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Sample records for absorption spectrum suggesting

  1. Ultraviolet absorption spectrum of HOCl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkholder, James B.

    1993-01-01

    The room temperature UV absorption spectrum of HOCl was measured over the wavelength range 200 to 380 nm with a diode array spectrometer. The absorption spectrum was identified from UV absorption spectra recorded following UV photolysis of equilibrium mixtures of Cl2O/H2O/HOCl. The HOCl spectrum is continuous with a maximum at 242 nm and a secondary peak at 304 nm. The measured absorption cross section at 242 nm was (2.1 +/- 0.3) x 10 exp -19/sq cm (2 sigma error limits). These results are in excellent agreement with the work of Knauth et al. (1979) but in poor agreement with the more recent measurements of Mishalanie et al. (1986) and Permien et al. (1988). An HOCl nu2 infrared band intensity of 230 +/- 35/sq cm atm was determined based on this UV absorption cross section. The present results are compared with these previous measurements and the discrepancies are discussed.

  2. MULTIMAGNON ABSORPTION IN MNF2-OPTICAL ABSORPTION SPECTRUM.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The absorption spectrum of MnF2 at 4.2K in the 3900A region was measured in zero external fields and in high fields. Exciton lines with magnon ...sidebands are observed, accompanied by a large number of weak satellite lines. Results on the exciton and magnon absorptions are similar to those of...McClure et al. The satellite lines are interpreted as being multi- magnon absorptions, and it is possible to fit the energy of all the absorptions with

  3. Quantum Entanglement Molecular Absorption Spectrum Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet; Kojima, Jun

    2006-01-01

    Quantum Entanglement Molecular Absorption Spectrum Simulator (QE-MASS) is a computer program for simulating two photon molecular-absorption spectroscopy using quantum-entangled photons. More specifically, QE-MASS simulates the molecular absorption of two quantum-entangled photons generated by the spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) of a fixed-frequency photon from a laser. The two-photon absorption process is modeled via a combination of rovibrational and electronic single-photon transitions, using a wave-function formalism. A two-photon absorption cross section as a function of the entanglement delay time between the two photons is computed, then subjected to a fast Fourier transform to produce an energy spectrum. The program then detects peaks in the Fourier spectrum and displays the energy levels of very short-lived intermediate quantum states (or virtual states) of the molecule. Such virtual states were only previously accessible using ultra-fast (femtosecond) laser systems. However, with the use of a single-frequency continuous wave laser to produce SPDC photons, and QEMASS program, these short-lived molecular states can now be studied using much simpler laser systems. QE-MASS can also show the dependence of the Fourier spectrum on the tuning range of the entanglement time of any externally introduced optical-path delay time. QE-MASS can be extended to any molecule for which an appropriate spectroscopic database is available. It is a means of performing an a priori parametric analysis of entangled photon spectroscopy for development and implementation of emerging quantum-spectroscopic sensing techniques. QE-MASS is currently implemented using the Mathcad software package.

  4. Inapplicability of small-polaron model for the explanation of infrared absorption spectrum in acetanilide.

    PubMed

    Zeković, Slobodan; Ivić, Zoran

    2009-01-01

    The applicability of small-polaron model for the interpretation of infrared absorption spectrum in acetanilide has been critically reexamined. It is shown that the energy difference between the normal and anomalous peak, calculated by means of small-polaron theory, displays pronounced temperature dependence which is in drastic contradiction with experiment. It is demonstrated that self-trapped states, which are recently suggested to explain theoretically the experimental absorption spectrum in protein, cannot cause the appearance of the peaks in absorption spectrum for acetanilide.

  5. The Absorption Spectrum of Iodine Vapour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetlow, K. S.

    1972-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described which presents some molecular parameters of iodine molecule by studying iodine spectrum. Points out this experiment can be conducted by sixth form students in high school laboratories. (PS)

  6. Theoretical modeling of the absorption spectrum of aqueous riboflavin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanetti-Polzi, Laura; Aschi, Massimiliano; Daidone, Isabella; Amadei, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    In this study we report the modeling of the absorption spectrum of riboflavin in water using a hybrid quantum/classical mechanical approach, the MD-PMM methodology. By means of MD-PMM calculations, with which the effect of riboflavin internal motions and of solvent interactions on the spectroscopic properties can be explicitly taken into account, we obtain an absorption spectrum in very good agreement with the experimental spectrum. In particular, the calculated peak maxima show a consistent improvement with respect to previous computational approaches. Moreover, the calculations show that the interaction with the environment may cause a relevant recombination of the gas-phase electronic states.

  7. Plant Growth Absorption Spectrum Mimicking Light Sources

    PubMed Central

    Jou, Jwo-Huei; Lin, Ching-Chiao; Li, Tsung-Han; Li, Chieh-Ju; Peng, Shiang-Hau; Yang, Fu-Chin; Justin Thomas, K. R.; Kumar, Dhirendra; Chi, Yun; Hsu, Ban-Dar

    2015-01-01

    Plant factories have attracted increasing attention because they can produce fresh fruits and vegetables free from pesticides in all weather. However, the emission spectra from current light sources significantly mismatch the spectra absorbed by plants. We demonstrate a concept of using multiple broad-band as well as narrow-band solid-state lighting technologies to design plant-growth light sources. Take an organic light-emitting diode (OLED), for example; the resulting light source shows an 84% resemblance with the photosynthetic action spectrum as a twin-peak blue dye and a diffused mono-peak red dye are employed. This OLED can also show a greater than 90% resemblance as an additional deeper red emitter is added. For a typical LED, the resemblance can be improved to 91% if two additional blue and red LEDs are incorporated. The approach may facilitate either an ideal use of the energy applied for plant growth and/or the design of better light sources for growing different plants. PMID:28793503

  8. Solvatochromic Effects on the Absorption Spectrum of 2-Thiocytosine

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The solvatochromic effects of six different solvents on the UV absorption spectrum of 2-thiocytosine have been studied by a combination of experimental and theoretical techniques. The steady-state absorption spectra show significant shifts of the absorption bands, where in more polar solvents the first absorption maximum shifts to higher transition energies and the second maximum to lower energies. The observed solvatochromic shifts have been rationalized using three popular solvatochromic scales and with high-level multireference quantum chemistry calculations including implicit and explicit solvent effects. It has been found that the dipole moments of the excited states account for some general shifts in the excitation energies, whereas the explicit solvent interactions explain the differences in the spectra recorded in the different solvents. PMID:28452483

  9. UV absorption spectrum of allene radical cations in solid argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Chih-Hao; Lin, Meng-Yeh; Huang, Tzu-Ping; Wu, Yu-Jong

    2018-05-01

    Electron bombardment during deposition of an Ar matrix containing a small proportion of allene generated allene cations. Further irradiation of the matrix sample at 385 nm destroyed the allene cations and formed propyne cations in solid Ar. Both cations were identified according to previously reported IR absorption bands. Using a similar technique, we recorded the ultraviolet absorption spectrum of allene cations in solid Ar. The vibrationally resolved progression recorded in the range of 266-237 nm with intervals of about 800 cm-1 was assigned to the A2E ← X2E transition of allene cations, and the broad continuum absorption recorded in the region of 229-214 nm was assigned to their B2A1 ← X2E transition. These assignments were made based on the observed photolytic behavior of the progressions and the vertical excitation energies and oscillator strengths calculated using time-dependent density functional theory.

  10. Ultraviolet absorption spectrum of the half-filled bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apinyan, V.; Kopeć, T. K.

    2018-07-01

    We consider the optical properties of the half-filled AB-stacked bilayer graphene with the excitonic pairing and condensation between the layers. Both intra and interlayer local Coulomb interaction effects have been taken into account and the role of the exact Fermi energy has been discussed in details. We have calculated the absorption coefficient, refractive index, dielectric response functions and the electron energy loss spectrum for different interlayer Coulomb interaction regimes and for different temperatures. Considering the full four-band model for the interacting AB bilayer graphene, a good agreement is achieved with other theoretical and experimental works on the subject, in particular, limiting cases of the theory. The calculations, presented here, permit to estimate accurately the effects of excitonic pairing and condensation on the optical properties of the bilayer graphene. The modifications of the plasmon excitation spectrum are discussed in details for a very large interval of the interlayer interaction parameter.

  11. Temperature dependence of the NO3 absorption spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sander, Stanley P.

    1986-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of the gas-phase NO3 radical has been studied between 220 and 700 nm by using both flash photolysis and discharge flow reactors for the production of NO3. In the flash photolysis method, cross sections at the peak of the (0,0) band at 661.9 nm were measured relative to the cross section of ClONO2 at several different wavelengths. From the best current measurements of the ClONO2 spectrum, the NO3 cross section at 661.9 nm was determined to be (2.28 + or 0.34) x 10 to the -17th sq cm/molecule at 298 K. Measurements at 230 K indicated that the cross section increases by a factor of 1.18 at the peak of the (0,0) band. The discharge flow method was used both to obtain absolute cross sections at 661.9 nm and to obtain relative absorption spectra between 300 and 700 nm at 298 and 230 K. A value of (1.83 + or - 0.27) x 10 to the -17th sq cm/molecule was obtained for sigma NO3 at 661.9 nm at 298 K. Upper limits to the NO3 cross sections were also measured between 220 and 260 nm with the discharge flow method.

  12. Excitonic Effects and Optical Absorption Spectrum of Doped Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jornada, Felipe; Deslippe, Jack; Louie, Steven

    2012-02-01

    First-principles calculations based on the GW-Bethe-Salpeter Equation (GW-BSE) approach and subsequent experiments have shown large excitonic effects in the optical absorbance of graphene. Here we employ the GW-BSE formalism to probe the effects of charge carrier doping and of having an external electric field on the absorption spectrum of graphene. We show that the absorbance peak due to the resonant exciton exhibits systematic changes in both its position and profile when graphene is gate doped by carriers, in excellent agreement to very recent measurementsootnotetextTony F. Heinz, private communications.. We analyze the various contributions to these changes in the absorption spectrum, such as the effects of screening by carriers to the quasiparticle energies and electron-hole interactions. This work was supported by National Science Foundation Grant No. DMR10-1006184, the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231, and the U.S. DOD - Office of Naval Research under RTC Grant No. N00014-09-1-1066. Computer time was provided by NERSC.

  13. Model Order Reduction Algorithm for Estimating the Absorption Spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Van Beeumen, Roel; Williams-Young, David B.; Kasper, Joseph M.

    The ab initio description of the spectral interior of the absorption spectrum poses both a theoretical and computational challenge for modern electronic structure theory. Due to the often spectrally dense character of this domain in the quantum propagator’s eigenspectrum for medium-to-large sized systems, traditional approaches based on the partial diagonalization of the propagator often encounter oscillatory and stagnating convergence. Electronic structure methods which solve the molecular response problem through the solution of spectrally shifted linear systems, such as the complex polarization propagator, offer an alternative approach which is agnostic to the underlying spectral density or domain location. This generality comesmore » at a seemingly high computational cost associated with solving a large linear system for each spectral shift in some discretization of the spectral domain of interest. In this work, we present a novel, adaptive solution to this high computational overhead based on model order reduction techniques via interpolation. Model order reduction reduces the computational complexity of mathematical models and is ubiquitous in the simulation of dynamical systems and control theory. The efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in the ab initio prediction of X-ray absorption spectra is demonstrated using a test set of challenging water clusters which are spectrally dense in the neighborhood of the oxygen K-edge. On the basis of a single, user defined tolerance we automatically determine the order of the reduced models and approximate the absorption spectrum up to the given tolerance. We also illustrate that, for the systems studied, the automatically determined model order increases logarithmically with the problem dimension, compared to a linear increase of the number of eigenvalues within the energy window. Furthermore, we observed that the computational cost of the proposed algorithm only scales quadratically with respect

  14. The root economics spectrum: divergence of absorptive root strategies with root diameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, D.; Wang, J.; Kardol, P.; Wu, H.; Zeng, H.; Deng, X.; Deng, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Plant roots usually vary along a dominant ecological axis, the root economics spectrum (RES), depicting a tradeoff between resource acquisition and conservation. For absorptive roots, which are mainly responsible for resource acquisition, we hypothesized that root strategies as predicted from the RES shift with increasing root diameter. To test this hypothesis, we used seven contrasting plant species for which we separated absorptive roots into two categories: thin roots (< 247 μm diameter) and thick roots. For each category, we analyzed a~range of root traits closely related to resource acquisition and conservation, including root tissue density, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fractions as well as root anatomical traits. The results showed that trait relationships for thin absorptive roots followed the expectations from the RES while no clear trait relationships were found in support of the RES for thick absorptive roots. Our results suggest divergence of absorptive root strategies in relation to root diameter, which runs against a single economics spectrum for absorptive roots.

  15. The energy spectrum and the optical absorption spectrum of C{sub 60} fullerene within the Hubbard model

    SciTech Connect

    Silant’ev, A. V., E-mail: kvvant@rambler.ru

    2015-10-15

    Anticommutator Green’s functions and the energy spectrum of C{sub 60} fullerene are calculated in the approximation of static fluctuations within the Hubbard model. On the basis of this spectrum, an interpretation is proposed for the experimentally observed optical absorption bands of C{sub 60} fullerene. The parameters of C{sub 60} fullerene that characterize it within the Hubbard model are calculated by the optical absorption spectrum.

  16. In vivo and in vitro absorption spectrum of disulphonated aluminum phthalocyanine in tumor-bearing mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Canti, Gianfranco L.; Pifferi, Antonio; Taroni, Paola; Valentini, Gianluca

    1995-03-01

    The absorption spectrum of disulphonated aluminum phthalocyanine (AlS2Pc) between 650 nm and 695 nm was measured in vivo by means of time-resolved reflectance. The experiments were performed on mice bearing the L1210 leukemia 1, 4, and 7 hr after the i.p. administration of 2.5 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) of AlS2Pc. The absorption peak is centered at 685 nm, red-shifted of 10 - 15 nm with respect to the spectra obtained in solution in various environments. Measurements performed in vitro confirm the results in vivo and seem to suggest that the extracellular environment can cause the shift in the absorption line shape.

  17. Strong water absorption in the dayside emission spectrum of the planet HD 189733b.

    PubMed

    Grillmair, Carl J; Burrows, Adam; Charbonneau, David; Armus, Lee; Stauffer, John; Meadows, Victoria; van Cleve, Jeffrey; von Braun, Kaspar; Levine, Deborah

    2008-12-11

    Recent observations of the extrasolar planet HD 189733b did not reveal the presence of water in the emission spectrum of the planet. Yet models of such 'hot-Jupiter' planets predict an abundance of atmospheric water vapour. Validating and constraining these models is crucial to understanding the physics and chemistry of planetary atmospheres in extreme environments. Indications of the presence of water in the atmosphere of HD 189733b have recently been found in transmission spectra, where the planet's atmosphere selectively absorbs the light of the parent star, and in broadband photometry. Here we report the detection of strong water absorption in a high-signal-to-noise, mid-infrared emission spectrum of the planet itself. We find both a strong downturn in the flux ratio below 10 microm and discrete spectral features that are characteristic of strong absorption by water vapour. The differences between these and previous observations are significant and admit the possibility that predicted planetary-scale dynamical weather structures may alter the emission spectrum over time. Models that match the observed spectrum and the broadband photometry suggest that heat redistribution from the dayside to the nightside is weak. Reconciling this with the high nightside temperature will require a better understanding of atmospheric circulation or possible additional energy sources.

  18. [Analysis of UV-visible absorption spectrum on the decolorization of industrial wastewater by disinfection].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Wang, Long-Yong; Gao, Nai-Yun; Li, Wei-Guo

    2012-10-01

    The UV-Visible absorption spectrum of industrial wastewater was explored to introduce a substituting method determining the color of water, and to compare the decolorization efficacy of different disinfectants. The results show that the visible absorption spectrum(350-600 nm), instead of ultraviolet absorption spectrum, should be applied to characterize the color of wastewater. There is a good correlation between the features of visible absorption spectrum and the true color of wastewater. Both ozone and chlorine dioxide has a better decolorization performance than chlorine. However, the color of chlorine dioxide itself has a negative effect on decolorization. The changes in the features of visible absorption spectrum effectively reflect the variations in the color of wastewater after disinfection.

  19. [Gas Concentration Measurement Based on the Integral Value of Absorptance Spectrum].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui-jun; Tao, Shao-hua; Yang, Bing-chu; Deng, Hong-gui

    2015-12-01

    The absorptance spectrum of a gas is the basis for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the gas by the law of the Lambert-Beer. The integral value of the absorptance spectrum is an important parameter to describe the characteristics of the gas absorption. Based on the measured absorptance spectrum of a gas, we collected the required data from the database of HIT-RAN, and chose one of the spectral lines and calculated the integral value of the absorptance spectrum in the frequency domain, and then substituted the integral value into Lambert-Beer's law to obtain the concentration of the detected gas. By calculating the integral value of the absorptance spectrum we can avoid the more complicated calculation of the spectral line function and a series of standard gases for calibration, so the gas concentration measurement will be simpler and faster. We studied the changing trends of the integral values of the absorptance spectrums versus temperature. Since temperature variation would cause the corresponding variation in pressure, we studied the changing trends of the integral values of the absorptance spectrums versus both the pressure not changed with temperature and changed with the temperature variation. Based on the two cases, we found that the integral values of the absorptance spectrums both would firstly increase, then decrease, and finally stabilize with temperature increasing, but the ranges of specific changing trend were different in the two cases. In the experiments, we found that the relative errors of the integrated values of the absorptance spectrum were much higher than 1% and still increased with temperature when we only considered the change of temperature and completely ignored the pressure affected by the temperature variation, and the relative errors of the integrated values of the absorptance spectrum were almost constant at about only 1% when we considered that the pressure were affected by the temperature variation. As the integral value

  20. Computational study of the absorption spectrum of defected ZnS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michos, F. I.; Sigalas, M. M.

    2018-04-01

    Energy levels and absorption spectra of defected ZnS nanoparticles (NPs) were calculated with Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Time Dependent DFT. Several types of defects were examined such as vacancies and substitutions. NPs with S vacancies were found to have their absorption spectra moved to lower energies well inside the visible spectrum with significantly high oscillator strength. Also, NPs with substitution of S atoms with Cl, Br, or I showed significant absorption. In general, this type of defect moves the absorption spectra in lower energies, thus bringing the absorption edge into the visible spectrum, while the unperturbed NPs have absorption edges in the UV region. In addition, ZnS NPs are made from more abundant and less toxic elements than the more commonly used CdSe NPs. For that reason, they may find significant applications in solar cells and other photonic applications, as well as in biosensing applications as biomarkers.

  1. Electronic absorption spectrum of copper-doped magnesium potassium phosphate hexahydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, S. N.; Sivaprasad, P.; Reddy, Y. P.; Rao, P. S.

    1992-04-01

    The optical absorption and EPR spectra of magnesium potassium phosphate hexahydrate (MPPH) doped with copper ions are recorded both at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures. The spectrum is characteristic of Cu2+ in tetragonal symmetry. The spin-Hamiltonian parameters and molecular orbital coefficients are evaluated. A correlation between EPR and optical absorption studies is drawn.

  2. Brief Report: Suggestibility, Compliance and Psychological Traits in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maras, Katie L.; Bowler, Dermot M.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be over-represented within the criminal justice system; it is therefore important to understand how they fare under police questioning. The present study examined interrogative suggestibility and compliance in individuals with ASD, and whether this is associated with certain psychological traits.…

  3. [Study of cholesterol concentration based on serum UV-visible absorption spectrum].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei-Hua; Zhao, Zhi-Min; Guo, Xin; Chen, Hui

    2009-04-01

    In the present paper, UV-visible absorption spectrum and neural network theory were used for the analysis of cholesterol concentration. Experimental investigation shows that the absorption spectrum has the following characteristics in the wave band of 350-600 nm: (1) There is a stronger absorption peak at 416 nm for the test sample with different cholesterol concentration; (2) There is a shoulder peak between 450 and 500 nm, whose central wavelength is 460 nm; (3) There is a weaker peak at 578 nm; (4) Absorption spectrums shape of different cholesterol concentration is different obviously. The absorption spectrum of serum is the synthesis result of cholesterol and other components (such as sugar), and the information is contained at each wavelength. There is no significant correlation between absorbance and cholesterol content at 416 nm, showing a random relation, so whether cholesterol content is abnormal is not determined by the absorbance peak at 416 nm. Based on the evident correlation between serum absorption spectrum and cholesterol concentration in the wave band of 455-475 nm, a neural network model was built to predict the cholesterol concentration. The correlation coefficient between predicted cholesterol content output A and objectives T reaches 0.968, which can be regarded as better prediction, and it provides a spectra test method of cholesterol concentration.

  4. [Extracting THz absorption coefficient spectrum based on accurate determination of sample thickness].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Zhang, Zhao-hui; Zhao, Xiao-yan; Su, Hai-xia; Yan, Fang

    2012-04-01

    Extracting absorption spectrum in THz band is one of the important aspects in THz applications. Sample's absorption coefficient has a complex nonlinear relationship with its thickness. However, as it is not convenient to measure the thickness directly, absorption spectrum is usually determined incorrectly. Based on the method proposed by Duvillaret which was used to precisely determine the thickness of LiNbO3, the approach to measuring the absorption coefficient spectra of glutamine and histidine in frequency range from 0.3 to 2.6 THz(1 THz = 10(12) Hz) was improved in this paper. In order to validate the correctness of this absorption spectrum, we designed a series of experiments to compare the linearity of absorption coefficient belonging to one kind amino acid in different concentrations. The results indicate that as agreed by Lambert-Beer's Law, absorption coefficient spectrum of amino acid from the improved algorithm performs better linearity with its concentration than that from the common algorithm, which can be the basis of quantitative analysis in further researches.

  5. Temperature dependence of the ClONO{sub 2} UV absorption spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Burkholder, J.B.; Talukdar, R.K.; Ravishankara, A.R.

    1994-04-01

    The temperature dependence of the ClONO{sub 2} absorption spectrum has been measured between 220 and 298 K and between 195 and 430 nm using a diode array spectrometer. The absorption cross sections were determined using both: (1) absolute pressure measurements at 296 K and (2) measurements at various temperatures relative to 296 K using a dual absorption cell arrangement. The temperature dependence of the ClONO{sub 2} absorption spectrum shows very broad structure. The amplitude of the temperature dependence relative to that at 296 K is weak at short wavelengths, < 2% at 215 nm and 220 K, but significant atmore » the wavelengths important in the stratosphere, {approximately} 30% at 325 nm and 220 K. The authors ClONO{sub 2} absorption cross section data are in good general agreement with the previous measurements of Molina and Molina.« less

  6. Temperature dependence of the ClONO2 UV absorption spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkholder, James B.; Talukdar, Ranajit K.; Ravishankara, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the ClONO2 absorption spectrum has been measured between 220 and 298 K and between 195 and 430 nm using a diode array spectrometer. The absorption cross sections were determined using both: (1) absolute pressure measurements at 296 K and (2) measurements at various temperatures relative to 296 K using a dual absorption cell arrangement. The temperature dependence of the ClONO2 absorption spectrum shows very broad structure. The amplitude of the temperature dependence relative to that at 296 K is weak at short wavelengths, less than 2% at 215 nm and 220 K, but significant at the wavelengths important in the stratosphere, about 30% at 325 nm and 220 K. Our ClONO2 absorption cross section data are in good general agreement with the previous measurements of Molina and Molina (1979).

  7. Absorption spectrum of the firefly luciferin anion isolated in vacuo.

    PubMed

    Støchkel, Kristian; Milne, Bruce F; Brøndsted Nielsen, Steen

    2011-03-24

    The excited-state physics of the firefly luciferin anion depends on its chemical environment, and it is therefore important to establish the intrinsic behavior of the bare ion. Here we report electronic absorption spectra of the anion isolated in vacuo obtained at an electrostatic ion storage ring and an accelerator mass spectrometer where ionic dissociation is monitored on a long time scale (from 33 μs and up to 3 ms) and on a short time scale (0-3 μs), respectively. In the ring experiment the yield of all neutrals (mainly CO(2)) as a function of wavelength was measured whereas in the single pass experiment, the abundance of daughter ions formed after loss of CO(2) was recorded to provide action spectra. We find maxima at 535 and 265 nm, and that the band shape is largely determined by the sampling time interval, which is due to the kinetics of the dissociation process. Calculations at the TD-B3LYP/TZVPP++ level predict maximum absorption at 533 and 275 nm for the carboxylate isomer in excellent agreement with the experimental findings. The phenolate isomer lies higher in energy by 0.22 eV, and also its absorption maximum is calculated to be at 463 nm, which is far away from the experimental value. Our data serve to benchmark future theoretical models for bioluminescence from fireflies.

  8. Absorption spectrum analysis based on singular value decomposition for photoisomerization and photodegradation in organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabe, Yutaka; Yoshikawa, Toshio; Chida, Toshifumi; Tada, Kazuhiro; Kawamoto, Masuki; Fujihara, Takashi; Sassa, Takafumi; Tsutsumi, Naoto

    2015-10-01

    In order to analyze the spectra of inseparable chemical mixtures, many mathematical methods have been developed to decompose them into the components relevant to species from series of spectral data obtained under different conditions. We formulated a method based on singular value decomposition (SVD) of linear algebra, and applied it to two example systems of organic dyes, being successful in reproducing absorption spectra assignable to cis/trans azocarbazole dyes from the spectral data after photoisomerization and to monomer/dimer of cyanine dyes from those during photodegaradation process. For the example of photoisomerization, polymer films containing the azocarbazole dyes were prepared, which have showed updatable holographic stereogram for real images with high performance. We made continuous monitoring of absorption spectrum after optical excitation and found that their spectral shapes varied slightly after the excitation and during recovery process, of which fact suggested the contribution from a generated photoisomer. Application of the method was successful to identify two spectral components due to trans and cis forms of azocarbazoles. Temporal evolution of their weight factors suggested important roles of long lifetimed cis states in azocarbazole derivatives. We also applied the method to the photodegradation of cyanine dyes doped in DNA-lipid complexes which have shown efficient and durable optical amplification and/or lasing under optical pumping. The same SVD method was successful in the extraction of two spectral components presumably due to monomer and H-type dimer. During the photodegradation process, absorption magnitude gradually decreased due to decomposition of molecules and their decaying rates strongly depended on the spectral components, suggesting that the long persistency of the dyes in DNA-complex related to weak tendency of aggregate formation.

  9. Energy Spectrum and Optical Absorption of Isomer No. 11 of C84 Fullerene of C 2 Symmetry Within the Hubbard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murzashev, A. I.; Rumyantsev, I. A.

    2018-05-01

    Energy spectrum of isomer No. 11 of C84 fullerene of C2 symmetry is calculated within the Hubbard model. Based on the obtained energy spectrum, the optical absorption spectrum is modeled taking into account not only allowed, but also forbidden symmetry transitions. Good qualitative agreement with the experimental data is obtained. This suggests that when studying fullerenes, the intra-site Coulomb interaction of electrons must be taken into account.

  10. The effect of Cd substitution doping on the bandgap and absorption spectrum of ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Qingyu; Li, Yong; Qu, Lingfeng; Zhao, Chunwang

    2016-08-01

    Many research papers have reported that in the ultraviolet area of 290-360 nm wavelength range, blueshift and redshift in the absorption spectrum occurred in ZnO with Cd doping; however, there is no reasonable theoretical explanation to this so far. To solve this problem, this study investigates the differences of blueshift and redshift in doping system by adopting plane-wave ultrasoft pseudopotential technology based on the density functional theory and applying LDA + U method to calculate band structures, density of states and absorption spectrum distribution of the models, which is on the basis of model geometry optimization. By increasing the Cd doping concentration, the following results are obtained: increased volume of the mixed system, raised total energy, a decrease in stability, narrowed bandgaps and a significant redshift in the absorption spectrum in the ultraviolet or visible light area.

  11. On the nature of solvatochromic effect: The riboflavin absorption spectrum as a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daidone, Isabella; Amadei, Andrea; Aschi, Massimiliano; Zanetti-Polzi, Laura

    2018-03-01

    We present here the calculation of the absorption spectrum of riboflavin in acetonitrile and dimethyl sulfoxide using a hybrid quantum/classical approach, namely the perturbed matrix method, based on quantum mechanical calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. The calculated spectra are compared to the absorption spectrum of riboflavin previously calculated in water and to the experimental spectra obtained in all three solvents. The experimentally observed variations in the absorption spectra upon change of the solvent environment are well reproduced by the calculated spectra. In addition, the nature of the excited states of riboflavin interacting with different solvents is investigated, showing that environment effects determine a recombination of the gas-phase electronic states and that such a recombination is strongly affected by the polarity of the solvent inducing significant changes in the absorption spectra.

  12. Complex Resonance Absorption Structure in the X-Ray Spectrum of IRAS 13349+2438

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sako, M.; Kahn, S. M.; Behar, E.; Kaastra, J. S.; Brinkman, A. C.; Boller, Th.; Puchnarewicz, E. M.; Starling, R.; Liedahl, D. A.; Clavel, J.

    2000-01-01

    The luminous infrared-loud quasar IRAS 13349+2438 was observed with the XMM - Newton Observatory as part of the Performance Verification program. The spectrum obtained by the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) exhibits broad (FWHM - 1400 km/s) absorption lines from highly ionized elements including hydrogen- and helium-like carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and neon, and several iron L - shell ions (Fe XVII - XX). Also shown in the spectrum is the first astrophysical detection of a broad absorption feature around lambda = 16 - 17 A identified as an unresolved transition array (UTA) of 2p - 3d inner-shell absorption by iron M-shell ions in a much cooler medium; a feature that might be misidentified as an O VII edge when observed with moderate resolution spectrometers. No absorption edges are clearly detected in the spectrum. We demonstrate that the RGS spectrum of IRAS 13349+2438 exhibits absorption lines from two distinct regions, one of which is tentatively associated with the medium that produces the optical/UV reddening.

  13. Anab InitioStudy of the NH2+Absorption Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmann, Gerald; Bunker, P. R.; Jensen, Per; Kraemer, W. P.

    1997-12-01

    In a previous publication (1997. P. Jensen,J. Mol. Spectrosc.181,207-214), rotation-vibration energy levels for the electronic ground stateX˜3B1of the amidogen ion, NH2+, were predicted using the MORBID Hamiltonian and computer program with anab initiopotential energy surface. In the present paper we calculate a newab initiopotential energy surface for theX˜3B1state, and we calculateab initiothe potential energy surfaces of theã1A1andb˜1B1excited singlet electronic states (which become degenerate as a1Δ state at linearity). We use the multireference configuration interaction (MR-CI) level of theory with molecular orbital bases that are optimized separately for each state by complete-active-space SCF (CASSCF) calculations. For theX˜state we use the MORBID Hamiltonian and computer program to obtain the rotation-vibration energies. For theãandb˜excited singlet electronic states we calculate the rovibronic energy levels using the RENNER Hamiltonian and computer program. We also calculateab initiothe dipole moment surfaces for theX˜,ã, andb˜electronic states, and the out-of-plane transition moment surface for theb˜←ãelectronic transition. We use this information to simulate absorption spectra withinX˜3B1andã1A1state and of theb˜1B1← ã1A1transition in order to aid in the search for them.

  14. [Signal analysis and spectrum distortion correction for tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy system].

    PubMed

    Bao, Wei-Yi; Zhu, Yong; Chen, Jun; Chen, Jun-Qing; Liang, Bo

    2011-04-01

    In the present paper, the signal of a tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) trace gas sensing system, which has a wavelength modulation with a wide range of modulation amplitudes, is studied based on Fourier analysis method. Theory explanation of spectrum distortion induced by laser intensity amplitude modulation is given. In order to rectify the spectrum distortion, a method of synchronous amplitude modulation suppression by a variable optical attenuator is proposed. To validate the method, an experimental setup is designed. Absorption spectrum measurement experiments on CO2 gas were carried out. The results show that the residual laser intensity modulation amplitude of the experimental system is reduced to -0.1% of its original value and the spectrum distortion improvement is 92% with the synchronous amplitude modulation suppression. The modulation amplitude of laser intensity can be effectively reduced and the spectrum distortion can be well corrected by using the given correction method and system. By using a variable optical attenuator in the TDLAS (tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy) system, the dynamic range requirements of photoelectric detector, digital to analog converter, filters and other aspects of the TDLAS system are reduced. This spectrum distortion correction method can be used for online trace gas analyzing in process industry.

  15. Two-photon absorption spectrum of the photoinitiator Lucirin TPO-L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonca, C. R.; Correa, D. S.; Baldacchini, T.; Tayalia, P.; Mazur, E.

    2008-03-01

    Two-photon absorption induced polymerization provides a powerful method for the fabrication of intricate three-dimensional microstructures. Recently, Lucirin TPO-L was shown to be a photoinitiator with several advantageous properties for two-photon induced polymerization. Here we measure the two-photon absorption cross-section spectrum of Lucirin TPO-L, which presents a maximum of 1.2 GM at 610 nm. Despite its small two-photon absorption cross-section, it is possible to fabricate excellent microstructures by two-photon polymerization due to the high polymerization quantum yield of Lucirin TPO-L. These results indicate that optimization of the two-photon absorption cross-section is not the only material parameter to be considered when searching for new photoinitiators for microfabrication via two-photon absorption.

  16. The influence of media suggestions about links between criminality and autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Neil; Zoanetti, Jordana; Young, Robyn L

    2017-01-01

    We examined whether media reports linking criminal behaviour and autism spectrum disorder foster negative attitudes towards individuals with autism spectrum disorder. In a between-subjects design, participants were exposed to (a) a media story in which a murderer was labelled with autism spectrum disorder (media exposure condition) or not labelled with any disorder (control) and (b) an autism spectrum disorder-education condition attacking the myth that people diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder are likely to be violent criminals or a no-autism spectrum disorder-education condition. Participants attitudes towards three different crime perpetrators (one with autism spectrum disorder) described in separate vignettes were probed. The media exposure linking crime and autism spectrum disorder promoted more negative attitudes towards individuals with autism spectrum disorder, whereas the positive autism spectrum disorder-related educational message had the opposite effect. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Ab initio calculation of the electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water

    SciTech Connect

    Martiniano, Hugo F. M. C.; Galamba, Nuno; Cabral, Benedito J. Costa, E-mail: ben@cii.fc.ul.pt

    2014-04-28

    The electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water was investigated by coupling a one-body energy decomposition scheme to configurations generated by classical and Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics (BOMD). A Frenkel exciton Hamiltonian formalism was adopted and the excitation energies in the liquid phase were calculated with the equation of motion coupled cluster with single and double excitations method. Molecular dynamics configurations were generated by different approaches. Classical MD were carried out with the TIP4P-Ew and AMOEBA force fields. The BLYP and BLYP-D3 exchange-correlation functionals were used in BOMD. Theoretical and experimental results for the electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water are inmore » good agreement. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between the structure of liquid water predicted by the different models and the electronic absorption spectrum. The theoretical gas to liquid phase blue-shift of the peak positions of the electronic absorption spectrum is in good agreement with experiment. The overall shift is determined by a competition between the O–H stretching of the water monomer in liquid water that leads to a red-shift and polarization effects that induce a blue-shift. The results illustrate the importance of coupling many-body energy decomposition schemes to molecular dynamics configurations to carry out ab initio calculations of the electronic properties in liquid phase.« less

  18. Ab initio calculation of the electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martiniano, Hugo F. M. C.; Galamba, Nuno; Cabral, Benedito J. Costa

    2014-04-01

    The electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water was investigated by coupling a one-body energy decomposition scheme to configurations generated by classical and Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics (BOMD). A Frenkel exciton Hamiltonian formalism was adopted and the excitation energies in the liquid phase were calculated with the equation of motion coupled cluster with single and double excitations method. Molecular dynamics configurations were generated by different approaches. Classical MD were carried out with the TIP4P-Ew and AMOEBA force fields. The BLYP and BLYP-D3 exchange-correlation functionals were used in BOMD. Theoretical and experimental results for the electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water are in good agreement. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between the structure of liquid water predicted by the different models and the electronic absorption spectrum. The theoretical gas to liquid phase blue-shift of the peak positions of the electronic absorption spectrum is in good agreement with experiment. The overall shift is determined by a competition between the O-H stretching of the water monomer in liquid water that leads to a red-shift and polarization effects that induce a blue-shift. The results illustrate the importance of coupling many-body energy decomposition schemes to molecular dynamics configurations to carry out ab initio calculations of the electronic properties in liquid phase.

  19. Absorption spectrum of a two-level system subjected to a periodic pulse sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Fotso, H. F.; Dobrovitski, V. V.

    We investigate how the quantum control of a two-level system (TLS) coupled to photons can modify and tune the TLS’s photon absorption spectrum. Tuning and controlling the emission and the absorption is of much interest e.g. for the development of efficient interfaces between stationary and flying qubits in modern architectures for quantum computation and quantum communication. We consider the periodic pulse control, where the TLS is subjected to a periodic sequence of the near-resonant Rabi driving pulses, each pulse implementing a 180° rotation. For small inter-pulse delays, the absorption spectrum features a pronounced peak of stimulated emission at the pulsemore » frequency, as well as equidistant satellite peaks with smaller spectral weights. As long as the detuning between the carrier frequency of the driving and the TLS transition frequency remains moderate, this spectral shape shows little change. Therefore, the quantum control allows shifting the absorption peak to a desired position, and locks the absorption peak to the carrier frequency of the driving pulses. Detailed description of the spectrum, and its evolution as a function time, the inter-pulse spacing and the detuning, is presented.« less

  20. Absorption spectrum of a two-level system subjected to a periodic pulse sequence

    DOE PAGES

    Fotso, H. F.; Dobrovitski, V. V.

    2017-06-01

    We investigate how the quantum control of a two-level system (TLS) coupled to photons can modify and tune the TLS’s photon absorption spectrum. Tuning and controlling the emission and the absorption is of much interest e.g. for the development of efficient interfaces between stationary and flying qubits in modern architectures for quantum computation and quantum communication. We consider the periodic pulse control, where the TLS is subjected to a periodic sequence of the near-resonant Rabi driving pulses, each pulse implementing a 180° rotation. For small inter-pulse delays, the absorption spectrum features a pronounced peak of stimulated emission at the pulsemore » frequency, as well as equidistant satellite peaks with smaller spectral weights. As long as the detuning between the carrier frequency of the driving and the TLS transition frequency remains moderate, this spectral shape shows little change. Therefore, the quantum control allows shifting the absorption peak to a desired position, and locks the absorption peak to the carrier frequency of the driving pulses. Detailed description of the spectrum, and its evolution as a function time, the inter-pulse spacing and the detuning, is presented.« less

  1. Research on filling process of fuel and oxidant during detonation based on absorption spectrum technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Xiao-Jing; Li, Ning; Weng, Chun-Sheng

    2014-12-01

    Research on detonation process is of great significance for the control optimization of pulse detonation engine. Based on absorption spectrum technology, the filling process of fresh fuel and oxidant during detonation is researched. As one of the most important products, H2O is selected as the target of detonation diagnosis. Fiber distributed detonation test system is designed to enable the detonation diagnosis under adverse conditions in detonation process. The test system is verified to be reliable. Laser signals at different working frequency (5Hz, 10Hz and 20Hz) are detected. Change of relative laser intensity in one detonation circle is analyzed. The duration of filling process is inferred from the change of laser intensity, which is about 100~110ms. The peak of absorption spectrum is used to present the concentration of H2O during the filling process of fresh fuel and oxidant. Absorption spectrum is calculated, and the change of absorption peak is analyzed. Duration of filling process calculated with absorption peak consisted with the result inferred from the change of relative laser intensity. The pulse detonation engine worked normally and obtained the maximum thrust at 10Hz under experiment conditions. The results are verified through H2O gas concentration monitoring during detonation.

  2. Femtosecond time-domain observation of atmospheric absorption in the near-infrared spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, T. J.; Monchocé, Sylvain; Zhang, Chunmei; Brown, Graham G.; Corkum, P. B.; Villeneuve, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    As light propagates through a medium, absorption caused by electronic or rovibrational transitions is evident in the transmitted spectrum. The incident electromagnetic field polarizes the medium and the absorption is due to the imaginary part of the linear susceptibility. In the time domain, the field establishes a coherence in the medium that radiates out of phase with the initial field. This coherence can persist for tens of picoseconds in atmospheric molecules such as H2O . We propagate a few-cycle laser pulse centered at 1.8 μ m through the atmosphere and measure the long-lasting molecular coherence in the time domain by high-order harmonic cross correlation. The measured optical free-induction decay of the pulse is compared with a calculation based on the calculated rovibrational spectrum of H2O absorption.

  3. The visible absorption spectrum of NO3 measured by high-resolution Fourier transform spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orphal, J.; Fellows, C. E.; Flaud, P.-M.

    2003-02-01

    The visible absorption spectrum of the nitrate radical NO3 has been measured using high-resolution Fourier transform spectroscopy. The spectrum was recorded at 294 K using a resolution of 0.6 cm-1 (corresponding to 0.026 nm at 662 nm) and covers the 12600-21500 cm-1 region (465-794 nm). Compared to absorption spectra of NO3 recorded previously, the new data show improvements concerning absolute wavelength calibration (uncertainty 0.02 cm-1), and spectral resolution. A new interpretation and model of the temperature dependence of the strong (0-0) band around 662 nm are proposed. The results are important for long-path tropospheric absorption measurements of NO3 and optical remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere from space.

  4. Photoacoustic Monitoring of Absorption Spectrum During the Dehydration Process of pasilla Chili Pepper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zendejas-Leal, Blanca Estela; Barrientos-Sotelo, Víctor Rodrigo; Cano-Casas, Rogelio; Alvarado-Noguez, Margarita Lizeth; Hernández-Rosas, Juan; Cruz-Orea, Alfredo

    2018-07-01

    In this work, the optical absorption spectrum of peppers was monitored by phase-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy during a dehydration process based on hot-air drying, yielding simultaneous information about changes in the exocarp and mesocarp. Our results show that between all of the dehydration processes of green Capsicum annuum L. variety pasilla peppers, only very small changes occur in the different phase angles, which has been correlated with the small changes in the exocarp thickness. The phase-resolved spectra of mesocarp show more clearly the evolution of the carotenoid compounds with respect to the optical absorption spectrum without phase resolving, due to the last spectrum having a band broadening in that region with more signals convolved. We have shown that not only do the ripened chili peppers produce new carotenoid compounds, but also we are probing that the dehydration process, beginning with the green stage, preserves the nutrimental content, similar to changes that occur in the natural ripening process.

  5. Ab initio calculations of the absorption spectrum of chalcone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oumi, Manabu; Maurice, David; Head-Gordon, Martin

    1999-03-01

    The excitation energies and excited states of trans-chalcone ( trans-( s-cis)-1,3-diphenylpropenone), and several related molecules ( trans-( s-cis)-3-phenylpropenal, s-cis-1-phenylpropenone, propenal, trans-( s-cis)-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-phenylpropenone, trans-( s-cis)3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-phenylpropenone) have been calculated using single reference ab initio molecular orbital methods, and characterized by attachment-detachment density analysis. The results suggest assignments for the lowest three electronic transitions observed experimentally for trans-( s-cis)-chalcone in solution. The extent of localization of the electronic transitions is established by calculations on the excited states of trans-( s-cis)-3-phenylpropenal, s-cis-1-phenylpropenone and propenal, as well as analysis of the chalcone calculations. Contrary to some previous work, none of these excitations are strongly delocalized over the entire molecule. Calculated substituent shifts for the hydroxy chalcones are in qualitative agreement with experimental data, and support the localized interpretation of the main π→ π* transition.

  6. The Influence of Media Suggestions about Links between Criminality and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Neil; Zoanetti, Jordana; Young, Robyn L.

    2017-01-01

    We examined whether media reports linking criminal behaviour and autism spectrum disorder foster negative attitudes towards individuals with autism spectrum disorder. In a between-subjects design, participants were exposed to (a) a media story in which a murderer was labelled with autism spectrum disorder (media exposure condition) or not labelled…

  7. Tunable ultranarrow spectrum selective absorption in a graphene monolayer at terahertz frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jun

    2016-06-01

    Complete absorption in a graphene monolayer at terahertz frequency through the critical coupling effect is investigated. It is achieved by sandwiching the graphene monolayer between a dielectric grating and a Bragg grating. The designed graphene absorber exhibits near-unity absorption at resonance but with an ultranarrow spectrum and antenna-like response, which is attributed to the combined effects of guided mode resonance with dielectric grating and the photonic band gap with Bragg grating. In addition to numerical simulation, the electric field distributions are also illustrated to provide a physical understanding of the perfect absorption effect. Furthermore, the absorption performance can be tuned by only changing the Fermi level of graphene, which is beneficial for real application. It is believed that this study may be useful for designing next-generation graphene-based optoelectronic devices.

  8. The widetilde{A}←widetilde{X} ABSORPTION SPECTRUM OF 2-NITROOXYBUTYL PEROXY RADICAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eddingsaas, Nathan; Takematsu, Kana; Okumura, Mitchio

    2009-06-01

    The nitrate radical is an important atmospheric oxidant in the nighttime sky. Nitrate radicals react by addition to alkenes, and in the presence of oxygen form nitrooxyalkyl peroxy radicals. The peroxy radical formed from the reaction of 2-butene, nitrate radical, and oxygen was detected by cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS) via its widetilde{A}←widetilde{X} electronic absorption spectrum. The widetilde{A}←widetilde{X} electronic transition is a bound-bound transition with enough structure to distinguish between different peroxy radicals as well as different conformers of the same peroxy radical. Two conformers of the nitrooxybutyl peroxy radical have been observed; the absorption features are red shifted from the same absorption features of sec-butyl peroxy radical. Calculations on the structure of nitrooxyalkyl peroxy radicals and general trends of the position of the widetilde{A}←widetilde{X} absorption transitions have also been performed and compared to those of unsubstituted peroxy radicals.

  9. Ab Initio Modeling of the Electronic Absorption Spectrum of Previtamin D in Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Tianyang

    To study the solvent effects of water on the previtamin D absorption spectrum, we use the quantum mechanics (QM)/molecular mechanics (MM) method combined with replica-exchange molecular dynamics (REMD). The QM method is applied for the previtamin D molecule and the MM method is used for the water molecules. To enhance conformational sampling of the flexible previtamin D molecule we apply REMD. Based on the REMD structures, we calculate the macroscopic ensemble of the absorption spectrum in solution by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). Comparison between the calculated spectrum in the gas phase and in the solution reveals minor influences of the solvent on the absorption spectrum. In the conventional molecule dynamics simulation, the previtamin D molecule can be trapped by local minimum and cannot overcome energetics barriers when it is calculated at the room temperature. In addition, the higher temperature calculation for the molecule in REMD allows to overcome energetics barriers and to change the structure to other rotational isomers, then switch to the lower temperature and gives a more complete result in the configuration space for the lower temperature.

  10. Tunable Spectrum Selectivity for Multiphoton Absorption with Enhanced Visible Light Trapping in ZnO Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kok Hong; Lim, Fang Sheng; Toh, Alfred Zhen Yang; Zheng, Xia-Xi; Dee, Chang Fu; Majlis, Burhanuddin Yeop; Chai, Siang-Piao; Chang, Wei Sea

    2018-04-17

    Observation of visible light trapping in zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) correlated to the optical and photoelectrochemical properties is reported. In this study, ZnO NR diameter and c-axis length respond primarily at two different regions, UV and visible light, respectively. ZnO NR diameter exhibits UV absorption where large ZnO NR diameter area increases light absorption ability leading to high efficient electron-hole pair separation. On the other hand, ZnO NR c-axis length has a dominant effect in visible light resulting from a multiphoton absorption mechanism due to light reflection and trapping behavior in the free space between adjacent ZnO NRs. Furthermore, oxygen vacancies and defects in ZnO NRs are associated with the broad visible emission band of different energy levels also highlighting the possibility of the multiphoton absorption mechanism. It is demonstrated that the minimum average of ZnO NR c-axis length must satisfy the linear regression model of Z p,min = 6.31d to initiate the multiphoton absorption mechanism under visible light. This work indicates the broadening of absorption spectrum from UV to visible light region by incorporating a controllable diameter and c-axis length on vertically aligned ZnO NRs, which is important in optimizing the design and functionality of electronic devices based on light absorption mechanism. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Signs of strong Na and K absorption in the transmission spectrum of WASP-103b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lendl, M.; Cubillos, P. E.; Hagelberg, J.; Müller, A.; Juvan, I.; Fossati, L.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Transmission spectroscopy has become a prominent tool for characterizing the atmospheric properties on close-in transiting planets. Recent observations have revealed a remarkable diversity in exoplanet spectra, which show absorption signatures of Na, K and H2O, in some cases partially or fully attenuated by atmospheric aerosols. Aerosols (clouds and hazes) themselves have been detected in the transmission spectra of several planets thanks to wavelength-dependent slopes caused by the particles' scattering properties. Aims: We present an optical 550-960 nm transmission spectrum of the extremely irradiated hot Jupiter WASP-103b, one of the hottest (2500 K) and most massive (1.5 MJ) planets yet to be studied with this technique. WASP-103b orbits its star at a separation of less than 1.2 times the Roche limit and is predicted to be strongly tidally distorted. Methods: We have used Gemini/GMOS to obtain multi-object spectroscopy throughout three transits of WASP-103b. We used relative spectrophotometry and bin sizes between 20 and 2 nm to infer the planet's transmission spectrum. Results: We find that WASP-103b shows increased absorption in the cores of the alkali (Na, K) line features. We do not confirm the presence of any strong scattering slope as previously suggested, pointing towards a clear atmosphere for the highly irradiated, massive exoplanet WASP-103b. We constrain the upper boundary of any potential cloud deck to reside at pressure levels above 0.01 bar. This finding is in line with previous studies on cloud occurrence on exoplanets which find that clouds dominate the transmission spectra of cool, low surface gravity planets while hot, high surface gravity planets are either cloud-free, or possess clouds located below the altitudes probed by transmission spectra. The spectrophotometric time series data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  12. Absorption line profiles in a companion spectrum of a mass losing cool supergiant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodrigues, Liliya L.; Boehm-Vitense, Erika

    1990-01-01

    Cool star winds can best be observed in resonance absorption lines seen in the spectrum of a hot companion, due to the wind passing in front of the blue star. We calculated absorption line profiles that would be seen in the ultraviolet part of the blue companion spectrum. Line profiles are derived for different radial dependences of the cool star wind and for different orbital phases of the binary. Bowen and Wilson find theoretically that stellar pulsations drive mass loss. We therefore apply our calculations to the Cepheid binary S Muscae which has a B5V companion. We find an upper limit for the Cepheid mass loss of M less than or equal to 7 x 10(exp -10) solar mass per year provided that the stellar wind of the companion does not influence the Cepheid wind at large distances.

  13. Integration of Semiconducting Sulfides for Full-Spectrum Solar Energy Absorption and Efficient Charge Separation.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Tao-Tao; Liu, Yan; Li, Yi; Zhao, Yuan; Wu, Liang; Jiang, Jun; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2016-05-23

    The full harvest of solar energy by semiconductors requires a material that simultaneously absorbs across the whole solar spectrum and collects photogenerated electrons and holes separately. The stepwise integration of three semiconducting sulfides, namely ZnS, CdS, and Cu2-x S, into a single nanocrystal, led to a unique ternary multi-node sheath ZnS-CdS-Cu2-x S heteronanorod for full-spectrum solar energy absorption. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the nonstoichiometric copper sulfide nanostructures enables effective NIR absorption. More significantly, the construction of pn heterojunctions between Cu2-x S and CdS leads to staggered gaps, as confirmed by first-principles simulations. This band alignment causes effective electron-hole separation in the ternary system and hence enables efficient solar energy conversion. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. RETRACTED: Theoretical study of electronic properties and isotope effects in the UV absorption spectrum of disulfur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarka, Karolis; Danielache, Sebastian O.; Kondorskiy, Alexey; Nanbu, Shinkoh

    2017-05-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy) This article has been retracted at the request of the Authors because of a large amount of errors caused by incorrect interpretation of the potential energy curve boundaries by the data processing functions in their close-coupling algorithm, producing incorrect wavefunctions for the continuum region in the absorption spectrum. The spectrum calculated using the incorrect wavefunctions introduced periodic fluctuation in the absorption cross-section seen in the original article, which results in erroneous isotopic fractionation values. The updated spectra calculated after fixing the issues features a smooth continuum band, removing all false artifacts from isotopic effect analysis, producing significantly different results from the ones in this original article. The authors will submit the corrected data in a new article.

  15. Simultaneous measurements of absorption spectrum and refractive index in a microfluidic system.

    PubMed

    Helseth, Lars Egil

    2012-02-13

    The characterization of dyes in various solvents requires determination of the absorption spectrum of the dye as well as the refractive index of the solvent. Typically, the refractive index of the solvent and the absorption spectrum of the solute are measured using separate experimental setups where significant liquid volumes are required. In this work the first optical measurement system that is able to do simultaneous measurements of the refractive index of the solvent and the spectral properties of the solute in a microscopic volume is presented. The laser dye Rhodamine 6G in glycerol is investigated, and the refractive index of the solution is monitored using the interference pattern of the light scattered off the channel, while its spectral properties is found by monitoring reflected light from the channel.

  16. The Surprising Absence of Absorption in the Far-ultraviolet Spectrum of Mrk 231

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veilleux, S.; Trippe, M.; Hamann, F.; Rupke, D. S. N.; Tripp, T. M.; Netzer, H.; Lutz, D.; Sembach, K. R.; Krug, H.; Teng, Stacy H.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Mrk 231, the nearest (z = 0.0422) quasar, hosts both a galactic-scale wind and a nuclear-scale iron low-ionization broad absorption line (FeLoBAL) outflow. We recently obtained a far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectrum of this object covering approx. 1150-1470A with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope. This spectrum is highly peculiar, highlighted by the presence of faint (< or approx.2% of predictions based on H(alpha)), broad (> or approx.10,000 km/s at the base), and highly blueshifted (centroid at approx. 3500 km/s) Ly(aplpha) emission. The FUV continuum emission is slightly declining at shorter wavelengths (consistent with F(sub lambda) Alpha Lambda(sup 1.7)) and does not show the presence of any obvious photospheric or wind stellar features. Surprisingly, the FUV spectrum also does not show any unambiguous broad absorption features. It thus appears to be dominated by the AGN, rather than hot stars, and virtually unfiltered by the dusty FeLoBAL screen. The observed Ly(alpha) emission is best explained if it is produced in the outflowing BAL cloud system, while the Balmer lines arise primarily from the standard broad emission line region seen through the dusty (Av approx. 7 mag) broad absorption line region. Two possible geometric models are discussed in the context of these new results.

  17. A resonant absorption line in the ASCA spectrum of NGC 985?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicastro, F.; Fiore, F.; Brandt, N.; Reynolds, C. S.

    1999-01-01

    We present timing and spectral analyses of the ASCA observation of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 985. The 0.6-10keV spectrum of this source is complex: large residuals are evident below 1keV when fitting the spectrum with a power-law model. Fitting a warm absorber model to the 0.6-2.5keV spectrum gives α=1.12+/-0.04, LogNWAH=21.97+/-0.08 and LogU=0.06+/-0.09, but the residuals continue to show a deficit of counts between 0.9 and 1keV. Adding an absorption line improves the fit, and the energy of the line is consistent with that of Kα NeIX-X resonant absorption lines. Hence, we confirm the presence of an ionized absorber along the line of sight to this source and interpret the further 1keV spectral feature as the first detection of a strong resonant absorption line associated with this system. The extrapolation of this model above 2.5keV produces large positive residuals above 3-4keV. Fitting the data with a broken power law plus warm absorber model gives an acceptable χ2 and Δα~0.5. A narrow iron line at 6.4keV (quasar frame) of equivalent width 138+64-110eV is also present in the ASCA data.

  18. High-resolution discrete absorption spectrum of α-methallyl free radical in the vapor phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayrakçeken, Fuat; Telatar, Ziya; Arı, Fikret; Tunçyürek, Lale; Karaaslan, İpek; Yaman, Ali

    2006-09-01

    The α-methallyl free radical is formed in the flash photolysis of 3-methylbut-1-ene, and cis-pent-2-ene in the vapor phase, and then subsequent reactions have been investigated by kinetic spectroscopy and gas-liquid chromatography. The photolysis flash was of short duration and it was possible to follow the kinetics of the radicals' decay, which occurred predominantly by bimolecular recombination. The measured rate constant for the α-methallyl recombination was (3.5 ± 0.3) × 10 10 mol -1 l s -1 at 295 ± 2 K. The absolute extinction coefficients of the α-methallyl radical are calculated from the optical densities of the absorption bands. Detailed analysis of related absorption bands and lifetime measurements in the original α-methallyl high-resolution discrete absorption spectrum image were also carried out by image processing techniques.

  19. H i Absorption in the Steep-Spectrum Superluminal Quasar 3C 216.

    PubMed

    Pihlström; Vermeulen; Taylor; Conway

    1999-11-01

    The search for H i absorption in strong compact steep-spectrum sources is a natural way to probe the neutral gas contents in young radio sources. In turn, this may provide information about the evolution of powerful radio sources. The recently improved capabilities of the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope have made it possible to detect a 0.31% (19 mJy) deep neutral atomic hydrogen absorption line associated with the steep-spectrum superluminal quasar 3C 216. The redshift (z=0.67) of the source shifts the frequency of the 21 cm line down to the ultra-high-frequency (UHF) band (850 MHz). The exact location of the H i-absorbing gas remains to be determined by spectral line VLBI observations at 850 MHz. We cannot exclude that the gas might be extended on galactic scales, but we think it is more likely to be located in the central kiloparsec. Constraints from the lack of X-ray absorption probably rule out obscuration of the core region, and we argue that the most plausible site for the H i absorption is in the jet-cloud interaction observed in this source.

  20. Sodium Absorption from the Exoplanetary Atmosphere of HD 189733b Detected in the Optical Transmission Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redfield, Seth; Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.; Koesterke, Lars

    2008-01-01

    We present the first ground-based detection of sodium absorption in the transmission spectrum of an extrasolar planet. Absorption due to the atmosphere of the extrasolar planet HD 189733b is detected in both lines of the Na I doublet. High spectral resolution observations were taken of 11 transits with the High Resolution Spectrograph (HRS) on the 9.2 m Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). The Na I absorption in the transmission spectrum due to HD 189733b is (- 67.2 +/- 20.7) × 10-5 deeper in the "narrow" spectral band that encompasses both lines relative to adjacent bands. The 1 σ error includes both random and systematic errors, and the detection is >3 σ. This amount of relative absorption in Na I for HD 189733b is ~3 times larger than that detected for HD 209458b by Charbonneau et al. (2002) and indicates that these two hot Jupiters may have significantly different atmospheric properties. Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen.

  1. Purification of electron-transferring flavoprotein from Megasphaera elsdenii and binding of additional FAD with an unusual absorption spectrum.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kyosuke; Nishina, Yasuzo; Shiga, Kiyoshi

    2003-11-01

    Electron-transferring flavoprotein (ETF), its redox partner flavoproteins, i.e., D-lactate dehydrogenase and butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, and another well-known flavoprotein, flavodoxin, were purified from the same starting cell paste of an anaerobic bacterium, Megasphaera elsdenii. The purified ETF contained one mol FAD/mol ETF as the sole non-protein component and bound almost one mol of additional FAD. This preparation is a better subject for investigations of M. elsdenii ETF than the previously isolated ETF, which contains varying amounts of FAD and varying percentages of modified flavins such as 6-OH-FAD and 8-OH-FAD. The additionally bound FAD shows an anomalous absorption spectrum with strong absorption around 400 nm. This spectral change is not due to a chemical modification of the flavin ring because the flavin released by KBr or guanidine hydrochloride is normal FAD. It is also not due to unknown small molecules because the same spectrum appears when ETF is reconstituted from its guanidine-denatured subunits and FAD. A similar anomalous spectrum was observed for AMP-free pig ETF under acidic conditions, suggesting a common flavin environment between pig and M. elsdenii ETFs.

  2. Continuous optical measurement system of hemolysis during a photosensitization reaction using absorption spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, R.; Ogawa, E.; Arai, T.

    2018-02-01

    To investigate hemolysis phenomena during a photosensitization reaction with the reaction condition continuously and simultaneously for a safety assessment of hemolysis side effect, we constructed an optical system to measure blood sample absorption spectrum during the reaction. Hemolysis degree might be under estimated in general evaluation methods because there is a constant oxygen pressure assumption in spite of oxygen depression take place. By investigating hemoglobin oxidation and oxygen desorption dynamics obtained from the contribution of the visible absorption spectrum and multiple regression analysis, both the hemolysis phenomena and its oxygen environment might be obtained with time. A 664 nm wavelength laser beam for the reaction excitation and 475-650 nm light beam for measuring the absorbance spectrum were arranged perpendicularly crossing. A quartz glass cuvette with 1×10 mm in dimensions for the spectrum measurement was located at this crossing point. A red blood cells suspension medium was arranged with low hematocrit containing 30 μg/ml talaporfin sodium. This medium was irradiated up to 40 J/cm2 . The met-hemoglobin, oxygenatedhemoglobin, and deoxygenated-hemoglobin concentrations were calculated by a multiple regression analysis from the measured spectra. We confirmed the met-hemoglobin concentration increased and oxygen saturation decreased with the irradiation time, which seems to indicate the hemolysis progression and oxygen consumption, respectively. By using our measuring system, the hemolysis progression seems to be obtained with oxygen environment information.

  3. Analysis of gaseous ammonia (NH3) absorption in the visible spectrum of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, Patrick G. J.; Bowles, Neil; Braude, Ashwin S.; Garland, Ryan; Calcutt, Simon

    2018-03-01

    Observations of the visible/near-infrared reflectance spectrum of Jupiter have been made with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) instrument in the spectral range 0.48-0.93 μm in support of the NASA/Juno mission. These spectra contain spectral signatures of gaseous ammonia (NH3), whose abundance above the cloud tops can be determined if we have reliable information on its absorption spectrum. While there are a number of sources of NH3 absorption data in this spectral range, they cover small sub-ranges, which do not necessarily overlap and have been determined from a variety of sources. There is thus considerable uncertainty regarding the consistency of these different sources when modelling the reflectance of the entire visible/near-IR range. In this paper we analyse the VLT/MUSE observations of Jupiter to determine which sources of ammonia absorption data are most reliable. We find that the band model coefficients of Bowles et al. (2008) provide, in general, the best combination of reliability and wavelength coverage over the MUSE range. These band data appear consistent with ExoMOL ammonia line data of Yurchenko et al. (2011), at wavelengths where they overlap, but these latter data do not cover the ammonia absorption bands at 0.79 and 0.765 μm, which are prominent in our MUSE observations. However, we find the band data of Bowles et al. (2008) are not reliable at wavelengths less than 0.758 μm. At shorter wavelengths we find the laboratory observations of Lutz and Owen (1980) provide a good indication of the position and shape of the ammonia absorptions near 0.552 μm and 0.648 μm, but their absorption strengths appear inconsistent with the band data of Bowles et al. (2008) at longer wavelengths. Finally, we find that the line data of the 0.648 μm absorption band of Giver et al. (1975) are not suitable for modelling these data as they account for only 17% of the band absorption and cannot be extended reliably to the cold

  4. Broad-spectrum enhanced absorption of graphene-molybdenum disulfide photovoltaic cells in metal-mirror microcavity.

    PubMed

    Jiang-Tao, Liu; Yun-Kai, Cao; Hong, Tong; Dai-Qiang, Wang; Zhen-Hua, Wu

    2018-04-06

    The optical absorption of graphene-molybdenum disulfide photovoltaic cells (GM-PVc) in wedge-shaped metal-mirror microcavities (w-MMCs) combined with a spectrum-splitting structure was studied. Results showed that the combination of spectrum-splitting structure and w-MMC can enable the light absorption of GM-PVcs to reach about 65% in the broad spectrum. The influence of processing errors on the absorption of GM-PVcs in w-MMCs was 3-14 times lower than that of GM-PVcs in wedge photonic crystal microcavities. The light absorption of GM-PVcs reached 60% in the broad spectrum, even with the processing errors. The proposed structure is easy to implement and may have potentially important applications in the development of ultra-thin and high-efficiency solar cells and optoelectronic devices.

