, Kenichiro; Ozawa, Naoya; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Morisaki, Tomohiro

    2015-11-01

    Optical vortex beams have a potential to make a new Doppler measurement, because not only parallel but perpendicular movement of atoms against the beam axis causes the Doppler shift of their resonant absorption frequency. As the first step of a proof-of-principle experiment, we have performed the optical vortex laser absorption spectroscopy for metastable argon neutrals in an ECR plasma produced in the HYPER-I device at the National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan. An external cavity diode laser (TOPTICA, DL100) of which center wavelength was 696.735 nm in vacuum was used for the light source. The Hermite-Gaussian (HG) beam was converted into the Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam (optical vortex) by a computer-generated hologram displayed on the spatial light modulator (Hamamatsu, LCOS-SLM X10468-07). In order to make fast neutral flow across the LG beam, a high speed solenoid valve system was installed on the HYPER-I device. Initial results including the comparison of absorption spectra for HG and LG beams will be presented. This study was supported by NINS young scientists collaboration program for cross-disciplinary study, NIFS collaboration research program (NIFS13KOAP026), and JSPS KAKENHI grant number 15K05365.

  12. Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Breast Cancer Cell Line MCF 7 Using Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Alcantara, Dominic Z; Soliman, Ian Jerry S; Pobre, Romeric F; Naguib, Raouf N G

    2017-07-01

    We present an analysis of the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) with 3.3 MHz carrier frequency and modulated by audio resonant frequencies on the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line in vitro using absorption spectroscopy. This involves a fluorescence dye called PrestoBlue™ Cell Viability Reagent and a spectrophotometry to test the viability of MCF-7 breast cancer cells under different PEMF treatment conditions in terms of the cell absorption values. The DNA molecule of the MCF-7 breast cancer cells has an electric dipole property that renders it sensitive and reactive to applied electromagnetic fields. Resonant frequencies derived from four genes mutated in MCF-7 breast cancer cells [rapamycin-insensitive companion of mammalian target of rapamycin (RICTOR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARG), Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1 (NBN) and checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2)] were applied in generating square pulsed electromagnetic waves. Effects were monitored through measurement of absorption of the samples with PrestoBlue™, and the significance of the treatment was determined using the t-test. There was a significant effect on MCF-7 cells after treatment with PEMF at the resonant frequencies of the following genes for specific durations of exposure: RICTOR for 10 min, PPARG for 10 min, NBN for 15 min, and CHEK2 for 5 min. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  13. Time-resolved broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy for chemical kinetics.

    SciTech Connect

    Sheps, Leonid; Chandler, David W.

    Experimental measurements of elementary reaction rate coefficients and product branching ratios are essential to our understanding of many fundamentally important processes in Combustion Chemistry. However, such measurements are often impossible because of a lack of adequate detection techniques. Some of the largest gaps in our knowledge concern some of the most important radical species, because their short lifetimes and low steady-state concentrations make them particularly difficult to detect. To address this challenge, we propose a novel general detection method for gas-phase chemical kinetics: time-resolved broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (TR-BB-CEAS). This all-optical, non-intrusive, multiplexed method enables sensitive direct probing of transientmore » reaction intermediates in a simple, inexpensive, and robust experimental package.« less

  14. Diagnosis of a two wire X-pinch by X-ray absorption spectroscopy utilizing a doubly curved ellipsoidal crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Cahill, A. D., E-mail: adc87@cornell.edu; Hoyt, C. L., E-mail: adc87@cornell.edu; Shelkovenko, T. A., E-mail: adc87@cornell.edu

    2014-12-15

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the diagnosis of plasmas over a wide range of both temperature and density. However, such a measurement is often limited to probing plasmas with temperatures well below that of the x-ray source in order to avoid object plasma emission lines from obscuring important features of the absorption spectrum. This has excluded many plasmas from being investigated by this technique. We have developed an x-ray spectrometer that provides the ability to record absorption spectra from higher temperature plasmas than the usual approach allows without the risk of data contamination by line radiation emittedmore » by the plasma under study. This is accomplished using a doubly curved mica crystal which is bent both elliptically and cylindrically. We present here initial absorption spectra obtained from an aluminum x-pinch plasma.« less

  15. Elucidating ultrafast electron dynamics at surfaces using extreme ultraviolet (XUV) reflection-absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Somnath; Husek, Jakub; Baker, L Robert

    2018-04-24

    Here we review the recent development of extreme ultraviolet reflection-absorption (XUV-RA) spectroscopy. This method combines the benefits of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, such as element, oxidation, and spin state specificity, with surface sensitivity and ultrafast time resolution, having a probe depth of only a few nm and an instrument response less than 100 fs. Using this technique we investigated the ultrafast electron dynamics at a hematite (α-Fe2O3) surface. Surface electron trapping and small polaron formation both occur in 660 fs following photoexcitation. These kinetics are independent of surface morphology indicating that electron trapping is not mediated by defects. Instead, small polaron formation is proposed as the likely driving force for surface electron trapping. We also show that in Fe2O3, Co3O4, and NiO, band gap excitation promotes electron transfer from O 2p valence band states to metal 3d conduction band states. In addition to detecting the photoexcited electron at the metal M2,3-edge, the valence band hole is directly observed as transient signal at the O L1-edge. The size of the resulting charge transfer exciton is on the order of a single metal-oxygen bond length. Spectral shifts at the O L1-edge correlate with metal-oxygen bond covalency, confirming the relationship between valence band hybridization and the overpotential for water oxidation. These examples demonstrate the unique ability to measure ultrafast electron dynamics with element and chemical state resolution using XUV-RA spectroscopy. Accordingly, this method is poised to play an important role to reveal chemical details of previously unseen surface electron dynamics.

  16. Chemical Modification of Graphene Oxide by Nitrogenation: An X-ray Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Cheng-Hao; Ray, Sekhar C.; Mazumder, Debarati; Sharma, Surbhi; Ganguly, Abhijit; Papakonstantinou, Pagona; Chiou, Jau-Wern; Tsai, Huang-Ming; Shiu, Hung-Wei; Chen, Chia-Hao; Lin, Hong-Ji; Guo, Jinghua; Pong, Way-Faung

    2017-02-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphene oxides (GO:Nx) were synthesized by a partial reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using urea [CO(NH2)2]. Their electronic/bonding structures were investigated using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), valence-band photoemission spectroscopy (VB-PES), X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS). During GO:Nx synthesis, different nitrogen-bonding species, such as pyrrolic/graphitic-nitrogen, were formed by replacing of oxygen-containing functional groups. At lower N-content (2.7 at%), pyrrolic-N, owing to surface and subsurface diffusion of C, N and NH is deduced from various X-ray spectroscopies. In contrast, at higher N-content (5.0 at%) graphitic nitrogen was formed in which each N-atom trigonally bonds to three distinct sp2-hybridized carbons with substitution of the N-atoms for C atoms in the graphite layer. Upon nitrogen substitution, the total density of state close to Fermi level is increased to raise the valence-band maximum, as revealed by VB-PES spectra, indicating an electron donation from nitrogen, molecular bonding C/N/O coordination or/and lattice structure reorganization in GO:Nx. The well-ordered chemical environments induced by nitrogen dopant are revealed by XANES and RIXS measurements.

  17. Chemical Modification of Graphene Oxide by Nitrogenation: An X-ray Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy Study

    DOE PAGES

    Chuang, Cheng-Hao; Ray, Sekhar C.; Mazumder, Debarati; ...

    2017-02-10

    Nitrogen-doped graphene oxides (GO:N x) were synthesized by a partial reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using urea [CO(NH 2) 2 ]. Their electronic/bonding structures were investigated using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), valence-band photoemission spectroscopy (VB-PES), X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS). During GO:N x synthesis, different nitrogen-bonding species, such as pyrrolic/graphitic-nitrogen, were formed by replacing of oxygen-containing functional groups. At lower N-content (2.7 at%), pyrrolic-N, owing to surface and subsurface diffusion of C, N and NH is deduced from various X-ray spectroscopies. In contrast, at higher N-content (5.0 at%) graphitic nitrogen was formed in whichmore » each N-atom trigonally bonds to three distinct sp 2 -hybridized carbons with substitution of the N-atoms for C atoms in the graphite layer. Upon nitrogen substitution, the total density of state close to Fermi level is increased to raise the valence-band maximum, as revealed by VB-PES spectra, indicating an electron donation from nitrogen, molecular bonding C/N/O coordination or/and lattice structure reorganization in GO:N x . The well-ordered chemical environments induced by nitrogen dopant are revealed by XANES and RIXS measurements.« less

  18. Light Source Effects on Aerosol Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Radney, James G.; Zangmeister, Christopher D.

    2016-01-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy measurements of flame-generated soot aerosol coated with small amounts of water yielded absorption enhancements that were dependent on the laser used: quasi-continuous wave (Q-CW, ≈ 650 ps pulse duration and 78 MHz repetition rate) versus continuous wave (CW). Water coating thickness was controlled by exposing the aerosol to a set relative humidity (RH). At ≈ 85 % RH, the mass of the soot particles increased by an amount comparable to a monolayer of water being deposited and enhanced the measured absorption by 36 % and 15 % for the Q-CW and CW lasers, respectively. Extinction measurements were also performed using a cavity ring-down spectrometer (extinction equals the sum of absorption and scattering) with a CW laser and negligible enhancement was observed at all RH. These findings demonstrate that source choice can impact measurements of aerosols with volatile coatings and that the absorption enhancements at high RH previously measured by Radney and Zangmeister (2015) [1] are the result of laser source used (Q-CW) and not from an increase in the particle absorption cross section. PMID:28066027

  19. X-ray absorption spectroscopy: EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure) and XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure)

    SciTech Connect

    Alp, E.E.; Mini, S.M.; Ramanathan, M.

    1990-04-01

    The x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) had been an essential tool to gather spectroscopic information about atomic energy level structure in the early decades of this century. It has also played an important role in the discovery and systematization of rare-earth elements. The discovery of synchrotron radiation in 1952, and later the availability of broadly tunable synchrotron based x-ray sources have revitalized this technique since the 1970's. The correct interpretation of the oscillatory structure in the x-ray absorption cross-section above the absorption edge by Sayers et. al. has transformed XAS from a spectroscopic tool to a structural technique. EXAFS (Extended X-raymore » Absorption Fine Structure) yields information about the interatomic distances, near neighbor coordination numbers, and lattice dynamics. An excellent description of the principles and data analysis techniques of EXAFS is given by Teo. XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure), on the other hand, gives information about the valence state, energy bandwidth and bond angles. Today, there are about 50 experimental stations in various synchrotrons around the world dedicated to collecting x-ray absorption data from the bulk and surfaces of solids and liquids. In this chapter, we will give the basic principles of XAS, explain the information content of essentially two different aspects of the absorption process leading to EXAFS and XANES, and discuss the source and samples limitations.« less

  20. Diamond sensors and polycapillary lenses for X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ravel, B; Attenkofer, K; Bohon, J; Muller, E; Smedley, J

    2013-10-01

    Diamond sensors are evaluated as incident beam monitors for X-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments. These single crystal devices pose a challenge for an energy-scanning experiment using hard X-rays due to the effect of diffraction from the crystalline sensor at energies which meet the Bragg condition. This problem is eliminated by combination with polycapillary lenses. The convergence angle of the beam exiting the lens is large compared to rocking curve widths of the diamond. A ray exiting one capillary from the lens meets the Bragg condition for any reflection at a different energy from the rays exiting adjacent capillaries. This serves to broaden each diffraction peak over a wide energy range, allowing linear measurement of incident intensity over the range of the energy scan. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure data are measured with a combination of a polycapillary lens and a diamond incident beam monitor. These data are of comparable quality to data measured without a lens and with an ionization chamber monitoring the incident beam intensity.

  1. Calculation of the spatial resolution in two-photon absorption spectroscopy applied to plasma diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Lechuga, M.; Laser Processing Group, Instituto de Óptica “Daza de Valdés,” CSIC, 28006-Madrid; Fuentes, L. M.

    2014-10-07

    We report a detailed characterization of the spatial resolution provided by two-photon absorption spectroscopy suited for plasma diagnosis via the 1S-2S transition of atomic hydrogen for optogalvanic detection and laser induced fluorescence (LIF). A precise knowledge of the spatial resolution is crucial for a correct interpretation of measurements, if the plasma parameters to be analysed undergo strong spatial variations. The present study is based on a novel approach which provides a reliable and realistic determination of the spatial resolution. Measured irradiance distribution of laser beam waists in the overlap volume, provided by a high resolution UV camera, are employed tomore » resolve coupled rate equations accounting for two-photon excitation, fluorescence decay and ionization. The resulting three-dimensional yield distributions reveal in detail the spatial resolution for optogalvanic and LIF detection and related saturation due to depletion. Two-photon absorption profiles broader than the Fourier transform-limited laser bandwidth are also incorporated in the calculations. The approach allows an accurate analysis of the spatial resolution present in recent and future measurements.« less

  2. Understanding the sensitivity of cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy: pathlength enhancement versus noise suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, B.; Jones, R. L.

    2012-12-01

    Cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy is now widely used as an ultrasensitive technique in observing weak spectroscopic absorptions. Photons inside the cavity are reflected back and forth between the mirrors with reflectivities R close to one and thus (on average) exploit an absorption pathlength L that is 1/(1 - R) longer than a single pass measurement. As suggested by the Beer-Lambert law, this increase in L results in enhanced absorbance A (given by αL with α being the absorption coefficient) which in turn favours the detection of weak absorptions. At the same time, however, only (1 - R) of the incident light can enter the cavity [assuming that mirror transmission T is equal to (1 - R)], so that the reduction in transmitted light intensity Δ I caused by molecular absorption equates to that would be obtained if in fact no cavity were present. The enhancement in A = Δ I/ I, where I is the total transmitted light intensity, achievable from CEAS therefore comes not from an increase in Δ I, but a sharp decrease in I. In this paper, we calculate the magnitudes of these two terms before and after a cavity is introduced, and aim at interpreting the sensitivity improvement offered by cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy from this observable-oriented (i.e. Δ I and I) perspective. It is first shown that photon energy stored in the cavity is at best as intense as the input light source, implying that any absorbing sample within the cavity is exposed to the same or even lower light intensity after the cavity is formed. As a consequence, the intensity of the light absorbed or scattered by the sample, which corresponds to the Δ I term aforementioned, is never greater than would be the case in a single pass measurement. It is then shown that while this "numerator" term is not improved, the "denominator" term, I, is reduced considerably; therefore, the increase in contrast ratio Δ I/ I is solely contributed by the attenuation of transmitted background light I and is

  3. Hydrothermal Diamond Anvil Cell (HDAC): From Visual Observation to X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassett, W. A.; Mibe, K.

    2006-05-01

    A fluid sample contained in a Re gasket between two diamond anvils can be subjected to pressures up to 2.5 GPa and temperatures up to 1200°C in a resistively heated hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC). Thermocouples are used to measure temperature. The constant-volume sample chamber permits isochoric measurements that can be used to determine pressure from the equation of state of H2O and to map phases and properties in P-T space. A movie of reactions between K-feldspar and water up to 2.5 GPa and 880°C illustrates the use of visual observations for mapping coexisting solution, melt, and solid phases. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of ZnBr2 in solution up to 500°C and 500 MPa shows hydrogen bond breaking in the hydration shells of the ZnBr42- and Br- ions with increasing temperature. In other studies the stability field of ikaite (CaCO3·6H2O) has been mapped by visual observation and Raman spectroscopy; the phases of montmorillonite have been mapped by X-ray diffraction; and the leaching of Pb from zircon has been measured by X-ray microprobe.

  4. Low-lying singlet states of carotenoids having 8-13 conjugated double bonds as determined by electronic absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Kanematsu, Yasuo; Koyama, Yasushi; Nagae, Hiroyoshi; Nishio, Tomohiro; Hashimoto, Hideki; Zhang, Jian-Ping

    2005-07-01

    Electronic absorption spectra were recorded at room temperature in solutions of carotenoids having different numbers of conjugated double bonds, n = 8-13, including a spheroidene derivatives, neurosporene, spheroidene, lycopene, anhydrorhodovibrin and spirilloxanthin. The vibronic states of 1Bu+(v=0-4), 2Ag-(v=0-3), 3Ag- (0) and 1Bu- (0) were clearly identified. The arrangement of the four electronic states determined by electronic absorption spectroscopy was identical to that determined by measurement of resonance Raman excitation profiles [K. Furuichi et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 356 (2002) 547] for carotenoids in crystals.

  5. Electrochemical and Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy Detection of SF₆ Decomposition Products.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ming; Zhang, Chongxing; Ren, Ming; Albarracín, Ricardo; Ye, Rixin

    2017-11-15

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF₆) gas-insulated electrical equipment is widely used in high-voltage (HV) and extra-high-voltage (EHV) power systems. Partial discharge (PD) and local heating can occur in the electrical equipment because of insulation faults, which results in SF₆ decomposition and ultimately generates several types of decomposition products. These SF₆ decomposition products can be qualitatively and quantitatively detected with relevant detection methods, and such detection contributes to diagnosing the internal faults and evaluating the security risks of the equipment. At present, multiple detection methods exist for analyzing the SF₆ decomposition products, and electrochemical sensing (ES) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy are well suited for application in online detection. In this study, the combination of ES with IR spectroscopy is used to detect SF₆ gas decomposition. First, the characteristics of these two detection methods are studied, and the data analysis matrix is established. Then, a qualitative and quantitative analysis ES-IR model is established by adopting a two-step approach. A SF₆ decomposition detector is designed and manufactured by combining an electrochemical sensor and IR spectroscopy technology. The detector is used to detect SF₆ gas decomposition and is verified to reliably and accurately detect the gas components and concentrations.

  6. Optical Absorption and Raman Spectroscopy of Multiple Shocked Liquid Benzene to 10 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Root, S.

    2005-07-01

    Liquid benzene samples were multiply shocked to peak pressures ranging from 3 GPa to 10 GPa to examine physical and chemical changes in benzene. A xenon flashlamp was used to probe the visible spectrum of benzene for loses in transmitted light intensity caused by changes in the electronic structure (absorption) or a possible liquid to solid phase transition (scattering). Raman spectroscopy was used to corroborate transmission measurements by examining changes in the benzene vibrational modes. The C-C symmetric ring breathing mode (992 cm-1), C-H symmetric stretch (3061 cm-1), along with several weaker modes at 607 cm-1, 1178 cm-1, 1586 cm-1, and 1606 cm-1 were monitored during shock loading. An EOS was developed to calculate the temperature of the shock compressed benzene. The present work has demonstrated that liquid benzene remains unchanged during multiple shock loading up to 10 GPa. Work supported by ONR and DOE.

  7. Melting of iron determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy to 100 GPa

    SciTech Connect

    Aquilanti, Giuliana; Trapananti, Angela; Karandikar, Amol

    2015-09-14

    There is a long-standing controversy over the melting curve of Fe at high pressure as determined from static laser heated diamond anvil cell and dynamic compression studies. X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements are used here as a criterion to detect melting under pressure. Confronted with a diversity of obtained melting curves, this technique, used at such pressure and temperature conditions, is eligible to be at the forefront to probe Earth's deep interior. Furthermore, the experiment reported here holds promise for addressing important issues related to the structure and phase diagram of compressed melts, such as the existence of structural complexity (polyamorphism)more » in the liquid phase or the extent of icosahedral ordering whose investigation has been limited until now to ambient conditions.« less

  8. The Optical Absorption Coefficient of Maize Grains Investigated by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Páez, C. L.; Carballo-Carballo, A.; Rico-Molina, R.; Hernández-Aguilar, C.; Domínguez-Pacheco, A.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Moreno-Martínez, E.

    2017-01-01

    In the maize and tortilla industry, it is important to characterize the color of maize ( Zea mays L.) grain, as it is one of the attributes that directly affect the quality of the tortillas consumed by the population. For this reason, the availability of alternative techniques for assessing and improving the quality of grain is valued. Photoacoustic spectroscopy has proven to be a useful tool for characterizing maize grain. So, the objective of the present study was to determine the optical absorption coefficient β of the maize grain used to make tortillas from two regions of Mexico: (a) Valles Altos, 2012-2013 production cycle and (b) Guasave, Sinaloa, 2013-2014 production cycle. Traditional reflectance measurements, physical characteristics of the grain and nutrient content were also calculated. The experimental results show different characteristics for maize grains.

  9. Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy and Chemical Kinetics of Free Radicals, Final Technical Report

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Curl, Robert F.; Glass, Graham P.

    2004-11-01

    This research was directed at the detection, monitoring, and study of the chemical kinetic behavior by infrared absorption spectroscopy of small free radical species thought to be important intermediates in combustion. Work on the reaction of OH with acetaldehyde has been completed and published and work on the reaction of O({sup 1}D) with CH{sub 4} has been completed and submitted for publication. In the course of our investigation of branching ratios of the reactions of O({sup 1}D) with acetaldehyde and methane, we discovered that hot atom chemistry effects are not negligible at the gas pressures (13 Torr) initially used. Branching ratios of the reaction of O({sup 1}D) with CH{sub 4} have been measured at a tenfold higher He flow and fivefold higher pressure.

  10. Absolute 1* quantum yields for the ICN A state by diode laser gain versus absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Wayne P.; Leone, Stephen R.

    1987-01-01

    Absolute I* quantum yields were measured as a function of wavelength for room temperature photodissociation of the ICN A state continuum. The temperature yields are obtained by the technique of time-resolved diode laser gain-versus-absorption spectroscopy. Quantum yields are evaluated at seven wavelengths from 248 to 284 nm. The yield at 266 nm is 66.0 +/- 2% and it falls off to 53.4 +/- 2% and 44.0 +/- 4% at 284 and 248 respectively. The latter values are significantly higher than those obtained by previous workers using infrared fluorescence. Estimates of I* quantum yields obtained from analysis of CN photofragment rotational distributions, as discussed by other workers, are in good agreement with the I* yields. The results are considered in conjunction with recent theoretical and experimental work on the CN rotational distributions and with previous I* yield results.

  11. Single-mode interband cascade laser multiemitter structure for two-wavelength absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheuermann, Julian; Weih, Robert; Becker, Steffen; Fischer, Marc; Koeth, Johannes; Höfling, Sven

    2018-01-01

    An interband cascade laser multiemitter with single-mode distributed feedback (DFB) emission at two wavelengths is presented. Continuous-wave laser operation is measured from 0°C to 40°C with threshold currents of around 25 mA and output powers of around 9 mW at 20°C. The ridge waveguide DFB structures are monolithically integrated with a spacing of 70 μm and each is provided with an individual metal DFB grating to select specific single-mode wavelengths of interest for absorption spectroscopy. The emission windows at 3.92 and 4.01 μm are targeting hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide, which are of importance for industrial applications since both gases are reagents of the Claus process in sulfur recovery units, recovering elemental sulfur from gaseous hydrogen sulfide.

  12. Optical Absorption Spectra of Hydrogenated Microcrystalline Silicon Films by Resonant Photothermal Bending Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunii, Toshie; Yoshida, Norimitsu; Hori, Yasuro; Nonomura, Shuichi

    2006-05-01

    A resonant photothermal bending spectroscopy (PBS) is demonstrated for the measurement of absorption coefficient spectra in hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) and hydrogenated microcrystalline cubic silicon carbide (μc-3C-SiC:H) films. The resonant vibration technique utilized in PBS establishes the sensitivity as α d˜ 5× 10-5 in a vacuum measurement. Appling resonant PBS to μc-Si:H films, a new extra absorption coefficient αex spectrum is observed from 0.6 to 1.2 eV. The αex spectrum has a peak at ˜1.0 eV, and the localized states inducing the αex are located ˜0.35 eV below the conduction band edge of μc-Si:H. A possible explanation for the observed localized state is that an oxidation produces weak bonds at the grain boundaries and/or amorphous silicon tissues. In μc-3C-SiC:H film, an optical band-gap energy of ˜2.2 eV was demonstrated assuming an indirect optical transition. The temperature coefficient of the optical band-gap energy was ˜2.3× 10-4 eV K-1. The αex spectrum of μc-3C-SiC:H film is plateau-shaped and its magnitude is in accord with an increase in grain size.

  13. Time-resolved X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy for Electron Transport Study in Warm Dense Gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong-Won; Bae, Leejin; Engelhorn, Kyle; Heimann, Philip; Ping, Yuan; Barbrel, Ben; Fernandez, Amalia; Beckwith, Martha Anne; Cho, Byoung-Ick; GIST Team; IBS Team; LBNL Collaboration; SLAC Collaboration; LLNL Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    The warm dense Matter represents states of which the temperature is comparable to Fermi energy and ions are strongly coupled. One of the experimental techniques to create such state in the laboratory condition is the isochoric heating of thin metal foil with femtosecond laser pulses. This concept largely relies on the ballistic transport of electrons near the Fermi-level, which were mainly studied for the metals in ambient conditions. However, they were barely investigated in warm dense conditions. We present a time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy measured for the Au/Cu dual layered sample. The front Au layer was isochorically heated with a femtosecond laser pulse, and the x-ray absorption changes around L-edge of Cu, which was attached on the backside of Au, was measured with a picosecond resolution. Time delays between the heating of the `front surface' of Au layer and the alternation of x-ray spectrum of Cu attached on the `rear surface' of Au indicate the energetic electron transport mechanism through Au in the warm dense conditions. IBS (IBS-R012-D1) and the NRF (No. 2013R1A1A1007084) of Korea.

  14. Real-time trace gas sensor using a multimode diode laser and multiple-line integrated cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Karpf, Andreas; Rao, Gottipaty N

    2015-07-01

    We describe and demonstrate a highly sensitive trace gas sensor based on a simplified design that is capable of measuring sub-ppb concentrations of NO2 in tens of milliseconds. The sensor makes use of a relatively inexpensive Fabry-Perot diode laser to conduct off-axis cavity enhanced spectroscopy. The broad frequency range of a multimode Fabry-Perot diode laser spans a large number of absorption lines, thereby removing the need for a single-frequency tunable laser source. The use of cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy enhances the sensitivity of the sensor by providing a pathlength on the order of 1 km in a small volume. Off-axis alignment excites a large number of cavity modes simultaneously, thereby reducing the sensor's susceptibility to vibration. Multiple-line integrated absorption spectroscopy (where one integrates the absorption spectra over a large number of rovibronic transitions of the molecular species) further improves the sensitivity of detection. Relatively high laser power (∼400  mW) is used to compensate for the low coupling efficiency of a broad linewidth laser to the optical cavity. The approach was demonstrated using a 407 nm diode laser to detect trace quantities of NO2 in zero air. Sensitivities of 750 ppt, 110 ppt, and 65 ppt were achieved using integration times of 50 ms, 5 s, and 20 s respectively.

  15. Evolution of silver nanoparticles in the rat lung investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Davidson, R. Andrew; Anderson, Donald S.; Van Winkle, Laura S.; ...

    2014-12-16

    Following a 6-h inhalation exposure to aerosolized 20 and 110 nm diameter silver nanoparticles, lung tissues from rats were investigated with X-ray absorption spectroscopy, which can identify the chemical state of silver species. Lung tissues were processed immediately after sacrifice of the animals at 0, 1, 3, and 7 days post exposure and the samples were stored in an inert and low-temperature environment until measured. We found that it is critical to follow a proper processing, storage and measurement protocol; otherwise only silver oxides are detected after inhalation even for the larger nanoparticles. The results of X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurementsmore » taken in air at 85 K suggest that the dominating silver species in all the postexposure lung tissues were metallic silver, not silver oxide, or solvated silver cations. The results further indicate that the silver nanoparticles in the tissues were transformed from the original nanoparticles to other forms of metallic silver nanomaterials and the rate of this transformation depended on the size of the original nanoparticles. Furthermore, we found that 20 nm diameter silver nanoparticles were significantly modified after aerosolization and 6-h inhalation/deposition, whereas larger, 110 nm diameter nanoparticles were largely unchanged. Over the seven-day postexposure period the smaller 20 nm silver nanoparticles underwent less change in the lung tissue than the larger 110 nm silver nanoparticles. In contrast, silica-coated gold nanoparticles did not undergo any modification processes and remained as the initial nanoparticles throughout the 7-day study period.« less

  16. Evolution of silver nanoparticles in the rat lung investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, R. Andrew; Anderson, Donald S.; Van Winkle, Laura S.

    Following a 6-h inhalation exposure to aerosolized 20 and 110 nm diameter silver nanoparticles, lung tissues from rats were investigated with X-ray absorption spectroscopy, which can identify the chemical state of silver species. Lung tissues were processed immediately after sacrifice of the animals at 0, 1, 3, and 7 days post exposure and the samples were stored in an inert and low-temperature environment until measured. We found that it is critical to follow a proper processing, storage and measurement protocol; otherwise only silver oxides are detected after inhalation even for the larger nanoparticles. The results of X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurementsmore » taken in air at 85 K suggest that the dominating silver species in all the postexposure lung tissues were metallic silver, not silver oxide, or solvated silver cations. The results further indicate that the silver nanoparticles in the tissues were transformed from the original nanoparticles to other forms of metallic silver nanomaterials and the rate of this transformation depended on the size of the original nanoparticles. Furthermore, we found that 20 nm diameter silver nanoparticles were significantly modified after aerosolization and 6-h inhalation/deposition, whereas larger, 110 nm diameter nanoparticles were largely unchanged. Over the seven-day postexposure period the smaller 20 nm silver nanoparticles underwent less change in the lung tissue than the larger 110 nm silver nanoparticles. In contrast, silica-coated gold nanoparticles did not undergo any modification processes and remained as the initial nanoparticles throughout the 7-day study period.« less

  17. Temperature determination of resonantly excited plasmonic branched gold nanoparticles by X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Van de Broek, Bieke; Grandjean, Didier; Trekker, Jesse; Ye, Jian; Verstreken, Kris; Maes, Guido; Borghs, Gustaaf; Nikitenko, Sergey; Lagae, Liesbet; Bartic, Carmen; Temst, Kristiaan; Van Bael, Margriet J

    2011-09-05

    The fields of bioscience and nanomedicine demand precise thermometry for nanoparticle heat characterization down to the nanoscale regime. Since current methods often use indirect and less accurate techniques to determine the nanoparticle temperature, there is a pressing need for a direct and reliable element-specific method. In-situ extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy is used to determine the thermo-optical properties of plasmonic branched gold nanoparticles upon resonant laser illumination. With EXAFS, the direct determination of the nanoparticle temperature increase upon laser illumination is possible via the thermal influence on the gold lattice parameters. More specifically, using the change of the Debye-Waller term representing the lattice disorder, the temperature increase is selectively measured within the plasmonic branched nanoparticles upon resonant laser illumination. In addition, the signal intensity shows that the nanoparticle concentration in the beam more than doubles during laser illumination, thereby demonstrating that photothermal heating is a dynamic process. A comparable temperature increase is measured in the nanoparticle suspension using a thermocouple. This good correspondence between the temperature at the level of the nanoparticle and at the level of the suspension points to an efficient heat transfer between the nanoparticle and the surrounding medium, thus confirming the potential of branched gold nanoparticles for hyperthermia applications. This work demonstrates that X-ray absorption spectroscopy-based nanothermometry could be a valuable tool in the fast-growing number of applications of plasmonic nanoparticles, particularly in life sciences and medicine. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Absorption spectroscopy at the limb of small transiting exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenreich, D.; Lecavelier Des Etangs, A.

    2005-12-01

    Planetary transits are a tremendous tool to probe into exoplanet atmospheres using the light from their parent stars (from 0.2 μm to ˜1 μm). The detection of atmospheric components in an extra-solar giant planet was performed using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) with a sensitivity reaching ˜10-4 in relative absorption depth over ˜1 Å-wide features (Charbonneau et al., 2002). The next step is the detection and the characterization of smaller, possibly Earth-like worlds, which will require a sensitivity of ˜10-6. Fortunately, ˜0.1 μm-wide absorption bands of particular interest for small exoplanets do exist in this spectral domain. We developed a model to quantify the detectability of a variety of Earth-size planets harboring different kind of atmospheres. Key parameters are the density of the planet and the thickness of the atmosphere. We also evaluate in consequence the number of potential targets for a future space mission, and also find that K stars are best candidates. See Ehrenreich et al. (2005) for a complete description.

  19. Photothermal measurement of optical surface absorption using strain transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, D. H.; Trusty, G. L.

    1981-09-01

    We discuss the measurement of small optical surface absorption coefficients. A demonstration experiment was performed using a metallurgical strain gauge to measure 488 nm absorption on the surface of a glass plate. A strain of 10 to the minus 8th power resulted from absorption of 0.3 watts. The results are interpreted and the sensitivity of a proposed fiber optic strain gauge is discussed.

  20. Single-shot measurement of nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction.

    PubMed

    Jayabalan, J; Singh, Asha; Oak, Shrikant M

    2006-06-01

    A single-shot method for measurement of nonlinear optical absorption and refraction is described and analyzed. A spatial intensity variation of an elliptical Gaussian beam in conjugation with an array detector is the key element of this method. The advantages of this single-shot technique were demonstrated by measuring the two-photon absorption and free-carrier absorption in GaAs as well as the nonlinear refractive index of CS2 using a modified optical Kerr setup.

  1. Local Structure Determination of Carbon/Nickel Ferrite Composite Nanofibers Probed by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nilmoung, Sukunya; Kidkhunthod, Pinit; Maensiri, Santi

    2015-11-01

    Carbon/NiFe2O4 composite nanofibers have been successfully prepared by electrospinning method using a various concentration solution of Ni and Fe nitrates dispersed into polyacrylonitride (PAN) solution in N,N' dimethylformamide. The phase and mophology of PAN/NiFe2O4 composite samples were characterized and investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The magnetic properties of the prepared samples were measured at ambient temperature by a vibrating sample magnetometer. It is found that all composite samples exhibit ferromagnetism. This could be local-structurally explained by the existed oxidation states of Ni2+ and Fe3+ in the samples. Moreover, local environments around Ni and Fe ions could be revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurement including X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS).

  2. Crystal field splitting and spin states of Co ions in cobalt ferrite with composition Co1.5Fe1.5O4 using magnetization and X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, A. K.; Singh, M. N.; Achary, S. N.; Sagdeo, A.; Shukla, D. K.; Phase, D. M.

    2017-08-01

    Structural, magnetic and electronic properties of partially inverted Cobalt Ferrite with composition Co1.5Fe1.5O4 is discussed in the present work. Single phase (SG: Fd3m) sample is synthesized by co-precipitation technique and subsequent air annealing. The values of saturation magnetization obtained from careful analysis of approach to saturation in initial M(H) curves are used to determine spin states of Co ions in tetrahedral (TH) and octahedral (OH) sites. Spin states of Co3+ ions in TH sites, which has not been reported in literature, were found to be in high spin state. Temperature variation of magnetic parameters has been studied. The sample shows magneto-crystalline anisotropy with two clearly distinct pinning centers. Oxygen K-edge and Fe as well as Co L2,3-edge X-ray absorption (XAS) spectra have been used as complementary measurements to study crystal field splitting and core hole effects on transition metal (TM) 3d orbitals. The ratio of intensities of t2g and eg absorption bands in O-K edge XAS spectrum is used to estimate the spin states of Co ions at OH and TH sites. The results are in agreement with those obtained from magnetization data, and favors Co3+ ions in TH sites in high spin states. Normalized areas of the satellite peaks in TM L2,3-edge XAS spectra have been used to estimate 3dn+1L contribution in ground state wave function and the contributions were found to be significant.

  3. Near-infrared absorption spectroscopy of interstellar hydrocarbon grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendleton, Y. J.; Sandford, S. A.; Allamandola, L. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Sellgren, K.

    1994-12-01

    We present new 3600 - 2700/cm (2.8 - 3.7 micrometer) spectra of objects whose extinction is dominated by dust in the diffuse interstellar medium. The observations presented here augment an ongoing study of the organic component of the diffuse interstellar medium. These spectra contain a broad feature centered near 3300/cm (3.0 micrometers) and/or a feature with a more complex profile near 2950/cm (3.4 micrometers), the latter of which is attributed to saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons in interstellar grains and is the primary interest of this paper. As in our earlier work, the similarity of the absorption bands near 2950/cm (3.4 micrometers) along different lines of sight and the correlation of these features with interstellar extinction reveal that the carrier of this band lies in the dust in the diffuse interstellar medium (DISM). At least 2.5% of the cosmic carbon in the local interstellar medium and 4% toward the Galactic center is tied up in the carrier of the 2950/cm (3.4 micrometer) band. The spectral structure of the diffuse dust hydrocarbon C-H stretch absorption features is reasonably similar to UV photolyzed laboratory ice residues and is quite similar to the carbonaceous component of the Murchison meteorite. The similarity between the DISM and the meteoritic spectrum suggests that some of the interstellar material originally incorporated into the solar nebula may have survived relatively untouched in primitive solar system bodies. Comparisons of the DISM spectrum to hydrogenated amorphous carbon and quenched carbonaceous composite are also presented. The AV/tau ratio for the 2950/cm (3.4 micrometer) feature is lower toward the Galactic center than toward sources in the local solar neighborhood (approximately 150 for the Galactic center sources vs. approximately 250 for the local ISM sources). A similar trend has been observed previously for silicates in the diffuse medium by Roche & Aitken, suggesting that (1) the silicate and carbonaceous materials in

  4. Near-infrared absorption spectroscopy of interstellar hydrocarbon grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendleton, Y. J.; Sandford, S. A.; Allamandola, L. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Sellgren, K.

