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Sample records for absorption spectroscopy x-ray

  1. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  2. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of metalloproteins.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jesse; Ollmann, Emily; Maxey, Evan; Finney, Lydia A

    2014-01-01

    Metalloproteins are enormously important in biology. While a variety of techniques exist for studying metals in biology, X-ray absorption spectroscopy is particularly useful in that it can determine the local electronic and physical structure around the metal center, and is one of the few avenues for studying "spectroscopically silent" metal ions like Zn(II) and Cu(I) that have completely filled valence bands. While X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) are useful for studying metalloprotein structure, they suffer the limitation that the detected signal is an average of all the various metal centers in the sample, which limits its usefulness for studying metal centers in situ or in cell lysates. It would be desirable to be able to separate the various proteins in a mixture prior to performing X-ray absorption studies, so that the derived signal is from one species only. Here we describe a method for performing X-ray absorption spectroscopy on protein bands following electrophoretic separation and western blotting.

  3. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Miaja-Avila, L; O'Neil, G C; Uhlig, J; Cromer, C L; Dowell, M L; Jimenez, R; Hoover, A S; Silverman, K L; Ullom, J N

    2015-03-01

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ∼10(6) photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >10(7) laser pulses, we also present data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments. PMID:26798792

  4. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Miaja-Avila, L.; O'Neil, G. C.; Uhlig, J.; Cromer, C. L.; Dowell, M. L.; Jimenez, R.; Hoover, A. S.; Silverman, K. L.; Ullom, J. N.

    2015-03-02

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ~106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >107 laser pulses, we also presentmore » data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.« less

  5. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Miaja-Avila, L; O'Neil, G C; Uhlig, J; Cromer, C L; Dowell, M L; Jimenez, R; Hoover, A S; Silverman, K L; Ullom, J N

    2015-03-01

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ∼10(6) photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >10(7) laser pulses, we also present data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.

  6. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Miaja-Avila, L.; O'Neil, G. C.; Uhlig, J.; Cromer, C. L.; Dowell, M. L.; Jimenez, R.; Hoover, A. S.; Silverman, K. L.; Ullom, J. N.

    2015-03-02

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ~106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >107 laser pulses, we also present data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.

  7. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Miaja-Avila, L.; O'Neil, G. C.; Uhlig, J.; Cromer, C. L.; Dowell, M. L.; Jimenez, R.; Hoover, A. S.; Silverman, K. L.; Ullom, J. N.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ∼106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >107 laser pulses, we also present data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments. PMID:26798792

  8. X-ray microprobe for micro x-ray fluorescence and absorption spectroscopies at GSECARS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newville, M.; Sutton, S.; Rivers, M.

    2002-12-01

    The hard x-ray microprobe for x-ray fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy at GeoSoilEnviroCARS is presented. Using focused synchrotron radiation from an undulator beamline at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Lab, the x-ray microprobe provides bright, monochromatic x-rays with typical spot sizes down to 1x1 μm for x-ray fluorescence and absorption spectroscopies. Quantitative x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis gives precise elemental composition and correlations, while x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) gives the chemical state and local atomic coordination for a selected atomic species. These two techniques can be used in conjunction with one another on a wide range of samples, including minerals, glasses, fluid inclusions, soils, sediments, and plant tissue. This x-ray microprobe is part of the GeoSoilEnviroCARS user facility, available for use in all areas geological, soil, and environmental sciences, and selected examples from these fields will be given.

  9. Soft X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy at an X-ray Free Electron Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higley, Daniel; Schlotter, William; Turner, Joshua; Moeller, Stefan; Mitra, Ankush; Tsukamoto, Arata; Marvel, Robert; Haglund, Richard; Durr, Hermann; Stohr, Joachim; Dakovski, Georgi

    2015-03-01

    X-ray free electron lasers, providing coherent, ultrafast, high intensity x-ray pulses, have enabled groundbreaking scattering experiments to probe the atomic structure of materials on femtosecond timescales. Nonetheless, x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), one of the most fundamental and common x-ray techniques practiced at synchrotron light sources, has proven challenging to conduct with satisfactory signal-to-noise levels at soft x-ray energies using free electron laser sources. The ability to routinely collect high quality XAS spectra, especially in a time-resolved manner, will open many new scientific possibilities in the areas of ultrafast demagnetization, phase transitions and chemical dynamics to highlight a few. Here, we report how XAS using total fluorescence yield detection yields high signal-to-noise x-ray absorption spectra at an x-ray free electron laser source. Data were collected over multiple absorption edges on technologically relevant materials. These measurements were recorded on the Soft X-Ray Materials Science instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source. The results are easily extendable to time-resolved measurements.

  10. Biological X-ray absorption spectroscopy and metalloproteomics.

    PubMed

    Ascone, Isabella; Strange, Richard

    2009-05-01

    In the past seven years the size of the known protein sequence universe has been rapidly expanding. At present, more then five million entries are included in the UniProtKB/TrEMBL protein database. In this context, a retrospective evaluation of recent X-ray absorption studies is undertaken to assess its potential role in metalloproteomics. Metalloproteomics is the structural and functional characterization of metal-binding proteins. This is a new area of active research which has particular relevance to biology and for which X-ray absorption spectroscopy is ideally suited. In the last three years, biological X-ray absorption spectroscopy (BioXAS) has been included among the techniques used in post-genomics initiatives for metalloprotein characterization. The emphasis of this review is on the progress in BioXAS that has emerged from recent meetings in 2007-2008. Developments required to enable BioXAS studies to better contribute to metalloproteomics throughput are also discussed. Overall, this paper suggests that X-ray absorption spectroscopy could have a higher impact on metalloproteomics, contributing significantly to the understanding of metal site structures and of reaction mechanisms for metalloproteins. PMID:19395808

  11. Simultaneous surface plasmon resonance and x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Serrano, A.; Rodriguez de la Fuente, O.; Collado, V.; Rubio-Zuazo, J.; Castro, G. R.; Monton, C.; Garcia, M. A.

    2012-08-15

    We present an experimental setup for the simultaneous measurement of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) on metallic thin films at a synchrotron beamline. The system allows measuring in situ and in real time the effect of x-ray irradiation on the SPR curves to explore the interaction of x-rays with matter. It is also possible to record XAS spectra while exciting SPR in order to study changes in the films induced by the excitation of surface plasmons. Combined experiments recording simultaneously SPR and XAS curves while scanning different parameters can be also carried out. The relative variations in the SPR and XAS spectra that can be detected with this setup range from 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -5}, depending on the particular experiment.

  12. Simultaneous surface plasmon resonance and x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, A.; Rodríguez de la Fuente, O.; Collado, V.; Rubio-Zuazo, J.; Monton, C.; Castro, G. R.; García, M. A.

    2012-08-01

    We present an experimental setup for the simultaneous measurement of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) on metallic thin films at a synchrotron beamline. The system allows measuring in situ and in real time the effect of x-ray irradiation on the SPR curves to explore the interaction of x-rays with matter. It is also possible to record XAS spectra while exciting SPR in order to study changes in the films induced by the excitation of surface plasmons. Combined experiments recording simultaneously SPR and XAS curves while scanning different parameters can be also carried out. The relative variations in the SPR and XAS spectra that can be detected with this setup range from 10-3 to 10-5, depending on the particular experiment.

  13. Femtosecond x-ray absorption spectroscopy with hard x-ray free electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, Tetsuo; Togashi, Tadashi; Tono, Kensuke; Kameshima, Takashi; Inubushi, Yuichi; Sato, Takahiro; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Obara, Yuki; Misawa, Kazuhiko; Bhattacharya, Atanu; Kurahashi, Naoya; Ogi, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Toshinori

    2013-09-23

    We have developed a method of dispersive x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a hard x-ray free electron laser (XFEL), generated by a self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) mechanism. A transmission grating was utilized for splitting SASE-XFEL light, which has a relatively large bandwidth (ΔE/E ∼ 5 × 10{sup −3}), into several branches. Two primary split beams were introduced into a dispersive spectrometer for measuring signal and reference spectra simultaneously. After normalization, we obtained a Zn K-edge absorption spectrum with a photon-energy range of 210 eV, which is in excellent agreement with that measured by a conventional wavelength-scanning method. From the analysis of the difference spectra, the noise ratio was evaluated to be ∼3 × 10{sup −3}, which is sufficiently small to trace minute changes in transient spectra induced by an ultrafast optical laser. This scheme enables us to perform single-shot, high-accuracy x-ray absorption spectroscopy with femtosecond time resolution.

  14. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of liquid surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Iwao; Tanida, Hajime; Kawauchi, Sigehiro; Harada, Makoto; Nomura, Masaharu

    1997-09-01

    An apparatus has been constructed for x-ray absorption spectroscopy of elements at air/aqueous solution interface. Its surface sensitivity is gained from glancing incidence of synchrotron radiation under total reflection condition. The absorption is detected by total conversion He ion-yield method. This apparatus was operated at the beam line 7C of Photon Factory, where the incident photon beam comes from a sagittal focus double-crystal monochromator via a 70-cm-long bent mirror. The mirror focuses the beam vertically and changes the beam direction downward by 1 mrad to irradiate solution surface. The essential requirement of this technique, ripple-free liquid surface at accurate position, was attained by introducing a trough on a floating boat, continuous surface level monitoring, and an automatic Z-stage control. The x-ray absorption edge jump demonstrated that surface concentration of bromide ion follows the Langmuir type adsorption for tetraalkylammonuim bromide solution. By comparing the jump values for surface-active and -inactive bromide salt solutions, the detecting depth of the present technique was determined to be 8.8 nm. An extended x-ray absorption fine structure analysis of bromide ion segregated to the surface by stearyltrimethylammonium cation indicated that its solvation structure is different from that of bulk.

  15. X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Strontium(II) Coordination.

    PubMed

    Sahai; Carroll; Roberts; O'Day

    2000-02-15

    Sorption of dissolved strontium on kaolinite, amorphous silica, and goethite was studied as a function of pH, aqueous strontium concentration, the presence or absence of atmospheric CO(2) or dissolved phosphate, and aging over a 57-day period. Selected sorption samples ([Sr(aq)](i) approximately 0.5-1x10(-3) m) were examined with synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at low (13-23 K) and room temperatures to determine the local molecular coordination around strontium. Quantitative analyses of the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) of kaolinite, amorphous silica, and most goethite sorption samples showed a single first shell of 9-10 (+/-1) oxygen atoms around strontium at an average Sr-O bond-distance of 2.61 (+/-0.02) Å, indicating hydrated surface complexes. The EXAFS spectra were unchanged after reaction for up to 57 days. Likewise, in kaolinite sorption samples prepared in 100% nitrogen atmosphere, the presence of dissolved phosphate (0.5x10(-3) m) in addition to strontium did not change the local coordination around strontium. In two goethite sorption samples reacted in air at pH approximately 8.5, the EXAFS spectra (collected at low and room temperature) clearly showed that the local structure around strontium is that of strontianite (SrCO(3)(s)). We also noted an increase in strontium uptake on goethite in the presence of atmospheric CO(2) in batch experiments, relative to CO(2)-free experiments. These observations suggest that sorption of carbonate may nucleate the precipitation of SrCO(3) in the pH range in which carbonate sorption on goethite is near a maximum. At higher pH, carbonate surface sorption decreases as dissolved CO(2) decreases. For goethite sorption samples above pH 8.6, hydrated surface complexes, rather than a precipitate, were observed in the EXAFS spectra. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  16. Near Edge X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy with X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, D.P.; Acremann, Y.; Scherz, A.; Burkhardt, M.; Stohr, J.; Beye, M.; Schlotter, W.F.; Beeck, T.; Sorgenfrei, F.; Pietzsch, A.; Wurth, W.; Fohlisch, A.; /Hamburg U.

    2009-12-11

    We demonstrate the feasibility of Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy on solids by means of femtosecond soft x-ray pulses from a free-electron laser (FEL). Our experiments, carried out at the Free-Electron Laser at Hamburg (FLASH), used a special sample geometry, spectrographic energy dispersion, single shot position-sensitive detection and a data normalization procedure that eliminates the severe fluctuations of the incident intensity in space and photon energy. As an example we recorded the {sup 3}D{sub 1} N{sub 4,5}-edge absorption resonance of La{sup 3+}-ions in LaMnO{sub 3}. Our study opens the door for x-ray absorption measurements on future x-ray FEL facilities.

  17. Near Edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhez, Olivier; Ade, Harald; Urquhart, Stephen

    2001-03-01

    Synthetic and natural polymers exhibit a rich carbon, nitrogen and oxygen K-edge Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS). The spectroscopic variations with chemical structure and composition are interesting in their own right. In addition, the large spectroscopic variability can be utilized for the compositional analysis of materials. This is particularly useful for high spatial resolution NEXAFS microanalysis at lateral spatial resolutions exceeding that achievable with more traditional compositional analysis tools such as Infrared and NMR spectroscopy. To increase our understanding of NEXAFS spectra and to start a database for microanalysis, we acquired carbon NEXAFS spectra of the following polymers: polycarbonate, poly(oxybenzoate-co-2,6oxynaphthoate), poly (p-phenylene terephtalamide), toluene diisocyanate polyurethane, toluene diisocyanate polyurea, 4,4'-methylene di-p-phenylene isocyanate polyurethane, 4,4'-methylene di-p-phenylene isocyanate polyurea, poly(ether ether ketone), poly(alpha-methylstyrene), poly-styrene, poly bromostyrene, poly(2-vinyl styrene), polyethylene, poly(ethylene oxide), polypropylene, poly(propylene oxide), polyisobutylene, ethylene propylene rubber, poly(methyl -metacrylate). These spectra were obtained in transmission with an energy resolution of 150 meV. The energy scale was carefully calibrated in-situ utilizing C02 gas as a reference. Spectral assignments are made based on model compounds and theoretical calculations.

  18. A laboratory-based hard x-ray monochromator for high-resolution x-ray emission spectroscopy and x-ray absorption near edge structure measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Seidler, G. T. Mortensen, D. R.; Remesnik, A. J.; Pacold, J. I.; Ball, N. A.; Barry, N.; Styczinski, M.; Hoidn, O. R.

    2014-11-15

    We report the development of a laboratory-based Rowland-circle monochromator that incorporates a low power x-ray (bremsstrahlung) tube source, a spherically bent crystal analyzer, and an energy-resolving solid-state detector. This relatively inexpensive, introductory level instrument achieves 1-eV energy resolution for photon energies of ∼5 keV to ∼10 keV while also demonstrating a net efficiency previously seen only in laboratory monochromators having much coarser energy resolution. Despite the use of only a compact, air-cooled 10 W x-ray tube, we find count rates for nonresonant x-ray emission spectroscopy comparable to those achieved at monochromatized spectroscopy beamlines at synchrotron light sources. For x-ray absorption near edge structure, the monochromatized flux is small (due to the use of a low-powered x-ray generator) but still useful for routine transmission-mode studies of concentrated samples. These results indicate that upgrading to a standard commercial high-power line-focused x-ray tube or rotating anode x-ray generator would result in monochromatized fluxes of order 10{sup 6}–10{sup 7} photons/s with no loss in energy resolution. This work establishes core technical capabilities for a rejuvenation of laboratory-based hard x-ray spectroscopies that could have special relevance for contemporary research on catalytic or electrical energy storage systems using transition-metal, lanthanide, or noble-metal active species.

  19. A laboratory-based hard x-ray monochromator for high-resolution x-ray emission spectroscopy and x-ray absorption near edge structure measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidler, G. T.; Mortensen, D. R.; Remesnik, A. J.; Pacold, J. I.; Ball, N. A.; Barry, N.; Styczinski, M.; Hoidn, O. R.

    2014-11-01

    We report the development of a laboratory-based Rowland-circle monochromator that incorporates a low power x-ray (bremsstrahlung) tube source, a spherically bent crystal analyzer, and an energy-resolving solid-state detector. This relatively inexpensive, introductory level instrument achieves 1-eV energy resolution for photon energies of ˜5 keV to ˜10 keV while also demonstrating a net efficiency previously seen only in laboratory monochromators having much coarser energy resolution. Despite the use of only a compact, air-cooled 10 W x-ray tube, we find count rates for nonresonant x-ray emission spectroscopy comparable to those achieved at monochromatized spectroscopy beamlines at synchrotron light sources. For x-ray absorption near edge structure, the monochromatized flux is small (due to the use of a low-powered x-ray generator) but still useful for routine transmission-mode studies of concentrated samples. These results indicate that upgrading to a standard commercial high-power line-focused x-ray tube or rotating anode x-ray generator would result in monochromatized fluxes of order 106-107 photons/s with no loss in energy resolution. This work establishes core technical capabilities for a rejuvenation of laboratory-based hard x-ray spectroscopies that could have special relevance for contemporary research on catalytic or electrical energy storage systems using transition-metal, lanthanide, or noble-metal active species.

  20. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of chicken sulfite oxidase crystals

    SciTech Connect

    George, G.N.; Pickering, I.J.; Kisker, C.

    1999-05-17

    Sulfite oxidase catalyzes the physiologically vital oxidation of sulfite to sulfate. Recently, the crystal structure of chicken sulfite oxidase has been reported at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution. In contrast to the information available from previous X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies, the active site indicated by crystallography was a mono-oxo species. Because of this the possibility that the crystals did in fact contain a reduced molybdenum species was considered in the crystallographic work. The authors report herein an X-ray absorption spectroscopic study of polycrystalline sulfite oxidase prepared in the same manner as the previous single-crystal samples, and compare this with data for frozen solutions of oxidized and reduced enzyme.

  1. Examination of the local structure in composite and lowdimensional semiconductor by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lawniczak-Jablonska, K.; Demchenko, I.N.; Piskorska, E.; Wolska,A.; Talik, E.; Zakharov, D.N.; Liliental-Weber, Z.

    2006-09-25

    X-ray absorption methods have been successfully used to obtain quantitative information about local atomic composition of two different materials. X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure analysis and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy allowed us to determine seven chemical compounds and their concentrations in c-BN composite. Use of Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure in combination with Transmission Electron Microscopy enabled us to determine the composition and size of buried Ge quantum dots. It was found that the quantum dots consisted out of pure Ge core covered by 1-2 monolayers of a layer rich in Si.

  2. Metalloprotein active site structure determination: synergy between X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography.

    PubMed

    Cotelesage, Julien J H; Pushie, M Jake; Grochulski, Pawel; Pickering, Ingrid J; George, Graham N

    2012-10-01

    Structures of metalloprotein active sites derived from X-ray crystallography frequently contain chemical anomalies such as unexpected atomic geometries or elongated bond-lengths. Such anomalies are expected from the known errors inherent in macromolecular crystallography (ca. 0.1-0.2Å) and from the lack of appropriate restraints for metal sites which are often without precedent in the small molecule structure literature. Here we review the potential of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to provide information and perspective which could aid in improving the accuracy of metalloprotein crystal structure solutions. We also review the potential problem areas in analysis of the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and discuss the use of density functional theory as another possible source of geometrical restraints for crystal structure analysis of metalloprotein active sites.

  3. Properties of Liquid Silicon Observed by Time-Resolved X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, S. L.; Heimann, P. A.; Lindenberg, A. M.; Jeschke, H. O.; Garcia, M. E.; Chang, Z.; Lee, R. W.; Rehr, J. J.; Falcone, R. W.

    2003-10-01

    Time-resolved x-ray spectroscopy at the Si L edges is used to probe the electronic structure of an amorphous Si foil as it melts following absorption of an ultrafast laser pulse. Picosecond temporal resolution allows observation of the transient liquid phase before vaporization and before the liquid breaks up into droplets. The melting causes changes in the spectrum that match predictions of molecular dynamics and ab initio x-ray absorption codes.

  4. Diamond solid state ionization chambers for x-ray absorption spectroscopy applications

    SciTech Connect

    De Sio, A.; Bocci, A.; Pace, E.; Castellano, C.; Cinque, G.; Tartoni, N.; D'Acapito, F.

    2008-08-25

    The photoresponse of a diamond detector has been compared with a standard ionization chamber in x-ray absorption spectroscopy applications. A photoconductive device based on a nitrogen-doped single crystal diamond has been tested by synchrotron radiation. Time stability and linearity have been studied by x rays at 10 keV to assess its performances. Finally, extended x-ray absorption fine structure at the Fe K-edge was carried on a standard iron target using both the diamond device and the IC. Spectroscopical results have been compared including references to literature.

  5. Double conical crystal x-ray spectrometer for high resolution ultrafast x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy of Al K edge

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, A.; Dorchies, F.; Fourment, C.; Harmand, M.; Hulin, S.; Santos, J. J.; Descamps, D.; Petit, S.; Bouillaud, R.

    2010-06-15

    An x-ray spectrometer devoted to dynamical studies of transient systems using the x-ray absorption fine spectroscopy technique is presented in this article. Using an ultrafast laser-induced x-ray source, this optical device based on a set of two potassium acid phthalate conical crystals allows the extraction of x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy structures following the Al absorption K edge. The proposed experimental protocol leads to a measurement of the absorption spectra free from any crystal reflectivity defaults and shot-to-shot x-ray spectral fluctuation. According to the detailed analysis of the experimental results, a spectral resolution of 0.7 eV rms and relative fluctuation lower than 1% rms are achieved, demonstrated to be limited by the statistics of photon counting on the x-ray detector.

  6. Femtosecond X-ray magnetic circular dichroism absorption spectroscopy at an X-ray free electron laser.

    PubMed

    Higley, Daniel J; Hirsch, Konstantin; Dakovski, Georgi L; Jal, Emmanuelle; Yuan, Edwin; Liu, Tianmin; Lutman, Alberto A; MacArthur, James P; Arenholz, Elke; Chen, Zhao; Coslovich, Giacomo; Denes, Peter; Granitzka, Patrick W; Hart, Philip; Hoffmann, Matthias C; Joseph, John; Le Guyader, Loïc; Mitra, Ankush; Moeller, Stefan; Ohldag, Hendrik; Seaberg, Matthew; Shafer, Padraic; Stöhr, Joachim; Tsukamoto, Arata; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; Reid, Alex H; Dürr, Hermann A; Schlotter, William F

    2016-03-01

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy using an X-ray free electron laser is demonstrated with spectra over the Fe L(3,2)-edges. The high brightness of the X-ray free electron laser combined with high accuracy detection of incident and transmitted X-rays enables ultrafast X-ray magnetic circular dichroism studies of unprecedented sensitivity. This new capability is applied to a study of all-optical magnetic switching dynamics of Fe and Gd magnetic sublattices in a GdFeCo thin film above its magnetization compensation temperature. PMID:27036761

  7. Ultra-soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy: A bulk and surface probe of materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.A. ); Mitchell, G.E.; Dekoven, B.M. ); Yeh, A.T.; Gland, J.L. ); Moodenbaugh, A.R. )

    1993-01-01

    Direct comparisons between surface and bulk of diverse materials can be made by simultaneous electron yield (5 nm depth sensitivity) and fluorescence yield (200 nm) ultra soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements utilizing a rapid sample interchange apparatus. For example the orientations of functional groups have been characterized at and near the surface of a series of model polymeric materials highlighting the chemical and molecular sensitivity of ultra soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy. In addition we discuss a bulk sensitive use of fluorescence yield to non destructively study a buried metal polymer interface. A second bulk sensitive example is the use of fluorescence yield oxygen K near edge x-ray spectroscopy as a method to determine the hole state density of high Tc materials.

  8. Ultra-soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy: A bulk and surface probe of materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.A.; Mitchell, G.E.; Dekoven, B.M.; Yeh, A.T.; Gland, J.L.; Moodenbaugh, A.R.

    1993-06-01

    Direct comparisons between surface and bulk of diverse materials can be made by simultaneous electron yield (5 nm depth sensitivity) and fluorescence yield (200 nm) ultra soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements utilizing a rapid sample interchange apparatus. For example the orientations of functional groups have been characterized at and near the surface of a series of model polymeric materials highlighting the chemical and molecular sensitivity of ultra soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy. In addition we discuss a bulk sensitive use of fluorescence yield to non destructively study a buried metal polymer interface. A second bulk sensitive example is the use of fluorescence yield oxygen K near edge x-ray spectroscopy as a method to determine the hole state density of high Tc materials.

  9. Application of x-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of corrosion and inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Davenport, A.J.; Isaacs, H.S.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy is a powerful technique for determination of valency and coordination. Measurements can be made in air or in situ under electrochemical control. The technique will be described and its application to the analysis of passive oxide films, corrosion products, and inhibitors will be reviewed.

  10. A new endstation at the Swiss Light Source for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements of liquid solutions.

    PubMed

    Brown, Matthew A; Redondo, Amaia Beloqui; Jordan, Inga; Duyckaerts, Nicolas; Lee, Ming-Tao; Ammann, Markus; Nolting, Frithjof; Kleibert, Armin; Huthwelker, Thomas; Müächler, Jean-Pierre; Birrer, Mario; Honegger, Juri; Wetter, Reto; Wörner, Hans Jakob; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A

    2013-07-01

    A new liquid microjet endstation designed for ultraviolet (UPS) and X-ray (XPS) photoelectron, and partial electron yield X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopies at the Swiss Light Source is presented. The new endstation, which is based on a Scienta HiPP-2 R4000 electron spectrometer, is the first liquid microjet endstation capable of operating in vacuum and in ambient pressures up to the equilibrium vapor pressure of liquid water at room temperature. In addition, the Scienta HiPP-2 R4000 energy analyzer of this new endstation allows for XPS measurements up to 7000 eV electron kinetic energy that will enable electronic structure measurements of bulk solutions and buried interfaces from liquid microjet samples. The endstation is designed to operate at the soft X-ray SIM beamline and at the tender X-ray Phoenix beamline. The endstation can also be operated using a Scienta 5 K ultraviolet helium lamp for dedicated UPS measurements at the vapor-liquid interface using either He I or He II α lines. The design concept, first results from UPS, soft X-ray XPS, and partial electron yield XAS measurements, and an outlook to the potential of this endstation are presented. PMID:23902081

  11. A new endstation at the Swiss Light Source for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements of liquid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Matthew A.; Redondo, Amaia Beloqui; Duyckaerts, Nicolas; Mächler, Jean-Pierre; Jordan, Inga; Wörner, Hans Jakob; Lee, Ming-Tao; Ammann, Markus; Nolting, Frithjof; Kleibert, Armin; Huthwelker, Thomas; Birrer, Mario; Honegger, Juri; Wetter, Reto; Bokhoven, Jeroen A. van

    2013-07-15

    A new liquid microjet endstation designed for ultraviolet (UPS) and X-ray (XPS) photoelectron, and partial electron yield X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopies at the Swiss Light Source is presented. The new endstation, which is based on a Scienta HiPP-2 R4000 electron spectrometer, is the first liquid microjet endstation capable of operating in vacuum and in ambient pressures up to the equilibrium vapor pressure of liquid water at room temperature. In addition, the Scienta HiPP-2 R4000 energy analyzer of this new endstation allows for XPS measurements up to 7000 eV electron kinetic energy that will enable electronic structure measurements of bulk solutions and buried interfaces from liquid microjet samples. The endstation is designed to operate at the soft X-ray SIM beamline and at the tender X-ray Phoenix beamline. The endstation can also be operated using a Scienta 5 K ultraviolet helium lamp for dedicated UPS measurements at the vapor-liquid interface using either He I or He II α lines. The design concept, first results from UPS, soft X-ray XPS, and partial electron yield XAS measurements, and an outlook to the potential of this endstation are presented.

  12. An x-ray absorption spectroscopy study of Mo oxidation in Pb at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Shanshan; Olive, Daniel; Terry, Jeff; Segre, Carlo U.

    2009-06-30

    The corrosion of fuel cladding and structural materials by lead and lead-bismuth eutectic in the liquid state at elevated temperatures is an issue that must be considered when designing advanced nuclear systems and high-power spallation neutron targets. In this work, lead corrosion studies of molybdenum were performed to investigate the interaction layer as a function of temperature by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. In situ X-ray absorption measurements on a Mo substrate with a 3-6 {micro}m layer of Pb deposited by thermal evaporation were performed at temperatures up to 900 C and at a 15{sup o} angle to the incident X-rays. The changes in the local atomic structure of the corrosion layer are visible in the difference extended X-ray absorption fine structure and the linear combination fitting of the X-ray absorption near-edge structure to as-deposited molybdenum sample and molybdenum oxide (MoO{sub 2} and MoO{sub 3}) standards. The data are consistent with the appearance of MoO{sub 3} in an intermediate temperature range (650-800 C) and the more stable MoO{sub 2} phase dominating at high and low temperatures.

  13. X-RAY ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY OF YB3+-DOPED OPTICAL FIBERS

    SciTech Connect

    Citron, Robert; Kropf, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Optical fibers doped with Ytterbium-3+ have become increasingly common in fiber lasers and amplifiers. Yb-doped fibers provide the capability to produce high power and short pulses at specific wavelengths, resulting in highly effective gain media. However, little is known about the local structure, distribution, and chemical coordination of Yb3+ in the fibers. This information is necessary to improve the manufacturing process and optical qualities of the fibers. Five fibers doped with Yb3+ were studied using Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES), in addition to Yb3+ mapping. The Yb3+ distribution in each fiber core was mapped with 2D and 1D intensity scans, which measured X-ray fluorescence over the scan areas. Two of the five fibers examined showed highly irregular Yb3+ distributions in the core center. In four of the five fibers Yb3+ was detected outside of the given fiber core dimensions, suggesting possible Yb3+ diffusion from the core, manufacturing error, or both. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) analysis has so far proven inconclusive, but did show that the fibers had differing EXAFS spectra. The Yb3+ distribution mapping proved highly useful, but additional modeling and examination of fiber preforms must be conducted to improve XAS analysis, which has been shown to have great potential for the study of similar optical fi bers.

  14. X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study of Copper Doped ZnO Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Qing

    2007-02-02

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy technique is used to study copper-doped ZnO thin films, prepared by pulsed-laser deposition. The samples with various doping levels are examined. It is found that the samples contain metallic clusters with the sizes {<=} 2 nm as well as Cu1+ and Cu2+ states. The Cu1+ states exist as stable oxide clusters, while the Cu2+ ones participate in the ZnO lattice some of which may be pertaining to the surfaces of the Cu clusters as well. The copper clusters of {approx}1 nm are unstable and fragment under monochromatic x-ray beam illumination.

  15. Thermal Expansion Behaviour of Silver Examined by Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dubiel, M.; Chasse, A.; Haug, J.; Schneider, R.; Kruth, H.

    2007-02-02

    EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure) investigations are reported concerning the thermal expansion behaviour of silver in an extended range of temperature from 10 K to about 950 K measured in transmission mode. Both the ratio method and an EXAFS fitting procedure were applied to reveal the temperature dependence of EXAFS parameters. Models based on quantum and classical thermodynamic perturbation theory have been used to interpret experimental data and compared to XRD (X-ray diffraction) results of bulk silver material. The description of thermodynamic data of thermal expansion of silver in the complete range of temperature by EXAFS Spectroscopy was successful by first calculations using third order quantum perturbation theory.

  16. Soft X-ray induced damage in PVA-based membranes in water environment monitored by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzvetkov, George; Späth, Andreas; Fink, Rainer H.

    2014-10-01

    The effect of synchrotron X-ray flux in a soft X-ray scanning-transmission microspectroscope (STXM) instrument on the chemical structure of air-filled poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) based microbubbles and their stabilizing shell has been examined. Prolonged soft X-ray illumination of the particles in aqueous suspension leads to the breaking of the microbubbles' protective polymer shell and substantial chemical changes. The latter were clarified via a micro-spot C K-edge near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy with further respect to the absorbed X-ray doses. Our results revealed a continuous degradation of the PVA network associated with formation of carbonyl- and carboxyl-containing species as well as an increased content of unsaturated bonds. The observed effects must be taken into account in studies of micro- and nanostructured polymer materials utilizing X-rays.

  17. X-ray absorption spectroscopy on the basis of hybrid X-pinch radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tilikin, I. N. Shelkovenko, T. A.; Pikuz, S. A.; Knapp, P. F.; Hammer, D. A.

    2015-07-15

    Results of experiments on X-ray absorption spectroscopy carried out at the BIN (270 kA, 100 ns) and XP (450 kA, 45 ns) facilities are presented. Continuum radiation of a Mo hybrid X-pinch was used as probing radiation, against which absorption lines of the plasma of exploded Al wires placed in the return current circuit of a hybrid X-pinch, as well as in a two- and four-wire array, were observed. The experiments have demonstrated that the radiation of a hybrid X-pinch hot spot can be used as probing radiation for X-ray absorption spectroscopy and that, in many parameters, such a source surpasses those on the basis of laser-produced plasma. The plasma parameters in arrays made of two and four Al wires were studied experimentally.

  18. Surface relaxation in liquid water and methanol studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Kevin R.; Schaller, R. D.; Co, D. T.; Saykally, R. J.; Rude, Bruce S.; Catalano, T.; Bozek, J. D.

    2002-10-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy is a powerful probe of local electronic structure in disordered media. By employing extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy of liquid microjets, the intermolecular O-O distance has been observed to undergo a 5.9% expansion at the liquid water interface, in contrast to liquid methanol for which there is a 4.6% surface contraction. Despite the similar properties of liquid water and methanol (e.g., abnormal heats of vaporization, boiling points, dipole moments, etc.), this result implies dramatic differences in the surface hydrogen bond structure, which is evidenced by the difference in surface tension of these liquids. This result is consistent with surface vibrational spectroscopy, which indicates both stronger hydrogen bonding and polar ordering at the methanol surface as a consequence of "hydrophobic packing" of the methyl group.

  19. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of CaSO 4:Dy thermoluminescent phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakshi, A. K.; Jha, S. N.; Olivi, L.; Phase, D. M.; Kher, R. K.; Bhattacharyya, D.

    2007-11-01

    Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements have been carried out on CaSO4:Dy phosphor samples at the Dy L3 edge with synchrotron radiation. Measurements were carried out on a set of samples which were subjected to post-preparation annealing at different temperatures and for different cycles. The EXAFS data have been analysed to find the Dy-S and Dy-O bond lengths in the neighbourhood of the Dy atoms in a CaSO4 matrix. The observations from EXAFS measurements were verified with XANES and XPS techniques. On the basis of these measurements, efforts were made to explain the loss of thermoluminescence sensitivity of CaSO4:Dy phosphors after repeated cycles of annealing at 400 °C in air for 1 h.

  20. Excited state X-ray absorption spectroscopy: Probing both electronic and structural dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neville, Simon P.; Averbukh, Vitali; Ruberti, Marco; Yun, Renjie; Patchkovskii, Serguei; Chergui, Majed; Stolow, Albert; Schuurman, Michael S.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of X-ray absorption spectra, simulated using a general method, to properties of molecular excited states. Recently, Averbukh and co-workers [M. Ruberti et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 184107 (2014)] introduced an efficient and accurate L 2 method for the calculation of excited state valence photoionization cross-sections based on the application of Stieltjes imaging to the Lanczos pseudo-spectrum of the algebraic diagrammatic construction (ADC) representation of the electronic Hamiltonian. In this paper, we report an extension of this method to the calculation of excited state core photoionization cross-sections. We demonstrate that, at the ADC(2)x level of theory, ground state X-ray absorption spectra may be accurately reproduced, validating the method. Significantly, the calculated X-ray absorption spectra of the excited states are found to be sensitive to both geometric distortions (structural dynamics) and the electronic character (electronic dynamics) of the initial state, suggesting that core excitation spectroscopies will be useful probes of excited state non-adiabatic dynamics. We anticipate that the method presented here can be combined with ab initio molecular dynamics calculations to simulate the time-resolved X-ray spectroscopy of excited state molecular wavepacket dynamics.

  1. Use of X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the search for the best LIGO mirror coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, Stephen C.

    2008-03-01

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) seeks to improve its sensitivity for gravity-wave detection by a factor of ten during its next phase of operation, Advanced LIGO. In order to achieve this goal it is necessary to design and fabricate test mass mirrors that help minimize the noise in the interferometers and in doing so maximize gravity-wave detection capability. In this talk we will present recent results from our program of X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements to obtain detailed chemical composition and structure of titania (TiO2)-doped tantala (Ta2O5) multilayers fabricated via ion beam sputtering on SiO2 substrates. Our investigations focus on how the microscopic features of the coatings influence their macroscopic mechanical loss properties. Our goal is to obtain correlations between chemical impurities and/or dopants and the optical absorption and mechanical loss characteristics of these multilayer coatings. To examine our samples we use synchrotron-based X-ray absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) techniques including Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS), X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). We present chemical and structural data obtained at the titanium K-edge and tantalum LIII-edge as well as relative elemental distribution information (Ti/Ta, Fe/Ta, and Cr/Ta) obtained via XRF. Following a brief description of the LIGO experiment, our program of research in optical materials for use in advanced versions of the interferometer will be described.

  2. Gas cell for in situ soft X-ray transmission-absorption spectroscopy of materials

    SciTech Connect

    Drisdell, W. S.; Kortright, J. B.

    2014-07-15

    A simple gas cell design, constructed primarily from commercially available components, enables in situ soft X-ray transmission-absorption spectroscopy of materials in contact with gas at ambient temperature. The cell has a minimum X-ray path length of 1 mm and can hold gas pressures up to ∼300 Torr, and could support higher pressures with simple modifications. The design enables cycling between vacuum and gas environments without interrupting the X-ray beam, and can be fully sealed to allow for measurements of air-sensitive samples. The cell can attach to the downstream port of any appropriate synchrotron beamline, and offers a robust and versatile method for in situ measurements of certain materials. The construction and operation of the cell are discussed, as well as sample preparation and proper spectral analysis, illustrated by examples of spectral measurements. Potential areas for improvement and modification for specialized applications are also mentioned.

  3. Redox Chemisty of Tantalum Clusters on Silica Characterized by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Nemana,S.; Gates, B.

    2006-01-01

    SiO{sub 2}-supported clusters of tantalum were synthesized from adsorbed Ta(CH{sub 2}Ph){sub 5} by treatment in H{sub 2} at 523 K. The surface species were characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES)) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The EXAFS data show that SiOO{sub 2}-supported tantalum clusters were characterized by a Ta-Ta coordination number of approximately 2, consistent with the presence of tritantalum clusters, on average. When these were reduced in H{sub 2} and reoxidized in O{sub 2}, the cluster nuclearity remained essentially unchanged, although reduction and oxidation occurred, respectively, as shown by XANES and UV-vis spectra; in the reoxidation, the tantalum oxidation state change was approximately two electronic charges per tritantalum cluster. The data demonstrate an analogy between the chemistry of group 5 metals on the SiO{sub 2} support and their chemistry in solution, as determined by the group of Cotton.

  4. Electrochemical flowcell for in-situ investigations by soft x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Schwanke, C.; Lange, K. M.; Golnak, R.; Xiao, J.

    2014-10-15

    A new liquid flow-cell designed for electronic structure investigations at the liquid-solid interface by soft X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy is presented. A thin membrane serves simultaneously as a substrate for the working electrode and solid state samples as well as for separating the liquid from the surrounding vacuum conditions. In combination with counter and reference electrodes this approach allows in-situ studies of electrochemical deposition processes and catalytic reactions at the liquid-solid interface in combination with potentiostatic measurements. As model system in-situ monitoring of the deposition process of Co metal from a 10 mM CoCl{sub 2} aqueous solution by X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy is presented.

  5. Atomic structure of machined semiconducting chips: An x-ray absorption spectroscopy study

    SciTech Connect

    Paesler, M.; Sayers, D.

    1988-12-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used to examine the atomic structure of chips of germanium that were produced by single point diamond machining. It is demonstrated that although the local (nearest neighbor) atomic structure is experimentally quite similar to that of single crystal specimens information from more distant atoms indicates the presence of considerable stress. An outline of the technique is given and the strength of XAS in studying the machining process is demonstrated.

  6. X-ray absorption spectroscopy beyond the core-hole lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    Haemaelaeinen, K.; Hastings, J.B.; Siddons, D.P.; Berman, L.

    1992-10-01

    A new technique to overcome the core-hole lifetime broadening in x-ray absorption spectroscopy is presented. It utilizes a high resolution fluorescence spectrometer which can be used to analyze the fluorescence photon energy with better resolution than the natural lifetime width. Furthermore, the high resolution spectrometer can also be used to select the final state in the fluorescence process which can offer spin selectivity even without long range magnetic order in the sample.

  7. X-ray absorption spectroscopy beyond the core-hole lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    Haemaelaeinen, K.; Hastings, J.B.; Siddons, D.P.; Berman, L.

    1992-01-01

    A new technique to overcome the core-hole lifetime broadening in x-ray absorption spectroscopy is presented. It utilizes a high resolution fluorescence spectrometer which can be used to analyze the fluorescence photon energy with better resolution than the natural lifetime width. Furthermore, the high resolution spectrometer can also be used to select the final state in the fluorescence process which can offer spin selectivity even without long range magnetic order in the sample.

  8. Note: Application of a pixel-array area detector to simultaneous single crystal x-ray diffraction and x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Cheng-Jun Brewe, Dale L.; Heald, Steve M.; Zhang, Bangmin; Chen, Jing-Sheng; Chow, G. M.; Venkatesan, T.

    2014-04-15

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) are two main x-ray techniques in synchrotron radiation facilities. In this Note, we present an experimental setup capable of performing simultaneous XRD and XAS measurements by the application of a pixel-array area detector. For XRD, the momentum transfer in specular diffraction was measured by scanning the X-ray energy with fixed incoming and outgoing x-ray angles. By selecting a small fixed region of the detector to collect the XRD signal, the rest of the area was available for collecting the x-ray fluorescence for XAS measurements. The simultaneous measurement of XRD and X-ray absorption near edge structure for Pr{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} film was demonstrated as a proof of principle for future time-resolved pump-probe measurements. A static sample makes it easy to maintain an accurate overlap of the X-ray spot and laser pump beam.

  9. A X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study of Manganese Containing Compounds and Photosynthetic Spinach Chloroplasts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Jon Allan

    The manganese sites in chloroplasts, long thought to be involved in photosynthetic oxygen evolution have been examined and partially characterized by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) using synchrotron radiation. The local environment about the manganese atoms is estimated from an analysis of the extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS). Comparisons with and simulations of the manganese EXAFS for several reference compounds leads to a model in which the chloroplast manganese atoms are contained in a binuclear complex similar to di-u-oxo -tetrakis-(2,2'-bipyridine) dimanganese. It is suggested that the partner metal is another manganese. The bridging ligands are most probably oxygen. The remaining manganese ligands are carbon, oxygen, or nitrogen. A roughly linear correlation between the X-ray K edge onset energy and the "coordination charge" of a large number of manganese coordination complexes and compounds has been developed. Entry of the chloroplast manganese edge energy onto this correlation diagram establishes that the active pool of manganese is in an oxidation state greater than +2. If the manganese is in a dimeric form the oxidation states are most probably (II,III). Underlying these results is an extensive data analysis methodology. The method developed involves the use of many different background removal techniques, Fourier transforms and ultimately curve fitting to the modulations in the x-ray absorption cross sections. A large number of model compounds were used to evaluate the analysis method. These analyses are used to show that the two major curve fitting models available are essentially equivalent. Due to its greater versatility, the theoretical model of Teo and Lee is preferred (J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1979), 101, 2815). The results are also used to determine the informational limitations of XAS within the limits of the present understanding of X-ray absorption phenomena by inner shell electrons for atoms with atomic number greater than that

  10. Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray Spectroscopy for Investigations of Intracellular Metallointercalators: X-Ray Fluorescence Imaging and X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, Carolyn T.

    In an effort to determine the therapeutic feasibility of DNA metallointercalators as potential anticancer drugs it is important to confirm that they are capable of targeting DNA in cancer cells or tumours - as is the intended purpose of their design. Microprobe synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (micro-SRXRF) spectroscopy is an ideal technique for investigating the cellular uptake and distribution of metallointercalators. The technique is capable of submicron elemental imaging so that samples as small as individual cells (~10 μm diameter), and the features within them, can be resolved. Consequently, the technique can ascertain whether intracellular metallointercalators colocalise with DNA; namely, in the nucleus during interphase or at the chromosomes during middle prophase to late anaphase. Metals, such as those commonly incorporated into metallointercalators (e.g., Cr, Ni, Co, Pd, Pt, Ru, Rh), are often naturally present in negligible quantities in cancer cells. This fact, together with their higher atomic number, Z, makes them ideal for direct probing using hard X-ray microprobes (as discussed in Sect. 11.2). There is no need for the incorporation of fluorescent tracker dyes or radioactive labels into their chemical structure. This is advantageous since it is unknown whether such chemical modifications alter the uptake kinetics of the metallointercalator [1, 2].

  11. Surface arsenic speciation of a drinking-water treatment residual using X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Makris, Konstantinos C; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Parsons, Jason G; Datta, Rupali; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2007-07-15

    Drinking-water treatment residuals (WTRs) present a low-cost geosorbent for As-contaminated waters and soils. Previous work has demonstrated the high affinity of WTRs for As, but data pertaining to the stability of sorbed As is missing. Sorption/desorption and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), both XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) and EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure) studies, were combined to determine the stability of As sorbed by an Fe-based WTR. Arsenic(V) and As(III) sorption kinetics were biphasic in nature, sorbing >90% of the initial added As (15,000 mg kg(-1)) after 48 h of reaction. Subsequent desorption experiments with a high P load (7500 mg kg(-1)) showed negligible As desorption for both As species, approximately <3.5% of sorbed As; the small amount of desorbed As was attributed to the abundance of sorption sites. XANES data showed that sorption kinetics for either As(III) or As(V) initially added to solution had no effect on the sorbed As oxidation state. EXAFS spectroscopy suggested that As added either as As(III) or as As(V) formed inner-sphere mononuclear, bidentate complexes, suggesting the stability of the sorbed As, which was further corroborated by the minimum As desorption from the Fe-WTR.

  12. Surface Arsenic Speciation of a Drinking-Water Treatment Residual Using X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Makris, K.C.; Sarkar, D.; Parsons, J.G.; Datta, R.; Gardea-Torresdey, J.L.

    2009-06-03

    Drinking-water treatment residuals (WTRs) present a low-cost geosorbent for As-contaminated waters and soils. Previous work has demonstrated the high affinity of WTRs for As, but data pertaining to the stability of sorbed As is missing. Sorption/desorption and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), both XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) and EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure) studies, were combined to determine the stability of As sorbed by an Fe-based WTR. Arsenic(V) and As(III) sorption kinetics were biphasic in nature, sorbing <90% of the initial added As (15,000 mg kg{sup -1}) after 48 h of reaction. Subsequent desorption experiments with a high P load (7500 mg kg{sup -1}) showed negligible As desorption for both As species, approximately <3.5% of sorbed As; the small amount of desorbed As was attributed to the abundance of sorption sites. XANES data showed that sorption kinetics for either As(III) or As(V) initially added to solution had no effect on the sorbed As oxidation state. EXAFS spectroscopy suggested that As added either as As(III) or as As(V) formed inner-sphere mononuclear, bidentate complexes, suggesting the stability of the sorbed As, which was further corroborated by the minimum As desorption from the Fe-WTR.

  13. Picosecond time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy of ultrafast aluminum plasmas.

    PubMed

    Audebert, P; Renaudin, P; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S; Geindre, J-P; Chenais-Popovics, C; Tzortzakis, S; Nagels-Silvert, V; Shepherd, R; Matsushima, I; Gary, S; Girard, F; Peyrusse, O; Gauthier, J-C

    2005-01-21

    We have used point-projection K-shell absorption spectroscopy to infer the ionization and recombination dynamics of transient aluminum plasmas. Two femtosecond beams of the 100 TW laser at the LULI facility were used to produce an aluminum plasma on a thin aluminum foil (83 or 50 nm), and a picosecond x-ray backlighter source. The short-pulse backlighter probed the aluminum plasma at different times by adjusting the delay between the two femtosecond driving beams. Absorption x-ray spectra at early times are characteristic of a dense and rather homogeneous plasma. Collisional-radiative atomic physics coupled with hydrodynamic simulations reproduce fairly well the measured average ionization as a function of time. PMID:15698184

  14. X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy Of Thin Foils Irradiated By An Ultra-short Laser Pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaudin, P.; Lecherbourg, L.; Blancard, C.; Cossé, P.; Faussurier, G.; Audebert, P.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Geindre, J.-P.; Shepherd, R.

    2007-08-01

    Point-projection K-shell absorption spectroscopy has been used to measure absorption spectra of transient plasma created by an ultra-short laser pulse. The 1s-2p and 1s-3p absorption lines of weakly ionized aluminum and the 2p-3d absorption lines of bromine were measured over an extended range of densities in a low-temperature regime. Independent plasma characterization was obtained using frequency domain interferometry diagnostic (FDI) that allows the interpretation of the absorption spectra in terms of spectral opacities. Assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium, spectral opacity calculations have been performed using the density and temperature inferred from the FDI diagnostic to compare to the measured absorption spectra. A good agreement is obtained when non-equilibrium effects due to non-stationary atomic physics are negligible at the x-ray probe time.

  15. Inside and Outside: X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Mapping of Chemical Domains in Graphene Oxide.

    PubMed

    De Jesus, Luis R; Dennis, Robert V; Depner, Sean W; Jaye, Cherno; Fischer, Daniel A; Banerjee, Sarbajit

    2013-09-19

    The oxidative chemistry of graphite has been investigated for over 150 years and has attracted renewed interest given the importance of exfoliated graphene oxide as a precursor to chemically derived graphene. However, the bond connectivities, steric orientations, and spatial distribution of functional groups remain to be unequivocally determined for this highly inhomogeneous nonstoichiometric material. Here, we demonstrate the application of principal component analysis to scanning transmission X-ray microscopy data for the construction of detailed real space chemical maps of graphene oxide. These chemical maps indicate very distinct functionalization motifs at the edges and interiors and, in conjunction with angle-resolved near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, enable determination of the spatial location and orientations of functional groups. Chemical imaging of graphene oxide provides experimental validation of the modified Lerf-Klinowski structural model. Specifically, we note increased contributions from carboxylic acid moieties at edge sites with epoxide and hydroxyl species dominant within the interior domains.

  16. Elemental characterisation of melanin in feathers via synchrotron X-ray imaging and absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Nicholas P.; van Veelen, Arjen; Anné, Jennifer; Manning, Phillip L.; Bergmann, Uwe; Sellers, William I.; Egerton, Victoria M.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Ito, Shosuke; Wogelius, Roy A.

    2016-09-01

    Melanin is a critical component of biological systems, but the exact chemistry of melanin is still imprecisely known. This is partly due to melanin’s complex heterogeneous nature and partly because many studies use synthetic analogues and/or pigments extracted from their natural biological setting, which may display important differences from endogenous pigments. Here we demonstrate how synchrotron X-ray analyses can non-destructively characterise the elements associated with melanin pigment in situ within extant feathers. Elemental imaging shows that the distributions of Ca, Cu and Zn are almost exclusively controlled by melanin pigment distribution. X-ray absorption spectroscopy demonstrates that the atomic coordination of zinc and sulfur is different within eumelanised regions compared to pheomelanised regions. This not only impacts our fundamental understanding of pigmentation in extant organisms but also provides a significant contribution to the evidence-based colour palette available for reconstructing the appearance of fossil organisms.

  17. Elemental characterisation of melanin in feathers via synchrotron X-ray imaging and absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Nicholas P.; van Veelen, Arjen; Anné, Jennifer; Manning, Phillip L.; Bergmann, Uwe; Sellers, William I.; Egerton, Victoria M.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Ito, Shosuke; Wogelius, Roy A.

    2016-01-01

    Melanin is a critical component of biological systems, but the exact chemistry of melanin is still imprecisely known. This is partly due to melanin’s complex heterogeneous nature and partly because many studies use synthetic analogues and/or pigments extracted from their natural biological setting, which may display important differences from endogenous pigments. Here we demonstrate how synchrotron X-ray analyses can non-destructively characterise the elements associated with melanin pigment in situ within extant feathers. Elemental imaging shows that the distributions of Ca, Cu and Zn are almost exclusively controlled by melanin pigment distribution. X-ray absorption spectroscopy demonstrates that the atomic coordination of zinc and sulfur is different within eumelanised regions compared to pheomelanised regions. This not only impacts our fundamental understanding of pigmentation in extant organisms but also provides a significant contribution to the evidence-based colour palette available for reconstructing the appearance of fossil organisms. PMID:27658854

  18. Xe nanocrystals in Si studied by x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Faraci, Giuseppe; Pennisi, Agata R.; Zontone, Federico

    2007-07-15

    The structural configuration of Xe clusters, obtained by ion implantation in a Si matrix, has been investigated as a function of the temperature by x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. In contrast with previous results, we demonstrate that an accurate analysis of the data, using high order cumulants, gives evidence of Xe fcc nanocrystals at low temperature, even in the as-implanted Si; expansion of the Xe lattice is always found as a function of the temperature, with no appreciable overpressure. We point out that a dramatic modification of these conclusions can be induced by an incorrect analysis using standard symmetrical pair distribution function G(r); for this reason, all the results were checked by x-ray diffraction measurements.

  19. Note: Sample chamber for in situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy studies of battery materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pelliccione, CJ; Timofeeva, EV; Katsoudas, JP; Segre, CU

    2014-12-01

    In situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) provides element-specific characterization of both crystalline and amorphous phases and enables direct correlations between electrochemical performance and structural characteristics of cathode and anode materials. In situ XAS measurements are very demanding to the design of the experimental setup. We have developed a sample chamber that provides electrical connectivity and inert atmosphere for operating electrochemical cells and also accounts for x-ray interactions with the chamber and cell materials. The design of the sample chamber for in situ measurements is presented along with example XAS spectra from anode materials in operating pouch cells at the Zn and Sn K-edges measured in fluorescence and transmission modes, respectively. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  20. Detection, identification and mapping of iron anomalies in brain tissue using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhaylova, A.; Davidson, M.; Toastmann, H.; Channell, J.E.T.; Guyodo, Y.; Batich, C.; Dobson, J.

    2008-06-16

    This work describes a novel method for the detection, identification and mapping of anomalous iron compounds in mammalian brain tissue using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. We have located and identified individual iron anomalies in an avian tissue model associated with ferritin, biogenic magnetite and haemoglobin with a pixel resolution of less than 5 {micro}m. This technique represents a breakthrough in the study of both intra- and extra-cellular iron compounds in brain tissue. The potential for high-resolution iron mapping using microfocused X-ray beams has direct application to investigations of the location and structural form of iron compounds associated with human neurodegenerative disorders - a problem which has vexed researchers for 50 years.

  1. In Situ X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study of the LiNiO2 Electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, A. N.; McBreen, J.; Melendres, C. A.

    1997-03-01

    LiNiO2 is one of the most promising active material for the development of novel 4V rechargeable lithium batteries. Recent x-ray diffraction studies showed that the electrochemical reactivity of this electrode is sensitive to the structure of the starting material as well as the charged products. To further examine this material, we have conducted an x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) study to determine the structure of this electrode as a function of its charge state. Specifically, the x-ray absorption Ni K-edge energy, the pre-edge structure, and local structure parameters such as bond lengths, coordination numbers and disorders were investigated at various states of charge corresponding to Li_(1-x)NiO2 for x values of 0.0, 0.11, 0.23, 0.34, 0.45, 0.82, and 0.99. The charging which proceeds via lithium de-intercalation was conducted using constant current anodization at 0.5 mA in a non aqueous electrolyte consisting of 1M LiPF6 in 1:1:3 propylene ! carbonate, ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate. The XAS results for this electrode will be compared with those of γ-NiOOH and KNiIO_6, the latter being used as a reference for quadrivalent nickel.

  2. Time-resolved X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy for Electron Transport Study in Warm Dense Gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong-Won; Bae, Leejin; Engelhorn, Kyle; Heimann, Philip; Ping, Yuan; Barbrel, Ben; Fernandez, Amalia; Beckwith, Martha Anne; Cho, Byoung-Ick; GIST Team; IBS Team; LBNL Collaboration; SLAC Collaboration; LLNL Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    The warm dense Matter represents states of which the temperature is comparable to Fermi energy and ions are strongly coupled. One of the experimental techniques to create such state in the laboratory condition is the isochoric heating of thin metal foil with femtosecond laser pulses. This concept largely relies on the ballistic transport of electrons near the Fermi-level, which were mainly studied for the metals in ambient conditions. However, they were barely investigated in warm dense conditions. We present a time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy measured for the Au/Cu dual layered sample. The front Au layer was isochorically heated with a femtosecond laser pulse, and the x-ray absorption changes around L-edge of Cu, which was attached on the backside of Au, was measured with a picosecond resolution. Time delays between the heating of the `front surface' of Au layer and the alternation of x-ray spectrum of Cu attached on the `rear surface' of Au indicate the energetic electron transport mechanism through Au in the warm dense conditions. IBS (IBS-R012-D1) and the NRF (No. 2013R1A1A1007084) of Korea.

  3. X-ray-absorption-spectroscopy study of manganese-containing compounds and photosynthetic spinach chloroplasts

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, J.A.

    1981-05-01

    The manganese sites in chloroplasts, long thought to be involved in photosynthetic oxygen evolution have been examined and partially characterized by x-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) using synchrotron radiation. The local environment about the manganese atoms is estimated from an analysis of the extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS). Comparisons with and simulations of the manganese EXAFS for several reference compounds leads to a model in which the chloroplast manganese atoms are contained in a binuclear complex similar to di-u-oxo-tetrakis-(2,2'-bipyridine) dimanganese. It is suggested that the partner metal is another manganese. The bridging ligands are most probably oxygen. The remaining manganese ligands are carbon, oxygen, or nitrogen. A roughly linear correlation between the X-ray K edge onset energy and the coordination charge of a large number of manganese coordination complexes and compounds has been developed. Entry of the chloroplast manganese edge energy onto this correlation diagram establishes that the active pool of manganese is in an oxidation state greater than +2.

  4. Iron location in O-carboxymethyl chitosans determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepka, Marcin T.; Lawniczak-Jablonska, Krystyna; Wolska, Anna; Slawska-Waniewska, Anna; Rodrigues, Clóvis A.; Lorini, Josiane; Cruz, Karianne Araujo da

    2011-01-01

    Chitosans represent a class of functional natural polymers. Their unique attribute is the capability to bind metal ions into their structure. This property can be exploited in many biomedical applications, but before that, some questions about metal binding mechanism must be answered. O-carboxymethyl chitosans with accumulated Fe atoms were studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. It was shown that iron bonding depends on the technological processes used in chitosan production. The applied technology allows for the selective introduction of either oxygen alone or of nitrogen and oxygen into the nearest neighbourhood of Fe. Therefore, it is possible to control the surroundings of a metal atom depending on requirements.

  5. An x-ray absorption spectroscopy study of Cd binding onto a halophilic archaeon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showalter, Allison R.; Szymanowski, Jennifer E. S.; Fein, Jeremy B.; Bunker, Bruce A.

    2016-05-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and cadmium (Cd) isotherm experiments determine how Cd adsorbs to the surface of halophilic archaeon Halobacterium noricense. This archaeon, isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico could be involved with the transport of toxic metals stored in the transuranic waste in the salt mine. The isotherm experiments show that adsorption is relatively constant across the tolerable pH range for H. noricense. The XAS results indicate that Cd adsorption occurs predominately via a sulfur site, most likely sulfhydryl, with the same site dominating all measured pH values.

  6. X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Cuprous-Thiolate Clusters in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Metallothionein

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L.; Pickering, I.J.; Winge, D.R.; George, G.N.

    2009-05-28

    Copper (Cu) metallothioneins are cuprous-thiolate proteins that contain multimetallic clusters, and are thought to have dual functions of Cu storage and Cu detoxification. We have used a combination of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and density-functional theory (DFT) to investigate the nature of Cu binding to Saccharomyces cerevisiae metallothionein. We found that the XAS of metallothionein prepared, containing a full complement of Cu, was quantitatively consistent with the crystal structure, and that reconstitution of the apo-metallothionein with stoichiometric Cu results in the formation of a tetracopper cluster, indicating cooperative binding of the Cu ions by the metallothionein.

  7. Automated system for x-ray absorption spectroscopy of nanoparticle nucleation and growth

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, S.; Carpenter, E.E.; Cestone, V.; Kurihara, L.K.; Harris, V.G.; Brown, E.C.

    2005-01-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a useful tool for studying nanoparticle synthesis and growth. Described here is a system for automating synthesis and data collection, allowing time-resolved XAS measurements at a synchrotron to be accurately combined with measurements made under identical conditions elsewhere, and promising the ability to use XAS with experiments in combinatorial chemistry. The primary components of this system are a commercial parallel processor and a custom flow cell. The system has been used to collect data on the synthesis of iron oxides from iron(II) acetylacetonate.

  8. Ultrafast Excited State Relaxation of a Metalloporphyrin Revealed by Femtosecond X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shelby, Megan L; Lestrange, Patrick J; Jackson, Nicholas E; Haldrup, Kristoffer; Mara, Michael W; Stickrath, Andrew B; Zhu, Diling; Lemke, Henrik T; Chollet, Matthieu; Hoffman, Brian M; Li, Xiaosong; Chen, Lin X

    2016-07-20

    Photoexcited Nickel(II) tetramesitylporphyrin (NiTMP), like many open-shell metalloporphyrins, relaxes rapidly through multiple electronic states following an initial porphyrin-based excitation, some involving metal centered electronic configuration changes that could be harnessed catalytically before excited state relaxation. While a NiTMP excited state present at 100 ps was previously identified by X-ray transient absorption (XTA) spectroscopy at a synchrotron source as a relaxed (d,d) state, the lowest energy excited state (J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2007, 129, 9616 and Chem. Sci., 2010, 1, 642), structural dynamics before thermalization were not resolved due to the ∼100 ps duration of the available X-ray probe pulse. Using the femtosecond (fs) X-ray pulses of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the Ni center electronic configuration from the initial excited state to the relaxed (d,d) state has been obtained via ultrafast Ni K-edge XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) on a time scale from hundreds of femtoseconds to 100 ps. This enabled the identification of a short-lived Ni(I) species aided by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) methods. Computed electronic and nuclear structure for critical excited electronic states in the relaxation pathway characterize the dependence of the complex's geometry on the electron occupation of the 3d orbitals. Calculated XANES transitions for these excited states assign a short-lived transient signal to the spectroscopic signature of the Ni(I) species, resulting from intramolecular charge transfer on a time scale that has eluded previous synchrotron studies. These combined results enable us to examine the excited state structural dynamics of NiTMP prior to thermal relaxation and to capture intermediates of potential photocatalytic significance.

  9. Electronic structure measurements of metal-organic solar cell dyes using x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Phillip S.

    The focus of this thesis is twofold: to report the results of X-ray absorption studies of metal-organic dye molecules for dye-sensitized solar cells and to provide a basic training manual on X-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques and data analysis. The purpose of our research on solar cell dyes is to work toward an understanding of the factors influencing the electronic structure of the dye: the choice of the metal, its oxidation state, ligands, and cage structure. First we study the effect of replacing Ru in several common dye structures by Fe. First-principles calculations and X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the C 1s and N 1s edges are combined to investigate transition metal dyes in octahedral and square planar N cages. Octahedral molecules are found to have a downward shift in the N 1s-to-pi* transition energy and an upward shift in C 1s-to-pi* transition energy when Ru is replaced by Fe, explained by an extra transfer of negative charge from Fe to the N ligands compared to Ru. For the square planar molecules, the behavior is more complex because of the influence of axial ligands and oxidation state. Next the crystal field parameters for a series of phthalocyanine and porphyrins dyes are systematically determined using density functional calculations and atomic multiplet calculations with polarization-dependent X-ray absorption spectra. The polarization dependence of the spectra provides information on orbital symmetries which ensures the determination of the crystal field parameters is unique. A uniform downward scaling of the calculated crystal field parameters by 5-30% is found to be necessary to best fit the spectra. This work is a part of the ongoing effort to design and test new solar cell dyes. Replacing the rare metal Ru with abundant metals like Fe would be a significant advance for dye-sensitized solar cells. Understanding the effects of changing the metal centers in these dyes in terms of optical absorption, charge transfer, and electronic

  10. Femtosecond time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy of liquid using a hard X-ray free electron laser in a dual-beam dispersive detection method.

    PubMed

    Obara, Yuki; Katayama, Tetsuo; Ogi, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Takayuki; Kurahashi, Naoya; Karashima, Shutaro; Chiba, Yuhei; Isokawa, Yusuke; Togashi, Tadashi; Inubushi, Yuichi; Yabashi, Makina; Suzuki, Toshinori; Misawa, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-13

    We present femtosecond time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy of aqueous solution using a hard x-ray free electron laser (SACLA) and a synchronized Ti:sapphire laser. The instrumental response time is 200 fs, and the repetition rate of measurement is 10 Hz. A cylindrical liquid beam 100 μm in diameter of aqueous ammonium iron(III) oxalate solution is photoexcited at 400 nm, and the transient X-ray absorption spectra are measured in the K-edge region of iron, 7.10 - 7.26 keV, using a dual X-ray beam dispersive detection method. Each of the dual beams has the pulse energy of 1.4 μJ, and pump-induced absorbance change on the order of 10(-3) is successfully detected. The photoexcited iron complex exhibits a red shifted iron K-edge with the appearance time constant of 260 fs. The X-ray absorption difference spectra, with and without the pump pulses, are independent of time delay after 1.5 ps up to 100 ps, indicating that the photoexcited species is long-lived.

  11. X-ray absorption spectroscopy on magnetic nanoscale systems for modern applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz-Antoniak, Carolin

    2015-06-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy facilitated by state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation technology is presented as a powerful tool to study nanoscale systems, in particular revealing their static element-specific magnetic and electronic properties on a microscopic level. A survey is given on the properties of nanoparticles, nanocomposites and thin films covering a broad range of possible applications. It ranges from the ageing effects of iron oxide nanoparticles in dispersion for biomedical applications to the characterisation on a microscopic level of nanoscale systems for data storage devices. In this respect, new concepts for electrically addressable magnetic data storage devices are highlighted by characterising the coupling in a BaTiO3/CoFe2O4 nanocomposite as prototypical model system. But classical magnetically addressable devices are also discussed on the basis of tailoring the magnetic properties of self-assembled ensembles of FePt nanoparticles for data storage and the high-moment material Fe/Cr/Gd for write heads. For the latter cases, the importance is emphasised of combining experimental approaches in x-ray absorption spectroscopy with density functional theory to gain a more fundamental understanding.

  12. Evolution of Silver Nanoparticles in the Rat Lung Investigated by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Following a 6-h inhalation exposure to aerosolized 20 and 110 nm diameter silver nanoparticles, lung tissues from rats were investigated with X-ray absorption spectroscopy, which can identify the chemical state of silver species. Lung tissues were processed immediately after sacrifice of the animals at 0, 1, 3, and 7 days post exposure and the samples were stored in an inert and low-temperature environment until measured. We found that it is critical to follow a proper processing, storage and measurement protocol; otherwise only silver oxides are detected after inhalation even for the larger nanoparticles. The results of X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements taken in air at 85 K suggest that the dominating silver species in all the postexposure lung tissues were metallic silver, not silver oxide, or solvated silver cations. The results further indicate that the silver nanoparticles in the tissues were transformed from the original nanoparticles to other forms of metallic silver nanomaterials and the rate of this transformation depended on the size of the original nanoparticles. We found that 20 nm diameter silver nanoparticles were significantly modified after aerosolization and 6-h inhalation/deposition, whereas larger, 110 nm diameter nanoparticles were largely unchanged. Over the seven-day postexposure period the smaller 20 nm silver nanoparticles underwent less change in the lung tissue than the larger 110 nm silver nanoparticles. In contrast, silica-coated gold nanoparticles did not undergo any modification processes and remained as the initial nanoparticles throughout the 7-day study period. PMID:25517690

  13. Synchrotron soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of carbon and silicon nanostructures for energy applications.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jun; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Xuhui; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2014-12-10

    Carbon and silicon materials are two of the most important materials involved in the history of the science and technology development. In the last two decades, C and Si nanoscale materials, e.g., carbon nanotubes, graphene, and silicon nanowires, and quantum dots, have also emerged as the most interesting nanomaterials in nanoscience and nanotechnology for their myriad promising applications such as for electronics, sensors, biotechnology, etc. In particular, carbon and silicon nanostructures are being utilized in energy-related applications such as catalysis, batteries, solar cells, etc., with significant advances. Understanding of the nature of surface and electronic structures of nanostructures plays a key role in the development and improvement of energy conversion and storage nanosystems. Synchrotron soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and related techniques, such as X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), show unique capability in revealing the surface and electronic structures of C and Si nanomaterials. In this review, XAS is demonstrated as a powerful technique for probing chemical bonding, the electronic structure, and the surface chemistry of carbon and silicon nanomaterials, which can greatly enhance the fundamental understanding and also applicability of these nanomaterials in energy applications. The focus is on the unique advantages of XAS as a complementary tool to conventional microscopy and spectroscopy for effectively providing chemical and structural information about carbon and silicon nanostructures. The employment of XAS for in situ, real-time study of property evolution of C and Si nanostructures to elucidate the mechanisms in energy conversion or storage processes is also discussed.

  14. Melting of iron determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy to 100 GPa

    PubMed Central

    Aquilanti, Giuliana; Trapananti, Angela; Karandikar, Amol; Kantor, Innokenty; Marini, Carlo; Mathon, Olivier; Pascarelli, Sakura; Boehler, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Temperature, thermal history, and dynamics of Earth rely critically on the knowledge of the melting temperature of iron at the pressure conditions of the inner core boundary (ICB) where the geotherm crosses the melting curve. The literature on this subject is overwhelming, and no consensus has been reached, with a very large disagreement of the order of 2,000 K for the ICB temperature. Here we report new data on the melting temperature of iron in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell to 103 GPa obtained by X-ray absorption spectroscopy, a technique rarely used at such conditions. The modifications of the onset of the absorption spectra are used as a reliable melting criterion regardless of the solid phase from which the solid to liquid transition takes place. Our results show a melting temperature of iron in agreement with most previous studies up to 100 GPa, namely of 3,090 K at 103 GPa. PMID:26371317

  15. Melting of iron determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy to 100 GPa.

    PubMed

    Aquilanti, Giuliana; Trapananti, Angela; Karandikar, Amol; Kantor, Innokenty; Marini, Carlo; Mathon, Olivier; Pascarelli, Sakura; Boehler, Reinhard

    2015-09-29

    Temperature, thermal history, and dynamics of Earth rely critically on the knowledge of the melting temperature of iron at the pressure conditions of the inner core boundary (ICB) where the geotherm crosses the melting curve. The literature on this subject is overwhelming, and no consensus has been reached, with a very large disagreement of the order of 2,000 K for the ICB temperature. Here we report new data on the melting temperature of iron in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell to 103 GPa obtained by X-ray absorption spectroscopy, a technique rarely used at such conditions. The modifications of the onset of the absorption spectra are used as a reliable melting criterion regardless of the solid phase from which the solid to liquid transition takes place. Our results show a melting temperature of iron in agreement with most previous studies up to 100 GPa, namely of 3,090 K at 103 GPa.

  16. Excited-state molecular structures captured by X-ray transient absorption spectroscopy: a decade and beyond.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin X; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Lockard, Jenny V; Stickrath, Andrew B; Attenkofer, Klaus; Jennings, Guy; Liu, Di-Jia

    2010-03-01

    Transient molecular structures along chemical reaction pathways are important for predicting molecular reactivity, understanding reaction mechanisms, as well as controlling reaction pathways. During the past decade, X-ray transient absorption spectroscopy (XTA, or LITR-XAS, laser-initiated X-ray absorption spectroscopy), analogous to the commonly used optical transient absorption spectroscopy, has been developed. XTA uses a laser pulse to trigger a fundamental chemical process, and an X-ray pulse(s) to probe transient structures as a function of the time delay between the pump and probe pulses. Using X-ray pulses with high photon flux from synchrotron sources, transient electronic and molecular structures of metal complexes have been studied in disordered media from homogeneous solutions to heterogeneous solution-solid interfaces. Several examples from the studies at the Advanced Photon Source in Argonne National Laboratory are summarized, including excited-state metalloporphyrins, metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) states of transition metal complexes, and charge transfer states of metal complexes at the interface with semiconductor nanoparticles. Recent developments of the method are briefly described followed by a future prospective of XTA. It is envisioned that concurrent developments in X-ray free-electron lasers and synchrotron X-ray facilities as well as other table-top laser-driven femtosecond X-ray sources will make many breakthroughs and realise dreams of visualizing molecular movies and snapshots, which ultimately enable chemical reaction pathways to be controlled. PMID:20164647

  17. Excited-state molecular structures captured by x-ray transient absorption spectroscopy : a decade and beyond.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L. X.; Zhang, X.; Lockard, J. V.; Stickrath, A. B.; Attenkofer, K.; Jennings, G.; Liu, D.-J.; Northwestern Univ.