  5. Broad-spectrum enhanced absorption of graphene-molybdenum disulfide photovoltaic cells in metal-mirror microcavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang-Tao, Liu; Yun-Kai, Cao; Hong, Tong; Dai-Qiang, Wang; Zhen-Hua, Wu

    2018-04-01

    The optical absorption of graphene-molybdenum disulfide photovoltaic cells (GM-PVc) in wedge-shaped metal-mirror microcavities (w-MMCs) combined with a spectrum-splitting structure was studied. Results showed that the combination of spectrum-splitting structure and w-MMC can enable the light absorption of GM-PVcs to reach about 65% in the broad spectrum. The influence of processing errors on the absorption of GM-PVcs in w-MMCs was 3-14 times lower than that of GM-PVcs in wedge photonic crystal microcavities. The light absorption of GM-PVcs reached 60% in the broad spectrum, even with the processing errors. The proposed structure is easy to implement and may have potentially important applications in the development of ultra-thin and high-efficiency solar cells and optoelectronic devices.

  6. Surprises from a Deep ASCA Spectrum of the Broad Absorption Line Quasar PHL 5200

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, Smita; Matt, G.; Green, P. J.; Elvis, M.; Singh, K. P.

    2002-01-01

    We present a deep (approx. 85 ks) ASCA observation of the prototype broad absorption line quasar (BALQSO) PHL 5200. This is the best X-ray spectrum of a BALQSO yet. We find the following: (1) The source is not intrinsically X-ray weak. (2) The line-of-sight absorption is very strong, with N(sub H) = 5 x 10(exp 23)/sq cm. (3) The absorber does not cover the source completely; the covering fraction is approx. 90%. This is consistent with the large optical polarization observed in this source, implying multiple lines of sight. The most surprising result of this observation is that (4) the spectrum of this BALQSO is not exactly similar to other radio-quiet quasars. The hard X-ray spectrum of PHL 5200 is steep, with the power-law spectral index alpha approx. 1.5. This is similar to the steepest hard X-ray slopes observed so far. At low redshifts, such steep slopes are observed in narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies, believed to be accreting at a high Eddington rate. This observation strengthens the analogy between BALQSOs and NLS1 galaxies and supports the hypothesis that BALQSOs represent an early evolutionary state of quasars. It is well accepted that the orientation to the line of sight determines the appearance of a quasar: age seems to play a significant role as well.

  7. NF3: UV Absorption Spectrum Temperature Dependence and the Atmospheric and Climate Forcing Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadimitriou, Vassileios C.; McGillen, Max R.; Fleming, Eric L.; Jackman, Charles H.; Burkholder, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) is an atmospherically persistent greenhouse gas that is primarily removed by UV photolysis and reaction with O((sup 1)D) atoms. In this work, the NF3 gas-phase UV absorption spectrum, sigma(delta,T), was measured at 16 wavelengths between 184.95 and 250 nm at temperatures between 212 and 296 K. A significant spectrum temperature dependence was observed in the wavelength region most relevant to atmospheric photolysis (200-220 nm) with a decrease in sigma(210 nm,T) of approximately 45 percent between 296 and 212 K. Atmospheric photolysis rates and global annually averaged lifetimes of NF3 were calculated using the Goddard Space Flight Center 2-D model and the sigma(delta,T) parameterization developed in this work. Including the UV absorption spectrum temperature dependence increased the stratospheric photolysis lifetime from 610 to 762 years and the total global lifetime from 484 to 585 years; the NF3 global warming potentials on the 20-, 100-, and 500-year time horizons increased less than 0.3, 1.1, and 6.5 percent to 13,300, 17,700, and 19,700, respectively.

  8. An absorption profile centred at 78 megahertz in the sky-averaged spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, Judd D.; Rogers, Alan E. E.; Monsalve, Raul A.; Mozdzen, Thomas J.; Mahesh, Nivedita

    2018-03-01

    After stars formed in the early Universe, their ultraviolet light is expected, eventually, to have penetrated the primordial hydrogen gas and altered the excitation state of its 21-centimetre hyperfine line. This alteration would cause the gas to absorb photons from the cosmic microwave background, producing a spectral distortion that should be observable today at radio frequencies of less than 200 megahertz. Here we report the detection of a flattened absorption profile in the sky-averaged radio spectrum, which is centred at a frequency of 78 megahertz and has a best-fitting full-width at half-maximum of 19 megahertz and an amplitude of 0.5 kelvin. The profile is largely consistent with expectations for the 21-centimetre signal induced by early stars; however, the best-fitting amplitude of the profile is more than a factor of two greater than the largest predictions. This discrepancy suggests that either the primordial gas was much colder than expected or the background radiation temperature was hotter than expected. Astrophysical phenomena (such as radiation from stars and stellar remnants) are unlikely to account for this discrepancy; of the proposed extensions to the standard model of cosmology and particle physics, only cooling of the gas as a result of interactions between dark matter and baryons seems to explain the observed amplitude. The low-frequency edge of the observed profile indicates that stars existed and had produced a background of Lyman-α photons by 180 million years after the Big Bang. The high-frequency edge indicates that the gas was heated to above the radiation temperature less than 100 million years later.

  9. An absorption profile centred at 78 megahertz in the sky-averaged spectrum.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Judd D; Rogers, Alan E E; Monsalve, Raul A; Mozdzen, Thomas J; Mahesh, Nivedita

    2018-02-28

    After stars formed in the early Universe, their ultraviolet light is expected, eventually, to have penetrated the primordial hydrogen gas and altered the excitation state of its 21-centimetre hyperfine line. This alteration would cause the gas to absorb photons from the cosmic microwave background, producing a spectral distortion that should be observable today at radio frequencies of less than 200 megahertz. Here we report the detection of a flattened absorption profile in the sky-averaged radio spectrum, which is centred at a frequency of 78 megahertz and has a best-fitting full-width at half-maximum of 19 megahertz and an amplitude of 0.5 kelvin. The profile is largely consistent with expectations for the 21-centimetre signal induced by early stars; however, the best-fitting amplitude of the profile is more than a factor of two greater than the largest predictions. This discrepancy suggests that either the primordial gas was much colder than expected or the background radiation temperature was hotter than expected. Astrophysical phenomena (such as radiation from stars and stellar remnants) are unlikely to account for this discrepancy; of the proposed extensions to the standard model of cosmology and particle physics, only cooling of the gas as a result of interactions between dark matter and baryons seems to explain the observed amplitude. The low-frequency edge of the observed profile indicates that stars existed and had produced a background of Lyman-α photons by 180 million years after the Big Bang. The high-frequency edge indicates that the gas was heated to above the radiation temperature less than 100 million years later.

  10. Considering Homeschooling Your Child on the Autism Spectrum? Some Helpful Hints and Suggestions for Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurlbutt, Karen

    2010-01-01

    With the increase in the numbers of diagnosed children on the autism spectrum, schools are being challenged to provide proper educational services for these children. In Educating Children with Autism, the National Research Council recommended that educational programs for students with autism include three basic components. These are direct…

  11. Mg I absorption features in the solar spectrum near 9 and 12 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenar, David A.; Reuter, Dennis C.; Deming, Drake; Chang, Edward S.

    1988-01-01

    High-resolution FTS observations from the Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory and the Spacelab 3 ATMOS experiment have revealed additional infrared transitions due to Mg I in the spectra of both quiet sun and sunspot penumbra. In contrast to previous observations, these transitions are seen in absorption, not emission. Absorption intensities range from 1 to 7 percent of the continuum in the quiet sun. In the penumbra, the same features appear to show Zeeman splitting. Modeling of the line profiles in the photospheric spectrum shows evidence for a factor of three overabundance in the n = 5 or more levels of Mg I in the upper photosphere, but with no deviations from a Planck source function. It is concluded that whatever the process that produces the emission (including the Lemke and Holweger mechanism), it must occur well above the tau(5000) = 0.01 level.

  12. UV absorption spectrum and photodissociation channels of the simplest Criegee intermediate (CH2OO).

    PubMed

    Dawes, Richard; Jiang, Bin; Guo, Hua

    2015-01-14

    The lowest-lying singlet states of the simplest Criegee intermediate (CH2OO) have been characterized along the O-O dissociation coordinate using explicitly correlated MRCI-F12 electronic structure theory and large active spaces. It is found that a high-level treatment of dynamic electron-correlation is essential to accurately describe these states. A significant well on the B-state is identified at the MRCI-F12 level with an equilibrium structure that differs substantially from that of the ground X-state. This well is presumably responsible for the apparent vibrational structure in some experimental UV absorption spectra, analogous to the structured Huggins band of the iso-electronic ozone. The B-state potential in the Franck-Condon region is sufficiently accurate that an absorption spectrum calculated with a one-dimensional model agrees remarkably well with experiment.

  13. Jet-cooled infrared absorption spectrum of the v4 fundamental band of HCOOH and HCOOD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wei; Zhang, Yulan; Li, Wenguang; Duan, Chuanxi

    2017-04-01

    The jet-cooled absorption spectrum of the v4 fundamental band of normal formic acid (HCOOH) and deuterated formic acid (HCOOD) was recorded in the frequency range of 1370-1392 cm-1 with distributed-feedback quantum cascade lasers (DFB-QCLs) as the tunable infrared radiations. A segmented rapid-scan data acquisition scheme was developed for pulsed supersonic jet infrared laser absorption spectroscopy based on DFB-QCLs with a moderate vacuum pumping capacity. The unperturbed band-origin and rotational constants in the excited vibrational state were determined for both HCOOH and HCOOD. The unperturbed band-origin locates at 1379.05447(11) cm-1 for HCOOH, and 1366.48430(39) cm-1 for HCOOD, respectively.

  14. An organoboron compound with a wide absorption spectrum for solar cell applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangbin; Ding, Zicheng; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lixiang

    2017-11-09

    Organoboron compounds offer new approaches to tune the electronic structures of π-conjugated molecules. In this work, an electron acceptor (M-BNBP4P-1) is developed by endcapping an organoboron core unit with two strong electron-withdrawing groups. M-BNBP4P-1 exhibits a unique wide absorption spectrum with two strong absorption bands in the long wavelength region (λ max = 771 nm) and the short wavelength region (λ max = 502 nm), which indicate superior sunlight harvesting capability. This is due to its special electronic structure, i.e. a delocalized LUMO and a localized HOMO. Prototype solution-processed organic solar cells based on M-BNBP4P-1 show a power conversion efficiency of 7.06% and a wide photoresponse from 350 nm to 880 nm.

  15. Investigations on the 1.7 micron residual absorption feature in the vegetation reflection spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verdebout, J.; Jacquemoud, S.; Andreoli, G.; Hosgood, B.; Sieber, A.

    1993-01-01

    The detection and interpretation of the weak absorption features associated with the biochemical components of vegetation is of great potential interest to a variety of applications ranging from classification to global change studies. This recent subject is also challenging because the spectral signature of the biochemicals is only detectable as a small distortion of the infrared spectrum which is mainly governed by water. Furthermore, the interpretation is complicated by complexity of the molecules (lignin, cellulose, starch, proteins) which contain a large number of different and common chemical bonds. In this paper, we present investigations on the absorption feature centered at 1.7 micron; these were conducted both on AVIRIS data and laboratory reflectance spectra of leaves.

  16. Intermediate Band Material of Titanium-Doped Tin Disulfide for Wide Spectrum Solar Absorption.

    PubMed

    Hu, Keyan; Wang, Dong; Zhao, Wei; Gu, Yuhao; Bu, Kejun; Pan, Jie; Qin, Peng; Zhang, Xian; Huang, Fuqiang

    2018-04-02

    Intermediate band (IB) materials are of great significance due to their superior solar absorption properties. Here, two IBs peaking at 0.88 and 1.33 eV are reported to be present in the forbidden gap of semiconducting SnS 2 ( E g = 2.21 eV) by doping titanium up to 6 atom % into the Sn site via a solid-state reaction at 923 K. The solid solution of Sn 1- x Ti x S 2 is able to be formed, which is attributed to the isostructural structure of SnS 2 and TiS 2 . These two IBs were detected in the UV-vis-NIR absorption spectra with the appearance of two additional absorption responses at the respective regions, which in good agreement with the conclusion of first-principles calculations. The valence band maximum (VBM) consists mostly of the S 3p state, and the conduction band minimum (CBM) is the hybrid state composing of Ti 3d (e g ), S 3p, and Sn 5s, and the IBs are mainly the nondegenerate t 2g states of Ti 3d orbitals. The electronic states of Ti 3d reveal a good ability to transfer electrons between metal and S atoms. These wide-spectrum absorption IBs bring about more solar energy utilization to enhance solar thermal collection and photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange.

  17. A structure preserving Lanczos algorithm for computing the optical absorption spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Meiyue; Jornada, Felipe H. da; Lin, Lin

    2016-11-16

    We present a new structure preserving Lanczos algorithm for approximating the optical absorption spectrum in the context of solving full Bethe-Salpeter equation without Tamm-Dancoff approximation. The new algorithm is based on a structure preserving Lanczos procedure, which exploits the special block structure of Bethe-Salpeter Hamiltonian matrices. A recently developed technique of generalized averaged Gauss quadrature is incorporated to accelerate the convergence. We also establish the connection between our structure preserving Lanczos procedure with several existing Lanczos procedures developed in different contexts. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of our Lanczos algorithm.

  18. Absorption of laser plasma in competition with oscillation currents for a terahertz spectrum.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolu; Bai, Ya; Li, Na; Liu, Peng

    2018-01-01

    We generate terahertz radiation in a supersonic jet of nitrogen molecules pumped by intense two-color laser pulses. The tuning of terahertz spectra from blue shift to red shift is observed by increasing laser power and stagnation pressure, and the red shift range is enlarged with the increased stagnation pressure. Our simulation reveals that the plasma absorption of the oscillation currents and expanded plasma column owing to increased laser intensity and gas number density are crucial factors in the recurrence of the red shift of terahertz spectra. The findings disclose the microscopic mechanism of terahertz radiation and present a controlling knob for the manipulation of a broadband terahertz spectrum from laser plasma.

  19. CFCI3 (CFC-11): UV Absorption Spectrum Temperature Dependence Measurements and the Impact on Atmospheric Lifetime and Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgillen, Max R.; Fleming, Eric L.; Jackman, Charles H.; Burkholder, James B.

    2014-01-01

    CFCl3 (CFC-11) is both an atmospheric ozone-depleting and potent greenhouse gas that is removed primarily via stratospheric UV photolysis. Uncertainty in the temperature dependence of its UV absorption spectrum is a significant contributing factor to the overall uncertainty in its global lifetime and, thus, model calculations of stratospheric ozone recovery and climate change. In this work, the CFC-11 UV absorption spectrum was measured over a range of wavelength (184.95 - 230 nm) and temperature (216 - 296 K). We report a spectrum temperature dependence that is less than currently recommended for use in atmospheric models. The impact on its atmospheric lifetime was quantified using a 2-D model and the spectrum parameterization developed in this work. The obtained global annually averaged lifetime was 58.1 +- 0.7 years (2 sigma uncertainty due solely to the spectrum uncertainty). The lifetime is slightly reduced and the uncertainty significantly reduced from that obtained using current spectrum recommendations

  20. The Mean Metal-line Absorption Spectrum of Damped Ly α Systems in BOSS

    SciTech Connect

    Mas-Ribas, Lluís; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Pérez-Ràfols, Ignasi

    We study the mean absorption spectrum of the Damped Ly α (DLA) population at z ∼ 2.6 by stacking normalized, rest-frame-shifted spectra of ∼27,000 DLA systems from the DR12 of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS)/SDSS-III. We measure the equivalent widths of 50 individual metal absorption lines in five intervals of DLA hydrogen column density, five intervals of DLA redshift, and overall mean equivalent widths for an additional 13 absorption features from groups of strongly blended lines. The mean equivalent width of low-ionization lines increases with N {sub H} {sub i}, whereas for high-ionization lines the increase is much weaker.more » The mean metal line equivalent widths decrease by a factor ∼1.1–1.5 from z ∼ 2.1 to z ∼ 3.5, with small or no differences between low- and high-ionization species. We develop a theoretical model, inspired by the presence of multiple absorption components observed in high-resolution spectra, to infer mean metal column densities from the equivalent widths of partially saturated metal lines. We apply this model to 14 low-ionization species and to Al iii, S iii, Si iii, C iv, Si iv, N v, and O vi. We use an approximate derivation for separating the equivalent width contributions of several lines to blended absorption features, and infer mean equivalent widths and column densities from lines of the additional species N i, Zn ii, C ii*, Fe iii, and S iv. Several of these mean column densities of metal lines in DLAs are obtained for the first time; their values generally agree with measurements of individual DLAs from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra when they are available.« less

  1. Frequency-domain method for measuring spectral properties in multiple-scattering media: methemoglobin absorption spectrum in a tissuelike phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishkin, Joshua B.; So, Peter T. C.; Cerussi, Albert E.; Gratton, Enrico; Fantini, Sergio; Franceschini, Maria Angela

    1995-03-01

    We have measured the optical absorption and scattering coefficient spectra of a multiple-scattering medium (i.e., a biological tissue-simulating phantom comprising a lipid colloid) containing methemoglobin by using frequency-domain techniques. The methemoglobin absorption spectrum determined in the multiple-scattering medium is in excellent agreement with a corrected methemoglobin absorption spectrum obtained from a steady-state spectrophotometer measurement of the optical density of a minimally scattering medium. The determination of the corrected methemoglobin absorption spectrum takes into account the scattering from impurities in the methemoglobin solution containing no lipid colloid. Frequency-domain techniques allow for the separation of the absorbing from the scattering properties of multiple-scattering media, and these techniques thus provide an absolute

  2. Invisible ink mark detection in the visible spectrum using absorption difference.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joong; Kong, Seong G; Kang, Tae-Yi; Kim, Byounghyun; Jeon, Oc-Yeub

    2014-03-01

    One of popular techniques in gambling fraud involves the use of invisible ink marks printed on the back surface of playing cards. Such covert patterns are transparent in the visible spectrum and therefore invisible to unaided human eyes. Invisible patterns can be made visible with ultraviolet (UV) illumination or a CCD camera installed with an infrared (IR) filter depending on the type of ink materials used. Cheating gamers often wear contact lenses or eyeglasses made of IR or UV filters to recognize the secret marks on the playing cards. This paper presents an image processing technique to reveal invisible ink patterns in the visible spectrum without the aid of special equipment such as UV lighting or IR filters. A printed invisible ink pattern leaves a thin coating on the surface with different refractive index for different wavelengths of light, which results in color dispersion or absorption difference. The proposed method finds the differences of color components caused by absorption difference to detect invisible ink patterns on the surface. Experiment results show that the proposed scheme is effective for both UV-active and IR-active invisible ink materials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficient Algorithms for Estimating the Absorption Spectrum within Linear Response TDDFT

    SciTech Connect

    Brabec, Jiri; Lin, Lin; Shao, Meiyue

    We present two iterative algorithms for approximating the absorption spectrum of molecules within linear response of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) framework. These methods do not attempt to compute eigenvalues or eigenvectors of the linear response matrix. They are designed to approximate the absorption spectrum as a function directly. They take advantage of the special structure of the linear response matrix. Neither method requires the linear response matrix to be constructed explicitly. They only require a procedure that performs the multiplication of the linear response matrix with a vector. These methods can also be easily modified to efficiently estimate themore » density of states (DOS) of the linear response matrix without computing the eigenvalues of this matrix. We show by computational experiments that the methods proposed in this paper can be much more efficient than methods that are based on the exact diagonalization of the linear response matrix. We show that they can also be more efficient than real-time TDDFT simulations. We compare the pros and cons of these methods in terms of their accuracy as well as their computational and storage cost.« less

  4. Efficient Algorithms for Estimating the Absorption Spectrum within Linear Response TDDFT

    SciTech Connect

    Brabec, Jiri; Lin, Lin; Shao, Meiyue

    We present a special symmetric Lanczos algorithm and a kernel polynomial method (KPM) for approximating the absorption spectrum of molecules within the linear response time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) framework in the product form. In contrast to existing algorithms, the new algorithms are based on reformulating the original non-Hermitian eigenvalue problem as a product eigenvalue problem and the observation that the product eigenvalue problem is self-adjoint with respect to an appropriately chosen inner product. This allows a simple symmetric Lanczos algorithm to be used to compute the desired absorption spectrum. The use of a symmetric Lanczos algorithm only requires halfmore » of the memory compared with the nonsymmetric variant of the Lanczos algorithm. The symmetric Lanczos algorithm is also numerically more stable than the nonsymmetric version. The KPM algorithm is also presented as a low-memory alternative to the Lanczos approach, but the algorithm may require more matrix-vector multiplications in practice. We discuss the pros and cons of these methods in terms of their accuracy as well as their computational and storage cost. Applications to a set of small and medium-sized molecules are also presented.« less

  5. Efficient Algorithms for Estimating the Absorption Spectrum within Linear Response TDDFT

    DOE PAGES

    Brabec, Jiri; Lin, Lin; Shao, Meiyue; ...

    2015-10-06

    We present a special symmetric Lanczos algorithm and a kernel polynomial method (KPM) for approximating the absorption spectrum of molecules within the linear response time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) framework in the product form. In contrast to existing algorithms, the new algorithms are based on reformulating the original non-Hermitian eigenvalue problem as a product eigenvalue problem and the observation that the product eigenvalue problem is self-adjoint with respect to an appropriately chosen inner product. This allows a simple symmetric Lanczos algorithm to be used to compute the desired absorption spectrum. The use of a symmetric Lanczos algorithm only requires halfmore » of the memory compared with the nonsymmetric variant of the Lanczos algorithm. The symmetric Lanczos algorithm is also numerically more stable than the nonsymmetric version. The KPM algorithm is also presented as a low-memory alternative to the Lanczos approach, but the algorithm may require more matrix-vector multiplications in practice. We discuss the pros and cons of these methods in terms of their accuracy as well as their computational and storage cost. Applications to a set of small and medium-sized molecules are also presented.« less

  6. Modeling the absorption spectrum of the permanganate ion in vacuum and in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Hedegård, Erik Donovan

    The absorption spectrum of the MnO$_{4}$$^{-}$ ion has been a test-bed for quantum-chemical methods over the last decades. Its correct description requires highly-correlated multiconfigurational methods, which are incompatible with the inclusion of finite-temperature and solvent effects due to their high computational demands. Therefore, implicit solvent models are usually employed. Here we show that implicit solvent models are not sufficiently accurate to model the solvent shift of MnO$_{4}$$^{-}$, and we analyze the origins of their failure. We obtain the correct solvent shift for MnO$_{4}$$^{-}$ in aqueous solution by employing the polarizable embedding (PE) model combined with a range-separated complete active space short-range density functional theory method (CAS-srDFT). Finite-temperature effects are taken into account by averaging over structures obtained from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The explicit treatment of finite-temperature and solvent effects facilitates the interpretation of the bands in the low-energy region of the MnO$_{4}$$^{-}$ absorption spectrum, whose assignment has been elusive.

  7. Infrared absorption spectrum of the simplest deuterated Criegee intermediate CD{sub 2}OO

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Nishimura, Yoshifumi; Witek, Henryk A., E-mail: hwitek@mail.nctu.edu.tw, E-mail: yplee@mail.nctu.edu.tw

    We report a transient infrared (IR) absorption spectrum of the simplest deuterated Criegee intermediate CD{sub 2}OO recorded using a step-scan Fourier-transform spectrometer coupled with a multipass absorption cell. CD{sub 2}OO was produced from photolysis of flowing mixtures of CD{sub 2}I{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and O{sub 2} (13 or 87 Torr) with laser light at 308 nm. The recorded spectrum shows close structural similarity with the spectrum of CH{sub 2}OO reported previously [Y.-T. Su et al., Science 340, 174 (2013)]. The four bands observed at 852, 1017, 1054, and 1318 cm{sup −1} are assigned to the OO stretching mode, two distinctmore » in-plane OCD bending modes, and the CO stretching mode of CD{sub 2}OO, respectively, according to vibrational wavenumbers, IR intensities, rotational contours, and deuterium-isotopic shifts predicted with extensive quantum-chemical calculations. The CO-stretching mode of CD{sub 2}OO at 1318 cm{sup −1} is blue shifted from the corresponding band of CH{sub 2}OO at 1286 cm{sup −1}; this can be explained by a mechanism based on mode mixing and isotope substitution. A band near 936 cm{sup −1}, observed only at higher pressure (87 Torr), is tentatively assigned to the CD{sub 2} wagging mode of CD{sub 2}IOO.« less

  8. Chemical and spectral behavior of nitric acid in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions: Absorption spectrum and molar absorption coefficient of nitronium ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ershov, Boris G.; Panich, Nadezhda M.

    2018-01-01

    The chemical species formed from nitric acid in aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid (up to 18.0 mol L- 1) were studied by optical spectroscopy method. The concentration region of nitronium ion formation was identified and NO2+ ion absorption spectrum was measured (λmax ≤ 190 nm and ε190 = 1040 ± 50 mol- 1 L cm- 1).

  9. Analysis of the red and green optical absorption spectrum of gas phase ammonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zobov, Nikolai F.; Coles, Phillip A.; Ovsyannikov, Roman I.; Kyuberis, Aleksandra A.; Hargreaves, Robert J.; Bernath, Peter F.; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Polyansky, Oleg L.

    2018-04-01

    Room temperature NH3 absorption spectra recorded at the Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory in 1980 are analyzed. The spectra cover two regions in the visible: 15,200 - 15,700 cm-1 and 17,950 - 18,250 cm-1. These high overtone rotation-vibration spectra are analyzed using both combination differences and variational line lists. Two variational line lists were computed using the TROVE nuclear motion program: one is based on an ab initio potential energy surface (PES) while the other used a semi-empirical PES. Ab initio dipole moment surfaces are used in both cases. 95 energy levels with J = 1 - 7 are determined from analysis of the experimental spectrum in the 5νNH (red) region and 46 for 6νNH (green) region. These levels span four vibrational bands in each of the two regions, associated with stretching overtones.

  10. The effect of surface irradiance on the absorption spectrum of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in the global ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swan, Chantal M.; Nelson, Norman B.; Siegel, David A.; Kostadinov, Tihomir S.

    2012-05-01

    The cycling pathways of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) within marine systems must be constrained to better assess the impact of CDOM on surface ocean photochemistry and remote sensing of ocean color. Photobleaching, the loss of absorption by CDOM due to light exposure, is the primary sink for marine CDOM. Herein the susceptibility of CDOM to photobleaching by sea surface-level solar radiation was examined in 15 samples collected from wide-ranging open ocean regimes. Samples from the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian and Southern Oceans were irradiated over several days with full-spectrum light under a solar simulator at in situ temperature in order to measure photobleaching rate and derive an empirical matrix, ɛsurf (m-1 μEin-1), which quantifies the effect of surface irradiance on the spectral absorption of CDOM. Irradiation responses among the ocean samples were similar within the ultraviolet (UV) region of the spectrum spanning 300-360 nm, generally exhibiting a decrease in the CDOM absorption coefficient (m-1) and concomitant increase in the CDOM spectral slope parameter, S (nm-1). However, an unexpected irradiation-induced increase in CDOM absorption between approximately 360 and 500 nm was observed for samples from high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) environments. This finding was linked to the presence of dissolved nitrate and may explain discrepancies in action spectra for dimethylsulfide (DMS) photobleaching observed between the Equatorial Pacific and Subtropical North Atlantic Oceans. The nitrate-to-phosphate ratio explained 27-70% of observed variability in ɛsurf at observation wavelengths of 330-440 nm, while the initial spectral slope of the samples explained up to 52% of variability in ɛsurf at observation wavelengths of 310-330 nm. These results suggest that the biogeochemical and solar exposure history of the water column, each of which influence the chemical character and thus the spectral quality of CDOM and its photoreactivity, are the

  11. Absorption spectrum of a two-level atom in a bad cavity with injected squeezed vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Peng; Swain, S.

    1996-02-01

    We study the absorption spectrum of a coherently driven two-level atom interacting with a resonant cavity mode which is coupled to a broadband squeezed vacuum through its input-output mirror in the bad cavity limit. We study the modification of the two-photon correlation strength of the injected squeezed vacuum inside the cavity, and show that the equations describing probe absorption in the cavity environment are formally identical to these in free space, but with modified parameters describing the squeezed vacuum. The two photon correlations induced by the squeezed vacuum are always weaker than in free space. We pay particular attention to the spectral behaviour at line centre in the region of intermediate trength driving intensities, where anomalous spectral features such as hole-burning and dispersive profiles are displayed. These unusual spectral features are very sensitive to the squeezing phase and the Rabi frequency of the driving field. We also derive the threshold value of the Rabi frequency which gives rise to the transparency of the probe beam at the driving frequency. When the Rabi frequency is less than the threshold value, the probe beam is absorbed, whilst the probe beam is amplified (without population inversion under certain conditions) when the Rabi frequency is larger than this threshold. The anomalous spectral features all take place in the vicinity of the critical point dividing the different dynamical regimes, probe absorption and amplification, of the atomic radiation. The physical origin of the strong amplification without population inversion, and the feasibility of observing it, are discussed.

  12. High-resolution, vacuum-ultraviolet absorption spectrum of boron trifluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Patrick P.; Thompson, Alan K.; Vest, Robert E.

    2014-11-21

    In the course of investigations of thermal neutron detection based on mixtures of {sup 10}BF{sub 3} with other gases, knowledge was required of the photoabsorption cross sections of {sup 10}BF{sub 3} for wavelengths between 135 and 205 nm. Large discrepancies in the values reported in existing literature led to the absolute measurements reported in this communication. The measurements were made at the SURF III Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The measured absorption cross sections vary from 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2} at 135 nm to less than 10{sup −21} cm{sup 2} in the regionmore » from 165 to 205 nm. Three previously unreported absorption features with resolvable structure were found in the regions 135–145 nm, 150–165 nm, and 190–205 nm. Quantum mechanical calculations, using the TD-B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ variant of time-dependent density functional theory implemented in Gaussian 09, suggest that the observed absorption features arise from symmetry-changing adiabatic transitions.« less

  13. The integrated radio continuum spectrum of M33 - Evidence for free-free absorption by cool ionized gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israel, F. P.; Mahoney, M. J.; Howarth, N.

    1992-01-01

    We present measurements of the integrated radio continuum flux density of M33 at frequencies between 22 and 610 MHz and discuss the radio continuum spectrum of M33 between 22 MHz and 10 GHz. This spectrum has a turnover between 500 and 900 MHz, depending on the steepness of the high frequency radio spectrum of M33. Below 500 MHz the spectrum is relatively flat. We discuss possible mechanisms to explain this spectral shape and consider efficient free-free absorption of nonthermal emission by a cool (not greater than 1000 K) ionized gas to be a very likely possibility. The surface filling factor of both the nonthermal and the thermal material appears to be small (of order 0.001), which could be explained by magnetic field/density fluctuations in the M 33 interstellar medium. We briefly speculate on the possible presence of a nuclear radio source with a steep spectrum.

  14. Spectrum of excess partial molar absorptivity. Part II: a near infrared spectroscopic study of aqueous Na-halides.

    PubMed

    Sebe, Fumie; Nishikawa, Keiko; Koga, Yoshikata

    2012-04-07

    Our earlier thermodynamic studies suggested that F(-) and Cl(-) form hydration shells with the hydration number 14 ± 2 and 2.3 ± 0.6, respectively, and leave the bulk H(2)O away from hydration shells unperturbed. Br(-) and I(-), on the other hand, form hydrogen bonds directly with the momentarily existing hydrogen bond network of H(2)O, and retard the degree of entropy-volume cross fluctuation inherent in liquid H(2)O. The effect of the latter is stronger for I(-) than Br(-). Here we seek additional information about this qualitative difference between Cl(-) and (Br(-) and I(-)) pair by near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. We analyze the ν(2) + ν(3) band of H(2)O in the range 4600-5500 cm(-1) of aqueous solutions of NaCl, NaBr and NaI, by a new approach. From observed absorbance, we calculate excess molar absorptivity, ε(E), excess over the additive contributions of solute and solvent. ε(E) thus contains information about the effect of inter-molecular interactions in the ν(2) + ν(3) spectrum. The spectrum of ε(E) shows three bands; two negative ones at 5263 and 4873 cm(-1), and the positive band at 5123 cm(-1). We then define and calculate the excess partial molar absorptivity of each salt, ε(E)(salt). From the behaviour of ε(E)(salt) we suggest that the negative band at 5263 cm(-1) represents free H(2)O without much hydrogen bonding under the influence of local electric field of ions. Furthermore, from a sudden change in the x(salt) (mole fraction of salt) dependence of ε(E)(salt), we suggest that there is an ion-pairing in x(salt) > 0.032, 0.036, and 0.04 for NaCl, NaBr and NaI respectively. The positive band of ε(E) at 5123 cm(-1) is attributed to a modestly organized hydrogen bond network of H(2)O (or liquid-likeness), and the x(salt) dependence of ε indicated a qualitative difference in the effect of Cl(-) from those of Br(-) and I(-). Namely, the values of ε(E)(salt) stay constant for Cl(-) but those for Br(-) and I(-) decrease smoothly on

  15. The Hubble Space Telescope Quasar Absorption Line Key Project: The Unusual Absorption-Line System in the Spectrum of PG 2302+029--Ejected or Intervening?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jannuzi, B. T.; Hartig, G. F.; Kirhakos, S.; Sargent, W. L. W.; Turnshek, D. A.; Weymann, R. J.; Bahcall, J. N.; Bergeron, J.; Boksenberg, A.; Savage, B. D.; hide

    1996-01-01

    We report the discovery of a high-ionization broad absorption line system at a redshift of z(sub abs) = 0.695 in the spectrum of the z(sub em) = 1.052 radio-quiet quasar PG 2302+029. Broad absorption with FWHM from 3000 to 5000 km/s is detected from C iv, N v, and O vi in Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Faint Object Spectrograph spectra of the quasar. A narrow-line system (FWHM approx. 250 km/s) at z(sub abs) = 0.7016 is resolved from the broad blend and includes absorption by Ly alpha and the C iv, N v, and O vi doublets. No absorption by low-ionization metal species (e.g., Si II and Mg II) is detected in the HST or ground-based spectra for either the broad or the narrow system. The centroids of the broad system lines are displaced by approx. 56,000 km/s to the blue of the quasar's broad emission lines. The reddest extent of the broad-line absorption is more than 50,000 km/s from the quasar. The properties of this system are unprecedented, whether it is an intervening or an ejected system.

  16. Direct measurement of the absolute absorption spectrum of individual semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blancon, Jean-Christophe; Paillet, Matthieu; Tran, Huy Nam; Than, Xuan Tinh; Guebrou, Samuel Aberra; Ayari, Anthony; Miguel, Alfonso San; Phan, Ngoc-Minh; Zahab, Ahmed-Azmi; Sauvajol, Jean-Louis; Fatti, Natalia Del; Vallée, Fabrice

    2013-09-01

    The optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes are very promising for developing novel opto-electronic components and sensors with applications in many fields. Despite numerous studies performed using photoluminescence or Raman and Rayleigh scattering, knowledge of their optical response is still partial. Here we determine using spatial modulation spectroscopy, over a broad optical spectral range, the spectrum and amplitude of the absorption cross-section of individual semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes. These quantitative measurements permit determination of the oscillator strength of the different excitonic resonances and their dependencies on the excitonic transition and type of semiconducting nanotube. A non-resonant background is also identified and its cross-section comparable to the ideal graphene optical absorbance. Furthermore, investigation of the same single-wall nanotube either free standing or lying on a substrate shows large broadening of the excitonic resonances with increase of oscillator strength, as well as stark weakening of polarization-dependent antenna effects, due to nanotube-substrate interaction.

  17. Absorption spectrum and ultrafast response of monolayer and bilayer transition-metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkowski, Volodymyr; Ramirez-Torres, Alfredo; Rahman, Talat S.

    2015-03-01

    We apply a combined time-dependent density functional theory and many-body theory approach to examine the absorption spectrum and nonequilibrium response of monolayer and bilayer MoS2, MoSe2, WS2 and WSe2 systems. In particular, we evaluate the possibility of existence of bound states - excitons and trions in the undoped systems. In a previous work we have already demonstrated that the binding energies of these states in the monolayer systems are large which makes them available for room temperature applications. We analyze the possibility of ultrafast electron-hole separation in bilayer systems through inter-layer hole transfer, and show that such a possibility exists, in agreement with experimental observations. For doped systems we consider the possibility of Mahan excitonic states in monolayers and show that the binding energy for these states is of the order of 10 meV. We perform a detailed analysis of the relaxation of doped monolayers excited by ultrafast laser pulse by taking into account electron-phonon scattering effects, and demonstrate that ultrafast (10-100fs) processes, including luminescence, may be relevant for these materials. Work supported in part by DOE Grant No. DOE-DE-FG02-07ER46354.

  18. Herbicidal Spectrum, Absorption and Transportation, and Physiological Effect on Bidens pilosa of the Natural Alkaloid Berberine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiao; Ma, Jing-Jing; Liu, Bo; Huang, Lun; Sang, Xiao-Qing; Zhou, Li-Juan

    2017-08-02

    Berberine is a natural herbicidal alkaloid from Coptis chinensis Franch. Here we characterized its herbicidal spectrum and absorption and transportation in the plant, along with the possible mechanism. Berberine showed no effect on the germination of the 10 tested plants. The IC 50 values of berberine on the primary root length and fresh weight of the 10 tested plants ranged from 2.91 to 9.79 mg L -1 and 5.76 to 35.07 mg L -1 , respectively. Berberine showed a similar herbicidal effect on Bidens pilosa as the commercial naturally derived herbicide cinmethylin. HPLC and fluorescence analysis revealed that berberine was mainly absorbed by B. pilosa root and transported through vascular bundle acropetally. Enzyme activity studies, GC-MS analysis, and SEM and TEM observations indicated that berberine might first function on the cell membrane indicated by variation of the IUFA percent and then cause POD, PPO, and SOD activity changes and cellular structure deformity, which was eventually expressed as the decrease of cell adaptation ability and abnormal cell function and may even result in cell death. Environmental safety evaluation tests revealed that berberine was low in toxicity to Brachydanio rerio. These indicate that berberine has the potential to be a bioherbicide and/or a lead molecule for new herbicides.

  19. Detection of blueshifted emission and absorption and a relativistic iron line in the X-ray spectrum of ESO323-G077

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Bailón, E.; Krongold, Y.; Bianchi, S.; Matt, G.; Santos-Lleó, M.; Piconcelli, E.; Schartel, N.

    2008-12-01

    We report on the X-ray observation of the Seyfert 1 galaxy ESO323-G077 performed with XMM-Newton. The EPIC spectra show a complex spectrum with conspicuous absorption and emission features. The continuum emission can be modelled with a power law with an index of 1.99 +/- 0.02 in the whole XMM-Newton energy band, marginally consistent with typical values of type I objects. An absorption component with an uncommonly high equivalent hydrogen column (nH = 5.82+0.12-0.11 × 1022cm-2) is affecting the soft part of the spectrum. Additionally, two warm absorption components are also present in the spectrum. The lower ionized one, mainly imprinting the soft band of the spectrum, has an ionization parameter of logU = 2.14+0.06-0.07 and an outflowing velocity of v = 3200+600-200kms-1. Two absorption lines located at ~6.7 and ~7.0keV can be modelled with the highly ionized absorber. The ionization parameter and outflowing velocity of the gas measured are logU = 3.26+0.19-0.15 and v = 1700+600-400kms-1, respectively. Four emission lines were also detected in the soft energy band. The most likely explanation for these emission lines is that they are associated with an outflowing gas with a velocity of ~2000kms-1. The data suggest that the same gas which is causing the absorption could also being responsible of these emission features. Finally, the XMM-Newton spectrum shows the presence of a relativistic iron emission line likely originated in the accretion disc of a Kerr black hole with an inclination of ~25°. We propose a model to explain the observed X-ray properties which invokes the presence of a two-phase outflow with cone-like structure and a velocity of the order of 2000- 4000kms-1. The inner layer of the cone would be less ionized, or even neutral, than the outer layer. The inclination angle of the source would be lower than the opening angle of the outflowing cone. Partially based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and

  20. Upper limits on the 21 cm power spectrum at z = 5.9 from quasar absorption line spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pober, Jonathan C.; Greig, Bradley; Mesinger, Andrei

    2016-11-01

    We present upper limits on the 21 cm power spectrum at z = 5.9 calculated from the model-independent limit on the neutral fraction of the intergalactic medium of x_{H I} < 0.06 + 0.05 (1σ ) derived from dark pixel statistics of quasar absorption spectra. Using 21CMMC, a Markov chain Monte Carlo Epoch of Reionization analysis code, we explore the probability distribution of 21 cm power spectra consistent with this constraint on the neutral fraction. We present 99 per cent confidence upper limits of Δ2(k) < 10-20 mK2 over a range of k from 0.5 to 2.0 h Mpc-1, with the exact limit dependent on the sampled k mode. This limit can be used as a null test for 21 cm experiments: a detection of power at z = 5.9 in excess of this value is highly suggestive of residual foreground contamination or other systematic errors affecting the analysis.

  1. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) and competency to stand trial (CST): Suggestions for a 'best practices' approach to forensic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jerrod M; Haun, Jeffrey; Zapf, Patricia A; Brown, Natalie Novick

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), an umbrella term for neurodevelopmental conditions caused by prenatal alcohol exposure, is overrepresented in the U.S. juvenile and adult criminal justice systems. The brain damage in FASD manifests in a combination of cognitive and adaptive impairments that potentially reduce ability to function adequately during the criminal justice process, including capacity to stand trial (CST). Despite the high risk of arrest and conviction in this population, relatively little research guides CST assessment for defendants who have or may have FASD. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to describe how FASD may affect CST and suggest ways forensic professionals might modify assessment protocols to address possible effects of FASD-associated impairments on adjudicative capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Whole genome sequencing of a dizygotic twin suggests a role for the serotonin receptor HTR7 in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Helsmoortel, Céline; Swagemakers, Sigrid M A; Vandeweyer, Geert; Stubbs, Andrew P; Palli, Ivo; Mortier, Geert; Kooy, R Frank; van der Spek, Peter J

    2016-12-01

    Whole genome sequencing of a severely affected dizygotic twin with an autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability revealed a compound heterozygous mutation in the HTR7 gene as the only variation not detected in control databases. Each parent carries one allele of the mutation, which is not present in an unaffected stepsister. The HTR7 gene encodes the 5-HT 7 serotonin receptor that is involved in brain development, synaptic transmission, and plasticity. The paternally inherited p.W60C variant is situated at an evolutionary conserved nucleotide and predicted damaging by Polyphen2. A mutation akin to the maternally inherited pV286I mutation has been reported to significantly affect the binding characteristics of the receptor. Therefore, the observed sequence alterations provide a first suggestive link between a genetic abnormality in the HTR7 gene and a neurodevelopmental disorder. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. PARTIAL REVISION: ABSORPTION SPECTRUM AND QUANTUM STATES OF THE PRASEODYMIUM ION. I. SINGLE CRYSTALS OF PRASEODYMIUM CHLORIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Sayre, E.V.; Sancier, K.M.; Freed, S.

    1958-07-01

    In an analysis of term splitting in the absorption spectrum of 24 samples of praseodymium chloride, Judd (Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A241, 414(1957)) found all but two of the authors' results to be constant with his. A discussion of reconciliation is presentrd, and the authors point out that the error is due to a mistake in descrimination between electronic transitions and the weak vibrationally coupled lines. (J.R.D.)

  4. The origin of blueshifted absorption features in the X-ray spectrum of PG 1211+143: outflow or disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, L. C.; Fabian, A. C.

    2013-07-01

    In some radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGN), high-energy absorption features in the X-ray spectra have been interpreted as ultrafast outflows (UFOs) - highly ionized material (e.g. Fe XXV and Fe XXVI) ejected at mildly relativistic velocities. In some cases, these outflows can carry energy in excess of the binding energy of the host galaxy. Needless to say, these features demand our attention as they are strong signatures of AGN feedback and will influence galaxy evolution. For the same reason, alternative models need to be discussed and refuted or confirmed. Gallo and Fabian proposed that some of these features could arise from resonance absorption of the reflected spectrum in a layer of ionized material located above and corotating with the accretion disc. Therefore, the absorbing medium would be subjected to similar blurring effects as seen in the disc. A priori, the existence of such plasma above the disc is as plausible as a fast wind. In this work, we highlight the ambiguity by demonstrating that the absorption model can describe the ˜7.6 keV absorption feature (and possibly other features) in the quasar PG 1211+143, an AGN that is often described as a classic example of a UFO. In this model, the 2-10 keV spectrum would be largely reflection dominated (as opposed to power law dominated in the wind models) and the resonance absorption would be originating in a layer between about 6 and 60 gravitational radii. The studies of such features constitute a cornerstone for future X-ray observatories like Astro-H and Athena+. Should our model prove correct, or at least important in some cases, then absorption will provide another diagnostic tool with which to probe the inner accretion flow with future missions.

  5. Nuclear quantum effects in electronically adiabatic quantum time correlation functions: Application to the absorption spectrum of a hydrated electron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turi, László; Hantal, György; Rossky, Peter J.; Borgis, Daniel

    2009-07-01

    A general formalism for introducing nuclear quantum effects in the expression of the quantum time correlation function of an operator in a multilevel electronic system is presented in the adiabatic limit. The final formula includes the nuclear quantum time correlation functions of the operator matrix elements, of the energy gap, and their cross terms. These quantities can be inferred and evaluated from their classical analogs obtained by mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics simulations. The formalism is applied to the absorption spectrum of a hydrated electron, expressed in terms of the time correlation function of the dipole operator in the ground electronic state. We find that both static and dynamic nuclear quantum effects distinctly influence the shape of the absorption spectrum, especially its high energy tail related to transitions to delocalized electron states. Their inclusion does improve significantly the agreement between theory and experiment for both the low and high frequency edges of the spectrum. It does not appear sufficient, however, to resolve persistent deviations in the slow Lorentzian-like decay part of the spectrum in the intermediate 2-3 eV region.

  6. The gas-phase absorption spectrum of a neutral GFP model chromophore.

    PubMed

    Lammich, L; Petersen, M Axman; Nielsen, M Brøndsted; Andersen, L H

    2007-01-01

    We have studied the gas-phase absorption properties of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) chromophore in its neutral (protonated) charge state in a heavy-ion storage ring. To accomplish this we synthesized a new molecular chromophore with a charged NH(3) group attached to a neutral model chromophore of GFP. The gas-phase absorption cross section of this chromophore molecule as a function of the wavelength is compared to the well-known absorption profile of GFP. The chromophore has a maximum absorption at 415 +/- 5 nm. When corrected for the presence of the charged group attached to the GFP model chromophore, the unperturbed neutral chromophore is predicted to have an absorption maximum at 399 nm in vacuum. This is very close to the corresponding absorption peak of the protein at 397 nm. Together with previous data obtained with an anionic GFP model chromophore, the present data show that the absorption of GFP is primarily determined by intrinsic chromophore properties. In other words, there is strong experimental evidence that, in terms of absorption, the conditions in the hydrophobic interior of this protein are very close to those in vacuum.

  7. Measurement of absorption spectrum of deuterium oxide (D{sub 2}O) and its application to signal enhancement in multiphoton microscopy at the 1700-nm window

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuxin; Wen, Wenhui; Wang, Kai

    2016-01-11

    1700-nm window has been demonstrated to be a promising excitation window for deep-tissue multiphoton microscopy (MPM). Long working-distance water immersion objective lenses are typically used for deep-tissue imaging. However, absorption due to immersion water at 1700 nm is still high and leads to dramatic decrease in signals. In this paper, we demonstrate measurement of absorption spectrum of deuterium oxide (D{sub 2}O) from 1200 nm to 2600 nm, covering the three low water-absorption windows potentially applicable for deep-tissue imaging (1300 nm, 1700 nm, and 2200 nm). We apply this measured result to signal enhancement in MPM at the 1700-nm window. Compared with water immersion, D{sub 2}O immersionmore » enhances signal levels in second-harmonic generation imaging, 3-photon fluorescence imaging, and third-harmonic generation imaging by 8.1, 24.8, and 24.7 times with 1662-nm excitation, in good agreement with theoretical calculation based on our absorption measurement. This suggests D{sub 2}O a promising immersion medium for deep-tissue imaging.« less

  8. Experimental and Ab Initio Studies of the HDO Absorption Spectrum in the 13165-13500 1/cm Spectral Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenke, David; Naumenko, Olga; Bertseva, Elena; Campargue, Alain; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The HDO absorption spectrum has been recorded in the 13165 - 13500 cm(exp-1) spectral region by Intracavity Laser Absorption Spectroscopy. The spectrum (615 lines), dominated by the 2n2 + 3n3 and n1+3n3 bands was assigned and modeled leading to the derivation of 196 accurate energy levels of the (103) and (023) vibrational states. Finally, 150 of these levels have been reproduced by an effective Hamiltonian involving two vibrational dark states interacting with the (023) and ( 103) bright states. The rms deviation achieved by variation of 28 parameters is 0.05-1 cm, compared to an averaged experimental uncertainty of 0.007-1 cm, indicating the limit of validity of the effective Hamiltonian approach for HDO at high vibrational excitation. The predictions of previous ab initio calculations of the HDO spectrum were extensively used in the assignment process. The particular spectral region under consideration has been used to test and discuss the improvements of new ab initio calculations recently performed on the basis of the same potential energy surface but with an improved dipole moment surface. The improvements concern both the energy levels and the line intensities. In particular, the strong hybrid character of the n1+3n3 band is very well accounted for by the the new ab initio calculations.

  9. Quantum Monte Carlo for the x-ray absorption spectrum of pyrrole at the nitrogen K-edge

    SciTech Connect

    Zubarev, Dmitry Yu.; Austin, Brian M.; Lester, William A. Jr.

    Fixed-node diffusion Monte Carlo (FNDMC) is used to simulate the x-ray absorption spectrum of a gas-phase pyrrole molecule at the nitrogen K-edge. Trial wave functions for core-excited states are constructed from ground-state Kohn-Sham determinants substituted with singly occupied natural orbitals from configuration interaction with single excitations calculations of the five lowest valence-excited triplet states. The FNDMC ionization potential (IP) is found to lie within 0.3 eV of the experimental value of 406.1 {+-} 0.1 eV. The transition energies to anti-bonding virtual orbitals match the experimental spectrum after alignment of IP values and agree with the existing assignments.

  10. Analyses of Impact of Needle Surface Properties on Estimation of Needle Absorption Spectrum: Case Study with Coniferous Needle and Shoot Samples

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bin; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Lin, Yi; Yan, Kai; Chen, Chi; Park, Taejin; Choi, Sungho; Mõttus, Matti; Rautiainen, Miina; Myneni, Ranga B.; Yan, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Leaf scattering spectrum is the key optical variable that conveys information about leaf absorbing constituents from remote sensing. It cannot be directly measured from space because the radiation scattered from leaves is affected by the 3D canopy structure. In addition, some radiation is specularly reflected at the surface of leaves. This portion of reflected radiation is partly polarized, does not interact with pigments inside the leaf and therefore contains no information about its interior. Very little empirical data are available on the spectral and angular scattering properties of leaf surfaces. Whereas canopy-structure effects are well understood, the impact of the leaf surface reflectance on estimation of leaf absorption spectra remains uncertain. This paper presents empirical and theoretical analyses of angular, spectral, and polarimetric measurements of light reflected by needles and shoots of Pinus koraiensis and Picea koraiensis species. Our results suggest that ignoring the leaf surface reflected radiation can result in an inaccurate estimation of the leaf absorption spectrum. Polarization measurements may be useful to account for leaf surface effects because radiation reflected from the leaf surface is partly polarized, whereas that from the leaf interior is not. PMID:28868160

  11. UV absorption spectrum of the ClO dimer (Cl2O2) between 200 and 420 nm.

    PubMed

    Papanastasiou, Dimitrios K; Papadimitriou, Vassileios C; Fahey, David W; Burkholder, James B

    2009-12-10

    The UV photolysis of Cl(2)O(2) (dichlorine peroxide) is a key step in the catalytic destruction of polar stratospheric ozone. In this study, the gas-phase UV absorption spectrum of Cl(2)O(2) was measured using diode array spectroscopy and absolute cross sections, sigma, are reported for the wavelength range 200-420 nm. Pulsed laser photolysis of Cl(2)O at 248 nm or Cl(2)/Cl(2)O mixtures at 351 nm at low temperature (200-228 K) and high pressure (approximately 700 Torr, He) was used to produce ClO radicals and subsequently Cl(2)O(2) via the termolecular ClO self-reaction. The Cl(2)O(2) spectrum was obtained from spectra recorded following the completion of the gas-phase ClO radical chemistry. The spectral analysis used observed isosbestic points at 271, 312.9, and 408.5 nm combined with reaction stoichiometry and chlorine mass balance to determine the Cl(2)O(2) spectrum. The Cl(2)O(2) UV absorption spectrum peaks at 244.5 nm with a cross section of 7.6(-0.5)(+0.8) x 10(-18) cm(2) molecule(-1) where the quoted error limits are 2sigma and include estimated systematic errors. The Cl(2)O(2) absorption cross sections obtained for wavelengths in the range 300-420 nm are in good agreement with the Cl(2)O(2) spectrum reported previously by Burkholder et al. (J. Phys. Chem. A 1990, 94, 687) and significantly higher than the values reported by Pope et al. (J. Phys. Chem. A 2007, 111, 4322). A possible explanation for the discrepancy in the Cl(2)O(2) cross section values with the Pope et al. study is discussed. Representative, atmospheric photolysis rate coefficients are calculated and a range of uncertainty estimated based on the determination of sigma(Cl(2)O(2))(lambda) in this work. Although improvements in our fundamental understanding of the photochemistry of Cl(2)O(2) are still desired, this work indicates that major revisions in current atmospheric chemical mechanisms are not required to simulate observed polar ozone depletion.

  12. UV Absorption Spectrum of the ClO Dimer (Cl2O2) between 200 and 420 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanastasiou, Dimitrios K.; Papadimitriou, Vassileios C.; Fahey, David W.; Burkholder, James B.

    2009-11-01

    The UV photolysis of Cl2O2 (dichlorine peroxide) is a key step in the catalytic destruction of polar stratospheric ozone. In this study, the gas-phase UV absorption spectrum of Cl2O2 was measured using diode array spectroscopy and absolute cross sections, σ, are reported for the wavelength range 200-420 nm. Pulsed laser photolysis of Cl2O at 248 nm or Cl2/Cl2O mixtures at 351 nm at low temperature (200-228 K) and high pressure (˜700 Torr, He) was used to produce ClO radicals and subsequently Cl2O2 via the termolecular ClO self-reaction. The Cl2O2 spectrum was obtained from spectra recorded following the completion of the gas-phase ClO radical chemistry. The spectral analysis used observed isosbestic points at 271, 312.9, and 408.5 nm combined with reaction stoichiometry and chlorine mass balance to determine the Cl2O2 spectrum. The Cl2O2 UV absorption spectrum peaks at 244.5 nm with a cross section of 7.6-0.5+0.8 × 10-18 cm2 molecule-1 where the quoted error limits are 2σ and include estimated systematic errors. The Cl2O2 absorption cross sections obtained for wavelengths in the range 300-420 nm are in good agreement with the Cl2O2 spectrum reported previously by Burkholder et al. (J. Phys. Chem. A 1990, 94, 687) and significantly higher than the values reported by Pope et al. (J. Phys. Chem. A 2007, 111, 4322). A possible explanation for the discrepancy in the Cl2O2 cross section values with the Pope et al. study is discussed. Representative, atmospheric photolysis rate coefficients are calculated and a range of uncertainty estimated based on the determination of σCl2O2(λ) in this work. Although improvements in our fundamental understanding of the photochemistry of Cl2O2 are still desired, this work indicates that major revisions in current atmospheric chemical mechanisms are not required to simulate observed polar ozone depletion.

  13. [Study on transient absorption spectrum of tungsten nanoparticle with HepG2 tumor cell].

    PubMed

    Cao, Lin; Shu, Xiao-Ning; Liang, Dong; Wang, Cong

    2014-07-01

    Significance of this study lies in tungsten nano materials can be used as a preliminary innovative medicines applied basic research. This paper investigated the inhibition of tungsten nanoparticles which effected on human hepatoma HepG2 cells by MTT. The authors use transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS) technology absorption and emission spectra characterization of charge transfer between nanoparticles and tumor cell. The authors discussed the role of the tungsten nanoparticles in the tumor early detection of the disease and its anti-tumor properties. In the HepG2 experiments system, 100-150 microg x mL(-1) is the best drug concentration of anti-tumor activity which recact violently within 6 hours and basically completed in 24 hours. The results showed that transient absorption spectroscopy can be used as tumor detection methods and characterization of charge transfer between nano-biosensors and tumor cells. Tungsten nanoparticles have potential applications as anticancer drugs.

  14. Would the solvent effect be the main cause of band shift in the theoretical absorption spectrum of large lanthanide complexes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, Ricardo O.; Rodrigues, Nailton M.; Rocha, Gerd B.; Gimenez, Iara F.; da Costa Junior, Nivan B.

    2011-06-01

    As most reactions take place in solution, the study of solvent effects on relevant molecular properties - either by experimental or theoretical methods - is crucial for the design of new processes and prediction of technological properties. In spite of this, only few works focusing the influence of the solvent nature specifically on the spectroscopic properties of lanthanide complexes can be found in the literature. The present work describes a theoretical study of the solvent effect on the prediction of the absorption spectra for lanthanide complexes, but other possible relevant factors have been also considered such as the molecular geometry and the excitation window used for interaction configuration (CI) calculations. The [Eu(ETA) 2· nH 2O] +1 complex has been chosen as an ideal candidate for this type of study due to its small number of atoms (only 49) and also because the absorption spectrum exhibits a single band. Two Monte Carlo simulations were performed, the first one considering the [Eu(ETA) 2] +1 complex in 400 water molecules, evidencing that the complex presents four coordinated water molecules. The second simulation considered the [Eu(ETA) 2·4H 2O] +1 complex in 400 ethanol molecules, in order to evaluate the solvent effect on the shift of the maximum absorption in calculated spectra, compared to the experimental one. Quantum chemical studies were also performed in order to evaluate the effect of the accuracy of calculated ground state geometry on the prediction of absorption spectra. The influence of the excitation window used for CI calculations on the spectral shift was also evaluated. No significant solvent effect was found on the prediction of the absorption spectrum for [Eu(ETA) 2·4H 2O] +1 complex. A small but significant effect of the ground state geometry on the transition energy and oscillator strength was also observed. Finally it must be emphasized that the absorption spectra of lanthanide complexes can be predicted with great accuracy

  15. Parents Suggest Which Indicators of Progress and Outcomes Should Be Measured in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConachie, Helen; Livingstone, Nuala; Morris, Christopher; Beresford, Bryony; Le Couteur, Ann; Gringras, Paul; Garland, Deborah; Jones, Glenys; Macdonald, Geraldine; Williams, Katrina; Parr, Jeremy R.

    2018-01-01

    Evaluation of interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is hampered by the multitude of outcomes measured and tools used. Measurement in research with young children tends to focus on core impairments in ASD. We conducted a systematic review of qualitative studies of what matters to parents. Parent advisory groups completed…

  16. Absorption spectrum of neat liquid benzene and its concentrated solutions in n-hexane from 220 to 170 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Saik, V.O.; Lipsky, S.

    The electronic absorption spectrum of benzene has been obtained by phototransmission measurements over a concentration range from 0.005 M in n-hexane to the neat liquid at 11.2 M and over a spectral range that extends down to 170 nm. Good agreement is obtained with previously reported measurements on the neat liquid. The oscillator strength of the strongly allowed A{sub 1g} {yields} E{sub 1u} transition is maintained at ca. 1.0 as the benzene concentration increases but is accompanied by extensive redistribution of the intensity such that the optical cross section at the position of the absorption maximum (which shifts from 184{submore » .2} nm in dilute solution to 189{sub .5} nm in the neat liquid) reduces by a factor of 2.7. An explanation for these changes in terms of Lorentz field corrections to the complex dielectric constant is developed, and its implication to the assignment of the neat liquid absorption as a collective excitation is considered. 43 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.« less

  17. Absorption Spectrum of Phytoplankton Pigments Derived from Hyperspectral Remote-Sensing Reflectance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    For a data set collected around Baja California with chlorophyll-a concentration ((chl-a)) ranging from 0.16 to 11.3 mg/cubic meter, hyperspectral absorption spectra of phytoplankton pigments were independently inverted from hyperspectral remote - sensing reflectance using a newly...potential of using hyperspectral remote sensing to retrieve both chlorophyll-a and other accessory pigments. (7 figures, 47 refs.)

  18. [Open-path online monitoring of ambient atmospheric CO2 based on laser absorption spectrum].

    PubMed

    He, Ying; Zhang, Yu-Jun; Kan, Rui-Feng; Xia, Hui; Geng, Hui; Ruan, Jun; Wang, Min; Cui, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Wen-Qing

    2009-01-01

    With the conjunction of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technology (TDLAS) and the open long optical path technology, the system designing scheme of CO2 on-line monitoring based on near infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technology was discussed in detail, and the instrument for large-range measurement was set up. By choosing the infrared absorption line of CO2 at 1.57 microm whose line strength is strong and suitable for measurement, the ambient atmospheric CO2 was measured continuously with a 30 s temporal resolution at an suburb site in the autumn of 2007. The diurnal atmospheric variations of CO2 and continuous monitoring results were presented. The results show that the variation in CO2 concentration has an obvious diurnal periodicity in suburb where the air is free of interference and contamination. The general characteristic of diurnal variation is that the concentration is low in the daytime and high at night, so it matches the photosynthesis trend. The instrument can detect gas concentration online with high resolution, high sensitivity, high precision, short response time and many other advantages, the monitoring requires no gas sampling, the calibration is easy, and the detection limit is about 4.2 x 10(-7). It has been proved that the system and measurement project are feasible, so it is an effective method for gas flux continuous online monitoring of large range in ecosystem based on TDLAS technology.