    1994-01-01

    We present new 3600 - 2700/cm (2.8 - 3.7 micrometer) spectra of objects whose extinction is dominated by dust in the diffuse interstellar medium. The observations presented here augment an ongoing study of the organic component of the diffuse interstellar medium. These spectra contain a broad feature centered near 3300/cm (3.0 micrometers) and/or a feature with a more complex profile near 2950/cm (3.4 micrometers), the latter of which is attributed to saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons in interstellar grains and is the primary interest of this paper. As in our earlier work, the similarity of the absorption bands near 2950/cm (3.4 micrometers) along different lines of sight and the correlation of these features with interstellar extinction reveal that the carrier of this band lies in the dust in the diffuse interstellar medium (DISM). At least 2.5% of the cosmic carbon in the local interstellar medium and 4% toward the Galactic center is tied up in the carrier of the 2950/cm (3.4 micrometer) band. The spectral structure of the diffuse dust hydrocarbon C-H stretch absorption features is reasonably similar to UV photolyzed laboratory ice residues and is quite similar to the carbonaceous component of the Murchison meteorite. The similarity between the DISM and the meteoritic spectrum suggests that some of the interstellar material originally incorporated into the solar nebula may have survived relatively untouched in primitive solar system bodies. Comparisons of the DISM spectrum to hydrogenated amorphous carbon and quenched carbonaceous composite are also presented. The A(sub V)/tau ratio for the 2950/cm (3.4 micrometer) feature is lower toward the Galactic center than toward sources in the local solar neighborhood (approximately 150 for the Galactic center sources vs. approximately 250 for the local ISM sources). A similar trend has been observed previously for silicates in the diffuse medium by Roche & Aitken, suggesting that (1) the silicate and carbonaceous

  5. Reconstruction of combustion temperature and gas concentration distributions using line-of-sight tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhirong; Sun, Pengshuai; Pang, Tao; Xia, Hua; Cui, Xiaojuan; Li, Zhe; Han, Luo; Wu, Bian; Wang, Yu; Sigrist, Markus W.; Dong, Fengzhong

    2016-07-01

    Spatial temperature and gas concentration distributions are crucial for combustion studies to characterize the combustion position and to evaluate the combustion regime and the released heat quantity. Optical computer tomography (CT) enables the reconstruction of temperature and gas concentration fields in a flame on the basis of line-of-sight tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (LOS-TDLAS). A pair of H2O absorption lines at wavelengths 1395.51 and 1395.69 nm is selected. Temperature and H2O concentration distributions for a flat flame furnace are calculated by superimposing two absorption peaks with a discrete algebraic iterative algorithm and a mathematical fitting algorithm. By comparison, direct absorption spectroscopy measurements agree well with the thermocouple measurements and yield a good correlation. The CT reconstruction data of different air-to-fuel ratio combustion conditions (incomplete combustion and full combustion) and three different types of burners (one, two, and three flat flame furnaces) demonstrate that TDLAS has the potential of short response time and enables real-time temperature and gas concentration distribution measurements for combustion diagnosis.

  6. Monitoring spacecraft atmosphere contaminants by laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinfeld, J. I.

    1976-01-01

    Laser-based spectrophotometric methods which have been proposed for the detection of trace concentrations of gaseous contaminants include Raman backscattering (LIDAR) and passive radiometry (LOPAIR). Remote sensing techniques using laser spectrometry are presented and in particular a simple long-path laser absorption method (LOLA), which is capable of resolving complex mixtures of closely related trace contaminants at ppm levels is discussed. A number of species were selected for study which are representative of those most likely to accumulate in closed environments, such as submarines or long-duration manned space flights. Computer programs were developed which will permit a real-time analysis of the monitored atmosphere. Estimates of the dynamic range of this monitoring technique for various system configurations, and comparison with other methods of analysis, are given.

  7. Infrared Spectroscopy of Explosives Residues: Measurement Techniques and Spectral Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Mark C.; Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2015-03-11

    Infrared laser spectroscopy of explosives is a promising technique for standoff and non-contact detection applications. However, the interpretation of spectra obtained in typical standoff measurement configurations presents numerous challenges. Understanding the variability in observed spectra from explosives residues and particles is crucial for design and implementation of detection algorithms with high detection confidence and low false alarm probability. We discuss a series of infrared spectroscopic techniques applied toward measuring and interpreting the reflectance spectra obtained from explosives particles and residues. These techniques utilize the high spectral radiance, broad tuning range, rapid wavelength tuning, high scan reproducibility, and low noise ofmore » an external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) system developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The ECQCL source permits measurements in configurations which would be either impractical or overly time-consuming with broadband, incoherent infrared sources, and enables a combination of rapid measurement speed and high detection sensitivity. The spectroscopic methods employed include standoff hyperspectral reflectance imaging, quantitative measurements of diffuse reflectance spectra, reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, microscopic imaging and spectroscopy, and nano-scale imaging and spectroscopy. Measurements of explosives particles and residues reveal important factors affecting observed reflectance spectra, including measurement geometry, substrate on which the explosives are deposited, and morphological effects such as particle shape, size, orientation, and crystal structure.« less

  8. Research on atmospheric CO2 remote sensing with open-path tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and comparison methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Fengxin; Guo, Jinjia; Sun, Jiayun; Li, Jie; Zhao, Chaofang; Liu, Zhishen

    2017-06-01

    An open-path atmospheric CO2 measurement system was built based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). The CO2 absorption line near 2 μm was selected, measuring the atmospheric CO2 with direct absorption spectroscopy and carrying on the comparative experiment with multipoint measuring instruments of the open-path. The detection limit of the TDLAS system is 1.94×10-6. The calibration experiment of three AZ-7752 handheld CO2 measuring instruments was carried out with the Los Gatos Research gas analyzer. The consistency of the results was good, and the handheld instrument could be used in the TDLAS system after numerical calibration. With the contrast of three AZ-7752 and their averages, the correlation coefficients are 0.8828, 0.9004, 0.9079, and 0.9393 respectively, which shows that the open-path TDLAS has the best correlation with the average of three AZ-7752 and measures the concentration of atmospheric CO2 accurately. Multipoint measurement provides a convenient comparative method for open-path TDLAS.

  9. Absorption and luminescence spectroscopy of mass-selected flavin adenine dinucleotide mono-anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomozzi, L.; Kjær, C.; Langeland Knudsen, J.; Andersen, L. H.; Brøndsted Nielsen, S.; Stockett, M. H.

    2018-06-01

    We report the absorption profile of isolated Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide (FAD) mono-anions recorded using photo-induced dissociation action spectroscopy. In this charge state, one of the phosphoric acid groups is deprotonated and the chromophore itself is in its neutral oxidized state. These measurements cover the first four optical transitions of FAD with excitation energies from 2.3 to 6.0 eV (210-550 nm). The S0 → S2 transition is strongly blue shifted relative to aqueous solution, supporting the view that this transition has a significant charge-transfer character. The remaining bands are close to their solution-phase positions. This confirms that the large discrepancy between quantum chemical calculations of vertical transition energies and solution-phase band maxima cannot be explained by solvent effects. We also report the luminescence spectrum of FAD mono-anions in vacuo. The gas-phase Stokes shift for S1 is 3000 cm-1, which is considerably larger than any previously reported for other molecular ions and consistent with a significant displacement of the ground and excited state potential energy surfaces. Consideration of the vibronic structure is thus essential for simulating the absorption and luminescence spectra of flavins.

  10. Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy: Watching atoms dance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, Chris J.; Pham, Van-Thai; Gawelda, Wojciech; van der Veen, Renske M.; El Nahhas, Amal; Johnson, Steven L.; Beaud, Paul; Ingold, Gerhard; Lima, Frederico; Vithanage, Dimali A.; Benfatto, Maurizio; Grolimund, Daniel; Borca, Camelia; Kaiser, Maik; Hauser, Andreas; Abela, Rafael; Bressler, Christian; Chergui, Majed

    2009-11-01

    The introduction of pump-probe techniques to the field of x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has allowed the monitoring of both structural and electronic dynamics of disordered systems in the condensed phase with unprecedented accuracy, both in time and in space. We present results on the electronically excited high-spin state structure of an Fe(II) molecular species, [FeII(bpy)3]2+, in aqueous solution, resolving the Fe-N bond distance elongation as 0.2 Å. In addition an analysis technique using the reduced χ2 goodness of fit between FEFF EXAFS simulations and the experimental transient absorption signal in energy space has been successfully tested as a function of excited state population and chemical shift, demonstrating its applicability in situations where the fractional excited state population cannot be determined through other measurements. Finally by using a novel ultrafast hard x-ray 'slicing' source the question of how the molecule relaxes after optical excitation has been successfully resolved using femtosecond XANES.

  11. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and EPR studies of oriented spinach thylakoid preparations

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J.C.

    In this study, oriented Photosystem II (PS II) particles from spinach chloroplasts are studied with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to determine more details of the structure of the oxygen evolving complex (OEC). The nature of halide binding to Mn is also studied with Cl K-edge and Mn EXAFS (extended x-ray absorption fine structure) of Mn-Cl model compounds, and with Mn EXAFS of oriented PS II in which Br has replaced Cl. Attention is focused on the following: photosynthesis and the oxygen evolving complex; determination of mosaic spread in oriented photosystem II particles from signal IImore » EPR measurement; oriented EXAFS--studies of PS II in the S{sub 2} state; structural changes in PS II as a result of treatment with ammonia: EPR and XAS studies; studies of halide binding to Mn: Cl K-edge and Mn EXAFS of Mn-Cl model compounds and Mn EXAFS of oriented Br-treated photosystem II.« less

  12. Application of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy in the detection of oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xin; Jin, Xing

    2015-10-01

    Most aircrafts is driven by chemic energy which is released in the combustion process. For improving the capability of engine and controlling the running on-time, the processes of fuel physics and chemistry need to be analysis by kinds of high quality sensor. In the research of designing and improving the processes of fuel physics and chemistry, the concentration, temperature and velocity of kinds of gas in the combustor need to be detected and measured. In addition, these engines and research equipments are always in the harsh environment of high temperature, high pressure and high speed. The harsh environment needs the sensor to be high reliability, well repetition, no cross- sensitivity between gases, and the traditional measurement system can't satisfy the metrical requirement well. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) analytic measurement technology can well satisfy the measurement in the harsh environment, which can support the whole measurement plan and high quality measurement system. Because the TDLAS sensor has the excellence of small bulk, light weight, high reliability and well specifically measurement, the TDLAS measurement technology has wide prospects. Different from most measurements, only a beam of laser can be pass through the measured environment by TDLAS, and the measurement equipment needn't be set in the harsh environment. So, the TDLAS equipment can't be interrupted by the measured equipment. The ability of subsistence in the harsh environment is very valuable, especially in the measurement on the subject of aerospace with environment of high speed, combustion and plasma. This paper focuses on the collecting the articles on the subject of oxygen detection of TDLAS. By analyzing the research and results of the articles, we conclude the central issues, difficulties and results. And we can get some instructive conclusions.

  13. FEASIBILITY STUDY TO DEMONSTRATE APPLICABILITY OF TUNABLE INFRARED LASER EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY TECHNOLOGY TO MEASURE AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project involves the real-time measurement of air quality using open-path IR spectroscopy. A prototype open-path tunable laser absorption spectroscopy instrument was designed, built, and successfully operated for several hundred hours between October and December 2000. The...

  14. Ultrafast Transient Absorption Spectroscopy of Polymer-Based Organophotoredox Catalysts Mimicking Transition-Metal Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamhawi, Abdelqader; Paul, Anam C.; Smith, Justin D.; Handa, Sachin; Liu, Jinjun

    2017-06-01

    Transition-metal complexes of rare earth metals including ruthenium and iridium are most commonly employed as visible-light photocatalysts. Despite their highly important and broad applications, they have many disadvantages including high cost associated with low abundance in earth crust, potential toxicity, requirement of specialized ligands for desired activity, and difficulty in recycling of metal contents as well as associated ligands. Polymer-based organophotoredox catalysts are promising alternatives and possess unique advantages such as easier synthesis from inexpensive starting material, longer excited state life time, broad range of activity, sustainability, and recyclability. In this research talk, time-resolved photoluminescence and femtosecond transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy measurements of three novel polymer-based organophotoredox catalysts will be presented. By our synthetic team, their catalytic activity has been proven in some highly valuable chemical transformations, that otherwise require transition metal complexes. Time-resolved spectroscopic investigations have demonstrated that photoinduced processes in these catalysts are similar to the transition metal complexes. Especially, intramolecular vibrational relaxation, internal conversion, and intersystem crossing from the S1 state to the T1 state all occur on a sub-picosecond timescale. The long lifetime of the T1 state ( 2-3 microsecond) renders these polymers potent oxidizing and reducing agents. A spectroscopic and kinetic model has been developed for global fitting of TA spectra in both the frequency and time domains. Implication of the current ultrafast spectroscopy studies of these novel molecules to their roles in photocatalysis will be discussed.

  15. Nanosecond step-scan FT-infrared absorption spectroscopy in photochemistry and catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frei, H.

    1998-06-01

    Time-resolved step-scan FT-IR absorption spectroscopy has been expanded to a resolution of 20 nanosecond. Following a description of the experimental set-up, applications in four research areas are presented. In the first project, we discuss a reversible isomerization, namely the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle. Main results are the discovery of 2 processes with distinct kinetics on the nanosecond time scale not detected by previous spectroscopic techniques, and observation of an instantaneous response of the protein environment to chromophore dynamics within the nanosecond laser pulse duration. In a second project, alkane C-H bond activation by a transition metal complex in room temperature solution is investigated and the first measurement of the formation of a C-H insertion product reported (alkyl hydride). Then, a nanosecond study of a pericyclic reaction, the ring-opening of cyclohexadiene, is discussed. The fourth example describes the first observation of a transient molecule in a zeolite matrix, a triplet excited quinone, by time-resolved infrared spectroscopy.

  16. A flexible gas flow reaction cell for in situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kroner, Anna B., E-mail: anna.kroner@diamond.ac.uk; Gilbert, Martin; Duller, Graham

    2016-07-27

    A capillary-based sample environment with hot air blower and integrated gas system was developed at Diamond to conduct X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies of materials under time-resolved, in situ conditions. The use of a hot air blower, operating in the temperature range of 298-1173 K, allows introduction of other techniques e.g. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy for combined techniques studies. The flexibility to use either quartz or Kapton capillaries allows users to perform XAS measurement at energies as low as 5600 eV. To demonstrate performance, time-resolved, in situ XAS results of Rh catalysts during the process of activation (Rh K-edge,more » Ce L{sub 3}-edge and Cr K-edge) and the study of mixed oxide membrane (La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3−δ}) under various partial oxygen pressure conditions are described.« less

  17. A reaction cell for ambient pressure soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castán-Guerrero, C.; Krizmancic, D.; Bonanni, V.; Edla, R.; Deluisa, A.; Salvador, F.; Rossi, G.; Panaccione, G.; Torelli, P.

    2018-05-01

    We present a new experimental setup for performing X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) in the soft X-ray range at ambient pressure. The ambient pressure XAS setup is fully compatible with the ultra high vacuum environment of a synchrotron radiation spectroscopy beamline end station by means of ultrathin Si3N4 membranes acting as windows for the X-ray beam and seal of the atmospheric sample environment. The XAS detection is performed in total electron yield (TEY) mode by probing the drain current from the sample with a picoammeter. The high signal/noise ratio achievable in the TEY mode, combined with a continuous scanning of the X-ray energies, makes it possible recording XAS spectra in a few seconds. The first results show the performance of this setup to record fast XAS spectra from sample surfaces exposed at atmospheric pressure, even in the case of highly insulating samples. The use of a permanent magnet inside the reaction cell enables the measurement of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism at ambient pressure.

  18. Examination of the Measurement of Absorption Using the Reverberant Room Method for Highly Absorptive Acoustic Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Anne M.; Chris Nottoli; Eric Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    The absorption coefficient for material specimens are needed to quantify the expected acoustic performance of that material in its actual usage and environment. The ASTM C423-09a standard, "Standard Test Method for Sound Absorption and Sound Absorption Coefficients by the Reverberant Room Method" is often used to measure the absorption coefficient of material test specimens. This method has its basics in the Sabine formula. Although widely used, the interpretation of these measurements are a topic of interest. For example, in certain cases the measured Sabine absorption coefficients are greater than 1.0 for highly absorptive materials. This is often attributed to the diffraction edge effect phenomenon. An investigative test program to measure the absorption properties of highly absorbent melamine foam has been performed at the Riverbank Acoustical Laboratories. This paper will present and discuss the test results relating to the effect of the test materials' surface area, thickness and edge sealing conditions. A follow-on paper is envisioned that will present and discuss the results relating to the spacing between multiple piece specimens, and the mounting condition of the test specimen.

  19. The influence of atomic alignment on absorption and emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Heshou; Yan, Huirong; Richter, Philipp

    2018-06-01

    Spectroscopic observations play essential roles in astrophysics. They are crucial for determining physical parameters in the universe, providing information about the chemistry of various astronomical environments. The proper execution of the spectroscopic analysis requires accounting for all the physical effects that are compatible to the signal-to-noise ratio. We find in this paper the influence on spectroscopy from the atomic/ground state alignment owing to anisotropic radiation and modulated by interstellar magnetic field, has significant impact on the study of interstellar gas. In different observational scenarios, we comprehensively demonstrate how atomic alignment influences the spectral analysis and provide the expressions for correcting the effect. The variations are even more pronounced for multiplets and line ratios. We show the variation of the deduced physical parameters caused by the atomic alignment effect, including alpha-to-iron ratio ([X/Fe]) and ionisation fraction. Synthetic observations are performed to illustrate the visibility of such effect with current facilities. A study of PDRs in ρ Ophiuchi cloud is presented to demonstrate how to account for atomic alignment in practice. Our work has shown that due to its potential impact, atomic alignment has to be included in an accurate spectroscopic analysis of the interstellar gas with current observational capability.

  20. Intracavity Laser Absorption Spectroscopy of Platinum Nitride in the Near Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Leah C.; Harris, Rachel A.; Whittemore, Sean; O'Brien, James J.

    2009-06-01

    A new electronic transition of PtN has been recorded using intracavity laser absorption spectroscopy. Four red-degraded branches are observed, with a bandheads located at 11733 and 11725 wn. The results of the analysis will be presented and compared with ab initio calculations.

  1. Investigation of Diode Pumped Alkali Laser Atmospheric Transmission Using Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    atmosphere”. Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics, 82(1):133–140, 2006. 11. Barrass, S., Y. Grard, R.J. Holdsworth, and P.A. Martin . “Near-infrared tun...15. Brown, M. S., S. Williams, C. D. Lindstrom , and D. L. Barone. Progress in Applying Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy to Scramjet

  2. X-Ray Absorption near Edge Structure Spectroscopy of Nanodiamonds from the Allende Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, G. J.; Keller, L. P.; Hill, H.; Jacobsen, C.; Wirick, S.

    2000-01-01

    Carbon X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure Spectroscopy shows Allende DM nanodiamonds have two pre-edge peaks, consistent with other small diamonds, but fail to show a diamond exciton which is seen in 3.6 nm diamond thin films.

  3. DETERMINING BERYLLIUM IN DRINKING WATER BY GRAPHITE FURNACE ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A direct graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy method for the analysis of beryllium in drinking water has been derived from a method for determining beryllium in urine. Ammonium phosphomolybdate and ascorbic acid were employed as matrix modifiers. The matrix modifiers s...

  4. Tomographic multiaxis-differential optical absorption spectroscopy observations of Sun-illuminated targets: a technique providing well-defined absorption paths in the boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frins, Erna; Bobrowski, Nicole; Platt, Ulrich; Wagner, Thomas

    2006-08-01

    A novel experimental procedure to measure the near-surface distribution of atmospheric trace gases by using passive multiaxis differential absorption optical spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) is proposed. The procedure consists of pointing the receiving telescope of the spectrometer to nonreflecting surfaces or to bright targets placed at known distances from the measuring device, which are illuminated by sunlight. We show that the partial trace gas absorptions between the top of the atmosphere and the target can be easily removed from the measured total absorption. Thus it is possible to derive the average concentration of trace gases such as NO2, HCHO, SO2, H2O, Glyoxal, BrO, and others along the line of sight between the instrument and the target similar to the well-known long-path DOAS observations (but with much less expense). If tomographic arrangements are used, even two- or three-dimensional trace gas distributions can be retrieved. The basic assumptions of the proposed method are confirmed by test measurements taken across the city of Heidelberg.

  5. Combined tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and monochromatic radiation thermometry in ammonium dinitramide-based thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Hui; Ou, Dongbin; Chen, Lianzhong; Li, Fei; Yu, Xilong

    2018-02-01

    Nonintrusive temperature measurements for a real ammonium dinitramide (ADN)-based thruster by using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and monochromatic radiation thermometry are proposed. The ADN-based thruster represents a promising future space propulsion employing green, nontoxic propellant. Temperature measurements in the chamber enable quantitative thermal analysis for the thruster, providing access to evaluate thermal properties of the thruster and optimize thruster design. A laser-based sensor measures temperature of combustion gas in the chamber, while a monochromatic thermometry system based on thermal radiation is utilized to monitor inner wall temperature in the chamber. Additional temperature measurements of the outer wall temperature are conducted on the injector, catalyst bed, and combustion chamber of the thruster by using thermocouple, respectively. An experimental ADN thruster is redesigned with optimizing catalyst bed length of 14 mm and steady-state firing tests are conducted under various feed pressures over the range from 5 to 12 bar at a typical ignition temperature of 200°C. A threshold of feed pressure higher than 8 bar is required for the thruster's normal operation and upstream movement of the heat release zone is revealed in the combustion chamber out of temperature evolution in the chamber.

  6. Pavement sound absorption measurements in the U.S.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-08-19

    In the U.S., the topic of pavement sound absorption in regard to tire-pavement noise has shown increased interest and research over the last several years. Four types of pavement sound absorption measurements with various applications are discussed: ...

  7. Tunable diode-laser absorption measurements of methane at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagali, V.; Chou, S. I.; Baer, D. S.; Hanson, R. K.; Segall, J.

    1996-07-01

    A diode-laser sensor system based on absorption spectroscopy techniques has been developed to monitor CH4 nonintrusively in high-temperature environments. Fundamental spectroscopic parameters, including the line strengths of the transitions in the R(6) manifold of the 2 nu 3 band near 1.646 mu m, have been determined from high-resolution absorption measurements in a heated static cell. In addition, a corrected expression for the CH 4 partition function has been validated experimentally over the temperature range from 400 to 915 K. Potential applications of the diode-laser sensor system include process control, combustion measurements, and atmospheric monitoring.

  8. Determination of Calcium in Cereal with Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy: An Experiment for a Quantitative Methods of Analysis Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzi, Ali; Kreuz, Bette; Fischer, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    An experiment for determination of calcium in cereal using two-increment standard addition method in conjunction with flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) is demonstrated. The experiment is intended to introduce students to the principles of atomic absorption spectroscopy giving them hands on experience using quantitative methods of…

  9. Determining the Concentrations and Temperatures of Products in a CF_4/CHF_3/N_2 Plasma via Submillimeter Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helal, Yaser H.; Neese, Christopher F.; De Lucia, Frank C.; Ewing, Paul R.; Agarwal, Ankur; Craver, Barry; Stout, Phillip J.; Armacost, Michael D.

    2017-06-01

    Plasmas used for the manufacturing of semiconductor devices are similar in pressure and temperature to those used in the laboratory for the study of astrophysical species in the submillimeter (SMM) spectral region. The methods and technology developed in the SMM for these laboratory studies are directly applicable for diagnostic measurements in the semiconductor manufacturing industry. Many of the molecular neutrals, radicals, and ions present in processing plasmas have been studied and their spectra have been cataloged or are in the literature. In this work, a continuous wave, intensity calibrated SMM absorption spectrometer was developed as a remote sensor of gas and plasma species. A major advantage of intensity calibrated rotational absorption spectroscopy is its ability to determine absolute concentrations and temperatures of plasma species from first principles without altering the plasma environment. An important part of this work was the design of the optical components which couple 500-750 GHz radiation through a commercial inductively coupled plasma chamber. The measurement of transmission spectra was simultaneously fit for background and absorption signal. The measured absorption was used to calculate absolute densities and temperatures of polar species. Measurements for CHF_3, CF_2, FCN, HCN, and CN made in a CF_4/CHF_3/N_2 plasma will be presented. Temperature equilibrium among species will be shown and the common temperature is leveraged to obtain accurate density measurements for simultaneously observed species. The densities and temperatures of plasma species are studied as a function of plasma parameters, including flow rate, pressure, and discharge power.

  10. Measurement of HCl absorption coefficients with a DF laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, C. H.; Allario, F.

    1977-01-01

    Absorption coefficients in the fundamental P-branch of HCl at several DF laser transitions from 2439.02/cm to 2862.87/cm have been measured experimentally. The 2-1 P(3) DF laser transition has been shown to overlap the P(6) HCl-37 absorption line within the halfwidth of an atmospherically broadened line. The absorption coefficient k was measured to be 5.64 plus or minus 0.28/(atm-cm) for a 0.27% mixture of HCl in N2 at a total pressure of 760 torr. A theoretical and experimental comparison of the pressure dependence of k showed that the 2-1 P(3) DF transition lies 1.32 plus or minus 0.15 GHz from the center of the P(6) HCl absorption line. Applications of these results to differential absorption lidar and to heterodyne detection are discussed.

  11. Ultrafast carrier dynamics of titanic acid nanotubes investigated by transient absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zhao, Hui; Pan, Lin Yun; Weng, Yu Xiang; Nakato, Yoshihiro; Tamai, Naoto

    2010-12-01

    Carrier dynamics of titanic acid nanotubes (phase of H2Ti2O5.H2O) deposited on a quartz plate was examined by visible/near-IR transient absorption spectroscopy with an ultraviolet excitation. The carrier dynamics of titanic acid nanotubes follows the fast trapping process which attributed to the intrinsic tubular structure, the relaxation of shallow trapped carriers and the recombination as a second-order kinetic process. Transient absorption of titanic acid nanotubes was dominated by the absorption of surface-trapped holes in visible region around 500 nm, which was proved by the faster decay dynamics in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol as a hole-scavenger. However, the slow relaxation of free carriers was much more pronounced in the TiO2 single crystals, as compared with the transient absorption spectra of titanic acid nanotubes under the similar excitation.

  12. Measurement of atmospheric ozone by cavity ring-down spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Washenfelder, R A; Wagner, N L; Dube, W P; Brown, S S

    2011-04-01

    Ozone plays a key role in both the Earth's radiative budget and photochemistry. Accurate, robust analytical techniques for measuring its atmospheric abundance are of critical importance. Cavity ring-down spectroscopy has been successfully used for sensitive and accurate measurements of many atmospheric species. However, this technique has not been used for atmospheric measurements of ozone, because the strongest ozone absorption bands occur in the ultraviolet spectral region, where Rayleigh and Mie scattering cause significant cavity losses and dielectric mirror reflectivities are limited. Here, we describe a compact instrument that measures O3 by chemical conversion to NO2 in excess NO, with subsequent detection by cavity ring-down spectroscopy. This method provides a simple, accurate, and high-precision measurement of atmospheric ozone. The instrument consists of two channels. The sum of NO2 and converted O3 (defined as Ox) is measured in the first channel, while NO2 alone is measured in the second channel. NO2 is directly detected in each channel by cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a laser diode light source at 404 nm. The limit of detection for O3 is 26 pptv (2 sigma precision) at 1 s time resolution. The accuracy of the measurement is ±2.2%, with the largest uncertainty being the effective NO2 absorption cross-section. The linear dynamic range of the instrument has been verified from the detection limit to above 200 ppbv (r2>99.99%). The observed precision on signal (2 sigma) with 41 ppbv O3 is 130 pptv in 1 s. Comparison of this instrument to UV absorbance instruments for ambient O3 concentrations shows linear agreement (r2=99.1%) with slope of 1.012±0.002.

  13. Diagnosing the plasma nonuniformity in an iron opacity experiment by spatially resolved Al 1s-2p absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiaoding; Research Center of Laser Fusion, P. O. Box 919-986, Mianyang 621900; Zhang Jiyan

    Generating a well-characterized hot-dense sample is of great importance to high quality opacity measurements. In this paper, we report on an experimental investigation of the plasma nonuniformity in a radiatively heated iron opacity sample by spatially resolved Al 1s-2p absorption spectroscopy. The iron sample was tamped by plastic at both sides and was heated by thermal x-ray radiation generated in a gold Hohlraum, and an Al layer attached to it was used as a tracer for temperature diagnosis. Spatially resolved 1s-2p transition absorption spectra of the Al tracer were measured by the technique of point-projection-spectroscopy, and temperatures in the samplemore » were obtained by comparing the measured spectra with detailed-term-accounting model calculations, with the density of the sample deduced using a combination of side-on radiography and radiative hydrodynamic simulation. The results showed the existence of axial temperature nonuniformity in the sample, and these temperature variations have been used to explain the shift of iron 2p-3d transition absorption feature along the axial direction of the Hohlraum used to heat the sample successfully.« less

  14. Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy and Chemical Kinetics of Free Radicals. Final Performance Report, August 1, 1985--July 31, 1994

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Curl, R. F.; Glass, G. P.

    1995-06-01

    This research was directed at the detection, monitoring, and study (by infrared absorption spectroscopy) of the chemical kinetic behavior of small free radical species thought to be important intermediates in combustion. The work typically progressed from the detection and analysis of the infrared spectrum of combustion radical to the utilization of the infrared spectrum thus obtained in the investigation of chemical kinetics of the radical species. The methodology employed was infrared kinetic spectroscopy. In this technique the radical is produced by UV flash photolysis using an excimer laser and then its transient infrared absorption is observed using a single frequency cw laser as the source of the infrared probe light. When the probe laser frequency is near the center of an absorption line of the radical produced by the flash, the transient infrared absorption rises rapidly and then decays as the radical reacts with the precursor or with substances introduced for the purpose of studying the reaction kinetics or with itself. The decay times observed in these studies varied from less than one microsecond to more than one millisecond. By choosing appropriate time windows after the flash and the average infrared detector signal in a window as data channels, the infrared spectrum of the radical may be obtained. By locking the infrared probe laser to the center of the absorption line and measuring the rate of decay of the transient infrared absorption signal as the chemical composition of the gas mixture is varied, the chemical kinetics of the radical may be investigated. In what follows the systems investigated and the results obtained are outlined.

  15. Photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy of single optically trapped aerosol droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covert, Paul A.; Cremer, Johannes W.; Signorell, Ruth

    2017-08-01

    Photoacoustics have been widely used for the study of aerosol optical properties. To date, these studies have been performed on particle ensembles, with minimal ability to control for particle size. Here, we present our singleparticle photoacoustic spectrometer. The sensitivity and stability of the instrument is discussed, along with results from two experiments that illustrate the unique capabilities of this instrument. In the first experiment, we present a measurement of the particle size-dependence of the photoacoustic response. Our results confirm previous models of aerosol photoacoustics that had yet to be experimentally tested. The second set of results reveals a size-dependence of photochemical processes within aerosols that results from the nanofocusing of light within individual droplets.

  16. Coherent Raman spectroscopy for supersonic flow measurments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    She, C. Y.

    1986-01-01

    In collaboration with NASA/Langley Research Center, a truly nonintrusive and nonseeding method for measuring supersonic molecular flow parameters was proposed and developed at Colorado State University. The feasibility of this Raman Doppler Velocimetry (RDV), currently operated in a scanning mode, was demonstrated not only in a laboratory environment at Colorado State University, but also in a major wind tunnel at NASA/Langley Research Center. The research progress of the RDV development is summarized. In addition, methods of coherent Rayleigh-Brillouin spectroscopy and single-pulse coherent Raman spectroscopy are investigated, respectively, for measurements of high-pressure and turbulent flows.

  17. Differential absorption lidar measurements of atmospheric temperature and pressure profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korb, C. L.

    1981-01-01

    The theory and methodology of using differential absorption lidar techniques for the remote measurement of atmospheric pressure profiles, surface pressure, and temperature profiles from ground, air, and space-based platforms are presented. Pressure measurements are effected by means of high resolution measurement of absorption at the edges of the oxygen A band lines where absorption is pressure dependent due to collisional line broadening. Temperature is assessed using measurements of the absorption at the center of the oxygen A band line originating from a quantum state with high ground state energy. The population of the state is temperature dependent, allowing determination of the temperature through the Boltzmann term. The results of simulations of the techniques using Voigt profile and variational analysis are reported for ground-based, airborne, and Shuttle-based systems. Accuracies in the 0.5-1.0 K and 0.1-0.3% range are projected.

  18. Probing radical kinetics in the afterglow of pulsed discharges by absorption spectroscopy with light emitting diodes: Application to BCl radical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vempaire, D.; Cunge, G.

    2009-01-01

    Measuring decay rates of radical densities in the afterglow of pulsed plasmas is a powerful approach to determine their gas phase and surface loss kinetics. We show that this measurement can be achieved by absorption spectroscopy with low cost and simple apparatus by using light emitting diodes as a light source. The feasibility is demonstrated by monitoring BCl radicals in pulsed low pressure high-density BCl3 plasmas. It is shown that BCl is lost both in the gas phase by reacting with Cl2 with a cross section of 9 Å2 and in the chamber walls with a sticking coefficient of about 0.3.

  19. Using of laser spectroscopy and chemometrics methods for identification of patients with lung cancer, patients with COPD and healthy people from absorption spectra of exhaled air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukreeva, Ekaterina B.; Bulanova, Anna A.; Kistenev, Yury V.; Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Nikiforova, Olga Yu.; Ponomarev, Yurii N.; Tuzikov, Sergei A.; Yumov, Evgeny L.

    2014-11-01

    The results of application of the joint use of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and chemometrics methods in gas analysis of exhaled air of patients with chronic respiratory diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer) are presented. The absorption spectra of exhaled breath of representatives of the target groups and healthy volunteers were measured; the selection by chemometrics methods of the most informative absorption coefficients in scan spectra in terms of the separation investigated nosology was implemented.

  20. Communication: Hydrogen bonding interactions in water-alcohol mixtures from X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Royce K.; Smith, Jacob W.; Saykally, Richard J., E-mail: saykally@berkeley.edu

    While methanol and ethanol are macroscopically miscible with water, their mixtures exhibit negative excess entropies of mixing. Despite considerable effort in both experiment and theory, there remains significant disagreement regarding the origin of this effect. Different models for the liquid mixture structure have been proposed to address this behavior, including the enhancement of the water hydrogen bonding network around the alcohol hydrophobic groups and microscopic immiscibility or clustering. We have investigated mixtures of methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol with water by liquid microjet X-ray absorption spectroscopy on the oxygen K-edge, an atom-specific probe providing details of both inter- and intra-molecular structure.more » The measured spectra evidence a significant enhancement of hydrogen bonding originating from the methanol and ethanol hydroxyl groups upon the addition of water. These additional hydrogen bonding interactions would strengthen the liquid-liquid interactions, resulting in additional ordering in the liquid structures and leading to a reduction in entropy and a negative enthalpy of mixing, consistent with existing thermodynamic data. In contrast, the spectra of the isopropanol-water mixtures exhibit an increase in the number of broken alcohol hydrogen bonds for mixtures containing up to 0.5 water mole fraction, an observation consistent with existing enthalpy of mixing data, suggesting that the measured negative excess entropy is a result of clustering or micro-immiscibility.« less

  1. Absorption line metrology by optical feedback frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkart, Johannes; Kassi, Samir

    2015-04-01

    Optical feedback frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy (OFFS-CRDS) is a near-shot-noise-limited technique combining a sensitivity of with a highly linear frequency axis and sub-kHz resolution. Here, we give an in-depth review of the key elements of the experimental setup encompassing a highly stable V-shaped reference cavity, an integrated Mach-Zehnder modulator and a tightly locked ring-down cavity with a finesse of 450,000. Carrying out a detailed analysis of the spectrometer performance and its limitations, we revisit the photo-electron shot-noise limit in CRDS and discuss the impact of optical fringes. We demonstrate different active schemes for fringe cancelation by varying the phase of parasitic reflections. The proof-of-principle experiments reported here include a broadband high-resolution spectrum of carbon dioxide at 1.6 µm and an isolated line-shape measurement with a signal-to-noise ratio of 80,000. Beyond laboratory-based absorption line metrology for fundamental research, OFFS-CRDS holds a considerable potential for field laser measurements of trace gas concentrations and isotopic ratios by virtue of its small sample volume and footprint, the robust cavity-locking scheme and supreme precision.

  2. Total absorption spectroscopy of fission fragments relevant for reactor antineutrino spectra

    DOE PAGES

    Fallot, M.; Porta, A.; Meur, L. Le; ...

