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Sample records for absorption system topical

  1. A Lack of Systemic Absorption Following the Repeated Application of Topical Quetiapine in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Kayhart, Bryce; Lapid, Maria I; Nelson, Sarah; Cunningham, Julie L; Thompson, Virginia H; Leung, Jonathan G

    2018-01-01

    In the absence of suitable oral or intravenous access for medication administration and when the intramuscular medications are undesirable, alternative routes for drug delivery may be considered. Antipsychotics administered via an inhaled, intranasal, rectal, or topical route have been described in the literature. Topically administered antipsychotics have been previously reported to produce negligible systemic absorption despite being used in clinical practice for nausea and behavioral symptoms associated with dementia. Additionally, the American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine recommends against the use of topical medications that lack supporting literature. Three studies have assessed the systemic absorption of different antipsychotics after administration of only a single, topically applied dose. To evaluate whether the repeated administration of a topically applied antipsychotic may result in detectable serum levels in an accumulating fashion, a pharmacokinetic study was conducted. Five healthy, adult participants consented to receive extemporaneously prepared topical quetiapine in Lipoderm every 4 hours for a total of 5 doses. Blood samples were drawn at baseline and hours 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 24, and serum quetiapine concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Quetiapine was undetectable in every sample from 3 participants. Two participants had minimally detectable serum quetiapine levels no sooner than hour 12 of the study period. Extemporaneously prepared quetiapine in Lipoderm resulted in nonexistent or minimal serum level following repeated topical administration. The use of topically applied quetiapine should still be questioned.

  2. Evaluation of systemic absorption and renal effects of topical ophthalmic flurbiprofen and diclofenac in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Lanuza, Rick; Rankin, Amy J; KuKanich, Butch; Meekins, Jessica M

    2016-07-01

    To investigate systemic absorption and renal effects of topically applied ophthalmic flurbiprofen and diclofenac in healthy cats. Twelve domestic shorthair cats. Cats were randomly assigned to two treatment groups (n = 6) and administered one drop (approximately 40 μL) of either flurbiprofen 0.03% or diclofenac 0.1% in both eyes four times daily (6 am, 12 pm, 6 pm, and 12 am) for 14 days. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 4, 8, 14, 16, and 17 and analyzed by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry for flurbiprofen and diclofenac plasma concentrations. A complete blood count (CBC), serum chemistry, and urinalysis were analyzed at the beginning of the study (Day 0) and at the end of topical drug administration (Day 15). Both drugs demonstrated systemic absorption. Flurbiprofen was detected (mean ± SD) at day 4 (237 ± 65 ng/mL), day 8 (396 ± 91 ng/mL), day 14 (423 ± 56 ng/mL), day 16 (350 ± 66 ng/mL), and day 17 (270 ± 62 ng/mL), and diclofenac was detected (mean ± SD) at day 4 (130 ± 44 ng/mL), day 8 (131 ± 25 ng/mL), day 14 (150 ± 36 ng/mL), and sporadically on day 16 [corrected]. Flurbiprofen plasma concentration decreased slowly over 48 h after the last dose. No clinically significant abnormalities were noted in the serum blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, or urine specific gravity at the end of topical drug administration compared to the beginning of the study. Flurbiprofen and diclofenac were systemically absorbed after topical administration four times daily to both eyes of healthy cats. Flurbiprofen reached higher plasma concentrations compared to diclofenac. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  3. Systemic absorption of insulin and glucagon applied topically to the eyes of rats and a diabetic dog.