  19. Cesium Absorption Spectrum Perturbed by Argon: Observation of Non-Lorentzian Wing Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    vapor phase Cs contained in a heat pipe in order to observe the absorption lines. Two lenses were used to collimate the light through the heat pipe...After passing through the heat pipe, a mirror was used to direct light around a 90 degree turn and then through an f/# matched lens into a monochromator...pipe used here was built by Charles Fox as part of [19]. Brewster’s angle windows were attached to either end of a pipe approximately 1 inch in diameter

  20. Data-driven analysis of biomedical literature suggests broad-spectrum benefits of culinary herbs and spices.

    PubMed

    Rakhi, N K; Tuwani, Rudraksh; Mukherjee, Jagriti; Bagler, Ganesh

    2018-01-01

    Spices and herbs are key dietary ingredients used across cultures worldwide. Beyond their use as flavoring and coloring agents, the popularity of these aromatic plant products in culinary preparations has been attributed to their antimicrobial properties. Last few decades have witnessed an exponential growth of biomedical literature investigating the impact of spices and herbs on health, presenting an opportunity to mine for patterns from empirical evidence. Systematic investigation of empirical evidence to enumerate the health consequences of culinary herbs and spices can provide valuable insights into their therapeutic utility. We implemented a text mining protocol to assess the health impact of spices by assimilating, both, their positive and negative effects. We conclude that spices show broad-spectrum benevolence across a range of disease categories in contrast to negative effects that are comparatively narrow-spectrum. We also implement a strategy for disease-specific culinary recommendations of spices based on their therapeutic tradeoff against adverse effects. Further by integrating spice-phytochemical-disease associations, we identify bioactive spice phytochemicals potentially involved in their therapeutic effects. Our study provides a systems perspective on health effects of culinary spices and herbs with applications for dietary recommendations as well as identification of phytochemicals potentially involved in underlying molecular mechanisms.

  1. Data-driven analysis of biomedical literature suggests broad-spectrum benefits of culinary herbs and spices

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Jagriti

    2018-01-01

    Spices and herbs are key dietary ingredients used across cultures worldwide. Beyond their use as flavoring and coloring agents, the popularity of these aromatic plant products in culinary preparations has been attributed to their antimicrobial properties. Last few decades have witnessed an exponential growth of biomedical literature investigating the impact of spices and herbs on health, presenting an opportunity to mine for patterns from empirical evidence. Systematic investigation of empirical evidence to enumerate the health consequences of culinary herbs and spices can provide valuable insights into their therapeutic utility. We implemented a text mining protocol to assess the health impact of spices by assimilating, both, their positive and negative effects. We conclude that spices show broad-spectrum benevolence across a range of disease categories in contrast to negative effects that are comparatively narrow-spectrum. We also implement a strategy for disease-specific culinary recommendations of spices based on their therapeutic tradeoff against adverse effects. Further by integrating spice-phytochemical-disease associations, we identify bioactive spice phytochemicals potentially involved in their therapeutic effects. Our study provides a systems perspective on health effects of culinary spices and herbs with applications for dietary recommendations as well as identification of phytochemicals potentially involved in underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:29813110

  2. Aerosol Absorption Retrievals from the PACE Broad Spectrum Ocean Color Instrument (OCI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattoo, Shana; Remer, Lorraine A.; Levy, Robert C.; Gupta, Pawan; Ahmad, Ziauddin; Martins, J. Vanderlei; Lima, Adriana Rocha; Torres, Omar

    2016-01-01

    The PACE (Pre-­Aerosol, Clouds and ocean Ecosystem) mission, anticipated for launch in the early 2020s, is designed to characterize oceanic and atmospheric properties. The primary instrument on-­-board will be a moderate resolution (approximately 1 km nadir) radiometer, called the Ocean Color Instrument (OCI). OCI will provide high spectral resolution (5 nm) from the UV to NIR (350 - 800 nm), with additional spectral bands in the NIR and SWIR. The OCI itself is an excellent instrument for atmospheric objectives, providing measurements across a broad spectral range that in essence combines the capabilities of MODIS and OMI, but with the UV channels from OMI to be available at moderate resolution. (Image credit: PACE Science Definition Team Report). Objective: Can we make use of the UV-­SWIR measurements to derive information about aerosol absorption when aerosol loading is high?

  3. A Near-Infrared Spectrometer to Measure Zodiacal Light Absorption Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutyrev, A. S.; Arendt, R.; Dwek, E.; Kimble, R.; Moseley, S. H.; Rapchun, D.; Silverberg, R. F.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a high throughput infrared spectrometer for zodiacal light fraunhofer lines measurements. The instrument is based on a cryogenic dual silicon Fabry-Perot etalon which is designed to achieve high signal to noise Fraunhofer line profile measurements. Very large aperture silicon Fabry-Perot etalons and fast camera optics make these measurements possible. The results of the absorption line profile measurements will provide a model free measure of the zodiacal Light intensity in the near infrared. The knowledge of the zodiacal light brightness is crucial for accurate subtraction of zodiacal light foreground for accurate measure of the extragalactic background light after the subtraction of zodiacal light foreground. We present the final design of the instrument and the first results of its performance.

  4. Detection of a deep 3-microm absorption feature in the spectrum of Amalthea (JV).

    PubMed

    Takato, Naruhisa; Bus, Schelte J; Terada, Hiroshi; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Kobayashi, Naoto

    2004-12-24

    Near-infrared spectra of Jupiter's small inner satellites Amalthea and Thebe are similar to those of D-type asteroids in the 0.8- to 2.5-micrometer wavelength range. A deep absorption feature is detected at 3 micrometers in the spectra of the trailing side of Amalthea, which is similar to that of the non-ice components of Callisto and can be attributed to hydrous minerals. These surface materials cannot be explained if the satellite formed at its present orbit by accreting from a circumjovian nebula. Amalthea and Thebe may be the remnants of Jupiter's inflowing building blocks that formed in the outer part or outside of the circumjovian nebula.

  5. Measurement of the vacuum-ultraviolet absorption spectrum of low-k dielectrics using X-ray reflectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, F. A.; Nguyen, H. M.; King, S. W.; Lee, C. H.; Lin, Y. H.; Fung, H. S.; Chen, C. C.; Li, W.; Benjamin, D.; Blatz, J. M.; Nishi, Y.; Shohet, J. L.

    2018-02-01

    During plasma processing, low-k dielectrics are exposed to high levels of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation that can cause severe damage to dielectric materials. The degree and nature of VUV-induced damage depend on the VUV photon energies and fluence. In this work, we examine the VUV-absorption spectrum of low-k organosilicate glass using specular X-ray reflectivity (XRR). Low-k SiCOH films were exposed to synchrotron VUV radiation with energies ranging from 7 to 21 eV, and the density vs. depth profile of the VUV-irradiated films was extracted from fitting the XRR experimental data. The results show that the depth of the VUV-induced damage layer is a function of the photon energy. Between 7 and 11 eV, the depth of the damaged layer decreases sharply from 110 nm to 60 nm and then gradually increases to 85 nm at 21 eV. The maximum VUV absorption in low-k films occurs between 11 and 15 eV. The depth of the damaged layer was found to increase with film porosity.

  6. Substituent and solvent effects on the UV-vis absorption spectrum of the photoactive yellow protein chromophore.

    PubMed

    García-Prieto, F Fernández; Aguilar, M A; Galván, I Fdez; Muñoz-Losa, A; Olivares del Valle, F J; Sánchez, M L; Martín, M E

    2015-05-28

    Solvent effects on the UV-vis absorption spectra and molecular properties of four models of the photoactive yellow protein (PYP) chromophore have been studied with ASEP/MD, a sequential quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics method. The anionic trans-p-coumaric acid (pCA(-)), thioacid (pCTA(-)), methyl ester (pCMe(-)), and methyl thioester (pCTMe(-)) derivatives have been studied in gas phase and in water solution. We analyze the modifications introduced by the substitution of sulfur by oxygen atoms and hydrogen by methyl in the coumaryl tail. We have found some differences in the absorption spectra of oxy and thio derivatives that could shed light on the different photoisomerization paths followed by these compounds. In solution, the spectrum substantially changes with respect to that obtained in the gas phase. The n → π1* state is destabilized by a polar solvent like water, and it becomes the third excited state in solution displaying an important blue shift. Now, the π → π1* and π → π2* states mix, and we find contributions from both transitions in S1 and S2. The presence of the sulfur atom modulates the solvent effect and the first two excited states become practically degenerate for pCA(-) and pCMe(-) but moderately well-separated for pCTA(-) and pCTMe(-).

  7. Total Absorption Spectroscopy Study of ⁹²Rb Decay: A Major Contributor to Reactor Antineutrino Spectrum Shape

    SciTech Connect

    Sonzogni, A.; Zakari-Issoufou, A. -A.; Fallot, M.

    2015-03-09

    The accurate determination of the emitted reactor antineutrino flux is still a major challenge for actual and future neutrino experiments at reactors, especially after the evidence of a disagreement between the measured antineutrino energy spectrum by Double Chooz, Daya Bay, and Reno and calculated antineutrino spectra obtained from the conversion of the unique integral beta spectra measured at the ILL reactor. Using nuclear data to compute reactor antineutrino spectra may help understanding this bias, with the study of the underlying nuclear physics. Summation calculations allow identifying a list of nuclei that contribute importantly to the antineutrino energy spectra emitted aftermore » the fission of ²³⁹ ,²⁴¹Pu and ²³⁵ ,²³⁸U, and whose beta decay properties might deserve new measurements. Among these nuclei, ⁹²Rb exhausts by itself about 16% of of the antineutrino energy spectrum emitted by Pressurized Water Reactors in the 5 to 8 MeV range. In this Letter, we report new Total Absorption Spectroscopy (TAS) results for this important contributor. The obtained beta feeding from ⁹²Rb shows beta intensity unobserved before in the 4.5 to 5.5 MeV energy region and gives a ground state to ground state branch of 87.5 % ± 3%. These new data induce a dramatic change in recent summation calculations where a 51% GS to GS branch was considered for ⁹²Rb, increasing the summation antineutrino spectrum in the region nearby the observed bias.The new data still have an important impact on other summation calculations in which more recent data were considered« less

  8. Tracing Acetylene Dissolved in Transformer Oil by Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Ma, Guo-Ming; Zhao, Shu-Jing; Jiang, Jun; Song, Hong-Tu; Li, Cheng-Rong; Luo, Ying-Ting; Wu, Hao

    2017-11-02

    Dissolved gas analysis (DGA) is widely used in monitoring and diagnosing of power transformer, since the insulation material in the power transformer decomposes gases under abnormal operation condition. Among the gases, acetylene, as a symbol of low energy spark discharge and high energy electrical faults (arc discharge) of power transformer, is an important monitoring parameter. The current gas detection method used by the online DGA equipment suffers from problems such as cross sensitivity, electromagnetic compatibility and reliability. In this paper, an optical gas detection system based on TDLAS technology is proposed to detect acetylene dissolved in transformer oil. We selected a 1530.370 nm laser in the near infrared wavelength range to correspond to the absorption peak of acetylene, while using the wavelength modulation strategy and Herriott cell to improve the detection precision. Results show that the limit of detection reaches 0.49 ppm. The detection system responds quickly to changes of gas concentration and is easily to maintenance while has no electromagnetic interference, cross-sensitivity, or carrier gas. In addition, a complete detection process of the system takes only 8 minutes, implying a practical prospect of online monitoring technology.

  9. Atomic-level molybdenum oxide nanorings with full-spectrum absorption and photoresponsive properties.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Yang, Yang; Chen, Shuangming; Lu, Qichen; Song, Li; Wei, Yen; Wang, Xun

    2017-11-16

    Superthin nanostructures, particularly with atomic-level thicknesses, typically display unique optical properties because of their exceptional light-matter interactions. Here, we report a facile strategy for the synthesis of sulfur-doped molybdenum oxide nanorings with an atomic-level size (thickness of 0.5 nm) and a tunable ring-in-ring architecture. These atomic-level nanorings displayed strong photo-absorption in both the visible and infrared-light ranges and acted as a photothermal agent. Under irradiation with an 808 nm laser with an intensity of 1 W/cm 2 , a composite of the nanorings embedded in polydimethylsiloxane showed an ultrafast photothermal effect, delivering a local temperature of up to 400 °C within 20 s, which to the best of our knowledge is the highest temperature by light irradiation reported to date. Meanwhile, the resulting nanorings were also employed as a photoinitiator to remotely induce a visible-light shape memory response, self-healing, reshaping performance and reversible actuation of dynamic three-dimensional structures. This study demonstrates an advancement towards controlling atomic-level-sized nanostructures and achieving greatly enhanced optical performances for optoelectronics.

  10. [Measurements of IR absorption across section and spectrum simulation of lewisite].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan-peng; Wang, Hai-tao; Zhang, Lin; Yang, Liu; Guo, Xiao-di; Bai, Yun; Sun, Hao

    2015-02-01

    The vapor infrared transmission spectra of varied concentration of lewisite-1 were measured by a long-path FT-IR spectrometer, and its characteristic frequencies are 814, 930, 1563 cm(-1); their infrared absorption cross section (a) were determined using Beer-Lambert law. The corresponding sigma values are 3.89 +/- 0.01, 1.43 +/- 0.06, 4.47 +/- 0.05 ( X 10(-20) cm2 x molecule(-1)). Two little teeny peaks, 1158, 1288 cm(-1) were found in the measured spectra. Density Functional Theory (DFT) was applied to calculated the infrared spectra of lewisite-1, -2, -3 on a b3lyp/6-311+g(d, p) level by Gauss09 package. The vibration modes were assigned by Gaussview5. 08. The calculated spectra and experimental spectra are in good agreement with each other in 600-1600 cm(-1) range, for the Person's r is 0.9991. The calculated spectra also showed three characteristic frequencies (293, 360, 374 cm(-1)) related to As atom. 0.977 was a scaling factor we determined for lewisite-1 through least-square error and its performance to scale lewisite-1, -2, -3 was acceptable. The results of this work are useful for monitoring environmental atmospheric concentrations of lewisite.

  11. Spectral- and size-resolved mass absorption efficiency of mineral dust aerosols in the shortwave spectrum: a simulation chamber study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caponi, Lorenzo; Formenti, Paola; Massabó, Dario; Di Biagio, Claudia; Cazaunau, Mathieu; Pangui, Edouard; Chevaillier, Servanne; Landrot, Gautier; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Kandler, Konrad; Piketh, Stuart; Saeed, Thuraya; Seibert, Dave; Williams, Earle; Balkanski, Yves; Prati, Paolo; Doussin, Jean-François

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents new laboratory measurements of the mass absorption efficiency (MAE) between 375 and 850 nm for 12 individual samples of mineral dust from different source areas worldwide and in two size classes: PM10. 6 (mass fraction of particles of aerodynamic diameter lower than 10.6 µm) and PM2. 5 (mass fraction of particles of aerodynamic diameter lower than 2.5 µm). The experiments were performed in the CESAM simulation chamber using mineral dust generated from natural parent soils and included optical and gravimetric analyses. The results show that the MAE values are lower for the PM10. 6 mass fraction (range 37-135 × 10-3 m2 g-1 at 375 nm) than for the PM2. 5 (range 95-711 × 10-3 m2 g-1 at 375 nm) and decrease with increasing wavelength as λ-AAE, where the Ångström absorption exponent (AAE) averages between 3.3 and 3.5, regardless of size. The size independence of AAE suggests that, for a given size distribution, the dust composition did not vary with size for this set of samples. Because of its high atmospheric concentration, light absorption by mineral dust can be competitive with black and brown carbon even during atmospheric transport over heavy polluted regions, when dust concentrations are significantly lower than at emission. The AAE values of mineral dust are higher than for black carbon (˜ 1) but in the same range as light-absorbing organic (brown) carbon. As a result, depending on the environment, there can be some ambiguity in apportioning the aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) based on spectral dependence, which is relevant to the development of remote sensing of light-absorbing aerosols and their assimilation in climate models. We suggest that the sample-to-sample variability in our dataset of MAE values is related to regional differences in the mineralogical composition of the parent soils. Particularly in the PM2. 5 fraction, we found a strong linear correlation between the dust light-absorption properties and

  12. Genetic and Functional Analyses of SHANK2 Mutations Suggest a Multiple Hit Model of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Leblond, Claire S.; Heinrich, Jutta; Delorme, Richard; Proepper, Christian; Betancur, Catalina; Huguet, Guillaume; Konyukh, Marina; Chaste, Pauline; Ey, Elodie; Rastam, Maria; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Nygren, Gudrun; Gillberg, I. Carina; Melke, Jonas; Toro, Roberto; Regnault, Beatrice; Fauchereau, Fabien; Mercati, Oriane; Lemière, Nathalie; Skuse, David; Poot, Martin; Holt, Richard; Monaco, Anthony P.; Järvelä, Irma; Kantojärvi, Katri; Vanhala, Raija; Curran, Sarah; Collier, David A.; Bolton, Patrick; Chiocchetti, Andreas; Klauck, Sabine M.; Poustka, Fritz; Freitag, Christine M.; Waltes, Regina; Kopp, Marnie; Duketis, Eftichia; Bacchelli, Elena; Minopoli, Fiorella; Ruta, Liliana; Battaglia, Agatino; Mazzone, Luigi; Maestrini, Elena; Sequeira, Ana F.; Oliveira, Barbara; Vicente, Astrid; Oliveira, Guiomar; Pinto, Dalila; Scherer, Stephen W.; Zelenika, Diana; Delepine, Marc; Lathrop, Mark; Bonneau, Dominique; Guinchat, Vincent; Devillard, Françoise; Assouline, Brigitte; Mouren, Marie-Christine; Leboyer, Marion; Gillberg, Christopher; Boeckers, Tobias M.; Bourgeron, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders with a complex inheritance pattern. While many rare variants in synaptic proteins have been identified in patients with ASD, little is known about their effects at the synapse and their interactions with other genetic variations. Here, following the discovery of two de novo SHANK2 deletions by the Autism Genome Project, we identified a novel 421 kb de novo SHANK2 deletion in a patient with autism. We then sequenced SHANK2 in 455 patients with ASD and 431 controls and integrated these results with those reported by Berkel et al. 2010 (n = 396 patients and n = 659 controls). We observed a significant enrichment of variants affecting conserved amino acids in 29 of 851 (3.4%) patients and in 16 of 1,090 (1.5%) controls (P = 0.004, OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.23–4.70). In neuronal cell cultures, the variants identified in patients were associated with a reduced synaptic density at dendrites compared to the variants only detected in controls (P = 0.0013). Interestingly, the three patients with de novo SHANK2 deletions also carried inherited CNVs at 15q11–q13 previously associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. In two cases, the nicotinic receptor CHRNA7 was duplicated and in one case the synaptic translation repressor CYFIP1 was deleted. These results strengthen the role of synaptic gene dysfunction in ASD but also highlight the presence of putative modifier genes, which is in keeping with the “multiple hit model” for ASD. A better knowledge of these genetic interactions will be necessary to understand the complex inheritance pattern of ASD. PMID:22346768

  13. Genetic and functional analyses of SHANK2 mutations suggest a multiple hit model of autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Leblond, Claire S; Heinrich, Jutta; Delorme, Richard; Proepper, Christian; Betancur, Catalina; Huguet, Guillaume; Konyukh, Marina; Chaste, Pauline; Ey, Elodie; Rastam, Maria; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Nygren, Gudrun; Gillberg, I Carina; Melke, Jonas; Toro, Roberto; Regnault, Beatrice; Fauchereau, Fabien; Mercati, Oriane; Lemière, Nathalie; Skuse, David; Poot, Martin; Holt, Richard; Monaco, Anthony P; Järvelä, Irma; Kantojärvi, Katri; Vanhala, Raija; Curran, Sarah; Collier, David A; Bolton, Patrick; Chiocchetti, Andreas; Klauck, Sabine M; Poustka, Fritz; Freitag, Christine M; Waltes, Regina; Kopp, Marnie; Duketis, Eftichia; Bacchelli, Elena; Minopoli, Fiorella; Ruta, Liliana; Battaglia, Agatino; Mazzone, Luigi; Maestrini, Elena; Sequeira, Ana F; Oliveira, Barbara; Vicente, Astrid; Oliveira, Guiomar; Pinto, Dalila; Scherer, Stephen W; Zelenika, Diana; Delepine, Marc; Lathrop, Mark; Bonneau, Dominique; Guinchat, Vincent; Devillard, Françoise; Assouline, Brigitte; Mouren, Marie-Christine; Leboyer, Marion; Gillberg, Christopher; Boeckers, Tobias M; Bourgeron, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders with a complex inheritance pattern. While many rare variants in synaptic proteins have been identified in patients with ASD, little is known about their effects at the synapse and their interactions with other genetic variations. Here, following the discovery of two de novo SHANK2 deletions by the Autism Genome Project, we identified a novel 421 kb de novo SHANK2 deletion in a patient with autism. We then sequenced SHANK2 in 455 patients with ASD and 431 controls and integrated these results with those reported by Berkel et al. 2010 (n = 396 patients and n = 659 controls). We observed a significant enrichment of variants affecting conserved amino acids in 29 of 851 (3.4%) patients and in 16 of 1,090 (1.5%) controls (P = 0.004, OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.23-4.70). In neuronal cell cultures, the variants identified in patients were associated with a reduced synaptic density at dendrites compared to the variants only detected in controls (P = 0.0013). Interestingly, the three patients with de novo SHANK2 deletions also carried inherited CNVs at 15q11-q13 previously associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. In two cases, the nicotinic receptor CHRNA7 was duplicated and in one case the synaptic translation repressor CYFIP1 was deleted. These results strengthen the role of synaptic gene dysfunction in ASD but also highlight the presence of putative modifier genes, which is in keeping with the "multiple hit model" for ASD. A better knowledge of these genetic interactions will be necessary to understand the complex inheritance pattern of ASD.

  14. Genetics of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome: a review of mutation spectrum and suggested approach for genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Joshi, S; Andersen, R; Jespersen, B; Rittig, S

    2013-09-01

    Identification of genes, associated mutations and genotype-phenotype correlations in steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is being translated to clinical practice through genetic testing. This review provides an update on the genes and mutations associated with SRNS along with a suggested approach for genetic testing in patients with SRNS. The number of indentified genes associated with SRNS is increasing along with our understanding of their impact on treatment response and risk of recurrence. A systematic approach to genetic testing in patients with SRNS might aid the physician in selecting appropriate treatment. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Absorption spectrum and absorption cross sections of the 2ν1 band of HO2 between 20 and 760 Torr air in the range 6636 and 6639 cm-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assaf, Emmanuel; Liu, Lu; Schoemaecker, Coralie; Fittschen, Christa

    2018-05-01

    The absorption spectrum of HO2 radicals has been measured in the range 6636-6639 cm-1 at several pressures between 20 and 760 Torr of air. Absolute absorption cross sections of the strongest line at around 6638.2 cm-1 have been determined from kinetic measurements, taking advantage of the well known rate constant of the self-reaction. Peak absorption cross sections of 22.6, 19.5, 14.4, 7.88, 5.12 and 3.23 × 10-20 cm2 were obtained at 20, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 760 Torr, respectively. By fitting these data, an empirical expression has been obtained for the absorption cross section of HO2 in the range 20-760 Torr air: σ6638.2cm-1 = 1.18 × 10-20 + (2.64 × 10-19 × (1-exp (-63.1/p (Torr))) cm2.

  16. Similar subclinical enthesitis in celiac and inflammatory bowel diseases by ultrasound suggests a gut enthesis axis independent of spondyloarthropathy spectrum.

    PubMed

    Bakirci Ureyen, Sibel; Karacaer, Cengiz; Toka, Bilal; Erturk, Zeynep; Eminler, Ahmet Tarik; Kaya, Muhammed; Tascilar, Koray; Tamer, Ali; Uslan, Ihsan; Kurum, Esra; McGonagle, Dennis; Aydin, Sibel Zehra

    2018-05-08

    Higher subclinical enthesitis on US has been reported in IBD and celiac disease, separately. The objective of this study was to compare IBD and celiac disease for enthesitis on US. Higher enthesitis scores in IBD compared with celiac disease would support a shared pathogenic mechanism between IBD and spondyloarthritis, whereas similar scores may suggest a general impact of gut inflammation on the enthesis. Patients with IBD, celiac disease and healthy controls (HCs) were recruited and 12 entheses were scanned by US, blind to the diagnosis and clinical assessment. Elementary lesions for enthesitis were scored on a scale between 0 and 3, for inflammation, damage and total US scores. A total of 1260 entheses were scanned in 44 patients with celiac disease, 43 patients with IBD and 18 HCs. The three groups were matched for age and BMI. Patients with celiac disease and IBD had higher inflammation scores than HCs [10.4 (6.5), 9.6 (5.4) and 5.6 (5.2), respectively, P = 0.007) whereas damage scores were similar. Both age and BMI had significant effects on the entheseal scores, mostly for inflammation scores but when controlling for these the US enthesopathy scores were still higher in celiac disease and IBD. The magnitude of subclinical enthesopathy scores is similar between celiac disease and IBD in comparison with HCs. These findings suggest that the common factor between both diseases and enthesopathy is abnormal gut permeability, which may be modified by the genetic architecture of IBD leading to clinical arthropathy.

  17. Interstellar absorption lines in the spectrum of sigma Sco using Copernicus observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M. M.; Snow, T. P.

    1986-01-01

    Since the launch of Copernicus in 1972, studies have been made of the depletion of gas-phase elements onto dust grains. A few stars have been studied in detail, resulting in a standard depletion pattern which has since been used for comparison. Recent developments, however, have suggested that this standard pattern may need to be re-examined. Some weak, semi-forbidden lines were detected recently which may be able to resolve some of the ambiguities. Studies of single elements have shown that depletion of carbon and oxgyen are much smaller than previously determined. The high resolution ultraviolet spectral scans of sigma Sco were originally made in 1973, but have only recently been analyzed. All these stars are bright and moderately reddened. All four stars will be analyzed in detail, but sigma Sco is the first one completed. The data has broad coverage of ions, making these stars excellent candidates for determination of accurate depletions. A profile-fitting analysis was used rather than curves-of-growth in order to determine separate abundances and depletions in components separated by several km/sec.

  18. Absorption, distribution and excretion of the anti-tuberculosis drug delamanid in rats: Extensive tissue distribution suggests potential therapeutic value for extrapulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Masakazu; Shimokawa, Yoshihiko; Sasahara, Katsunori; Yoda, Noriaki; Sasabe, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Mitsunari; Umehara, Ken

    2017-05-01

    Delamanid (OPC-67683, Deltyba™, nitro-dihydro-imidazooxazoles derivative) is approved for the treatment of adult pulmonary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The absorption, distribution and excretion of delamanid-derived radioactivity were investigated after a single oral administration of 14 C-delamanid at 3 mg/kg to rats. In both male and female rats, radioactivity in blood and all tissues reached peak levels by 8 or 24 h post-dose, and thereafter decreased slowly. Radioactivity levels were 3- to 5-fold higher in lung tissue at time to maximum concentration compared with plasma. In addition, radioactivity was broadly distributed in various tissues, including the central nervous system, eyeball, placenta and fetus, indicating that 14 C-delamanid permeated the brain, retinal and placental blood barriers. By 168 h post-dose, radioactivity in almost all the tissues was higher than that in the plasma. Radioactivity was also transferred into the milk of lactating rats. Approximately 6% and 92% of radioactivity was excreted in the urine and feces, respectively, indicating that the absorbed radioactivity was primarily excreted via the biliary route. No significant differences in the absorption, distribution and excretion of 14 C-delamanid were observed between male and female rats. The pharmacokinetic results suggested that delamanid was broadly distributed to the lungs and various tissues for a prolonged duration of time at concentrations expected to effectively target tuberculosis bacteria. These data indicate that delamanid, in addition to its previously demonstrated efficacy in pulmonary tuberculosis, might be an effective therapeutic approach to treating extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. [Using ultraviolet-visible ( UV-Vis) absorption spectrum to estimate the dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentration in water, soils and sediments of typical water-level fluctuation zones of the Three Gorges Reservoir areas].

    PubMed

    Li, Lu-lu; Jiang, Tao; Lu, Song; Yan, Jin-long; Gao, Jie; Wei, Shi-qiang; Wang, Ding-yong; Guo, Nian; Zhao, Zhena

    2014-09-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a very important component in terrestrial ecosystem. Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is a significant constituent of DOM, which can be measured by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectrum. Thus the relationship between CDOM and DOM was investigated and established by several types of models including single-wavelength model, double-wavelength model, absorption spectrum slope (S value) model and three-wavelength model, based on the UV-Vis absorption coefficients of soil and sediment samples (sampled in July of 2012) and water samples (sampled in November of 2012) respectively. The results suggested that the three-wavelength model was the best for fitting, and the determination coefficients of water, soil and sediment data were 0. 788, 0. 933 and 0. 856, respectively. Meanwhile, the nominal best model was validated with the UV-Vis data of 32 soil samples and 36 water samples randomly collected in 2013, showing the RRMSE and MRE were 16. 5% and 16. 9% respectively for soil DOM samples, 10. 32% and 9. 06% respectively for water DOM samples, which further suggested the prediction accuracy was higher in water DOM samples as compared with that in soil DOM samples.

  20. The absorption spectrum of the QSO PKS 2126-158 (z_em =3.27) at high resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Odorico, V.; Cristiani, S.; D'Odorico, S.; Fontana, A.; Giallongo, E.

    1998-01-01

    Spectra of the z_em = 3.268 quasar PKS 2126-158 have been obtained in the range lambda lambda 4300-6620 Angstroms with a resolution Rsmallimeq27000 and an average signal-to-noise ratio s/nsmallimeq 25 per resolution element. The list of the identified absorption lines is given together with their fitted column densities and Doppler widths. The modal value of the Doppler parameter distribution for the Lyalpha lines is smallimeq 25 km s(-1) . The column density distribution can be described by a power-law dn / dN ~ N(-beta ) with beta smallimeq 1.5. 12 metal systems have been identified, two of which were previously unknown. In order to make the column densities of the intervening systems compatible with realistic assumptions about the cloud sizes and the silicon to carbon overabundance, it is necessary to assume a jump beyond the He II edge in the spectrum of the UV ionizing background at z smallim 3 a factor 10 larger than the standard predictions for the integrated quasar contribution. An enlarged sample of C IV absorptions (71 doublets) has been used to analyze the statistical properties of this class of absorbers strictly related to galaxies. The column density distribution is well described by a single power-law, with beta =1.64 and the Doppler parameter distribution shows a modal value b_CIV smallimeq 14 km s(-1) . The two point correlation function has been computed in the velocity space for the individual components of C IV features. A significant signal is obtained for scales smaller than 200- 300 km s(-1) , xi (30< Delta v < 90 km\\ s(-1) ) = 33 +/- 3. A trend of decreasing clustering amplitude with decreasing column density is apparent, analogously to what has been observed for Lyalpha lines. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile (ESO No. 2-013-49K). Table 2 is only available in electronic from via anonymous ftp 130.79.128.5 or http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

  1. Understanding the Linguistic Needs of Diverse Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Some Comments on the Research Literature and Suggestions for Clinicians.

    PubMed

    Lim, Nataly; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio E

    2018-03-12

    The practice of advising bilingual parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to speak in a single language, often the majority language of the region, with their child with ASD seems to be common. Such advice, however, is not grounded on empirical evidence but appears to be based more on logical arguments and assumptions. In this commentary, fears surrounding dual language exposure and empirical evidence supporting bilingualism in children with ASD are discussed. Suggestions for future research and three key steps that clinicians can consider taking to better address the needs of diverse learners are provided.

  2. The CO2 absorption spectrum in the 2.3 μm transparency window by high sensitivity CRDS: (II) Self-absorption continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondelain, D.; Vasilchenko, S.; Čermák, P.; Kassi, S.; Campargue, A.

    2017-01-01

    The CO2 absorption continuum near 2.3 μm is determined for a series of sub atmospheric pressures (250-750 Torr) by high sensitivity Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy. An experimental procedure consisting in injecting successively a gas flow of CO2 and synthetic air, keeping constant the gas pressure in the CRDS cell, has been developed. This procedure insures a high stability of the spectra baseline by avoiding changes of the optical alignment due to pressure changes. The CO2 continuum was obtained as the difference between the CO2 absorption coefficient and a local lines simulation using a Voigt profile truncated at ±25 cm-1. Following the results of the preceding analysis of the CO2 rovibrational lines (Vasilchenko S et al. J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2016.07.002, a CO2 line list with intensities obtained by variational calculations and empirical line positions was preferred to the HITRAN line list. A quadratic pressure dependence of the absorption continuum is observed, with an average binary absorption coefficient increasing from 2 to 4×10-8 cm-1 amagat-2 between 4320 and 4380 cm-1. The obtained continuum is found in good agreement with a previous measurement using much higher densities (20 amagat) and a low resolution grating spectrograph and is consistent with values currently used in the analysis of Venus spectra.

  3. The methane absorption spectrum near 1.73 μm (5695-5850 cm-1): Empirical line lists at 80 K and 296 K and rovibrational assignments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghysels, M.; Mondelain, D.; Kassi, S.; Nikitin, A. V.; Rey, M.; Campargue, A.

    2018-07-01

    The methane absorption spectrum is studied at 297 K and 80 K in the center of the Tetradecad between 5695 and 5850 cm-1. The spectra are recorded by differential absorption spectroscopy (DAS) with a noise equivalent absorption of about αmin≈ 1.5 × 10-7 cm-1. Two empirical line lists are constructed including about 4000 and 2300 lines at 297 K and 80 K, respectively. Lines due to 13CH4 present in natural abundance were identified by comparison with a spectrum of pure 13CH4 recorded in the same temperature conditions. About 1700 empirical values of the lower state energy level, Eemp, were derived from the ratios of the line intensities at 80 K and 296 K. They provide accurate temperature dependence for most of the absorption in the region (93% and 82% at 80 K and 296 K, respectively). The quality of the derived empirical values is illustrated by the clear propensity of the corresponding lower state rotational quantum number, Jemp, to be close to integer values. Using an effective Hamiltonian model derived from a previously published ab initio potential energy surface, about 2060 lines are rovibrationnally assigned, adding about 1660 new assignments to those provided in the HITRAN database for 12CH4 in the region.

  4. Solvent effects on the absorption spectrum and first hyperpolarizability of keto-enol tautomeric forms of anil derivatives: A Monte Carlo/quantum mechanics study

    SciTech Connect

    Adriano Junior, L.; Fonseca, T. L.; Castro, M. A.

    2016-06-21

    Theoretical results for the absorption spectrum and electric properties of the enol and keto tautomeric forms of anil derivatives in the gas-phase and in solution are presented. The electronic properties in chloroform, acetonitrile, methanol, and water were determined by carrying out sequential Monte Carlo simulations and quantum mechanics calculations based on the time dependent density functional theory and on the second-order Møller–Plesset perturbation theory method. The results illustrate the role played by electrostatic interactions in the electronic properties of anil derivatives in a liquid environment. There is a significant increase of the dipole moment in solution (20%-100%) relative to themore » gas-phase value. Solvent effects are mild for the absorption spectrum and linear polarizability but they can be particularly important for first hyperpolarizability. A large first hyperpolarizability contrast between the enol and keto forms is observed when absorption spectra present intense lowest-energy absorption bands. Dynamic results for the first hyperpolarizability are in qualitative agreement with the available experimental results.« less

  5. Reconstruction of the absorption spectrum of an object spot from the colour values of the corresponding pixel(s) in its digital image: the challenge of algal colours.

    PubMed

    Coltelli, Primo; Barsanti, Laura; Evangelista, Valter; Frassanito, Anna Maria; Gualtieri, Paolo

    2016-12-01

    A novel procedure for deriving the absorption spectrum of an object spot from the colour values of the corresponding pixel(s) in its image is presented. Any digital image acquired by a microscope can be used; typical applications are the analysis of cellular/subcellular metabolic processes under physiological conditions and in response to environmental stressors (e.g. heavy metals), and the measurement of chromophore composition, distribution and concentration in cells. In this paper, we challenged the procedure with images of algae, acquired by means of a CCD camera mounted onto a microscope. The many colours algae display result from the combinations of chromophores whose spectroscopic information is limited to organic solvents extracts that suffers from displacements, amplifications, and contraction/dilatation respect to spectra recorded inside the cell. Hence, preliminary processing is necessary, which consists of in vivo measurement of the absorption spectra of photosynthetic compartments of algal cells and determination of spectra of the single chromophores inside the cell. The final step of the procedure consists in the reconstruction of the absorption spectrum of the cell spot from the colour values of the corresponding pixel(s) in its digital image by minimization of a system of transcendental equations based on the absorption spectra of the chromophores under physiological conditions. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  6. Photodissociation dynamics in the first absorption band of pyrrole. I. Molecular Hamiltonian and the Herzberg-Teller absorption spectrum for the A12(π σ* ) ←X˜ 1 A1(π π ) transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picconi, David; Grebenshchikov, Sergy Yu.

    2018-03-01

    This paper opens a series in which the photochemistry of the two lowest πσ* states of pyrrole and their interaction with each other and with the ground electronic state X ˜ are studied using ab initio quantum mechanics. New 24-dimensional potential energy surfaces for the photodissociation of the N-H bond and the formation of the pyrrolyl radical are calculated using the multiconfigurational perturbation theory (CASPT2) for the electronic states X ˜ (π π ) , 11A2(πσ*), and 11B1(πσ*) and locally diabatized. In this paper, the ab initio calculations are described and the photodissociation in the state 11A2(πσ*) is analyzed. The excitation 11 A2←X ˜ is mediated by the coordinate dependent transition dipole moment functions constructed using the Herzberg-Teller expansion. Nuclear dynamics, including 6, 11, and 15 active degrees of freedom, are studied using the multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree method. The focus is on the frequency resolved absorption spectrum as well as on the dissociation time scales and the resonance lifetimes. Calculations are compared with available experimental data. An approximate convolution method is developed and validated, with which absorption spectra can be calculated and assigned in terms of vibrational quantum numbers. The method represents the total absorption spectrum as a convolution of the diffuse spectrum of the detaching H-atom and the Franck-Condon spectrum of the heteroaromatic ring. Convolution calculation requires a minimal quantum chemical input and is a promising tool for studying the πσ* photodissociation in model biochromophores.

  7. A New Search for Carbon Monoxide Absorption in the Transmission Spectrum of the Extrasolar Planet HD 209458b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, Drake; Brown, Timothy M.; Charbonneau, David; Harrington, Joseph; Richardson, L. Jeremy

    2005-04-01

    We have revisited the search for carbon monoxide absorption features in transmission during the transit of the extrasolar planet HD 209458b. In 2002 August-September we acquired a total of 1077 high-resolution spectra (λ/δλ~25,000) in the K-band (2 μm) wavelength region using NIRSPEC on the Keck II telescope during three transits. These data are more numerous and of better quality than the data analyzed in an initial search by Brown et al. Our analysis achieves a sensitivity sufficient to test the degree of CO absorption in the first-overtone bands during transit on the basis of plausible models of the planetary atmosphere. We analyze our observations by comparison with theoretical tangent geometry absorption spectra, computed by adding height-invariant ad hoc temperature perturbations to the model atmosphere of Sudarsky et al. and by treating cloud height as an adjustable parameter. We do not detect CO absorption. The strong 2-0 R-branch lines between 4320 and 4330 cm-1 have depths during transit less than 1.6 parts in 104 in units of the stellar continuum (3 σ limit) at a spectral resolving power of 25,000. Our analysis indicates a weakening similar to that found in the case of sodium, suggesting that a general masking mechanism is at work in the planetary atmosphere. Under the interpretation that this masking is provided by high clouds, our analysis defines the maximum cloud-top pressure (i.e., minimum height) as a function of the model atmospheric temperature. For the relatively hot model used by Charbonneau et al. to interpret their sodium detection, our CO limit requires cloud tops at or above 3.3 mbar, and these clouds must be opaque at a wavelength of 2 μm. High clouds comprised of submicron-sized particles are already present in some models but may not provide sufficient opacity to account for our CO result. Cooler model atmospheres, having smaller atmospheric scale heights and lower CO mixing ratios, may alleviate this problem to some extent

  8. A laboratory study of the UV Absorption Spectrum of the ClO Dimer (Cl2O2) and the Implications for Polar Stratospheric Ozone Depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanastasiou, D. K.; Papadimitriou, V. C.; Fahey, D. W.; Burkholder, J. B.

    2009-12-01

    Chlorine containing species play an important role in catalytic ozone depleting cycles in the Antarctic and Arctic stratosphere. The ClO dimer (Cl2O2) catalytic ozone destruction cycle accounts for the majority of the observed polar ozone loss. A key step in this catalytic cycle is the UV photolysis of Cl2O2. The determination of the Cl2O2 UV absorption spectrum has been the subject of several studies since the late 1980’s. Recently, Pope et al. (J. Phys. Chem. A, 111, 4322, 2007) reported significantly lower absorption cross sections for Cl2O2 for the atmospherically relevant wavelength region, >300 nm, than currently recommended for use in atmospheric models. If correct, the Pope et al. results would alter our understanding of the chemistry of polar ozone depletion significantly. In this study, the UV absorption spectrum and absolute cross sections of gas-phase Cl2O2 are reported for the wavelength range 200 - 420 nm at ~200 K. Sequential pulsed laser photolysis of various precursors were used to produce the ClO radical and Cl2O2 via the subsequent ClO + ClO + M reaction under static conditions. UV absorption spectra of the reaction mixture were measured using a diode array spectrometer after completion of the gas-phase radical chemistry. The spectral analysis utilized the observed isosbestic points, reaction stoichiometry, and chlorine mass balance to determine the UV spectrum and absolute cross section of Cl2O2. A complementary experimental technique similar to that used by Pope et al. was also used in this study. We obtained consistent Cl2O2 UV absorption spectra using the two different techniques. The Cl2O2 absorption cross sections for wavelengths in the 300 - 420 nm range were found to be in very good agreement with the values reported previously by Burkholder et al. (J. Phys. Chem. A, 94, 687, 1990) and significantly greater than the Pope et al. values in this atmospherically important wavelength region. A possible explanation for the disagreement with

  9. Measurements of Hard X-Ray Emission Suggest Absorption Along the Path of the Inner Beams in High Foot Implosion Experiments on the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, Joseph; Pak, Arthur; Otto, Landen; Kritcher, Andrea; Ma, Tammy; Charles, Jarrott; Callahan, Debra; Hinkel, Denise; Berzak Hopkins, Laura; Moody, John; Khan, Shahab; Doeppner, Tilo; Rygg, Ryan; Hurricane, Omar

    2016-10-01

    The current high foot hohlraum design fielded on the National Ignition Facility is aimed at providing uniform x-ray drive to provide a spherical implosion by lowering the gas fill from 1.6 to 0.6 mg/cc and increasing the hohlraum width from 5.75 to 6.72 mm while maintaining the same 1.8 mm capsule diameter from previous designs. These changes are intended to improve beam propagation without the need for crossed beam energy transfer. Analysis of the measurements of hard x-ray emission from the gated x-ray detector (GXD) and the static x-ray imager (SXI) looking through the laser entrance hole indicate a significant fraction of the inner beam incident energy is absorbed in the high z blow-off region (either uranium or gold) before reaching the inner wall near the equator. Comparison of inner beam absorption in this region and its effect on the implosion symmetry measurements will be presented. Additionally, the sensitivity of this absorption feature and therefore the implosion symmetry to the pulse shape, hohlraum fill pressure and fraction of energy in beams depositing energy at the hohlraum equator will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  10. A QM/MM study of the absorption spectrum of harmane in water solution and interacting with DNA: the crucial role of dynamic effects.

    PubMed

    Etienne, Thibaud; Very, Thibaut; Perpète, Eric A; Monari, Antonio; Assfeld, Xavier

    2013-05-02

    We present a time-dependent density functional theory computation of the absorption spectra of one β-carboline system: the harmane molecule in its neutral and cationic forms. The spectra are computed in aqueous solution. The interaction of cationic harmane with DNA is also studied. In particular, the use of hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics methods is discussed, together with its coupling to a molecular dynamics strategy to take into account dynamic effects of the environment and the vibrational degrees of freedom of the chromophore. Different levels of treatment of the environment are addressed starting from purely mechanical embedding to electrostatic and polarizable embedding. We show that a static description of the spectrum based on equilibrium geometry only is unable to give a correct agreement with experimental results, and dynamic effects need to be taken into account. The presence of two stable noncovalent interaction modes between harmane and DNA is also presented, as well as the associated absorption spectrum of harmane cation.

  11. Nitryl chloride (ClNO2): UV/vis absorption spectrum between 210 and 296 K and O(3P) quantum yield at 193 and 248 nm.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Buddhadeb; Papanastasiou, Dimitrios K; Talukdar, Ranajit K; Roberts, James M; Burkholder, James B

    2012-06-21

    Recent studies have shown that the UV/vis photolysis of nitryl chloride (ClNO2) can be a major source of reactive chlorine in the troposphere. The present work reports measurements of the ClNO2 absorption spectrum and its temperature dependence between 210 and 296 K over the wavelength range 200–475 nm using diode array spectroscopy. The room temperature spectrum obtained in this work was found to be in good agreement with the results from Ganske et al. (J. Geophys. Res. 1992, 97, 7651) over the wavelength range common to both studies (200–370 nm) but differs systematically from the currently recommended spectrum for use in atmospheric models. The present results lead to a decrease in the calculated atmospheric ClNO2 photolysis rate by 30%. Including the temperature dependence of the ClNO2 spectrum decreases the calculated atmospheric photolysis rate at lower temperatures (higher altitudes) even further. A parametrization of the wavelength and temperature dependence of the ClNO2 spectrum is presented. O(3P) quantum yields, Φ(ClNO2)(O), in the photolysis of ClNO2 at 193 and 248 nm were measured at 296 K using pulsed laser photolysis combined with atomic resonance fluorescence detection of O(3P) atoms. Φ(ClNO2)(O)(λ) was found to be 0.67 ± 0.12 and 0.15 ± 0.03 (2σ error limits, including estimated systematic errors) at 193 and 248 nm, respectively, indicating that multiple dissociation channels are active in the photolysis of ClNO2 at these wavelengths. The Φ(ClNO2)(O)(λ) values obtained in this work are discussed in light of previous ClNO2 photodissociation studies and the differences are discussed.

  12. A refractory metamaterial absorber for ultra-broadband, omnidirectional and polarization-independent absorption in the UV-NIR spectrum.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yijia; Liu, Ling; Pu, Mingbo; Li, Xiong; Ma, Xiaoliang; Luo, Xiangang

    2018-05-03

    In this paper, efficient ultra-broadband absorption from ultraviolet (UV) to near infrared (NIR) is achieved using a metamaterial perfect absorber (MPA) with refractory constituents. Both simulated and experimental results indicate that this proposed MPA exhibits an average absorption over 95% at wavelengths ranging from 200 nm to 900 nm. Besides, owing to the ultrathin thickness and symmetrical topology of this device, it exhibits great angular tolerance up to 60° independent of the incident polarizations. Excellent thermal stability is also demonstrated at high operation temperatures. The physical origin of the ultra-broadband characteristics is mainly based on diffraction/interference engineering at short wavelengths and the anti-reflection effect at long wavelengths. We believe that such a device may find potential applications ranging from photodetection and photothermal energy conversion to ultraviolet protection and thermophotovoltaics.

  13. The molecular structure and absorption spectrum of hydroxy substituted dibenzoylmethanatoboron difluoride in solution: A theoretical and experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfand, Natalia; Freidzon, Alexandra; Fedorenko, Elena

    2018-01-01

    Electronic spectroscopy and quantum chemistry are used to study the structure and absorption spectra of the hydroxy substituted dibenzoylmethanatoboron difluoride (OHDBMBF2) in solutions. Introducing a hydroxy group in the diketonate moiety allows the dye to form intermolecular complexes with proton acceptors, such as solvents or analytes, thus making it a promising chemical sensor. Our calculations show that donor oxygen-containing solvents break the intramolecular hydrogen bond Osbnd H···Odik and form an intermolecular Osbnd H···Osolv bond thus disrupting the coplanarity of the dye and affecting the position and shape of its absorption bands. The spectra calculated with explicit solvent combined with polarizable continuum model (PCM) better agree with the experiment than those calculated only within PCM.

  14. Low-temperature high-resolution absorption spectrum of 14NH3 in the ν1+ν3 band region (1.51 μm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Földes, T.; Golebiowski, D.; Herman, M.; Softley, T. P.; Di Lonardo, G.; Fusina, L.

    2014-09-01

    Jet-cooled spectra of 14NH3 and 15NH3 in natural abundance were recorded using cavity ring-down (CRDS, 6584-6670 cm-1) and cavity enhanced absorption (CEAS, 6530-6700 cm-1) spectroscopy. Line broadening effects in the CRDS spectrum allowed lines with J″-values between 0 and 3 to be identified. Intensity ratios in 14NH3 between the jet-cooled CRDS and literature room-temperature data from Sung et al. (J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 113 (2012), 1066) further assisted the line assignments. Ground state combination differences were extensively used to support the assignments, providing reliable values for J, K and inversion symmetry of the ground state vibrational levels. CEAS data helped in this respect for the lowest J lines, some of which are saturated in the CRDS spectrum. Further information on a/s doublets arose from the observed spectral structures. Thirty-two transitions of 14NH3 were assigned in this way and a limited but significant number (19) of changes in the assignments results, compared to Sung et al. or to Cacciani et al. (J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 113 (2012), 1084). Sixteen known and 25 new low-J transitions were identified for 15NH3 in the CRDS spectrum but the much scarcer literature information did not allow for any more refined assignment. The present line position measurements improve on literature values published for 15NH3 and on some line positions for 14NH3.

  15. Fingerprint extraction from interference destruction terahertz spectrum.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wei; Shen, Jingling

    2010-10-11

    In this paper, periodic peaks in a terahertz absorption spectrum are confirmed to be induced from interference effects. Theoretically, we explained the periodic peaks and calculated the locations of them. Accordingly, a technique was suggested, with which the interference peaks in a terahertz spectrum can be eliminated and therefore a real terahertz absorption spectrum can be obtained. Experimentally, a sample, Methamphetamine, was investigated and its terahertz fingerprint was successfully extracted from its interference destruction spectrum. This technique is useful in getting samples' terahertz fingerprint spectra, and furthermore provides a fast nondestructive testing method using a large size terahertz beam to identify materials.

  16. A study of the H2O absorption line shifts in the visible spectrum region due to air pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossmann, B. E.; Browell, E. V.; Bykov, A. D.; Kapitanov, V. A.; Korotchenko, E. A.

    1990-01-01

    Results of measured and calculated shift coefficients are presented for 170 absorption lines of H2O in five vibrational-rotational bands. The measurements have been carried out using highly sensitive laser spectrometers with a resolution of at least 0.01/cm; the calculations are based on the Anderson-Tsao-Curnutte-Frost method. Good agreement is obtained between the theoretical and experimental values of the shift coefficients of H2O lines due to N2, O2, and air pressure.

  17. Cl2O photochemistry: ultraviolet/vis absorption spectrum temperature dependence and O(3P) quantum yield at 193 and 248 nm.

    PubMed

    Papanastasiou, Dimitrios K; Feierabend, Karl J; Burkholder, James B

    2011-05-28

    The photochemistry of Cl(2)O (dichlorine monoxide) was studied using measurements of its UV/vis absorption spectrum temperature dependence and the O((3)P) atom quantum yield, Φ(Cl(2)O)(O)(λ), in its photolysis at 193 and 248 nm. The Cl(2)O UV/vis absorption spectrum was measured over the temperature range 201-296 K between 200 and 500 nm using diode array spectroscopy. Cl(2)O absorption cross sections, σ(Cl(2)O)(λ,T), at temperatures <296 K were determined relative to its well established room temperature values. A wavelength and temperature dependent parameterization of the Cl(2)O spectrum using the sum of six Gaussian functions, which empirically represent transitions from the ground (1)A(1) electronic state to excited states, is presented. The Gaussian functions are found to correlate well with published theoretically calculated vertical excitation energies. O((3)P) quantum yields in the photolysis of Cl(2)O at 193 and 248 nm were measured using pulsed laser photolysis combined with atomic resonance fluorescence detection of O((3)P) atoms. O((3)P) quantum yields were measured to be 0.85 ± 0.15 for 193 nm photolysis at 296 K and 0.20 ± 0.03 at 248 nm, which was also found to be independent of temperature (220-352 K) and pressure (17 and 28 Torr, N(2)). The quoted uncertainties are at the 2σ (95% confidence) level and include estimated systematic errors. ClO radical temporal profiles obtained following the photolysis of Cl(2)O at 248 nm, as reported previously in Feierabend et al. [J. Phys. Chem. A 114, 12052, (2010)], were interpreted to establish a <5% upper-limit for the O + Cl(2) photodissociation channel, which indicates that O((3)P) is primarily formed in the three-body, O + 2Cl, photodissociation channel at 248 nm. The analysis also indirectly provided a Cl atom quantum yield of 1.2 ± 0.1 at 248 nm. The results from this work are compared with previous studies where possible. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  18. Preliminary Evidence Suggesting Caution in the Use of Psychiatric Self-Report Measures with Adolescents with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazefsky, C. A.; Kao, J.; Oswald, D. P.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the utility of self-report measures to screen for psychiatric comorbidities in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Thirty-eight 10-17 year olds with an ASD and without mental retardation completed: the "Children's Depression Inventory-Short version (CDI-S)", "Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale…

  19. FE K EMISSION AND ABSORPTION FEATURES IN THE XMM-EPIC SPECTRUM OF THE SEYFERT GALAXY IC 4329A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markowitz, A.; Reeves, J. N.; Braito, V.

    2001-01-01

    We present a re-analysis of the XMM-Newton long-look of the X-ray bright Seyfert galaxy IC 4329a. The Fe K bandpass is dominated by two peaks, consistent with emission from neutral or near-neutral Fe Ka and KP. A relativistic diskline model whereby both peaks are the result of one doubly-peaked diskline profile is found to be a poor description of the data. Models using two relativistic disklines are found to describe the emission profile well. A low-inclination, moderately-relativistic dual-diskline model is possible if the contribution from narrow components, due to distant material, is small or absent. A high-inclination, moderately relativistic profile for each peak is possible if there are roughly equal contributions from both the broad and narrow components. Upper limits on Fe XXV and Fe XXVI emission and absorption at the systemic velocity of IC 4329a are obtained. We also present the results of RXTE monitoring of this source obtained so far; the combined XMM-Newton and RXTE data sets allow us to explore the time-resolved spectral behavior of this source on time scales ranging from hours to 2 years. We find no strong evidence for variability of the Fe Ka emission line on any time scale probed, likely due to the minimal level of continuum variability. We detect a narrow absorption line, at a energy of 7.68 keV in the rest frame of the source; its significance has been confirmed using Monte Carlo simulations. This feature is most likely due to absorption from Fe XXVI blueshifted to approximately 0.1c relative to the systemic velocity, making IC 4329a the lowest-redshift AGN known with a high-velocity, highly-ionized outflow component. As is often the case with similar outflows seen in high-luminosity quasars, the estimated mass outflow rate is larger than the inflow accretion rate, signaling that the outflow represents a substantial portion of the total energy budget of the AGN. The outflow could arise from a radiatively-driven disk wind, or it may be in the

  20. Discovery of a cyclotron absorption line in the spectrum of the binary X-ray pulsar 4U 1538 - 52 observed by Ginga

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, George W.; Woo, Jonathan W.; Nagase, Fumiaki; Makishima, Kazuo; Sakao, Taro

    1990-01-01

    A cyclotron absorption line near 20 keV has been found in the spectrum of the massive eclipsing binary X-ray pulsar 4U 1538 - 52 in observations with the Ginga observatory. The line is detected throughout the 529 s pulse cycle with a variable equivalent width that has its maximum value during the smaller peak of the two-peak pulse profile. It is found that the profile of the pulse and the phase-dependence of the cyclotron line can be explained qualitatively by a pulsar model based on recent theoretical results on the properties of pencil beams emitted by accretion-heated slabs of magnetized plasma at the magnetic poles of a neutron star. The indicated field at the surface of the neutron star is 1.7 (1 + z) x 10 to the 12th G, where z is the gravitational redshift.

  1. X-ray absorption spectroscopy to determine originating depth of electrons that form an inelastic background of Auger electron spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isomura, Noritake; Cui, Yi-Tao; Murai, Takaaki; Oji, Hiroshi; Kimoto, Yasuji

    2017-07-01

    In Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), the spectral background is mainly due to inelastic scattering of Auger electrons that lose their kinetic energy in a sample bulk. To investigate the spectral components within this background for SiO2(19.3 nm)/Si(100) with known layer thickness, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used in the partial-electron-yield (PEY) mode at several electron kinetic energies to probe the background of the Si KLL Auger peak. The Si K-edge PEY-XAS spectra constituted of both Si and SiO2 components at each kinetic energy, and their component fractions were approximately the same as those derived from the simulated AES background for the same sample structure. The contributions of Auger electrons originating from layers at different depths to the inelastic background could thus be identified experimentally.

  2. A full-dimensional multilayer multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree study on the ultraviolet absorption spectrum of formaldehyde oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Qingyong, E-mail: mengqingyong@dicp.ac.cn; Meyer, Hans-Dieter, E-mail: hans-dieter.meyer@pci.uni-heidelberg.de

    2014-09-28

    Employing the multilayer multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree (ML-MCTDH) method in conjunction with the multistate multimode vibronic coupling Hamiltonian (MMVCH) model, we perform a full dimensional (9D) quantum dynamical study on the simplest Criegee intermediate, formaldehyde oxide, in five lower-lying singlet electronic states. The ultraviolet (UV) spectrum is then simulated by a Fourier transform of the auto-correlation function. The MMVCH model is built based on extensive MRCI(8e,8o)/aug-cc-pVTZ calculations. To ensure a fast convergence of the final calculations, a large number of ML-MCTDH test calculations is performed to find an appropriate multilayer separations (ML-trees) of the ML-MCTDH nuclear wave functions, and the dynamicalmore » calculations are carefully checked to ensure that the calculations are well converged. To compare the computational efficiency, standard MCTDH simulations using the same Hamiltonian are also performed. A comparison of the MCTDH and ML-MCTDH calculations shows that even for the present not-too-large system (9D here) the ML-MCTDH calculations can save a considerable amount of computational resources while producing identical spectra as the MCTDH calculations. Furthermore, the present theoretical B{sup ~} {sup 1}A{sup ′}←X{sup ~} {sup 1}A{sup ′} UV spectral band and the corresponding experimental measurements [J. M. Beames, F. Liu, L. Lu, and M. I. Lester, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 20045–20048 (2012); L. Sheps, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 4201–4205 (2013); W.-L. Ting, Y.-H. Chen, W. Chao, M. C. Smith, and J. J.-M. Lin, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16, 10438–10443 (2014)] are discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first theoretical UV spectrum simulated for this molecule including nuclear motion beyond an adiabatic harmonic approximation.« less

  3. An Fe XXIV Absorption Line in the Persistent Spectrum of the Dipping Low-mass X-Ray Binary 1A 1744-361

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavriil, Fotis P.; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Bhattacharyya, Sudip

    2012-07-01

    We report on Chandra X-ray Observatory (Chandra) High Energy Transmission Grating spectra of the dipping low-mass X-ray binary 1A 1744-361 during its 2008 July outburst. We find that its persistent emission is well modeled by a blackbody (kT ~ 1.0 keV) plus power law (Γ ~ 1.7) with an absorption edge. In the residuals of the combined spectrum, we find a significant absorption line at 6.961 ± 0.002 keV, consistent with the Fe XXVI (hydrogen-like Fe) 2-1 transition. We place an upper limit on the velocity of a redshifted flow of v < 221 km s-1. We find an equivalent width for the line of 27+2 - 3 eV, from which we determine a column density of (7 ± 1) × 1017 cm-2 via a curve-of-growth analysis. Using XSTAR simulations, we place a lower limit on the ionization parameter of >103.6 erg cm s-1. We discuss what implications the feature has on the system and its geometry. We also present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer data accumulated during this latest outburst and, via an updated color-color diagram, clearly show that 1A 1744-361 is an "atoll" source.

  4. Probing Lewis Acid-Base Interactions with Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics: The Electronic Absorption Spectrum of p-Nitroaniline in Supercritical CO2.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Benedito J Costa; Rivelino, Roberto; Coutinho, Kaline; Canuto, Sylvio

    2015-07-02

    The structure and dynamics of p-nitroaniline (PNA) in supercritical CO2 (scCO2) at T = 315 K and ρ = 0.81 g cm(-3) are investigated by carrying out Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, and the electronic absorption spectrum in scCO2 is determined by time dependent density functional theory. The structure of the PNA-scCO2 solution illustrates the role played by Lewis acid-base (LA-LB) interactions. In comparison with isolated PNA, the ν(N-O) symmetric and asymmetric stretching modes of PNA in scCO2 are red-shifted by -17 and -29 cm(-1), respectively. The maximum of the charge transfer (CT) absorption band of PNA in scSCO2 is at 3.9 eV, and the predicted red-shift of the π → π* electronic transition relative to the isolated gas-phase PNA molecule reproduces the experimental value of -0.35 eV. An analysis of the relationship between geometry distortions and excitation energies of PNA in scCO2 shows that the π → π* CT transition is very sensitive to changes of the N-O bond distance, strongly indicating a correlation between vibrational and electronic solvatochromism driven by LA-LB interactions. Despite the importance of LA-LB interactions to explain the solvation of PNA in scCO2, the red-shift of the CT band is mainly determined by electrostatic interactions.