    2010-03-02

    Transient molecular structures along chemical reaction pathways are important for predicting molecular reactivity, understanding reaction mechanisms, as well as controlling reaction pathways. During the past decade, X-ray transient absorption spectroscopy (XTA, or LITR-XAS, laser-initiated X-ray absorption spectroscopy), analogous to the commonly used optical transient absorption spectroscopy, has been developed. XTA uses a laser pulse to trigger a fundamental chemical process, and an X-ray pulse(s) to probe transient structures as a function of the time delay between the pump and probe pulses. Using X-ray pulses with high photon flux from synchrotron sources, transient electronic and molecular structures of metal complexes have been studied in disordered media from homogeneous solutions to heterogeneous solution-solid interfaces. Several examples from the studies at the Advanced Photon Source in Argonne National Laboratory are summarized, including excited-state metalloporphyrins, metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) states of transition metal complexes, and charge transfer states of metal complexes at the interface with semiconductor nanoparticles. Recent developments of the method are briefly described followed by a future prospective of XTA. It is envisioned that concurrent developments in X-ray free-electron lasers and synchrotron X-ray facilities as well as other table-top laser-driven femtosecond X-ray sources will make many breakthroughs and realise dreams of visualizing molecular movies and snapshots, which ultimately enable chemical reaction pathways to be controlled.

  18. X-ray structure analysis of a metalloprotein with enhanced active-site resolution using in situ x-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Arcovito, Alessandro; Benfatto, Maurizio; Cianci, Michele; Hasnain, S Samar; Nienhaus, Karin; Nienhaus, G Ulrich; Savino, Carmelinda; Strange, Richard W; Vallone, Beatrice; Della Longa, Stefano

    2007-04-10

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy is exquisitely sensitive to the coordination geometry of an absorbing atom and therefore allows bond distances and angles of the surrounding atomic cluster to be measured with atomic resolution. By contrast, the accuracy and resolution of metalloprotein active sites obtainable from x-ray crystallography are often insufficient to analyze the electronic properties of the metals that are essential for their biological functions. Here, we demonstrate that the combination of both methods on the same metalloprotein single crystal yields a structural model of the protein with exceptional active-site resolution. To this end, we have collected an x-ray diffraction data set to 1.4-A resolution and Fe K-edge polarized x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra on the same cyanomet sperm whale myoglobin crystal. The XANES spectra were quantitatively analyzed by using a method based on the multiple scattering approach, which yielded Fe-heme structural parameters with +/-(0.02-0.07)-A accuracy on the atomic distances and +/-7 degrees on the Fe-CN angle. These XANES-derived parameters were subsequently used as restraints in the crystal structure refinement. By combining XANES and x-ray diffraction, we have obtained an cyanomet sperm whale myoglobin structural model with a higher precision of the bond lengths and angles at the active site than would have been possible with crystallographic analysis alone.

  19. New Homogeneous Standards by Atomic Layer Deposition for Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence and Absorption Spectroscopies.

    SciTech Connect

    Butterworth, A.L.; Becker, N.; Gainsforth, Z.; Lanzirotti, A.; Newville, M.; Proslier, T.; Stodolna, J.; Sutton, S.; Tyliszczak, T.; Westphal, A.J.; Zasadzinski, J.

    2012-03-13

    Quantification of synchrotron XRF analyses is typically done through comparisons with measurements on the NIST SRM 1832/1833 thin film standards. Unfortunately, these standards are inhomogeneous on small scales at the tens of percent level. We are synthesizing new homogeneous multilayer standards using the Atomic Layer Deposition technique and characterizing them using multiple analytical methods, including ellipsometry, Rutherford Back Scattering at Evans Analytical, Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence (SXRF) at Advanced Photon Source (APS) Beamline 13-ID, Synchrotron X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) at Advanced Light Source (ALS) Beamlines 11.0.2 and 5.3.2.1 and by electron microscopy techniques. Our motivation for developing much-needed cross-calibration of synchrotron techniques is borne from coordinated analyses of particles captured in the aerogel of the NASA Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC). The Stardust Interstellar Dust Preliminary Examination (ISPE) team have characterized three sub-nanogram, {approx}1{micro}m-sized fragments considered as candidates to be the first contemporary interstellar dust ever collected, based on their chemistries and trajectories. The candidates were analyzed in small wedges of aerogel in which they were extracted from the larger collector, using high sensitivity, high spatial resolution >3 keV synchrotron x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (SXRF) and <2 keV synchrotron x-ray transmission microscopy (STXM) during Stardust ISPE. The ISPE synchrotron techniques have complementary capabilities. Hard X-ray SXRF is sensitive to sub-fg mass of elements Z {ge} 20 (calcium) and has a spatial resolution as low as 90nm. X-ray Diffraction data were collected simultaneously with SXRF data. Soft X-ray STXM at ALS beamline 11.0.2 can detect fg-mass of most elements, including cosmochemically important oxygen, magnesium, aluminum and silicon, which are invisible to SXRF in this application. ALS beamline 11.0.2 has spatial resolution

  20. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and EPR studies of oriented spinach thylakoid preparations

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J.C. |

    1995-08-01

    In this study, oriented Photosystem II (PS II) particles from spinach chloroplasts are studied with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to determine more details of the structure of the oxygen evolving complex (OEC). The nature of halide binding to Mn is also studied with Cl K-edge and Mn EXAFS (extended x-ray absorption fine structure) of Mn-Cl model compounds, and with Mn EXAFS of oriented PS II in which Br has replaced Cl. Attention is focused on the following: photosynthesis and the oxygen evolving complex; determination of mosaic spread in oriented photosystem II particles from signal II EPR measurement; oriented EXAFS--studies of PS II in the S{sub 2} state; structural changes in PS II as a result of treatment with ammonia: EPR and XAS studies; studies of halide binding to Mn: Cl K-edge and Mn EXAFS of Mn-Cl model compounds and Mn EXAFS of oriented Br-treated photosystem II.

  1. Strontium localization in bone tissue studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Frankær, Christian Grundahl; Raffalt, Anders Christer; Stahl, Kenny

    2014-02-01

    Strontium has recently been introduced as a pharmacological agent for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. We determined the localization of strontium incorporated into bone matrix from dogs treated with Sr malonate by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. A new approach for analyzing the X-ray absorption spectra resulted in a compositional model and allowed the relative distribution of strontium in the different bone components to be estimated. Approximately 35-45% of the strontium present is incorporated into calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHA) by substitution of some of the calcium ions occupying highly ordered sites, and at least 30% is located at less ordered sites where only the first solvation shell is resolved, suggesting that strontium is surrounded by only oxygen atoms similar to Sr(2+) in solution. Strontium was furthermore shown to be absorbed in collagen in which it obtains a higher structural order than when present in serum but less order than when it is incorporated into CaHA. The total amount of strontium in the samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and the amount of Sr was found to increase with increasing dose levels and treatment periods, whereas the relative distribution of strontium among the different components appears to be independent of treatment period and dose level.

  2. X-ray absorption spectroscopy as a probe of dissolved polysulfides in lithium sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, Tod; Prendergast, David

    2015-03-01

    There has been enormous interest lately in lithium sulfur batteries, since they have 5 times the theoretical capacity of lithium ion batteries. Large-scale adoption of this technology has been hampered by numerous shortcomings, chiefly the poor utilization of the active cathode material and rapid capacity fading during cycling. Overcoming these limitations requires methods capable of identifying and quantifying the products of the poorly understood electrochemical reactions. One recent advance has been the use of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), an element-specific probe of the unoccupied energy levels around an excited atom upon absorption of an X-ray photon, to identify the reaction products and intermediates. In this talk, we'll present first principles molecular dynamics and spectral simulations of dissolved lithium polysulfide species, showing how finite temperature dynamics, molecular geometry, molecular charge state and solvent environment conspire to determine the peak positions and intensity of the XAS. We'll present a spectral analysis of the radical (-1e charge) species, and reveal a unique low energy feature that can be used to identify these species from their more common dianion (-2e charge) counterparts.

  3. Millisecond Kinetics of Nanocrystal Cation Exchange UsingMicrofluidic X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Emory M.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Fakra, Sirine; Elnaggar,Mariam S.; Mathies, Richard A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2007-05-07

    We describe the use of a flow-focusing microfluidic reactorto measure the kinetics of theCdSe-to-Ag2Se nanocrystal cation exchangereaction using micro-X-ray absorption spectroscopy (mu XAS). The smallmicroreactor dimensions facilitate the millisecond mixing of CdSenanocrystal and Ag+ reactant solutions, and the transposition of thereaction time onto spatial coordinates enables the in situ observation ofthe millisecond reaction with mu XAS. XAS spectra show the progression ofCdSe nanocrystals to Ag2Se over the course of 100 ms without the presenceof long-lived intermediates. These results, along with supporting stoppedflow absorption experiments, suggest that this nanocrystal cationexchange reaction is highly efficient and provide insight into how thereaction progresses in individual particles. This experiment illustratesthe value and potential of in situ microfluidic X-ray synchrotrontechniques for detailed studies of the millisecond structuraltransformations of nanoparticles and other solution-phase reactions inwhich diffusive mixing initiates changes in local bond structures oroxidation states.

  4. Strontium localization in bone tissue studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Frankær, Christian Grundahl; Raffalt, Anders Christer; Stahl, Kenny

    2014-02-01

    Strontium has recently been introduced as a pharmacological agent for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. We determined the localization of strontium incorporated into bone matrix from dogs treated with Sr malonate by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. A new approach for analyzing the X-ray absorption spectra resulted in a compositional model and allowed the relative distribution of strontium in the different bone components to be estimated. Approximately 35-45% of the strontium present is incorporated into calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHA) by substitution of some of the calcium ions occupying highly ordered sites, and at least 30% is located at less ordered sites where only the first solvation shell is resolved, suggesting that strontium is surrounded by only oxygen atoms similar to Sr(2+) in solution. Strontium was furthermore shown to be absorbed in collagen in which it obtains a higher structural order than when present in serum but less order than when it is incorporated into CaHA. The total amount of strontium in the samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and the amount of Sr was found to increase with increasing dose levels and treatment periods, whereas the relative distribution of strontium among the different components appears to be independent of treatment period and dose level. PMID:24101232

  5. Characterization of metalloproteins by high-throughput X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wuxian; Punta, Marco; Bohon, Jen; Sauder, J Michael; D'Mello, Rhijuta; Sullivan, Mike; Toomey, John; Abel, Don; Lippi, Marco; Passerini, Andrea; Frasconi, Paolo; Burley, Stephen K; Rost, Burkhard; Chance, Mark R

    2011-06-01

    High-throughput X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to measure transition metal content based on quantitative detection of X-ray fluorescence signals for 3879 purified proteins from several hundred different protein families generated by the New York SGX Research Center for Structural Genomics. Approximately 9% of the proteins analyzed showed the presence of transition metal atoms (Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Fe, or Mn) in stoichiometric amounts. The method is highly automated and highly reliable based on comparison of the results to crystal structure data derived from the same protein set. To leverage the experimental metalloprotein annotations, we used a sequence-based de novo prediction method, MetalDetector, to identify Cys and His residues that bind to transition metals for the redundancy reduced subset of 2411 sequences sharing <70% sequence identity and having at least one His or Cys. As the HT-XAS identifies metal type and protein binding, while the bioinformatics analysis identifies metal- binding residues, the results were combined to identify putative metal-binding sites in the proteins and their associated families. We explored the combination of this data with homology models to generate detailed structure models of metal-binding sites for representative proteins. Finally, we used extended X-ray absorption fine structure data from two of the purified Zn metalloproteins to validate predicted metalloprotein binding site structures. This combination of experimental and bioinformatics approaches provides comprehensive active site analysis on the genome scale for metalloproteins as a class, revealing new insights into metalloprotein structure and function.

  6. Characterization of Metalloproteins by High-throughput X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    W Shi; M Punta; J Bohon; J Sauder; R DMello; M Sullivan; J Toomey; D Abel; M Lippi; et al.

    2011-12-31

    High-throughput X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to measure transition metal content based on quantitative detection of X-ray fluorescence signals for 3879 purified proteins from several hundred different protein families generated by the New York SGX Research Center for Structural Genomics. Approximately 9% of the proteins analyzed showed the presence of transition metal atoms (Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Fe, or Mn) in stoichiometric amounts. The method is highly automated and highly reliable based on comparison of the results to crystal structure data derived from the same protein set. To leverage the experimental metalloprotein annotations, we used a sequence-based de novo prediction method, MetalDetector, to identify Cys and His residues that bind to transition metals for the redundancy reduced subset of 2411 sequences sharing <70% sequence identity and having at least one His or Cys. As the HT-XAS identifies metal type and protein binding, while the bioinformatics analysis identifies metal-binding residues, the results were combined to identify putative metal-binding sites in the proteins and their associated families. We explored the combination of this data with homology models to generate detailed structure models of metal-binding sites for representative proteins. Finally, we used extended X-ray absorption fine structure data from two of the purified Zn metalloproteins to validate predicted metalloprotein binding site structures. This combination of experimental and bioinformatics approaches provides comprehensive active site analysis on the genome scale for metalloproteins as a class, revealing new insights into metalloprotein structure and function.

  7. Characterization and speciation of mercury-bearing mine wastes using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, C.S.; Brown, Gordon E.; Rytuba, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    Mining of mercury deposits located in the California Coast Range has resulted in the release of mercury to the local environment and water supplies. The solubility, transport, and potential bioavailability of mercury are controlled by its chemical speciation, which can be directly determined for samples with total mercury concentrations greater than 100 mg kg-1 (ppm) using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). This technique has the additional benefits of being non-destructive to the sample, element-specific, relatively sensitive at low concentrations, and requiring minimal sample preparation. In this study, Hg L(III)-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra were collected for several mercury mine tailings (calcines) in the California Coast Range. Total mercury concentrations of samples analyzed ranged from 230 to 1060 ppm. Speciation data (mercury phases present and relative abundances) were obtained by comparing the spectra from heterogeneous, roasted (calcined) mine tailings samples with a spectral database of mercury minerals and sorbed mercury complexes. Speciation analyses were also conducted on known mixtures of pure mercury minerals in order to assess the quantitative accuracy of the technique. While some calcine samples were found to consist exclusively of mercuric sulfide, others contain additional, more soluble mercury phases, indicating a greater potential for the release of mercury into solution. Also, a correlation was observed between samples from hot-spring mercury deposits, in which chloride levels are elevated, and the presence of mercury-chloride species as detected by the speciation analysis. The speciation results demonstrate the ability of XAS to identify multiple mercury phases in a heterogeneous sample, with a quantitative accuracy of ??25% for the mercury-containing phases considered. Use of this technique, in conjunction with standard microanalytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction and electron probe microanalysis

  8. Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy of Diamondoid Thiol Monolayers on Gold

    SciTech Connect

    Willey, T M; Fabbri, J; Lee, J I; Schreiner, P; Fokin, A A; Tkachenko, B A; Fokina, N A; Dahl, J; Carlson, B; Vance, A L; Yang, W; Terminello, L J; van Buuren, T; Melosh, N

    2007-11-27

    Diamondoids, hydrocarbon molecules with cubic-diamond-cage structures, have unique properties with potential value for nanotechnology. The availability and ability to selectively functionalize this special class of nanodiamond materials opens new possibilities for surface-modification, for high-efficiency field emitters in molecular electronics, as seed crystals for diamond growth, or as robust mechanical coatings. The properties of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of diamondoids are thus of fundamental interest for a variety of emerging applications. This paper presents the effects of thiol substitution position and polymantane order on diamondoid SAMs on gold using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A framework to determine both molecular tilt and twist through NEXAFS is presented and reveals highly ordered diamondoid SAMs, with the molecular orientation controlled by the thiol location. C 1s and S 2p binding energies are lower in adamantane thiol than alkane thiols on gold by 0.67 {+-} 0.05 eV and 0.16 {+-} 0.04 eV respectively. These binding energies vary with diamondoid monolayer structure and thiol substitution position, consistent with different amounts of steric strain and electronic interaction with the substrate. This work demonstrates control over the assembly, in particular the orientational and electronic structure, providing a flexible design of surface properties with this exciting new class of diamond clusters.

  9. Characterising legacy spent nuclear fuel pond materials using microfocus X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bower, W R; Morris, K; Mosselmans, J F W; Thompson, O R; Banford, A W; Law, K; Pattrick, R A D

    2016-11-01

    Analysis of a radioactive, coated concrete core from the decommissioned, spent nuclear fuel cooling pond at the Hunterston-A nuclear site (UK) has provided a unique opportunity to study radionuclides within a real-world system. The core, obtained from a dividing wall and sampled at the fill level of the pond, exhibited radioactivity (dominantly (137)Cs and (90)Sr) heterogeneously distributed across both painted faces. Chemical analysis of the core was undertaken using microfocus spectroscopy at Diamond Light Source, UK. Mapping of Sr across the surface coatings using microfocus X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) combined with X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed that Sr was bound to TiO2 particles in the paint layers, suggesting an association between TiO2 and radiostrontium. Stable Sr and Cs sorption experiments using concrete coupons were also undertaken to assess their interactions with the bulk concrete in case of a breach in the coating layers. μXRF and scanning electron microscopy showed that Sr was immobilized by the cement phases, whilst at the elevated experimental concentrations, Cs was associated with clay minerals in the aggregates. This study provides a crucial insight into poorly understood infrastructural contamination in complex systems and is directly applicable to the UK's nuclear decommissioning efforts. PMID:27262277

  10. Correlated single-crystal electronic absorption spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography at NSLS beamline X26-C

    SciTech Connect

    Orville, A.M.; Buono, R.; Cowan, M.; Heroux, A.; Shea-McCarthy, G.; Schneider, D. K.; Skinner, J. M.; Skinner, M. J.; Stoner-Ma, D.; Sweet, R. M.

    2011-05-01

    The research philosophy and new capabilities installed at NSLS beamline X26-C to support electronic absorption and Raman spectroscopies coupled with X-ray diffraction are reviewed. This beamline is dedicated full time to multidisciplinary studies with goals that include revealing the relationship between the electronic and atomic structures in macromolecules. The beamline instrumentation has been fully integrated such that optical absorption spectra and X-ray diffraction images are interlaced. Therefore, optical changes induced by X-ray exposure can be correlated with X-ray diffraction data collection. The installation of Raman spectroscopy into the beamline is also briefly reviewed. Data are now routinely generated almost simultaneously from three complementary types of experiments from the same sample. The beamline is available now to the NSLS general user population.

  11. Correlated Single-Crystal Electronic Absorption Spectroscopy and X-ray Crystallography at NSLS Beamline X26-C

    SciTech Connect

    A Orville; R Buono; M Cowan; A Heroux; G Shea-McCarthy; D Schneider; J Skinner; M Skinner; D Stoner-Ma; R Sweet

    2011-12-31

    The research philosophy and new capabilities installed at NSLS beamline X26-C to support electronic absorption and Raman spectroscopies coupled with X-ray diffraction are reviewed. This beamline is dedicated full time to multidisciplinary studies with goals that include revealing the relationship between the electronic and atomic structures in macromolecules. The beamline instrumentation has been fully integrated such that optical absorption spectra and X-ray diffraction images are interlaced. Therefore, optical changes induced by X-ray exposure can be correlated with X-ray diffraction data collection. The installation of Raman spectroscopy into the beamline is also briefly reviewed. Data are now routinely generated almost simultaneously from three complementary types of experiments from the same sample. The beamline is available now to the NSLS general user population.

  12. Local Structure Determination of Carbon/Nickel Ferrite Composite Nanofibers Probed by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nilmoung, Sukunya; Kidkhunthod, Pinit; Maensiri, Santi

    2015-11-01

    Carbon/NiFe2O4 composite nanofibers have been successfully prepared by electrospinning method using a various concentration solution of Ni and Fe nitrates dispersed into polyacrylonitride (PAN) solution in N,N' dimethylformamide. The phase and mophology of PAN/NiFe2O4 composite samples were characterized and investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The magnetic properties of the prepared samples were measured at ambient temperature by a vibrating sample magnetometer. It is found that all composite samples exhibit ferromagnetism. This could be local-structurally explained by the existed oxidation states of Ni2+ and Fe3+ in the samples. Moreover, local environments around Ni and Fe ions could be revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurement including X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS).

  13. X-ray absorption spectroscopy study in the BaFe2As2 family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Yoonyoung; Kim, Yeongkwan; Yang, Wanli; Kim, Changyoung

    2012-02-01

    One of the representative Fe-based superconductor families, BaFe2As2 (Tc =38K) is a semimetal with the same number of hole and electron carriers, and is in a spin density wave state below 139K. It has been reported that various types of ``doped'' BaFe2As2 systems can obtained by substitution of Ba, Fe, and As atoms. However, an important issue has been recently raised regarding whether each type of substitution indeed induces effective charge doping or not. It is essential to clarify whether each type of substitution indeed induce an effective doping in BaFe2As2 system. To clarify the carrier doping issue, we performed high resolution X-ray absorption spectroscopy experiment on Ba(Fe,Co)2As2, Ba(Fe,Ru)2As2, BaFe2(As,P)2 which are representative ``doped'' BaFe2As2 systems.

  14. Electronic topological transition in zinc under pressure: An x-ray absorption spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aquilanti, G.; Trapananti, A.; Minicucci, M.; Liscio, F.; Twaróg, A.; Principi, E.; Pascarelli, S.

    2007-10-01

    Zinc metal has been studied at high pressure using x-ray absorption spectroscopy. In order to investigate the role of the different degrees of hydrostaticity on the occurrence of structural anomalies following the electronic topological transition, two pressure transmitting media have been used. Results show that the electronic topological transition, if it exists, does not induce an anomaly in the local environment of compressed Zn as a function of hydrostatic pressure and any anomaly must be related to a loss of hydrostaticity of the pressure transmitting medium. The near-edge structures of the spectra, sensitive to variations in the electronic density of states above the Fermi level, do not show any evidence of electronic transition whatever pressure transmitting medium is used.

  15. X-ray absorption spectroscopy to probe interfacial issues in photolithography.

    SciTech Connect

    Angelopoulos, Marie (IBM, T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY); Lenhart, Joseph Ludlow; Wu, Wen-li (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD); Sambasivan, Sharadha (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD); Fischer, Daniel A. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD); Jones, Ronald L. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD); Soles, Christopher L. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD); Lin, Eric K. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD); Goldfarb, Dario L. (IBM, T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY)

    2003-03-01

    We utilize near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXASFS) to provide detailed chemical insight into two interfacial problems facing sub-100 nm patterning. First, chemically amplified photo-resists are sensitive to surface phenomenon, which causes deviations in the pattern profile near the interface. Striking examples include T-topping, closure, footing, and undercutting. NEXAFS was used to examine surface segregation of a photo-acid generator at the resist/air interface and to illustrate that the surface extent of deprotection in a model resist film can be different than the bulk extent of deprotection. Second, line edge roughness becomes increasingly critical with shrinking patterns, and may be intimately related to the line edge deprotection profile. A NEXAFS technique to surface depth profile for compositional gradients is described with the potential to provide chemical information about the resist line edge.

  16. Zinc ligands in the metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens as determined using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Salt, D.E.; Prince, R.C.; Baker, A.J.M.; Raskin, I.; Pickering, I.J.

    1999-03-01

    Using the noninvasive technique of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), the authors have been able to determine the ligand environment of Zn in different tissues of the Zn-hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens. The majority of intracellular Zn in roots of T. caerulescens was found to be coordinated with histidine. In the xylem sap Zn was found to be transported mainly as the free hydrated Zn{sup 2+} cation with a smaller proportion coordinated with organic acids. In the shoots, Zn coordination occurred mainly via organic acids, with a smaller proportion present as the hydrated cation and coordinated with histidine and the cell wall. Their data suggest that histidine plays an important role in Zn homeostasis in the roots, whereas organic acids are involved in xylem transport and Zn storage in shoots.

  17. Studies of Y-Ba-Cu-O single crystals by x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Krol, A.; Ming, Z.H.; Kao, Y.H.; Nuecker, N.; Roth, G.; Fink, J.; Smith, G.C.; Erband, A.; Mueller-Vogt, G.; Karpinski, J.; Kaldis, E.; Schoenmann, K.

    1992-02-01

    The symmetry and density of unoccupied states of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8} have been investigated by orientation dependent x-ray absorption spectroscopy on the O 1s edge using a bulk-sensitive fluorescence-yield-detection method. It has been found that the O 2p holes are distributed equally between the CuO{sub 2} planes and CuO chains and that the partial density of unoccupied O 2p states in the CuO{sub 2} planes are identical in both systems investigated. The upper Hubbard band has been observed in the planes but not in the chains in both systems. 18 refs.

  18. Studies of fluorine in catalysts with ultrasoft X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.M. ); Meitzner, G.D. ); Fischer, D.A. ); Gland, J. )

    1993-08-01

    The structures of fluorine-doped alumina catalyst powders have been studied by fluorescence yield ultrasoft X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The results presented here demonstrate that important local structural information can be obtained by the technique. It is established that fluoride ions are substituted for oxygen in alumina at low concentration of adsorbed fluorine. For doping levels larger than those required for saturation of the monolayer, the authors observed AlF[sub 3]-like features in the radial structure function. These results are in agreement with previous observations of bulk AlF[sub 3] in aluminas with high levels of fluorine doping. The fluorescence yield method is well suited for determining structures of a wide range of ceramic materials. 22 refs., 4 figs.

  19. X-Ray absorption spectroscopy investigation of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide salts

    SciTech Connect

    D'Angelo, Paola; Zitolo, Andrea; Migliorati, Valentina; Bodo, Enrico; Caminiti, Ruggero; Aquilanti, Giuliana; Hazemann, Jean Louis; Testemale, Denis; Mancini, Giordano

    2011-08-21

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used to unveil the bromide ion local coordination structure in 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide [C{sub n}mim]Br ionic liquids (ILs) with different alkyl chains. The XAS spectrum of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide has been found to be different from those of the other members of the series, from the butyl to the decyl derivatives, that have all identical XAS spectra. This result indicates that starting from 1-buthyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide the local molecular arrangement around the bromide anion is the same independently from the length of the alkyl chain, and that the imidazolium head groups in the liquid ILs with long alkyl chains assume locally the same orientation as in the [C{sub 4}mim]Br crystal. With this study we show that the XAS technique is an effective direct tool for unveiling the local structural arrangements around selected atoms in ILs.

  20. Structural analysis of sulfur in natural rubber using X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pattanasiriwisawa, Wanwisa; Siritapetawee, Jaruwan; Patarapaiboolchai, Orasa; Klysubun, Wantana

    2008-09-01

    X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) has been applied to natural rubber in order to study the local environment of sulfur atoms in sulfur crosslinking structures introduced in the vulcanization process. Different types of chemical accelerators in conventional, semi-efficient and efficient vulcanization systems were investigated. The experimental results show the good sensitivity and reproducibility of XANES to characterize the local geometry and electronic environment of the sulfur K-shell under various conditions of vulcanization and non-vulcanization of natural rubber. Several applications of XANES in this study demonstrate an alternative way of identifying sulfur crosslinks in treated natural rubber based on differences in their spectra and oxidation states. PMID:18728323

  1. Ge doped HfO{sub 2} thin films investigated by x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Miotti, Leonardo; Bastos, Karen P.; Lucovsky, Gerald; Radtke, Claudio; Nordlund, Dennis

    2010-07-15

    The stability of the tetragonal phase of Ge doped HfO{sub 2} thin films on Si(100) was investigated. Hf(Ge)O{sub 2} films with Ge atomic concentrations varying from 0% to 15% were deposited by remote plasma chemical vapor deposition. The atomic structure on the oxide after rapid thermal annealing was investigated by x-ray absorption spectroscopy of the O and Ge K edges and by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The authors found that Ge concentrations as low as 5 at. % effectively stabilize the tetragonal phase of 5 nm thick Hf(Ge)O{sub 2} on Si and that higher concentrations are not stable to rapid thermal annealing at temperatures above 750 deg. C.

  2. X-ray absorption/emission line spectroscopy of the Galactic hot gaseous halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    There is an ongoing debate as to whether or not the Milky Way is surrounded by a large-scale, massive corona. Vastly different conclusions as to its extent and mass have been drawn from existing studies based on X-ray absorption and/or emission line spectroscopy. I will discuss my assessment of this issue, focusing on various uncertainties and potential problems in the present data, analyses, results, and interpretations.In particular, I will examine how different assumptions about the temperature distribution of the corona affect the inference of its physical scale. I will also discuss the external perspectives of galactic coronae obtained form observing nearby highly-inclined disk galaxies.

  3. The irradiation of ammonia ice studied by near edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Parent, Ph.; Bournel, F.; Lasne, J.; Laffon, C.; Carniato, S.; Lacombe, S.; Strazzulla, G.; Gardonio, S.; Lizzit, S.; Kappler, J.-P.; Joly, L.

    2009-10-21

    A vapor-deposited NH{sub 3} ice film irradiated at 20 K with 150 eV photons has been studied with near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy at the nitrogen K-edge. Irradiation leads to the formation of high amounts (12%) of molecular nitrogen N{sub 2}, whose concentration as a function of the absorbed energy has been quantified to 0.13 molecule/eV. The stability of N{sub 2} in solid NH{sub 3} has been also studied, showing that N{sub 2} continuously desorbs between 20 and 95 K from the irradiated ammonia ice film. Weak concentrations (<1%) of other photoproducts are also detected. Our NEXAFS simulations show that these features own to NH{sub 2}, N{sub 2}H{sub 2}, and N{sub 3}{sup -}.

  4. X-ray absorption spectroscopy in electrical fields: An element-selective probe of atomic polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ney, V.; Wilhelm, F.; Ollefs, K.; Rogalev, A.; Ney, A.

    2016-01-01

    We have studied a range of polar and nonpolar materials using x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) in external electric fields. An energy shift of the XANES by a few meV/kV is found which scales linearly with the applied voltage, thus being reminiscent of the linear Stark effect. This is corroborated by the consistent presence of this energy shift in polar thin films and bulk crystals and its absence in nonpolar materials as well as in conducting films. The observed energy shift of the XANES is different between two atomic species in one specimen and appears to scale linearly with the atomic number of the studied element. Therefore, XANES in electrical fields opens the perspective to study atomic polarization with element specificity in a range of functional materials.

  5. Orientation of a monolayer of dipolar molecules on graphene from X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Phillip S; Huang, Changshui; Kim, Myungwoong; Safron, Nathaniel S; Arnold, Michael S; Wong, Bryan M; Gopalan, Padma; Himpsel, F J

    2014-03-11

    Recently, single-walled carbon nanotubes as well as graphene functionalized with azobenzene chromophores have drawn attention for applications in optoelectronics due to their ability to undergo cis-trans isomerization when exposed to light. The electronic properties of the nanocarbon materials at these unconventional interfaces can be tailored by gaining structural insight into the organic monolayers at the molecular level. In this work, we use polarization-dependent X-ray absorption spectroscopy to probe the orientation of three chromophores on graphene, all identical except for their terminal groups. All three terminal groups (methyl, nitro, and nitrile) are well-oriented, with a tilt angle of about 30° from the substrate for the shared azobenzene group. Density functional theory calculations are in good agreement with experimental results and give two similar, stable configurations for the orientation of these molecules on graphene.

  6. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of lithium sulfur battery reaction intermediates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wujcik, Kevin; Pascal, Tod; Prendergast, David; Balsara, Nitash

    2015-03-01

    Lithium sulfur batteries have a theoretical energy density nearly five times greater than current lithium ion battery standards, but questions still remain regarding the reaction pathways through which soluble lithium polysulfide (Li2Sx, ``x'' ranging from 2 to 8) reaction intermediates are formed. Complicating spectroelectrochemical approaches to elucidate redox pathways is the challenge of obtaining spectral standards for individual Li2Sx species. Lithium polysulfides cannot be isolated as individual component and exist only in solution as a distribution of different Li2Sx molecules formed via disproportionation reactions (e.g. 2Li2S4 goes to Li2S3 + Li2S5). X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the sulfur K-edge has recently been employed as a technique to study Li-S chemistry. We have recently obtained XAS standards for individual Li2Sx species via first principles DFT simulations and the excited electron and core hole approach. Here, experimental sulfur K-edge XAS of Li2Sx species dissolved in poly(ethylene oxide) are compared to spectra obtained from analogous theoretical calculations. The impact that polysulfide solution concentration and the presence of other lithium salts (e.g. LiNO3) have on X-ray spectra of Li2Sx species is explored via experiment and theory.

  7. High-resolution x-ray absorption spectroscopy studies of metal compounds in neurodegenerative brain tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Collingwood, J.F.; Mikhaylova, A.; Davidson, M.R.; Batich, C.; Streit, W.J.; Eskin, T.; Terry, J.; Barrea, R.; Underhill, R.S.; Dobson, J.

    2008-06-16

    Fluorescence mapping and microfocus X-ray absorption spectroscopy are used to detect, locate and identify iron biominerals and other inorganic metal accumulations in neurodegenerative brain tissue at sub-cellular resolution (< 5 microns). Recent progress in developing the technique is reviewed. Synchrotron X-rays are used to map tissue sections for metals of interest, and XANES and XAFS are used to characterize anomalous concentrations of the metals in-situ so that they can be correlated with tissue structures and disease pathology. Iron anomalies associated with biogenic magnetite, ferritin and haemoglobin are located and identified in an avian tissue model with a pixel resolution {approx} 5 microns. Subsequent studies include brain tissue sections from transgenic Huntington's mice, and the first high-resolution mapping and identification of iron biominerals in human Alzheimer's and control autopsy brain tissue. Technical developments include use of microfocus diffraction to obtain structural information about biominerals in-situ, and depositing sample location grids by lithography for the location of anomalies by conventional microscopy. The combined techniques provide a breakthrough in the study of both intra- and extra-cellular iron compounds and related metals in tissue. The information to be gained from this approach has implications for future diagnosis and treatment of neurodegeneration, and for our understanding of the mechanisms involved.

  8. High-resolution x-ray absorption spectroscopy studies of metal compounds in neurodegenerative brain tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collingwood, J. F.; Mikhaylova, A.; Davidson, M. R.; Batich, C.; Streit, W. J.; Eskin, T.; Terry, J.; Barrea, R.; Underhill, R. S.; Dobson, J.

    2005-01-01

    Fluorescence mapping and microfocus X-ray absorption spectroscopy are used to detect, locate and identify iron biominerals and other inorganic metal accumulations in neurodegenerative brain tissue at sub-cellular resolution (<5 microns). Recent progress in developing the technique is reviewed. Synchrotron X-rays are used to map tissue sections for metals of interest, and XANES and XAFS are used to characterise anomalous concentrations of the metals in-situ so that they can be correlated with tissue structures and disease pathology. Iron anomalies associated with biogenic magnetite, ferritin and haemoglobin are located and identified in an avian tissue model with a pixel resolution ~5 microns. Subsequent studies include brain tissue sections from transgenic Huntington's mice, and the first high-resolution mapping and identification of iron biominerals in human Alzheimer's and control autopsy brain tissue. Technical developments include use of microfocus diffraction to obtain structural information about biominerals in-situ, and depositing sample location grids by lithography for the location of anomalies by conventional microscopy. The combined techniques provide a breakthrough in the study of both intra- and extra-cellular iron compounds and related metals in tissue. The information to be gained from this approach has implications for future diagnosis and treatment of neurodegeneration, and for our understanding of the mechanisms involved.

  9. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of iron at multimegabar pressures in laser shock experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmand, M.; Ravasio, A.; Mazevet, S.; Bouchet, J.; Denoeud, A.; Dorchies, F.; Feng, Y.; Fourment, C.; Galtier, E.; Gaudin, J.; Guyot, F.; Kodama, R.; Koenig, M.; Lee, H. J.; Miyanishi, K.; Morard, G.; Musella, R.; Nagler, B.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Ozaki, N.; Recoules, V.; Toleikis, S.; Vinci, T.; Zastrau, U.; Zhu, D.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.

    2015-07-01

    Taking advantage of the new opportunities provided by x-ray free electron laser (FEL) sources when coupled to a long laser pulse as available at the Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS), we have performed x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) of laser shock compressed iron up to 420 GPa (±50 ) and 10 800 K (±1390 ). Visible diagnostics coupled with hydrodynamic simulations were used to infer the thermodynamical conditions along the Hugoniot and the release adiabat. A modification of the pre-edge feature at 7.12 keV in the XANES spectra is observed above pressures of 260 GPa along the Hugoniot. Comparing with ab initio calculations and with previous laser-heated diamond cell data, we propose that such changes in the XANES pre-edge could be a signature of molten iron. This interpretation then suggests that iron is molten at pressures and temperatures higher than 260 GPa (±29 ) and 5680 K (±700 ) along the principal Fe Hugoniot.

  10. Determination of uranyl incorporation into biogenic manganese oxides using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and scattering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, S.M.; Fuller, C.C.; Tebo, B.M.; Bargar, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Biogenic manganese oxides are common and an important source of reactive mineral surfaces in the environment that may be potentially enhanced in bioremediation cases to improve natural attenuation. Experiments were performed in which the uranyl ion, UO22+ (U(VI)), at various concentrations was present during manganese oxide biogenesis. At all concentrations, there was strong uptake of U onto the oxides. Synchrotron-based extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies were carried out to determine the molecular-scale mechanism by which uranyl is incorporated into the oxide and how this incorporation affects the resulting manganese oxide structure and mineralogy. The EXAFS experiments show that at low concentrations (2 mol % U, >4 ??M U(VI) in solution), the presence of U(VI) affects the stability and structure of the Mn oxide to form poorly ordered Mn oxide tunnel structures, similar to todorokite. EXAFS modeling shows that uranyl is present in these oxides predominantly in the tunnels of the Mn oxide structure in a tridentate complex. Observations by XRD corroborate these results. Structural incorporation may lead to more stable U(VI) sequestration that may be suitable for remediation uses. These observations, combined with the very high uptake capacity of the Mn oxides, imply that Mn-oxidizing bacteria may significantly influence dissolved U(VI) concentrations in impacted waters via sorption and incorporation into Mn oxide biominerals. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  11. Americium characterization by X-ray fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy in plutonium uranium mixed oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degueldre, Claude; Cozzo, Cedric; Martin, Matthias; Grolimund, Daniel; Mieszczynski, Cyprian

    2013-06-01

    Plutonium uranium mixed oxide (MOX) fuels are currently used in nuclear reactors. The actinides in these fuels need to be analyzed after irradiation for assessing their behaviour with regard to their environment and the coolant. In this work the study of the atomic structure and next-neighbour environment of Am in the (Pu,U)O2 lattice in an irradiated (60 MW d kg-1) MOX sample was performed employing micro-X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) and micro-X-ray absorption fine structure (µ-XAFS) spectroscopy. The chemical bonds, valences and stoichiometry of Am (˜0.66 wt%) are determined from the experimental data gained for the irradiated fuel material examined in its peripheral zone (rim) of the fuel. In the irradiated sample Am builds up as Am3+ species within an [AmO8]13- coordination environment (e.g. >90%) and no (<10%) Am(IV) or (V) can be detected in the rim zone. The occurrence of americium dioxide is avoided by the redox buffering activity of the uranium dioxide matrix.

  12. The Chemistry os Spent Nuclear Fuel From X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    F.A. Fortner; A.J. Kropf; J.C. Cunnane

    2006-09-21

    Present and future nuclear fuel cycles will require an understanding of the complex chemistry of trace fission products and transuranium actinides in spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Because of the unique analytical challenges presented by SNF to the materials scientist, many of its fundamental physical and chemical properties remain poorly understood, especially on the microscopic scale. Such an understanding of the chemical states of radionuclides in SNF would benefit development of technologies for fuel monitoring, fuel performance improvement and modeling, fuel reprocessing, and spent fuel storage and disposal. We have recently demonstrated the use of synchrotron x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to examine crystal chemical properties of actinides and fission products in extracted specimens of SNF. Information obtained includes oxidation state, chemical bond coordination, and quantitative elemental concentration and distribution. We have also used XAS in a scanning mode to obtain x-ray spectral micrographs with resolution approaching 1 micron. A brief overview of the technique will be presented, along with findings on uranium, plutonium, neptunium, technetium, and molybdenum in commercial PWR SNF specimens.

  13. A multi-channel monolithic Ge detector system for fluorescence x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bucher, J.J.; Allen, P.G.; Edelstein, N.M.; Shuh, D.K.; Madden, N.W.; Cork, C.; Luke, P.; Pehl, D.; Malone, D.

    1995-03-01

    Construction and performance of a monolithic quad-pixel Ge detector for fluorescence x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at synchrotron radiation sources are described. The detector semiconductor element has an active surface area of 4.0 cm{sup 2} which is electrically separated into four 1.0 cm{sup 2} pixels, with little interfacial dead volume. Spatial response of the array shows that cross-talk between adjacent pixels is < 10% for 5.9 keV photons that fall within 0.5 mm of the pixel boundaries. The detector electronics system uses pre-amplifiers built at LBNL with commercial Tennelec Model TC 244 amplifiers. Using an {sup 55}Fe test source (MnK{sub {alpha}}, 5.9 keV), energy resolution of better than 200 eV is achieved with a 4 {mu}sec peaking time. At 0.5 {mu}sec peaking time, pulse pileup results in a 75% throughput efficiency for an incoming count rate of 100 kHz. Initial XAS fluoresncece measurements at the beamline 4 wiggler end stations at SSRL show that the detector system has several advantages over commercial x-ray spectrometers for low-concentration counting.

  14. Oxygen binding by Helix pomatia alpha-haemocyanin studied by X-ray-absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Torensma, R; Phillips, J C

    1983-01-01

    The X-ray absorption spectra of haemocyanin from Helix pomatia were obtained by using X-rays from synchrotron radiation. Cu K-edges were recorded at four conditions, namely fully oxygenated, 85% oxygenated, 12% oxygenated and fully deoxygenated. The percentage oxygenation calculated from the edge-shift of the partially oxygenated samples did not agree with the percentage oxygenation as determined by u.v. measurements. Two intermediates in the oxygenation process are presented to explain the observed dissimilarities. PMID:6847624

  15. XMM-Newton Spectroscopy of the X-ray Detected Broad Absorption Line QSO CSO 755

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, Niel

    2005-01-01

    We present the results from XMM-Newton observations of the highly optically polarized broad absorption line quasar (BALQSO) CSO 755. By analyzing its X-ray spectrum with a total of approximately 3000 photons we find that this source has an X-ray continuum of "typical" radio-quiet quasars, with a photon index of Gamma=1.83, and a rather flat (X-ray bright) intrinsic optical-to-X-ray spectral slope of alpha_ox=- 1.51. The source shows evidence for intrinsic absorption, and fitting the spectrum with a neutral-absorption model gives a column density of N_H approximately 1.2x10^22 cm^{-2}; this is among the lowest X-ray columns measured for BALQSOs. We do not detect, with high significance, any other absorption features in the X-ray spectrum. Upper limits we place on the rest-frame equivalent width of a neutral (ionized) Fe K-alpha line, less than =180 eV (less than =120 eV), and on the Compton-reflection component parameter, R less than =0.2, suggest that most of the X-rays from the source are directly observed rather than being scattered or reflected; this is also supported by the relatively flat intrinsic alpha ox we measure. The possibility that most of the X-ray flux is scattered due to the high level of UV-optical polarization is ruled out. Considering data for 46 BALQSOs from the literature, including CSO 755, we have found that the UV-optical continuum polarization level of BALQSOs is not correlated with any of their X-ray properties. A lack of significant short-term and long-term X-ray flux variations in the source may be attributed to a large black-hole mass in CSO 755. We note that another luminous BALQSO, PG 2112+059, has both similar shallow C IV BALs and moderate X-ray absorption.

  16. Effect of iron oxide reductive dissolution on the transformation and immobilization of arsenic in soils: New insights from X-ray photoelectron and X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jian-Xin; Wang, Yu-Jun; Liu, Cun; Wang, Li-Hua; Yang, Ke; Zhou, Dong-Mei; Li, Wei; Sparks, Donald L

    2014-08-30

    The geochemical behavior and speciation of arsenic (As) in paddy soils is strongly controlled by soil redox conditions and the sequestration by soil iron oxyhydroxides. Hence, the effects of iron oxide reductive dissolution on the adsorption, transformation and precipitation of As(III) and As(V) in soils were investigated using batch experiments and synchrotron based techniques to gain a deeper understanding at both macroscopic and microscopic scales. The results of batch sorption experiments revealed that the sorption capacity of As(V) on anoxic soil was much higher than that on control soil. Synchrotron based X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) mapping studies indicated that As was heterogeneously distributed and was mainly associated with iron in the soil. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (μ-XANES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses revealed that the primary speciation of As in the soil is As(V). These results further suggested that, when As(V) was introduced into the anoxic soil, the rapid coprecipitation of As(V) with ferric/ferrous ion prevented its reduction to As(III), and was the main mechanism controlling the immobilization of As. This research could improve the current understanding of soil As chemistry in paddy and wetland soils. PMID:25064258

  17. Hard X-ray photoelectron and X-ray absorption spectroscopy characterization of oxidized surfaces of iron sulfides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhlin, Yuri; Tomashevich, Yevgeny; Vorobyev, Sergey; Saikova, Svetlana; Romanchenko, Alexander; Félix, Roberto

    2016-11-01

    Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) using an excitation energy range of 2 keV to 6 keV in combination with Fe K- and S K-edge XANES, measured simultaneously in total electron (TEY) and partial fluorescence yield (PFY) modes, have been applied to study near-surface regions of natural polycrystalline pyrite FeS2 and pyrrhotite Fe1-xS before and after etching treatments in an acidic ferric chloride solution. It was found that the following near-surface regions are formed owing to the preferential release of iron from oxidized metal sulfide lattices: (i) a thin, no more than 1-4 nm in depth, outer layer containing polysulfide species, (ii) a layer exhibiting less pronounced stoichiometry deviations and low, if any, concentrations of polysulfide, the composition and dimensions of which vary for pyrite and pyrrhotite and depend on the chemical treatment, and (iii) an extended almost stoichiometric underlayer yielding modified TEY XANES spectra, probably, due to a higher content of defects. We suggest that the extended layered structure should heavily affect the near-surface electronic properties, and processes involving the surface and interfacial charge transfer.

  18. Americium characterization by X-ray fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy in plutonium uranium mixed oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Degueldre, Claude Cozzo, Cedric; Martin, Matthias; Grolimund, Daniel; Mieszczynski, Cyprian

    2013-06-01

    Plutonium uranium mixed oxide (MOX) fuels are currently used in nuclear reactors. The actinides in these fuels need to be analyzed after irradiation for assessing their behaviour with regard to their environment and the coolant. In this work the study of the atomic structure and next-neighbour environment of Am in the (Pu,U)O₂ lattice in an irradiated (60 MW d kg⁻¹) MOX sample was performed employing micro-X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) and micro-X-ray absorption fine structure (µ-XAFS) spectroscopy. The chemical bonds, valences and stoichiometry of Am (~0.66 wt%) are determined from the experimental data gained for the irradiated fuel material examined in its peripheral zone (rim) of the fuel. In the irradiated sample Am builds up as Am³⁺ species within an [AmO₈]¹³⁻ coordination environment (e.g. >90%) and no (<10%) Am(IV) or (V) can be detected in the rim zone. The occurrence of americium dioxide is avoided by the redox buffering activity of the uranium dioxide matrix. - Graphical abstract: Americium LIII XAFS spectra recorded for the irradiated MOX sub-sample in the rim zone for a 300 μm×300 μm beam size area investigated over six scans of 4 h. The records remain constant during multi-scan. The analysis of the XAFS signal shows that Am is found as trivalent in the UO₂ matrix. This analytical work shall open the door of very challenging analysis (speciation of fission product and actinides) in irradiated nuclear fuels. - Highlights: • Americium was characterized by microX-ray absorption spectroscopy in irradiated MOX fuel. • The americium redox state as determined from XAS data of irradiated fuel material was Am(III). • In the sample, the Am³⁺ face an AmO₈¹³⁻coordination environment in the (Pu,U)O₂ matrix. • The americium dioxide is reduced by the uranium dioxide matrix.

  19. Application of X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy to the study of nuclear structural materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shanshan

    One of key technologies for the next generation nuclear systems are advanced materials, including high temperature structural materials, fast neutron resistance core materials and so on. Local structure determination in these systems, which often are crystallographically intractable, is critical to gaining an understanding of their properties. In this thesis, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), including Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES), is used to examine the geometric and electronic structure of nuclear structural materials under varying conditions. The thesis is divided into two main sections. The first examines the structural analysis of nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFA) which are dispersion strengthened by an ultra high density of Y-Ti-O enriched nano-features, resulting in remarkable high temperature creep strength and radiation damage resistance. Titanium and Yttrium K-edge XAS shows commercial alloys MA957 and J12YWT more closely resemble the as received Fe-14Cr-3W-0.4Ti (wt. %) powders, and mechanically alloyed (MA) powders with 0.25Y2O3 (wt. %). It shows that a significant fraction of substitutional Ti remains dissolved in the (BCC) ferrite matrix. In contrast, annealed powders and hot isostatic press (HIP) consolidated alloys show high temperature heat treatments shift the Y and Ti to more oxidized states that are consistent with combinations of Y2Ti2O7 and, especially, TiO. The second section describes corrosion studies of Pb with 316L stainless steel, molybdenum and spinet (MgAl2O4) at high temperature by XAS. The corrosion of fuel cladding and structural materials by liquid lead at elevated temperatures is an issue that must be considered when designing advanced nuclear systems and high-power spallation neutron targets. The results of ex-situ studies show that a Mo substrate retained a smooth and less corroded surface than 316L stainless steel sample at elevated temperature. In

  20. Microbeam x-ray absorption spectroscopy study of chromium in large-grain uranium dioxide fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mieszczynski, C.; Kuri, G.; Bertsch, J.; Martin, M.; Borca, C. N.; Delafoy, Ch; Simoni, E.

    2014-09-01

    Synchrotron-based microprobe x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used to study the local atomic structure of chromium in chromia-doped uranium dioxide (UO2) grains. The specimens investigated were a commercial grade chromia-doped UO2 fresh fuel pellet, and materials from a spent fuel pellet of the same batch, irradiated with an average burnup of ~40 MW d kg-1. Uranium L3-edge and chromium K-edge XAS have been measured, and the structural environments of central uranium and chromium atoms have been elucidated. The Fourier transform of uranium L3-edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure shows two well-defined peaks of U-O and U-U bonds at average distances of 2.36 and 3.83 Å. Their coordination numbers are determined as 8 and 11, respectively. The chromium Fourier transform extended x-ray absorption fine structure of the pristine UO2 matrix shows similar structural features with the corresponding spectrum of the irradiated spent fuel, indicative of analogous chromium environments in the two samples studied. From the chromium XAS experimental data, detectable next neighbor atoms are oxygen and uranium of the cation-substituted UO2 lattice, and two distinct subshells of chromium and oxygen neighbors, possibly because of undissolved chromia particles present in the doped fuels. Curve-fitting analyses using theoretical amplitude and phase-shift functions of the closest Cr-O shell and calculations with ab initio computer code FEFF and atomic clusters generated from the chromium-dissolved UO2 structure have been carried out. There is a prominent reduction in the length of the adjacent Cr-O bond of about 0.3 Å in chromia-doped UO2 compared with the ideal U-O bond length in standard UO2 that would be expected because of the change in effective Coulomb interactions resulting from replacing U4+ with Cr3+ and their ionic size differences. The contraction of shortest Cr-U bond is ~0.1 Å relative to the U-U bond length in bulk UO2. The difference in the

  1. Picosecond-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy at low signal contrast using a hard X-ray streak camera

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Bernhard W.; Rose-Petruck, Christoph; Jiao, Yishuo

    2015-06-24

    A picosecond-resolving hard-X-ray streak camera has been in operation for several years at Sector 7 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Several upgrades have been implemented over the past few years to optimize integration into the beamline, reduce the timing jitter, and improve the signal-to-noise ratio. These include the development of X-ray optics for focusing the X-rays into the sample and the entrance slit of the streak camera, and measures to minimize the amount of laser light needed to generate the deflection-voltage ramp. For the latter, the photoconductive switch generating the deflection ramp was replaced with microwave power electronics. With these, the streak camera operates routinely at 88 MHz repetition rate, thus making it compatible with all of the APS fill patterns including use of all the X-rays in the 324-bunch mode. Sample data are shown to demonstrate the performance.

  2. Low-Dimensional Water on Ru(0001); Model System for X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Studies of Liquid Water

    SciTech Connect

    Nordlund, D.; Ogasawara, H.; Andersson, K.J.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Salmeron, M.; Pettersson, L. G. M.; Nilsson, A.

    2009-05-11

    We present an x-ray absorption spectroscopy results for fully broken to a complete H-bond network of water molecules on Ru(0001) by varying the morphology from isolated water molecules via two-dimensional clusters to a fully covered monolayer as probed by scanning tunneling microscopy. The sensitivity of x-ray absorption to the symmetry of H-bonding is further elucidated for the amino (-NH{sub 2}) group in glycine adsorbed on Cu(110) where the E-vector is parallel either to the NH donating an H-bond or to the non-H-bonded NH. The results give further evidence for the interpretation of the various spectral features of liquid water and for the general applicability of x-ray absorption spectroscopy to analyze H-bonded systems.

  3. Low-Dimensional Water on Ru(0001)Model System for X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Studies of Liquid Water

    SciTech Connect

    Nordlund, D

    2012-02-14

    We present an x-ray absorption spectroscopy results for fully broken to a complete H-bond network of water molecules on Ru(0001) by varying the morphology from isolated water molecules via two-dimensional clusters to a fully covered monolayer as probed by scanning tunneling microscopy. The sensitivity of x-ray absorption to the symmetry of H-bonding is further elucidated for the amino (-NH{sub 2}) group in glycine adsorbed on Cu(110) where the E-vector is parallel either to the NH donating an H-bond or to the non-H-bonded NH. The results give further evidence for the interpretation of the various spectral features of liquid water and for the general applicability of x-ray absorption spectroscopy to analyze H-bonded systems.

  4. Incorporation of arsenic in mammal bone: X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretschmer, X.; Pingitore, N. E.; Cruz-Jimenez, G.

    2002-12-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of the distal tibia of a modern deer, Odocoileus virginianus, revealed that the energy position of the As K edge matched that of a reference arsenic(V) model compound. Comparison of the x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) of the deer spectrum to the spectra of model As compounds indicated a close match to arsenate(V), e.g., zinc orthoarsenate(5). This indicates that the nearest-neighbor shell of the arsenic in the bone consists of four oxygens in the tetrahedral arrangement typical of arsenic(V) oxysalts. The XANES analysis demonstrates that the arsenic in the deer bone is not associated with an organic compound as a result of methylation. This suggests that the arsenic is associated with the mineral fraction of the bone, most likely with As substituting for P at the latter's structural site in the hydroxyapatite. The XAS data for the deer bone were very noisy due to the low level of arsenic present, just over 1 ppm.. A total of 18 scans, taking nearly a full 8-hour beam shift, were averaged to obtain the spectrum studied. It is not clear that the second neighbor shell can be characterized sufficiently from these data to confirm that As substitutes for P in hydroxyapatite. We conducted our XAS experiments on beam line 4-3 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Data were collected in the fluorescence mode, using a solid state, 13-element Ge-detector. The energy reference was As(0) metal foil run parasitically in transmission mode during collection of the bone spectra. The edge shift seen in the experimental and As(V) model compound relative to the energy position of the arsenic(0) foil is consistent with the additional energy required to photoeject the 1-s electron of As(V), relative to that required for As(0). Arsenic content of the deer bone was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

  5. KEMP: A program script for automated biological x-ray absorption spectroscopy data reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Korbas, Malgorzata; Fulla Marsa, Daniel; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram

    2006-06-15

    Automation of x-ray absorption spectroscopic (XAS) data reduction is essential to cope with high-throughput data collection becoming available at an increasing number of synchrotron radiation centers. A flexible script called KEMP has been developed and implemented at the XAS beamline at EMBL Hamburg. It automatically processes fluorescence XAS data. The pipeline includes dead time correction, energy calibration, selection of fluorescence detector channels, as well as the extraction of x-ray absorption near-edge structure and extended x-ray-absorption fine structure. The output is quickly available and thus can be included in the design of further experiments, which results in a more efficient use of the beam time.

  6. Vanadium K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodosum

    SciTech Connect

    Arber, J.M.; de Boer, E.; Garner, C.D.; Hasnain, S.S.; Wever, R. )

    1989-09-19

    Bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodusum was the first vanadium-containing enzyme to be isolated. X-ray absorption spectra have now been collected in order to investigate the coordination of vanadium in the native, native plus bromide, native plus hydrogen peroxide, and dithionite-reduced forms of the enzyme. The edge and X-ray absorption near-edge structures show that, in the four samples studied, it is only on reduction of the native enzyme that the metal site is substantially altered. In addition, these data are consistent with the presence of vanadium(IV) in the reduced enzyme and vanadium(V) in the other samples. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure data confirm that there are structural changes at the metal site on reduction of the native enzyme, notably a lengthening of the average inner-shell distance, and the presence of terminal oxygen together with histidine and oxygen-donating residues.

  7. Diagnosis of a two wire X-pinch by X-ray absorption spectroscopy utilizing a doubly curved ellipsoidal crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Cahill, A. D. Hoyt, C. L. Shelkovenko, T. A. Pikuz, S. A. Hammer, D. A.

    2014-12-15

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the diagnosis of plasmas over a wide range of both temperature and density. However, such a measurement is often limited to probing plasmas with temperatures well below that of the x-ray source in order to avoid object plasma emission lines from obscuring important features of the absorption spectrum. This has excluded many plasmas from being investigated by this technique. We have developed an x-ray spectrometer that provides the ability to record absorption spectra from higher temperature plasmas than the usual approach allows without the risk of data contamination by line radiation emitted by the plasma under study. This is accomplished using a doubly curved mica crystal which is bent both elliptically and cylindrically. We present here initial absorption spectra obtained from an aluminum x-pinch plasma.

  8. Study of hard disk and slider surfaces using X-ray photoemission electron microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, S.; Stammler, T.; Bhatia, C.S.; Fong, W.; Chen, C.Y.; Bogy, D.B.

    1998-04-01

    X-ray Photo Emission Electron Microscopy (X-PEEM) and Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy were applied to study the properties of amorphous hard carbon overcoats on disks and sliders, and the properties of the lubricant. The modification of lubricants after performing thermal desorption studies was measured by NEXAFS, and the results are compared to the thermal desorption data. The study of lubricant degradation in wear tracks is described. Sliders were investigated before and after wear test, and the modification of the slider coating as well as the transfer of lubricant to the slider was studied. The studies show that the lubricant is altered chemically during the wear. Fluorine is removed and carboxyl groups are formed.

  9. Thermal and magnetic anomalies of α-iron: an exploration by extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and synchrotron x-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccato, Silvia; Sanson, Andrea; Kantor, Innokenty; Mathon, Olivier; Dyadkin, Vadim; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Carnera, Alberto; Pascarelli, Sakura

    2016-09-01

    The local structure and dynamics of α-iron have been investigated by extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD) in order to shed light on some thermal and magnetic anomalies observed in the last decades. The quantitative EXAFS analysis of the first two coordination shells reveals a peculiar local vibrational dynamics of α-iron: the second neighbor distance exhibits anharmonicity and vibrational anisotropy larger than the first neighbor distance. We search for possible distortions of the bcc structure to justify the unexplained magnetostriction anomalies of α-iron and provide a value for the maximum dislocation of the central Fe atom. No thermal anomalies have been detected from the current XRD data. On the contrary, an intriguing thermal anomaly at about 150 K, ascribed to a stiffening of the Fe–Fe bonds, was found by EXAFS.

  10. Thermal and magnetic anomalies of α-iron: an exploration by extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and synchrotron x-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccato, Silvia; Sanson, Andrea; Kantor, Innokenty; Mathon, Olivier; Dyadkin, Vadim; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Carnera, Alberto; Pascarelli, Sakura

    2016-09-01

    The local structure and dynamics of α-iron have been investigated by extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD) in order to shed light on some thermal and magnetic anomalies observed in the last decades. The quantitative EXAFS analysis of the first two coordination shells reveals a peculiar local vibrational dynamics of α-iron: the second neighbor distance exhibits anharmonicity and vibrational anisotropy larger than the first neighbor distance. We search for possible distortions of the bcc structure to justify the unexplained magnetostriction anomalies of α-iron and provide a value for the maximum dislocation of the central Fe atom. No thermal anomalies have been detected from the current XRD data. On the contrary, an intriguing thermal anomaly at about 150 K, ascribed to a stiffening of the Fe-Fe bonds, was found by EXAFS.

  11. Thermal and magnetic anomalies of α-iron: an exploration by extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and synchrotron x-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    Boccato, Silvia; Sanson, Andrea; Kantor, Innokenty; Mathon, Olivier; Dyadkin, Vadim; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Carnera, Alberto; Pascarelli, Sakura

    2016-09-01

    The local structure and dynamics of α-iron have been investigated by extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD) in order to shed light on some thermal and magnetic anomalies observed in the last decades. The quantitative EXAFS analysis of the first two coordination shells reveals a peculiar local vibrational dynamics of α-iron: the second neighbor distance exhibits anharmonicity and vibrational anisotropy larger than the first neighbor distance. We search for possible distortions of the bcc structure to justify the unexplained magnetostriction anomalies of α-iron and provide a value for the maximum dislocation of the central Fe atom. No thermal anomalies have been detected from the current XRD data. On the contrary, an intriguing thermal anomaly at about 150 K, ascribed to a stiffening of the Fe-Fe bonds, was found by EXAFS.

  12. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: X-ray absorption near the edge structure and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies on pyrite prepared by thermally sulfurizing iron films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Liu, Ying-Shu; Wang, Bao-Yi; Wei, Long; Kui, Re-Xi; Qian, Hai-Jie

    2009-07-01

    This paper reports how pyrite films were prepared by thermal sulfurization of magnetron sputtered iron films and characterized by x-ray absorption near edge structure spectra and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on a 4B9B beam line at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The band gap of the pyrite agrees well with the optical band gap obtained by a spectrophotometer. The octahedral symmetry of pyrite leads to the splitting of the d orbit into t2g and eg levels. The high spin and low spin states were analysed through the difference of electron exchange interaction and the orbital crystal field. Only when the crystal field splitting is higher than 1.5 eV, the two weak peaks above the white lines can appear, and this was approved by experiments in the present work.

  13. Revealing electronic structure changes in Chevrel phase cathodes upon Mg insertion using X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wan, Liwen F; Wright, Joshua; Perdue, Brian R; Fister, Timothy T; Kim, Soojeong; Apblett, Christopher A; Prendergast, David

    2016-06-29

    Following previous work predicting the electronic response of the Chevrel phase Mo6S8 upon Mg insertion (Thöle et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2015, 17, 22548), we provide the experimental proof, evident in X-ray absorption spectroscopy, to illustrate the charge compensation mechanism of the Chevrel phase compound during Mg insertion and de-insertion processes. PMID:27314253

  14. Electronic structure of individual hybrid colloid particles studied by near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy in the X-ray microscope.

    PubMed

    Henzler, Katja; Guttmann, Peter; Lu, Yan; Polzer, Frank; Schneider, Gerd; Ballauff, Matthias

    2013-02-13

    The electronic structure of individual hybrid particles was studied by nanoscale near-edge X-ray absorption spectromicroscopy. The colloidal particles consist of a solid polystyrene core and a cross-linked poly-N-(isopropylacrylamide) shell with embedded crystalline titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) nanoparticles (d = 6 ± 3 nm). The TiO(2) particles are generated in the carrier network by a sol-gel process at room temperature. The hybrid particles were imaged with photon energy steps of 0.1 eV in their hydrated environment with a cryo transmission X-ray microscope (TXM) at the Ti L(2,3)-edge. By analyzing the image stacks, the obtained near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra of our individual hybrid particles show clearly that our synthesis generates TiO(2) in the anastase phase. Additionally, our spectromicroscopy method permits the determination of the density distribution of TiO(2) in single carrier particles. Therefore, NEXAFS spectroscopy combined with TXM presents a unique method to get in-depth insight into the electronic structure of hybrid materials. PMID:23360082

  15. Observing heme doming in myoglobin with femtosecond X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Levantino, M.; Lemke, H. T.; Schirò, G.; Glownia, M.; Cupane, A.; Cammarata, M.

    2015-07-01

    We report time-resolved X-ray absorption measurements after photolysis of carbonmonoxy myoglobin performed at the LCLS X-ray free electron laser with nearly 100 fs (FWHM) time resolution. Data at the Fe K-edge reveal that the photoinduced structural changes at the heme occur in two steps, with a faster (~70 fs) relaxation preceding a slower (~400 fs) one. We tentatively attribute the first relaxation to a structural rearrangement induced by photolysis involving essentially only the heme chromophore and the second relaxation to a residual Fe motion out of the heme plane that is coupled to the displacement of myoglobin F-helix.

  16. Soft X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of High-Abrasion-Furnace Carbon Black

    SciTech Connect

    Muramatsu, Yasuji; Harada, Ryusuke; Gullikson, Eric M.

    2007-02-02

    The soft x-ray absorption spectra of high-abrasion-furnace carbon black were measured to obtain local-structure/chemical-states information of the primary particles and/or crystallites. The soft x-ray absorption spectral features of carbon black represent broader {pi}* and {sigma}* peak structures compared to highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). The subtracted spectra between the carbon black and HOPG, (carbon black) - (HOPG), show double-peak structures on both sides of the {pi}* peak. The lower-energy peak, denoted as the 'pre-peak', in the subtracted spectra and the {pi}*/{sigma}* peak intensity ratio in the absorption spectra clearly depend on the specific surface area by nitrogen adsorption (NSA). Therefore, it is concluded that the pre-peak intensity and the {pi}*/{sigma}* ratio reflect the local graphitic structure of carbon black.

  17. Structural models and atomic distribution of bimetallic nanoparticles as investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Bing-Joe; Sarma, Loka Subramanyam; Chen, Jiun-Ming; Chen, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Shou-Chu; Wang, Guo-Rung; Liu, Din-Goa; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Tang, Mau-Tsu

    2005-08-10

    In this report, we describe a general methodology to determine the extent of alloying or atomic distribution quantitatively in bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The structural parameters determined in these studies serve as a quantitative index and provide a general route to determine the structural aspects of the bimetallic NPs. We have derived various types of possible structural models based on the extent of alloying and coordination number parameters of bimetallic NPs. We also discussed the nature of homo- and heterometallic interactions in bimetallic NPs based on the extent of alloying. Herein, we use carbon-supported platinum-ruthenium bimetallic nanoparticles to demonstrate the proposed methodology, and this can be extended further to get more insights into the alloying extent or atomic distribution of other bimetallic systems. The results demonstrated in this paper open up methods to determine the atomic distribution of bimetallic NPs, which is an extremely important parameter that strongly influences the physicochemical properties of NPs and their applications.

  18. Using Softer X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy to Probe Biological Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Akabayov,B.; Doonan, C.; Pickering, I.; George, G.; Sagi, I.

    2005-01-01

    Many inorganic species are now recognized as being essential for life, including many forms of sulfur, phosphate and numerous classes of metal ions. For example, recent progress in the fields of biochemistry and biology has pointed out the critical importance of sulfur in the biosynthesis of vital cofactors and active sites in proteins, and in the complex reaction mechanisms often involved. Special attention has also been drawn to the diverse roles of alkaline (Na{sup +}, K{sup +}) and alkaline earth (Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}) metal ions in mediating the activity of RNA, proteins and many processes in living cells. While the general effect of these ions in biology is mostly understood, information on their detailed role is deficient. Here the application of softer X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to probe the local structural and electronic environment of such ions within their biological complexes and during physiological reactions is discussed. In addition, the required experimental set-up and the difficulties associated with conducting softer XAS experiments on biological samples are presented.

  19. Properties of aqueous nitrate and nitrite from x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jacob W.; Lam, Royce K.; Saykally, Richard J.; Shih, Orion; Rizzuto, Anthony M.; Prendergast, David

    2015-08-28

    Nitrate and nitrite ions are of considerable interest, both for their widespread use in commercial and research contexts and because of their central role in the global nitrogen cycle. The chemistry of atmospheric aerosols, wherein nitrate is abundant, has been found to depend on the interfacial behavior of ionic species. The interfacial behavior of ions is determined largely by their hydration properties; consequently, the study of the hydration and interfacial behavior of nitrate and nitrite comprises a significant field of study. In this work, we describe the study of aqueous solutions of sodium nitrate and nitrite via X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), interpreted in light of first-principles density functional theory electronic structure calculations. Experimental and calculated spectra of the nitrogen K-edge XA spectra of bulk solutions exhibit a large 3.7 eV shift between the XA spectra of nitrate and nitrite resulting from greater stabilization of the nitrogen 1s energy level in nitrate. A similar shift is not observed in the oxygen K-edge XA spectra of NO{sub 3}{sup −} and NO{sub 2}{sup −}. The hydration properties of nitrate and nitrite are found to be similar, with both anions exhibiting a similar propensity towards ion pairing.

  20. Communication: Hydrogen bonding interactions in water-alcohol mixtures from X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lam, Royce K; Smith, Jacob W; Saykally, Richard J

    2016-05-21

    While methanol and ethanol are macroscopically miscible with water, their mixtures exhibit negative excess entropies of mixing. Despite considerable effort in both experiment and theory, there remains significant disagreement regarding the origin of this effect. Different models for the liquid mixture structure have been proposed to address this behavior, including the enhancement of the water hydrogen bonding network around the alcohol hydrophobic groups and microscopic immiscibility or clustering. We have investigated mixtures of methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol with water by liquid microjet X-ray absorption spectroscopy on the oxygen K-edge, an atom-specific probe providing details of both inter- and intra-molecular structure. The measured spectra evidence a significant enhancement of hydrogen bonding originating from the methanol and ethanol hydroxyl groups upon the addition of water. These additional hydrogen bonding interactions would strengthen the liquid-liquid interactions, resulting in additional ordering in the liquid structures and leading to a reduction in entropy and a negative enthalpy of mixing, consistent with existing thermodynamic data. In contrast, the spectra of the isopropanol-water mixtures exhibit an increase in the number of broken alcohol hydrogen bonds for mixtures containing up to 0.5 water mole fraction, an observation consistent with existing enthalpy of mixing data, suggesting that the measured negative excess entropy is a result of clustering or micro-immiscibility.

  1. Speciation of selenium in stream insects using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ruwandi Andrahennadi; Mark Wayland; Ingrid J. Pickering

    2007-11-15

    Selenium contamination in the environment is a widespread problem affecting insects and other wildlife. Insects occupy a critical middle link and aid in trophic transfer of selenium in many terrestrial and freshwater food chains, but the mechanisms of selenium uptake through the food chain are poorly understood. In particular, biotransformation of selenium by insects into different chemical forms will greatly influence how toxic or benign the selenium is to that organism or to its predators. We have used X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to identify the chemical form of selenium in insects inhabiting selenium contaminated streams near Hinton, Alberta (Canada). Selenium K near-edge spectra indicate a variability of selenium speciation among the insects that included mayflies (Ephemeroptera), stoneflies (Plecoptera), caddisflies (Trichoptera), and craneflies (Diptera). Higher percentages of inorganic selenium were observed in primary consumers, detritivores, and filter feeders than in predatory insects. Among the organic forms of selenium, organic selenides constituted a major fraction in most organisms. A species modeled as trimethylselenonium was observed during the pupal stage of caddisflies. These results provide insights into how the insects cope with their toxic cargo, including how the selenium is biotransformed into less toxic forms and how it can be eliminated from the insects. More broadly, this study demonstrates the strengths of XAS to probe the effects of heavy elements at trace levels in insects from the field.

  2. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of biomimetic dye molecules for solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Peter L.; Liu Xiaosong; Himpsel, F. J.; Yang Wanli

    2009-11-21

    Dye-sensitized solar cells are potentially inexpensive alternatives to traditional semiconductor solar cells. In order to optimize dyes for solar cells we systematically investigate the electronic structure of a variety of porphyrins and phthalocyanines. As a biological model system we use the heme group in cytochrome c which plays a role in biological charge transfer processes. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of the N 1s and C 1s edges reveals the unoccupied molecular orbitals and the orientation of the molecules in thin films. The transition metal 2p edges reflect the oxidation state of the central metal atom, its spin state, and the ligand field of the surrounding N atoms. The latter allows tuning of the energy position of the lowest unoccupied orbital by several tenths of an eV by tailoring the molecules and their deposition. Fe and Mn containing phthalocyanines oxidize easily from +2 to +3 in air and require vacuum deposition for obtaining a reproducible oxidation state. Chlorinated porphyrins, on the other hand, are reduced from +3 to +2 during vacuum deposition at elevated temperatures. These findings stress the importance of controlled thin film deposition for obtaining photovoltaic devices with an optimum match between the energy levels of the dye and those of the donor and acceptor electrodes, together with a molecular orientation for optimal overlap between the {pi} orbitals in the direction of the carrier transport.