    PubMed

    Pillion, D J; Wang, P; Yorks, J; McCann, P; Meezan, E

    1995-01-01

    Nondiabetic rats were anesthetized with xylazine/ketamine to induce hyperglycemia and systemic insulin absorption from eyedrops formulated with dodecylmaltoside was quantitated by both a decrease in serum levels of D-glucose and an increase in immunoreactive insulin levels. When insulin eyedrop administration was delayed until 60 minutes after the administration of eyedrops containing 0.25% dodecylmaltoside, the enhanced systemic absorption of insulin was maintained, suggesting that dodecylmaltoside had an effect directly on the permeability of the nasal sinus epithelium. When glucagon was formulated in eyedrops or nosedrops containing dodecylmaltoside, systemic absorption of glucagon could be measured in the form of an increase in the serum D-glucose concentration following nasal application, but not after ocular application. Eyedrops containing insulin plus 0.125% dodecylmaltoside were administered to a diabetic dog; a dose of 20 units of regular insulin caused a modest decrease in serum D-glucose concentration and a concomitant increase in serum immunoreactive insulin content. These results provide evidence that peptide drugs such as insulin can be formulated in eyedrops with low concentrations of dodecylmaltoside, a mild nonionic surfactant.

  4. Topical corticosteroids and topical calcineurin inhibitors in the treatment of atopic dermatitis: focus on percutaneous absorption.

    PubMed

    Pariser, David

    2009-01-01

    The 2 primary classes of drugs used to treat atopic dermatitis (AD) are topical corticosteroids (TCSs) and topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs). For maximum efficacy, topical agents must efficiently penetrate the skin but, for optimal safety, should not be absorbed into the bloodstream. TCSs, a mainstay in AD treatment for more than 50 years, can potentially be absorbed into the systemic circulation, particularly when used on young children, for prolonged periods, or on areas of thin and sensitive skin, such as the eyelids, face, and flexures. There is a risk of cutaneous and systemic adverse events, including suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and related sequelae, especially when potent or superpotent TCSs are used for extended periods. Ideally, TCSs should be used for short periods (2-4 weeks), but clinical reality often necessitates longer use. TCIs also effectively and safely treat AD, with the most commonly observed local adverse events being skin irritation and burning. These agents have demonstrated good penetration of the skin with minimal systemic absorption, as evidenced by low blood concentrations, and can be used safely on thin and sensitive skin. The use of mid-potency TCSs to treat acute flares involving skin of normal thickness, followed by the introduction of TCIs for maintenance therapy, constitutes an appropriate application of both drug classes. Pharmacists with a clear understanding of how both types of agents affect the systemic circulation have the opportunity to inform patients and caregivers about benefits and limitations of different therapeutic agents, address patient concerns about adverse events, and help patients understand how to use medical therapies appropriately.

  5. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  6. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  7. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon; Perez-Blanco, Horacio

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  8. Simultaneous effects of tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS) on local hair growth promotion and systemic absorption of topically applied minoxidil in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Ho; Sheu, Ming-Thau; Wu, An-Bang; Lin, Keng-Ping; Ho, Hsiu-O

    2005-12-08

    In this study, topical minoxidil solutions supplemented with TPGS in cosolvent systems of various compositions consisting of water, alcohol, and polyethylene glycol 400 were designed to evaluate the efficacy of promoting hair growth after topical application and the safety in terms of the amount of minoxidil absorbed through the skin into the circulation using C57BL/6J mice as a model. The commercial product of 2% Regaine) was used as the positive control. The role, which sulfotransferase activity plays in hair growth with treatment using minoxidil, was determined as well. The results revealed that the addition of 0.5% TPGS was able to enhance the proliferation of hair, but an increase in the amount of TPGS to 2% led to deterioration in the enhancement of hair growth. At the higher added amount (2.0%) of TPGS, the promotion of hair growth was slightly reduced for both cosolvent formulations F1 (100% water) and F3 (100% PEG 400), whereas it was reduced to a greater extent for the cosolvent formulations F8-F10. In comparison, the influences of cosolvent compositions with TPGS amounts of 0.0 and 2.0% on the promotion of hair growth were similar. On the contrary, variability in the promotion of hair growth by different solvent formulations was minimal when the added amount of TPGS was 0.5%. In general, a relationship between hair growth and sulfotransferase activities after topical application of 2% Regaine and minoxidil formulations containing various amounts of TPGS was not demonstrated. Plasma concentrations of minoxidil with 2% Regaine were found to be greater than those of 2% minoxidil in those cosolvent formulations containing various amounts of TPGS, while showing insignificant differences among those 10 cosolvent formulations with a fixed amount of TPGS. A tendency for the plasma concentration of minoxidil to increase after the topical administration of minoxidil formulations containing the higher amount of TPGS (2%) was noted.