  5. An Fe XXIV Absorption Line in the Persistent Spectrum of the Dipping Low-Mass X-Ray Binary 1A 1744-361

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavriil, Fotis P.; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Bhattacharyya, Sudip

    2012-01-01

    We report on Chandra X-ray Observatory (Chandra) High Energy Transmission Grating spectra of the dipping low-mass X-ray binary 1A 1744-361 during its 2008 July outburst. We find that its persistent emission is well modeled by a blackbody (kT approx. 1.0 keV) plus power law (Gamma approx. 1.7) with an absorption edge. In the residuals of the combined spectrum, we find a significant absorption line at 6.961 +/- 0.002 keV, consistent with the Fe xxvi (hydrogen-like Fe) 2-1 transition.We place an upper limit on the velocity of a redshifted flow of nu < 221 km/s. We find an equivalent width for the line of 27+2/-3 eV, from which we determine a column density of (7 +/- 1)×10(exp 17) /sq. cm via a curve-of-growth analysis. Using XSTAR simulations, we place a lower limit on the ionization parameter of >103.6 erg cm/s. We discuss what implications the feature has on the system and its geometry. We also present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer data accumulated during this latest outburst and, via an updated color-color diagram, clearly show that 1A 1744-361 is an "atoll" source

  6. Study on the effects of Ga-2N high co-doping and preferred orientation on the stability, bandgap and absorption spectrum of ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Qing-Yu; Li, Wen-Cai; Qu, Ling-Feng; Zhao, Chun-Wang

    2017-06-01

    Currently, the stability and visible light properties of Ga-2N co-doped ZnO systems have been studied extensively by experimental analysis and theoretical calculations. However, previous theoretical calculations arbitrarily assigned Ga- and 2N-doped sites in ZnO. In addition, the most stable and possible doping orientations of doped systems have not been fully and systematically considered. Therefore, in this paper, the electron structure and absorption spectra of the unit cells of doped and pure systems were calculated by first-principles plane-wave ultrasoft pseudopotential with the GGA+U method. Calculations were performed for pure ZnO, Ga-2N supercells heavily co-doped with Zn1-xGaxO1-yNy (x = 0.03125 - 0.0625, y = 0.0625 - 0.125) under different co-doping orientations and conditions, and the Zn16GaN2O14 interstitial model. The results indicated that under different orientations and constant Ga-2N co-doping concentrations, the systems co-doped with Ga-N atoms vertically oriented to the c-axis and with another N atom located in the nearest-neighboring site exhibited higher stability over the others, thus lowering formation energy and facilitating doping. Moreover, Ga-interstitial- and 2N-co-doped ZnO systems easily formed chemical compounds. Increasing co-doping concentration while the co-doping method remained constant decreased doped system volume and lowered formation energies. Meantime, co-doped systems were more stable and doping was facilitated. The bandgap was also narrower and red shifting of the absorption spectrum was more significant. These results agreed with previously reported experimental results. In addition, the absorption spectra of Ga-interstitial- and 2N-co-doped ZnO both blue shifted in the UV region compared with that of the pure ZnO system.

  7. High Resolution Millimeter Wave Absorption Spectroscopy of Flexi- Ble Complex Organic Molecules: Laboratory Spectrum of 1, 2-Butanediol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maris, Assimo

    2017-11-01

    The enhancing sensibility of radioastronomical observations allows for detec- tion of complex organic molecules (COMs) with increasing size. Observations performed by the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) open up new oppor- tunities to reveal the COMs, at the same time, the huge amount of data collected and the extremely rich surveys represent a challenge for the astrochemistry community. Among all the detected molecules, the diols are object of chemical interest, because of their similarity with important biological building block molecules such as sugar alcohols. The simplest of them, ethylene glycol (EG), is one of the largest COMs detected in space thus far. Lines attributable to the most stable conformer of EG were detected in different environments and recently also the higher energy conformer has been observed both towards IRAS 16293-2422 and the Orion KL. Observations of 1, 2- and 1, 3-propanediol toward Sgr B2 (N-LMH) were attempted as part of the GBT Prebiotic Interstellar Molecule Sur- vey Legacy Project, but no transitions were detected. Although up to now, due the fact that the column densities of molecules tend to decrease with increasing molecular weight, no large diols have been observed in interstellar space, owing to the raising sensitivity of the radioastronomy observations, their future detection can not be excluded. In this context we report, for the first time, the laboratory millimeter spectrum of 1, 2-butanediol (BD) recorded in the 59.6-103.6 GHz frequency region (5.03-2.89 mm). BD (the ethylated form of EG) is a flexible molecule characterized by a great conformational complexity, thus at room condi- tions the population is distributed in a large number of species, leading to a very congested spectrum. This problem has been overcome exploiting the rotational and conformational cooling produced by the supersonic expansion technique. Six conformers of BD, including the global minimum, have been assigned yielding the rotational constants

  8. Red shift of the SF6 vibration spectrum induced by the electron absorption: An ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Bin; Zhang, Long-Fei; Han, Fang-Yuan; Luo, Zong-Chang; Liang, Qin-Qin; Liu, Chen-Yao; Zhu, Li-Ping; Zhang, Jie-Ming

    2018-01-01

    As a widely used gas insulator, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) has a large cross section for electron absorption, which may make the molecule ionized to the -1 charge state in the high-voltage environment. Using ab initio calculations, we show that the absorbed electron is located averagely on the six F atoms, occupying the antibonding level of the s-p σ bonds and increasing the S-F bond length. The ionized SF6- molecule decreases its decomposition energy to only 1.5 eV, much lower than that of the neutral molecule (4.8 eV), which can be understood according to the occupying of the antibonding orbital and thus weakening of the s-p σ bonds. The weakening of the bonds results in an obvious red shift in the vibrational modes of the ionized SF6- molecule by 120-270 cm-1, compared to those of the neutral molecule. The detailed origin of these vibrational modes is analyzed. Since the appearance of the ionized SF6- molecules is before the decomposition reaction of the SF6- molecule into low-fluoride sulfides, this method may improve the sensitivity of the defection of the partial discharge and save more time for the prevention of the insulation failure in advance.

  9. A Combination of Chemometrics and Quantum Mechanics Methods Applied to Analysis of Femtosecond Transient Absorption Spectrum of Ortho-Nitroaniline

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Jing; Xiong, Ying; Cheng, Kemei; Li, Menglong; Chu, Genbai; Pu, Xuemei; Xu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    A combination of the advanced chemometrics method with quantum mechanics calculation was for the first time applied to explore a facile yet efficient analysis strategy to thoroughly resolve femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy of ortho-nitroaniline (ONA), served as a model compound of important nitroaromatics and explosives. The result revealed that the ONA molecule is primarily excited to S3 excited state from the ground state and then ultrafast relaxes to S2 state. The internal conversion from S2 to S1 occurs within 0.9 ps. One intermediate state S* was identified in the intersystem crossing (ISC) process, which is different from the specific upper triplet receiver state proposed in some other nitroaromatics systems. The S1 state decays to the S* one within 6.4 ps and then intersystem crossing to the lowest triplet state within 19.6 ps. T1 was estimated to have a lifetime up to 2 ns. The relatively long S* state and very long-lived T1 one should play a vital role as precursors to various nitroaromatic and explosive photoproducts. PMID:26781083

  10. Electromagnetic resonance modes on a two-dimensional tandem grating and its application for broadband absorption in the visible spectrum.

    PubMed

    Han, Sunwoo; Lee, Bong Jae

    2016-01-25

    In this work, we numerically investigate the electromagnetic resonances on two-dimensional tandem grating structures. The base of a tandem grating consists of an opaque Au substrate, a SiO(2) spacer, and a Au grating (concave type); that is, a well-known fishnet structure forming Au/SiO(2)/Au stack. A convex-type Au grating (i.e., topmost grating) is then attached on top of the base fishnet structure with or without additional SiO(2) spacer, resulting in two types of tandem grating structures. In order to calculate the spectral reflectance and local magnetic field distribution, the finite-difference time-domain method is employed. When the topmost Au grating is directly added onto the base fishnet structure, the surface plasmon and magnetic polariton in the base structure are branched out due to the geometric asymmetry with respect to the SiO(2) spacer. If additional SiO(2) spacer is added between the topmost Au grating and the base fishnet structure, new magnetic resonance modes appear due to coupling between two vertically aligned Au/SiO(2)/Au stacks. With the understanding of multiple electromagnetic resonance modes on the proposed tandem grating structures, we successfully design a broadband absorber made of Au and SiO(2) in the visible spectrum.

  11. The valence and Rydberg states of difluoromethane: A combined experimental vacuum ultraviolet spectrum absorption and theoretical study by ab initio configuration interaction and density functional computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Michael H.; Vrønning Hoffmann, Søren; Jones, Nykola C.; Coreno, Marcello; de Simone, Monica; Grazioli, Cesare

    2018-06-01

    The vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrum for CH2F2 from a new synchrotron study has been combined with earlier data and subjected to detailed scrutiny. The onset of absorption, band I and also band IV, is resolved into broad vibrational peaks, which contrast with the continuous absorption previously claimed. A new theoretical analysis, using a combination of time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations and complete active space self-consistent field, leads to a major new interpretation. Adiabatic excitation energies (AEEs) and vertical excitation energies, evaluated by these methods, are used to interpret the spectra in unprecedented detail using theoretical vibronic analysis. This includes both Franck-Condon (FC) and Herzberg-Teller (HT) effects on cold and hot bands. These results lead to the re-assignment of several known excited states and the identification of new ones. The lowest calculated AEE sequence for singlet states is 11B1 ˜ 11A2 < 21B1 < 11A1 < 21A1 < 11B2 < 31A1 < 31B1. These, together with calculated higher energy states, give a satisfactory account of the principal maxima observed in the VUV spectrum. Basis sets up to quadruple zeta valence with extensive polarization are used. The diffuse functions within this type of basis generate both valence and low-lying Rydberg excited states. The optimum position for the site of further diffuse functions in the calculations of Rydberg states is shown to lie on the H-atoms. The routine choice on the F-atoms is shown to be inadequate for both CHF3 and CH2F2. The lowest excitation energy region has mixed valence and Rydberg character. TDDFT calculations show that the unusual structure of the onset arises from the near degeneracy of 11B1 and 11A2 valence states, which mix in symmetric and antisymmetric combinations. The absence of fluorescence in the 10.8-11 eV region contrasts with strong absorption. This is interpreted by the 21B1 and 11A1 states where no fluorescence is calculated for these

  12. The enhancement of 21.2%-power conversion efficiency in polymer photovoltaic cells by using mixed Au nanoparticles with a wide absorption spectrum of 400 nm-1000 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Jing-Yu; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Yu-Pei; Chen, Shu-Fen; Li, Xing-Ao; Wang, Lian-Hui; Huang, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Au nanoparticles (NPs) mixed with a majority of bone-like, rod, and cube shapes and a minority of irregular spheres, which can generate a wide absorption spectrum of 400 nm-1000 nm and three localized surface plasmon resonance peaks, respectively, at 525, 575, and 775 nm, are introduced into the hole extraction layer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) to improve optical-to-electrical conversion performances in polymer photovoltaic cells. With the doping concentration of Au NPs optimized, the cell performance is significantly improved: the short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency of the poly(3-hexylthiophene): [6,6]-phenyl-C60-butyric acid methyl ester cell are increased by 20.54% and 21.2%, reaching 11.15 mA·cm-2 and 4.23%. The variations of optical, electrical, and morphology with the incorporation of Au NPs in the cells are analyzed in detail, and our results demonstrate that the cell performance improvement can be attributed to a synergistic reaction, including: 1) both the localized surface plasmon resonance- and scattering-induced absorption enhancement of the active layer, 2) Au doping-induced hole transport/extraction ability enhancement, and 3) large interface roughness-induced efficient exciton dissociation and hole collection. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2015CB932202 and 2012CB933301), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61274065, 51173081, 61136003, BZ2010043, 51372119, and 51172110), the Science Fund from the Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. IRT1148), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20113223110005), the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Provincial Higher Education Institutions (Grant No. YX03001), and the National Synergistic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials and the Synergetic Innovation Center for Organic Electronics and

  13. An Fe XXVI Absorption Line in the Persistent Spectrum of the Dipping Low Mass X-ray Binary 1A 1744-361

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavriil, Fotis P.; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Bhattacharyya, Sudip

    2009-01-01

    We report on Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) High-Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) spectra of the dipping Low Mass X-ray Binary (LMXB) 1A 1744-361 during its July 2008 outburst. We find that its persistent emission is well modeled by a blackbody (kT approx. 1.0 keV) plus power-law (Gamma approx. 1.7) with an absorption edge at 7.6 keV. In the residuals of the combined spectrum we find a significant absorption line at 6.961+/-0.002 keV, consistent with the Fe XXVI (hydrogen-like Fe) 2 - 1 transition. We place an upper limit on the velocity of a redshifted flow of v < 221 km/s. We find an equivalent width for the line of 27+2/-3 eV, from which we determine a column density of 7+/-1 x 10(exp 17)/sq cm via a curve-of-growth analysis. Using XSTAR simulations, we place a lower limit on the ionization parameter of > 10(exp 3.6) erg cm/s. The properties of this line are consistent with those observed in other dipping LMXBs. Using Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) data accumulated during this latest outburst we present an updated color-color diagram which clearly shows that IA 1744-361 is an "atoll" source. Finally, using additional dips found in the RXTE and CXO data we provide an updated orbital period estimate of 52+/-5 minutes.

  14. Differences in clinical Pneumocystis pneumonia in rheumatoid arthritis and other connective tissue diseases suggesting a rheumatoid-specific interstitial lung injury spectrum.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Kota; Yokosuka, Kyoko; Nunokawa, Takahiro; Sugii, Shoji

    2018-06-06

    To compare Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with PCP in patients with non-RA connective tissue diseases (CTDs) in order to clarify the characteristics of the former. We extracted consecutive patients satisfying the following criteria for "clinical PCP": (1) positive plasma β-D-glucan, (2) PCP-compatible computed tomography findings of the lung, and (3) successful treatment with antipneumocystic antibiotics. Patients who underwent methylprednisolone "pulse" therapy or sufficient antibiotics to cure bacterial pneumonia were excluded. We used the t test, U test, or Fischer's exact probability test to compare the two groups and Jonckheere-Terpstra's test and Ryan's procedure for the trend test. Thirty-five cases were extracted. The underlying rheumatic diseases were RA in 25 and non-RA CTDs in ten. At the onset of clinical PCP, the lymphocyte counts were 884 vs 357/mm 3 (p < 0.001), PC-PCR positivity 64% vs 100% (p = 0.029), glucocorticoid dose 4.0 vs 17.5 mg PSL/day (p < 0.001), and methotrexate dose 8 vs 0 mg/week (p = 0.003). The PC-PCR-negative patients, observed only in the RA group, were all receiving methotrexate (MTX) therapy except one patient who was receiving high-dose prednisolone alone. All PC-PCR-positive patients were receiving glucocorticoid, TNF inhibitor, or a non-MTX immunosuppressant. No patient with MTX alone had positive PC-PCR results. Clinical PCP in RA patients differed from that in non-RA CTD patients and may be understood as only a part of the rheumatoid-specific interstitial lung injury spectrum influenced by multiple, synergistic factors including MTX, Pneumocystis, and RA itself.

  15. Titanium Dioxide/Upconversion Nanoparticles/Cadmium Sulfide Nanofibers Enable Enhanced Full-Spectrum Absorption for Superior Solar Light Driven Photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fu; Zhang, Chuan-Ling; Wang, Wan-Ni; Cong, Huai-Ping; Qian, Hai-Sheng

    2016-06-22

    In this work, we demonstrate an electrospinning technique to fabricate TiO2 /upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs)/CdS nanofibers on large scale. In addition, the as-prepared TiO2 nanofibers are incorporated with a high population of UCNPs and CdS nanospheres; this results in Förster resonance energy-transfer configurations of the UCNPs, TiO2 , and CdS nanospheres that are in close proximity. Hence, strong fluorescent emissions for the Tm(3+) ions including the (1) G4 →(3) H6 transition are efficiently transferred to TiO2 and the CdS nanoparticles through an energy-transfer process. The as-prepared TiO2 /UCNPs/CdS nanofibers exhibit full-spectrum solar-energy absorption and enable the efficient degradation of organic dyes by fluorescence resonance energy transfer between the UCNPs and TiO2 (or CdS). The UCNPs/TiO2 /CdS nanofibers may also have enhanced energy-transfer efficiency for wide applications in solar cells, bioimaging, photodynamics, and chemotherapy. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Perturbation analysis of the υ = 6 level in the d3Δ state of CS based on its near-infrared absorption spectrum.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuanliang; Deng, Lunhua; Zhang, Yan; Wu, Ling; Yang, Xiaohua; Chen, Yangqin

    2011-04-14

    The spectrum of CS was recorded in the region of 12,086-12,630 cm(-1) by employing optical heterodyne concentration modulation laser absorption spectroscopy. Nearly 350 transitions were assigned to the (6, 0) band in the d(3)Δ-a(3)Π system of CS. The overtone transitions of the (12, 0) band in the a(3)Π(2)-a(3)Π(0) transition were first observed due to the perturbation interaction between d(3)Δ(1) and a(3)Π(2). The Λ doubling in the a(3)Π(1) state was also resolved at high rotational levels. The molecular constants of the a(3)Π (υ = 0) and d(3)Δ (υ = 6) levels and the perturbation parameters of the d(3)Δ (υ = 6) level were determined through nonlinear least-squares fitting using effective hamiltonians. The calculations of mixing fractions of the perturbed states were performed in order to obtain precise information on the perturbations of the d(3)Δ (υ = 6) levels. The mechanisms for perturbations of d(3)Δ (υ = 6) with the a(3)Π (υ = 12) and A(1)Π (υ = 1) levels, especially for the second-order perturbation, were discussed and explained according to first-order nondegenerate perturbation theory.

  17. "Atypical" Pleomorphic Lipomatous Tumor: A Clinicopathologic, Immunohistochemical and Molecular Study of 21 Cases, Emphasizing its Relationship to Atypical Spindle Cell Lipomatous Tumor and Suggesting a Morphologic Spectrum (Atypical Spindle Cell/Pleomorphic Lipomatous Tumor).

    PubMed

    Creytens, David; Mentzel, Thomas; Ferdinande, Liesbeth; Lecoutere, Evelyne; van Gorp, Joost; Atanesyan, Lilit; de Groot, Karel; Savola, Suvi; Van Roy, Nadine; Van Dorpe, Jo; Flucke, Uta

    2017-11-01

    The classification of the until recently poorly explored group of atypical adipocytic neoplasms with spindle cell features, for which recently the term atypical spindle cell lipomatous tumor (ASLT) has been proposed, remains challenging. Recent studies have proposed ASLT as a unique entity with (in at least a significant subset of cases) a specific genetic background, namely deletions/losses of 13q14, including RB1 and its flanking genes RCBTB2, DLEU1, and ITM2B. Similar genetic aberrations have been reported in pleomorphic liposarcomas (PLSs). This prompted us to investigate a series of 21 low-grade adipocytic neoplasms with a pleomorphic lipoma-like appearance, but with atypical morphologic features (including atypical spindle cells, pleomorphic [multinucleated] cells, pleomorphic lipoblasts and poor circumscription), for which we propose the term "atypical" pleomorphic lipomatous tumor (APLT). Five cases of PLS were also included in this study. We used multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification to evaluate genetic changes of 13q14. In addition, array-based comparative genomic hybridization was performed on 4 APLTs and all PLSs. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification showed consistent loss of RB1 and its flanking gene RCBTB2 in all cases of APLT. This genetic alteration was also present in all PLSs, suggesting genetic overlap, in addition to morphologic overlap, with APLTs. However, array-based comparative genomic hybridization demonstrated more complex genetic alterations with more losses and gains in PLSs compared with APLTs. APLTs arose in the subcutis (67%) more frequently than in the deep (subfascial) soft tissues (33%). With a median follow-up of 42 months, recurrences were documented in 2 of 12 APLTs for which a long follow-up was available. Herein, we also demonstrate that APLTs share obvious overlapping morphologic, immunohistochemical, genetic and clinical characteristics with the recently defined ASLT, suggesting that they are related

  18. Molecular dynamics simulations of collision-induced absorption: Implementation in LAMMPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhardji, W.; Gustafsson, M.

    2017-02-01

    We pursue simulations of collision-induced absorption in a mixture of argon and xenon gas at room temperature by means of classical molecular dynamics. The established theoretical approach (Hartmann et al. 2011 J. Chem. Phys. 134 094316) is implemented with the molecular dynamics package LAMMPS. The bound state features in the absorption spectrum are well reproduced with the molecular dynamics simulation in comparison with a laboratory measurement. The magnitude of the computed absorption, however, is underestimated in a large part of the spectrum. We suggest some aspects of the simulation that could be improved.

  19. The X-ray absorption spectrum of 4U1700-37 and its implications for the stellar wind of the companion HD153919

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, N. E.; Kallman, T. R.; Swank, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    The first high resolution non-dispersive 2-60 KeV X-ray spectra of 4U1700-37 is presented. The continuum is typical of that found from X-ray pulsars; that is a flat power law between 2 and 10 keV and, beyond 10 keV, an exponential decay of characteristic energy varying between 10 and 20 keV. No X-ray pulsations were detected between 160 ms and 6 min with an amplitude greater than approximately 2%. The absorption measured at binary phases approximately 0.72 is comparable to that expected from the stellar wind of the primary. The gravitational capture of material in the wind is found to be more than enough to power the X-ray source. The increase in the average absorption after phi o approximately 0.5 is confirmed. The minimum level of adsorption is a factor of 2 or 3 lower than that reported by previous observers, which may be related to a factor of approximately 10 decline in the average X-ray luminosity over the same interval. Short term approximately 50% variations in adsorption are seen for the first time which appear to be loosely correlated with approximately 10 min flickering activity in the X-ray flux. These most likely originate from inhomogeneities in the stellar wind of the primary.

  20. Ab-initio study on the absorption spectrum of color change sapphire based on first-principles calculations with considering lattice relaxation-effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novita, Mega; Nagoshi, Hikari; Sudo, Akiho; Ogasawara, Kazuyoshi

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we performed an investigation on α-Al2O3: V3+ material, or the so-called color change sapphire, based on first-principles calculations without referring to any experimental parameter. The molecular orbital (MO) structure was estimated by the one-electron MO calculations using the discrete variational-Xα (DV-Xα) method. Next, the absorption spectra were estimated by the many-electron calculations using the discrete variational multi-electron (DVME) method. The effect of lattice relaxation on the crystal structures was estimated based on the first-principles band structure calculations. We performed geometry optimizations on the pure α-Al2O3 and with the impurity V3+ ion using Cambridge Serial Total Energy Package (CASTEP) code. The effect of energy corrections such as configuration dependence correction and correlation correction was also investigated in detail. The results revealed that the structural change on the α-Al2O3: V3+ resulted from the geometry optimization improved the calculated absorption spectra. By a combination of both the lattice relaxation-effect and the energy correction-effect improve the agreement to the experiment fact.

  1. Communication: THz absorption spectrum of the CO2-H2O complex: observation and assignment of intermolecular van der Waals vibrations.

    PubMed

    Andersen, J; Heimdal, J; Mahler, D W; Nelander, B; Larsen, R Wugt

    2014-03-07

    Terahertz absorption spectra have been recorded for the weakly bound CO2-H2O complex embedded in cryogenic neon matrices at 2.8 K. The three high-frequency van der Waals vibrational transitions associated with out-of-plane wagging, in-plane rocking, and torsional motion of the isotopic H2O subunit have been assigned and provide crucial observables for benchmark theoretical descriptions of this systems' flat intermolecular potential energy surface. A (semi)-empirical value for the zero-point energy of 273 ± 15 cm(-1) from the class of intermolecular van der Waals vibrations is proposed and the combination with high-level quantum chemical calculations provides a value of 726 ± 15 cm(-1) for the dissociation energy D0.

  2. Discovery of Hα Absorption in the Unusual Broad Absorption Line Quasar SDSS J083942.11+380526.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Kentaro; Iwata, Ikuru; Ohta, Kouji; Ando, Masataka; Akiyama, Masayuki; Tamura, Naoyuki

    2006-11-01

    We discovered Hα absorption in the broad Hα emission line of an unusual broad absorption line quasar, SDSS J083942.11+380526.3, at z=2.318, through near-infrared spectroscopy with the Cooled Infrared Spectrograph and Camera for OHS (CISCO) on the Subaru telescope. The presence of nonstellar Hα absorption is known only in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 to date; thus, our discovery is the first case for quasars. The Hα absorption line is blueshifted by 520 km s-1 relative to the Hα emission line, and its redshift almost coincides with those of UV low-ionization metal absorption lines. The width of the Hα absorption (~340 km s-1) is similar to those of the UV low-ionization absorption lines. These facts suggest that the Hα and low-ionization metal absorption lines are produced by the same low-ionization gas, which has a substantial amount of neutral gas. The column density of the neutral hydrogen is estimated to be ~1018 cm-2 by assuming a gas temperature of 10,000 K from the analysis of the curve of growth. The continuum spectrum is reproduced by a reddened [E(B-V)~0.15 mag for the SMC-like reddening law] composite quasar spectrum. Furthermore, the UV spectrum of SDSS J083942.11+380526.3 shows a remarkable similarity to that of NGC 4151 in its low state, suggesting that the physical condition of the absorber in SDSS J083942.11+380526.3 is similar to that of NGC 4151 in the low state. As proposed for NGC 4151, SDSS J083942.11+380526.3 may also be seen through the edge of the obscuring torus. Based in part on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  3. High resolution absorption spectrum of CO2between 1750 and 2000 Å. 2. Rotational analysis of two parallel-type bands assigned to the lowest electronic transition 13B2←

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossart-Magos, Claudina; Launay, Françoise; Parkin, James E.

    The absorption spectrum of CO2 gas between 175 and 200 nm was photographed at high resolution some years ago. This very weak spectral region proved to be extremely rich in bands showing rotational fine structure. In Part 1 [C. Cossart-Magos, F. Launay, J. E. Parkin, Mol. Phys., 75, 835 (1992), nine perpendicular-type bands were assigned to the lowest singlet-singlet transition, 11A2 ← ν'3 (b2) vibration. Here, the parallel-type bands observed at 185.7 and 175.6 nm are assigned to the lowest triplet-singlet transition, 13B2 ← TMPH0629math005 ν'2 (a1) vibration. The assignment and the rotational and spin constant values obtained are discussed in relation to previous experimental data and ab initio calculation results on the lowest excited states of CO2. The actual role of the 13B2 state in CO2 photodissociation, O(3P)+CO(X1Σ+) recombination, and O(1D) emission quenching by CO(X) molecules is reviewed.

  4. Interstellar proteins and the discovery of a new absorption feature at lambda = 2800 A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, L. M.; Hoyle, F.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    1983-07-01

    In order to check the presence of biogenic materials in interstellar grains, the spectra of three early-type, heavily reddened stars recorded by the IUE were examined. These stars showed comparatively weak absorption at 2200 A, minimizing the effect of graphite grains. A broad absorption feature centered on 2800 A is discovered in HD 14250 and interpreted to be due to the amino acid tryptophan. Comparison of the spectrum with that of the calculated extinction behavior of graphite spheres of radii 0.02 microns suggests that the latter are not responsible for the observed spectrum.

  5. OPTICAL ABSORPTION SPECTRUM OF ANTIFERROMAGNETIC MNF2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    separated in energy and easily identifiable, (3) has a very simple ground state, and (4) has a well studied magnon structure, an investigation was...undertaken of the excited states in the hope of observing other magnetic dipole transitions and their accompanying magnon sidebands. This study was...similarities between the magnon sidebands in several excited states of the Mn(+2) ion, and to determine the importance of spin assisted transitions in

  6. K- and L-edge X-ray absorption spectrum calculations of closed-shell carbon, silicon, germanium, and sulfur compounds using damped four-component density functional response theory.

    PubMed

    Fransson, Thomas; Burdakova, Daria; Norman, Patrick

    2016-05-21

    X-ray absorption spectra of carbon, silicon, germanium, and sulfur compounds have been investigated by means of damped four-component density functional response theory. It is demonstrated that a reliable description of relativistic effects is obtained at both K- and L-edges. Notably, an excellent agreement with experimental results is obtained for L2,3-spectra-with spin-orbit effects well accounted for-also in cases when the experimental intensity ratio deviates from the statistical one of 2 : 1. The theoretical results are consistent with calculations using standard response theory as well as recently reported real-time propagation methods in time-dependent density functional theory, and the virtues of different approaches are discussed. As compared to silane and silicon tetrachloride, an anomalous error in the absolute energy is reported for the L2,3-spectrum of silicon tetrafluoride, amounting to an additional spectral shift of ∼1 eV. This anomaly is also observed for other exchange-correlation functionals, but it is seen neither at other silicon edges nor at the carbon K-edge of fluorine derivatives of ethene. Considering the series of molecules SiH4-XFX with X = 1, 2, 3, 4, a gradual divergence from interpolated experimental ionization potentials is observed at the level of Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT), and to a smaller extent with the use of Hartree-Fock. This anomalous error is thus attributed partly to difficulties in correctly emulating the electronic structure effects imposed by the very electronegative fluorines, and partly due to inconsistencies in the spurious electron self-repulsion in DFT. Substitution with one, or possibly two, fluorine atoms is estimated to yield small enough errors to allow for reliable interpretations and predictions of L2,3-spectra of more complex and extended silicon-based systems.

  7. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  8. DISCOVERY OF THE TRANSITION OF A MINI-BROAD ABSORPTION LINE INTO A BROAD ABSORPTION LINE IN THE SDSS QUASAR J115122.14+020426.3

    SciTech Connect

    Hidalgo, Paola Rodriguez; Eracleous, Michael; Charlton, Jane

    We present the detection of a rare case of dramatic strengthening in the UV absorption profiles in the spectrum of the quasar J115122.14+020426.3 between observations {approx}2.86 yr apart in the quasar rest frame. A spectrum obtained in 2001 by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey shows a C IV ''mini-broad'' absorption line (FWHM = 1220 km s{sup -1}) with a maximum blueshift velocity of {approx}9520 km s{sup -1}, while a later spectrum from the Very Large Telescope shows a significantly broader and stronger absorption line, with a maximum blueshift velocity of {approx}12, 240 km s{sup -1} that qualifies as a broadmore » absorption line. A similar variability pattern is observed in two additional systems at lower blueshifted velocities and in the Ly{alpha} and N V transitions as well. One of the absorption systems appears to be resolved and shows evidence for partial covering of the quasar continuum source (C{sub f} {approx} 0.65), indicating a transverse absorber size of, at least, {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} cm. In contrast, a cluster of narrower C IV lines appears to originate in gas that fully covers the continuum and broad emission line sources. There is no evidence for changes in the centroid velocity of the absorption troughs. This case suggests that at least some of the absorbers that produce ''mini-broad'' and broad absorption lines in quasar spectra do not belong to intrinsically separate classes. Here, the ''mini-broad'' absorption line is most likely interpreted as an intermediate phase before the appearance of a broad absorption line due to their similar velocities. While the current observations do not provide enough constraints to discern among the possible causes for this variability, future monitoring of multiple transitions at high resolution will help achieve this goal.« less

  9. Quasar Absorption Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Elvis, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the proposal is to investigate the absorption properties of a sample of inter-mediate redshift quasars. The main goals of the project are: Measure the redshift and the column density of the X-ray absorbers; test the correlation between absorption and redshift suggested by ROSAT and ASCA data; constrain the absorber ionization status and metallicity; constrain the absorber dust content and composition through the comparison between the amount of X-ray absorption and optical dust extinction. Unanticipated low energy cut-offs where discovered in ROSAT spectra of quasars and confirmed by ASCA, BeppoSAX and Chandra. In most cases it was not possible to constrain adequately the redshift of the absorber from the X-ray data alone. Two possibilities remain open: a) absorption at the quasar redshift; and b) intervening absorption. The evidences in favour of intrinsic absorption are all indirect. Sensitive XMM observations can discriminate between these different scenarios. If the absorption is at the quasar redshift we can study whether the quasar environment evolves with the Cosmic time.

  10. Spectrum of Transient ASASSN-13at

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnavich, Peter; Deal, Shanel

    2013-06-01

    We observed the transient ASASSN-13at (ATEL 5168) on June 28.3 (UT) with the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT) and VATTSPEC instrument. The resulting spectrum covers the wavelength range between 365 nm and 750 nm with a resolution of 1100. The spectrum of ASASSN-13at shows a blue continuum with strong Balmer absorption lines. Helium absorption at 447 nm and 588 nm is also seen. Blue-shifted emission lines are visible within the Halpha and Hbeta absorption features.

  11. Open to Suggestion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Reading, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  12. Percutaneous absorption

    PubMed Central

    Brisson, Paul

    1974-01-01

    Clinical effectiveness of topically applied medications depends on the ability of the active ingredient to leave its vehicle and penetrate into the epidermis. The stratum corneum is that layer of the epidermis which functionally is the most important in limiting percutaneous absorption, showing the characteristics of a composite semipermeable membrane. A mathematical expression of transepidermal diffusion may be derived from Fick's Law of mass transport; factors altering the rate of diffusion are discussed. PMID:4597976

  13. Suicidality and interrogative suggestibility.

    PubMed

    Pritchard-Boone, Lea; Range, Lillian M

    2005-01-01

    All people are subject to memory suggestibility, but suicidal individuals may be especially so. The link between suicidality and suggestibility is unclear given mixed findings and methodological weaknesses of past research. To test the link between suicidality and interrogative suggestibility, 149 undergraduates answered questions about suicidal thoughts and reasons for living, and participated in a direct suggestibility procedure. As expected, suggestibility correlated with suicidality but accounted for little overall variance (4%). Mental health professionals might be able to take advantage of client suggestibility by directly telling suicidal persons to refrain from suicidal thoughts or actions.

  14. Theories of Suggestion.

    PubMed

    Brown, W

    1928-02-01

    The word "suggestion" has been used in educational, scientific and medical literature in slightly different senses. In psychological medicine the use of suggestion has developed out of the earlier use of hypnotic influence.Charcot defined hypnosis as an artificial hysteria, Bernheim as an artificially increased suggestibility. The two definitions need to be combined to give an adequate account of hypnosis. Moreover, due allowance should be made for the factors of dissociation and of rapport in hypnotic phenomena.The relationships between dissociation, suggestibility, and hypnotizability.Theories of suggestion propounded by Pierre Janet, Freud, McDougall, Pawlow and others. Ernest Jones's theory of the nature of auto-suggestion. Janet explains suggestion in terms of ideo-motor action in which the suggested idea, because of the inactivity of competing ideas, produces its maximum effect. Freud explains rapport in terms of the sex instinct "inhibited in its aim" (transference) and brings in his distinction of "ego" and "ego-ideal" (or "super-ego") to supplement the theory. Jones explains auto-suggestion in terms of narcissism. McDougall explains hypnotic suggestion in terms of the instinct of self-abasement. But different instincts may supply the driving power to produce suggestion-effects in different circumstances. Such instincts as those of self-preservation (fear) and gregariousness may play their part. Auto-suggestion as a therapeutic factor is badly named. It supplements, but does not supplant the will, and makes complete volition possible.

  15. The Life of Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Cathie

    2010-01-01

    Using the notion of a suggestion, or rather charting the life of suggestions, this article considers the happenings of chance and embodiment as the "problems that got away." The life of suggestions helps us to ask how connectivities are made, how desire functions, and how "immanence" rather than "transcendence" can open up the politics and ethics…

  16. Geant4 simulations of the absorption of photons in CsI and NaI produced by electrons with energies up to 4 MeV and their application to precision measurements of the β-energy spectrum with a calorimetric technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huyan, X.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Voytas, P.; Chandavar, S.; Hughes, M.; Minamisono, K.; Paulauskas, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    The yield of photons produced by electrons slowing down in CsI and NaI was studied with four electromagnetic physics constructors included in the Geant4 toolkit. The subsequent absorption of photons in detector geometries used for measurements of the β spectrum shape was also studied with a focus on the determination of the absorption fraction. For electrons with energies in the range 0.5-4 MeV, the relative photon yields determined with the four Geant4 constructors differ at the level of 10-2 in amplitude and the relative absorption fractions differ at the level of 10-4 in amplitude. The differences among constructors enabled the estimation of the sensitivity to Geant4 simulations for the measurement of the β energy spectrum shape in 6He decay using a calorimetric technique with ions implanted in the active volume of detectors. The size of the effect associated with photons escaping the detectors was quantified in terms of a slope which, on average, is respectively - 5 . 4 %/MeV and - 4 . 8 %/MeV for the CsI and NaI geometries. The corresponding relative uncertainties as determined from the spread of results obtained with the four Geant4 constructors are 0.0067 and 0.0058.

  17. Theories of Suggestion

    PubMed Central

    Brown, William

    1928-01-01

    The word “suggestion” has been used in educational, scientific and medical literature in slightly different senses. In psychological medicine the use of suggestion has developed out of the earlier use of hypnotic influence. Charcot defined hypnosis as an artificial hysteria, Bernheim as an artificially increased suggestibility. The two definitions need to be combined to give an adequate account of hypnosis. Moreover, due allowance should be made for the factors of dissociation and of rapport in hypnotic phenomena. The relationships between dissociation, suggestibility, and hypnotizability. Theories of suggestion propounded by Pierre Janet, Freud, McDougall, Pawlow and others. Ernest Jones's theory of the nature of auto-suggestion. Janet explains suggestion in terms of ideo-motor action in which the suggested idea, because of the inactivity of competing ideas, produces its maximum effect. Freud explains rapport in terms of the sex instinct “inhibited in its aim” (transference) and brings in his distinction of “ego” and “ego-ideal” (or “super-ego”) to supplement the theory. Jones explains auto-suggestion in terms of narcissism. McDougall explains hypnotic suggestion in terms of the instinct of self-abasement. But different instincts may supply the driving power to produce suggestion-effects in different circumstances. Such instincts as those of self-preservation (fear) and gregariousness may play their part. Auto-suggestion as a therapeutic factor is badly named. It supplements, but does not supplant the will, and makes complete volition possible. PMID:19986306

  18. [Therapy and suggestion].

    PubMed

    Barrucand, D; Paille, F

    1986-12-01

    Therapy and suggestion are closely related. That is clear for the ancient time: primitive medicine gives a good place to the Word. In plant, animal or mineral remedies, the suggestion is clearly preponderant. Towards the end of the 19th century, the "Ecole de Nancy" sets up a real theory of the suggestion, and Bernheim, its leader, bases hypnosis, then psychotherapy on this concept. Thereafter Coué will bring up the "conscious autosuggestion". Today, despite the progress of scientific medicine, the part of suggestion is still very important in medical therapy (with or without drugs), or in chirurgical therapy; this part is also very important in psychotherapies, whatever has been said in this field. This has to be known and used consciously in the doctor-patient relation, which is always essential in the therapeutic effectiveness.

  19. ABSORPTION ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Brooksbank, W.A. Jr.; Leddicotte, G.W.; Strain, J.E.; Hendon, H.H. Jr.

    1961-11-14

    A means was developed for continuously computing and indicating the isotopic assay of a process solution and for automatically controlling the process output of isotope separation equipment to provide a continuous output of the desired isotopic ratio. A counter tube is surrounded with a sample to be analyzed so that the tube is exactly in the center of the sample. A source of fast neutrons is provided and is spaced from the sample. The neutrons from the source are thermalized by causing them to pass through a neutron moderator, and the neutrons are allowed to diffuse radially through the sample to actuate the counter. A reference counter in a known sample of pure solvent is also actuated by the thermal neutrons from the neutron source. The number of neutrons which actuate the detectors is a function of a concentration of the elements in solution and their neutron absorption cross sections. The pulses produced by the detectors responsive to each neu tron passing therethrough are amplified and counted. The respective times required to accumulate a selected number of counts are measured by associated timing devices. The concentration of a particular element in solution may be determined by utilizing the following relation: T2/Ti = BCR, where B is a constant proportional to the absorption cross sections, T2 is the time of count collection for the unknown solution, Ti is the time of count collection for the pure solvent, R is the isotopic ratlo, and C is the molar concentration of the element to be determined. Knowing the slope constant B for any element and when the chemical concentration is known, the isotopic concentration may be readily determined, and conversely when the isotopic ratio is known, the chemical concentrations may be determined. (AEC)

  20. Optical absorption in recycled waste plastic polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aji, M. P.; Rahmawati, I.; Priyanto, A.; Karunawan, J.; Wati, A. L.; Aryani, N. P.; Susanto; Wibowo, E.; Sulhadi

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the optical properties of UV spectrum absorption in recycled waste plastic from polyethylene polymer type. Waste plastic polyethylene showed an optical spectrum absorption after it’s recycling process. Spectrum absorption is determined using spectrophotometer UV-Nir Ocean Optics type USB 4000. Recycling method has been processed using heating treatment around the melting point temperature of the polyethylene polymer that are 200°C, 220°C, 240°C, 260°C, and 280°C. In addition, the recycling process was carried out with time variations as well, which are 1h, 1.5h, 2h, and 2.5h. The result of this experiment shows that recycled waste plastic polyethylene has a spectrum absorption in the ∼ 340-550 nm wavelength range. The absorbance spectrum obtained from UV light which is absorbed in the orbital n → π* and the orbital π → π*. This process indicates the existence of electron transition phenomena. This mechanism is affected by the temperature and the heating time where the intensity of absorption increases and widens with the increase of temperature and heating time. Furthermore this study resulted that the higher temperature affected the enhancement of the band gap energy of waste plastic polyethylene. These results show that recycled waste plastic polyethylene has a huge potential to be absorber materials for solar cell.

  1. Immersion in altered experience: An investigation of the relationship between absorption and psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Cherise; Jones, Nev; Chase, Kayla A.; Melbourne, Jennifer K.; Grossman, Linda S.; Sharma, Rajiv P.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding alterations in perceptual experiences as a component of the basic symptom structure of psychosis may improve early detection and the identification of subtle shifts that can precede symptom exacerbation. We explored the phenomenological construct of absorption and psychotic experiences in both clinical (bipolar psychosis and schizophrenia spectrum) and non-clinical participants. Participants with psychosis endorsed significantly higher absorption compared to the non-clinical group. Absorption was positively correlated with all types of hallucinations and multiple types of delusions. The analysis yielded two distinct cluster groups that demarcated a distinction along the continuum of self-disturbance: on characterized by attenuated ego boundaries and the other stable ego boundaries. The study suggests that absorption is a potentially important but under-researched component of psychosis that overlaps with, but is not identical to the more heavily theorized constructs of aberrant salience and hyperreflexivity. PMID:28219788

  2. Suggestions from Student Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Womack, Sid T.

    Teachers and administrators can help simplify the adjustment of student teachers to the classroom by being aware of student teacher concerns and problem areas. Asked to voice concerns and suggestions for future students, two groups of students at a Texas university and an Oklahoma university cited discipline, stress and fatigue, and relations with…

  3. Temperature dependence of the HNO3 UV absorption cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkholder, James B.; Talukdar, Ranajit K.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Solomon, Susan

    1993-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the HNO3 absorption cross sections between 240 and 360 K over the wavelength range 195 to 350 nm has been measured using a diode array spectrometer. Absorption cross sections were determined using both (1) absolute pressure measurements at 298 K and (2) a dual absorption cell arrangement in which the absorption spectrum at various temperatures is measured relative to the room temperature absorption spectrum. The HNO3 absorption spectrum showed a temperature dependence which is weak at short wavelengths but stronger at longer wavelengths which are important for photolysis in the lower stratosphere. The 298 K absorption cross sections were found to be larger than the values currently recommended for atmospheric modeling (DeMore et al., 1992). Our absorption cross section data are critically compared with the previous measurements of both room temperature and temperature-dependent absorption cross sections. Temperature-dependent absorption cross sections of HNO3 are recommended for use in atmospheric modeling. These temperature dependent HNO3 absorption cross sections were used in a two-dimensional dynamical-photochemical model to demonstrate the effects of the revised absorption cross sections on loss rate of HNO3 and the abundance of NO2 in the stratosphere.

  4. Spectrum Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-10-16

    Inside the Spectrum prototype unit, organisms in a Petri plate are exposed to blue excitation lighting. The device works by exposing organisms to different colors of fluorescent light while a camera records what's happening with time-lapse photography. Results from the Spectrum project will shed light on which living things are best suited for long-duration flights into deep space.

  5. Spectrum Recombination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Describes several methods of executing lecture demonstrations involving the recombination of the spectrum. Groups the techniques into two general classes: bringing selected portions of the spectrum together using lenses or mirrors and blurring the colors by rapid movement or foreshortening. (JM)

  6. Spectrum Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-10-16

    Inside the Spectrum prototype unit, organisms in a Petri plate are exposed to different colors of lighting. The device works by exposing organisms to different colors of fluorescent light while a camera records what's happening with time-lapse photography. Results from the Spectrum project will shed light on which living things are best suited for long-duration flights into deep space.

  7. Linear absorptive dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tip, A.

    1998-06-01

    Starting from Maxwell's equations for a linear, nonconducting, absorptive, and dispersive medium, characterized by the constitutive equations D(x,t)=ɛ1(x)E(x,t)+∫t-∞dsχ(x,t-s)E(x,s) and H(x,t)=B(x,t), a unitary time evolution and canonical formalism is obtained. Given the complex, coordinate, and frequency-dependent, electric permeability ɛ(x,ω), no further assumptions are made. The procedure leads to a proper definition of band gaps in the periodic case and a new continuity equation for energy flow. An S-matrix formalism for scattering from lossy objects is presented in full detail. A quantized version of the formalism is derived and applied to the generation of Čerenkov and transition radiation as well as atomic decay. The last case suggests a useful generalization of the density of states to the absorptive situation.

  8. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  9. An Improved Red Spectrum of the Methane or T Dwarf SDSS 1624+0029: The Role of the Alkali Metals.

    PubMed

    Liebert; Reid; Burrows; Burgasser; Kirkpatrick; Gizis

    2000-04-20

    A Keck II low-resolution spectrum shortward of 1 µm is presented for SDSS 1624+0029, the first field methane or T dwarf discovered in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Significant flux is detected down to the spectrum's short-wavelength limit of 6200 Å. The spectrum exhibits a broad absorption feature centered at 7700 Å, which we interpret as the K i lambdalambda7665, 7699 resonance doublet. The observed flux declines shortward of 7000 Å, most likely owing to the red wing of the Na i doublet. Both Cs i doublet lines are detected more strongly than in an earlier red spectrum. Neither Li i absorption nor Halpha emission are detected. An exploratory model fit to the spectrum suggests that the shape of the red spectrum can be primarily accounted for by the broad wings of the K i and Na i doublets. This behavior is consistent with the argument proffered by Burrows, Marley, & Sharp that strong alkali absorption is principally responsible for depressing T dwarf spectra shortward of 1 µm. In particular, there seems no compelling reason at this time to introduce dust or an additional opacity source in the atmosphere of the Sloan object. The width of the K i and strengths of the Cs i lines also indicate that the Sloan object is warmer than Gl 229B.

  10. Identification and Characterization of Visible Absorption Components in Aqueous Methylglyoxal-Ammonium Sulfate Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGivern, W. S.; Allison, T. C.; Radney, J. G.; Zangmeister, C. D.

    2014-12-01

    The aqueous reaction of methylglyoxal (MG) with ammonium sulfate has been suggested as a source of atmospheric ``brown carbon.'' We have utilized high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and tandem mass spectrometry to study the products of this reaction at high concentrations. The overall product spectrum shows a large number of distinct components; however, the visible absorption from this mixture is derived a very small number of components. The largest contributor is an imine-substituted (C=N-H) product of aldol condensation/facile dehydration reaction between the parent MG and a hydrated product of the MG + ammonia reaction. The asymmetric nature of this compound relative to the aldol condensation of two MG results in a sufficiently large redshift of the UV absorption spectrum that absorption of visible radiation can occur in the long-wavelength tail. The simplicity of the imine products is a result of a strong bias toward ketimine products due to the extensive hydration of the aldehydic moiety in the parent in aqueous solution. In addition, a strong pH dependence of the absorption cross section was observed with significantly greater absorption under more basic conditions. We have performed time-dependent density functional theory calculations to evaluate the absorption spectra of all of the possible condensation products and their respective ions, and the results are consistent with the experimental observations. We have also observed smaller concentrations of other condensation products of the imine-substituted parent species that do not contribute significantly to the visible absorption but have not been previously discussed.

  11. Variability of the broad absorption lines in the QSO UM 232

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, Thomas A.; Junkkarinen, Vesa T.; Burbidge, E. Margaret

    1989-01-01

    Low-resolution spectra of UM 232 taken in 1978, 1979, and 1988 at Lick Observatory are presented. Large changes in the Si IV lambda 1397, CIV lambda 1549, and Al III lambda 1857 broad absorption lines are apparent. The decrease in column density in all three ions and an observed brightening of the QSO suggests that these changes are due to an increase in the ionization level driven by an increase in the central source luminosity. This mechanism has been proposed by Smith and Penston to explain small changes in the absorption spectrum of the QSO 1246-057. The spectra of UM 232 show that the fractional decrease in optical depth is smaller at higher outflow velocies. The structure of the broad absorption-line region (BALR) is investigted by estimating an ionization parameter for each ion species as a function of velocity.

  12. Spectrum Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-10-16

    Dr. Scott Shipley of Ascentech Enterprises makes an adjustment to the Spectrum unit. He is the project engineer for the effort working under the Engineering Services Contract at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The device is being built for use aboard the International Space Station and is designed to expose different organisms to different color of fluorescent light while a camera records what's happening with time-laps imagery. Results from the Spectrum project will shed light on which living things are best suited for long-duration flights into deep space.

  13. On the role of spatial position of bridged oxygen atoms as surface passivants on the ground-state gap and photo-absorption spectrum of silicon nano-crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Nazemi, Sanaz; Soleimani, Ebrahim Asl; Pourfath, Mahdi, E-mail: pourfath@ut.ac.ir, E-mail: pourfath@iue.tuwien.ac.at

    2015-11-28

    Silicon nano-crystals (NCs) are potential candidates for enhancing and tuning optical properties of silicon for optoelectronic and photo-voltaic applications. Due to the high surface-to-volume ratio, however, optical properties of NC result from the interplay of quantum confinement and surface effects. In this work, we show that both the spatial position of surface terminants and their relative positions have strong effects on NC properties as well. This is accomplished by investigating the ground-state HOMO-LUMO band-gap, the photo-absorption spectra, and the localization and overlap of HOMO and LUMO orbital densities for prototype ∼1.2 nm Si{sub 32–x}H{sub 42–2x}O{sub x} hydrogenated silicon NC with bridgedmore » oxygen atoms as surface terminations. It is demonstrated that the surface passivation geometry significantly alters the localization center and thus the overlap of frontier molecular orbitals, which correspondingly modifies the electronic and optical properties of NC.« less

  14. Zellweger Spectrum

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe defect, resulting in essentially nonfunctional peroxisomes. This phenomenon produces the range of severity of the disorders. How is the Zellweger Spectrum Diagnosed? The distinctive shape of the head and face of a child born with one of the diseases of the ...

  15. Extragalactic Peaked-spectrum Radio Sources at Low Frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Callingham, J. R.; Gaensler, B. M.; Sadler, E. M.

    We present a sample of 1483 sources that display spectral peaks between 72 MHz and 1.4 GHz, selected from the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky Murchison Widefield Array (GLEAM) survey. The GLEAM survey is the widest fractional bandwidth all-sky survey to date, ideal for identifying peaked-spectrum sources at low radio frequencies. Our peaked-spectrum sources are the low-frequency analogs of gigahertz-peaked spectrum (GPS) and compact-steep spectrum (CSS) sources, which have been hypothesized to be the precursors to massive radio galaxies. Our sample more than doubles the number of known peaked-spectrum candidates, and 95% of our sample have a newly characterized spectral peak.more » We highlight that some GPS sources peaking above 5 GHz have had multiple epochs of nuclear activity, and we demonstrate the possibility of identifying high-redshift ( z > 2) galaxies via steep optically thin spectral indices and low observed peak frequencies. The distribution of the optically thick spectral indices of our sample is consistent with past GPS/CSS samples but with a large dispersion, suggesting that the spectral peak is a product of an inhomogeneous environment that is individualistic. We find no dependence of observed peak frequency with redshift, consistent with the peaked-spectrum sample comprising both local CSS sources and high-redshift GPS sources. The 5 GHz luminosity distribution lacks the brightest GPS and CSS sources of previous samples, implying that a convolution of source evolution and redshift influences the type of peaked-spectrum sources identified below 1 GHz. Finally, we discuss sources with optically thick spectral indices that exceed the synchrotron self-absorption limit.« less

  16. Relativistic jet feedback - II. Relationship to gigahertz peak spectrum and compact steep spectrum radio galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicknell, Geoffrey V.; Mukherjee, Dipanjan; Wagner, Alexander Y.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Nesvadba, Nicole P. H.

    2018-04-01

    We propose that Gigahertz Peak Spectrum (GPS) and Compact Steep Spectrum (CSS) radio sources are the signposts of relativistic jet feedback in evolving galaxies. Our simulations of relativistic jets interacting with a warm, inhomogeneous medium, utilizing cloud densities and velocity dispersions in the range derived from optical observations, show that free-free absorption can account for the ˜ GHz peak frequencies and low-frequency power laws inferred from the radio observations. These new computational models replace a power-law model for the free-free optical depth a more fundamental model involving disrupted log-normal distributions of warm gas. One feature of our new models is that at early stages, the low-frequency spectrum is steep but progressively flattens as a result of a broader distribution of optical depths, suggesting that the steep low-frequency spectra discovered by Callingham et al. may possibly be attributed to young sources. We also investigate the inverse correlation between peak frequency and size and find that the initial location on this correlation is determined by the average density of the warm ISM. The simulated sources track this correlation initially but eventually fall below it, indicating the need for a more extended ISM than presently modelled. GPS and CSS sources can potentially provide new insights into the phenomenon of AGN feedback since their peak frequencies and spectra are indicative of the density, turbulent structure, and distribution of gas in the host galaxy.

  17. Phonon-Assisted Optical Absorption in Silicon from First Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noffsinger, Jesse; Kioupakis, Emmanouil; Van de Walle, Chris G.; Louie, Steven G.; Cohen, Marvin L.

    2012-04-01

    The phonon-assisted interband optical absorption spectrum of silicon is calculated at the quasiparticle level entirely from first principles. We make use of the Wannier interpolation formalism to determine the quasiparticle energies, as well as the optical transition and electron-phonon coupling matrix elements, on fine grids in the Brillouin zone. The calculated spectrum near the onset of indirect absorption is in very good agreement with experimental measurements for a range of temperatures. Moreover, our method can accurately determine the optical absorption spectrum of silicon in the visible range, an important process for optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications that cannot be addressed with simple models. The computational formalism is quite general and can be used to understand the phonon-assisted absorption processes in general.

  18. Absorption of Orally Administered Hyaluronan.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Mamoru; Maeshima, Takuya; Kubota, Takumi; Kurihara, Hitoshi; Masuda, Yasunobu; Nomura, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) has been utilized as a supplement. However, the absorption of orally administrated HA remains controversial. The degradation and absorption of HA in the intestine were investigated in this study. HA excretion into the feces, degradation in the intestinal tract, absorption through the large intestine, and translocation to the blood and skin were examined. HA administered orally was not detected in rat feces. HA was degraded by cecal content, but not by artificial gastric juice and intestinal juice. Oligosaccharide HA passed through excised large intestine sacs. Furthermore, disaccharides, tetrasaccharides, and polysaccharides HA were distributed to the skin of rats following oral administration of high molecular weight HA (300 kDa). The results of the study suggest that orally administered HA is degraded to oligosaccharides by intestinal bacteria, and oligosaccharide HA is absorbed in the large intestine and is subsequently distributed throughout the tissues, including the skin.

  19. Types of suggestibility: Relationships among compliance, indirect, and direct suggestibility.

    PubMed

    Polczyk, Romuald; Pasek, Tomasz

    2006-10-01

    It is commonly believed that direct suggestibility, referring to overt influence, and indirect suggestibility, in which the intention to influence is hidden, correlate poorly. This study demonstrates that they are substantially related, provided that they tap similar areas of influence. Test results from 103 students, 55 women and 48 men, were entered into regression analyses. Indirect suggestibility, as measured by the Sensory Suggestibility Scale for Groups, and compliance, measured by the Gudjonsson Compliance Scale, were predictors of direct suggestibility, assessed with the Barber Suggestibility Scale. Spectral analyses showed that indirect suggestibility is more related to difficult tasks on the BSS, but compliance is more related to easy tasks on this scale.

  20. Evidence for active galactic nucleus feedback in the broad absorption lines and reddening of MRK 231 {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Leighly, Karen M.; Baron, Eddie; Lucy, Adrian B.

    2014-06-20

    We present the first J-band spectrum of Mrk 231, which reveals a large He I* λ10830 broad absorption line with a profile similar to that of the well-known Na I broad absorption line. Combining this spectrum with optical and UV spectra from the literature, we show that the unusual reddening noted by Veilleux et al. is explained by a reddening curve like those previously used to explain low values of total-to-selective extinction in Type Ia supernovae. The nuclear starburst may be the origin and location of the dust. Spatially resolved emission in the broad absorption line trough suggests nearly fullmore » coverage of the continuum emission region. The broad absorption lines reveal higher velocities in the He I* lines (produced in the quasar-photoionized H II region) compared with the Na I and Ca II lines (produced in the corresponding partially ionized zone). Cloudy simulations show that a density increase is required between the H II and partially ionized zones to produce ionic column densities consistent with the optical and IR absorption line measurements and limits, and that the absorber lies ∼100 pc from the central engine. These results suggest that the He I* lines are produced in an ordinary quasar BAL wind that impacts upon, compresses, and accelerates the nuclear starburst's dusty effluent (feedback in action), and the Ca II and Na I lines are produced in this dusty accelerated gas. This unusual circumstance explains the rarity of Na I absorption lines; without the compression along our line of sight, Mrk 231 would appear as an ordinary iron low-ionization, broad absorption line quasar.« less

  1. Atmospheric absorption of terahertz radiation and water vapor continuum effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slocum, David M.; Slingerland, Elizabeth J.; Giles, Robert H.; Goyette, Thomas M.

    2013-09-01

    The water vapor continuum absorption spectrum was investigated using Fourier Transform Spectroscopy. The transmission of broadband terahertz radiation from 0.300 to 1.500 THz was recorded for multiple path lengths and relative humidity levels. The absorption coefficient as a function of frequency was determined and compared with theoretical predictions and available water vapor absorption data. The prediction code is able to separately model the different parts of atmospheric absorption for a range of experimental conditions. A variety of conditions were accurately modeled using this code including both self and foreign gas broadening for low and high water vapor pressures for many different measurement techniques. The intensity and location of the observed absorption lines were also in good agreement with spectral databases. However, there was a discrepancy between the resonant line spectrum simulation and the observed absorption spectrum in the atmospheric transmission windows caused by the continuum absorption. A small discrepancy remained even after using the best available data from the literature to account for the continuum absorption. From the experimental and resonant line simulation spectra the air-broadening continuum parameter was calculated and compared with values available in the literature.

  2. Tunable, high-sensitive measurement of inter-dot transition via tunneling induced absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yandong; Yang, Aihong; Chen, Bing; Li, Lei; Liu, Shande; Guo, Hongju

    2016-10-01

    A tunable, narrow absorption spectrum induced by resonant tunneling is demonstrated and proposed for measuring interdot tunneling. Tunneling-induced absorption (TIA) arises from constructive interference between different transition paths, and the large nonlinear TIA significantly enhances the total absorption. The narrow nonlinear TIA spectrum is sensitive to inter-dot tunneling, and its sensor characteristics, including sensitivity and bandwidth, are investigated in weak-coupling and strong-coupling regimes, respectively.

  3. Suggestibility and suggestive modulation of the Stroop effect.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Irving

    2011-06-01

    Although the induction of a hypnotic state does not seem necessary for suggestive modulation of the Stroop effect, this important phenomenon has seemed to be dependent on the subject's level of hypnotic suggestibility. Raz and Campbell's (2011) study indicates that suggestion can modulate the Stroop effect substantially in very low suggestible subjects, as well as in those who are highly suggestible. This finding casts doubt on the presumed mechanism by which suggestive modulation is brought about. Research aimed at uncovering the means by which low suggestible individuals are able to modulate the Stroop effect would be welcome, as would assessment of this effect in moderately suggestible people. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Study on lead absorption in pumpkin by atomic absorption spectrophotometry].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-Xia; Sun, Yong-Dong; Chen, Bi-Hua; Li, Xin-Zheng

    2008-07-01

    A study was carried out on the characteristic of lead absorption in pumpkin via atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that lead absorption amount in pumpkin increased with time, but the absorption rate decreased with time; And the lead absorption amount reached the peak in pH 7. Lead and cadmium have similar characteristic of absorption in pumpkin.

  5. Fission Spectrum

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bloch, F.; Staub, H.

    1943-08-18

    Measurements of the spectrum of the fission neutrons of 25 are described, in which the energy of the neutrons is determined from the ionization produced by individual hydrogen recoils. The slow neutrons producing fission are obtained by slowing down the fast neutrons from the Be-D reaction of the Stanford cyclotron. In order to distinguish between fission neutrons and the remaining fast cyclotron neutrons both the cyclotron current and the pusle amplifier are modulated. A hollow neutron container, in which slow neutrons have a lifetime of about 2 milliseconds, avoids the use of large distances. This method results in much higher intensities than the usual modulation arrangement. The results show a continuous distribution of neutrons with a rather wide maximum at about 0.8 MV falling off to half of its maximum value at 2.0 MV. The total number of netrons is determined by comparison with the number of fission fragments. The result seems to indicate that only about 30% of the neutrons have energies below .8 MV. Various tests are described which were performed in order to rule out modification of the spectrum by inelastic scattering. Decl. May 4, 1951

  6. Energy-absorption spectroscopy of unitary Fermi gases in a uniform potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Yu, Zhenhua

    2018-04-01

    We propose to use the energy absorption spectroscopy to measure the kinetic coefficients of unitary Fermi gases in a uniform potential. We show that, in our scheme, the energy absorption spectrum is proportional to the dynamic structure factor of the system. The profile of the spectrum depends on the shear viscosity η , the thermal conductivity κ , and the superfluid bulk viscosity ξ3. We show that extraction of these coefficients from the spectrum is achievable in present experiments.

  7. Transmission Spectrum of HAT-P-11b

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-24

    A plot of the transmission spectrum for exoplanet HAT-P-11b, with data from NASA Kepler, Hubble and Spitzer observatories combined. The results show a robust detection of water absorption in the Hubble data.

  8. Solar absorption surface panel

    DOEpatents

    Santala, Teuvo J.

    1978-01-01

    A composite metal of aluminum and nickel is used to form an economical solar absorption surface for a collector plate wherein an intermetallic compound of the aluminum and nickel provides a surface morphology with high absorptance and relatively low infrared emittance along with good durability.

  9. Absorption of Solar Radiation by Clouds: Observations Versus Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cess, R. D.; Zhang, M. H.; Minnis, P.; Corsetti, L.; Dutton, E. G.; Forgan, B. W.; Garber, D. P.; Gates, W. L.; Hack, J. J.; Harrison, E. F.; hide

    1995-01-01

    There has been a long history of unexplained anomalous absorption of solar radiation by clouds. Collocated satellite and surface measurements of solar radiation at five geographically diverse locations showed significant solar absorption by clouds, resulting in about 25 watts per square meter more global-mean absorption by the cloudy atmosphere than predicted by theoretical models. It has often been suggested that tropospheric aerosols could increase cloud absorption. But these aerosols are temporally and spatially heterogeneous, whereas the observed cloud absorption is remarkably invariant with respect to season and location. Although its physical cause is unknown, enhanced cloud absorption substantially alters our understanding of the atmosphere's energy budget.