  3. Atomic-scale roughness of Li metal surface evident in soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prendergast, David; Wan, Liwen; Liang, Yufeng; Chuang, Yi-De; Qiao, Ruimin; Yan, Shishen; Yang, Wanli

    2015-03-01

    Realizing Li metal electrodes depends on fundamental understanding and efficient control of surface properties, which requires reliable characterization of the Li metal surface. Controlled experiments of Li K-edge soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) reveal evidence of steady oxidation of the Li metal surface even under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions. The XAS of the short-lived Li metal surface, prepared by in-situ scratching, exhibits a prominent peak at 55.6 eV, more intense and at a slightly higher energy than the first peak expected for bulk Li metal at 55 eV. First-principles XAS calculations explain the origin of both the increased intensity and energy shift. This required the use of surface structural models with under-coordinated Li atoms and an estimated 4 Åinelastic mean-free-path for Auger electrons, implying extreme surface sensitivity of the measurements to the first 2-3 atomic layers. This work provides a benchmark on both experiment and theory for further studies of Li and other reactive metal surfaces, which are currently under scrutiny for next-generation energy storage devices. DP, LW, and YL acknowledge support from the Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, an Energy Innovation Hub funded by the US Dept. of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences.

  4. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies of reactions of technetium, uranium and neptunium with mackinawite.

    PubMed

    Livens, Francis R; Jones, Mark J; Hynes, Amanda J; Charnock, John M; Mosselmans, J Fred W; Hennig, Christoph; Steele, Helen; Collison, David; Vaughan, David J; Pattrick, Richard A D; Reed, Wendy A; Moyes, Lesley N

    2004-01-01

    Technetium, uranium and neptunium may all occur in the environment in more than one oxidation state (IV or VII, IV or VI and IV or V respectively). The surface of mackinawite, the first-formed iron sulfide phase in anoxic conditions, can promote redox changes so a series of laboratory experiments were carried out to explore the interactions of Tc, U and Np with this mineral. The products of reaction were characterised using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Technetium, added as TcO4(-), is reduced to oxidation state IV and forms a TcS(2)-like species. On oxidation of the mackinawite in air to form goethite, Tc remains in oxidation state IV but in an oxide, rather than a sulfide environment. At low concentrations, uranium forms uranyl surface complexes on oxidised regions of the mackinawite surface but at higher concentrations, the uranium promotes surface oxidation and forms a mixed oxidation state oxide phase. Neptunium is reduced to oxidation IV and forms a surface complex with surface sulfide ions. The remainder of the Np coordination sphere is filled with water molecules or hydroxide ions.

  5. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Characterization of a Li/S Cell

    DOE PAGES

    Ye, Yifan; Kawase, Ayako; Song, Min-Kyu; Feng, Bingmei; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Marcus, Matthew A.; Feng, Jun; Cairns, Elton J.; Guo, Jinghua; Zhu, Junfa

    2016-01-11

    The X-ray absorption spectroscopy technique has been applied to study different stages of the lithium/sulfur (Li/S) cell life cycle. We investigated how speciation of S in Li/S cathodes changes upon the introduction of CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CH3(CH2)15N+(CH3)3Br₋) and with charge/discharge cycling. The introduction of CTAB changes the synthesis reaction pathway dramatically due to the interaction of CTAB with the terminal S atoms of the polysulfide ions in the Na2Sx solution. For the cycled Li/S cell, the loss of electrochemically active sulfur and the accumulation of a compact blocking insulating layer of unexpected sulfur reaction products on the cathode surface duringmore » the charge/discharge processes make the capacity decay. Lastly, a modified coin cell and a vacuum-compatible three-electrode electro-chemical cell have been introduced for further in-situ/in-operando studies.« less

  6. Atomic Structure of Pt3Ni Nanoframe Electrocatalysts by in Situ X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Becknell, Nigel; Kang, Yijin; Chen, Chen; Resasco, Joaquin; Kornienko, Nikolay; Guo, Jinghua; Markovic, Nenad M; Somorjai, Gabor A; Stamenkovic, Vojislav R; Yang, Peidong

    2015-12-23

    Understanding the atomic structure of a catalyst is crucial to exposing the source of its performance characteristics. It is highly unlikely that a catalyst remains the same under reaction conditions when compared to as-synthesized. Hence, the ideal experiment to study the catalyst structure should be performed in situ. Here, we use X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) as an in situ technique to study Pt3Ni nanoframe particles which have been proven to be an excellent electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The surface characteristics of the nanoframes were probed through electrochemical hydrogen underpotential deposition and carbon monoxide electrooxidation, which showed that nanoframe surfaces with different structure exhibit varying levels of binding strength to adsorbate molecules. It is well-known that Pt-skin formation on Pt-Ni catalysts will enhance ORR activity by weakening the binding energy between the surface and adsorbates. Ex situ and in situ XAS results reveal that nanoframes which bind adsorbates more strongly have a rougher Pt surface caused by insufficient segregation of Pt to the surface and consequent Ni dissolution. In contrast, nanoframes which exhibit extremely high ORR activity simultaneously demonstrate more significant segregation of Pt over Ni-rich subsurface layers, allowing better formation of the critical Pt-skin. This work demonstrates that the high ORR activity of the Pt3Ni hollow nanoframes depends on successful formation of the Pt-skin surface structure.

  7. Communication: Hydrogen bonding interactions in water-alcohol mixtures from X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lam, Royce K; Smith, Jacob W; Saykally, Richard J

    2016-05-21

    While methanol and ethanol are macroscopically miscible with water, their mixtures exhibit negative excess entropies of mixing. Despite considerable effort in both experiment and theory, there remains significant disagreement regarding the origin of this effect. Different models for the liquid mixture structure have been proposed to address this behavior, including the enhancement of the water hydrogen bonding network around the alcohol hydrophobic groups and microscopic immiscibility or clustering. We have investigated mixtures of methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol with water by liquid microjet X-ray absorption spectroscopy on the oxygen K-edge, an atom-specific probe providing details of both inter- and intra-molecular structure. The measured spectra evidence a significant enhancement of hydrogen bonding originating from the methanol and ethanol hydroxyl groups upon the addition of water. These additional hydrogen bonding interactions would strengthen the liquid-liquid interactions, resulting in additional ordering in the liquid structures and leading to a reduction in entropy and a negative enthalpy of mixing, consistent with existing thermodynamic data. In contrast, the spectra of the isopropanol-water mixtures exhibit an increase in the number of broken alcohol hydrogen bonds for mixtures containing up to 0.5 water mole fraction, an observation consistent with existing enthalpy of mixing data, suggesting that the measured negative excess entropy is a result of clustering or micro-immiscibility. PMID:27208929

  8. Identification of lead chemical form in mine waste materials by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taga, Raijeli L.; Zheng, Jiajia; Huynh, Trang; Ng, Jack; Harris, Hugh H.; Noller, Barry

    2010-06-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) provides a direct means for measuring lead chemical forms in complex samples. In this study, XAS was used to identify the presence of plumbojarosite (PbFe6(SO4)4(OH)12) by lead L3-edge XANES spectra in mine waste from a small gold mining operation in Fiji. The presence of plumbojarosite in tailings was confirmed by XRD but XANES gave better resolution. The potential for human uptake of Pb from tailings was measured using a physiologically based extract test (PBET), an in-vitro bioaccessibility (BAc) method. The BAc of Pb was 55%. Particle size distribution of tailings indicated that 40% of PM10 particulates exist which could be a potential risk for respiratory effects via the inhalation route. Food items collected in the proximity of the mine site had lead concentrations which exceed food standard guidelines. Lead within the mining lease exceeded sediment guidelines. The results from this study are used to investigate exposure pathways via ingestion and inhalation for potential risk exposure pathways of Pb in that locality. The highest Pb concentration in soil and tailings was 25,839 mg/kg, exceeding the Australian National Environment Protection Measure (NEPM) soil health investigation levels.

  9. Identification of lead chemical form in mine waste materials by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Taga, Raijeli L.; Ng, Jack; Zheng Jiajia; Huynh, Trang; Noller, Barry; Harris, Hugh H.

    2010-06-23

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) provides a direct means for measuring lead chemical forms in complex samples. In this study, XAS was used to identify the presence of plumbojarosite (PbFe{sub 6}(SO{sub 4}){sub 4}(OH){sub 12}) by lead L{sub 3}-edge XANES spectra in mine waste from a small gold mining operation in Fiji. The presence of plumbojarosite in tailings was confirmed by XRD but XANES gave better resolution. The potential for human uptake of Pb from tailings was measured using a physiologically based extract test (PBET), an in-vitro bioaccessibility (BAc) method. The BAc of Pb was 55%. Particle size distribution of tailings indicated that 40% of PM{sub 10} particulates exist which could be a potential risk for respiratory effects via the inhalation route. Food items collected in the proximity of the mine site had lead concentrations which exceed food standard guidelines. Lead within the mining lease exceeded sediment guidelines. The results from this study are used to investigate exposure pathways via ingestion and inhalation for potential risk exposure pathways of Pb in that locality. The highest Pb concentration in soil and tailings was 25,839 mg/kg, exceeding the Australian National Environment Protection Measure (NEPM) soil health investigation levels.

  10. Speciation of Selenium in Stream Insects Using X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Andrahennadi, R.; Wayland, M.; Pickering, I.J.

    2009-05-28

    Selenium contamination in the environment is a widespread problem affecting insects and other wildlife. Insects occupy a critical middle link and aid in trophic transfer of selenium in many terrestrial and freshwater food chains, but the mechanisms of selenium uptake through the food chain are poorly understood. In particular, biotransformation of selenium by insects into different chemical forms will greatly influence how toxic or benign the selenium is to that organism or to its predators. We have used X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to identify the chemical form of selenium in insects inhabiting selenium contaminated streams near Hinton, Alberta (Canada). Selenium K near-edge spectra indicate a variability of selenium speciation among the insects that included mayflies (Ephemeroptera), stoneflies (Plecoptera), caddisflies (Trichoptera), and craneflies (Diptera). Higher percentages of inorganic selenium were observed in primary consumers, detritivores, and filter feeders than in predatory insects. Among the organic forms of selenium, organic selenides constituted a major fraction in most organisms. A species modeled as trimethylselenonium was observed during the pupal stage of caddisflies. These results provide insights into how the insects cope with their toxic cargo, including how the selenium is biotransformed into less toxic forms and how it can be eliminated from the insects. More broadly, this study demonstrates the strengths of XAS to probe the effects of heavy elements at trace levels in insects from the field.

  11. Communication: Hydrogen bonding interactions in water-alcohol mixtures from X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Royce K.; Smith, Jacob W.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2016-05-01

    While methanol and ethanol are macroscopically miscible with water, their mixtures exhibit negative excess entropies of mixing. Despite considerable effort in both experiment and theory, there remains significant disagreement regarding the origin of this effect. Different models for the liquid mixture structure have been proposed to address this behavior, including the enhancement of the water hydrogen bonding network around the alcohol hydrophobic groups and microscopic immiscibility or clustering. We have investigated mixtures of methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol with water by liquid microjet X-ray absorption spectroscopy on the oxygen K-edge, an atom-specific probe providing details of both inter- and intra-molecular structure. The measured spectra evidence a significant enhancement of hydrogen bonding originating from the methanol and ethanol hydroxyl groups upon the addition of water. These additional hydrogen bonding interactions would strengthen the liquid-liquid interactions, resulting in additional ordering in the liquid structures and leading to a reduction in entropy and a negative enthalpy of mixing, consistent with existing thermodynamic data. In contrast, the spectra of the isopropanol-water mixtures exhibit an increase in the number of broken alcohol hydrogen bonds for mixtures containing up to 0.5 water mole fraction, an observation consistent with existing enthalpy of mixing data, suggesting that the measured negative excess entropy is a result of clustering or micro-immiscibility.

  12. Understanding Sulfur Poisoning and Regeneration of Nickel Biomass Conditioning Catalysts using X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yung, M. M.; Cheah, S.; Kuhn, J. N.

    2013-01-01

    The production of biofuels can proceed via a biomass gasification to produce syngas, which can then undergo catalytic conditioning and reforming reactions prior to being sent to a fuel synthesis reactor. Catalysts used for biomass conditioning are plagued by short lifetimes which are a result of, among other things, poisoning. Syngas produced from biomass gasification may contain between 30-300 ppm H2S, depending on the feedstock and gasification conditions, and H2S is a key catalyst poison. In order to overcome catalyst poisoning, either an H2S-tolerant catalyst or an efficient regeneration protocol should be employed. In this study, sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) was used to monitor sulfur species on spent catalyst samples and the transformation of these species from sulfides to sulfates during steam and air regeneration on a Ni/Mg/K/Al2O3 catalyst used to condition biomass-derived syngas. Additionally, nickel K-edge EXAFS and XANES are used to examine the state of nickel species on the catalysts. Post-reaction samples showed the presence of sulfides on the H2S-poisoned nickel catalyst and although some gaseous sulfur species were observed to leave the catalyst bed during regeneration, sulfur remained on the catalyst and a transformation from sulfides to sulfates was observed. The subsequent H2 reduction led to a partial reduction of sulfates back to sulfides. A proposed reaction sequence is presented and recommended regeneration strategies are discussed.

  13. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Systematics at the Tungsten L-Edge

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A series of mononuclear six-coordinate tungsten compounds spanning formal oxidation states from 0 to +VI, largely in a ligand environment of inert chloride and/or phosphine, was interrogated by tungsten L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The L-edge spectra of this compound set, comprised of [W0(PMe3)6], [WIICl2(PMePh2)4], [WIIICl2(dppe)2][PF6] (dppe = 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane), [WIVCl4(PMePh2)2], [WV(NPh)Cl3(PMe3)2], and [WVICl6], correlate with formal oxidation state and have usefulness as references for the interpretation of the L-edge spectra of tungsten compounds with redox-active ligands and ambiguous electronic structure descriptions. The utility of these spectra arises from the combined correlation of the estimated branching ratio of the L3,2-edges and the L1 rising-edge energy with metal Zeff, thereby permitting an assessment of effective metal oxidation state. An application of these reference spectra is illustrated by their use as backdrop for the L-edge X-ray absorption spectra of [WIV(mdt)2(CO)2] and [WIV(mdt)2(CN)2]2– (mdt2– = 1,2-dimethylethene-1,2-dithiolate), which shows that both compounds are effectively WIV species even though the mdt ligands exist at different redox levels in the two compounds. Use of metal L-edge XAS to assess a compound of uncertain formulation requires: (1) Placement of that data within the context of spectra offered by unambiguous calibrant compounds, preferably with the same coordination number and similar metal ligand distances. Such spectra assist in defining upper and/or lower limits for metal Zeff in the species of interest. (2) Evaluation of that data in conjunction with information from other physical methods, especially ligand K-edge XAS. (3) Increased care in interpretation if strong π-acceptor ligands, particularly CO, or π-donor ligands are present. The electron-withdrawing/donating nature of these ligand types, combined with relatively short metal–ligand distances, exaggerate the difference

  14. X-ray absorption spectroscopy systematics at the tungsten L-edge.

    PubMed

    Jayarathne, Upul; Chandrasekaran, Perumalreddy; Greene, Angelique F; Mague, Joel T; DeBeer, Serena; Lancaster, Kyle M; Sproules, Stephen; Donahue, James P

    2014-08-18

    A series of mononuclear six-coordinate tungsten compounds spanning formal oxidation states from 0 to +VI, largely in a ligand environment of inert chloride and/or phosphine, was interrogated by tungsten L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The L-edge spectra of this compound set, comprised of [W(0)(PMe3)6], [W(II)Cl2(PMePh2)4], [W(III)Cl2(dppe)2][PF6] (dppe = 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane), [W(IV)Cl4(PMePh2)2], [W(V)(NPh)Cl3(PMe3)2], and [W(VI)Cl6], correlate with formal oxidation state and have usefulness as references for the interpretation of the L-edge spectra of tungsten compounds with redox-active ligands and ambiguous electronic structure descriptions. The utility of these spectra arises from the combined correlation of the estimated branching ratio of the L3,2-edges and the L1 rising-edge energy with metal Zeff, thereby permitting an assessment of effective metal oxidation state. An application of these reference spectra is illustrated by their use as backdrop for the L-edge X-ray absorption spectra of [W(IV)(mdt)2(CO)2] and [W(IV)(mdt)2(CN)2](2-) (mdt(2-) = 1,2-dimethylethene-1,2-dithiolate), which shows that both compounds are effectively W(IV) species even though the mdt ligands exist at different redox levels in the two compounds. Use of metal L-edge XAS to assess a compound of uncertain formulation requires: (1) Placement of that data within the context of spectra offered by unambiguous calibrant compounds, preferably with the same coordination number and similar metal ligand distances. Such spectra assist in defining upper and/or lower limits for metal Zeff in the species of interest. (2) Evaluation of that data in conjunction with information from other physical methods, especially ligand K-edge XAS. (3) Increased care in interpretation if strong π-acceptor ligands, particularly CO, or π-donor ligands are present. The electron-withdrawing/donating nature of these ligand types, combined with relatively short metal-ligand distances, exaggerate

  15. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of Mn doped ZnO thin films prepared by rf sputtering technique

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Ashok Kumar; Jha, S. N.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Haque, Sk Maidul; Shukla, Dinesh; Choudhary, Ram Janay

    2015-11-15

    A set of r.f. sputter deposited ZnO thin films prepared with different Mn doping concentrations have been characterised by Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES) measurements at Zn, Mn and O K edges and at Mn L{sub 2,3} edges apart from long range structural characterisation by Grazing Incident X-ray Diffraction (GIXRD) technique. Magnetic measurements show room temperature ferromagnetism in samples with lower Mn doping which is however, gets destroyed at higher Mn doping concentration. The results of the magnetic measurements have been explained using the local structure information obtained from EXAFS and XANES measurements.

  16. Design and Operation of an In Situ High Pressure Reaction Cell for X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bare, Simon R.; Mickelson, G. E.; Modica, F. S.; Yang, N.; Kelly, S. D.

    2007-02-02

    The design and initial operation of an in situ catalysis reaction cell for x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements at high pressure is described. The design is based on an x-ray transparent tube fabricated from beryllium. This forms a true plug flow reactor for catalysis studies. The reactor is coupled to a portable microprocessor-controlled versatile feed system, and incorporates on-line analysis of reaction products. XAFS data recorded during the reduction of a NiRe/carbon catalyst at 4 bar are used to illustrate the performance of the reactor.

  17. Design and operation of an in situ high pressure reaction cell for x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    SciTech Connect

    Bare, S. R.; Yang, N.; Kelly, S. D.; Mickelson, G. E.; Modica, F. S.; UOP LLC; EXAFS Analysis

    2007-01-01

    The design and initial operation of an in situ catalysis reaction cell for x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements at high pressure is described. The design is based on an x-ray transparent tube fabricated from beryllium. This forms a true plug flow reactor for catalysis studies. The reactor is coupled to a portable microprocessor-controlled versatile feed system, and incorporates on-line analysis of reaction products. XAFS data recorded during the reduction of a NiRe/carbon catalyst at 4 bar are used to illustrate the performance of the reactor.

  18. A reaction cell with sample laser heating for in situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies under environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Carlos; Jiang, Peng; Pach, Elzbieta; Borondics, Ferenc; West, Mark W; Tuxen, Anders; Chintapalli, Mahati; Carenco, Sophie; Guo, Jinghua; Salmeron, Miquel

    2013-05-01

    A miniature (1 ml volume) reaction cell with transparent X-ray windows and laser heating of the sample has been designed to conduct X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies of materials in the presence of gases at atmospheric pressures. Heating by laser solves the problems associated with the presence of reactive gases interacting with hot filaments used in resistive heating methods. It also facilitates collection of a small total electron yield signal by eliminating interference with heating current leakage and ground loops. The excellent operation of the cell is demonstrated with examples of CO and H2 Fischer-Tropsch reactions on Co nanoparticles.

  19. Single shot near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantouvalou, I.; Witte, K.; Martyanov, W.; Jonas, A.; Grötzsch, D.; Streeck, C.; Löchel, H.; Rudolph, I.; Erko, A.; Stiel, H.; Kanngießer, B.

    2016-05-01

    With the help of adapted off-axis reflection zone plates, near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectra at the C and N K-absorption edge have been recorded using a single 1.2 ns long soft X-ray pulse. The transmission experiments were performed with a laser-produced plasma source in the laboratory rendering time resolved measurements feasible independent on large scale facilities. A resolving power of E/ΔE ˜ 950 at the respective edges could be demonstrated. A comparison of single shot spectra with those collected with longer measuring time proves that all features of the used reference samples (silicon nitrate and polyimide) can be resolved in 1.2 ns. Hence, investigations of radiation sensitive biological specimen become possible due to the high efficiency of the optical elements enabling low dose experiments.

  20. Polarized x-ray-absorption spectroscopy of the uranyl ion: Comparison of experiment and theory

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, E.A.; Allen, P.G.; Terminello, L.J.; Denecke, M.A.; Reich, T.

    1996-07-01

    The x-ray linear dichroism of the uranyl ion (UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}) in uranium {ital L}{sub 3}-edge extended x-ray-absorption fine structure (EXAFS), and {ital L}{sub 1}- and {ital L}{sub 3}-edge x-ray-absorption near-edge structure (XANES), has been investigated both by experiment and theory. A striking polarization dependence is observed in the experimental XANES and EXAFS for an oriented single crystal of uranyl acetate dihydrate [UO{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}CO{sub 2}){sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O], with the x-ray polarization vector aligned either parallel or perpendicular to the bond axis of the linear uranyl cation (O-U-O). Single-crystal results are compared to experimental spectra for a polycrystalline uranyl acetate sample and to calculations using the {ital ab} {ital initio} multiple-scattering (MS) code FEFF 6. Theoretical XANES spectra for uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) reproduce all the features of the measured uranyl acetate spectra. By identifying scattering paths which contribute to individual features in the calculated spectrum, a detailed understanding of the {ital L}{sub 1}-edge XANES is obtained. MS paths within the uranyl cation have a notable influence upon the XANES. The measured {ital L}{sub 3}-edge EXAFS is also influenced by MS, especially when the x-ray polarization is parallel to the uranyl species. These MS contributions are extracted from the total EXAFS and compared to calculations. The best agreement with the isolated MS signal is obtained by using nonoverlapped muffin-tin spheres in the FEFF 6 calculation. This contrasts the {ital L}{sub 1}-edge XANES calculations, in which overlapping was required for the best agreement with experiment. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  1. X-ray absorption spectroscopy for wire-array Z-pinches at the non-radiative stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. V.; Hakel, P.; Mancini, R. C.; Chittenden, J. P.; Anderson, A.; Shevelko, A. P.; Wiewior, P.; Durmaz, T.; Altemara, S. D.; Papp, D.; Astanovitskiy, A. L.; Nalajala, V.; Chalyy, O.; Dmitriev, O.

    2011-12-01

    Absorption spectroscopy was applied to wire-array Z-pinches on the 1 MA pulsed-power Zebra generator at the Nevada Terawatt Facility (NTF). The 50 TW Leopard laser was coupled with the Zebra generator for X-ray backlighting of wire arrays at the ablation stage. Broadband X-ray emission from a laser-produced Sm plasma was used to backlight Al star wire arrays in the range of 7-9 Å. Two time-integrated X-ray conical spectrometers recorded reference and absorption spectra. The spectrometers were shielded from the bright Z-pinch X-ray burst by collimators. The comparison of plasma-transmitted spectra with reference spectra indicates absorption lines in the range of 8.1-8.4 Å. Analysis of Al K-shell absorption spectra with detailed atomic kinetics models shows a distribution of electron temperature in the range of 10-30 eV that was fitted with an effective two-temperature model. Temperature and density distributions in wire-array plasma were simulated with a three-dimension magneto-hydrodynamic code. Post-processing of this code's output yields synthetic transmission spectrum which is in general agreement with the data.

  2. Determination of copper binding in Pseudomonas putida CZ1 by chemical modifications and X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, XinCai; Shi, JiYan; Chen, YingXu; Xu, XiangHua; Chen, LiTao; Wang, Hui; Hu, TianDou

    2007-03-01

    Previously performed studies have shown that Pseudomonas putida CZ1 biomass can bind an appreciable amount of Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions from aqueous solutions. The mechanisms of Cu- and Zn-binding by P. putida CZ1 were ascertained by chemical modifications of the biomass followed by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray absorption spectroscopic analyses of the living or nonliving cells. A dramatic decrease in Cu(II)- and Zn(II)-binding resulted after acidic methanol esterification of the nonliving cells, indicating that carboxyl functional groups play an important role in the binding of metal to the biomaterial. X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to determine the speciation of Cu ions bound by living and nonliving cells, as well as to elucidate which functional groups were involved in binding of the Cu ions. The X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectra analysis showed that the majority of the Cu was bound in both samples as Cu(II). The fitting results of Cu K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectra showed that N/O ligands dominated in living and nonliving cells. Therefore, by combining different techniques, our results indicate that carboxyl functional groups are the major ligands responsible for the metal binding in P. putida CZ1. PMID:17021877

  3. Cadmium Chemical Form in Mine Waste Materials by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Diacomanolis, V.; Ng, J. C.; Sadler, R.; Harris, H. H.; Nomura, M.; Noller, B. N.

    2010-06-23

    This study examines the molecular form of cadmium (Cd) present in mine wastes by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS; Cd>20 mg/kg) using the K-edge of Cd at the Photon Factory Advanced Ring (PF-AR), NW10A beam line at KEK-Tsukuba-Japan. Mine waste materials and zinc concentrate were analyzed for Cd by ICPMS prior to undertaking XAS (range 21-452 mg/kg). Model compounds (CdO, Cd(OH){sub 2}, CdCO{sub 3}, Cdacetate, CdS, Cdstearate, CdDEDTC) and samples were examined in solid form at 20 K. The XANES spectra showed similar E max values for both model compounds and samples. The EXAFS showed that Cd-S in CdS, gives a flatter spectrum in the extended region compared to Cd-O found with CdCO{sub 3}, CdO and Cd Stearate. Linear combination fitting with model Cd compounds did not give clear assignments of composition, indicating that more detailed EXAFS spectra is required as mineral forms containing Cd were present rather than simple Cd compounds such as CdCO{sub 3}. The Cd bond for a single shell model in mine waste sample matrices appears to be either Cd-O or Cd-S, or a combination of both. Comparison of molecular data from the XAS studies with bioaccessibility data giving a prediction of bioavailability for mine waste materials provides useful information about the significance of the cadmium form as a contaminant for health risk assessment purposes.

  4. Experimental station for laser-based picosecond time-resolved x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dorchies, F. Fedorov, N.; Lecherbourg, L.

    2015-07-15

    We present an experimental station designed for time-resolved X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy (XANES). It is based on ultrashort laser-plasma x-ray pulses generated from a table-top 100 mJ-class laser at 10 Hz repetition rate. A high transmission (10%–20%) x-ray beam line transport using polycapillary optics allows us to set the sample in an independent vacuum chamber, providing high flexibility over a wide spectral range from 0.5 up to 4 keV. Some XANES spectra are presented, demonstrating 1% noise level in only ∼1 mn and ∼100 cumulated laser shots. Time-resolved measurements are reported, indicating that the time resolution of the entire experimental station is 3.3 ± 0.6 ps rms.

  5. Time-resolved pump and probe x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy at beamline P11 at PETRA III.

    PubMed

    Göries, D; Dicke, B; Roedig, P; Stübe, N; Meyer, J; Galler, A; Gawelda, W; Britz, A; Geßler, P; Sotoudi Namin, H; Beckmann, A; Schlie, M; Warmer, M; Naumova, M; Bressler, C; Rübhausen, M; Weckert, E; Meents, A

    2016-05-01

    We report about the development and implementation of a new setup for time-resolved X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy at beamline P11 utilizing the outstanding source properties of the low-emittance PETRA III synchrotron storage ring in Hamburg. Using a high intensity micrometer-sized X-ray beam in combination with two positional feedback systems, measurements were performed on the transition metal complex fac-Tris[2-phenylpyridinato-C2,N]iridium(III) also referred to as fac-Ir(ppy)3. This compound is a representative of the phosphorescent iridium(III) complexes, which play an important role in organic light emitting diode (OLED) technology. The experiment could directly prove the anticipated photoinduced charge transfer reaction. Our results further reveal that the temporal resolution of the experiment is limited by the PETRA III X-ray bunch length of ∼103 ps full width at half maximum (FWHM). PMID:27250401

  6. Experimental station for laser-based picosecond time-resolved x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dorchies, F; Fedorov, N; Lecherbourg, L

    2015-07-01

    We present an experimental station designed for time-resolved X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy (XANES). It is based on ultrashort laser-plasma x-ray pulses generated from a table-top 100 mJ-class laser at 10 Hz repetition rate. A high transmission (10%-20%) x-ray beam line transport using polycapillary optics allows us to set the sample in an independent vacuum chamber, providing high flexibility over a wide spectral range from 0.5 up to 4 keV. Some XANES spectra are presented, demonstrating 1% noise level in only ∼1 mn and ∼100 cumulated laser shots. Time-resolved measurements are reported, indicating that the time resolution of the entire experimental station is 3.3 ± 0.6 ps rms.

  7. Time-resolved pump and probe x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy at beamline P11 at PETRA III.

    PubMed

    Göries, D; Dicke, B; Roedig, P; Stübe, N; Meyer, J; Galler, A; Gawelda, W; Britz, A; Geßler, P; Sotoudi Namin, H; Beckmann, A; Schlie, M; Warmer, M; Naumova, M; Bressler, C; Rübhausen, M; Weckert, E; Meents, A

    2016-05-01

    We report about the development and implementation of a new setup for time-resolved X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy at beamline P11 utilizing the outstanding source properties of the low-emittance PETRA III synchrotron storage ring in Hamburg. Using a high intensity micrometer-sized X-ray beam in combination with two positional feedback systems, measurements were performed on the transition metal complex fac-Tris[2-phenylpyridinato-C2,N]iridium(III) also referred to as fac-Ir(ppy)3. This compound is a representative of the phosphorescent iridium(III) complexes, which play an important role in organic light emitting diode (OLED) technology. The experiment could directly prove the anticipated photoinduced charge transfer reaction. Our results further reveal that the temporal resolution of the experiment is limited by the PETRA III X-ray bunch length of ∼103 ps full width at half maximum (FWHM).

  8. Distribution and speciation of bromine in mammalian tissue and fluids by X-ray fluorescence imaging and X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ceko, Melanie J; Hummitzsch, Katja; Hatzirodos, Nicholas; Bonner, Wendy; James, Simon A; Kirby, Jason K; Rodgers, Raymond J; Harris, Hugh H

    2015-05-01

    Bromine is one of the most abundant and ubiquitous trace elements in the biosphere and until recently had not been shown to perform any essential biological function in animals. A recent study demonstrated that bromine is required as a cofactor for peroxidasin-catalysed formation of sulfilimine crosslinks in Drosophila. In addition, bromine dietary deficiency is lethal in Drosophila, whereas bromine replenishment restores viability. The aim of this study was to examine the distribution and speciation of bromine in mammalian tissues and fluids to provide further insights into the role and function of this element in biological systems. In this study we used X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to examine the distribution of bromine in bovine ovarian tissue samples, follicular fluid and aortic serum, as well as human whole blood and serum and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to identify the chemical species of bromine in a range of mammalian tissue (bovine, ovine, porcine and murine), whole blood and serum samples (bovine, ovine, porcine, murine and human), and marine samples (salmon (Salmo salar), kingfish (Seriola lalandi) and Scleractinian coral). Bromine was found to be widely distributed across all tissues and fluids examined. In the bovine ovary in particular it was more concentrated in the sub-endothelial regions of arterioles. Statistical comparison of the near-edge region of the X-ray absorption spectra with a library of bromine standards led to the conclusion that the major form of bromine in all samples analysed was bromide.

  9. Distribution and speciation of bromine in mammalian tissue and fluids by X-ray fluorescence imaging and X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ceko, Melanie J; Hummitzsch, Katja; Hatzirodos, Nicholas; Bonner, Wendy; James, Simon A; Kirby, Jason K; Rodgers, Raymond J; Harris, Hugh H

    2015-05-01

    Bromine is one of the most abundant and ubiquitous trace elements in the biosphere and until recently had not been shown to perform any essential biological function in animals. A recent study demonstrated that bromine is required as a cofactor for peroxidasin-catalysed formation of sulfilimine crosslinks in Drosophila. In addition, bromine dietary deficiency is lethal in Drosophila, whereas bromine replenishment restores viability. The aim of this study was to examine the distribution and speciation of bromine in mammalian tissues and fluids to provide further insights into the role and function of this element in biological systems. In this study we used X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to examine the distribution of bromine in bovine ovarian tissue samples, follicular fluid and aortic serum, as well as human whole blood and serum and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to identify the chemical species of bromine in a range of mammalian tissue (bovine, ovine, porcine and murine), whole blood and serum samples (bovine, ovine, porcine, murine and human), and marine samples (salmon (Salmo salar), kingfish (Seriola lalandi) and Scleractinian coral). Bromine was found to be widely distributed across all tissues and fluids examined. In the bovine ovary in particular it was more concentrated in the sub-endothelial regions of arterioles. Statistical comparison of the near-edge region of the X-ray absorption spectra with a library of bromine standards led to the conclusion that the major form of bromine in all samples analysed was bromide. PMID:25675086

  10. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and x-ray absorption spectroscopy of novel magnetic thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, M.A.; Ju, H.L.; Krishnan, K.M.

    1997-04-01

    The optimization of the magnetic properties of materials for a wide range of applications requires a dynamic iteration between synthesis, property measurements and characterization at appropriate length scales. The authors interest arises both from the increased appreciation of the degree to which magnetic properties can be influenced by tailored microstructures and the ability to characterize them by x-ray scattering/dichroism techniques. Preliminary results of this work at the ALS on `giant` moment in {alpha}{double_prime}-Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2} and `colossal` magnetoresistance in manganite perovskites is presented here. It has recently been claimed that {alpha}{double_prime}-Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2} possesses a giant magnetization of 2.9 T ({approximately}2300 emu/cc) when grown on lattice-matched In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}As(001) and Fe/GaAs(001). However, attempts at growth on simpler substrates have resulted in only a modest enhancement in moment and often in multiphase mixtures. Theoretical calculations based on the band structure of Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2} predict values for the magnetization around 2.3 T ({approximately}1780 emu/cc), well below Sugita`s claims, but consistent with the magnetization reported by several other workers. Using appropriate sum rules applied to the integrated MCD spectrum, they hope to determine the magnetic moment of the iron species in the {alpha}{double_prime}-Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2} films and other phases and resolve the orbital and spin contributions to the moment. There is also rapidly growing interest in the `colossal magnetoresistance` effect observed in manganese oxides for both fundamental and commercial applications. To address some of these issues the authors have measured the electron energy loss spectra (EELS) of manganese perovskites at room temperature.

  11. Voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy in Fe|MgO tunnel junctions studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Miwa, Shinji Matsuda, Kensho; Tanaka, Kazuhito; Goto, Minori; Suzuki, Yoshishige; Kotani, Yoshinori; Nakamura, Tetsuya

    2015-10-19

    In this study, voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) in Fe|MgO tunnel junctions was investigated via the magneto-optical Kerr effect, soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy. The Fe|MgO tunnel junctions showed enhanced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy under external negative voltage, which induced charge depletion at the Fe|MgO interface. Despite the application of voltages of opposite polarity, no trace of chemical reaction such as a redox reaction attributed to O{sup 2−} migration was detected in the x-ray absorption spectra of the Fe. The VCMA reported in the Fe|MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions must therefore originate from phenomena associated with the purely electric effect, that is, surface electron doping and/or redistribution induced by an external electric field.

  12. Time- and space-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy of aluminum irradiated by a subpicosecond high-power laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzortzakis, S.; Audebert, P.; Renaudin, P.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Geindre, J. P.; Chenais-Popovics, C.; Nagels, V.; Gary, S.; Shepherd, R.; Girard, F.; Matsushima, I.; Peyrusse, O.; Gauthier, J.-C.

    2006-05-01

    The ionization and recombination dynamics of transient aluminum plasmas was measured using point projection K-shell absorption spectroscopy. An aluminum plasma was produced with a subpicosecond beam of the 100-TW laser at the LULI facility and probed at different times with a picosecond X-ray backlighter created with a synchronized subpicosecond laser beam. Fourier-Domain-Interferometry (FDI) was used to measure the electron temperature at the peak of the heating laser pulse. Absorption X-ray spectra at early times are characteristic of a dense and rather homogeneous plasma, with limited longitudinal gradients as shown by hydrodynamic simulations. The shift of the Al K-edge was measured in the cold dense plasma located at the edge of the heated plasma. From the 1s 2p absorption spectra, the average ionization was measured as a function of time and was also modeled with a collisional-radiative atomic physics code coupled with hydrodynamic simulations.

  13. Redox State of Iron in Lunar Glasses using X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyar, M. D.; McCanta, M. C.; Lanzirotti, A.; Sutton, S. R.; Carey, C. J.; Mahadevan, S.; Rutherford, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The oxidation state of igneous materials on a planet is a critically-important variable in understanding magma evolution on bodies in our solar system. However, direct and indirect methods for quantifying redox states are challenging, especially across the broad spectrum of silicate glass compositions found on airless bodies. On the Moon, early Mössbauer studies of bulk samples suggested the presence of significant Fe3+ (>10%) in lunar glasses (green, orange, brown); lunar analog glasses synthesized at fO2 <10-11 have similar Fe3+. All these Mössbauer spectra are challenging to interpret due to the presence of multiple coordination environments in the glasses. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) allows pico- and nano-scale interrogation of primitive planetary materials using the pre-edge, main edge, and EXAFS regions of absorption edge spectra. Current uses of XAS require availability of standards with compositions similar to those of unknowns and complex procedures for curve-fitting of pre-edge features that produce results with poorly constrained accuracy. A new approach to accurate and quantitative redox measurements with XAS is to couple use of spectra from synthetic glass standards covering a broad compositional range with multivariate analysis (MVA) techniques. Mössbauer and XAS spectra from a suite of 33 synthetic glass standards covering a wide range of compositions and fO2(Dyar et al., this meeting) were used to develop a MVA model that utilizes valuable predictive information not only in the major spectral peaks/features, but in all channels of the XAS region. Algorithms for multivariate analysis t were used to "learn" the characteristics of a data set as a function of varying spectral characteristics. These models were applied to the study of lunar glasses, which provide a challenging test case for these newly-developed techniques due to their very low fO2. Application of the new XAS calibration model to Apollo 15 green (15426, 15427 and 15425

  14. Time-resolved near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy on photo-induced phase transitions using a tabletop soft-x-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossmann, P.; Rajkovic, I.; Moré, R.; Norpoth, J.; Techert, S.; Jooss, C.; Mann, Klaus

    2012-05-01

    We present a table-top soft-x-ray spectrometer for the wavelength range λ = 1-5 nm based on a stable laser-driven x-ray source, making use of a gas-puff target. With this setup, optical light-pump/soft-x-ray probe near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) experiments with a temporal resolution of about 230 ps are feasible. Pump-probe NEXAFS measurements were carried out in the "water-window" region (2.28 nm-4.36 nm) on the manganite Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3, investigating diminutive changes of the oxygen K edge that derive from an optically induced phase transition. The results show the practicability of the table-top soft-x-ray spectrometer on demanding investigations so far exclusively conducted at synchrotron radiation sources.

  15. Solvation structure of the halides from x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Antalek, Matthew; Pace, Elisabetta; Hedman, Britt; Hodgson, Keith O; Chillemi, Giovanni; Benfatto, Maurizio; Sarangi, Ritimukta; Frank, Patrick

    2016-07-28

    Three-dimensional models for the aqueous solvation structures of chloride, bromide, and iodide are reported. K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and Minuit X-ray absorption near edge (MXAN) analyses found well-defined single shell solvation spheres for bromide and iodide. However, dissolved chloride proved structurally distinct, with two solvation shells needed to explain its strikingly different X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectrum. Final solvation models were as follows: iodide, 8 water molecules at 3.60 ± 0.13 Å and bromide, 8 water molecules at 3.40 ± 0.14 Å, while chloride solvation included 7 water molecules at 3.15 ± 0.10 Å, and a second shell of 7 water molecules at 4.14 ± 0.30 Å. Each of the three derived solvation shells is approximately uniformly disposed about the halides, with no global asymmetry. Time-dependent density functional theory calculations simulating the chloride XANES spectra following from alternative solvation spheres revealed surprising sensitivity of the electronic state to 6-, 7-, or 8-coordination, implying a strongly bounded phase space for the correct structure during an MXAN fit. MXAN analysis further showed that the asymmetric solvation predicted from molecular dynamics simulations using halide polarization can play no significant part in bulk solvation. Classical molecular dynamics used to explore chloride solvation found a 7-water solvation shell at 3.12 (-0.04/+0.3) Å, supporting the experimental result. These experiments provide the first fully three-dimensional structures presenting to atomic resolution the aqueous solvation spheres of the larger halide ions. PMID:27475372

  16. Solvation structure of the halides from x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antalek, Matthew; Pace, Elisabetta; Hedman, Britt; Hodgson, Keith O.; Chillemi, Giovanni; Benfatto, Maurizio; Sarangi, Ritimukta; Frank, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    Three-dimensional models for the aqueous solvation structures of chloride, bromide, and iodide are reported. K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and Minuit X-ray absorption near edge (MXAN) analyses found well-defined single shell solvation spheres for bromide and iodide. However, dissolved chloride proved structurally distinct, with two solvation shells needed to explain its strikingly different X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectrum. Final solvation models were as follows: iodide, 8 water molecules at 3.60 ± 0.13 Å and bromide, 8 water molecules at 3.40 ± 0.14 Å, while chloride solvation included 7 water molecules at 3.15 ± 0.10 Å, and a second shell of 7 water molecules at 4.14 ± 0.30 Å. Each of the three derived solvation shells is approximately uniformly disposed about the halides, with no global asymmetry. Time-dependent density functional theory calculations simulating the chloride XANES spectra following from alternative solvation spheres revealed surprising sensitivity of the electronic state to 6-, 7-, or 8-coordination, implying a strongly bounded phase space for the correct structure during an MXAN fit. MXAN analysis further showed that the asymmetric solvation predicted from molecular dynamics simulations using halide polarization can play no significant part in bulk solvation. Classical molecular dynamics used to explore chloride solvation found a 7-water solvation shell at 3.12 (-0.04/+0.3) Å, supporting the experimental result. These experiments provide the first fully three-dimensional structures presenting to atomic resolution the aqueous solvation spheres of the larger halide ions.

  17. Silicon 1s near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy of functionalized silicon nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, A.; Cao, W.; Dasog, M.; Purkait, T. K.; Senger, C.; Hu, Y. F.; Xiao, Q. F.; Veinot, J. G. C.; Urquhart, S. G.

    2016-10-01

    Silicon 1s Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectra of silicon nanocrystals have been examined as a function of nanocrystal size (3-100 nm), varying surface functionalization (hydrogen or 1-pentyl termination), or embedded in oxide. The NEXAFS spectra are characterized as a function of nanocrystal size and surface functionalization. Clear spectroscopic evidence for long range order is observed silicon nanocrystals that are 5-8 nm in diameter or larger. Energy shifts in the silicon 1s NEXAFS spectra of covalently functionalized silicon nanocrystals with changing size are attributed to surface chemical shifts and not to quantum confinement effects.

  18. Extension to Low Energies (<7keV) of High Pressure X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Itie, J.-P.; Flank, A.-M.; Lagarde, P.; Idir, M.; Polian, A.; Couzinet, B.

    2007-01-19

    High pressure x-ray absorption has been performed down to 3.6 keV, thanks to the new LUCIA beamline (SLS, PSI) and to the use of perforated diamonds or Be gasket. Various experimental geometries are proposed, depending on the energy of the edge and on the concentration of the studied element. A few examples will be presented: BaTiO3 at the titanium K edge, Zn0.95 Mn0.05O at the manganese K edge, KCl at the potassium K edge.

  19. Comparison Between X-rays Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy Measurements on a Ceramic Envelop Lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafitte, Bruno; Aubes, Michel; Zissis, Georges

    2007-12-01

    Burners of metal halide lamps used for illumination are generally made of polycrystalline alumina ceramic (PCA) which is translucent to visible light. We show that the difficulty of selecting a line of sight through the lamp prevents the use of optical emission diagnostic. X-rays photons are mainly absorbed and not scattered by PCA. Absorption by mercury atoms contributing to the discharge allowed us to determine the density of mercury in the lamp. By comparing diagnostic methods, we put in evidence the difficulty of taking into account the scattering of light mathematically.

  20. X-ray absorption spectroscopy from H-passivated porous Si and oxidized Si nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Schuppler, S.; Marcus, M.A.; Friedman, S.L.

    1994-11-01

    Quantum confinement in nanoscale Si structures is widely believed to be responsible for the visible luminescence observed from anodically etched porous silicon (por-Si), but little is known about the actual size or shape of these structures. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure data from a wide variety of por-Si samples show significantly reduced average Si coordination numbers due to the sizable contribution of surface-coordinated H. (The IUSI ratios, as large as 1.2, were independently confirmed by ir-absorption and {alpha}-recoil measurements.) The Si coordinations imply very large surface/volume ratios, enabling the average Si structures to be identified as crystalline particles (not wires) whose dimensions are typically <15 {Angstrom}. Comparison of the size-dependent peak luminescence energies with those of oxidized Si nanocrystals, whose shapes are known, shows remarkable agreement. Furthermore, near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure measurements of the nanocrystals shows the outer oxide and interfacial suboxide layers to be constant over a wide range of nanocrystal sizes. The combination of these results effectively rules out surface species as being responsible for the observed visible luminescence in por-Si, and strongly supports quantum confinement as the dominant mechanism occurring in Si particles which are substantially smaller than previously reported or proposed.

  1. Geometric Structure Determination of N694C Lipoxygenase: a Comparative Near-Edge X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy And Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure Study

    SciTech Connect

    Sarangi, R.; Hocking, R.K.; Neidig, M.L.; Benfatto, M.; Holman, T.R.; Solomon, E.I.; Hodgson, K.O.; Hedman, B.

    2009-05-27

    The mononuclear nonheme iron active site of N694C soybean lipoxygenase (sLO1) has been investigated in the resting ferrous form using a combination of Fe-K-pre-edge, near-edge (using the minuit X-ray absorption near-edge full multiple-scattering approach), and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) methods. The results indicate that the active site is six-coordinate (6C) with a large perturbation in the first-shell bond distances in comparison to the more ordered octahedral site in wild-type sLO1. Upon mutation of the asparigine to cystiene, the short Fe-O interaction with asparigine is replaced by a weak Fe-(H{sub 2}O), which leads to a distorted 6C site with an effective 5C ligand field. In addition, it is shown that near-edge multiple scattering analysis can give important three-dimensional structural information, which usually cannot be accessed using EXAFS analysis. It is further shown that, relative to EXAFS, near-edge analysis is more sensitive to partial coordination numbers and can be potentially used as a tool for structure determination in a mixture of chemical species.

  2. Quantitative analysis of deconvolved X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectra: a tool to push the limits of the X-ray absorption spectroscopy technique.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Paola; Migliorati, Valentina; Persson, Ingmar; Mancini, Giordano; Della Longa, Stefano

    2014-09-15

    A deconvolution procedure has been applied to K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra of lanthanoid-containing solid systems, namely, hexakis(dmpu)praseodymium(III) and -gadolinium(III) iodide. The K-edges of lanthanoids cover the energy range 38 (La)-65 (Lu) keV, and the large widths of the core-hole states lead to broadening of spectral features, reducing the content of structural information that can be extracted from the raw X-ray absorption spectra. Here, we demonstrate that deconvolution procedures allow one to remove most of the instrumental and core-hole lifetime broadening in the K-edge XANES spectra of lanthanoid compounds, highlighting structural features that are lost in the raw data. We show that quantitative analysis of the deconvolved K-edge XANES spectra can be profitably used to gain a complete local structural characterization of lanthanoid-containing systems not only for the nearest neighbor atoms but also for higher-distance coordination shells. PMID:25171598

  3. Local electronic states of Fe{sub 4}N films revealed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Keita; Toko, Kaoru; Suemasu, Takashi; Takeda, Yukiharu; Saitoh, Yuji; Oguchi, Tamio; Kimura, Akio

    2015-05-21

    We performed x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements at Fe L{sub 2,3} and N K-edges for Fe{sub 4}N epitaxial films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In order to clarify the element specific local electronic structure of Fe{sub 4}N, we compared experimentally obtained XAS and XMCD spectra with those simulated by a combination of a first-principles calculation and Fermi's golden rule. We revealed that the shoulders observed at Fe L{sub 2,3}-edges in the XAS and XMCD spectra were due to the electric dipole transition from the Fe 2p core-level to the hybridization state generated by σ* anti-bonding between the orbitals of N 2p at the body-centered site and Fe 3d on the face-centered (II) sites. Thus, the observed shoulders were attributed to the local electronic structure of Fe atoms at II sites. As to the N K-edge, the line shape of the obtained spectra was explained by the dipole transition from the N 1s core-level to the hybridization state formed by π* and σ* anti-bondings between the Fe 3d and N 2p orbitals. This hybridization plays an important role in featuring the electronic structures and physical properties of Fe{sub 4}N.

  4. Rapid Mapping of Lithiation Dynamics in Transition Metal Oxide Particles with Operando X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowack, Lea; Grolimund, Daniel; Samson, Vallerie; Marone, Federica; Wood, Vanessa

    2016-02-01

    Since the commercialization of lithium ion batteries (LIBs), layered transition metal oxides (LiMO2, where M = Co, Mn, Ni, or mixtures thereof) have been materials of choice for LIB cathodes. During cycling, the transition metals change their oxidation states, an effect that can be tracked by detecting energy shifts in the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectrum. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) can therefore be used to visualize and quantify lithiation kinetics in transition metal oxide cathodes; however, in-situ measurements are often constrained by temporal resolution and X-ray dose, necessitating compromises in the electrochemistry cycling conditions used or the materials examined. We report a combined approach to reduce measurement time and X-ray exposure for operando XAS studies of lithium ion batteries. A highly discretized energy resolution coupled with advanced post-processing enables rapid yet reliable identification of the oxidation state. A full-field microscopy setup provides sub-particle resolution over a large area of battery electrode, enabling the oxidation state within many transition metal oxide particles to be tracked simultaneously. Here, we apply this approach to gain insights into the lithiation kinetics of a commercial, mixed-metal oxide cathode material, nickel cobalt aluminium oxide (NCA), during (dis)charge and its degradation during overcharge.

  5. Rapid Mapping of Lithiation Dynamics in Transition Metal Oxide Particles with Operando X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nowack, Lea; Grolimund, Daniel; Samson, Vallerie; Marone, Federica; Wood, Vanessa

    2016-02-24

    Since the commercialization of lithium ion batteries (LIBs), layered transition metal oxides (LiMO2, where M = Co, Mn, Ni, or mixtures thereof) have been materials of choice for LIB cathodes. During cycling, the transition metals change their oxidation states, an effect that can be tracked by detecting energy shifts in the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectrum. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) can therefore be used to visualize and quantify lithiation kinetics in transition metal oxide cathodes; however, in-situ measurements are often constrained by temporal resolution and X-ray dose, necessitating compromises in the electrochemistry cycling conditions used or the materials examined. We report a combined approach to reduce measurement time and X-ray exposure for operando XAS studies of lithium ion batteries. A highly discretized energy resolution coupled with advanced post-processing enables rapid yet reliable identification of the oxidation state. A full-field microscopy setup provides sub-particle resolution over a large area of battery electrode, enabling the oxidation state within many transition metal oxide particles to be tracked simultaneously. Here, we apply this approach to gain insights into the lithiation kinetics of a commercial, mixed-metal oxide cathode material, nickel cobalt aluminium oxide (NCA), during (dis)charge and its degradation during overcharge.

  6. Rapid Mapping of Lithiation Dynamics in Transition Metal Oxide Particles with Operando X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nowack, Lea; Grolimund, Daniel; Samson, Vallerie; Marone, Federica; Wood, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Since the commercialization of lithium ion batteries (LIBs), layered transition metal oxides (LiMO2, where M = Co, Mn, Ni, or mixtures thereof) have been materials of choice for LIB cathodes. During cycling, the transition metals change their oxidation states, an effect that can be tracked by detecting energy shifts in the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectrum. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) can therefore be used to visualize and quantify lithiation kinetics in transition metal oxide cathodes; however, in-situ measurements are often constrained by temporal resolution and X-ray dose, necessitating compromises in the electrochemistry cycling conditions used or the materials examined. We report a combined approach to reduce measurement time and X-ray exposure for operando XAS studies of lithium ion batteries. A highly discretized energy resolution coupled with advanced post-processing enables rapid yet reliable identification of the oxidation state. A full-field microscopy setup provides sub-particle resolution over a large area of battery electrode, enabling the oxidation state within many transition metal oxide particles to be tracked simultaneously. Here, we apply this approach to gain insights into the lithiation kinetics of a commercial, mixed-metal oxide cathode material, nickel cobalt aluminium oxide (NCA), during (dis)charge and its degradation during overcharge. PMID:26908198

  7. Titanium local structure in tektite probed by X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Yoshiasa, Akira; Okube, Maki; Takeda, Takashi

    2011-11-01

    The local structure of titanium in tektites from six strewn fields was studied by Ti K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) in order to provide quantitative data on Ti-O distance and Ti coordination number. The titanium in tektites possessed different coordination environment types. XANES spectra patterns revealed resemblance to high-temperature TiO(2)-SiO(2) glass and TiO(2) anatase. All samples showed that the valence of Ti is 4+. Based on the Ti-O distances, coordination numbers and radial distribution function determined by EXAFS analyses, the tektites were classified into three types: type I, Ti occupies a four-coordinated tetrahedral site with Ti-O distances of 1.84-1.79 Å; type II, Ti occupies a five-coordinated trigonal bipyramidal or tetragonal pyramidal site with Ti-O distances of 1.92-1.89 Å; type III, Ti occupies a six-coordinated octahedral site with Ti-O distances of 2.00-1.96 Å. Although Ti occupies the TiO(6) octahedral site in most titanium minerals under ambient conditions, some tektites have four- and five-coordinated Ti. This study indicated that the local structure of Ti might change in impact events and the following stages.

  8. Titanium local structure in tektite probed by X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Yoshiasa, Akira; Okube, Maki; Takeda, Takashi

    2011-11-01

    The local structure of titanium in tektites from six strewn fields was studied by Ti K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) in order to provide quantitative data on Ti-O distance and Ti coordination number. The titanium in tektites possessed different coordination environment types. XANES spectra patterns revealed resemblance to high-temperature TiO(2)-SiO(2) glass and TiO(2) anatase. All samples showed that the valence of Ti is 4+. Based on the Ti-O distances, coordination numbers and radial distribution function determined by EXAFS analyses, the tektites were classified into three types: type I, Ti occupies a four-coordinated tetrahedral site with Ti-O distances of 1.84-1.79 Å; type II, Ti occupies a five-coordinated trigonal bipyramidal or tetragonal pyramidal site with Ti-O distances of 1.92-1.89 Å; type III, Ti occupies a six-coordinated octahedral site with Ti-O distances of 2.00-1.96 Å. Although Ti occupies the TiO(6) octahedral site in most titanium minerals under ambient conditions, some tektites have four- and five-coordinated Ti. This study indicated that the local structure of Ti might change in impact events and the following stages. PMID:21997913

  9. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of GeO2 glass to 64 GPa.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xinguo; Newville, Matthew; Duffy, Thomas S; Sutton, Stephen R; Rivers, Mark L

    2014-01-22

    The structural behavior of GeO2 glass has been investigated up to 64 GPa using results from x-ray absorption spectroscopy in a diamond anvil cell combined with previously reported density measurements. The difference between the nearest Ge-O distances of glassy and rutile-type GeO2 disappears at the Ge-O distance maximum at 20 GPa, indicating completion of the tetrahedral-octahedral transition in GeO2 glass. The mean-square displacement σ(2) of the Ge-O distance in the first Ge-O shell increases progressively to a maximum at 10 GPa, followed by a substantial reduction at higher pressures. The octahedral glass is, as expected, less dense and has a higher compressibility than the corresponding crystalline phase, but the differences in Ge-O distance and density between the glass and the crystals are gradually eliminated over the 20-40 GPa pressure range. Above 40 GPa, GeO2 forms a dense octahedral glass with a compressibility similar to that of the corresponding crystalline phase (α-PbO2 type). The EXAFS and XANES spectra show evidence for subtle changes in the dense glass continuing to occur at these high pressures. The Ge-O bond distance shows little change between 45-64 GPa, and this may reflect a balance between bond shortening and a gradual coordination number increase with compression. The density of the glass is similar to that of the α-PbO2-type phase, but the Ge-O distance is longer and is close to that in the higher-coordination pyrite-type phase which is stable above ∼60 GPa. The density data provide evidence for a possible discontinuity and change in compressibility at 40-45 GPa, but there are no major changes in the corresponding EXAFS spectra. A pyrite-type local structural model for the glass can provide a reasonable fitting to the XAFS spectra at 64 GPa. PMID:24285424

  10. Design of a continuous-flow reactor for in situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy of solids in supercritical fluids.

    PubMed

    Dreher, M; De Boni, E; Nachtegaal, M; Wambach, J; Vogel, F

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents the design and performance of a novel high-temperature and high-pressure continuous-flow reactor, which allows for x-ray absorption spectroscopy or diffraction in supercritical water and other fluids under high pressure and temperature. The in situ cell consists of a tube of sintered, polycrystalline aluminum nitride, which is tolerant to corrosive chemical media, and was designed to be stable at temperatures up to 500 °C and pressures up to 30 MPa. The performance of the reactor is demonstrated by the measurement of extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectra of a carbon-supported ruthenium catalyst during the continuous hydrothermal gasification of ethanol in supercritical water at 400 °C and 24 MPa.

  11. Micro-x-ray fluorescence, micro-x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and micro-x-ray diffraction investigation of lead speciation after the addition of different phosphorus amendments to a smelter-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Baker, Lucas R; Pierzynski, Gary M; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M; Scheckel, Kirk G; Newville, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    The stabilization of Pb on additions of P to contaminated soils and mine spoil materials has been well documented. It is clear from the literature that different P sources result in different efficacies of Pb stabilization in the same contaminated material. We hypothesized that the differences in the efficacy of Pb stabilization in contaminated soils on fluid or granular P amendment addition is due to different P reaction processes in and around fertilizer granules and fluid droplets. We used a combination of several synchrotron-based techniques (i.e., spatially resolved micro-X-ray fluorescence, micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy, and micro-X-ray diffraction) to speciate Pb at two incubation times in a smelter-contaminated soil on addition of several fluid and granular P amendments. The results indicated that the Pb phosphate mineral plumbogummite was an intermediate phase of pyromorphite formation. Additionally, all fluid and granular P sources were able to induce Pb phosphate formation, but fluid phosphoric acid (PA) was the most effective with time and distance from the treatment. Granular phosphate rock and triple super phosphate (TSP) amendments reacted to generate Pb phosphate minerals, with TSP being more effective at greater distances from the point of application. As a result, PA and TSP were the most effective P amendments at inducing Pb phosphate formation, but caution needs to be exercised when adding large amounts of soluble P to the environment.

  12. Segmented Monolithic Germanium Detector Arrays for X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Ethan L. Hull

    2011-03-27

    The experimental results from the Phase I effort were extremely encouraging. During Phase I PHDs Co. made the first strides toward a new detector technology that could have great impact on synchrotron x-ray absorption (XAS) measurements, and x-ray detector technology in general. Detector hardware that allowed critical demonstration measurements of our technology was designed and fabricated. This new technology allows good charge collection from many pixels on a single side of a multi-element monolithic germanium planar detector. The detector technology provides “dot-like” collection electrodes having very low capacitance. The detector technology appears to perform as anticipated in the Phase I proposal. In particular, the 7-pixel detector studied showed remarkable properties; making it an interesting example of detector physics. The technology is enabled by the use of amorphous germanium contact technology on germanium planar detectors. Because of the scalability associated with the fabrication of these technologies at PHDs Co., we anticipate being able to supply larger detector systems at significantly lower cost than systems made in the conventional manner.

  13. High Resolution Spectroscopy of X-ray Quasars: Searching for the X-ray Absorption from the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, Taotao; Canizares, Claude R.; Marshall, Herman L.

    2004-01-01

    We present a survey of six low to moderate redshift quasars with Chandra and XMM-Newton. The primary goal is to search for the narrow X-ray absorption lines produced by highly ionized metals in the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium. All the X-ray spectra can be well fitted by a power law with neutral hydrogen absorption. Only one feature is detected at above 3-sigma level in all the spectra, which is consistent with statistic fluctuation. We discuss the implications in our understanding of the baryon content of the universe. We also discuss the implication of the non-detection of the local (z approx. 0) X-ray absorption.

  14. Towards simultaneous measurements of electronic and structural properties in ultra-fast x-ray free electron laser absorption spectroscopy experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudin, J.; Fourment, C.; Cho, B. I.; Engelhorn, K.; Galtier, E.; Harmand, M.; Leguay, P. M.; Lee, H. J.; Nagler, B.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Ozkan, C.; Störmer, M.; Toleikis, S.; Tschentscher, Th.; Heimann, P. A.; Dorchies, F.

    2014-04-17

    The rapidly growing ultrafast science with X-ray lasers unveils atomic scale processes with unprecedented time resolution bringing the so called “molecular movie” within reach. X-ray absorption spectroscopy is one of the most powerful x-ray techniques providing both local atomic order and electronic structure when coupled with ad-hoc theory. Collecting absorption spectra within few x-ray pulses is possible only in a dispersive setup. We demonstrate ultrafast time-resolved measurements of the LIII-edge x-ray absorption near-edge spectra of irreversibly laser excited Molybdenum using an average of only few x-ray pulses with a signal to noise ratio limited only by the saturation level of the detector. The simplicity of the experimental set-up makes this technique versatile and applicable for a wide range of pump-probe experiments, particularly in the case of non-reversible processes.

  15. Towards simultaneous measurements of electronic and structural properties in ultra-fast x-ray free electron laser absorption spectroscopy experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Gaudin, J.; Fourment, C.; Cho, B. I.; Engelhorn, K.; Galtier, E.; Harmand, M.; Leguay, P. M.; Lee, H. J.; Nagler, B.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; et al

    2014-04-17

    The rapidly growing ultrafast science with X-ray lasers unveils atomic scale processes with unprecedented time resolution bringing the so called “molecular movie” within reach. X-ray absorption spectroscopy is one of the most powerful x-ray techniques providing both local atomic order and electronic structure when coupled with ad-hoc theory. Collecting absorption spectra within few x-ray pulses is possible only in a dispersive setup. We demonstrate ultrafast time-resolved measurements of the LIII-edge x-ray absorption near-edge spectra of irreversibly laser excited Molybdenum using an average of only few x-ray pulses with a signal to noise ratio limited only by the saturation level ofmore » the detector. The simplicity of the experimental set-up makes this technique versatile and applicable for a wide range of pump-probe experiments, particularly in the case of non-reversible processes.« less

  16. Towards simultaneous measurements of electronic and structural properties in ultra-fast x-ray free electron laser absorption spectroscopy experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudin, J.; Fourment, C.; Cho, B. I.; Engelhorn, K.; Galtier, E.; Harmand, M.; Leguay, P. M.; Lee, H. J.; Nagler, B.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Ozkan, C.; Störmer, M.; Toleikis, S.; Tschentscher, Th; Heimann, P. A.; Dorchies, F.

    2014-04-01

    The rapidly growing ultrafast science with X-ray lasers unveils atomic scale processes with unprecedented time resolution bringing the so called ``molecular movie'' within reach. X-ray absorption spectroscopy is one of the most powerful x-ray techniques providing both local atomic order and electronic structure when coupled with ad-hoc theory. Collecting absorption spectra within few x-ray pulses is possible only in a dispersive setup. We demonstrate ultrafast time-resolved measurements of the LIII-edge x-ray absorption near-edge spectra of irreversibly laser excited Molybdenum using an average of only few x-ray pulses with a signal to noise ratio limited only by the saturation level of the detector. The simplicity of the experimental set-up makes this technique versatile and applicable for a wide range of pump-probe experiments, particularly in the case of non-reversible processes.

  17. Towards simultaneous measurements of electronic and structural properties in ultra-fast x-ray free electron laser absorption spectroscopy experiments.

    PubMed

    Gaudin, J; Fourment, C; Cho, B I; Engelhorn, K; Galtier, E; Harmand, M; Leguay, P M; Lee, H J; Nagler, B; Nakatsutsumi, M; Ozkan, C; Störmer, M; Toleikis, S; Tschentscher, Th; Heimann, P A; Dorchies, F

    2014-04-17

    The rapidly growing ultrafast science with X-ray lasers unveils atomic scale processes with unprecedented time resolution bringing the so called "molecular movie" within reach. X-ray absorption spectroscopy is one of the most powerful x-ray techniques providing both local atomic order and electronic structure when coupled with ad-hoc theory. Collecting absorption spectra within few x-ray pulses is possible only in a dispersive setup. We demonstrate ultrafast time-resolved measurements of the LIII-edge x-ray absorption near-edge spectra of irreversibly laser excited Molybdenum using an average of only few x-ray pulses with a signal to noise ratio limited only by the saturation level of the detector. The simplicity of the experimental set-up makes this technique versatile and applicable for a wide range of pump-probe experiments, particularly in the case of non-reversible processes.

  18. Isotope effects in liquid water probed by transmission mode x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the oxygen K-edge.

    PubMed

    Schreck, Simon; Wernet, Philippe

    2016-09-14

    The effects of isotope substitution in liquid water are probed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the O K-edge as measured in transmission mode. Confirming earlier x-ray Raman scattering experiments, the D2O spectrum is found to be blue shifted with respect to H2O, and the D2O spectrum to be less broadened. Following the earlier interpretations of UV and x-ray Raman spectra, the shift is related to the difference in ground-state zero-point energies between D2O and H2O, while the difference in broadening is related to the difference in ground-state vibrational zero-point distributions. We demonstrate that the transmission-mode measurements allow for determining the spectral shapes with unprecedented accuracy. Owing in addition to the increased spectral resolution and signal to noise ratio compared to the earlier measurements, the new data enable the stringent determination of blue shift and broadening in the O K-edge x-ray absorption spectrum of liquid water upon isotope substitution. The results are compared to UV absorption data, and it is discussed to which extent they reflect the differences in zero-point energies and vibrational zero-point distributions in the ground-states of the liquids. The influence of the shape of the final-state potential, inclusion of the Franck-Condon structure, and differences between liquid H2O and D2O resulting from different hydrogen-bond environments in the liquids are addressed. The differences between the O K-edge absorption spectra of water from our transmission-mode measurements and from the state-of-the-art x-ray Raman scattering experiments are discussed in addition. The experimentally extracted values of blue shift and broadening are proposed to serve as a test for calculations of ground-state zero-point energies and vibrational zero-point distributions in liquid H2O and D2O. This clearly motivates the need for new calculations of the O K-edge x-ray absorption spectrum of liquid water. PMID:27634266

  19. Isotope effects in liquid water probed by transmission mode x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the oxygen K-edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreck, Simon; Wernet, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    The effects of isotope substitution in liquid water are probed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the O K-edge as measured in transmission mode. Confirming earlier x-ray Raman scattering experiments, the D2O spectrum is found to be blue shifted with respect to H2O, and the D2O spectrum to be less broadened. Following the earlier interpretations of UV and x-ray Raman spectra, the shift is related to the difference in ground-state zero-point energies between D2O and H2O, while the difference in broadening is related to the difference in ground-state vibrational zero-point distributions. We demonstrate that the transmission-mode measurements allow for determining the spectral shapes with unprecedented accuracy. Owing in addition to the increased spectral resolution and signal to noise ratio compared to the earlier measurements, the new data enable the stringent determination of blue shift and broadening in the O K-edge x-ray absorption spectrum of liquid water upon isotope substitution. The results are compared to UV absorption data, and it is discussed to which extent they reflect the differences in zero-point energies and vibrational zero-point distributions in the ground-states of the liquids. The influence of the shape of the final-state potential, inclusion of the Franck-Condon structure, and differences between liquid H2O and D2O resulting from different hydrogen-bond environments in the liquids are addressed. The differences between the O K-edge absorption spectra of water from our transmission-mode measurements and from the state-of-the-art x-ray Raman scattering experiments are discussed in addition. The experimentally extracted values of blue shift and broadening are proposed to serve as a test for calculations of ground-state zero-point energies and vibrational zero-point distributions in liquid H2O and D2O. This clearly motivates the need for new calculations of the O K-edge x-ray absorption spectrum of liquid water.

  20. Study on the Coordination Structure of Pt Sorbed on Bacterial Cells Using X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Kazuya; Watanabe, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    Biosorption has been intensively investigated as a promising technology for the recovery of precious metals from solution. However, the detailed mechanism responsible for the biosorption of Pt on a biomass is not fully understood because of a lack of spectroscopic studies. We applied X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy to elucidate the coordination structure of Pt sorbed on bacterial cells. We examined the sorption of Pt(II) and Pt(IV) species on bacterial cells of Bacillus subtilis and Shewanella putrefaciens in NaCl solutions. X-ray absorption near-edge structure and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) of Pt-sorbed bacteria suggested that Pt(IV) was reduced to Pt(II) on the cell’s surface, even in the absence of an organic material as an exogenous electron donor. EXAFS spectra demonstrated that Pt sorbed on bacterial cells has a fourfold coordination of chlorine ions, similar to PtCl42-, which indicated that sorption on the protonated amine groups of the bacterial cells. This work clearly demonstrated the coordination structure of Pt sorbed on bacterial cells. The findings of this study will contribute to the understanding of Pt biosorption on biomass, and facilitate the development of recovery methods for rare metals using biosorbent materials. PMID:25996945

  1. Auto-oligomerization and hydration of pyrrole revealed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Advanced Light Source; Schwartz, Craig P.; Uejio, Janel S.; Duffin, Andrew M.; England, Alice H.; Prendergast, David; Saykally, Richard J

    2009-05-29

    Near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra have been measured at the carbon and nitrogen K-edges of the prototypical aromatic molecule, pyrrole, both in the gas phase and when solvated in water, and compared with spectra simulated using a combination of classical molecular dynamics and first principles density functional theory in the excited state core hole approximation. The excellent agreement enabled detailed assignments. Pyrrole is highly reactive, particularly in water, and reaction products formed by the auto-oligomerization of pyrrole are identified. The solvated spectra have been measured at two different temperatures, indicating that the final states remain largely unaffected by both hydration and temperature. This is somewhat unexpected, since the nitrogen in pyrrole can donate a hydrogen bond to water.

  2. Characterization of interfacially electronic structures of gold-magnetite heterostructures using X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fang-hsin; Doong, Ruey-an

    2014-03-01

    Gold-magnetite heterostructures are novel nanomaterials which can rapidly catalyze the reduction reaction of nitroaromatics. In this study, the interfacially structural and electronic properties of various morphologies of Au-Fe3O4 heterostructures were systematically investigated using X-ray absorbance spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effect of change in electronic structure and charge transfer on electrochemically catalytic activity of Au-Fe3O4 heterostructures was further evaluated by oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The shifts in binding energy of Au4f and Fe2p peaks in XPS spectra indicate the charge transfer between the Au and Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The increase in d-hole population of Au seeds after the conjugation with iron oxides follows the order flower-like Au-Fe3O4 (FLNPs)>dumbbell-like Au-Fe3O4 (DBNPs)>Au seeds. In addition, the Fe(2+) valence state increases in Au-Fe3O4 heterostructures, which provides evidence to support the hypothesis of charge transfer between Au and Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The theoretical simulation of Au L3-edge XAS further confirms the production of Au-Fe and Au-O bonds at the interface of Au/Fe3O4 and the epitaxial linkage relationship between Au and Fe3O4 nanoparticles. In addition, the electron deficient of Au seeds increases upon increasing Fe3O4 nanoparticles on a single Au seed, and subsequently decreases the catalytic activity of Au in the Au-Fe3O4 heterostructures. The catalytic activity of Au-Fe3O4 toward ORR follows the order Au seeds>Au-Fe3O4 DBNPs>Au-Fe3O4 FLNPs, which is positively correlated to the extent of electronic deficiency of Au in Au-Fe3O4 heterostructures.

  3. A Complete Overhaul of the Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy and X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy Database: eelsdb.eu.

    PubMed

    Ewels, Philip; Sikora, Thierry; Serin, Virginie; Ewels, Chris P; Lajaunie, Luc

    2016-06-01

    The electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) database has been completely rewritten, with an improved design, user interface, and a number of new tools. The database is accessible at https://eelsdb.eu/ and can now be used without registration. The submission process has been streamlined to encourage spectrum submissions and the new design gives greater emphasis on contributors' original work by highlighting their papers. With numerous new filters and a powerful search function, it is now simple to explore the database of several hundred EELS and XAS spectra. Interactive plots allow spectra to be overlaid, facilitating online comparison. An application-programming interface has been created, allowing external tools and software to easily access the information held within the database. In addition to the database itself, users can post and manage job adverts and read the latest news and events regarding the EELS and XAS communities. In accordance with the ongoing drive toward open access data increasingly demanded by funding bodies, the database will facilitate open access data sharing of EELS and XAS spectra. PMID:26899024

  4. A Complete Overhaul of the Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy and X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy Database: eelsdb.eu.