    2017-09-13

    Here, the accurate determination of reactor antineutrino spectra remains a very active research topic for which new methods of study have emerged in recent years. Indeed, following the long-recognized reactor anomaly (measured antineutrino deficit in short baseline reactor experiments when compared with spectral predictions), the three international reactor neutrino experiments Double Chooz, Daya Bay and Reno have recently demonstrated the existence of spectral distortions in their measurements with respect to the same predictions. These spectral predictions were obtained through the conversion of integral beta-energy spectra obtained at the ILL research reactor. Several studies have shown that the underlying nuclear physicsmore » required for the conversion of these spectra into antineutrino spectra is not totally understood. An alternative to such converted spectra is a complementary approach that consists of determining the antineutrino spectrum by means of the measurement and processing of nuclear data. The beta properties of some key fission products suffer from the pandemonium effect which can be circumvented by the use of the Total Absorption Gamma-ray Spectroscopy technique (TAGS). The two main contributors to the Pressurized Water Reactor antineutrino spectrum in the region where the spectral distortion has been observed are 92Rb and 142Cs, which have been measured at the radioactive beam facility of the University of Jyvaskyla in two TAGS experiments. We present the results of the analysis of the TAGS measurements of the β-decay properties of 92Rb along with preliminary results on 142Cs and report on the measurements already performed.« less

  3. Total absorption spectroscopy of fission fragments relevant for reactor antineutrino spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Fallot, M.; Porta, A.; Meur, L. Le

    Here, the accurate determination of reactor antineutrino spectra remains a very active research topic for which new methods of study have emerged in recent years. Indeed, following the long-recognized reactor anomaly (measured antineutrino deficit in short baseline reactor experiments when compared with spectral predictions), the three international reactor neutrino experiments Double Chooz, Daya Bay and Reno have recently demonstrated the existence of spectral distortions in their measurements with respect to the same predictions. These spectral predictions were obtained through the conversion of integral beta-energy spectra obtained at the ILL research reactor. Several studies have shown that the underlying nuclear physicsmore » required for the conversion of these spectra into antineutrino spectra is not totally understood. An alternative to such converted spectra is a complementary approach that consists of determining the antineutrino spectrum by means of the measurement and processing of nuclear data. The beta properties of some key fission products suffer from the pandemonium effect which can be circumvented by the use of the Total Absorption Gamma-ray Spectroscopy technique (TAGS). The two main contributors to the Pressurized Water Reactor antineutrino spectrum in the region where the spectral distortion has been observed are 92Rb and 142Cs, which have been measured at the radioactive beam facility of the University of Jyvaskyla in two TAGS experiments. We present the results of the analysis of the TAGS measurements of the β-decay properties of 92Rb along with preliminary results on 142Cs and report on the measurements already performed.« less

  4. Applications of “Tender” Energy (1-5 keV) X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy in Life Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Northrup, Paul; Leri, Alessandra; Tappero, Ryan

    The “tender” energy range of 1 to 5 keV, between the energy ranges of most “hard” (>5 keV) and “soft” (<1 keV) synchrotron X-ray facilities, offers some unique opportunities for synchrotron-based X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy in life sciences. In particular the K absorption edges of Na through Ca offer opportunities to study local structure, speciation, and chemistry of many important biological compounds, structures and processes. This is an area of largely untapped science, in part due to a scarcity of optimized facilities. Such measurements also entail unique experimental challenges. Lastly, this brief review describes the technique, its experimental challenges,more » recent progress in development of microbeam measurement capabilities, and several highlights illustrating applications in life sciences.« less

  5. Applications of “Tender” Energy (1-5 keV) X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy in Life Sciences

    DOE PAGES

    Northrup, Paul; Leri, Alessandra; Tappero, Ryan

    2016-02-15

    The “tender” energy range of 1 to 5 keV, between the energy ranges of most “hard” (>5 keV) and “soft” (<1 keV) synchrotron X-ray facilities, offers some unique opportunities for synchrotron-based X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy in life sciences. In particular the K absorption edges of Na through Ca offer opportunities to study local structure, speciation, and chemistry of many important biological compounds, structures and processes. This is an area of largely untapped science, in part due to a scarcity of optimized facilities. Such measurements also entail unique experimental challenges. Lastly, this brief review describes the technique, its experimental challenges,more » recent progress in development of microbeam measurement capabilities, and several highlights illustrating applications in life sciences.« less

  6. Two-Photon Absorption Spectroscopy of Rubidium with a Dual-Comb Tequnique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Akiko; Yoshida, Satoru; Hariki, Takuya; Nakajima, Yoshiaki; Minoshima, Kaoru

    2017-06-01

    Dual-comb spectroscopies have great potential for high-resolution molecular and atomic spectroscopies, thanks to the broadband comb spectrum consisting of dense narrow modes. In this study, we apply the dual-comb system to Doppler-free two-photon absorption spectroscopy. The outputs of two frequency combs excite several two-photon transitions of rubidium, and we obtained broadband Doppler-free spectra from dual-comb fluorescence signals. The fluorescence detection scheme circumvents the sensitivity limit which is effectively determined by the dynamic range of photodetectors in absorption-based dual-comb spectroscopies. Our system realized high-sensitive, Doppler-free high-resolution and broadband atomic spectroscopy. A part of observed spectra of 5S_{1/2} - 5D_{5/2} transition is shown in the figure. The hyperfine structures of the F" = 1 - F' = 3,2,1 transitions are fully-resolved and the spectral widths are approximately 5 MHz. The absolute frequency axis is precisely calibrated from comb mode frequencies which were stabilized to a GPS-disciplined clock. This work was supported by JST through the ERATO MINOSHIMA Intelligent Optical Synthesizer Project and Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Fellows (16J02345). A. Nishiyama, S. Yoshida, Y. Nakajima, H. Sasada, K. Nakagawa, A. Onae, K. and Minoshima, Opt. Express 24, 25894 (2016). A. Hipke, S. A. Meek, T. Ideguchi, T.W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, Phys. Rev. A 90, 011805(R) (2014).

  7. Investigation of periodically driven systems by x-ray absorption spectroscopy using asynchronous data collection mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, H.; Donetsky, D.; Liu, J.; Attenkofer, K.; Cheng, B.; Trelewicz, J. R.; Lubomirsky, I.; Stavitski, E.; Frenkel, A. I.

    2018-04-01

    We report the development, testing, and demonstration of a setup for modulation excitation spectroscopy experiments at the Inner Shell Spectroscopy beamline of National Synchrotron Light Source - II. A computer algorithm and dedicated software were developed for asynchronous data processing and analysis. We demonstrate the reconstruction of X-ray absorption spectra for different time points within the modulation pulse using a model system. This setup and the software are intended for a broad range of functional materials which exhibit structural and/or electronic responses to the external stimulation, such as catalysts, energy and battery materials, and electromechanical devices.

  8. Ultrafast relaxation dynamics of nitric oxide synthase studied by visible broadband transient absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Chih-Chang; Yabushita, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Chen, Pei-Feng; Liang, Keng S.

    2017-09-01

    Ultrafast dynamics of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) oxygenase domain was studied by transient absorption spectroscopy pumping at Soret band. The broadband visible probe spectrum has visualized the relaxation dynamics from the Soret band to Q-band and charge transfer (CT) band. Supported by two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy, global fitting analysis has successfully concluded the relaxation dynamics from the Soret band to be (1) electronic transition to Q-band (0.16 ps), (2) ligand dissociation and CT (0.94 ps), (3) relaxation of the CT state (4.0 ps), and (4) ligand rebinding (59 ps).

  9. Laser absorption spectroscopy of oxygen confined in highly porous hollow sphere xerogel.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Somesfalean, Gabriel; He, Sailing

    2014-02-10

    An Al2O3 xerogel with a distinctive microstructure is studied for the application of laser absorption spectroscopy of oxygen. The xerogel has an exceptionally high porosity (up to 88%) and a large pore size (up to 3.6 µm). Using the method of gas-in-scattering media absorption spectroscopy (GASMAS), a long optical path length (about 3.5m) and high enhancement factor (over 300 times) are achieved as the result of extremely strong multiple-scattering when the light is transmitted through the air-filled, hollow-sphere alumina xerogel. We investigate how the micro-physical feature influences the optical property. As part of the optical sensing system, the material's gas exchange dynamics are also experimentally studied.

  10. Charge Carrier Dynamics of Quantum Confined Semiconductor Nanoparticles Analyzed via Transient Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibert, Arthur Joseph, III

    Semiconductor nanoparticles are tiny crystalline structures (typically range from 1 - 100 nm) whose shape in many cases can be dictated through tailored chemical synthesis with atomic scale precision. The small size of these nanoparticles often results in quantum confinement (spatial confinement of wave functions), which imparts the ability to manipulate band-gap energies thus allowing them to be optimally engineered for different applications (i.e., photovoltaics, photocatalysis, imaging). However, charge carriers excited within these nanoparticles are often involved in many different processes: trapping, trap migration, Auger recombination, non-radiative relaxation, radiative relaxation, oxidation / reduction, or multiple exciton generation. Broadband ultrafast transient absorption laser spectroscopy is used to spectrally resolve the fate of excited charge carriers in both wavelength and time, providing insight as to what synthetic developments or operating conditions will be necessary to optimize their efficiency for certain applications. This thesis outlines the effort of resolving the dynamics of excited charge carriers for several Cd and Si based nanoparticle systems using this experimental technique. The thesis is organized into five chapters and two appendices as indicated below. Chapter 1 provides a brief introduction to the photophysics of semiconductor nanoparticles. It begins by defining what nanoparticles, semiconductors, charge carriers, and quantum confinement are. From there it details how the study of charge carrier dynamics within nanoparticles can lead to increased efficiency in applications such as photocatalysis. Finally, the experimental methodology associated with ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy is introduced and its power in mapping charge carrier dynamics is established. Chapter 2 (JPCC, 19647, 2011) introduces the first of the studied samples: water-solubilized 2D CdSe nanoribbons (NRs), which were synthesized in the Osterloh

  11. Intracavity Laser Absorption Spectroscopy of Platinum Nitride in the Near Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Leah C.; Womack, Kaitlin A.; O'Brien, James J.; Whittemore, Sean

    2013-06-01

    The (2,0) band of the A^{2}Σ^{-} - X^{2}Π_{1/2} electronic transition of PtN has been recorded using intracavity laser absorption spectroscopy. Transitions from ^{194}PtN, ^{195}PtN, and ^{196}PtN isotopologues are observed, as well as the nuclear hyperfine splitting due to ^{195}Pt with I=1/2. The results of the analysis will be presented and compared with ab initio calculations.

  12. Application toward Confocal Full-Field Microscopic X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tack, Pieter; Vekemans, Bart; Laforce, Brecht; Rudloff-Grund, Jennifer; Hernández, Willinton Y; Garrevoet, Jan; Falkenberg, Gerald; Brenker, Frank; Van Der Voort, Pascal; Vincze, Laszlo

    2017-02-07

    Using X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, information on the local chemical structure and oxidation state of an element of interest can be acquired. Conventionally, this information can be obtained in a spatially resolved manner by scanning a sample through a focused X-ray beam. Recently, full-field methods have been developed to obtain direct 2D chemical state information by imaging a large sample area. These methods are usually in transmission mode, thus restricting the use to thin and transmitting samples. Here, a fluorescence method is displayed using an energy-dispersive pnCCD detector, the SLcam, characterized by measurement times far superior to what is generally applicable. Additionally, this method operates in confocal mode, thus providing direct 3D spatially resolved chemical state information from a selected subvolume of a sample, without the need of rotating a sample. The method is applied to two samples: a gold-supported magnesia catalyst (Au/MgO) and a natural diamond containing Fe-rich inclusions. Both samples provide XANES spectra that can be overlapped with reference XANES spectra, allowing this method to be used for fingerprinting and linear combination analysis of known XANES reference compounds.

  13. Field-rugged sensitive hydrogen peroxide sensor based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frish, M. B.; Morency, J. R.; Laderer, M. C.; Wainner, R. T.; Parameswaran, K. R.; Kessler, W. J.; Druy, M. A.

    2010-04-01

    This paper reports the development and initial testing of a field-portable sensor for monitoring hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and water (H2O) vapor concentrations during building decontamination after accidental or purposeful exposure to hazardous biological materials. During decontamination, a sterilization system fills ambient air with water and peroxide vapor to near-saturation. The peroxide concentration typically exceeds several hundred ppm for tens of minutes, and subsequently diminishes below 1 ppm. The H2O2/ H2O sensor is an adaptation of a portable gas-sensing platform based on Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) technology. By capitalizing on its spectral resolution, the TDLAS analyzer isolates H2O2 and H2O spectral lines to measure both vapors using a single laser source. It offers a combination of sensitivity, specificity, fast response, dynamic range, linearity, ease of operation and calibration, ruggedness, and portability not available in alternative H2O2 detectors. The H2O2 range is approximately 0- 5,000 ppm. The autonomous and rugged instrument provides real-time data. It has been tested in a closed-loop liquid/vapor equilibrium apparatus and by comparison against electrochemical sensors.

  14. Microscopic solvent structure of subcritical and supercritical methanol from ultraviolet/visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulgarevich, Dmitry S.; Sako, Takeshi; Sugeta, Tsutomu; Otake, Katsuto; Takebayashi, Yoshihiro; Kamizawa, Chiyoshi; Uesugi, Masayuki; Kato, Masahiro

    1999-09-01

    Ultraviolet/visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies at different temperatures and pressures were applied to investigate the microscopic solvent structures of subcritical and supercritical methanol using 4-nitroanisole, ethyl-(4-dimethylamino)benzoate, Reichardt's dye, and anthracene as the probe molecules. It was found that at temperatures higher than 150 °C the long winding chains of sequentially hydrogen-bonded methanol molecules were probably broken, but the small hydrogen-bonded aggregates possibly existed in methanol even at higher temperature. It was also found that the solvation process of the anthracene molecule in the S0-ground state obeyed the Langmuir adsorption model. However, in the case of fluorescence measurements in supercritical methanol, we detected deviations from the simple Langmuir adsorption model. These deviations were explained in terms of preferential solvation of the solvent molecules around photoexcited anthracene. Judging from the experimental results, it was concluded that the local density augmentation of the supercritical methanol around the nonpolar solute was a short-ranged effect, which did not correspond directly to the large isothermal compressibility of fluid near the critical point.

  15. Highly sensitive fiber grating chemical sensors: An effective alternative to atomic absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laxmeshwar, Lata. S.; Jadhav, Mangesh S.; Akki, Jyoti. F.; Raikar, Prasad; Kumar, Jitendra; prakash, Om; Raikar, U. S.

    2017-06-01

    Accuracy in quantitative determination of trace elements like Zinc, present in drinking water in ppm level, is a big challenge and optical fiber gratings as chemical sensors may provide a promising solution to overcome the same. This paper presents design of two simple chemical sensors based on the principle of shift in characteristic wavelength of gratings with change in their effective refractive index, to measure the concentration of Zinc in drinking water using etched short period grating (FBG) and Long period grating (LPG) respectively. Three samples of drinking water from different places have been examined for presence of Zinc. Further, the results obtained by our sensors have also been verified with the results obtained by a standard method, Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The whole experiment has been performed by fixing the fibers in a horizontal position with the sensor regions at the center of the fibers, making it less prone to disturbance and breaking. The sensitivity of LPG sensor is about 205 times that of the FBG sensor. A few advantages of Fiber grating sensors, besides their regular features, over AAS have also been discussed, that make our sensors potential alternatives for existing techniques in determination of trace elements in drinking water.

  16. Non-invasive product temperature determination during primary drying using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schneid, Stefan C; Gieseler, Henning; Kessler, William J; Pikal, Michael J

    2009-09-01

    The goal of this work was to demonstrate the application of Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) as a non-invasive method to determine the average product temperature of the batch during primary drying. The TDLAS sensor continuously measures the water vapor concentration and the vapor flow velocity in the spool connecting the freeze-dryer chamber and condenser. Vapor concentration and velocity data were then used to determine the average sublimation rate (g/s) which was subsequently integrated to evaluate the amount of water removed from the product. Position dependent vial heat transfer coefficients (K(v)) were evaluated using the TDLAS sensor data for 20 mL vials during sublimation tests with pure water. TDLAS K(v) data showed good agreement to K(v) data obtained by the traditional gravimetric procedure. K(v) for edge vials was found to be about 20-30% higher than that of center vials. A weighted K(v) was then used to predict a representative average product temperature from TDLAS data in partial and full load freeze drying runs with 5%, 7.5%, or 10% (w/w) sucrose, mannitol, and glycine solutions. TDLAS product temperatures for all freeze-drying runs were within 1-2 degrees C of "center vial" steady state thermocouple data.

  17. Models of filter-based particle light absorption measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamasha, Khadeejeh M.

    Light absorption by aerosol is very important in the visible, near UN, and near I.R region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Aerosol particles in the atmosphere have a great influence on the flux of solar energy, and also impact health in a negative sense when they are breathed into lungs. Aerosol absorption measurements are usually performed by filter-based methods that are derived from the change in light transmission through a filter where particles have been deposited. These methods suffer from interference between light-absorbing and light-scattering aerosol components. The Aethalometer is the most commonly used filter-based instrument for aerosol light absorption measurement. This dissertation describes new understanding of aerosol light absorption obtained by the filter method. The theory uses a multiple scattering model for the combination of filter and particle optics. The theory is evaluated using Aethalometer data from laboratory and ambient measurements in comparison with photoacoustic measurements of aerosol light absorption. Two models were developed to calculate aerosol light absorption coefficients from the Aethalometer data, and were compared to the in-situ aerosol light absorption coefficients. The first is an approximate model and the second is a "full" model. In the approximate model two extreme cases of aerosol optics were used to develop a model-based calibration scheme for the 7-wavelength Aethalometer. These cases include those of very strong scattering aerosols (Ammonium sulfate sample) and very absorbing aerosols (kerosene soot sample). The exponential behavior of light absorption in the strong multiple scattering limit is shown to be the square root of the total absorption optical depth rather than linear with optical depth as is commonly assumed with Beer's law. 2-stream radiative transfer theory was used to develop the full model to calculate the aerosol light absorption coefficients from the Aethalometer data. This comprehensive model

  18. Gas trace detection with cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy: a review of its process in the field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Siqi; Luo, Zhifu; Tan, Zhongqi; Long, Xingwu

    2016-11-01

    Cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) is a technology in which the intracavity absorption is deduced from the intensity of light transmitted by the high finesse optical cavity. Then the samples' parameters, such as their species, concentration and absorption cross section, would be detection. It was first proposed and demonstrated by Engeln R. [1] and O'Keefe[2] in 1998. This technology has extraordinary detection sensitivity, high resolution and good practicability, so it is used in many fields , such as clinical medicine, gas detection and basic physics research. In this paper, we focus on the use of gas trace detection, including the advance of CEAS over the past twenty years, the newest research progresses, and the prediction of this technology's development direction in the future.

  19. Nanoscale infrared absorption spectroscopy of individual nanoparticles enabled by scattering-type near-field microscopy.

    PubMed

    Stiegler, Johannes M; Abate, Yohannes; Cvitkovic, Antonija; Romanyuk, Yaroslav E; Huber, Andreas J; Leone, Stephen R; Hillenbrand, Rainer

    2011-08-23

    Infrared absorption spectroscopy is a powerful and widely used tool for analyzing the chemical composition and structure of materials. Because of the diffraction limit, however, it cannot be applied for studying individual nanostructures. Here we demonstrate that the phase contrast in substrate-enhanced scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) provides a map of the infrared absorption spectrum of individual nanoparticles with nanometer-scale spatial resolution. We succeeded in the chemical identification of silicon nitride nanoislands with heights well below 10 nm, by infrared near-field fingerprint spectroscopy of the Si-N stretching bond. Employing a novel theoretical model, we show that the near-field phase spectra of small particles correlate well with their far-field absorption spectra. On the other hand, the spectral near-field contrast does not scale with the volume of the particles. We find a nearly linear scaling law, which we can attribute to the near-field coupling between the near-field probe and the substrate. Our results provide fundamental insights into the spectral near-field contrast of nanoparticles and clearly demonstrate the capability of s-SNOM for nanoscale chemical mapping based on local infrared absorption. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  20. Wafer-scale metasurface for total power absorption, local field enhancement and single molecule Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongxing; Zhu, Wenqi; Best, Michael D.; Camden, Jon P.; Crozier, Kenneth B.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to detect molecules at low concentrations is highly desired for applications that range from basic science to healthcare. Considerable interest also exists for ultrathin materials with high optical absorption, e.g. for microbolometers and thermal emitters. Metal nanostructures present opportunities to achieve both purposes. Metal nanoparticles can generate gigantic field enhancements, sufficient for the Raman spectroscopy of single molecules. Thin layers containing metal nanostructures (“metasurfaces”) can achieve near-total power absorption at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Thus far, however, both aims (i.e. single molecule Raman and total power absorption) have only been achieved using metal nanostructures produced by techniques (high resolution lithography or colloidal synthesis) that are complex and/or difficult to implement over large areas. Here, we demonstrate a metasurface that achieves the near-perfect absorption of visible-wavelength light and enables the Raman spectroscopy of single molecules. Our metasurface is fabricated using thin film depositions, and is of unprecedented (wafer-scale) extent. PMID:24091825

  1. Demonstration of a Fast, Precise Propane Measurement Using Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahniser, M. S.; Roscioli, J. R.; Nelson, D. D.; Herndon, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    Propane is one of the primary components of emissions from natural gas extraction and processing activities. In addition to being an air pollutant, its ratio to other hydrocarbons such as methane and ethane can serve as a "fingerprint" of a particular facility or process, aiding in identifying emission sources. Quantifying propane has typically required laboratory analysis of flask samples, resulting in low temporal resolution and making plume-based measurements infeasible. Here we demonstrate fast (1-second), high precision (<300 ppt) measurements of propane using high resolution mid-infrared spectroscopy at 2967 wavenumbers. In addition, we explore the impact of nearby water and ethane absorption lines on the accuracy and precision of the propane measurement. Finally, we discuss development of a dual-laser instrument capable of simultaneous measurements of methane, ethane, and propane (the C1-C3 compounds), all within a small spatial package that can be easily deployed aboard a mobile platform.

  2. [The reconstruction of two-dimensional distributions of gas concentration in the flat flame based on tunable laser absorption spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhi-Shen; Wang, Fei; Xing, Da-Wei; Xu, Ting; Yan, Jian-Hua; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2012-11-01

    The experimental method by using the tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy combined with the model and algo- rithm was studied to reconstruct the two-dimensional distribution of gas concentration The feasibility of the reconstruction program was verified by numerical simulation A diagnostic system consisting of 24 lasers was built for the measurement of H2O in the methane/air premixed flame. The two-dimensional distribution of H2O concentration in the flame was reconstructed, showing that the reconstruction results reflect the real two-dimensional distribution of H2O concentration in the flame. This diagnostic scheme provides a promising solution for combustion control.

  3. Improved diffusing wave spectroscopy based on the automatized determination of the optical transport and absorption mean free path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chi; Reufer, Mathias; Gaudino, Danila; Scheffold, Frank

    2017-11-01

    Diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) can be employed as an optical rheology tool with numerous applications for studying the structure, dynamics and linear viscoelastic properties of complex fluids, foams, glasses and gels. To carry out DWS measurements, one first needs to quantify the static optical properties of the sample under investigation, i.e. the transport mean free path l * and the absorption length l a. In the absence of absorption this can be done by comparing the diffuse optical transmission to a calibration sample whose l * is known. Performing this comparison however is cumbersome, time consuming, and prone to mistakes by the operator. Moreover, already weak absorption can lead to significant errors. In this paper, we demonstrate the implementation of an automatized approach, based on which the DWS measurement procedure can be simplified significantly. By comparison with a comprehensive set of calibration measurements we cover the entire parameter space relating measured count rates ( CR t , CR b ) to ( l *, l a). Based on this approach we can determine l * and la of an unknown sample accurately thus making the additional measurement of a calibration sample obsolete. We illustrate the use of this approach by monitoring the coarsening of a commercially available shaving foam with DWS.

  4. Birge-Sponer Estimation of the C-H Bond Dissociation Energy in Chloroform Using Infrared, Near-Infrared, and Visible Absorption Spectroscopy: An Experiment in Physical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myrick, M. L.; Greer, A. E.; Nieuwland, A. A.; Priore, R. J.; Scaffidi, J.; Andreatta, Danielle; Colavita, Paula

    2008-01-01

    The fundamental and overtone vibrational absorption spectroscopy of the C-H unit in CHCl[subscript 3] is measured for transitions from the v = 0 energy level to v = 1 through v = 5 energy levels. The energies of the transitions exhibit a linearly-decreasing spacing between adjacent vibrational levels as the vibrational quantum number increases.…

  5. Infrared absorption spectroscopy and sensing of protein monolayers using high performance enhancing substrates and a mobile phone (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dana, Aykutlu; Ayas, Sencer; Bakan, Gokhan; Ozgur, Erol; Guner, Hasan; Celebi, Kemal

    2016-09-01

    Infrared absorption spectroscopy has greatly benefited from the electromagnetic field enhancement offered by plasmonic surfaces. However, because of the localized nature of plasmonic fields, such field enhancements are limited to nm-scale volumes. Here, we demonstrate that a relatively small, but spatially-uniform field enhancement can yield a superior infrared detection performance compared to the plasmonic field enhancement exhibited by optimized infrared nanoantennas. A specifically designed CaF2/Al thin film surface is shown to enable observation of stronger vibrational signals from the probe material, with wider bandwidth and a deeper spatial extent of the field enhancement as compared to optimized plasmonic surfaces. It is demonstrated that the surface structure presented here can enable chemically specific and label-free detection of organic monolayers using surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy. Also, a low cost hand held infrared absorption measurement setup is demonstrated using a miniature bolometric sensor and a mobile phone. A specifically designed grating in combination with an IR light source yields an IR spectrometer covering 7-12 um range, with about 100 cm-1 resolution. Combining the enhancing substrates with the spectroscopy setup, low cost, high sensitivity mobile infrared sensing is enabled. The results have implications in homeland security and environmental monitoring as well as chemical analysis.

  6. X-ray absorption spectroscopy using a self-seeded soft X-ray free-electron laser

    PubMed Central

    Kroll, Thomas; Kern, Jan; Kubin, Markus; Ratner, Daniel; Gul, Sheraz; Fuller, Franklin D.; Löchel, Heike; Krzywinski, Jacek; Lutman, Alberto; Ding, Yuantao; Dakovski, Georgi L.; Moeller, Stefan; Turner, Joshua J.; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Nordlund, Dennis L.; Rehanek, Jens; Weniger, Christian; Firsov, Alexander; Brzhezinskaya, Maria; Chatterjee, Ruchira; Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Sierra, Raymond G.; Laksmono, Hartawan; Hill, Ethan; Borovik, Andrew; Erko, Alexei; Föhlisch, Alexander; Mitzner, Rolf; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Yano, Junko; Wernet, Philippe; Bergmann, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) enable unprecedented new ways to study the electronic structure and dynamics of transition metal systems. L-edge absorption spectroscopy is a powerful technique for such studies and the feasibility of this method at XFELs for solutions and solids has been demonstrated. However, the required x-ray bandwidth is an order of magnitude narrower than that of self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), and additional monochromatization is needed. Here we compare L-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of a prototypical transition metal system based on monochromatizing the SASE radiation of the linac coherent light source (LCLS) with a new technique based on self-seeding of LCLS. We demonstrate how L-edge XAS can be performed using the self-seeding scheme without the need of an additional beam line monochromator. We show how the spectral shape and pulse energy depend on the undulator setup and how this affects the x-ray spectroscopy measurements. PMID:27828320

  7. X-ray absorption spectroscopy using a self-seeded soft X-ray free-electron laser

    DOE PAGES

    Kroll, Thomas; Kern, Jan; Kubin, Markus; ...

    2016-09-19

    X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) enable unprecedented new ways to study the electronic structure and dynamics of transition metal systems. L-edge absorption spectroscopy is a powerful technique for such studies and the feasibility of this method at XFELs for solutions and solids has been demonstrated. But, the required x-ray bandwidth is an order of magnitude narrower than that of self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), and additional monochromatization is needed. We compare L-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of a prototypical transition metal system based on monochromatizing the SASE radiation of the linac coherent light source (LCLS) with a new technique based onmore » self-seeding of LCLS. We demonstrate how L-edge XAS can be performed using the self-seeding scheme without the need of an additional beam line monochromator. Lastly, we show how the spectral shape and pulse energy depend on the undulator setup and how this affects the x-ray spectroscopy measurements.« less

  8. Time-Resolved IR-Absorption Spectroscopy of Hot-Electron Dynamics in Satellite and Upper Conduction Bands in GaP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavicchia, M. A.; Alfano, R. R.

    1995-01-01

    The relaxation dynamics of hot electrons in the X6 and X7 satellite and upper conduction bands in GaP was directly measured by femtosecond UV-pump-IR-probe absorption spectroscopy. From a fit to the induced IR-absorption spectra the dominant scattering mechanism giving rise to the absorption at early delay times was determined to be intervalley scattering of electrons out of the X7 upper conduction-band valley. For long delay times the dominant scattering mechanism is electron-hole scattering. Electron transport dynamics of the upper conduction band of GaP has been time resolved.

  9. Probing Chemical Bonding in Uranium Dioxide by Means of High-Resolution X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Butorin, Sergei M.; Modin, Anders; Vegelius, Johan R.

    Here, a systematic X-ray absorption study at the U 3d, 4d, and 4f edges of UO 2 was performed, and the data were analyzed within framework of the Anderson impurity model. By applying the high-energy-resolution fluorescence-detection (HERFD) mode of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the U 3d 3/2 edge and conducting the XAS measurements at the shallower U 4f levels, fine details of the XAS spectra were resolved resulting from reduced core-hole lifetime broadening. This multiedge study enabled a far more effective analysis of the electronic structure at the U sites and characterization of the chemical bonding and degree ofmore » the 5f localization in UO 2. The results support the covalent character of UO 2 and do not agree with the suggestions of rather ionic bonding in this compound as expressed in some publications.« less

  10. Probing Chemical Bonding in Uranium Dioxide by Means of High-Resolution X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Butorin, Sergei M.; Modin, Anders; Vegelius, Johan R.; ...

    2016-11-30

    Here, a systematic X-ray absorption study at the U 3d, 4d, and 4f edges of UO 2 was performed, and the data were analyzed within framework of the Anderson impurity model. By applying the high-energy-resolution fluorescence-detection (HERFD) mode of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the U 3d 3/2 edge and conducting the XAS measurements at the shallower U 4f levels, fine details of the XAS spectra were resolved resulting from reduced core-hole lifetime broadening. This multiedge study enabled a far more effective analysis of the electronic structure at the U sites and characterization of the chemical bonding and degree ofmore » the 5f localization in UO 2. The results support the covalent character of UO 2 and do not agree with the suggestions of rather ionic bonding in this compound as expressed in some publications.« less

  11. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, B. D.

    2012-05-01

    The X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra are best recorded when a highly intense beam of X-rays from a synchrotron is used along with a good resolution double crystal or curved crystal spectrometer and detectors like ionization chambers, scintillation counters, solid state detectors etc. Several synchrotrons around the world have X-ray beamlines dedicated specifically to XAFS spectroscopy. Fortunately, the Indian synchrotron (Indus-2) at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT) at Indore has started operation. A dispersive type EXAFS beamline called BL-8 has been commissioned at this synchrotron and another beamline having double crystal monochromator (DCM) is going to be commissioned shortly. In Indian context, in order that more research workers use these beamlines, the study of XAFS spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation becomes important. In the present work some of the works done by our group on XAFS spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation have been described.

  12. Picosecond absorption relaxation measured with nanosecond laser photoacoustics

    PubMed Central

    Danielli, Amos; Favazza, Christopher P.; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

    2010-01-01

    Picosecond absorption relaxation—central to many disciplines—is typically measured by ultrafast (femtosecond or picosecond) pump-probe techniques, which however are restricted to optically thin and weakly scattering materials or require artificial sample preparation. Here, we developed a reflection-mode relaxation photoacoustic microscope based on a nanosecond laser and measured picosecond absorption relaxation times. The relaxation times of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin molecules, both possessing extremely low fluorescence quantum yields, were measured at 576 nm. The added advantages in dispersion susceptibility, laser-wavelength availability, reflection sensing, and expense foster the study of natural—including strongly scattering and nonfluorescent—materials. PMID:21079726

  13. Picosecond absorption relaxation measured with nanosecond laser photoacoustics.

    PubMed

    Danielli, Amos; Favazza, Christopher P; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V

    2010-10-18

    Picosecond absorption relaxation-central to many disciplines-is typically measured by ultrafast (femtosecond or picosecond) pump-probe techniques, which however are restricted to optically thin and weakly scattering materials or require artificial sample preparation. Here, we developed a reflection-mode relaxation photoacoustic microscope based on a nanosecond laser and measured picosecond absorption relaxation times. The relaxation times of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin molecules, both possessing extremely low fluorescence quantum yields, were measured at 576 nm. The added advantages in dispersion susceptibility, laser-wavelength availability, reflection sensing, and expense foster the study of natural-including strongly scattering and nonfluorescent-materials.

  14. Quantification of rapid environmental redox processes with quick-scanning x-ray absorption spectroscopy (Q-XAS)

    PubMed Central

    Ginder-Vogel, Matthew; Landrot, Gautier; Fischel, Jason S.; Sparks, Donald L.

    2009-01-01

    Quantification of the initial rates of environmental reactions at the mineral/water interface is a fundamental prerequisite to determining reaction mechanisms and contaminant transport modeling and predicting environmental risk. Until recently, experimental techniques with adequate time resolution and elemental sensitivity to measure initial rates of the wide variety of environmental reactions were quite limited. Techniques such as electron paramagnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies suffer from limited elemental specificity and poor sensitivity to inorganic elements, respectively. Ex situ analysis of batch and stirred-flow systems provides high elemental sensitivity; however, their time resolution is inadequate to characterize rapid environmental reactions. Here we apply quick-scanning x-ray absorption spectroscopy (Q-XAS), at sub-second time-scales, to measure the initial oxidation rate of As(III) to As(V) by hydrous manganese(IV) oxide. Using Q-XAS, As(III) and As(V) concentrations were determined every 0.98 s in batch reactions. The initial apparent As(III) depletion rate constants (t < 30 s) measured with Q-XAS are nearly twice as large as rate constants measured with traditional analytical techniques. Our results demonstrate the importance of developing analytical techniques capable of analyzing environmental reactions on the same time scale as they occur. Given the high sensitivity, elemental specificity, and time resolution of Q-XAS, it has many potential applications. They could include measuring not only redox reactions but also dissolution/precipitation reactions, such as the formation and/or reductive dissolution of Fe(III) (hydr)oxides, solid-phase transformations (i.e., formation of layered-double hydroxide minerals), or almost any other reaction occurring in aqueous media that can be measured using x-ray absorption spectroscopy. PMID:19805269

  15. Measuring cloud thermodynamic phase with shortwave infrared imaging spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David R.; McCubbin, Ian; Gao, Bo Cai

    Shortwave Infrared imaging spectroscopy enables accurate remote mapping of cloud thermodynamic phase at high spatial resolution. We describe a measurement strategy to exploit signatures of liquid and ice absorption in cloud top apparent reflectance spectra from 1.4 to 1.8 μm. This signal is generally insensitive to confounding factors such as solar angles, view angles, and surface albedo. We first evaluate the approach in simulation and then apply it to airborne data acquired in the Calwater-2/ACAPEX campaign of Winter 2015. Here NASA’s “Classic” Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-C) remotely observed diverse cloud formations while the U.S. Department of Energy ARMmore » Aerial Facility G-1 aircraft measured cloud integral and microphysical properties in situ. Finally, the coincident measurements demonstrate good separation of the thermodynamic phases for relatively homogeneous clouds.« less

  16. Simple test of intestinal calcium absorption measured by stable strontium.

    PubMed Central

    Milsom, S; Ibbertson, K; Hannan, S; Shaw, D; Pybus, J

    1987-01-01

    A clinical test of intestinal calcium absorption has been developed using non-radioactive stable strontium as a calcium tracer. In nine elderly subjects there was a close correlation between the fractional absorption of strontium and radioactive calcium (45Ca) during a five hour period after the simultaneous oral administration of the two tracers. Comparable precision was achieved with each tracer in six subjects in whom the test was repeated after two weeks. The effect of food on strontium absorption was examined in a further 33 normal subjects (age 21-60 years), and the administration of the strontium with a standard breakfast was shown to reduce the variance at individual time points. A simplified test in which serum strontium concentration was measured four hours after the oral dose given with a standard breakfast was adopted as the routine procedure. The normal range (mean (2 SD], established over 97 tests in 53 patients, was 7.0-18.0% of the dose in the extracellular fluid. A further 30 patients with possible disorders of calcium absorption (10 with primary hyperparathyroidism and 20 with coeliac disease) were studied by this standard test. In both groups of patients the mean four hour strontium values were significantly different from normal. This standard strontium absorption test allows assessment of calcium absorption with sufficient sensitivity and precision to have a wide application in clinical practice. PMID:3115389

  17. Simultaneous sensing of temperature, CO, and CO2 in a scramjet combustor using quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spearrin, R. M.; Goldenstein, C. S.; Schultz, I. A.; Jeffries, J. B.; Hanson, R. K.

    2014-07-01

    A mid-infrared laser absorption sensor was developed for gas temperature and carbon oxide (CO, CO2) concentrations in high-enthalpy, hydrocarbon combustion flows. This diagnostic enables non-intrusive, in situ measurements in harsh environments produced by hypersonic propulsion ground test facilities. The sensing system utilizes tunable quantum cascade lasers capable of probing the fundamental mid-infrared absorption bands of CO and CO2 in the 4-5 µm wavelength domain. A scanned-wavelength direct absorption technique was employed with two lasers, one dedicated to each species, free-space fiber-coupled using a bifurcated hollow-core fiber for remote light delivery on a single line of sight. Scanned-wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second-harmonic detection was utilized to extend the dynamic range of the CO measurement. The diagnostic was field-tested on a direct-connect scramjet combustor for ethylene-air combustion. Simultaneous, laser-based measurements of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide provide a basis for evaluating combustion completion or efficiency with temporal and spatial resolution in practical hydrocarbon-fueled engines.

  18. Measuring high spectral resolution specific absorption coefficients for use with hyperspectral imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, M.; Bostater, C.

    1997-06-01

    A portable, long path length (50 cm), flow through, absorption tube system is utilized to obtain in-situ specific absorption coefficients from various water environments consisting of both clear and turbid water conditions from an underway ship or vessel. The high spectral resolution absorption signatures can be obtained and correlated with measured water quality parameters along a ship track. The long path cuvette system is capable of measuring important water quality parameters such as chlorophyll-a, seston or total suspended matter, tannins, humics, fulvic acids, or dissolved organic matter (dissolved organic carbon, DOC). The various concentrations of these substances can be determinedmore » and correlated with laboratory measurements using the double inflection ratio (DIR) of the spectra based upon derivative spectroscopy. The DIR is determined for all of the possible combinations of the bands ranging from 362-1115 nm using 252 channels, as described previously by Bostater. The information gathered from this system can be utilized in conjunction with hyperspectral imagery that allows one to relate reflectance and absorption to water quality of a particular environment. A comparison is made between absorption signatures and reflectance obtained from the Banana River, Florida.« less

  19. High enthalpy arc-heated plasma flow diagnostics by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xin; Chen, Lianzhong; Zeng, Hui; Ou, Dongbin; Dong, Yonghui

    2017-05-01

    This paper reports the laser absorption measurements of atomic oxygen in the FD04 arc-heater at China Academy of Aerospace Aerodynamics (CAAA). An atomic oxygen absorption line at 777.19 nm is utilizied for detecting the population of electronically excited oxygen atom in an air plasma flow. A scanned-wavelength direct absorption mode is used in this study. The laser is scanned in wavelength across the absorption feature at a rate of 200 Hz. Under the assumption of thermal equilibrium, time-resolved temperature measurements are obtained on one line-of-sight in the arc-heater. The good agreement of the temperature inferred from the sonic throat method suggests the equilibrium assumption is valid. These results illustrate the feasibility of the diode laser sensors for flow parameters in high enthalpy arc-heated facilities.