  10. Petawatt laser absorption bounded

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Matthew C.; Wilks, Scott C.; Tabak, Max; Libby, Stephen B.; Baring, Matthew G.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of petawatt (1015 W) lasers with solid matter forms the basis for advanced scientific applications such as table-top particle accelerators, ultrafast imaging systems and laser fusion. Key metrics for these applications relate to absorption, yet conditions in this regime are so nonlinear that it is often impossible to know the fraction of absorbed light f, and even the range of f is unknown. Here using a relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot-like analysis, we show for the first time that f exhibits a theoretical maximum and minimum. These bounds constrain nonlinear absorption mechanisms across the petawatt regime, forbidding high absorption values at low laser power and low absorption values at high laser power. For applications needing to circumvent the absorption bounds, these results will accelerate a shift from solid targets, towards structured and multilayer targets, and lead the development of new materials. PMID:24938656

  11. [Absorption spectrum of Quasi-continuous laser modulation demodulation method].

    PubMed

    Shao, Xin; Liu, Fu-Gui; Du, Zhen-Hui; Wang, Wei

    2014-05-01

    A software phase-locked amplifier demodulation method is proposed in order to demodulate the second harmonic (2f) signal of quasi-continuous laser wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) properly, based on the analysis of its signal characteristics. By judging the effectiveness of the measurement data, filter, phase-sensitive detection, digital filtering and other processing, the method can achieve the sensitive detection of quasi-continuous signal The method was verified by using carbon dioxide detection experiments. The WMS-2f signal obtained by the software phase-locked amplifier and the high-performance phase-locked amplifier (SR844) were compared simultaneously. The results show that the Allan variance of WMS-2f signal demodulated by the software phase-locked amplifier is one order of magnitude smaller than that demodulated by SR844, corresponding two order of magnitude lower of detection limit. And it is able to solve the unlocked problem caused by the small duty cycle of quasi-continuous modulation signal, with a small signal waveform distortion.

  12. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion

    PubMed Central

    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  13. [The study of CO2 cavity enhanced absorption and highly sensitive absorption spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Pei, Shi-Xin; Gao, Xiao-Ming; Cui, Fen-Ping; Huang, Wei; Shao, Jie; Fan, Hong; Zhang, Wei-Jun

    2005-12-01

    Cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) is a new spectral technology that is based on the cavity ring down absorption spectroscopy. In the present paper, a DFB encapsulation narrow line width tunable diode laser (TDL) was used as the light source. At the center output, the TDL radiation wavelength was 1.573 microm, and an optical cavity, which consisted of two high reflectivity mirrors (near 1.573 microm, the mirror reflectivity was about 0.994%), was used as a sample cell. A wavemeter was used to record the accurate frequency of the laser radiation. In the experiment, the method of scanning the optical cavity to change the cavity mode was used, when the laser frequency was coincident with one of the cavity mode; the laser radiation was coupled into the optical cavity and the detector could receive the light signals that escaped the optical cavity. As a result, the absorption spectrum of carbon dioxide weak absorption at low pressure was obtained with an absorption intensity of 1.816 x 10(-23) cm(-1) x (molecule x cm(-2)(-1) in a sample cell with a length of only 33.5 cm. An absorption sensitivity of about 3.62 x 10(-7) cm(-1) has been achieved. The experiment result indicated that the cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy has the advantage of high sensivity, simple experimental setup, and easy operation.

  14. Direct and quantitative broadband absorptance spectroscopy with multilayer cantilever probes

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Wei-Chun; Tong, Jonathan Kien-Kwok; Liao, Bolin; Chen, Gang

    2015-04-21

    A system for measuring the absorption spectrum of a sample is provided that includes a broadband light source that produces broadband light defined within a range of an absorptance spectrum. An interferometer modulates the intensity of the broadband light source for a range of modulation frequencies. A bi-layer cantilever probe arm is thermally connected to a sample arm having at most two layers of materials. The broadband light modulated by the interferometer is directed towards the sample and absorbed by the sample and converted into heat, which causes a temperature rise and bending of the bi-layer cantilever probe arm. A detector mechanism measures and records the deflection of the probe arm so as to obtain the absorptance spectrum of the sample.

  15. Electron localization and optical absorption of polygonal quantum rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitek, Anna; Serra, Llorenç; Gudmundsson, Vidar; Manolescu, Andrei

    2015-06-01

    We investigate theoretically polygonal quantum rings and focus mostly on the triangular geometry where the corner effects are maximal. Such rings can be seen as short core-shell nanowires, a generation of semiconductor heterostructures with multiple applications. We show how the geometry of the sample determines the electronic energy spectrum, and also the localization of electrons, with effects on the optical absorption. In particular, we show that irrespective of the ring shape low-energy electrons are always attracted by corners and are localized in their vicinity. The absorption spectrum in the presence of a magnetic field shows only two peaks within the corner-localized state domain, each associated with different circular polarization. This picture may be changed by an external electric field which allows previously forbidden transitions, and thus enables the number of corners to be determined. We show that polygonal quantum rings allow absorption of waves from distant ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum within one sample.

  16. Deimos: A featureless asteroid-like spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grundy, W. M.; Fink, Uwe

    1991-01-01

    High quality CCD spectra were obtained of Deimos from 0.5 to 1.0 micron at a spectral resolution of 15A at the time of the 1988 Mars opposition. The data acquisition and reduction methods allowed the quantitative prevention of scattered light from Mars contaminating the spectra. Solar analog stars BS560, BS2007, and BS8931 were observed the same night to allow removal of telluric absorptions. The ratio spectrum of Deimos has a red slope, increasing in reflectance by a factor of approx. 50 pct. over the one octave wavelength interval observed. Other than this slope, the spectrum is remarkably featureless. The absence of absorption bands in the spectrum of Deimos is in marked contrast with the spectra of Martian surface materials. No trace of the Fe(2+) charge transfer absorption band around 1 micron is observed, which rules out the presence of significant quantities of minerals such as the pyroxenes or olivine at the surface of Deimos. The featureless red spectrum of Deimos appears to be consistent with a surface composition of fine grained carbonaceous chondrite type material. An analysis is presented of the spectrum of Deimos which makes use of the Hapke scattering surface model.

  17. Linear and nonlinear magneto-optical absorption in a triangular quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Luong V.; Vinh, Pham T.; Dinh, Le; Phuc, Huynh V.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we study the linear and nonlinear magneto-optical absorption spectrum in a triangular quantum well (TrQW) created by the applied electric field via investigating the phonon-assisted cyclotron resonance (PACR) effect. The results are calculated for a specific Ga0.7Al0.3As/GaAs quantum well. The magneto-optical absorption coefficient (MOAC) and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) are found to be significantly dependent on the magnetic field, the electric field and the temperature. Our results showed that the MOAC and FWHM increase with the magnetic, electric fields and temperature. The obtained results also suggest a useful way to control the magneto-optical properties of TrQW by changing these parameters.

  18. On the bathochromic shift of the absorption by astaxanthin in crustacyanin: a quantum chemical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbeej, Bo; Eriksson, Leif A.

    2003-06-01

    The structural origin of the bathochromic shift assumed by the electronic absorption spectrum of protein-bound astaxanthin, the carotenoid that upon binding to crustacyanin is responsible for the blue colouration of lobster shell, is investigated by means of quantum chemical methods. The calculations suggest that the bathochromic shift is largely due to one of the astaxanthin C4 keto groups being hydrogen-bonded to a histidine residue of the surrounding protein, and that the effect of this histidine is directly dependent on its protonation state. Out of the different methodologies (CIS, TD-DFT, and ZINDO/S) employed to calculate wavelengths of maximum absorption, the best agreement with experimental data is obtained using the semiempirical ZINDO/S method.

  19. Rare-gas impurities in alkali metals: Relation to optical absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Meltzer, D.E.; Pinski, F.J.; Stocks, G.M.

    1988-04-15

    An investigation of the nature of rare-gas impurity potentials in alkali metals is performed. Results of calculations based on simple models are presented, which suggest the possibility of resonance phenomena. These could lead to widely varying values for the exponents which describe the shape of the optical-absorption spectrum at threshold in the Mahan--Nozieres--de Dominicis theory. Detailed numerical calculations are then performed with the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker coherent-potential-approximation method. The results of these highly realistic calculations show no evidence for the resonance phenomena, and lead to predictions for the shape of the spectra which are in contradiction to observations. Absorption and emission spectramore » are calculated for two of the systems studied, and their relation to experimental data is discussed.« less

  20. Pressure-induced absorption coefficients for radiative transfer calculations in Titan's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courtin, Regis

    1988-01-01

    The semiempirical theory of Birnbaum and Cohen (1976) is used to calculate the FIR pressure-induced absorption (PIA) spectra of N2, CH4, N2 + Ar, N2 + CH4, and N2 + H2 under conditions like those in the Titan troposphere. The results are presented graphically and compared with published data from laboratory measurements of PIA in the same gases and mixtures (Dagg et al., 1986; Dore et al., 1986). Good agreement is obtained, with only a slight underestimation of PIA at 300-400/cm in the case of CH4. The absorption coefficients are presented in tables, and it is suggested that the present findings are of value for evaluating the effects of tropospheric clouds on the Titan FIR spectrum and studying the greenhouse effect near the Titan surface.

  1. Representational constraints on children's suggestibility.

    PubMed

    Ceci, Stephen J; Papierno, Paul B; Kulkofsky, Sarah

    2007-06-01

    In a multistage experiment, twelve 4- and 9-year-old children participated in a triad rating task. Their ratings were mapped with multidimensional scaling, from which euclidean distances were computed to operationalize semantic distance between items in target pairs. These children and age-mates then participated in an experiment that employed these target pairs in a story, which was followed by a misinformation manipulation. Analyses linked individual and developmental differences in suggestibility to children's representations of the target items. Semantic proximity was a strong predictor of differences in suggestibility: The closer a suggested distractor was to the original item's representation, the greater was the distractor's suggestive influence. The triad participants' semantic proximity subsequently served as the basis for correctly predicting memory performance in the larger group. Semantic proximity enabled a priori counterintuitive predictions of reverse age-related trends to be confirmed whenever the distance between representations of items in a target pair was greater for younger than for older children.

  2. Luminescence and Absorption Spectra of C sub 60 Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    J. McKeirnan, J.L Zink, R. Stanley Williams, W.M. Tong, D.A.A. Ohlberg and R.L. Whetten Submitted t DTIC Physical Review Letters ELECT E SFEB 2? 7,19...range at 20K. A 1400 cm"& progression in the a soccerball inflation mode is observed. The low-temperature absorption spectrum exhibits similar fine...ag soccerball inflation mode is observed. The low temperature absorption spectrum exhibits similar fine structure. The characterization of vibronic

  3. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Epigenetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grafodatskaya, Daria; Chung, Brian; Szatmari, Peter; Weksberg, Rosanna

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Current research suggests that the causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are multifactorial and include both genetic and environmental factors. Several lines of evidence suggest that epigenetics also plays an important role in ASD etiology and that it might, in fact, integrate genetic and environmental influences to dysregulate…

  4. Comparison of RF spectrum prediction methods for dynamic spectrum access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovarskiy, Jacob A.; Martone, Anthony F.; Gallagher, Kyle A.; Sherbondy, Kelly D.; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2017-05-01

    Dynamic spectrum access (DSA) refers to the adaptive utilization of today's busy electromagnetic spectrum. Cognitive radio/radar technologies require DSA to intelligently transmit and receive information in changing environments. Predicting radio frequency (RF) activity reduces sensing time and energy consumption for identifying usable spectrum. Typical spectrum prediction methods involve modeling spectral statistics with Hidden Markov Models (HMM) or various neural network structures. HMMs describe the time-varying state probabilities of Markov processes as a dynamic Bayesian network. Neural Networks model biological brain neuron connections to perform a wide range of complex and often non-linear computations. This work compares HMM, Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), and Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) algorithms and their ability to perform RF channel state prediction. Monte Carlo simulations on both measured and simulated spectrum data evaluate the performance of these algorithms. Generalizing spectrum occupancy as an alternating renewal process allows Poisson random variables to generate simulated data while energy detection determines the occupancy state of measured RF spectrum data for testing. The results suggest that neural networks achieve better prediction accuracy and prove more adaptable to changing spectral statistics than HMMs given sufficient training data.

  5. Classification of hadith into positive suggestion, negative suggestion, and information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraby, Said Al; Riviera Rachmawati Jasin, Eliza; Kusumaningrum, Andina; Adiwijaya

    2018-03-01

    As one of the Muslim life guidelines, based on the meaning of its sentence(s), a hadith can be viewed as a suggestion for doing something, or a suggestion for not doing something, or just information without any suggestion. In this paper, we tried to classify the Bahasa translation of hadith into the three categories using machine learning approach. We tried stemming and stopword removal in preprocessing, and TF-IDF of unigram, bigram, and trigram as the extracted features. As the classifier, we compared between SVM and Neural Network. Since the categories are new, so in order to compare the results of the previous pipelines, we created a baseline classifier using simple rule-based string matching technique. The rule-based algorithm conditions on the occurrence of words such as “janganlah, sholatlah, and so on” to determine the category. The baseline method achieved F1-Score of 0.69, while the best F1-Score from the machine learning approach was 0.88, and it was produced by SVM model with the linear kernel.

  6. Broad spectrum bioactive sunscreens.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Sarruf, Fernanda Daud; Salgado-Santos, Idalina Maria Nunes; Haroutiounian-Filho, Carlos Alberto; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Baby, André Rolim

    2008-11-03

    The development of sunscreens containing reduced concentration of chemical UV filters, even though, possessing broad spectrum effectiveness with the use of natural raw materials that improve and infer UV absorption is of great interest. Due to the structural similarities between polyphenolic compounds and organic UV filters, they might exert photoprotection activity. The objective of the present research work was to develop bioactive sunscreen delivery systems containing rutin, Passiflora incarnata L. and Plantago lanceolata extracts associated or not with organic and inorganic UV filters. UV transmission of the sunscreen delivery system films was performed by using diffuse transmittance measurements coupling to an integrating sphere. In vitro photoprotection efficacy was evaluated according to the following parameters: estimated sun protection factor (SPF); Boot's Star Rating category; UVA/UVB ratio; and critical wavelength (lambda(c)). Sunscreen delivery systems obtained SPF values ranging from 0.972+/-0.004 to 28.064+/-2.429 and bioactive compounds interacted with the UV filters positive and negatively. This behavior may be attributed to: the composition of the delivery system; the presence of inorganic UV filter and quantitative composition of the organic UV filters; and the phytochemical composition of the P. incarnata L. and P. lanceolata extracts. Among all associations of bioactive compounds and UV filters, we found that the broad spectrum sunscreen was accomplished when 1.68% (w/w) P. incarnata L. dry extract was in the presence of 7.0% (w/w) ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, 2.0% (w/w) benzophenone-3 and 2.0% (w/w) TiO(2). It was demonstrated that this association generated estimated SPF of 20.072+/-0.906 and it has improved the protective defense against UVA radiation accompanying augmentation of the UVA/UVB ratio from 0.49 to 0.52 and lambda(c) from 364 to 368.6nm.

  7. Interrogative suggestibility in opiate users.

    PubMed

    Murakami, A; Edelmann, R J; Davis, P E

    1996-09-01

    The present study investigated interrogative suggestibility in opiate users. A group of patients undergoing a methadone detoxification programme in an in-patient drug treatment unit (Detox group, n = 21), and a group of residents who had come off drugs and were no longer suffering from withdrawal syndrome (Rehab group, n = 19) were compared on interrogative suggestibility and various other psychological factors. Significant differences were found between the two groups, with the Detox group having more physical and psychological problems, and a higher total suggestibility score in comparison with the Rehab group. These findings are discussed in relation to the context of police interrogations and the reliability of confessions made by suspects and witnesses dependent on opiates.

  8. Biennial spectrum plan : 2009.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-01-01

    In May 2003, the President established the Spectrum Policy Initiative to promote the development : and implementation of a U.S. spectrum management policy for the 21st century. The intent of the : Spectrum Policy Initiative is to " ... foster economi...

  9. Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor); Hua, Duy H. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  10. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  11. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  12. Laser Atmospheric Absorption Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    A. Modification of Commercial C09 Laser 50 B. CW HF/DF Laser System * 53 C. Microcomputer Data Link 55 D . Fourier Transform...improved accuracy are used [5]. c. The absorption coefficient is listed for each absorbing species separately which some codes require. d . A super...series of water vapor absorption measurements was planned. The results of the first four lines studied are presented here in Figures 33a- d . Figure

  13. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOEpatents

    Mahoney, Alan R [Albuquerque, NM; Reed, Scott T [Albuquerque, NM; Ashley, Carol S [Albuquerque, NM; Martinez, F Edward [Horseheads, NY

    2004-08-31

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  14. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOEpatents

    Mahoney, Alan R [Albuquerque, NM; Reed, Scott T [Albuquerque, NM; Ashley, Carol S [Albuquerque, NM; Martinez, F Edward [Horseheads, NY

    2003-10-14

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  15. The infrared spectrum of M8 E - Evidence for circumstellar CO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, H. P.; Fink, U.; Hofmann, R.

    1986-01-01

    High-resolution spectroscopic observations of the compact infrared source M8 E are reported in the region from 3 to 5 microns. Very prominent CO absorption lines are observed in the v = 1-0 band at 4.7 microns. The velocity width and rotational temperature suggest that this CO absorption occurs in a highly excited region. The high background continuum flux level and the prominent appearance of the CO features suggest that the CO line-forming region must be in front of the dust emission region. A blister model for M8 E, which places most of the dust continuum emission behind the source, satisfies this requirement. According to this picture, the observed circumstellar CO spectrum shows a high rotational temperature and a large velocity dispersion because of the combined effects of the strong stellar wind and possible shock heating near the dust zone as the wind encounters the ambient molecular cloud.

  16. Suggestions for Library Network Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salton, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Various approaches to the design of automatic library systems are described, suggestions for the design of rational and effective automated library processes are posed, and an attempt is made to assess the importance and effect of library network systems on library operations and library effectiveness. (Author/CWM)

  17. 10 Suggestions for Enhancing Lecturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzmann, Ray

    2010-01-01

    Criticism of the lecture method remains a staple of discussion and writing in academia--and most of the time it's deserved! Those interested in improving this aspect of their teaching might wish to consider some or all of the following suggestions for enhancing lectures. These include: (1) Lectures must start with a "grabber"; (2)…

  18. Absorption fluids data survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macriss, R. A.; Zawacki, T. S.

    Development of improved data for the thermodynamic, transport and physical properties of absorption fluids were studied. A specific objective of this phase of the study is to compile, catalog and coarse screen the available US data of known absorption fluid systems and publish it as a first edition document to be distributed to manufacturers, researchers and others active in absorption heat pump activities. The methodology and findings of the compilation, cataloguing and coarse screening of the available US data on absorption fluid properties and presents current status and future work on this project are summarized. Both in house file and literature searches were undertaken to obtain available US publications with pertinent physical, thermodynamic and transport properties data for absorption fluids. Cross checks of literature searches were also made, using available published bibliographies and literature review articles, to eliminate secondary sources for the data and include only original sources and manuscripts. The properties of these fluids relate to the liquid and/or vapor state, as encountered in normal operation of absorption equipment employing such fluids, and to the crystallization boundary of the liquid phase, where applicable. The actual data were systematically classified according to the type of fluid and property, as well as temperature, pressure and concentration ranges over which data were available. Data were sought for 14 different properties: Vapor-Liquid Equilibria, Crystallization Temperature, Corrosion Characteristics, Heat of Mixing, Liquid-Phase-Densities, Vapor-Liquid-Phase Enthalpies, Specific Heat, Stability, Viscosity, Mass Transfer Rate, Heat Transfer Rate, Thermal Conductivity, Flammability, and Toxicity.

  19. Time-dependent oral absorption models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higaki, K.; Yamashita, S.; Amidon, G. L.

    2001-01-01

    The plasma concentration-time profiles following oral administration of drugs are often irregular and cannot be interpreted easily with conventional models based on first- or zero-order absorption kinetics and lag time. Six new models were developed using a time-dependent absorption rate coefficient, ka(t), wherein the time dependency was varied to account for the dynamic processes such as changes in fluid absorption or secretion, in absorption surface area, and in motility with time, in the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, the plasma concentration profiles of propranolol obtained in human subjects following oral dosing were analyzed using the newly derived models based on mass balance and compared with the conventional models. Nonlinear regression analysis indicated that the conventional compartment model including lag time (CLAG model) could not predict the rapid initial increase in plasma concentration after dosing and the predicted Cmax values were much lower than that observed. On the other hand, all models with the time-dependent absorption rate coefficient, ka(t), were superior to the CLAG model in predicting plasma concentration profiles. Based on Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), the fluid absorption model without lag time (FA model) exhibited the best overall fit to the data. The two-phase model including lag time, TPLAG model was also found to be a good model judging from the values of sum of squares. This model also described the irregular profiles of plasma concentration with time and frequently predicted Cmax values satisfactorily. A comparison of the absorption rate profiles also suggested that the TPLAG model is better at prediction of irregular absorption kinetics than the FA model. In conclusion, the incorporation of a time-dependent absorption rate coefficient ka(t) allows the prediction of nonlinear absorption characteristics in a more reliable manner.

  20. Near-infrared absorption spectroscopy of interstellar hydrocarbon grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendleton, Y. J.; Sandford, S. A.; Allamandola, L. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Sellgren, K.

    1994-12-01

    We present new 3600 - 2700/cm (2.8 - 3.7 micrometer) spectra of objects whose extinction is dominated by dust in the diffuse interstellar medium. The observations presented here augment an ongoing study of the organic component of the diffuse interstellar medium. These spectra contain a broad feature centered near 3300/cm (3.0 micrometers) and/or a feature with a more complex profile near 2950/cm (3.4 micrometers), the latter of which is attributed to saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons in interstellar grains and is the primary interest of this paper. As in our earlier work, the similarity of the absorption bands near 2950/cm (3.4 micrometers) along different lines of sight and the correlation of these features with interstellar extinction reveal that the carrier of this band lies in the dust in the diffuse interstellar medium (DISM). At least 2.5% of the cosmic carbon in the local interstellar medium and 4% toward the Galactic center is tied up in the carrier of the 2950/cm (3.4 micrometer) band. The spectral structure of the diffuse dust hydrocarbon C-H stretch absorption features is reasonably similar to UV photolyzed laboratory ice residues and is quite similar to the carbonaceous component of the Murchison meteorite. The similarity between the DISM and the meteoritic spectrum suggests that some of the interstellar material originally incorporated into the solar nebula may have survived relatively untouched in primitive solar system bodies. Comparisons of the DISM spectrum to hydrogenated amorphous carbon and quenched carbonaceous composite are also presented. The AV/tau ratio for the 2950/cm (3.4 micrometer) feature is lower toward the Galactic center than toward sources in the local solar neighborhood (approximately 150 for the Galactic center sources vs. approximately 250 for the local ISM sources). A similar trend has been observed previously for silicates in the diffuse medium by Roche & Aitken, suggesting that (1) the silicate and carbonaceous materials in

  1. Near-infrared absorption spectroscopy of interstellar hydrocarbon grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendleton, Y. J.; Sandford, S. A.; Allamandola, L. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Sellgren, K.

    1994-01-01

    We present new 3600 - 2700/cm (2.8 - 3.7 micrometer) spectra of objects whose extinction is dominated by dust in the diffuse interstellar medium. The observations presented here augment an ongoing study of the organic component of the diffuse interstellar medium. These spectra contain a broad feature centered near 3300/cm (3.0 micrometers) and/or a feature with a more complex profile near 2950/cm (3.4 micrometers), the latter of which is attributed to saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons in interstellar grains and is the primary interest of this paper. As in our earlier work, the similarity of the absorption bands near 2950/cm (3.4 micrometers) along different lines of sight and the correlation of these features with interstellar extinction reveal that the carrier of this band lies in the dust in the diffuse interstellar medium (DISM). At least 2.5% of the cosmic carbon in the local interstellar medium and 4% toward the Galactic center is tied up in the carrier of the 2950/cm (3.4 micrometer) band. The spectral structure of the diffuse dust hydrocarbon C-H stretch absorption features is reasonably similar to UV photolyzed laboratory ice residues and is quite similar to the carbonaceous component of the Murchison meteorite. The similarity between the DISM and the meteoritic spectrum suggests that some of the interstellar material originally incorporated into the solar nebula may have survived relatively untouched in primitive solar system bodies. Comparisons of the DISM spectrum to hydrogenated amorphous carbon and quenched carbonaceous composite are also presented. The A(sub V)/tau ratio for the 2950/cm (3.4 micrometer) feature is lower toward the Galactic center than toward sources in the local solar neighborhood (approximately 150 for the Galactic center sources vs. approximately 250 for the local ISM sources). A similar trend has been observed previously for silicates in the diffuse medium by Roche & Aitken, suggesting that (1) the silicate and carbonaceous

  2. Remote sensing of soot carbon - Part 2: Understanding the absorption Ångström exponent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, G. L.; Dubovik, O.; Arola, A.; Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.

    2016-02-01

    Recently, some authors have suggested that the absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) can be used to deduce the component aerosol absorption optical depths (AAODs) of carbonaceous aerosols in the AERONET database. This AAE approach presumes that AAE ≪ 1 for soot carbon, which contrasts the traditional small particle limit of AAE = 1 for soot carbon. Thus, we provide an overview of the AERONET retrieval, and we investigate how the microphysics of carbonaceous aerosols can be interpreted in the AERONET AAE product. We find that AAE ≪ 1 in the AERONET database requires large coarse mode fractions and/or imaginary refractive indices that increase with wavelength. Neither of these characteristics are consistent with the current definition of soot carbon, so we explore other possibilities for the cause of AAE ≪ 1. AAE is related to particle size, and coarse mode particles have a smaller AAE than fine mode particles for a given aerosol mixture of species. We also note that the mineral goethite has an imaginary refractive index that increases with wavelength, is very common in dust regions, and can easily contribute to AAE ≪ 1. We find that AAE ≪ 1 can not be caused by soot carbon, unless soot carbon has an imaginary refractive index that increases with wavelength throughout the visible and near-infrared spectrums. Finally, AAE is not a robust parameter for separating carbonaceous absorption from dust aerosol absorption in the AERONET database.

  3. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, Robert C.; Biermann, Wendell J.

    1989-01-01

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit.

  4. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

    1989-05-09

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit. 1 fig.

  5. A synthesis of light absorption properties of the Pan-Arctic Ocean: application to semi-analytical estimates of dissolved organic carbon concentrations from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, A.; Babin, M.; Doxaran, D.; Hooker, S. B.; Mitchell, B. G.; Bélanger, S.; Bricaud, A.

    2013-11-01

    The light absorption coefficients of particulate and dissolved materials are the main factors determining the light propagation of the visible part of the spectrum and are, thus, important for developing ocean color algorithms. While these absorption properties have recently been documented by a few studies for the Arctic Ocean (e.g., Matsuoka et al., 2007, 2011; Ben Mustapha et al., 2012), the datasets used in the literature were sparse and individually insufficient to draw a general view of the basin-wide spatial and temporal variations in absorption. To achieve such a task, we built a large absorption database at the pan-Arctic scale by pooling the majority of published datasets and merging new datasets. Our results showed that the total non-water absorption coefficients measured in the Eastern Arctic Ocean (EAO; Siberian side) are significantly higher than in the Western Arctic Ocean (WAO; North American side). This higher absorption is explained by higher concentration of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in watersheds on the Siberian side, which contains a large amount of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) compared to waters off North America. In contrast, the relationship between the phytoplankton absorption (aφ(λ)) and chlorophyll a (chl a) concentration in the EAO was not significantly different from that in the WAO. Because our semi-analytical CDOM absorption algorithm is based on chl a-specific aφ(λ) values (Matsuoka et al., 2013), this result indirectly suggests that CDOM absorption can be appropriately derived not only for the WAO but also for the EAO using ocean color data. Derived CDOM absorption values were reasonable compared to in situ measurements. By combining this algorithm with empirical DOC vs. CDOM relationships, a semi-analytical algorithm for estimating DOC concentrations for coastal waters at the Pan-Arctic scale is presented and applied to satellite ocean color data.

  6. A synthesis of light absorption properties of the Arctic Ocean: application to semianalytical estimates of dissolved organic carbon concentrations from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, A.; Babin, M.; Doxaran, D.; Hooker, S. B.; Mitchell, B. G.; Bélanger, S.; Bricaud, A.

    2014-06-01

    In addition to scattering coefficients, the light absorption coefficients of particulate and dissolved materials are the main factors determining the light propagation of the visible part of the spectrum and are, thus, important for developing ocean color algorithms. While these absorption properties have recently been documented by a few studies for the Arctic Ocean (e.g., Matsuoka et al., 2007, 2011; Ben Mustapha et al., 2012), the data sets used in the literature were sparse and individually insufficient to draw a general view of the basin-wide spatial and temporal variations in absorption. To achieve such a task, we built a large absorption database of the Arctic Ocean by pooling the majority of published data sets and merging new data sets. Our results show that the total nonwater absorption coefficients measured in the eastern Arctic Ocean (EAO; Siberian side) are significantly higher than in the western Arctic Ocean (WAO; North American side). This higher absorption is explained by higher concentration of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in watersheds on the Siberian side, which contains a large amount of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) compared to waters off North America. In contrast, the relationship between the phytoplankton absorption (aϕ(λ)) and chlorophyll a (chl a) concentration in the EAO was not significantly different from that in the WAO. Because our semianalytical CDOM absorption algorithm is based on chl a-specific aϕ(λ) values (Matsuoka et al., 2013), this result indirectly suggests that CDOM absorption can be appropriately derived not only for the WAO but also for the EAO using ocean color data. Based on statistics, derived CDOM absorption values were reasonable compared to in situ measurements. By combining this algorithm with empirical DOC versus CDOM relationships, a semianalytical algorithm for estimating DOC concentrations for river-influenced coastal waters of the Arctic Ocean is presented and applied to satellite

  7. A Synthesis of Light Absorption Properties of the Arctic Ocean: Application to Semi-analytical Estimates of Dissolved Organic Carbon Concentrations from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsuoka, A.; Babin, M.; Doxaran, D.; Hooker, S. B.; Mitchell, B. G.; Belanger, S.; Bricaud, A.

    2014-01-01

    The light absorption coefficients of particulate and dissolved materials are the main factors determining the light propagation of the visible part of the spectrum and are, thus, important for developing ocean color algorithms. While these absorption properties have recently been documented by a few studies for the Arctic Ocean [e.g., Matsuoka et al., 2007, 2011; Ben Mustapha et al., 2012], the datasets used in the literature were sparse and individually insufficient to draw a general view of the basin-wide spatial and temporal variations in absorption. To achieve such a task, we built a large absorption database at the pan-Arctic scale by pooling the majority of published datasets and merging new datasets. Our results showed that the total non-water absorption coefficients measured in the Eastern Arctic Ocean (EAO; Siberian side) are significantly higher 74 than in the Western Arctic Ocean (WAO; North American side). This higher absorption is explained 75 by higher concentration of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in watersheds on the Siberian 76 side, which contains a large amount of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) compared to waters off 77 North America. In contrast, the relationship between the phytoplankton absorption (a()) and chlorophyll a (chl a) concentration in the EAO was not significantly different from that in the WAO. Because our semi-analytical CDOM absorption algorithm is based on chl a-specific a() values [Matsuoka et al., 2013], this result indirectly suggests that CDOM absorption can be appropriately erived not only for the WAO but also for the EAO using ocean color data. Derived CDOM absorption values were reasonable compared to in situ measurements. By combining this algorithm with empirical DOC versus CDOM relationships, a semi-analytical algorithm for estimating DOC concentrations for coastal waters at the Pan-Arctic scale is presented and applied to satellite ocean color data.

  8. Enhanced broadband absorption in nanowire arrays with integrated Bragg reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghaeipour, Mahtab; Pettersson, Håkan

    2018-05-01

    A near-unity unselective absorption spectrum is desirable for high-performance photovoltaics. Nanowire (NW) arrays are promising candidates for efficient solar cells due to nanophotonic absorption resonances in the solar spectrum. The absorption spectra, however, display undesired dips between the resonance peaks. To achieve improved unselective broadband absorption, we propose to enclose distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) in the bottom and top parts of indium phosphide (InP) NWs, respectively. We theoretically show that by enclosing only two periods of In0.56Ga0.44As/InP DBRs, an unselective 78% absorption efficiency (72% for NWs without DBRs) is obtained at normal incidence in the spectral range from 300 nm to 920 nm. Under oblique light incidence, the absorption efficiency is enhanced up to about 85% at an incidence angle of 50°. By increasing the number of DBR periods from two to five, the absorption efficiency is further enhanced up to 95% at normal incidence. In this work, we calculated optical spectra for InP NWs, but the results are expected to be valid for other direct band gap III-V semiconductor materials. We believe that our proposed idea of integrating DBRs in NWs offers great potential for high-performance photovoltaic applications.

  9. ABSORPTION MEASURE DISTRIBUTION IN Mrk 509

    SciTech Connect

    Adhikari, T. P.; Różańska, A.; Sobolewska, M.

    2015-12-20

    In this paper we model the observed absorption measure distribution (AMD) in Mrk 509, which spans three orders of magnitude in ionization level with a single-zone absorber in pressure equilibrium. AMD is usually constructed from observations of narrow absorption lines in radio-quiet active galaxies with warm absorbers. We study the properties of the warm absorber in Mrk 509 using recently published broadband spectral energy distribution observed with different instruments. This spectrum is an input in radiative transfer computations with full photoionization treatment using the titan code. We show that the simplest way to fully reproduce the shape of AMD is tomore » assume that the warm absorber is a single zone under constant total pressure. With this assumption, we found theoretical AMD that matches the observed AMD determined on the basis of the 600 ks reflection grating spectrometer XMM-Newton spectrum of Mrk 509. The softness of the source spectrum and the important role of the free–free emission breaks the usual degeneracy in the ionization state calculations, and the explicit dependence of the depths of AMD dips on density open a new path to the density diagnostic for the warm absorber. In Mrk 509, the implied density is of the order of 10{sup 8} cm{sup −3}.« less

  10. A plant canopy light absorption model with application to wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, J. E.; Lemaster, E. W.

    1977-01-01

    From the light absorption model the absorption of light in the photosynthetically active region of the spectrum was calculated for a Penjamo wheat crop for several situations including: (1) the percent absorption of the incident radiation by a canopy having a four layer structure; (2) the percent absorption of light by the individual layers within a four layer canopy and by the underlying soil; (3) the percent absorption of light by each vegetative canopy layer for variable sun angle; and (4) the cumulative solar energy absorbed by the developing wheat canopy as it progresses from a single layer through its growth stages to a three layer canopy. This calculation was also presented as a function of the leaf area index.

  11. Selective optical contacting for solar spectrum management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianfeng; Chen, Weijian; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Zhilong; Huang, Shujuan; Shrestha, Santosh; Wen, Xiaoming; Patterson, Robert; Conibeer, Gavin

    2017-02-01

    Solar spectrum management using up/down conversion is an important method to improve the photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency. It asks for a monochromatic luminescence absorption at the band edge of the photovoltaic device to reduce both the sub-band-gap and over-band-gap energy losses. Here, we demonstrate an energy selective optical contacting concept to improve the luminescence transfer efficiency for spectrum management. By increasing both the luminescence emission and re-absorption ability through photonic resonance, an efficient photon transfer channel could be established between the luminescence emitter and the photovoltaic component in a near-field region. This concept is not only able to compensate the insufficient band edge absorption ability of the photovoltaic device, but also to break the far-field limitation of luminescence radiation. The energy selection on the optical spectrum naturally imposed by the mode resonance is also helpful to improve the monochromaticity of the luminescence yield. In this paper, a photonic crystal cavity is used to realize the optical contacting concept between a thin silicon film and spectrum converter. The optical power and photon flux transferred between different components are calculated analytically using the electromagnetic Green's function. The corresponding radiative dipole moment is estimated by the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. The example shows an over 80 times enhancement in the luminescence absorbance by the silicon layer, illustrating the great potential of this concept to be applied on nano-structured photovoltaic devices.

  12. Properties of the 4.45 eV optical absorption band in LiF:Mg,Ti.

    PubMed

    Nail, I; Oster, L; Horowitz, Y S; Biderman, S; Belaish, Y

    2006-01-01

    The optical absorption (OA) and thermoluminescence (TL) of dosimetric LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) as well as nominally pure LiF single crystal have been studied as a function of irradiation dose, thermal and optical bleaching in order to investigate the role of the 4.45 eV OA band in low temperature TL. Computerised deconvolution was used to resolve the absorption spectrum into individual gaussian bands and the TL glow curve into glow peaks. Although the 4.45 eV OA band shows thermal decay characteristics similar to the 4.0 eV band its dose filling constant and optical bleaching properties suggest that it cannot be associated with the TL of composite peaks 4 or 5. Its presence in optical grade single crystal LiF further suggests that it is an intrinsic defect or possibly associated with chance impurities other than Mg, Ti.

  13. Variance of transionospheric VLF wave power absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, X.; Bortnik, J.; Friedrich, M.

    2010-07-01

    To investigate the effects of D-region electron-density variance on wave power absorption, we calculate the power reduction of very low frequency (VLF) waves propagating through the ionosphere with a full wave method using the standard ionospheric model IRI and in situ observational data. We first verify the classic absorption curves of Helliwell's using our full wave code. Then we show that the IRI model gives overall smaller wave absorption compared with Helliwell's. Using D-region electron densities measured by rockets during the past 60 years, we demonstrate that the power absorption of VLF waves is subject to large variance, even though Helliwell's absorption curves are within ±1 standard deviation of absorption values calculated from data. Finally, we use a subset of the rocket data that are more representative of the D region of middle- and low-latitude VLF wave transmitters and show that the average quiet time wave absorption is smaller than that of Helliwell's by up to 100 dB at 20 kHz and 60 dB at 2 kHz, which would make the model-observation discrepancy shown by previous work even larger. This result suggests that additional processes may be needed to explain the discrepancy.

  14. The effect of volatility on percutaneous absorption.

    PubMed

    Rouse, Nicole C; Maibach, Howard I

    2016-01-01

    Topically applied chemicals may volatilize, or evaporate, from skin leaving behind a chemical residue with new percutaneous absorptive capabilities. Understanding volatilization of topical medications, such as sunscreens, fragrances, insect repellants, cosmetics and other commonly applied topicals may have implications for their safety and efficacy. A systematic review of English language articles from 1979 to 2014 was performed using key search terms. Articles were evaluated to assess the relationship between volatility and percutaneous absorption. A total of 12 articles were selected and reviewed. Key findings were that absorption is enhanced when coupled with a volatile substance, occlusion prevents evaporation and increases absorption, high ventilation increases volatilization and reduces absorption, and pH of skin has an affect on a chemical's volatility. The articles also brought to light that different methods may have an affect on volatility: different body regions; in vivo vs. in vitro; human vs. Data suggest that volatility is crucial for determining safety and efficacy of cutaneous exposures and therapies. Few articles have been documented reporting evaporation in the context of percutaneous absorption, and of those published, great variability exists in methods. Further investigation of volatility is needed to properly evaluate its role in percutaneous absorption.

  15. Suggestions for Popularizing Civil Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1926-01-01

    The public generally is taking very little interest in the progress of Civil Aviation, and the time has come to educate the public in aeronautics and to make them realize the far-reaching importance of air transport. Briefly, the whole problem resolves itself into discovering and applying means for bringing some of the many aspects and effects of civil aviation into the everyday lives of the public. The report suggests three principal groups of methods: (1) Bring aviation into daily contact with the public. (2) Bring the public into daily contact with aviation. (3) General publicity.

  16. Exciton Absorption Spectra by Linear Response Methods:Application to Conjugated Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Mosquera, Martin A.; Jackson, Nicholas E.; Fauvell, Thomas J.

    The theoretical description of the timeevolution of excitons requires, as an initial step, the calculation of their spectra, which has been inaccessible to most users due to the high computational scaling of conventional algorithms and accuracy issues caused by common density functionals. Previously (J. Chem. Phys. 2016, 144, 204105), we developed a simple method that resolves these issues. Our scheme is based on a two-step calculation in which a linear-response TDDFT calculation is used to generate orbitals perturbed by the excitonic state, and then a second linear-response TDDFT calculation is used to determine the spectrum of excitations relative to themore » excitonic state. Herein, we apply this theory to study near-infrared absorption spectra of excitons in oligomers of the ubiquitous conjugated polymers poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), poly(2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV), and poly(benzodithiophene-thieno[3,4-b]thiophene) (PTB7). For P3HT and MEH-PPV oligomers, the calculated intense absorption bands converge at the longest wavelengths for 10 monomer units, and show strong consistency with experimental measurements. The calculations confirm that the exciton spectral features in MEH-PPV overlap with those of the bipolaron formation. In addition, our calculations identify the exciton absorption bands in transient absorption spectra measured by our group for oligomers (1, 2, and 3 units) of PTB7. For all of the cases studied, we report the dominant orbital excitations contributing to the optically active excited state-excited state transitions, and suggest a simple rule to identify absorption peaks at the longest wavelengths. We suggest our methodology could be considered for further evelopments in theoretical transient spectroscopy to include nonadiabatic effects, coherences, and to describe the formation of species such as charge-transfer states and polaron pairs.« less

  17. Refractive Index and Absorption Attribution of Highly Absorbing Brown Carbon Aerosols from an Urban Indian City-Kanpur.

    PubMed

    Shamjad, P M; Tripathi, S N; Thamban, Navaneeth M; Vreeland, Heidi

    2016-11-24

    Atmospheric aerosols influence Earth's radiative balance, having both warming and cooling effects. Though many aerosols reflect radiation, carbonaceous aerosols such as black carbon and certain organic carbon species known as brown carbon have the potential to warm the atmosphere by absorbing light. Black carbon absorbs light over the entire solar spectrum whereas brown carbon absorbs near-UV wavelengths and, to a lesser extent, visible light. In developing countries, such as India, where combustion sources are prolific, the influence of brown carbon on absorption may be significant. In order to better characterize brown carbon, we present experimental and modeled absorption properties of submicron aerosols measured in an urban Indian city (Kanpur). Brown carbon here is found to be fivefold more absorbing at 365 nm wavelength compared to previous studies. Results suggest ~30% of total absorption in Kanpur is attributed to brown carbon, with primary organic aerosols contributing more than secondary organics. We report the spectral brown carbon refractive indices along with an experimentally constrained estimate of the influence of aerosol mixing state on absorption. We conclude that brown carbon in Kanpur is highly absorbing in nature and that the mixing state plays an important role in light absorption from volatile species.

  18. Refractive Index and Absorption Attribution of Highly Absorbing Brown Carbon Aerosols from an Urban Indian City-Kanpur

    PubMed Central

    Shamjad, P. M.; Tripathi, S. N.; Thamban, Navaneeth M.; Vreeland, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols influence Earth’s radiative balance, having both warming and cooling effects. Though many aerosols reflect radiation, carbonaceous aerosols such as black carbon and certain organic carbon species known as brown carbon have the potential to warm the atmosphere by absorbing light. Black carbon absorbs light over the entire solar spectrum whereas brown carbon absorbs near-UV wavelengths and, to a lesser extent, visible light. In developing countries, such as India, where combustion sources are prolific, the influence of brown carbon on absorption may be significant. In order to better characterize brown carbon, we present experimental and modeled absorption properties of submicron aerosols measured in an urban Indian city (Kanpur). Brown carbon here is found to be fivefold more absorbing at 365 nm wavelength compared to previous studies. Results suggest ~30% of total absorption in Kanpur is attributed to brown carbon, with primary organic aerosols contributing more than secondary organics. We report the spectral brown carbon refractive indices along with an experimentally constrained estimate of the influence of aerosol mixing state on absorption. We conclude that brown carbon in Kanpur is highly absorbing in nature and that the mixing state plays an important role in light absorption from volatile species. PMID:27883083

  19. Glucose absorption in acute peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Podel, J; Hodelin-Wetzel, R; Saha, D C; Burns, G

    2000-04-01

    During acute peritoneal dialysis (APD), it is known that glucose found in the dialysate solution contributes to the provision of significant calories. It has been well documented in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) that glucose absorption occurs. In APD, however, it remains unclear how much glucose absorption actually does occur. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether it is appropriate to use the formula used to calculate glucose absorption in CAPD (Grodstein et al) among patients undergoing APD. Actual measurements of glucose absorption (Method I) were calculated in 9 patients undergoing APD treatment for >24 hours who were admitted to the intensive care unit. Glucose absorption using the Grodstein et al formula (Method II) was also determined and compared with the results of actual measurements. The data was then further analyzed based on the factors that influence glucose absorption, specifically dwell time and concentration. The mean total amount of glucose absorbed was 43% +/- 15%. However, when dwell time and concentration were further examined, significant differences were noted. Method I showed a cumulative increase over time. Method II showed that absorption was fixed. This suggests that with the variation in dwell time commonly seen in the acute care setting, the use of Method II may not be accurate. In each of the 2 methods, a significant difference in glucose absorption was noted when comparing the use of 1.5% and 4.25% dialysate concentrations. The established formula designed for CAPD should not be used for calculating glucose absorption in patients receiving APD because variation in dwell time and concentration should be taken into account. Because of the time constraints and staffing required to calculate each exchange individually, combined with the results of the study, we recommend the use of the percentage estimate of 40% to 50%.

  20. Emission from water vapor and absorption from other gases at 5-7.5 μm in Spitzer-IRS Spectra Of Protoplanetary Disks

    SciTech Connect

    Sargent, B. A.; Forrest, W.; Watson, Dan M.

    We present spectra of 13 T Tauri stars in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region showing emission in Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph 5-7.5 μm spectra from water vapor and absorption from other gases in these stars' protoplanetary disks. Seven stars' spectra show an emission feature at 6.6 μm due to the ν{sub 2} = 1-0 bending mode of water vapor, with the shape of the spectrum suggesting water vapor temperatures >500 K, though some of these spectra also show indications of an absorption band, likely from another molecule. This water vapor emission contrasts with the absorption from warm water vapor seenmore » in the spectrum of the FU Orionis star V1057 Cyg. The other 6 of the 13 stars have spectra showing a strong absorption band, peaking in strength at 5.6-5.7 μm, which for some is consistent with gaseous formaldehyde (H{sub 2}CO) and for others is consistent with gaseous formic acid (HCOOH). There are indications that some of these six stars may also have weak water vapor emission. Modeling of these stars' spectra suggests these gases are present in the inner few AU of their host disks, consistent with recent studies of infrared spectra showing gas in protoplanetary disks.« less

  1. Demonstration That Calibration of the Instrument Response to Polarizations Parallel and Perpendicular to the Object Space Projected Slit of an Imaging Spectrometer Enable Measurement of the Atmospheric Absorption Spectrum in Region of the Weak CO2 Band for the Case of Arbitrary Polarization: Implication for the Geocarb Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumer, J. B.; Rairden, R. L.; Polonsky, I. N.; O'Brien, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (TIMS) unit rebuilt to operate in a narrow spectral region, approximately 1603 to 1615 nm, of the weak CO2 band as described by Kumer et al. (2013, Proc. SPIE 8867, doi:10.1117/12.2022668) was used to conduct the demonstration. An integrating sphere (IS), linear polarizers and quarter wave plate were used to confirm that the instrument's spectral response to unpolarized light, to 45° linearly polarized light and to circular polarized light are identical. In all these cases the intensity components Ip = Is where Ip is the component parallel to the object space projected slit and Is is perpendicular to the slit. In the circular polarized case Ip = Is in the time averaged sense. The polarizer and IS were used to characterize the ratio Rθ of the instrument response to linearly polarized light at the angle θ relative to parallel from the slit, for increments of θ from 0 to 90°, to that of the unpolarized case. Spectra of diffusely reflected sunlight passed through the polarizer in increments of θ, and divided by the respective Rθ showed identical results, within the noise limit, for solar spectrum multiplied by the atmospheric transmission and convolved by the Instrument Line Shape (ILS). These measurements demonstrate that unknown polarization in the diffusely reflected sunlight on this small spectral range affect only the slow change across the narrow band in spectral response relative to that of unpolarized light and NOT the finely structured / high contrast spectral structure of the CO2 atmospheric absorption that is used to retrieve the atmospheric content of CO2. The latter is one of the geoCARB mission objectives (Kumer et al, 2013). The situation is similar for the other three narrow geoCARB bands; O2 A band 757.9 to 768.6 nm; strong CO2 band 2045.0 to 2085.0 nm; CH4 and CO region 2300.6 to 2345.6 nm. Polonsky et al have repeated the mission simulation study doi:10.5194/amt-7-959-2014 assuming no use of a geo

  2. Spectrophotometry of six broad absorption line QSOs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junkkarinen, Vesa T.; Burbidge, E. Margaret; Smith, Harding E.

    1987-01-01

    Spectrophotometric observations of six broad absorption-line QSOs (BALQSOs) are presented. The continua and emission lines are compared with those in the spectra of QSOs without BALs. A statistically significant difference is found in the emission-line intensity ratio for (N V 1240-A)/(C IV 1549-A). The median value of (N V)/(C IV) for the BALQSOs is two to three times the median for QSOs without BALs. The absorption features of the BALQSOs are described, and the column densities and limits on the ionization structure of the BAL region are discussed. If the dominant ionization mechanism is photoionization, then it is likely that either the ionizing spectrum is steep or the abundances are considerably different from solar. Collisional ionization may be a significant factor, but it cannot totally dominate the ionization rate.

  3. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon; Perez-Blanco, Horacio

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  4. Absorption Heat Pump Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunugi, Yoshifumi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    Various advanced absorption cycles are studied, developed and invented. In this paper, their cycles are classified and arranged using the three categories: effect, stage and loop, then an outline of the cycles are explained on the Duehring diagram. Their cycles include high COP cycles for refrigerations and heat pumps, high temperature lift cycles for heat transformer, absorption-compression hybrid cycles and heat pump transformer cycle. The highest COPi is attained by the seven effect cycle. In addition, the cycles for low temperature are invented and explained. Furthermore the power generation • refrigeration cycles are illustrated.

  5. Realistic absorption coefficient of ultrathin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesaria, M.; Caricato, A. P.; Martino, M.

    2012-10-01

    Both a theoretical algorithm and an experimental procedure are discussed of a new route to determine the absorption/scattering properties of thin films deposited on transparent substrates. Notably, the non-measurable contribution of the film-substrate interface is inherently accounted for. While the experimental procedure exploits only measurable spectra combined according to a very simple algorithm, the theoretical derivation does not require numerical handling of the acquired spectra or any assumption on the film homogeneity and substrate thickness. The film absorption response is estimated by subtracting the measured absorption spectrum of the bare substrate from that of the film on the substrate structure but in a non-straightforward way. In fact, an assumption about the absorption profile of the overall structure is introduced and a corrective factor accounting for the relative film-to-substrate thickness. The method is tested on films of a well known material (ITO) as a function of the film structural quality and influence of the film-substrate interface, both deliberately changed by thickness tuning and doping. Results are found fully consistent with information obtained by standard optical analysis and band gap values reported in the literature. Additionally, comparison with a conventional method demonstrates that our route is generally more accurate even if particularly suited for very thin films.

  6. An investigation of a mathematical model for atmospheric absorption spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niple, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    A computer program that calculates absorption spectra for slant paths through the atmosphere is described. The program uses an efficient convolution technique (Romberg integration) to simulate instrument resolution effects. A brief information analysis is performed on a set of calculated spectra to illustrate how such techniques may be used to explore the quality of the information in a spectrum.

  7. Building false memories without suggestions.

    PubMed

    Foster, Jeffrey L; Garry, Maryanne

    2012-01-01

    People can come to remember doing things they have never done. The question we asked in this study is whether people can systematically come to remember performing actions they never really did, in the absence of any suggestion from the experimenter. People built LEGO vehicles, performing some steps but not others. For half the people, all the pieces needed to assemble each vehicle were laid out in order in front of them while they did the building; for the other half, the pieces were hidden from view. The next day, everyone returned for a surprise recognition test. People falsely and confidently remembered having carried out steps they did not; those who saw all the pieces while they built each vehicle were more likely to correctly remember performing steps they did perform but equally likely to falsely remember performing steps they did not. We explain our results using the source monitoring framework: People used the relationships between actions to internally generate the missing, related actions, later mistaking that information for genuine experience.

  8. A mechanism to explain the spectrum of Hessdalen Lights phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paiva, G. S.; Taft, C. A.

    2012-07-01

    In this work, we present a model to explain the apparently contradictory spectrum observed in Hessdalen Lights (HL) phenomenon. According to our model, its nearly flat spectrum on the top with steep sides is due to the effect of optical thickness on the bremsstrahlung spectrum. At low frequencies self-absorption modifies the spectrum to follow the Rayleigh-Jeans part of the blackbody curve. This spectrum is typical of dense ionized gas. Additionally, spectrum produced in the thermal bremsstrahlung process is flat up to a cutoff frequency, ν cut, and falls off exponentially at higher frequencies. This sequence of events forms the typical spectrum of HL phenomenon when the atmosphere is clear, with no fog.

  9. The Spectrum of Single Bubble Sonoluminescence.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiller, Robert Anthony

    1995-01-01

    An acoustically levitated bubble in a liquid may be driven to produce short flashes of light synchronous with the sound field in a process called sonoluminescence. The spectrum of the emitted light is measured with a grating monochromator and calibrated for absolute spectral radiance. The spectrum has been measured for various gases dissolved in pure water and heavy water, and alcohols and other hydrocarbon liquids. At a bandpass of 10nm EWHM the spectra are broad -band, showing no sign of lines or absorptions, with a peak in the ultraviolet. The experimental apparatus, including a system for producing sonoluminescence in a sealed container, is described.

  10. Intergalactic Helium Absorption toward High-Redshift Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giroux, Mark L.; Fardal, Mark A.; Shull, J. Michael

    1995-01-01

    The recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the z(q) = 3.286 quasar Q0302-003 (Jakobsen et at. 1994) and the z(q) = 3.185 quasar Q1935-67 by Tytler (1995) show absorption edges at the redshifted wavelength of He II 304 A. A key goal is to distinguish between contributions from discrete Ly-alpha forest clouds and a smoothly distributed intergalactic medium (IGM). We model the contributions from each of these sources of He II absorption, including the distribution of line Doppler widths and column densities, the 'He II proximity effect' from the quasar, and a self-consistent derivation of the He II opacity of the universe as a function of the spectrum of ionizing sources, with the assumption that both the clouds and the IGM are photoionized. The He II edge can be fully accounted for by He II line blanketing for reasonable distributions of line widths and column densities in the Ly-alpha forest, provided that the ionizing sources have spectral index alpha(s) greater than 1.5, and any He II proximity effect is neglected. Even with some contribution from a diffuse IGM, it is difficult to account for the edge observed by Jakobsen et al. (1994) with a 'hard' source spectrum (alpha(s) less than 1.3). The proximity effect modifies the relative contributions of the clouds and IGM to tau(He II) near the quasar (z approx. less than z(q)) and markedly increases the amount of He II absorption required. This implies, for example, that to account for the He II edge with line blanketing alone, the minimum spectral index alpha(s) must be increased from 1.5 to 1.9. We demonstrate the need for higher resolution observations that characterize the change in transmission as z approaches z(q) and resolve line-free gaps in the continuum. We set limits on the density of the diffuse IGM and suggest that the IGM and Ly-alpha clouds are likely to be a significant repository for dark baryons.

  11. Hypnosis, hypnotic suggestibility, memory, and involvement in films.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Reed; Lynn, Steven Jay; Condon, Liam

    2015-05-01

    Our research extends studies that have examined the relation between hypnotic suggestibility and experiential involvement and the role of an hypnotic induction in enhancing experiential involvement (e.g., absorption) in engaging tasks. Researchers have reported increased involvement in reading (Baum & Lynn, 1981) and music-listening (Snodgrass & Lynn, 1989) tasks during hypnosis. We predicted a similar effect for film viewing: greater experiential involvement in an emotional (The Champ) versus a non-emotional (Scenes of Toronto) film. We tested 121 participants who completed measures of absorption and trait dissociation and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and then viewed the two films after either an hypnotic induction or a non-hypnotic task (i.e., anagrams). Experiential involvement varied as a function of hypnotic suggestibility and film clip. Highly suggestible participants reported more state depersonalization than less suggestible participants, and depersonalization was associated with negative affect; however, we observed no significant correlation between hypnotic suggestibility and trait dissociation. Although hypnosis had no effect on memory commission or omission errors, contrary to the hypothesis that hypnosis facilitates absorption in emotionally engaging tasks, the emotional film was associated with more commission and omission errors compared with the non-emotional film. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A spectrum of an extrasolar planet.

    PubMed

    Richardson, L Jeremy; Deming, Drake; Horning, Karen; Seager, Sara; Harrington, Joseph

    2007-02-22

    Of the over 200 known extrasolar planets, 14 exhibit transits in front of their parent stars as seen from Earth. Spectroscopic observations of the transiting planets can probe the physical conditions of their atmospheres. One such technique can be used to derive the planetary spectrum by subtracting the stellar spectrum measured during eclipse (planet hidden behind star) from the combined-light spectrum measured outside eclipse (star + planet). Although several attempts have been made from Earth-based observatories, no spectrum has yet been measured for any of the established extrasolar planets. Here we report a measurement of the infrared spectrum (7.5-13.2 microm) of the transiting extrasolar planet HD 209458b. Our observations reveal a hot thermal continuum for the planetary spectrum, with an approximately constant ratio to the stellar flux over this wavelength range. Superposed on this continuum is a broad emission peak centred near 9.65 microm that we attribute to emission by silicate clouds. We also find a narrow, unidentified emission feature at 7.78 microm. Models of these 'hot Jupiter' planets predict a flux peak near 10 microm, where thermal emission from the deep atmosphere emerges relatively unimpeded by water absorption, but models dominated by water fit the observed spectrum poorly.

  13. Soft X-ray Absorption Edges in LMXBs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The XMM observation of LMC X-2 is part of our program to study X-ray absorption in the interstellar medium (ISM). This program includes a variety of bright X-ray binaries in the Galaxy as well as the Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC). LMC X-2 is located near the heart of the LMC. Its very soft X-ray spectrum is used to determine abundance and ionization fractions of neutral and lowly ionized oxygen of the ISM in the LMC. The RGS spectrum so far allowed us to determine the O-edge value to be for atomic O, the EW of O-I in the ls-2p resonance absorption line, and the same for O-II. The current study is still ongoing in conjunction with other low absorption sources like Sco X-1 and the recently observed X-ray binary 4U 1957+11.

  14. Two-Phonon Absorption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, M. W.

    2007-01-01

    A nonlinear aspect of the acousto-optic interaction that is analogous to multi-photon absorption is discussed. An experiment is described in which the second-order acousto-optically scattered intensity is measured and found to scale with the square of the acoustic intensity. This experiment using a commercially available acousto-optic modulator is…

  15. The Pure Rotational Spectrum of KO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Mark; Russ, Benjamin; Sheridan, Phillip M.; Bucchino, Matthew; Ziurys, Lucy M.

    2017-06-01

    The pure rotational spectrum of potassium monoxide (KO) has been recorded using millimeter-wave direct absorption spectroscopy. KO was synthesized by the reaction of potassium vapor, produced in a Broida-type oven, with nitrous oxide. No DC discharge was necessary. Eleven rotational transitions belonging to the ^{2}Π_{3/2} spin-orbit component have been measured and have been fit successfully to a case (c) Hamiltonian. Rotational and lambda-doubling constants for this spin-orbit component have been determined. It has been suggested that the ground electronic state of KO is either ^{2}Π (as for LiO and NaO) or ^{2}Σ (as for RbO and CsO), both of which lie close in energy. Recent computational studies favor a ^{2}Σ ground state. Further measurements of the rotational transitions of the ^{2}Π_{1/2} spin-orbit component and the ^{2}Σ state are currently in progress, as well as the potassium hyperfine structure.

  16. Urbanicity and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauritsen, Marlene B.; Astrup, Aske; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Obel, Carsten; Schendel, Diana E.; Schieve, Laura; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Parner, Erik T.

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is for the majority of cases unknown and more studies of risk factors are needed. Geographic variation in ASD occurrence has been observed, and urban residence has been suggested to serve as a proxy for etiologic and identification factors in ASD. We examined the association between urbanicity level…

  17. On the nitrogen-induced far-infrared absorption spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dore, P.; Filabozzi, A.

    1987-01-01

    The rototranslational absorption spectrum of gaseous N2 is analyzed, considering quadrupolar and hexadecapolar induction mechanisms. The available experimental data are accounted for by using a line-shape analysis in which empirical profiles describe the single-line translational profiles. Thus, a simple procedure is derived that allows the prediction of the N2 spectrum at any temperature. On the basis of the results obtained for the pure gas, a procedure to compute the far-infrared spectrum of the N2-Ar gaseous mixture is also proposed. The good agreement between computed and experimental N2-Ar data indicates that it is possible to predict the far-infrared absorption induced by N2 on the isotropic polarizability of any interacting partner.

  18. Maxillectomy defects: a suggested classification scheme.

    PubMed

    Akinmoladun, V I; Dosumu, O O; Olusanya, A A; Ikusika, O F

    2013-06-01

    The term "maxillectomy" has been used to describe a variety of surgical procedures for a spectrum of diseases involving a diverse anatomical site. Hence, classifications of maxillectomy defects have often made communication difficult. This article highlights this problem, emphasises the need for a uniform system of classification and suggests a classification system which is simple and comprehensive. Articles related to this subject, especially those with specified classifications of maxillary surgical defects were sourced from the internet through Google, Scopus and PubMed using the search terms maxillectomy defects classification. A manual search through available literature was also done. The review of the materials revealed many classifications and modifications of classifications from the descriptive, reconstructive and prosthodontic perspectives. No globally acceptable classification exists among practitioners involved in the management of diseases in the mid-facial region. There were over 14 classifications of maxillary defects found in the English literature. Attempts made to address the inadequacies of previous classifications have tended to result in cumbersome and relatively complex classifications. A single classification that is based on both surgical and prosthetic considerations is most desirable and is hereby proposed.

  19. A first-principle calculation of the XANES spectrum of Cu2+ in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Penna, G.; Minicozzi, V.; Morante, S.; Rossi, G. C.; Stellato, F.