  9. Vehicular impact absorption system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoell, A. C.; Wilson, A. H. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An improved vehicular impact absorption system characterized by a plurality of aligned crash cushions of substantially cubic configuration is described. Each consists of a plurality of voided aluminum beverage cans arranged in substantial parallelism within a plurality of superimposed tiers and a covering envelope formed of metal hardware cloth. A plurality of cables is extended through the cushions in substantial parallelism with an axis of alignment for the cushions adapted to be anchored at each of the opposite end thereof.

  10. In vivo measurement of human skin absorption of topically applied substances by a photoacoustic technique.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Juárez, G; Vargas-Luna, M; Córdova, T; Varela, J B; Bernal-Alvarado, J J; Sosa, M

    2002-08-01

    A photoacoustic technique is used for studying topically applied substance absorption in human skin. The proposed method utilizes a double-chamber PA cell. The absorption determination was obtained through the measurement of the thermal effusivity of the binary system substance-skin. The theoretical model assumes that the effective thermal effusivity of the binary system corresponds to that of a two-phase system. Experimental applications of the method employed different substances of topical application in different parts of the body of a volunteer. The method is demonstrated to be an easily used non-invasive technique for dermatology research. The relative concentrations as a function of time of substances such as ketoconazol and sunscreen were determined by fitting a sigmoidal function to the data, while an exponential function corresponds to the best fit for the set of data for nitrofurazona, vaseline and vaporub. The time constants associated with the rates of absorption, were found to vary in the range between 10 and 58 min, depending on the substance and the part of the body.

  11. P-Glycoprotein in skin contributes to transdermal absorption of topical corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Naoto; Nakamichi, Noritaka; Yamazaki, Erina; Oikawa, Masashi; Masuo, Yusuke; Schinkel, Alfred H; Kato, Yukio

    2017-04-15

    ATP binding cassette transporters, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), are expressed in skin, but their involvement in transdermal absorption of clinically used drugs remains unknown. Here, we examined their role in transdermal absorption of corticosteroids. Skin and plasma concentrations of dexamethasone after dermal application were reduced in P-gp and BCRP triple-knockout (Mdr1a/1b/Bcrp -/- ) mice. The skin concentration in Mdr1a/1b/Bcrp -/- mice was reduced in the dermis, but not in the epidermis, indicating that functional expression of these transporters in skin is compartmentalized. Involvement of these transporters in dermal transport of dexamethasone was also supported by the observation of a higher epidermal concentration in Mdr1a/1b/Bcrp -/- than wild-type mice during intravenous infusion. Transdermal absorption after dermal application of prednisolone, but not methylprednisolone or ethinyl estradiol, was also lower in Mdr1a/1b/Bcrp -/- than in wild-type mice. Transport studies in epithelial cell lines transfected with P-gp or BCRP showed that dexamethasone and prednisolone are substrates of P-gp, but are minimally transported by BCRP. Thus, our findings suggest that P-gp is involved in transdermal absorption of at least some corticosteroids in vivo. P-gp might be available as a target for inhibition in order to deliver topically applied drugs and cosmetics in a manner that minimizes systemic exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Absorption-heat-pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, G.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1983-06-16

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  13. Photoacoustic study of percutaneous absorption of Carbopol and transdermic gels for topic use in skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, R. C. P.; de Paiva, R. F.; da Silva, M. D.; Barja, P. R.