    PubMed

    Ewels, Philip; Sikora, Thierry; Serin, Virginie; Ewels, Chris P; Lajaunie, Luc

    2016-06-01

    The electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) database has been completely rewritten, with an improved design, user interface, and a number of new tools. The database is accessible at https://eelsdb.eu/ and can now be used without registration. The submission process has been streamlined to encourage spectrum submissions and the new design gives greater emphasis on contributors' original work by highlighting their papers. With numerous new filters and a powerful search function, it is now simple to explore the database of several hundred EELS and XAS spectra. Interactive plots allow spectra to be overlaid, facilitating online comparison. An application-programming interface has been created, allowing external tools and software to easily access the information held within the database. In addition to the database itself, users can post and manage job adverts and read the latest news and events regarding the EELS and XAS communities. In accordance with the ongoing drive toward open access data increasingly demanded by funding bodies, the database will facilitate open access data sharing of EELS and XAS spectra.

  5. Structure and Composition of Cu Doped CdSe Nanocrystals Using Soft X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Meulenberg, R W; van Buuren, T; Hanif, K M; Willey, T M; Strouse, G F; Terminello, L J

    2004-06-04

    The local structure and composition of Cu ions dispersed in CdSe nanocrystals is examined using soft x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES). Using Cu L-edge XANES and X-ray photoelectron measurements (XPS), we find that the Cu ions exist in the Cu(I) oxidation state. We also find that the observed Cu L-edge XANES signal is directly proportional to the molar percent of Cu present in our final material. Se L-edge XANES indicates changes in the Se density of states with Cu doping, due to a chemical bonding effect, and supports a statistical doping mechanism. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements indicate the Cu ions may act as deep electron traps. We show that XANES, XPS, and PL are a powerful combination of methods to study the electronic and chemical structure of dopants in nanostructured materials.

  6. Anisotropy of chemical bonds in collagen molecules studied by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lam, Raymond S K; Metzler, Rebecca A; Gilbert, Pupa U P A; Beniash, Elia

    2012-03-16

    Collagen type I fibrils are the major building blocks of connective tissues. Collagen fibrils are anisotropic supramolecular structures, and their orientation can be revealed by polarized light microscopy and vibrational microspectroscopy. We hypothesized that the anisotropy of chemical bonds in the collagen molecules, and hence their orientation, might also be detected by X-ray photoemission electron spectromicroscopy (X-PEEM) and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, which use linearly polarized synchrotron light. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed sections of rat-tail tendon, composed of parallel arrays of collagen fibrils. The results clearly indicate that XANES-PEEM is sensitive to collagen fibril orientation and, more specifically, to the orientations of carbonyl and amide bonds in collagen molecules. These data suggest that XANES-PEEM is a promising technique for characterizing the chemical composition and structural organization at the nanoscale of collagen-based connective tissues, including tendons, cartilage, and bone.

  7. Speciation and Characterization of Arsenic in Gold Ores and Cyanidation Tailings Using X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Paktunc, Dogan; Foster, Andrea; Heald, Steve M.; Laflamme, Gilles

    2004-03-25

    The knowledge of mineralogy and molecular structure of arsenic is needed to better understand the stability of As in wastes resulting from processing of gold ores. In this study, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAFS) techniques were employed to determine the mineralogical composition and local coordination environment of arsenic in gold ores and process tailings from a bench-scale testwork designed to mimic a common plant practice. Arsenic -bearing minerals identified in the ores and tailings include Fe oxyhydroxides, scorodite, ferric arsenates, arseniosiderite, Ca-Fe arsenates, pharmacosiderite, jarosite and arsenopyrite. Iron oxyhydroxides contain variable levels of As from trace to about 22 wt % and Ca to approximately 9 %.

  8. Theoretical study of Raman chirped adiabatic passage by X-ray absorption spectroscopy: Highly excited electronic states and rotational effects

    SciTech Connect

    Engin, Selma; Sisourat, Nicolas Selles, Patricia; Taïeb, Richard; Carniato, Stéphane

    2014-06-21

    Raman Chirped Adiabatic Passage (RCAP) is an efficient method to climb the vibrational ladder of molecules. It was shown on the example of fixed-in-space HCl molecule that selective vibrational excitation can thus be achieved by RCAP and that population transfer can be followed by X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy [S. Engin, N. Sisourat, P. Selles, R. Taïeb, and S. Carniato, Chem. Phys. Lett. 535, 192–195 (2012)]. Here, in a more detailed analysis of the process, we investigate the effects of highly excited electronic states and of molecular rotation on the efficiency of RCAP. Furthermore, we propose an alternative spectroscopic way to monitor the transfer by means of X-ray absorption spectra.

  9. Characterization of Chromium Bioremediation Products in Flow-Through Column Sediments Using Micro-X-ray Fluorescence and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Varadharajan, Charuleka; Han, Ruyang; Beller, Harry R; Yang, Li; Marcus, Matthew A; Michel, Marc; Nico, Peter S

    2015-05-01

    Microbially mediated reductive immobilization of chromium is a possible remediation technique for sites contaminated with Cr(VI). This study is part of a broader effort investigating the biogeochemical mechanisms for Cr(VI) reduction in Hanford 100H aquifer sediments using flow-through laboratory columns. It had previously been shown that reduced chromium in the solid phase was in the form of freshly precipitated mixed-phase Cr(III)-Fe(III) (hydr)oxides, irrespective of the biogeochemical conditions in the columns. In this study, the reduced Cr phases in the columns were investigated further using spectroscopy to understand the structure and mechanisms involved in the formation of the end products. Several samples representing potential processes that could be occurring in the columns were synthesized in the laboratory and characterized using X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray scattering. The XANES of Cr(III) particles in the columns most closely resembled those from synthetic samples produced by the abiotic reaction of Cr(VI) with microbially reduced Fe(II). Microbially mediated Cr-Fe reduction products were distinct from abiotic Cr-Fe (hydr)oxides [CrFe(OH)] and organically complexed Cr(III) sorbed onto the surface of a mixed ferrihydrite-goethite mineral phase. Furthermore, analyses of the abiotically synthesized samples revealed that even the end products of purely abiotic, iron-mediated reduction of Cr(VI) are affected by factors such as the presence of excess aqueous Fe(II) and cellular matter. These results suggest that CrFe(OH) phases made under realistic subsurface conditions or in biotic cultures are structurally different from pure Cr(OH) or laboratory-synthesized CrFe(OH). The observed structural differences imply that the reactivity and stability of biogenic CrFe(OH) could potentially be different from that of abiotic CrFe(OH).

  10. Applications of X-ray absorption spectroscopy and low temperature XMCD to metalloproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, J.H. |

    1996-01-01

    The author has used the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and ultra-low temperature X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) to study the environments of the metal sites in metalloproteins. EXAFS has been used to study the Zn site in spinach carbonic anhydrase. The EXAFS, in parallel with site directed mutagenesis studies, indicate that the active site Zn is in a cys-cys-his-H{sub 2}O environment, very different from the mammalian carbonic anhydrase active site. Nitrogenase, the primary enzyme in biological nitrogen fixation, contains two complex metal clusters of unique structure. EXAFS studies at the Fe and Mo K-edges of nitrogenase solutions and crystals yielded information about the various metal-metal distances in these two clusters. The author assigned 4 Fe and 3 Mo interactions >4 {angstrom}. Single crystal Mo K-edge EXAFS then found a very long Fe-Fe distance of {approximately}5.1 {angstrom}. These distances were then used to further refine the proposed crystallographic models to their highest accuracy yet. Studies were carried further by examining nitrogenas in oxidized and reduced forms--states for which there is no crystallographic information. Small structural changes were observed and an EXAFS model was put forth that attempts to deconvolute the EXAFS distances of the two metal clusters. Nitrogenase Apo I, a genetic mutant of nitrogenase which is though to contain only one of the two different metal clusters, was also examined using EXAFS. These studies showed results consistent with current models, yet the metal clusters were very disordered. Finally, ultra-low temperature methods were used to further the development of XMCD as a technique for studying biological systems. Experiments were performed on the copper in plastocyanin. Data was collected that definitively proves that the sample surface was at 0.55 {+-} 0.05 K. This result opens the door to further study of more complex biological metal clusters.

  11. Non-equilibrium-state x-ray absorption spectroscopy: a local structure study of photo-induced phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyanagi, H.; Tayagaki, T.; Tanaka, K.

    2003-01-01

    We describe non-equilibrium-state x-ray absorption spectroscopy focusing on local structure of photo-excited states trapped at low temperature. For this purpose, a novel Ge 100 pixel array detector with a packing density of 88% was developed. The local structure of photo-induced phase of Fe(II) spin crossover complex, [Fe(2-pic)3]Cl2EtOH (2-pic=2-aminomethyl pyridine), was investigated at low temperature (T <150 K). The use of pixel array detector and high-flux synchrotron x-ray source (multipole wiggler) successfully provided x-ray absorption spectra with high quality, in-situ, during the photo-excitation. It was found that the photo-induced phase under optical pumping at low temperature (T < 50 K) has an octahedral geometry with the elongated Fe-N distance (2.16 ± 0.01 Å), stabilizing the high spin state (S=2) configuration. No indication of symmetry breaking of FeN6 clusters upon LS↔HS spin-state switching was observed. It was demonstrated that the technique is a promising means to probe the local structure of non-equilibrium state such as trapped excited states or metastable states.

  12. High quality x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements with long energy range at high pressure using diamond anvil cell

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, X.; Newville, M.; Prakapenka, V.B.; Rivers, M.L.; Sutton, S.R.

    2009-07-31

    We describe an approach for acquiring high quality x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy spectra with wide energy range at high pressure using diamond anvil cell (DAC). Overcoming the serious interference of diamond Bragg peaks is essential for combining XAFS and DAC techniques in high pressure research, yet an effective method to obtain accurate XAFS spectrum free from DAC induced glitches has been lacking. It was found that these glitches, whose energy positions are very sensitive to the relative orientation between DAC and incident x-ray beam, can be effectively eliminated using an iterative algorithm based on repeated measurements over a small angular range of DAC orientation, e.g., within {+-}3{sup o} relative to the x-ray beam direction. Demonstration XAFS spectra are reported for rutile-type GeO{sub 2} recorded by traditional ambient pressure and high pressure DAC methods, showing similar quality at 440 eV above the absorption edge. Accurate XAFS spectra of GeO{sub 2} glass were obtained at high pressure up to 53 GPa, providing important insight into the structural polymorphism of GeO{sub 2} glass at high pressure. This method is expected be applicable for in situ XAFS measurements using a diamond anvil cell up to ultrahigh pressures.

  13. High quality x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements with long energy range at high pressure using diamond anvil cell

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Xinguo; Newville, Matthew; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Rivers, Mark L.; Sutton, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01

    We describe an approach for acquiring high quality x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy spectra with wide energy range at high pressure using diamond anvil cell (DAC). Overcoming the serious interference of diamond Bragg peaks is essential for combining XAFS and DAC techniques in high pressure research, yet an effective method to obtain accurate XAFS spectrum free from DAC induced glitches has been lacking. It was found that these glitches, whose energy positions are very sensitive to the relative orientation between DAC and incident x-ray beam, can be effectively eliminated using an iterative algorithm based on repeated measurements over a small angular range of DAC orientation, e.g., within ±3° relative to the x-ray beam direction. Demonstration XAFS spectra are reported for rutile-type GeO2 recorded by traditional ambient pressure and high pressure DAC methods, showing similar quality at 440 eV above the absorption edge. Accurate XAFS spectra of GeO2 glass were obtained at high pressure up to 53 GPa, providing important insight into the structural polymorphism of GeO2 glass at high pressure. This method is expected be applicable for in situ XAFS measurements using a diamond anvil cell up to ultrahigh pressures. PMID:19655966

  14. Ligand-field symmetry effects in Fe(II) polypyridyl compounds probed by transient X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Hana; Strader, Matthew L.; Hong, Kiryong; Jamula, Lindsey; Kim, Tae Kyu; Groot, Frank M. F. de; McCusker, James K.; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Huse, Nils

    2012-02-28

    Ultrafast excited-state evolution in polypyridyl FeII complexes are of fundamental interest for understanding the origins of the sub-ps spin-state changes that occur upon photoexcitation of this class of compounds as well as for the potential impact such ultrafast dynamics have on incorporation of these compounds in solar energy conversion schemes or switchable optical storage technologies. We have demonstrated that ground-state and, more importantly, ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption methods can offer unique insights into the interplay between electronic and geometric structure that underpin the photo-induced dynamics of this class of compounds. The present contribution examines in greater detail how the symmetry of the ligand field surrounding the metal ion can be probed using these x-ray techniques. In particular, we show that steady-state K-edge spectroscopy of the nearest-neighbour nitrogen atoms reveals the characteristic chemical environment of the respective ligands and suggests an interesting target for future charge-transfer femtosecond and attosecond spectroscopy in the x-ray water window.

  15. Protein dynamics in an intermediate state of myoglobin: optical absorption, resonance Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray structure analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Engler, N; Ostermann, A; Gassmann, A; Lamb, D C; Prusakov, V E; Schott, J; Schweitzer-Stenner, R; Parak, F G

    2000-01-01

    A metastable state of myoglobin is produced by reduction of metmyoglobin at low temperatures. This is done either by irradiation with x-rays at 80 K or by electron transfer from photoexcited tris(2, 2'-bipyridine)-ruthenium(II) at 20 K. At temperatures above 150 K, the conformational transition toward the equilibrium deoxymyoglobin is observed. X-ray crystallography, Raman spectroscopy, and temperature-dependent optical absorption spectroscopy show that the metastable state has a six-ligated iron low-spin center. The x-ray structure at 115K proves the similarity of the metastable state with metmyoglobin. The Raman spectra yield the high-frequency vibronic modes and give additional information about the distortion of the heme. Analysis of the temperature dependence of the line shape of the Soret band reveals that a relaxation within the metastable state starts at approximately 120 K. Parameters representative of static properties of the intermediate state are close to those of CO-ligated myoglobin, while parameters representative of dynamics are close to deoxymyoglobin. Thus within the metastable state the relaxation to the equilibrium is initiated by changes in the dynamic properties of the active site. PMID:10733986

  16. Comparative x-ray absorption spectroscopy study of Co-doped SnO2 and TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lussier, A.; Dvorak, J.; Idzerda, Y. U.; Ogale, S. B.; Shinde, S. R.; Choudary, R. J.; Venkatesan, T.

    2004-06-01

    We performed x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements at the cobalt L2,3 edge and the oxygen K edge of Co-doped SnO2 and Co-doped TiO2. Our measurements confirm that doped cobalt atoms are in the same local environment in both compounds. Furthermore, the results support the idea that cobalt atoms occupy substitutional cation sites. Additionally, the oxygen spectral shapes offer insight into a possible cause for the observed giant magnetic moment of cobalt atoms present in SnO2, but not in TiO2.

  17. Insights into the Nature of the Chemical Bonding in Thiophene-2-thiol from X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cotelesage, Julien J H; Pushie, M Jake; Vogt, Linda; Barney, Monica; Nissan, Andrew; Pickering, Ingrid J; George, Graham N

    2016-09-01

    Thiophenes are the simplest aromatic sulfur-containing compounds; they are widespread in fossil fuels and a variety of natural products, and they have vital roles in determining characteristic aromas that are important in food chemistry. We used a combination of sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy and density functional theory to investigate the chemical bonding in the novel sulfur-containing heterocycle thiophene-2-thiol. We show that solutions of thiophene-2-thiol contain significant quantities of the thione tautomer, which may be the energetically preferred 5H-thiophene-2-thione or the more accessible 3H-thiophene-2-thione. PMID:27508425

  18. Temperature-dependent spectral weight transfer in YBa2Cu3Ox probed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.-Y.

    2010-03-01

    The x-ray absorption spectroscopy was utilized to critically examine the temperature dependency of the spectral weight in YBa2Cu3Ox. Large excess spectral weight for the Zhang- Rice singlet due to dynamics of holes is found with its doping dependence showing similar doom-like shape as that for Tc. Furthermore, appreciable spectral weight transfer from the upper Hubbard band to Zhang-Rice singlet was observed as the temperature acrosses the onset temperature for the pseudogap. The observed spectral weight transfer follows the change of the pseudogap, indicating a strong link between pseudogap and the upper Hubbard band.

  19. Improved diamond surfaces following lift-off and plasma treatments as observed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, Alastair; Drumm, Virginia S.; Fairchild, Barbara A.; Ganesan, Kumar; Prawer, Steven; Rubanov, Sergey; Kalish, Rafi; Cowie, Bruce C. C.; Hoffman, Alon

    2011-05-02

    We have investigated the nature of the residual damage in diamond crystals following the ion implantation/graphitization ''lift-off'' process, using near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. A defective but crystalline interface is found, which displays dense pre-edge unoccupied states and an almost complete loss of the core-level C 1s exciton signature. This residual crystalline damage is resistant to standard chemical etching, however a hydrogen plasma treatment is found to completely recover a pristine diamond surface. Analysis and removal of residual ion-induced damage is considered crucial to the performance of many diamond device architectures.

  20. Proton-induced x-ray emission, proton-induced gamma-ray emission, and x-ray absorption spectroscopy: applications to environmental analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lytle, N.W.

    1986-01-01

    Two sample preparation techniques, the single-acid wet-oxidation and the lithium metaborate fusion-dissolution, have been applied to PIXE analysis with acceptable trace-element recoveries. A variety of samples have been prepared, including: white bass organs, deer and elk antlers. NRS standard reference materials, IAEA standard animal bone, USGS standard rock samples, and munitions disposal residues. PIGE analysis has been applied to light-element analysis of environment samples. Thin-and thick-target gamma-ray yields were determined for Li, B, O, F, Na, Mg, and Al. Light-elements in coal and oil fly ash were determined with parts per million sensitivity. Nickel and vanadium compounds have been identified in fly ash collected from vanadium compounds have been identified in fly ash collected from the flue lines of an oil-fired power plant using x-ray absorption spectroscopy. VOSO/sub 4/.3H/sub 2/O was the primary vanadium compound and NiO and NiSO/sub 4/ were the primary nickel compounds. NXRAY was written to control data acquisition on a Canberra Series 90 MCA-PDP 11/23PLUS computer system. This program provides for data to be transferred between individual collection regions of the MCA and the host computer, and spectra to be plotted on a HP 7475A graphics plotter.

  1. Iron near absorption edge X-ray spectroscopy at aqueous-membrane interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wenjie; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Vaknin, David

    2014-01-01

    Employing synchrotron X-ray scattering, we systematically determine the absorption near-edge spectra (XANES) of iron in its ferrous (Fe2+) and ferric (Fe3+) states both as ions in aqueous solutions and as they bind to form a single layer to anionic templates that consist of carboxyl or phosphate groups at aqueous/vapor interfaces. While the XANES of bulk iron ions show that the electronic state and coordination of iron complexes in the bulk are isotropic, the interfacial bound ions show a signature of a broken inversion-symmetry environment. The XANES of Fe2+ and Fe3+ in the bulk possess distinct profiles however, upon binding they practically exhibit similar patterns. This indicates that both bound ions settle into a stable electronic and coordination configuration with an effective fractional valence (for example, Fe[2+nu]+, 0 < nu < 1) at charged organic templates. Such two dimensional properties may render interfacial iron, abundant in living organisms, a more efficient and versatile catalytic behavior.

  2. Characterization of protein immobilization at silver surfaces bynear edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X.; Jang, C.-H.; Zheng, F.; J rgensen, A.; Denlinger, J.D.; Dickson, K.A.; Raines, R.T.; Abbott, N.L.; Himpsel, F.J.

    2006-06-21

    Ribonuclease A (RNase A) is immobilized on silver surfacesin oriented and random form via self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) ofalkanethiols. The immobilization process is characterized step-by-stepusing chemically selective near-edge X-ray absorption fine structurespectroscopy (NEXAFS) at the C, N, and S K-edges. Causes of imperfectimmobilization are pinpointed, such as oxidation and partial desorptionof the alkanethiol SAMs and incomplete coverage. The orientation of theprotein layer manifests itself in an 18 percent polarization dependenceof the NEXAFS signal from the N 1s to pi* transition of the peptide bond,which is not seen for a random orientation. The S 1s to C-S sigma*transition exhibits an even larger polarization dependence of 41 percent,which is reduced to 5 percent for a random orientation. A quantitativemodel is developed that explains the sign and magnitude of thepolarization dependence at both edges. The results demonstrate thatNEXAFS is able to characterize surface reactions during theimmobilization of proteins and to provide insight into their orientationson surfaces.

  3. Investigation of protein conformation and interactions with salts via X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Craig P.; Uejio, Janel S.; Duffin, Andrew M.; England, Alice H.; Kelly, Daniel N.; Prendergast, David; Saykally, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Nitrogen K-edge spectra of aqueous triglycine were measured using liquid microjets, and the effects of Hofmeister-active salts on the spectra were observed. Spectra simulated using density functional theory, sampled from room temperature classical molecular dynamics trajectories, capture all major features in the measured spectra. The spectrum of triglycine in water is quite similar to that in the presence of chaotropic sodium bromide (and other halides), which raises the solubility of proteins. However, a new feature is found when kosmotropic Na2SO3, which lowers solubility, is present; this feature results from excitations of the nitrogen atom in the terminal amino group of triglycine. Both direct interactions between this salt and the protonated amino terminus, as well as corresponding changes in the conformational dynamics of the system, contribute to this new feature. These molecular measurements support a different mechanism for the Hofmeister effect than has previously been suggested based on thermodynamic measurements. It is also shown that near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) is sensitive to strong direct interaction between certain salts and charged peptides. However, by investigating the sensitivity of NEXAFS to the extreme structural differences between model β-sheets and α-helices, we conclude that this technique is relatively insensitive to secondary structure of peptides and proteins. PMID:20660784

  4. Electronic Structure of Manganites Determined by Spin-Polarized X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Qing; Tyson, Trevor; Savrassov, S.; Kao, C.-C.; Croft, M.

    2003-03-01

    A systematic study of spin dependent Mn K-edge x-ray absorption spectra was performed on La_1-xCa_xMnO3 and other Mn oxide systems. A model was developed to predict the temperature dependent changes in the local magnetic ordering based on changes in spin-polarized Mn K-Edge measurements. With this model, one can ascertain the change of local ordering that occurs on transiting the magnetic ordering temperature. Parallel LDA and LDA+U computations are used to label the symmetries of the unoccupied bands, determine the degree of electron correlation and to provide a direct comparison with the band ordering predicted by the temperature dependent spin-polarized measurements. The spin magnetic moment and ordering of the t_2g and eg states are also determined. We find that the occupied t_2g orbitals are always ordered with lobes near 45° to the local Mn-O directions. The Mn K-Edge main line splitting is discussed in terms of the effective spin-polarized charge density. Comparison with bandstructure computations are made. The oxygen hole contribution to the net magnetic moment is seen to be important. We survey the spin-polarized XANES spectra of a large group of manganese oxides showing the general trends in the main line spin splitting as a function of valence. This work is supported by NSF Career Grant DMR-9733862 and DMR-0216858.

  5. Atomic resolution mapping of the excited-state electronic structure of Cu2O with time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hillyard, P. W.; Kuchibhatla, S. V. N. T.; Glover, T. E.; Hertlein, M. P.; Huse, Nils; Nachimuthu, P.; Saraf, L. V.; Thevuthasan, S.; Gaffney, K. J.

    2010-05-02

    We have used time-resolved soft x-ray spectroscopy to investigate the electronic structure of optically excited cuprous oxide at the O K-edge and the Cu L3-edge. The 400 nm optical excitation shifts the Cu and O absorptions to lower energy, but does not change the integrated x-ray absorption significantly for either edge. The constant integrated x-ray absorption cross-section indicates that the conduction-band and valence-band edges have very similar Cu 3d and O 2p orbital contributions. The 2.1 eV optical band gap of Cu2O significantly exceeds the one eV shift in the Cu L3- and O K-edges absorption edges induced by optical excitation, demonstrating the importance of core-hole excitonic effects and valence electron screening in the x-ray absorption process.

  6. Atomic Resolution Mapping of the Excited-State Electronic Structure of Cu2O with Time-Resolved X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hillyard, Patrick B.; Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Glover, T. E.; Hertlein, M. P.; Huse, N.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Gaffney, Kelly J.

    2009-09-29

    We have used time-resolved soft x-ray spectroscopy to investigate the electronic structure of optically excited cuprous oxide at the O K-edge and the Cu L3-edge. The 400 nm optical excitation shifts the Cu and O absorptions to lower energy, but does not change the integrated x-ray absorption significantly for either edge. The constant integrated x-ray absorption cross-section indicates that that the conduction band and valence band edges have very similar Cu 3d and O 2p orbital contributions. The 2.1 eV optical band gap of Cu2O significantly exceeds the one eV shift in the Cu L3- and O K-edges absorption edges induced by optical excitation, demonstrating the importance of core-hole excitonic effects and valence electron screening in the x-ray absorption process.

  7. Evidence for core–shell nanoclusters in oxygen dispersion strengthened steels measured using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, S.; Odette, G. R.; Segre, C. U.

    2014-02-01

    Nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFA) dispersion strengthened by an ultra high density of Y–Ti–O enriched nano-features (NF) exhibit superior creep strength and the potential for high resistance to radiation damage. However, the detailed character of the NF, that precipitate from solid solution during hot consolidation of metallic powders mechanically alloyed with Y₂O₃, are not well understood. In order to clarify the nature of the NF, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) technique, including X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) were used to characterize the local structure of the Ti and Y atoms in both NFA powders and consolidated alloys. The powders were characterized in the as-received, as-milled and after annealing milled powders at 850, 1000 and 1150 °C. The consolidated alloys included powders hot isostatic pressed (HIPed) at 1150 °C and commercial vendor alloys, MA957 and J12YWT. The NFA XAS data were compared various Ti and Y-oxide standards. The XANES and EXAFS spectra for the annealed and HIPed powders are similar and show high temperature heat treatments shift the Y and Ti to more oxidized states that are consistent with combinations of Y₂Ti₂O₇ and, especially, TiO. However, the MA957 and J12YWT and annealed–consolidated powder data differ. The commercial vendor alloys results more closely resemble the as-milled powder data and all show that a significant fraction of substitutional Ti remains dissolved in the (BCC) ferrite matrix.

  8. Intermediate Coupling For Core-Level Excited States: Consequences For X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bagus, Paul S.; Sassi, Michel JPC; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2015-04-15

    The origin of the complex NEXAFS features of X-Ray Absorption, XAS, spectra in transition metal complexes is analyzed and interpreted in terms of the angular momentum coupling of the open shell electrons. Especially for excited configurations where a core-electron is promoted to an open valence shell, the angular momentum coupling is intermediate between the two limits of Russell- Saunders, RS, coupling where spin-orbit splitting of the electron shells is neglected and j-j coupling where this splitting is taken as dominant. The XAS intensities can be understood in terms of two factors: (1) The dipole selection rules that give the allowed excited RS multiplets and (2) The contributions of these allowed multiplets to the wavefunctions of the intermediate coupled levels. It is shown that the origin of the complex XAS spectra is due to the distribution of the RS allowed multiplets over several different intermediate coupled excited levels. The specific case that is analyzed is the L2,3 edge XAS of an Fe3+ cation, because this cation allows a focus on the angular momentum coupling to the exclusion of other effects; e.g., chemical bonding. Arguments are made that the properties identified for this atomic case are relevant for more complex materials. The analysis is based on the properties of fully relativistic, ab initio, many-body wavefunctions for the initial and final states of the XAS process. The wavefunction properties considered include the composition of the wavefunctions in terms of RS multiplets and the occupations of the spin-orbit split open shells; the latter vividly show whether the coupling is j-j or not.

  9. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Identifies Calcium-Uranyl-Carbonate Complexes at Environmental Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Shelly D; Kemner, Kenneth M; Brooks, Scott C

    2007-01-01

    Current research on bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater focuses on supplying indigenous metal-reducing bacteria with the appropriate metabolic requirements to induce microbiological reduction of soluble uranium(VI) to poorly soluble uranium(IV). Recent studies of uranium(VI) bioreduction in the presence of environmentally relevant levels of calcium revealed limited and slowed uranium(VI) reduction and the formation of a Ca-UO2-CO3 complex. However, the stoichiometry of the complex is poorly defined and may be complicated by the presence of a Na-UO2-CO3 complex. Such a complex might exist even at high calcium concentrations, as some UO2-CO3 complexes will still be present. The number of calcium and/or sodium atoms coordinated to a uranyl carbonate complex will determine the net charge of the complex. Such a change in aqueous speciation of uranium(VI) in calcareous groundwater may affect the fate and transport properties of uranium. In this paper, we present the results from X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements of a series of solutions containing 50 lM uranium(VI) and 30 mM sodium bicarbonate, with various calcium concentrations of 0-5 mM. Use of the data series reduces the uncertainty in the number of calcium atoms bound to the UO2-CO3 complex to approximately 0.6 and enables spectroscopic identification of the Na-UO2-CO3 complex. At nearly neutral pH values, the numbers of sodium and calcium atoms bound to the uranyl triscarbonate species are found to depend on the calcium concentration, as predicted by speciation calculations.

  10. X-ray absorption spectroscopy identifies calcium-uranyl-carbonate complexes at environmental concentrations.

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, S. D.; Kemner, K. M.; Brooks, S. C.; Biosciences Division; ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Current research on bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater focuses on supplying indigenous metal-reducing bacteria with the appropriate metabolic requirements to induce microbiological reduction of soluble uranium(VI) to poorly soluble uranium(IV). Recent studies of uranium(VI) bioreduction in the presence of environmentally relevant levels of calcium revealed limited and slowed uranium(VI) reduction and the formation of a Ca-UO{sub 2}-CO{sub 3} complex. However, the stoichiometry of the complex is poorly defined and may be complicated by the presence of a Na-UO{sub 2}-CO{sub 3} complex. Such a complex might exist even at high calcium concentrations, as some UO{sub 2}-CO{sub 3} complexes will still be present. The number of calcium and/or sodium atoms coordinated to a uranyl carbonate complex will determine the net charge of the complex. Such a change in aqueous speciation of uranium(VI) in calcareous groundwater may affect the fate and transport properties of uranium. In this paper, we present the results from X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements of a series of solutions containing 50 {micro}M uranium(VI) and 30 mM sodium bicarbonate, with various calcium concentrations of 0-5 mM. Use of the data series reduces the uncertainty in the number of calcium atoms bound to the UO{sub 2}-CO{sub 3} complex to approximately 0.6 and enables spectroscopic identification of the Na-UO{sub 2}-CO{sub 3} complex. At nearly neutral pH values, the numbers of sodium and calcium atoms bound to the uranyl triscarbonate species are found to depend on the calcium concentration, as predicted by speciation calculations.

  11. Probing Warm Dense Matter electronic structure using X-ray absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benuzzi Mounaix, Alessandra

    2011-06-01

    The behavior and physical properties of warm dense matter, fundamental for various branches of physics including planetology and Inertial Confinement Fusion, are non trivial to simulate either theoretically, numerically or experimentally. Despite important progress obtained in the last decade on macroscopic characterization (e.g. equations of state), microscopic studies are today necessary to investigate finely the WDM structure changes, the phase transitions and to test physical hypothesis and approximations commonly used in calculations. In this work, highly compressed aluminum has been investigated with the aim of bringing information on the evolution of its electronic structure by using K-edge shift and XANES. The experiment was performed at LULI laboratory where we used one long pulse (500 ps, IL ~ 8 1013 W/cm2) to create a uniform shock and a second ps beam (IL ~ 1017 W/cm2) to generate an ultra-short broadband X-ray source near the Al K-edge. The spectra were registered by using two conical KAP Bragg crystals. The main target was designed to probe the Aluminum in reshocked conditions allowing us to probe and to test theories in an extreme regime up to now unexplored (ρ ~ 3 ρ0 and T ~ 8 eV). The hydrodynamical Al conditions were measured by using VISARs interferometers and self-emission diagnostics. By increasing the delay between the two beams, we have been able to observe the modification of absorption spectra for unloading Al conditions (ρ >= 0.5 g/cc), and to put in evidence the relocalization of the 3p valence electrons occurring in the metal-non metal transition. All data have been compared to ab initio and dense plasma calculations.

  12. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of Ru-doped relaxor ferroelectrics with a perovskite-type structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitova, T.; Mangold, S.; Paulmann, C.; Gospodinov, M.; Marinova, V.; Mihailova, B.

    2014-04-01

    X-ray absorption near-edge structure and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy at the Ru K edge of Ru-doped PbSc0.5Ta0.5O3 (PST-Ru), PbSc0.5Nb0.5O3 (PSN-Ru), and 0.9PbZn1/3Nb2/3O3-0.1PbTiO3 (PZN-0.1PT-Ru) as well as at the Ta L3 edge of PST-Ru and the Nb K edge of PSN-Ru was applied to study the short- and intermediate-range atomic arrangements in perovskite-type (ABO3) relaxor ferroelectrics. The compounds were also analyzed by complementary Raman scattering, visible/near-visible absorption spectroscopy, and synchrotron x-ray single-crystal diffraction. The results show that Ru is octahedrally coordinated in all three relaxor host matrices but the average oxidation state of Ru in PST-Ru and PSN-Ru is ˜4.4, whereas it is ˜3.8 in PZN-0.1PT-Ru. In PbSc0.5B''0.5O3 (B'' = Ta, Nb) Ru substitutes for the B'' cations in the form of isolated point defects, while in PZN-0.1PT-Ru Ru replaces adjacent A and B sites, forming a chainlike structural species of face-sharing elongated octahedra. Chemical 1:1 B-site order as well as dynamic BO6 tilting is observed around both the Ru dopant and the major B'' cation in PST-Ru and PSN-Ru regardless of the fact that according to x-ray diffraction at ambient conditions, the average structure is cubic with weak or no long-range chemical order. Pb cations are off-center displaced from the prototypic cubic A site for all three compounds and in Ru-doped PbSc0.5B''0.5O3 the BO6 tilt angle correlates with the degree of coherent B-Pb distances.

  13. Local versus global electronic properties of chalcopyrite alloys: X-ray absorption spectroscopy and ab initio calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Sarmiento-Pérez, Rafael; Botti, Silvana; Schnohr, Claudia S.; Lauermann, Iver; Rubio, Angel; Johnson, Benjamin

    2014-09-07

    Element-specific unoccupied electronic states of Cu(In, Ga)S{sub 2} were studied as a function of the In/Ga ratio by combining X-ray absorption spectroscopy with density functional theory calculations. The S absorption edge shifts with changing In/Ga ratio as expected from the variation of the band gap. In contrast, the cation edge positions are largely independent of composition despite the changing band gap. This unexpected behavior is well reproduced by our calculations and originates from the dependence of the electronic states on the local atomic environment. The changing band gap arises from a changing spatial average of these localized states with changing alloy composition.

  14. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study of the Effect of Rh doping in Sr2IrO4

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, C. H.; Cho, Deok-Yong; Kuo, C.-T.; Sandilands, L. J.; Qi, T. F.; Cao, G.; Noh, T. W.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effect of Rh doping in Sr2IrO4 using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). We observed appearance of new electron-addition states with increasing Rh concentration (x in Sr2Ir1−xRhxO4) in accordance with the concept of hole doping. The intensity of the hole-induced state is however weak, suggesting weakness of charge transfer (CT) effect and Mott insulating ground states. Also, Ir Jeff = 1/2 upper Hubbard band shifts to lower energy as x increases up to x = 0.23. Combined with optical spectroscopy, these results suggest a hybridisation-related mechanism, in which Rh doping can weaken the (Ir Jeff = 1/2)–(O 2p) orbital hybridisation in the in-planar Rh-O-Ir bond networks. PMID:27025538

  15. X-ray Echo Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2016-02-26

    X-ray echo spectroscopy, a counterpart of neutron spin echo, is being introduced here to overcome limitations in spectral resolution and weak signals of the traditional inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) probes. An image of a pointlike x-ray source is defocused by a dispersing system comprised of asymmetrically cut specially arranged Bragg diffracting crystals. The defocused image is refocused into a point (echo) in a time-reversal dispersing system. If the defocused beam is inelastically scattered from a sample, the echo signal acquires a spatial distribution, which is a map of the inelastic scattering spectrum. The spectral resolution of the echo spectroscopy does not rely on the monochromaticity of the x rays, ensuring strong signals along with a very high spectral resolution. Particular schemes of x-ray echo spectrometers for 0.1-0.02 meV ultrahigh-resolution IXS applications (resolving power >10^{8}) with broadband ≃5-13  meV dispersing systems are introduced featuring more than 10^{3} signal enhancement. The technique is general, applicable in different photon frequency domains. PMID:26967404

  16. X-ray Echo Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2016-02-26

    X-ray echo spectroscopy, a counterpart of neutron spin echo, is being introduced here to overcome limitations in spectral resolution and weak signals of the traditional inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) probes. An image of a pointlike x-ray source is defocused by a dispersing system comprised of asymmetrically cut specially arranged Bragg diffracting crystals. The defocused image is refocused into a point (echo) in a time-reversal dispersing system. If the defocused beam is inelastically scattered from a sample, the echo signal acquires a spatial distribution, which is a map of the inelastic scattering spectrum. The spectral resolution of the echo spectroscopy does not rely on the monochromaticity of the x rays, ensuring strong signals along with a very high spectral resolution. Particular schemes of x-ray echo spectrometers for 0.1-0.02 meV ultrahigh-resolution IXS applications (resolving power >10^{8}) with broadband ≃5-13  meV dispersing systems are introduced featuring more than 10^{3} signal enhancement. The technique is general, applicable in different photon frequency domains.

  17. In operando observation system for electrochemical reaction by soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy with potential modulation method

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasaka, Masanari Kosugi, Nobuhiro; Yuzawa, Hayato; Horigome, Toshio

    2014-10-15

    In order to investigate local structures of electrolytes in electrochemical reactions under the same scan rate as a typical value 100 mV/s in cyclic voltammetry (CV), we have developed an in operando observation system for electrochemical reactions by soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with a potential modulation method. XAS spectra of electrolytes are measured by using a transmission-type liquid flow cell with built-in electrodes. The electrode potential is swept with a scan rate of 100 mV/s at a fixed photon energy, and soft X-ray absorption coefficients at different potentials are measured at the same time. By repeating the potential modulation at each fixed photon energy, it is possible to measure XAS of electrochemical reaction at the same scan rate as in CV. We have demonstrated successful measurement of the Fe L-edge XAS spectra of aqueous iron sulfate solutions and of the change in valence of Fe ions at different potentials in the Fe redox reaction. The mechanism of these Fe redox processes is discussed by correlating the XAS results with those at different scan rates.

  18. X-ray absorption spectroscopy by full-field X-ray microscopy of a thin graphite flake: Imaging and electronic structure via the carbon K-edge

    PubMed Central

    Hitchock, Adam P; Ke, Xiaoxing; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Ewels, Chris P; Guttmann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Summary We demonstrate that near-edge X-ray-absorption fine-structure spectra combined with full-field transmission X-ray microscopy can be used to study the electronic structure of graphite flakes consisting of a few graphene layers. The flake was produced by exfoliation using sodium cholate and then isolated by means of density-gradient ultracentrifugation. An image sequence around the carbon K-edge, analyzed by using reference spectra for the in-plane and out-of-plane regions of the sample, is used to map and spectrally characterize the flat and folded regions of the flake. Additional spectral features in both π and σ regions are observed, which may be related to the presence of topological defects. Doping by metal impurities that were present in the original exfoliated graphite is indicated by the presence of a pre-edge signal at 284.2 eV. PMID:23016137

  19. Magnetic and structural properties of Fe/Pd multilayers studied by magnetic x-ray dichroism and x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mini, S.M. |; Fullerton, E.E.; Sowers, C.H.; Fontaine, A.; Pizzini, S.; Bommannavar, A.S.; Traverse, A.; Baudelet, F.

    1994-12-01

    The results of magnetic circular x-ray dichroism (MCXD) measurements and extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements (EXAFS) of the Fe K-edges of textured Fe(110)/Pd(111) multilayers are reported. The EXAFS results indicates that the iron in the system goes from bcc to a more densely packed system as the thickness of the iron layer is decreased. The magnetic properties were measured by SQUID magnetometry from 5-350 K. For all the samples, the saturation magnetization was significantly enhanced over the bulk values indicating the interface Pd atoms are polarized by the Fe layer. The enhancement corresponds to a moment of {approx}2.5{mu}{sub B} per interface Pd atom.

  20. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies on magnetic tunnel junctions with AlO and AlN tunnel barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Mun, B. S.; Moon, J. C.; Hong, S. W.; Kang, K. S.; Kim, K.; Kim, T. W.; Ju, H. L.

    2006-04-15

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements of the optimized magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with AlO and AlN barriers have been performed to study the chemical structures of the barrier and the underlying layer. These MTJs with AlO and AlN barriers exhibited increased tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) after annealing at 200 deg. C from 27% to 45% and from 25% to 33%, respectively. Surprisingly, the XPS and XAS measurements confirmed that both the as-grown and the annealed MTJs had metallic Co and Fe at the interface between the barrier and the underlying CoFe layer. After annealing, under-stoichiometric AlO{sub x} and AlN{sub x} phases in MTJs with AlO and AlN barriers partially transformed into stoichiometric Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and AlN phases, respectively. Thus the increase in TMR after annealing for MTJs with clean interface between the barrier and the underlying layer is believed due to the anion redistribution inside the barrier layer, not from back diffusion from pinned magnetic layer to barrier layer.

  1. Monopeptide versus Monopeptoid: Insights on Structure and Hydration of Aqueous Alanine and Sarcosine via X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Uejio, Janel S.; Schwartz, Craig P.; Duffin, Andrew M.; England, Alice; Prendergast, David; Saykally, Richard J.

    2009-11-19

    Despite the obvious significance, the aqueous interactions of peptides remain incompletely understood. Their synthetic analogues called peptoids (poly-N-substituted glycines), have recently emerged as a promising biomimetic material, particularly due to their robust secondary structure and resistance to denaturation. We describe comparative near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy studies of aqueous sarcosine, the simplest peptoid, and alanine, its peptide isomer, interpreted by density functional theory calculations. The sarcosine nitrogen K-edge spectrum is blue-shifted with respect to that of alanine, in agreement with our calculations; we conclude that this shift results primarily from the methyl group substitution on the nitrogen of sarcosine. Our calculations indicate that the nitrogen K-edge spectrum of alanine differs significantly between dehydrated and hydrated scenarios, while that of the sarcosine zwitterion is less affected by hydration. In contrast, the computed sarcosine spectrum is greatly impacted by conformational variations, while the alanine spectrum is not. This relates to a predicted solvent dependence for alanine, as compared to sarcosine. Additionally, we show the theoretical nitrogen K-edge spectra to be sensitive to the degree of hydration, indicating that experimental X-ray spectroscopy may be able to distinguish between bulk and partial hydration, such as found in confined environments near proteins and in reverse micelles.

  2. X-ray spectroscopy: Enlightened state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCusker, James K.

    2014-07-01

    Determining the sequence of events following photon absorption by a molecule can be a surprisingly challenging task. An innovative use of time-resolved X-ray spectroscopy has revealed an important insight into the ultrafast excited-state dynamics of a well-known inorganic chromophore.

  3. X-ray absorption spectroscopy on the calcium cofactor to the manganese cluster in photosynthetic oxygen evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Cinco, Roehl M.

    1999-12-16

    Along with Mn, calcium and chloride ions are necessary cofactors for oxygen evolution in Photosystem II (PS II). To further test and verify whether Ca is close to the Mn cluster, the authors substituted strontium for Ca and probed from the Sr point of view for any nearby Mn. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) of Sr-reactivated PS II indicates major differences between the intact and NH{sub 2}OH-treated samples. In intact samples, the Fourier transform of the Sr EXAFS shows a Fourier peak that is missing in inactive samples. This peak II is best simulated by two Mn neighbors at a distance of 3.5 Angstrom, confirming the proximity of Ca (Sr) cofactor to the Mn cluster. In addition, polarized Sr EXAFS on oriented Sr-reactivated samples shows this peak II is dichroic: large magnitude at 10 degrees (angle between the PS II membrane normal and the x-ray electric field vector) and small at 80 degrees. Analysis of the dichroism yields the relative angle between the Sr-Mn vector and membrane normal (23 degrees {+-} 4 degrees), and the isotropic coordination number for these layered samples. X-ray absorption spectroscopy has also been employed to assess the degree of similarity between the manganese cluster in PS II and a family of synthetic manganese complexes containing the distorted cubane [Mn{sub 4}O{sub 3}X] core (X = benzoate, acetate, methoxide, hydroxide, azide, fluoride, chloride or bromide). In addition, Mn{sub 4}O{sub 3}Cl complexes containing three or six terminal Cl ligands at three of the Mn were included in this study. The EXAFS method detects the small changes in the core structures as X is varied in this series, and serves to exclude these distorted cubanes of C3v symmetry as a topological model for the Mn catalytic cluster. The sulfur K-edge x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra for the amino acids cysteine, methionine, their corresponding oxidized forms cystine and methionine sulfoxide, and glutathione show distinct

  4. Quantification of rapid environmental redox processes with quick-scanning x-ray absorption spectroscopy (Q-XAS).

    PubMed

    Ginder-Vogel, Matthew; Landrot, Gautier; Fischel, Jason S; Sparks, Donald L

    2009-09-22

    Quantification of the initial rates of environmental reactions at the mineral/water interface is a fundamental prerequisite to determining reaction mechanisms and contaminant transport modeling and predicting environmental risk. Until recently, experimental techniques with adequate time resolution and elemental sensitivity to measure initial rates of the wide variety of environmental reactions were quite limited. Techniques such as electron paramagnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies suffer from limited elemental specificity and poor sensitivity to inorganic elements, respectively. Ex situ analysis of batch and stirred-flow systems provides high elemental sensitivity; however, their time resolution is inadequate to characterize rapid environmental reactions. Here we apply quick-scanning x-ray absorption spectroscopy (Q-XAS), at sub-second time-scales, to measure the initial oxidation rate of As(III) to As(V) by hydrous manganese(IV) oxide. Using Q-XAS, As(III) and As(V) concentrations were determined every 0.98 s in batch reactions. The initial apparent As(III) depletion rate constants (t < 30 s) measured with Q-XAS are nearly twice as large as rate constants measured with traditional analytical techniques. Our results demonstrate the importance of developing analytical techniques capable of analyzing environmental reactions on the same time scale as they occur. Given the high sensitivity, elemental specificity, and time resolution of Q-XAS, it has many potential applications. They could include measuring not only redox reactions but also dissolution/precipitation reactions, such as the formation and/or reductive dissolution of Fe(III) (hydr)oxides, solid-phase transformations (i.e., formation of layered-double hydroxide minerals), or almost any other reaction occurring in aqueous media that can be measured using x-ray absorption spectroscopy. PMID:19805269

  5. Medieval glass from the Cathedral in Paderborn: a comparative study using X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, and inductively coupled laser ablation mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hormes, J.; Roy, A.; Bovenkamp, G.-L.; Simon, K.; Kim, C.-Y.; Börste, N.; Gai, S.

    2013-04-01

    We have investigated four stained glass samples recovered from an archaeological excavation at the Cathedral in Paderborn (Germany) between 1978 and 1980. On two of the samples there are parts of paintings. Concentrations of major elements were determined using two independent techniques: LA-ICP-MS (a UV laser ablation microsampler combined with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer) and synchrotron radiation X-ray excited X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF). The SR-XRF data were quantified by using the program package PyMCA developed by the software group of the ESRF in Grenoble. Significant differences were found between the concentrations determined by the two techniques that can be explained by concentration gradients near the surface of the glasses caused, for example, by corrosion/leaching processes and the different surface sensitivities of the applied techniques. For several of the elements that were detected in the glass and in the colour pigments used for the paintings X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra were recorded in order to determine the chemical speciation of the elements of interest. As was expected, most elements in the glass were found as oxides in their most stable form. Two notable exceptions were observed: titanium was not found as rutile—the most stable form of TiO2—but in the form of anatase, and lead was not found in one defined chemical state but as a complex mixture of oxide, sulphate, and other compounds.

  6. The BioCAT undulator beamline 18ID: A facility for biological non-crystalline diffraction and x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the APS

    SciTech Connect

    Fischetti, R.; Stepanov, S.; Rosenbaum, G.; Barrea, R.; Black, E.; Gore, D.; Heurich, R.; Kondrashkina, E.; Kropf, A.J.; Wang, S.; Zhang, K.; Irving, T.C.; Bunker, G.B.

    2008-07-02

    The 18ID undulator beamline of the Biophysics Collaborative Access Team at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne, IL, USA, is a high-performance instrument designed for, and dedicated to, the study of partially ordered and disordered biological materials using the techniques of small-angle X-ray scattering, fiber diffraction, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The beamline and associated instrumentation are described in detail and examples of the representative experimental results are presented.

  7. Raman and x-ray absorption spectroscopy characterization of Zr-doped MOCVD YBa2Cu3O6+δ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maroni, V. A.; Kropf, A. J.; Aytug, T.; Paranthaman, M.

    2010-01-01

    Metal-organic chemical vapor deposited YBa2Cu3O6+δ (YBCO) films (about 0.9 µm thick) containing varying amounts of added zirconium were examined by Raman microscopy and synchrotron x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The self-field and in-field (1 T, B\\parallel c ) Jc performance of the YBCO films at 77 K (reported by the group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that fabricated the samples) exhibited an increase on going from 0 mol% (m/o) Zr-added to 2.5 m/o Zr-added but then decreased sharply with increasing Zr content. Raman measurements on these films showed that the added Zr had little effect on YBCO cation disorder up to about 7.5 m/o Zr-added. Cation disorder increased while Ba-Cu-O content remained relatively constant for Zr additions >=7.5 m/o. In the region of sharpest descent of Jc with increasing Zr content (2.5-7.5 m/o Zr-added) neither the cation disorder nor the Ba-Cu-O content showed a systematic variation with Jc. Zirconium K edge x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy revealed that virtually all of the added Zr in each sample was present as a BaZrO3-like phase (BZO). The Jc performance of the Zr-added films showed a high correlation with the variations in the next-nearest-neighbor Zr-M (M = Zr, Y) scattering path amplitude from the extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and the critical temperature over the full range of Zr additions and with cation disorder at the higher Zr-added levels (>7.5 m/o). There was no obvious correlation with the amount of residual barium cuprate or CuO. Approximate ranges for the BZO particle dimensions estimated from the EXAFS data indicated that the mean particle size gets larger with increasing Zr addition.

  8. In-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis of capacity fade in nanoscale-LiCoO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Patridge, Christopher J.; Swider-Lyons, Karen E.; Twigg, Mark E.; Ramaker, David E.

    2013-07-15

    The local structure of nanoscale (∼10–40 nm) LiCoO{sub 2} is monitored during electrochemical cycling utilizing in-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The high surface area of the LiCoO{sub 2} nanoparticles not only enhances capacity fade, but also provides a large signal from the particle surface relative to the bulk. Changes in the nanoscale LiCoO{sub 2} metal-oxide bond lengths, structural disorder, and chemical state are tracked during cycling by adapting the delta mu (Δμ) technique in complement with comprehensive extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) modeling. For the first time, we use a Δμ EXAFS method, and by comparison of the difference EXAFS spectra, extrapolate significant coordination changes and reduction of cobalt species with cycling. This combined approach suggests Li–Co site exchange at the surface of the nanoscale LiCoO{sub 2} as a likely factor in the capacity fade and irreversible losses in practical, microscale LiCoO{sub 2}. - Graphical abstract: Electrochemical cycling of Li-ion batteries has strong impact on the structure and integrity of the cathode active material particularly near the surface/electrolyte interface. In developing a new method, we have used in-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy during electrochemical cycling of nanoscale LiCoO{sub 2} to track changes during charge and discharge and between subsequent cycles. Using difference spectra, several small changes in Co-O bond length, Co-O and Co-Co coordination, and site exchange between Co and Li sites can be tracked. These methods show promise as a new technique to better understand processes which lead to capacity fade and loss in Li-ion batteries. - Highlights: • A new method is developed to understand capacity fade in Li-ion battery cathodes. • Structural changes are tracked during Li intercalation/deintercalation of LiCoO{sub 2}. • Surface structural changes are emphasized using nanoscale-LiCoO{sub 2} and difference spectra. • Full multiple

  9. High energy resolution five-crystal spectrometer for high quality fluorescence and absorption measurements on an x-ray absorption spectroscopy beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Llorens, Isabelle; Lahera, Eric; Delnet, William; Proux, Olivier; Dermigny, Quentin; Gelebart, Frederic; Morand, Marc; Shukla, Abhay; Bardou, Nathalie; Ulrich, Olivier; and others

    2012-06-15

    Fluorescence detection is classically achieved with a solid state detector (SSD) on x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) beamlines. This kind of detection however presents some limitations related to the limited energy resolution and saturation. Crystal analyzer spectrometers (CAS) based on a Johann-type geometry have been developed to overcome these limitations. We have tested and installed such a system on the BM30B/CRG-FAME XAS beamline at the ESRF dedicated to the structural investigation of very dilute systems in environmental, material and biological sciences. The spectrometer has been designed to be a mobile device for easy integration in multi-purpose hard x-ray synchrotron beamlines or even with a laboratory x-ray source. The CAS allows to collect x-ray photons from a large solid angle with five spherically bent crystals. It will cover a large energy range allowing to probe fluorescence lines characteristic of all the elements from Ca (Z = 20) to U (Z = 92). It provides an energy resolution of 1-2 eV. XAS spectroscopy is the main application of this device even if other spectroscopic techniques (RIXS, XES, XRS, etc.) can be also achieved with it. The performances of the CAS are illustrated by two experiments that are difficult or impossible to perform with SSD and the complementarity of the CAS vs SSD detectors is discussed.

  10. High energy resolution five-crystal spectrometer for high quality fluorescence and absorption measurements on an x-ray absorption spectroscopy beamline.

    PubMed

    Llorens, Isabelle; Lahera, Eric; Delnet, William; Proux, Olivier; Braillard, Aurélien; Hazemann, Jean-Louis; Prat, Alain; Testemale, Denis; Dermigny, Quentin; Gelebart, Frederic; Morand, Marc; Shukla, Abhay; Bardou, Nathalie; Ulrich, Olivier; Arnaud, Stéphan; Berar, Jean-François; Boudet, Nathalie; Caillot, Bernard; Chaurand, Perrine; Rose, Jérôme; Doelsch, Emmanuel; Martin, Philippe; Solari, Pier Lorenzo

    2012-06-01

    Fluorescence detection is classically achieved with a solid state detector (SSD) on x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) beamlines. This kind of detection however presents some limitations related to the limited energy resolution and saturation. Crystal analyzer spectrometers (CAS) based on a Johann-type geometry have been developed to overcome these limitations. We have tested and installed such a system on the BM30B/CRG-FAME XAS beamline at the ESRF dedicated to the structural investigation of very dilute systems in environmental, material and biological sciences. The spectrometer has been designed to be a mobile device for easy integration in multi-purpose hard x-ray synchrotron beamlines or even with a laboratory x-ray source. The CAS allows to collect x-ray photons from a large solid angle with five spherically bent crystals. It will cover a large energy range allowing to probe fluorescence lines characteristic of all the elements from Ca (Z = 20) to U (Z = 92). It provides an energy resolution of 1-2 eV. XAS spectroscopy is the main application of this device even if other spectroscopic techniques (RIXS, XES, XRS, etc.) can be also achieved with it. The performances of the CAS are illustrated by two experiments that are difficult or impossible to perform with SSD and the complementarity of the CAS vs SSD detectors is discussed.

  11. Assessment of aided phytostabilization of copper-contaminated soil by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and chemical extractions.

    PubMed

    Kumpiene, Jurate; Mench, Michel; Bes, Clémence M; Fitts, Jeffrey P

    2011-06-01

    Field plots were established at a timber treatment site to evaluate remediation of Cu contaminated topsoils with aided phytostabilization. Soil containing 2600 mg kg⁻¹ Cu was amended with a combination of 5 wt% compost and 2 wt% iron grit, and vegetated. Sequential extraction was combined with extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy to correlate changes in Cu distribution across five fractions with changes in the predominant Cu compounds two years after treatment in parallel treated and untreated field plots. Exchangeable Cu dominated untreated soil, most likely as Cu(II) species non-specifically bound to natural organic matter. The EXAFS spectroscopic results are consistent with the sequential extraction results, which show a major shift in Cu distribution as a result of soil treatment to the fraction bound to poorly crystalline Fe oxyhydroxides forming binuclear inner-sphere complexes. PMID:21454002

  12. X-Ray absorption spectroscopy of LiBF4 in propylene carbonate: a model lithium ion battery electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jacob W; Lam, Royce K; Sheardy, Alex T; Shih, Orion; Rizzuto, Anthony M; Borodin, Oleg; Harris, Stephen J; Prendergast, David; Saykally, Richard J

    2014-11-21

    Since their introduction into the commercial marketplace in 1991, lithium ion batteries have become increasingly ubiquitous in portable technology. Nevertheless, improvements to existing battery technology are necessary to expand their utility for larger-scale applications, such as electric vehicles. Advances may be realized from improvements to the liquid electrolyte; however, current understanding of the liquid structure and properties remains incomplete. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of solutions of LiBF4 in propylene carbonate (PC), interpreted using first-principles electronic structure calculations within the eXcited electron and Core Hole (XCH) approximation, yields new insight into the solvation structure of the Li(+) ion in this model electrolyte. By generating linear combinations of the computed spectra of Li(+)-associating and free PC molecules and comparing to the experimental spectrum, we find a Li(+)-solvent interaction number of 4.5. This result suggests that computational models of lithium ion battery electrolytes should move beyond tetrahedral coordination structures.

  13. Assessment of Aided Phytostabilization of Copper-Contaminated Soil by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy and Chemical Extractions

    SciTech Connect

    J Kumpiene; M Mench; C Bes; J Fitts

    2011-12-31

    Field plots were established at a timber treatment site to evaluate remediation of Cu contaminated topsoils with aided phytostabilization. Soil containing 2600 mg kg{sup -1} Cu was amended with a combination of 5 wt% compost and 2 wt% iron grit, and vegetated. Sequential extraction was combined with extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy to correlate changes in Cu distribution across five fractions with changes in the predominant Cu compounds two years after treatment in parallel treated and untreated field plots. Exchangeable Cu dominated untreated soil, most likely as Cu(II) species non-specifically bound to natural organic matter. The EXAFS spectroscopic results are consistent with the sequential extraction results, which show a major shift in Cu distribution as a result of soil treatment to the fraction bound to poorly crystalline Fe oxyhydroxides forming binuclear inner-sphere complexes.

  14. Chemical-state analysis of organic semiconductors using soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy combined with first-principles calculation.

    PubMed

    Natsume, Yutaka; Kohno, Teiichiro; Minakata, Takashi; Konishi, Tokuzo; Gullikson, Eric M; Muramatsu, Yasuji

    2012-02-16

    The chemical states of organic semiconductors were investigated by total-electron-yield soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (TEY-XAS) and first-principles calculations. The organic semiconductors, pentacene (C(22)H(14)) and pentacenequinone (C(22)H(12)O(2)), were subjected to TEY-XAS and the experimental spectra obtained were compared with the 1s core-level excited spectra of C and O atoms, calculated by a first-principles planewave pseudopotential method. Excellent agreement between the measured and the calculated spectra were obtained for both materials. Using this methodology, we examined the chemical states of the aged pentacene, and confirmed that both C-OH and C═O chemical bonds are generated by exposure to air. This result implies that not only oxygen but also humidity causes pentacene oxidation.

  15. A pH-dependent x-ray absorption spectroscopy study of U adsorption to bacterial cell walls.

    SciTech Connect

    Ravel, B.; Kelly, S. D.; Gorman-Lewis, D.; Boyanov, M. I.; Fein, J. B.; Kemner, K. M.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Notre Dame

    2006-01-01

    Metal mobility in subsurface water systems involves the complex interaction of the metal, the fluid, and the mineral surfaces over which the fluid flows. This mobility is further influenced by metal adsorption onto bacteria and other biomass in the subsurface. To better understand the mechanism of this adsorption as well as its dependence on the chemical composition of the fluid, we have performed a series of metal adsorption experiments of aqueous uranyl (UO{sub 2}){sup 2+} to the gram-positive bacterium B. subtilis in the presence and absence of carbonate along with X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) to determine the binding structures at the cell surface. In this paper we demonstrate an approach to the XAS data analysis which allows us to measure the partitioning of the adsorption of uranium to hydroxyl, carboxyl/carbonato, and phosphoryl active sites at the cell surface.

  16. Measurement of c-axis angular orientation in calcite (CaCO3) nanocrystals using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, P. U. P. A.; Young, Anthony; Coppersmith, Susan N.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that the ability to manipulate the polarization of synchrotron radiation can be exploited to enhance the capabilities of X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, to include linear dichroism effects. By acquiring spectra at the same photon energies but different polarizations, and using a photoelectron emission spectromicroscope (PEEM), one can quantitatively determine the angular orientation of micro- and nanocrystals with a spatial resolution down to 10 nm. XANES-PEEM instruments are already present at most synchrotrons, hence these methods are readily available. The methods are demonstrated here on geologic calcite (CaCO3) and used to investigate the prismatic layer of a mollusk shell, Pinctada fucata. These XANES-PEEM data reveal multiply oriented nanocrystals within calcite prisms, previously thought to be monocrystalline. The subdivision into multiply oriented nanocrystals, spread by more than 50°, may explain the excellent mechanical properties of the prismatic layer, known for decades but never explained. PMID:21693647

  17. A facile heating cell for in situ transmittance and fluorescence X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigations.

    PubMed

    An, Pengfei; Hong, Caihao; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Wei; Hu, Tiandou

    2014-01-01

    A facile heating cell has been designed for in situ transmittance and fluorescence X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements up to 1273 K under vacuum or an inert atmosphere. These high temperatures are achieved using a tantalum heating element by ohmic heating. Because of the small specific heat capacity, the temperature can be changed in a matter of minutes from room temperature to high temperature. Furthermore, a commercial power controller was adapted to provide stable temperature control. The construction of the heat shielding system provides a novel approach to reducing the beam's path length and the cell's size. The cell is inexpensive and easy to build. Its performance was evaluated by in situ XAS measurements of the temperature-dependent structure of ceria nanocrystals. Some preliminary results for the structural mechanism in ceria nanocrystal redox applications are given.

  18. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and magnetic circular dichroism studies of L1{sub 0}-Mn-Ga thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Glas, M. Sterwerf, C.; Schmalhorst, J. M.; Reiss, G.; Ebke, D.; Jenkins, C.; Arenholz, E.

    2013-11-14

    Tetragonally distorted Mn{sub 3−x}Ga{sub x} thin films with 0.1X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). A highly textured L1{sub 0} crystal structure of the Mn-Ga films was verified by X-ray diffraction measurements. For samples with e-beam evaporated MgO barrier no evidence for Mn-O was found whereas in samples with magnetron sputtered MgO, Mn-O was detected, even for the thickest interlayer thickness. Both XAS and XMCD measurements showed an increasing interfacial Mn-O amount with decreasing CoFeB interlayer thickness. Additional element specific full hysteresis loops determined an out-of-plane magnetization axis for the Mn and Co, respectively.

  19. Incorporation of Trace Elements in Ancient and Modern Human Bone: An X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingitore, N. E.; Cruz-Jimenez, G.; Price, T. D.

    2001-12-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) affords the opportunity to probe the atomic environment of trace elements in human bone. We are using XAS to investigate the mode(s) of incorporation of Sr, Zn, Pb, and Ba in both modern and ancient (and thus possibly altered) human and animal bone. Because burial and diagenesis may add trace elements to bone, we performed XAS analysis on samples of pristine contemporary and ancient, buried human and animal bone. We assume that deposition of these elements during burial occurs by processes distinct from those in vivo, and this will be reflected in their atomic environments. Archaeologists measure strontium in human and animal bone as a guide to diet. Carnivores show lower Sr/Ca ratios than their herbivore prey due to discrimination against Sr relative to Ca up the food chain. In an initial sample suite no difference was observed between modern and buried bone. Analysis of additional buried samples, using a more sensitive detector, revealed significant differences in the distance to the second and third neighbors of the Sr in some of the buried samples. Distances to the first neighbor, oxygen, were similar in all samples. Zinc is also used in paleo-diet studies. Initial x-ray absorption spectroscopy of a limited suite of bones did not reveal any differences between modern and buried samples. This may reflect the limited number of samples examined or the low levels of Zn in typical aqueous solutions in soils. Signals from barium and lead were too low to record useful XAS spectra. Additional samples will be studied for Zn, Ba, and Pb. We conducted our XAS experiments on beam lines 4-1 and 4-3 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Data were collected in the fluorescence mode, using a Lytle detector and appropriate filter, and a solid state, 13-element Ge-detector.

  20. Micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy investigations of baroque tin-amalgam mirrors at BESSY using a capillary focusing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoll, J.; Röhrs, S.; Erko, A.; Firsov, A.; Bjeoumikhov, A.; Langhoff, N.

    2004-10-01

    An elliptically shaped glass monocapillary with a spatial resolution of 5 μm has been used for the fine focusing of the pre-focused X-ray beam produced by the graded-crystal monochromator beamline, KMC-2. The flux density gain of 50 was experimentally measured. The microprobe has been used in the energy range of 3.5-15 keV. Micro-X-ray fluorescence analysis (μXFA) and micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (μXANES) measurements on test samples and investigations of baroque tin-amalgam mirrors were done.

  1. Local structure studies of Fe2TeO6 using x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Harishchandra; Yadav, A. K.

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we have performed EXAFS measurements on powder samples of Fe2TeO6 (FTO) to probe the local structure surrounding at the Fe site. The structural parameters (atomic coordination and lattice parameters) of FTO used for simulation of theoretical EXAFS spectra of the samples have been obtained from Rietveld refined structure on synchrotron X-ray Diffraction (SXRD) data. Quite similar and satisfactory structural parameters have been obtained from both the study, indicating goodness of synchrotron structural analysis over EXAFS analysis. SXRD and EXAFS results shows absence of any secondary phase proves current synthesis superior over reported techniques.

  2. The speciation of soluble sulphur compounds in bacterial culture fluids by X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Franz, Bettina; Lichtenberg, Henning; Hormes, Josef; Dahl, Christiane; Prange, Alexander

    2009-11-01

    Over the last decade X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy has been used in an increasing number of microbiological studies. In addition to other applications it has served as a valuable tool for the investigation of the sulphur globules deposited intra- or extracellularly by certain photo- and chemotrophic sulphur-oxidizing (Sox) bacteria. For XANES measurements, these deposits can easily be concentrated by filtration or sedimentation through centrifugation. However, during oxidative metabolism of reduced sulphur compounds, such as sulphide or thiosulphate, sulphur deposits are not the only intermediates formed. Soluble intermediates such as sulphite may also be produced and released into the medium. In this study, we explored the potential of XANES spectroscopy for the detection and speciation of sulphur compounds in culture supernatants of the phototrophic purple sulphur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum. More specifically, we investigated A. vinosum DeltasoxY, a strain with an in frame deletion of the soxY gene. This gene encodes an essential component of the thiosulphate-oxidizing Sox enzyme complex. Improved sample preparation techniques developed for the DeltasoxY strain allowed for the first time not only the qualitative but also the quantitative analysis of bacterial culture supernatants by XANES spectroscopy. The results thus obtained verified and supplemented conventional HPLC analysis of soluble sulphur compounds. Sulphite and also oxidized organic sulphur compounds were shown by XANES spectroscopy to be present, some of which were not seen when standard HPLC protocols were used.

  3. Local structure of Fe in Fe-doped misfit-layered calcium cobaltite: An X-ray absorption spectroscopy study

    SciTech Connect

    Prasoetsopha, Natkrita; Pinitsoontorn, Supree; Bootchanont, Atipong; Kidkhunthod, Pinit; Srepusharawoot, Pornjuk; Kamwanna, Teerasak; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya; Kurosaki, Ken; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2013-08-15

    Polycrystalline Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 9+δ} ceramics (x=0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05) were fabricated using a simple thermal hydro-decomposition method and a spark plasma sintering technique. Thermoelectric property measurements showed that increasing Fe concentration resulted in a decrease in electrical resistivity, thermopower and thermal conductivity, leading to an improvement in the dimensionless figure-of-merit, >35% for x=0.05 at 1073 K. An X-ray absorption spectroscopy technique was used to investigate the local structure of Fe ions in the Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 9+δ} structure for the first time. By fitting data from the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra and analyzing the X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra incorporated with first principle simulation, it was shown that Fe was substituted for Co in the the Ca{sub 2}CoO{sub 3} (rocksalt, RS) layer rather than in the CoO{sub 2} layer. Variation in the thermoelectric properties as a function of Fe concentration was attributed to charge transfer between the CoO{sub 2} and the RS layers. The origin of the preferential Fe substitution site was investigated considering the ionic radii of Co and Fe and the total energy of the system. - Graphical abstract: The Fe K-edge XANES spectra of: (a) experimental result in comparison to the simulated spectra when Fe atoms were substituted in the RS layer; (b) with magnetic moment; (c) without magnetic moment, and in the CoO{sub 2} layer; (d) with magnetic moment and (e) without magnetic moment. Highlights: • Synthesis, structural studies, and thermoelectric properties of Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 9+δ}. • Direct evidence for the local structure of the Fe ions in the Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 9+δ} using XAS analysis. • EXAFS and XANES analysis showed that Fe was likely to be situated in the RS layer structure. • Changes in TE property with Fe content was due to charge transfer between

  4. X-ray absorption spectroscopy elucidates the impact of structural disorder on electron mobility in amorphous zinc-tin-oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Siah, Sin Cheng E-mail: buonassisi@mit.edu; Lee, Yun Seog; Buonassisi, Tonio E-mail: buonassisi@mit.edu; Lee, Sang Woon; Gordon, Roy G.; Heo, Jaeyeong; Shibata, Tomohiro; Segre, Carlo U.

    2014-06-16

    We investigate the correlation between the atomic structures of amorphous zinc-tin-oxide (a-ZTO) thin films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and their electronic transport properties. We perform synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the K-edges of Zn and Sn with varying [Zn]/[Sn] compositions in a-ZTO thin films. In extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements, signal attenuation from higher-order shells confirms the amorphous structure of a-ZTO thin films. Both quantitative EXAFS modeling and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) reveal that structural disorder around Zn atoms increases with increasing [Sn]. Field- and Hall-effect mobilities are observed to decrease with increasing structural disorder around Zn atoms, suggesting that the degradation in electron mobility may be correlated with structural changes.

  5. Soft X-Ray Irradiation Effects of Li2O2, Li2CO3 and Li2O Revealed by Absorption Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Ruimin; Chuang, Yi-De; Yan, Shishen; Yang, Wanli

    2012-01-01

    Li2O2, Li2CO3, and Li2O are three critical compounds in lithium-air and lithium-ion energy storage systems. Extensive measurements have been carried out to study the chemical species and their evolutions at difference stages of the device operation. While x-ray spectroscopy has been demonstrated to be one of the most powerful tools for such purpose, no systematic study on the irradiation effects have been reported. Here we carry out extensive time, position, and irradiation dependent Li K-edge soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy on these compounds with so far the best energy resolution. The ultra-high resolution in the current study allows the features in the absorption spectra to be well-resolved. The spectral lineshape thus serves as the fingerprints of these compounds, enabling the tracking of their evolution under x-ray irradiation. We found that both Li2O2 and Li2CO3 evidently evolve towards Li2O under the soft x-ray irradiation with Li2CO3 exhibiting a surprisingly higher sensitivity to x-rays than Li2O2. On the other hand, Li2O remains the most stable compound despite experiencing substantial irradiation dose. We thus conclude that high resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy could unambiguously fingerprint different chemical species, but special cautions on irradiation effects would be needed in performing the experiments and interpreting the data properly. PMID:23145116

  6. Investigating the Distribution of Chemical Forms of Sulfur in Prostate Cancer Tissue Using X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Czapla-Masztafiak, Joanna; Okoń, Krzysztof; Gałka, Marek; Huthwelker, Thomas; Kwiatek, Wojciech M

    2016-02-01

    The use of synchrotron radiation may shed more light on the study of prostate cancer, one of the leading diseases among men. In the presented study the microbeam setup at the PSI Swiss Light Source combined with fluorescence detected X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was applied to determine two-dimensional (2D) imaging of distributions of various chemical sulfur forms in prostate cancer tissue sections, since sulfur is considered important and essential in cancer progression. The research focused on prostate tissues obtained during routine prostatectomies on patients suffering from prostate cancer.Our previous studies using μ-XAS point measurements on prostate cancer cell lines showed the differences in fractions of various forms of sulfur between cancerous and non-cancerous cells. Therefore, in this experiment the chosen areas of prostate cancer tissues were scanned to get the full picture of the chemical composition of tissue, which is highly heterogeneous. The incident X-ray beams of energies tuned to spectroscopic features of the near-edge region of sulfur K-edge absorption spectra were used to provide contrast between chemical species presented in the tissue. Next, the relative content of the three main sulfur forms, found in biological systems, was calculated and the results are presented in a form of 2D color maps. These maps are correlated with the microscopic histological image of the scanned area.The main findings show that sulfur occurs in prostate tissue mainly in reduced form. The oxidized form of sulfur is present mostly in prostatic stroma, while sulfur in intermediate oxidation state is present in trace amount.