  20. Excited state X-ray absorption spectroscopy: Probing both electronic and structural dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neville, Simon P.; Averbukh, Vitali; Ruberti, Marco; Yun, Renjie; Patchkovskii, Serguei; Chergui, Majed; Stolow, Albert; Schuurman, Michael S.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of X-ray absorption spectra, simulated using a general method, to properties of molecular excited states. Recently, Averbukh and co-workers [M. Ruberti et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 184107 (2014)] introduced an efficient and accurate L 2 method for the calculation of excited state valence photoionization cross-sections based on the application of Stieltjes imaging to the Lanczos pseudo-spectrum of the algebraic diagrammatic construction (ADC) representation of the electronic Hamiltonian. In this paper, we report an extension of this method to the calculation of excited state core photoionization cross-sections. We demonstrate that, at the ADC(2)x level of theory, ground state X-ray absorption spectra may be accurately reproduced, validating the method. Significantly, the calculated X-ray absorption spectra of the excited states are found to be sensitive to both geometric distortions (structural dynamics) and the electronic character (electronic dynamics) of the initial state, suggesting that core excitation spectroscopies will be useful probes of excited state non-adiabatic dynamics. We anticipate that the method presented here can be combined with ab initio molecular dynamics calculations to simulate the time-resolved X-ray spectroscopy of excited state molecular wavepacket dynamics.

  1. Measurement of the aerosol absorption coefficient with the nonequilibrium process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liang; Li, Jingxuan; Bai, Hailong; Li, Baosheng; Liu, Shanlin; Zhang, Yang

    2018-02-01

    On the basis of the conventional Jamin interferometer,the improved measuring method is proposed that using a polarization type reentrant Jamin interferometer measures atmospheric aerosol absorption coefficient under the photothermal effect.The paper studies the relationship between the absorption coefficient of atmospheric aerosol particles and the refractive index change of the atmosphere.In Matlab environment, the variation curves of the output voltage of the interferometer with different concentration aerosol samples under stimulated laser irradiation were plotted.Besides, the paper also studies the relationship between aerosol concentration and the time required for the photothermal effect to reach equilibrium.When using the photothermal interferometry the results show that the time required for the photothermal effect to reach equilibrium is also increasing with the increasing concentration of aerosol particles,the absorption coefficient and time of aerosol in the process of nonequilibrium are exponentially changing.

  2. Design and implementation of a laser-based absorption spectroscopy sensor for in situ monitoring of biomass gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viveros Salazar, David; Goldenstein, Christopher S.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Seiser, Reinhard; Cattolica, Robert J.; Hanson, Ronald K.

    2017-12-01

    Research to demonstrate in situ laser-absorption-based sensing of H2O, CH4, CO2, and CO mole fraction is reported for the product gas line of a biomass gasifier. Spectral simulations were used to select candidate sensor wavelengths that optimize sensitive monitoring of the target species while minimizing interference from other species in the gas stream. A prototype sensor was constructed and measurements performed in the laboratory at Stanford to validate performance. Field measurements then were demonstrated in a pilot scale biomass gasifier at West Biofuels in Woodland, CA. The performance of a prototype sensor was compared for two sensor strategies: wavelength-scanned direct absorption (DA) and wavelength-scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS). The lasers used had markedly different wavelength tuning response to injection current, and modern distributed feedback lasers (DFB) with nearly linear tuning response to injection current were shown to be superior, leading to guidelines for laser selection for sensor fabrication. Non-absorption loss in the transmitted laser intensity from particulate scattering and window fouling encouraged the use of normalized WMS measurement schemes. The complications of using normalized WMS for relatively large values of absorbance and its mitigation are discussed. A method for reducing adverse sensor performance effects of a time-varying WMS background signal is also presented. The laser absorption sensor provided measurements with the sub-second time resolution needed for gasifier control and more importantly provided precise measurements of H2O in the gasification products, which can be problematic for the typical gas chromatography sensors used by industry.

  3. Pulsed Airborne Lidar Measurements of C02 Column Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James B.; Riris, Haris; Allan, Graham R.; Weaver, Clark J.; Mao, Jianping; Sun, Xiaoli; Hasselbrack, William E.; Rodriquez, Michael; Browell, Edward V.

    2011-01-01

    We report on airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column density for an approach being developed as a candidate for NASA's ASCENDS mission. It uses a pulsed dual-wavelength lidar measurement based on the integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) technique. We demonstrated the approach using the CO2 measurement from aircraft in July and August 2009 over four locations. The results show clear CO2 line shape and absorption signals, which follow the expected changes with aircraft altitude from 3 to 13 km. The 2009 measurements have been analyzed in detail and the results show approx.1 ppm random errors for 8-10 km altitudes and approx.30 sec averaging times. Airborne measurements were also made in 2010 with stronger signals and initial analysis shows approx. 0.3 ppm random errors for 80 sec averaging times for measurements at altitudes> 6 km.

  4. Infrared absorption nano-spectroscopy using sample photoexpansion induced by tunable quantum cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Feng; Belkin, Mikhail A

    2011-10-10

    We report a simple technique that allows obtaining mid-infrared absorption spectra with nanoscale spatial resolution under low-power illumination from tunable quantum cascade lasers. Light absorption is detected by measuring associated sample thermal expansion with an atomic force microscope. To detect minute thermal expansion we tune the repetition frequency of laser pulses in resonance with the mechanical frequency of the atomic force microscope cantilever. Spatial resolution of better than 50 nm is experimentally demonstrated.

  5. The speciation of soluble sulphur compounds in bacterial culture fluids by X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Franz, Bettina; Lichtenberg, Henning; Hormes, Josef; Dahl, Christiane; Prange, Alexander

    2009-11-01

    Over the last decade X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy has been used in an increasing number of microbiological studies. In addition to other applications it has served as a valuable tool for the investigation of the sulphur globules deposited intra- or extracellularly by certain photo- and chemotrophic sulphur-oxidizing (Sox) bacteria. For XANES measurements, these deposits can easily be concentrated by filtration or sedimentation through centrifugation. However, during oxidative metabolism of reduced sulphur compounds, such as sulphide or thiosulphate, sulphur deposits are not the only intermediates formed. Soluble intermediates such as sulphite may also be produced and released into the medium. In this study, we explored the potential of XANES spectroscopy for the detection and speciation of sulphur compounds in culture supernatants of the phototrophic purple sulphur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum. More specifically, we investigated A. vinosum DeltasoxY, a strain with an in frame deletion of the soxY gene. This gene encodes an essential component of the thiosulphate-oxidizing Sox enzyme complex. Improved sample preparation techniques developed for the DeltasoxY strain allowed for the first time not only the qualitative but also the quantitative analysis of bacterial culture supernatants by XANES spectroscopy. The results thus obtained verified and supplemented conventional HPLC analysis of soluble sulphur compounds. Sulphite and also oxidized organic sulphur compounds were shown by XANES spectroscopy to be present, some of which were not seen when standard HPLC protocols were used.

  6. Techniques For Measuring Absorption Coefficients In Crystalline Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Philipp H.

    1981-10-01

    Absorption coefficients smaller than 0.001 cm-1 can, with more or less difficulty, be measured by several techniques. With diligence, all methods can be refined to permit measurement of absorption coefficients as small as 0.00001 cm-1. Spectral data are most readily obtained by transmission (spectrophotometric) methods, using multiple internal reflection to increase effective sample length. Emissivity measurements, requiring extreme care in the elimination of detector noise and stray light, nevertheless afford the most accessible spectral data in the 0.0001 to 0.00001 cm-1 range. Single-wavelength informa-tion is most readily obtained with modifications of laser calorimetry. Thermo-couple detection of energy absorbed from a laser beam is convenient, but involves dc amplification techniques and is susceptible to stray-light problems. Photoacoustic detection, using ac methods, tends to diminish errors of these types, but at some expense in experimental complexity. Laser calorimetry has been used for measurements of absorption coefficients as small as 0.000003 cm-1. Both transmission and calorimetric data, taken as functions of intensity, have been used for measurement of nonlinear absorption coefficients.

  7. Food Iron Absorption Measured by an Extrinsic Tag

    PubMed Central

    Cook, J. D.; Layrisse, M.; Martinez-Torres, C.; Walker, R.; Monsen, E.; Finch, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    The paper describes the use of an extrinsic tag of inorganic radioiron to determine the total absorption of nonheme iron from a complete meal. The method was developed by measuring the iron absorbed from vegetable foods containing biosynthetically incorporated 55Fe (intrinsic tag) and from 59Fe added as a small dose of inorganic iron to the same meal (extrinsic tag). In studies with maize, black bean, and wheat, a consistent extrinsic: intrinsic radioiron absorption ratio averaging 1.10 was observed. Similar results were obtained with either ferrous or ferric iron as the extrinsic tag, and with doses of the latter ranging from 0.001 to 0.5 mg iron added to a test meal containing 2-4 mg of food iron. Adding the radioiron at different stages in preparation of the test meal also had little effect. Separate administration of the extrinsic tag was less satisfactory when small portions of a single food were employed, but with a complete meal, the separate dose was preferable. The extrinsic tag provided a valid measure of absorption despite marked differences in the iron status of the subject, and with wide changes in absorption imposed by adding desferrioxamine or ascorbic acid to the test meal. These findings indicate that there is a common pool of nonheme iron, the absorption of which is influenced by various blocking or enhancing substances present in the meal. PMID:5062612

  8. Continuous in-situ methane measurements at paddy fields in a rural area of India with poor electric infrastructure, using a low-cost instrument based on open-path near-IR laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidemori, T.; Matsumi, Y.; Nakayama, T.; Kawasaki, M.; Sasago, H.; Takahashi, K.; Imasu, R.; Takeuchi, W.; Adachi, M.; Machida, T.; Terao, Y.; Nomura, S.; Dhaka, S. K.; Singh, J.

    2015-12-01

    In southeast and south Asia, the previous satellite observations suggest that the methane emission from rice paddies is significant and important source of methane during rainy season. Since it is difficult to measure methane stably and continuously at rural areas such as the paddy fields in terms of infrastructures and maintenances, there are large uncertainties in quantitative estimation of methane emission in these areas and there are needs for more certification between satellite and ground based measurements. To measure methane concentrations continuously at difficult situations such as the center of paddy fields and wetlands, we developed the continuous in-situ measurement system, not to look for your lost keys under the streetlight. The methane gas sensor is used an open-path laser based measurement instrument (LaserMethane, ANRITSU CORPORATION), which can quickly and selectively detect average methane concentrations on the optical path of the laser beam. The developed system has the power supply and telecommunication system to run the laser gas sensor in rural areas with poor electricity infrastructure.The methane measurement system was installed at paddy fields of Sonepat, Haryana on the north of Delhi in India and has been operated from the end of 2014. The air sampling along with our measurement has been carried out once a week during daytime to calibrate the laser instrument. We found that the seasonal variation of methane concentrations was different from the satellite observations and there were significant diurnal variations, which it was difficult to detect from occasional air samplings. We will present details of the measurement system and recent results of continuous methane measurements in India.

  9. New photocycle intermediates in the photoactive yellow protein from Ectothiorhodospira halophila: picosecond transient absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ujj, L; Devanathan, S; Meyer, T E; Cusanovich, M A; Tollin, G; Atkinson, G H

    1998-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that the room temperature photocycle of the photoactive yellow protein (PYP) from Ectothiorhodospira halophila involves at least two intermediate species: I1, which forms in <10 ns and decays with a 200-micros lifetime to I2, which itself subsequently returns to the ground state with a 140-ms time constant at pH 7 (Genick et al. 1997. Biochemistry. 36:8-14). Picosecond transient absorption spectroscopy has been used here to reveal a photophysical relaxation process (stimulated emission) and photochemical intermediates in the PYP photocycle that have not been reported previously. The first new intermediate (I0) exhibits maximum absorption at approximately 510 nm and appears in absorptivity. Idouble dagger0 decays with a 3 +/- 0.15 ns time constant to form I1. Stimulated emission from an excited electronic state of PYP is observed both within the 4-6-ps cross-correlation times used in this work, and with a 16-ps delay for all probe wavelengths throughout the 426-525-nm region studied. These transient absorption and emission data provide a more detailed understanding of the mechanistic dynamics occurring during the PYP photocycle.

  10. Near-infrared incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (NIR-IBBCEAS) for detection and quantification of natural gas components.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Neeraj; Ramachandran, Arun; Varma, Ravi; Chen, Jun; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Du, Ke

    2018-06-28

    The principle of near-infrared incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy was employed to develop a novel instrument for detecting natural gas leaks as well as for testing the quality of natural gas mixtures. The instrument utilizes the absorption features of methane, butane, ethane, and propane in the wavelength region of 1100 nm to 1250 nm. The absorption cross-section spectrum in this region for methane was adopted from the HITRAN database, and those for the other three gases were measured in the laboratory. A singular-value decomposition (SVD) based analysis scheme was employed for quantifying methane, butane, ethane, and propane by performing a linear least-square fit. The developed instrument achieved a detection limit of 460 ppm, 141 ppm, 175 ppm and 173 ppm for methane, butane, ethane, and propane, respectively, with a measurement time of 1 second and a cavity length of 0.59 m. These detection limits are less than 1% of the Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) for each gas. The sensitivity can be further enhanced by changing the experimental parameters (such as cavity length, lamp power etc.) and using longer averaging intervals. The detection system is a low-cost and portable instrument suitable for performing field monitorings. The results obtained on the gas mixture emphasize the instrument's potential for deployment at industrial facilities dealing with natural gas, where potential leaks pose a threat to public safety.

  11. Identifying anthropogenic uranium compounds using soft X-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Jesse D.; Bowden, Mark; Tom Resch, C.

    2017-01-01

    Uranium ores mined for industrial use are typically acid-leached to produce yellowcake and then converted into uranium halides for enrichment and purification. These anthropogenic chemical forms of uranium are distinct from their mineral counterparts. The purpose of this study is to use soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy to characterize several common anthropogenic uranium compounds important to the nuclear fuel cycle. Non-destructive chemical analyses of these compounds is important for process and environmental monitoring and X-ray absorption techniques have several advantages in this regard, including element-specificity, chemical sensitivity, and high spectral resolution. Oxygen K-edge spectra were collected for uranyl nitrate, uranyl fluoride,more » and uranyl chloride, and fluorine K-edge spectra were collected for uranyl fluoride and uranium tetrafluoride. Interpretation of the data is aided by comparisons to calculated spectra. These compounds have unique spectral signatures that can be used to identify unknown samples.« less

  12. Quantifying the effect of finite spectral bandwidth on extinction coefficient of species in laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manjeet; Singh, Jaswant; Singh, Baljit; Ghanshyam, C.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the finite spectral bandwidth effect on laser absorption spectroscopy for a wide-band laser source. Experimental analysis reveals that the extinction coefficient of an analyte is affected by the bandwidth of the spectral source, which may result in the erroneous conclusions. An approximate mathematical model has been developed for optical intensities having Gaussian line shape, which includes the impact of source's spectral bandwidth in the equation for spectroscopic absorption. This is done by introducing a suitable first order and second order bandwidth approximation in the Beer-Lambert law equation for finite bandwidth case. The derived expressions were validated using spectroscopic analysis with higher SBW on a test sample, Rhodamine B. The concentrations calculated using proposed approximation, were in significant agreement with the true values when compared with those calculated with conventional approach.

  13. O absorption measurements in an engineering-scale high-pressure coal gasifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kai; Sur, Ritobrata; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.; Clark, Tommy; Anthony, Justin; Machovec, Scott; Northington, John

    2014-10-01

    A real-time, in situ water vapor (H2O) sensor using a tunable diode laser near 1,352 nm was developed to continuously monitor water vapor in the synthesis gas of an engineering-scale high-pressure coal gasifier. Wavelength-scanned wavelength-modulation spectroscopy with second harmonic detection (WMS-2 f) was used to determine the absorption magnitude. The 1 f-normalized, WMS-2 f signal (WMS-2 f/1 f) was insensitive to non-absorption transmission losses including beam steering and light scattering by the particulate in the synthesis gas. A fitting strategy was used to simultaneously determine the water vapor mole fraction and the collisional-broadening width of the transition from the scanned 1 f-normalized WMS-2 f waveform at pressures up to 15 atm, which can be used for large absorbance values. This strategy is analogous to the fitting strategy for wavelength-scanned direct absorption measurements. In a test campaign at the US National Carbon Capture Center, the sensor demonstrated a water vapor detection limit of ~800 ppm (25 Hz bandwidth) at conditions with more than 99.99 % non-absorption transmission losses. Successful unattended monitoring was demonstrated over a 435 h period. Strong correlations between the sensor measurements and transient gasifier operation conditions were observed, demonstrating the capability of laser absorption to monitor the gasification process.

  14. Differential optical absorption spectrometer for measurement of tropospheric pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangelisti, F.; Baroncelli, A.; Bonasoni, P.; Giovanelli, G.; Ravegnani, F.

    1995-05-01

    Our institute has recently developed a differential optical absorption spectrometry system called the gas analyzer spectrometer correlating optical absorption differences (GASCOAD), which features as a detector a linear image sensor that uses an artificial light source for long-path tropospheric-pollution monitoring. The GASCOAD, its method of eliminating interference from background sky light, and subsequent spectral analysis are reported and discussed. The spectrometer was used from 7 to 22 February 1993 in Milan, a heavily polluted metropolitan area, to measure the concentrations of SO2, NO2, O3, and HNO2 averaged over a 1.7-km horizontal light path. The findings are reported and briefly discussed.

  15. Quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy as a plasma diagnostic tool: an overview.

    PubMed

    Welzel, Stefan; Hempel, Frank; Hübner, Marko; Lang, Norbert; Davies, Paul B; Röpcke, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    The recent availability of thermoelectrically cooled pulsed and continuous wave quantum and inter-band cascade lasers in the mid-infrared spectral region has led to significant improvements and new developments in chemical sensing techniques using in-situ laser absorption spectroscopy for plasma diagnostic purposes. The aim of this article is therefore two-fold: (i) to summarize the challenges which arise in the application of quantum cascade lasers in such environments, and, (ii) to provide an overview of recent spectroscopic results (encompassing cavity enhanced methods) obtained in different kinds of plasma used in both research and industry.

  16. Quantum Cascade Laser Absorption Spectroscopy as a Plasma Diagnostic Tool: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Welzel, Stefan; Hempel, Frank; Hübner, Marko; Lang, Norbert; Davies, Paul B.; Röpcke, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    The recent availability of thermoelectrically cooled pulsed and continuous wave quantum and inter-band cascade lasers in the mid-infrared spectral region has led to significant improvements and new developments in chemical sensing techniques using in-situ laser absorption spectroscopy for plasma diagnostic purposes. The aim of this article is therefore two-fold: (i) to summarize the challenges which arise in the application of quantum cascade lasers in such environments, and, (ii) to provide an overview of recent spectroscopic results (encompassing cavity enhanced methods) obtained in different kinds of plasma used in both research and industry. PMID:22163581

  17. Absolute frequency atlas from 915 nm to 985 nm based on laser absorption spectroscopy of iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nölleke, Christian; Raab, Christoph; Neuhaus, Rudolf; Falke, Stephan

    2018-04-01

    This article reports on laser absorption spectroscopy of iodine gas between 915 nm and 985 nm. This wavelength range is scanned utilizing a narrow linewidth and mode-hop-free tunable diode-laser whose frequency is actively controlled using a calibrated wavelength meter. This allows us to provide an iodine atlas that contains almost 10,000 experimentally observed reference lines with an uncertainty of 50 MHz. For common lines, good agreement is found with a publication by Gerstenkorn and Luc (1978). The new rich dataset allows existing models of the iodine molecule to be refined and can serve as a reference for laser frequency calibration and stabilization.

  18. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy--digital detection of gas absorption harmonics based on Fourier analysis.

    PubMed

    Mei, Liang; Svanberg, Sune

    2015-03-20

    This work presents a detailed study of the theoretical aspects of the Fourier analysis method, which has been utilized for gas absorption harmonic detection in wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS). The lock-in detection of the harmonic signal is accomplished by studying the phase term of the inverse Fourier transform of the Fourier spectrum that corresponds to the harmonic signal. The mathematics and the corresponding simulation results are given for each procedure when applying the Fourier analysis method. The present work provides a detailed view of the WMS technique when applying the Fourier analysis method.

  19. The determination of aluminum, copper, iron, and lead in glycol formulations by atomic absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Initial screening tests and the results obtained in developing procedures to determine Al, Cu, Fe, and Pb in glycol formulations are described. Atomic absorption completion was selected for Cu, Fe and Pb, and after comparison with emission spectroscopy, was selected for Al also. Before completion, carbon, iron, and lead are extracted with diethyl dithio carbamate (DDC) into methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). Aluminum was also extracted into MIBK using 8-hydroxyquinoline as a chelating agent. As little as 0.02 mg/l carbon and 0.06 mg/l lead or iron may be determined in glycol formulations. As little as 0.3 mg/l aluminum may be determined.

  20. Tracking the insulator-to-metal phase transition in VO2 with few-femtosecond extreme UV transient absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Jager, Marieke F.; Ott, Christian; Kraus, Peter M.; Kaplan, Christopher J.; Pouse, Winston; Marvel, Robert E.; Haglund, Richard F.; Neumark, Daniel M.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2017-01-01

    Coulomb correlations can manifest in exotic properties in solids, but how these properties can be accessed and ultimately manipulated in real time is not well understood. The insulator-to-metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide (VO2) is a canonical example of such correlations. Here, few-femtosecond extreme UV transient absorption spectroscopy (FXTAS) at the vanadium M2,3 edge is used to track the insulator-to-metal phase transition in VO2. This technique allows observation of the bulk material in real time, follows the photoexcitation process in both the insulating and metallic phases, probes the subsequent relaxation in the metallic phase, and measures the phase-transition dynamics in the insulating phase. An understanding of the VO2 absorption spectrum in the extreme UV is developed using atomic cluster model calculations, revealing V3+/d2 character of the vanadium center. We find that the insulator-to-metal phase transition occurs on a timescale of 26 ± 6 fs and leaves the system in a long-lived excited state of the metallic phase, driven by a change in orbital occupation. Potential interpretations based on electronic screening effects and lattice dynamics are discussed. A Mott–Hubbard-type mechanism is favored, as the observed timescales and d2 nature of the vanadium metal centers are inconsistent with a Peierls driving force. The findings provide a combined experimental and theoretical roadmap for using time-resolved extreme UV spectroscopy to investigate nonequilibrium dynamics in strongly correlated materials. PMID:28827356

  1. Determination of exhaled nitric oxide distributions in a diverse sample population using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namjou, K.; Roller, C. B.; Reich, T. E.; Jeffers, J. D.; McMillen, G. L.; McCann, P. J.; Camp, M. A.

    2006-11-01

    A liquid-nitrogen free mid-infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) system equipped with a folded-optical-path astigmatic Herriott cell was used to measure levels of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) and exhaled carbon dioxide (eCO2) in breath. Quantification of absolute eNO concentrations was performed using NO/CO2 absorption ratios measured by the TDLAS system coupled with absolute eCO2 concentrations measured with a non-dispersive infrared sensor. This technique eliminated the need for routine calibrations using standard cylinder gases. The TDLAS system was used to measure eNO in children and adults (n=799, ages 5 to 64) over a period of more than one year as part of a field study. Volunteers for the study self-reported data including age, height, weight, and health status. The resulting data were used to assess system performance and to generate eNO and eCO2 distributions, which were found to be log-normal and Gaussian, respectively. There were statistically significant differences in mean eNO levels for males and females as well as for healthy and steroid naïve asthmatic volunteers not taking corticosteroid therapies. Ambient NO levels affected measured eNO concentrations only slightly, but this effect was not statistically significant.

  2. Low-frequency sound absorption measurements in air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.; Meredith, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    Thirty sets of sound absorption measurements in air at a pressure of 1 atmosphere are presented at temperatures from 10 C to 50 C, relative humidities from 0 to 100 percent, and frequencies from 10 to 2500 Hz. The measurements were conducted by the method of free decay in a resonant tube having a length of 18.261 m and bore diameter of 0.152 m. Background measurements in a gas consisting of 89.5 percent N2 and 10.5 percent Ar, a mixture which has the same sound velocity as air, permitted the wall and structural losses of the tube to be separated from the constituent absorption, consisting of classical rotational and vibrational absorption, in the air samples. The data were used to evaluate the vibrational relaxation frequencies of N2 and/or O2 for each of the 30 sets of meteorological parameters. Over the full range of humidity, the measured relaxation frequencies of N2 in air lie between those specified by ANSI Standard S1.26-1978 and those measured earlier in binary N2H2O mixtures. The measured relaxation frequencies could be determined only at very low values of humidity, reveal a significant trend away from the ANSI standard, in agreement with a prior investigation.

  3. Multiphoton-gated cycloreversion reaction of a fluorescent diarylethene derivative as revealed by transient absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nagasaka, Tatsuhiro; Kunishi, Tomohiro; Sotome, Hikaru; Koga, Masafumi; Morimoto, Masakazu; Irie, Masahiro; Miyasaka, Hiroshi

    2018-06-07

    The one- and two-photon cycloreversion reactions of a fluorescent diarylethene derivative with oxidized benzothiophene moieties were investigated by means of ultrafast laser spectroscopy. Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy under the one-photon excitation condition revealed that the excited closed-ring isomer is simply deactivated into the initial ground state with a time constant of 2.6 ns without remarkable cycloreversion, the results of which are consistent with the very low cycloreversion reaction yield (<10-5) under steady-state light irradiation. On the other hand, an efficient cycloreversion reaction was observed under irradiation with a picosecond laser pulse at 532 nm. The excitation intensity dependence of the cycloreversion reaction indicates that a highly excited state attained by the stepwise two-photon absorption is responsible for the marked increase of the cycloreversion reaction, and the quantum yield at the highly excited state was estimated to be 0.018 from quantitative analysis, indicating that the reaction is enhanced by a factor of >1800.

  4. Fusion of Ultraviolet-Visible and Infrared Transient Absorption Spectroscopy Data to Model Ultrafast Photoisomerization.

    PubMed

    Debus, Bruno; Orio, Maylis; Rehault, Julien; Burdzinski, Gotard; Ruckebusch, Cyril; Sliwa, Michel

    2017-08-03

    Ultrafast photoisomerization reactions generally start at a higher excited state with excess of internal vibrational energy and occur via conical intersections. This leads to ultrafast dynamics which are difficult to investigate with a single transient absorption spectroscopy technique, be it in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) or infrared (IR) domain. On one hand, the information available in the UV-vis domain is limited as only slight spectral changes are observed for different isomers. On the other hand, the interpretation of vibrational spectra is strongly hindered by intramolecular relaxation and vibrational cooling. These limitations can be circumvented by fusing UV-vis and IR transient absorption spectroscopy data in a multiset multivariate curve resolution analysis. We apply this approach to describe the spectrodynamics of the ultrafast cis-trans photoisomerization around the C-N double bond observed for aromatic Schiff bases. Twisted intermediate states could be elucidated, and isomerization was shown to occur through a continuous complete rotation. More broadly, data fusion can be used to rationalize a vast range of ultrafast photoisomerization processes of interest in photochemistry.

  5. Probing the CZTS/CdS heterojunction utilizing photoelectrochemistry and x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, Matthew J.; Vaccarello, Daniel; Wong, Jonathan; Yiu, Yun Mui; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Ding, Zhifeng

    2018-04-01

    The importance of renewable resources is becoming more and more influential on research due to the depletion of fossil fuels. Cost-effective ways of harvesting solar energy should also be at the forefront of these investigations. Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) solar cells are well within the frame of these goals, and a thorough understanding of how they are made and processed synthetically is crucial. The CZTS/CdS heterojunction was examined using photoelectrochemistry and synchrotron radiation (SR) spectroscopy. These tools provided physical insights into this interface that was formed by the electrophoretic deposition of CZTS nanocrystals and chemical bath deposition (CBD) of CdS for the respective films. It was discovered that CBD induced a change in the local and long range environment of the Zn in the CZTS lattice, which was detrimental to the photoresponse. X-ray absorption near-edge structures and extended X-ray absorption fine structures (EXAFSs) of the junction showed that this change was at an atomic level and was associated with the coordination of oxygen to zinc. This was confirmed through FEFF fitting of the EXAFS and through IR spectroscopy. It was found that this change in both photoresponse and the Zn coordination can be reversed with the use of low temperature annealing. Investigating CZTS through SR techniques provides detailed structural information of minor changes from the zinc perspective.

  6. A method of reducing background fluctuation in tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Rendi; Dong, Xiaozhou; Bi, Yunfeng; Lv, Tieliang

    2018-03-01

    Optical interference fringe is the main factor that leads to background fluctuation in gas concentration detection based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The interference fringes are generated by multiple reflections or scatterings upon optical surfaces in optical path and make the background signal present an approximated sinusoidal oscillation. To reduce the fluctuation of the background, a method that combines dual tone modulation (DTM) with vibration reflector (VR) is proposed in this paper. The combination of DTM and VR can make the unwanted periodic interference fringes to be averaged out and the effectiveness of the method in reducing background fluctuation has been verified by simulation and real experiments in this paper. In the detection system based on the proposed method, the standard deviation (STD) value of the background signal is decreased to 0.0924 parts per million (ppm), which is reduced by a factor of 16 compared with that of wavelength modulation spectroscopy. The STD value of 0.0924 ppm corresponds to the absorption of 4 . 328 × 10-6Hz - 1 / 2 (with effective optical path length of 4 m and integral time of 0.1 s). Moreover, the proposed method presents a better stable performance in reducing background fluctuation in long time experiments.

  7. Combined characterization of bovine polyhemoglobin microcapsules by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Knirsch, Marcos Camargo; Dell'Anno, Filippo; Salerno, Marco; Larosa, Claudio; Polakiewicz, Bronislaw; Eggenhöffner, Roberto; Converti, Attilio

    2017-03-01

    Polyhemoglobin produced from pure bovine hemoglobin by reaction with PEG bis(N-succynimidil succinate) as a cross-linking agent was encapsulated in gelatin and dehydrated by freeze-drying. Free carboxyhemoglobin and polyhemoglobin microcapsules were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy in the absorption range 450-650 nm and cyclic voltammetry in the voltage range from -0.8 to 0.6 mV to evaluate the ability to break the bond with carbon monoxide and to study the carrier's affinity for oxygen, respectively. SEM used to observe the shape of cross-linked gelatin-polyhemoglobin microparticles showed a regular distribution of globular shapes, with mean size of ~750 nm, which was ascribed to gelatin. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was also performed to detect iron presence in microparticles. Cyclic voltammetry using an Ag-AgCl electrode highlighted characteristic peaks at around -0.6 mV that were attributed to reversible oxygen bonding with iron in oxy-polyhemoglobin structure. These results suggest this technique as a powerful, direct and alternative method to evaluate the extent of hemoglobin oxygenation.

  8. Ultrasensitive dual-beam absorption and gain spectroscopy: applications for near-infrared and visible diode laser sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Mark G.; Carleton, Karen L.; Davis, Steven J.; Kessler, William J.; Otis, Charles E.; Palombo, Daniel A.; Sonnenfroh, David M.

    1995-06-01

    A dual-beam detection strategy with automatic balancing is described for ultrasensitive spectroscopy. Absorbances of 2 \\times 10-7 Hz-1/2 in free-space configurations and 5 \\times 10-6 Hz -1/2 in fiber-coupled configurations are demonstrated. With the dual-beam technique, atmospherically broadened absorption transitions may be resolved with InGaAsP, AlGaAs, and AlGaInP single-longitudinal-mode diode lasers. Applications to trace measurements of NO2 , O2, and H2O are described by the use of simple, inexpensive laser and detector systems. Small signal gain measurements on optically pumped I2 with a sensitivity of 10-5 are also reported.

  9. X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of Gd3+-loaded ultra-short carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Q.; Jebb, M.; Tweedle, M. F.; Wilson, L. J.

    2013-04-01

    We present an x-ray absorption spectroscopy study of the local structure around the Gd3+ion loaded in ultra short (20-100 nm) carbon nanotubes (GNTs). X-ray Gd L3 absorption near edge structure data shows that the 31.2-μM GNT suspension exhibits a clear characteristic of hydration at the [GdOn] cluster. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure data show that the Gd3+ ion is coordinated by about 9 oxygen ions and that this first coordination shell exhibits an asymmetry similar to that found in triclinic Gd-acetate or Gd[C2H3O2]3·4H2O or GdAc. After correction for the asymmetry using the cumulant of the third order, the Gd-O bond distance is found to be 2.345 Å, instead of 2.406 Å for a symmetrical (or Gaussian) distribution. It is shorter than that in the Gd-containing MRI contrast agents currently in clinical uses. This may account in part for high proton relaxivity observed for the GNT suspension.

  10. Photochemically Generated Thiyl Free Radicals Observed by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Sneeden, Eileen Y.; Hackett, Mark J.; Cotelesage, Julien J. H.; ...

    2017-07-27

    Sulfur-based thiyl radicals are known to be involved in a wide range of chemical and biological processes, but they are often highly reactive, which makes them difficult to observe directly. We report herein X-ray absorption spectra and analysis that support the direct observation of two different thiyl species generated photochemically by X-ray irradiation. The thiyl radical sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectra of both species are characterized by a uniquely low energy transition at about 2465 eV, which occurs at a lower energy than any previously observed feature at the sulfur K-edge and corresponds to a 1s → 3p transition tomore » the singly occupied molecular orbital of the free radical. In conclusion, our results constitute the first observation of substantial levels of thiyl radicals generated by X-ray irradiation and detected by sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy.« less

  11. Miniaturized differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) system for the analysis of NO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, J. Alberto; Walsh, James E.; Treacy, Jack E.; Garland, Wendy E.

    2003-03-01

    Current trends in optical design engineering are leading to the development of new systems which can analyze atmospheric pollutants in a fast and easy way, allowing remote-sensing and miniaturization at a low cost. A small portable fiber-optic based system is presented for the spectroscopic analysis of a common gas pollutant, NO2. The novel optical set-up described consists of a small telescope that collects ultraviolet-visible light from a xenon lamp located 600 m away. The light is coupled into a portable diode array spectrometer through a fiber-optic cable and the system is controlled by a lap-top computer where the spectra are recorded. Using the spectrum of the lamp as a reference, the absorption spectrum of the open path between the lamp and the telescope is calculated. Known absorption features in the NO2 spectrum are used to calculate the concentration of the pollutant using the principles of Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). Calibration is carried by using sample gas bags of known concentration of the pollutant. The results obtained demonstrate that it is possible to detect and determine NO2 concentrations directly from the atmosphere at typical environment levels by using an inexpensive field based fiber-optic spectrometer system.

  12. Identification of Uranyl Minerals Using Oxygen K-Edge X Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Jesse D.; Bowden, Mark E.; Resch, Charles T.

    2016-03-01

    Uranium analysis is consistently needed throughout the fuel cycle, from mining to fuel fabrication to environmental monitoring. Although most of the world’s uranium is immobilized as pitchblende or uraninite, there exists a plethora of secondary uranium minerals, nearly all of which contain the uranyl cation. Analysis of uranyl compounds can provide clues as to a sample’s facility of origin and chemical history. X-ray absorption spectroscopy is one technique that could enhance our ability to identify uranium minerals. Although there is limited chemical information to be gained from the uranium X-ray absorption edges, recent studies have successfully used ligand NEXAFS tomore » study the physical chemistry of various uranium compounds. This study extends the use of ligand NEXAFS to analyze a suite of uranium minerals. We find that major classes of uranyl compounds (carbonate, oxyhydroxide, silicate, and phosphate) exhibit characteristic lineshapes in the oxygen K-edge absorption spectra. As a result, this work establishes a library of reference spectra that can be used to classify unknown uranyl minerals.« less

  13. Fluorescence Spectroscopy Applied to Monitoring Biodiesel Degradation: Correlation with Acid Value and UV Absorption Analyses.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Maydla Dos Santos; Passos, Wilson Espíndola; Lescanos, Caroline Honaiser; Pires de Oliveira, Ivan; Trindade, Magno Aparecido Gonçalves; Caires, Anderson Rodrigues Lima; Muzzi, Rozanna Marques

    2018-01-01

    The techniques used to monitor the quality of the biodiesel are intensely discussed in the literature, partly because of the different oil sources and their intrinsic physicochemical characteristics. This study aimed to monitor the thermal degradation of the fatty acid methyl esters of Sesamum indicum L. and Raphanus sativus L. biodiesels (SILB and RSLB, resp.). The results showed that both biodiesels present a high content of unsaturated fatty acids, ∼84% (SILB) and ∼90% (RSLB). The SILB had a high content of polyunsaturated linoleic fatty acid (18  :  2), about 49%, and the oleic monounsaturated (18  :  1), ∼34%. On the other hand, RSLB presented a considerable content of linolenic fatty acid (18  :  3), ∼11%. The biodiesel samples were thermal degraded at 110°C for 48 hours, and acid value, UV absorption, and fluorescence spectroscopy analysis were carried out. The results revealed that both absorption and fluorescence presented a correlation with acid value as a function of degradation time by monitoring absorptions at 232 and 270 nm as well as the emission at 424 nm. Although the obtained correlation is not completely linear, a direct correlation was observed in both cases, revealing that both properties can be potentially used for monitoring the biodiesel degradation.