    2008-01-01

    Topical medicine application has been used to treat a good number of pathological processes. Its efficacy is associated to an efficient penetration of the drug in the internal skin layers, promoting systemic effects and excluding the possibility of drug degradation by the digestive tract and hepatic elimination. This work analyzes the penetration kinetics of two soluble bases employed as vehicles for topic application: superficial gel (Carbopol 940) and transdermic (transdermal) gel. Analysis was performed with the photoacoustic technique, based upon the absorption of modulated light by a sample with subsequent conversion of the absorbed energy in heat, generating acoustic waves in the air layer adjacent to the sample. Each of the two vehicles was evaluated through in vivo (human skin) and in vitro application. Measurements in vitro employed samples of VitroSkin (synthetic material with properties similar to those of real skin, employed in the pharmaceutical industry research). Results show that the permeation was faster for the transdermal gel, both for in vivo and in vitro measurements, indicating that in vitro measurements may be utilized in qualitative, comparative permeation studies.

  14. Topical drug delivery systems: a patent review.

    PubMed

    Singh Malik, Deepinder; Mital, Neeraj; Kaur, Gurpreet

    2016-01-01

    Topical administration is the favored route for local delivery of therapeutic agents due to its convenience and affordability. The specific challenge of designing a therapeutic system is to achieve an optimal concentration of a certain drug at its site of action for an appropriate duration. This review summarizes innovations from the past 3 years (2012-2015) in the field of topical drug delivery for the treatment of local infections of the vagina, nose, eye and skin. The review also throws some light on the anatomy and physiology of these organs and their various defensive barriers which affect the delivery of drugs administered topically. Topical administration has been gaining attention over the last few years. However, conventional topical drug delivery systems suffer from drawbacks such as poor retention and low bioavailability. The successful formulation of topical delivery products requires the careful manipulation of defensive barriers and selection of a soluble drug carrier. Extensive research is required to develop newer topical drug delivery systems aiming either to improve the efficacy or to reduce side effects compared to current patented systems.

  15. Evidence for percutaneous absorption of isotretinoin from the photo-isomerization of topical tretinoin.

    PubMed

    Lehman, P A; Malany, A M

    1989-11-01

    Tretinoin (0.1% Retin-A cream) was topically applied to human cadaver skin in vitro using Franz diffusion chambers. The photo-isomerization of tretinoin and retinoic acid percutaneous absorption in the absence of metabolic activity were assessed with and without ambient light exposure to the skin. Using HPLC, UV, and GC/MSD, a retinoid exhibiting identical chromatographic and spectral characteristics of isotretinoin was observed in the samples from the skin exposed to light, but was virtually absent in the skin samples maintained in the dark. From a single topical application of tretinoin, isotretinoin was as abundant as tretinoin in the chamber receiver solution, dermis, epidermis, and on the skin surface at 24 h after topical application. The data suggest the possibility that isotretinoin may have an important role in the pharmacology of topically applied tretinoin.

  16. Landing gear energy absorption system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Christopher P. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A landing pad system is described for absorbing horizontal and vertical impact forces upon engagement with a landing surface where circumferentially arranged landing struts respectively have a clevis which receives a slidable rod member and where the upper portion of a slidable rod member is coupled to the clevis by friction washers which are force fit onto the rod member to provide for controlled constant force energy absorption when the rod member moves relative to the clevis. The lower end of the friction rod is pivotally attached by a ball and socket to a support plate where the support plate is arranged to slide in a transverse direction relative to a housing which contains an energy absorption material for absorbing energy in a transverse direction.