  7. Electrosynthesis of ZnO nanorods and nanotowers: Morphology and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigircik, Gokmen; Erken, Ozge; Tuken, Tunc; Gumus, Cebrail; Ozkendir, Osman M.; Ufuktepe, Yuksel

    2015-06-01

    Deposition mechanism of nano-structured ZnO films has been investigated in the absence and presence of chloride ions from aqueous solution. The resulting opto-electronic properties were interpreted extensively, using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), UV-Visible spectroscopy and four probe techniques. The ZnO deposition is mass transport controlled process and the interaction of chloride ions with the surface has great influence on diffusion kinetics, considering the substantial species (Zn2+ and OH-) involved in the construction of ZnO film. This effect does not change major lattice parameters, as shown with detailed analysis of XRD data. However, the texture coefficient (Tc) (0 0 2) value is higher in presence of chloride ions containing synthesis solution which gave vertically aligned, well defined and uniformly dispersed nanorods structure. The calculated Eg values are in the range 3.28-3.41 eV and 3.22-3.31 eV for ZnO nanorods and nanotowers synthesized at different deposition periods, respectively. Furthermore, the charge mobility values regarding the deposition periods were measured to be in the ranges from 130.4 to 449.2 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 126.2 to 204.7 cm2 V-1 s-1 for nanorods and nanotowers, respectively. From XANES results, it was shown that the Zn K-edge spectrum is dominated by the transition of Zn 1s core electrons into the unoccupied Zn 4p states of the conduction band. Comparing the rod and tower nano-structured ZnO thin films, the excitation behavior of valence band electrons is different. Moreover, the density states of Zn 4p are higher for ZnO nanorods.

  8. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy and Coherent X-ray Diffraction Imaging for Time-Resolved Investigation of the Biological Complexes: Computer Modelling towards the XFEL Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugaev, A. L.; Guda, A. A.; Yefanov, O. M.; Lorenz, U.; Soldatov, A. V.; Vartanyants, I. A.

    2016-05-01

    The development of the next generation synchrotron radiation sources - free electron lasers - is approaching to become an effective tool for the time-resolved experiments aimed to solve actual problems in various fields such as chemistry’ biology’ medicine’ etc. In order to demonstrate’ how these experiments may be performed for the real systems to obtain information at the atomic and macromolecular levels’ we have performed a molecular dynamics computer simulation combined with quantum chemistry calculations for the human phosphoglycerate kinase enzyme with Mg containing substrate. The simulated structures were used to calculate coherent X-ray diffraction patterns’ reflecting the conformational state of the enzyme, and Mg K-edge X-ray absorption spectra, which depend on the local structure of the substrate. These two techniques give complementary information making such an approach highly effective for time-resolved investigation of various biological complexes, such as metalloproteins or enzymes with metal-containing substrate, to obtain information about both metal-containing active site or substrate and the atomic structure of each conformation.

  9. Near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy of naphthalene diimide-thiophene co-polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Gann, Eliot; McNeill, Christopher R.; Szumilo, Monika; Sirringhaus, Henning; Sommer, Michael; Maniam, Subashani; Langford, Steven J.; Thomsen, Lars

    2014-04-28

    Near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy is an important tool for probing the structure of conjugated polymer films used in organic electronic devices. High-performance conjugated polymers are often donor-acceptor co-polymers which feature a repeat unit with multiple functional groups. To facilitate better application of NEXAFS spectroscopy to the study of such materials, improved understanding of the observed NEXAFS spectral features is required. In order to examine how the NEXAFS spectrum of a donor-acceptor co-polymer relates to the properties of the sub-units, a series of naphthalene diimide-thiophene-based co-polymers have been studied where the nature and length of the donor co-monomer has been systematically varied. The spectra of these materials are compared with that of a thiophene homopolymer and naphthalene diimide monomer enabling peak assignment and the influence of inter-unit electronic coupling to be assessed. We find that while it is possible to attribute peaks within the π* manifold as arising primarily due to the naphthalene diimide or thiophene sub-units, very similar dichroism of these peaks is observed indicating that it may not be possible to separately probe the molecular orientation of the separate sub-units with carbon K-edge NEXAFS spectroscopy.

  10. Understanding Electrocatalytic Pathways in Low and Medium Temperature Fuel Cells: Synchrotron-based In Situ X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mukerjee, S.; Ziegelbauer, J; Arruda, T; Ramaker, D; Shyam, B

    2008-01-01

    Over the last few decades, researchers have made significant developments in producing more advanced electrocatalytic materials for power generation applications. For example, traditional fuel cell catalysts often involve high-priced precious metals such as Pt. However, in order for fuel cells to become commercially viable, there is a need to reduce or completely remove precious metal altogether. As a result, a myriad of novel, unconventional materials have been explored such as chalcogenides, porphyrins, and organic-metal-macrocycles for low/medium temperature fuel cells as well as enzymatic and microbial fuel cells. As these materials increasingly become more complex, researchers often find themselves in search of new characterization methods, especially those which are allow in situ and operando measurements with element specificity. One such method that has received much attention for analysis of electrocatalytic materials is X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). XAS is an element specific, core level absorption technique which yields structural and electronic information. As a core electron method, XAS requires an extremely bright source, hence a synchrotron. The resulting intensity of synchrotron radiation allow for experiments to be conducted in situ, under electrochemically relevant conditions. Although a bulk-averaging technique requiring rigorous mathematical manipulation, XAS has the added benefit that it can probe materials which possess no long range order. This makes it ideal to characterize nano-scale electrocatalysts. XAS experiments are conducted by ramping the X-ray photon energy while measuring absorption of the incident beam the sample or by counting fluorescent photons released from a sample due to subsequent relaxation. Absorption mode XAS follows the Beer-Lambert Law, {mu}x = log(I{sub 0}/I{sub t}) (1) where {mu} is the absorption coefficient, x is the sample thickness and I{sub 0} and I{sub t} are the intensities of the incident and

  11. Manganese L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of manganese catalase from Lactobacillus plantarum and mixed valence manganese complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Grush, M.M.; Chen, J.; George, S.J.

    1996-01-10

    The first Mn L-edge absorption spectra of a Mn metalloprotein are presented in this paper. Both reduced and superoxidized Mn catalase have been examined by fluorescence-detected soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and their Mn L-edge spectra are dramatically different. The spectrum of reduced Mn(II)Mn(II) catalase has been interpreted by ligand field atomic multiplet calculations and by comparison to model compound spectra. The analysis finds a 10 Dq value of nearly 1.1 eV, consistent with coordination by predominately nitrogen and oxygen donor ligands. For interpretation of mixed valence Mn spectra, an empirical simulation procedure based on the addition of homovalent model compound spectra has been developed and was tested on a variety of Mn complexes and superoxidized Mn catalase. This routine was also used to determine the oxidation state composition of the Mn in [Ba{sub 8}Na{sub 2}ClMn{sub 16}(OH){sub 8}(CO{sub 3}){sub 4}L{sub 8}] .53 H{sub 2}O (L=1,3-diamino-2-hydroxypropane-N,N,N`N`-tetraacetic acid). 27 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Probing local and electronic structure in Warm Dense Matter: single pulse synchrotron x-ray absorption spectroscopy on shocked Fe

    PubMed Central

    Torchio, Raffaella; Occelli, Florent; Mathon, Olivier; Sollier, Arnaud; Lescoute, Emilien; Videau, Laurent; Vinci, Tommaso; Benuzzi-Mounaix, Alessandra; Headspith, Jon; Helsby, William; Bland, Simon; Eakins, Daniel; Chapman, David; Pascarelli, Sakura; Loubeyre, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Understanding Warm Dense Matter (WDM), the state of planetary interiors, is a new frontier in scientific research. There exists very little experimental data probing WDM states at the atomic level to test current models and those performed up to now are limited in quality. Here, we report a proof-of-principle experiment that makes microscopic investigations of materials under dynamic compression easily accessible to users and with data quality close to that achievable at ambient. Using a single 100 ps synchrotron x-ray pulse, we have measured, by K-edge absorption spectroscopy, ns-lived equilibrium states of WDM Fe. Structural and electronic changes in Fe are clearly observed for the first time at such extreme conditions. The amplitude of the EXAFS oscillations persists up to 500 GPa and 17000 K, suggesting an enduring local order. Moreover, a discrepancy exists with respect to theoretical calculations in the value of the energy shift of the absorption onset and so this comparison should help to refine the approximations used in models. PMID:27246145

  13. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Characterization of Zn Underpotential Deposition on Au(111) from Phosphate Supporting Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J R; O'Malley, R L; O'Connell, T J; Vollmer, A; Rayment, T

    2009-12-11

    Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used to investigate the structure of Zn monolayers prepared on Au(111) electrodes via underpotential deposition (UPD) from phosphate supporting electrolyte. Theoretical modeling of the XAS data indicates that the Zn adatoms adopt a commensurate ({radical}3x{radical}3)R30{sup o} ({mu}{sub sc} = 0.33) adlayer structure and reside within the 3-fold hollow sites of the Au(111) surface. Meanwhile, phosphate counter-ions co-adsorb on the UPD adlayer and bridge between the Zn adatoms in a ({radical}3x{radical}3)R30{sup o} ({mu}{sub sc} = 0.33) configuration, with each phosphorous atom residing above a vacant 3-fold hollow site of the Au(111). Significantly, this surface structure is invariant between the electrochemical potential for UPD adlayer formation and the onset of bulk Zn electrodeposition. Analysis of the Zn K-edge absorption onset also presents the possibility that the Zn adatoms do not fully discharge during the process of UPD, which had been proposed in prior voltammetric studies of the phosphate/Zn(UPD)/Au(111) system.

  14. Probing local and electronic structure in Warm Dense Matter: single pulse synchrotron x-ray absorption spectroscopy on shocked Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torchio, Raffaella; Occelli, Florent; Mathon, Olivier; Sollier, Arnaud; Lescoute, Emilien; Videau, Laurent; Vinci, Tommaso; Benuzzi-Mounaix, Alessandra; Headspith, Jon; Helsby, William; Bland, Simon; Eakins, Daniel; Chapman, David; Pascarelli, Sakura; Loubeyre, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Understanding Warm Dense Matter (WDM), the state of planetary interiors, is a new frontier in scientific research. There exists very little experimental data probing WDM states at the atomic level to test current models and those performed up to now are limited in quality. Here, we report a proof-of-principle experiment that makes microscopic investigations of materials under dynamic compression easily accessible to users and with data quality close to that achievable at ambient. Using a single 100 ps synchrotron x-ray pulse, we have measured, by K-edge absorption spectroscopy, ns-lived equilibrium states of WDM Fe. Structural and electronic changes in Fe are clearly observed for the first time at such extreme conditions. The amplitude of the EXAFS oscillations persists up to 500 GPa and 17000 K, suggesting an enduring local order. Moreover, a discrepancy exists with respect to theoretical calculations in the value of the energy shift of the absorption onset and so this comparison should help to refine the approximations used in models.

  15. Nitrogen Doping and Thermal Stability in HfSiOxNy Studied by Photoemission and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Toyoda, Satoshi; Okabayashi, Jun; Takahashi, Haruhiko; Oshima, Masaharu; Lee, Dong-Ick; Sun, Shiyu; sun, Steven; Pianetta, Piero A.; Ando, Takashi; Fukuda, Seiichi; /SONY, Atsugi

    2005-12-14

    We have investigated nitrogen-doping effects into HfSiO{sub x} films on Si and their thermal stability using synchrotron-radiation photoemission and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. N 1s core-level photoemission and N K-edge absorption spectra have revealed that chemical-bonding states of N-Si{sub 3-x}O{sub x} and interstitial N{sub 2}-gas-like features are clearly observed in as-grown HfSiO{sub x}N{sub y} film and they decrease upon ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) annealing due to a thermal instability, which can be related to the device performance. Annealing-temperature dependence in Hf 4f and Si 2p photoemission spectra suggests that the Hf-silicidation temperature is effectively increased by nitrogen doping into the HfSiO{sub x} although the interfacial SiO{sub 2} layer is selectively reduced. No change in valence-band spectra upon UHV annealing suggests that crystallization of the HfSiO{sub x}N{sub y} films is also hindered by nitrogen doping into the HfSiO{sub x}.

  16. Probing local and electronic structure in Warm Dense Matter: single pulse synchrotron x-ray absorption spectroscopy on shocked Fe.

    PubMed

    Torchio, Raffaella; Occelli, Florent; Mathon, Olivier; Sollier, Arnaud; Lescoute, Emilien; Videau, Laurent; Vinci, Tommaso; Benuzzi-Mounaix, Alessandra; Headspith, Jon; Helsby, William; Bland, Simon; Eakins, Daniel; Chapman, David; Pascarelli, Sakura; Loubeyre, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Understanding Warm Dense Matter (WDM), the state of planetary interiors, is a new frontier in scientific research. There exists very little experimental data probing WDM states at the atomic level to test current models and those performed up to now are limited in quality. Here, we report a proof-of-principle experiment that makes microscopic investigations of materials under dynamic compression easily accessible to users and with data quality close to that achievable at ambient. Using a single 100 ps synchrotron x-ray pulse, we have measured, by K-edge absorption spectroscopy, ns-lived equilibrium states of WDM Fe. Structural and electronic changes in Fe are clearly observed for the first time at such extreme conditions. The amplitude of the EXAFS oscillations persists up to 500 GPa and 17000 K, suggesting an enduring local order. Moreover, a discrepancy exists with respect to theoretical calculations in the value of the energy shift of the absorption onset and so this comparison should help to refine the approximations used in models. PMID:27246145

  17. Arsenic speciation in tissues of the hyperacumulator P. calomelanos var. austroamericana using x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    SciTech Connect

    Heald, S. M.; Kachenko, A.; Graefe, M.; Singh, B.; X-Ray Science Division; Univ. of Sydney

    2010-06-15

    The fate and chemical speciation of arsenic (As) uptake, translocation and storage by the As hyperaccumulating fern Pityogramma calomelanos var. austroamericana (Pteridaceae) were examined using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and synchrotron-based {mu}-X-ray absorption near edge structure ({mu}-XANES) and {mu}-X-ray fluorescence ({mu}-XRF) spectroscopies. Chemical analysis revealed total As concentration was ca. 6.5 times greater in young fronds (5845 mg kg {sup -1} dry weight) than in old frons (903 mg kg {sup -1} DW) pinnae, As concentration decreased from the base (6822 mg kg {sup -1} DW) to the apex (4301 mg kg {sup -1}DW) of the fronds. The results from {mu}-XANES and {mu}-XRF of living tissues suggested that more than 60% of arsenate (As{sup v}) absorbed was reduced to arsenite (As{sup III}) in roots, prior to transport through vascular tissues as As{sup v} and As{sup III}. In pinnules, As{sup III} was the predominate redox species (72-90%), presumably as solvated, oxygen coordinated compounds. The presence of putative As{sup III}-sulphide (S{sup -2}) coordinationthroughout the fern tissues (4-25%) suggests that S{sup 2-} functional groups may contribute in the biochemical reduction of As{sup v} to As{sup III} during uptake and transport at a whole plant level. Organic arsenicals and thiol-rich compounds were not detected in the species and are unlikely to play a role in As hyperaccumulation in this fern. The study provides important insights into homeostatic regulation of As following As uptake in P. calomelanos var. austroamericana.

  18. Near-infrared photoluminescence and ligand K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopies of AnO2Cl42-(An:u, NP, Pu)

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkerson, Marianne P; Berg, John M; Clark, David L; Conradson, Steven D; Hobart, David E; Kozimor, Stosh A; Scott, Brian L

    2008-01-01

    We have used photoluminescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopies to investigate electronic structures and metal-ligand bonding of a series of An02CI/ ' (An = U, Np, Pu) compounds. Specifically, we will discuss time-resolved near-infrared emission spectra of crystalline Cs2U(An)02C14 (An = Np and Pu) both at 23 K and 75 K, as well as chlorine Kedge X-ray absorption spectra ofCs2An02CI4 (An = U, Np).

  19. Determining Orientational Structure of Diamondoid Thiols Attached to Silver Using Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Willey, T M; Lee, J I; Fabbri, J D; Wang, D; Nielsen, M; Randel, J C; Schreiner, P R; Fokin, A A; Tkachenko, B A; Fokina, N A; Dahl, J P; Carlson, R K; Terminello, L J; Melosh, N A; van Buuren, T

    2008-10-07

    Near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) is a powerful tool for determination of molecular orientation in self-assembled monolayers and other surface-attached molecules. A general framework for using NEXAFS to simultaneously determine molecular tilt and twist of rigid molecules attached to surfaces is presented. This framework is applied to self-assembled monolayers of higher diamondoid, hydrocarbon molecules with cubic-diamond-cage structures. Diamondoid monolayers chemisorbed on metal substrates are known to exhibit interesting electronic and surface properties. This work compares molecular orientation in monolayers prepared on silver substrates using two different thiol positional isomers of [121]tetramantane, and thiols derived from two different pentamantane structural isomers, [1212]pentamantane and [1(2,3)4]pentamantane. The observed differences in monolayer structure demonstrate the utility and limitations of NEXAFS spectroscopy and the framework. The results also demonstrate the ability to control diamondoid assembly, in particular the molecular orientational structure, providing a flexible platform for the modification of surface properties with this exciting new class of nanodiamond materials.

  20. X-ray absorption near-edge structure micro-spectroscopy study of vanadium speciation in Phycomyces blakesleeanus mycelium.

    PubMed

    Žižić, Milan; Dučić, Tanja; Grolimund, Daniel; Bajuk-Bogdanović, Danica; Nikolic, Miroslav; Stanić, Marina; Križak, Strahinja; Zakrzewska, Joanna

    2015-09-01

    Vanadium speciation in the fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus was examined by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, enabling assessment of oxidation states and related molecular symmetries of this transition element in the fungus. The exposure of P. blakesleeanus to two physiologically important vanadium species (V(5+) and V(4+)) resulted in the accumulation of this metal in central compartments of 24 h old mycelia, most probably in vacuoles. Tetrahedral V(5+), octahedral V(4+), and proposed intracellular complexes of V(5+) were detected simultaneously after addition of a physiologically relevant concentration of V(5+) to the mycelium. A substantial fraction of the externally added V(4+) remained mostly in its original form. However, observable variations in the pre-edge-peak intensities in the XANES spectra indicated intracellular complexation and corresponding changes in the molecular coordination symmetry. Vanadate complexation was confirmed by (51)V NMR and Raman spectroscopy, and potential binding compounds including cell-wall constituents (chitosan and/or chitin), (poly)phosphates, DNA, and proteins are proposed. The evidenced vanadate complexation and reduction could also explain the resistance of P. blakesleeanus to high extracellular concentrations of vanadium.

  1. Probing Cu(I) in homogeneous catalysis using high-energy-resolution fluorescence-detected X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Walroth, Richard C; Uebler, Jacob W H; Lancaster, Kyle M

    2015-06-18

    Metal-to-ligand charge transfer excitations in Cu(I) X-ray absorption spectra are introduced as spectroscopic handles for the characterization of species in homogeneous catalytic reaction mixtures. Analysis is supported by correlation of a spectral library to calculations and to complementary spectroscopic parameters.

  2. Examination of Arsenic Speciation in Sulfidic Solutions Using X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemical speciation of arsenic in sulfidic waters is complicated by the existence of thioarsenic species. The purpose of this research was to use advanced spectroscopy techniques along with speciation modeling and chromatography to elucidate the chemical speciation of As in ...

  3. Large damage threshold and small electron escape depth in X-ray absorption spectroscopy of a conjugated polymer thin film.

    PubMed

    Chua, Lay-Lay; Dipankar, Mandal; Sivaramakrishnan, Sankaran; Gao, Xingyu; Qi, Dongchen; Wee, Andrew T S; Ho, Peter K H

    2006-09-26

    The information depth of near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy in the total electron yield mode (TEY-NEXAFS) is given by the escape depth of the TEY electrons z(TEY). This is determined by the effective ranges both of the inelastically scattered secondary electrons and of the primary excited electron before they thermalize below the vacuum level. For regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (rreg-P3HT) thin films, we have measured the total electron emission efficiency to be 0.028 +/- 0.005 e/ph at an incident photon energy of 320 eV. The range of the primary electron was computed using optical dielectric-loss theory to be 7.5 nm. The range of the secondary electrons was then found by modeling to be 3.0 nm. This gives z(TEY) to be 2.5 nm, which is considerably less than the often-assumed value of 10 nm in the literature. It is also considerably smaller than the computed electron-electron scattering inelastic mean free path in the material, which suggests the predominance of electron-phonon scattering. Thus, TEY-NEXAFS has sufficient surface sensitivity to probe the frontier molecular layers of these organic conjugated polymers. In a second aspect of this report, the rreg-P3HT films have been characterized by in-situ core and valence photoemission spectroscopies and by ex-situ microattenuated total-reflection vibrational spectroscopy as a function of irradiation dose. No damage was observed in composition, bonding, orientation, and surface morphology under typical TEY-NEXAFS spectral acquisition conditions. For an integrated TEY that exceeds 2 x 10(-3) C cm(-2), however, the material degrades via alkyl side-chain dehydrogenation to unsaturated units, cross linking, ring opening of the backbone, and sulfur extrusion. Given that secondary electrons are the dominant cause of radiation damage, this exposure threshold measured by integrated TEY should also be valid at other X-ray energies.

  4. New developments in micro-X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy for high-pressure research at 16-BM-D at the Advanced Photon Source.

    PubMed

    Park, Changyong; Popov, Dmitry; Ikuta, Daijo; Lin, Chuanlong; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Rod, Eric; Bommannavar, Arunkumar; Shen, Guoyin

    2015-07-01

    The monochromator and focusing mirrors of the 16-BM-D beamline, which is dedicated to high-pressure research with micro-X-ray diffraction (micro-XRD) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) (6-45 keV) spectroscopy, have been recently upgraded. Monochromatic X-rays are selected by a Si (111) double-crystal monochromator operated in an artificial channel-cut mode and focused to 5 μm × 5 μm (FWHM) by table-top Kirkpatrick-Baez type mirrors located near the sample stage. The typical X-ray flux is ∼5 × 10(8) photons/s at 30 keV. The instrumental resolution, Δq/qmax, reaches to 2 × 10(-3) and is tunable through adjustments of the detector distance and X-ray energy. The setup is stable and reproducible, which allows versatile application to various types of experiments including resistive heating and cryogenic cooling as well as ambient temperature compression. Transmission XANES is readily combined with micro-XRD utilizing the fixed-exit feature of the monochromator, which allows combined XRD-XANES measurements at a given sample condition.

  5. New developments in micro-X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy for high-pressure research at 16-BM-D at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Changyong; Popov, Dmitry; Ikuta, Daijo; Lin, Chuanlong; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Rod, Eric; Bommannavar, Arunkumar; Shen, Guoyin

    2015-07-01

    The monochromator and focusing mirrors of the 16-BM-D beamline, which is dedicated to high-pressure research with micro-X-ray diffraction (micro-XRD) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) (6-45 keV) spectroscopy, have been recently upgraded. Monochromatic X-rays are selected by a Si (111) double-crystal monochromator operated in an artificial channel-cut mode and focused to 5 μm × 5 μm (FWHM) by table-top Kirkpatrick-Baez type mirrors located near the sample stage. The typical X-ray flux is ˜5 × 108 photons/s at 30 keV. The instrumental resolution, Δq/qmax, reaches to 2 × 10-3 and is tunable through adjustments of the detector distance and X-ray energy. The setup is stable and reproducible, which allows versatile application to various types of experiments including resistive heating and cryogenic cooling as well as ambient temperature compression. Transmission XANES is readily combined with micro-XRD utilizing the fixed-exit feature of the monochromator, which allows combined XRD-XANES measurements at a given sample condition.

  6. New developments in micro-X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy for high-pressure research at 16-BM-D at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Changyong Popov, Dmitry; Ikuta, Daijo; Lin, Chuanlong; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Rod, Eric; Bommannavar, Arunkumar; Shen, Guoyin

    2015-07-15

    The monochromator and focusing mirrors of the 16-BM-D beamline, which is dedicated to high-pressure research with micro-X-ray diffraction (micro-XRD) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) (6-45 keV) spectroscopy, have been recently upgraded. Monochromatic X-rays are selected by a Si (111) double-crystal monochromator operated in an artificial channel-cut mode and focused to 5 μm × 5 μm (FWHM) by table-top Kirkpatrick-Baez type mirrors located near the sample stage. The typical X-ray flux is ∼5 × 10{sup 8} photons/s at 30 keV. The instrumental resolution, Δq/q{sub max}, reaches to 2 × 10{sup −3} and is tunable through adjustments of the detector distance and X-ray energy. The setup is stable and reproducible, which allows versatile application to various types of experiments including resistive heating and cryogenic cooling as well as ambient temperature compression. Transmission XANES is readily combined with micro-XRD utilizing the fixed-exit feature of the monochromator, which allows combined XRD-XANES measurements at a given sample condition.

  7. K-edge x-ray-absorption spectroscopy of laser-generated Kr{sup +} and Kr{sup 2+}

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, S. H.; Arms, D. A.; Dufresne, E. M.; Dunford, R. W.; Ederer, D. L.; Hoehr, C.; Kanter, E. P.; Kraessig, B.; Landahl, E. C.; Peterson, E. R.; Rudati, J.; Santra, R.; Walko, D. A.; Young, L.

    2007-10-15

    Tunable, polarized, microfocused x-ray pulses were used to record x-ray absorption spectra across the K edges of Kr{sup +} and Kr{sup 2+} produced by laser ionization of Kr. Prominent 1s{yields}4p and 5p excitations are observed below the 1s ionization thresholds in accord with calculated transition energies and probabilities. Due to alignment of 4p hole states in the laser-ionization process, the Kr{sup +} 1s{yields}4p cross section varies with respect to the angle between the laser and x-ray polarization vectors. This effect is used to determine the Kr{sup +} 4p{sub 3/2} and 4p{sub 1/2} quantum state populations, and these are compared with results of an adiabatic strong-field ionization theory that includes spin-orbit coupling.

  8. K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy of laser-generated Kr{sup +} and Kr{sup 2+}.

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, S. H.; Arms, D. A.; Dufresne, E. M.; Dunford, R. W.; Ederer, D. L.; Hoehr, C.; Kanter, E. P.; Krassig, B.; Landahl, E. C.; Peterson, E. R.; Rudati, J.; Santra, R.; Walko, D. A.; Young, L.

    2007-10-01

    Tunable, polarized, microfocused x-ray pulses were used to record x-ray absorption spectra across the K edges of Kr{sup +} and Kr{sup 2+} produced by laser ionization of Kr. Prominent 1s {yields} 4p and 5p excitations are observed below the 1s ionization thresholds in accord with calculated transition energies and probabilities. Due to alignment of 4p hole states in the laser-ionization process, the Kr{sup +} 1s {yields} 4p cross section varies with respect to the angle between the laser and x-ray polarization vectors. This effect is used to determine the Kr{sup +} 4p{sub 3/2} and 4p{sub 1/2} quantum state populations, and these are compared with results of an adiabatic strong-field ionization theory that includes spin-orbit coupling.

  9. Electronic structure of barium strontium titanate by soft-x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Uehara, Y.; Underwood, J.H.; Gullikson, E.M.; Perera, R.C.C.

    1997-04-01

    Perovskite-type titanates, such as Strontium Titanate (STO), Barium Titanate (BTO), and Lead Titanate (PTO) have been widely studied because they show good electric and optical properties. In recent years, thin films of Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) have been paid much attention as dielectrics of dynamic random access memory (DRAM) capacitors. BST is a better insulator with a higher dielectric constant than STO and can be controlled in a paraelectric phase with an appropriate ratio of Ba/Sr composition, however, few studies have been done on the electronic structure of the material. Studies of the electronic structure of such materials can be beneficial, both for fundamental physics research and for improving technological applications. BTO is a famous ferroelectric material with a tetragonal structure, in which Ti and Ba atoms are slightly displaced from the lattice points. On the other hand, BST keeps a paraelectric phase, which means that the atoms are still at the cubic lattice points. It should be of great interest to see how this difference of the local structure around Ti atoms between BTO and BST effects the electronic structure of these two materials. In this report, the authors present the Ti L{sub 2,3} absorption spectra of STO, BTO, and BST measured with very high accuracy in energy of the absorption features.

  10. In-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of Pt and Ru chemistry during methanol electrooxidation.

    PubMed

    Holstein, William L; Rosenfeld, H David

    2005-02-17

    Methanol electrooxidation in a 0.5 M sulfuric acid electrolyte containing 1.0 M CH3OH was studied on 30% Pt/carbon and 30% PtRu/carbon (Pt/Ru = 1:1) catalysts using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Absorption by Pt and Ru was measured at constant photon energy in the near edge region during linear potential sweeps of 10-50 mV/s between 0.01 and 1.36 V vs rhe. The absorption results were used to follow Pt and Ru oxidation and reduction under transient conditions as well as to monitor Ru dissolution. Both catalysts exhibited higher activity for methanol oxidation at high potential following multiple potential cycles. Correlation of XAS data with the potential sweeps indicates that Pt catalysts lose activity at high potentials due to Pt oxidation. The addition of Ru to Pt accelerates the rate of methanol oxidation at all potentials. Ru is more readily oxidized than Pt, but unlike Pt, its oxidation does not result in a decrease in catalytic activity. PtRu/carbon catalysts underwent significant changes during potential cycling due to Ru loss. Similar current density vs potential results were obtained using the same PtRu/carbon catalyst at the same loading in a membrane electrode assembly half cell with only a Nafion (DuPont) solid electrolyte. The results are interpreted in terms of a bifunctional catalyst mechanism in which Pt surface sites serve to chemisorb and dissociate methanol to protons and carbon monoxide, while Ru surface sites activate water and accelerate the oxidation of the chemisorbed CO intermediate. PtRu/carbon catalysts maintain their activity at very high potentials, which is attributed to the ability of the added Ru to keep Pt present in a reduced state, a necessary requirement for methanol chemisorption and dissociation. PMID:16851209

  11. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of aluminum z-pinch plasma with tungsten backlighter planar wire array source.

    PubMed

    Osborne, G C; Kantsyrev, V L; Safronova, A S; Esaulov, A A; Weller, M E; Shrestha, I; Shlyaptseva, V V; Ouart, N D

    2012-10-01

    Absorption features from K-shell aluminum z-pinch plasmas have recently been studied on Zebra, the 1.7 MA pulse power generator at the Nevada Terawatt Facility. In particular, tungsten plasma has been used as a semi-backlighter source in the generation of aluminum K-shell absorption spectra by placing a single Al wire at or near the end of a single planar W array. All spectroscopic experimental results were recorded using a time-integrated, spatially resolved convex potassium hydrogen phthalate (KAP) crystal spectrometer. Other diagnostics used to study these plasmas included x-ray detectors, optical imaging, laser shadowgraphy, and time-gated and time-integrated x-ray pinhole imagers. Through comparisons with previous publications, Al K-shell absorption lines are shown to be from much lower electron temperature (∼10-40 eV) plasmas than emission spectra (∼350-500 eV).

  12. Mechanism of Pb Adsorption to Fatty Acid Langmuir Monolayers Studied by X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Boyanov, M.I.; Kmetko, J.; Shibata, T.; Datta, A.; Dutta, P.; Bunker, B.A.

    2010-09-30

    The local atomic environment of lead (Pb) adsorbed to a CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 19}COOH Langmuir monolayer was investigated in situ using grazing-incidence X-ray absorption fine structure (GI-XAFS) spectroscopy at the Pb L{sub III} edge. Measurements were performed at pH 6.5 of the 10{sup -5} M PbCl{sub 2} solution subphase, a condition under which grazing incidence diffraction (GID) revealed a large-area commensurate superstructure underneath the close-packed organic monolayer. The XAFS results indicate covalent binding of the Pb cations to the carboxyl headgroups, and the observed Pb-Pb coordination suggests that the metal is adsorbed as a hydrolysis polymer, rather than as individual Pb{sup 2+} ions. The data are consistent with a bidentate chelating mechanism and a one Pb atom to one carboxyl headgroup binding stoichiometry. We discuss how this adsorption model can explain the peculiarities observed with Pb in previous metal-Langmuir monolayer studies. A systematic study of lead perchlorate and lead acetate aqueous solutions is presented and used in the analysis. XAFS multiple scattering effects from alignment of the Pb-C-C atoms in the lead acetate solutions are reported.

  13. X-ray absorption spectroscopy study on h-LuFeO3 and h-YbFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoshan; Cao, Shi; Paudel, Tula; Sinha, Kishan; Jiang, Xuanyuan; Wang, Wenbin; Wang, Jian; Tsymbal, Evgeny; Dowben, Peter

    2015-03-01

    We have studied the unoccupied electronic band structure of the hexagonal ferrites h-LuFeO3 and h-YbFeO3 using the absorption spectroscopy obtained with linearly polarized soft X-ray synchrotron radiation. The shapes of the spectra have been analyzed in terms of the splitting of atomic energy levels in various crystal fields corresponding to the local symmetry of the different atomic sites. Significant hybridization between O-2p and various iron and rare earth orbitals (such as Fe-3d, Lu/Yb-5d and Yb-4f) have been observed. The spectral weight contributions to the electronic states near the bottom of the conduction band are found to consist of Fe-3d, Lu/Yb-5d, and Yb-4f as relatively narrow bands, as well as a wide O-2p band covering much of the measured energy range. The results are consistent with the density functional theory calculation including onsite-Coulomb repulsion corrections in terms of Hubbard U. The project was supported by SRC-NRI Center under Task ID 2398.001, by NSF through Nebraska MRSEC DMR-0820521, DMR 0747704, and by Nebraska EPSCoR.

  14. Real-time x-ray absorption spectroscopy of uranium, iron, and manganese in contaminated sediments during bioreduction

    SciTech Connect

    Tokunaga, Tetsu; Tokunaga, T.K.; Wan, J.; Kim, Y.; Sutton, S.R.; Newville, M.; Lanzirotti, A.; Rao, W.

    2008-01-15

    The oxidation status of uranium in sediments is important because the solubility of this toxic and radioactive element is much greater for U(VI) than for U(IV) species. Thus, redox manipulation to promote precipitation of UO{sub 2} is receiving interest as a method to remediate U-contaminated sediments. Presence of Fe and Mn oxides in sediments at much higher concentrations than U requires understanding of their redox status as well. This study was conducted to determine changes in oxidation states of U, Fe, and Mn in U-contaminated sediments from Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Oxidation states of these elements were measured in real-time and nondestructively using X-ray absorption spectroscopy, on sediment columns supplied with synthetic groundwater containing organic carbon (OC, 0, 3, 10, 30 and 100 mM OC as lactate) for over 400 days. In sediments supplied with OC {ge} 30 mM, 80% of the U was reduced to U(IV), with transient reoxidation at about 150 days. Mn(III,IV) oxides were completely reduced to Mn(II) in sediments infused with OC {ge} 3 mM. However, Fe remained largely unreduced in all sediment columns, showing that Fe(III) can persist as an electron acceptor in reducing sediments over long times. This result in combination with the complete reduction of all other potential electron acceptors supports the hypothesis that the reactive Fe(III) fraction was responsible for reoxidizing U(IV).

  15. Speciation of sulfur in humic and fulvic acids using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morra, Matthew J.; Fendorf, Scott E.; Brown, Paul D.

    1997-02-01

    Sulfur species in soils and sediments have previously been determined indirectly using destructive techniques. A direct and more accurate method for S speciation would improve our understanding of S biogeochemistry. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy was performed on purified humic and fulvic acids from terrestrial and aquatic environments. This methodology allows direct determination of S species using the relationship that exists with the energy required for core electron transitions and in some cases, correlation with additional spectral features. Soil, peat, and aquatic humic acids were dominated by sulfonates with an oxidation state of +5, but also contained ester-bonded sulfates with an oxidation state of +6. Leonardite humic acid contained ester-bonded sulfate and an unidentified S compound with an oxidation state of +4.0. In contrast, high-valent S in soil, peat, and aquatic fulvic acids was exclusively in the form of sulfonic acids. Reduced S species were also present in both humic and fulvic acids. XANES is a valuable method for the speciation of S in humic materials and of potential use in S speciation of unfractionated soils.

  16. Gold/titania composites: An X-ray absorption spectroscopy study on the influence of the reduction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meire, Mieke; Tack, Pieter; De Keukeleere, Katrien; Balcaen, Lieve; Pollefeyt, Glenn; Vanhaecke, Frank; Vincze, Laszlo; Van Der Voort, Pascal; Van Driessche, Isabel; Lommens, Petra

    2015-08-01

    The functionalization of titania based materials with noble metal cocatalysts such as gold or platinum is a well known procedure to improve the catalytic activity of these materials in for example the degradation of organic pollutants or CO conversion. Parameters such as cocatalyst load, noble metal particle size and oxidation state influence the efficiency of these materials. We have impregnated a mesoporous titania powder with a gold salt and used different synthesis routes to reduce the gold ions. A structural analysis was performed using electron microscopy and nitrogen sorption. An X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy study, in both high and low resolution, was performed to investigate the influence of the different reduction methods on the oxidation state of the gold atoms. This technique can also provide information on the local environment of the gold atoms and their interaction with the titanium dioxide host. We found that varying the reduction method has a significant impact on the oxidation state of the gold cocatalysts. This lead to varying interactions with the titania support and charging of the gold nanoparticles.

  17. Defects in room-temperature ferromagnetic Cu-doped ZnO films probed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Q; Prater, J T; Sudakar, C; Rosenberg, R A; Narayan, J

    2012-08-01

    We report a comprehensive study of the defects in room-temperature ferromagnetic (RTFM) Cu-doped ZnO thin films using x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The films are doped with 2 at.% Cu, and are prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering (RMS) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD), respectively. The results reveal unambiguously that atomic point defects exist in these RTFM thin films. The valence states of the Cu ions in both films are 2(+). In the film prepared by PLD, the oxygen vacancies (V(O)) form around both Zn ions and Cu ions in the hexagonal wurtzite structure. Upon annealing of the film in O(2), the V(O) population reduces and so does the RTFM. In the film prepared by RMS, the V(O)s around Cu ions are not detected, and the V(O) population around Zn ions is also smaller than in the PLD-prepared film. However, zinc vacancies (V(Zn)) are evidenced. Given the low doping level of spin-carrying Cu ions, these results provide strong support for defect-mediated ferromagnetism in Cu-doped ZnO thin films.

  18. Determining copper and lead binding in Larrea tridentata through chemical modification and X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Polette, L.; Gardea-Torresdey, J.L.; Chianelli, R.; Pickering, I.J.; George, G.N.

    1997-12-31

    Metal contamination in soils has become a widespread problem. Emerging technologies, such as phytoremediation, may offer low cost cleanup methods. The authors have identified a desert plant, Larrea tridentata (creosote bush), which naturally grows and uptakes copper and lead from a contaminated area near a smelting operation. They determined, through chemical modification of carboxyl groups with methanol, that these functional groups may be responsible for a portion of copper(II) binding. In contrast, lead binding was minimally affected by modification of carboxyl groups. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies conducted at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) further support copper binding to oxygen-coordinated ligands and also imply that the binding is not solely due to phytochelatins. The EXAFS data indicate the presence of both Cu-O and Cu-S back scatters, no short Cu-Cu interactions, but with significant Cu-Cu back scattering at 3.7 {angstrom} (unlike phytochelatins with predominantly Cu-S coordination and short Cu-Cu interactions at 2.7 {angstrom}). Cu EXAFS of roots and leaves also vary depending on the level of heavy metal contamination in the environment from which the various creosote samples were obtained. In contrast, Pb XANES data of roots and leaves of creosote collected from different contaminated sites indicate no difference in valence states or ligand coordination.

  19. Triosmium clusters on a support: determination of structure by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and high-resolution microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mehraeen, Shareghe; Kulkarni, Apoorva; Chi, Miaofang; Reed, Bryan W; Okamoto, Norihiko L; Browning, Nigel D; Gates, Bruce C

    2011-01-17

    The structures of small, robust metal clusters on a solid support were determined by a combination of spectroscopic and microscopic methods: extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), and aberration-corrected STEM. The samples were synthesized from [Os(3) (CO)(12) ] on MgO powder to provide supported clusters intended to be triosmium. The results demonstrate that the supported clusters are robust in the absence of oxidants. Conventional high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) STEM images demonstrate a high degree of uniformity of the clusters, with root-mean-square (rms) radii of 2.03±0.06 Å. The EXAFS OsOs coordination number of 2.1±0.4 confirms the presence of triosmium clusters on average and correspondingly determines an average rms cluster radius of 2.02±0.04 Å. The high-resolution STEM images show the individual Os atoms in the clusters, confirming the triangular structures of their frames and determining OsOs distances of 2.80±0.14 Å, matching the EXAFS value of 2.89±0.06 Å. IR and EXAFS spectra demonstrate the presence of CO ligands on the clusters. This set of techniques is recommended as optimal for detailed and reliable structural characterization of supported clusters. PMID:21226118

  20. Triosmium Clusters on a Support: Determination of Structure by X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy and High-Resolution Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Shareghe, Mehraeen; Chi, Miaofang; Browning, Nigel D.

    2011-01-01

    The structures of small, robust metal clusters on a solid support were determined by a combination of spectroscopic and microscopic methods: extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), and aberration-corrected STEM. The samples were synthesized from [Os{sub 3}(CO){sub 12}] on MgO powder to provide supported clusters intended to be triosmium. The results demonstrate that the supported clusters are robust in the absence of oxidants. Conventional high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) STEM images demonstrate a high degree of uniformity of the clusters, with root-mean-square (rms) radii of 2.03 {+-} 0.06 {angstrom}. The EXAFS OsOs coordination number of 2.1 {+-} 0.4 confirms the presence of triosmium clusters on average and correspondingly determines an average rms cluster radius of 2.02 {+-} 0.04 {angstrom}. The high-resolution STEM images show the individual Os atoms in the clusters, confirming the triangular structures of their frames and determining OsOs distances of 2.80 {+-} 0.14 {angstrom}, matching the EXAFS value of 2.89 {+-} 0.06 {angstrom}. IR and EXAFS spectra demonstrate the presence of CO ligands on the clusters. This set of techniques is recommended as optimal for detailed and reliable structural characterization of supported clusters.

  1. Time-resolved X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of a Cobalt-Based Hydrogen Evolution System for Artificial Photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moonshiram, Dooshaye; Gimbert, Carolina; Lehmann, Carl; Southworth, Stephen; Llobet, Antoni; Argonne National Laboratory Team; Institut Català d'Investigació Química Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Production of cost-effective hydrogen gas through solar power is an important challenge of the Department of Energy among other global industry initiatives. In natural photosynthesis, the oxygen evolving complex(OEC) can carry out four-electron water splitting to hydrogen with an efficiency of around 60%. Although, much progress has been carried out in determining mechanistic pathways of the OEC, biomimetic approaches have not duplicated Nature's efficiency in function. Over the past years, we have witnessed progress in developments of light harvesting modules, so called chromophore/catalytic assemblies. In spite of reportedly high catalytic activity of these systems, quantum yields of hydrogen production are below 40 % when using monochromatic light. Proper understanding of kinetics and bond making/breaking steps has to be achieved to improve efficiency of hydrogen evolution systems. This project shows the timing implementation of ultrafast X-ray absorption spectroscopy to visualize in ``real time'' the photo-induced kinetics accompanying a sequence of redox reactions in a cobalt-based molecular photocatalytic system. Formation of a Co(I) species followed by a Co(III) hydride species all the way towards hydrogen evolution is shown through time-resolved XANES.

  2. Structural characterization of vanadium oxide catalysts supported on nanostructured silica SBA-15 using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The local structure of vanadium oxide supported on nanostructured SiO2 (VxOy/SBA-15) was investigated by in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Because the number of potential parameters in XAS data analysis often exceeds the number of "independent" parameters, evaluating the reliability and significance of a particular fitting procedure is mandatory. The number of independent parameters (Nyquist) may not be sufficient. Hence, in addition to the number of independent parameters, a novel approach to evaluate the significance of structural fitting parameters in XAS data analysis is introduced. Three samples with different V loadings (i.e. 2.7 wt %, 5.4 wt %, and 10.8 wt %) were employed. Thermal treatment in air at 623 K resulted in characteristic structural changes of the V oxide species. Independent of the V loading, the local structure around V centers in dehydrated VxOy/SBA-15 corresponded to an ordered arrangement of adjacent V2O7 units. Moreover, the V2O7 units were found to persist under selective oxidation reaction conditions. PMID:20181222

  3. Chromium oxide as a metal diffusion barrier layer: An x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahamad Mohiddon, Md.; Lakshun Naidu, K.; Ghanashyam Krishna, M.; Dalba, G.; Ahmed, S. I.; Rocca, F.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction at the interface between chromium and amorphous Silicon (a-Si) films in the presence of a sandwich layer of chromium oxide is investigated using X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. The oxidized interface was created, in situ, prior to the deposition of a 400 nm tick a-Si layer over a 50 nm tick Cr layer. The entire stack of substrate/metallic Cr/Cr2O3/a-Si was then annealed at temperatures from 300 up to 700 °C. Analysis of the near edge and extended regions of each XAFS spectrum shows that only a small fraction of Cr is able to diffuse through the oxide layer up to 500 °C, while the remaining fraction is buried under the oxide layer in the form of metallic Cr. At higher temperatures, diffusion through the oxide layer is enhanced and the diffused metallic Cr reacts with a-Si to form CrSi2. At 700 °C, the film contains Cr2O3 and CrSi2 without evidence of unreacted metallic Cr. The activation energy and diffusion coefficient of Cr are quantitatively determined in the two temperature regions, one where the oxide acts as diffusion barrier and another where it is transparent to Cr diffusion. It is thus demonstrated that chromium oxide can be used as a diffusion barrier to prevent metal diffusion into a-Si.

  4. Deactivation Mechanisms of Ni-Based Tar Reforming Catalysts As Monitored by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yung, Matthew M.; Kuhn, John N.

    2010-12-06

    Deactivation mechanisms of alumina-supported, Ni-based catalysts for tar reforming in biomass-derived syngas were evaluated using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. Catalysts were characterized before and after catalytic reaction cycles and regeneration procedures, which included oxidation by a mixture of steam and air, and reduction in hydrogen. Qualitative analysis of the EXAFS spectra revealed that oxidation of a portion of the Ni in the catalysts to form an oxide phase and/or a sulfide phase were likely scenarios that led to catalyst deactivation with time-on-stream and with increased reaction cycles. Deactivation through carbon deposition, phosphorus poisoning, or changes in particle size were deemed as unlikely causes. Quantitative analysis of the EXAFS spectra indicated sulfur poisoning occurred with time-on-stream, and the contaminating species could not be completely removed during the regeneration protocols. The results also verified that Ni-containing oxide phases (most likely a spinel also containing Mg and Al) formed and contributed to the deactivation. This study validates the need for developing catalyst systems that will protect Ni from sulfur poisoning and oxide formation at elevated reaction and regeneration temperatures.

  5. An X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of neptunium(V) reactions with Mackinawite (FeS).

    PubMed

    Moyes, Lesley N; Jones, Mark J; Reed, Wendy A; Livens, Francis R; Charnock, John M; Mosselmans, J Frederick W; Hennig, Christoph; Vaughan, David J; Pattrick, Richard A D

    2002-01-15

    Neptunium is a transuranium element, produced in tonne quantities in nuclear reactors. Because it has access to a range of oxidation states, neptunium may undergo redox transformations in the environment and these can have far-reaching effects on its environmental mobility. Here, the reaction of NpO2+ (the soluble and thermodynamically stable neptunium species in oxic systems) with microcrystalline mackinawite is studied. Uptake of neptunium from solution is relatively low (approximately 10% of the total initially present in solution) and independent of initial solution concentration over the range 0.27-2.74 mM and of equilibration time. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of the solid sulfide samples indicates nearest neighbor oxygen atoms at distances around 2.25-2.26 A, sulfur atoms at around 2.61-2.64 A, and two more distant shells fitted with iron, at 3.91-3.95 A and 4.15-4.16 A. These observations suggest that on interaction with the sulfide surface reduction of Np(V) to Np(IV) occurs, accompanied by loss of axial oxygen atoms. Neptunium coordinates directly to surface sulfide atoms, in contrast to the behavior previously observed for uranium under similar conditions. These results demonstrate the importance and variability of the speciation of redox sensitive actinides under anoxic conditions.

  6. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of LiBF 4 in propylene carbonate. A model lithium ion battery electrolyte

    DOE PAGES

    Smith, Jacob W.; Lam, Royce K.; Sheardy, Alex T.; Shih, Orion; Rizzuto, Anthony M.; Borodin, Oleg; Harris, Stephen J.; Prendergast, David; Saykally, Richard J.

    2014-08-20

    Since their introduction into the commercial marketplace in 1991, lithium ion batteries have become increasingly ubiquitous in portable technology. Nevertheless, improvements to existing battery technology are necessary to expand their utility for larger-scale applications, such as electric vehicles. Advances may be realized from improvements to the liquid electrolyte; however, current understanding of the liquid structure and properties remains incomplete. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of solutions of LiBF4 in propylene carbonate (PC), interpreted using first-principles electronic structure calculations within the eXcited electron and Core Hole (XCH) approximation, yields new insight into the solvation structure of the Li+ ion in this model electrolyte.more » By generating linear combinations of the computed spectra of Li+-associating and free PC molecules and comparing to the experimental spectrum, we find a Li+–solvent interaction number of 4.5. This result suggests that computational models of lithium ion battery electrolytes should move beyond tetrahedral coordination structures.« less

  7. Treatment of radioactive wastes: an X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of the reaction of technetium with green rust.

    PubMed

    Pepper, Sarah E; Bunker, Debbie J; Bryan, Nicholas D; Livens, Francis R; Charnock, John M; Pattrick, Richard A D; Collison, David

    2003-12-15

    Technetium is a long-lived product of nuclear fission that readily forms the soluble pertechnetate anion [TcO(4)](-). Green rusts (layered hydrous oxides containing both Fe(II) and Fe(III) and with interlayer sulfate or carbonate anions) concentrate >99.8% of 99Tc, present as [TcO(4)](-), from aqueous solution, even in the presence of high concentrations of NaNO(3), a common constituent of radioactive waste streams. The mechanism of removal from solution is apparently reduction and formation of strong Tc(IV) surface complexes. X-ray absorption spectroscopy shows that [TcO(4)](-) is indeed reduced by reaction with both sulfate- and carbonate-form green rusts and is found in a TcO(2)-like environment. On contact with air, the green rusts oxidize to poorly crystalline goethite but the Tc environment is unchanged. There is no increase in Tc solubility associated with oxidation of the host green rust. This behavior suggests that green rusts may be useful in the treatment of Tc-containing waste streams, in groundwater cleanup, and in restricting Tc migration from repositories.

  8. Reaction-driven restructuring of Pt and Pd catalysts: In operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsen, Annika; Jung, Ulrich; Li, Yuanyuan; Frenkel, Anatoly; Nuzzo, Ralph

    2014-03-01

    The catalyzed hydrogenation of ethylene on supported metal catalysts has been intensively investigated, mainly because this reaction lies at the heart of many industrial processes. Most previous studies have been performed using surface science techniques in UHV. Therefor little is known about the nature of the active state of the catalyst at ambient pressure where the kinetics is very different. We employed operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to correlate the structural changes of SiO2-supported Pt and Pd catalysts with their activity for ethylene hydrogenation. The XAS experiments were performed at the beamlines X19A and X18B, NSLS, BNL. For both catalysts, strong and largely reversible transformations of the metal bonding were identified at about the maximum ethane conversion. The changes were different for Pt/SiO2 and Pd/SiO2 due to the ability of the latter to form bulk hydride, while the former can only adsorb hydrogen on the surface. As a result, Pt/SiO2 undergoes disordering of the surface, leading to a strong reduction of the Pt-Pt coordination number under H2-deficient conditions, while the main effect for Pd/SiO2 is the hydrogen uptake with concomitant increase in Pd-Pd bond length. The correlation between these different kinds of order transitions and differences in rates for these catalysts will be discussed.

  9. Probing the Electronic Structure of a Photoexcited Solar Cell Dye with Transient X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kuiken, Benjamin E. Van; Huse, Nils; Cho, Hana; Strader, Matthew L.; Lynch, Michael S.; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Khalil, Munira

    2012-05-01

    This study uses transient X-ray absorption (XA) spectroscopy and timedependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) to directly visualize the charge density around the metal atom and the surrounding ligands following an ultrafast metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) process in the widely used RuII solar cell dye, Ru(dcbpy)2(NCS)2 (termed N3). We measure the Ru L-edge XA spectra of the singlet ground (1A1) and the transient triplet (3MLCT) excited state of N34 and perform TD-DFT calculations of 2p core-level excitations, which identify a unique spectral signature of the electron density on the NCS ligands. We find that the Ru 2p, Ru eg, and NCS orbitals are stabilized by 2.0, 1.0, and 0.6 eV, respectively, in the transient 3MLCT state of the dye. These results highlight the role of the NCS ligands in governing the oxidation state of the Ru center.

  10. Mercury Speciation by X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy and Sequential Chemical Extractions: A Comparison of Speciation Methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, C.S.; Bloom, N.S.; Rytuba, J.J.; Brown, Gordon E.

    2003-01-01

    Determining the chemical speciation of mercury in contaminated mining and industrial environments is essential for predicting its solubility, transport behavior, and potential bioavailability as well as for designing effective remediation strategies. In this study, two techniques for determining Hg speciation-X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and sequential chemical extractions (SCE)-are independently applied to a set of samples with Hg concentrations ranging from 132 to 7539 mg/kg to determine if the two techniques provide comparable Hg speciation results. Generally, the proportions of insoluble HgS (cinnabar, metacinnabar) and HgSe identified by XAFS correlate well with the proportion of Hg removed in the aqua regia extraction demonstrated to remove HgS and HgSe. Statistically significant (> 10%) differences are observed however in samples containing more soluble Hg-containing phases (HgCl2, HgO, Hg3S2O 4). Such differences may be related to matrix, particle size, or crystallinity effects, which could affect the apparent solubility of Hg phases present. In more highly concentrated samples, microscopy techniques can help characterize the Hg-bearing species in complex multiphase natural samples.

  11. Deactivation mechanisms of Ni-based tar reforming catalysts as monitored by X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yung, Matthew M; Kuhn, John N

    2010-11-01

    Deactivation mechanisms of alumina-supported, Ni-based catalysts for tar reforming in biomass-derived syngas were evaluated using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. Catalysts were characterized before and after catalytic reaction cycles and regeneration procedures, which included oxidation by a mixture of steam and air, and reduction in hydrogen. Qualitative analysis of the EXAFS spectra revealed that oxidation of a portion of the Ni in the catalysts to form an oxide phase and/or a sulfide phase were likely scenarios that led to catalyst deactivation with time-on-stream and with increased reaction cycles. Deactivation through carbon deposition, phosphorus poisoning, or changes in particle size were deemed as unlikely causes. Quantitative analysis of the EXAFS spectra indicated sulfur poisoning occurred with time-on-stream, and the contaminating species could not be completely removed during the regeneration protocols. The results also verified that Ni-containing oxide phases (most likely a spinel also containing Mg and Al) formed and contributed to the deactivation. This study validates the need for developing catalyst systems that will protect Ni from sulfur poisoning and oxide formation at elevated reaction and regeneration temperatures. PMID:20586431

  12. Sulfur 1s near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy of thiophenic and aromatic thioether compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behyan, Shirin; Hu, Yongfeng; Urquhart, Stephen G.

    2013-06-01

    Thiophenic compounds are major constituents of fossil fuels and pose problems for fuel refinement. The quantification and speciation of these compounds is of great interest in different areas such as biology, fossil fuels studies, geology, and archaeology. Sulfur 1s Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy has emerged as a qualitative and quantitative method for sulfur speciation. A firm understanding of the sulfur 1s NEXAFS spectra of organosulfur species is required for these analytical studies. To support this development, the sulfur 1s NEXAFS spectra of simple thiols and thioethers were previously examined, and are now extended to studies of thiophenic and aromatic thioether compounds, in the gas and condensed phases. High-resolution spectra have been further analyzed with the aid of Improved Virtual Orbital (IVO) and Δ(self-consistent field) ab initio calculations. Experimental sulfur 1s NEXAFS spectra show fine features predicted by calculation, and the combination of experiment and calculation has been used to improve the assignment of spectroscopic features important for the speciation and quantification of sulfur compounds. Systematic differences between gas and condensed phases are also explored; these differences suggest a significant role for conformational effects in the NEXAFS spectra of condensed species.

  13. Soft X-Ray and Vacuum Ultraviolet Based Spectroscopy of the Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J G

    2011-03-17

    The subjects of discussion included: VUV photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Synchrotron-radiation-based photoelectron spectroscopy, Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy, Soft x-ray emission spectroscopy, Inverse photoelectron spectroscopy, Bremstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy, Low energy IPES, Resonant inverse photoelectron spectroscopy.

  14. Scintillating screen CCD camera using fast analog on-chip storage for time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Andreas; Hagelstein, Michael; San Miguel, Alfonso; Fontaine, Alain; Ressler, Thorsten

    1995-03-01

    Serial readout of cooled, linear Si-photodiode arrays or CCDs offer a high dynamic range but only at moderate pixel readout rates. Recording spectroscopic information, i.e. 1D images, requires only a few sensitive lines of a 2D CCD array. A camera is presented where the unexposed part of the CCD is used as a buffer to store successive spectra with high frame rates. In this 'streak mode' the time resolution for data acquisition depends only on the line shift time of the CCD and no longer on the slow pixel readout time. A frame rate of 10 kHz for X-ray absorption spectra has been achieved. The CCD is part of an X-ray camera consisting of a scintillating screen lens-coupled to the CCD. The camera provides a high dynamic range of 17 bit, a spatial resolution of 60 micrometers (FWHM) and a high detective quantum efficiency of > 40% for x- ray energies between 4 keV and 25 keV. The camera is used for time- resolved energy-dispersive XAFS (X-ray Absorption Fine Structure) experiments. This technique permits the study of time-dependent variations of electronic properties and the local environment of atoms under induced external perturbation.

  15. Site partitioning of Cr3+ in the trichroic alexandrite BeAl2O4:Cr3+ crystal: contribution from x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bordage, Amélie; Rossano, Stéphanie; Horn, Adolf Heinrich; Fuchs, Yves

    2012-06-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements at the Cr K-edge of a trichroic crystal of alexandrite BeAl(2)O(4):Cr(3+) for different orientations of the crystal with respect to the polarization and direction of the x-ray incident beam have been performed. Analysis of the experimental spectra with the help of first-principles calculations of x-ray absorption spectra allowed us to estimate the proportion of chromium Cr(3+) cations among the two different octahedral sites of the alexandrite structure (70% in the C(s) site-30% in the C(i) site). The methodology presented in this work opens up new possibilities in the field of mineralogy for the study of complex minerals containing several sites potentially occupied by several transition elements or for solid solutions.

  16. Site partitioning of Cr3+ in the trichroic alexandrite BeAl2O4:Cr3+ crystal: contribution from x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordage, Amélie; Rossano, Stéphanie; Horn, Adolf Heinrich; Fuchs, Yves

    2012-06-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements at the Cr K-edge of a trichroic crystal of alexandrite BeAl2O4:Cr3+ for different orientations of the crystal with respect to the polarization and direction of the x-ray incident beam have been performed. Analysis of the experimental spectra with the help of first-principles calculations of x-ray absorption spectra allowed us to estimate the proportion of chromium Cr3+ cations among the two different octahedral sites of the alexandrite structure (70% in the Cs site-30% in the Ci site). The methodology presented in this work opens up new possibilities in the field of mineralogy for the study of complex minerals containing several sites potentially occupied by several transition elements or for solid solutions.

  17. Ni speciation in a New Caledonian lateritic regolith: A quantitative X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dublet, Gabrielle; Juillot, Farid; Morin, Guillaume; Fritsch, Emmanuel; Fandeur, Dik; Ona-Nguema, Georges; Brown, Gordon E.

    2012-10-01

    Changes in Ni speciation in a 64 m vertical profile of a New Caledonian saprolitic-lateritic regolith developed over ultramafic rocks under tropical weathering conditions were investigated by EXAFS spectroscopy. Quantitative analysis of the EXAFS spectra by linear combination-least squares fitting (LC-LSF) using a large set of model compound spectra showed that Ni hosted in primary silicate minerals (olivine and serpentine) in the bedrock is incorporated in secondary phyllosilicates (serpentine) and Fe-oxides (goethite) in the saprolite unit and mainly in goethite in the laterite unit. A significant concentration of Ni (up to 30% of total Ni) is also hosted by Mn-oxides in the transition laterite (i.e. the lowest part of the laterite unit which contains large amounts of Mn-oxides). However, the amount of Ni associated with Mn-oxides does not exceed 20% of the total Ni in the overlying laterite unit. This sequence of Ni species from bedrock to laterite yields information about the behavior of Ni during tropical weathering of ultramafic rocks. The different Ni distributions in phyllosilicates in the bedrock (randomly distributed) and in the saprolite unit (clustered) indicate two generations of Ni-bearing phyllosilicates. The first, which formed at higher temperature, is related to serpentinization of oceanic crust, whereas the second one, which formed at lower temperature, is associated with post-obduction weathering of ultramafic rocks. In addition, the observed decrease in the proportion of Ni hosted by Mn-oxides from the transition laterite to the upper lateritic horizons indicates dissolution of Mn-oxides during the last stages of differentiation of the lateritic regolith (i.e. lateritization). Finally, the ubiquitous occurrence of Ni-bearing goethite emphasizes the major role of this phase in Ni speciation at the different weathering stages and suggests that goethite represents the major host for Ni in the final tropical weathering stages of New Caledonian

  18. Quantitative probe of the transition metal redox in battery electrodes through soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qinghao; Qiao, Ruimin; Wray, L. Andrew; Chen, Jun; Zhuo, Zengqing; Chen, Yanxue; Yan, Shishen; Pan, Feng; Hussain, Zahid; Yang, Wanli

    2016-10-01

    Most battery positive electrodes operate with a 3d transition-metal (TM) reaction centre. A direct and quantitative probe of the TM states upon electrochemical cycling is valuable for understanding the detailed cycling mechanism and charge diffusion in the electrodes, which is related with many practical parameters of a battery. This review includes a comprehensive summary of our recent demonstrations of five different types of quantitative analysis of the TM states in battery electrodes based on soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy and multiplet calculations. In LiFePO4, a system of a well-known two-phase transformation type, the TM redox could be strictly determined through a simple linear combination of the two end-members. In Mn-based compounds, the Mn states could also be quantitatively evaluated, but a set of reference spectra with all the three possible Mn valences needs to be deliberately selected and considered in the fitting. Although the fluorescence signals suffer the self-absorption distortion, the multiplet calculations could consider the distortion effect, which allows a quantitative determination of the overall Ni oxidation state in the bulk. With the aid of multiplet calculations, one could also achieve a quasi-quantitative analysis of the Co redox evolution in LiCoO2 based on the energy position of the spectroscopic peak. The benefit of multiplet calculations is more important for studying electrode materials with TMs of mixed spin states, as exemplified by the quantitative analysis of the mixed spin Na2-x Fe2(CN)6 system. At the end, we showcase that such quantitative analysis could provide valuable information for optimizing the electrochemical performance of Na0.44MnO2 electrodes for Na-ion batteries. The methodology summarized in this review could be extended to other energy application systems with TM redox centre for detailed analysis, for example, fuel cell and catalytic materials.

  19. Determination of Phase Ratio in Polymorphic Materials by X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy: The Case of Anatase and Rutile Phase Mixture in TiO2

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M. F.; Klysubun, W.; Kityakarn, S.; Worayingyong, A.; Zhang, S. B.; Wei, S. H.; Onkaw, D.; Songsiriritthigul, P.; Rujirawat, S.; Limpijumnong, S.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) can be used as an unconventional characterization technique to determine the proportions of different crystal phases in polymorphic samples. As an example, we show that ratios of anatase and rutile phases contained in the TiO{sub 2} samples obtained by XAS are in agreement with conventional x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements to within a few percent. We suggest that XAS measurement is a useful and reliable technique that can be applied to study the phase composition of highly disordered or nanoparticle polymorphic materials, where traditional XRD technique might be difficult.

  20. Low-potential iron-sulfur centers in photosystem I: an X-ray absorption spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    McDermott, A E; Yachandra, V K; Guiles, R D; Britt, R D; Dexheimer, S L; Sauer, K; Klein, M P

    1988-05-31

    We have measured the X-ray absorption spectra of Fe in photosystem I (PS I) preparations from spinach and a thermophilic cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp., to characterize structures of the Fe complexes that function as electron acceptors in PS I. These acceptors include centers A and B, which are probably typical [4Fe-4S] ferredoxins, and X. The structure of X is not known, but its electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum has generated the suggestions that it is either a [2Fe-2S] or [4Fe-4S] ferredoxin or an Fe-quinone species. The iron X-ray absorption K-edge and iron extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra reveal that essentially all of the 11-14 Fe atoms present in the reaction center are present in the form of Fe-S centers and that not more than 1 atom out of 12 could be octahedral or oxygen-coordinated Fe. This suggests that, besides A and B, additional Fe-S clusters are present which are likely to be X. Our EXAFS spectra cannot be simulated adequately by a mixture of [4Fe-4S] ferredoxins with typical bond lengths and disorder parameters because the amplitude of Fe backscattering is small; however, excellent simulations of the data are consistent with a mixture of [2Fe-2S] ferredoxins and [4Fe-4S] ferredoxins, or with unusually distorted [4Fe-4S] clusters. We presume that the [2Fe-2S] or distorted [4Fe-4S] centers are X. The X-ray absorption spectra of PS I preparations from Synechococcus and spinach are essentially indistinguishable.

  1. Incorporation of Pertechnetate and Perrhenate into Corroded Steel Surfaces Studied by X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Heald, Steve M.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2012-04-01

    Batch reaction experiments and solid-phase characterization analyses were completed to examine the uptake of dissolved perrhenate [Re(VII)] or pertechnetate [Tc(VII)] by A-516 steel coupons that corroded in simulated groundwater solutions or dilute water. The goal was to identify the mechanism(s) that control the uptake of 99Tc by corrosion products on carbon steel in the presence of dilute solutions. X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) was used to study the oxidation states of Re and Tc incorporated into the corroded steel coupon surfaces. X-ray fluorescence maps showed that the corroded coupons contain localized regions enriched in Re or Tc. The Re L3 near edge XAS results for the coupons reacted with Re-spiked waters were consistent with all sorbed Re being present as perrhenate and not significantly reduced to Re(IV). Linear combination fits of the EXAFS signals for the perrhenate and ReIVO2 standards indicate that Re sorbed to the steel coupons corroded in simulated J-13 (a relatively dilute Na-HCO3-CO3 groundwater) and even more dilute waters consists of a maximum of 5 and 10% Re(IV), respectively. The fluorescence results also showed that the Re concentrations increased with increasing time of exposure to the x-ray beam time, which suggests that the perrhenate ions are only weakly bonded to the matrix of the corrosion product. In contrast to the Re results, the Tc K edge XAFS results for the coupons reacted in 99Tc-spiked waters indicate that most of the sorbed Tc had been reduced to Tc(IV). The shape of the near edge and extended fine structure is similar to the Tc(IV)-hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) and not the TcO2-nH2O standard. Differences were noted in the XAS results for steel coupons reacted with waters spiked with 0.001 versus 0.1 mmol/L 99Tc in that much more of the sorbed Tc from 0.001 mmol/L 99Tc experiments was in the form of pertechnetate. Comparison of the XAS results for coupons reacted with 0.001 mmol/L 99Tc-spiked dilute

  2. Mechanisms of mercury removal by biochars produced from different feedstocks determined using X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Ptacek, Carol J; Blowes, David W; Landis, Richard C

    2016-05-01

    Thirty-six biochars produced from distinct feedstocks at different temperatures were evaluated for their potential to remove mercury (Hg) from aqueous solution at environmentally relevant concentrations. Concentrations of total Hg (THg) decreased by >90% in batch systems containing biochars produced at 600 and 700 °C and by 40-90% for biochars produced at 300 °C. Elevated concentrations of SO4(2-) (up to 1000 mg L(-1)) were observed in solutions mixed with manure-based biochars. Sulfur X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analyses indicate the presence of both reduced and oxidized S species in both unwashed and washed biochars. Sulfur XANES spectra obtained from biochars with adsorbed Hg were similar to those of washed biochars. Micro-X-ray fluorescence mapping results indicate that Hg was heterogeneously distributed across biochar particles. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure modeling indicates Hg was bound to S in biochars with high S content and to O and Cl in biochars with low S content. The predominant mechanisms of Hg removal are likely the formation of chemical bonds between Hg and various functional groups on the biochar. This investigation provides information on the effectiveness and mechanisms of Hg removal that is critical for evaluating biochar applications for stabilization of Hg in surface water, groundwater, soils, and sediments. PMID:26844404

  3. X-ray absorption and resonance raman spectroscopy of human myeloperoxidase at neutral and acid pH.

    PubMed

    Yue, K T; Taylor, K L; Kinkade, J M; Sinclair, R B; Powers, L S

    1997-04-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO), an important enzyme in the oxygen-dependent host defense system of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, utilizes hydrogen peroxide to catalyze the production of hypochlorous acid, an oxidizing bactericidal agent. While MPO shows significant sequence homology with other peroxidases and this homology is particularly striking among the active-site residues, MPO exhibits unusual spectral features and the unique ability to catalyze the oxidation of chloride ions. We have investigated the MPO active-site with X-ray absorption (XAS) and resonance Raman (RRS) spectroscopies at neutral pH and also at the physiological acidic pH (pH approximately 3) and have compared these results with those of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). At pH 7.5, XAS results show that the iron heme active site is 6-coordinate where the distal ligand is likely nitrogen or oxygen, but not sulfur. The heme is distorted compared to HRP, other peroxidases, and heme compounds, but at pH approximately 3, the distal ligand is lost and the heme is less distorted. RRS results under identical pH conditions show that the skeletal core-size sensitive modes and v3 are shifted to higher frequency at pH approximately 3 indicating a 6- to 5-coordination change of high spin ferric heme. In addition, a new band at 270 cm(-1) is observed at pH approximately 3 which is consistent with the loss of the sixth ligand. The higher symmetry of the heme at pH approximately 3 is reflected by a single v4 mode in the (RRS) spectrum. HRP also loses its loosely associated distal water at this pH, but little change in heme distortion is observed. This change suggests that loss of the distal ligand in MPO releases stress on the heme which may facilitate binding of chloride ion.

  4. Resolving Sulfur Oxidation and Removal from Pt and Pt3Co Electrocatalysts Using in Situ X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ramaker, D.; Gatewood, D; Korovina, A; Garsany, Y; Swider-Lyons, K

    2010-01-01

    Adsorbed sulfur is a poison to the Pt catalysts used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells, but it can be removed by potential cycling. This process is studied for S{sub x}-poisoned nanoscale Pt- and Pt{sub 3}Co- on Vulcan carbon (Pt/VC and Pt{sub 3}Co/VC) in perchloric acid electrolyte using the {Delta}{mu} adsorbate isolation technique for in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The {Delta}{mu} technique is modified to better distinguish the {Delta}{mu} signatures for H, O, and Sx on Pt. The resulting {Delta}{mu} analysis suggests that SO{sub 2} on nanoscale Pt is oxidized to bisulfate or sulfate species in two regions, near 1.05 V on the cluster edges of the Pt nanoparticle, and at higher potentials from the Pt(111) faces where oxygen is less strongly bound. The bisulfate or sulfate species desorb from the Pt surface at high potentials due to O(OH) adsorption/replacement and at low potentials due to loss of the Coulomb attraction between the bisulfate anion and the Pt. A similar oxidation process occurs for S{sub x}-poisoned Pt{sub 3}Co/VC, but at lower potentials because a ligand effect coming from Co shifts the oxidization potential of adsorbed SO{sub 2} to lower potentials while pushing OH adsorption to higher potentials. The spectroscopic results give insights into cyclic voltammetry data and are consistent with electrochemical cycling procedures for removing the sulfur.

  5. Chemical speciation of Fe and Ni in residual oil fly ash fine particulate matter using X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pattanaik, Sidhartha; Huggins, Frank E; Huffman, Gerald P

    2012-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked residual oil fly ash fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm (ROFA PM(2.5)) to morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. Bioavailable transition metals within PM have been cited as one of the components that induce such illnesses. By combining synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy with leaching experiment, we studied the effect of residual oil compositions and combustion conditions on the speciation of Fe and Ni in ROFA PM(2.5) and the implication of these species for human health and environment. PM(2.5) samples were obtained from two types of combustors, a fire tube boiler (FTB) and a refractory line combustor (RLC). The study reveals that only Fe(2)(SO(4))(3)·nH(2)O is present in RLC PM(2.5) while Fe(2)(SO(4))(3)·nH(2)O predominates in FTB PM(2.5) with inclusion of varying amounts of nickel ferrite. The finding that RLC PM(2.5) is more bioavailable and hence more toxic than FTB PM(2.5) is significant. The reduction of toxicity of FTB PM(2.5) is due to the immobilization of a portion of Fe and Ni in the formation of an insoluble NiFe(2)O(4). This may explain the variation of toxicity from exposure to different ROFA PM(2.5). Additionally, the speciation data are sought for developing emission inventories for source apportionment study and understanding the mechanism of PM formation.