  14. Fourier Transform Absorption Spectroscopy of C_3 in the ν_3 Antisymmetric Stretch Mode Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervloet, Michel; Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; Tokaryk, Dennis W.; Pirali, Olivier

    2017-06-01

    The C_3 molecule has been detected in a variety of astrophysical objects thanks to the well-known 4050 Å (A^1Π_u-X^1Σ ^+ _g) electronic transition as well as the two IR active modes of the electronic ground state: ν_2 (˜ 63.42 cm^{-1}) and ν_3 (˜ 2040.02 cm^{-1}). Previous laboratory data in the ν_3 region, obtained using diode laser spectroscopy and the photolysis of allene to produce C_3, permitted measurement of the fundamental (0,0,1)Σ-(0,0,0)Σ as well as the hot bands: (0,1,1)Π-(0,1,0)Π; (0,2,1)Σ-(0,2,0)Σ; (0,2,1)Δ-(0,2,0)Δ and provided insights on the anharmonicity of the (0,nν_2,1) vibrational pattern. We have recorded the absorption spectrum of C_3 in the 1800-2100 cm^{-1} region (at a resolution of 0.003 cm^{-1}) using the Bruker IFS 125 Fourier Transform spectrometer at the AILES beamline of Synchrotron SOLEIL. C_3 was produced in a DC discharge of methane heavily diluted in helium. The rovibrational temperature of C_3 produced in our discharge is noticeably higher than in Ref. [4], which allowed us to extend measurements to higher J values. More interestingly, we assigned new hot bands involving higher quanta of the ν_2 bending states: (0,nν_2,1) with n ranging from 0 to 5. Despite the absence of Q branches for these bands, which results in a possible ambiguous J-assignment of P and R lines, the large variety of data considered in this work, in addition to our experimental data and including observations of comet spectra, allows confident assignments. L. Gausset, G. Herzberg, A. Lagerqvist, B. Rosen, Astrophysical Journal, 45-81 (1965); T. F. Giesen et al., The Astrophysical Journal, 551, L181-L184 (2001) K. W. Hinkle, J. J. Keady, P. F. Bernath, Science, 241, 1319-1322 (1988) K. Kawaguchi et al., J. Chem. Phys., 91, 1953-1957 (1989)

  15. Quantification and parametrization of non-linearity effects by higher-order sensitivity terms in scattered light differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puķīte, Jānis; Wagner, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    We address the application of differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) of scattered light observations in the presence of strong absorbers (in particular ozone), for which the absorption optical depth is a non-linear function of the trace gas concentration. This is the case because Beer-Lambert law generally does not hold for scattered light measurements due to many light paths contributing to the measurement. While in many cases linear approximation can be made, for scenarios with strong absorptions non-linear effects cannot always be neglected. This is especially the case for observation geometries, for which the light contributing to the measurement is crossing the atmosphere under spatially well-separated paths differing strongly in length and location, like in limb geometry. In these cases, often full retrieval algorithms are applied to address the non-linearities, requiring iterative forward modelling of absorption spectra involving time-consuming wavelength-by-wavelength radiative transfer modelling. In this study, we propose to describe the non-linear effects by additional sensitivity parameters that can be used e.g. to build up a lookup table. Together with widely used box air mass factors (effective light paths) describing the linear response to the increase in the trace gas amount, the higher-order sensitivity parameters eliminate the need for repeating the radiative transfer modelling when modifying the absorption scenario even in the presence of a strong absorption background. While the higher-order absorption structures can be described as separate fit parameters in the spectral analysis (so-called DOAS fit), in practice their quantitative evaluation requires good measurement quality (typically better than that available from current measurements). Therefore, we introduce an iterative retrieval algorithm correcting for the higher-order absorption structures not yet considered in the DOAS fit as well as the absorption dependence on

  16. Supersonic Mass Flux Measurements via Tunable Diode Laser Absorption and Non-Uniform Flow Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Leyen S.; Strand, Christopher L.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Gaffney, Richard L.; Capriotti, Diego P.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of mass flux are obtained in a vitiated supersonic ground test facility using a sensor based on line-of-sight (LOS) diode laser absorption of water vapor. Mass flux is determined from the product of measured velocity and density. The relative Doppler shift of an absorption transition for beams directed upstream and downstream in the flow is used to measure velocity. Temperature is determined from the ratio of absorption signals of two transitions (lambda(sub 1)=1349 nm and lambda(sub 2)=1341.5 nm) and is coupled with a facility pressure measurement to obtain density. The sensor exploits wavelength-modulation spectroscopy with second-harmonic detection (WMS-2f) for large signal-to-noise ratios and normalization with the 1f signal for rejection of non-absorption related transmission fluctuations. The sensor line-of-sight is translated both vertically and horizontally across the test section for spatially-resolved measurements. Time-resolved measurements of mass flux are used to assess the stability of flow conditions produced by the facility. Measurements of mass flux are within 1.5% of the value obtained using a facility predictive code. The distortion of the WMS lineshape caused by boundary layers along the laser line-of-sight is examined and the subsequent effect on the measured velocity is discussed. A method for correcting measured velocities for flow non-uniformities is introduced and application of this correction brings measured velocities within 4 m/s of the predicted value in a 1630 m/s flow.

  17. Measurement of absorption and dispersion from check shot surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganley, D. C.; Kanasewich, E. R.

    1980-10-01

    The spectral ratio method for measuring absorption and also dispersion from seismic data has been examined. Corrections for frequency-dependent losses due to reflections and transmissions have been shown to be an important step in the method. Synthetic examples have been used to illustrate the method, and the method has been applied to one real data case from a sedimentary basin in the Beaufort Sea. Measured Q values were 43±2 for a depth interval of 549-1193 m and 67±6 for a depth interval of 945-1311 m. Dispersion was also measured in the data and is consistent with Futterman's model.

  18. Aerosol absorption measurements and retrievals in shadow2 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qiaoyun; Goloub, Philippe; Podvin, Thierry; Veselovskiy, Igor; Lopatin, Anton; Dubovik, Oleg; Torres, Benjamìn; Revilini, Laura; Crumeyrolle, Suzanne; Lapionak, Tatsiana; Deroo, Christine

    2018-04-01

    Dust, maritime and dust-smoke mixture events observed during SHADOW2 (SaHAran Dust Over West Africa) field campaign are selected and analyzed by using Raman and GARRLiC retrievals. The derived aerosol optical and microphysical properties will be shown. Dust absorption profile and on ground level are derived from GARRLiC retrievals and Aethalometer measurements, respectively. Our results provide a closer insight about dust absorbing properties.

  19. Multispecies breath analysis faster than a single respiratory cycle by optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventrillard-Courtillot, Irene; Gonthiez, Thierry; Clerici, Christine; Romanini, Daniel

    2009-11-01

    We demonstrate a first application, of optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OF-CEAS) to breath analysis in a medical environment. Noninvasive monitoring of trace species in exhaled air was performed simultaneous to spirometric measurements on patients at Bichat Hospital (Paris). The high selectivity of the OF-CEAS spectrometer and a time response of 0.3 s (limited by sample flow rate) allowed following the evolution of carbon monoxide and methane concentrations during individual respiratory cycles, and resolving variations among different ventilatory patterns. The minimum detectable absorption on this time scale is about 3×10-10 cm-1. At the working wavelength of the instrument (2.326 μm), this translates to concentration detection limits of ~1 ppbv (45 picomolar, or ~1.25 μg/m3) for CO and 25 ppbv for CH4, well below concentration values found in exhaled air. This same instrument is also able to provide measurement of NH3 concentrations with a detection limit of ~10 ppbv however, at present, memory effects do not allow its measurement on fast time scales.

  20. Utilizing Near-IR Tunable Laser Absorption Spectroscopy to Study Detonation and Combustion Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    debris, such as soot . Velocity curves for the other equivalence ratios studied in this experiment are shown in Appendix A. Some of these curves show a...James R. Gord. “Measurements of OH mole fraction and temperature up to 20 kHz by using a diode-laser based UV absorption sensor ”. Applied Optics, 44...Davidson, and R.K. Hanson. “CO concentration and temperature sensor for combustion gases using quantum-cascade laser absorption near 4.7µm”. Applied

  1. Cavity-enhanced measurements of hydrogen peroxide absorption cross sections from 353 to 410 nm.

    PubMed

    Kahan, Tara F; Washenfelder, Rebecca A; Vaida, Veronica; Brown, Steven S

    2012-06-21

    We report near-ultraviolet and visible absorption cross sections of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) using incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (IBBCEAS), a recently developed, high-sensitivity technique. The measurements reported here span the range of 353-410 nm and extend published electronic absorption cross sections by 60 nm to absorption cross sections below 1 × 10(-23) cm(2) molecule(-1). We have calculated photolysis rate constants for H(2)O(2) in the lower troposphere at a range of solar zenith angles by combining the new measurements with previously reported data at wavelengths shorter than 350 nm. We predict that photolysis at wavelengths longer than those included in the current JPL recommendation may account for up to 28% of the total hydroxyl radical (OH) production from H(2)O(2) photolysis under some conditions. Loss of H(2)O(2) via photolysis may be of the same order of magnitude as reaction with OH and dry deposition in the lower atmosphere; these processes have very different impacts on HO(x) loss and regeneration.

  2. A broadband Tm/Ho-doped fiber laser tunable from 1.8 to 2.09 µm for intracavity absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fjodorow, Peter; Hellmig, Ortwin; Baev, Valery M.

    2018-04-01

    A broadband tunable Tm/Ho-doped fiber laser is developed for sensitive in situ measurements of intracavity absorption spectra in the spectral range of 4780-5560 cm-1. This spectral range includes an atmospheric transmission window enabling sensitive measurements of various species. The spectral bandwidth of laser emission varies from 20 to 60 cm-1 and is well suitable for multicomponent spectroscopy. The sensitivity achieved in cw operation corresponds to an effective absorption path length of L eff = 20 km, with a spectral noise of less than 1%. The spectroscopic system is applied for measurements of absorption spectra of H2O, NH3 and for simultaneous in situ detection of three isotopes of CO2 in human breath, which is important for medical diagnostics procedures.

  3. Soft X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of High-Abrasion-Furnace Carbon Black

    SciTech Connect

    Muramatsu, Yasuji; Harada, Ryusuke; Gullikson, Eric M.

    2007-02-02

    The soft x-ray absorption spectra of high-abrasion-furnace carbon black were measured to obtain local-structure/chemical-states information of the primary particles and/or crystallites. The soft x-ray absorption spectral features of carbon black represent broader {pi}* and {sigma}* peak structures compared to highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). The subtracted spectra between the carbon black and HOPG, (carbon black) - (HOPG), show double-peak structures on both sides of the {pi}* peak. The lower-energy peak, denoted as the 'pre-peak', in the subtracted spectra and the {pi}*/{sigma}* peak intensity ratio in the absorption spectra clearly depend on the specific surface area by nitrogen adsorption (NSA). Therefore,more » it is concluded that the pre-peak intensity and the {pi}*/{sigma}* ratio reflect the local graphitic structure of carbon black.« less

  4. Interstellar X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of the Crab Pulsar with the LETGS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paerels, Frits; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Tennant, Allyn F.; ODell, Stephen L.; Swartz, Douglas A.; Kahn, Steven M.; Behar, Ehud; Becker, Werner; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We study the interstellar X-ray absorption along the line of sight to the Crab Pulsar. The Crab was observed with the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer on the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the pulsar, a point source, produces a full resolution spectrum. The continuum spectrum appears smooth, and we compare its parameters with other measurements of the pulsar spectrum. The spectrum clearly shows absorption edges due to interstellar Ne, Fe, and O. The O edge shows spectral structure that is probably due to O bound in molecules or dust. We search for near-edge structure (EXAFS) in the O absorption spectrum. The Fe L absorption spectrum is largely due to a set of unresolved discrete n=2-3 transitions in neutral or near-neutral Fe, and we analyze it using a new set of dedicated atomic structure calculations, which provide absolute cross sections. In addition to being interesting in its own right, the ISM absorption needs to be understood in quantitative detail in order to derive spectroscopic constraints on possible soft thermal radiation from the pulsar.

  5. Observation of confinement effects through liner and nonlinear absorption spectroscopy in cuprous oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekhar, H.; Rakesh Kumar, Y.; Narayana Rao, D.

    2015-02-01

    Cuprous oxide nano clusters, micro cubes and micro particles were successfully synthesized by reducing copper (II) salt with ascorbic acid in the presence of sodium hydroxide via a co-precipitation method. The X-ray diffraction studies revealed the formation of pure single phase cubic. Raman spectrum shows the inevitable presence of CuO on the surface of the Cu2O powders which may have an impact on the stability of the phase. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) data revealed that the morphology evolves from nanoclusters to micro cubes and micro particles by increasing the concentration of NaOH. Linear optical measurements show that the absorption peak maximum shifts towards red with changing morphology from nano clusters to micro cubes and micro particles. The nonlinear optical properties were studied using open aperture Z-scan technique with 532 nm, 6 ns laser pulses. Samples exhibited saturable as well as reverse saturable absorption. The results show that the transition from SA to RSA is ascribed to excited-state absorption (ESA) induced by two-photon absorption (TPA) process. Due to confinement effects (enhanced band gap) we observed enhanced nonlinear absorption coefficient (βeff) in the case of nano-clusters compared to their micro-cubes and micro-particles.

  6. Isotope effects in liquid water probed by transmission mode x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the oxygen K-edge.

    PubMed

    Schreck, Simon; Wernet, Philippe

    2016-09-14

    The effects of isotope substitution in liquid water are probed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the O K-edge as measured in transmission mode. Confirming earlier x-ray Raman scattering experiments, the D2O spectrum is found to be blue shifted with respect to H2O, and the D2O spectrum to be less broadened. Following the earlier interpretations of UV and x-ray Raman spectra, the shift is related to the difference in ground-state zero-point energies between D2O and H2O, while the difference in broadening is related to the difference in ground-state vibrational zero-point distributions. We demonstrate that the transmission-mode measurements allow for determining the spectral shapes with unprecedented accuracy. Owing in addition to the increased spectral resolution and signal to noise ratio compared to the earlier measurements, the new data enable the stringent determination of blue shift and broadening in the O K-edge x-ray absorption spectrum of liquid water upon isotope substitution. The results are compared to UV absorption data, and it is discussed to which extent they reflect the differences in zero-point energies and vibrational zero-point distributions in the ground-states of the liquids. The influence of the shape of the final-state potential, inclusion of the Franck-Condon structure, and differences between liquid H2O and D2O resulting from different hydrogen-bond environments in the liquids are addressed. The differences between the O K-edge absorption spectra of water from our transmission-mode measurements and from the state-of-the-art x-ray Raman scattering experiments are discussed in addition. The experimentally extracted values of blue shift and broadening are proposed to serve as a test for calculations of ground-state zero-point energies and vibrational zero-point distributions in liquid H2O and D2O. This clearly motivates the need for new calculations of the O K-edge x-ray absorption spectrum of liquid water.

  7. A Fourier transform spectrometer for visible and near ultra-violet measurements of atmospheric absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, C. L.; Gerlach, J. C.; Whitehurst, M.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a prototype, ground-based, Sun-pointed Michelson interferometric spectrometer is described. Its intended use is to measure the atmospheric amount of various gases which absorb in the near-infrared, visible, and near-ultraviolet portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Preliminary spectra which contain the alpha, 0.8 micrometer, and rho sigma tau water vapor absorption bands in the near-infrared are presented to indicate the present capability of the system. Ultimately, the spectrometer can be used to explore the feasible applications of Fourier transform spectroscopy in the ultraviolet where grating spectrometers were used exclusively.

  8. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of CaSO 4:Dy thermoluminescent phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakshi, A. K.; Jha, S. N.; Olivi, L.; Phase, D. M.; Kher, R. K.; Bhattacharyya, D.

    2007-11-01

    Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements have been carried out on CaSO4:Dy phosphor samples at the Dy L3 edge with synchrotron radiation. Measurements were carried out on a set of samples which were subjected to post-preparation annealing at different temperatures and for different cycles. The EXAFS data have been analysed to find the Dy-S and Dy-O bond lengths in the neighbourhood of the Dy atoms in a CaSO4 matrix. The observations from EXAFS measurements were verified with XANES and XPS techniques. On the basis of these measurements, efforts were made to explain the loss of thermoluminescence sensitivity of CaSO4:Dy phosphors after repeated cycles of annealing at 400 °C in air for 1 h.

  9. SPECIES DETERMINATION OF ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS USING ZEEMAN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY WITH LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    SciTech Connect

    Koizumi, H.; Hadeishi, T.; McLaughlin, R.

    1978-01-01

    Over the past several years we have devised and expanded the capabilities of Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy (ZAA). Using this technique, trace elements in a complex matrix can be directly analyzed with high accuracy even when there is only one atom of interest contained in several million atoms of the host material. Quantities in the nanogram, or in some cases picogram, range can be determined within IS seconds for more than 30 elements. Because of its high selectivity and high sensitivity, ZAA can be used as a new technique for organometallic species determination by interfacing with a high pressure liquidmore » chromatograph (HPLC). The HPLC separates various molecular species. Different kinds of mobil solvents can be directly introduced in the ZAA detection system; even organic solvents or high concentration salt solutions. Then, organometallic species in the ppb range are separately detected according to their retention times. This technique has a much larger field of application than HPLC coupled with conventional AA. The advantages of the ZAA technique are described in a recent publication. In this case, a steady magnetic field at 11 kgauss is applied to the sample vapor perpendicular to the incident light beam. The difference in absorption of the polarized constituents P{perpendicular} and P{parallel} is proportional to the atomic density, but is not affected by the various kind of spectral interferences caused by thermal decomposition of the eluants. The recently developed HPLC technique has many advantages over gas chromatography. Nonvolatile, polar, thermally unstable molecules or high molecular weight compounds can be separated. In the present system, the main requirement is that the solute be soluble in the mobile solvent. A demonstration of the operation of this system is provided by the analysis of a mixture of vitamin B12 and Co(No{sub 3}){sub 2}. As shown in Figure 1, vitamin B12 has a Co in its functional center. Sample 1 contained Co of 0

  10. Catalysts at work: From integral to spatially resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Kimmerle, Bertram; Baiker, Alfons

    2009-09-25

    Spectroscopic studies on heterogeneous catalysts have mostly been done in an integral mode. However, in many cases spatial variations in catalyst structure can occur, e.g. during impregnation of pre-shaped particles, during reaction in a catalytic reactor, or in microstructured reactors as the present overview shows. Therefore, spatially resolved molecular information on a microscale is required for a comprehensive understanding of theses systems, partly in ex situ studies, partly under stationary reaction conditions and in some cases even under dynamic reaction conditions. Among the different available techniques, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a well-suited tool for this purpose as the differentmore » selected examples highlight. Two different techniques, scanning and full-field X-ray microscopy/tomography, are described and compared. At first, the tomographic structure of impregnated alumina pellets is presented using full-field transmission microtomography and compared to the results obtained with a scanning X-ray microbeam technique to analyse the catalyst bed inside a catalytic quartz glass reactor. On the other hand, by using XAS in scanning microtomography, the structure and the distribution of Cu(0), Cu(I), Cu(II) species in a Cu/ZnO catalyst loaded in a quartz capillary microreactor could be reconstructed quantitatively on a virtual section through the reactor. An illustrating example for spatially resolved XAS under reaction conditions is the partial oxidation of methane over noble metal-based catalysts. In order to obtain spectroscopic information on the spatial variation of the oxidation state of the catalyst inside the reactor XAS spectra were recorded by scanning with a micro-focussed beam along the catalyst bed. Alternatively, full-field transmission imaging was used to efficiently determine the distribution of the oxidation state of a catalyst inside a reactor under reaction conditions. The new technical approaches together with

  11. Laser-based absorption spectroscopy as a technique for rapid in-line analysis of respired gas concentrations of O2 and CO2

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Beth; Hamilton, Michelle L.; Ciaffoni, Luca; Pragnell, Timothy R.; Peverall, Rob; Ritchie, Grant A. D.; Hancock, Gus

    2011-01-01

    The use of sidestream analyzers for respired gas analysis is almost universal. However, they are not ideal for measurements of respiratory gas exchange because the analyses are both temporally dissociated from measurements of respiratory flow and also not generally conducted under the same physical conditions. This study explores the possibility of constructing an all optical, fast response, in-line breath analyzer for oxygen and carbon dioxide. Using direct absorption spectroscopy with a diode laser operating at a wavelength near 2 μm, measurements of expired carbon dioxide concentrations were obtained with an absolute limit of detection of 0.04% at a time resolution of 10 ms. Simultaneously, cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy at a wavelength near 760 nm was employed to obtain measurements of expired oxygen concentrations with an absolute limit of detection of 0.26% at a time resolution of 10 ms. We conclude that laser-based absorption spectroscopy is a promising technology for in-line analysis of respired carbon dioxide and oxygen concentrations. PMID:21512147

  12. Laser-based absorption spectroscopy as a technique for rapid in-line analysis of respired gas concentrations of O2 and CO2.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Beth; Hamilton, Michelle L; Ciaffoni, Luca; Pragnell, Timothy R; Peverall, Rob; Ritchie, Grant A D; Hancock, Gus; Robbins, Peter A

    2011-07-01

    The use of sidestream analyzers for respired gas analysis is almost universal. However, they are not ideal for measurements of respiratory gas exchange because the analyses are both temporally dissociated from measurements of respiratory flow and also not generally conducted under the same physical conditions. This study explores the possibility of constructing an all optical, fast response, in-line breath analyzer for oxygen and carbon dioxide. Using direct absorption spectroscopy with a diode laser operating at a wavelength near 2 μm, measurements of expired carbon dioxide concentrations were obtained with an absolute limit of detection of 0.04% at a time resolution of 10 ms. Simultaneously, cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy at a wavelength near 760 nm was employed to obtain measurements of expired oxygen concentrations with an absolute limit of detection of 0.26% at a time resolution of 10 ms. We conclude that laser-based absorption spectroscopy is a promising technology for in-line analysis of respired carbon dioxide and oxygen concentrations.

  13. Uncertainty budgets for liquid waveguide CDOM absorption measurements.

    PubMed

    Lefering, Ina; Röttgers, Rüdiger; Utschig, Christian; McKee, David

    2017-08-01

    Long path length liquid waveguide capillary cell (LWCC) systems using simple spectrometers to determine the spectral absorption by colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) have previously been shown to have better measurement sensitivity compared to high-end spectrophotometers using 10 cm cuvettes. Information on the magnitude of measurement uncertainties for LWCC systems, however, has remained scarce. Cross-comparison of three different LWCC systems with three different path lengths (50, 100, and 250 cm) and two different cladding materials enabled quantification of measurement precision and accuracy, revealing strong wavelength dependency in both parameters. Stable pumping of the sample through the capillary cell was found to improve measurement precision over measurements made with the sample kept stationary. Results from the 50 and 100 cm LWCC systems, with higher refractive index cladding, showed systematic artifacts including small but unphysical negative offsets and high-frequency spectral perturbations due to limited performance of the salinity correction. In comparison, the newer 250 cm LWCC with lower refractive index cladding returned small positive offsets that may be physically correct. After null correction of measurements at 700 nm, overall agreement of CDOM absorption data at 440 nm was found to be within 5% root mean square percentage error.

  14. Absolute I(asterisk) quantum yields for the ICN A state by diode laser gain-vs-absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Wayne P.; Leone, Stephen R.

    1987-01-01

    Absolute I(asterisk) quantum yields have been measured as a function of wavelength for room temperature photodissociation of the ICN A state continuum. The yields are obtained by the technique of time-resolved diode laser gain-vs-absorption spectroscopy. Quantum yields are evaluated at seven wavelengths from 248 to 284 nm. The yield at 266 nm is 66.0 + or - 2 percent and it falls off to 53.4 + or - 2 percent and 44.0 + or - 4 percent at 284 and 248 nm, respectively. The latter values are significantly higher than those obtained by previous workers using infrared fluorescence. Estimates of I(asterisk) quantum yields obtained from analysis of CN photofragment rotational distributions, as discussed by other workers, are in good agreement with the I(asterisk) yields reported here. The results are considered in conjunction with recent theoretical and experimental work on the CN rotational distributions and with previous I(asterisk) quantum yield results.

  15. Fixed-wavelength H2O absorption spectroscopy system enhanced by an on-board external-cavity diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brittelle, Mack S.; Simms, Jean M.; Sanders, Scott T.; Gord, James R.; Roy, Sukesh

    2016-03-01

    We describe a system designed to perform fixed-wavelength absorption spectroscopy of H2O vapor in practical combustion devices. The system includes seven wavelength-stabilized distributed feedback (WSDFB) lasers, each with a spectral accuracy of  ±1 MHz. An on-board external cavity diode laser (ECDL) that tunes 1320-1365 nm extends the capabilities of the system. Five system operation modes are described. In one mode, a sweep of the ECDL is used to monitor each WSDFB laser wavelength with an accuracy of  ±30 MHz. Demonstrations of fixed-wavelength thermometry at 10 kHz bandwidth in near-room-temperature gases are presented; one test reveals a temperature measurement error of ~0.43%.

  16. Transient Infrared Measurement of Laser Absorption Properties of Porous Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marynowicz, Andrzej

    2016-06-01

    The infrared thermography measurements of porous building materials have become more frequent in recent years. Many accompanying techniques for the thermal field generation have been developed, including one based on laser radiation. This work presents a simple optimization technique for estimation of the laser beam absorption for selected porous building materials, namely clinker brick and cement mortar. The transient temperature measurements were performed with the use of infrared camera during laser-induced heating-up of the samples' surfaces. As the results, the absorbed fractions of the incident laser beam together with its shape parameter are reported.

  17. Interpreting measurements obtained with the cloud absorption radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The software developed for the analysis of data from the Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) is discussed. The CAR is a multichannel radiometer designed to measure the radiation field in the middle of an optically thick cloud (the diffusion domain). It can also measure the surface albedo and escape function. The instrument currently flies on a C-131A aircraft operated by the University of Washington. Most of this data was collected during the First International satellite cloud climatology project Regional Experiment (FIRE) Marine Stratocumulus Intensive Field Observation program off San Diego during July 1987. Earlier flights of the CAR have also been studied.

  18. Rapid Mapping of Lithiation Dynamics in Transition Metal Oxide Particles with Operando X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nowack, Lea; Grolimund, Daniel; Samson, Vallerie; Marone, Federica; Wood, Vanessa

    2016-02-24

    Since the commercialization of lithium ion batteries (LIBs), layered transition metal oxides (LiMO2, where M = Co, Mn, Ni, or mixtures thereof) have been materials of choice for LIB cathodes. During cycling, the transition metals change their oxidation states, an effect that can be tracked by detecting energy shifts in the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectrum. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) can therefore be used to visualize and quantify lithiation kinetics in transition metal oxide cathodes; however, in-situ measurements are often constrained by temporal resolution and X-ray dose, necessitating compromises in the electrochemistry cycling conditions used or the materials examined. We report a combined approach to reduce measurement time and X-ray exposure for operando XAS studies of lithium ion batteries. A highly discretized energy resolution coupled with advanced post-processing enables rapid yet reliable identification of the oxidation state. A full-field microscopy setup provides sub-particle resolution over a large area of battery electrode, enabling the oxidation state within many transition metal oxide particles to be tracked simultaneously. Here, we apply this approach to gain insights into the lithiation kinetics of a commercial, mixed-metal oxide cathode material, nickel cobalt aluminium oxide (NCA), during (dis)charge and its degradation during overcharge.

  19. Rapid Mapping of Lithiation Dynamics in Transition Metal Oxide Particles with Operando X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nowack, Lea; Grolimund, Daniel; Samson, Vallerie; Marone, Federica; Wood, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Since the commercialization of lithium ion batteries (LIBs), layered transition metal oxides (LiMO2, where M = Co, Mn, Ni, or mixtures thereof) have been materials of choice for LIB cathodes. During cycling, the transition metals change their oxidation states, an effect that can be tracked by detecting energy shifts in the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectrum. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) can therefore be used to visualize and quantify lithiation kinetics in transition metal oxide cathodes; however, in-situ measurements are often constrained by temporal resolution and X-ray dose, necessitating compromises in the electrochemistry cycling conditions used or the materials examined. We report a combined approach to reduce measurement time and X-ray exposure for operando XAS studies of lithium ion batteries. A highly discretized energy resolution coupled with advanced post-processing enables rapid yet reliable identification of the oxidation state. A full-field microscopy setup provides sub-particle resolution over a large area of battery electrode, enabling the oxidation state within many transition metal oxide particles to be tracked simultaneously. Here, we apply this approach to gain insights into the lithiation kinetics of a commercial, mixed-metal oxide cathode material, nickel cobalt aluminium oxide (NCA), during (dis)charge and its degradation during overcharge. PMID:26908198

  20. Rapid Mapping of Lithiation Dynamics in Transition Metal Oxide Particles with Operando X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowack, Lea; Grolimund, Daniel; Samson, Vallerie; Marone, Federica; Wood, Vanessa

    2016-02-01

    Since the commercialization of lithium ion batteries (LIBs), layered transition metal oxides (LiMO2, where M = Co, Mn, Ni, or mixtures thereof) have been materials of choice for LIB cathodes. During cycling, the transition metals change their oxidation states, an effect that can be tracked by detecting energy shifts in the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectrum. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) can therefore be used to visualize and quantify lithiation kinetics in transition metal oxide cathodes; however, in-situ measurements are often constrained by temporal resolution and X-ray dose, necessitating compromises in the electrochemistry cycling conditions used or the materials examined. We report a combined approach to reduce measurement time and X-ray exposure for operando XAS studies of lithium ion batteries. A highly discretized energy resolution coupled with advanced post-processing enables rapid yet reliable identification of the oxidation state. A full-field microscopy setup provides sub-particle resolution over a large area of battery electrode, enabling the oxidation state within many transition metal oxide particles to be tracked simultaneously. Here, we apply this approach to gain insights into the lithiation kinetics of a commercial, mixed-metal oxide cathode material, nickel cobalt aluminium oxide (NCA), during (dis)charge and its degradation during overcharge.

  1. X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy As a Probe of Microbial Sulfur Biochemistry: the Nature of Bacterial Sulfur Globules Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    George, G.N.; Gnida, M.; Bazylinski, D.A.

    2009-05-18

    The chemical nature of the sulfur in bacterial sulfur globules has been the subject of controversy for a number of years. Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a powerful technique for probing the chemical forms of sulfur in situ, but two groups have used it with very different conclusions. The root of the controversy lies with the different detection strategies used by the two groups, which result in very different spectra. This paper seeks to resolve the controversy. We experimentally demonstrate that the use of transmittance detection for sulfur K-edge XAS measurements is highly prone to spectroscopic distortions andmore » that much of the published work on sulfur bacteria is very likely based on distorted data. We also demonstrate that all three detection methods used for X-ray absorption experiments yield essentially identical spectra when the measurements are carried out under conditions where no experimental distortions are expected. Finally, we turn to the original question--the chemical nature of bacterial sulfur. We examine isolated sulfur globules of Allochromatium vinosum and intact cells of a strain of magnetotactic coccus and show that XAS indicates the presence of a chemical form of sulfur resembling S{sub 8}.« less

  2. New Homogeneous Standards by Atomic Layer Deposition for Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence and Absorption Spectroscopies.

    SciTech Connect

    Butterworth, A.L.; Becker, N.; Gainsforth, Z.

    2012-03-13

    Quantification of synchrotron XRF analyses is typically done through comparisons with measurements on the NIST SRM 1832/1833 thin film standards. Unfortunately, these standards are inhomogeneous on small scales at the tens of percent level. We are synthesizing new homogeneous multilayer standards using the Atomic Layer Deposition technique and characterizing them using multiple analytical methods, including ellipsometry, Rutherford Back Scattering at Evans Analytical, Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence (SXRF) at Advanced Photon Source (APS) Beamline 13-ID, Synchrotron X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) at Advanced Light Source (ALS) Beamlines 11.0.2 and 5.3.2.1 and by electron microscopy techniques. Our motivation for developing much-needed cross-calibration of synchrotronmore » techniques is borne from coordinated analyses of particles captured in the aerogel of the NASA Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC). The Stardust Interstellar Dust Preliminary Examination (ISPE) team have characterized three sub-nanogram, {approx}1{micro}m-sized fragments considered as candidates to be the first contemporary interstellar dust ever collected, based on their chemistries and trajectories. The candidates were analyzed in small wedges of aerogel in which they were extracted from the larger collector, using high sensitivity, high spatial resolution >3 keV synchrotron x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (SXRF) and <2 keV synchrotron x-ray transmission microscopy (STXM) during Stardust ISPE. The ISPE synchrotron techniques have complementary capabilities. Hard X-ray SXRF is sensitive to sub-fg mass of elements Z {ge} 20 (calcium) and has a spatial resolution as low as 90nm. X-ray Diffraction data were collected simultaneously with SXRF data. Soft X-ray STXM at ALS beamline 11.0.2 can detect fg-mass of most elements, including cosmochemically important oxygen, magnesium, aluminum and silicon, which are invisible to SXRF in this application. ALS beamline 11.0.2 has spatial

  3. Determining the Uncertainty of X-Ray Absorption Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Wojcik, Gary S.

    2004-01-01

    X-ray absorption (or more properly, x-ray attenuation) techniques have been applied to study the moisture movement in and moisture content of materials like cement paste, mortar, and wood. An increase in the number of x-ray counts with time at a location in a specimen may indicate a decrease in moisture content. The uncertainty of measurements from an x-ray absorption system, which must be known to properly interpret the data, is often assumed to be the square root of the number of counts, as in a Poisson process. No detailed studies have heretofore been conducted to determine the uncertainty of x-ray absorption measurements or the effect of averaging data on the uncertainty. In this study, the Poisson estimate was found to adequately approximate normalized root mean square errors (a measure of uncertainty) of counts for point measurements and profile measurements of water specimens. The Poisson estimate, however, was not reliable in approximating the magnitude of the uncertainty when averaging data from paste and mortar specimens. Changes in uncertainty from differing averaging procedures were well-approximated by a Poisson process. The normalized root mean square errors decreased when the x-ray source intensity, integration time, collimator size, and number of scanning repetitions increased. Uncertainties in mean paste and mortar count profiles were kept below 2 % by averaging vertical profiles at horizontal spacings of 1 mm or larger with counts per point above 4000. Maximum normalized root mean square errors did not exceed 10 % in any of the tests conducted. PMID:27366627

  4. Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) Measurements from Air and Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, E. V.; Ismail, S.; Grant, W. B.

    1998-01-01

    Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) systems have been used for the measurement of ozone, water vapor, and aerosols from aircraft platforms for over 18 years, yielding new insights into atmospheric chemistry, composition, and dynamics in large-scale field experiments conducted all over the world. The successful deployment of the lidar in-space technology experiment (LITE) in September 1994 demonstrated that space-based lidars can also collect valuable information on the global atmosphere. This paper reviews some of the contributions of the NASA Langley Research Center's airborne ozone and water vapor DIAL systems and space-based LITE system to the understanding of the atmosphere and discusses the feasibility and advantages of putting DIAL systems in space for routine atmospheric measurements of ozone and/or water vapor and aerosols and clouds. The technology and applications of the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique have progressed significantly since the first DIAL measurements of Schotland, and airborne DIAL measurements of ozone and water vapor are frequently being made in a wide range of field experiments. In addition, plans are underway to develop DIAL systems for use on satellites for continuous global measurements. This paper will highlight the history of airborne lidar and DIAL systems, summarize the major accomplishments of the NASA Langley DIAL program, and discuss specifications and goals for DIAL systems in space.

  5. Magneto-optical far-infrared absorption spectroscopy of the hole states of indium phosphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, R. A.; Wang, Y.-J.

    2005-03-01

    Far-infrared absorption spectroscopy in magnetic fields of up to 30 T of the zinc acceptor impurity in indium phosphide has revealed for the first time a series of free-hole transitions (Landau-related series) in addition to the familiar bound-hole transitions (Lyman series) as well as hitherto unobserved phonon replicas of both series. Analysis of these data permits the simultaneous direct experimental determination of (i) the hole effective mass, (ii) the species-specific binding energy of the acceptor impurity, (iii) the absolute energy levels of the acceptor excited states of both odd and even parity, (iv) more reliable, and in some cases the only, g factors for acceptor states, through relaxation of the selection rules for phonon replicas, and (v) the LO phonon energy. The method is applicable to other semiconductors and may lead to the reappraisal of their physical parameters.

  6. Natural gas pipeline leak detector based on NIR diode laser absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaoming; Fan, Hong; Huang, Teng; Wang, Xia; Bao, Jian; Li, Xiaoyun; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Weijun

    2006-09-01

    The paper reports on the development of an integrated natural gas pipeline leak detector based on diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The detector transmits a 1.653 microm DFB diode laser with 10 mW and detects a fraction of the backscatter reflected from the topographic targets. To eliminate the effect of topographic scatter targets, a ratio detection technique was used. Wavelength modulation and harmonic detection were used to improve the detection sensitivity. The experimental detection limit is 50 ppmm, remote detection for a distance up to 20 m away topographic scatter target is demonstrated. Using a known simulative leak pipe, minimum detectable pipe leak flux is less than 10 ml/min.

  7. An X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of the interactions of Ni2+ with yeast enolase.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Scott, R A; Lebioda, L; Zhou, Z H; Brewer, J M

    1995-05-15

    An x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) study was carried out at pH 7.6 on solutions of Ni2+ and yeast enolase depleted of its physiological cofactor (Mg2+) in the presence or absence of substrate/product, the very strongly bound competitive inhibitor 2-phosphonoacetohydroxamate and Mg2+. Both "conformational" and "catalytic" Ni2+ are distorted octahedral in coordination, in agreement with several spectroscopic studies but in contrast to the coordination in the crystal at pH 6.0. The data are consistent with direct coordination of what must be the catalytic Ni2+ to the phosphate of the substrate, in agreement with some previous data but in disagreement with recent interpretations by other workers. The ligands around the metal ions obtained from the x-ray structure give simulated XAS spectra in good agreement with the observed spectra.