  17. Finasteride topical delivery systems for androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Zia Ullah; Khan, Shujaat Ali; Ubaid, Muhammad; Shah, Aamna; Kousar, Rozina; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2018-01-23

    Androgenetic alopecia, generally recognized as male pattern baldness, is a gradually developing medical and physiological change, which is manifested by continuous hair-loss from scalp. Finasteride (4-aza-3-oxosteroid) is a potent anti-baldness compound that selectively and competitively inhibits the 5α-reductase isoenzymes. Prolonged oral use of finasteride leads to the emergence of sexual disorders including decrease in libido, gynecomastia, erectile dysfunction, ejaculation disorder, orgasm disorders and mood disturbances. Since, hair follicles widely home in 5α-reductase, topical formulations of finasteride in comparison to its oral formulations are expected to potentially reduce its systemic adverse effects. The analysis of literature has revealed some delivery systems developed for the enhanced and localized penetration of finasteride into the skin. These finasteride delivery systems include polymersomes, vesicular nanocarriers, vesicular ethosomal carriers, liposomes and niosomes, liquid crystalline nanoparticles, topical solutions and gels. The aim of this review article is to briefly amass all literature on topical delivery of finasteride to elaborate best dosage form, i.e. formulation having maximum permeation rate. This study will serve as a future perspective regarding topical delivery of finasteride. The literature analysis has exhibited that most of the previous investigators have used propylene glycol in their finasteride-loaded topical formulations, while poloxamer P407, monoolein, transcutol P and choline was used in few formulations. Moreover among all drug delivery systems, finasteride liposomal gel system consisting of 2% methyl cellulose and gel system containing poloxamer P407 exhibited the highest flux with a value of 28.4 ± 1.3 µg/cm2h and 23.1 ± 1.4 µg/cm2h, respectively. Several topical drug delivery techniques such as topical microneedles, aerosol foams, nanoemulsions, microsponges, and emulsifier free formulations, fullerenes

  18. Backscatter absorption gas imaging system

    DOEpatents

    McRae, Jr., Thomas G.

    1985-01-01

    A video imaging system for detecting hazardous gas leaks. Visual displays of invisible gas clouds are produced by radiation augmentation of the field of view of an imaging device by radiation corresponding to an absorption line of the gas to be detected. The field of view of an imager is irradiated by a laser. The imager receives both backscattered laser light and background radiation. When a detectable gas is present, the backscattered laser light is highly attenuated, producing a region of contrast or shadow on the image. A flying spot imaging system is utilized to synchronously irradiate and scan the area to lower laser power requirements. The imager signal is processed to produce a video display.

  19. Backscatter absorption gas imaging system

    DOEpatents

    McRae, T.G. Jr.

    A video imaging system for detecting hazardous gas leaks. Visual displays of invisible gas clouds are produced by radiation augmentation of the field of view of an imaging device by radiation corresponding to an absorption line of the gas to be detected. The field of view of an imager is irradiated by a laser. The imager receives both backscattered laser light and background radiation. When a detectable gas is present, the backscattered laser light is highly attenuated, producing a region of contrast or shadow on the image. A flying spot imaging system is utilized to synchronously irradiate and scan the area to lower laser power requirements. The imager signal is processed to produce a video display.

  20. Systemic and topical drugs for aging skin.

    PubMed

    Kockaert, Michael; Neumann, Martino

    2003-08-01

    The rejuvenation of aging skin is a common desire for our patients, and several options are available. Although there are some systemic methods, the most commonly used treatments for rejuvenation of the skin are applied topically. The most frequently used topical drugs include retinoids, alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs), vitamin C, beta hydroxy acids, anti-oxidants, and tocopherol. Combination therapy is frequently used; particularly common is the combination of retinoids and AHAs. Systemic therapies available include oral retinoids and vitamin C. Other available therapies such as chemical peels, face-lifts, collagen, and botulinum toxin injections are not discussed in this article.

  1. A double-blind investigation of the potential systemic absorption of isotretinoin, when combined with chemical sunscreens, following topical application to patients with widespread acne of the face and trunk.