    2015-09-01

    The progress in high performance computing we are witnessing today offers the possibility of accurate electron density calculations of systems in realistic physico-chemical conditions. In this paper, we present a strategy aimed at performing a first-principle computation of the low energy part of the X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) spectrum based on the density functional theory calculation of the electronic potential. To test its effectiveness, we apply the method to the computation of the X-ray absorption near edge structure part of the XAS spectrum in the paradigmatic, but simple case of Cu2+ in water. In order to keep into account the effect of the metal site structure fluctuations in determining the experimental signal, the theoretical spectrum is evaluated as the average over the computed spectra of a statistically significant number of simulated metal site configurations. The comparison of experimental data with theoretical calculations suggests that Cu2+ lives preferentially in a square-pyramidal geometry. The remarkable success of this approach in the interpretation of XAS data makes us optimistic about the possibility of extending the computational strategy we have outlined to the more interesting case of molecules of biological relevance bound to transition metal ions.

  20. Absorption by Spinning Dust: A Contaminant for High-redshift 21 cm Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draine, B. T.; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi

    2018-05-01

    Spinning dust grains in front of the bright Galactic synchrotron background can produce a weak absorption signal that could affect measurements of high-redshift 21 cm absorption. At frequencies near 80 MHz where the Experiment to Detect the Global EoR Signature (EDGES) has reported 21 cm absorption at z≈ 17, absorption could be produced by interstellar nanoparticles with radii a≈ 50 \\mathringA in the cold interstellar medium (ISM), with rotational temperature T ≈ 50 K. Atmospheric aerosols could contribute additional absorption. The strength of the absorption depends on the abundance of such grains and on their dipole moments, which are uncertain. The breadth of the absorption spectrum of spinning dust limits its possible impact on measurement of a relatively narrow 21 cm absorption feature.

  1. An L Band Spectrum of the Coldest Brown Dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morley, Caroline V.; Skemer, Andrew J.; Allers, Katelyn N.; Marley, Mark. S.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Visscher, Channon; Beiler, Samuel A.; Miles, Brittany E.; Lupu, Roxana; Freedman, Richard S.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Geballe, Thomas R.; Bjoraker, Gordon L.

    2018-05-01

    The coldest brown dwarf, WISE 0855, is the closest known planetary-mass, free-floating object and has a temperature nearly as cold as the solar system gas giants. Like Jupiter, it is predicted to have an atmosphere rich in methane, water, and ammonia, with clouds of volatile ices. WISE 0855 is faint at near-infrared wavelengths and emits almost all its energy in the mid-infrared. Skemer et al. presented a spectrum of WISE 0855 from 4.5–5.1 μm (M band), revealing water vapor features. Here, we present a spectrum of WISE 0855 in the L band, from 3.4–4.14 μm. We present a set of atmosphere models that include a range of compositions (metallicities and C/O ratios) and water ice clouds. Methane absorption is clearly present in the spectrum. The mid-infrared color can be better matched with a methane abundance that is depleted relative to solar abundance. We find that there is evidence for water ice clouds in the M band spectrum, and we find a lack of phosphine spectral features in both the L and M band spectra. We suggest that a deep continuum opacity source may be obscuring the near-infrared flux, possibly a deep phosphorous-bearing cloud, ammonium dihyrogen phosphate. Observations of WISE 0855 provide critical constraints for cold planetary atmospheres, bridging the temperature range between the long-studied solar system planets and accessible exoplanets. The James Webb Space Telescope will soon revolutionize our understanding of cold brown dwarfs with high-precision spectroscopy across the infrared, allowing us to study their compositions and cloud properties, and to infer their atmospheric dynamics and formation processes.

  2. Absorption in X-ray spectra of high-redshift quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvis, Martin; Fiore, Fabrizio; Wilkes, Belinda; Mcdowell, Jonathan; Bechtold, Jill

    1994-01-01

    We present evidence that X-ray absorption is common in high-redshift quasars. We have studied six high-redshift (z approximately 3) quasars with the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) of which four are in directions of low Galactic N(sub H). Three out of these four show excess absorption, while only three in approximately 50 z approximately less than 0.4 quasars do, indicating that such absorption must be common, but not ubiquitous, at high redshifts, and that the absorbers must lie at z greater than 0.4. The six quasars were: S5 0014+81, Q0420-388, PKS 0438-436, S4 0636+680. PKS 2000-330, PKS 2126-158, which have redshifts between 2.85 and 3.78. PKS 0438-436 and PKS 2126-158 show evidence for absorption above the local Galactic value at better than 99.999% confidence level. If the absorber is at the redshift of the quasar, then values of N(sub H) = (0.86(+0.49, -0.28)) x 10(exp 22) atoms/sq cm for PKS 0438-436, and N(sub H) = (1.45(+1.20, -0.64)) x 10(exp 22) atoms/ sq cm for PKS 2126-158, are implied, assuming solar abundances. The spectrum of S4 0636+680 also suggests the presence of a similarly large absorption column density at the 98% confidence level. This absorption reverses the trend for the most luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN) to have the least X-ray absorption, so a new mechanism is likely to be responsible. Intervening absorption due to damped Lyman(alpha) systems is a plausible cause. We also suggest, as an intrinsic model, that intracluster material, e.g., a cooling flow, around the quasar could account for both the X-ray spectrum and other properties of these quasars. All the quasars are radio-loud and three are gigahertz peaked (two of the three showing absorption). No excess absorption above the Galactic value is seen toward Q0420-388. This quasar has two damped Lyman(alpha) systems at z = 3.08. The limit on the X-ray column density implies a low ionization fraction, N(H I)/N(H) approximately greater than 4 x 10(exp -3) (3

  3. Mercury: surface composition from the reflection spectrum.

    PubMed

    McCord, T B; Adams, J B

    1972-11-17

    The reflection spectrum for the integral disk of the planet Mercury was measured and was found to have a constant positive slope from 0.32 to 1.05 micrometers, except for absorption features in the infrared. The reflectivity curve matches closely the curve for the lunar upland and mare regions. Thus, the surface of Mercury is probably covered with a lunar-like soil rich in dark glasses of high iron and titanium content. Pyroxene is probably the dominant mafic mineral.

  4. Absorption and scattering by interstellar dust in the silicon K-edge of GX 5-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeegers, S. T.; Costantini, E.; de Vries, C. P.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Chihara, H.; de Groot, F.; Mutschke, H.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Zeidler, S.

    2017-03-01

    Context. We study the absorption and scattering of X-ray radiation by interstellar dust particles, which allows us to access the physical and chemical properties of dust. The interstellar dust composition is not well understood, especially on the densest sight lines of the Galactic plane. X-rays provide a powerful tool in this study. Aims: We present newly acquired laboratory measurements of silicate compounds taken at the Soleil synchrotron facility in Paris using the Lucia beamline. The dust absorption profiles resulting from this campaign were used in this pilot study to model the absorption by interstellar dust along the line of sight of the low-mass X-ray binary GX 5-1. Methods: The measured laboratory cross-sections were adapted for astrophysical data analysis and the resulting extinction profiles of the Si K-edge were implemented in the SPEX spectral fitting program. We derive the properties of the interstellar dust along the line of sight by fitting the Si K-edge seen in absorption in the spectrum of GX 5-1. Results: We measured the hydrogen column density towards GX 5-1 to be 3.40 ± 0.1 × 1022 cm-2. The best fit of the silicon edge in the spectrum of GX 5-1 is obtained by a mixture of olivine and pyroxene. In this study, our modeling is limited to Si absorption by silicates with different Mg:Fe ratios. We obtained an abundance of silicon in dust of 4.0 ± 0.3 × 10-5 per H atom and a lower limit for total abundance, considering both gas and dust of >4.4 × 10-5 per H atom, which leads to a gas to dust ratio of >0.22. Furthermore, an enhanced scattering feature in the Si K-edge may suggest the presence of large particles along the line of sight.

  5. Absorption and Fluorescence Properties of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter Produced by Algae.

    PubMed

    Peng, Tong; Lu, Xiao-lan; Su, Rong-guo; Zhang, Dong-mei

    2015-09-01

    also increased clearly with the growth of marine microalgae, but protein-like fluorescent component had only a slow growth. Furthermore, the absorption spectrum of CDOM produced by different species of algae changed obviously and the relative composition fluorescence intensity of CDOM produced by different microalgae were found to vary among different composition from EEM, which suggested CDOM produced by different microalgae make quite different contributions to CDOM in natural seawater.

  6. The Project LITE Spectrum Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, K.; Carr, P.; Garik, P.; Weeks, E.

    2002-12-01

    We are developing a powerful new software tool which can help students at all levels understand the spectral properties of light. As a recent AAS survey of astronomy faculty members found (The Physics Teacher, 39, 52, 2001), essentially all introductory astronomy courses spend a significant amount of time dealing with the nature of light. Among the most difficult concepts for students to master are Kirchhoff's laws, blackbody radiation, the Stefan-Boltzmann law, Wien's law, the nature and causes of emission and absorption lines, and the relation of spectra to the underlying astronomical and physical processes producing them. Students often seem baffled by the connection between a spectrum seen visually as a color band and the same spectrum plotted graphically as intensity versus wavelength or frequency. The "Spectrum Explorer", a JAVA applet, is being developed as part of "Project LITE: Light Inquiry Through Experiments" to address these issues. It can be used by instructors in lecture presentations and by students learning at home or working in laboratory settings. We will show some of the current capabilities of the software which include simultaneous display of multiple spectra (normalized and non-normalized as a function of either wavelength or frequency) and the ability to manipulate blackbody spectra. Our future development plans include the addition of a variety of spectral data sets (from physics and chemistry as well as from astronomy); computed inputs from basic quantum mechanics (e.g. Zeeman effect in hydrogen) and from astronomical models (e.g. time varying spectra in binary stars); and the ability to test the effect of filters and physical processes (e.g. Rayleigh scattering) on input spectra. The Spectrum Explorer (along with many other applets about both the physical and perceptual nature of light) can be found on the Project LITE web site http://lite.bu.edu. Project LITE is supported by Grant #DUE-0125992 from the National Science Foundation

  7. Identification and measurement of atmospheric ethane (C2H6) from a 1951 infrared solar spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, Curtis P.; Levine, Joel S.

    1986-01-01

    C2H6 absorption features in the 2980/cm spectral region of the solar spectrum recorded in April, 1951 were analyzed to determine the total vertical column amount and average free tropospheric mixing ratio of C2H6 above Jungfraujoch in the Swiss Alps. The PQ1 subbranch is the best isolated of the three C2H6 features in the 1951 spectrum, with an equivalent width of 0.0099 + or - 0.0025/cm. Results give a total vertical column amount of 9.7 x 10 to the 15th C2H6 molecules/sq cm, with an accuracy of + or - 30 percent. March 1981 measurements from this region give a mixing ratio of about 2.0 ppbv, 2.2 times larger than the 1951 value, suggesting a long-term increase in the free tropospheric C2H6 concentration over western Europe.

  8. 69. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE ABSORPTION TOWER BUILDING, ABSORPTION TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE ABSORPTION TOWER BUILDING, ABSORPTION TOWER UNDER CONSTRUCTION. (DATE UNKNOWN). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  9. Iron K Features in the Quasar E 1821+643: Evidence for Gravitationally Redshifted Absorption?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaqoob, Tahir; Serlemitsos, Peter

    2005-01-01

    We report a Chandra high-energy grating detection of a narrow, redshifted absorption line superimposed on the red wing of a broad Fe K line in the z = 0.297 quasar E 1821+643. The absorption line is detected at a confidence level, estimated by two different methods, in the range approx. 2 - 3 sigma. Although the detection significance is not high enough to exclude a non-astrophysical origin, accounting for the absorption feature when modeling the X-ray spectrum implies that the Fe-K emission line is broad, and consistent with an origin in a relativistic accretion disk. Ignoring the apparent absorption feature leads to the conclusion that the Fe-K emission line is narrower, and also affects the inferred peak energy of the line (and hence the inferred ionization state of Fe). If the absorption line (at approx. 6.2 keV in the quasar frame) is real, we argue that it could be due to gravitationally redshifted Fe XXV or Fe XXVI resonance absorption within approx. 10 - 20 gravitational radii of the putative central black hole. The absorption line is not detected in earlier ASCA and Chandra low-energy grating observations, but the absorption line is not unequivocally ruled out by these data. The Chandra high-energy grating Fe-K emission line is consistent with an origin predominantly in Fe I-XVII or so. In an ASCA observation eight years earlier, the Fe-K line peaked at approx. 6.6 keV, closer to the energies of He-like Fe triplet lines. Further, in a Chandra low-energy grating observation the Fe-K line profile was double-peaked, one peak corresponding to Fe I-XVII or so, the other peak to Fe XXVI Ly alpha. Such a wide range in ionization state of Fe is not ruled out by the HEG and ASCA data either, and is suggestive of a complex structure for the line-emitter.

  10. Physical conditions in broad and associated narrow absorption-line systems toward APM 08279+5255

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srianand, R.; Petitjean, P.

    2000-05-01

    Results of a careful analysis of the absorption systems with z_abs =~ z_em seen toward the bright, z_em ~ 3.91, gravitationally lensed quasar APM 08279+5255 are presented. Two of the narrow-line systems, at z_abs = 3.8931 and z_abs = 3.9135, show absorptions from singly ionized species with weak or no N v and O vi absorptions at the same redshift. Absorption due to fine structure transitions of C ii and S ii i (excitation energies corresponding to, respectively, 156mu m and 34mu m) are detected at z_abs = 3.8931. Excitation by IR radiation is favored as the column density ratios are consistent with the shape of APM 08279+5255 IR spectrum. The low-ionization state of the system favors a picture where the cloud is closer to the IR source than to the UV source, supporting the idea that the extension of the IR source is larger than ~ 200 pc. The absence of fine structure lines at z_abs = 3.9135 suggests that the gas responsible for this system is farther away from the IR source. Abundances are ~ 0.01 and 1 Zsun at z_abs = 3.913 and 3.8931 and aluminum could be over-abundant with respect to silicon and carbon by at least a factor of two and five. All this suggests that whereas the z_abs = 3.8931 system is probably located within 200 pc from the QSO and ejected at a velocity larger than 1000 km s-1, the z_abs = 3.9135 system is farther away and part of the host-galaxy. Several narrow-line systems have strong absorption lines due to C iv, O vi and N v and very low neutral hydrogen optical depths. This probably implies metallicities Z>= Z_sun although firm conclusion cannot be drawn as the exact value depends strongly on the shape of the ionizing spectrum. The C iv broad absorption has a complex structure with mini-BALs (width <= 1000 km s-1) and narrow components superposed on a continuous absorption of smaller optical depth. The continuous absorption is much stronger in O vi indicating that the corresponding gas-component is of higher ionization than the other components

  11. Hypnotic suggestibility predicts the magnitude of the imaginative word blindness suggestion effect in a non-hypnotic context.

    PubMed

    Parris, Benjamin A; Dienes, Zoltan

    2013-09-01

    The present study investigated how the magnitude the word blindness suggestion effect on Stroop interference depended on hypnotic suggestibility when given as an imaginative suggestion (i.e. not post-hypnotic suggestion) and under conditions in which hypnosis was not mentioned. Hypnotic suggestibility is shown to be a significant predictor of the magnitude of the imaginative word blindness suggestion effect under these conditions. This is therefore the first study to show a linear relationship between the imaginative word blindness suggestion effect and hypnotic suggestibility across the whole hypnotizability spectrum. The results replicate previous findings showing that highs respond to the word blindness suggestion to a greater extent than lows but extend previous work by showing that the advantage for those higher on the hypnotizability spectrum occurs even in a non-hypnotic context. Negative attitudes about hypnosis may not explain the failure to observe similar effects of the word blindness suggestion in less hypnotizable individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability that ... key findings. ABOUT US Overview of CDC’s work. Autism: What's New MMWR article: Prevalence of Autism Spectrum ...

  13. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Browse AZTopics Browse A-Z Adrenal Gland Disorders Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Down Syndrome Endometriosis Learning Disabilities Menstruation and ... NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) About NICHD Research Information Find a Study ...

  14. Vehicular impact absorption system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoell, A. C.; Wilson, A. H. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An improved vehicular impact absorption system characterized by a plurality of aligned crash cushions of substantially cubic configuration is described. Each consists of a plurality of voided aluminum beverage cans arranged in substantial parallelism within a plurality of superimposed tiers and a covering envelope formed of metal hardware cloth. A plurality of cables is extended through the cushions in substantial parallelism with an axis of alignment for the cushions adapted to be anchored at each of the opposite end thereof.

  15. Dependence of the absorption and optical surface plasmon scattering of MoS₂ nanoparticles on aspect ratio, size, and media.

    PubMed

    Yadgarov, Lena; Choi, Charina L; Sedova, Anastasiya; Cohen, Ayala; Rosentsveig, Rita; Bar-Elli, Omri; Oron, Dan; Dai, Hongjie; Tenne, Reshef

    2014-04-22

    The optical and electronic properties of suspensions of inorganic fullerene-like nanoparticles of MoS2 are studied through light absorption and zeta-potential measurements and compared to those of the corresponding microscopic platelets. The total extinction measurements show that, in addition to excitonic peaks and the indirect band gap transition, a new peak is observed at 700-800 nm. This spectral peak has not been reported previously for MoS2. Comparison of the total extinction and decoupled absorption spectrum indicates that this peak largely originates from scattering. Furthermore, the dependence of this peak on nanoparticle size, shape, and surface charge, as well as solvent refractive index, suggests that this transition arises from a plasmon resonance.

  16. A suggested mechanism for aluminum biotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Forbes, W F; Agwani, N

    1994-11-21

    Following earlier work on the relevance of silica (SiO2) and fluoride (F) to the biotoxicity of aluminum (Al), it is shown that relatively high risks of a measure of mental impairment are frequently associated with relatively low SiO2 and F in the drinking water available in different parts of Ontario. Also, because of a negative association between SiO2 and F concentrations in the treated water available in different municipalities, a low SiO2 concentration can account for the observed association involving high F concentrations, and low F concentrations can similarly account for associations involving high SiO2 concentrations. In the light of these observations, the biotoxic effects at low Al concentrations can be explained by assuming that interactions occur with membranes. Such interactions may be less likely at higher SiO2 and F concentrations, because at these concentrations, interactions between Al-, SiO2- and F-containing species are more important. Generally, the various associations with a measure of mental impairment can be explained on the assumption that F exerts a protective effect against the biotoxic effects of Al, as does SiO2 under certain conditions, but the effects of SiO2 only become important at higher SiO2 concentrations. The results from this and other studies suggest that the neurotoxic effects of Al depend on other water constituents. The results also indicate that absorption through the lung or skin, rather than through the stomach or the bowel, can better explain the reported associations.

  17. Analyte-induced spectral filtering in femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, Baxter; Nieto-Pescador, Jesus; Gundlach, Lars

    Here, we discuss the influence of spectral filtering by samples in femtosecond transient absorption measurements. Commercial instruments for transient absorption spectroscopy (TA) have become increasingly available to scientists in recent years and TA is becoming an established technique to measure the dynamics of photoexcited systems. Furthermore, we show that absorption of the excitation pulse by the sample can severely alter the spectrum and consequently the temporal pulse shape. This “spectral self-filtering” effect can lead to systematic errors and misinterpretation of data, most notably in concentration dependent measurements. Finally, the combination of narrow absorption peaks in the sample with ultrafast broadbandmore » excitation pulses is especially prone to this effect.« less

  18. Analyte-induced spectral filtering in femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Abraham, Baxter; Nieto-Pescador, Jesus; Gundlach, Lars

    2017-03-06

    Here, we discuss the influence of spectral filtering by samples in femtosecond transient absorption measurements. Commercial instruments for transient absorption spectroscopy (TA) have become increasingly available to scientists in recent years and TA is becoming an established technique to measure the dynamics of photoexcited systems. Furthermore, we show that absorption of the excitation pulse by the sample can severely alter the spectrum and consequently the temporal pulse shape. This “spectral self-filtering” effect can lead to systematic errors and misinterpretation of data, most notably in concentration dependent measurements. Finally, the combination of narrow absorption peaks in the sample with ultrafast broadbandmore » excitation pulses is especially prone to this effect.« less

  19. Temporal Variation of HCO+ 1_0 Galactic Absorption Lines Toward NRAO 150 and BL Lac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Junghwan; Yun, Youngjoo; Park, Yong-Sun

    2017-12-01

    We present observations of HCO^+ 1-0 absorption lines toward two extragalactic compact radio sources, NRAO 150 and BL Lac with the Korean VLBI Network in order to investigate their time variation over 20 years by Galactic foreground clouds. It is found that the line shape of -17 km s^{-1} component changed marginally during 1993-1998 period and has remained unaltered thereafter for NRAO 150. Its behavior is different from that of H_2CO 1_{10}-1_{11}, suggesting chemical differentiation on ˜ 20 AU scale, the smallest ever seen. On the other hand, BL Lac exhibits little temporal variation for the HCO^+ and H_2CO lines. Our observation also suggests that Korea VLBI Network performs reliably in the spectrum mode in that the shapes of the new HCO^+ 1-0 spectra are in good agreement with the previous ones to an accuracy of a few percent except the time varying component toward NRAO 150.

  20. Corrosion Problems in Absorption Chillers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetson, Bruce

    1978-01-01

    Absorption chillers use a lithium bromide solution as the medium of absorption and water as the refrigerant. Discussed are corrosion and related problems, tests and remedies, and cleaning procedures. (Author/MLF)

  1. Mathematical model of zinc absorption: effects of dietary calcium, protein and iron on zinc absorption

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Leland V.; Krebs, Nancy F.; Hambidge, K. Michael

    2013-01-01

    A previously described mathematical model of Zn absorption as a function of total daily dietary Zn and phytate was fitted to data from studies in which dietary Ca, Fe and protein were also measured. An analysis of regression residuals indicated statistically significant positive relationships between the residuals and Ca, Fe and protein, suggesting that the presence of any of these dietary components enhances Zn absorption. Based on the hypotheses that (1) Ca and Fe both promote Zn absorption by binding with phytate and thereby making it unavailable for binding Zn and (2) protein enhances the availability of Zn for transporter binding, the model was modified to incorporate these effects. The new model of Zn absorption as a function of dietary Zn, phytate, Ca, Fe and protein was then fitted to the data. The proportion of variation in absorbed Zn explained by the new model was 0·88, an increase from 0·82 with the original model. A reduced version of the model without Fe produced an equally good fit to the data and an improved value for the model selection criterion, demonstrating that when dietary Ca and protein are controlled for, there is no evidence that dietary Fe influences Zn absorption. Regression residuals and testing with additional data supported the validity of the new model. It was concluded that dietary Ca and protein modestly enhanced Zn absorption and Fe had no statistically discernable effect. Furthermore, the model provides a meaningful foundation for efforts to model nutrient interactions in mineral absorption. PMID:22617116

  2. Mathematical model of zinc absorption: effects of dietary calcium, protein and iron on zinc absorption.

    PubMed

    Miller, Leland V; Krebs, Nancy F; Hambidge, K Michael

    2013-02-28

    A previously described mathematical model of Zn absorption as a function of total daily dietary Zn and phytate was fitted to data from studies in which dietary Ca, Fe and protein were also measured. An analysis of regression residuals indicated statistically significant positive relationships between the residuals and Ca, Fe and protein, suggesting that the presence of any of these dietary components enhances Zn absorption. Based on the hypotheses that (1) Ca and Fe both promote Zn absorption by binding with phytate and thereby making it unavailable for binding Zn and (2) protein enhances the availability of Zn for transporter binding, the model was modified to incorporate these effects. The new model of Zn absorption as a function of dietary Zn, phytate, Ca, Fe and protein was then fitted to the data. The proportion of variation in absorbed Zn explained by the new model was 0·88, an increase from 0·82 with the original model. A reduced version of the model without Fe produced an equally good fit to the data and an improved value for the model selection criterion, demonstrating that when dietary Ca and protein are controlled for, there is no evidence that dietary Fe influences Zn absorption. Regression residuals and testing with additional data supported the validity of the new model. It was concluded that dietary Ca and protein modestly enhanced Zn absorption and Fe had no statistically discernable effect. Furthermore, the model provides a meaningful foundation for efforts to model nutrient interactions in mineral absorption.

  3. Excited state X-ray absorption spectroscopy: Probing both electronic and structural dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neville, Simon P.; Averbukh, Vitali; Ruberti, Marco; Yun, Renjie; Patchkovskii, Serguei; Chergui, Majed; Stolow, Albert; Schuurman, Michael S.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of X-ray absorption spectra, simulated using a general method, to properties of molecular excited states. Recently, Averbukh and co-workers [M. Ruberti et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 184107 (2014)] introduced an efficient and accurate L 2 method for the calculation of excited state valence photoionization cross-sections based on the application of Stieltjes imaging to the Lanczos pseudo-spectrum of the algebraic diagrammatic construction (ADC) representation of the electronic Hamiltonian. In this paper, we report an extension of this method to the calculation of excited state core photoionization cross-sections. We demonstrate that, at the ADC(2)x level of theory, ground state X-ray absorption spectra may be accurately reproduced, validating the method. Significantly, the calculated X-ray absorption spectra of the excited states are found to be sensitive to both geometric distortions (structural dynamics) and the electronic character (electronic dynamics) of the initial state, suggesting that core excitation spectroscopies will be useful probes of excited state non-adiabatic dynamics. We anticipate that the method presented here can be combined with ab initio molecular dynamics calculations to simulate the time-resolved X-ray spectroscopy of excited state molecular wavepacket dynamics.

  4. Measurement of glyoxal using an incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washenfelder, R. A.; Langford, A. O.; Fuchs, H.; Brown, S. S.

    2008-08-01

    We describe an instrument for simultaneous measurements of glyoxal (CHOCHO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) using cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy with a broadband light source. The output of a Xenon arc lamp is coupled into a 1 m optical cavity, and the spectrum of light exiting the cavity is recorded by a grating spectrometer with a charge-coupled device (CCD) array detector. The mirror reflectivity and effective path lengths are determined from the known Rayleigh scattering of He and dry zero air (N2+O2). Least-squares fitting, using published reference spectra, allow the simultaneous retrieval of CHOCHO, NO2, O4, and H2O in the 441 to 469 nm spectral range. For a 1-min sampling time, the minimum detectable absorption is 4×10-10 cm-1, and the precision (±1σ) on signal for measurements of CHOCHO and NO2 is 29 pptv and 20 pptv, respectively. We directly compare the incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer to 404 and 532 nm cavity ringdown instruments for CHOCHO and NO2 detection, and find linear agreement over a wide range of concentrations. The instrument has been tested in the laboratory with both synthetic and real air samples, and the demonstrated sensitivity and specificity suggest a strong potential for field measurements of both CHOCHO and NO2.

  5. Measurement of transient gas flow parameters by diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bolshov, M A; Kuritsyn, Yu A; Liger, V V

    2015-04-30

    An absorption spectrometer based on diode lasers is developed for measuring two-dimension maps of temperature and water vapour concentration distributions in the combustion zones of two mixing supersonic flows of fuel and oxidiser in the single run regime. The method of measuring parameters of hot combustion zones is based on detection of transient spectra of water vapour absorption. The design of the spectrometer considerably reduces the influence of water vapour absorption along the path of a sensing laser beam outside the burning chamber. The optical scheme is developed, capable of matching measurement results in different runs of mixture burning. Amore » new algorithm is suggested for obtaining information about the mixture temperature by constructing the correlation functions of the experimental spectrum with those simulated from databases. A two-dimensional map of temperature distribution in a test chamber is obtained for the first time under the conditions of plasma-induced combusion of the ethylene – air mixture. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)« less

  6. Dietary Phospholipids and Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Jeffrey S.; Kamili, Alvin; Wat, Elaine; Chung, Rosanna W. S.; Tandy, Sally

    2010-01-01

    Experiments carried out with cultured cells and in experimental animals have consistently shown that phospholipids (PLs) can inhibit intestinal cholesterol absorption. Limited evidence from clinical studies suggests that dietary PL supplementation has a similar effect in man. A number of biological mechanisms have been proposed in order to explain how PL in the gut lumen is able to affect cholesterol uptake by the gut mucosa. Further research is however required to establish whether the ability of PLs to inhibit cholesterol absorption is of therapeutic benefit. PMID:22254012

  7. Subbarrier absorption in a stationary superlattice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arutyunyan, G. M.; Nerkararyan, K. V.

    1984-01-01

    The calculation of the interband absorption coefficient was carried out in the classical case, when the frequency of light was assumed to bind two miniband subbarrier states of different bands. The influence of two dimensional Mott excitons on this absorption was studied and a comparison was made with the experiment. All of these considerations were done taking into account the photon wave vector (the phase spatial heterogeneity). The basic traits of the energy spectra of superlattice semiconductors, their kinetic and optical properties, and possible means of electromagnetic wave intensification were examined. By the density matrix method, a theory of electrical and electromagnetic properties of superlattices was suggested.

  8. Intestinal absorption and biomagnification of organochlorines

    SciTech Connect

    Gobas, F.A.P.C.; McCorquodale, J.R.; Haffner, G.D.

    1993-03-01

    Dietary uptake rates of several organochlorines from diets with different lipid contents were measured in goldfish (Carassius auratus) to investigate the mechanism of intestinal absorption and biomagnification of organic chemical. The results suggest that intestinal absorption is predominantly controlled by chemical diffusion rather than lipid cotransport. Data for chemical uptake in human infants are presented to illustrate that biomagnification is caused by the digestion of food in the gastrointestinal tract. The findings are discussed in the context of two conflicting theories for the mechanism of biomagnification, and a mechanistic model is presented for the dietary uptake and biomagnification of organicmore » chemicals in fish and mammals.« less

  9. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy of Hidden Objects, Part I: Interpretation of the Reflection-Absorption-Scattering Fractions in Near-Infrared (NIR) Spectra of Polyethylene Films.

    PubMed

    Pomerantsev, Alexey L; Rodionova, Oxana Ye; Skvortsov, Alexej N

    2017-08-01

    Investigation of a sample covered by an interfering layer is required in many fields, e.g., for process control, biochemical analysis, and many other applications. This study is based on the analysis of spectra collected by near-infrared (NIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Each spectrum is a composition of a useful, target spectrum and a spectrum of an interfering layer. To recover the target spectrum, we suggest using a new phenomenological approach, which employs the multivariate curve resolution (MCR) method. In general terms, the problem is very complex. We start with a specific problem of analyzing a system, which consists of several layers of polyethylene (PE) film and underlayer samples with known spectral properties. To separate information originating from PE layers and the target, we modify the system versus both the number of the PE layers as well as the reflectance properties of the target sample. We consider that the interfering spectrum of the layer can be modeled using three components, which can be tentatively called transmission, absorption, and scattering contributions. The novelty of our approach is that we do not remove the reflectance and scattering effects from the spectra, but study them in detail aiming to use this information to recover the target spectrum.

  10. SEM Microanalysis of Particles: Concerns and Suggestions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournelle, J.

    2008-12-01

    , significant errors can be introduced by differential absorption of this low energy x-ray. (6) Standardless Analysis: This typical method of doing EDS analysis has a major pitfall: the printed analysis is normalized to 100 wt%, thereby eliminating an important clue to analytical error. Suggestions: (1) Use lower voltage, e.g. 10 kV, reducing effects 1,2,3 above. (2) Use standards--traditional flat polished ones--and don't initially normalize totals. Discrepancies can be observed and addressed, not ignored. (3) Alway include oxygen by stoichometry, not measured. (4) Experimental simulation. Using material of constant composition (e.g. NIST glass K-411, or other homogeneous multi-element material with the elements of interest), grind into fragments of similar size to your unknowns, and see what is the analytical error for measurements of these known particles. Analyses of your unknown material will be no better, and probably worse than that, particularly if the grains are smaller. The results of this experiment should be reported whenever discussing measurements on the unknown materials. (5) Monte Carlo simulation. Programs such PENEPMA allows creation of complex geometry samples (and samples on substrates) and resulting EDS spectra can be generated. This allows estimation of errors for representative cases. It is slow, however; other simulations such as DTSA-II promise faster simulations with some limitations. (6) EBSD: this is a perfectly suited for some problems with SEM identification of small particles, e.g. distinguishing magnetite (Fe3O4) from hematite (Fe2O3), which is virtually impossible to do by EDS. With the appropriate hardware and software, electron diffraction patterns on particles can be gathered and the crystal type determined.

  11. Interstellar X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of the Crab Pulsar with the LETGS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paerels, Frits; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Tennant, Allyn F.; ODell, Stephen L.; Swartz, Douglas A.; Kahn, Steven M.; Behar, Ehud; Becker, Werner; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We study the interstellar X-ray absorption along the line of sight to the Crab Pulsar. The Crab was observed with the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer on the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the pulsar, a point source, produces a full resolution spectrum. The continuum spectrum appears smooth, and we compare its parameters with other measurements of the pulsar spectrum. The spectrum clearly shows absorption edges due to interstellar Ne, Fe, and O. The O edge shows spectral structure that is probably due to O bound in molecules or dust. We search for near-edge structure (EXAFS) in the O absorption spectrum. The Fe L absorption spectrum is largely due to a set of unresolved discrete n=2-3 transitions in neutral or near-neutral Fe, and we analyze it using a new set of dedicated atomic structure calculations, which provide absolute cross sections. In addition to being interesting in its own right, the ISM absorption needs to be understood in quantitative detail in order to derive spectroscopic constraints on possible soft thermal radiation from the pulsar.

  12. A transform from absorption to Raman excitation profile. A time-dependent approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Soo-Y.; Yeo, Robert C. K.

    1994-04-01

    An alternative time-frame approach, which is canonically conjugate to the energy-frame approach, for implementing the transform relations for calculating Raman excitation profiles directly from the optical absorption spectrum is presented. Practical and efficient fast Fourier transformation in the time frame replaces the widely used Chan and Page algorithm for evaluating the Hilbert transform in the energy frame. The time-frame approach is applied to: (a) a two-mode model which illustrates the missing mode effect in both absorption and Raman excitation profiles, (b) carotene, in which both the absorption spectrum and the Raman excitation profile show vibrational structure and (c) hexamethylbenzene: TCNE electron donor—acceptor complex where the same spectra are structureless and the Raman excitation profile for the 168 cm -1 mode poses a problem for the energy-frame approach. A similar time-frame approach can be used for the inverse transform from the Raman excitation profile to the optical absorption spectrum.

  13. Quasi-Fermi level splitting and sub-bandgap absorptivity from semiconductor photoluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Katahara, John K.; Hillhouse, Hugh W., E-mail: h2@uw.edu

    A unified model for the direct gap absorption coefficient (band-edge and sub-bandgap) is developed that encompasses the functional forms of the Urbach, Thomas-Fermi, screened Thomas-Fermi, and Franz-Keldysh models of sub-bandgap absorption as specific cases. We combine this model of absorption with an occupation-corrected non-equilibrium Planck law for the spontaneous emission of photons to yield a model of photoluminescence (PL) with broad applicability to band-band photoluminescence from intrinsic, heavily doped, and strongly compensated semiconductors. The utility of the model is that it is amenable to full-spectrum fitting of absolute intensity PL data and yields: (1) the quasi-Fermi level splitting, (2) themore » local lattice temperature, (3) the direct bandgap, (4) the functional form of the sub-bandgap absorption, and (5) the energy broadening parameter (Urbach energy, magnitude of potential fluctuations, etc.). The accuracy of the model is demonstrated by fitting the room temperature PL spectrum of GaAs. It is then applied to Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} (CIGSSe) and Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4} (CZTSSe) to reveal the nature of their tail states. For GaAs, the model fit is excellent, and fitted parameters match literature values for the bandgap (1.42 eV), functional form of the sub-bandgap states (purely Urbach in nature), and energy broadening parameter (Urbach energy of 9.4 meV). For CIGSSe and CZTSSe, the model fits yield quasi-Fermi leveling splittings that match well with the open circuit voltages measured on devices made from the same materials and bandgaps that match well with those extracted from EQE measurements on the devices. The power of the exponential decay of the absorption coefficient into the bandgap is found to be in the range of 1.2 to 1.6, suggesting that tunneling in the presence of local electrostatic potential fluctuations is a dominant factor contributing to the sub-bandgap absorption by either purely electrostatic (screened Thomas

  14. Ultraviolet absorption hygrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gersh, M.E.; Bien, F.; Bernstein, L.S.

    1986-12-09

    An ultraviolet absorption hygrometer is provided including a source of pulsed ultraviolet radiation for providing radiation in a first wavelength region where water absorbs significantly and in a second proximate wavelength region where water absorbs weakly. Ultraviolet radiation in the first and second regions which has been transmitted through a sample path of atmosphere is detected. The intensity of the radiation transmitted in each of the first and second regions is compared and from this comparison the amount of water in the sample path is determined. 5 figs.

  15. Separating higher-order nonlinearities in transient absorption microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jesse W.; Anderson, Miguel; Park, Jong Kang; Fischer, Martin C.; Warren, Warren S.

    2015-08-01

    The transient absorption response of melanin is a promising optically-accessible biomarker for distinguishing malignant melanoma from benign pigmented lesions, as demonstrated by earlier experiments on thin sections from biopsied tissue. The technique has also been demonstrated in vivo, but the higher optical intensity required for detecting these signals from backscattered light introduces higher-order nonlinearities in the transient response of melanin. These components that are higher than linear with respect to the pump or the probe introduce intensity-dependent changes to the overall response that complicate data analysis. However, our data also suggest these nonlinearities might be advantageous to in vivo imaging, in that different types of melanins have different nonlinear responses. Therefore, methods to separate linear from nonlinear components in transient absorption measurements might provide additional information to aid in the diagnosis of melanoma. We will discuss numerical methods for analyzing the various nonlinear contributions to pump-probe signals, with the ultimate objective of real time analysis using digital signal processing techniques. To that end, we have replaced the lock-in amplifier in our pump-probe microscope with a high-speed data acquisition board, and reprogrammed the coprocessor field-programmable gate array (FPGA) to perform lock-in detection. The FPGA lock-in offers better performance than the commercial instrument, in terms of both signal to noise ratio and speed. In addition, the flexibility of the digital signal processing approach enables demodulation of more complicated waveforms, such as spread-spectrum sequences, which has the potential to accelerate microscopy methods that rely on slow relaxation phenomena, such as photo-thermal and phosphorescence lifetime imaging.

  16. Extreme Variability in a Broad Absorption Line Quasar

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, Daniel; Jun, Hyunsung D.; Graham, Matthew J.

    CRTS J084133.15+200525.8 is an optically bright quasar at z = 2.345 that has shown extreme spectral variability over the past decade. Photometrically, the source had a visual magnitude of V ∼ 17.3 between 2002 and 2008. Then, over the following five years, the source slowly brightened by approximately one magnitude, to V ∼ 16.2. Only ∼1 in 10,000 quasars show such extreme variability, as quantified by the extreme parameters derived for this quasar assuming a damped random walk model. A combination of archival and newly acquired spectra reveal the source to be an iron low-ionization broad absorption line quasar withmore » extreme changes in its absorption spectrum. Some absorption features completely disappear over the 9 years of optical spectra, while other features remain essentially unchanged. We report the first definitive redshift for this source, based on the detection of broad H α in a Keck/MOSFIRE spectrum. Absorption systems separated by several 1000 km s{sup −1} in velocity show coordinated weakening in the depths of their troughs as the continuum flux increases. We interpret the broad absorption line variability to be due to changes in photoionization, rather than due to motion of material along our line of sight. This source highlights one sort of rare transition object that astronomy will now be finding through dedicated time-domain surveys.« less

  17. Theoretical Prediction of Si 2–Si 33 Absorption Spectra

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, Li -Zhen; Lu, Wen -Cai; Qin, Wei; ...

    2017-07-07

    Here, the optical absorption spectra of Si 2–Si 33 clusters were systematically studied by a time-dependent density functional theory approach. The calculations revealed that the absorption spectrum becomes significantly broad with increasing cluster size, stretching from ultraviolet to the infrared region. The absorption spectra are closely related to the structural motifs. With increasing cluster size, the absorption intensity of cage structures gradually increases, but the absorption curves of the prolate and the Y-shaped structures are very sensitive to cluster size. If the transition energy reaches ~12 eV, it is noted that all the clusters have remarkable absorption in deep ultravioletmore » region of 100–200 nm, and the maximum absorption intensity is ~100 times that in the visible region. Further, the optical responses to doping in the Si clusters were studied.« less

  18. Theoretical Prediction of Si 2–Si 33 Absorption Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Li -Zhen; Lu, Wen -Cai; Qin, Wei

    Here, the optical absorption spectra of Si 2–Si 33 clusters were systematically studied by a time-dependent density functional theory approach. The calculations revealed that the absorption spectrum becomes significantly broad with increasing cluster size, stretching from ultraviolet to the infrared region. The absorption spectra are closely related to the structural motifs. With increasing cluster size, the absorption intensity of cage structures gradually increases, but the absorption curves of the prolate and the Y-shaped structures are very sensitive to cluster size. If the transition energy reaches ~12 eV, it is noted that all the clusters have remarkable absorption in deep ultravioletmore » region of 100–200 nm, and the maximum absorption intensity is ~100 times that in the visible region. Further, the optical responses to doping in the Si clusters were studied.« less

  19. Phytosterol glycosides reduce cholesterol absorption in humans

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Racette, Susan B.; Anderson Spearie, Catherine L.; Ostlund, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Dietary phytosterols inhibit intestinal cholesterol absorption and regulate whole body cholesterol excretion and balance. However, they are biochemically heterogeneous and a portion is glycosylated in some foods with unknown effects on biological activity. We tested the hypothesis that phytosterol glycosides reduce cholesterol absorption in humans. Phytosterol glycosides were extracted and purified from soy lecithin in a novel two-step process. Cholesterol absorption was measured in a series of three single-meal tests given at intervals of 2 wk to each of 11 healthy subjects. In a randomized crossover design, participants received ∼300 mg of added phytosterols in the form of phytosterol glycosides or phytosterol esters, or placebo in a test breakfast also containing 30 mg cholesterol-d7. Cholesterol absorption was estimated by mass spectrometry of plasma cholesterol-d7 enrichment 4–5 days after each test. Compared with the placebo test, phytosterol glycosides reduced cholesterol absorption by 37.6 ± 4.8% (P < 0.0001) and phytosterol esters 30.6 ± 3.9% (P = 0.0001). These results suggest that natural phytosterol glycosides purified from lecithin are bioactive in humans and should be included in methods of phytosterol analysis and tables of food phytosterol content. PMID:19246636

  20. Intrinsic defect oriented visible region absorption in zinc oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhesh, V.; Shankar, Balakrishnan

    2018-05-01

    Zinc Oxide films were deposited on the glass substrate using vacuum arc sputtering technology. Films were prepared in oxygen ambience for 10mA and 15 mA deposition current separately. The UV-Visible spectroscopy of the samples showed that both samples possess sharp absorption near 3.5eV which is the characteristic band gap absorption energy of ZnO films. The absorption coefficient were calculated for the samples and the (αℎϑ)2 vs energy plot is drawn. The plot suggested that in addition to the sharp band edge absorption, the sample prepared at 10mA deposition current showed sharp absorption edge near 1.51eV and that at 15 mA showed absorption edge near 1.47eV. This refers to the presence of an intrinsic defect level which is likely to be deep in the band gap.

  1. Soil and Water: Some Teaching Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Richard B.

    1987-01-01

    Outlines six soil and water investigations that students can pursue outdoors, in nature centers, or in classrooms: soil characteristics; relationship between soil ph and plant life; what aggregates tell us; differences in soil structure; differences in rate of water absorption by soil; and soil exploration with a Berlesi funnel. (NEC)

  2. VARIATIONS OF ABSORPTION TROUGHS IN THE QUASAR SDSS J125216.58+052737.7

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zhi-Fu; Qin, Yi-Ping, E-mail: zhichenfu@126.com

    2015-01-20

    In this work, we analyze the spectra of quasar J125216.58+052737.7 (z {sub em} = 1.9035) which was observed by SDSS-I/II on 2003 January 30 and by BOSS on 2011 April 2. Both the continuum and the absorption spectra of this quasar show obvious variations between the two epochs. In the SDSS-I/II spectrum, we detect 8 C IV λλ1548,1551 absorption systems, which are detected at z {sub abs} = 1.9098, 1.8948, 1.8841, 1.8770, 1.8732, 1.8635, 1.8154, and 1.7359, respectively, and one Mg II λλ2796,2803 absorption system at z {sub abs} = 0.9912. Among these absorption systems, two C IV λλ1548,1551 absorptionmore » systems at z {sub abs} = 1.9098 and 1.7359 and the Mg II λλ2796,2803 absorption system are imprinted on the BOSS spectrum as well, and have similar absorption strengths when compared to those measured from the SDSS-I/II spectrum. Three C IV λλ1548,1551 absorption systems at z {sub abs} = 1.8948, 1.8841, and 1.8770 are also detected in the BOSS spectrum, while their absorption strengths are much weaker than those measured from the SDSS-I/II spectrum; three systems at z {sub abs} = 1.8732, 1.8635, and 1.8154 disappeared from the BOSS spectrum. Based on the variability analysis, the absorption systems that disappeared and weakened are likely to be intrinsic to the quasar. If these intrinsic absorption gases are blown away from the central region of the quasar, with respect to the quasar system, the absorption systems that disappeared would have separation velocities of 3147 kms{sup –1}, 4161 km s{sup –1}, and 9241 km s{sup –1}, while the absorption systems that weakened would have separation velocities of 900 km s{sup –1}, 2011 km s{sup –1}, and 2751 km s{sup –1}. Well-coordinated variations of the six C IV λλ1548,1551 absorption systems that disappeared and weakened, occurring on a timescale of 1026.7 days at the quasar rest frame, can be interpreted as a result of global changes in the ionization state of the absorbing gas.« less

  3. Sensory Over-Responsivity in Adults with Autism Spectrum Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavassoli, Teresa; Miller, Lucy J.; Schoen, Sarah A.; Nielsen, Darci M.; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Anecdotal reports and empirical evidence suggest that sensory processing issues are a key feature of autism spectrum conditions. This study set out to investigate whether adults with autism spectrum conditions report more sensory over-responsivity than adults without autism spectrum conditions. Another goal of the study was to identify whether…

  4. Microwave measurements of the absolute values of absorption by water vapour in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Hogg, D C; Guiraud, F O

    1979-05-31

    MEASUREMENT of the absolute value of absorption by water vapour at microwave frequencies is difficult because the effect is so small. Far in the wings of the absorption lines, in the so-called 'windows' of the spectrum, it is especially difficult to achieve high accuracy in the free atmosphere. But it is in these windows that the behaviour of the absorption is important from both applied and scientific points of view. Satellite communications, remote sensing of the atmosphere, and radioastronomy, are all influenced by this behaviour. Measurements on an Earth-space path are reported here; the results indicate a nonlinear relationship between absorption and water-vapour content.

  5. The relative importance of aerosol scattering and absorption in remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, R. S.; Kaufman, Y. J.

    1985-01-01

    Previous attempts to explain the effect of aerosols on satellite measurements of surface properties for the visible and near-infrared spectrum have emphasized the amount of aerosols without consideration of their absorption properties. In order to estimate the importance of absorption, the radiances of the sunlight scattered from models of the earth-atmosphere system are computed as functions of the aerosol optical thickness and absorption. The absorption effect is small where the surface reflectance is weak, but is important for strong reflectance. These effects on classification of surface features, measuring vegetation index, and measuring surface reflectance are presented.

  6. Modeling the reflectance spectrum of Callisto 0.25 to 4.1μm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calvin, Wendy M.; Clark, Roger N.

    1991-01-01

    The reflectance spectrum of Callisto from 0.2 to 4.1 μm is modeled using a simultaneous intimate plus areal mixture solution of ice and dark material which satisfies absorption band depths and reflectance levels. The model uses the radiative transfer theory based on Hapke's (1981, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 3039–3054) work, optical constants of materials and includes effects of grain size and abundance of each material. The best-fitting models contain 20–45 wt% ice in the optical surface. The models indicate that the ice component of the surface is fairly large gained and that the ice cannot account for major spectral features beyond approximately 2.5 μm. In this spectral region other hydrated minerals must dominate. A variety of reasonably well-fitting models were found and the amount of ice determined for these best fits was mathematically removed from the original Callisto spectrum. All of the spectra determined for the non-material were quite similar to each other and have absorption features that resemble hydrated silicates bearing both oxidation states of iron. Certain features in the Callisto non-ice spectrum can be duplicated by mixtures of Fe- and Mg-end member serpentines. Discrepancies indicate that other phases, possibly opaque minerals, are also required to match the entire spectrum. The unusual Fe-serpentines are commonly found in the matrices of primitive cabodnaceous chondrites, suggesting that other matrix phases may also be likely candidates for the Callisto non-ice material.

  7. The lunar neutron energy spectrum inferred from the isotope compositions of rare-earth elements and hafnium in Apollo samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albalat, Emmanuelle; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Telouk, Philippe; Albarède, Francis

    2015-11-01

    The isotopic abundances of Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Yb, and Hf have been measured in nine lunar samples by MC-ICP-MS. The data were corrected for both instrumental mass bias and natural isotope fractionation. We used the data to calculate the total flux and energy spectrum of the neutrons absorbed by the rocks. We write the constitutive equations of the isotopic changes for these elements induced by neutrons and solve the inverse problem by computing local energy averages. Resonant absorption peaks can be used as convenient kernels to define the spectrum of epithermal neutrons. We find that 149Sm and 157Gd anomalies correlate with neutron flux density for E < 0.015 eV (r2 > 0.98) and E ≈ 0.13 eV (r2 > 0.85), while no significant correlation exists between the ratio of these anomalies and the epithermal/thermal flux ratio at any value of energy. Neutron flux density variations can be used to trace the proportions of neutrons scattered out of the samples. The spectrum in the thermal region follows the expected E - 1 / 2 dependence but with 'notches' corresponding to neutron absorption. A major notch at the lowest end of the epithermal neutron spectrum (0.2-0.8 eV) is possibly due to absorption of neutrons by 151Eu, 167Er, and 149Sm. In general, we find a rather good correlation between the neutron flux density at specific energies and the exposure age, which suggests a mean residence time of the samples at the surface of the regolith of 2-300 Ma. Another correlation of epithermal neutrons with sample wt% FeO + TiO2 is consistent with orbital reflectance observations.

  8. Vehicle effects on human stratum corneum absorption and skin penetration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Alissa; Jung, Eui-Chang; Zhu, Hanjiang; Zou, Ying; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard

    2017-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of three vehicles-ethanol (EtOH), isopropyl alcohol (IPA), and isopropyl myristate (IPM)-on stratum corneum (SC) absorption and diffusion of the [ 14 C]-model compounds benzoic acid and butenafine hydrochloride to better understand the transport pathways of chemicals passing through and resident in SC. Following application of topical formulations to human dermatomed skin for 30 min, penetration flux was observed for 24 h post dosing, using an in vitro flow-through skin diffusion system. Skin absorption and penetration was compared to the chemical-SC (intact, delipidized, or SC lipid film) binding levels. A significant vehicle effect was observed for chemical skin penetration and SC absorption. IPA resulted in the greatest levels of intact SC/SC lipid absorption, skin penetration, and total skin absorption/penetration of benzoic acid, followed by IPM and EtOH, respectively. For intact SC absorption and total skin absorption/penetration of butenafine, the vehicle that demonstrated the highest level of sorption/penetration was EtOH, followed by IPA and IPM, respectively. The percent doses of butenafine that were absorbed in SC lipid film and penetrated through skin in 24 h were greatest for IPA, followed by EtOH and IPM, respectively. The vehicle effect was consistent between intact SC absorption and total chemical skin absorption and penetration, as well as SC lipid absorption and chemical penetration through skin, suggesting intercellular transport as a main pathway of skin penetration for model chemicals. These results suggest the potential to predict vehicle effects on skin permeability with simple SC absorption assays. As decontamination was applied 30 min after chemical exposure, significant vehicle effects on chemical SC partitioning and percutaneous penetration also suggest that skin decontamination efficiency is vehicle dependent, and an effective decontamination method should act on chemical solutes in the lipid domain.

  9. Quantification of atmospheric formaldehyde by infrared absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffnagle, John; Fleck, Derek; Rella, Chris; Kim-Hak, David

    2017-04-01

    Formaldehyde is a toxic, carcinogenic compound that can contaminate ambient air as a result of combustion or outgassing of commercial products such as adhesives used to fabricate plywood and to affix indoor carpeting. Like many small molecules, formaldehyde has an infrared absorption spectrum exhibiting bands of ro-vibrational transitions that are well resolved at low pressure and therefore well suited for optical analysis of formaldehyde concentration. We describe progress in applying cavity ring-down spectroscopy of the 2v5 band (the first overtone of the asymmetric C-H stretch, origin at 1770 nm) to the quantitative analysis of formaldehyde concentration in ambient air. Preliminary results suggest that a sensitivity of 1-2 ppb in a measurement interval of a few seconds, and 0.1-0.2 ppb in a few minutes, should be achievable with a compact, robust, and field-deployable instrument. Finally, we note that recent satellites monitoring snapshots of formaldehyde columns give insights into global formaldehyde production, migration and lifetime. The ability to monitor formaldehyde with a small and portable analyzer has the potential to aid in validation of these snapshots and to provide complementary data to show vertical dispersions with high spatial accuracy.

  10. Differential optoacoustic absorption detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shumate, M. S. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A differential optoacoustic absorption detector employed two tapered cells in tandem or in parallel. When operated in tandem, two mirrors were used at one end remote from the source of the beam of light directed into one cell back through the other, and a lens to focus the light beam into the one cell at a principal focus half way between the reflecting mirror. Each cell was tapered to conform to the shape of the beam so that the volume of one was the same as for the other, and the volume of each received maximum illumination. The axes of the cells were placed as close to each other as possible in order to connect a differential pressure detector to the cells with connecting passages of minimum length. An alternative arrangement employed a beam splitter and two lenses to operate the cells in parallel.

  11. Triple effect absorption cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, D.C.; Potnis, S.V.; Tang, J.

    1996-12-31

    Triple effect absorption chillers can achieve 50% COP improvement over double-effect systems. However, to translate this potential into cost-effective hardware, the most promising embodiments must be identified. In this study, 12 generic triple effect cycles and 76 possible hermetic loop arrangements of those 12 generic cycles were identified. The generic triple effect cycles were screened based on their pressure and solubility field requirements, generic COPs, risk involved in the component design, and number of components in a high corrosive environment. This screening identified four promising arrangements: Alkitrate Topping cycle, Pressure Staged Envelope cycle, High Pressure Overlap cycle, and Dual Loopmore » cycle. All of these arrangements have a very high COP ({approximately} 1.8), however the development risk and cost involved is different for each arrangement. Therefore, the selection of a particular arrangement will depend upon the specific situation under consideration.« less

  12. Analyzing Water's Optical Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A cooperative agreement between World Precision Instruments (WPI), Inc., and Stennis Space Center has led the UltraPath(TM) device, which provides a more efficient method for analyzing the optical absorption of water samples at sea. UltraPath is a unique, high-performance absorbance spectrophotometer with user-selectable light path lengths. It is an ideal tool for any study requiring precise and highly sensitive spectroscopic determination of analytes, either in the laboratory or the field. As a low-cost, rugged, and portable system capable of high- sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters, UltraPath will help scientists examine the role that coastal ocean environments play in the global carbon cycle. UltraPath(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc. LWCC(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc.

  13. Nonequilibrium quantum absorption refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jian-Ying; Zhang, Fu-Lin

    2018-06-01

    We study a quantum absorption refrigerator, in which a target qubit is cooled by two machine qubits in a nonequilibrium steady-state. It is realized by a strong internal coupling in the two-qubit fridge and a vanishing tripartite interaction among the whole system. The coherence of a machine virtual qubit is investigated as quantumness of the fridge. A necessary condition for cooling shows that the quantum coherence is beneficial to the nonequilibrium fridge, while it is detrimental as far as the maximum coefficient of performance (COP) and the COP at maximum power are concerned. Here, the COP is defined only in terms of heat currents caused by the tripartite interaction, with the one maintaining the two-qubit nonequilibrium state being excluded. The later can be considered to have no direct involvement in extracting heat from the target, as it is not affected by the tripartite interaction.

  14. Soft x-ray absorption spectra of ilmenite family.

    PubMed

    Agui, A; Mizumaki, M; Saitoh, Y; Matsushita, T; Nakatani, T; Fukaya, A; Torikai, E

    2001-03-01

    We have carried out soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy to study the electronic structure of ilmenite family, such as MnTiO3, FeTiO3, and CoTiO3 at the soft x-ray beamline, BL23SU, at the SPring-8. The Ti and M L2,3 absorption spectra of MTiO3 (M=Mn, Fe, and Co) show spectra of Ti4+ and M2+ electron configurations, respectively. Except the Fe L2,3 spectrum, those spectra were understood within the O(h) symmetry around the transition metal ions. The Fe L3-edge spectrum clearly shows a doublet peak at the L3 edge, which is attributed to Fe2+ state, moreover the very high-resolution the L-edge spectra of transition metals show fine structures. The spectra of those ilmenites are compared.

  15. The hot DOA1 degenerate HZ 21 - A search for circumstellar/photospheric metals and peculiar absorption at He II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritz, M. L.; Leckenby, H.; Sion, E. M.; Vauclair, G.; Liebert, J.

    1990-01-01

    A high-resolution IUE spectrum of the hot DO1 degenerate HZ 21 was obtained by combining US1 + European 2 low-background observing shifts. The SWP image reveals a rich spectrum of interstellar absorption lines with an average velocity in the line of sight to HZ 21 of -30 km/s. However, there is no clear evidence of any highly or lowly ionized metal features which could be attributed to circumstellar, wind, or photospheric absorption. There is, however, a broad absorption trough at He II (1640) which was not unexpected, given the clear presence of He II (4686) absorption in this star's optical spectrum. The velocity width of He II (1640) appears consistent with photospheric absorption wings which appear to flank the geocoronal Ly-alpha emission feature. The He II (1640) feature reveals what appears to be a broad (310 km/s) emission reversal. Evidence is provided that the emission reversal is probably real.

  16. Calcium absorption is not increased by caseinophosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Teucher, Birgit; Majsak-Newman, Gosia; Dainty, Jack R; McDonagh, David; FitzGerald, Richard J; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J

    2006-07-01

    One of the suggested health benefits of caseinophosphopeptides (CPPs) is their ability to enhance calcium absorption. This possibility is based on the assumption that they resist proteolysis in the upper gastrointestinal tract and maintain calcium in a soluble form at alkaline pH in the distal ileum. The effects of CPP-enriched preparations (containing candidate functional food ingredients) on calcium absorption from a calcium lactate drink were tested. A randomized crossover trial was undertaken in 15 adults in whom we measured the absorption of calcium from a calcium lactate drink (drink A: 400 mg Ca as lactate) and 2 preparations enriched with forms of CPP (1.7 g each; drinks B and C). Both drinks B and C contained 400 mg Ca as calcium lactate plus approximately 100 mg CPP-derived calcium). Each volunteer received the 3 drinks in random order. Absorption was measured by the dual-label calcium stable-isotope technique. The quantity of calcium absorbed was significantly lower from drink A (103 mg) than from drink B (117 mg; P = 0.012) or drink C (121 mg; P = 0.002), which indicated a positive effect of the CPPs. However, because the CPP preparations contributed additional calcium besides that found in the calcium lactate (drink A), fractional absorption of calcium from drink B (23%) was slightly but significantly (P = 0.015) lower than that from drink A (26%). The differences in calcium absorption are unlikely to have any biological significance. CPPs are unsuitable as candidate ingredients for functional foods that are designed to deliver improved calcium nutrition.

  17. Photoionization-driven Absorption-line Variability in Balmer Absorption Line Quasar LBQS 1206+1052

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Luming; Zhou, Hongyan; Ji, Tuo

    In this paper we present an analysis of absorption-line variability in mini-BAL quasar LBQS 1206+1052. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectrum demonstrates that the absorption troughs can be divided into two components of blueshift velocities of ∼700 and ∼1400 km s{sup −1} relative to the quasar rest frame. The former component shows rare Balmer absorption, which is an indicator of high-density absorbing gas; thus, the quasar is worth follow-up spectroscopic observations. Our follow-up optical and near-infrared spectra using MMT, YFOSC, TSpec, and DBSP reveal that the strengths of the absorption lines vary for both components, while the velocities do notmore » change. We reproduce all of the spectral data by assuming that only the ionization state of the absorbing gas is variable and that all other physical properties are invariable. The variation of ionization is consistent with the variation of optical continuum from the V -band light curve. Additionally, we cannot interpret the data by assuming that the variability is due to a movement of the absorbing gas. Therefore, our analysis strongly indicates that the absorption-line variability in LBQS 1206+1052 is photoionization driven. As shown from photoionization simulations, the absorbing gas with blueshift velocity of ∼700 km s{sup −1} has a density in the range of 10{sup 9} to 10{sup 10} cm{sup −3} and a distance of ∼1 pc, and the gas with blueshift velocity of ∼1400 km s{sup −1} has a density of 10{sup 3} cm{sup −3} and a distance of ∼1 kpc.« less

  18. Photoionization-driven Absorption-line Variability in Balmer Absorption Line Quasar LBQS 1206+1052

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Luming; Zhou, Hongyan; Ji, Tuo; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Bo; Liu, Wenjuan; Pan, Xiang; Shi, Xiheng; Wang, Jianguo; Wang, Tinggui; Yang, Chenwei; Zhang, Shaohua; Miller, Lauren P.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of absorption-line variability in mini-BAL quasar LBQS 1206+1052. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectrum demonstrates that the absorption troughs can be divided into two components of blueshift velocities of ˜700 and ˜1400 km s-1 relative to the quasar rest frame. The former component shows rare Balmer absorption, which is an indicator of high-density absorbing gas; thus, the quasar is worth follow-up spectroscopic observations. Our follow-up optical and near-infrared spectra using MMT, YFOSC, TSpec, and DBSP reveal that the strengths of the absorption lines vary for both components, while the velocities do not change. We reproduce all of the spectral data by assuming that only the ionization state of the absorbing gas is variable and that all other physical properties are invariable. The variation of ionization is consistent with the variation of optical continuum from the V-band light curve. Additionally, we cannot interpret the data by assuming that the variability is due to a movement of the absorbing gas. Therefore, our analysis strongly indicates that the absorption-line variability in LBQS 1206+1052 is photoionization driven. As shown from photoionization simulations, the absorbing gas with blueshift velocity of ˜700 km s-1 has a density in the range of 109 to 1010 cm-3 and a distance of ˜1 pc, and the gas with blueshift velocity of ˜1400 km s-1 has a density of 103 cm-3 and a distance of ˜1 kpc.

  19. Ultraviolet Spectrum And Chemical Reactivity Of CIO Dimer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demore, William B.; Tschuikow-Roux, E.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes experimental study of ultraviolet spectrum and chemical reactivity of dimer of chlorine monoxide (CIO). Objectives are to measure absorption cross sections of dimer at near-ultraviolet wavelengths; determine whether asymmetrical isomer (CIOCIO) exists at temperatures relevant to Antarctic stratosphere; and test for certain chemical reactions of dimer. Important in photochemistry of Antarctic stratosphere.