  6. Coupling CP-MD simulations and X-ray absorption spectroscopy: exploring the structure of oxaliplatin in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Beret, Elizabeth C; Provost, Karine; Müller, Diane; Marcos, Enrique Sánchez

    2009-09-10

    A combined experimental-theoretical approach applying X-ray absorption spectroscopy and ab initio molecular dynamics (CP-MD) simulations is used to get insight into the structural determination of oxaliplatin, a third-generation anticancer drug of the cisplatin family, in aqueous solution. Experimental Pt L(III)-edge EXAFS and XANES spectra of oxaliplatin in water are compared with theoretical XAS spectra. The latter are obtained as statistically averaged spectra computed for a set of selected snapshots extracted from the MD trajectory of ethyldiamineoxalatoplatinum(II) (EDO-Pt) in liquid water. This compound is a simplified structure of oxaliplatin, where the outer part of the cyclohexane ring contained in the cyclohexanediamine ligand of oxaliplatin has been removed. We show that EDO-Pt is an appropriate model to simulate the spectroscopical properties of oxaliplatin given that the cyclohexane ring does not generate particular features in neither the EXAFS nor the XANES spectra. The computation of average EXAFS spectra using structures from the MD simulation in which atoms are selected according to different cutoff radii around the Pt center allows the assignment of spectral features to particular structural motifs, both in k and R-spaces. The outer oxygen atoms of the oxalate ligand (R(Pt-O(II)) = 3.97 +/- 0.03 A) are responsible for a well-defined hump at around 6.5 A(-1) in the k(2)-weighted EXAFS spectrum. The conventional EXAFS analysis data procedure is reexamined by its application to the simulated average EXAFS spectra. The structural parameters resulting from the fit may then be compared with those obtained from the simulation, providing an estimation of the methodological error associated with the global fitting procedure. A thorough discussion on the synergy between the experimental and theoretical XAS approaches is presented, and evidence for the detection of a slight hydration structure around the Pt complex is shown, leading to the suggestion of a

  7. Formation mechanism of LiFePO 4/C composite powders investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Kuei-Feng; Hu, Shao-Kang; Chen, Chinh-Hsiang; Cheng, Ming-Yao; Tsay, Sun-Yuan; Chou, Tse-Chuan; Sheu, Hwo-Shuenn; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    The local structure and oxidation states for both the precursors and the LiFePO 4/C composite powders were investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to provide a deep insight into their formation mechanism. It was found that the local structure and oxidation states of the precursors and the synthesized LiFePO 4/C powders as well as the electrochemical properties of the synthesized powders were strongly influenced by the R ratio (R: molar ratio of citric acid to total metal ions). The oxidation states of iron ions of the precursors for R = 1 and 0.75 consist mainly of Fe(II) and traces of Fe(III). However, the oxidation state of iron ions of the precursor for R = 0.5 comprises mainly of Fe(III). The oxidation state of iron ions of all the synthesized powders is Fe(II). The structure of the precursors and the synthesized powders for R = 1 and 0.75 is more ordering than that for R = 0.5. It is in good agreement with the observation of the cation mixing obtained from the Riteveld analysis of the XRD data. The better the electrochemical performance is, the more ordering the structure or the less the cation mixing. However, the effect of the R values on the carbon content is also essential for the electrochemical properties of the synthesized LiFePO 4/C composite powders. Increasing the carbon content leads to the increase in the electronic conductivity but impedes the Li + ion diffusion of the composite materials. Consequently, the powders synthesized at the optimal R ratio of 0.75 exhibited the highest initial capacity, about 150 mAh g -1 when cycled at 1/40 C rate at room temperature. The structural scheme of the precursors and the synthesized powders and the formation mechanism of the LiFePO 4/C composite powders are also addressed in this work.

  8. Speciation of zinc in municipal solid waste incineration fly ash after heat treatment: an X-ray absorption spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Struis, Rudolf P W J; Ludwig, Christian; Lutz, Harald; Scheidegger, André M

    2004-07-01

    Fly ash is commonly deposited in special landfills as it contains toxic concentrations of heavy metals, such as Zn, Pb, Cd, and Cu. This study was inspired by our efforts to detoxify fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration by thermal treatment to produce secondary raw materials suited for reprocessing. The potential of the thermal treatment was studied by monitoring the evaporation rate of zinc from a certified fly ash (BCR176) during heating between 300 and 950 degrees C under different carrier gas compositions. Samples were quenched at different temperatures for subsequent investigation with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The XAS spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA), target transformation (TT), and linear combination fitting (LCF) to analyze the major Zn compounds in the fly ash as a function of the temperature. The original fly ash comprised about 60% zinc oxides mainly in the form of hydrozincite (Zn5(OH)6(CO3)2) and 40% inerts like willemite (Zn2SiO4) and gahnite (ZnAl2O4) in a weight ratio of about 3:1. At intermediate temperatures (550-750 degrees C) the speciation underlines the competition between indigenous S and Cl with solid zinc oxides to form either volatile ZnCl2 or solid ZnS. ZnS then transformed into volatile species at about 200 degrees C higher temperatures. The inhibiting influence of S was found absent when oxygen was introduced to the inert carrier gas stream or chloride-donating alkali salt was added to the fly ash.

  9. Probing cation antisite disorder in Gd2 Ti2 O7 pyrochlore by site-specific near-edge x-ray-absorption fine structure and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachimuthu, P.; Thevuthasan, S.; Engelhard, M. H.; Weber, W. J.; Shuh, D. K.; Hamdan, N. M.; Mun, B. S.; Adams, E. M.; McCready, D. E.; Shutthanandan, V.; Lindle, D. W.; Balakrishnan, G.; Paul, D. M.; Gullikson, E. M.; Perera, R. C. C.; Lian, J.; Wang, L. M.; Ewing, R. C.

    2004-09-01

    Disorder in Gd2Ti2O7 is investigated by near-edge x-ray-absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). NEXAFS shows Ti4+ ions occupy octahedral sites with a tetragonal distortion induced by vacant oxygen sites. O1s XPS spectra obtained with a charge neutralization system from Gd2Ti2O7(100) and the Gd2Ti2O7 pyrochlore used by Chen [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 105901 (2002)], both yielded a single peak, unlike the previous result on the latter that found two peaks. The current results give no evidence for an anisotropic distribution of Ti and O. The extra features reported in the aforementioned communication resulted from charging effects and incomplete surface cleaning. Thus, a result confirming the direct observation of simultaneous cation-anion antisite disordering and lending credence to the split vacancy model has been clarified.

  10. An in situ sample environment reaction cell for spatially resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy studies of powders and small structured reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Chu; Gustafson, Johan; Merte, Lindsay R.; Evertsson, Jonas; Norén, Katarina; Carlson, Stefan; Svensson, Håkan; Carlsson, Per-Anders

    2015-03-15

    An easy-to-use sample environment reaction cell for X-ray based in situ studies of powders and small structured samples, e.g., powder, pellet, and monolith catalysts, is described. The design of the cell allows for flexible use of appropriate X-ray transparent windows, shielding the sample from ambient conditions, such that incident X-ray energies as low as 3 keV can be used. Thus, in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements in either transmission or fluorescence mode are facilitated. Total gas flows up to about 500 ml{sub n}/min can be fed while the sample temperature is accurately controlled (at least) in the range of 25–500 °C. The gas feed is composed by a versatile gas-mixing system and the effluent gas flow composition is monitored with mass spectrometry (MS). These systems are described briefly. Results from simultaneous XAS/MS measurements during oxidation of carbon monoxide over a 4% Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder catalyst are used to illustrate the system performance in terms of transmission XAS. Also, 2.2% Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 2% Ag − Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder catalysts have been used to demonstrate X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy in fluorescence mode. Further, a 2% Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} monolith catalyst was used ex situ for transmission XANES. The reaction cell opens for facile studies of structure-function relationships for model as well as realistic catalysts both in the form of powders, small pellets, and coated or extruded monoliths at near realistic conditions. The applicability of the cell for X-ray diffraction measurements is discussed.

  11. An in situ sample environment reaction cell for spatially resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy studies of powders and small structured reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chu; Gustafson, Johan; Merte, Lindsay R.; Evertsson, Jonas; Norén, Katarina; Carlson, Stefan; Svensson, Hâkan; Carlsson, Per-Anders

    2015-03-01

    An easy-to-use sample environment reaction cell for X-ray based in situ studies of powders and small structured samples, e.g., powder, pellet, and monolith catalysts, is described. The design of the cell allows for flexible use of appropriate X-ray transparent windows, shielding the sample from ambient conditions, such that incident X-ray energies as low as 3 keV can be used. Thus, in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements in either transmission or fluorescence mode are facilitated. Total gas flows up to about 500 mln/min can be fed while the sample temperature is accurately controlled (at least) in the range of 25-500 °C. The gas feed is composed by a versatile gas-mixing system and the effluent gas flow composition is monitored with mass spectrometry (MS). These systems are described briefly. Results from simultaneous XAS/MS measurements during oxidation of carbon monoxide over a 4% Pt/Al2O3 powder catalyst are used to illustrate the system performance in terms of transmission XAS. Also, 2.2% Pd/Al2O3 and 2% Ag - Al2O3 powder catalysts have been used to demonstrate X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy in fluorescence mode. Further, a 2% Pt/Al2O3 monolith catalyst was used ex situ for transmission XANES. The reaction cell opens for facile studies of structure-function relationships for model as well as realistic catalysts both in the form of powders, small pellets, and coated or extruded monoliths at near realistic conditions. The applicability of the cell for X-ray diffraction measurements is discussed.

  12. In Situ X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure Spectroscopy of ZnO Nanowire Growth During Chemical Bath Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    McPeak, Kevin M.; Becker, Matthew A.; Britton, Nathan G.; Majidi, Hasti; Bunker, Bruce A.; Baxter, Jason B.

    2010-12-03

    Chemical bath deposition (CBD) offers a simple and inexpensive route to deposit semiconductor nanostructures, but lack of fundamental understanding and control of the underlying chemistry has limited its versatility. Here we report the first use of in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy during CBD, enabling detailed investigation of both reaction mechanisms and kinetics of ZnO nanowire growth from zinc nitrate and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) precursors. Time-resolved X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra were used to quantify Zn(II) speciation in both solution and solid phases. ZnO crystallizes directly from [Zn(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]{sup 2+} without long-lived intermediates. Using ZnO nanowire deposition as an example, this study establishes in situ XANES spectroscopy as an excellent quantitative tool to understand CBD of nanomaterials.

  13. Investigation of the amorphous to crystalline phase transition of chemical solution deposited Pb(Zr30Ti70)O3 thin films by soft x-ray absorption and soft x-ray emission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Schneller, T.; Schneller, T.; Kohlstedt, H.; Petraru, A.; Waser, R.; Guo, J.; Denlinger, J.; Learmonth, T.; Glans, Per-Andres; Smith, K. E.

    2008-08-01

    Chemical solution deposited (CSD) complex oxide thin films attract considerable interest in various emerging fields as for example, fuel cells, ferroelectric random access memories or coated conductors. In the present paper the results of soft-x-ray spectroscopy between 100 eV and 500 eV on the amorphous to crystalline phase transition of ferroelectric PbZr{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 0.7}O{sub 3} (PZT) thin films are presented. Five CSD samples derived from the same wafer coated with a PZT film pyrolyzed at 350 C were heat treated at different temperatures between 400 C and 700 C. At first the sample were morphologically and electrically characterized. Subsequently the soft-x-ray absorption and emission experiments were performed at the undulator beamline 8.0 of the Advanced Light Source of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Soft-x-ray absorption spectra were acquired for the Ti L{sub 2,3-}, O K-, and C K-edge thresholds by using simultaneously the total electron yield (TEY) and total fluorescence yield (TFY) detection methods. For two samples, annealed at 400 C and 700 C, respectively, the resonant inelastic soft-x-ray spectroscopy (RIXS) was applied for various excitation energies near the Ti L-, O K-edges. We observed clear evidence of a rutile phase at untypically low temperatures. This rutile phase transforms into the perovskite phase upon increasing annealing temperature. These results are discussed in the framework of current microscopic models of the PZT (111) texture selection.

  14. Ultraviolet photochemical reaction of [Fe(III)(C2O4)3](3-) in aqueous solutions studied by femtosecond time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy using an X-ray free electron laser.

    PubMed

    Ogi, Y; Obara, Y; Katayama, T; Suzuki, Y-I; Liu, S Y; Bartlett, N C-M; Kurahashi, N; Karashima, S; Togashi, T; Inubushi, Y; Ogawa, K; Owada, S; Rubešová, M; Yabashi, M; Misawa, K; Slavíček, P; Suzuki, T

    2015-05-01

    Time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy was performed for aqueous ammonium iron(III) oxalate trihydrate solutions using an X-ray free electron laser and a synchronized ultraviolet laser. The spectral and time resolutions of the experiment were 1.3 eV and 200 fs, respectively. A femtosecond 268 nm pulse was employed to excite [Fe(III)(C2O4)3](3-) in solution from the high-spin ground electronic state to ligand-to-metal charge transfer state(s), and the subsequent dynamics were studied by observing the time-evolution of the X-ray absorption spectrum near the Fe K-edge. Upon 268 nm photoexcitation, the Fe K-edge underwent a red-shift by more than 4 eV within 140 fs; however, the magnitude of the redshift subsequently diminished within 3 ps. The Fe K-edge of the photoproduct remained lower in energy than that of [Fe(III)(C2O4)3](3-). The observed red-shift of the Fe K-edge and the spectral feature of the product indicate that Fe(III) is upon excitation immediately photoreduced to Fe(II), followed by ligand dissociation from Fe(II). Based on a comparison of the X-ray absorption spectra with density functional theory calculations, we propose that the dissociation proceeds in two steps, forming first [(CO2 (•))Fe(II)(C2O4)2](3-) and subsequently [Fe(II)(C2O4)2](2-). PMID:26798796

  15. Ultraviolet photochemical reaction of [Fe(III)(C2O4)3](3-) in aqueous solutions studied by femtosecond time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy using an X-ray free electron laser.

    PubMed

    Ogi, Y; Obara, Y; Katayama, T; Suzuki, Y-I; Liu, S Y; Bartlett, N C-M; Kurahashi, N; Karashima, S; Togashi, T; Inubushi, Y; Ogawa, K; Owada, S; Rubešová, M; Yabashi, M; Misawa, K; Slavíček, P; Suzuki, T

    2015-05-01

    Time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy was performed for aqueous ammonium iron(III) oxalate trihydrate solutions using an X-ray free electron laser and a synchronized ultraviolet laser. The spectral and time resolutions of the experiment were 1.3 eV and 200 fs, respectively. A femtosecond 268 nm pulse was employed to excite [Fe(III)(C2O4)3](3-) in solution from the high-spin ground electronic state to ligand-to-metal charge transfer state(s), and the subsequent dynamics were studied by observing the time-evolution of the X-ray absorption spectrum near the Fe K-edge. Upon 268 nm photoexcitation, the Fe K-edge underwent a red-shift by more than 4 eV within 140 fs; however, the magnitude of the redshift subsequently diminished within 3 ps. The Fe K-edge of the photoproduct remained lower in energy than that of [Fe(III)(C2O4)3](3-). The observed red-shift of the Fe K-edge and the spectral feature of the product indicate that Fe(III) is upon excitation immediately photoreduced to Fe(II), followed by ligand dissociation from Fe(II). Based on a comparison of the X-ray absorption spectra with density functional theory calculations, we propose that the dissociation proceeds in two steps, forming first [(CO2 (•))Fe(II)(C2O4)2](3-) and subsequently [Fe(II)(C2O4)2](2-).

  16. Ultraviolet photochemical reaction of [Fe(III)(C2O4)3]3− in aqueous solutions studied by femtosecond time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy using an X-ray free electron laser

    PubMed Central

    Ogi, Y.; Obara, Y.; Katayama, T.; Suzuki, Y.-I.; Liu, S. Y.; Bartlett, N. C.-M.; Kurahashi, N.; Karashima, S.; Togashi, T.; Inubushi, Y.; Ogawa, K.; Owada, S.; Rubešová, M.; Yabashi, M.; Misawa, K.; Slavíček, P.; Suzuki, T.

    2015-01-01

    Time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy was performed for aqueous ammonium iron(III) oxalate trihydrate solutions using an X-ray free electron laser and a synchronized ultraviolet laser. The spectral and time resolutions of the experiment were 1.3 eV and 200 fs, respectively. A femtosecond 268 nm pulse was employed to excite [Fe(III)(C2O4)3]3− in solution from the high-spin ground electronic state to ligand-to-metal charge transfer state(s), and the subsequent dynamics were studied by observing the time-evolution of the X-ray absorption spectrum near the Fe K-edge. Upon 268 nm photoexcitation, the Fe K-edge underwent a red-shift by more than 4 eV within 140 fs; however, the magnitude of the redshift subsequently diminished within 3 ps. The Fe K-edge of the photoproduct remained lower in energy than that of [Fe(III)(C2O4)3]3−. The observed red-shift of the Fe K-edge and the spectral feature of the product indicate that Fe(III) is upon excitation immediately photoreduced to Fe(II), followed by ligand dissociation from Fe(II). Based on a comparison of the X-ray absorption spectra with density functional theory calculations, we propose that the dissociation proceeds in two steps, forming first [(CO2•)Fe(II)(C2O4)2]3− and subsequently [Fe(II)(C2O4)2]2−. PMID:26798796

  17. Speciation and characterization of arsenic in gold ores and cyanidation tailings using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paktunc, D.; Foster, A.; Heald, S.; Laflamme, G.

    2004-01-01

    The knowledge of mineralogy and molecular structure of As is needed to better understand the stability of As in wastes resulting from processing of gold ores. In this study, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy (including both XANES and EXAFS regimes) were employed to determine the mineralogical composition and local coordination environment of As in gold ores and process tailings from bench-scale tests designed to mimic a common plant practice. Arsenic-bearing minerals identified in the ores and tailings include iron (III) oxyhydroxides, scorodite (FeAsO4??2H2O), ferric arsenates, arseniosiderite (Ca2Fe3 (AsO4)3O2??3H2O), Ca-Fe arsenates, pharmacosiderite (KFe4 (AsO4)3(OH)4??6-7H2O), jarosite (K2Fe6(SO4)4 (OH)12) and arsenopyrite (FeAsS). Iron (III) oxyhydroxides contain variable levels of As from trace to about 22 wt% and Ca up to approximately 9 wt%. Finely ground ore and tailings samples were examined by bulk XAFS and selected mineral grains were analyzed by microfocused XAFS (micro-EXAFS) spectroscopy to reconcile the ambiguities of multiple As sources in the complex bulk EXAFS spectra. XANES spectra indicated that As occurs as As5+in all the samples. Micro-EXAFS spectra of individual iron (III) oxyhydroxide grains with varying As concentrations point to inner-sphere bidentate-binuclear arsenate complexes as the predominant form of As. There are indications for the presence of a second Fe shell corresponding to bidentate-mononuclear arrangement. Iron (III) oxyhydroxides with high As concentrations corresponding to maximum adsorption densities probably occur as nanoparticles. The discovery of Ca atoms around As in iron (III) oxyhydroxides at interatomic distances of 4.14-4.17 A?? and the coordination numbers suggest the formation of arseniosiderite-like nanoclusters by coprecipitation rather than simple adsorption of Ca onto iron (III) oxyhydroxides

  18. Time-resolved in situ investigations of reactive sputtering processes by grazing incidence X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lützenkirchen-Hecht, Dirk; Frahm, Ronald

    2006-09-01

    We have applied the time-resolved grazing incidence X-ray absorption fine structure technique to study in situ the atomic short range order and the electronic structure of reactively sputter deposited thin films. Results obtained during the reactive deposition of amorphous Ta-pentoxide thin films deposited in oxygen containing atmospheres will be presented. A new calculation scheme for a detailed reflection mode EXAFS data analysis giving bond distances, coordination numbers and Debye-Waller factors is presented. The atomic short range structure of the amorphous Ta 2O 5 thin films is compared to that of crystalline β-Ta 2O 5.

  19. Electronic structure of d{sup 0} vanadates obtained by x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, G.; Jimenez-Mier, J.; Chavira, E.; Moewes, A.; Wilks, R.

    2009-01-29

    We present experimental results for x-ray absorption at the L{sub 2,3}-edge of vanadium in V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, YVO{sub 4} and LaVO{sub 4} compounds and at the M{sub 4,5}-edge of lanthanum in LaVO{sub 4} compound. The data are interpreted in terms of the multiplet structure of the transition metal ion V{sup 5+} (d{sup 0}) and rare earth ion La{sup 3+} (d{sup 10}). The data are compared with calculations in the free-ion approximation for La and including the effects of the D{sub 4h} ligand field and charge transfer for V. These calculations allow a direct interpretation of the absorption spectra. Good overall agreement between experiment and theory is found. We also show resonant x-ray emission (XES) data for these compounds obtained at the top of the L{sub 2} excitation.

  20. Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy and time-dependent density functional theory of arsenic dithiocarbamates.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Courtney M; Pacheco, Juan S Lezama; Keith, Jason M; Daly, Scott R

    2014-06-28

    S K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations were performed on a series of As[S2CNR2]3 complexes, where R2 = Et2, (CH2)5 and Ph2, to determine how dithiocarbamate substituents attached to N affect As[S2CNR2]3 electronic structure. Complimentary [PPh4][S2CNR2] salts were also studied to compare dithiocarbamate bonding in the absence of As. The XAS results indicate that changing the orientation of the alkyl substituents from trans to cis (R2 = Et2vs. (CH2)5) yields subtle variations whereas differences associated with a change from alkyl to aryl are much more pronounced. For example, despite the differences in As 4p mixing, the first features in the S K-edge XAS spectra of [PPh4][S2CNPh2] and As[S2CNPh2]3 were both shifted by 0.3 eV compared to their alkyl-substituted derivatives. DFT calculations revealed that the unique shift observed for [PPh4][S2CNPh2] is due to phenyl-induced splitting of the π* orbitals delocalized over N, C and S. A similar phenomenon accounts for the shift observed for As[S2CNPh2]3, but the presence of two unique S environments (As-S and As···S) prevented reliable analysis of As-S covalency from the XAS data. In the absence of experimental values, DFT calculations revealed a decrease in As-S orbital mixing in As[S2CNPh2]3 that stems from a redistribution of electron density to S atoms participating in weaker As···S interactions. Simulated spectra obtained from TDDFT calculations reproduce the experimental differences in the S K-edge XAS data, which suggests that the theory is accurately modeling the experimental differences in As-S orbital mixing. The results highlight how S K-edge XAS and DFT can be used cooperatively to understand the electronic structure of low symmetry coordination complexes containing S atoms in different chemical environments. PMID:24811926

  1. Sulfur X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Living Mammalian Cells: An Enabling Tool for Sulfur Metabolomics. in Situ Observation of Uptake of Taurine Into MDCK Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gnida, M.; Sneeden, E.Yu; Whitin, J.C.; Prince, R.C.; Pickering, I.J.; Korbas, M.; George, G.N.

    2009-06-01

    Sulfur is essential for life, with important roles in biological structure and function. However, because of a lack of suitable biophysical techniques, in situ information about sulfur biochemistry is generally difficult to obtain. Here, we present an in situ sulfur X-ray absorption spectroscopy (S-XAS) study of living cell cultures of the mammalian renal epithelial MDCK cell line. A great deal of information is retrieved from a characteristic sulfonate feature in the X-ray absorption spectrum of the cell cultures, which can be related to the amino acid taurine. We followed the time and dose dependence of uptake of taurine into MDCK cell monolayers. The corresponding uptake curves showed a typical saturation behavior with considerable levels of taurine accumulation inside the cells (as much as 40% of total cellular sulfur). We also investigated the polarity of uptake of taurine into MDCK cells, and our results confirmed that uptake in situ is predominantly a function of the basolateral cell surface.

  2. Behavior of heptavalent technetium in sulfuric acid under α-irradiation: structural determination of technetium sulfate complexes by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and first principles calculations.

    PubMed

    Denden, I; Poineau, F; Schlegel, M L; Roques, J; Solari, P Lorenzo; Blain, G; Czerwinski, K R; Essehli, R; Barbet, J; Fattahi, M

    2014-03-01

    The effect of α-radiolysis on the behavior of heptavalent technetium has been investigated in 13 and 18 M H2SO4. Irradiation experiments were performed using α-particles ((4)He(2+), E = 68 MeV) generated by the ARRONAX cyclotron. UV-visible and X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic studies indicate that Tc(VII) is reduced to Tc(V) under α-irradiation. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy measurements are consistent with the presence of mononuclear technetium sulfate complexes. Experimental results and density functional calculations show the formation of [TcO(HSO4)3(H2O)(OH)](-) and/or [TcO(HSO4)3(H2O)2] and [Tc(HSO4)3(SO4)(H2O)] and/or [Tc(HSO4)3(SO4)(OH)](-) for 13 and 18 M H2SO4, respectively.

  3. Novel spectro-electrochemical cell for in situ/operando observation of common composite electrode with liquid electrolyte by X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the tender X-ray region.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Koji; Kato, Daisuke; Arai, Hajime; Tanida, Hajime; Mori, Takuya; Orikasa, Yuki; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Ohta, Toshiaki; Ogumi, Zempachi

    2014-08-01

    A novel spectro-electochemical cell for X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the tender X-ray region (TX-XAS) was designed and fabricated to investigate the electrochemical behavior of common battery materials with liquid electrolytes under in situ/operando conditions. The cell has several unique features, such as high X-ray transmittance, high signal to noise ratio, and high vacuum tightness. These features enable us quick and reliable XAS measurements. Operando P K-edge XAS measurements of an olivine-type LiFePO4 composite positive electrode were carried out to clarify its phosphorus environment during the electrochemical charging process. Results of spectral analysis show that there is no significant change in the oxidation state of phosphorus and in the coordination of the phosphate anions in the charging process, but a closer look of the consecutive XAS spectra suggests the shrinkage of the PO4 cage during the charging process, and the structural changes in a biphasic manner. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the cell for in situ/operando TX-XAS observations of light elements in practical batteries.

  4. Novel spectro-electrochemical cell for in situ/operando observation of common composite electrode with liquid electrolyte by X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the tender X-ray region

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Koji; Kato, Daisuke; Arai, Hajime; Tanida, Hajime; Mori, Takuya; Orikasa, Yuki; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Ohta, Toshiaki; Ogumi, Zempachi

    2014-01-01

    A novel spectro-electochemical cell for X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the tender X-ray region (TX-XAS) was designed and fabricated to investigate the electrochemical behavior of common battery materials with liquid electrolytes under in situ/operando conditions. The cell has several unique features, such as high X-ray transmittance, high signal to noise ratio, and high vacuum tightness. These features enable us quick and reliable XAS measurements. Operando P K-edge XAS measurements of an olivine-type LiFePO4 composite positive electrode were carried out to clarify its phosphorus environment during the electrochemical charging process. Results of spectral analysis show that there is no significant change in the oxidation state of phosphorus and in the coordination of the phosphate anions in the charging process, but a closer look of the consecutive XAS spectra suggests the shrinkage of the PO4 cage during the charging process, and the structural changes in a biphasic manner. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the cell for in situ/operando TX-XAS observations of light elements in practical batteries. PMID:25173283

  5. Reaction cell for in situ soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering measurements of heterogeneous catalysis up to 1 atm and 250 °C

    SciTech Connect

    Kristiansen, P. T.; Rocha, T. C. R.; Knop-Gericke, A.; Guo, J. H.; Duda, L. C.

    2013-11-15

    We present a novel in situ reaction cell for heterogeneous catalysis monitored in situ by x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS). The reaction can be carried out at a total pressure up to 1 atm, a regime that has not been accessible to comparable in situ techniques and thus closes the pressure gap to many industrial standard conditions. Two alternate catalyst geometries were tested: (A) a thin film evaporated directly onto an x-ray transparent membrane with a flowing reaction gas mixture behind it or (B) a powder placed behind both the membrane and a gap of flowing reaction gas mixture. To illustrate the working principle and feasibility of our reaction cell setup we have chosen ethylene epoxidation over a silver catalyst as a test case. The evolution of incorporated oxygen species was monitored by total electron/fluorescence yield O K-XAS as well as O K-RIXS, which is a powerful method to separate contributions from inequivalent sites. We find that our method can reliably detect transient species that exist during catalytic reaction conditions that are hardly accessible using other spectroscopic methods.

  6. Silver in geological fluids from in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy and first-principles molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokrovski, Gleb S.; Roux, Jacques; Ferlat, Guillaume; Jonchiere, Romain; Seitsonen, Ari P.; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe; Hazemann, Jean-Louis

    2013-04-01

    The molecular structure and stability of species formed by silver in aqueous saline solutions typical of hydrothermal settings were quantified using in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements, quantum-chemical modeling of near-edge absorption spectra (XANES) and extended fine structure spectra (EXAFS), and first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD). Results show that in nitrate-bearing acidic solutions to at least 200 °C, silver speciation is dominated by the hydrated Ag+ cation surrounded by 4-6 water molecules in its nearest coordination shell with mean Ag-O distances of 2.32 ± 0.02 Å. In NaCl-bearing acidic aqueous solutions of total Cl concentration from 0.7 to 5.9 mol/kg H2O (m) at temperatures from 200 to 450 °C and pressures to 750 bar, the dominant species are the di-chloride complex AgCl2- with Ag-Cl distances of 2.40 ± 0.02 Å and Cl-Ag-Cl angle of 160 ± 10°, and the tri-chloride complex AgCl32- of a triangular structure and mean Ag-Cl distances of 2.60 ± 0.05 Å. With increasing temperature, the contribution of the tri-chloride species decreases from ˜50% of total dissolved Ag in the most concentrated solution (5.9m Cl) at 200 °C to less than 10-20% at supercritical temperatures for all investigated solutions, so that AgCl2- becomes by far the dominant Ag-bearing species at conditions typical of hydrothermal-magmatic fluids. Both di- and tri-chloride species exhibit outer-sphere interactions with the solvent as shown by the detection, using FPMD modeling, of H2O, Cl-, and Na+ at distances of 3-4 Å from the silver atom. The species fractions derived from XAS and FPMD analyses, and total AgCl(s) solubilities, measured in situ in this work from the absorption edge height of XAS spectra, are in accord with thermodynamic predictions using the stability constants of AgCl2- and AgCl32- from Akinfiev and Zotov (2001) and Zotov et al. (1995), respectively, which are based on extensive previous AgCl(s) solubility measurements. These data

  7. Conduction-band electronic states of YbInCu{sub 4} studied by photoemission and soft x-ray absorption spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect

    Utsumi, Yuki; Kurihara, Hidenao; Maso, Hiroyuki; Tobimatsu, Komei; Sato, Hitoshi; Shimada, Kenya; Namatame, Hirofumi; Hiraoka, Koichi; Kojima, Kenichi; Ohkochi, Takuo; Fujimori, Shin-ichi; Takeda, Yukiharu; Saitoh, Yuji; Mimura, Kojiro; Ueda, Shigenori; Yamashita, Yoshiyuki; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Oguchi, Tamio; Taniguchi, Masaki

    2011-09-15

    We have studied conduction-band (CB) electronic states of a typical valence-transition compound YbInCu{sub 4} by means of temperature-dependent hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HX-PES) of the Cu 2p{sub 3/2} and In 3d{sub 5/2} core states taken at h{nu}=5.95 keV, soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of the Cu 2p{sub 3/2} core absorption region around h{nu}{approx}935 eV, and soft x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (SX-PES) of the valence band at the Cu 2p{sub 3/2} absorption edge of h{nu}=933.0 eV. With decreasing temperature below the valence transition at T{sub V}=42 K, we have found that (1) the Cu 2p{sub 3/2} and In 3d{sub 5/2} peaks in the HX-PES spectra exhibit the energy shift toward the lower binding-energy side by {approx}40 and {approx}30 meV, respectively, (2) an energy position of the Cu 2p{sub 3/2} main absorption peak in the XAS spectrum is shifted toward higher photon-energy side by {approx}100 meV, with an appearance of a shoulder structure below the Cu 2p{sub 3/2} main absorption peak, and (3) an intensity of the Cu L{sub 3}VV Auger spectrum is abruptly enhanced. These experimental results suggest that the Fermi level of the CB-derived density of states is shifted toward the lower binding-energy side. We have described the valence transition in YbInCu{sub 4} in terms of the charge transfer from the CB to Yb 4f states.

  8. X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy of Cr(III) (hydr)oxides: analysis of the K-pre-edge region.

    PubMed

    Frommer, Jakob; Nachtegaal, Maarten; Czekaj, Izabela; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2009-11-01

    Pre-edge spectral features below the main X-ray absorption K-edge of transition metals show a pronounced chemical sensitivity and are promising sources of structural information. Nevertheless, the use of pre-edge analysis in applied research is limited because of the lack of definite theoretical peak-assignments. The aim of this study was to determine the factors affecting the chromium K-pre-edge features in trivalent chromium-bearing oxides and oxyhydroxides. The selected phases varied in the degree of octahedral polymerization and the degree of iron-for-chromium substitution in the crystal structure. We investigated the pre-edge fine structure by means of high-energy-resolution fluorescence detected X-ray absorption spectroscopy and by 1s2p resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy. Multiplet theory and full multiple-scattering calculations were used to analyze the experimental data. We show that the chromium K-pre-edge contains localized and nonlocalized transitions. Contributions arising from nonlocalized metal-metal transitions are sensitive to the nearest metal type and to the linkage mode between neighboring metal octahedra. Analyzing these transitions opens up new opportunities for investigating the local coordination environment of chromium in poorly ordered solids of environmental relevance.

  9. Surface oxidation of pyrite under ambient atmospheric and aqueous (pH = 2 to 10) conditions: electronic structure and mineralogy from X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, E. C.; Sherman, D. M.; Purton, J. A.

    2003-03-01

    The nature of the surface oxidation phase on pyrite, FeS 2, reacted in aqueous electrolytes at pH = 2 to 10 and with air under ambient atmospheric conditions was studied using synchrotron-based oxygen K edge, sulfur L III edge, and iron L II,III edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. We demonstrate that O K edge X-ray absorption spectra provide a sensitive probe of sulfide surface oxidation that is complementary to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Using total electron yield detection, the top 20 to 50 Å of the pyrite surface is characterized. In air, pyrite oxidizes to form predominantly ferric sulfate. In aqueous air-saturated solutions, the surface oxidation products of pyrite vary with pH, with a marked transition occurring around pH 4. Below pH = 4, a ferric (hydroxy)sulfate is the main oxidation product on the pyrite surface. At higher pH, we find iron(III) oxyhydroxide in addition to ferric (hydroxy)sulfate on the surface. Under the most alkaline conditions, the O K edge spectrum closely resembles that of goethite, FeOOH, and the surface is oxidized to the extent that no FeS 2 can be detected in the X-ray absorption spectra. In a 1.667 × 10 -3 mol/L Fe 3+ solution with ferric iron present as FeCl 3 in NaCl, the oxidation of pyrite is autocatalyzed, and formation of the surface iron(III) oxyhydroxide phase is promoted at low pH.

  10. Studies on best dose of X-ray for Hep-2 cells by using FTIR, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Renming; Tang, Weiyue; Kang, Yipu; Si, Minzhen

    2009-08-01

    We report here the use of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy, and flow cytometry (FCM) to analysis the best dose of X-ray for human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (Hep-2). Our analysis indicates specific FTIR and UV-vis spectral differences between X-irradiated and normal Hep-2 cells. In addition, striking spectral differences are seen in FTIR spectra in the ratios at 2925/2958 and 1654/1542 cm -1. These two ratios of the X-irradiated cells for 8 Gy dose group with value of 1.07 ± 0.025 and 1.184 ± 0.013, respectively, were more notable (mean ± S.D., n = 5, P < 0.05) compared with that of the cells for the controls. UV-vis absorption spectra analysis shows X-ray irradiation disturbed the metabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine intracellular, maybe, which was caused by cell cycle arrest. Spectroscopy analysis suggests 8 Gy is a better dose of X-ray for lowering the canceration degree of Hep-2 cells. Moreover, FCM analysis shows the apoptosis of X-irradiated cells depended on the radiation dose to some extent, but it was not linear. The total apoptosis ratio with value of (20.793 ± 1.133)% ( P < 0.01, n = 5) for the 12 Gy dose group was the maximum, however, the maximum apoptosis ratio per Gray (total apoptosis ratio/radiation dose) was the cells of the 2 Gy dose group with value of (4.887 ± 0.211)% ( P < 0.05, n = 5). Our data suggest that Hep-2 cells are given 2 Gy radiation of X-ray once a time, 8 Gy per week (accumulatively), the effect for lowering the canceration degree and restraining the proliferation of Hep-2 cells will be better.

  11. An X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of the inversion degree in zinc ferrite nanocrystals dispersed on a highly porous silica aerogel matrix.

    PubMed

    Carta, D; Marras, C; Loche, D; Mountjoy, G; Ahmed, S I; Corrias, A

    2013-02-01

    The structural properties of zinc ferrite nanoparticles with spinel structure dispersed in a highly porous SiO(2) aerogel matrix were compared with a bulk zinc ferrite sample. In particular, the details of the cation distribution between the octahedral (B) and tetrahedral (A) sites of the spinel structure were determined using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The analysis of both the X-ray absorption near edge structure and the extended X-ray absorption fine structure indicates that the degree of inversion of the zinc ferrite spinel structures varies with particle size. In particular, in the bulk microcrystalline sample, Zn(2+) ions are at the tetrahedral sites and trivalent Fe(3+) ions occupy octahedral sites (normal spinel). When particle size decreases, Zn(2+) ions are transferred to octahedral sites and the degree of inversion is found to increase as the nanoparticle size decreases. This is the first time that a variation of the degree of inversion with particle size is observed in ferrite nanoparticles grown within an aerogel matrix.

  12. An X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of the inversion degree in zinc ferrite nanocrystals dispersed on a highly porous silica aerogel matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carta, D.; Marras, C.; Loche, D.; Mountjoy, G.; Ahmed, S. I.; Corrias, A.

    2013-02-01

    The structural properties of zinc ferrite nanoparticles with spinel structure dispersed in a highly porous SiO2 aerogel matrix were compared with a bulk zinc ferrite sample. In particular, the details of the cation distribution between the octahedral (B) and tetrahedral (A) sites of the spinel structure were determined using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The analysis of both the X-ray absorption near edge structure and the extended X-ray absorption fine structure indicates that the degree of inversion of the zinc ferrite spinel structures varies with particle size. In particular, in the bulk microcrystalline sample, Zn2+ ions are at the tetrahedral sites and trivalent Fe3+ ions occupy octahedral sites (normal spinel). When particle size decreases, Zn2+ ions are transferred to octahedral sites and the degree of inversion is found to increase as the nanoparticle size decreases. This is the first time that a variation of the degree of inversion with particle size is observed in ferrite nanoparticles grown within an aerogel matrix.

  13. Genesis of a Cerium Oxide-Supported Gold Catalyst for CO Oxidation: Transformation of Mononuclear Gold Complexes into Clusters as Characterized by X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Guerrero, V.; Lobo-Lapidus, R; Gates, B

    2009-01-01

    CeO{sub 2}-supported mononuclear gold species synthesized from Au(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}(acac) catalyzed CO oxidation at 353 K, with a turnover frequency of 6.5 x 10{sup -3} molecules of CO (Au atom s){sup -1} at CO and O{sub 2} partial pressures of 1.0 and 0.5 kPa, respectively. As the catalyst functioned in a flow reactor, the activity increased markedly so that within about 10 h the conversion of CO had increased from about 1% to almost 100%. Activated catalyst samples were characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and found to incorporate clusters of gold, which increased in size, undergoing reduction, with increasing time of operation. The X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectrum of the catalyst used for the longest period was indistinguishable from that characterizing gold foil. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure data characterizing the catalyst after the longest period of operation indicated the presence of clusters of approximately 30 Au atoms each, on average. The evidence that the catalytic activity increased as the clusters grew is contrasted with earlier reports pointing to increasing activity of supported gold clusters as they were made smallerin a cluster size range largely exceeding ours.

  14. Characterization of selective binding of alkali cations with carboxylate by x-ray absorption spectroscopy of liquid microjets

    SciTech Connect

    Saykally, Richard J; Uejio, Janel S.; Schwartz, Craig P.; Duffin, Andrew M.; Drisdell, Walter S.; Cohen, Ronald C.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2008-01-08

    We describe an approach for characterizing selective binding between oppositely charged ionic functional groups under biologically relevant conditions. Relative shifts in K-shell x-ray absorption spectra of aqueous cations and carboxylate anions indicate the corresponding binding strengths via perturbations of carbonyl antibonding orbitals. XAS spectra measured for aqueous formate and acetate solutions containing lithium, sodium, and potassium cations reveal monotonically stronger binding of the lighter metals, supporting recent results from simulations and other experiments. The carbon K-edge spectra of the acetate carbonyl feature centered near 290 eV clearly indicate a preferential interaction of sodium versus potassium, which was less apparent with formate. These results are in accord with the Law of Matching Water Affinities, relating relative hydration strengths of ions to their respective tendencies to form contact ion pairs. Density functional theory calculations of K-shell spectra support the experimental findings.

  15. Pristine and reacted surfaces of pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite as studied by X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhlin, Yu.; Tomashevich, Ye.

    2005-05-01

    Fe L-, S L-, and O K-edge X-ray absorption spectra of natural monoclinic and hexagonal pyrrhotites, Fe1-xS, and arsenopyrite, FeAsS, have been measured and compared with the spectra of minerals oxidized in air and treated in aqueous acidic solutions, as well as with the previous XPS studies. The Fe L-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) of vacuum-cleaved pyrrhotites showed the presence of, aside from high-spin Fe2+, small quantity of Fe3+, which was higher for a monoclinic mineral. The spectra of the essentially metal-depleted surfaces produced by the non-oxidative and oxidative acidic leaching of pyrrhotites exhibit substantially enhanced contributions of Fe3+ and a form of high-spin Fe2+ with the energy of the 3d orbitals increased by 0.3 0.8 eV; low-spin Fe2+ was not confidently distinguished, owing probably to its rapid oxidation. The changes in the S L-edge spectra reflect the emergence of Fe3+ and reduced density of S s Fe 4s antibonding states. The Fe L-edge XANES of arsenopyrite shows almost unsplit eg band of singlet Fe2+ along with minor contributions attributable to high-spin Fe2+ and Fe3+. Iron retains the low-spin state in the sulphur-excessive layer formed by the oxidative leaching in 0.4 M ferric chloride and ferric sulphate acidic solutions. The S L-edge XANES of arsenopyrite leached in the ferric chloride, but not ferric sulphate, solution has considerably decreased pre-edge maxima, indicating the lesser admixture of S s states to Fe 3d orbitals in the reacted surface layer. The ferric nitrate treatment produces Fe3+ species and sulphur in oxidation state between +2 and +4.

  16. Silver Valence and Local Environments in Borosilicate and Calcium Aluminoborate Waste Glasses as determined from X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown,D.; Gan, H.; Pegg, I.

    2005-01-01

    Silver K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data were collected and analyzed to characterize silver (Ag) environments in borosilicate and Ca-aluminoborate glass formulations developed as potential candidates for the immobilization of certain nuclear wastes. Silver is found in some nuclear waste streams and must be encapsulated in glass during waste vitrification processes. A related concern deals with phase separation within these glasses and whether colloidal silver would be present in the glass melt, which could present processing issues, or in the waste glass product. Characterization of the silver environments provides useful information for optimizing the silver incorporation ability of such glasses. Data were also gathered on four crystalline standards: Ag-foil, Ag{sub 2}O, argentojarosite (AgFe{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(OH){sub 6}), and AgO. XANES data indicate Ag{sup +} as the dominant species in the glasses. XANES and EXAFS data show that the average Ag environment in the Ca-aluminoborate glass is different compared with those in the two borosilicate glasses investigated. EXAFS analyses show that Ag in the borosilicate glasses is coordinated by two oxygens in a similar environment to that in crystalline Ag{sub 2}O, except that the associated Ag-O distances are approximately 0.10 Angstroms longer in the glass. Silver in the Ca-aluminoborate glass may be within one highly disordered site, or possibly, several different sites, where the average Ag-O distance, coordination number, and Debye-Waller factor are larger than those determined for the borosilicate glasses. Despite their relatively high silver contents, there is no evidence from XANES or EXAFS of colloidal silver in the glasses investigated.

  17. Watching adsorption and electron beam induced decomposition on the model system Mo(CO)6/Cu(1 1 1) by X-ray absorption and photoemission spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paufert, Pierre; Fonda, Emiliano; Li, Zheshen; Domenichini, Bruno; Bourgeois, Sylvie

    2013-11-01

    An in-depth study of the first steps of electron beam assisted growth of Mo from molybdenum hexacarbonyl on Cu(1 1 1) has been carried out exploiting the complementarity of X-ray photoemission and X-ray absorption spectroscopies. Frank van der Merwe (2D) growth mode has been observed for the completion of the two first monolayers of adsorbed molecules through a simple physisorption process. Irradiation of the Mo(CO)6 deposit by 1 keV electron beam induces a modification of molybdenum coordination, the average number of C-neighbors decreasing from 6 to 3. Decomposed molecules remain on the surface after annealing at 520 K and organize themselves, the molybdenum atoms moving in Cu(1 1 1) surface fcc hollow sites. After annealing at 670 K, metallic molybdenum growth begins, if the total amount of adsorbed Mo atoms exceeds 1.2 monolayers.

  18. Characterizing the Solvated Structure of Photoexcited [Os(terpy)₂](2+) with X-ray Transient Absorption Spectroscopy and DFT Calculations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyi; Pápai, Mátyás; Møller, Klaus B; Zhang, Jianxin; Canton, Sophie E

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the geometric and electronic structures of individual photoexcited dye molecules in solution is an important step towards understanding the interfacial properties of photo-active electrodes. The broad family of "red sensitizers" based on osmium(II) polypyridyl compounds often undergoes small photo-induced structural changes which are challenging to characterize. In this work, X-ray transient absorption spectroscopy with picosecond temporal resolution is employed to determine the geometric and electronic structures of the photoexcited triplet state of [Os(terpy)₂](2+) (terpy: 2,2':6',2″-terpyridine) solvated in methanol. From the EXAFS analysis, the structural changes can be characterized by a slight overall expansion of the first coordination shell [OsN₆]. DFT calculations supports the XTA results. They also provide additional information about the nature of the molecular orbitals that contribute to the optical spectrum (with TD-DFT) and the near-edge region of the X-ray spectra. PMID:26907233

  19. (De)lithiation mechanism of Li/SeS(x) (x = 0-7) batteries determined by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yanjie; Abouimrane, Ali; Lu, Jun; Bolin, Trudy; Ren, Yang; Weng, Wei; Sun, Chengjun; Maroni, Victor A; Heald, Steve M; Amine, Khalil

    2013-05-29

    Electrical energy storage for transportation has gone beyond the limit of converntional lithium ion batteries currently. New material or new battery system development is an alternative approach to achieve the goal of new high-energy storage system with energy densities 5 times or more greater. A series of SeSx-carbon (x = 0-7) composite materials has been prepared and evaluated as the positive electrodes in secondary lithium cells with ether-based electrolyte. In situ synchrotron high-energy X-ray diffraction was utilized to investigate the crystalline phase transition during cell cycling. Complementary, in situ Se K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis was used to track the evolution of the Se valence state for both crystalline and noncrystalline phases, including amorphous and electrolyte-dissolved phases in the (de)lithiation process. On the basis of these results, a mechanism for the (de)lithiation process is proposed, where Se is reduced to the polyselenides, Li2Sen (n ≥ 4), Li2Se2, and Li2Se sequentially during the lithiation and Li2Se is oxidized to Se through Li2Sen (n ≥ 4) during the delithiation. In addition, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy demonstrated the reversibility of the Li/Se system in ether-based electrolyte and the presence of side products in the carbonate-based electrolytes. For Li/SeS2 and Li/SeS7 cells, Li2Se and Li2S are the discharged products with the presence of Se only as the crystalline phase in the end of charge.

  20. (De)lithiation mechanism of Li/SeS(x) (x = 0-7) batteries determined by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yanjie; Abouimrane, Ali; Lu, Jun; Bolin, Trudy; Ren, Yang; Weng, Wei; Sun, Chengjun; Maroni, Victor A; Heald, Steve M; Amine, Khalil

    2013-05-29

    Electrical energy storage for transportation has gone beyond the limit of converntional lithium ion batteries currently. New material or new battery system development is an alternative approach to achieve the goal of new high-energy storage system with energy densities 5 times or more greater. A series of SeSx-carbon (x = 0-7) composite materials has been prepared and evaluated as the positive electrodes in secondary lithium cells with ether-based electrolyte. In situ synchrotron high-energy X-ray diffraction was utilized to investigate the crystalline phase transition during cell cycling. Complementary, in situ Se K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis was used to track the evolution of the Se valence state for both crystalline and noncrystalline phases, including amorphous and electrolyte-dissolved phases in the (de)lithiation process. On the basis of these results, a mechanism for the (de)lithiation process is proposed, where Se is reduced to the polyselenides, Li2Sen (n ≥ 4), Li2Se2, and Li2Se sequentially during the lithiation and Li2Se is oxidized to Se through Li2Sen (n ≥ 4) during the delithiation. In addition, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy demonstrated the reversibility of the Li/Se system in ether-based electrolyte and the presence of side products in the carbonate-based electrolytes. For Li/SeS2 and Li/SeS7 cells, Li2Se and Li2S are the discharged products with the presence of Se only as the crystalline phase in the end of charge. PMID:23631402

  1. Iron (III)-silica interactions in aqueous solution: insights from X.-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokrovski, Gleb S.; Schott, Jacques; Farges, François; Hazemann, Jean-Louis

    2003-10-01

    The influence of aqueous silica on the hydrolysis of iron(III) nitrate and chloride salts in dilute aqueous solutions ( mFe ˜ 0.01 mol/kg) was studied at ambient temperature using X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy at the Fe K-edge. Results show that in Si-free iron nitrate and chloride solutions at acid pH (pH < 2.5), Fe is hexa-coordinated with 6 oxygens of H 2O- and/or OH-groups in the first coordination sphere of the metal, at an Fe-O distance of 2.00 ± 0.01 Å. With increasing pH (2.7 < pH < 13), these groups are rapidly replaced by bridging hydroxyls (-OH-) or oxygens (-O-), and polymerized Fe hydroxide complexes form via Fe-(O/OH)-Fe bonds. In these polymers, the first atomic shell of iron represents a distorted octahedron with six O/OH groups and Fe-O distances ranging from 1.92 to 2.07 Å. The Fe octahedra are linked together by their edges (Fe-Fe distance 2.92-3.12 Å) and corners (Fe-Fe distance ˜3.47 ± 0.03 Å). The Fe-Fe coordination numbers ( Nedge = 1-2; Ncorner = 0.5-0.7) are consistent with the dominant presence of iron dimers, trimers and tetramers at pH 2.5 to 2.9, and of higher-polymerized species at pH > 3. At pH > 2.5 in the presence of aqueous silica, important changes in Fe(III) hydrolysis are detected. In 0.05- m Si solutions (pH ˜ 2.7-3.0), the corner linkages between Fe octahedra in the polymeric complexes disappear, and the Fe-Fe distances corresponding to the edge linkages slightly increase (Fe-Fe edge ˜ 3.12-3.14 Å). The presence of 1 to 2 silicons at 3.18 ± 0.03 Å is detected in the second atomic shell around iron. At basic pH (˜12.7), similar structural changes are observed for the iron second shell. The Fe-Si and Fe-Fe distances and coordination numbers derived in this study are consistent with (1) Fe-Si complex stoichiometries Fe 2Si 1-2 and Fe 3Si 2-3 at pH < 3; (2) structures composed of Fe-Fe dimers and trimers sharing one or two edges of FeO 6-octahedra; and (3) silicon tetrahedra linked to two

  2. Polarized X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Single-Crystal Mn(V) Complexes Relevant to the Oxygen-Evolving Complex of Photosystem II

    SciTech Connect

    Yano, J.K.; Robblee, J.; Pushkar, Y.; Marcus, M.A.; Bendix, J.; Workman, J.M.; Collins, T.J.; Solomon, E.I.; George, S.D.; Yachandra, V.K.; /LBL, Berkeley /Copenhagen U. /Stanford U., Chem. Dept. /SLAC, SSRL

    2007-10-16

    High-valent Mn-oxo species have been suggested to have a catalytically important role in the water splitting reaction which occurs in the Photosystem II membrane protein. In this study, five- and six-coordinate mononuclear Mn(V) compounds were investigated by polarized X-ray absorption spectroscopy in order to understand the electronic structure and spectroscopic characteristics of high-valent Mn species. Single crystals of the Mn(V)-nitrido and Mn(V)-oxo compounds were aligned along selected molecular vectors with respect to the X-ray polarization vector using X-ray diffraction. The local electronic structure of the metal site was then studied by measuring the polarization dependence of X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) pre-edge spectra (1s to 3d transition) and comparing with the results of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The Mn(V)-nitrido compound, in which the manganese is coordinated in a tetragonally distorted octahedral environment, showed a single dominant pre-edge peak along the MnN axis that can be assigned to a strong 3dz2-4pz mixing mechanism. In the square pyramidal Mn(V)-oxo system, on the other hand, an additional peak was observed at 1 eV below the main pre-edge peak. This component was interpreted as a 1s to 3dxz,yz transition with 4px,y mixing, due to the displacement of the Mn atom out of the equatorial plane. The XANES results have been correlated to DFT calculations, and the spectra have been simulated using a TD (time-dependent)-DFT approach. The relevance of these results to understanding the mechanism of the photosynthetic water oxidation is discussed.

  3. Large Area X-Ray Spectroscopy Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tananbaum, H.

    1997-01-01

    The Large Area X-ray Spectroscopy (LAXS) mission concept study continues to evolve strongly following the merging of the LAXS mission with the Next Generation X-ray Observatory (NGXO, PI: Nick White) into the re-named High Throughput X-ray Spectroscopy (HTXS) Mission. HTXS retains key elements of the LAXS proposal, including the use of multiple satellites for risk-reduction and cost savings. A key achievement of the program has been the recommendation by the Structure and Evolution of the Universe (SEUS) (April 1997) for a new start for the HTXS mission in the 2000-2004 timeframe.

  4. The nature of chemical bonding in actinide and lanthanide ferrocyanides determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Thomas; Guillaumont, Dominique; Fillaux, Clara; Scheinost, Andreas; Moisy, Philippe; Petit, Sébastien; Shuh, David K; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Den Auwer, Christophe

    2016-01-28

    The electronic properties of actinide cations are of fundamental interest to describe intramolecular interactions and chemical bonding in the context of nuclear waste reprocessing or direct storage. The 5f and 6d orbitals are the first partially or totally vacant states in these elements, and the nature of the actinide ligand bonds is related to their ability to overlap with ligand orbitals. Because of its chemical and orbital selectivities, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is an effective probe of actinide species frontier orbitals and for understanding actinide cation reactivity toward chelating ligands. The soft X-ray probes of the light elements provide better resolution than actinide L3-edges to obtain electronic information from the ligand. Thus coupling simulations to experimental soft X-ray spectral measurements and complementary quantum chemical calculations yields quantitative information on chemical bonding. In this study, soft X-ray XAS at the K-edges of C and N, and the L2,3-edges of Fe was used to investigate the electronic structures of the well-known ferrocyanide complexes K4Fe(II)(CN)6, thorium hexacyanoferrate Th(IV)Fe(II)(CN)6, and neodymium hexacyanoferrate KNd(III)Fe(II)(CN)6. The soft X-ray spectra were simulated based on quantum chemical calculations. Our results highlight the orbital overlapping effects and atomic effective charges in the Fe(II)(CN)6 building block. In addition to providing a detailed description of the electronic structure of the ferrocyanide complex (K4Fe(II)(CN)6), the results strongly contribute to confirming the actinide 5f and 6d orbital oddity in comparison to lanthanide 4f and 5d.

  5. The nature of chemical bonding in actinide and lanthanide ferrocyanides determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Thomas; Guillaumont, Dominique; Fillaux, Clara; Scheinost, Andreas; Moisy, Philippe; Petit, Sébastien; Shuh, David K; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Den Auwer, Christophe

    2016-01-28

    The electronic properties of actinide cations are of fundamental interest to describe intramolecular interactions and chemical bonding in the context of nuclear waste reprocessing or direct storage. The 5f and 6d orbitals are the first partially or totally vacant states in these elements, and the nature of the actinide ligand bonds is related to their ability to overlap with ligand orbitals. Because of its chemical and orbital selectivities, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is an effective probe of actinide species frontier orbitals and for understanding actinide cation reactivity toward chelating ligands. The soft X-ray probes of the light elements provide better resolution than actinide L3-edges to obtain electronic information from the ligand. Thus coupling simulations to experimental soft X-ray spectral measurements and complementary quantum chemical calculations yields quantitative information on chemical bonding. In this study, soft X-ray XAS at the K-edges of C and N, and the L2,3-edges of Fe was used to investigate the electronic structures of the well-known ferrocyanide complexes K4Fe(II)(CN)6, thorium hexacyanoferrate Th(IV)Fe(II)(CN)6, and neodymium hexacyanoferrate KNd(III)Fe(II)(CN)6. The soft X-ray spectra were simulated based on quantum chemical calculations. Our results highlight the orbital overlapping effects and atomic effective charges in the Fe(II)(CN)6 building block. In addition to providing a detailed description of the electronic structure of the ferrocyanide complex (K4Fe(II)(CN)6), the results strongly contribute to confirming the actinide 5f and 6d orbital oddity in comparison to lanthanide 4f and 5d. PMID:26733312

  6. Encapsulation of lead sulfide molecular clusters into solid matrices. Structural analysis with x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Moller, K.; Bein, T. ); Herron, N.; Mahler, W.; Wang, Ying )

    1989-07-26

    Molecular-size PbS species have been stabilized in the open-pore structure of zeolite Y and mordenite via ion exchange with Pb(II) and subsequent treatment with H{sub 2}S at 295 K. Detailed analysis of synchrotron x-ray absorption data of the Pb L{sub III}-edge shows that intrazeolite PbO{sub 2}(O{sub z} = zeolite oxygen) species in zeolite Y react with H{sub 2}S to form monomolecular S{sub 2}Pb(I{sub z}){sub 3} species that are still anchored to the zeolite framework. The intrazeolite PbS phase appears to be more ordered at high loading levels of lead in zeolite Y than at low loading levels. The coordination of Pb(II) and the structure of PbS in the mordenite host is less ordered but basically very similar to that of the monomolecular species in Y. Optical absorption data for these samples agree very well with the structural EXAFS results. Larger PbS clusters have been stabilized in 85% ethylene-15% methacrylic acid copolymer films by a similar preparation procedure. EXAFS data indicate that the reaction forms PbS clusters with several Pb coordination shells and that the conversion of PbS is a function of Pb(II) loading levels. 23 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Vanadium bisimide bonding investigated by X-ray crystallography, 51V and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and V L(3,2)-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    La Pierre, Henry S; Minasian, Stefan G; Abubekerov, Mark; Kozimor, Stosh A; Shuh, David K; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Arnold, John; Bergman, Robert G; Toste, F Dean

    2013-10-01

    Syntheses of neutral halide and aryl vanadium bisimides are described. Treatment of VCl2(NtBu)[NTMS(N(t)Bu)], 2, with PMe3, PEt3, PMe2Ph, or pyridine gave vanadium bisimides via TMSCl elimination in good yield: VCl(PMe3)2(N(t)Bu)2 3, VCl(PEt3)2(N(t)Bu)2 4, VCl(PMe2Ph)2(N(t)Bu)2 5, and VCl(Py)2(N(t)Bu)2 6. The halide series (Cl-I) was synthesized by use of TMSBr and TMSI to give VBr(PMe3)2(N(t)Bu)2 7 and VI(PMe3)2(N(t)Bu)2 8. The phenyl derivative was obtained by reaction of 3 with MgPh2 to give VPh(PMe3)2(N(t)Bu)2 9. These neutral complexes are compared to the previously reported cationic bisimides [V(PMe3)3(N(t)Bu)2][Al(PFTB)4] 10, [V(PEt3)2(N(t)Bu)2][Al(PFTB)4] 11, and [V(DMAP)(PEt3)2(N(t)Bu)2][Al(PFTB)4] 12 (DMAP = dimethylaminopyridine, PFTB = perfluoro-tert-butoxide). Characterization of the complexes by X-ray diffraction, (13)C NMR, (51)V NMR, and V L(3,2)-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy provides a description of the electronic structure in comparison to group 6 bisimides and the bent metallocene analogues. The electronic structure is dominated by π bonding to the imides, and localization of electron density at the nitrogen atoms of the imides is dictated by the cone angle and donating ability of the axial neutral supporting ligands. This phenomenon is clearly seen in the sensitivity of (51)V NMR shift, (13)C NMR Δδ(αβ), and L3-edge energy to the nature of the supporting phosphine ligand, which defines the parameters for designing cationic group 5 bisimides that would be capable of breaking stronger σ bonds. Conversely, all three methods show little dependence on the variable equatorial halide ligand. Furthermore, this analysis allows for quantification of the electronic differences between vanadium bisimides and the structurally analogous mixed Cp/imide system CpV(N(t)Bu)X2 (Cp = C5H5(1-)). PMID:24024833

  8. Near-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy of RT/sub 2/Si/sub 2/ and RT/sub 2/Ge/sub 2/ compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Ansari, P.H.; Qi, B.; Liang, G.; Perez, I.; Lu, F.; Croft, M.

    1988-04-15

    X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) measurements on 1:2:2 compounds of the form RT/sub 2/X/sub 2/ with R = Ce and Eu, T = a transition metal, and X = Si or Ge are presented. XANES measurements on each of the three sublattices are used to elucidate elements of the electronic structure of these compounds. In particular, the evidence for the strongly bonded T-X planes, the coupling of the Ce valence-state stability to the T-X planes, and the response of the X-p orbitals to varying transition-metal components are discussed.

  9. Very first tests on SOLEIL regarding the Zn environment in pathological calcifications made of apatite determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bazin, D.; Carpentier, X.; Traxer, O.; Thiaudiere, D.; Somogyi, A.; Reguer, S.; Waychunas, G.; Daudon, M.

    2008-10-01

    This very first report of a X-ray absorption spectroscopy experiment on Soleil is part of a more large long term study dedicated to ectopic calcifications. Such biological entities composed of various inorganic and/or organic compounds contain also trace elements. In the case of urinary calculi, different papers already published point out that these oligo elements may promote or inhibit crystal nucleation or growth of mineral or organic species involved. By using such tool specific to synchrotron radiation i.e. determine the local environment of oligoelements and thus their occupation site, we contribute to our understanding of the role of trace elements in ectopic calcifications.

  10. The apparent absence of chemical sensitivity in the 4d and 5d X-ray absorption spectroscopy of uranium compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J. G.

    2013-05-03

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and related derivative measurements have been used to demonstrate that the Pu 5f states are strongly relativistic and have a 5f occupation number near 5. Owing to the success in this regime, it has been argued that the XAS measurements should be a powerful tool to probe 5f occupation variation, both as a function of elemental nature (actinide atomic number) and as a function of physical and chemical perturbation, e.g., oxidation state. We show that XAS and its related measurements fail in this latter aspect for a wide variety of uranium compounds and materials. Possible causes will be discussed.

  11. SYNCHROTRON RADIATION, FREE ELECTRON LASER, APPLICATION OF NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY, ETC.: A new cell for X-ray absorption spectroscopy study under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Li-Rong; Che, Rong-Zheng; Liu, Jing; Du, Yong-Hua; Zhou, Ying-Li; Hu, Tian-Dou

    2009-08-01

    X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy is a powerful technique for the investigation of the local environment around selected atoms in condensed matter. XAFS under pressure is an important method for the synchrotron source. We design a cell for a high pressure XAFS experiment. Sintered boron carbide is used as the anvils of this high pressure cell in order to obtain a full XAFS spectrum free from diffraction peaks. In addition, a hydraulic pump was adopted to make in-suit pressure modulation. High quality XAFS spectra of ZrH2 under high pressure (up to 13 GPa) were obtained by this cell.

  12. X-ray absorption microscopy of aqueous samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazer, Brad; Gilbert, Benjamin; De Stasio, Gelsomina

    2002-03-01

    X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (X-PEEM) is used for numerous applications in surface microchemical analysis of material science and biological specimens. We have reconfigured the MEPHISTO X-PEEM instrument that is installed at the University of Wisconsin Synchrotron Radiation Center to measure true x-ray transmission spectra by converting transmitted photons to photoelectrons via a thin photocathode layer of gold. We have also developed a method by which to introduce aqueous samples into ultrahigh vacuum. Hence x-ray spectroscopy can be performed on biologically relevant elements (such as K, Ca, etc.) in a physiological environment, i.e., in solution. More important, when coupled with X-PEEM imaging this technique may offer the unique and exciting possibility of studying living cells. We present initial x-ray absorption spectra of solutions of aqueous ionic and chelated Ca, with the aim of distinguishing bound and free ionic calcium in vivo.

  13. Structure analyses using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption near edge structure for amorphous MS3 (M: Ti, Mo) electrodes in all-solid-state lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuyama, Takuya; Deguchi, Minako; Mitsuhara, Kei; Ohta, Toshiaki; Mori, Takuya; Orikasa, Yuki; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Kowada, Yoshiyuki; Hayashi, Akitoshi; Tatsumisago, Masahiro

    2016-05-01

    Electronic structure changes of sulfurs in amorphous TiS3 and MoS3 for positive electrodes of all-solid-state lithium batteries are examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). The all-solid-state cell with amorphous TiS3 electrode shows the reversible capacity of about 510 mAh g-1 for 10 cycles with sulfur-redox in amorphous TiS3 during charge-discharge process. On the other hand, the cell with amorphous MoS3 shows the 1st reversible capacity of about 720 mAh g-1. The obtained capacity is based on the redox of both sulfur and molybdenum in amorphous MoS3. The irreversible capacity of about 50 mAh g-1 is observed at the 1st cycle, which is attributed to the irreversible electronic structure change of sulfur during the 1st cycle. The electronic structure of sulfur in amorphous MoS3 after the 10th charge is similar to that after the 1st charge. Therefore, the all-solid-state cell with amorphous MoS3 electrode shows relatively good cyclability after the 1st cycle.

  14. X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of chromium recovered from Cr(VI)-containing water with rice husk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ming-Jan; Wei, Yu-Ling; Yang, Yaw-Wen; Lee, Jyh-Fu

    2004-08-01

    The characteristics of the richness in silica and the high porosity of rice husk enable its application as a good, yet cheap, heavy metal adsorbent from wastewater. This study used rice husk to sorb Cr(VI) from wastewater that contained 2000 mg Cr(VI) l-1. Results of a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) experiment indicate a considerable morphology alteration of the rice husk after the sorption experiments. 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements show significant decrease in intensity of all the following peaks: carbonylic, carboxylic, aromatic, polysaccharides, carbohydrates and aliphatics. The X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) result indicates that about 70% and 90% of the Cr(VI) sorbed on the rice husk after the 12 and 48 h sorption experiments, respectively, were in Cr(III) forms. In the 12 h sorbed rice husk sample, the chromium species distribution is 41% organic Cr(III) +27%Cr(OH)3+32%CrO3, while in the 48 h sorbed one, it is 57% organic Cr(III) +31%Cr(OH)3+12%CrO3.

  15. Characterization of mercury binding onto a novel brominated biomass ash sorbent by X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Teresa M; MacLean, Lachlan C W; Hu, Yongfeng; Xu, Zhenghe

    2012-11-01

    Recent laboratory and field-scale experiments demonstrated the potential for brominated industrial solid waste from biomass combustion (Br-Ash) to be an efficient, cost-effective alternative to activated carbon for capturing mercury from coal-fired power plants. To develop this attractive alternative technology to a commercially sustainable level, a better understanding of mercury capture mechanisms by Br-Ash is required. For this purpose, X-ray absorption fine-structure (XAFS) spectra of Br-Ash were collected at the Hg L(III)-edge, Br K-edge and S K-edge, and analyzed to determine the local bonding environment of mercury atoms. The coordination environment of Hg was compared with that on a commercial brominated activated carbon. Our results indicate that the mercury was captured by chemisorption on both the commercial and biomass ash sorbents; however, the mercury binding environment was different for each sorbent. Mercury was found to bind to the reduced sulfur by the commercial brominated activated carbon, in contrast to mercury binding with carbon and bromine on the brominated biomass ash. Based on the results obtained, a mechanism of Hg capture involving oxidation of elemental Hg followed by binding of the oxidized mercury on the surface of the sorbent near Br was proposed for the brominated biomass ash.

  16. Revisiting the localization of Zn2+ cations sorbed on pathological apatite calcifications made through X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bazin, D.; Carpentier, X.; Brocheriou, I.; Dorfmuller, P.; Aubert, S.; Chappard, C.; Thiaudiere, D.; Reguer, S.; Waychunas, G.; Jungers, P.; Daudon, M.

    2009-04-01

    The role of oligo-elements such as Zn in the genesis of pathological calcifications is widely debated in the literature. An essential element of discussion is given by their localization either at the surface or within the Ca apatite crystalline network. To determine the localization, X-ray absorption experiments have been performed at SOLEIL. The Exafs results suggest that Zn atoms, present in the Zn{sup 2+} form, are bound to about 4 O atoms at a distance of 2.00{angstrom}, while the interatomic distance R{sub CaO} ranges between 2.35 {angstrom} and 2.71 {angstrom}. Taking into account the content of Zn (around 1000 ppm) and the difference in ionic radius between Zn{sup 2+} (0.074 nm) and Ca{sup 2+} (0.099 nm), a significant longer interatomic distance would be expected in the case of Zn replacing Ca within the apatite crystalline network. We thus conclude that Zn atoms are localized at the surface and not in the apatite nanocrystal structure. Such structural result has essential biological implications for at least two reasons. Some oligoelements have a marked effect on the transformation of chemical phases, and may modify the morphology of crystals. These are both major issues because, in the case of kidney stones, the medical treatment depends strongly on the precise chemical phase and on the morphology of the biological entities at both macroscopic and mesoscopic scales.

  17. Characterization of selenium in UO2 spent nuclear fuel by micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy and its thermodynamic stability.

    PubMed

    Curti, E; Puranen, A; Grolimund, D; Jädernas, D; Sheptyakov, D; Mesbah, A

    2015-10-01

    Direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in deep geological formations is the preferred option for the final storage of nuclear waste in many countries. In order to assess to which extent radionuclides could be released to the environment, it is of great importance to understand how they are chemically bound in the waste matrix. This is particularly important for long-lived radionuclides such as (79)Se, (129)I, (14)C or (36)Cl, which form poorly sorbing anionic species in water and therefore migrate without significant retardation through argillaceous repository materials and host rocks. We present here X-ray absorption spectroscopic data providing evidence that in the investigated SNF samples selenium is directly bound to U atoms as Se(-II) (selenide) ion, probably replacing oxygen in the cubic UO2 lattice. This result is corroborated by a simple thermodynamic analysis, showing that selenide is the stable form of Se under reactor operation conditions. Because selenide is almost insoluble in water, our data indirectly explain the unexpectedly low release of Se in short-term aqueous leaching experiments, compared to iodine or cesium. These results have a direct impact on safety analyses for potential nuclear waste repository sites, as they justify assuming a small fractional release of selenium in performance assessment calculations.

  18. The forms of trace metals in an Illinois basin coal by x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Bruinius, J.A.; Lytle, J.M.; Ruch, R.R.; Huggins, Frank E.; Huffman, G.P.; Ho, K.K.

    1997-01-01

    Utilities burning Illinois coals currently do not consider trace elements in their flue gas emissions. After the US EPA completes an investigation on trace elements, however, this may change and flue gas emission standards may be established. The mode of occurrence of a trace element may determine its cleanability and Hue gas emission potential. X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) is a spectroscopic technique that can differentiate the mode of occurrence of an element, even at the low concentrations that trace elements are found in coal. This is principally accomplished by comparing the XAFS spectra of a coal to a database of reference sample spectra. This study evaluated the technique as a potential tool to examine six trace elements in an Illinois #6 coal. For the elements As and Zn, the present database provides a definitive interpretation on their mode of occurrence. For the elements Ti, V, Cr, and Mn the database of XAFS spectra of trace elements in coal was still too limited to allow a definitive interpretation. The data obtained on these elements, however, was sufficient to rule out several of the mineralogical possibilities that have been suggested previously. The results indicate that XAFS is a promising technique for the study of trace elements in coal.

  19. Characterization of selenium in UO2 spent nuclear fuel by micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy and its thermodynamic stability.