    PubMed

    Cunliffe, W J; Glass, D; Goode, K; Stables, G I; Boorman, G C

    2001-01-01

    This study assessed the systemic absorption of isotretinoin and its metabolites, during a 4-week application of a cream containing 0.1% isotretinoin and chemical sunscreens, compared with a 4% benzoyl peroxide cream, in patients with acne on the face and trunk. Blood was drawn at weeks 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 and at 96 h post-treatment. Plasma levels of isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid) and tretinoin (all-trans-retinoic acid) were quantified by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and the presence of their combined 4-oxo metabolites were monitored from the peak area ratios observed. The isotretinoin group showed no statistically or clinically significant increases in plasma retinoid levels and mean levels did not exceed +/-2 SD of the mean pre-treatment values, indicating that endogenous levels were not being exceeded. No significant differences were detected between the isotretinoin group and the 4% benzoyl peroxide group. These findings indicated that retinoid absorption from a cream containing 0.1% isotretinoin and chemical sunscreens was clinically insignificant, when applied to patients with widespread acne.

  2. Ocular bioavailability and systemic loss of topically applied ophthalmic drugs.

    PubMed

    Patton, T F; Francoeur, M

    1978-02-01

    We used 20-day-old rabbits as a model to show that the ocular bioavailability of topically applied pilocarpine nitrate increased as the instilled volume of the drug was decreased. Decreasing the instilled volume from 25 to 5 microliter permitted a dosage reduction of greater than 2.5 times without sacrificing overall drug concentrations in the eye. Since only a small fraction of topically applied doses to the eye actually reached the interior of the eye, the remainder of the dose was lost and available for systemic absorption. The reduction in dosage permitted by this approach resulted in less drug appearing in the general circulation, as shown by comparative plasma level-time profiles. The advantages of reducing drop size are improved ocular bioavailability permitting the use of smaller doses; and less systemic drug loss, thus reducing the potential for systemic side effects. These advantages could be especially significant in the pediatric and geriatric age groups.

  3. Update on the Systemic Risks of Superpotent Topical Steroids.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Mio; Abrouk, Michael; Zhu, Henry; Farahnik, Benjamin; Koo, John; Bhutani, Tina

    2017-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: The potential for systemic effects due to percutaneous absorption of superpotent topical steroids has been a longstanding concern. The Food and Drug Administration currently recommends limiting the use of superpotent topical steroids to 50g per week for 2 or 4 consecutive weeks depending on the formulation, which is mostly based on the exact duration with which phase 3 clinical trials were allowed to be conducted per the FDA. This article reviews all published clinical incidence of adrenal adverse effects in the medical literature, specifically Cushing's syndrome (CS) and pathologic adrenal suppression (PAAS), to try to ascertain a more realistic limit for the safe use of superpotent topical steroids as it pertains to its potential systemic effects.

    METHODS: Literature search was conducted using PubMed. Only cases of CS and PAAS secondary to the use of Class I superpotent topical steroids were included. Pediatric cases and full articles unavailable in English were excluded.

    RESULTS: There were a total of 14 cases of CS and 5 cases of subsequent PAAS found in the current literature.

    DISCUSSION: From our review of these cases, if the amount used per week is within FDA guidelines, it appears that patients needed to use superpotent topical steroids for far greater than 2 or 4 weeks to develop CS or PAAS. CS did not necessarily predict occurrence of PAAS, but in all cases CS appeared to be a prerequisite for developing PAAS. All cases of CS and all but one case of PAAS were reversible. If excessive amount of greater than 50g per week is avoided, it appears that superpotent topical steroids may be safe to use consecutively for months, perhaps even years, without causing systemic effects.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(7):643-648.

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  4. Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Topics discussed in this column include patterns of inverse multipliers in modular arithmetic; diagrams for product sets, set intersection, and set union; function notation; patterns in the number of partitions of positive integers; and tessellations. (DT)

  5. Systemic and topical antibiotics for chronic rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Head, Karen; Chong, Lee Yee; Piromchai, Patorn; Hopkins, Claire; Philpott, Carl; Schilder, Anne G M; Burton, Martin J