  8. Microreactor Cells for High-Throughput X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Beesley, Angela; Tsapatsaris, Nikolaos; Weiher, Norbert

    2007-01-19

    High-throughput experimentation has been applied to X-ray Absorption spectroscopy as a novel route for increasing research productivity in the catalysis community. Suitable instrumentation has been developed for the rapid determination of the local structure in the metal component of precursors for supported catalysts. An automated analytical workflow was implemented that is much faster than traditional individual spectrum analysis. It allows the generation of structural data in quasi-real time. We describe initial results obtained from the automated high throughput (HT) data reduction and analysis of a sample library implemented through the 96 well-plate industrial standard. The results show that a fullymore » automated HT-XAS technology based on existing industry standards is feasible and useful for the rapid elucidation of geometric and electronic structure of materials.« less

  9. Etalon-induced Baseline Drift And Correction In Atom Flux Sensors Based On Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Du, Yingge; Chambers, Scott A.

    2014-10-20

    Atom flux sensors based on atomic absorption (AA) spectroscopy are of significant interest in thin film growth as they can provide unobtrusive, element specific, real-time flux sensing and control. The ultimate sensitivity and performance of the sensors are strongly affected by the long-term and short term baseline drift. Here we demonstrate that an etalon effect resulting from temperature changes in optical viewport housings is a major source of signal instability which has not been previously considered or corrected by existing methods. We show that small temperature variations in the fused silica viewports can introduce intensity modulations of up to 1.5%,more » which in turn significantly deteriorate AA sensor performance. This undesirable effect can be at least partially eliminated by reducing the size of the beam and tilting the incident light beam off the viewport normal.« less

  10. An Attosecond Transient Absorption Spectroscopy Setup with a Water Window Attosecond source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chew, Andrew; Yin, Yanchun; Li, Jie; Ren, Xiaoming; Wang, Yang; Wu, Yi; Chang, Zenghu

    2017-04-01

    Attosecond transient absorption, or time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy, are excellent tools that can be used to investigate fast electron dynamics for a given atomic or molecular system. Recent push for high energy long wavelength few cycle laser sources has resulted in the production of x-ray spectra that would allow the probing of electron dynamics at the carbon k-edge in molecules such as CH4 and CO2. The motion of charges can be caused by photo-dissociation and charge migration. We present here the first results from our experimental setup where we produce a broadband attosecond pulse with spectra that stretches into the water window. National Science Foundation (1068604), Army Research Oce (W911NF-14-1-0383), Air Force Oce of Scientic Research (FA9550-15-1-0037, FA9550-16-1-0013) and the DARPA PULSE program by a Grant from AMRDEC (W31P4Q1310017).

  11. Electronic structure of transition metal-cysteine complexes from X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Leung, Bonnie O; Jalilehvand, Farideh; Szilagyi, Robert K

    2008-04-17

    The electronic structures of HgII, NiII, CrIII, and MoV complexes with cysteine were investigated by sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and density functional theory. The covalency in the metal-sulfur bond was determined by analyzing the intensities of the electric-dipole allowed pre-edge features appearing in the XANES spectra below the ionization threshold. Because of the well-defined structures of the selected cysteine complexes, the current work provides a reference set for further sulfur K-edge XAS studies of bioinorganic active sites with transition metal-sulfur bonds from cysteine residues as well as more complex coordination compounds with thiolate ligands.

  12. X-ray absorption spectroscopy characterization of embedded and extracted nano-oxides

    DOE PAGES

    Stan, Tiberiu; Sprouster, David J.; Ofan, Avishai; ...

    2016-12-29

    Here, the chemistries and structures of both embedded and extracted Ysingle bondTisingle bondO nanometer-scale oxides in a nanostructured ferritic alloy (NFA) were probed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Y 2Ti 2O 7 is the primary embedded phase, while the slightly larger extracted oxides are primarily Y 2TiO 5. Analysis of the embedded nano-oxides is difficult partly due to the multiple Ti environments associated with different oxides and those still residing in matrix lattice sites. Thus, bulk extraction followed by selective filtration was used to isolate the larger Y 2TiO 5 oxides for XAS, while the smaller predominant embedded phase Ymore » 2Ti 2O 7 oxides passed through the filters and were analyzed using the log-ratio method.« less

  13. NO binding kinetics in myoglobin investigated by picosecond Fe K-edge absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Silatani, Mahsa; Lima, Frederico A.; Penfold, Thomas J.; Rittmann, Jochen; Reinhard, Marco E.; Rittmann-Frank, Hannelore M.; Borca, Camelia; Grolimund, Daniel; Milne, Christopher J.; Chergui, Majed

    2015-01-01

    Diatomic ligands in hemoproteins and the way they bind to the active center are central to the protein’s function. Using picosecond Fe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we probe the NO-heme recombination kinetics with direct sensitivity to the Fe-NO binding after 532-nm photoexcitation of nitrosylmyoglobin (MbNO) in physiological solutions. The transients at 70 and 300 ps are identical, but they deviate from the difference between the static spectra of deoxymyoglobin and MbNO, showing the formation of an intermediate species. We propose the latter to be a six-coordinated domed species that is populated on a timescale of ∼200 ps by recombination with NO ligands. This work shows the feasibility of ultrafast pump–probe X-ray spectroscopic studies of proteins in physiological media, delivering insight into the electronic and geometric structure of the active center. PMID:26438842

  14. A quantum perturbative pair distribution for determining interatomic potentials from extended x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazza, F.

    2002-11-01

    In this paper we develop a technique for determining interatomic potentials in materials in the quantum regime from single-shell extended x-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS) spectra. We introduce a pair distribution function, based on ordinary quantum time-independent perturbation theory. In the proposed scheme, the model potential parameters enter the distribution through a fourth-order Taylor expansion of the potential, and are directly refined in the fit of the model signal to the experimental spectrum. We discuss in general the validity of our theoretical framework, namely the quantum regime and perturbative treatment, and work out a simple tool for monitoring the sensitivity of our theory in determining lattice anharmonicities based on the statistical F-test. As an example, we apply our formalism to an EXAFS spectrum at the Ag K edge of AgI at T = 77 K. We determine the Ag-I potential parameters and find good agreement with previous studies.

  15. Tin Valence and Local Environments in Silicate Glasses as Determined From X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown,D.; Buechele, A.; Gan, H.

    2008-01-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used to characterize the tin (Sn) environments in four borosilicate glass nuclear waste formulations, two silicate float glasses, and three potassium aluminosilicate glasses. Sn K-edge XAS data of most glasses investigated indicate Sn4+O6 units with average Sn-O distances near 2.03 Angstroms. XAS data for a float glass fabricated under reducing conditions show a mixture of Sn4+O6 and Sn2+O4 sites. XAS data for three glasses indicate Sn-Sn distances ranging from 3.43 to 3.53 Angstroms, that suggest Sn4+O6 units linking with each other, while the 4.96 Angstroms Sn-Sn distance for one waste glass suggests clustering of unlinkedmore » Sn4+O6 units.« less

  16. Multi-species detection using multi-mode absorption spectroscopy (MUMAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Northern, J. H.; Thompson, A. W. J.; Hamilton, M. L.; Ewart, P.

    2013-06-01

    The detection of multiple species using a single laser and single detector employing multi-mode absorption spectroscopy (MUMAS) is reported. An in-house constructed, diode-pumped, Er:Yb:glass micro-laser operating at 1,565 nm with 10 modes separated by 18 GHz was used to record MUMAS signals in a gas mixture containing C2H2, N2O and CO. The components of the mixture were detected simultaneously by identifying multiple transitions in each of the species. By using temperature- and pressure-dependent modelled spectral fits to the data, partial pressures of each species in the mixture were determined with an uncertainty of ±2 %.

  17. Investigation of nanoparticulate silicon as printed layers using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Unuigbe, David M.; Harting, Margit; Jonah, Emmanuel O.; ...

    2017-08-21

    The presence of native oxide on the surface of silicon nanoparticles is known to inhibit charge transport on the surfaces. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies reveal that the particles in the printed silicon network have a wide range of sizes and shapes. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals that the particle surfaces have mainly the (111)- and (100)-oriented planes which stabilizes against further oxidation of the particles. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements at the O 1s-edge have been utilized to study the oxidation and local atomic structure of printed layers of silicon nanoparticles which were milledmore » for different times. XANES results reveal the presence of the +4 (SiO 2) oxidation state which tends towards the +2 (SiO) state for higher milling times. Si 2pXPS results indicate that the surfaces of the silicon nanoparticles in the printed layers are only partially oxidized and that all three sub-oxide, +1 (Si 2O), +2 (SiO) and +3 (Si 2O 3), states are present. The analysis of the change in the sub-oxide peaks of the silicon nanoparticles shows the dominance of the +4 state only for lower milling times.« less

  18. Measurements of gas parameters in plasma-assisted supersonic combustion processes using diode laser spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bolshov, Mikhail A; Kuritsyn, Yu A; Liger, V V

    2009-09-30

    We report a procedure for temperature and water vapour concentration measurements in an unsteady-state combustion zone using diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The procedure involves measurements of the absorption spectrum of water molecules around 1.39 {mu}m. It has been used to determine hydrogen combustion parameters in M = 2 gas flows in the test section of a supersonic wind tunnel. The relatively high intensities of the absorption lines used have enabled direct absorption measurements. We describe a differential technique for measurements of transient absorption spectra, the procedure we used for primary data processing and approaches for determining the gas temperature andmore » H{sub 2}O concentration in the probed zone. The measured absorption spectra are fitted with spectra simulated using parameters from spectroscopic databases. The combustion-time-averaged ({approx}50 ms) gas temperature and water vapour partial pressure in the hot wake region are determined to be 1050 K and 21 Torr, respectively. The large signal-to-noise ratio in our measurements allowed us to assess the temporal behaviour of these parameters. The accuracy in our temperature measurements in the probed zone is {approx}40 K. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)« less

  19. Optical analysis of trapped Gas—Gas in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svanberg, S.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of the new field of Gas in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy (GASMAS) is presented. The technique investigates sharp gas spectral signatures, typically 10000 times sharper than those of the host material, in which the gas is trapped in pores or cavities. The presence of pores causes strong multiple scattering. GASMAS combines narrow-band diode-laser spectroscopy, developed for atmospheric gas monitoring, with diffuse media optical propagation, well-known from biomedical optics. Several applications in materials science, food packaging, pharmaceutics and medicine have been demonstrated. So far molecular oxygen and water vapour have been studied around 760 and 935 nm, respectively. Liquid water, an important constituent in many natural materials, such as tissue, has a low absorption at such wavelengths, and this is also true for haemoglobin, making propagation possible in many natural materials. Polystyrene foam, wood, fruits, food-stuffs, pharmaceutical tablets, and human sinus cavities (frontal, maxillary and mastoideal) have been studied, demonstrating new possibilities for characterization and diagnostics. Transport of gas in porous media (diffusion) can be studied by first subjecting the material to, e.g., pure nitrogen, and then observing the rate at which normal, oxygen-containing air, reinvades the material. The conductance of the passages connecting a sinus with the nasal cavity can be objectively assessed by observing the oxygen gas dynamics when flushing the nose with nitrogen. Drying of materials, when liquid water is replaced by air and water vapour, is another example of dynamic processes which can be studied. The technique has also been extended to remote-sensing applications (LIDAR-GASMAS or Multiple-Scattering LIDAR).

  20. Enhancing the sensitivity of mid-IR quantum cascade laser-based cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy using RF current perturbation.

    PubMed

    Manfred, Katherine M; Kirkbride, James M R; Ciaffoni, Luca; Peverall, Robert; Ritchie, Grant A D

    2014-12-15

    The sensitivity of mid-IR quantum cascade laser (QCL) off-axis cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS), often limited by cavity mode structure and diffraction losses, was enhanced by applying a broadband RF noise to the laser current. A pump-probe measurement demonstrated that the addition of bandwidth-limited white noise effectively increased the laser linewidth, thereby reducing mode structure associated with CEAS. The broadband noise source offers a more sensitive, more robust alternative to applying single-frequency noise to the laser. Analysis of CEAS measurements of a CO(2) absorption feature at 1890  cm(-1) averaged over 100 ms yielded a minimum detectable absorption of 5.5×10(-3)  Hz(-1/2) in the presence of broadband RF perturbation, nearly a tenfold improvement over the unperturbed regime. The short acquisition time makes this technique suitable for breath applications requiring breath-by-breath gas concentration information.

  1. Measurement of Scattering and Absorption Cross Sections of Dyed Microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Gaigalas, Adolfas K; Choquette, Steven; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of absorbance and fluorescence emission were carried out on aqueous suspensions of polystyrene (PS) microspheres with a diameter of 2.5 µm using a spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere detector. The apparatus and the principles of measurements were described in our earlier publications. Microspheres with and without green BODIPY@ dye were measured. Placing the suspension inside an integrating sphere (IS) detector of the spectrophotometer yielded (after a correction for fluorescence emission) the absorbance (called A in the text) due to absorption by BODIPY@ dye inside the microsphere. An estimate of the absorbance due to scattering alone was obtained by subtracting the corrected BODIPY@ dye absorbance (A) from the measured absorbance of a suspension placed outside the IS detector (called A1 in the text). The absorption of the BODIPY@ dye inside the microsphere was analyzed using an imaginary index of refraction parameterized with three Gaussian-Lorentz functions. The Kramer-Kronig relation was used to estimate the contribution of the BODIPY@ dye to the real part of the microsphere index of refraction. The complex index of refraction, obtained from the analysis of A, was used to analyze the absorbance due to scattering ((A1- A) in the text). In practice, the analysis of the scattering absorbance, A1-A, and the absorbance, A, was carried out in an iterative manner. It was assumed that A depended primarily on the imaginary part of the microsphere index of refraction with the other parameters playing a secondary role. Therefore A was first analyzed using values of the other parameters obtained from a fit to the absorbance due to scattering, A1-A, with the imaginary part neglected. The imaginary part obtained from the analysis of A was then used to reanalyze A1-A, and obtain better estimates of the other parameters. After a few iterations, consistent estimates were obtained of the scattering and absorption cross sections in the wavelength region 300

  2. Measurement of clathrate hydrates via Raman spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sum, A.K.; Burruss, R.C.; Sloan, E.D.

    1997-01-01

    Raman spectra of clathrate hydrate guest molecules are presented for three known structures (I (sI), II (sII), and H (sH)) in the following systems: CH4 (sI), CO2 (sI), C3H8 (sII), CH4 + CO2 (sI), CD4 + C3H8 (sII), CH4 + N2 (sI), CH4 + THF-d8 (sII), and CH4 + C7D14 (sH). Relative occupancy of CH4 in the large and small cavities of sI were determined by deconvoluting the ??1 symmetric bands, resulting in hydration numbers of 6.04 ?? 0.03. The frequency of the ??1 bands for CH4 in structures I, II, and H differ statistically, so that Raman spectroscopy is a potential tool to identify hydrate crystal structure. Hydrate guest compositions were also measured for two vapor compositions of the CH4 + CO2 system, and they compared favorably with predictions. The large cavities were measured to be almost fully occupied by CH4 and CO2, whereas only a small fraction of the small cavities are occupied by CH4. No CO2 was found in the small cavities. Hydration numbers from 7.27 to 7.45 were calculated for the mixed hydrate.

  3. Correlation-driven charge migration following double ionization and attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollstein, Maximilian; Santra, Robin; Pfannkuche, Daniela

    2017-05-01

    We theoretically investigate charge migration following prompt double ionization. Thereby, we extend the concept of correlation-driven charge migration, which was introduced by Cederbaum and coworkers for single ionization [Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 205 (1999), 10.1016/S0009-2614(99)00508-4], to doubly ionized molecules. This allows us to demonstrate that compared to singly ionized molecules, in multiply ionized molecules, electron dynamics originating from electronic relaxation and correlation are particularly prominent. In addition, we also discuss how these correlation-driven electron dynamics might be evidenced and traced experimentally using attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. For this purpose, we determine the time-resolved absorption cross section and find that the correlated electron dynamics discussed are reflected in it with exceptionally great detail. Strikingly, we find that features in the cross section can be traced back to electron hole populations and time-dependent partial charges and hence, can be interpreted with surprising ease. By taking advantage of element-specific core-to-valence transitions even atomic spatial resolution can be achieved. Thus, with the theoretical considerations presented, not only do we predict particularly diverse and correlated electron dynamics in molecules to follow prompt multiple ionization but we also identify a promising route towards their experimental investigation.

  4. [Study on Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy Data Processing Based on Chirp-Z Transformation].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hai-ming; Li, Guang-jie; Wu, Hao

    2015-06-01

    Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) is a commonly used atmospheric pollution monitoring method. Denoising of monitoring spectral data will improve the inversion accuracy. Fourier transform filtering method is effectively capable of filtering out the noise in the spectral data. But the algorithm itself can introduce errors. In this paper, a chirp-z transform method is put forward. By means of the local thinning of Fourier transform spectrum, it can retain the denoising effect of Fourier transform and compensate the error of the algorithm, which will further improve the inversion accuracy. The paper study on the concentration retrieving of SO2 and NO2. The results show that simple division causes bigger error and is not very stable. Chirp-z transform is proved to be more accurate than Fourier transform. Results of the frequency spectrum analysis show that Fourier transform cannot solve the distortion and weakening problems of characteristic absorption spectrum. Chirp-z transform shows ability in fine refactoring of specific frequency spectrum.

  5. Identifying anthropogenic uranium compounds using soft X-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Jesse D.; Bowden, Mark; Tom Resch, C.; Eiden, Gregory C.; Pemmaraju, C. D.; Prendergast, David; Duffin, Andrew M.

    2017-01-01

    Uranium ores mined for industrial use are typically acid-leached to produce yellowcake and then converted into uranium halides for enrichment and purification. These anthropogenic chemical forms of uranium are distinct from their mineral counterparts. The purpose of this study is to use soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy to characterize several common anthropogenic uranium compounds important to the nuclear fuel cycle. Chemical analyses of these compounds are important for process and environmental monitoring. X-ray absorption techniques have several advantages in this regard, including element-specificity, chemical sensitivity, and high spectral resolution. Oxygen K-edge spectra were collected for uranyl nitrate, uranyl fluoride, and uranyl chloride, and fluorine K-edge spectra were collected for uranyl fluoride and uranium tetrafluoride. Interpretation of the data is aided by comparisons to calculated spectra. The effect of hydration state on the sample, a potential complication in interpreting oxygen K-edge spectra, is discussed. These compounds have unique spectral signatures that can be used to identify unknown samples.

  6. The application of visible absorption spectroscopy to the analysis of uranium in aqueous solutions

    DOE PAGES

    Colletti, Lisa Michelle; Copping, Roy; Garduno, Katherine; ...

    2017-07-18

    Through assay analysis into an excess of 1 M H 2SO 4 at fixed temperature a technique has been developed for uranium concentration analysis by visible absorption spectroscopy over an assay concentration range of 1.8 – 13.4 mgU/g. Once implemented for a particular spectrophotometer and set of spectroscopic cells this technique promises to provide more rapid results than a classical method such as Davies-Gray (DG) titration analysis. While not as accurate and precise as the DG method, a comparative analysis study reveals that the spectroscopic method can analyze for uranium in well characterized uranyl(VI) solution samples to within 0.3% ofmore » the DG results. For unknown uranium solutions in which sample purity is less well defined agreement between the developed spectroscopic method and DG analysis is within 0.5%. The technique can also be used to detect the presence of impurities that impact the colorimetric analysis, as confirmed through the analysis of ruthenium contamination. Finally, extending the technique to other assay solution, 1 M HNO 3, HCl and Na 2CO 3, has also been shown to be viable. As a result, of the four aqueous media the carbonate solution yields the largest molar absorptivity value at the most intensely absorbing band, with the least impact of temperature.« less

  7. The application of visible absorption spectroscopy to the analysis of uranium in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Colletti, Lisa Michelle; Copping, Roy; Garduno, Katherine

    Through assay analysis into an excess of 1 M H 2SO 4 at fixed temperature a technique has been developed for uranium concentration analysis by visible absorption spectroscopy over an assay concentration range of 1.8 – 13.4 mgU/g. Once implemented for a particular spectrophotometer and set of spectroscopic cells this technique promises to provide more rapid results than a classical method such as Davies-Gray (DG) titration analysis. While not as accurate and precise as the DG method, a comparative analysis study reveals that the spectroscopic method can analyze for uranium in well characterized uranyl(VI) solution samples to within 0.3% ofmore » the DG results. For unknown uranium solutions in which sample purity is less well defined agreement between the developed spectroscopic method and DG analysis is within 0.5%. The technique can also be used to detect the presence of impurities that impact the colorimetric analysis, as confirmed through the analysis of ruthenium contamination. Finally, extending the technique to other assay solution, 1 M HNO 3, HCl and Na 2CO 3, has also been shown to be viable. As a result, of the four aqueous media the carbonate solution yields the largest molar absorptivity value at the most intensely absorbing band, with the least impact of temperature.« less

  8. Use of interfacial layers to prolong hole lifetimes in hematite probed by ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradzah, Alexander T.; Diale, Mmantsae; Maabong, Kelebogile; Krüger, Tjaart P. J.

    2018-04-01

    Hematite is a widely investigated material for applications in solar water oxidation due primarily to its small bandgap. However, full realization of the material continues to be hampered by fast electron-hole recombination rates among other weaknesses such as low hole mobility, short hole diffusion length and low conductivity. To address the problem of fast electron-hole recombination, researchers have resorted to growth of nano-structured hematite, doping and use of under-layers. Under-layer materials enhance the photo-current by minimising electron-hole recombination through suppressing of back electron flow from the substrate, such as fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO), to hematite. We have carried out ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy on hematite in which Nb2O5 and SnO2 materials were used as interfacial layers to enhance hole lifetimes. The transient absorption data was fit with four different lifetimes ranging from a few hundred femtoseconds to a few nanoseconds. We show that the electron-hole recombination is slower in samples where interfacial layers are used than in pristine hematite. We also develop a model through target analysis to illustrate the effect of under-layers on electron-hole recombination rates in hematite thin films.

  9. An x-ray absorption spectroscopy study of Ni-Mn-Ga shape memory alloys.

    PubMed

    Sathe, V G; Dubey, Aditi; Banik, Soma; Barman, S R; Olivi, L

    2013-01-30

    The austenite to martensite phase transition in Ni-Mn-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloys was studied by extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The spectra at all the three elements', namely, Mn, Ga and Ni, K-edges in several Ni-Mn-Ga samples (with both Ni and Mn excess) were analyzed at room temperature and low temperatures. The EXAFS analysis suggested a displacement of Mn and Ga atoms in opposite direction with respect to the Ni atoms when the compound transforms from the austenite phase to the martensite phase. The first coordination distances around the Mn and Ga atoms remained undisturbed on transition, while the second and subsequent shells showed dramatic changes indicating the presence of a modulated structure. The Mn rich compounds showed the presence of antisite disorder of Mn and Ga. The XANES results showed remarkable changes in the unoccupied partial density of states corresponding to Mn and Ni, while the electronic structure of Ga remained unperturbed across the martensite transition. The post-edge features in the Mn K-edge XANES spectra changed from a double peak like structure to a flat peak like structure upon phase transition. The study establishes strong correlation between the crystal structure and the unoccupied electronic structure in these shape memory alloys.

  10. Absorptivity Measurements and Heat Source Modeling to Simulate Laser Cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, Florian; Eisenbarth, Daniel; Wegener, Konrad

    The laser cladding process gains importance, as it does not only allow the application of surface coatings, but also additive manufacturing of three-dimensional parts. In both cases, process simulation can contribute to process optimization. Heat source modeling is one of the main issues for an accurate model and simulation of the laser cladding process. While the laser beam intensity distribution is readily known, the other two main effects on the process' heat input are non-trivial. Namely the measurement of the absorptivity of the applied materials as well as the powder attenuation. Therefore, calorimetry measurements were carried out. The measurement method and the measurement results for laser cladding of Stellite 6 on structural steel S 235 and for the processing of Inconel 625 are presented both using a CO2 laser as well as a high power diode laser (HPDL). Additionally, a heat source model is deduced.

  11. Sedimentation field flow fractionation and optical absorption spectroscopy for a quantitative size characterization of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Contado, Catia; Argazzi, Roberto; Amendola, Vincenzo

    2016-11-04

    Many advanced industrial and biomedical applications that use silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), require that particles are not only nano-sized, but also well dispersed, not aggregated and not agglomerated. This study presents two methods able to give rapidly sizes of monodispersed AgNPs suspensions in the dimensional range of 20-100nm. The first method, based on the application of Mie's theory, determines the particle sizes from the values of the surface plasmon resonance wavelength (SPR MAX ), read from the optical absorption spectra, recorded between 190nm and 800nm. The computed sizes were compared with those determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) and resulted in agreement with the nominal values in a range between 13% (for 20nm NPs) and 1% (for 100nm NPs), The second method is based on the masterly combination of the Sedimentation Field Flow Fractionation (SdFFF - now sold as Centrifugal FFF-CFFF) and the Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (OAS) techniques to accomplish sizes and quantitative particle size distributions for monodispersed, non-aggregated AgNPs suspensions. The SdFFF separation abilities, well exploited to size NPs, greatly benefits from the application of Mie's theory to the UV-vis signal elaboration, producing quantitative mass-based particle size distributions, from which trusted number-sized particle size distributions can be derived. The silver mass distributions were verified and supported by detecting off-line the Ag concentration with the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Single-tone and two-tone AM-FM spectral calculations for tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Nee-Yin; Sachse, Glen W.

    1987-01-01

    A generalized theory for optical heterodyne spectroscopy with phase modulated laser radiation is used which allows the calculation of signal line shapes for frequency modulation spectroscopy of Lorentzian gas absorption lines. In particular, synthetic spectral line shapes for both single-tone and two-tone modulation of lead-salt diode lasers are presented in which the contributions from both amplitude and frequency modulations are included.

  13. Single shot near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy in the laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Mantouvalou, I., E-mail: ioanna.mantouvalou@tu-berlin.de; Witte, K.; Martyanov, W.

    With the help of adapted off-axis reflection zone plates, near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectra at the C and N K-absorption edge have been recorded using a single 1.2 ns long soft X-ray pulse. The transmission experiments were performed with a laser-produced plasma source in the laboratory rendering time resolved measurements feasible independent on large scale facilities. A resolving power of E/ΔE ∼ 950 at the respective edges could be demonstrated. A comparison of single shot spectra with those collected with longer measuring time proves that all features of the used reference samples (silicon nitrate and polyimide) can be resolved in 1.2 ns.more » Hence, investigations of radiation sensitive biological specimen become possible due to the high efficiency of the optical elements enabling low dose experiments.« less

  14. On the evaluation of air mass factors for atmospheric near-ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perliski, Lori M.; Solomon, Susan

    1993-01-01

    The interpretation of UV-visible twilight absorption measurements of atmospheric chemical constituents is dependent on how well the optical path, or air mass factor, of light collected by the spectrometer is understood. A simple single scattering model and a Monte Carlo radiative transfer scheme have been developed to study the effects of multiple scattering, aerosol scattering, surface albedo and refraction on air mass factors for scattered light observations. At fairly short visible wavelengths (less than about 450 nm), stratospheric air mass factors are found to be relatively insensitive to multiple scattering, surface albedo and refraction, as well as aerosol scattering by background aerosols. Longer wavelengths display greater sensitivity to refraction and aerosol scattering. Tropospheric air mass factors are found to be highly dependent on aerosol scattering, surface albedo and, at long visible wavelengths (about 650 nm), refraction. Absorption measurements of NO2 and O4 are shown to support these conclusions.

  15. X-ray absorption and Raman spectroscopy studies of molybdenum environments in borosilicate waste glasses

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, David A.; Gan, Hao; Pegg, Ian L.

    2017-05-01

    Mo-containing high-level nuclear waste borosilicate glasses were investigated as part of an effort to improve Mo loading while avoiding yellow phase crystallization. Previous work showed that additions of vanadium decrease yellow phase formation and increases Mo solubility. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize Mo environments in HLW borosilicate glasses and to investigate possible structural relationships between Mo and V. Mo XAS spectra for the glasses indicate isolated tetrahedral Mo6+O4 with Mo-O distances near 1.75 Å. V XANES indicate tetrahedral V5+O4 as the dominant species. Raman spectra show composition dependent trends, where Mo-O symmetrical stretch modemore » frequencies (ν1) are sensitive to the mix of alkali and alkaline earth cations, decreasing by up to 10 cm-1 for glasses that change from Li+ to Na+ as the dominant network-modifying species. This indicates that MoO4 tetrahedra are isolated from the borosilicate network and are surrounded, at least partly, by Na+ and Li+. Secondary ν1 frequency effects, with changes up to 7 cm-1, were also observed with increasing V2O5 and MoO3 content. These secondary trends may indicate MoO4-MoO4 and MoO4-VO4 clustering, suggesting that V additions may stabilize Mo in the matrix with respect to yellow phase formation.« less

  16. UV Absorption Spectroscopy in Water-Filled Antiresonant Hollow Core Fibers for Pharmaceutical Detection.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Mona; Doherty, Brenda; Hamperl, Jonas; Kobelke, Jens; Weber, Karina; Henkel, Thomas; Schmidt, Markus A

    2018-02-06

    Due to a worldwide increased use of pharmaceuticals and, in particular, antibiotics, a growing number of these substance residues now contaminate natural water resources and drinking supplies. This triggers a considerable demand for low-cost, high-sensitivity methods for monitoring water quality. Since many biological substances exhibit strong and characteristic absorption features at wavelengths shorter than 300 nm, UV spectroscopy presents a suitable approach for the quantitative identification of such water-contaminating species. However, current UV spectroscopic devices often show limited light-matter interaction lengths, demand sophisticated and bulky experimental infrastructure which is not compatible with microfluidics, and leave large fractions of the sample analyte unused. Here, we introduce the concept of UV spectroscopy in liquid-filled anti-resonant hollow core fibers, with large core diameters and lengths of approximately 1 m, as a means to overcome such limitations. This extended light-matter interaction length principally improves the concentration detection limit by two orders of magnitude while using almost the entire sample volume-that is three orders of magnitude smaller compared to cuvette based approaches. By integrating the fibers into an optofluidic chip environment and operating within the lowest experimentally feasible transmission band, concentrations of the application-relevant pharmaceutical substances, sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and sodium salicylate (SS), were detectable down to 0.1 µM (26 ppb) and 0.4 µM (64 ppb), respectively, with the potential to reach significantly lower detection limits for further device integration.

  17. X-ray absorption and Raman spectroscopy studies of molybdenum environments in borosilicate waste glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, David A.; Gan, Hao; Pegg, Ian L.

    2017-05-01

    Mo-containing high-level nuclear waste borosilicate glasses were investigated as part of an effort to improve Mo loading while avoiding yellow phase crystallization. Previous work showed that additions of vanadium decrease yellow phase formation and increases Mo solubility. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize Mo environments in HLW borosilicate glasses and to investigate possible structural relationships between Mo and V. Mo XAS spectra for the glasses indicate isolated tetrahedral Mo6+O4 with Mo-O distances near 1.75 Å. V XANES indicate tetrahedral V5+O4 as the dominant species. Raman spectra show composition dependent trends, where Mo-O symmetrical stretch mode frequencies (ν1) are sensitive to the mix of alkali and alkaline earth cations, decreasing by up to 10 cm-1 for glasses that change from Li+ to Na+ as the dominant network-modifying species. This indicates that MoO4 tetrahedra are isolated from the borosilicate network and are surrounded, at least partly, by Na+ and Li+. Secondary ν1 frequency effects, with changes up to 7 cm-1, were also observed with increasing V2O5 and MoO3 content. These secondary trends may indicate MoO4-MoO4 and MoO4-VO4 clustering, suggesting that V additions may stabilize Mo in the matrix with respect to yellow phase formation.

  18. UV Absorption Spectroscopy in Water-Filled Antiresonant Hollow Core Fibers for Pharmaceutical Detection

    PubMed Central

    Nissen, Mona; Doherty, Brenda; Hamperl, Jonas; Kobelke, Jens; Weber, Karina; Henkel, Thomas; Schmidt, Markus A.

    2018-01-01

    Due to a worldwide increased use of pharmaceuticals and, in particular, antibiotics, a growing number of these substance residues now contaminate natural water resources and drinking supplies. This triggers a considerable demand for low-cost, high-sensitivity methods for monitoring water quality. Since many biological substances exhibit strong and characteristic absorption features at wavelengths shorter than 300 nm, UV spectroscopy presents a suitable approach for the quantitative identification of such water-contaminating species. However, current UV spectroscopic devices often show limited light-matter interaction lengths, demand sophisticated and bulky experimental infrastructure which is not compatible with microfluidics, and leave large fractions of the sample analyte unused. Here, we introduce the concept of UV spectroscopy in liquid-filled anti-resonant hollow core fibers, with large core diameters and lengths of approximately 1 m, as a means to overcome such limitations. This extended light-matter interaction length principally improves the concentration detection limit by two orders of magnitude while using almost the entire sample volume—that is three orders of magnitude smaller compared to cuvette based approaches. By integrating the fibers into an optofluidic chip environment and operating within the lowest experimentally feasible transmission band, concentrations of the application-relevant pharmaceutical substances, sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and sodium salicylate (SS), were detectable down to 0.1 µM (26 ppb) and 0.4 µM (64 ppb), respectively, with the potential to reach significantly lower detection limits for further device integration. PMID:29415468

  19. Measurement of glyoxal using an incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washenfelder, R. A.; Langford, A. O.; Fuchs, H.; Brown, S. S.

    2008-08-01

    We describe an instrument for simultaneous measurements of glyoxal (CHOCHO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) using cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy with a broadband light source. The output of a Xenon arc lamp is coupled into a 1 m optical cavity, and the spectrum of light exiting the cavity is recorded by a grating spectrometer with a charge-coupled device (CCD) array detector. The mirror reflectivity and effective path lengths are determined from the known Rayleigh scattering of He and dry zero air (N2+O2). Least-squares fitting, using published reference spectra, allow the simultaneous retrieval of CHOCHO, NO2, O4, and H2O in the 441 to 469 nm spectral range. For a 1-min sampling time, the minimum detectable absorption is 4×10-10 cm-1, and the precision (±1σ) on signal for measurements of CHOCHO and NO2 is 29 pptv and 20 pptv, respectively. We directly compare the incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer to 404 and 532 nm cavity ringdown instruments for CHOCHO and NO2 detection, and find linear agreement over a wide range of concentrations. The instrument has been tested in the laboratory with both synthetic and real air samples, and the demonstrated sensitivity and specificity suggest a strong potential for field measurements of both CHOCHO and NO2.

  20. Resonance Energy Transfer between Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen Molecules Using Dye Laser Intracavity Absorption Spectroscopy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-21

    intensity changes. Greater sensitivity over single-pass measurements make this technique for observing absorption spectra more desireable. The absorber...resulting in a resolution (A) of about 0.037 A. The signal was focused onto an array of 500 detector elements in the vidicon. Because the width of each... detector is only 0.001 inch, there is a "cross talk" effect 5 between adjacent elements which lowers the resolution to about 0.074 A. Under this

  1. Remote sensing of methane emissions by combining optical similitude absorption spectroscopy (OSAS) and lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galtier, Sandrine; Anselmo, Christophe; Welschinger, Jean-Yves; Cariou, Jean-Pierre; Sivignon, Jean-François; Miffre, Alain; Rairoux, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    Monitoring the emission of gases is difficult to achieve in industrial sites and in environments presenting poor infrastructures. Hence, robust methodologies should be developed and coupled to Lidar technology to allow remote sensing of gas emission. OSAS is a new methodology to evaluate gas concentration emission from spectrally integrated differential absorption measurements. Proof of concept of OSAS-Lidar for CH4 emission monitoring is here presented.

  2. Signal processing and calibration procedures for in situ diode-laser absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Werle, P W; Mazzinghi, P; D'Amato, F; De Rosa, M; Maurer, K; Slemr, F

    2004-07-01

    Gas analyzers based on tunable diode-laser spectroscopy (TDLS) provide high sensitivity, fast response and highly specific in situ measurements of several atmospheric trace gases simultaneously. Under optimum conditions even a shot noise limited performance can be obtained. For field applications outside the laboratory practical limitations are important. At ambient mixing ratios below a few parts-per-billion spectrometers become more and more sensitive towards noise, interference, drift effects and background changes associated with low level signals. It is the purpose of this review to address some of the problems which are encountered at these low levels and to describe a signal processing strategy for trace gas monitoring and a concept for in situ system calibration applicable for tunable diode-laser spectroscopy. To meet the requirement of quality assurance for field measurements and monitoring applications, procedures to check the linearity according to International Standard Organization regulations are described and some measurements of calibration functions are presented and discussed.

  3. Tracking the insulator-to-metal phase transition in VO 2 with few-femtosecond extreme UV transient absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Marieke F.; Ott, Christian; Kraus, Peter M.

    We present coulomb correlations can manifest in exotic properties in solids, but how these properties can be accessed and ultimately manipulated in real time is not well understood. The insulator-to-metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide (VO 2) is a canonical example of such correlations. Here, few-femtosecond extreme UV transient absorption spectroscopy (FXTAS) at the vanadium M 2,3 edge is used to track the insulator-to-metal phase transition in VO 2 . This technique allows observation of the bulk material in real time, follows the photoexcitation process in both the insulating and metallic phases, probes the subsequent relaxation in the metallic phase,more » and measures the phase-transition dynamics in the insulating phase. An understanding of the VO 2 absorption spectrum in the extreme UV is developed using atomic cluster model calculations, revealing V 3+/d 2 character of the vanadium center. We find that the insulator-to-metal phase transition occurs on a timescale of 26 ± 6 fs and leaves the system in a long-lived excited state of the metallic phase, driven by a change in orbital occupation. Potential interpretations based on electronic screening effects and lattice dynamics are discussed. A Mott–Hubbard-type mechanism is favored, as the observed timescales and d 2 nature of the vanadium metal centers are inconsistent with a Peierls driving force. In conclusion, the findings provide a combined experimental and theoretical roadmap for using time-resolved extreme UV spectroscopy to investigate nonequilibrium dynamics in strongly correlated materials.« less

  4. Incorporation of Trace Elements in Ancient and Modern Human Bone: An X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingitore, N. E.; Cruz-Jimenez, G.; Price, T. D.