    PubMed

    Curti, E; Puranen, A; Grolimund, D; Jädernas, D; Sheptyakov, D; Mesbah, A

    2015-10-01

    Direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in deep geological formations is the preferred option for the final storage of nuclear waste in many countries. In order to assess to which extent radionuclides could be released to the environment, it is of great importance to understand how they are chemically bound in the waste matrix. This is particularly important for long-lived radionuclides such as (79)Se, (129)I, (14)C or (36)Cl, which form poorly sorbing anionic species in water and therefore migrate without significant retardation through argillaceous repository materials and host rocks. We present here X-ray absorption spectroscopic data providing evidence that in the investigated SNF samples selenium is directly bound to U atoms as Se(-II) (selenide) ion, probably replacing oxygen in the cubic UO2 lattice. This result is corroborated by a simple thermodynamic analysis, showing that selenide is the stable form of Se under reactor operation conditions. Because selenide is almost insoluble in water, our data indirectly explain the unexpectedly low release of Se in short-term aqueous leaching experiments, compared to iodine or cesium. These results have a direct impact on safety analyses for potential nuclear waste repository sites, as they justify assuming a small fractional release of selenium in performance assessment calculations. PMID:26365814

  20. Interaction of Isophorone with Pd(111): A Combination of Infrared Reflection–Absorption Spectroscopy, Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure, and Density Functional Theory Studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Atomistic level understanding of interaction of α,β-unsaturated carbonyls with late transition metals is a key prerequisite for rational design of new catalytic materials with the desired selectivity toward C=C or C=O bond hydrogenation. The interaction of this class of compounds with transition metals was investigated on α,β-unsaturated ketone isophorone on Pd(111) as a prototypical system. In this study, infrared reflection–absorption spectroscopy (IRAS), near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) experiments, and density functional theory calculations including van der Waals interactions (DFT+vdW) were combined to obtain detailed information on the binding of isophorone to palladium at different coverages and on the effect of preadsorbed hydrogen on the binding and adsorption geometry. According to these experimental observations and the results of theoretical calculations, isophorone adsorbs on Pd(111) in a flat-lying geometry at low coverages. With increasing coverage, both C=C and C=O bonds of isophorone tilt with respect to the surface plane. The tilting is considerably more pronounced for the C=C bond on the pristine Pd(111) surface, indicating a prominent perturbation and structural distortion of the conjugated π system upon interaction with Pd. Preadsorbed hydrogen leads to higher tilting angles of both π bonds, which points to much weaker interaction of isophorone with hydrogen-precovered Pd and suggests the conservation of the in-plane geometry of the conjugated π system. The results of the DFT+vdW calculations provide further insights into the perturbation of the molecular structure of isophorone on Pd(111). PMID:26089998

  1. Structure and orientation of the Mn4Ca cluster in plant photosystem II membranes studied by polarized range-extended x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pushkar, Yulia; Yano, Junko; Glatzel, Pieter; Messinger, Johannes; Lewis, Azul; Sauer, Kenneth; Bergmann, Uwe; Yachandra, Vittal

    2007-03-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy has provided important insights into the structure and function of the Mn(4)Ca cluster in the oxygen-evolving complex of Photosystem II (PS II). The range of manganese extended x-ray absorption fine structure data collected from PS II until now has been, however, limited by the presence of iron in PS II. Using a crystal spectrometer with high energy resolution to detect solely the manganese Kalpha fluorescence, we are able to extend the extended x-ray absorption fine structure range beyond the onset of the iron absorption edge. This results in improvement in resolution of the manganese-backscatterer distances in PS II from 0.14 to 0.09A(.) The high resolution data obtained from oriented spinach PS II membranes in the S(1) state show that there are three di-mu-oxo-bridged manganese-manganese distances of approximately 2.7 and approximately 2.8A in a 2:1 ratio and that these three manganese-manganese vectors are aligned at an average orientation of approximately 60 degrees relative to the membrane normal. Furthermore, we are able to observe the separation of the Fourier peaks corresponding to the approximately 3.2A manganese-manganese and the approximately 3.4A manganese-calcium interactions in oriented PS II samples and determine their orientation relative to the membrane normal. The average of the manganese-calcium vectors at approximately 3.4A is aligned along the membrane normal, while the approximately 3.2A manganese-manganese vector is oriented near the membrane plane. A comparison of this structural information with the proposed Mn(4)Ca cluster models based on spectroscopic and diffraction data provides input for refining and selecting among these models.

  2. Effects of sulfation level on the desulfation behavior of pre-sulfated Pt BaO/Al2O3 lean NOx trap catalysts: a combined H2 Temperature-Programmed Reaction, in-situ sulfur K-edge X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and Time-Resolved X-ray Diffraction Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Do Heui; Szanyi, Janos; Kwak, Ja Hun; Wang, Xianqin; Hanson, Jonathan C.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Peden, Charles HF

    2009-04-03

    Desulfation by hydrogen of pre-sulfated Pt(2wt%) BaO(20wt%)/Al2O3 with various sulfur loading (S/Ba = 0.12, 0.31 and 0.62) were investigated by combining H2 temperature programmed reaction (TPRX), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), in-situ sulfur K-edge x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES), and synchrotron time-resolved x-ray diffraction (TR-XRD) techniques. We find that the amount of H2S desorbed during the desulfation in the H2 TPRX experiments is not proportional to the amount of initial sulfur loading. The results of both in-situ sulfur K-edge XANES and TR-XRD show that at low sulfur loadings, sulfates were transformed to a BaS phase and remained in the catalyst, rather than being removed as H2S. On the other hand, when the deposited sulfur level exceeded a certain threshold (at least S/Ba = 0.31) sulfates were reduced to form H2S, and the relative amount of the residual sulfide species in the catalyst was much less than at low sulfur loading. Unlike samples with high sulfur loading (e.g., S/Ba = 0.62), H2O did not promote the desulfation for the sample with S/Ba of 0.12, implying that the formed BaS species originating from the reduction of sulfates at low sulfur loading are more stable to hydrolysis. The results of this combined spectroscopy investigation provide clear evidence to show that sulfates at low sulfur loadings are less likely to be removed as H2S and have a greater tendency to be transformed to BaS on the material, leading to the conclusion that desulfation behavior of Pt BaO/Al2O3 lean NOx trap catalysts is markedly dependent on the sulfation levels.

  3. High pressure in situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy cell for studying simultaneously the liquid phase and the solid-liquid interface

    SciTech Connect

    Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Ramin, Michael; Rohr, Markus; Michailovski, Alexej; Patzke, Greta R.; Baiker, Alfons

    2005-05-15

    A high pressure in situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy cell with two different path lengths and path positions is presented for studying element-specifically both the liquid phase and the solid-liquid interface at pressures up to 250 bar and temperatures up to 220 deg. C. For this purpose, one x-ray path probes the bottom, while the other x-ray path penetrates through the middle of the in situ cell. The basic design of the cell resembles a 10 ml volume batch reactor, which is equipped with in- and outlet lines to dose compressed gases and liquids as well as a stirrer for good mixing. Due to the use of a polyetheretherketone inset it is also suitable for measurements under corrosive conditions. The characteristic features of the cell are illustrated using case studies from catalysis and solid state chemistry: (a) the ruthenium-catalyzed formylation of an amine in 'supercritical' carbon dioxide in the presence of hydrogen; (b) the cycloaddition of carbon dioxide to propylene oxide in the presence of a solid Zn-based catalyst, and (c) the solvothermal synthesis of MoO{sub 3} nanorods from MoO{sub 3}-2H{sub 2}O.

  4. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of the corrinoid/iron-sulfur potein involved in acetyl coenzyme A synthesis by Clostridium thermoaceticum

    SciTech Connect

    Wirt, M.D.; Chance, M.R. ); Kumar, M.; Ragsdale, S.W. )

    1993-03-24

    The corrinoid/iron-sulfur protein (C/Fe-SP) from Clostridium thermoaceticum is an 88 kDa [alpha][beta]-dimer that cycles between a Co(I) and methyl-Co(III) form as it transfers a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate (methyl-H[sub 4]folate) to carbon monoxide dehydrogenase. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and X-ray edge spectroscopy of the as-isolated C/Fe-SP indicates that the inactive Co(II) state of the corrinoid has a four-coordinate distorted square-planar structure. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first observation of a four-coordinate Co(II) corrinoid. This unusual coordination state would be expected to poise the Co(II) state of the C/Fe-SP for facile reduction to four-coordinate Co(I), which is the active nucleophile that acts as the acceptor of the methyl group of methyl-H[sub 4]folate. Additionally, the first-derivative X-ray edge spectra for both the methyl-Co(III) and Co(II) forms of the C/Fe-SP show an unexpected shift to lower energy when compared to analogous free cobalamins indicating a potential role for the protein in mediating electronic as well as structural properties of the enzyme bound methylcobamide. 42 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Quantitative Phase Composition of TiO2-Coated Nanoporous-Au Monoliths by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy and Correlations to Catalytic

    SciTech Connect

    Bagge-Hansen, Michael; Wichmann, Andre; Wittstock, Arne; Lee, Jonathan R. I.; Ye, Jianchao; Willey, Trevor M.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; van Buuren, Tony; Biener, Juergen; Baumer, Marcus; Biener, Monika M.

    2014-02-03

    Porous titania/metal composite materials have many potential applications in the fields of green catalysis, energy harvesting, and storage in which both the overall morphology of the nanoporous host material and the crystallographic phase of the titania (TiO 2) guest determine the material’s performance. New insights into the structure–function relationships of these materials were obtained by near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy that, for example, provides quantitative crystallographic phase composition from ultrathin, nanostructured titania films, including sensitivity to amorphous components. We demonstrate that crystallographic phase, morphology, and catalytic activity of TiO 2-functionalized nanoporous gold (np-Au) can be controlled by a simple annealing procedure (T < 1300 K). The material was prepared by atomic layer deposition of ~2 nm thick TiO2 on millimeter-sized samples of np-Au (40–50 nm mean ligament size) and catalytically investigated with respect to aerobic CO oxidation. Moreover, the annealing-induced changes in catalytic activity are correlated with concurrent morphology and phase changes as provided by cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy.

  6. Quantitative Phase Composition of TiO2-Coated Nanoporous-Au Monoliths by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy and Correlations to Catalytic

    DOE PAGES

    Bagge-Hansen, Michael; Wichmann, Andre; Wittstock, Arne; Lee, Jonathan R. I.; Ye, Jianchao; Willey, Trevor M.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; van Buuren, Tony; Biener, Juergen; Baumer, Marcus; et al

    2014-02-03

    Porous titania/metal composite materials have many potential applications in the fields of green catalysis, energy harvesting, and storage in which both the overall morphology of the nanoporous host material and the crystallographic phase of the titania (TiO 2) guest determine the material’s performance. New insights into the structure–function relationships of these materials were obtained by near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy that, for example, provides quantitative crystallographic phase composition from ultrathin, nanostructured titania films, including sensitivity to amorphous components. We demonstrate that crystallographic phase, morphology, and catalytic activity of TiO 2-functionalized nanoporous gold (np-Au) can be controlled by amore » simple annealing procedure (T < 1300 K). The material was prepared by atomic layer deposition of ~2 nm thick TiO2 on millimeter-sized samples of np-Au (40–50 nm mean ligament size) and catalytically investigated with respect to aerobic CO oxidation. Moreover, the annealing-induced changes in catalytic activity are correlated with concurrent morphology and phase changes as provided by cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy.« less

  7. X-ray absorption spectroscopy as a tool investigating arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) sorption by an aluminum-based drinking-water treatment residual.

    PubMed

    Makris, Konstantinos C; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Parsons, Jason G; Datta, Rupali; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2009-11-15

    Historic applications of arsenical pesticides to agricultural land have resulted in accumulation of residual arsenic (As) in such soils. In situ immobilization represents a cost-effective and least ecological disrupting treatment technology for soil As. Earlier work in our laboratory showed that drinking-water treatment residuals (WTRs), a low-cost, waste by-product of the drinking-water treatment process exhibit a high affinity for As. Wet chemical experiments (sorption kinetics and desorption) were coupled with X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements to elucidate the bonding strength and type of As(V) and As(III) sorption by an aluminum-based WTR. A fast (1h), followed by a slower sorption stage resulted in As(V) and As(III) sorption capacities of 96% and 77%, respectively. Arsenic desorption with a 5mM oxalate from the WTR was minimal, being always <4%. X-ray absorption spectroscopy data showed inner-sphere complexation between As and surface hydroxyls. Reaction time (up to 48h) had no effect on the initial As oxidation state for sorbed As(V) and As(III). A combination of inner-sphere bonding types occurred between As and Al on the WTR surface because mixed surface geometries and interatomic distances were observed.

  8. Following ORR intermediates adsorbed on a Pt cathode catalyst during break-in of a PEM fuel cell by in operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ramaker, D E; Korovina, A; Croze, V; Melke, J; Roth, C

    2014-07-21

    In operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy data using the Δμ X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES) analysis procedure is used to follow the ORR intermediate adsorbate coverage on a working catalyst in a PEMFC during initial activation and break-in. The adsorbate coverage and log i (Tafel) curves reveal a strong correlation, i.e., an increase in adsorbate intermediate coverage poisons Pt sites thereby decreasing the current. A decrease in Pt-O bond strength commensurate with decrease in potential causes a sequence of different dominant adsorbate volcano curves to exist, namely first O, then OH, and then OOH exactly as predicted by the different ORR kinetics mechanisms. During break-in, the incipient O coverage coming from exposure to air during storage and MEA preparation is rather quickly removed, compared to the slower and more subtle nanoparticle morphological changes, such as the rounding of the Pt nanoparticle edges/corners and smoothing of the planar surfaces, driven by the nanoparticle's tendency to lower its surface energy. These morphological changes increase the Pt-Pt average coordination number, decrease the average Pt-O bond strength, and thereby decrease the coverage of ORR intermediates, allowing increase in the current.

  9. La-doping effect on spin-orbit coupled Sr2IrO4 probed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jie; Sun, Xuanyong; Liu, Shengli; Li, Bin; Wang, Haiyun; Dong, Peng; Wang, Yu; Xu, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Sr2IrO4 was predicted to be an unconventional superconductor upon carrier doping since it highly resembles the high-temperature cuprates. Here, to understand carrier doping effect on spin-orbit coupled Mott insulator Sr2IrO4, the electronic structure and local structure distortion for Sr2 - x La x IrO4 system have been investigated by x-ray absorption spectroscopy. By comparing the intensity of white-line features at the Ir L 2,3 absorption edges, we observe remarkably large branching ratios in La-doped compounds, greater than that of the parent material Sr2IrO4, suggesting a strong spin-orbit interaction for Sr2IrO4-based system. Moreover, extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectra demonstrate more regular IrO6 octahedra, i.e. the weakened crystal electric field versus La-doping. By theoretical calculations, the synergistic effect of regular IrO6 octahedra and electron doping is established, which accounts for the transition from a Mott insulator to a conductive state in Sr2 - x La x IrO4-based system.

  10. La-doping effect on spin–orbit coupled Sr2IrO4 probed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jie; Sun, Xuanyong; Liu, Shengli; Li, Bin; Wang, Haiyun; Dong, Peng; Wang, Yu; Xu, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Sr2IrO4 was predicted to be an unconventional superconductor upon carrier doping since it highly resembles the high-temperature cuprates. Here, to understand carrier doping effect on spin–orbit coupled Mott insulator Sr2IrO4, the electronic structure and local structure distortion for Sr2 ‑ x La x IrO4 system have been investigated by x-ray absorption spectroscopy. By comparing the intensity of white-line features at the Ir L 2,3 absorption edges, we observe remarkably large branching ratios in La-doped compounds, greater than that of the parent material Sr2IrO4, suggesting a strong spin-orbit interaction for Sr2IrO4-based system. Moreover, extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectra demonstrate more regular IrO6 octahedra, i.e. the weakened crystal electric field versus La-doping. By theoretical calculations, the synergistic effect of regular IrO6 octahedra and electron doping is established, which accounts for the transition from a Mott insulator to a conductive state in Sr2 ‑ x La x IrO4-based system.

  11. X-Ray Weak Broad-Line Quasars: Absorption or Intrinsic X-Ray Weakness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risaliti, Guido; Mushotzky, Richard F. (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    XMM observations of X-ray weak quasars have been performed during 2003. The data for all but the last observation are now available (there has been a delay of several months on the initial schedule, due to high background flares which contaminated the observations: as a consequence, most of them had to be rescheduled). We have reduced and analyzed these data, and obtained interesting preliminary scientific results. Out of the eight sources, 4 are confirmed to be extrimely X-ray weak, in agreement with the results of previous Chandra observations. 3 sources are confirmed to be highly variable both in flux (by factors 20-50) and in spectral properties (dramatic changes in spectral index). For both these groups of objects, an article is in preparation. Preliminary results have been presented at an international workshop on AGN surveys in December 2003, in Cozumel (Mexico). In order to further understand the nature of these X-ray weak quasars, we submitted proposals for spectroscopy at optical and infrared telescopes. We obtained time at the TNG 4 meter telescope for near-IR observations, and at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope for optical high-resolution spectroscopy. These observations will be performed in early 2004, and will complement the XMM data, in order to understand whether the X-ray weakness of these sources is an intrinsic property or is due to absorption by circumnuclear material.

  12. In-situ X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) Investigation of a Bifunctional Manganese Oxide Catalyst with High Activity for Electrochemical Water Oxidation and Oxygen Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Benck, Jesse D.; Gul, Sheraz; Webb, Samuel M.; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Yano, Junko; Jaramillo, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    In-situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a powerful technique that can be applied to electrochemical systems, with the ability to elucidate the chemical nature of electrocatalysts under reaction conditions. In this study, we perform in-situ XAS measurements on a bifunctional manganese oxide (MnOx) catalyst with high electrochemical activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Using x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), we find that exposure to an ORR-relevant potential of 0.7 V vs. RHE produces a disordered Mn3II,III,IIIO4 phase with negligible contributions from other phases. After the potential is increased to a highly anodic value of 1.8 V vs. RHE, relevant to the OER, we observe an oxidation of approximately 80% of the catalytic thin film to form a mixed MnIII,IV oxide, while the remaining 20% of the film consists of a less oxidized phase, likely corresponding to unchanged Mn3II,III,IIIO4. XAS and electrochemical characterization of two thin film catalysts with different MnOx thicknesses reveals no significant influence of thickness on the measured oxidation states, at either ORR or OER potentials, but demonstrates that the OER activity scales with film thickness. This result suggests that the films have porous structure, which does not restrict electrocatalysis to the top geometric layer of the film. As the portion of the catalyst film that is most likely to be oxidized at the high potentials necessary for the OER is that which is closest to the electrolyte interface, we hypothesize that the MnIII,IV oxide, rather than Mn3II,III,IIIO4, is the phase pertinent to the observed OER activity. PMID:23758050

  13. Nickel Sorption to Bacteriogenic Manganese Oxides: Insights from X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena, J.; Kwon, K.; Refson, K.; Bargar, J. R.; Sposito, G.

    2008-12-01

    Bacteriogenic Mn oxides are ubiquitous, highly reactive minerals with a remarkable capacity to scavenge metals due to their nanoparticulate dimensions and abundant structural defects. These minerals are commonly deposited in a matrix of bacterial cells and extracellular polymeric substances, forming geosymbiotic systems whose reactivity with contaminant metals is not fully characterized. In the current study, a synergistic experimental-computational approach was used to study the mechanism of Ni adsorption at varying loadings and at pH 6-8 using the Mn oxide produced by Pseudomonas putida GB-1. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra showed two dominant coordination environments: Ni bound as a triple corner sharing (TCS) complex at octahedral vacancy sites and Ni incorporated into the octahedral sheet. The proportion of adsorbed and incorporated Ni varied as a function of surface coverage and pH, with the latter form of Ni being favored at higher loadings and decreased proton activity. These two coordination environments, although consistent with data published for Ni sorbed by synthetic MnO2(s), did not describe fully all of our EXAFS spectra, leading us to consider the binding of Ni at particle edges or via a non-specific sorption mechanism. In parallel to the spectral analysis, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to test different adsorbate-adsorbent configurations and the pH dependence of the adsorption mechanism. Geometry optimized structures for Ni sorbed above vacancies (i.e., TCS) or incorporated into the Mn oxide structure were in excellent agreement with corresponding structural parameters obtained from EXAFS analysis. The calculated energy barriers for the transition from adsorbed TCS to incorporated Ni were consistent with the hypothesis that the TCS complex is a precursor for Ni incorporation and that incorporation is favored by decreased proton activity. The combined perspectives obtained from these two

  14. A Polarization Propagator for Nonlinear X-ray Spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Fahleson, Tobias; Ågren, Hans; Norman, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    A complex polarization propagator approach has been developed to third order and implemented in density functional theory (DFT), allowing for the direct calculation of nonlinear molecular properties in the X-ray wavelength regime without explicitly addressing the excited-state manifold. We demonstrate the utility of this propagator method for the modeling of coherent near-edge X-ray two-photon absorption using, as an example, DFT as the underlying electronic structure model. Results are compared with the corresponding near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectra, illuminating the differences in the role of symmetry, localization, and correlation between the two spectroscopies. The ramifications of this new technique for nonlinear X-ray research are briefly discussed. PMID:27159130

  15. Material/element-dependent fluorescence-yield modes on soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy of cathode materials for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakura, Daisuke; Hosono, Eiji; Nanba, Yusuke; Zhou, Haoshen; Okabayashi, Jun; Ban, Chunmei; Glans, Per-Anders; Guo, Jinghua; Mizokawa, Takashi; Chen, Gang; Achkar, Andrew J.; Hawthron, David G.; Regier, Thomas Z.; Wadati, Hiroki

    2016-03-01

    We evaluate the utilities of fluorescence-yield (FY) modes in soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of several cathode materials for Li-ion batteries. In the case of total-FY (TFY) XAS for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, the line shape of the Mn L3-edge XAS was largely distorted by the self-absorption and saturation effects, while the distortions were less pronounced at the Ni L3 edge. The distortions were suppressed for the inverse-partial-FY (IPFY) spectra. We found that, in the cathode materials, the IPFY XAS is highly effective for the Cr, Mn, and Fe L edges and the TFY and PFY modes are useful enough for the Ni L edge which is far from the O K edge.

  16. Femtosecond laser-induced modification of potassium-magnesium silicate glasses: An analysis of structural changes by near edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Seuthe, T.; Eberstein, M.; Hoefner, M.; Eichler, H. J.; Grehn, M.; Reinhardt, F.; Tsai, W. J.; Bonse, J.

    2012-05-28

    The effects of femtosecond laser pulse irradiation on the glass structure of alkaline silicate glasses were investigated by x-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy using the beamline of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt at the electron synchrotron BESSY II in Berlin (Germany) by analyzing the magnesium K-edge absorption peak for different laser fluences. The application of fluences above the material modification threshold (2.1 J/cm{sup 2}) leads to a characteristic shift of {approx}1.0 eV in the K-edge revealing a reduced ({approx}3%) mean magnesium bond length to the ligated oxygen ions (Mg-O) along with a reduced average coordination number of the Mg ions.

  17. Dynamical Study of Femtosecond-Laser-Ablated Liquid-Aluminum Nanoparticles Using Spatiotemporally Resolved X-Ray-Absorption Fine-Structure Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Oguri, Katsuya; Okano, Yasuaki; Nishikawa, Tadashi; Nakano, Hidetoshi

    2007-10-19

    We study the temperature evolution of aluminum nanoparticles generated by femtosecond laser ablation with spatiotemporally resolved x-ray-absorption fine-structure spectroscopy. We successfully identify the nanoparticles based on the L-edge absorption fine structure of the ablation plume in combination with the dependence of the edge structure on the irradiation intensity and the expansion velocity of the plume. In particular, we show that the lattice temperature of the nanoparticles is estimated from the L-edge slope, and that its spatial dependence reflects the cooling of the nanoparticles during plume expansion. The results reveal that the emitted nanoparticles travel in a vacuum as a condensed liquid phase with a lattice temperature of about 2500 to 4200 K in the early stage of plume expansion.

  18. Evidence of CuI/CuII Redox Process by X-ray Absorption and EPR Spectroscopy: Direct Synthesis of Dihydrofurans from b-Ketocarbonyl Derivatives and Olefins

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Hong; Liao, Zhixiong; Zhang, Guanghui; Zhang, Guoting; Fan, Chao; Zhang, Xu; Bunel, Emilio E.; Pao, Chih-Wen; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Lei, Aiwen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: The CuI/CuII and CuI/CuIII catalytic cycles have been subject to intense debate in the field of copper-catalyzed oxidative coupling reactions. A mechanistic study on the CuI/CuII redox process, by X-ray absorption (XAS) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies, has elucidated the reduction mechanism of CuII to CuI by 1,3-diketone and detailed investigation revealed that the halide ion is important for the reduction process. The oxidative nature of the thereby-formed CuI has also been studied by XAS and EPR spectroscopy. This mechanistic information is applicable to the copper-catalyzed oxidative cyclization of b-ketocarbonyl derivatives to dihydrofurans. This protocol provides an ideal route to highly substituted dihydrofuran rings from easily available 1,3-dicarbonyls and olefins. Copper

  19. Soft-x-ray spectroscopy study of nanoscale materials

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, J.-H.

    2005-07-30

    The ability to control the particle size and morphology of nanoparticles is of crucial importance nowadays both from a fundamental and industrial point of view considering the tremendous amount of high-tech applications. Controlling the crystallographic structure and the arrangement of atoms along the surface of nanostructured material will determine most of its physical properties. In general, electronic structure ultimately determines the properties of matter. Soft X-ray spectroscopy has some basic features that are important to consider. X-ray is originating from an electronic transition between a localized core state and a valence state. As a core state is involved, elemental selectivity is obtained because the core levels of different elements are well separated in energy, meaning that the involvement of the inner level makes this probe localized to one specific atomic site around which the electronic structure is reflected as a partial density-of-states contribution. The participation of valence electrons gives the method chemical state sensitivity and further, the dipole nature of the transitions gives particular symmetry information. The new generation synchrotron radiation sources producing intensive tunable monochromatized soft X-ray beams have opened up new possibilities for soft X-ray spectroscopy. The introduction of selectively excited soft X-ray emission has opened a new field of study by disclosing many new possibilities of soft X-ray resonant inelastic scattering. In this paper, some recent findings regarding soft X-ray absorption and emission studies of various nanostructured systems are presented.

  20. Copper doped TiO2 nanoparticles characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy, total scattering, and powder diffraction – a benchmark structure–property study

    SciTech Connect

    Lock, Nina; Jensen, Ellen M. L.; Mi, Jianli; Mamakhel, Aref; Norén, Katarina; Qingbo, Meng; Iversen, Bo B.

    2013-01-01

    Metal functionalized nanoparticles potentially have improved properties e.g. in catalytic applications, but their precise structures are often very challenging to determine. Here we report a structural benchmark study based on tetragonal anatase TiO2 nanoparticles containing 0–2 wt% copper. The particles were synthesized by continuous flow synthesis under supercritical water–isopropanol conditions. Size determination using synchrotron PXRD, TEM, and X-ray total scattering reveals 5–7 nm monodisperse particles. The precise dopant structure and thermal stability of the highly crystalline powders were characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and multi-temperature synchrotron PXRD (300–1000 K). The combined evidence reveals that copper is present as a dopant on the particle surfaces, most likely in an amorphous oxide or hydroxide shell. UV-VIS spectroscopy shows that copper presence at concentrations higher than 0.3 wt% lowers the band gap energy. The particles are unaffected by heating to 600 K, while growth and partial transformation to rutile TiO2 occur at higher temperatures. Anisotropic unit cell behavior of anatase is observed as a consequence of the particle growth (a decreases and c increases).

  1. Electronic structure of phospho-olivines LixFePO4 (x=0,1) fromsoft-x-ray-absorption and -emission spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect

    Augustsson, A.; Zhuang, G.V.; Butorin, S.M.; Osorio-Guillen,J.M.; Dong, C.L.; Ahuja, R.; Chang, C.L.; Ross, P.N.; Nordgren, J.; Guo,J.-H.

    2005-07-17

    The electronic structure of the phospho-olivine LixFePO4 wasstudied using soft-x-ray-absorption (XAS) and emission spectroscopies.Characteristic changes in the valence and conduction bands are observedupon delithation of LiFePO4 into FePO4. In LiFePO4, the Fe-3d states arelocalized with little overlap with the O-2p states. Delithiation ofLiFePO4 gives stronger hybridization between Fe-3d states and O-2p statesleading to delocalization of the O-2p states. The Fe L-edge absorptionspectra yield "fingerprints" of the different valence states of Fe inLiFePO4 and FePO4. Resonant soft-x-ray-emission spectroscopy at the Fe Ledge shows strong contributions from resonant inelastic soft x-rayscattering (RIXS), which is described using an ionic picture of the Fe-3dstates. Together the Fe L-edge XAS and RIXS study reveals a bondingcharacter of the Fe 3d-O2p orbitals in FePO4 in contrast to a nonbondingcharacter in LiFePO4.

  2. The oxidation state of sulfur in synthetic and natural glasses determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Métrich, Nicole; Berry, Andrew J.; O'Neill, Hugh St. C.; Susini, Jean

    2009-04-01

    Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra were recorded for experimental glasses of various compositions prepared at different oxygen fugacities ( fO 2) in one-atmosphere gas-mixing experiments at 1400 °C. This sample preparation method only results in measurable S concentrations under either relatively reduced (log fO 2 < -9) or oxidised (log fO 2 > -2) conditions. The XANES spectra of the reduced samples are characterised by an absorption edge crest at 2476.4 eV, typical of S 2-. In addition, spectra of Fe-bearing compositions exhibit a pronounced absorption edge shoulder. Spectra for all the Fe-free samples are essentially identical, as are the spectra for the Fe-bearing compositions, despite significant compositional variability within each group. The presence of a sulfide phase, such as might exsolve on cooling, can be inferred from a pre-edge feature at 2470.5 eV. The XANES spectra of the oxidised samples are characterised by an intense transition at 2482.1 eV, typical of the sulfate anion SO 42-. Sulfite (SO 32-) has negligible solubility in silicate melts at low pressures. The previous identification of sulfite species in natural glass samples is attributed to an artefact of the analysis (photoreduction of S 6+). S 4+ does, however, occur unambiguously with S 6+ in Fe-free and Fe-poor compositions prepared in equilibrium with CaSO 4 at 4-16 kbar, and when buffered with Re/ReO 2 at 10 kbar. Solubility of S 4+ thus requires partial pressures of SO 2 considerably in excess of 1 bar. A number of experiments were undertaken in an attempt to access intermediate fO 2s more applicable to terrestrial volcanism. Although these were largely unsuccessful, S 2- and S 6+ were found to coexist in some samples that were not in equilibrium with the imposed fO 2. The XANES spectra of natural olivine-hosted melt inclusions and submarine glasses representative of basalts at, or close to, sulfide saturation show mainly dissolved S 2-, but with minor

  3. Structure of Hydrated Zn2+ at the Rutile TiO2 (110)-Aqueous Solution Interface: Comparison of X-ray Standing Wave, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy, and Density Functional Theory Results

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhan; Fenter, Paul; Kelly, Shelly D; Catalano, Jeffery G.; Bandura, Andrei V.; Kubicki, James D.; Sofo, Jorge O.; Wesolowski, David J; Machesky, Michael L.; Sturchio, N. C.; Bedzyk, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Adsorption of Zn{sup 2+} at the rutile TiO{sub 2} (110)-aqueous interface was studied with Bragg-reflection X-ray standing waves (XSW), polarization-dependent surface extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations to understand the interrelated issues of adsorption site, its occupancy, ion-oxygen coordination and hydrolysis. At pH 8, Zn{sup 2+} was found to adsorb as an inner-sphere complex at two different sites, i.e., monodentate above the bridging O site and bidentate between two neighboring terminal O sites. EXAFS results directly revealed a four or fivefold first shell coordination environment for adsorbed Zn{sup 2+} instead of the sixfold coordination found for aqueous species at this pH. DFT calculations confirmed the energetic stability of a lower coordination environment for the adsorbed species and revealed that the change to this coordination environment is correlated with the hydrolysis of adsorbed Zn{sup 2+}. In addition, the derived adsorption locations and the occupancy factors of both sites from three methods agree well, with some quantitative discrepancies in the minor site location among the XSW, EXAFS, and DFT methods. Additional XSW measurements showed that the adsorption sites of Zn{sup 2+} were unchanged at pH 6. However, the Zn{sup 2+} partitioning between the two sites changed substantially, with an almost equal distribution between the two types of sites at pH 6 compared to predominantly monodentate occupation at pH 8.

  4. Quick-EXAFS setup at the SuperXAS beamline for in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy with 10 ms time resolution

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Oliver; Nachtegaal, Maarten; Just, Justus; Lützenkirchen-Hecht, Dirk; Frahm, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    The quick-EXAFS (QEXAFS) method adds time resolution to X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and allows dynamic structural changes to be followed. A completely new QEXAFS setup consisting of monochromator, detectors and data acquisition system is presented, as installed at the SuperXAS bending-magnet beamline at the Swiss Light Source (Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland). The monochromator uses Si(111) and Si(311) channel-cut crystals mounted on one crystal stage, and remote exchange allows an energy range from 4.0 keV to 32 keV to be covered. The spectral scan range can be electronically adjusted up to several keV to cover multiple absorption edges in one scan. The determination of the Bragg angle close to the position of the crystals allows high-accuracy measurements. Absorption spectra can be acquired with fast gridded ionization chambers at oscillation frequencies of up to 50 Hz resulting in a time resolution of 10 ms, using both scan directions of each oscillation period. The carefully developed low-noise detector system yields high-quality absorption data. The unique setup allows both state-of-the-art QEXAFS and stable step-scan operation without the need to exchange whole monochromators. The long-term stability of the Bragg angle was investigated and absorption spectra of reference materials as well as of a fast chemical reaction demonstrate the overall capabilities of the new setup. PMID:26698072

  5. X-Ray Spectroscopy of Gold Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahar, Sultana N.; Montenegro, M.; Pradhan, A. K.; Pitzer, R.

    2009-06-01

    Inner shell transitions, such as 1s-2p, in heavy elements can absorb or produce hard X-rays, and hence are widely used in nanoparticles. Bio-medical research for cancer treatment has been using heavy element nanoparticles, embeded in malignant tumor, for efficient absorption of irradiated X-rays and leading emission of hard X-rays and energetic electrons to kill the surrounding cells. Ejection of a 1s electron during ionization of the element by absorption of a X-ray photon initiates the Auger cascades of emission of photons and electrons. We have investigated gold nanoparticles for the optimal energy range, below the K-edge (1s) ionization threshold, that corresponds to resonant absorption of X-rays with large attenuation coefficients, orders of magnitude higher over the background as well as to that at K-edge threshold. We applied these attenuation coefficients in Monte Carlo simulation to study the intensities of emission of photons and electrons by Auger cascades. The numerical experiments were carried out in a phantom of water cube with a thin layer, 0.1mm/g, of gold nanoparticles 10 cm inside from the surface using the well-known code Geant4. We will present results on photon and electron emission spectra from passing monochromatic X-ray beams at 67 keV, which is the resonant energy for resonant K_{α} lines, at 82 keV, the K-shell ionization threshold, and at 2 MeV where the resonant effect is non-existent. Our findings show a high peak in the gold nanoparticle absorption curve indicating complete absorption of radiation within the gold layer. The photon and electron emission spectra show resonant features. Acknowledgement: Partially supported by a Large Interdisciplinary Grant award of the Ohio State University and NASA APRA program (SNN). The computational work was carried out on the Cray X1 and Itanium 4 cluster at the Ohio Supercomputer Center, Columbus Ohio. "Resonant X-ray Irradiation of High-Z Nanoparticles For Cancer Theranostics" (refereed

  6. Mechanism of selenite removal by a mixed adsorbent based on Fe-Mn hydrous oxides studied using X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chubar, Natalia; Gerda, Vasyl; Szlachta, Małgorzata

    2014-11-18

    Selenium cycling in the environment is greatly controlled by various minerals, including Mn and Fe hydrous oxides. At the same time, such hydrous oxides are the main inorganic ion exchangers suitable (on the basis of their chemical nature) to sorb (toxic) anions, separating them from water solutions. The mechanism of selenite adsorption by the new mixed adsorbent composed of a few (amorphous and crystalline) phases [maghemite, MnCO3, and X-ray amorphous Fe(III) and Mn(III) hydrous oxides] was studied by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy [supported by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) data]. The complexity of the porous adsorbent, especially the presence of the amorphous phases of Fe(III) and Mn(III) hydrous oxides, is the main reason for its high selenite removal performance demonstrated by batch and column adsorption studies shown in the previous work. Selenite was bound to the material via inner-sphere complexation (via oxygen) to the adsorption sites of the amorphous Fe(III) and Mn(III) oxides. This anion was attracted via bidentate binuclear corner-sharing coordination between SeO3(2-) trigonal pyramids and both FeO6 and MnO6 octahedra; however, the adsorption sites of Fe(III) hydrous oxides played a leading role in selenite removal. The contribution of the adsorption sites of Mn(III) oxide increased as the pH decreased from 8 to 6. Because most minerals have a complex structure (they are seldom based on individual substances) of various crystallinity, this work is equally relevant to environmental science and environmental technology because it shows how various solid phases control cycling of chemical elements in the environment.

  7. Mn k-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies of La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3}.

    SciTech Connect

    Mini, S. M.; Mitchell, J.; Hinks, D. G.; Alatas, A.; Rosenmann, D.; Kimball, C. W.; Montano, P. A.

    1998-03-06

    Systematic Mn K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements on samples of La{sub 1{minus}x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3}, which are precursors to colossal magnetoresistive (CMR) materials, are reported. Detailed results on the edge or chemical shift as a function of Sr concentration (hole doping) and sample preparation (air vs oxygen annealed), are discussed. For comparison, a systematic XANES study of the Mn K-edge energy shift, denoting valence change in Mn, has been made in standard manganese oxide systems. Contrary to expectations, the variation in near-edge energies for Mn in La{sub 0.725}Sr{sub 0.275}MnO{sub 3} were small when compared to the difference between that for manganese oxide standards of nominal valence of +3 and +4 (Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MnO{sub 2}).

  8. Formation of Copper Catalysts for CO2 Reduction with High Ethylene/Methane Product Ratio Investigated with In Situ X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Eilert, André; Roberts, F Sloan; Friebel, Daniel; Nilsson, Anders

    2016-04-21

    Nanostructured copper cathodes are among the most efficient and selective catalysts to date for making multicarbon products from the electrochemical carbon dioxide reduction reaction (CO2RR). We report an in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation of the formation of a copper nanocube CO2RR catalyst with high activity that highly favors ethylene over methane production. The results show that the precursor for the copper nanocube formation is copper(I)-oxide, not copper(I)-chloride as previously assumed. A second route to an electrochemically similar material via a copper(II)-carbonate/hydroxide is also reported. This study highlights the importance of using oxidized copper precursors for constructing selective CO2 reduction catalysts and shows the precursor oxidation state does not affect the electrocatalyst selectivity toward ethylene formation. PMID:27045045

  9. The α → ω phase transformation in zirconium followed with ms-scale time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewaele, A.; André, R.; Occelli, F.; Mathon, O.; Pascarelli, S.; Irifune, T.; Loubeyre, P.

    2016-07-01

    The conditions of the pressure-induced ? phase transformation in zirconium have been reported to be influenced by the sample purity, the pressurizing conditions, and the deformation rate. Here, we study this transformation using a dynamic diamond-anvil cell compression setup and ms-scale time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The sample pressure is also monitored at the same timescale using the ruby luminescence method. For the samples used in this study (polycrystal of 99.9+ purity, hydrostatically compressed in neon pressure transmitting medium), the phase transformation pressure is very close in static (11 GPa) and in dynamic (12±1 GPa) compression and the transformation is achieved in less than a few ms at 12 GPa. Comparison with literature studies suggest that the kinetics and the mechanism of this martensitic phase transformation are different under hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic compression.

  10. Cu(II)-Zn(II) Cross-Modulation in Amyloid-Beta Peptide Binding: an X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    De Santis, Emiliano; Minicozzi, Velia; Proux, Olivier; Rossi, Giancarlo; Silva, K. Ishara; Lawless, Matthew J.; Stellato, Francesco; Saxena, Sunil; Morante, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    In this work we analyze at a structural level the mechanism by which Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions compete for binding to the Aβ peptides that is involved in the etiology of Alzheimer’s disease. We collected X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy data on samples containing Aβ with Cu and Zn at different concentration ratios. We show that the order in which metals are added to the peptide solution matters and that, when Zn is added first, it prevents Cu from binding. On the contrary, when Cu is added first, it does not (completely) prevent Zn binding to Aβ peptides. Our analysis suggests that Cu and Zn ions are coordinated to different numbers of histidine residues depending on the [ion]:[peptide] concentration ratio. PMID:26646533

  11. In situ characterization of liquid network structures at high pressure and temperature using X-ray absorption spectroscopy coupled with the Paris-Edinburgh press

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, A. D.; Pohlenz, J.; de Grouchy, C.; Cochain, B.; Kono, Y.; Pasternak, S.; Mathon, O.; Irifune, T.; Wilke, M.

    2016-07-01

    We review recent progress in studying structural properties of liquids using X-ray absorption spectroscopy coupled with the Paris-Edinburgh press at third-generation synchrotron facilities. This experimental method allows for detecting subtle changes in atomic arrangements of melts over a wide pressure-temperature range. It has been also employed to monitor variations of the local coordination environment of diluted species contained in glasses, liquids and crystalline phases as a function of the pressure and temperature. Such information is of great importance for gaining deeper insights into the physico-chemical properties of liquids at extreme condition, including the understanding of such phenomena as liquid-liquid phase transitions, viscosity drops and various transport properties of geological melts. Here, we describe the experimental approach and discuss its potential in structural characterization on selected scientific highlights. Finally, the current ongoing instrumental developments and future scientific opportunities are discussed.

  12. Effect of silica capping on the oxidation of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in dispersion revealed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warland, A.; Antoniak, C.; Darbandi, M.; Weis, C.; Landers, J.; Keune, W.; Wende, H.

    2012-06-01

    Fe3O4 nanoparticles have been investigated as they are biocompatible and their surface can be functionalized. We synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles using a water-in-oil microemulsion method. Bare and silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles of a core size of 6 nm dispersed in ethanol have been investigated by means of x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Due to a dedicated experimental setup the particles can be measured directly in dispersion. XAS allows us to disentangle the contributions of the Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions and therefore to estimate the amount of Fe3O4 in the particles. In case of the silica coated particles a high amount of magnetite was obtained. In contrast, the bare nanoparticles showed indications of a further oxidation into γ-Fe2O3 even in dispersion.

  13. Cation distribution in Ni{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, A. K. Jha, S. N.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Sahoo, N. K.; Jadhav, J.; Biswas, S.

    2014-04-24

    Spinel ferrite samples of Ni{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (for x=0.2, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6 and 0.8) nanoparticles prepared by a novel chemical synthesis method have been characterized by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) technique to investigate the distribution of cations in the unit cell. XANES region clearly shows that as Ni concentration increases, the pre-edge feature, which is a characteristic of tetrahedral coordination of Fe, is enhanced. A quantitative determination of the relative occupancy of iron cation in the octahedral and tetrahedral sites of the spinel structure was obtained from EXAFS data analysis. It has been found that as atomic fraction of Ni is increased from 0.2 to 0.8, Fe occupancy at tetrahedral to octahedral sites is increased from 13:87 and to 39:61.

  14. The apparent absence of chemical sensitivity in the 4d and 5d X-ray absorption spectroscopy of uranium compounds

    DOE PAGES

    Tobin, J. G.

    2013-05-03

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and related derivative measurements have been used to demonstrate that the Pu 5f states are strongly relativistic and have a 5f occupation number near 5. Owing to the success in this regime, it has been argued that the XAS measurements should be a powerful tool to probe 5f occupation variation, both as a function of elemental nature (actinide atomic number) and as a function of physical and chemical perturbation, e.g., oxidation state. We show that XAS and its related measurements fail in this latter aspect for a wide variety of uranium compounds and materials. Possible causesmore » will be discussed.« less

  15. Local atomic structure analysis of SiC interface with oxide using chemical-state-selective X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isomura, Noritake; Murai, Takaaki; Oji, Hiroshi; Nomoto, Toyokazu; Watanabe, Yukihiko; Kimoto, Yasuji

    2016-10-01

    A local atomic structure analysis of the interface between chemical vapor-deposited SiO2 and 4H-SiC was achieved via a combination of chemical-state-selective X-ray absorption spectroscopy and the use of a sample with a very thin oxide film. The Si K-edge spectrum, which monitors the SiC-assigned Auger peak, allows the SiC side of the SiO2/SiC interface to be selectively measured through the SiO2 film. We estimate the coordination number of the first nearest neighbor to be reduced by 17% with respect to the SiC bulk. This suggests that C vacancy defects exist at the SiC side of the interface.

  16. Activation and deactivation of a robust immobilized Cp*Ir-transfer hydrogenation catalyst: a multielement in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Sherborne, Grant J; Chapman, Michael R; Blacker, A John; Bourne, Richard A; Chamberlain, Thomas W; Crossley, Benjamin D; Lucas, Stephanie J; McGowan, Patrick C; Newton, Mark A; Screen, Thomas E O; Thompson, Paul; Willans, Charlotte E; Nguyen, Bao N

    2015-04-01

    A highly robust immobilized [Cp*IrCl2]2 precatalyst on Wang resin for transfer hydrogenation, which can be recycled up to 30 times, was studied using a novel combination of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at Ir L3-edge, Cl K-edge, and K K-edge. These culminate in in situ XAS experiments that link structural changes of the Ir complex with its catalytic activity and its deactivation. Mercury poisoning and "hot filtration" experiments ruled out leached Ir as the active catalyst. Spectroscopic evidence indicates the exchange of one chloride ligand with an alkoxide to generate the active precatalyst. The exchange of the second chloride ligand, however, leads to a potassium alkoxide-iridate species as the deactivated form of this immobilized catalyst. These findings could be widely applicable to the many homogeneous transfer hydrogenation catalysts with Cp*IrCl substructure.

  17. Transmission and fluorescence X-ray absorption spectroscopy cell/flow reactor for powder samples under vacuum or in reactive atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, A. S.; Debefve, L. M.; Bendjeriou-Sedjerari, A.; Ouldchikh, S.; Bare, Simon R.; Basset, J.-M.; Gates, B. C.

    2016-07-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy is an element-specific technique for probing the local atomic-scale environment around an absorber atom. It is widely used to investigate the structures of liquids and solids, being especially valuable for characterization of solid-supported catalysts. Reported cell designs are limited in capabilities—to fluorescence or transmission and to static or flowing atmospheres, or to vacuum. Our goal was to design a robust and widely applicable cell for catalyst characterizations under all these conditions—to allow tracking of changes during genesis and during operation, both under vacuum and in reactive atmospheres. Herein, we report the design of such a cell and a demonstration of its operation both with a sample under dynamic vacuum and in the presence of gases flowing at temperatures up to 300 °C, showing data obtained with both fluorescence and transmission detection. The cell allows more flexibility in catalyst characterization than any reported.

  18. Observation of femtosecond-laser-induced ablation plumes of aluminum using space- and time-resolved soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Okano, Yasuaki; Oguri, Katsuya; Nishikawa, Tadashi; Nakano, Hidetoshi

    2006-11-27

    The dynamics of the laser ablation plume expansion of aluminum was investigated by using space- and time-resolved soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy. Blueshifts of the Al L-shell photoabsorption edge indicating the state of aluminum were observed in the plumes, which were generated by irradiating an aluminum target with 120 fs near-infrared pulses at an intensity of 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}. The spatiotemporal evolution of the plumes exhibited a multilayer structure consisting of vaporized aluminum and condensed aluminum particles, following the expansion of plasma, with expansion velocities of 10{sup 4} m/s for the atomic state and 10{sup 3} m/s for the condensed state.

  19. Evidence for 5d-σ and 5d-π covalency in lanthanide sesquioxides from oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Altman, Alison B; Pacold, Joseph I; Wang, Jian; Lukens, Wayne W; Minasian, Stefan G

    2016-06-14

    The electronic structure in the complete series of stable lanthanide sesquioxides, Ln2O3 (Ln = La to Lu, except radioactive Pm), has been evaluated using oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with a scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM). The experimental results agree with recent synthetic, spectroscopic and theoretical investigations that provided evidence for 5d orbital involvement in lanthanide bonding, while confirming the traditional viewpoint that there is little Ln 4f and O 2p orbital mixing. However, the results also showed that changes in the energy and occupancy of the 4f orbitals can impact Ln 5d and O 2p mixing, leading to several different bonding modes for seemingly identical Ln2O3 structures. On moving from left to right in the periodic table, abrupt changes were observed for the energy and intensity of transitions associated with Ln 5d and O 2p antibonding states. These changes in peak intensity, which were directly related to the amounts of O 2p and Ln 5d mixing, were closely correlated to the well-established trends in the chemical accessibility of the 4f orbitals towards oxidation or reduction. The unique insight provided by the O K-edge XAS is discussed in the context of several recent theoretical and physical studies on trivalent lanthanide compounds.

  20. Evidence for 5d-σ and 5d-π covalency in lanthanide sesquioxides from oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Altman, Alison B; Pacold, Joseph I; Wang, Jian; Lukens, Wayne W; Minasian, Stefan G

    2016-06-14

    The electronic structure in the complete series of stable lanthanide sesquioxides, Ln2O3 (Ln = La to Lu, except radioactive Pm), has been evaluated using oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with a scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM). The experimental results agree with recent synthetic, spectroscopic and theoretical investigations that provided evidence for 5d orbital involvement in lanthanide bonding, while confirming the traditional viewpoint that there is little Ln 4f and O 2p orbital mixing. However, the results also showed that changes in the energy and occupancy of the 4f orbitals can impact Ln 5d and O 2p mixing, leading to several different bonding modes for seemingly identical Ln2O3 structures. On moving from left to right in the periodic table, abrupt changes were observed for the energy and intensity of transitions associated with Ln 5d and O 2p antibonding states. These changes in peak intensity, which were directly related to the amounts of O 2p and Ln 5d mixing, were closely correlated to the well-established trends in the chemical accessibility of the 4f orbitals towards oxidation or reduction. The unique insight provided by the O K-edge XAS is discussed in the context of several recent theoretical and physical studies on trivalent lanthanide compounds. PMID:26979662

  1. Lead is not off center in PbTe: the importance of r-space phase information in extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Keiber, T; Bridges, F; Sales, B C

    2013-08-30

    PbTe is a well-known thermoelectric material. Recent x-ray total scattering studies suggest that Pb moves off center along 100 in PbTe, by ∼0.2  Å at 300 K, producing a split Pb-Te pair distribution. We present an extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) study of PbTe (and Tl doped PbTe) to determine if Pb or Te is off center. EXAFS provides sensitive r- or k-space phase information which can differentiate between a split peak for the Pb-Te distribution (indicative of off-center Pb) and a thermally broadened peak. We find no evidence for a split peak for Pb-Te or Te-Pb. At 300 K, the vibration amplitude for Pb-Te (or Te-Pb) is large; this thermally induced disorder is indicative of weak bonds, and the large disorder is consistent with the low thermal conductivity at 300 K. We also find evidence of an anharmonic potential for the nearest Pb-Te bonds, consistent with the overall anharmonicity found for the phonon modes. This effect is modeled by a "skew" factor (C3) which significantly improves the fit of the Pb-Te and Te-Pb peaks for the high temperature EXAFS data; C3 becomes significant above approximately 150-200 K. The consequences of these results will be discussed.

  2. Origin of Ferromagnetism in Zn1-xCoxO Thin Films: Evidences Provided by Hard and Soft X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Shi-Bo; Cui, Ming-Qi; Qin, Xiu-Fang; Xu, Xiao-Hong; Xu, Wei; Zheng, Lei; Zhou, Jing; Liu, Li-Juan; Yang, Dong-Liang; Guo, Zhi-Ying

    2012-12-01

    Although dilute magnetic semiconductors have promising potentials in spintronics applications, the mechanism of their ferromagnetism remains ambiguous. The extensive theoretical models and exotic experimental evidences provide self-consistent but usually contradictory explanations on its either intrinsic or extrinsic origins. We find room temperature ferromagnetism in a series of Zn1-xCoxO (0.03 <= x <= 0.10) thin films prepared using magnetron co-sputtering method and treated with post-annealing at temperatures 350°C and 500°C. The origin of the ferromagnetism is investigated in terms of electronic structure combining hard x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at Zn and Co K-edge, and soft x-ray XAS at O K-edge and Co L2,3-edge. The full multiple scattering theory is employed to reinforce the interpretation of the XAS spectra, which concludes that full substitution of zinc by cobalt is responsible for the room temperature ferromagnetism due to the d states of cobalt within the framework of bound magnetic polaron. Moreover, the evidence of cobalt nanoclusters is detected at highly doped and annealed samples. The first principles calculation confirms the electronic structural evidences via the formation energy.

  3. An in situ study using anomalous wide angle X-ray scattering and X-ray absorption spectroscopy of the binary metal oxide catalytic system SnO2-ZnAI2O4 supported on alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revel, R.; Bazin, D.; Bouchet-Fabre, B.; Seigneurin, A.; Kihn, Y.

    2002-07-01

    A fine structural description of the local order around zinc and tin atoms of a binary metal oxide catalyst, namely SnO2-ZnAl2O4/AI2O3 which can be used as a DeNOx catalyst, is achieved through XAS (X-ray absorption Spectroscopy) and AWAXS (Anomalous wide angle X-ray scattering). The analysis of the data was supported by ab initio calculations based on the multiple scattering processes for the XAS spectroscopy and ab initio calculations based on the Debye equation in the case of anomalous scattering. We found that the tetrahedral sites occupied by the zinc atoms are not completely filled and that part of the zinc atoms are engaged in a SnO2 like structure. Also, it seems that most of the tin atoms are engaged in tin dioxide clusters. For the set of in situ XAS experiments done at the K Zn edge and K Sn edge, no significant modification of the interatomic distances around each of the two metals versus the reactive gases are measured. Taking into account the previous results obtained on the monoxide metal supported catalyst ZnAl2O4/Al2O3, we can assume thus that only a dramatic lack of occupancy on the metal site favours an incursion of light atoms in the network. This structural property can explain in return the expansion of the crystallographic cell as well as a significant increased of the Debye-Waller factor associated to zinc-zinc pairs. Une description détaillée de l'ordre local autour du zinc et de l'étain est effectuée sur un catalyseur SnO2-ZnAl2O4/AI2O3 par deux techniques spécifiques au rayonnement synchrotron, la spectroscopie d'absorption X et la diffraction anomale. Une attention particulière est portée sur l'analyse des données. En ce qui concerne la spectroscopie d'absorption X, celle-ci s'effectue par le biais de logiciels prenant en compte les processus de diffusion multiple du photoélectron. La simulation numérique des différentielles obtenues par soustraction des diagrammes de diffraction s'effectue à partir de l'équation de Debye en

  4. X-ray spectroscopy of manganese clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Grush, M.M. |

    1996-06-01

    Much of this thesis represents the groundwork necessary in order to probe Mn clusters more productively than with conventional Mn K-edge XAS and is presented in Part 1. Part 2 contains the application of x-ray techniques to Mn metalloproteins and includes a prognosis at the end of each chapter. Individual Mn oxidation states are more readily distinguishable in Mn L-edge spectra. An empirical mixed valence simulation routine for determining the average Mn oxidation state has been developed. The first Mn L-edge spectra of a metalloprotein were measured and interpreted. The energy of Mn K{beta} emission is strongly correlated with average Mn oxidation state. K{beta} results support oxidation states of Mn(III){sub 2}(IV){sub 2} for the S{sub 1} state of Photosystem II chemical chemically reduced preparations contain predominantly Mn(II). A strength and limitation of XAS is that it probes all of the species of a particular element in a sample. It would often be advantageous to selectively probe different forms of the same element. The first demonstration that chemical shifts in x-ray fluorescence energies can be used to obtain oxidation state-selective x-ray absorption spectra is presented. Spin-dependent spectra can also be used to obtain a more simplified picture of local structure. The first spin-polarized extended x-ray absorption fine structure using Mn K{beta} fluorescence detection is shown.

  5. Respective role of Fe and Mn oxide contents for arsenic sorption in iron and manganese binary oxide: an X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gaosheng; Liu, Fudong; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui; Liu, Ruiping

    2014-09-01

    In our previous studies, a synthesized Fe-Mn binary oxide was found to be very effective for both As(V) and As(III) removal in aqueous phase, because As(III) could be easily oxidized to As(V). As(III) oxidation and As(V) sorption by the Fe-Mn binary oxide may also play an important role in the natural cycling of As, because of its common occurrence in the environment. In the present study, the respective role of Fe and Mn contents present in the Fe-Mn binary oxide on As(III) removal was investigated via a direct in situ determination of arsenic speciation using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. X-ray absorption near edge structure results indicate that Mn atoms exist in a mixed valence state of +3 and +4 and further confirm that MnOx (1.5 < x < 2) content is mainly responsible for oxidizing As(III) to As(V) through a two-step pathway [reduction of Mn(IV) to Mn(III) and subsequent Mn(III) to Mn(II)] and FeOOH content is dominant for adsorbing the formed As(V). No significant As(III) oxidation by pure FeOOH had been observed during its sorption, when the system was exposed to air. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure results reveal that the As surface complex on both the As(V)- and As(III)-treated sample surfaces is an inner-sphere bidentate binuclear corner-sharing complex with an As-M (M = Fe or Mn) interatomic distance of 3.22-3.24 Å. In addition, the MnOx and FeOOH contents exist only as a mixture, and no solid solution is formed. Because of its high effectiveness, low cost, and environmental friendliness, the Fe-Mn binary oxide would play a beneficial role as both an efficient oxidant of As(III) and a sorbent for As(V) in drinking water treatment and environmental remediation.

  6. Precipitation of gold by the reaction of aqueous gold(III)-chloride with cyanobacteria at 25-80{degrees}C, studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    SciTech Connect

    Lengke, M. F.; Ravel, B.; Fleet, M. E.; Wanger, G.; Gordon, R. A.; Southam, G.; Univ. of Western Ontario; Simon Fraser Univ.

    2007-10-01

    The mechanisms of gold precipitation by the interaction of cyanobacteria (Plectonema boryanum UTEX 485) and gold(III) chloride aqueous solutions (7.6 mmol/L final gold) have been studied at 25, 60, and 80 C, using both laboratory and real-time synchrotron radiation absorption spectroscopy experiments. Addition of aqueous gold(III) chloride to the cyanobacterial culture initially promoted the precipitation of amorphous gold(I) sulfide at the cell walls and finally caused the formation of octahedral (111) platelets (<1 to 6 {micro}m) of gold metal near cell surfaces and in solutions. X-ray absorption spectroscopy results confirmed that the reduction mechanism of gold(III) chloride to elemental gold by cyanobacteria involves the formation of an intermediate Au(I) species, gold(I) sulfide, with sulfur originating from cyanobacterial proteins, presumably cysteine or methionine. Although the bioreduction of gold(III) chloride to gold(I) sulfide was relatively rapid at all temperatures, the reaction rate increased with the increase in temperature. At the completion of the experiments, elemental gold was the major species present at all temperatures.

  7. Hetero-site-specific X-ray pump-probe spectroscopy for femtosecond intramolecular dynamics

    DOE PAGES

    Picón, A.; Lehmann, C. S.; Bostedt, C.; Rudenko, A.; Marinelli, A.; Osipov, T.; Rolles, D.; Berrah, N.; Bomme, C.; Bucher, M.; et al

    2016-05-23

    New capabilities at X-ray free-electron laser facilities allow the generation of two-colour femtosecond X-ray pulses, opening the possibility of performing ultrafast studies of X-ray-induced phenomena. Specifically, the experimental realization of hetero-site-specific X-ray-pump/X-ray-probe spectroscopy is of special interest, in which an X-ray pump pulse is absorbed at one site within a molecule and an X-ray probe pulse follows the X-ray-induced dynamics at another site within the same molecule. In this paper, we show experimental evidence of a hetero-site pump-probe signal. By using two-colour 10-fs X-ray pulses, we are able to observe the femtosecond time dependence for the formation of F ionsmore » during the fragmentation of XeF2 molecules following X-ray absorption at the Xe site.« less

  8. Hetero-site-specific X-ray pump-probe spectroscopy for femtosecond intramolecular dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Picón, A.; Lehmann, C. S.; Bostedt, C.; Rudenko, A.; Marinelli, A.; Osipov, T.; Rolles, D.; Berrah, N.; Bomme, C.; Bucher, M.; Doumy, G.; Erk, B.; Ferguson, K. R.; Gorkhover, T.; Ho, P. J.; Kanter, E. P.; Krässig, B.; Krzywinski, J.; Lutman, A. A.; March, A. M.; Moonshiram, D.; Ray, D.; Young, L.; Pratt, S. T.; Southworth, S. H.

    2016-01-01

    New capabilities at X-ray free-electron laser facilities allow the generation of two-colour femtosecond X-ray pulses, opening the possibility of performing ultrafast studies of X-ray-induced phenomena. Particularly, the experimental realization of hetero-site-specific X-ray-pump/X-ray-probe spectroscopy is of special interest, in which an X-ray pump pulse is absorbed at one site within a molecule and an X-ray probe pulse follows the X-ray-induced dynamics at another site within the same molecule. Here we show experimental evidence of a hetero-site pump-probe signal. By using two-colour 10-fs X-ray pulses, we are able to observe the femtosecond time dependence for the formation of F ions during the fragmentation of XeF2 molecules following X-ray absorption at the Xe site. PMID:27212390

  9. In Situ X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Studies of Kinetic Interaction between Platinum(II) Ions and UiO-66 Series Metal–Organic Frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Chaoxian; Goh, Tian Wei; Brashler, Kyle; Pei, Yuchen; Guo, Zhiyong; Huang, Wenyu

    2014-09-07

    The interaction of guest Pt(II) ions with UiO-66–X (X = NH2, H, NO2, OMe, F) series metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) in aqueous solution was investigated using in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy. All of these MOFs were found to be able to coordinate with Pt(II) ions. The Pt(II) ions in UiO-66–X MOFs generally coordinate with 1.6–2.4 Cl and 1.4–2.4 N or O atoms. We also studied the time evolution of the coordination structure and found that Pt(II) maintained a coordination number of 4 throughout the whole process. Furthermore, the kinetic parameters of the interaction of Pt(II) ions with UiO-66–X series MOFs (X = NH2, H, NO2, OMe, F) were determined by combinational linear fitting of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra of the samples. The Pt(II) adsorption rate constants were found to be 0.063 h–1 for UiO-66–NH2 and 0.011–0.017 h–1 for other UiO-66–X (X = H, NO2, OMe, F) MOFs, which means that Pt(II) adsorption in UiO-66–NH2 is 4–6 times faster than that in other UiO-66 series MOFs. FTIR studies suggested that the carboxyl groups could be the major host ligands binding with Pt(II) ions in UiO-66 series MOFs, except for UiO-66–NH2, in which amino groups coordinate with Pt(II) ions.

  10. Large Area X-ray Spectroscopy Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tananbaum, Harvey

    1996-01-01

    The Large Area X-ray Spectroscopy (LAXS) mission study concept has evolved strongly over the last year culminating in the merging of LAXS with the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) proposal for a similar mission, the Next Generation X-ray Observatory (NGXO, PI: Nick White). The resulting merger, re-named the High Throughput X-rays Spectroscopy (HTXS) Mission has also expanded by the inclusion of another SAO proposed new mission concept proposal, the Hard X-Ray Telescope (PI: Paul Gorenstein). The resultant multi-instrument mission retains much of heritage from the LAXS proposal, including the use of multiple satellites for robustness. These mergers resulted from a series of contacts between various team members, via e-mail, telecons, and in-person meetings. The impetus for the mergers was the fundamental similarity between the missions, and the recognition that all three proposal teams had significant contributions to make in the effort to define the next stage in the X-ray exploration of the universe. We have enclosed four items that represent some of the work that has occurred during the first year of the study: first, a presentation at the Leicester meeting, second a presentation that was made to Dan Goldin following the merging of LAXS and NGXO, third a copy of the first announcement for the Workshop, and finally the interim report that was prepared by the HTXS study team towards the end of the first year. This last document provides the foundation for the HTXS Technology Roadmap that is being generated. The HTXS roadmap will define the near-term goals that the merged mission must achieve over the next few years. A web site has been developed and populated that contains much of the material that has been generated over the past year.

  11. Effects of Galactic absorption on soft X-ray surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zamorani, G.; Gioia, I. M.; Maccacaro, T.; Wolter, A.

    1988-01-01

    A bias in the spectral distribution of X-ray sources detected in X-ray surveys is discussed which is due to the combination of the intrinsic characteristics of X-ray telescopes and the effects of low-energy photoelectric absorption within the Galaxy. A statistical method for obtaining information on the average spectrum of X-ray sources detected in well-defined surveys is presented. This method can be applied to surveys performed with X-ray telescopes working at relatively soft X-ray energies, such as Einstein, Exosat, and Rosat.

  12. Probing the presence of multiple metal-metal bonds in technetium chlorides by X-ray absorption spectroscopy: implications for synthetic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Poineau, Frederic; Johnstone, Erik V; Forster, Paul M; Ma, Longzou; Sattelberger, Alfred P; Czerwinski, Kenneth R

    2012-09-01

    The cesium salts of [Tc(2)X(8)](3-) (X = Cl, Br), the reduction product of (n-Bu(4)N)[TcOCl(4)] with (n-Bu(4)N)BH(4) in THF, and the product obtained from reaction of Tc(2)(O(2)CCH(3))(4)Cl(2) with HCl(g) at 300 °C have been characterized by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. For the [Tc(2)X(8)](3-) anions, the Tc-Tc separations found by EXAFS spectroscopy (2.12(2) Å for both X = Cl and Br) are in excellent agreement with those found by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD) measurements (2.117[4] Å for X = Cl and 2.1265(1) Å for X = Br). The Tc-Tc separation found by EXAFS in these anions is slightly shorter than those found in the [Tc(2)X(8)](2-) anions (2.16(2) Å for X = Cl and Br). Spectroscopic and SCXRD characterization of the reduction product of (n-Bu(4)N)[TcOCl(4)] with (n-Bu(4)N)BH(4) are consistent with the presence of dinuclear species that are related to the [Tc(2)Cl(8)](n-) (n = 2, 3) anions. From these results, a new preparation of (n-Bu(4)N)(2)[Tc(2)Cl(8)] was developed. Finally, EXAFS characterization of the product obtained from reaction of Tc(2)(O(2)CCH(3))(4)Cl(2) with HCl(g) at 300 °C indicates the presence of amorphous α-TcCl(3). The Tc-Tc separation (i.e., 2.46(2) Å) measured in this compound is consistent with the presence of Tc═Tc double bonds in the [Tc(3)](9+) core.

  13. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray absorption near edge structure study of copper sites hosted at the internal surface of ZSM-5 zeolite: A comparison with quantitative and energetic data on the CO and NH3 adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolis, V.; Maggiorini, S.; Meda, L.; D'Acapito, F.; Palomino, G. Turnes; Bordiga, S.; Lamberti, C.

    2000-11-01

    The oxidation state of Cu species dispersed in a Cu-ZSM-5 zeolite obtained by a nonconventional gas-phase CuCl exchange, and nominally containing only Cu(I) species, was studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analyses. The oxidation of Cu(I) species to Cu(II) by simple exposure to the atmosphere and subsequent reduction by thermal activation in vacuo was monitored. The quantitative and energetic aspects of the formation of carbonyl-like and amino-complexes at the metallic sites was studied by means of adsorption microcalorimetry. CO and NH3 were used as probe molecules in order to assess the coordinative unsaturation of the Cu(I) cations. Adsorption heats comprised in the 130-40 kJ mol-1 interval were obtained for the formation of both type of complexes. The perturbation induced on the Cu centers and/or on the zeolite matrix by the adsorption of the probe molecules was monitored by parallel experiments of XPS, IR, and XANES. A significant fraction of CO and NH3 molecules are irreversibly held on Cu(I) sites even after outgassing at room temperature (RT) at a final dynamic vacuum of 10-5 Torr. On the contrary, no evidence of Cu(I)/CO or of Cu(I)/NH3 complexes was observed by XPS, indicating that such adducts are totally destroyed upon outgassing at 10-9 Torr. This fact implies a reconsideration of what was previously considered as a "stable adduct." XPS allowed to reveal the existence of ammonia adsorbed on defective Al(III) species, and to explain the chemical nature of species formed at the earliest stages of NH3 dosage and characterized by a heat of adsorption as high as 180 kJ mol-1. By comparing the quantitative XPS and volumetric-calorimetric data it was inferred that a significant gradient of defects amount is present in the system. Finally, from the whole set of XPS measurements here reported and from parallel blank experiments on the ZSM-5 zeolite before Cu-exchange, a calibration scale for the N(1

  14. Study of band inversion in the PbxSn1-xTe class of topological crystalline insulators using x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mitrofanov, K V; Kolobov, A V; Fons, P; Krbal, M; Tominaga, J; Uruga, T

    2014-11-26

    Pb(x)Sn(1-x)Te and Pb(x)Sn(1-x)Se crystals belong to the class of topological crystalline insulators where topological protection is achieved due to crystal symmetry rather than time-reversal symmetry. In this work, we make use of selection rules in the x-ray absorption process to experimentally detect band inversion along the PbTe(Se)-SnTe(Se) tie-lines. The observed significant change in the ratio of intensities of L1 and L3 transitions along the tie-line demonstrates that x-ray absorption can be a useful tool to study band inversion in topological insulators.

  15. A3V2(PO4)3 (A = Na or Li) probed by in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivko, Maja; Arcon, Iztok; Bele, Marjan; Dominko, Robert; Gaberscek, Miran

    2012-10-01

    Two stable modifications of A3V2(PO4)3 (A = Na or Li) were synthesized by citric acid assisted modified sol-gel synthesis. The obtained samples were phase pure Li3V2(PO4)3 and Na3V2(PO4)3 materials embedded in a carbon matrix. The samples were tested as half cells against lithium or sodium metal. Both samples delivered about 90 mAh g-1 at a C/10 cycling rate. The change of vanadium oxidation state and changes in the local environment of redox center for both materials were probed by in-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Oxidation state of vanadium was determined by energy shift of the absorption edge. The reversible change of valence from trivalent to tetravalent oxidation state was determined in the potential window used in our experiments. Small reversible changes in the interatomic distances due to the relaxation of the structure in the process of alkali metal extraction and insertion were observed. Local environment (vanadium-oxygen bond distances) after 1st cycle were found to be the same as in the starting material. Both structures have been found very rigid without significant changes during alkali metal extraction.

  16. Biomimetic mono- and dinuclear Ni(I) and Ni(II) complexes studied by X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuth, N.; Gehring, H.; Horn, B.; Holze, P.; Kositzki, R.; Schrapers, P.; Limberg, C.; Haumann, M.

    2016-05-01

    Five biomimetic mono- or dinuclear nickel complexes featuring Ni(I) or Ni(II) sites were studied by X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy and DFT calculations. Ni K-edge XANES spectra and Kβ main and satellite emission lines were collected on powder samples. The pre-edge absorption transitions (core-to-valence excitation) and Kβ2,5 emission transitions (valence-to-core decay) were calculated using DFT (TPSSh/TZVP) on crystal structures. This yielded theoretical ctv and vtc spectra in near-quantitative agreement with the experiment, showing the adequacy of the DFT approach for electronic structure description, emphasizing the sensitivity of the XAS/XES spectra for ligation/redox changes at nickel, and revealing the configuration of unoccupied and occupied valence levels, as well as the spin-coupling modes in the dinuclear complexes. XAS/XES-DFT is valuable for molecular and electronic structure analysis of synthetic complexes and of nickel centers in H2 or COx converting metalloenzymes.

  17. High-energy resolution X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy reveals insight into unique selectivity of La-based nanoparticles for CO2

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Ofer; Kvashnina, Kristina O.; Luo, Li; Süess, Martin J.; Glatzel, Pieter; Koziej, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    The lanthanum-based materials, due to their layered structure and f-electron configuration, are relevant for electrochemical application. Particularly, La2O2CO3 shows a prominent chemoresistive response to CO2. However, surprisingly less is known about its atomic and electronic structure and electrochemically significant sites and therefore, its structure–functions relationships have yet to be established. Here we determine the position of the different constituents within the unit cell of monoclinic La2O2CO3 and use this information to interpret in situ high-energy resolution fluorescence-detected (HERFD) X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and valence-to-core X-ray emission spectroscopy (vtc XES). Compared with La(OH)3 or previously known hexagonal La2O2CO3 structures, La in the monoclinic unit cell has a much lower number of neighboring oxygen atoms, which is manifested in the whiteline broadening in XANES spectra. Such a superior sensitivity to subtle changes is given by HERFD method, which is essential for in situ studying of the interaction with CO2. Here, we study La2O2CO3-based sensors in real operando conditions at 250 °C in the presence of oxygen and water vapors. We identify that the distribution of unoccupied La d-states and occupied O p- and La d-states changes during CO2 chemoresistive sensing of La2O2CO3. The correlation between these spectroscopic findings with electrical resistance measurements leads to a more comprehensive understanding of the selective adsorption at La site and may enable the design of new materials for CO2 electrochemical applications. PMID:26668362

  18. Speciation and Lability of Ag-, AgCl- and Ag2S-Nanoparticles in Soil Determined by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy and Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films

    EPA Science Inventory

    Long-term speciation and lability of silver (Ag-), silver chloride (AgCl-) and silver sulfide nanoparticles (Ag2S-NPs) in soil were studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and newly developed "nano" Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films (DGT) devices. These nano-D...