  20. BASIC STUDIES IN PERCUTANEOUS ABSORPTION.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    FATTY ACIDS, *SKIN(ANATOMY), ABSORPTION, ALKYL RADICALS, AMIDES, DIFFUSION, ELECTRON MICROSCOPY, HUMIDITY, LABORATORY ANIMALS, LIPIDS, ORGANIC SOLVENTS, PENETRATION, PRIVATION, PROTEINS, RATS, TEMPERATURE, WATER

  1. Optical Absorption in Liquid Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Florian Gene

    An infrared absorption cell has been developed which is suitable for high temperature liquids which have absorptions in the range .1-10('3) cm('-1). The cell is constructed by clamping a gasket between two flat optical windows. This unique design allows the use of any optical windows chemically compatible with the liquid. The long -wavelength limit of the measurements is therefore limited only by the choice of the optical windows. The thickness of the cell can easily be set during assembly, and can be varied from 50 (mu)m to .5 cm. Measurements of the optical absorption edge were performed on the liquid alloy Se(,1-x)Tl(,x) for x = 0, .001, .002, .003, .005, .007, and .009, from the melting point up to 475(DEGREES)C. The absorption was found to be exponential in the photon energy over the experimental range from 0.3 eV to 1.2 eV. The absorption increased linearly with concentration according to the empirical relation (alpha)(,T)(h(nu)) = (alpha)(,1) + (alpha)(,2)x, and the absorption (alpha)(,1) was interpreted as the absorption in the absence of T1. (alpha)(,1) also agreed with the measured absorption in 100% Se at corresponding temperatures and energies. The excess absorption defined by (DELTA)(alpha) = (alpha)(,T)(h(nu))-(alpha)(,1) was interpreted as the absorption associated with Tl and was found to be thermally activated with an activation energy E(,t) = 0.5 eV. The exponential edge is explained as absorption on atoms immersed in strong electric fields surrounding ions. The strong fields give rise to an absorption tail similar to the Franz-Keldysh effect. A simple calculation is performed which is based on the Dow-Redfield theory of absorption in an electric field with excitonic effects included. The excess absorption at low photon energies is proportional to the square of the concentration of ions, which are proposed to exist in the liquid according to the relation C(,i) (PROPORTIONAL) x(' 1/2)(.)e('-E)t('/kT), which is the origin of the thermal activation

  2. Radiation detector spectrum simulator

    DOEpatents

    Wolf, Michael A.; Crowell, John M.

    1987-01-01

    A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source nerates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith generates several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

  3. Radiation detector spectrum simulator

    DOEpatents

    Wolf, M.A.; Crowell, J.M.

    1985-04-09

    A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source generates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith to generate several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

  4. High Absorptance Coatings for THz Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    High absorptance materials find application throughout the electromagnetic spectrum as radiation terminations, calibration standards, and glint reduction coatings. Successful use of materials at millimeter through submillimeter wavelengths requires an accurate knowledge and control over their thermal, mechanical, and electromagnetic properties in order to achieve the desired response while minimizing mass and volume. In practice, the achieved blackness is intimately linked to the material properties and geometry. Here, we summarize the characteristics of a variety of tunable artificial dielectric mixtures appropriate for THz applications at room and cryogenic temperatures. Theoretical guidelines for their application will be provided in the context of the effective-medium mean-field-approximation. The performance of these coatings as elements of reflectance standards, radiometric flux calibrators, passive thermal radiators, and stray light suppression baffles for imaging systems will be reviewed.

  5. An optical spectrum of the afterglow of a gamma-ray burst at a redshift of z = 6.295.

    PubMed

    Kawai, N; Kosugi, G; Aoki, K; Yamada, T; Totani, T; Ohta, K; Iye, M; Hattori, T; Aoki, W; Furusawa, H; Hurley, K; Kawabata, K S; Kobayashi, N; Komiyama, Y; Mizumoto, Y; Nomoto, K; Noumaru, J; Ogasawara, R; Sato, R; Sekiguchi, K; Shirasaki, Y; Suzuki, M; Takata, T; Tamagawa, T; Terada, H; Watanabe, J; Yatsu, Y; Yoshida, A

    2006-03-09

    The prompt gamma-ray emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) should be detectable out to distances of z > 10 (ref. 1), and should therefore provide an excellent probe of the evolution of cosmic star formation, reionization of the intergalactic medium, and the metal enrichment history of the Universe. Hitherto, the highest measured redshift for a GRB has been z = 4.50 (ref. 5). Here we report the optical spectrum of the afterglow of GRB 050904 obtained 3.4 days after the burst; the spectrum shows a clear continuum at the long-wavelength end of the spectrum with a sharp cut-off at around 9,000 A due to Lyman alpha absorption at z approximately 6.3 (with a damping wing). A system of absorption lines of heavy elements at z = 6.295 +/- 0.002 was also detected, yielding the precise measurement of the redshift. The Si ii fine-structure lines suggest a dense, metal-enriched environment around the progenitor of the GRB.

  6. Electronic and nuclear contributions to time-resolved optical and X-ray absorption spectra of hematite and insights into photoelectrochemical performance

    DOE PAGES

    Hayes, Dugan; Hadt, Ryan G.; Emery, Jonathan D.; ...

    2016-11-02

    Ultrafast time-resolved studies of photocatalytic thin films can provide a wealth of information crucial for understanding and thereby improving the performance of these materials by directly probing electronic structure, reaction intermediates, and charge carrier dynamics. The interpretation of transient spectra, however, can be complicated by thermally induced structural distortions, which appear within the first few picoseconds following excitation due to carrier–phonon scattering. Here we present a comparison of ex situ steady-state thermal difference spectra and transient absorption spectra spanning from NIR to hard X-ray energies of hematite thin films grown by atomic layer deposition. We find that beyond the firstmore » 100 picoseconds, the transient spectra measured for all excitation wavelengths and probe energies are almost entirely due to thermal effects as the lattice expands in response to the ultrafast temperature jump and then cools to room temperature on the microsecond timescale. At earlier times, a broad excited state absorption band that is assigned to free carriers appears at 675 nm, and the lifetime and shape of this feature also appear to be mostly independent of excitation wavelength. The combined spectroscopic data, which are modeled with density functional theory and full multiple scattering calculations, support an assignment of the optical absorption spectrum of hematite that involves two LMCT bands that nearly span the visible spectrum. Lastly, our results also suggest a framework for shifting the ligand-to-metal charge transfer absorption bands of ferric oxide films from the near-UV further into the visible part of the solar spectrum to improve solar conversion efficiency.« less

  7. Detection of the 2165 Inverse Centimeter (4.619 Micron) XCN Band in the Spectrum of L1551 IRS 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tegler, Stephen C.; Weintraub, David A.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Sandford, Scott A.; Rettig, Terrence W.; Campins, Humberto

    1993-01-01

    We report the detection of a broad absorption band at 2165 cm (4.619 microns) in the spectrum of L1551 IRS 5. New laboratory results over the 2200-2100 /cm wavenumber interval (4.55-4.76 microns), performed with realistic interstellar ice analogs, suggest that this feature is due to a CN-containing compound. We will refer to this compound as XCN. We also confirm the presence of frozen CO (both in nonpolar and polar matrices) through absorption bands at 2140 /cm (4.67 microns) and 2135 /cm (4.68 microns). The relative abundance of solid-state CO to frozen H2O is approx. 0.13 while the abundance of XCN seems comparable to that of frozen CO.

  8. Unusual continuous dual absorption peaks in Ca-doped BiFeO3 nanostructures for broadened microwave absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhong-Jun; Hou, Zhi-Ling; Song, Wei-Li; Liu, Xing-Da; Cao, Wen-Qiang; Shao, Xiao-Hong; Cao, Mao-Sheng

    2016-05-01

    Electromagnetic absorption materials have received increasing attention owing to their wide applications in aerospace, communication and the electronics industry, and multiferroic materials with both polarization and magnetic properties are considered promising ceramics for microwave absorption application. However, the insufficient absorption intensity coupled with the narrow effective absorption bandwidth has limited the development of high-performance multiferroic materials for practical microwave absorption. To address such issues, in the present work, we utilize interfacial engineering in BiFeO3 nanoparticles via Ca doping, with the purpose of tailoring the phase boundary. Upon Ca-substitution, the co-existence of both R3c and P4mm phases has been confirmed to massively enhance both dielectric and magnetic properties via manipulating the phase boundary and the destruction of the spiral spin structure. Unlike the commonly reported magnetic/dielectric hybrid microwave absorption composites, Bi0.95Ca0.05FeO3 has been found to deliver unusual continuous dual absorption peaks at a small thickness (1.56 mm), which has remarkably broadened the effective absorption bandwidth (8.7-12.1 GHz). The fundamental mechanisms based on the phase boundary engineering have been discussed, suggesting a novel platform for designing advanced multiferroic materials with wide applications.Electromagnetic absorption materials have received increasing attention owing to their wide applications in aerospace, communication and the electronics industry, and multiferroic materials with both polarization and magnetic properties are considered promising ceramics for microwave absorption application. However, the insufficient absorption intensity coupled with the narrow effective absorption bandwidth has limited the development of high-performance multiferroic materials for practical microwave absorption. To address such issues, in the present work, we utilize interfacial engineering in BiFeO3

  9. Laser Irradiated Foam Targets: Absorption and Radiative Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvadori, Martina; Luigi Andreoli, Pier; Cipriani, Mattia; Consoli, Fabrizio; Cristofari, Giuseppe; De Angelis, Riccardo; di Giorgio, Giorgio; Giulietti, Danilo; Ingenito, Francesco; Gus'kov, Sergey Yu.; Rupasov, Alexander A.

    2018-01-01

    An experimental campaign to characterize the laser radiation absorption of foam targets and the subsequent emission of radiation from the produced plasma was carried out in the ABC facility of the ENEA Research Center in Frascati (Rome). Different targets have been used: plastic in solid or foam state and aluminum targets. The activated different diagnostics allowed to evaluate the plasma temperature, the density distribution, the fast particle spectrum and the yield of the X-Ray radiation emitted by the plasma for the different targets. These results confirm the foam homogenization action on laser-plasma interaction, mainly attributable to the volume absorption of the laser radiation propagating in such structured materials. These results were compared with simulation absorption models of the laser propagating into a foam target.

  10. Gold reflective metallic gratings with high absorption efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaojian; Liang, Linmei; Yang, Junbo

    2017-10-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) wave absorbers are devices in which the incident radiation at the operating wavelengths can be efficiently absorbed and then transformed into ohmic heat or other forms of energy. Especially, EM absorbers based on metallic structures have distinct advantages in comparison with the traditional counterparts. Thus, they have different potential applications at different frequency ranges such as absorbing devices in solar energy harvesting systems. The reflective metallic grating is a kind of metallic EM absorbers and has the fascinating property of efficiently absorbing the incident light due to the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), consequently drawing more and more attention. In this paper, the absorption effect of a reflective metallic grating made of gold is studied by changing grating parameters such as the period, polarization direction of the incident light and so on. We use finite difference time-domain (FDTD) method to design the grating, and simulate the process and detect the absorption spectrum. In our design, the grating has rectangular shaped grooves and has the absorption efficiency 99% for the vertically incident transverse magnetic (TM) light at the wavelength of 818nm with the period of 800 nm, the width of 365 nm and the height of 34 nm. And then we find that the absorption spectrum is blue-shifted about 87 nm with decreasing period from 800 nm to700 nm and red-shifted about 14 nm with increasing the width of the block from 305 nm to 405 nm. The absorption becomes gradually weaker from 98% to almost zero with the polarization angle from 0° to 90°. Finally, we make a theoretical explanation to these phenomena in details. It is believed that the results may provide useful guidance for the design of EM wave absorbers with high absorption efficiency.

  11. Optical spectrum variations of IL Cep A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismailov, N. Z.; Khalilov, O. V.; Bakhaddinova, G. R.

    2016-02-01

    The results of many-year uniform spectroscopic observations of the Herbig Ae/Be star IL Cep A are presented. Its Hα line has either a single or a barely resolved two-component emission profile. The H β emission line is clearly divided into two components with a deep central absorption. Smooth variations of the observed parameters of individual spectral lines over nine years are observed. The He I λ5876 Å line has a complex absorption profile, probably with superposed emission components. The NaI D1, D2 doublet exhibits weak changes due to variations in the circumstellar envelope. The variations observed in the stellar spectrum can be explained by either binarity or variations of the magnetic field in the stellar disk. Difficulties associated with both these possibilities are discussed.

  12. The shell spectrum of HD 94509

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowley, Charles R.; Przybilla, Norbert; Hubrig, Swetlana

    2015-01-01

    HD 94509 is a 9th magnitude Be star with an unusually rich metallic-lined shell. The absorption spectrum is rich, comparable to that of an A or F supergiant, but Mg II (4481A), and the Si II (4128 and 4130A), are weak, indicating a dilute radiation field, as described by Otto Struve. The H-alpha emission is double with components of equal intensity and an absorption core that dips well below the stellar continuum. H-beta is weaker, but with a similar structure. H-gamma through H-epsilon have virtually black cores, indicating that the shell covers the stellar disk. The stronger metallic absorption lines are wide near the continuum, but taper to very narrow cores. This line shape is unexplained. However, the total absorption can be modeled to reveal an overall particle densities of 10^{10}-10^{12} cm^{-3}. An electron density log(n_e) = 11.2 is obtained from the Paschen-line convergence and the Inglis-Tellar relation. Column densities are obtained with the help of curves of growth by assuming uniform conditions in the cloud. These indicate a nearly solar composition. The CLOUDY code (Ferland, et al. Rev. Mex. Astron. Astroph. 49, 137, 213) is used to produce a model that predicts matching column densities of the dominant ions, the n = 3 level of hydrogen, the H-alpha strength, and the electron density (± 0.5 dex).

  13. 29 CFR 785.45 - Suggestion systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Suggestion systems. 785.45 Section 785.45 Labor Regulations..., Medical Attention, Civic and Charitable Work, and Suggestion Systems § 785.45 Suggestion systems... general suggestion system is not working time, but if employees are permitted to work on suggestions...

  14. 29 CFR 785.45 - Suggestion systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Suggestion systems. 785.45 Section 785.45 Labor Regulations..., Medical Attention, Civic and Charitable Work, and Suggestion Systems § 785.45 Suggestion systems... general suggestion system is not working time, but if employees are permitted to work on suggestions...

  15. 29 CFR 785.45 - Suggestion systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Suggestion systems. 785.45 Section 785.45 Labor Regulations..., Medical Attention, Civic and Charitable Work, and Suggestion Systems § 785.45 Suggestion systems... general suggestion system is not working time, but if employees are permitted to work on suggestions...

  16. 29 CFR 785.45 - Suggestion systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suggestion systems. 785.45 Section 785.45 Labor Regulations..., Medical Attention, Civic and Charitable Work, and Suggestion Systems § 785.45 Suggestion systems... general suggestion system is not working time, but if employees are permitted to work on suggestions...

  17. Differential-optoacoustic absorption detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shumate, M. S.

    1977-01-01

    Two-cell spectrophone detects trace amounts of atmospheric pollutants by measuring absorption coefficients of gases with various laser sources. Device measures pressure difference between two tapered cells with differential manometer. Background signal is reduced by balanced window heating and balanced carrier gas absorption in two cells.

  18. Atmospheric absorption of sound - Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bass, H. E.; Sutherland, L. C.; Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    Best current expressions for the vibrational relaxation times of oxygen and nitrogen in the atmosphere are used to compute total absorption. The resulting graphs of total absorption as a function of frequency for different humidities should be used in lieu of the graph published earlier by Evans et al (1972).

  19. Subgap Absorption in Conjugated Polymers

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Sinclair, M.; Seager, C. H.; McBranch, D.; Heeger, A. J; Baker, G. L.

    1991-01-01

    Along with X{sup (3)}, the magnitude of the optical absorption in the transparent window below the principal absorption edge is an important parameter which will ultimately determine the utility of conjugated polymers in active integrated optical devices. With an absorptance sensitivity of < 10{sup {minus}5}, Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS) is ideal for determining the absorption coefficients of thin films of transparent'' materials. We have used PDS to measure the optical absorption spectra of the conjugated polymers poly(1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (and derivitives) and polydiacetylene-4BCMU in the spectral region from 0.55 eV to 3 eV. Our spectra show that the shape of the absorption edge varies considerably from polymer to polymer, with polydiacetylene-4BCMU having the steepest absorption edge. The minimum absorption coefficients measured varied somewhat with sample age and quality, but were typically in the range 1 cm{sup {minus}1} to 10 cm{sup {minus}1}. In the region below 1 eV, overtones of C-H stretching modes were observed, indicating that further improvements in transparency in this spectral region might be achieved via deuteration of fluorination.

  20. Precision saturated absorption spectroscopy of H3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Yu-Chan; Chang, Yung-Hsiang; Liao, Yi-Chieh; Peng, Jin-Long; Wang, Li-Bang; Shy, Jow-Tsong

    2018-03-01

    In our previous work on the Lamb-dips of the ν2 fundamental band transitions of H3+, the saturated absorption spectrum was obtained by third-derivative spectroscopy using frequency modulation with an optical parametric oscillator (OPO). However, frequency modulation also caused errors in the absolute frequency determination. To solve this problem, we built a tunable offset locking system to lock the pump frequency of the OPO to an iodine-stabilized Nd:YAG laser. With this improvement, we were able to scan the OPO idler frequency precisely and obtain the saturated absorption profile using intensity modulation. Furthermore, ion concentration modulation was employed to subtract the background noise and increase the signal-to-noise ratio. To determine the absolute frequency of the idler wave, the OPO signal frequency was locked to an optical frequency comb. The absolute frequency accuracy of our spectrometer was better than 7 kHz, demonstrated by measuring the wavelength standard transition of methane at 3.39 μm. Finally, we measured 16 transitions of H3+ and our results agree very well with other precision measurements. This work successfully resolved the discrepancies between our previous measurements and other precision measurements.

  1. Spectrum 101: An Introduction to Spectrum Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    are used to manage spectrum. 1.1 Signals A signal is broadly defined as a detectable quantity (e.g., current, voltage, electromagnetic field ...A pulse consists of a short burst of radiation. These pulses may be a simple increase in the electromagnetic field (referred to as baseband...changing current, in turn, induces an electromagnetic field about itself, with a field strength that corresponds to the current amplitude. This

  2. Pluto's Far Ultraviolet Spectrum and Airglow Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffl, A.; Schindhelm, E.; Kammer, J.; Gladstone, R.; Greathouse, T. K.; Parker, J. W.; Strobel, D. F.; Summers, M. E.; Versteeg, M. H.; Ennico Smith, K.; Hinson, D. P.; Linscott, I.; Olkin, C.; Parker, A. H.; Retherford, K. D.; Singer, K. N.; Tsang, C.; Tyler, G. L.; Weaver, H. A., Jr.; Woods, W. W.; Young, L. A.; Stern, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Alice far ultraviolet spectrograph on the New Horizons spacecraft is the second in a family of six instruments in flight on, or under development for, NASA and ESA missions. Here, we present initial results from the Alice observations of Pluto during the historic flyby. Pluto's far ultraviolet spectrum is dominated by sunlight reflected from the surface with absorption by atmospehric constituents. We tentatively identify C2H2 and C2H4 in Pluto's atmosphere. We also present evidence for weak airglow emissions.

  3. Action spectrum for retinal thermal injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, David J.; Edsall, Peter R.

    1999-06-01

    The action spectrum for light-induced damage to the retina results from the wavelength dependence transmission of the preretinal ocular media, wavelength dependent absorption in retinal chromophores and chromatic aberration of the eye optics. While various light/tissue interaction mechanisms have been implicated, thermal mechanisms dominate in the red and near-infrared for all exposure durations and in the visible for exposures shorter than a few seconds. A number of investigators have measured the transmission of the eye and the spectra of retinal absorbers, and thermal models based on these data predict the broad features of the action spectrum. Dose/response studies with lasers and incoherent light sources, conducted over the past 10 years mainly validate the thermal models.

  4. Shuttle spectrum despreader

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The results of the spread spectrum despreader project are reported and three principal products are designed and tested. The products are, (1) a spread spectrum despreader breadboard, (2) associated test equipment consisting of a spectrum spreader and bit reconstruction/error counter and (3) paper design of a Ku-band receiver which would incorporate the despreader as a principal subsystem. The despreader and test set are designed for maximum flexibility. A choice of unbalanced quadriphase or biphase shift keyed data modulation is available. Selectable integration time and threshold voltages on the despreader further lend true usefulness as laboratory test equipment to the delivered hardware.

  5. The Ultraviolet Spectrum of the Jovian Dayglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Weihong; Dalgarno, A.

    1995-01-01

    The ultraviolet spectra of molecular hydrogen H2 and HD due to solar fluorescence and photoelectron excitation are calculated and compared with the Jovian equatorial dayglow spectrum measured at 3 A resolution at solar maximum. The dayglow emission is accounted for in both brightness and spectral shape by the solar fluorescence and photoelectron excitation and requires no additional energy source. The emission is characterized by an atmospheric temperature of 530 K and an H2 column density of 10(exp 20) cm(exp -2). The dayglow spectrum contains a cascade contribution to the Lyman band emission from high-lying E and F states. Its relative weakness at short wavelengths is due to both self-absorption by H2 and absorption by CH4. Strong wavelength coincidences of solar emission lines and absorption lines of H2 and HD produce unique line spectra which can be identified in the dayglow spectrum. The strongest fluorescence is due to absorption of the solar Lyman-beta line at 1025.72 A by the P(1) line of the (6, 0) Lyman band of H2 at 1025.93 A. The fluorescence lines due to absorption of the solar O 6 line at 1031.91 A by vibrationally excited H2 via the Q(3) line of the (1, 1) Werner band at 1031.86 A are identified. The fluorescence lines provide a sensitive measure of the atmospheric temperature. There occurs an exact coincidence of the solar O 6 line at 1031.91 A and the R(0) line of the (6, 0) Lyman band of HD at 1031-91 A, but HD on Jupiter is difficult to detect due to the dominance of the H2 emission where the HD emission is particularly strong. Higher spectral resolution and higher sensitivity may make possible such a detection. The high resolution (0.3 A) spectra of H2 and HD are presented to stimulate search for the HD on Jupiter with the Hubble Space Telescope.

  6. Investigation of the multiplet features of SrTiO 3 in X-ray absorption spectra based on configuration interaction calculations

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, M.; Xin, Houlin L.; Wang, J. O.; ...

    2018-04-24

    Synchrotron-based L 2,3-edge absorption spectra show strong sensitivities to the local electronic structure and chemical environment. However, detailed physical information cannot be extracted easily without computational aids. Here in this study using the experimental Ti L 2,3-edges absorption spectrum of SrTiO 3as a fingerprint and considering full multiplet effects, calculations yield different energy parameters characterizing local ground state properties. The peak splitting and intensity ratios of the L 3 and L 2 set of peaks are carefully analyzed quantitatively, giving rise to a small hybridization energy around 1.2 eV, and the different hybridization energy values reported in the literature aremore » further addressed. Finally, absorption spectra with different linearly polarized photons under various tetragonal crystal fields are investigated, revealing a non-linear orbital–lattice interaction, and a theoretical guidance for material engineering of SrTiO 3-based thin films and heterostructures is offered. Finally, detailed analysis of spectrum shifts with different tetragonal crystal fields suggests that the e g crystal field splitting is a necessary parameter for a thorough analysis of the spectra, even though it is not relevant for the ground state properties.« less

  7. Investigation of the multiplet features of SrTiO 3 in X-ray absorption spectra based on configuration interaction calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, M.; Xin, Houlin L.; Wang, J. O.

    Synchrotron-based L 2,3-edge absorption spectra show strong sensitivities to the local electronic structure and chemical environment. However, detailed physical information cannot be extracted easily without computational aids. Here in this study using the experimental Ti L 2,3-edges absorption spectrum of SrTiO 3as a fingerprint and considering full multiplet effects, calculations yield different energy parameters characterizing local ground state properties. The peak splitting and intensity ratios of the L 3 and L 2 set of peaks are carefully analyzed quantitatively, giving rise to a small hybridization energy around 1.2 eV, and the different hybridization energy values reported in the literature aremore » further addressed. Finally, absorption spectra with different linearly polarized photons under various tetragonal crystal fields are investigated, revealing a non-linear orbital–lattice interaction, and a theoretical guidance for material engineering of SrTiO 3-based thin films and heterostructures is offered. Finally, detailed analysis of spectrum shifts with different tetragonal crystal fields suggests that the e g crystal field splitting is a necessary parameter for a thorough analysis of the spectra, even though it is not relevant for the ground state properties.« less

  8. Gas-absorption process

    DOEpatents

    Stephenson, Michael J.; Eby, Robert S.

    1978-01-01

    This invention is an improved gas-absorption process for the recovery of a desired component from a feed-gas mixture containing the same. In the preferred form of the invention, the process operations are conducted in a closed-loop system including a gas-liquid contacting column having upper, intermediate, and lower contacting zones. A liquid absorbent for the desired component is circulated through the loop, being passed downwardly through the column, regenerated, withdrawn from a reboiler, and then recycled to the column. A novel technique is employed to concentrate the desired component in a narrow section of the intermediate zone. This technique comprises maintaining the temperature of the liquid-phase input to the intermediate zone at a sufficiently lower value than that of the gas-phase input to the zone to effect condensation of a major part of the absorbent-vapor upflow to the section. This establishes a steep temperature gradient in the section. The stripping factors below this section are selected to ensure that virtually all of the gases in the downflowing absorbent from the section are desorbed. The stripping factors above the section are selected to ensure re-dissolution of the desired component but not the less-soluble diluent gases. As a result, a peak concentration of the desired component is established in the section, and gas rich in that component can be withdrawn therefrom. The new process provides important advantages. The chief advantage is that the process operations can be conducted in a single column in which the contacting zones operate at essentially the same pressure.

  9. Complex X-ray Absorption and the Fe K(alpha) Profile in NGC 3516

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, T. J.; Kraemer, S. B.; George, I. M.; Reeves, J. N.; Botorff, M. C.

    2004-01-01

    We present data from simultaneous Chandra, XMM-Newton and BeppoSAX observations of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 3516, taken during 2001 April and November. We have investigated the nature of the very flat observed X-ray spectrum. Chandra grating data show the presence of X-ray absorption lines, revealing two distinct components of the absorbing gas, one which is consistent with our previous model of the UV/X-ray absorber while the other, which is outflowing at a velocity of approximately 1100 kilometers per second, has a larger column density and is much more highly ionized. The broad-band spectral characteristics of the X-ray continuum observed with XMM during 2001 April, reveal the presence of a third layer of absorption consisting of a very large column (approximately 2.5 x 10(exp 23) per square centimeter) of highly ionized gas with a covering fraction approximately 50%. This low covering fraction suggests that the absorber lies within a few 1t-days of the X-ray source and/or is filamentary in structure. Interestingly, these absorbers are not in thermal equilibrium with one another. The two new components are too highly ionized to be radiatively accelerated, which we suggest is evidence for a hydromagnetic origin for the outflow. Applying our model to the November dataset, we can account for the spectral variability primarily by a drop in the ionization states of the absorbers, as expected by the change in the continuum flux. When this complex absorption is accounted for we find the underlying continuum to be typical of Seyfert 1 galaxies. The spectral curvature attributed to the high column absorber, in turn, reduces estimates of the flux and extent of any broad Fe emission line from the accretion disk.

  10. Dietary Plant Sterol Esters Must Be Hydrolyzed to Reduce Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption in Hamsters123

    PubMed Central

    Carden, Trevor J; Hang, Jiliang; Dussault, Patrick H; Carr, Timothy P

    2015-01-01

    Background: Elevated concentrations of LDL cholesterol are associated with the development of atherosclerosis and therefore are considered an important target for intervention to prevent cardiovascular diseases. The inhibition of cholesterol absorption in the small intestine is an attractive approach to lowering plasma cholesterol, one that is addressed by drug therapy as well as dietary supplementation with plant sterols and plant sterol esters (PSEs). Objective: This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the cholesterol-lowering effects of PSE require hydrolysis to free sterols (FSs). Methods: Male Syrian hamsters were fed atherogenic diets (AIN-93M purified diet containing 0.12% cholesterol and 8% coconut oil) to which one of the following was added: no PSEs or ethers (control), 5% sterol stearate esters, 5% sterol palmitate esters (PEs), 5% sterol oleate esters (OEs), 5% sterol stearate ethers (STs; to mimic nonhydrolyzable PSE), or 3% FSs plus 2% sunflower oil. The treatments effectively created a spectrum of PSE hydrolysis across which cholesterol metabolism could be compared. Metabolic measurements included cholesterol absorption, plasma and liver lipid concentration, and fecal neutral sterol and bile acid excretion. Results: The STs and the PEs and SEs were poorly hydrolyzed (1.69–4.12%). In contrast, OEs were 88.3% hydrolyzed. The percent hydrolysis was negatively correlated with cholesterol absorption (r = −0.85; P < 0.0001) and positively correlated with fecal cholesterol excretion (r = 0.92; P < 0.0001), suggesting that PSE hydrolysis plays a central role in the cholesterol-lowering properties of PSE. Conclusions: Our data on hamsters suggest that PSE hydrolysis and the presence of FSs is necessary to induce an optimum cholesterol-lowering effect and that poorly hydrolyzed PSEs may lower cholesterol through an alternative mechanism than that of competition with cholesterol for micelle incorporation. PMID:25972524

  11. Dietary Plant Sterol Esters Must Be Hydrolyzed to Reduce Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption in Hamsters.

    PubMed

    Carden, Trevor J; Hang, Jiliang; Dussault, Patrick H; Carr, Timothy P

    2015-07-01

    Elevated concentrations of LDL cholesterol are associated with the development of atherosclerosis and therefore are considered an important target for intervention to prevent cardiovascular diseases. The inhibition of cholesterol absorption in the small intestine is an attractive approach to lowering plasma cholesterol, one that is addressed by drug therapy as well as dietary supplementation with plant sterols and plant sterol esters (PSEs). This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the cholesterol-lowering effects of PSE require hydrolysis to free sterols (FSs). Male Syrian hamsters were fed atherogenic diets (AIN-93M purified diet containing 0.12% cholesterol and 8% coconut oil) to which one of the following was added: no PSEs or ethers (control), 5% sterol stearate esters, 5% sterol palmitate esters (PEs), 5% sterol oleate esters (OEs), 5% sterol stearate ethers (STs; to mimic nonhydrolyzable PSE), or 3% FSs plus 2% sunflower oil. The treatments effectively created a spectrum of PSE hydrolysis across which cholesterol metabolism could be compared. Metabolic measurements included cholesterol absorption, plasma and liver lipid concentration, and fecal neutral sterol and bile acid excretion. The STs and the PEs and SEs were poorly hydrolyzed (1.69-4.12%). In contrast, OEs were 88.3% hydrolyzed. The percent hydrolysis was negatively correlated with cholesterol absorption (r = -0.85; P < 0.0001) and positively correlated with fecal cholesterol excretion (r = 0.92; P < 0.0001), suggesting that PSE hydrolysis plays a central role in the cholesterol-lowering properties of PSE. Our data on hamsters suggest that PSE hydrolysis and the presence of FSs is necessary to induce an optimum cholesterol-lowering effect and that poorly hydrolyzed PSEs may lower cholesterol through an alternative mechanism than that of competition with cholesterol for micelle incorporation. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. [UV-Vis spectrum characteristics of phycocyanin in water from Taihu lake].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Wei, Yu-Chun; Wang, Guo-Xiang; Cheng, Chun-Mei; Xia, Xiao-Rui

    2014-05-01

    The present paper analyzed the UV-Vis spectrum characteristics of phycocyanin extracted from 75 water samples around Meiliang Bay of Taihu Lake, China in spring, summer and autumn, 2011, taking standard sample of phycocyanin, Micro-cystic aeruginosa and Anabaena cultured indoor as the reference, and discussed the difference and relation of spectrum among water samples, standard sample and single algae samples. According to the number of absorption peak in the wavelength range from 500 to 700 nm, phycocyanin spectrum of water sampling in Taihu Lake can be divided into three patterns: no peak, single peak and two peaks. In the first pattern, the absorbance changed smoothly and no absorption peak was observed around 620 nm. Depending on the absorption difference in the wavelength range from 300 to 450 nm, this pattern can be divided into type I and type II. Type I only had a absorption peak near 260 nm, with the similar spectrum of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the wavelength range from 250 to 800 nm. Type II had absorption peak respectively near 260 and 330 nm. In single peak pattern and two peaks pattern, significant absorption peak of phycocyanin appeared around 620 nm. Compared to the other patterns, single peak pattern was more similar to that of standard sample and single algae samples, but different in their maximum absorption peaks position and relative absorption intensity in the wavelength range of 250 approximately 300, 300 approximately 450 and 500 approximately 700 nm, because of different algae species and purity after extraction. In the two peaks pattern, another absorption peak appeared at 670nm, with the absorption shoulder from 350 to 450 nm, and shared the absorption characteristics of phycocyanin and chlorophyll complex protein. The research can provide a basic support for the phycocyanin quantitation and blooms monitoring in Taihu Lake.

  13. Force-detected nanoscale absorption spectroscopy in water at room temperature using an optical trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parobek, Alexander; Black, Jacob W.; Kamenetska, Maria; Ganim, Ziad

    2018-04-01

    Measuring absorption spectra of single molecules presents a fundamental challenge for standard transmission-based instruments because of the inherently low signal relative to the large background of the excitation source. Here we demonstrate a new approach for performing absorption spectroscopy in solution using a force measurement to read out optical excitation at the nanoscale. The photoinduced force between model chromophores and an optically trapped gold nanoshell has been measured in water at room temperature. This photoinduced force is characterized as a function of wavelength to yield the force spectrum, which is shown to be correlated to the absorption spectrum for four model systems. The instrument constructed for these measurements combines an optical tweezer with frequency domain absorption spectroscopy over the 400-800 nm range. These measurements provide proof-of-principle experiments for force-detected nanoscale spectroscopies that operate under ambient chemical conditions.

  14. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... person’s cells, recent research has also shown that de novo , or spontaneous, gene mutations can influence the risk of developing autism spectrum disorder. De novo mutations are changes in sequences of deoxyribonucleic ...

  15. Strategic Vision for Spectrum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    wavelengths) associated with radio wave propagation. 3DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY rapid globalization of spectrum usage impacts Navy and Marine Corps...determining spec- trum policy and use. The rapid globalization of spectrum usage impacts Navy and Marine Corps operations, because the DON mission is...negotiates with other nations to garner their support for U.S. objectives. The global commercial telecommunication market and service capability expansion

  16. Gastrointestinal citrate absorption in nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fegan, J.; Khan, R.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    Gastrointestinal absorption of citrate was measured in stone patients with idiopathic hypocitraturia to determine if citrate malabsorption could account for low urinary citrate. Citrate absorption was measured directly from recovery of orally administered potassium citrate (40 mEq.) in the intestinal lavage fluid, using an intestinal washout technique. In 7 stone patients citrate absorption, serum citrate levels, peak citrate concentration in serum and area under the curve were not significantly different from those of 7 normal subjects. Citrate absorption was rapid and efficient in both groups, with 96 to 98% absorbed within 3 hours. The absorption of citrate was less efficient from a tablet preparation of potassium citrate than from a liquid preparation, probably due to a delayed release of citrate from wax matrix. However, citrate absorption from solid potassium citrate was still high at 91%, compared to 98% for a liquid preparation. Thus, hypocitraturia is unlikely to be due to an impaired gastrointestinal absorption of citrate in stone patients without overt bowel disease.

  17. Training and business performance: the mediating role of absorptive capacities.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Perlines, Felipe; Moreno-García, Juan; Yáñez-Araque, Benito

    2016-01-01

    Training has been the focus of considerable conceptual and empirical attention but is considered a relevant factor for competitive edge in companies because it has a positive impact on business performance. This study is justified by the need for deeper analysis of the process involving the transfer of training into performance. This paper's originality lies in the implementation of the absorptive capacities approach as an appropriate conceptual framework for designing a model that reflects the connection between training and business performance through absorptive capacities. Based on the above conceptual framework and using the dual methodological implementation, a new method of analyzing the relationship between training and performance was obtained: efforts in training will not lead to performance without the mediation of absorptive. Training turns into performance if absorptive capacities are involved in this process. The suggested model becomes an appropriate framework for explaining the process of transformation of training into organizational performance, in which absorptive capacities play a key role. The findings obtained can go further owing to fs/QCA: of the different absorptive capacities, that of exploitation is a necessary condition to achieve better organizational performance. Therefore, training based on absorptive capacity will guide and facilitate the design of appropriate human resource strategies so that training results in improved performance. This conclusion is relevant for the development of a new facet of absorptive capacities by relating it to training and resulting in first-level implications for human resource management.

  18. Autism spectrum disorder - Asperger syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... part of the larger developmental disorder category of autism spectrum disorder . ... American Psychiatric Association. Autism spectrum disorder. ... VA: American Psychiatric Publishing: 2013;50-59. Raviola GJ, ...

  19. Polyamidoamine dendrimers as novel potential absorption enhancers for improving the small intestinal absorption of poorly absorbable drugs in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yulian; Fujimori, Takeo; Kawaguchi, Naoko; Tsujimoto, Yuiko; Nishimi, Mariko; Dong, Zhengqi; Katsumi, Hidemasa; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Yamamoto, Akira

    2011-01-05

    Effects of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers on the intestinal absorption of poorly absorbable drugs were examined by an in situ closed loop method in rats. 5(6)-Carboxyfluorescein (CF), fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextrans (FDs) with various molecular weights, calcitonin and insulin were used as model drugs of poorly absorbable drugs. The absorption of CF, FD4 and calcitonin from the rat small intestine was significantly enhanced in the presence of PAMAM dendrimers. The absorption-enhancing effects of PAMAM dendrimers for improving the small intestinal absorption of CF were concentration and generation dependent and a maximal absorption-enhancing effect was observed in the presence of 0.5% (w/v) G2 PAMAM dendrimer. However, G2 PAMAM dendrimer had almost no absorption-enhancing effect on the small intestinal absorption of macromolecular drugs including FD10 and insulin. Overall, the absorption-enhancing effects of G2 PAMAM dendrimer in the small intestine decreased as the molecular weights of drug increased. However, G2 PAMAM dendrimer did not enhance the intestinal absorption of these drugs with different molecular weights in the large intestine. Furthermore, we evaluated the intestinal membrane damage with or without G2 PAMAM dendrimer. G2 PAMAM dendrimer (0.5% (w/v)) significantly increased the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the amounts of protein released from the intestinal membranes, but the activities and amounts of these toxic markers were less than those in the presence of 3% Triton X-100 used as a positive control. Moreover, G2 PAMAM dendrimer at concentrations of 0.05% (w/v) and 0.1% (w/v) did not increase the activities and amounts of these toxic markers. These findings suggested that PAMAM dendrimers at lower concentrations might be potential and safe absorption enhancers for improving absorption of poorly absorbable drugs from the small intestine. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Infrared absorption spectra of molecular crystals: Possible evidence for small-polaron formation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pržulj, Željko; Čevizović, Dalibor; Zeković, Slobodan; Ivić, Zoran

    2008-09-01

    The temperature dependence of the position of the so-called anomalous band peaked at 1650cm in the IR-absorption spectrum of crystalline acetanilide (ACN) is theoretically investigated within the small-polaron theory. Its pronounced shift towards the position of the normal band is predicted with the rise of temperature. Interpretation of the IR-absorption spectra in terms of small-polaron model has been critically assessed on the basis of these results.

  1. Emergence of Very Broad Infrared Absorption Band By Hyperdoping of Silicon with Chalcogens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-03

    measured by Hall effect in Ref. 9 (crosses) as functions of implanted sulfur dose. (c) Calculated reflectivity by Kramers- Kronig transformation of the...MIR band is small enough, this assumption is reasonable according to the Kramers- Kronig relationship between optical absorption and reflectivity...calculated by a Kramers- Kronig transformation of the absorption spectrum shown in Fig. 1(a) and the results are shown in Fig. 1(c). However, the a value

  2. Absorption Mode FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Donald F.; Kilgour, David P.; Konijnenburg, Marco

    2013-12-03

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry offers the highest mass resolving power for molecular imaging experiments. This high mass resolving power ensures that closely spaced peaks at the same nominal mass are resolved for proper image generation. Typically higher magnetic fields are used to increase mass resolving power. However, a gain in mass resolving power can also be realized by phase correction of the data for absorption mode display. In addition to mass resolving power, absorption mode offers higher mass accuracy and signal-to-noise ratio over the conventional magnitude mode. Here we present the first use of absorption mode formore » Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry imaging. The Autophaser algorithm is used to phase correct each spectrum (pixel) in the image and then these parameters are used by the Chameleon work-flow based data processing software to generate absorption mode ?Datacubes? for image and spectral viewing. Absorption mode reveals new mass and spatial features that are not resolved in magnitude mode and results in improved selected ion image contrast.« less

  3. Method and apparatus for aerosol particle absorption spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Campillo, Anthony J.; Lin, Horn-Bond

    1983-11-15

    A method and apparatus for determining the absorption spectra, and other properties, of aerosol particles. A heating beam source provides a beam of electromagnetic energy which is scanned through the region of the spectrum which is of interest. Particles exposed to the heating beam which have absorption bands within the band width of the heating beam absorb energy from the beam. The particles are also illuminated by light of a wave length such that the light is scattered by the particles. The absorption spectra of the particles can thus be determined from an analysis of the scattered light since the absorption of energy by the particles will affect the way the light is scattered. Preferably the heating beam is modulated to simplify the analysis of the scattered light. In one embodiment the heating beam is intensity modulated so that the scattered light will also be intensity modulated when the particles absorb energy. In another embodiment the heating beam passes through an interferometer and the scattered light reflects the Fourier Transform of the absorption spectra.

  4. Suggestibility and negative priming: two replication studies.

    PubMed

    David, Daniel; Brown, Richard J

    2002-07-01

    Research suggests that inhibiting the effect of irrelevant stimuli on subsequent thought and action (cognitive inhibition) may be an important component of suggestibility. Two small correlation studies were conducted to address the relationship between different aspects of suggestibility and individual differences in cognitive inhibition, operationalized as the degree of negative priming generated by to-be-ignored stimuli in a semantic categorization task. The first study found significant positive correlations between negative priming, hypnotic suggestibility, and creative imagination; a significant negative correlation was obtained between negative priming and interrogative suggestibility, demonstrating the discriminant validity of the study results. The second study replicated the correlation between negative priming and hypnotic suggestibility, using a different suggestibility measurement procedure that assessed subjective experience and hypnotic involuntariness as well as objective responses to suggestions. These studies support the notion that the ability to engage in cognitive inhibition may be an important component of hypnotic responsivity and maybe of other forms of suggestibility.

  5. Unusual continuous dual absorption peaks in Ca-doped BiFeO3 nanostructures for broadened microwave absorption.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong-Jun; Hou, Zhi-Ling; Song, Wei-Li; Liu, Xing-Da; Cao, Wen-Qiang; Shao, Xiao-Hong; Cao, Mao-Sheng

    2016-05-21

    Electromagnetic absorption materials have received increasing attention owing to their wide applications in aerospace, communication and the electronics industry, and multiferroic materials with both polarization and magnetic properties are considered promising ceramics for microwave absorption application. However, the insufficient absorption intensity coupled with the narrow effective absorption bandwidth has limited the development of high-performance multiferroic materials for practical microwave absorption. To address such issues, in the present work, we utilize interfacial engineering in BiFeO3 nanoparticles via Ca doping, with the purpose of tailoring the phase boundary. Upon Ca-substitution, the co-existence of both R3c and P4mm phases has been confirmed to massively enhance both dielectric and magnetic properties via manipulating the phase boundary and the destruction of the spiral spin structure. Unlike the commonly reported magnetic/dielectric hybrid microwave absorption composites, Bi0.95Ca0.05FeO3 has been found to deliver unusual continuous dual absorption peaks at a small thickness (1.56 mm), which has remarkably broadened the effective absorption bandwidth (8.7-12.1 GHz). The fundamental mechanisms based on the phase boundary engineering have been discussed, suggesting a novel platform for designing advanced multiferroic materials with wide applications.

  6. Identification of Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide with broad-spectrum antiviral activity against multi-feline viruses.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jin; Hu, Xiaoliang; Liu, Dafei; Wu, Hongxia; Qu, Liandong

    2017-02-01

    Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides (IOPs) are a potential drug for the prevention and treatment of cancer, cardiopathy, diabetes, AIDs, pancreatitis and other diseases. In this study, we found that IOP can act as a broad-spectrum antiviral drug against feline viruses in the in vitro experiment. Using cell models of feline calicivirus (FCV), we demonstrated that IOP treatment was capable of exhibiting anti-FCV strain F9 activity in cell-based assays and also showed low cytotoxicity. Investigation of the mechanism of action of the compound revealed that IOP treatment induces its inhibitory actions directly on virus particles through blocking viral binding/absorpting. The inhibitory activity against other FCV isolates from China was also identified. More importantly, we found that IOP exhibited broad-spectrum antiviral activity against the feline herpesvirus 1, feline influenza virus H3N2 and H5N6, feline panleukopenia virus and feline infectious peritonitis virus that can contribute to respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases in cats. These findings suggest that IOP may be a potential broad-spectrum antiviral drug against feline viruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Balmer Absorption Lines in FeLoBALs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, K.; Iwata, I.; Ohta, K.; Tamura, N.; Ando, M.; Akiyama, M.; Kiuchi, G.; Nakanishi, K.

    2007-10-01

    We discovered non-stellar Balmer absorption lines in two many-narrow-trough FeLoBALs (mntBALs) by the near-infrared spectroscopy with Subaru/CISCO. Presence of the non-stellar Balmer absorption lines is known to date only in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151; thus our discovery is the first cases for quasars. Since all known active galactic nuclei with Balmer absorption lines share similar characteristics, it is suggested that there is a population of BAL quasars which have unique structures at their nuclei or unique evolutionary phase.

  8. Determination of absorption coefficient of nanofluids with unknown refractive index from reflection and transmission spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joong Bae; Lee, Seungyoon; Lee, Kyungeun; Lee, Ikjin; Lee, Bong Jae

    2018-07-01

    It has been shown that the absorption coefficient of a nanofluid can be actively tuned by changing material, size, shape, and concentration of the nanoparticle suspension. In applications of engineered nanofluids for the direct absorption of solar radiation, it is important to experimentally characterize the absorption coefficient of nanofluids in the solar spectrum. If the refractive index of the base fluid (i.e., the solution without nanoparticles) is known a priori, the absorption coefficient of nanofluids can be easily determined from the transmission spectrum. However, if the refractive index of the base fluid is not known, it is not straightforward to extract the absorption coefficient solely from the transmission spectrum. The present work aims to develop an analytical method of determining the absorption coefficient of nanofluids with unknown refractive index by measuring both reflection and transmission spectra. The proposed method will be validated with deionized water, and the effect of measurement uncertainty will be carefully examined. Finally, the general applicability of the proposed method will also be demonstrated for Therminol VP-1 as well as the Therminol VP-1 - graphite nanofluid.

  9. Measurement of glyoxal using an incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washenfelder, R. A.; Langford, A. O.; Fuchs, H.; Brown, S. S.

    2008-12-01

    We describe an instrument for simultaneous measurements of glyoxal (CHOCHO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) using cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy with a broadband light source. The output of a Xenon arc lamp is coupled into a 1 m optical cavity, and the spectrum of light exiting the cavity is recorded by a grating spectrometer with a charge-coupled device (CCD) array detector. The mirror reflectivity and effective path lengths are determined from the known Rayleigh scattering of He and dry zero air (N2+O2). Least-squares fitting, using published reference spectra, allow the simultaneous retrieval of CHOCHO, NO2, O4, and H2O in the 441 to 469 nm spectral range. For a 1-min sampling time, the precision (±1σ) on signal for measurements of CHOCHO and NO2 is 29 pptv and 20 pptv, respectively. We directly compare measurements made with the incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer with those from cavity ringdown instruments detecting CHOCHO and NO2 at 404 and 532 nm, respectively, and find linear agreement over a wide range of concentrations. The instrument has been tested in the laboratory with both synthetic and real air samples, and the demonstrated sensitivity and specificity suggest a strong potential for field measurements of both CHOCHO and NO2.

  10. Sulfur determination in coal using molecular absorption in graphite filter vaporizer.

    PubMed

    Jim, Gibson; Katskov, Dmitri; Tittarelli, Paolo

    2011-02-15

    The vaporization of sulfur containing samples in graphite vaporizers for atomic absorption spectrometry is accompanied by modification of sulfur by carbon and, respectively, appearance at high temperature of structured molecular absorption in 200-210 nm wavelength range. It has been proposed to employ the spectrum for direct determination of sulfur in coal; soundness of the suggestion is evaluated by analysis of coal slurry using low resolution CCD spectrometer with continuum light source coupled to platform or filter furnace vaporizers. For coal in platform furnace losses of the analyte at low temperature and strong spectral background from the coal matrix hinder the determination. Both negative effects are significantly reduced in filter furnace, in which sample vapor efficiently interacts with carbon when transferred through the heated graphite filter. The method is verified by analysis of coals with sulfur content within 0.13-1.5% (m/m) range. The use of coal certified reference material for sulfur analyte addition to coal slurry permitted determination with random error 5-12%. Absolute and relative detection limits for sulfur in coal are 0.16 μg and 0.02 mass%, respectively. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Rapid Optimization of External Quantum Efficiency of Thin Film Solar Cells Using Surrogate Modeling of Absorptivity.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Mine; Hajimirza, Shima

    2018-05-25

    This paper uses surrogate modeling for very fast design of thin film solar cells with improved solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency. We demonstrate that the wavelength-specific optical absorptivity of a thin film multi-layered amorphous-silicon-based solar cell can be modeled accurately with Neural Networks and can be efficiently approximated as a function of cell geometry and wavelength. Consequently, the external quantum efficiency can be computed by averaging surrogate absorption and carrier recombination contributions over the entire irradiance spectrum in an efficient way. Using this framework, we optimize a multi-layer structure consisting of ITO front coating, metallic back-reflector and oxide layers for achieving maximum efficiency. Our required computation time for an entire model fitting and optimization is 5 to 20 times less than the best previous optimization results based on direct Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations, therefore proving the value of surrogate modeling. The resulting optimization solution suggests at least 50% improvement in the external quantum efficiency compared to bare silicon, and 25% improvement compared to a random design.

  12. An x-ray absorption study of the iron site in bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers.

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, G; Stern, E A; Blankenship, R E; Parson, W W

    1982-01-01

    Measurements were made of the extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) of the iron site in photosynthetic reaction centers from the bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides. Forms with two quinones, two quinones with added o-phenanthroline, and one quinone were studied. Only the two forms containing two quinones maintained their integrity and were analyzed. The spectra show directly that the added o-phenanthroline does not chelate the iron atom. Further analysis indicates that the iron is octahedrally coordinated by nitrogen and/or oxygen atoms located at various distances, with the average value of about 2.14 A. The analysis suggests that most of the ligands are nitrogens and that three of the nitrogen ligands belong to histidine rings. This interpretation accounts for several unusual features of the EXAFS spectrum. We speculate that the quinones are bound to the histidine rings in some manner. Qualitative features of the absorption edge spectra also are discussed and are related to the Fe-ligand distance. PMID:6977382

  13. Suggestibility and Expectancy in a Counseling Analogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaul, Theodore J.; Parker, Clyde A.

    1971-01-01

    The data indicated that (a) subjectively experienced suggestibility was more closely related to attitude change than was objective suggestibility, and (b) the generalized expectancy treatments were ineffective in influencing different criterion scores. (Author)

  14. [Discussion of scattering in THz time domain spectrum tests].

    PubMed

    Yan, Fang; Zhang, Zhao-hui; Zhao, Xiao-yan; Su, Hai-xia; Li, Zhi; Zhang, Han

    2014-06-01

    Using THz-TDS to extract the absorption spectrum of a sample is an important branch of various THz applications. Basically, we believe that the THz radiation scatters from sample particles, leading to an obvious baseline increasing with frequencies in its absorption spectrum. The baseline will affect the measurement accuracy due to ambiguous height and pattern of the spectrum. The authors should try to remove the baseline, and eliminate the effects of scattering. In the present paper, we investigated the causes of baselines, reviewed some of scatter mitigating methods and summarized some of research aspects in the future. In order to validate the correctness of these methods, we designed a series of experiments to compare the computational accuracy of molar concentration. The result indicated that the computational accuracy of molar concentration can be improved, which can be the basis of quantitative analysis in further researches. Finally, with comprehensive experimental results, we presented further research directions on THz absorption spectrum that is needed for the removal of scattering effects.

  15. Broadband absorption with gradient metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hoyeong; Chalabi, Hamidreza; Alù, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    A metasurface with appropriately designed transverse spatial inhomogeneities can provide the desired phase redistribution in response to an incident wave with arbitrary incident angle. This property of gradient metasurfaces has been used to modify light propagation in unusual manners, to transform the impinging optical wavefront with large flexibility. In this work, we show how gradient metasurfaces can be tailored to offer high absorption in thin absorptive layers, and how to design realistic metasurfaces for this purpose using dielectric materials.

  16. Evidentiality and Suggestibility: A New Research Venue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Cagla; Ceci, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that acquisition of mental-state language may influence conceptual development. We examine this possibility by investigating the conceptual links between evidentiality in language and suggestibility. Young children are disproportionately suggestible and tend to change their reports or memories when questioned. The authors…

  17. The Effects of Suggestibility on Relaxation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickard, Henry C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Selected undergraduates (N=32) on the basis of Creative Imagination Scale scores and randomly assigned high and low suggestibility subjects to progressive relaxation (PR) and suggestions of relaxation (SR) training modes. Results revealed a significant pre-post relaxation effect, and main efffects for both suggestibility and training mode. (NRB)

  18. Evidentiality and suggestibility: a new research venue.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Cağla; Ceci, Stephen J

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that acquisition of mental-state language may influence conceptual development. We examine this possibility by investigating the conceptual links between evidentiality in language and suggestibility. Young children are disproportionately suggestible and tend to change their reports or memories when questioned. The authors discuss the extent to which components of mental-state understanding, specifically representational understanding and understanding origins of knowledge, are implicated in improvements in resistance to suggestions and comprehending evidentiality. The authors also review social-psychological evidence that has implications for evidential understanding. Integration of the literature on both topics is followed by suggestions for new research directions.

  19. EVIDENCE FOR PHOTOIONIZATION-DRIVEN BROAD ABSORPTION LINE VARIABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Tinggui; Yang, Chenwei; Wang, Huiyuan

    2015-12-01

    We present a qualitative analysis of the variability of quasar broad absorption lines using the large multi-epoch spectroscopic data set of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10. We confirm that variations of absorption lines are highly coordinated among different components of the same ion or the same absorption component of different ions for C iv, Si iv, and N v. Furthermore, we show that the equivalent widths (EWs) of the lines decrease or increase statistically when the continuum brightens or dims. This is further supported by the synchronized variations of emission and absorption-line EWs when the well-established intrinsicmore » Baldwin effect for emission lines is taken into account. We find that the emergence of an absorption component is usually accompanied by the dimming of the continuum while the disappearance of an absorption-line component is accompanied by the brightening of the continuum. This suggests that the emergence or disappearance of a C iv absorption component is only the extreme case, when the ionic column density is very sensitive to continuum variations or the continuum variability the amplitude is larger. These results support the idea that absorption-line variability is driven mainly by changes in the gas ionization in response to continuum variations, that the line-absorbing gas is highly ionized, and in some extreme cases, too highly ionized to be detected in UV absorption lines. Due to uncertainties in the spectroscopic flux calibration, we cannot quantify the fraction of quasars with asynchronized continuum and absorption-line variations.« less

  20. Models of filter-based particle light absorption measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamasha, Khadeejeh M.

    Light absorption by aerosol is very important in the visible, near UN, and near I.R region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Aerosol particles in the atmosphere have a great influence on the flux of solar energy, and also impact health in a negative sense when they are breathed into lungs. Aerosol absorption measurements are usually performed by filter-based methods that are derived from the change in light transmission through a filter where particles have been deposited. These methods suffer from interference between light-absorbing and light-scattering aerosol components. The Aethalometer is the most commonly used filter-based instrument for aerosol light absorption measurement. This dissertation describes new understanding of aerosol light absorption obtained by the filter method. The theory uses a multiple scattering model for the combination of filter and particle optics. The theory is evaluated using Aethalometer data from laboratory and ambient measurements in comparison with photoacoustic measurements of aerosol light absorption. Two models were developed to calculate aerosol light absorption coefficients from the Aethalometer data, and were compared to the in-situ aerosol light absorption coefficients. The first is an approximate model and the second is a "full" model. In the approximate model two extreme cases of aerosol optics were used to develop a model-based calibration scheme for the 7-wavelength Aethalometer. These cases include those of very strong scattering aerosols (Ammonium sulfate sample) and very absorbing aerosols (kerosene soot sample). The exponential behavior of light absorption in the strong multiple scattering limit is shown to be the square root of the total absorption optical depth rather than linear with optical depth as is commonly assumed with Beer's law. 2-stream radiative transfer theory was used to develop the full model to calculate the aerosol light absorption coefficients from the Aethalometer data. This comprehensive model

  1. Micro acoustic spectrum analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Schubert, W. Kent; Butler, Michael A.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Anderson, Larry F.

    2004-11-23

    A micro acoustic spectrum analyzer for determining the frequency components of a fluctuating sound signal comprises a microphone to pick up the fluctuating sound signal and produce an alternating current electrical signal; at least one microfabricated resonator, each resonator having a different resonant frequency, that vibrate in response to the alternating current electrical signal; and at least one detector to detect the vibration of the microfabricated resonators. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer can further comprise a mixer to mix a reference signal with the alternating current electrical signal from the microphone to shift the frequency spectrum to a frequency range that is a better matched to the resonant frequencies of the microfabricated resonators. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer can be designed specifically for portability, size, cost, accuracy, speed, power requirements, and use in a harsh environment. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer is particularly suited for applications where size, accessibility, and power requirements are limited, such as the monitoring of industrial equipment and processes, detection of security intrusions, or evaluation of military threats.

  2. The influence of suggestibility on memory.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Serge; Collins, Thérèse; Gounden, Yannick; Roediger, Henry L

    2011-06-01

    We provide a translation of Binet and Henri's pioneering 1894 paper on the influence of suggestibility on memory. Alfred Binet (1857-1911) is famous as the author who created the IQ test that bears his name, but he is almost unknown as the psychological investigator who generated numerous original experiments and fascinating results in the study of memory. His experiments published in 1894 manipulated suggestibility in several ways to determine effects on remembering. Three particular modes of suggestion were employed to induce false recognitions: (1) indirect suggestion by a preconceived idea; (2) direct suggestion; and (3) collective suggestion. In the commentary we suggest that Binet and Henri's (1894) paper written over 115 years ago is still highly relevant even today. In particular, Binet's legacy lives on in modern research on misinformation effects in memory, in studies of conformity, and in experiments on the social contagion of memory. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The relationships between suggestibility, influenceability, and relaxability.

    PubMed

    Polczyk, Romuald; Frey, Olga; Szpitalak, Malwina

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the relationships between relaxability and various aspects of suggestibility and influenceability. The Jacobson Progressive Muscle Relaxation procedure was used to induce relaxation. Tests of direct suggestibility, relating to the susceptibility of overt suggestions, and indirect suggestibility, referring to indirect hidden influence, as well as self-description questionnaires on suggestibility and the tendency to comply were used. Thayer's Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List, measuring various kinds of activation and used as a pre- and posttest, determined the efficacy of the relaxation procedure. Indirect, direct, and self-measured suggestibility proved to be positively related to the ability to relax, measured by Thayer's subscales relating to emotions. Compliance was not related to relaxability. The results are discussed in terms of the aspects of relaxation training connected with suggestibility.

  4. The line-locking hypothesis, absorption by intervening galaxies, and the z = 1.95 peak in redshifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burbidge, G.

    1978-01-01

    The controversy over whether the absorption spectrum in QSOs is intrinsic or extrinsic is approached with attention to the peak of redshifts at z = 1.95. Also considered are the line-locking and the intervening galaxy hypotheses. The line locking hypothesis is based on observations that certain ratios found in absorption line QSOs are preferred, and leads inevitably to the conclusion that the absorption line systems are intrinsic. The intervening galaxy hypothesis is based on absorption redshifts resulting from given absorption cross-sections of galactic clusters and the intergalactic medium, and would lead to the theoretical conclusion that most QSOs show strong absorption, a conclusion which is not supported by empirical data. The 1.95 peak, on the other hand, is most probably an intrinsic property of QSOs. The peak is enhanced by redshift, and it is noted that both an emission and an absorption redshift peak are seen at 1.95.

  5. Autism Spectrum Disorder - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Русский) Expand Section Autism Spectrum Disorder (An Introduction) - English PDF Autism Spectrum Disorder (An Introduction) - Русский (Russian) PDF Autism Spectrum Disorder (An Introduction) - English MP3 Autism Spectrum Disorder (An Introduction) - Русский (Russian) ...

  6. The extreme wings of atomic emission and absorption lines. [in low pressure gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalgarno, A.; Sando, K. M.

    1973-01-01

    Consideration of the extreme wings of atomic and molecular emission and absorption lines in low pressure gases. Classical and semiclassical results are compared with accurate quantal calculations of the self-broadening of Lyman-alpha in the hydrogen absorption spectrum that arises from quasimolecular transition. The results of classical, quantal, and semiclassical calculations of the absorption coefficient in the red wing are shown for temperatures of 500, 200, and 100 K. The semiclassical and quantal spectra agree well in shape at 500 K. Various other findings are discused.

  7. Fat-soluble vitamin intestinal absorption: absorption sites in the intestine and interactions for absorption.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Aurélie; Roi, Stéphanie; Nowicki, Marion; Dhaussy, Amélie; Huertas, Alain; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2015-04-01

    The interactions occurring at the intestinal level between the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K (FSVs) are poorly documented. We first determined each FSV absorption profile along the duodenal-colonic axis of mouse intestine to clarify their respective absorption sites. We then investigated the interactions between FSVs during their uptake by Caco-2 cells. Our data show that vitamin A was mostly absorbed in the mouse proximal intestine, while vitamin D was absorbed in the median intestine, and vitamin E and K in the distal intestine. Significant competitive interactions for uptake were then elucidated among vitamin D, E and K, supporting the hypothesis of common absorption pathways. Vitamin A also significantly decreased the uptake of the other FSVs but, conversely, its uptake was not impaired by vitamins D and K and even promoted by vitamin E. These results should be taken into account, especially for supplement formulation, to optimise FSV absorption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Research of the NH3 Lines in the Region λ 6475 Å Band of Jupiter Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atai, Adalat; Mikailov, Khidir Mustafa; Farziyev, Zabit

    Context. In 2014, spectral observations of separate areas on the disk of Jupiter in the visible spectrum were made by means of the echelle-spectrometer installed in Cassegrain 2-meter mirror telescope's focus of Shamakhi Astrophysical Observatory. The echellespectrometer equipped with the CCD camera provided spectral resolution R=14000 with dispersion of 10 Å/mm. Aims. Features of the intensity change of the ammonia absorption lines at 6475 Å were studied for the spectra of different details of Jupiter's disk. The absorption line 6495.7 Å for ammonia was found only in the GRS spectrum of Jupiter. Methods. Earlier that line was noted in the laboratory spectrum of Giver; it was absent in the spectrum obtained by Mason; in the theoretical spectrum of ammonia it was noted at 6495.9 Å. Comparison of characteristics of the ammonia line in the spectra of various details allows investigating horizontal inhomogeneity of ammonia distribution on the Jupiter's disk. Results.