    2001-12-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) affords the opportunity to probe the atomic environment of trace elements in human bone. We are using XAS to investigate the mode(s) of incorporation of Sr, Zn, Pb, and Ba in both modern and ancient (and thus possibly altered) human and animal bone. Because burial and diagenesis may add trace elements to bone, we performed XAS analysis on samples of pristine contemporary and ancient, buried human and animal bone. We assume that deposition of these elements during burial occurs by processes distinct from those in vivo, and this will be reflected in their atomic environments. Archaeologists measure strontium in human and animal bone as a guide to diet. Carnivores show lower Sr/Ca ratios than their herbivore prey due to discrimination against Sr relative to Ca up the food chain. In an initial sample suite no difference was observed between modern and buried bone. Analysis of additional buried samples, using a more sensitive detector, revealed significant differences in the distance to the second and third neighbors of the Sr in some of the buried samples. Distances to the first neighbor, oxygen, were similar in all samples. Zinc is also used in paleo-diet studies. Initial x-ray absorption spectroscopy of a limited suite of bones did not reveal any differences between modern and buried samples. This may reflect the limited number of samples examined or the low levels of Zn in typical aqueous solutions in soils. Signals from barium and lead were too low to record useful XAS spectra. Additional samples will be studied for Zn, Ba, and Pb. We conducted our XAS experiments on beam lines 4-1 and 4-3 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Data were collected in the fluorescence mode, using a Lytle detector and appropriate filter, and a solid state, 13-element Ge-detector.

  5. Tracking the insulator-to-metal phase transition in VO 2 with few-femtosecond extreme UV transient absorption spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Jager, Marieke F.; Ott, Christian; Kraus, Peter M.; ...

    2017-08-21

    We present coulomb correlations can manifest in exotic properties in solids, but how these properties can be accessed and ultimately manipulated in real time is not well understood. The insulator-to-metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide (VO 2) is a canonical example of such correlations. Here, few-femtosecond extreme UV transient absorption spectroscopy (FXTAS) at the vanadium M 2,3 edge is used to track the insulator-to-metal phase transition in VO 2 . This technique allows observation of the bulk material in real time, follows the photoexcitation process in both the insulating and metallic phases, probes the subsequent relaxation in the metallic phase,more » and measures the phase-transition dynamics in the insulating phase. An understanding of the VO 2 absorption spectrum in the extreme UV is developed using atomic cluster model calculations, revealing V 3+/d 2 character of the vanadium center. We find that the insulator-to-metal phase transition occurs on a timescale of 26 ± 6 fs and leaves the system in a long-lived excited state of the metallic phase, driven by a change in orbital occupation. Potential interpretations based on electronic screening effects and lattice dynamics are discussed. A Mott–Hubbard-type mechanism is favored, as the observed timescales and d 2 nature of the vanadium metal centers are inconsistent with a Peierls driving force. In conclusion, the findings provide a combined experimental and theoretical roadmap for using time-resolved extreme UV spectroscopy to investigate nonequilibrium dynamics in strongly correlated materials.« less

  6. Enabling liquid solvent structure analysis using hard x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a transferrable microfluidic reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Feng; Yu, Xiao-Ying

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a vacuum compatible microfluidic device, system for analysis at the liquid vacuum interface, is integrated to hard x-ray absorption spectroscopy to obtain the local structure of K3[Fe(CN)6] in aqueous solutions with three concentrations of 0.5 M, 0.05 M, and 0.005 M. The solutions were sealed in a microchannel 500 µm wide and 300 µm deep in a portable microfluidic device. The Fe K-edge x-ray absorption spectra indicate a presence of Fe(III) in the complex in water, with an octahedral geometry coordinated with 6 C atoms in the first shell with a distance of ~1.92 Å and 6 N atoms in the second shell with a distance of ~3.10 Å. Varying the concentration has no observable influence on the structure of K3[Fe(CN)6]. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using microfluidic based liquid cells in large synchrotron facilities. Using portable microfludic reactors provides a viable approach to enable multifaceted measurements of liquids in the future.

  7. Enabling liquid solvent structure analysis using hard x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a transferrable microfluidic reactor

    DOE PAGES

    Zheng, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Feng; ...

    2018-04-11

    In this study, a vacuum compatible microfluidic device, system for analysis at the liquid vacuum interface, is integrated to hard x-ray absorption spectroscopy to obtain the local structure of K 3[Fe(CN) 6] in aqueous solutions with three concentrations of 0.5 M, 0.05 M, and 0.005 M. The solutions were sealed in a microchannel 500 µm wide and 300 µm deep in a portable microfluidic device. The Fe K-edge x-ray absorption spectra indicate a presence of Fe(III) in the complex in water, with an octahedral geometry coordinated with 6 C atoms in the first shell with a distance of ~1.92 Åmore » and 6 N atoms in the second shell with a distance of ~3.10 Å. Varying the concentration has no observable influence on the structure of K 3[Fe(CN) 6]. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using microfluidic based liquid cells in large synchrotron facilities. Using portable microfludic reactors provides a viable approach to enable multifaceted measurements of liquids in the future.« less

  8. Enabling liquid solvent structure analysis using hard x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a transferrable microfluidic reactor.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Feng; Yu, Xiao-Ying

    2018-05-10

    In this paper, a vacuum compatible microfluidic device, system for analysis at the liquid vacuum interface, is integrated to hard x-ray absorption spectroscopy to obtain the local structure of K 3 [Fe(CN) 6 ] in aqueous solutions with three concentrations of 0.5 M, 0.05 M, and 0.005 M. The solutions were sealed in a microchannel 500 µm wide and 300 µm deep in a portable microfluidic device. The Fe K-edge x-ray absorption spectra indicate a presence of Fe(III) in the complex in water, with an octahedral geometry coordinated with 6 C atoms in the first shell with a distance of ~1.92 Å and 6 N atoms in the second shell with a distance of ~3.10 Å. Varying the concentration has no observable influence on the structure of K 3 [Fe(CN) 6 ]. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using microfluidic based liquid cells in large synchrotron facilities. Using portable microfludic reactors provides a viable approach to enable multifaceted measurements of liquids in the future.

  9. Enabling liquid solvent structure analysis using hard x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a transferrable microfluidic reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Feng

    In this study, a vacuum compatible microfluidic device, system for analysis at the liquid vacuum interface, is integrated to hard x-ray absorption spectroscopy to obtain the local structure of K 3[Fe(CN) 6] in aqueous solutions with three concentrations of 0.5 M, 0.05 M, and 0.005 M. The solutions were sealed in a microchannel 500 µm wide and 300 µm deep in a portable microfluidic device. The Fe K-edge x-ray absorption spectra indicate a presence of Fe(III) in the complex in water, with an octahedral geometry coordinated with 6 C atoms in the first shell with a distance of ~1.92 Åmore » and 6 N atoms in the second shell with a distance of ~3.10 Å. Varying the concentration has no observable influence on the structure of K 3[Fe(CN) 6]. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using microfluidic based liquid cells in large synchrotron facilities. Using portable microfludic reactors provides a viable approach to enable multifaceted measurements of liquids in the future.« less

  10. Enabling liquid solvent structure analysis using hard x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a transferrable microfluidic reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Feng

    In this paper, a vacuum compatible microfluidic device, System for Analysis at the Liquid Vacuum Interface (SALVI), is integrated to hard x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to obtain the local structure of K3[Fe(CN)6] in aqueous solutions with three concentrations of 0.5 M, 0.05 M, and 0.005 M. The solutions were sealed in a microchannel of 500 μm wide and 300 µm deep in a portable microfluidic device. The Fe K-edge x-ray absorption spectra show that the complex in water is Fe(III). The complex is present with octahedral geometry coordinated with 6 C atoms in the first shell with a distance ofmore » ~1.92 Å and 6 N atoms in the second shell with a distance of ~3.10 Å. Varying the concentration has no observable influence on the structure of K3[Fe(CN)6]. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using microfluidic based liquid cells in large synchrotron facilities and it is a viable approach to enable multifaceted measurements of liquids in the future.« less

  11. Pump-Flow-Probe X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy as a Tool for Studying Intermediate States of Photocatalytic Systems.

    PubMed

    Smolentsev, Grigory; Guda, Alexander; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Haldrup, Kristoffer; Andreiadis, Eugen; Chavarot-Kerlidou, Murielle; Canton, Sophie E; Nachtegaal, Maarten; Artero, Vincent; Sundstrom, Villy

    2013-08-29

    A new setup for pump-flow-probe X-ray absorption spectroscopy has been implemented at the SuperXAS beamline of the Swiss Light Source. It allows recording X-ray absorption spectra with a time resolution of tens of microseconds and high detection efficiency for samples with sub-mM concentrations. A continuous wave laser is used for the photoexcitation, with the distance between laser and X-ray beams and velocity of liquid flow determining the time delay, while the focusing of both beams and the flow speed define the time resolution. This method is compared with the alternative measurement technique that utilizes a 1 kHz repetition rate laser and multiple X-ray probe pulses. Such an experiment was performed at beamline 11ID-D of the Advanced Photon Source. Advantages, limitations and potential for improvement of the pump-flow-probe setup are discussed by analyzing the photon statistics. Both methods, with Co K-edge probing were applied to the investigation of a cobaloxime-based photo-catalytic reaction. The interplay between optimizing for efficient photoexcitation and time resolution as well as the effect of sample degradation for these two setups are discussed.

  12. Pump-Flow-Probe X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy as a Tool for Studying Intermediate States of Photocatalytic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Smolentsev, Grigory; Guda, Alexander; Zhang, XIaoyi; Haldrup, Kristoffer; Andreiadis, Eugen; Chavarot-Kerlidou, Murielle; Canton, Sophie E.; Nachtegaal, Maarten; Artero, Vincent; Sundstrom, Villy

    2014-01-01

    A new setup for pump-flow-probe X-ray absorption spectroscopy has been implemented at the SuperXAS beamline of the Swiss Light Source. It allows recording X-ray absorption spectra with a time resolution of tens of microseconds and high detection efficiency for samples with sub-mM concentrations. A continuous wave laser is used for the photoexcitation, with the distance between laser and X-ray beams and velocity of liquid flow determining the time delay, while the focusing of both beams and the flow speed define the time resolution. This method is compared with the alternative measurement technique that utilizes a 1 kHz repetition rate laser and multiple X-ray probe pulses. Such an experiment was performed at beamline 11ID-D of the Advanced Photon Source. Advantages, limitations and potential for improvement of the pump-flow-probe setup are discussed by analyzing the photon statistics. Both methods, with Co K-edge probing were applied to the investigation of a cobaloxime-based photo-catalytic reaction. The interplay between optimizing for efficient photoexcitation and time resolution as well as the effect of sample degradation for these two setups are discussed. PMID:24443663

  13. Simulating pump-probe photoelectron and absorption spectroscopy on the attosecond timescale with time-dependent density functional theory.

    PubMed

    De Giovannini, Umberto; Brunetto, Gustavo; Castro, Alberto; Walkenhorst, Jessica; Rubio, Angel

    2013-05-10

    Molecular absorption and photoelectron spectra can be efficiently predicted with real-time time-dependent density functional theory. We show herein how these techniques can be easily extended to study time-resolved pump-probe experiments, in which a system response (absorption or electron emission) to a probe pulse is measured in an excited state. This simulation tool helps with the interpretation of fast-evolving attosecond time-resolved spectroscopic experiments, in which electronic motion must be followed at its natural timescale. We show how the extra degrees of freedom (pump-pulse duration, intensity, frequency, and time delay), which are absent in a conventional steady-state experiment, provide additional information about electronic structure and dynamics that improve characterization of a system. As an extension of this approach, time-dependent 2D spectroscopy can also be simulated, in principle, for large-scale structures and extended systems. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation of the surface chemistry and treatments of copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS)

    DOE PAGES

    Schwartz, Craig; Nordlund, Dennis; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; ...

    2017-02-01

    The surface and near surface structure of copper-indium-gallium-selenide (CIGS) absorber layers is integral to the producing a high-quality photovoltaic junction. By using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and monitoring multiple elemental absorption edges with both theory and experiment, we are able to identify several features of the surface of CIGS as a function of composition and surface treatments. The XAS data shows trends in the near surface region of oxygen, copper, indium and gallium species as the copper content is varied in the films. The oxygen surface species are also monitored through a series of experiments that systematically investigates the effectsmore » of water and various solutions of: ammonium hydroxide, cadmium sulfate, and thiourea. These being components of cadmium sulfide chemical bath deposition (CBD). Characteristics of the CBD are correlated with a restorative effect that produces as normalized, uniform surface chemistry as measured by XAS. This surface chemistry is found in CIGS solar cells with excellent power conversion efficiency (<19%). The results provide new insight for CIGS processing strategies that seek to replace CBD and/or cadmium sulfide.« less

  15. Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation of the surface chemistry and treatments of copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS)

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Craig; Nordlund, Dennis; Sokaras, Dimosthenis

    The surface and near surface structure of copper-indium-gallium-selenide (CIGS) absorber layers is integral to the producing a high-quality photovoltaic junction. By using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and monitoring multiple elemental absorption edges with both theory and experiment, we are able to identify several features of the surface of CIGS as a function of composition and surface treatments. The XAS data shows trends in the near surface region of oxygen, copper, indium and gallium species as the copper content is varied in the films. The oxygen surface species are also monitored through a series of experiments that systematically investigates the effectsmore » of water and various solutions of: ammonium hydroxide, cadmium sulfate, and thiourea. These being components of cadmium sulfide chemical bath deposition (CBD). Characteristics of the CBD are correlated with a restorative effect that produces as normalized, uniform surface chemistry as measured by XAS. This surface chemistry is found in CIGS solar cells with excellent power conversion efficiency (<19%). The results provide new insight for CIGS processing strategies that seek to replace CBD and/or cadmium sulfide.« less

  16. Development of picosecond time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy by high-repetition-rate laser pump/X-ray probe at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Yu, Can; Wei, Xu; Gao, Zhenhua; Xu, Guang Lei; Sun, Da Rui; Li, Zhenjie; Zhou, Yangfan; Li, Qiu Ju; Zhang, Bing Bing; Xu, Jin Qiang; Wang, Lin; Zhang, Yan; Tan, Ying Lei; Tao, Ye

    2017-05-01

    A new setup and commissioning of transient X-ray absorption spectroscopy are described, based on the high-repetition-rate laser pump/X-ray probe method, at the 1W2B wiggler beamline at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. A high-repetition-rate and high-power laser is incorporated into the setup with in-house-built avalanche photodiodes as detectors. A simple acquisition scheme was applied to obtain laser-on and laser-off signals simultaneously. The capability of picosecond transient X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurement was demonstrated for a photo-induced spin-crossover iron complex in 6 mM solution with 155 kHz repetition rate.

  17. Coherent Raman spectroscopies for measuring molecular flow velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    She, C. Y.

    1982-01-01

    Various types of coherent Raman spectroscopy are characterized and their application to molecular flow velocity and direction measurement and species concentration and temperature determination is discussed.

  18. Saccharose solid matrix embedded proteins: a new method for sample preparation for X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ascone, I; Sabatucci, A; Bubacco, L; Di Muro, P; Salvato, B

    2000-01-01

    In this study, solid samples of hemoglobin and hemocyanin have been prepared by embedding the proteins into a saccharose-based matrix. These materials have been developed specifically for specimens for X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The preservation of protein conformation and active site organization was tested, making comparisons between the solid and the corresponding liquid samples, using resonance Raman, infra red, fluorescence and XAS. The XAS spectra of irradiated solid and liquid samples were then compared, and the preservation of biological activity of the proteins during both preparation procedure and X-ray irradiation was assessed. In all cases, the measurements clearly demonstrate that protein solid samples are both structurally and functionally quite well preserved, much better than those in the liquid state. The saccharose matrix provides an excellent protection against X-ray damages, allowing for longer exposure to the X-ray beam. Moreover, the demonstrated long-term stability of samples permits their preparation and storage in optimal conditions, allowing for the repetition of data collection with the same sample in several experimental sessions. The very high protein concentration that can be reached results in a significantly better signal-to-noise ratio, particularly useful for high molecular weight proteins with a low metal-to-protein ratio. On the bases of the above-mentioned results, we propose the new method as a standard procedure for the preparation of biological samples to be used for XAS spectroscopy.

  19. Study of the laser-induced decomposition of energetic materials at static high-pressure by time-resolved absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebert, Philippe; Saint-Amans, Charles

    2013-06-01

    A detailed description of the reaction rates and mechanisms occurring in shock-induced decomposition of condensed explosives is very important to improve the predictive capabilities of shock-to-detonation transition models. However, direct measurements of such experimental data are difficult to perform during detonation experiments. By coupling pulsed laser ignition of an explosive in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) with time-resolved streak camera recording of transmitted light, it is possible to make direct observations of deflagration phenomena at detonation pressure. We have developed an experimental set-up that allows combustion front propagation rates and time-resolved absorption spectroscopy measurements. The decomposition reactions are initiated using a nanosecond YAG laser and their kinetics is followed by time-resolved absorption spectroscopy. The results obtained for two explosives, nitromethane (NM) and HMX are presented in this paper. For NM, a change in reactivity is clearly seen around 25 GPa. Below this pressure, the reaction products are essentially carbon residues whereas at higher pressure, a transient absorption feature is first observed and is followed by the formation of a white amorphous product. For HMX, the evolution of the absorption as a function of time indicates a multi-step reaction mechanism which is found to depend on both the initial pressure and the laser fluence.

  20. Time-resolved photoion imaging spectroscopy: Determining energy distribution in multiphoton absorption experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, D. B.; Shi, F. D.; Chen, L.; Martin, S.; Bernard, J.; Yang, J.; Zhang, S. F.; Chen, Z. Q.; Zhu, X. L.; Ma, X.

    2018-04-01

    We propose an approach to determine the excitation energy distribution due to multiphoton absorption in the case of excited systems following decays to produce different ion species. This approach is based on the measurement of the time-resolved photoion position spectrum by using velocity map imaging spectrometry and an unfocused laser beam with a low fluence and homogeneous profile. Such a measurement allows us to identify the species and the origin of each ion detected and to depict the energy distribution using a pure Poisson's equation involving only one variable which is proportional to the absolute photon absorption cross section. A cascade decay model is used to build direct connections between the energy distribution and the probability to detect each ionic species. Comparison between experiments and simulations permits the energy distribution and accordingly the absolute photon absorption cross section to be determined. This approach is illustrated using C60 as an example. It may therefore be extended to a wide variety of molecules and clusters having decay mechanisms similar to those of fullerene molecules.

  1. Unveiling the Diffuse, Neutral Interstellar Medium: Absorption Spectroscopy of Galactic Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Claire Elizabeth

    The formation of stars and evolution of galaxies depends on the cycle of interstellar matter between supernova-expelled plasma and molecule-rich gas. At the center of this cycle is multiphase neutral hydrogen (HI), whose physical conditions provide key ingredients to theoretical models. However, constraints for HI properties require measurements of gas emission and absorption which have been severely limited by previous observational capabilities. In this thesis, I present the largest survey of Galactic HI absorption ever undertaken with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). The survey, 21 cm Spectral Line Observations of Neutral Gas with the VLA (21-SPONGE), is a statistical study of HI in all phases using direct absorption measurements. Leveraging novel calibration techniques, I demonstrate the capability of the VLA to detect a significant sample of 21 cm absorption lines from warm, diffuse HI. To maximize observational sensitivity, I stack the 21-SPONGE spectra and detect a pervasive signature of the warm neutral medium in absorption. The inferred excitation (or spin) temperature is consistent with existing estimates, yet higher than predictions from theoretical models of collisional HI excitation. This suggests that radiative feedback via resonant scattering of Lyalpha photons, known as the Wouthuysen-Field effect, is influential with important implications for cosmological 21 cm observations. Next, I compare 21-SPONGE with synthetic HI spectra from 3D numerical simulations using a new, objective decomposition and radiative transfer tool. I quantify the recovery of HI structures and their properties by Gaussian-fitted 21 cm spectral lines for the first time. I find that 21 cm absorption line shapes are sensitive to simulated physics, and demonstrate that my analysis method is a powerful tool for diagnosing neutral ISM conditions. Finally, I compare properties inferred from synthetic spectra with "true" simulation results to construct a bias correction

  2. Measurements of the absorption coefficient of stratospheric aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogren, J. A.; Ahlquist, N. C.; Clarke, A. D.; Charlson, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The absorption coefficients of stratospheric aerosols are measured using a variation on the integrating plate method. The technique is based on the decrease in the transparency of a substrate when an absorbing aerosol is deposited on it. A Lambert scatterer is placed behind the substrate to integrate forward scattered light and minimize the effect of scattering on the measurement. The low pressure in the stratosphere is used for the direct impaction of particles onto a narrow strip of opal glass. The eight samples collected had a median value of 4 x 10 to the -9th m with an uncertainty of + or - 5 x 10 to the -9th m. If this absorption is due to graphitic carbon, then its concentration is estimated at about 0.4 ng/cu m, or about 0.25% of the total aerosol mass concentration. Estimates of the aerosol scattering coefficients based on satellite extinction inversions result in an aerosol single-scattering albedo in the range of 0.96-1.0.

  3. A Simplified Digestion Protocol for the Analysis of Hg in Fish by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristian, Kathleen E.; Friedbauer, Scott; Kabashi, Donika; Ferencz, Kristen M.; Barajas, Jennifer C.; O'Brien, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of mercury in fish is an interesting problem with the potential to motivate students in chemistry laboratory courses. The recommended method for mercury analysis in fish is cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CVAAS), which requires homogeneous analyte solutions, typically prepared by acid digestion. Previously published digestion…

  4. Revealing electronic structure changes in Chevrel phase cathodes upon Mg insertion using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Liwen F.; Wright, Joshua; Perdue, Brian R.

    Following previous work predicting the electronic response of the Chevrel phase Mo6S8 upon Mg insertion (Thole et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2015, 17, 22548), we provide the experimental proof, evident in X-ray absorption spectroscopy, to illustrate the charge compensation mechanism of the Chevrel phase compound during Mg insertion and de-insertion processes.

  5. Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) Measurements of Landfill Methane Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Innocenti, Fabrizio; Robinson, Rod; Gardiner, Tom; Finlayson, Andrew; Connor, Andy

    2017-04-01

    DIFFERENTIAL ABSORPTION LIDAR (DIAL) MEASURMENTS OF LANDFILL METHANE EMISSIONS F. INNOCENTI *, R.A. ROBINSON *, T.D. GARDINER, A. FINLAYSON *, A. CONNOR* * National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LW, United Kingdom Methane is one of the most important gaseous hydrocarbon species for both industrial and environmental reasons. Understanding and quantifying methane emissions to atmosphere is an important element of climate change research. Range-resolved infrared Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) measurements provide the means to map and quantify a wide range of different methane sources. DIAL is a powerful technique that can be used to track and quantify plumes emitted from area emission sources such as landfill sites, waste water treatment plants and petrochemical plants. By using lidar (light detection and ranging), the DIAL technique is able to make remote range-resolved single-ended measurements of the actual distribution of target gases in the atmosphere, with no disruption to normal site operational activities. DIAL provides 3D mapping of emission concentrations and quantification of emission rates for a wide range of target gases such as methane. The NPL DIAL laser source is operated alternately at two similar wavelengths. One of these, termed the "on-resonant wavelength", is chosen to be at a wavelength which is absorbed by the target species. The other, the "off-resonant wavelength", is chosen to be at a nearby wavelength which is not absorbed significantly by the target species. The two wavelengths are chosen to be close, so that the atmospheric scattering properties are the same for both wavelengths. They are also chosen so that any differential absorption due to other atmospheric species are minimised. Any measured difference in the returned signals is therefore due to absorption by the target gas. In the typical DIAL measurement configuration the mobile DIAL facility is positioned downwind of the area being

  6. Measurements of atmospheric ethene by solar absorption FTIR spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toon, Geoffrey C.; Blavier, Jean-Francois L.; Sung, Keeyoon

    2018-04-01

    Atmospheric ethene (C2H4; ethylene) amounts have been retrieved from high-resolution solar absorption spectra measured by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) MkIV interferometer. Data recorded from 1985 to 2016 from a dozen ground-based sites have been analyzed, mostly between 30 and 67° N. At clean-air sites such as Alaska, Sweden, New Mexico, or the mountains of California, the ethene columns were always less than 1 × 1015 molec cm-2 and therefore undetectable. In urban sites such as JPL, California, ethene was measurable with column amounts of 20 × 1015 molec cm-2 observed in the 1990s. Despite the increasing population and traffic in southern California, a factor 3 decrease in ethene column density is observed over JPL over the past 25 years, accompanied by a decrease in CO. This is likely due to southern California's increasingly stringent vehicle exhaust regulations and tighter enforcement over this period.

  7. Ultra sound absorption measurements in rock samples at low temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herminghaus, C.; Berckhemer, H.

    1974-01-01

    A new technique, comparable with the reverberation method in room acoustics, is described. It allows Q-measurements at rock samples of arbitrary shape in the frequency range of 50 to 600 kHz in vacuum (.1 mtorr) and at low temperatures (+20 to -180 C). The method was developed in particular to investigate rock samples under lunar conditions. Ultrasound absorption has been measured at volcanics, breccia, gabbros, feldspar and quartz of different grain size and texture yielding the following results: evacuation raises Q mainly through lowering the humidity in the rock. In a dry compact rock, the effect of evacuation is small. With decreasing temperature, Q generally increases. Between +20 and -30 C, Q does not change much. With further decrease of temperature in many cases distinct anomalies appear, where Q becomes frequency dependent.

  8. Continuous Wave Ring-Down Spectroscopy for Velocity Distribution Measurements in Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarren, Dustin W.

    Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy CRDS is a proven, ultra-sensitive, cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy technique. When combined with a continuous wavelength (CW) diode laser that has a sufficiently narrow line width, the Doppler broadened absorption line, i.e., the velocity distribution functions (VDFs) of the absorbing species, can be measured. Measurements of VDFs can be made using established techniques such as laser induced fluorescence (LIF). However, LIF suffers from the requirement that the initial state of the LIF sequence have a substantial density and that the excitation scheme fluoresces at an easily detectable wavelength. This usually limits LIF to ions and atoms with large metastable state densities for the given plasma conditions. CW-CRDS is considerably more sensitive than LIF and can potentially be applied to much lower density populations of ion and atom states. Also, as a direct absorption technique, CW-CRDS measurements only need to be concerned with the species' absorption wavelength and provide an absolute measure of the line integrated initial state density. Presented in this work are measurements of argon ion and neutral VDFs in a helicon plasma using CW-CRDS and LIF.

  9. The Lowest Triplet of Tetracyanoquinodimethane via UV-vis Absorption Spectroscopy with Br-Containing Solvents.

    PubMed

    Khvostenko, Olga G; Kinzyabulatov, Renat R; Khatymova, Laysan Z; Tseplin, Evgeniy E

    2017-10-05

    This study was undertaken to find the previously unknown lowest triplet of the isolated molecule of tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ), which is a widely used organic semiconductor. The problem is topical because the triplet excitation of this compound is involved in some processes which occur in electronic devices incorporating TCNQ and its derivatives, and information on the TCNQ triplet is needed for better understanding of these processes. The lowest triplet of TCNQ was obtained at 1.96 eV using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy with Br-containing solvents. Production of the triplet band with sufficient intensity in the spectra was provided by the capacity of the Br atom to augment the triplet excitation and through using a 100 mm cuvette. The assignment of the corresponding spectral band to the triplet transition was made by observation that this band appeared only in the spectra recorded in Br-containing solvents but not in spectra recorded in other solvents. Additional support for the triplet assignment came from the overall UV-vis absorption spectra of TCNQ recorded in various solvents, using a 10 mm cuvette, in the 1.38-6.5 eV energy range. Singlet transitions of the neutral TCNQ o molecule and doublet transitions of the TCNQ ¯ negative ion were identified in these overall spectra and were assigned with TD B3LYP/6-31G calculations. Determination of the lowest triplet of TCNQ attained in this work may be useful for theoretical studies and practical applications of this important compound.

  10. Characterization and speciation of mercury-bearing mine wastes using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, C.S.; Brown, Gordon E.; Rytuba, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    Mining of mercury deposits located in the California Coast Range has resulted in the release of mercury to the local environment and water supplies. The solubility, transport, and potential bioavailability of mercury are controlled by its chemical speciation, which can be directly determined for samples with total mercury concentrations greater than 100 mg kg-1 (ppm) using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). This technique has the additional benefits of being non-destructive to the sample, element-specific, relatively sensitive at low concentrations, and requiring minimal sample preparation. In this study, Hg L(III)-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra were collected for several mercury mine tailings (calcines) in the California Coast Range. Total mercury concentrations of samples analyzed ranged from 230 to 1060 ppm. Speciation data (mercury phases present and relative abundances) were obtained by comparing the spectra from heterogeneous, roasted (calcined) mine tailings samples with a spectral database of mercury minerals and sorbed mercury complexes. Speciation analyses were also conducted on known mixtures of pure mercury minerals in order to assess the quantitative accuracy of the technique. While some calcine samples were found to consist exclusively of mercuric sulfide, others contain additional, more soluble mercury phases, indicating a greater potential for the release of mercury into solution. Also, a correlation was observed between samples from hot-spring mercury deposits, in which chloride levels are elevated, and the presence of mercury-chloride species as detected by the speciation analysis. The speciation results demonstrate the ability of XAS to identify multiple mercury phases in a heterogeneous sample, with a quantitative accuracy of ??25% for the mercury-containing phases considered. Use of this technique, in conjunction with standard microanalytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction and electron probe microanalysis

  11. First X-Ray absorption spectroscopy results on Aeolian dust archived in Antarctica and Alpine firn cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcelli, A.; Maggi, V.; Cibin, G.; Sala, M.; Marino, F.; Delmonte, B.

    2006-12-01

    We present the first x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data at the Fe K-edge collected on insoluble mineral dust from Talos Dome firn core (TDC, 159°04'E, 72°46'S, 2316 m a.s.l., mean accumulation rate 8 g cm-2 yr- 1), drilled in the framework of the International Trans Antarctic Scientific Expedition (ITASE), and from a Colle del Lys 2003 firn core (CDL03, 45°92'N, 7°86'E, 4248m a.s.l., mean accumulation rate 134 g cm-2 yr-1, Lys Glacier, Mt. Rosa, Italy). The low concentration of mineral particles, obtained by filtering each firn core melted samples on Nuclepore membranes in a 1000 class clean room, required a specific procedure to prepare the samples necessary to the successful collection of the XAS data. The firn samples were decontaminated in clean room under laminar flow bench by means of a ceramic knife and discarding the external part of the cores. Analyses of the insoluble particle content were performed by particle counter Beckman CounterãMultisizer III in order to defined concentration and size distribution of particles in each samples. A dedicated HV experimental chamber, devoted to the realization of XAS experiments on very low absorber concentration samples, was developed and realized in the framework of the CryoAlp collaboration at IMONT, the Italian National Institute for Mountains. The original experimental setup, thanks to the presence of an in-vacuum sample micromanipulator and special sample alignment and docking system installed for these experiments at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory at the beamline 6-2, allows both normal-incidence X-ray Fluorescence detection using a Ketek SDD detector having an energy resolution of about 150 eV and extremely low energy detection limit, and Total X-ray Reflection Fluorescence and Absorption Spectroscopy measurements. The high quality of the XANES experiments performed, using both normal incidence and Total Reflection XAS measurements, allowed recognizing iron-inclusion mineral fractions

  12. Coordination of Fe, Ga and Ge in high pressure glasses by Moessbauer, Raman and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and geological implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleet, M. E.; Henderson, G. S.; Herzberg, C. T.; Crozier, E. D.; Osborne, M. D.; Scarfe, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    For some time, it has been recognized that the structure of silicate liquids has a great bearing on such magma properties as viscosity, diffusivity, and thermal expansion and on the extrapolation of thermodynamic quantities outside of the experimentally measurable range. In this connection it is vital to know if pressure imposes changes in melt structure similar to the pressure-induced reconstructive transformations in crystals. In the present study on 1 bar and high pressure glasses, an investigation is conducted regarding the coordination of Fe(3+) in Fe silicate glasses by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy is employed to explore the coordinations of Ge(4+) in GeO2 glasses and of Ga(3+) in NaGa silicate glasses, while the coordination of Ga(3+) in NaGaSiO4 glasses is studied with the aid of methods of X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

  13. Coordination of Fe, Ga and Ge in high pressure glasses by Moessbauer, Raman and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and geological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleet, M. E.; Herzberg, C. T.; Henderson, G. S.; Crozier, E. D.; Osborne, M. D.; Scarfe, C. M.

    1984-07-01

    For some time, it has been recognized that the structure of silicate liquids has a great bearing on such magma properties as viscosity, diffusivity, and thermal expansion and on the extrapolation of thermodynamic quantities outside of the experimentally measurable range. In this connection it is vital to know if pressure imposes changes in melt structure similar to the pressure-induced reconstructive transformations in crystals. In the present study on 1 bar and high pressure glasses, an investigation is conducted regarding the coordination of Fe(3+) in Fe silicate glasses by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy is employed to explore the coordinations of Ge(4+) in GeO2 glasses and of Ga(3+) in NaGa silicate glasses, while the coordination of Ga(3+) in NaGaSiO4 glasses is studied with the aid of methods of X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

  14. Improved Carrier Transport in Perovskite Solar Cells Probed by Femtosecond Transient Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Serpetzoglou, Efthymis; Konidakis, Ioannis; Kakavelakis, George; Maksudov, Temur; Kymakis, Emmanuel; Stratakis, Emmanuel

    2017-12-20

    CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 perovskite thin films have been deposited on glass/indium tin oxide/hole transport layer (HTL) substrates, utilizing two different materials as the HTLs. In the first configuration, the super hydrophilic polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate), known as PEDOT:PSS, was employed as the HTL material, whereas in the second case, the nonwetting poly(triarylamine) semiconductor polymer, known as PTAA, was used. It was found that when PTAA is used as the HTL material, the averaged power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the perovskite solar cells (PSCs) remarkably increases from 12.60 to 15.67%. To explore the mechanism behind this enhancement, the aforementioned perovskite/HTL arrangements were investigated by time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS) performed under inert conditions. By means of TAS, the charge transfer, carrier trapping, and hole injection dynamics from the photoexcited perovskite layers to the HTL can be directly monitored via the characteristic bleaching profile of the perovskite at ∼750 nm. TAS studies revealed faster relaxation times and decay dynamics when the PTAA polymer is employed, which potentially account for the enhanced PCE observed. The TAS results are correlated with the structure and crystalline quality of the corresponding perovskite films, investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, micro-photoluminescence, and transmittance spectroscopy. It is concluded that TAS is a benchmark technique for the understanding of the carrier transport mechanisms in PSCs and constitutes a figure-of-merit tool toward their efficiency improvement.

  15. Non-Destructive and Discriminating Identification of Illegal Drugs by Transient Absorption Spectroscopy in the Visible and Near-IR Wavelength Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Chie; Furube, Akihiro; Katoh, Ryuzi; Nonaka, Hidehiko; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2008-11-01

    We have tested the possibility of identifying illegal drugs by means of nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy with a 10-ns UV-laser pulse for the excitation light and visible-to-near-IR light for the probe light. We measured the transient absorption spectra of acetonitrile solutions of d-methamphetamine, dl-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine hydrochloride (MDMA), and dl-N-methyl-1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-butanamine hydrochloride (MBDB), which are illegal drugs widely consumed in Japan. Transient absorption signals of these drugs were observed between 400 and 950 nm, a range in which they are transparent in the ground state. By analyzing the spectra in terms of exponential and Gaussian functions, we could identify the drugs and discriminate them from chemical substances having similar structures. We propose that transient absorption spectroscopy will be a useful, non-destructive method of inspecting for illegal drugs, especially when they are dissolved in liquids. Such a method may even be used for drugs packed in opaque materials if it is further extended to utilize intense femtosecond laser pulses.

  16. Optical absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy studies of Artepillin C, the major component of green propolis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camuri, Isamara Julia; Costa, Adriano Batista; Ito, Amando Siuiti; Pazin, Wallance Moreira

    2018-06-01

    The bioactivity of propolis against several pathogens is well established, leading to the extensive consumption of that bee product to prevent diseases. Brazilian green propolis, collected by the species Apis mellifera, is one of the most consumed in the world. The chemical composition of green propolis is complex and it has been shown that it displays antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities, especially due to the high content of Artepillin C. The molecule is a derivative of cinnamic acid with two prenylated groups, responsible for the improvement of the affinity of the compound for lipophilic environment. A carboxylic group (COOH) is also present in the molecule, making it a pH-sensitive compound and the pH-dependent structure of Artepillin C, may modulate its biological activity related to interactions with the cellular membrane of organisms and tissues. Molecular properties of Artepillin C on aqueous solution were examined by optical absorption, steady state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopies. Acid-base titration based on the spectral position of the near UV absorption band, resulted in the pKa value of 4.65 for the carboxylic group in Artepillin C. In acidic pH, below the pKa value, an absorption band raised around 350 nm at Artepillin C concentration above 50 μM, due to aggregation of the molecule. In neutral pH, with excitation at 310 nm, Artepillin C presents dual emission at 400 and 450 nm. In pH close to the pKa, the optical spectra show contribution from both protonated and deprotonated species. A three-exponential function was necessary to fit the intensity decays at the different pHs, dominated by a very short lifetime component, around 0.060 ns. The fast decay resulted in emission before fluorescence depolarization, and in values of fluorescence anisotropy higher than could be expected for monomeric forms of the compound. The results give fundamental knowledge about the protonation-deprotonation state of the

  17. Observing heme doming in myoglobin with femtosecond X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Levantino, M.; Lemke, H. T.; Schirò, G.; ...