  19. Characterization of Oxygen Containing Functional Groups on Carbon Materials with Oxygen K-edge X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    K Kim; P Zhu; L Na; X Ma; Y Chen

    2011-12-31

    Surface functional groups on carbon materials are critical to their surface properties and related applications. Many characterization techniques have been used to identify and quantify the surface functional groups, but none is completely satisfactory especially for quantification. In this work, we used oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy to identify and quantify the oxygen containing surface functional groups on carbon materials. XANES spectra were collected in fluorescence yield mode to minimize charging effect due to poor sample conductivity which can potentially distort XANES spectra. The surface functional groups are grouped into three types, namely carboxyl-type, carbonyl-type, and hydroxyl-type. XANES spectra of the same type are very similar while spectra of different types are significantly different. Two activated carbon samples were analyzed by XANES. The total oxygen contents of the samples were estimated from the edge step of their XANES spectra, and the identity and abundance of different functional groups were determined by fitting of the sample XANES spectrum to a linear combination of spectra of the reference compounds. It is concluded that oxygen K-edge XANES spectroscopy is a reliable characterization technique for the identification and quantification of surface functional groups on carbon materials.

  20. EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine-Structure Spectroscopy) study of the position of Zr within the unit cell of Sm sub 2 Co sub 17

    SciTech Connect

    Rabenberg, L. . Center for Materials Science and Engineering); Barrera, E.V. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science); Maury, C.E.; Allibert, C.H. . Lab. de Thermodynamique et PhysicoChimie Metallurgiques); Heald, S.M. (Brookhaven National Lab

    1990-01-01

    Extended X-ray Absorption Fine-Structure Spectroscopy (EXAFS) has been used to determine the position of Zr within the unit cell of Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17}. Zr is routinely added to Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17} permanent magnet alloys because of its effects on their metallurgical development, but the details of its behavior remain controversial. Induction melted Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17}:Zr ternary alloys, aged at 1180{degrees}C, then quenched, consisted of intimately mixed H2:17 and R2:17 having Zr in solid solution as well some regions of R2:17 that were poor in Zr. EXAFS spectroscopy of these specimens indicates that the most probable position for Zr is a site having two Sm near neighbor atoms and 11 Co atoms distributed over three different interatomic distances. This is consistent with a direct substitution of Zr for Co in the Co site in the mixed planes (12j in P6{sub 3}/mmc, or 18f in R3m). These results are discussed in terms of the metallurgy of 2:17 magnet alloys. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Electronic Structure of In2O3 from Resonant X-ray Emission Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Piper, L.; DeMasi, A; Cho, S; Smith, K; Fuchs, F; Bechstedt, F; Korber, C; Klein, A; Payne, D; Egdell, R

    2009-01-01

    The valence and conduction band structures of In2O3 have been measured using a combination of valence band x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, O K-edge resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy, and O K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy. Excellent agreement is noted between the experimental spectra and O 2p partial density of states calculated within hybrid density functional theory. Our data are consistent with a direct band gap for In2O3.

  2. Interatomic distances for some first row transition element dichlorides isolated in cryogenic matrices using x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beattie, Ian R.; Spicer, Mark D.; Young, Nigel A.

    1994-06-01

    X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) data for several 3d transition metal dichlorides isolated in nitrogen, argon, or methane matrices have been collected and analyzed. The bond lengths obtained are in reasonable agreement with those from vapor phase electron diffraction. The results are briefly discussed with reference to Badger's rule extended to triatomics.

  3. X-ray Attenuation and Absorption Calculations.

    1988-02-25

    This point-source, polychromatic, discrete energy X-ray transport and energy deposition code system calculates first-order spectral estimates of X-ray energy transmission through slab materials and the associated spectrum of energy absorbed by the material.

  4. X-ray absorption studies of battery materials

    SciTech Connect

    McBreen, J.

    1996-10-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is ideal for {ital in}{ital situ} studies of battery materials because both the probe and signal are penetrating x rays. The advantage of XAS being element specific permits investigation of the environment of a constituent element in a composite material. This makes it very powerful for studying electrode additives and corrosion of individual components of complex metal hydride alloys. The near edge part of the spectrum (XANES) provides information on oxidation state and site symmetry of the excited atom. This is particularly useful in study of corrosion and oxidation changes in cathode materials during charge/discharge cycle. Extended fine structure (EXAFS) gives structural information. Thus the technique provides both chemical and structural information. Since XAS probes only short range order, it can be applied to study of amorphous electrode materials and electrolytes. This paper discusses advantages and limitations of the method, as well as some experimental aspects.

  5. The extraction of gold nanoparticles from oat and wheat biomasses using sodium citrate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and UV-visible spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Armendariz, Veronica; Parsons, Jason G; Lopez, Martha L; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Jose-Yacaman, Miguel; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2009-03-11

    Gold (Au) nanoparticles can be produced through the interaction of Au(III) ions with oat and wheat biomasses. This paper describes a procedure to recover gold nanoparticles from oat and wheat biomasses using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide or sodium citrate. Extracts were analyzed using UV-visible spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The HRTEM data demonstrated that smaller nanoparticles are extracted first, followed by larger nanoparticles. In the fourth extraction, coating of chelating agents is visible on the extracted nanoparticles.

  6. The extraction of gold nanoparticles from oat and wheat biomasses using sodium citrate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and UV-visible spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armendariz, Veronica; Parsons, Jason G.; Lopez, Martha L.; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Jose-Yacaman, Miguel; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.

    2009-03-01

    Gold (Au) nanoparticles can be produced through the interaction of Au(III) ions with oat and wheat biomasses. This paper describes a procedure to recover gold nanoparticles from oat and wheat biomasses using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide or sodium citrate. Extracts were analyzed using UV-visible spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The HRTEM data demonstrated that smaller nanoparticles are extracted first, followed by larger nanoparticles. In the fourth extraction, coating of chelating agents is visible on the extracted nanoparticles.

  7. Statistically meaningful data on the chemical state of ironprecipitates in processed multicrystalline silicon usingsynchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Buonassisi, T.; Heuer, M.; Istratov, A.A.; Weber, E.R.; Cai, Z.; Lai, B.; Marcus, M.; Lu, J.; Rozgonyi, G.; Schindler, R.; Jonczyk, R.; Rand, J.

    2004-11-08

    X-ray fluorescence microscopy (mu-XRF), x-ray beam induced current (XBIC), and x-ray absorption spectromicroscopy (mu-XAS) were performed on fully-processed Bay Six cast multicrystalline silicon and aluminum-gettered AstroPower Silicon-Film(TM) sheet material. Over ten iron precipitates--predominantly of iron silicide--were identified at low lifetime regions in both materials, both at grain boundaries and intragranular defects identified by XBIC. In addition, large (micron-sized) particles containing oxidized iron and other impurities (Ca, Cr, Mn) were found in BaySix material. The smaller iron silicide precipitates were more numerous and spatially distributed than their larger oxidized iron counterparts, and thus deemed more detrimental to minority carrier diffusion length.

  8. Simulating Ru L3-Edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy with Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory: Model Complexes and Electron Localization in Mixed-Valence Metal Dimers

    SciTech Connect

    Kuiken, Benjamin E. Van; Valiev, Marat; Daifuku, Stephanie L.; Bannan, Caitlin; Strader, Matthew L.; Cho, Hana; Huse, Nils; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Govind, Niranjan; Khalil, Munira

    2013-04-26

    Ruthenium L3-edge X-ray absorption (XA) spectroscopy probes unoccupied 4d orbitals of the metal atom and is increasingly being used to investigate the local electronic structure in ground and excited electronic states of Ru complexes. The simultaneous development of computational tools for simulating Ru L3-edge spectra is crucial for interpreting the spectral features at a molecular level. This study demonstrates that time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is a viable and predictive tool for simulating ruthenium L3-edge XA spectroscopy. We systematically investigate the effects of exchange correlation functional and implicit and explicit solvent interactions on a series of RuII and RuIII complexes in their ground and electronic excited states. The TDDFT simulations reproduce all of the experimentally observed features in Ru L3-edge XA spectra within the experimental resolution (0.4 eV). Our simulations identify ligand-specific charge transfer features in complicated Ru L3-edge spectra of [Ru(CN)6]4- and RuII polypyridyl complexes illustrating the advantage of using TDDFT in complex systems. We conclude that the B3LYP functional most accurately predicts the transition energies of charge transfer features in these systems. We use our TDDFT approach to simulate experimental Ru L3-edge XA spectra of transition metal mixed-valence dimers of the form [(NC)5MII-CN-RuIII(NH3)5] (where M = Fe or Ru) dissolved in water. Our study determines the spectral signatures of electron delocalization in Ru L3-edge XA spectra. We find that the inclusion of explicit solvent molecules is necessary for reproducing the spectral features and the experimentally determined valencies in these mixed-valence complexes. This study validates the use of TDDFT for simulating Ru 2p excitations using popular quantum chemistry codes and providing a powerful interpretive tool for equilibrium and ultrafast Ru L3-edge XA spectroscopy.

  9. Resonant X-Ray Scattering and Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, S. P.; Bombardi, A.

    This chapter outlines some of the basic ideas behind nonresonant and resonant X-ray scattering, using classical or semiclassical pictures wherever possible; specifically, we highlight symmetry arguments governing the observation of X-ray optical effects, such as X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and resonant "forbidden" diffraction. Without dwelling on the microscopic physics that underlies resonant scattering, we outline some key steps required for calculating its rotation and polarization dependence, based on Cartesian and spherical tensor frameworks. Several examples of resonant scattering, involving electronic anisotropy and magnetism, are given as illustrations. Our goal is not to develop or defend theoretical concepts in X-ray scattering, but to bring together existing ideas in a pragmatic and utilitarian manner.

  10. A Pt-cluster-based heterogeneous catalyst for homogeneous catalytic reactions: X-ray absorption spectroscopy and reaction kinetic studies of their activity and stability against leaching.

    PubMed

    Li, Yimin; Liu, Jack Hung-Chang; Witham, Cole A; Huang, Wenyu; Marcus, Matthew A; Fakra, Sirine C; Alayoglu, Pinar; Zhu, Zhongwei; Thompson, Christopher M; Arjun, Arpana; Lee, Kihong; Gross, Elad; Toste, F Dean; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2011-08-31

    The design and development of metal-cluster-based heterogeneous catalysts with high activity, selectivity, and stability under solution-phase reaction conditions will enable their applications as recyclable catalysts in large-scale fine chemicals production. To achieve these required catalytic properties, a heterogeneous catalyst must contain specific catalytically active species in high concentration, and the active species must be stabilized on a solid catalyst support under solution-phase reaction conditions. These requirements pose a great challenge for catalysis research to design metal-cluster-based catalysts for solution-phase catalytic processes. Here, we focus on a silica-supported, polymer-encapsulated Pt catalyst for an electrophilic hydroalkoxylation reaction in toluene, which exhibits superior selectivity and stability against leaching under mild reaction conditions. We unveil the key factors leading to the observed superior catalytic performance by combining X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and reaction kinetic studies. On the basis of the mechanistic understandings obtained in this work, we also provide useful guidelines for designing metal-cluster-based catalyst for a broader range of reactions in the solution phase. PMID:21721543

  11. A spectroscopic proton-exchange membrane fuel cell test setup allowing fluorescence x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements during state-of-the-art cell tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Olga; Kulp, Christian; van den Berg, Maurits W. E.; Klementiev, Konstantin V.; Otto, Bruno; Otto, Horst; Lopez, Marco; Bron, Michael; Grünert, Wolfgang

    2011-04-01

    A test setup for membrane-electrode-assemblies (MEAs) of proton exchange membrane fuel cells which allows in situ fluorescence x-ray absorption spectroscopy studies of one electrode with safe exclusion of contributions from the counter electrode is described. Interference by the counter electrode is excluded by a geometry including a small angle of incidence (< 6°) between primary beam and electrode layer. The cell has been constructed by introducing just minor modifications to an electrochemical state-of-the-art MEA test setup, which ensures realistic electrochemical test conditions. This is at the expense of significant intensity losses in the path of the incident beam, which calls for the brilliance of third-generation synchrotrons to provide meaningful data. In measurements on Pt/C and Pt-Co/C cathodes combined with Pt-C anodes (H2/O2 feed), good data quality was demonstrated both for the majority element Pt as well as for Co despite of a low areal Co density in the order of 0.02 mg/cm2.

  12. Effect of Mg doping on the local structure of LiMgyCo1-yO2 cathode material investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, J. H.; Pan, C. J.; Nithya, C.; Thirunakaran, R.; Gopukumar, S.; Chen, C. H.; Lee, J. F.; Chen, J. M.; Sivashanmugam, A.; Hwang, B. J.

    2014-04-01

    A higher capacity and better cyclability are apparent when magnesium is introduced into the structure of LiCoO2 (y = 0.15). XRD analysis of LiMgyCo1-yO2 (y = 0, 0.1, 0.15), synthesized at 800 °C using a microwave assisted method, shows that the material is in the R-3m space group and to have a slightly expanded unit cell that increases with greater magnesium doping. Structural analysis by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the Co K-edge, L-edge and O K-edge shows that the magnesium is located in the transition metal layer rather than in the lithium layer and the charge balance results from the formation of oxygen vacancies rather than Co4+, while cobalt remains in the 3+ oxidation state. Interestingly, oxygen is found to participate in the charge compensation. Both magnesium, in the transition metal layer, and the Co-defect structure are attributed to the contribution towards structural stabilization of LiCoO2, thereby resulting in its enhanced electrochemical performance.

  13. Reactivity and in situ X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Rb-promoted Mo2C/MgO Catalysts for Higher Alcohol Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    H Shou; R Davis

    2011-12-31

    The influences of MgO support and Rb{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoter on the activity and selectivity of Mo{sub 2}C-based catalysts for higher alcohol synthesis from syngas were explored. The reaction was performed in a fixed-bed reactor system operating at 573 K, 30 bar, gas flow rate of 24,000 cm{sup 3} g{sub Mo}{sup -1} h{sup -1}, and H{sub 2}:CO ratio of 1:1. When promoted by Rb{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, the selectivity of alcohols over 5 wt.% Mo{sub 2}C/MgO can reach 61 C% on a CO{sub 2}-free basis, with C1-C4 hydrocarbons being the main side products. Production of higher alcohols was enhanced at high promoter loading and low conversion. Characterization by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) indicated that passivated Mo{sub 2}C/MgO was more oxidized than bulk Mo{sub 2}C, but exposure to reaction conditions for 4 h partially reduced the passivated sample. Electron microscopy and XAS confirmed that Mo{sub 2}C was highly dispersed on MgO. The Rb K edge structure suggested that the Rb{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoter was structurally modified in the reaction.

  14. Use of X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) to Speciate Manganese in Airborne Particulate Matter from 5 Counties Across the US

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Saugata; Rule, Ana M; Mihalic, Jana N; Chillrud, Steve N; Bostick, Benjamin C.; Ramos-Bonilla, Juan P; Han, Inkyu; Polyak, Lisa M; Geyh, Alison S; Breysse, Patrick N

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize manganese oxidation states and speciation in airborne particulate matter (PM), and describe how these potentially important determinants of PM toxicity vary by location. Ambient PM samples were collected from five counties across the US using a high volume sequential cyclone system that collects PM in dry bulk form segregated into “coarse” and “fine” size fractions. The fine fraction was analyzed for this study. Analyses included total Mn using ICP-MS, and characterization of oxidation states and speciation using X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). XAS spectra of all samples and ten standard compounds of Mn were obtained at the National Synchrotron Light Source. XAS data was analyzed using Linear Combination Fitting (LCF). Results of the LCF analysis describe differences in composition between samples. Mn(II) acetate and Mn(II) oxide are present in all samples, while Mn(II) carbonate and Mn(IV) oxide are absent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to characterize Mn composition of ambient PM and examine differences between urban sites in the US. Differences in oxidation state and composition indicate regional variations in sources and atmospheric chemistry that may help explain differences in health effects identified in epidemiological studies. PMID:22309075

  15. An investigation of catalytic active phase-support interactions by IR, NMR and x-ray absorption spectroscopies. Progress report, January 15, 1991--July 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, G.L.

    1993-07-01

    Active catalytic phases (metal, mixed metals, oxide or mixed oxides) interacting with oxide support can affect percentage exposed, the morphology of supported particles, the degree of reducibility of cations, etc., in a variety of ways. Solid state {sup 29}Si NMR was used to obtain a new correlation between partial charge on the Si which comprises a part of the SiOHAl Br{o}nsted acid structure in amorphous silica-aluminas. We also describe two potential improvements in solid state NMR applied to catalysts and catalysts supports. One is experimental, dynamic angle spinning NMR, a new technique for obtaining high resolution spectra of quadrupolar nuclei, e.g., {sup 27}Al. The second approach is an alternative to the standard fast Fourier transform of the free induction decay to convert from the time to spectral domain, the maximum entropy method. Effect of different methods of preparation of Pd/L-zeolites is described. By comparison to analogous Pt systems, it is the inherent chemistry of the L-zeolite which results in better dispersion when impregnation preparation is used relative to ion exchange preparation. X-ray absorption spectroscopy is used to compare the effect of support (SiO{sub 2} and L-zeolite) on the degree and kind of Pt-Ni interaction. When supported in L-zeolite and promoted with Ni, Pt has improved stability both with regard to self-poisoning and sulfur catalyzed agglomeration.

  16. Evidence from in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy for the involvement of terminal disulfide in the reduction of protons by an amorphous molybdenum sulfide electrocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Merki, Daniel; Vrubel, Heron; Gul, Sheraz; Yachandra, Vittal K; Hu, Xile; Yano, Junko

    2015-01-14

    The reduction of protons into dihydrogen is important because of its potential use in a wide range of energy applications. The preparation of efficient and cheap catalysts for this reaction is one of the issues that need to be tackled to allow the widespread use of hydrogen as an energy carrier. In this paper, we report the study of an amorphous molybdenum sulfide (MoSx) proton reducing electrocatalyst under functional conditions, using in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy. We probed the local and electronic structures of both the molybdenum and sulfur elements for the as prepared material as well as the precatalytic and catalytic states. The as prepared material is very similar to MoS3 and remains unmodified under functional conditions (pH = 2 aqueous HNO3) in the precatalytic state (+0.3 V vs RHE). In its catalytic state (-0.3 V vs RHE), the film is reduced to an amorphous form of MoS2 and shows spectroscopic features that indicate the presence of terminal disulfide units. These units are formed concomitantly with the release of hydrogen, and we suggest that the rate-limiting step of the HER is the reduction and protonation of these disulfide units. These results show the implication of terminal disulfide chemical motifs into HER driven by transition-metal sulfides and provide insight into their reaction mechanism.

  17. pH impact on reductive dechlorination of cis-dichloroethylene by Fe precipitates: an X-ray absorption spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hoon Y; Anantharaman, Karthik; Hyun, Sung P; Son, Moon; Hayes, Kim F

    2013-11-01

    The pH impact on reductive dechlorination of cis-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE) was investigated using in situ Fe precipitates formed under iron-rich sulfate-reducing conditions. The dechlorination rate of cis-DCE increased with pH, which was attributed to changes in the solid-phase Fe concentration, the composition of Fe minerals, and the surface speciation of Fe minerals. With increasing pH, larger quantities of Fe minerals, having much greater reactivity than dissolved Fe(II), were produced. Fe-K edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) analysis of Fe precipitates revealed the presence of multiple Fe phases with their composition varying with pH. Correlation analyses were performed to examine how the solid-phase Fe concentration, the composition of Fe minerals, and their surface speciation were linked with the cis-DCE dechlorination rate. Such analyses revealed that neither mackinawite (FeS) nor magnetite (Fe3O4) was reactive with cis-DCE dechlorination, but that Fe (oxyhydr)oxides including green rusts and Fe(OH)2 were reactive. Based on a proposed model of the surface acidity of Fe minerals, the increasing deprotonated surface Fe(II) groups with pH correlated well with the enhanced cis-DCE dechlorination. PMID:24074816

  18. Multivariate curve resolution applied to in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy data: an efficient tool for data processing and analysis.

    PubMed

    Voronov, Alexey; Urakawa, Atsushi; van Beek, Wouter; Tsakoumis, Nikolaos E; Emerich, Hermann; Rønning, Magnus

    2014-08-20

    Large datasets containing many spectra commonly associated with in situ or operando experiments call for new data treatment strategies as conventional scan by scan data analysis methods have become a time-consuming bottleneck. Several convenient automated data processing procedures like least square fitting of reference spectra exist but are based on assumptions. Here we present the application of multivariate curve resolution (MCR) as a blind-source separation method to efficiently process a large data set of an in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy experiment where the sample undergoes a periodic concentration perturbation. MCR was applied to data from a reversible reduction-oxidation reaction of a rhenium promoted cobalt Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst. The MCR algorithm was capable of extracting in a highly automated manner the component spectra with a different kinetic evolution together with their respective concentration profiles without the use of reference spectra. The modulative nature of our experiments allows for averaging of a number of identical periods and hence an increase in the signal to noise ratio (S/N) which is efficiently exploited by MCR. The practical and added value of the approach in extracting information from large and complex datasets, typical for in situ and operando studies, is highlighted. PMID:25086889

  19. Evidence from in Situ X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy for the Involvement of Terminal Disulfide in the Reduction of Protons by an Amorphous Molybdenum Sulfide Electrocatalyst

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The reduction of protons into dihydrogen is important because of its potential use in a wide range of energy applications. The preparation of efficient and cheap catalysts for this reaction is one of the issues that need to be tackled to allow the widespread use of hydrogen as an energy carrier. In this paper, we report the study of an amorphous molybdenum sulfide (MoSx) proton reducing electrocatalyst under functional conditions, using in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy. We probed the local and electronic structures of both the molybdenum and sulfur elements for the as prepared material as well as the precatalytic and catalytic states. The as prepared material is very similar to MoS3 and remains unmodified under functional conditions (pH = 2 aqueous HNO3) in the precatalytic state (+0.3 V vs RHE). In its catalytic state (−0.3 V vs RHE), the film is reduced to an amorphous form of MoS2 and shows spectroscopic features that indicate the presence of terminal disulfide units. These units are formed concomitantly with the release of hydrogen, and we suggest that the rate-limiting step of the HER is the reduction and protonation of these disulfide units. These results show the implication of terminal disulfide chemical motifs into HER driven by transition-metal sulfides and provide insight into their reaction mechanism. PMID:25427231

  20. Monitoring the role of Mn and Fe in the As-removal efficiency of tetravalent manganese feroxyhyte nanoparticles from drinking water: An X-ray absorption spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Pinakidou, F; Katsikini, M; Paloura, E C; Simeonidis, K; Mitraka, E; Mitrakas, M

    2016-09-01

    The implementation of amorphous tetravalent manganese feroxyhyte (TMFx) nanoparticles, prepared via co-precipitation synthesis, as an efficient As(V)-removal material is investigated using X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy at the Fe-, Mn- and As-K-edges. The optimum synthesis conditions and chemical composition of the TMFx adsorbent were determined by the degree of polymerization in the adsorbents' microstructure. Under synthesis into mildly acidic conditions, the change in the polymerization of the metal-oxyhydroxyl chains (metal=Fe, Mn) provides more adsorption sites at edges and corner sites in the bonding environment of Fe and Mn, respectively, thereby enhancing As uptake. After exposure to As-polluted water, similar microstructural changes related to As-bidentate and monodentate geometries are generated: As(V) preferentially occupies the high energy adsorption sites ((2)C complexes) available in the Mn-oxyhydroxyl groups and the low energy edge sites offered by Fe ((2)E complexes). It is revealed that optimum arsenic-removal by TMFx occurs into mildly acidic synthesis pH and for iron to manganese molar ratio equal to 3.

  1. Dynamic transformation of small Ni particles during methanation of CO2 under fluctuating reaction conditions monitored by operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutz, B.; Carvalho, H. W. P.; Kleist, W.; Grunwaldt, J.-D.

    2016-05-01

    A 10 wt.-% Ni/Al2O3 catalyst with Ni particles of about 4 nm was prepared and applied in the methanation of CO2 under dynamic reaction conditions. Fast phase transformations between metallic Ni, NiO and NiCO3 were observed under changing reaction atmospheres using operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Removing H2 from the feed gas and, thus, simulating a H2 dropout during the methanation reaction led to oxidation of the active sites. The initial reduced state of the Ni particles could not be recovered under methanation atmosphere (H2/CO2 = 4); this was only possible with an effective reactivation step applying H2 at increased temperatures. Furthermore, the cycling of the gas atmospheres resulted in a steady deactivation of the catalyst. Operando XAS is a powerful tool to monitor these changes and the behavior of the catalyst under working conditions to improve the understanding of the catalytic processes and deactivation phenomena.

  2. Phase transition kinetics of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 analyzed by temperature-controlled operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ikuma; Arai, Hajime; Murayama, Haruno; Sato, Kenji; Komatsu, Hideyuki; Tanida, Hajime; Koyama, Yukinori; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Ogumi, Zempachi

    2016-01-21

    LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) is a promising positive electrode material for lithium ion batteries because it shows a high potential of 4.7 V vs. Li/Li(+). Its charge-discharge reaction includes two consecutive phase transitions between LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (Li1) ↔ Li0.5Ni0.5Mn1.5O4 (Li0.5) and Li0.5 ↔ Ni0.5Mn1.5O4 (Li0) and the complex transition kinetics that governs the rate capability of LNMO can hardly be analyzed by simple electrochemical techniques. Herein, we apply temperature-controlled operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy to directly capture the reacting phases from -20 °C to 40 °C under potential step (chronoamperometric) conditions and evaluate the phase transition kinetics using the apparent first-order rate constants at various temperatures. The constant for the Li1 ↔ Li0.5 transition (process 1) is larger than that for the Li0.5 ↔ Li0 transition (process 2) at all the measured temperatures, and the corresponding activation energies are 29 and 46 kJ mol(-1) for processes 1 and 2, respectively. The results obtained are discussed to elucidate the limiting factor in this system as well as in other electrode systems.

  3. Identification of sources of lead in the atmosphere by chemical speciation using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Kohei; Sakaguchi, Aya; Tanimizu, Masaharu; Takaku, Yuichi; Yokoyama, Yuka; Takahashi, Yoshio

    2014-02-01

    Sources of Pb pollution in the local atmosphere together with Pb species, major ions, and heavy metal concentrations in a size-fractionated aerosol sample from Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan) have been determined by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, ion chromatography, and ICP-MS/AES, respectively. About 80% of total Pb was concentrated in fine aerosol particles. Lead species in the coarse aerosol particles were PbC2O4, 2PbCO3 Pb(OH)2, and Pb(NO3)2, whereas Pb species in the fine aerosol particles were PbC2O4, PbSO4, and Pb(NO3)2. Chemical speciation and abundance data suggested that the source of Pb in the fine aerosol particles was different from that of the coarse ones. The dominant sources of Pb in the fine aerosol particles were judged to be fly ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator and heavy oil combustion. For the coarse aerosol particles, road dust was considered to be the main Pb source. In addition to Pb species, elemental concentrations in the aerosols were also determined. The results suggested that Pb species in size-fractionated aerosols can be used to identify the origin of aerosol particles in the atmosphere as an alternative to Pb isotope ratio measurement.

  4. Phosphorus speciation in sequentially extracted agro-industrial by-products: evidence from X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Jens; Negassa, Wakene; Appathurai, Narayana; Zuin, Lucia; Leinweber, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The phosphorus (P) in agro-industrial by-products--a potential source of freshwater eutrophication but also a valuable fertilizer--needs to be speciated to evaluate its fate in the environment. We investigated to what extent X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy at the P K- and L2.3-edges reflected differences in sequentially extracted filter cakes from sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) (FIC) and niger seed (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.; NIC) processing industry in Ethiopia. The P fractionation removed more labile (54%) and H2SO4-P (28%) from FIC than from NIC (18% labile, 12% H2SO4-P). For the FIC residues after each extraction step, linear combination (LC) fitting of P K-edge spectra provided evidence for the enrichment of Ca-P after the NaOH-extraction and its almost complete removal after the H2SO4-treatment. The LC-fitting was unsuccessful for the NIC samples, likely because of the predominance of organic P compounds. The different proportions of Ca-P compounds between FIC (large) and NIC (small) were more distinctive in L2-than in the K-edge XANES spectra. In conclusion, the added value of complementary P K- and L2.3-edge XANES was clearly demonstrated, and the P fractionation and speciation results together justify using FIC and NIC as soil amendments in the tropics.

  5. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of LiBF 4 in propylene carbonate. A model lithium ion battery electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jacob W.; Lam, Royce K.; Sheardy, Alex T.; Shih, Orion; Rizzuto, Anthony M.; Borodin, Oleg; Harris, Stephen J.; Prendergast, David; Saykally, Richard J.

    2014-08-20

    Since their introduction into the commercial marketplace in 1991, lithium ion batteries have become increasingly ubiquitous in portable technology. Nevertheless, improvements to existing battery technology are necessary to expand their utility for larger-scale applications, such as electric vehicles. Advances may be realized from improvements to the liquid electrolyte; however, current understanding of the liquid structure and properties remains incomplete. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of solutions of LiBF4 in propylene carbonate (PC), interpreted using first-principles electronic structure calculations within the eXcited electron and Core Hole (XCH) approximation, yields new insight into the solvation structure of the Li+ ion in this model electrolyte. By generating linear combinations of the computed spectra of Li+-associating and free PC molecules and comparing to the experimental spectrum, we find a Li+–solvent interaction number of 4.5. This result suggests that computational models of lithium ion battery electrolytes should move beyond tetrahedral coordination structures.

  6. In situ X-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy investigation of the state of charge of all-vanadium redox flow batteries.

    PubMed

    Jia, Chuankun; Liu, Qi; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Yang, Fan; Ren, Yang; Heald, Steve M; Liu, Yadong; Li, Zhe-Fei; Lu, Wenquan; Xie, Jian

    2014-10-22

    Synchrotron-based in situ X-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy (XANES) has been used to study the valence state evolution of the vanadium ion for both the catholyte and anolyte in all-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRB) under realistic cycling conditions. The results indicate that, when using the widely used charge-discharge profile during the first charge process (charging the VRB cell to 1.65 V under a constant current mode), the vanadium ion valence did not reach V(V) in the catholyte and did not reach V(II) in the anolyte. Consequently, the state of charge (SOC) for the VRB cell was only 82%, far below the desired 100% SOC. Thus, such incompletely charged mix electrolytes results in not only wasting the electrolytes but also decreasing the cell performance in the following cycles. On the basis of our study, we proposed a new charge-discharge profile (first charged at a constant current mode up to 1.65 V and then continuously charged at a constant voltage mode until the capacity was close to the theoretical value) for the first charge process that achieved 100% SOC after the initial charge process. Utilizing this new charge-discharge profile, the theoretical charge capacity and the full utilization of electrolytes has been achieved, thus having a significant impact on the cost reduction of the electrolytes in VRB. PMID:25191695

  7. Dopant activation in Sn-doped Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Siah, S. C. Brandt, R. E.; Jaramillo, R.; Buonassisi, T.; Lim, K.; Schelhas, L. T.; Toney, M. F.; Heinemann, M. D.; Chua, D.; Gordon, R. G.; Wright, J.; Segre, C. U.; Perkins, J. D.

    2015-12-21

    Doping activity in both beta-phase (β-) and amorphous (a-) Sn-doped gallium oxide (Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Sn) is investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). A single crystal of β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Sn grown using edge-defined film-fed growth at 1725 °C is compared with amorphous Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Sn films deposited at low temperature (<300 °C). Our XAS analyses indicate that activated Sn dopant atoms in conductive single crystal β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Sn are present as Sn{sup 4+}, preferentially substituting for Ga at the octahedral site, as predicted by theoretical calculations. In contrast, inactive Sn atoms in resistive a-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Sn are present in either +2 or +4 charge states depending on growth conditions. These observations suggest the importance of growing Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Sn at high temperature to obtain a crystalline phase and controlling the oxidation state of Sn during growth to achieve dopant activation.

  8. Investigation of a porous NiSi2/Si composite anode material used for lithium-ion batteries by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Dong; Jia, Haiping; Rana, Jatinkumar; Placke, Tobias; Klöpsch, Richard; Schumacher, Gerhard; Winter, Martin; Banhart, John

    2016-08-01

    Local structural changes in a porous NiSi2/Si composite anode material are investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. It is observed that the NiSi2 phase shows a strong metal-metal bond character and no clear changes can be observed in XANES during lithiation and de-lithiation. The variation of the number of nearest neighbors of the Ni atom for the 1st coordinate Ni-Si shell and σ2 in the 1st cycle, both determined by refinement, demonstrates that NiSi2 can partially react with lithium during discharge and charge. A partially reversible non-stoichiometric compound NiSi2-y is formed during cell operation, the crystal structure of which is the same as that of the NiSi2 phase. It can be concluded that NiSi2 in the composite not only accommodates the pronounced volume changes caused by the lithium uptake into silicon, but also contributes to the reversible capacity of the cell.

  9. In situ X-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy investigation of the state of charge of all-vanadium redox flow batteries.

    PubMed

    Jia, Chuankun; Liu, Qi; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Yang, Fan; Ren, Yang; Heald, Steve M; Liu, Yadong; Li, Zhe-Fei; Lu, Wenquan; Xie, Jian

    2014-10-22

    Synchrotron-based in situ X-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy (XANES) has been used to study the valence state evolution of the vanadium ion for both the catholyte and anolyte in all-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRB) under realistic cycling conditions. The results indicate that, when using the widely used charge-discharge profile during the first charge process (charging the VRB cell to 1.65 V under a constant current mode), the vanadium ion valence did not reach V(V) in the catholyte and did not reach V(II) in the anolyte. Consequently, the state of charge (SOC) for the VRB cell was only 82%, far below the desired 100% SOC. Thus, such incompletely charged mix electrolytes results in not only wasting the electrolytes but also decreasing the cell performance in the following cycles. On the basis of our study, we proposed a new charge-discharge profile (first charged at a constant current mode up to 1.65 V and then continuously charged at a constant voltage mode until the capacity was close to the theoretical value) for the first charge process that achieved 100% SOC after the initial charge process. Utilizing this new charge-discharge profile, the theoretical charge capacity and the full utilization of electrolytes has been achieved, thus having a significant impact on the cost reduction of the electrolytes in VRB.

  10. High-resolution X-ray absorption spectroscopy as a probe of crystal-field and covalency effects in actinide compounds.

    PubMed

    Butorin, Sergei M; Kvashnina, Kristina O; Vegelius, Johan R; Meyer, Daniel; Shuh, David K

    2016-07-19

    Applying the high-energy resolution fluorescence-detection (HERFD) mode of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), we were able to probe, for the first time to our knowledge, the crystalline electric field (CEF) splittings of the [Formula: see text] shell directly in the HERFD-XAS spectra of actinides. Using ThO2 as an example, data measured at the Th 3d edge were interpreted within the framework of the Anderson impurity model. Because the charge-transfer satellites were also resolved in the HERFD-XAS spectra, the analysis of these satellites revealed that ThO2 is not an ionic compound as previously believed. The Th [Formula: see text] occupancy in the ground state was estimated to be twice that of the Th [Formula: see text] states. We demonstrate that HERFD-XAS allows for characterization of the CEF interaction and degree of covalency in the ground state of actinide compounds as it is extensively done for 3d transition metal systems. PMID:27370799

  11. Time-Resolved Investigation of Cobalt Oxidation by Mn(III)-Rich δ-MnO2 Using Quick X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Simanova, Anna A; Peña, Jasquelin

    2015-09-15

    Manganese oxides are important environmental oxidants that control the fate of many organic and inorganic species including cobalt. We applied ex situ quick X-ray absorption spectroscopy (QXAS) to determine the time evolution of Co(II) and Co(III) surface loadings and their respective average surface speciation in Mn(III)-rich δ-MnO2 samples at pH 6.5 and loadings of 0.01-0.20 mol Co mol(-1) Mn. In this Mn oxide, which contained few unoccupied vacancies but abundant Mn(III) at edge and interlayer sites, Co(II) sorption and oxidation started at the particle edges. We found no evidence for Co(II) oxidation by interlayer Mn(III) or Mn(III, IV) adjacent to vacancy sites at <10 min. After 10 min, basal surface sites were implicated due to slow Co oxidation by interlayer Mn(III) and reactive sites formed upon removal of interlayer Mn(III), such that 50-60% of the sorbed Co was incorporated into the MnO2 sheets or adsorbed at vacancy sites by 12 h. Our findings indicate that the redox reactivity of surface sites depends on Mn valence and crystallographic location, with Mn(III) at the edges being the most effective oxidant at short reaction times and Mn(III,IV) in the MnO2 sheet contributing at longer reaction times.

  12. The Ancient Wood of the Acqualadrone Rostrum: A Materials History Through GC-MS and Sulfur X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Patrick; Caruso, Francesco; Caponetti, Eugenio

    2012-01-01

    In 2008 the rostrum from an ancient warship was recovered from the Mediterranean near Acqualadrone, Sicily. To establish its provenance and condition, samples of black and brown rostrum wood were examined using sulfur K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and GC-MS. GC-MS of pyrolytic volatiles yielded only guaiacyl derivatives, indicating construction from pinewood. A derivatized extract of black wood yielded forms of abietic acid and sandaracopimaric acid consistent with pine pitch waterproofing. Numerical fits to the sulfur K-edge XAS spectra showed that about 65% of the endogenous sulfur consisted of thiols and disulfides. Elemental sulfur was about 2% and 7% in black and brown wood, respectively, while pyritic sulfur was about 12% and 6%. About 2% of the sulfur in both wood types was modeled as trimethylsulfonium, possibly reflecting biogenic dimethylsulfonio-propionate. High valent sulfur was exclusively represented by sulfate esters, consistent with bacterial sulfotransferase activity. Traces of chloride were detected, but no free sulfate ion. In summary, the rostrum was manufactured of pine wood and subsequently waterproofed with pine pitch. The subsequent 2300 years included battle, foundering, and marine burial followed by anoxia, bacterial colonization, sulfate reduction, and mobilization of transition metals, which produced pyrite and copious appended sulfur functionality. PMID:22545724

  13. Copper Nanoparticle Induced Cytotoxicity to Nitrifying Bacteria in Wastewater Treatment: A Mechanistic Copper Speciation Study by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Clar, Justin G; Li, Xuan; Impellitteri, Christopher A; Bennett-Stamper, Christina; Luxton, Todd P

    2016-09-01

    With the inclusion of engineered nanomaterials in industrial processes and consumer products, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) could serve as a major sink for these emerging contaminants. Previous research has demonstrated that nanomaterials are potentially toxic to microbial communities utilized in biological wastewater treatment (BWT). Copper-based nanoparticles (CuNPs) are of particular interest based on their increasing use in wood treatment, paints, household products, coatings, and byproducts of semiconductor manufacturing. A critical step in BWT is nutrient removal through nitrification. This study examined the potential toxicity of uncoated and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-coated CuO, and Cu2O nanoparticles, as well as Cu ions to microbial communities responsible for nitrification in BWT. Inhibition was inferred from changes to the specific oxygen uptake rate (sOUR) in the absence and presence of Cu ions and CuNPs. X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, with linear combination fitting (LCF), was utilized to track changes to Cu speciation throughout exposure. Results indicate that the dissolution of Cu ions from CuNPs drive microbial inhibition. The presence of a PVP coating on CuNPs has little effect on inhibition. LCF analysis of the biomass combined with metal partitioning analysis supports the current hypothesis that Cu-induced cytotoxicity is primarily caused by reactive oxygen species formed from ionic Cu in solution via catalytic reaction intermediated by reduced Cu(I) species. PMID:27466862

  14. Electronic defect states at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterointerface revealed by O K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Palina, Natalia; Annadi, Anil; Asmara, Teguh Citra; Diao, Caozheng; Yu, Xiaojiang; Breese, Mark B H; Venkatesan, T; Ariando; Rusydi, Andrivo

    2016-05-18

    Interfaces of two dissimilar complex oxides exhibit exotic physical properties that are absent in their parent compounds. Of particular interest is insulating LaAlO3 films on an insulating SrTiO3 substrate, where transport measurements have shown a metal-insulator transition as a function of LaAlO3 thickness. Their origin has become the subject of intense research, yet a unifying consensus remains elusive. Here, we report evidence for the electronic reconstruction in both insulating and conducting LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterointerfaces revealed by O K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. For the insulating samples, the O K-edge XAS spectrum exhibits features characteristic of electronically active point defects identified as noninteger valence states of Ti. For conducting samples, a new shape-resonance at ∼540.5 eV, characteristic of molecular-like oxygen (empty O-2p band), is observed. This implies that the concentration of electronic defects has increased in proportion with LaAlO3 thickness. For larger defect concentrations, the electronic defect states are no longer localized at the Ti orbitals and exhibit pronounced O 2p-O 2p character. Our results demonstrate that, above a critical thickness, the delocalization of O 2p electronic states can be linked to the presence of oxygen vacancies and is responsible for the enhancement of conductivity at the oxide heterointerfaces.

  15. Characterizing phosphorus speciation of Chesapeake Bay sediments using chemical extraction, 31P NMR, and X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Joshi, Sunendra R; Hou, Guangjin; Burdige, David J; Sparks, Donald L; Jaisi, Deb P

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient contamination has been one of the lingering issues in the Chesapeake Bay because the bay restoration is complicated by temporally and seasonally variable nutrient sources and complex interaction between imported and regenerated nutrients. Differential reactivity of sedimentary phosphorus (P) pools in response to imposed biogeochemical conditions can record past sediment history and therefore a detailed sediment P speciation may provide information on P cycling particularly the stability of a P pool and the formation of one pool at the expense of another. This study examined sediment P speciation from three sites in the Chesapeake Bay: (i) a North site in the upstream bay, (ii) a middle site in the central bay dominated by seasonally hypoxic bottom water, and (iii) a South site at the bay-ocean boundary using a combination of sequential P extraction (SEDEX) and spectroscopic techniques, including (31)P NMR, P X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES), and Fe extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). Results from sequential P extraction reveal that sediment P is composed predominantly of ferric Fe-bound P and authigenic P, which was further confirmed by solid-state (31)P NMR, XANES, and EXAFS analyses. Additionally, solution (31)P NMR results show that the sediments from the middle site contain high amounts of organic P such as monoesters and diesters, compared to the other two sites, but that these compounds rapidly decrease with sediment depth indicating remineralized P could have precipitated as authigenic P. Fe EXAFS enabled to identify the changes in Fe mineral composition and P sinks in response to imposed redox condition in the middle site sediments. The presence of lepidocrocite, vermiculite, and Fe smectite in the middle site sediments indicates that some ferric Fe minerals can still be present along with pyrite and vivianite, and that ferric Fe-bound P pool can be a major P sink in anoxic sediments. These results provide

  16. Characterizing phosphorus speciation of Chesapeake Bay sediments using chemical extraction, 31P NMR, and X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Joshi, Sunendra R; Hou, Guangjin; Burdige, David J; Sparks, Donald L; Jaisi, Deb P

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient contamination has been one of the lingering issues in the Chesapeake Bay because the bay restoration is complicated by temporally and seasonally variable nutrient sources and complex interaction between imported and regenerated nutrients. Differential reactivity of sedimentary phosphorus (P) pools in response to imposed biogeochemical conditions can record past sediment history and therefore a detailed sediment P speciation may provide information on P cycling particularly the stability of a P pool and the formation of one pool at the expense of another. This study examined sediment P speciation from three sites in the Chesapeake Bay: (i) a North site in the upstream bay, (ii) a middle site in the central bay dominated by seasonally hypoxic bottom water, and (iii) a South site at the bay-ocean boundary using a combination of sequential P extraction (SEDEX) and spectroscopic techniques, including (31)P NMR, P X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES), and Fe extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). Results from sequential P extraction reveal that sediment P is composed predominantly of ferric Fe-bound P and authigenic P, which was further confirmed by solid-state (31)P NMR, XANES, and EXAFS analyses. Additionally, solution (31)P NMR results show that the sediments from the middle site contain high amounts of organic P such as monoesters and diesters, compared to the other two sites, but that these compounds rapidly decrease with sediment depth indicating remineralized P could have precipitated as authigenic P. Fe EXAFS enabled to identify the changes in Fe mineral composition and P sinks in response to imposed redox condition in the middle site sediments. The presence of lepidocrocite, vermiculite, and Fe smectite in the middle site sediments indicates that some ferric Fe minerals can still be present along with pyrite and vivianite, and that ferric Fe-bound P pool can be a major P sink in anoxic sediments. These results provide

  17. Characterization of functionalized self-assembled monolayers and surface-attached interlocking molecules using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willey, Trevor Michael

    Quantitative knowledge of the fundamental structure and substrate binding, as well as the direct measurement of conformational changes, are essential to the development of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and surface-attached interlocking molecules, catenanes and rotaxanes. These monolayers are vital to development of nano-mechanical, molecular electronic, and biological/chemical sensor applications. This dissertation investigates properties of functionalized SAMs in sulfur-gold based adsorbed molecular monolayers using quantitative spectroscopic techniques including near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The stability of the gold-thiolate interface is addressed. A simple model SAM consisting of dodecanethiol adsorbed on Au(111) degrades significantly in less than 24 hours under ambient laboratory air. S 2p and O 1s XPS show the gold-bound thiolates oxidize to sulfinates and sulfonates. A reduction of organic material on the surface and a decrease in order are observed as the layer degrades. The effect of the carboxyl vs. carboxylate functionalization on SAM structure is investigated. Carboxyl-terminated layers consisting of long alkyl-chain thiols vs. thioctic acid with short, sterically separated, alkyl groups are compared and contrasted. NEXAFS shows a conformational change, or chemical switchability, with carboxyl groups tilted over and carboxylate endgroups more upright. Surface-attached loops and simple surface-attached rotaxanes are quantitatively characterized, and preparation conditions that lead to desired films are outlined. A dithiol is often insufficient to form a molecular species bound at each end to the substrate, while a structurally related disulfide-containing polymer yields surface-attached loops. Similarly, spectroscopic techniques show the successful production of a simple, surface-attached rotaxane that requires a "molecular riveting" step to hold the mechanically attached

  18. Characterization of Functionalized Self-Assembled Monolayers and Surface-Attached Interlocking Molecules Using Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Willey, Trevor M.

    2004-04-01

    Quantitative knowledge of the fundamental structure and substrate binding, as well as the direct measurement of conformational changes, are essential to the development of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and surface-attached interlocking molecules, catenanes and rotaxanes. These monolayers are vital to development of nano-mechanical, molecular electronic, and biological/chemical sensor applications. This dissertation investigates properties of functionalized SAMs in sulfur-gold based adsorbed molecular monolayers using quantitative spectroscopic techniques including near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The stability of the gold-thiolate interface is addressed. A simple model SAM consisting of dodecanethiol adsorbed on Au(111) degrades significantly in less than 24 hours under ambient laboratory air. S 2p and O 1s XPS show the gold-bound thiolates oxidize to sulfinates and sulfonates. A reduction of organic material on the surface and a decrease in order are observed as the layer degrades. The effect of the carboxyl vs. carboxylate functionalization on SAM structure is investigated. Carboxyl-terminated layers consisting of long alkyl-chain thiols vs. thioctic acid with short, sterically separated, alkyl groups are compared and contrasted. NEXAFS shows a conformational change, or chemical switchability, with carboxyl groups tilted over and carboxylate endgroups more upright. Surface-attached loops and simple surface-attached rotaxanes are quantitatively characterized, and preparation conditions that lead to desired films are outlined. A dithiol is often insufficient to form a molecular species bound at each end to the substrate, while a structurally related disulfide-containing polymer yields surface-attached loops. Similarly, spectroscopic techniques show the successful production of a simple, surface-attached rotaxane that requires a ''molecular riveting'' step to hold the mechanically attached

  19. Performance and characteristics of a high pressure, high temperature capillary cell with facile construction for operando x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bansode, Atul; Guilera, Gemma; Cuartero, Vera; Simonelli, Laura; Avila, Marta; Urakawa, Atsushi

    2014-08-01

    We demonstrate the use of commercially available fused silica capillary and fittings to construct a cell for operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) for the study of heterogeneously catalyzed reactions under high pressure (up to 200 bars) and high temperature (up to 280 °C) conditions. As the first demonstration, the cell was used for CO2 hydrogenation reaction to examine the state of copper in a conventional Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 methanol synthesis catalyst. The active copper component of the catalyst was shown to remain in the metallic state under supercritical reaction conditions, at 200 bars and up to 260 °C. With the coiled heating system around the capillary, one can easily change the length of the capillary and control the amount of catalyst under investigation. With precise control of reactant(s) flow, the cell can mimic and serve as a conventional fixed-bed micro-reactor system to obtain reliable catalytic data. This high comparability of the reaction performance of the cell and laboratory reactors is crucial to gain insights into the nature of actual active sites under technologically relevant reaction conditions. The large length of the capillary can cause its bending upon heating when it is only fixed at both ends because of the thermal expansion. The degree of the bending can vary depending on the heating mode, and solutions to this problem are also presented. Furthermore, the cell is suitable for Raman studies, nowadays available at several beamlines for combined measurements. A concise study of CO2 phase behavior by Raman spectroscopy is presented to demonstrate a potential of the cell for combined XAS-Raman studies.

  20. Simulating Ru L3-edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy with Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory: Model Complexes and Electron Localization in Mixed-Valence Metal Dimers

    SciTech Connect

    Van Kuiken, Benjamin E.; Valiev, Marat; Daifuku, Stephanie L.; Bannan, Caitlin; Strader, Matthew L.; Cho, Hana; Huse, N.; Schoenlein, R. W.; Govind, Niranjan; Khalil, Munira

    2013-05-01

    Ruthenium L2,3-edge X-ray absorption (XA) spectroscopy probes transitions from core 2p orbitals to the 4d levels of the atom and is a powerful tool for interrogating the local electronic and molecular structure around the metal atom. However, a molecular-level interpretation of the Ru L2,3-edge spectral lineshapes is often complicated by spin–orbit coupling (SOC) and multiplet effects. In this study, we develop spin-free time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) as a viable and predictive tool to simulate the Ru L3-edge spectra. We successfully simulate and analyze the ground state Ru L3-edge XA spectra of a series of RuII and RuIII complexes: [Ru(NH3)6]2+/3+, [Ru(CN)6]4-/3-, [RuCl6]4-/3-, and the ground (1A1) and photoexcited (3MLCT) transient states of [Ru(bpy)3]2+ and Ru(dcbpy)2(NCS)2 (termed N3). The TDDFT simulations reproduce all the experimentally observed features in Ru L3-edge XA spectra. The advantage of using TDDFT to assign complicated Ru L3-edge spectra is illustrated by its ability to identify ligand specific charge transfer features in complex molecules. We conclude that the B3LYP functional is the most reliable functional for accurately predicting the location of charge transfer features in these spectra. Experimental and simulated Ru L3-edge XA spectra are presented for the transition metal mixed-valence dimers [(NC)5MII-CN-RuIII(NH3)5]- (where M = Fe or Ru) dissolved in water. We explore the spectral signatures of electron delocalization in Ru L3-edge XA spectroscopy and our simulations reveal that the inclusion of explicit solvent molecules is crucial for reproducing the experimentally determined valencies, highlighting the importance of the role of the solvent in transition metal charge transfer chemistry.

  1. [Effects of long-term fertilization on organic carbon functional groups in black soil as revealed by synchrotron radiation soft X-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Qing-He; Dong, Pei-Bo; Li, Cui-Lan; Zhang, Jin-Jing; Gao, Qiang; Zhao, Yi-Dong

    2012-10-01

    A 20 years (1984-2004) stationary field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of long-term application of chemical fertilizers (N or NPK) alone or in combination with low (0.125 kg x hm(-2)) or high dose of corn stalk (0.25 kg x hm(-2)) on organic carbon functional groups in black soil using synchrotron radiation soft X-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy (C-1s NEXAFS). Compared with the control (CK) treatment, the aromatic C and the carboxyl C of soil increased, whereas the aliphatic C, the carbonyl C and the aliphatic C/aromatic C ratio decreased after the application of chemical fertilizer alone. After the application of chemical fertilizations in combined with corn stalk, the aromatic C decreased while the aliphatic C and the aliphatic C/aromatic C ratio increased as compared to N or NPK fertilizer treatment. And the change tendency was more obvious with the increase in the dose of corn stalk applied. Regardless of corn stalk application, the aromatic C, the aliphatic C, and the aliphatic C/aromatic C ratio were all higher for NPK than for N fertilizer treatment. The above results indicated that, compared with the no-fertilizer control treatment, the application of chemical fertilizers alone resulted in the relative proportion of aromatic compounds increased whereas that of aliphatic hydrocarbon compounds decreased. On the other hand, the relative proportion of the aliphatic hydrocarbon compounds was higher after the application of chemical fertilizers with than without corn stalk, with high than with low dose of corn stalk, and with NPK than with N fertilization. C-1s NEXAFS spectroscopy could characterize in situ the changes of organic carbon functional groups in soil under long-term stationary fertilization.

  2. The structure of genetically modified iron-sulfur cluster F(x) in photosystem I as determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiao-Min; Hochman, Yehoshua; Lev, Tal; Bunker, Grant; Carmeli, Chanoch

    2009-02-01

    Photosystem I (PS I) mediates light-induced electron transfer from P700 through a chlorophyll a, a quinone and a [4Fe-4S] iron-sulfur cluster F(X), located on the core subunits PsaA/B to iron-sulfur clusters F(A/B) on subunit PsaC. Structure function relations in the native and in the mutant (psaB-C565S/D566E) of the cysteine ligand of F(X) cluster were studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS) and transient spectroscopy. The structure of F(X) was determined in PS I lacking clusters F(A/B) by interruption of the psaC2 gene of PS I in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp PCC 6803. PsaC-deficient mutant cells assembled the core subunits of PS I which mediated electron transfer mostly to the phylloquinone. EXAFS analysis of the iron resolved a [4Fe-4S] cluster in the native PsaC-deficient PS I. Each iron had 4 sulfur and 3 iron atoms in the first and second shells with average Fe-S and Fe-Fe distances of 2.27 A and 2.69 A, respectively. In the C565S/D566E serine mutant, one of the irons of the cluster was ligated to three oxygen atoms with Fe-O distance of 1.81 A. The possibility that the structural changes induced an increase in the reorganization energy that consequently decreased the rate of electron transfer from the phylloquinone to F(X) is discussed.

  3. Performance and characteristics of a high pressure, high temperature capillary cell with facile construction for operando x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bansode, Atul; Guilera, Gemma; Cuartero, Vera; Simonelli, Laura; Avila, Marta; Urakawa, Atsushi

    2014-08-01

    We demonstrate the use of commercially available fused silica capillary and fittings to construct a cell for operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) for the study of heterogeneously catalyzed reactions under high pressure (up to 200 bars) and high temperature (up to 280 °C) conditions. As the first demonstration, the cell was used for CO2 hydrogenation reaction to examine the state of copper in a conventional Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 methanol synthesis catalyst. The active copper component of the catalyst was shown to remain in the metallic state under supercritical reaction conditions, at 200 bars and up to 260 °C. With the coiled heating system around the capillary, one can easily change the length of the capillary and control the amount of catalyst under investigation. With precise control of reactant(s) flow, the cell can mimic and serve as a conventional fixed-bed micro-reactor system to obtain reliable catalytic data. This high comparability of the reaction performance of the cell and laboratory reactors is crucial to gain insights into the nature of actual active sites under technologically relevant reaction conditions. The large length of the capillary can cause its bending upon heating when it is only fixed at both ends because of the thermal expansion. The degree of the bending can vary depending on the heating mode, and solutions to this problem are also presented. Furthermore, the cell is suitable for Raman studies, nowadays available at several beamlines for combined measurements. A concise study of CO2 phase behavior by Raman spectroscopy is presented to demonstrate a potential of the cell for combined XAS-Raman studies. PMID:25173285

  4. Performance and characteristics of a high pressure, high temperature capillary cell with facile construction for operando x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansode, Atul; Guilera, Gemma; Cuartero, Vera; Simonelli, Laura; Avila, Marta; Urakawa, Atsushi

    2014-08-01

    We demonstrate the use of commercially available fused silica capillary and fittings to construct a cell for operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) for the study of heterogeneously catalyzed reactions under high pressure (up to 200 bars) and high temperature (up to 280 °C) conditions. As the first demonstration, the cell was used for CO2 hydrogenation reaction to examine the state of copper in a conventional Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 methanol synthesis catalyst. The active copper component of the catalyst was shown to remain in the metallic state under supercritical reaction conditions, at 200 bars and up to 260 °C. With the coiled heating system around the capillary, one can easily change the length of the capillary and control the amount of catalyst under investigation. With precise control of reactant(s) flow, the cell can mimic and serve as a conventional fixed-bed micro-reactor system to obtain reliable catalytic data. This high comparability of the reaction performance of the cell and laboratory reactors is crucial to gain insights into the nature of actual active sites under technologically relevant reaction conditions. The large length of the capillary can cause its bending upon heating when it is only fixed at both ends because of the thermal expansion. The degree of the bending can vary depending on the heating mode, and solutions to this problem are also presented. Furthermore, the cell is suitable for Raman studies, nowadays available at several beamlines for combined measurements. A concise study of CO2 phase behavior by Raman spectroscopy is presented to demonstrate a potential of the cell for combined XAS-Raman studies.

  5. Carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy and time-dependent density functional theory examination of metal-carbon bonding in metallocene dichlorides.

    PubMed

    Minasian, Stefan G; Keith, Jason M; Batista, Enrique R; Boland, Kevin S; Kozimor, Stosh A; Martin, Richard L; Shuh, David K; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Vernon, Louis J

    2013-10-01

    Metal-carbon covalence in (C5H5)2MCl2 (M = Ti, Zr, Hf) has been evaluated using carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) as well as ground-state and time-dependent hybrid density functional theory (DFT and TDDFT). Differences in orbital mixing were determined experimentally using transmission XAS of thin crystalline material with a scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM). Moving down the periodic table (Ti to Hf) has a marked effect on the experimental transition intensities associated with the low-lying antibonding 1a1* and 1b2* orbitals. The peak intensities, which are directly related to the M-(C5H5) orbital mixing coefficients, increase from 0.08(1) and 0.26(3) for (C5H5)2TiCl2 to 0.31(3) and 0.75(8) for (C5H5)2ZrCl2, and finally to 0.54(5) and 0.83(8) for (C5H5)2HfCl2. The experimental trend toward increased peak intensity for transitions associated with 1a1* and 1b2* orbitals agrees with the calculated TDDFT oscillator strengths [0.10 and 0.21, (C5H5)2TiCl2; 0.21 and 0.73, (C5H5)2ZrCl2; 0.35 and 0.69, (C5H5)2HfCl2] and with the amount of C 2p character obtained from the Mulliken populations for the antibonding 1a1* and 1b2* orbitals [8.2 and 23.4%, (C5H5)2TiCl2; 15.3 and 39.7%, (C5H5)2ZrCl2; 20.1 and 50.9%, (C5H5)2HfCl2]. The excellent agreement between experiment, theory, and recent Cl K-edge XAS and DFT measurements shows that C 2p orbital mixing is enhanced for the diffuse Hf (5d) and Zr (4d) atomic orbitals in relation to the more localized Ti (3d) orbitals. These results provide insight into how changes in M-Cl orbital mixing within the metallocene wedge are correlated with periodic trends in covalent bonding between the metal and the cyclopentadienide ancillary ligands.

  6. Quick-scanning x-ray absorption spectroscopy system with a servo-motor-driven channel-cut monochromator with a temporal resolution of 10 ms

    SciTech Connect

    Nonaka, T.; Dohmae, K.; Araki, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Hirose, Y.; Uruga, T.; Yamazaki, H.; Tanida, H.; Goto, S.

    2012-08-15

    We have developed a quick-scanning x-ray absorption fine structure (QXAFS) system and installed it at the recently constructed synchrotron radiation beamline BL33XU at the SPring-8. Rapid acquisition of high-quality QXAFS data was realized by combining a servo-motor-driven Si channel-cut monochromator with a tapered undulator. Two tandemly aligned monochromators with channel-cut Si(111) and Si(220) crystals covered energy ranges of 4.0-28.2 keV and 6.6-46.0 keV, respectively. The system allows the users to adjust instantly the energy ranges of scans, the starting angles of oscillations, and the frequencies. The channel-cut crystals are cooled with liquid nitrogen to enable them to withstand the high heat load from the undulator radiation. Deformation of the reflecting planes is reduced by clamping each crystal with two cooling blocks. Performance tests at the Cu K-edge demonstrated sufficiently high data quality for x-ray absorption near-edge structure and extended x-ray absorption fine-structure analyses with temporal resolutions of up to 10 and 25 ms, respectively.

  7. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Zinc in Airborne Particulate Matter Shows Tire Debris Concentrated in > 0.5 μm Fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingitore, N. E.; Clague, J. W.; Gill, T. E.; Amaya, M. A.; Cahill, T. A.

    2009-12-01

    Using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), we speciated Zn in size-resolved fractions of particulate matter (PM) from El Paso, Texas. Spectral patterns indicated that Zn in tire debris is the dominant form of Zn in PM coarser than 0.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter. Although concentrated in the > 0.5 μm fraction, a large portion of the tire debris in PM is small enough to penetrate and deposit in the lower respiratory tract. We collected 3 sets of size-resolved samples of airborne particulate matter (PM) over periods of several days to several weeks in November 2008, and April and May 2009. Local PM compositions typically are dominated by anthropogenic input in November and geologic sources in April, and a mixture in May. The collection site is in the urban core of El Paso, TX, contiguous to the University of Texas at El Paso, 0.6 km from Interstate Highway 10, 0.4 km from State Highway 20, and 1 km from Cd. Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico. The DRUM sampler (Davis Rotating Uniform size-cut Monitor) employs a rotating Lundgren-type impactor, draws 10 l per minute, and deposits PM on plastic strips mounted on rotating drums. The sampler collected and segregated ambient PM into 8 size cuts: 12-5 μm, 5-2.5, 2.5-1.15, 1.15-0.75, 0.75-0.56, 0.56-0.34, 0.34-0.26, and 0.26-0.09. We conducted the X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) experiments at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource on beam line 7-3. Spectra of the 24 samples of PM and numerous model compounds were collected at the Zn K absorption edge in fluorescence mode using a 30-element Ge solid-state detector. The overall spectral patterns from the 3 seasons were similar to one another. But strikingly, each set of 8 XAS spectra displayed an obvious change in the Zn speciation at the 0.56-0.75 μm size cut. We compared the PM spectra to those of our suite of known model compounds and materials. The spectral pattern of the coarser size cuts was quite similar to those of the tires we tested. The Zn in the tires

  8. Formation of an SEI on a LiMn(2)O(4) Cathode during Room Temperature Charge-Discharge Cycling Studied by Soft X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy at the Fluorine K-edge

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, K.Y.; Yang, X.; Yoon, W.-S.; Kim, K.-B.; Cho, B.-W.

    2011-11-01

    The solid electrolyte interface (SEI) formation on the surface of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} electrodes during room temperature charge-discharge cycling was studied using soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Fluorine (F) K-edge. LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} electrodes without any binder were prepared by electrostatic spray deposition to eliminate the signal originating from the PVDF binder in the F K-edge X-ray absorption spectra. The F K-edge absorption spectra show that the SEI layer forms at a very early stage of cycling. SEI growth takes place during discharge. In addition, LiF formation is accelerated if the discharge step follows a charge step. The F K-edge absorption spectra suggest that the major component of the SEI is LiF.

  9. X-ray Spectroscopy of Cooling Cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.R.; Fabian, A.C.; /Cambridge U., Inst. of Astron.

    2006-01-17

    We review the X-ray spectra of the cores of clusters of galaxies. Recent high resolution X-ray spectroscopic observations have demonstrated a severe deficit of emission at the lowest X-ray temperatures as compared to that expected from simple radiative cooling models. The same observations have provided compelling evidence that the gas in the cores is cooling below half the maximum temperature. We review these results, discuss physical models of cooling clusters, and describe the X-ray instrumentation and analysis techniques used to make these observations. We discuss several viable mechanisms designed to cancel or distort the expected process of X-ray cluster cooling.

  10. Biogeochemical reductive release of soil embedded arsenate around a crater area (Guandu) in northern Taiwan using X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kai-Ying; Chen, Tsan-Yao; Lee, Chih-Hao; Lin, Tsang-Lang; Wang, Ming-Kuang; Jang, Ling-Yun; Lee, Jyh-Fu

    2013-03-01

    This study investigates biogeochemical reductive release of arsenate from beudantite into solution in a crater area in northern Taiwan, using a combination of X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and atomic absorption spectrometry. Total arsenic (As) concentrations in the soil were more than 200 mg/kg. Over four months of laboratory experiments, less than 0.8% As was released into solution after reduction experiments. The 71% to 83% As was chemically reduced into arsenite (As(III)) and partially weathering into the soluble phase. The kinetic dissolution and re-precipitation of As, Fe, Pb and sulfate in this area of paddy soils merits further study.

  11. Biogeochemical reductive release of soil embedded arsenate around a crater area (Guandu) in northern Taiwan using X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kai-Ying; Chen, Tsan-Yao; Lee, Chih-Hao; Lin, Tsang-Lang; Wang, Ming-Kuang; Jang, Ling-Yun; Lee, Jyh-Fu

    2013-03-01

    This study investigates biogeochemical reductive release of arsenate from beudantite into solution in a crater area in northern Taiwan, using a combination of X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and atomic absorption spectrometry. Total arsenic (As) concentrations in the soil were more than 200 mg/kg. Over four months of laboratory experiments, less than 0.8% As was released into solution after reduction experiments. The 71% to 83% As was chemically reduced into arsenite (As(III)) and partially weathering into the soluble phase. The kinetic dissolution and re-precipitation of As, Fe, Pb and sulfate in this area of paddy soils merits further study. PMID:23923437

  12. Synchrotron x-ray fluorescence and extended x-ray absorption fine structure analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.R.; Gordon, B.M.; Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.; Kraner, H.W.; Chao, E.C.T.; Minkin, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The advent of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has led to a significant increase in activity in many areas of science dealing with the interaction of x-rays with matter. Synchrotron radiation provides intense, linearly polarized, naturally collimated, continuously tunable photon beams, which are used to determine not only the elemental composition of a complex, polyatomic, dilute material but also the chemical form of the elements with improved accuracy. Examples of the application of synchrotron radiation include experiments in synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SXRF) analysis and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis. New synchrotron radiation x-ray microprobes for elemental analysis in the parts per billion range are under construction at several laboratories. 76 references, 24 figures.

  13. X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of parent misfit-layered cobalt oxide [Sr₂O₂]q}CoO₂

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Ta-Lei; Chan, Ting-Shan; Chen, Jin-Ming; Yamauchi, Hisao; Karppinen, Maarit

    2013-06-01

    Here we present a comprehensive X-ray absorption spectroscopy study carried out at Co-L₂,₃, Co-K, O-K and Sr-K edges for the parent misfit-layered cobalt oxide phase [Sr₂O₂]₀.₅₂CoO₂; comparison is made to another misfit-layered oxide [CoCa₂O₃]₀.₆₂CoO₂ and the perovskite oxide LaCoO₃. A high-quality sample of [Sr₂O₂]₀.₅₂CoO₂ was obtained through ultra-high-pressure synthesis using Sr₃Co₂O₆ and Sr(OH)₂∙8H₂O as starting materials. Different dosages of KClO₃ were mixed with the raw materials as an oxygen source and tested, but it was found that the window for the redox control of [Sr₂O₂]₀.₅₂CoO₂ is rather narrow. From Co-K and Co-L₂,₃ spectra a mixed III/IV valence state is revealed for cobalt in [Sr₂O₂]₀.₅₂}CoO₂, but the average valence value is a little lower than in [CoCa₂O₃]₀.₆₂CoO₂. Then, Sr-K spectrum indicates that the [Sr₂O₂] double-layer block in [Sr₂O₂]₀.₅₂CoO₂ clearly deviates from the cubic SrO rock-salt structure, suggesting a more complicated coordination environment for strontium. This together with a somewhat low Co-valence value and the fact that the phase formation of [Sr₂O₂]₀.₅₂CoO₂ required the presence of Sr(OH)₂∙8H₂O in the high-pressure synthesis suggest that the [Sr₂O₂] block contains ---OH groups, i.e. [Sr₂(O,OH)₂]₀.₅₂CoO₂. - Graphical abstract: [Sr₂O₂]₀.₅₂CoO₂ obtained through high-pressure synthesis is a parent of misfit-layered cobalt oxides, such as [CoCa₂O₃]₀.₆₂CoO₂ or [MmA₂O2+m]qCoO₂ in general. Our comprehensive X-ray absorption spectroscopy study shows that both [Sr₂O₂]₀.₅₂CoO₂ and [CoCa₂O₃]₀.₆₂CoO₂ possess mixed III/IV valence cobalt, but the average Co-valence is a little lower in the former. This is tentatively believed to be due to OH--- groups replacing part of O²⁻ ions in the [Sr

  14. Surface complexation and precipitate geometry for aqueous Zn(II) sorption on ferrihydrite I: X-ray absorption extended fine structure spectroscopy analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waychunas, G.A.; Fuller, C.C.; Davis, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    "Two-line" ferrihydrite samples precipitated and then exposed to a range of aqueous Zn solutions (10-5 to 10-3 M), and also coprecipitated in similar Zn solutions (pH 6.5), have been examined by Zn and Fe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Typical Zn complexes on the surface have Zn-O distances of 1.97(0.2) A?? and coordination numbers of about 4.0(0.5), consistent with tetrahedral oxygen coordination. This contrasts with Zn-O distances of 2.11(.02) A?? and coordination numbers of 6 to 7 in the aqueous Zn solutions used in sample preparation. X-ray absorption extended fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) fits to the second shell of cation neighbors indicate as many as 4 Zn-Fe neighbors at 3.44(.04) A?? in coprecipitated samples, and about two Zn-Fe neighbors at the same distance in adsorption samples. In both sets of samples, the fitted coordination number of second shell cations decreases as sorption density increases, indicating changes in the number and type of available complexing sites or the onset of competitive precipitation processes. Comparison of our results with the possible geometries for surface complexes and precipitates suggests that the Zn sorption complexes are inner sphere and at lowest adsorption densities are bidentate, sharing apical oxygens with adjacent edge-sharing Fe(O,OH)6 octahedra. Coprecipitation samples have complexes with similar geometry, but these are polydentate, sharing apices with more than two adjacent edge-sharing Fe(O,OH)6 polyhedra. The results are inconsistent with Zn entering the ferrihydrite structure (i.e., solid solution formation) or formation of other Zn-Fe precipitates. The fitted Zn-Fe coordination numbers drop with increasing Zn density with a minimum of about 0.8(.2) at Zn/(Zn + Fe) of 0.08 or more. This change appears to be attributable to the onset of precipitation of zinc hydroxide polymers with mainly tetrahedral Zn coordination. At the highest loadings studied, the nature of the complexes changes further

  15. Elucidation of the mechanism for sulfur oxidation on Pt and Pt3Co electrocatalysts using in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ramaker, D.; Gatewood, D; Garsany, Y; Korovina, A; Swider-Lyons, K

    2009-01-01

    Adsorbed sulfur is a poison to the Pt catalysts used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells, but it can be removed by potential cycling. This process is studied for S{sub x}-poisoned nanoscale Pt- and Pt{sub 3}Co- on Vulcan carbon (Pt/VC and Pt{sub 3}Co/VC) in perchloric acid electrolyte using the {Delta}{mu} adsorbate isolation technique for in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The {Delta}{mu} technique is modified to better distinguish the {Delta}{mu} signatures for H, O, and Sx on Pt. The resulting {Delta}{mu} analysis suggests that SO{sub 2} on nanoscale Pt is oxidized to bisulfate or sulfate species in two regions, near 1.05 V on the cluster edges of the Pt nanoparticle, and at higher potentials from the Pt(111) faces where oxygen is less strongly bound. The bisulfate or sulfate species desorb from the Pt surface at high potentials due to O(OH) adsorption/replacement and at low potentials due to loss of the Coulomb attraction between the bisulfate anion and the Pt. A similar oxidation process occurs for S{sub x}-poisoned Pt{sub 3}Co/VC, but at lower potentials because a ligand effect coming from Co shifts the oxidization potential of adsorbed SO{sub 2} to lower potentials while pushing OH adsorption to higher potentials. The spectroscopic results give insights into cyclic voltammetry data and are consistent with electrochemical cycling procedures for removing the sulfur.

  16. Synchrotron-based X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy imaging for laterally resolved speciation of selenium in fresh roots and leaves of wheat and rice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Menzies, Neal W.; Lombi, Enzo; McKenna, Brigid A.; James, Simon; Tang, Caixian; Kopittke, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the distribution of selenium (Se) species within plant tissues will assist in understanding the mechanisms of Se uptake and translocation, but in si