  9. Broad spectrum solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw [Kensington, CA; Yu, Kin Man [Lafayette, CA; Wu, Junqiao [Richmond, CA; Schaff, William J [Ithaca, NY

    2007-05-15

    An alloy having a large band gap range is used in a multijunction solar cell to enhance utilization of the solar energy spectrum. In one embodiment, the alloy is In.sub.1-xGa.sub.xN having an energy bandgap range of approximately 0.7 eV to 3.4 eV, providing a good match to the solar energy spectrum. Multiple junctions having different bandgaps are stacked to form a solar cell. Each junction may have different bandgaps (realized by varying the alloy composition), and therefore be responsive to different parts of the spectrum. The junctions are stacked in such a manner that some bands of light pass through upper junctions to lower junctions that are responsive to such bands.

  10. Picosecond absorption spectroscopy of self-trapped excitons and transient Ce states in LaBr3 and LaBr3:Ce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peiyun; Gridin, Sergii; Ucer, K. Burak; Williams, Richard T.; Menge, Peter R.

    2018-04-01

    Picosecond time-resolved optical absorption spectra induced by two-photon interband excitation of LaBr3 are reported. The spectra are similar in general characteristics to self-trapped exciton (STE) absorption previously measured in alkali halides and alkaline-earth halides. A broad ultraviolet absorption band results from excitation of the self-trapped hole within the STE. A series of infrared and red-visible bands results from excitation of the bound outer electron within the STE similar to bands found in alkali halides corresponding to different degrees of "off-center" relaxation. Induced absorption in cerium-doped LaBr3 after band-gap excitation of the host exhibits similar STE spectra, except it decays faster on the tens-of-picoseconds scale in proportion to the Ce concentration. This is attributed to dipole-dipole energy transfer from STE to Ce3 + dopant ions. The absorption spectra were also measured after direct excitation of the Ce3 + ions with sufficient intensity to drive two- and three-photon resonantly enhanced excitation. In this case, the spectrum attributed to STEs created adjacent to Ce3 + ions decays in 1 ps suggesting dipole-dipole transfer from the nearest-neighbor separation. A transient absorption band at 2.1 eV growing with Ce concentration is found and attributed to a charge-transfer excitation of the Ce3 +* excited state responsible for scintillation in LaBr3:Ce crystals. This study concludes that the energy transport from host to activator responsible for the scintillation of LaBr3:Ce proceeds by STE creation and dipole-dipole transfer more than by sequential trapping of holes and electrons on Ce3 + ions.

  11. Effects of stereotypes and suggestion on memory.

    PubMed

    Shechory, Mally; Nachson, Israel; Glicksohn, Joseph

    2010-02-01

    In this study, the interactive effect of stereotype and suggestion on accuracy of memory was examined by presenting 645 participants (native Israelis and immigrants from the former Soviet Union and Ethiopia) with three versions of a story about a worker who is waiting in a manager's office for a meeting. All versions were identical except for the worker's name, which implied a Russian or an Ethiopian immigrant or a person of no ethnic origin. Each participant was presented with one version of the story. After an hour delay, the participants' memories were tested via two questionnaires that differed in terms of level of suggestion. Data analyses show that (a) when a suggestion matched the participant's stereotypical perception, the suggestion was incorporated into memory but (b) when the suggestion contradicted the stereotype, it did not influence memory. The conclusion was that recall is influenced by stereotypes but can be enhanced by compatible suggestions.

  12. Study on the THz spectrum of methamphetamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Li; Shen, Jingling; Jinhai, Sun; Laishun, Liang; Xu, Xiaoyu; Lu, Meihong; Yan, Jia

    2005-09-01

    The spectral absorption features of methamphetamine (MA), one of the most widely consumed illicit drugs in the world, are studied experimentally by Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS), and the characteristic absorption spectra are obtained in the range of 0.2 to 2.6 THz. The vibrational frequencies are calculated using the density functional theory (DFT). Theoretical results show significant agreement with experimental results, and identification of vibrational modes are given. The calculated results further confirm that the characteristic frequencies come from the collective vibrational modes. The results suggest that use of the THz-TDS technique can be an effective way to inspect for illicit drugs.

  13. NREL Spectrum of Innovation

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2011-02-25

    There are many voices calling for a future of abundant clean energy. The choices are difficult and the challenges daunting. How will we get there? The National Renewable Energy Laboratory integrates the entire spectrum of innovation including fundamental science, market relevant research, systems integration, testing and validation, commercialization and deployment. The innovation process at NREL is interdependent and iterative. Many scientific breakthroughs begin in our own laboratories, but new ideas and technologies come to NREL at any point along the innovation spectrum to be validated and refined for commercial use.

  14. NREL Spectrum of Innovation

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2018-05-11

    There are many voices calling for a future of abundant clean energy. The choices are difficult and the challenges daunting. How will we get there? The National Renewable Energy Laboratory integrates the entire spectrum of innovation including fundamental science, market relevant research, systems integration, testing and validation, commercialization and deployment. The innovation process at NREL is interdependent and iterative. Many scientific breakthroughs begin in our own laboratories, but new ideas and technologies come to NREL at any point along the innovation spectrum to be validated and refined for commercial use.

  15. Interrogative suggestibility in patients with conversion disorders.

    PubMed

    Foong, J; Lucas, P A; Ron, M A

    1997-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that increased interrogative suggestibility may contribute to the shaping and maintaining of conversions symptoms. Interrogative suggestibility was measured in 12 patients with conversion disorder and 10 control patients with confirmed neurological disease matched for age, premorbid intelligence, and as closely as possible in terms of their neurological symptoms to the patients with conversion disorder. Our observations do not support the contention that individual differences in interrogative suggestibility are of importance in the etiology of conversion disorders.

  16. O2-O2 and O2-N2 collision-induced absorption mechanisms unravelled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karman, Tijs; Koenis, Mark A. J.; Banerjee, Agniva; Parker, David H.; Gordon, Iouli E.; van der Avoird, Ad; van der Zande, Wim J.; Groenenboom, Gerrit C.

    2018-05-01

    Collision-induced absorption is the phenomenon in which interactions between colliding molecules lead to absorption of light, even for transitions that are forbidden for the isolated molecules. Collision-induced absorption contributes to the atmospheric heat balance and is important for the electronic excitations of O2 that are used for remote sensing. Here, we present a theoretical study of five vibronic transitions in O2-O2 and O2-N2, using analytical models and numerical quantum scattering calculations. We unambiguously identify the underlying absorption mechanism, which is shown to depend explicitly on the collision partner—contrary to textbook knowledge. This explains experimentally observed qualitative differences between O2-O2 and O2-N2 collisions in the overall intensity, line shape and vibrational dependence of the absorption spectrum. It is shown that these results can be used to discriminate between conflicting experimental data and even to identify unphysical results, thus impacting future experimental studies and atmospheric applications.

  17. Enhancement of broadband optical absorption in photovoltaic devices by band-edge effect of photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshinori; Kawamoto, Yosuke; Fujita, Masayuki; Noda, Susumu

    2013-08-26

    We numerically investigate broadband optical absorption enhancement in thin, 400-nm thick microcrystalline silicon (µc-Si) photovoltaic devices by photonic crystals (PCs). We realize absorption enhancement by coupling the light from the free space to the large area resonant modes at the photonic band-edge induced by the photonic crystals. We show that multiple photonic band-edge modes can be produced by higher order modes in the vertical direction of the Si photovoltaic layer, which can enhance the absorption on multiple wavelengths. Moreover, we reveal that the photonic superlattice structure can produce more photonic band-edge modes that lead to further optical absorption. The absorption average in wavelengths of 500-1000 nm weighted to the solar spectrum (AM 1.5) increases almost twice: from 33% without photonic crystal to 58% with a 4 × 4 period superlattice photonic crystal; our result outperforms the Lambertian textured structure.

  18. Hypnotic suggestion: opportunities for cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Oakley, David A; Halligan, Peter W

    2013-08-01

    Hypnosis uses the powerful effects of attention and suggestion to produce, modify and enhance a broad range of subjectively compelling experiences and behaviours. For more than a century, hypnotic suggestion has been used successfully as an adjunctive procedure to treat a wide range of clinical conditions. More recently, hypnosis has attracted a growing interest from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. Recent studies using hypnotic suggestion show how manipulating subjective awareness in the laboratory can provide insights into brain mechanisms involved in attention, motor control, pain perception, beliefs and volition. Moreover, they indicate that hypnotic suggestion can create informative analogues of clinical conditions that may be useful for understanding these conditions and their treatments.

  19. Broadband Spectral Modeling of the Extreme Gigahertz-peaked Spectrum Radio Source PKS B0008-421

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callingham, J. R.; Gaensler, B. M.; Ekers, R. D.; Tingay, S. J.; Wayth, R. B.; Morgan, J.; Bernardi, G.; Bell, M. E.; Bhat, R.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Deshpande, A. A.; Ewall-Wice, A.; Feng, L.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hazelton, B. J.; Hindson, L.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Jacobs, D. C.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kudrayvtseva, N.; Lenc, E.; Lonsdale, C. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Oberoi, D.; Offringa, A. R.; Ord, S. M.; Pindor, B.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Riding, J.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Webster, R. L.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.

    2015-08-01

    We present broadband observations and spectral modeling of PKS B0008-421 and identify it as an extreme gigahertz-peaked spectrum (GPS) source. PKS B0008-421 is characterized by the steepest known spectral slope below the turnover, close to the theoretical limit of synchrotron self-absorption, and the smallest known spectral width of any GPS source. Spectral coverage of the source spans from 0.118 to 22 GHz, which includes data from the Murchison Widefield Array and the wide bandpass receivers on the Australia Telescope Compact Array. We have implemented a Bayesian inference model fitting routine to fit the data with internal free-free absorption (FFA), single- and double-component FFA in an external homogeneous medium, FFA in an external inhomogeneous medium, or single- and double-component synchrotron self-absorption models, all with and without a high-frequency exponential break. We find that without the inclusion of a high-frequency break these models cannot accurately fit the data, with significant deviations above and below the peak in the radio spectrum. The addition of a high-frequency break provides acceptable spectral fits for the inhomogeneous FFA and double-component synchrotron self-absorption models, with the inhomogeneous FFA model statistically favored. The requirement of a high-frequency spectral break implies that the source has ceased injecting fresh particles. Additional support for the inhomogeneous FFA model as being responsible for the turnover in the spectrum is given by the consistency between the physical parameters derived from the model fit and the implications of the exponential spectral break, such as the necessity of the source being surrounded by a dense ambient medium to maintain the peak frequency near the gigahertz region. This implies that PKS B0008-421 should display an internal H i column density greater than 1020 cm-2. The discovery of PKS B0008-421 suggests that the next generation of low radio frequency surveys could reveal a

  20. RESONANT ABSORPTION OF AXISYMMETRIC MODES IN TWISTED MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES

    SciTech Connect

    Giagkiozis, I.; Verth, G.; Goossens, M.

    2016-06-01

    It has been shown recently that magnetic twist and axisymmetric MHD modes are ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere, and therefore the study of resonant absorption for these modes has become a pressing issue because it can have important consequences for heating magnetic flux tubes in the solar atmosphere and the observed damping. In this investigation, for the first time, we calculate the damping rate for axisymmetric MHD waves in weakly twisted magnetic flux tubes. Our aim is to investigate the impact of resonant damping of these modes for solar atmospheric conditions. This analytical study is based on an idealized configurationmore » of a straight magnetic flux tube with a weak magnetic twist inside as well as outside the tube. By implementing the conservation laws derived by Sakurai et al. and the analytic solutions for weakly twisted flux tubes obtained recently by Giagkiozis et al. we derive a dispersion relation for resonantly damped axisymmetric modes in the spectrum of the Alfvén continuum. We also obtain an insightful analytical expression for the damping rate in the long wavelength limit. Furthermore, it is shown that both the longitudinal magnetic field and the density, which are allowed to vary continuously in the inhomogeneous layer, have a significant impact on the damping time. Given the conditions in the solar atmosphere, resonantly damped axisymmetric modes are highly likely to be ubiquitous and play an important role in energy dissipation. We also suggest that, given the character of these waves, it is likely that they have already been observed in the guise of Alfvén waves.« less

  1. Cold parsec-scale gas in a zabs ˜ 0.1 sub-damped Lyman α with disparate H2 and 21-cm absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, R.; Srianand, R.; Muzahid, S.; Gupta, N.; Momjian, E.; Charlton, J.

    2015-04-01

    We present a detailed analysis of a H2-bearing metal-rich sub-damped Lyman α system at zabs = 0.10115 towards the radio-loud quasar J0441-4313, at a projected separation of ˜7.6 kpc from a star-forming galaxy. The H2, {C I}} and {Na I} absorption are much stronger in the redder of the two components seen in the Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph spectrum. The best single-component fit to the strong H2 component gives log N(H2) = 16.61 ± 0.05. However, possible hidden saturation in the medium-resolution spectrum can allow for log N(H2) to be as high as 18.9. The rotational excitation temperature of H2 in this component is 133^{+33}_{-22} K. Photoionization models suggest 30-80 per cent of the total N(H I) is associated with the strong H2 component that has a density ≤100 cm-3 and is subject to a radiation field that is ≤0.5 times the Galactic mean field. The Very Long Baseline Array 1.4 GHz continuum image of the radio source contains only 27 per cent of the arcsecond scale emission. Using a previously published spectrum, no 21-cm absorption is found to be associated with the strong H2 component. This suggests that either the N(H I)) associated with this component is ≤50 per cent of the total N(H I)) or the gas covering factor is ≤0.27. This is consistent with the results of the photoionization model that uses ultraviolet radiation due to stars in the associated galaxy. The 21-cm absorption previously reported from the weaker H2 component suggests a spin temperature of ≤90 K, at odds with the weakness of H2, {C I} and {Na I} absorption in this component. From the inferred physical and chemical conditions, we suggest that the gas may be tracing a recent metal-rich outflow from the host galaxy.

  2. Device for frequency modulation of a laser output spectrum

    DOEpatents

    Beene, James R.; Bemis, Jr., Curtis E.

    1986-01-01

    A device is provided for fast frequency modulating the output spectrum of multimode lasers and single frequency lasers that are not actively stabilized. A piezoelectric transducer attached to a laser cavity mirror is driven in an unconventional manner to excite resonance vibration of the transducer to rapidly, cyclicly change the laser cavity length. The result is a cyclic sweeping of the output wavelength sufficient to fill the gaps in the laser output frequency spectrum. When such a laser is used to excite atoms or molecules, complete absorption line coverage is made possible.

  3. Device for frequency modulation of a laser output spectrum

    DOEpatents

    Beene, J.R.; Bemis, C.E. Jr.

    1984-07-17

    A device is provided for fast frequency modulating the output spectrum of multimode lasers and single frequency lasers that are not actively stabilized. A piezoelectric transducer attached to a laser cavity mirror is driven in an unconventional manner to excite resonance vibration of the tranducer to rapidly, cyclicly change the laser cavity length. The result is a cyclic sweeping of the output wavelength sufficient to fill the gaps in the laser output frequency spectrum. When a laser is used to excite atoms or molecules, complete absorption line coverage is made possible.

  4. The free jet microwave spectrum of 2-phenylethylamine-water.

    PubMed

    Melandri, Sonia; Maris, Assimo; Giuliano, Barbara M; Favero, Laura B; Caminati, Walther

    2010-09-21

    We observed the rotational spectrum of the 1:1 molecular adduct between 2-phenylethylamine and water (normal and H(2)(18)O species) by free jet absorption microwave spectroscopy in the frequency region 60-78 GHz. The dominant spectrum belongs to the structure where the PEA moiety is in the most stable gauche conformation and the water molecule is hydrogen bound to the nitrogen lone pair. The orientation of the water molecule is such that the oxygen atom is almost equidistant (ca. 2.5 A) from the closest methylenic and aromatic hydrogen atoms.

  5. Determination of the major groups of phytoplankton pigments from the absorption spectra of total particulate matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoepffner, Nicolas; Sathyendranath, Shubha

    1993-01-01

    The contributions of detrital particles and phytoplankton to total light absorption are retrieved by nonlinear regression on the absorption spectra of total particles from various oceanic regions. The model used explains more than 96% of the variance in the observed particle absorption spectra. The resulting absorption spectra of phytoplankton are then decomposed into several Gaussian bands reflecting absorption by phytoplankton pigments. Such a decomposition, combined with high-performance liquid chromatography data on phytoplankton pigment concentrations, allows the computation of specific absorption coefficients for chlorophylls a, b, and c and carotenoids. The spectral values of these in vivo absorption coefficients are then discussed, considering the effects of secondary pigments which were not measured quantitatively. We show that these coefficients can be used to reconstruct the absorption spectra of phytoplankton at various locations and depths. Discrepancies that do occur at some stations are explained in terms of particle size effect. These coefficients can be used to determine the concentrations of phytoplankton pigments in the water, given the absorption spectrum of total particles.

  6. A study of spectrum fatigue crack propagation in two aluminum alloys. 1: Spectrum simplification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telesman, J.; Antolovich, S. D.

    1985-01-01

    The fatigue crack propagation behavior of two commercial Al alloys was studied using spectrum loading conditions characteristics of those encountered at critical locations in high performance fighter aircraft. A tension dominated (TD) and tension compression (TC) spectrum were employed for each alloy. Using a mechanics-based analysis, it was suggested that negative loads could be eliminated for the TC spectrum for low to intermediate maximum stress intensities. The suggestion was verified by subsequent testing. Using fractographic evidence, it was suggested that a further similification in the spectra could be accomplished by eliminating low and intermediate peak load points resulting in near or below threshold maximum peak stress intensity values. It is concluded that load interactions become more important at higher stress intensities and more plasticity at the crack tip. These results suggest that a combined mechanics/fractographic mechanisms approach can be used to simplify other complex spectra.

  7. Interrogative suggestibility and perceptual motor performance.

    PubMed

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1984-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between interrogative suggestibility, as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, and Arrow-Dot scores. The tendency of subjects (25 men and 25 women, mean age 30.2 yr.) to alter their answers once interpersonal pressure had been applied correlated significantly with poor Arrow-Dot Ego functioning.

  8. Maltreated Children's Memory: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Mitchell L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne; Crayton, John

    2007-01-01

    Memory, suggestibility, stress arousal, and trauma-related psychopathology were examined in 328 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of abuse and neglect. Children's memory and suggestibility were assessed for a medical examination and venipuncture. Being older and scoring higher in cognitive functioning were related to fewer…

  9. The Frequency Spectrum Radio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howkins, John, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This journal issue focuses on the frequency spectrum used in radio communication and on the World Administrative Radio Conference, sponsored by the International Telecommunication Union, held in Geneva, Switzerland, in the fall of 1979. Articles describe the World Administrative Radio Conference as the most important radio communication conference…

  10. Charging for Spectrum Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Henry; Lampert, Donna

    This paper, the third in a series exploring future options for public policy in the communications and information arenas, argues that the communications spectrum--e.g., public mobile service, private radio, and domestic satellites--is a valuable but limited resource that should benefit all Americans. After a background discussion, it is…

  11. Architecture for Absorption Based Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Moghaddam, Saeed; Chugh, Devesh

    An absorption based heater is constructed on a fluid barrier heat exchanging plate such that it requires little space in a structure. The absorption based heater has a desorber, heat exchanger, and absorber sequentially placed on the fluid barrier heat exchanging plate. The vapor exchange faces of the desorber and the absorber are covered by a vapor permeable membrane that is permeable to a refrigerant vapor but impermeable to an absorbent. A process fluid flows on the side of the fluid barrier heat exchanging plate opposite the vapor exchange face through the absorber and subsequently through the heat exchanger. Themore » absorption based heater can include a second plate with a condenser situated parallel to the fluid barrier heat exchanging plate and opposing the desorber for condensation of the refrigerant for additional heating of the process fluid.« less

  12. Thermodynamic derivatives of infrared absorptance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broersma, S.; Walls, W. L.

    1974-01-01

    Calculation of the concentration, pressure, and temperature dependence of the spectral absorptance of a vibrational absorption band. A smooth thermodynamic dependence was found for wavelength intervals where the average absorptance is less than 0.65. Individual rotational lines, whose parameters are often well known, were used as bases in the calculation of medium resolution spectra. Two modes of calculation were combined: well-separated rotational lines plus interaction terms, or strongly overlapping lines that were represented by a compound line of similar shape plus corrections. The 1.9- and 6.3-micron bands of H2O and the 4.3-micron band of CO2 were examined in detail and compared with experiment.

  13. BJUT at TREC 2015 Contextual Suggestion Track

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-20

    BJUT at TREC 2015 Contextual Suggestion Track Weitong Chen1,2,3, Hanchen Li1,2,3, Zhen Yang1,2,3,⇤ 1. College of Computer Science, Beijing University...CTISCP, Beijing 100124, China ⇤yangzhen@bjut.edu.cn Abstract In this paper we described our efforts for TREC contextual suggestion task. Our goal of this...experiments to evaluate the proposed framework on TREC 2015 Contextual Suggestion data set, and, as would be expected, the results demonstrate its generality

  14. Genetic Testing for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Sarah C.; Msall, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have unique developmental and behavioral phenotypes, and they have specific challenges with communication, social skills, and repetitive behaviors. At this time, no single etiology for ASD has been identified. However, evidence from family studies and linkage analyses suggests that genetic factors play…

  15. [Spectral absorption properties of the water constituents in the estuary of Zhujiang River].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan-shan; Wang, Yong-bo; Fu, Qing-hua; Yin, Bin; Li, Yun-mei

    2014-12-01

    Spectral absorption properties of the water constituents is the main factor affecting the light field under the surface of the water and the spectrum above the surface of the water. Thus, the study is useful for understanding of the water spectral property and the remote reversing of water quality parameters. Absorption properties of total suspended particles, non-algal particles, phytoplankton and CDOM were analyzed using the 30 samples collected in July 2013 in the estuary of Zhujiang River. The results indicated that: (1) the non-algal particles absorption dominated the absorption of the total suspended particles; (2) the absorption coefficient of the non-algal particles, which mainly came from the terrigenous deposits, decreased exponentially from short to long wavelength. In addition, the average value and spatial variation of the slope S(d) were higher than those in inland case- II waters; (3) the absorption coefficient of phytoplankton in 440 nm showed a better polynomial relationship with chlorophyll a concentration, while the absorption coefficient of phytoplankton in 675 nm linearly related with the chlorophyll a concentration. Moreover, the influence of accessory pigments on phytoplankton absorption coefficient mainly existed in the range of short wavelength, and Chlorophyll a was the main influencing factor for phytoplankton absorption in long wavelength. The specific absorption coefficient of phytoplankton decreased the power exponentially with the increase of the chlorophyll a concentration; (4) CDOM mainly came from the terrigenous sources and its spectral curve had an absorption shoulder between 250-290 nm. Thus, a piecewise S(g) fitting function could effectively express CDOM absorption properties, i.e., M value and S(g) value in period A (240-260 nm) showed a strong positive correlation. The M value was low, and the humic acid had a high proportion in CDOM; (5) the non-algal particles absorption dominated the total absorption in the estuary of

  16. Oxalate and Sucralose Absorption in Idiopathic Calcium Oxalate Stone Formers

    PubMed Central

    Knight, John; Jiang, Juquan; Wood, Kyle D.; Holmes, Ross P.; Assimos, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Oxalate has been hypothesized to undergo absorption in the large and small intestine by both paracellular and transepithelial transport. Sucralose is a chlorinated sugar that is absorbed by paracellular mechanisms. This study's objective was to better understand intestinal oxalate transport by correlating oxalate and sucralose absorption in idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers. Methods Idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers were recruited to provide urine specimens on both a self-selected diet and following a meal containing 90 mg of 13C2-oxalate and 5 grams of sucralose, and a stool sample for determination of Oxalobacter formigenes colonization. The 24 hour urine collections were fractionated into the first 6 hours and the subsequent 18 hours. Sucralose and oxalate excretion were measured during these periods and used to estimate absorption. Results A total of 38 subjects were evaluated. The majority of both the 13C2-oxalate and sucralose absorption occurred within the 0-6 hour collection. The 13C2-oxalate and sucralose absorptions were significantly correlated at the 0-6 hour, the 6-24 hour, and the total 24 hour time periods (p<0.04). All five oxalate hyperabsorbers(> 15% absorption) also absorbed significantly more sucralose during the 0-6 hour and whole 24 hour time points (p<0.04). Oxalobacter formigenes colonization did not significantly alter oxalate absorption. Conclusion The results suggest that the majority of oxalate is absorbed in the proximal portion of the gastrointestinal tract and that paracelluar transport is involved. Augmented paracellular transport, as evidenced by increased sucralose absorption, may also influence oxalate absorption. PMID:21676449

  17. Enhanced absorption cycle computer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, G.; Wilk, M.

    1993-09-01

    Absorption heat pumps have received renewed and increasing attention in the past two decades. The rising cost of electricity has made the particular features of this heat-powered cycle attractive for both residential and industrial applications. Solar-powered absorption chillers, gas-fired domestic heat pumps, and waste-heat-powered industrial temperature boosters are a few of the applications recently subjected to intensive research and development. The absorption heat pump research community has begun to search for both advanced cycles in various multistage configurations and new working fluid combinations with potential for enhanced performance and reliability. The development of working absorption systems has created a need for reliable and effective system simulations. A computer code has been developed for simulation of absorption systems at steady state in a flexible and modular form, making it possible to investigate various cycle configurations with different working fluids. The code is based on unit subroutines containing the governing equations for the system's components and property subroutines containing thermodynamic properties of the working fluids. The user conveys to the computer an image of his cycle by specifying the different subunits and their interconnections. Based on this information, the program calculates the temperature, flow rate, concentration, pressure, and vapor fraction at each state point in the system, and the heat duty at each unit, from which the coefficient of performance (COP) may be determined. This report describes the code and its operation, including improvements introduced into the present version. Simulation results are described for LiBr-H2O triple-effect cycles, LiCl-H2O solar-powered open absorption cycles, and NH3-H2O single-effect and generator-absorber heat exchange cycles. An appendix contains the user's manual.

  18. Studies of Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Resolved Absorption Spectra of Nucleic Acid Components.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yingxian

    1993-01-01

    There is considerable uncertainty about dynamic aspects of the photophysics of the adenylyl chromophore, stemming from the discordant values reported for the room temperature fluorescence lifetimes (tau_1 = 5 ps, tau_2 = 330 ps for 9MeAde; tau_1 = 290 ps, tau_2 = 4.17 ns for ATP). Spectra reported in conjunction with these lifetimes create difficulties in assignment of emission. To clarify this situation I have investigated the fluorescence decay times and time -resolved emission spectra of adenylyl compounds under a variety of conditions (concentration, pH, solvent) using sub-ns laser excitation at 265 nm together with gated fast sampling (100 ps) detection and signal averaging. Multi -component decays and spectra are observed in aqueous solution. Major slow components (tau = 4.4 +/- 0.2 ns) with emission maxima at 380 nm are found for all components at pH 1.1 and for ATP at pH 4.4. At pH 7 a fast component (<100 ps) predominates. There is no marked evidence for a concentration dependence, the oscillator strengths are 10^ {-3}-10^{-5} and transitions must be classified as weakly forbidden. Single component emission is observed in acetonitrile and ethanol. The UV absorption spectra of biomolecules d(CG) and polyd(GC)cdotpolyd(GC) exhibit the different hypochromic effects due to different interactions between guanosine(G) and cytidine(C) in stacked form. The present work has been carried out to explain this quantitatively. To approach this problem the absorption spectra of G and C have been resolved into gaussian components using the PeakFit program. The absorption spectra (220-310 nm) of d(CG) and polyd(GC)cdotpolyd(GC) have been fitted with gaussian components of G and C (in the order of increasing energy, G1 and G2, and C1, C2 and C3, respectively), and the contribution to both spectra from individual gaussians is estimated in terms of oscillator strengths. The fitting results suggest that the small hypochromism in absorption spectrum of d(CG) may be attributed

  19. A suggested method for reporting a landslide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fell, Robin; Lacerda, W.; Cruden, D.M.; Evans, S.G.; LaRochelle, P.; Martinez, Fernando; Beltran, Lisandro; Jesenak, J.; Novograd, S.; Krauter, E.; Slunga, E.; Pilot, G.A.; Brand, E.W.; Farkas, J.; Bhandari, R.K.; Cotecchia, V.; Esu, Franco; Fujita, H.; Nakamura, H.; Sassa, K.; Ting, W.H.; Salt, Graham; Janbu, Nilmar; Nespak, A.M.; Gongxian, Wang; Zhuoyuan , Zhang; Michelena, R.; Popescu, Mihai; Viberg, Leif; Bonnard, C.; Hutchinson, J.N.; Einstein , H.H.; Schuster, R.L.; Varnes, D.J.; Ter-Martiros­ian, Z.G.; Ter-Stepanian, G.I.; Anagnosti, P.; Hashizume, M.; Watanabe, Masayuki

    1990-01-01

    The Landslide Report is a Suggested Method developed by the International Geotechnical Societies' UNESCO Working Party on World Landslide Inventory for reporting the position, date, type, geometry, volume and damage of significant landslides.

  20. Suggested Format for Acute Toxicity Studies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document suggests the format for final reports on pesticide studies (right column of the tables in the document) and provides instructions for the creation of PDF Version 1.3 electronic submission documents (left column of the tables).

  1. Nine Suggestions for Improving Sequences. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muro, Don

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that many educators are using sequences to create accompaniments and practice tapes geared to student abilities. Describes musical instruction using Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI). Discusses eight suggestions designed to make the process of sequencing more efficient. (CFR)

  2. Evidence for sulphur implantation in Europa's UV absorption band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, A. L.; Nelson, R. M.; Matson, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    The UV spectral characteristics of the Galilean satellites are investigated (using data from the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spacecraft) as a function of the orbital position, large-scale areal variability, and temporal dynamics. The discovery of an absorption feature at 280 nm in Europa's reflection spectrum is reported and observations show that the absorption is strongest on the trailing hemisphere (central longitude 270 degrees). The feature resembles SO2 and seems to result from S-O bond formation between deeply implanted sulphur atoms and the adjacent damaged water-ice-lattice. The sulphur supposedly comes from energetic (hundreds of keV) sulphur ions that are present in the Jovian magnetosphere. An appropriate equilibrium condition can be found to match the observed spectral data if sputtering erosion occurs at no greater than approximately 20 meters per one billion years.

  3. Changes in UV absorption of sunscreens after UV irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarras-Wahlberg, N.; Stenhagen, G.; Larkö, O.; Rosén, A.; Wennberg, A.-M.; Wennerström, O.

    2000-03-01

    In the present investigation we have studied the change in the absorption spectrum of some photoactive organic species in sunscreens after UVA and UVB irradiation in a dose normally encountered during a full day in the sun. The absorbance of 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate was reduced significantly, while 3-(4-methylbenzyliden)camphor seemed to be rather stable. The benzophenones studied seemed to be relatively stable. In the case of 4-tert.butyl-4´-methoxy-dibenzoylmethane there was a rapid decrease in the UVA absorption leading to unsatisfactory protection in the UVA region. 4-Isopropyl-dibenzoylmethane also lost most of its UV protective capacity after irradiation with UVA. UVB seemed to have a minor effect on all the samples. The present study including gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis indicates that some of the photoactive organic species commonly used today in sunscreens are unstable following UV irradiation.

  4. Absorption-heat-pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, G.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1983-06-16

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  5. An Inexpensive Optical Absorption Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2006-09-01

    This optical absorption experiment can be put together in only a few minutes with materials found in most secondary or undergraduate stockrooms. The absorption material is the partly transparent flexible anti-static plastic material used to package solid-state devices. The detector is a hand-held photographic exposure meter of the type that was in common use before the advent of point-and-shoot cameras. A graph of the intensity of the transmitted light as a function of the number of sheets of the material is a decreasing exponential. The emphasis of the experiment is on the mathematical form.

  6. A novel multiplex absorption spectrometer for time-resolved studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Thomas; Heard, Dwayne E.; Blitz, Mark A.

    2018-02-01

    A Time-Resolved Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) Absorption Spectrometer (TRUVAS) has been developed that can simultaneously monitor absorption at all wavelengths between 200 and 800 nm with millisecond time resolution. A pulsed photolysis laser (KrF 248 nm) is used to initiate chemical reactions that create the target species. The absorption signals from these species evolve as the composition of the gas in the photolysis region changes over time. The instrument can operate at pressures over the range ˜10-800 Torr and can measure time-resolved absorbances <10-4 in the UV (300 nm) and even lower in the visible (580 nm) 2.3 × 10-5, with the peak of sensitivity at ˜500 nm. The novelty of this setup lies in the arrangement of the multipass optics. Although appearing similar to other multipass optical systems (in particular the Herriott cell), there are fundamental differences, most notably the ability to adjust each mirror to maximise the overlap between the probe beam and the photolysis laser. Another feature which aids the sensitivity and versatility of the system is the use of 2 high-throughput spectrographs coupled with sensitive line-array CCDs, which can measure absorbance from ˜200 to 800 nm simultaneously. The capability of the instrument is demonstrated via measurements of the absorption spectrum of the peroxy radical, HOCH2CH2O2, and its self-reaction kinetics.

  7. LSD enhances suggestibility in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Carhart-Harris, R L; Kaelen, M; Whalley, M G; Bolstridge, M; Feilding, A; Nutt, D J

    2015-02-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has a history of use as a psychotherapeutic aid in the treatment of mood disorders and addiction, and it was also explored as an enhancer of mind control. The present study sought to test the effect of LSD on suggestibility in a modern research study. Ten healthy volunteers were administered with intravenous (i.v.) LSD (40-80 μg) in a within-subject placebo-controlled design. Suggestibility and cued mental imagery were assessed using the Creative Imagination Scale (CIS) and a mental imagery test (MIT). CIS and MIT items were split into two versions (A and B), balanced for 'efficacy' (i.e. A ≈ B) and counterbalanced across conditions (i.e. 50 % completed version 'A' under LSD). The MIT and CIS were issued 110 and 140 min, respectively, post-infusion, corresponding with the peak drug effects. Volunteers gave significantly higher ratings for the CIS (p = 0.018), but not the MIT (p = 0.11), after LSD than placebo. The magnitude of suggestibility enhancement under LSD was positively correlated with trait conscientiousness measured at baseline (p = 0.0005). These results imply that the influence of suggestion is enhanced by LSD. Enhanced suggestibility under LSD may have implications for its use as an adjunct to psychotherapy, where suggestibility plays a major role. That cued imagery was unaffected by LSD implies that suggestions must be of a sufficient duration and level of detail to be enhanced by the drug. The results also imply that individuals with high trait conscientiousness are especially sensitive to the suggestibility-enhancing effects of LSD.

  8. AlInAsSb separate absorption, charge, and multiplication avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Min; Maddox, Scott J.; Woodson, Madison E.; Chen, Yaojia; Bank, Seth R.; Campbell, Joe C.

    2016-05-01

    We report AlxIn1-xAsySb1-y separate absorption, charge, and multiplication avalanche photodiodes (APDs) that operate in the short-wavelength infrared spectrum. They exhibit excess noise factor less or equal to that of Si and the low dark currents typical of III-V compound APDs.

  9. A Simple Experiment Demonstrating the Relationship between Response Curves and Absorption Spectra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Chia-yu

    1984-01-01

    Describes an experiment for recording two individual spectrophotometer response curves. The two curves are directly related to the power of transmitted beams that pass through a solvent and solution. An absorption spectrum of the solution can be constructed from the calculated rations of the curves as a function of wavelength. (JN)

  10. IUE detector saturation and the new 2800 A absorption feature 'discovered' by Karim, Hoyle, and Wickramasinghe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, B. D.; Sitko, M. L.

    1984-03-01

    The 2800 A feature of Karim et al. (1983) is shown to be the result of IUE detector saturation effects in overexposed spectra. A properly exposed spectrum and an overexposed one are shown. The latter shows a broad absorption peak at 2800 A while the former does not.

  11. Inelastic losses in X-ray absorption theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Luke Whalin

    There is a surprising lack of many body effects observed in XAS (X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy) experiments. While collective excitations and other satellite effects account for between 20% and 40% of the spectral weight of the core hole and photoelectron excitation spectrum, the only commonly observed many body effect is a relatively structureless amplitude reduction to the fine structure, typically no more than a 10% effect. As a result, many particle effects are typically neglected in the XAS codes used to predict and interpret modern experiments. To compensate, the amplitude reduction factor is simply fitted to experimental data. In this work, a quasi-boson model is developed to treat the case of XAS, when the system has both a photoelectron and a core hole. We find that there is a strong interference between the extrinsic and intrinsic losses. The interference reduces the excitation amplitudes at low energies where the core hole and photo electron induced excitations tend to cancel. At high energies, the interference vanishes, and the theory reduces to the sudden approximation. The x-ray absorption spectrum including many-body excitations is represented by a convolution of the one-electron absorption spectrum with an energy dependent spectral function. The latter has an asymmetric quasiparticle peak and broad satellite structure. The net result is a phasor sum, which yields the many body amplitude reduction and phase shift of the fine structure oscillations (EXAFS), and possibly additional satellite structure. Calculations for several cases of interest are found to be in reasonable agreement with experiment. Edge singularity effects and deviations from the final state rule arising from this theory are also discussed. The ab initio XAS code FEFF has been extended for calculations of the many body amplitude reduction and phase shift in x-ray spectroscopies. A new broadened plasmon pole self energy is added. The dipole matrix elements are modified to include a

  12. Absorption of Bile Pigments by the Gall Bladder*

    PubMed Central

    Ostrow, J. Donald

    1967-01-01

    A technique is described for preparation in the guinea pig of an in situ, isolated, vascularized gall bladder that exhibits normal absorptive functions. Absorption of labeled bile pigments from the gall bladder was determined by the subsequent excretion of radioactivity in hepatic bile. Over a wide range of concentrations, unconjugated bilirubin-14C was well absorbed, whereas transfer of conjugated bilirubin proceeded slowly. Mesobilirubinogen-3H was absorbed poorly from whole bile, but was absorbed as rapidly as unconjugated bilirubin from a solution of pure conjugated bile salt. Bilirubin absorption was not impaired by iodoacetamide, 1.5 mM, or dinitrophenol, 1.0 mM, even though water transport was affected. This indicated that absorption of bilirubin was not dependent upon water transport, nor upon energy-dependent processes. The linear relationship between absorption and concentration of pigment at low concentrations in bile salt solutions suggested that pigment was transferred by passive diffusion. At higher pigment concentrations or in whole bile, this simple relationship was modified by interactions of pigment with bile salts and other constituents of bile. These interactions did not necessarily involve binding of bilirubin in micelles. The slow absorption of the more polar conjugates and photo-oxidative derivatives of bilirubin suggested that bilirubin was absorbed principally by nonionic, and partially, by ionic diffusion. Concentrations of pure conjugated bile salts above 3.5 mM were found to be injurious to the gall bladder mucosa. This mucosal injury did not affect the kinetics of bilirubin absorption. During in vitro incubation of bile at 37°C, decay of bilirubin and hydrolysis of the conjugate proceeded as first-order reactions. The effects of these processes on the kinetics of bilirubin absorption, and their possible role in the formation of “white bile” and in the demonstrated appearance of unconjugated bilirubin in hepatic bile, are discussed

  13. Observing random walks of atoms in buffer gas through resonant light absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Kenichiro; Mitsui, Takahisa

    2016-07-01

    Using resonant light absorption, random-walk motions of rubidium atoms in nitrogen buffer gas are observed directly. The transmitted light intensity through atomic vapor is measured, and its spectrum is obtained, down to orders of magnitude below the shot-noise level to detect fluctuations caused by atomic motions. To understand the measured spectra, the spectrum for atoms performing random walks in a Gaussian light beam is computed, and its analytical form is obtained. The spectrum has 1 /f2 (f is frequency) behavior at higher frequencies, crossing over to a different, but well-defined, behavior at lower frequencies. The properties of this theoretical spectrum agree excellently with the measured spectrum. This understanding also enables us to obtain the diffusion constant, the photon cross section of atoms in buffer gas, and the atomic number density from a single spectral measurement. We further discuss other possible applications of our experimental method and analysis.

  14. Aerosol Absorption Measurements in MILAGRO.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Arnott, W. P.; Paredes-Miranda, L.; Barnard, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    During the month of March 2006, a number of instruments were used to determine the absorption characteristics of aerosols found in the Mexico City Megacity and nearby Valley of Mexico. These measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy's Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City (MAX-Mex) that was carried out in collaboration with the Megacity Interactions: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign. MILAGRO was a joint effort between the DOE, NSF, NASA, and Mexican agencies aimed at understanding the impacts of a megacity on the urban and regional scale. A super-site was operated at the Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City (designated T-0) and at the Universidad Technologica de Tecamac (designated T-1) that was located about 35 km to the north east of the T-0 site in the State of Mexico. A third site was located at a private rancho in the State of Hidalgo approximately another 35 km to the northeast (designated T-2). Aerosol absorption measurements were taken in real time using a number of instruments at the T-0 and T-1 sites. These included a seven wavelength aethalometer, a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP), and a photo-acoustic spectrometer. Aerosol absorption was also derived from spectral radiometers including a multi-filter rotating band spectral radiometer (MFRSR). The results clearly indicate that there is significant aerosol absorption by the aerosols in the Mexico City megacity region. The absorption can lead to single scattering albedo reduction leading to values below 0.5 under some circumstances. The absorption is also found to deviate from that expected for a "well-behaved" soot anticipated from diesel engine emissions, i.e. from a simple 1/lambda wavelength dependence for absorption. Indeed, enhanced absorption is seen in the region of 300-450 nm in many cases, particularly in the afternoon periods indicating that secondary organic aerosols are contributing to the aerosol absorption. This is likely due

  15. Identification of Absorption Features in an Extrasolar Planet Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, T.

    2007-06-01

    Water absorption is identified in the atmosphere of HD 209458b by comparing models for the planet's transmitted spectrum to recent, multiwavelength, eclipse-depth measurements (from 0.3 to 1 μm) published by Knutson et al. A cloud-free model that includes solar abundances, rainout of condensates, and photoionization of sodium and potassium is in good agreement with the entire set of eclipse-depth measurements from the ultraviolet to near-infrared. Constraints are placed on condensate removal by gravitational settling, the bulk metallicity, and the redistribution of absorbed stellar flux. Comparisons are also made to the Charbonneau et al. sodium measurements.

  16. Metal powder absorptivity: Modeling and experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Boley, C. D.; Mitchell, S. C.; Rubenchik, A. M.; ...

    2016-08-10

    Here, we present results of numerical modeling and direct calorimetric measurements of the powder absorptivity for a number of metals. The modeling results generally correlate well with experiment. We show that the powder absorptivity is determined, to a great extent, by the absorptivity of a flat surface at normal incidence. Our results allow the prediction of the powder absorptivity from normal flat-surface absorptivity measurements.

  17. Metal powder absorptivity: Modeling and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Boley, C. D.; Mitchell, S. C.; Rubenchik, A. M.

    Here, we present results of numerical modeling and direct calorimetric measurements of the powder absorptivity for a number of metals. The modeling results generally correlate well with experiment. We show that the powder absorptivity is determined, to a great extent, by the absorptivity of a flat surface at normal incidence. Our results allow the prediction of the powder absorptivity from normal flat-surface absorptivity measurements.

  18. Measuring Children's Suggestibility in Forensic Interviews.

    PubMed

    Volpini, Laura; Melis, Manuela; Petralia, Stefania; Rosenberg, Melina D

    2016-01-01

    According to the scientific literature, childrens' cognitive development is not complete until adolescence. Therefore, the problems inherent in children serving as witnesses are crucial. In preschool-aged children, false memories may be identified because of misinformation and insight bias. Additionally, they are susceptible of suggestions. The aim of this study was to verify the levels of suggestibility in children between three and 5 years of age. Ninety-two children were examined (44 male, 48 female; M = 4.5 years, SD = 9.62). We used the correlation coefficient (Pearson's r) and the averages variance by SPSS statistical program. The results concluded that: younger children are almost always more susceptible to suggestibility. The dimension of immediate recall was negatively correlates with that of total suggestibility (r = -0.357 p < 0.001). Social compliance and source monitoring errors contribute to patterns of suggestibility, because older children shift their answers more often (r = 0.394 p < 0.001). Younger children change their answers more times (r = -0.395 p < 0.001). © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Impulsivity, self-control, and hypnotic suggestibility.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, V U; Stelzel, C; Krutiak, H; Prunkl, C E; Steimke, R; Paschke, L M; Kathmann, N; Walter, H

    2013-06-01

    Hypnotic responding might be due to attenuated frontal lobe functioning after the hypnotic induction. Little is known about whether personality traits linked with frontal functioning are associated with responsiveness to hypnotic suggestions. We assessed whether hypnotic suggestibility is related to the traits of self-control and impulsivity in 154 participants who completed the Brief Self-Control Scale, the Self-Regulation Scale, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS:A). BIS-11 non-planning impulsivity correlated positively with HGSHS:A (Bonferroni-corrected). Furthermore, in the best model emerging from a stepwise multiple regression, both non-planning impulsivity and self-control positively predicted hypnotic suggestibility, and there was an interaction of BIS-11 motor impulsivity with gender. For men only, motor impulsivity tended to predict hypnotic suggestibility. Hypnotic suggestibility is associated with personality traits linked with frontal functioning, and hypnotic responding in men and women might differ. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Vibronic Origin for the Diffuse Band Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duley, W. W.

    1983-09-01

    The two arguments outlined by Nuth and Donn (1983) against an interpretation of the diffuse band spectrum between 677 and 536 nm as vibronic systems associated with forbidden origins at 14321, 15153, and 15343 cm-1 (Duley, 1982) are controverted. It is concluded that the vibronic analysis presented by Duley, 1983 for the diffuse band spectrum is in keeping with current spectroscopic practice. The identification of a forbidden origin for 19 of these bands at 14321 cm-1 strongly suggests the involvement of Cr3+ ions in MgO solids in the production of these features.

  1. Psychopharmacology of Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Selective Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohiuddin, Sarah; Ghaziuddin, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    While there is no cure for autism spectrum disorder, psychopharmacologic agents are often used with behavioral and educational approaches to treat its comorbid symptoms of hyperactivity, irritability, and aggression. Studies suggest that at least 50% of persons with autism spectrum disorder receive psychotropic medications during their life span.…

  2. Atomic Oxygen Abundance in Molecular Clouds: Absorption Toward Sagittarius B2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lis, D. C.; Keene, Jocelyn; Phillips, T. G.; Schilke, P.; Werner, M. W.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2001-01-01

    We have obtained high-resolution (approximately 35 km/s) spectra toward the molecular cloud Sgr B2 at 63 micrometers, the wavelength of the ground-state fine-structure line of atomic oxygen (O(I)), using the ISO-LWS instrument. Four separate velocity components are seen in the deconvolved spectrum, in absorption against the dust continuum emission of Sgr B2. Three of these components, corresponding to foreground clouds, are used to study the O(I) content of the cool molecular gas along the line of sight. In principle, the atomic oxygen that produces a particular velocity component could exist in any, or all, of three physically distinct regions: inside a dense molecular cloud, in the UV illuminated surface layer (PDR) of a cloud, and in an atomic (H(I)) gas halo. For each of the three foreground clouds, we estimate, and subtract from the observed O(I) column density, the oxygen content of the H(I) halo gas, by scaling from a published high-resolution 21 cm spectrum. We find that the remaining O(I) column density is correlated with the observed (13)CO column density. From the slope of this correlation, an average [O(I)]/[(13)CO] ratio of 270 +/- 120 (3-sigma) is derived, which corresponds to [O(I)]/[(13)CO] = 9 for a CO to (13)CO abundance ratio of 30. Assuming a (13)CO abundance of 1x10(exp -6) with respect to H nuclei, we derive an atomic oxygen abundance of 2.7x10(exp -4) in the dense gas phase, corresponding to a 15% oxygen depletion compared to the diffuse ISM in our Galactic neighborhood. The presence of multiple, spectrally resolved velocity components in the Sgr B2 absorption spectrum allows, for the first time, a direct determination of the PDR contribution to the O(I) column density. The PDR regions should contain O(I) but not (13)CO, and would thus be expected to produce an offset in the O(I)-(13)CO correlation. Our data do not show such an offset, suggesting that within our beam O(I) is spatially coexistent with the molecular gas, as traced by (13)CO

  3. Understanding the features in the ultrafast transient absorption spectra of CdSe quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Do, Thanh Nhut; Ong, Xuanwei; Chan, Yinthai; Tan, Howe-Siang

    2016-12-01

    We describe a model to explain the features of the ultrafast transient absorption (TA) spectra of CdSe core type quantum dots (QDs). The measured TA spectrum consists of contributions by the ground state bleach (GSB), stimulated emission (SE) and excited state absorption (ESA) processes associated with the three lowest energy transition of the QDs. We model the shapes of the GSB, SE and ESA spectral components after fits to the linear absorption. The spectral positions of the ESA components take into account the biexcitonic binding energy. In order to obtain the correct weightage of the GSB, SE and ESA components to the TA spectrum, we enumerate the set of coherence transfer pathways associated with these processes. From our fits of the experimental TA spectra of 65 Å diameter QDs, biexcitonic binding energies for the three lowest energy transitions are obtained.

  4. The functional anatomy of suggested limb paralysis.

    PubMed

    Deeley, Quinton; Oakley, David A; Toone, Brian; Bell, Vaughan; Walsh, Eamonn; Marquand, Andre F; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael J; Williams, Steven C R; Mehta, Mitul A; Halligan, Peter W

    2013-02-01

    Suggestions of limb paralysis in highly hypnotically suggestible subjects have been employed to successfully model conversion disorders, revealing similar patterns of brain activation associated with attempted movement of the affected limb. However, previous studies differ with regard to the executive regions involved during involuntary inhibition of the affected limb. This difference may have arisen as previous studies did not control for differences in hypnosis depth between conditions and/or include subjective measures to explore the experience of suggested paralysis. In the current study we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the functional anatomy of left and right upper limb movements in eight healthy subjects selected for high hypnotic suggestibility during (i) hypnosis (NORMAL) and (ii) attempted movement following additional left upper limb paralysis suggestions (PARALYSIS). Contrast of left upper limb motor function during NORMAL relative to PARALYSIS conditions revealed greater activation of contralateral M1/S1 and ipsilateral cerebellum, consistent with the engagement of these regions in the completion of movements. By contrast, two significant observations were noted in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions. In conjunction with reports of attempts to move the paralysed limb, greater supplementary motor area (SMA) activation was observed, a finding consistent with the role of SMA in motor intention and planning. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, BA 24) was also significantly more active in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions - suggesting that ACC (BA 24) may be implicated in involuntary, as well as voluntary inhibition of prepotent motor responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Personalized query suggestion based on user behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wanyu; Hao, Zepeng; Shao, Taihua; Chen, Honghui

    Query suggestions help users refine their queries after they input an initial query. Previous work mainly concentrated on similarity-based and context-based query suggestion approaches. However, models that focus on adapting to a specific user (personalization) can help to improve the probability of the user being satisfied. In this paper, we propose a personalized query suggestion model based on users’ search behavior (UB model), where we inject relevance between queries and users’ search behavior into a basic probabilistic model. For the relevance between queries, we consider their semantical similarity and co-occurrence which indicates the behavior information from other users in web search. Regarding the current user’s preference to a query, we combine the user’s short-term and long-term search behavior in a linear fashion and deal with the data sparse problem with Bayesian probabilistic matrix factorization (BPMF). In particular, we also investigate the impact of different personalization strategies (the combination of the user’s short-term and long-term search behavior) on the performance of query suggestion reranking. We quantify the improvement of our proposed UB model against a state-of-the-art baseline using the public AOL query logs and show that it beats the baseline in terms of metrics used in query suggestion reranking. The experimental results show that: (i) for personalized ranking, users’ behavioral information helps to improve query suggestion effectiveness; and (ii) given a query, merging information inferred from the short-term and long-term search behavior of a particular user can result in a better performance than both plain approaches.

  6. Precision Saturated Absorption Spectroscopy of H3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Yu-chan; Liao, Yi-Chieh; Chang, Yung-Hsiang; Peng, Jin-Long; Shy, Jow-Tsong

    2016-06-01

    In our previous work on the Lamb dips of the νb{2} fundamental band of H3+, the saturated absorption spectrum was obtained by the third-derivative spectroscopy using frequency modulation [1]. However, the frequency modulation also causes error in absolute frequency determination. To solve this problem, we have built an offset-locking system to lock the OPO pump frequency to an iodine-stabilized Nd:YAG laser. With this modification, we are able to scan the OPO idler frequency precisely and obtain the profile of the Lamb dips. Double modulation (amplitude modulation of the idler power and concentration modulation of the ion) is employed to subtract the interference fringes of the signal and increase the signal-to-noise ratio effectively. To Determine the absolute frequency of the idler wave, the pump wave is offset locked on the R(56) 32-0 a10 hyperfine component of 127I2, and the signal wave is locked on a GPS disciplined fiber optical frequency comb (OFC). All references and lock systems have absolute frequency accuracy better than 10 kHz. Here, we demonstrate its performance by measuring one transition of methane and sixteen transitions of H3+. This instrument could pave the way for the high-resolution spectroscopy of a variety of molecular ions. [1] H.-C. Chen, C.-Y. Hsiao, J.-L. Peng, T. Amano, and J.-T. Shy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 263002 (2012).

  7. Interstellar Medium Absorption Profile Spectrograph (IMAPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, E. B.

    1985-01-01

    The design and fabrication of an objective-grating echelle spectrograph to fly on sounding rockets and record spectra of stars from approximately 920 to 1120A with a resolving power lambda/delta lambda = 200,000 is discussed. The scientific purpose of the program is to observe, with ten times better velocity resolution than before, the plentiful absorption lines in this spectral region produced by atoms, ions and molecules in the interstellar medium. In addition, an important technical goal is to develop and flight-quality a new ultraviolet, photon-counting image sensor which has a windowless, opaque photocathode and a CCD bombarded directly by the accelerated photoelectrons. Except for some initial difficulties with the performance of CCDs, the development of the payload instrument is relatively straightforward and our overall design goals are satisfied. The first flight occurred in late 1984, but no data were obtained because of an inrush of air degraded the instrument's vacuum and caused the detector's high voltage to arc. A second flight in early 1985 was a complete success and obtained a spectrum of pi Sco. Data from this mission are currently being reduced; quick-look versions of the spectra indicate that excellent results will be obtained. Currently, the payload is being reconfigured to fly on a Spartan mission in 1988.

  8. Spread spectrum image steganography.

    PubMed

    Marvel, L M; Boncelet, C R; Retter, C T

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new method of digital steganography, entitled spread spectrum image steganography (SSIS). Steganography, which means "covered writing" in Greek, is the science of communicating in a hidden manner. Following a discussion of steganographic communication theory and review of existing techniques, the new method, SSIS, is introduced. This system hides and recovers a message of substantial length within digital imagery while maintaining the original image size and dynamic range. The hidden message can be recovered using appropriate keys without any knowledge of the original image. Image restoration, error-control coding, and techniques similar to spread spectrum are described, and the performance of the system is illustrated. A message embedded by this method can be in the form of text, imagery, or any other digital signal. Applications for such a data-hiding scheme include in-band captioning, covert communication, image tamperproofing, authentication, embedded control, and revision tracking.

  9. Radio frequency spectrum management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujdak, E. J., Jr.

    1980-03-01

    This thesis is a study of radio frequency spectrum management as practiced by agencies and departments of the Federal Government. After a brief introduction to the international agency involved in radio frequency spectrum management, the author concentrates on Federal agencies engaged in frequency management. These agencies include the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), the Interdepartment Radio Advisory Committee (IRAC), and the Department of Defense (DoD). Based on an analysis of Department of Defense frequency assignment procedures, recommendations are given concerning decentralizing military frequency assignment by delegating broader authority to unified commanders. This proposal includes a recommendation to colocate the individual Service frequency management offices at the Washington level. This would result in reduced travel costs, lower manpower requirements, and a common tri-Service frequency management data base.

  10. Aerosol Absorption and Radiative Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stier, Philip; Seinfeld, J. H.; Kinne, Stefan; Boucher, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    We present a comprehensive examination of aerosol absorption with a focus on evaluating the sensitivity of the global distribution of aerosol absorption to key uncertainties in the process representation. For this purpose we extended the comprehensive aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM by effective medium approximations for the calculation of aerosol effective refractive indices, updated black carbon refractive indices, new cloud radiative properties considering the effect of aerosol inclusions, as well as by modules for the calculation of long-wave aerosol radiative properties and instantaneous aerosol forcing. The evaluation of the simulated aerosol absorption optical depth with the AERONET sun-photometer network shows a good agreement in the large scale global patterns. On a regional basis it becomes evident that the update of the BC refractive indices to Bond and Bergstrom (2006) significantly improves the previous underestimation of the aerosol absorption optical depth. In the global annual-mean, absorption acts to reduce the shortwave anthropogenic aerosol top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing clear-sky from -0.79 to -0.53 W m(sup -2) (33%) and all-sky from -0.47 to -0.13W m(sup -2 (72%). Our results confirm that basic assumptions about the BC refractive index play a key role for aerosol absorption and radiative forcing. The effect of the usage of more accurate effective medium approximations is comparably small. We demonstrate that the diversity in the AeroCom land-surface albedo fields contributes to the uncertainty in the simulated anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcings: the usage of an upper versus lower bound of the AeroCom land albedos introduces a global annual-mean TOA forcing range of 0.19W m(sup -2) (36%) clear-sky and of 0.12W m(sup -2) (92%) all-sky. The consideration of black carbon inclusions on cloud radiative properties results in a small global annual-mean all-sky absorption of 0.05W m(sup -2) and a positive TOA forcing perturbation of 0

  11. Absorption atelectasis: incidence and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Jennifer

    2013-06-01

    General anesthesia is known to cause pulmonary atelectasis; in turn, atelectasis increases shunt, decreases compliance, and may lead to perioperative hypoxemia. One mechanism for the formation of atelectasis intraoperatively is ventilation with 100% oxygen. The goal of this review is to determine if research suggests that intraoperative ventilation with 100% oxygen leads to clinically significant pulmonary side effects. An initial literature search included electronic databases (Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature [CINAHL], PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, and The GeneraCochrane Library) using the following search terms: oxygen (administration and dosage), atelectasis, pulmonary complications, and anesthesia. Results were limited to research studies, human subjects, and English-language publications between 1965 and 2011. From this body of research, it appears that absorption atelectasis does occur in healthy anesthetized adults breathing 100% oxygen. Data reviewed suggest that absorption atelectasis does not have significant clinical implications in healthy adults. However, further research is warranted in populations at increased risk of postoperative hypoxemia, including obese or elderly patients and those with preexisting cardiopulmonary disease.

  12. Acoustooptical Spectrum Analysis Modeling.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    broadband applications of acoustooptical spectrum analysis will result in nonuniform frequency responses requiring such modifications before using the AOSA...Ofl itW W Z Ztc 11 kAlI 11 (A* I -z -1 41 lz - 4-- a f~d V) LAIR 2 *ZF43 t0i Oc c U -x v~ w. >IUJU U .4J >U 114 " lU -- M 0aLI-- ftplx 4 cc C <oo - n

  13. Near infrared spectrum simulation applied to human skin for diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Chen-Mu; Fang, Yi-Chin; Wang, Chih-Yu; Chiu, Pin-Chun; Wu, Guo-Ying; Zheng, Wei-Chi; Chemg, Shih-Hao

    2007-11-01

    This research proposes a new method for skin diagnose using near infrared as the light source (750nm~1300nm). Compared to UV and visible light, near infrared might penetrate relatively deep into biological soft tissue in some cases although NIR absorption property of tissue is not a constant for water, fat, and collagen etc. In the research, NIR absorption and scattering properties for skin are discussed firstly using the theory of molecule vibration from Quantum physics and Solid State Physics; secondly the practical model for various NIR absorption spectrum to skin tissue are done by optical simulation for human skin. Finally, experiments are done for further identification of proposed model for human skin and its reaction to near infrared. Results show success with identification from both theory and experiments.

  14. Suggestions for Structuring a Research Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly…

  15. Applications and suggested directions of transition research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper summarizes many of the applications of transition research having significant technological importance and suggests critical general areas for further research. Critical research requirements include identification and quantification of initial disturbance fields, disturbance internalization by inviscid and viscous flow fields and amplification in nonboundary-layer flows, along with elucidation of the roughness-induced destabilization physics.

  16. Suggestions for Early Motion Picture Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jowett, Garth S.

    Only by examining the motion picture as a mass medium, shaped and defined within a specific socio-cultural period in history, can we increase our understanding of the function and contribution of this entertainment form. This paper offers several suggestions for further research into early motion picture history. One glaring deficiency among…

  17. Studies and Suggestions on Prewriting Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Shigao; Dai, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies and suggests the need for writing instruction by which students can experience writing as a creative process in exploring and communicating meaning. The prewriting activities generate ideas which can encourage a free flow of thoughts and help students discover both what they want to say and how to say it on paper. Through the…

  18. Accounting: Suggested Content for Postsecondary Tax Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Patricia H.; Morgan, Samuel D.

    1978-01-01

    Surveys of community college graduates and of certified public accountants were made to determine employment relevance of the accounting curriculum. The article suggests topics from the study data which should be included in taxation courses, e.g., income tax accounting, corporate taxation accounting, and tax law. (MF)

  19. Seven Salutary Suggestions for Counselor Stamina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Cynthia J.

    2004-01-01

    Counselor stamina is deemed essential in the midst of a consistently challenging, complex, and changing mental health care environment. Rather than perpetuating conversations about "burnout" and "burnout prevention," this article provides a salutary or health-promoting perspective. Seven suggestions for counselor stamina are presented and…

  20. Leadership Theories--Managing Practices, Challenges, Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    A shortage of community college executives due to the number of retirements occurring among current leaders is predicted. An examination of three leadership theories--servant-leadership, business leadership and transformational leadership--suggests techniques for potential community college leaders. Servant-leaders focus on the needs of their…