    2015-07-01

    We report time-resolved X-ray absorption measurements after photolysis of carbonmonoxy myoglobin performed at the LCLS X-ray free electron laser with nearly 100 fs (FWHM) time resolution. Data at the Fe K-edge reveal that the photoinduced structural changes at the heme occur in two steps, with a faster (~70 fs) relaxation preceding a slower (~400 fs) one. We tentatively attribute the first relaxation to a structural rearrangement induced by photolysis involving essentially only the heme chromophore and the second relaxation to a residual Fe motion out of the heme plane that is coupled to the displacement of myoglobin F-helix.

  18. Primary gas thermometry by means of laser-absorption spectroscopy: determination of the Boltzmann constant.

    PubMed

    Casa, G; Castrillo, A; Galzerano, G; Wehr, R; Merlone, A; Di Serafino, D; Laporta, P; Gianfrani, L

    2008-05-23

    We report on a new optical implementation of primary gas thermometry based on laser-absorption spectrometry in the near infrared. The method consists in retrieving the Doppler broadening from highly accurate observations of the line shape of the R(12) nu1+2nu2(0)+nu3 transition in CO2 gas at thermodynamic equilibrium. Doppler width measurements as a function of gas temperature, ranging between the triple point of water and the gallium melting point, allowed for a spectroscopic determination of the Boltzmann constant with a relative accuracy of approximately 1.6 x 10(-4).

  19. Primary Gas Thermometry by Means of Laser-Absorption Spectroscopy: Determination of the Boltzmann Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casa, G.; Castrillo, A.; Galzerano, G.; Wehr, R.; Merlone, A.; di Serafino, D.; Laporta, P.; Gianfrani, L.

    2008-05-01

    We report on a new optical implementation of primary gas thermometry based on laser-absorption spectrometry in the near infrared. The method consists in retrieving the Doppler broadening from highly accurate observations of the line shape of the R(12) ν1+2ν20+ν3 transition in CO2 gas at thermodynamic equilibrium. Doppler width measurements as a function of gas temperature, ranging between the triple point of water and the gallium melting point, allowed for a spectroscopic determination of the Boltzmann constant with a relative accuracy of ˜1.6×10-4.

  20. Monitoring Temperature in High Enthalpy Arc-heated Plasma Flows using Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Marcel Nations; Chang, Leyen S.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.; Nawaz, Anuscheh; Taunk, Jaswinder S.; Driver, David M.; Raiche, George

    2013-01-01

    A tunable diode laser sensor was designed for in situ monitoring of temperature in the arc heater of the NASA Ames IHF arcjet facility (60 MW). An external cavity diode laser was used to generate light at 777.2 nm and laser absorption used to monitor the population of electronically excited oxygen atoms in an air plasma flow. Under the assumption of thermochemical equilibrium, time-resolved temperature measurements were obtained on four lines-of-sight, which enabled evaluation of the temperature uniformity in the plasma column for different arcjet operating conditions.

  1. Measurement of glyoxal using an incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washenfelder, R. A.; Langford, A. O.; Fuchs, H.; Brown, S. S.

    2008-12-01

    We describe an instrument for simultaneous measurements of glyoxal (CHOCHO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) using cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy with a broadband light source. The output of a Xenon arc lamp is coupled into a 1 m optical cavity, and the spectrum of light exiting the cavity is recorded by a grating spectrometer with a charge-coupled device (CCD) array detector. The mirror reflectivity and effective path lengths are determined from the known Rayleigh scattering of He and dry zero air (N2+O2). Least-squares fitting, using published reference spectra, allow the simultaneous retrieval of CHOCHO, NO2, O4, and H2O in the 441 to 469 nm spectral range. For a 1-min sampling time, the precision (±1σ) on signal for measurements of CHOCHO and NO2 is 29 pptv and 20 pptv, respectively. We directly compare measurements made with the incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer with those from cavity ringdown instruments detecting CHOCHO and NO2 at 404 and 532 nm, respectively, and find linear agreement over a wide range of concentrations. The instrument has been tested in the laboratory with both synthetic and real air samples, and the demonstrated sensitivity and specificity suggest a strong potential for field measurements of both CHOCHO and NO2.

  2. Absolute high spectral resolution measurements of surface solar radiation for detection of water vapour continuum absorption.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, T D; Coleman, M; Browning, H; Tallis, L; Ptashnik, I V; Shine, K P

    2012-06-13

    Solar-pointing Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy offers the capability to measure both the fine scale and broadband spectral structure of atmospheric transmission simultaneously across wide spectral regions. It is therefore suited to the study of both water vapour monomer and continuum absorption behaviours. However, in order to properly address this issue, it is necessary to radiatively calibrate the FTIR instrument response. A solar-pointing high-resolution FTIR spectrometer was deployed as part of the 'Continuum Absorption by Visible and Infrared radiation and its Atmospheric Relevance' (CAVIAR) consortium project. This paper describes the radiative calibration process using an ultra-high-temperature blackbody and the consideration of the related influence factors. The result is a radiatively calibrated measurement of the solar irradiation at the ground across the IR region from 2000 to 10 000 cm(-1) with an uncertainty of between 3.3 and 5.9 per cent. This measurement is shown to be in good general agreement with a radiative-transfer model. The results from the CAVIAR field measurements are being used in ongoing studies of atmospheric absorbers, in particular the water vapour continuum.

  3. Electron phonon couplings in 2D perovskite probed by ultrafast photoinduced absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, Uyen; Ni, Limeng; Rao, Akshay

    We use the time-resolved photoinduced absorption (PIA) spectroscopy with 20fs time resolution to investigate the electron phonon coupling in the self-assembled hybrid organic layered perovskite, the hexyl ammonium lead iodide compound (C6H13NH3)2 (PbI4) . The coupling results in the broadening and asymmetry of its temperature-dependence photoluminescence spectra. The exact time scale of this coupling, however, wasn't reported experimentally. Here we show that using an ultrashort excitation pulse allows us to resolve from PIA kinetics the oscillation of coherent longitudinal optical phonons that relaxes and self-traps electrons to lower energy states within 200 fs. The 200fs relaxation time is equivalent to a coupling strength of 40meV. Two coupled phonon modes are also identified as about 100 cm-1 and 300 cm-1 from the FFT spectrum of the PIA kinetics. The lower energy mode is consistent with previous reports and Raman spectrum but the higher energy one hasn't been observed before.

  4. High-resolution x-ray absorption spectroscopy studies of metal compounds in neurodegenerative brain tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collingwood, J. F.; Mikhaylova, A.; Davidson, M. R.; Batich, C.; Streit, W. J.; Eskin, T.; Terry, J.; Barrea, R.; Underhill, R. S.; Dobson, J.

    2005-01-01

    Fluorescence mapping and microfocus X-ray absorption spectroscopy are used to detect, locate and identify iron biominerals and other inorganic metal accumulations in neurodegenerative brain tissue at sub-cellular resolution (<5 microns). Recent progress in developing the technique is reviewed. Synchrotron X-rays are used to map tissue sections for metals of interest, and XANES and XAFS are used to characterise anomalous concentrations of the metals in-situ so that they can be correlated with tissue structures and disease pathology. Iron anomalies associated with biogenic magnetite, ferritin and haemoglobin are located and identified in an avian tissue model with a pixel resolution ~5 microns. Subsequent studies include brain tissue sections from transgenic Huntington's mice, and the first high-resolution mapping and identification of iron biominerals in human Alzheimer's and control autopsy brain tissue. Technical developments include use of microfocus diffraction to obtain structural information about biominerals in-situ, and depositing sample location grids by lithography for the location of anomalies by conventional microscopy. The combined techniques provide a breakthrough in the study of both intra- and extra-cellular iron compounds and related metals in tissue. The information to be gained from this approach has implications for future diagnosis and treatment of neurodegeneration, and for our understanding of the mechanisms involved.

  5. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Investigation of Iodine Capture by Silver-Exchanged Mordenite

    SciTech Connect

    Abney, Carter W.; Nan, Yue; Tavlarides, Lawrence L.

    Capture of radioactive iodine is a significant consideration during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and disposal of legacy wastes. While silver-exchanged mordenite (AgZ) is widely regarded as a benchmark material for assessing iodine adsorption performance, previous research efforts have largely focused on bulk material properties rather than the underpinning molecular interactions that achieve effective iodine capture. As a result, the fundamental understanding necessary to identify and mitigate deactivation pathways for the recycle of AgZ is not available. In this paper, we applied X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) spectroscopy to investigate AgZ following activation, adsorption of iodine, regeneration, and recycle, observingmore » no appreciable degradation in performance due to the highly controlled conditions under which the AgZ was maintained. Fits of the extended XAFS (EXAFS) data reveal complete formation of Ag 0 nanoparticles upon treatment with H 2, and confirm the formation of α-AgI within the mordenite channels in addition to surface γ/β-AgI nanoparticles following iodine exposure. Analysis of the nanoparticle size and fractional composition of α-AgI to γ/β-AgI supports ripening of surface nanoparticles as a function of recycle. Finally, this work provides a foundation for future investigation of AgZ deactivation under conditions relevant to spent nuclear fuel reprocessing.« less

  6. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Investigation of Iodine Capture by Silver-Exchanged Mordenite

    DOE PAGES

    Abney, Carter W.; Nan, Yue; Tavlarides, Lawrence L.

    2017-03-29

    Capture of radioactive iodine is a significant consideration during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and disposal of legacy wastes. While silver-exchanged mordenite (AgZ) is widely regarded as a benchmark material for assessing iodine adsorption performance, previous research efforts have largely focused on bulk material properties rather than the underpinning molecular interactions that achieve effective iodine capture. As a result, the fundamental understanding necessary to identify and mitigate deactivation pathways for the recycle of AgZ is not available. In this paper, we applied X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) spectroscopy to investigate AgZ following activation, adsorption of iodine, regeneration, and recycle, observingmore » no appreciable degradation in performance due to the highly controlled conditions under which the AgZ was maintained. Fits of the extended XAFS (EXAFS) data reveal complete formation of Ag 0 nanoparticles upon treatment with H 2, and confirm the formation of α-AgI within the mordenite channels in addition to surface γ/β-AgI nanoparticles following iodine exposure. Analysis of the nanoparticle size and fractional composition of α-AgI to γ/β-AgI supports ripening of surface nanoparticles as a function of recycle. Finally, this work provides a foundation for future investigation of AgZ deactivation under conditions relevant to spent nuclear fuel reprocessing.« less

  7. Assessment of the performance of a compact concentric spectrometer system for Atmospheric Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whyte, C.; Leigh, R. J.; Lobb, D.; Williams, T.; Remedios, J. J.; Cutter, M.; Monks, P. S.

    2009-12-01

    A breadboard demonstrator of a novel UV/VIS grating spectrometer has been developed based upon a concentric arrangement of a spherical meniscus lens, concave spherical mirror and curved diffraction grating suitable for a range of atmospheric remote sensing applications from the ground or space. The spectrometer is compact and provides high optical efficiency and performance benefits over traditional instruments. The concentric design is capable of handling high relative apertures, owing to spherical aberration and comma being near zero at all surfaces. The design also provides correction for transverse chromatic aberration and distortion, in addition to correcting for the distortion called "smile", the curvature of the slit image formed at each wavelength. These properties render this design capable of superior spectral and spatial performance with size and weight budgets significantly lower than standard configurations. This form of spectrometer design offers the potential for exceptionally compact instrument for differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) applications from LEO, GEO, HAP or ground-based platforms. The breadboard demonstrator has been shown to offer high throughput and a stable Gaussian line shape with a spectral range from 300 to 450 nm at 0.5 nm resolution, suitable for a number of typical DOAS applications.

  8. Flame monitoring of a model swirl injector using 1D tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chang; Cao, Zhang; Li, Fangyan; Lin, Yuzhen; Xu, Lijun

    2017-05-01

    Distributions of temperature and H2O concentration in a swirling flame are critical to evaluate the performance of a gas turbine combustor. In this paper, 1D tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy tomography (1D-TDLAST) was introduced to monitor swirling flames generated from a model swirl injector by simultaneously reconstructing the rotationally symmetric distributions of temperature and H2O concentration. The optical system was sufficiently simplified by introducing only one fan-beam illumination and a linear detector array of 12 equally-spaced photodetectors. The fan-beam illumination penetrated a cross section of interest in the swirling flame and the transmitted intensities were detected by the detector array. With the transmitted intensities in hand, projections were extracted and employed by a 1D tomographic algorithm to reconstruct the distributions of temperature and H2O concentration. The route of the precessing vortex core generated in the swirling flame can be easily inferred from the reconstructed profiles of temperature and H2O concentration at different heights above the nozzle of the swirl injector.

  9. Tunable Nanoantennas for Surface Enhanced Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy by Colloidal Lithography and Post-Fabrication Etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kai; Duy Dao, Thang; Nagao, Tadaaki

    2017-03-01

    We fabricated large-area metallic (Al and Au) nanoantenna arrays on Si substrates using cost-effective colloidal lithography with different micrometer-sized polystyrene spheres. Variation of the sphere size leads to tunable plasmon resonances in the middle infrared (MIR) range. The enhanced near-fields allow us to detect the surface phonon polaritons in the natural SiO2 thin layers. We demonstrated further tuning capability of the resonances by employing dry etching of the Si substrates with the nanoantennas acting as the etching masks. The effective refractive index of the nanoantenna surroundings is efficiently decreased giving rise to blueshifts of the resonances. In addition, partial removal of the Si substrates elevates the nanoantennas from the high-refractive-index substrates making more enhanced near-fields accessible for molecular sensing applications as demonstrated here with surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectroscopy for a thin polymer film. We also directly compared the plasmonic enhancement from the Al and Au nanoantenna arrays.

  10. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Characterization of a Li/S Cell

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yifan; Kawase, Ayako; Song, Min-Kyu; Feng, Bingmei; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Marcus, Matthew A.; Feng, Jun; Cairns, Elton J.; Guo, Jinghua; Zhu, Junfa

    2016-01-01

    The X-ray absorption spectroscopy technique has been applied to study different stages of the lithium/sulfur (Li/S) cell life cycle. We have investigated how speciation of S in Li/S cathodes changes upon the introduction of CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CH3(CH2)15N+(CH3)3Br−) and with charge/discharge cycling. The introduction of CTAB changes the synthesis reaction pathway dramatically due to the interaction of CTAB with the terminal S atoms of the polysulfide ions in the Na2Sx solution. For the cycled Li/S cell, the loss of electrochemically active sulfur and the accumulation of a compact blocking insulating layer of unexpected sulfur reaction products on the cathode surface during the charge/discharge processes make the capacity decay. A modified coin cell and a vacuum-compatible three-electrode electro-chemical cell have been introduced for further in-situ/in-operando studies. PMID:28344271

  11. Speciation of selenium in stream insects using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ruwandi Andrahennadi; Mark Wayland; Ingrid J. Pickering

    2007-11-15

    Selenium contamination in the environment is a widespread problem affecting insects and other wildlife. Insects occupy a critical middle link and aid in trophic transfer of selenium in many terrestrial and freshwater food chains, but the mechanisms of selenium uptake through the food chain are poorly understood. In particular, biotransformation of selenium by insects into different chemical forms will greatly influence how toxic or benign the selenium is to that organism or to its predators. We have used X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to identify the chemical form of selenium in insects inhabiting selenium contaminated streams near Hinton, Alberta (Canada). Seleniummore » K near-edge spectra indicate a variability of selenium speciation among the insects that included mayflies (Ephemeroptera), stoneflies (Plecoptera), caddisflies (Trichoptera), and craneflies (Diptera). Higher percentages of inorganic selenium were observed in primary consumers, detritivores, and filter feeders than in predatory insects. Among the organic forms of selenium, organic selenides constituted a major fraction in most organisms. A species modeled as trimethylselenonium was observed during the pupal stage of caddisflies. These results provide insights into how the insects cope with their toxic cargo, including how the selenium is biotransformed into less toxic forms and how it can be eliminated from the insects. More broadly, this study demonstrates the strengths of XAS to probe the effects of heavy elements at trace levels in insects from the field.« less

  12. Speciation of Selenium in Stream Insects Using X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Andrahennadi, R.; Wayland, M.; Pickering, I.J.

    2009-05-28

    Selenium contamination in the environment is a widespread problem affecting insects and other wildlife. Insects occupy a critical middle link and aid in trophic transfer of selenium in many terrestrial and freshwater food chains, but the mechanisms of selenium uptake through the food chain are poorly understood. In particular, biotransformation of selenium by insects into different chemical forms will greatly influence how toxic or benign the selenium is to that organism or to its predators. We have used X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to identify the chemical form of selenium in insects inhabiting selenium contaminated streams near Hinton, Alberta (Canada). Seleniummore » K near-edge spectra indicate a variability of selenium speciation among the insects that included mayflies (Ephemeroptera), stoneflies (Plecoptera), caddisflies (Trichoptera), and craneflies (Diptera). Higher percentages of inorganic selenium were observed in primary consumers, detritivores, and filter feeders than in predatory insects. Among the organic forms of selenium, organic selenides constituted a major fraction in most organisms. A species modeled as trimethylselenonium was observed during the pupal stage of caddisflies. These results provide insights into how the insects cope with their toxic cargo, including how the selenium is biotransformed into less toxic forms and how it can be eliminated from the insects. More broadly, this study demonstrates the strengths of XAS to probe the effects of heavy elements at trace levels in insects from the field.« less

  13. Ultrafast Absorption Spectroscopy of Aluminum Plasmas Created by LCLS using Betatron X-Ray Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, Felicie

    2016-10-12

    This document summarizes the goals and accomplishments of a six month-long LDRD project, awarded through the LLNL director Early and Mid Career Recognition (EMCR) program. This project allowed us to support beamtime awarded at the Matter under Extreme Conditions (MEC) end station of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The goal of the experiment was to heat metallic samples with the bright x-rays from the LCLS free electron laser. Then, we studied how they relaxed back to equilibrium by probing them with ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy using laser-based betatron radiation. Our work enabled large collaborations between LLNL, SLAC, LBNL, andmore » institutions in France and in the UK, while providing training to undergraduate and graduate students during the experiment. Following this LDRD project, the PI was awarded a 5-year DOE early career research grant to further develop applications of laser-driven x-ray sources for high energy density science experiments and warm dense matter states.« less

  14. Rotamer-Specific Photoisomerization of Difluorostilbenes from Transient Absorption and Transient Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Quick, M; Dobryakov, A L; Ioffe, I N; Berndt, F; Mahrwald, R; Ernsting, N P; Kovalenko, S A

    2018-01-25

    Photoisomerization of 2,2'-, 3,3'-, and 4,4'-difluorostilbene (F2, F3, F4, respectively) in n-hexane, perfluoro-n-hexane, and acetonitrile is studied with broadband transient absorption (TA) and femtosecond stimulated Raman (FSR) spectroscopy and by DFT/TDDFT calculations. F2 and F3 possess three rotamers (rotational isomers) each, while F4 has one single conformation only. These differences are reflected in TA and FSR spectra. Thus F4 reveals a monoexponential decay of TA with τ 1 = 172 ps in n-hexane, as expected for a single species. For F2 and F3, the decays are biexponential in all solvents, corresponding to two distinctly discerned rotamers or rotamer fractions. Specifically, for F2 in n-hexane, τ 1 = 357 ps (83%) and τ 2 = 62 ps (17%), and for F3 in the same solvent, τ 1 = 222 ps (57%), and τ 2 = 81 ps (43%). The weights in brackets agree with theoretically estimated ground-state abundances of the rotamers. Furthermore, a global fit of the TA and FSR data allows us to extract the spectra of the pure rotamers. The Raman spectra of S 0 and S 1 are in qualitative agreement with calculations.

  15. Assessment of the performance of a compact concentric spectrometer system for Atmospheric Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whyte, C.; Leigh, R. J.; Lobb, D.; Williams, T.; Remedios, J. J.; Cutter, M.; Monks, P. S.

    2009-08-01

    A breadboard demonstrator of a novel UV/VIS grating spectrometer for atmospheric research has been developed based upon a concentric arrangement of a spherical meniscus lens, concave spherical mirror and curved diffraction grating suitable for a range of remote sensing applications from the ground or space. The spectrometer is compact and provides high optical efficiency and performance benefits over traditional instruments. The concentric design is capable of handling high relative apertures, owing to spherical aberration and coma being near zero at all surfaces. The design also provides correction for transverse chromatic aberration and distortion, in addition to correcting for the distortion called "smile", the curvature of the slit image formed at each wavelength. These properties render this design capable of superior spectral and spatial performance with size and weight budgets significantly lower than standard configurations. This form of spectrometer design offers the potential for an exceptionally compact instrument for differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) applications particularly from space (LEO, GEO orbits) and from HAPs or ground-based platforms. The breadboard demonstrator has been shown to offer high throughput and a stable Gaussian line shape with a spectral range from 300 to 450 nm at better than 0.5 nm resolution, suitable for a number of typical DOAS applications.

  16. SUT-NANOTEC-SLRI beamline for X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Klysubun, Wantana; Kidkhunthod, Pinit; Tarawarakarn, Pongjakr

    2017-04-04

    The SUT-NANOTEC-SLRI beamline was constructed in 2012 as the flagship of the SUT-NANOTEC-SLRI Joint Research Facility for Synchrotron Utilization, co-established by Suranaree University of Technology (SUT), National Nanotechnology Center (NANOTEC) and Synchrotron Light Research Institute (SLRI). It is an intermediate-energy X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) beamline at SLRI. The beamline delivers an unfocused monochromatic X-ray beam of tunable photon energy (1.25–10 keV). The maximum normal incident beam size is 13 mm (width) × 1 mm (height) with a photon flux of 3 × 10 8to 2 × 10 10 photons s -1(100 mA) -1varying across photon energies. Details of the beamlinemore » and XAS instrumentation are described. To demonstrate the beamline performance,K-edge XANES spectra of MgO, Al 2O 3, S 8, FeS, FeSO 4, Cu, Cu 2O and CuO, and EXAFS spectra of Cu and CuO are presented.« less

  17. Phase transitions of amorphous solid acetone in confined geometry investigated by reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sunghwan; Kang, Hani; Kim, Jun Soo; Kang, Heon

    2014-11-26

    We investigated the phase transformations of amorphous solid acetone under confined geometry by preparing acetone films trapped in amorphous solid water (ASW) or CCl4. Reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) were used to monitor the phase changes of the acetone sample with increasing temperature. An acetone film trapped in ASW shows an abrupt change in the RAIRS features of the acetone vibrational bands during heating from 80 to 100 K, which indicates the transformation of amorphous solid acetone to a molecularly aligned crystalline phase. Further heating of the sample to 140 K produces an isotropic solid phase, and eventually a fluid phase near 157 K, at which the acetone sample is probably trapped in a pressurized, superheated condition inside the ASW matrix. Inside a CCl4 matrix, amorphous solid acetone crystallizes into a different, isotropic structure at ca. 90 K. We propose that the molecularly aligned crystalline phase formed in ASW is created by heterogeneous nucleation at the acetone-water interface, with resultant crystal growth, whereas the isotropic crystalline phase in CCl4 is formed by homogeneous crystal growth starting from the bulk region of the acetone sample.

  18. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Characterization of a Li/S Cell

    DOE PAGES

    Ye, Yifan; Kawase, Ayako; Song, Min-Kyu; ...

    2016-01-11

    The X-ray absorption spectroscopy technique has been applied to study different stages of the lithium/sulfur (Li/S) cell life cycle. We investigated how speciation of S in Li/S cathodes changes upon the introduction of CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CH 3(CH 2) 15N+(CH 3) 3Br₋) and with charge/discharge cycling. The introduction of CTAB changes the synthesis reaction pathway dramatically due to the interaction of CTAB with the terminal S atoms of the polysulfide ions in the Na 2S x solution. For the cycled Li/S cell, the loss of electrochemically active sulfur and the accumulation of a compact blocking insulating layer of unexpected sulfurmore » reaction products on the cathode surface during the charge/discharge processes make the capacity decay. Lastly, a modified coin cell and a vacuum-compatible three-electrode electro-chemical cell have been introduced for further in-situ/in-operando studies.« less

  19. Design of differential optical absorption spectroscopy long-path telescopes based on fiber optics.

    PubMed

    Merten, André; Tschritter, Jens; Platt, Ulrich

    2011-02-10

    We present a new design principle of telescopes for use in the spectral investigation of the atmosphere and the detection of atmospheric trace gases with the long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique. A combination of emitting and receiving fibers in a single bundle replaces the commonly used coaxial-Newton-type combination of receiving and transmitting telescope. This very simplified setup offers a higher light throughput and simpler adjustment and allows smaller instruments, which are easier to handle and more portable. The higher transmittance was verified by ray-tracing calculations, which result in a theoretical factor threefold improvement in signal intensity compared with the old setup. In practice, due to the easier alignment and higher stability, up to factor of 10 higher signal intensities were found. In addition, the use of a fiber optic light source provides a better spectral characterization of the light source, which results in a lower detection limit for trace gases studied with this instrument. This new design will greatly enhance the usability and the range of applications of active DOAS instruments.

  20. Americium characterization by X-ray fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy in plutonium uranium mixed oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degueldre, Claude; Cozzo, Cedric; Martin, Matthias; Grolimund, Daniel; Mieszczynski, Cyprian

    2013-06-01

    Plutonium uranium mixed oxide (MOX) fuels are currently used in nuclear reactors. The actinides in these fuels need to be analyzed after irradiation for assessing their behaviour with regard to their environment and the coolant. In this work the study of the atomic structure and next-neighbour environment of Am in the (Pu,U)O2 lattice in an irradiated (60 MW d kg-1) MOX sample was performed employing micro-X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) and micro-X-ray absorption fine structure (µ-XAFS) spectroscopy. The chemical bonds, valences and stoichiometry of Am (˜0.66 wt%) are determined from the experimental data gained for the irradiated fuel material examined in its peripheral zone (rim) of the fuel. In the irradiated sample Am builds up as Am3+ species within an [AmO8]13- coordination environment (e.g. >90%) and no (<10%) Am(IV) or (V) can be detected in the rim zone. The occurrence of americium dioxide is avoided by the redox buffering activity of the uranium dioxide matrix.

  1. Serial Femtosecond Crystallography and Ultrafast Absorption Spectroscopy of the Photoswitchable Fluorescent Protein IrisFP.

    PubMed

    Colletier, Jacques-Philippe; Sliwa, Michel; Gallat, François-Xavier; Sugahara, Michihiro; Guillon, Virginia; Schirò, Giorgio; Coquelle, Nicolas; Woodhouse, Joyce; Roux, Laure; Gotthard, Guillaume; Royant, Antoine; Uriarte, Lucas Martinez; Ruckebusch, Cyril; Joti, Yasumasa; Byrdin, Martin; Mizohata, Eiichi; Nango, Eriko; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Tono, Kensuke; Yabashi, Makina; Adam, Virgile; Cammarata, Marco; Schlichting, Ilme; Bourgeois, Dominique; Weik, Martin

    2016-03-03

    Reversibly photoswitchable fluorescent proteins find growing applications in cell biology, yet mechanistic details, in particular on the ultrafast photochemical time scale, remain unknown. We employed time-resolved pump-probe absorption spectroscopy on the reversibly photoswitchable fluorescent protein IrisFP in solution to study photoswitching from the nonfluorescent (off) to the fluorescent (on) state. Evidence is provided for the existence of several intermediate states on the pico- and microsecond time scales that are attributed to chromophore isomerization and proton transfer, respectively. Kinetic modeling favors a sequential mechanism with the existence of two excited state intermediates with lifetimes of 2 and 15 ps, the second of which controls the photoswitching quantum yield. In order to support that IrisFP is suited for time-resolved experiments aiming at a structural characterization of these ps intermediates, we used serial femtosecond crystallography at an X-ray free electron laser and solved the structure of IrisFP in its on state. Sample consumption was minimized by embedding crystals in mineral grease, in which they remain photoswitchable. Our spectroscopic and structural results pave the way for time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography aiming at characterizing the structure of ultrafast intermediates in reversibly photoswitchable fluorescent proteins.

  2. A systematic resolution of sulfur in reticulated vitreous carbon using X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Frank, Patrick; George, Serena DeBeer; Anxolabéhère-Mallart, Elodie; Hedman, Britt; Hodgson, Keith O

    2006-11-27

    Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used to characterize the approximately 0.1% sulfur found both in native reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) foam and in RVC oxidatively modified using 0.2 M KMnO4 in 2 M H2SO4. Sulfur valences and functional groups were assessed using K-edge XAS spectral curve-fitting and employing explicit sulfur compounds as models. For native RVC, these were episulfide (approximately 3%), thianthrene (approximately 9%), disulfide (approximately 10%), sulfenate ester (approximately 12%), benzothiophene (approximately 24%), N,N'-thiobisphthalimide (approximately 30%), alkyl sulfonate (approximately 1.2%), alkyl sulfate monoester (approximately 6%), and sulfate dianion (approximately 6%). Permanganate oxidation of RVC diminished sulfenic sulfur to approximately 9%, thianthrenic sulfur to approximately 7%, and sulfate dianion to approximately 1% but increased sulfate monoester to approximately 12%, and newly produced sulfone (approximately 2%) and sulfate diester (approximately 5%). A simple thermodynamic model was derived that allows proportionate functional group comparisons despite differing (approximately +/-15%) total sulfur contents between RVC batches. The limits of accuracy in the XAS curve-fitting analysis are discussed in terms of microenvironments and extended structures in RVC carbon that cannot be exactly modeled by small molecules. Sulfate esters cover approximately 0.15% of the RVC surface, increasing to approximately 0.51% following permanganate/sulfuric acid treatment. The detection of episulfide directly corroborates a proposed mechanism for the migration of elemental sulfur through carbon.

  3. Determination of uranyl incorporation into biogenic manganese oxides using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and scattering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, S.M.; Fuller, C.C.; Tebo, B.M.; Bargar, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Biogenic manganese oxides are common and an important source of reactive mineral surfaces in the environment that may be potentially enhanced in bioremediation cases to improve natural attenuation. Experiments were performed in which the uranyl ion, UO22+ (U(VI)), at various concentrations was present during manganese oxide biogenesis. At all concentrations, there was strong uptake of U onto the oxides. Synchrotron-based extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies were carried out to determine the molecular-scale mechanism by which uranyl is incorporated into the oxide and how this incorporation affects the resulting manganese oxide structure and mineralogy. The EXAFS experiments show that at low concentrations (2 mol % U, >4 ??M U(VI) in solution), the presence of U(VI) affects the stability and structure of the Mn oxide to form poorly ordered Mn oxide tunnel structures, similar to todorokite. EXAFS modeling shows that uranyl is present in these oxides predominantly in the tunnels of the Mn oxide structure in a tridentate complex. Observations by XRD corroborate these results. Structural incorporation may lead to more stable U(VI) sequestration that may be suitable for remediation uses. These observations, combined with the very high uptake capacity of the Mn oxides, imply that Mn-oxidizing bacteria may significantly influence dissolved U(VI) concentrations in impacted waters via sorption and incorporation into Mn oxide biominerals. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  4. Total absorption γ -ray spectroscopy of the β -delayed neutron emitters Br 87 , Br 88 , and Rb 94

    DOE PAGES

    Valencia, E.; Tain, J. L.; Algora, A.; ...

    2017-02-21

    In this paper, we investigate the decay of 87,88Br and 94Rb using total absorption γ-ray spectroscopy. These important fission products are β-delayed neutron emitters. Our data show considerable βγ intensity, so far unobserved in high-resolution γ-ray spectroscopy, from states at high excitation energy. We also find significant differences with the β intensity that can be deduced from existing measurements of the β spectrum. We evaluate the impact of the present data on reactor decay heat using summation calculations. Although the effect is relatively small it helps to reduce the discrepancy between calculations and integral measurements of the photon component formore » 235U fission at cooling times in the range 1-100 s. We also use summation calculations to evaluate the impact of present data on reactor antineutrino spectra. We find a significant effect at antineutrino energies in the range of 5 to 9 MeV. In addition, we observe an unexpected strong probability for γ emission from neutron unbound states populated in the daughter nucleus. The γ branching is compared to Hauser-Feshbach calculations, which allow one to explain the large value for bromine isotopes as due to nuclear structure. However the branching for 94Rb, although much smaller, hints of the need to increase the radiative width Γ γ by one order of magnitude. Finally, this increase in Γ γ would lead to a similar increase in the calculated (n, γ) cross section for this very neutron-rich nucleus with a potential impact on r process abundance calculations.« less

  5. Total absorption γ -ray spectroscopy of the β -delayed neutron emitters Br 87 , Br 88 , and Rb 94

    SciTech Connect

    Valencia, E.; Tain, J. L.; Algora, A.

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the decay of Br-87,Br-88 and Rb-94 using total absorption gamma-ray spectroscopy. These important fission products are beta-delayed neutron emitters. Our data show considerable beta gamma intensity, so far unobserved in high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, from states at high excitation energy. We also find significant differences with the beta intensity that can be deduced from existing measurements of the beta spectrum. We evaluate the impact of the present data on reactor decay heat using summation calculations. Although the effect is relatively small it helps to reduce the discrepancy between calculations and integral measurements of the photon component for U-235 fissionmore » at cooling times in the range 1-100 s. We also use summation calculations to evaluate the impact of present data on reactor antineutrino spectra. We find a significant effect at antineutrino energies in the range of 5 to 9 MeV. In addition, we observe an unexpected strong probability for. emission from neutron unbound states populated in the daughter nucleus. The. branching is compared to Hauser-Feshbach calculations, which allow one to explain the large value for bromine isotopes as due to nuclear structure. However the branching for Rb-94, although much smaller, hints of the need to increase the radiative width gamma by one order of magnitude. This increase in gamma would lead to a similar increase in the calculated (n, gamma) cross section for this very neutron-rich nucleus with a potential impact on r process abundance calculations.« less

  6. Crystallography with online optical and X-ray absorption spectroscopies demonstrates an ordered mechanism in copper nitrite reductase.

    PubMed

    Hough, Michael A; Antonyuk, Svetlana V; Strange, Richard W; Eady, Robert R; Hasnain, S Samar

    2008-04-25

    Nitrite reductases are key enzymes that perform the first committed step in the denitrification process and reduce nitrite to nitric oxide. In copper nitrite reductases, an electron is delivered from the type 1 copper (T1Cu) centre to the type 2 copper (T2Cu) centre where catalysis occurs. Despite significant structural and mechanistic studies, it remains controversial whether the substrates, nitrite, electron and proton are utilised in an ordered or random manner. We have used crystallography, together with online X-ray absorption spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy, to show that X-rays rapidly and selectively photoreduce the T1Cu centre, but that the T2Cu centre does not photoreduce directly over a typical crystallographic data collection time. Furthermore, internal electron transfer between the T1Cu and T2Cu centres does not occur, and the T2Cu centre remains oxidised. These data unambiguously demonstrate an 'ordered' mechanism in which electron transfer is gated by binding of nitrite to the T2Cu. Furthermore, the use of online multiple spectroscopic techniques shows their value in assessing radiation-induced redox changes at different metal sites and demonstrates the importance of ensuring the correct status of redox centres in a crystal structure determination. Here, optical spectroscopy has shown a very high sensitivity for detecting the change in T1Cu redox state, while X-ray absorption spectroscopy has reported on the redox status of the T2Cu site, as this centre has no detectable optical absorption.

  7. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and imaging of heterogeneous hydrothermal mixtures using a diamond microreactor cell

    SciTech Connect

    Fulton, John L.; Darab, John G.; Hoffmann, Markus M.

    2001-04-01

    Hydrothermal synthesis is an important route to novel materials. Hydrothermal chemistry is also an important aspect of geochemistry and a variety of waste remediation technologies. There is a significant lack of information about the speciation of inorganic compounds under hydrothermal conditions. For these reasons we describe a high-temperature, high-pressure cell that allows one to acquire both x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra and x-ray transmission and absorption images of heterogeneous hydrothermal mixtures. We demonstrate the utility of the method by measuring the Cu(I) speciation in a solution containing both solid and dissolved Cu phases at temperatures up to 325{sup o}C.more » X-ray imaging of the various hydrothermal phases allows micro-XAFS to be collected from different phases within the heterogeneous mixture. The complete structural characterization of a soluble bichloro-cuprous species was determined. In situ XAFS measurements were used to define the oxidation state and the first-shell coordination structure. The Cu--Cl distance was determined to be 2.12 Aa for the CuCl{sub 2}{sup -} species and the complete loss of tightly bound waters of hydration in the first shell was observed. The microreactor cell described here can be used to test thermodynamic models of solubility and redox chemistry of a variety of different hydrothermal mixtures.« less

  8. Ultrafast chemical reactions in shocked nitromethane probed with dynamic ellipsometry and transient absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kathryn E; McGrane, Shawn D; Bolme, Cynthia A; Moore, David S

    2014-04-10

    Initiation of the shock driven chemical reactions and detonation of nitromethane (NM) can be sensitized by the addition of a weak base; however, the chemical mechanism by which sensitization occurs remains unclear. We investigated the shock driven chemical reaction in NM and in NM sensitized with diethylenetriamine (DETA), using a sustained 300 ps shock driven by a chirped Ti:sapphire laser. We measured the solutions' visible transient absorption spectra and measured interface particle and shock velocities of the nitromethane solutions using ultrafast dynamic ellipsometry. We found there to be a volume-increasing reaction that takes place around interface particle velocity up = 2.4 km/s and up = 2.2 km/s for neat NM and NM with 5% DETA, respectively. The rate at which transient absorption increases is similar in all mixtures, but with decreasing induction times for solutions with increasing DETA concentrations. This result supports the hypothesis that the chemical reaction mechanisms for shocked NM and NM with DETA are the same. Data from shocked NM are compared to literature experimental and theoretical data.

  9. Contact sponge water absorption test implemented for in situ measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaggero, Laura; Scrivano, Simona

    2016-04-01

    The contact sponge method is a non-destructive in-situ methodology used to estimate a water uptake coefficient. The procedure, unlike other in-situ measurement was proven to be directly comparable to the water uptake laboratory measurements, and was registered as UNI 11432:2011. The UNI Normal procedure requires to use a sponge with known density, soaked in water, weighed, placed on the material for 1 minute (UNI 11432, 2011; Pardini & Tiano, 2004), then weighed again. Di