    2016-04-26

    This review is one of six looking at the primary medical management options for patients with chronic rhinosinusitis.Chronic rhinosinusitis is common and is characterised by inflammation of the lining of the nose and paranasal sinuses leading to nasal blockage, nasal discharge, facial pressure/pain and loss of sense of smell. The condition can occur with or without nasal polyps. Systemic and topical antibiotics are used with the aim of eliminating infection in the short term (and some to reduce inflammation in the long term), in order to normalise nasal mucus and improve symptoms. To assess the effects of systemic and topical antibiotics in people with chronic rhinosinusitis. The Cochrane ENT Information Specialist searched the Cochrane ENT Trials Register; CENTRAL (2015, Issue 8); MEDLINE; EMBASE; ClinicalTrials.gov; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 29 September 2015. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with a follow-up period of at least three months comparing systemic or topical antibiotic treatment to (a) placebo or (b) no treatment or (c) other pharmacological interventions. We used the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Our primary outcomes were disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQL), patient-reported disease severity and the commonest adverse event - gastrointestinal disturbance. Secondary outcomes included general HRQL, endoscopic nasal polyp score, computerised tomography (CT) scan score and the adverse events of suspected allergic reaction (rash or skin irritation) and anaphylaxis or other very serious reactions. We used GRADE to assess the quality of the evidence for each outcome; this is indicated in italics. We included five RCTs (293 participants), all of which compared systemic antibiotics with placebo or another pharmacological intervention.The varying study characteristics made comparison difficult. Four studies recruited only adults and one only

  6. Plasmon absorption modulator systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Kekatpure, Rohan Deodatta; Davids, Paul

    2014-07-15

    Plasmon absorption modulator systems and methods are disclosed. A plasmon absorption modulator system includes a semiconductor substrate, a plurality of quantum well layers stacked on a top surface of the semiconductor substrate, and a metal layer formed on a top surface of the stack of quantum well layers. A method for modulating plasmonic current includes enabling propagation of the plasmonic current along a metal layer, and applying a voltage across the stack of quantum well layers to cause absorption of a portion of energy of the plasmonic current by the stack of quantum well layers. A metamaterial switching system includes a semiconductor substrate, a plurality of quantum well layers stacked on a top surface of the semiconductor substrate, and at least one metamaterial structure formed on a top surface of the stack of quantum well layers.

  7. Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Benjamin A.; Whitlow, Eugene P.

    1998-09-22

    A method of inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425.degree. F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25.degree. C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425.degree. F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer.

  8. Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, B.A.; Whitlow, E.P.

    1998-09-22

    A method is described for inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425 F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25 C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425 F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer. 5 figs.

  9. Absorption of Bupivacaine after Administration of a Lozenge as Topical Treatment for Pain from Oral Mucositis.

    PubMed

    Mogensen, Stine; Sverrisdóttir, Eva; Sveinsdóttir, Kolbrún; Treldal, Charlotte; Jensen, Kenneth; Jensen, Anders Bonde; Kristensen, Claus Andrup; Jacobsen, Jette; Kreilgaard, Mads; Petersen, Janne; Andersen, Ove

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to investigate systemic exposure after administration of a novel bupivacaine lozenge in healthy individuals with normal mucosa and in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients with oral mucositis. A lozenge containing 5, 10, 25 and 50 mg bupivacaine, respectively, was administered as single dose to 10 healthy individuals, and a lozenge containing 25 mg bupivacaine was administered as single dose to 10 HNC patients with oral mucositis and as multiple doses to five patients with HNC. Blood samples were collected for 6 hr from the healthy individuals and 3 hr from the patients with HNC, respectively, after administration. The plasma concentration-time profiles of bupivacaine were fitted to pharmacokinetic models using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling, evaluating demographics and health status as covariates. The population pharmacokinetics (PK) of bupivacaine lozenge was best described by a two-compartment distribution model with absorption transit compartments. All the observed plasma concentrations were well below the bupivacaine concentrations (2000-2250 ng/ml) which have caused toxic symptoms. The PK model suggested that relative bioavailability was two times higher in HNC patients with oral mucositis grade 1-2 and three times higher in HNC patients with oral mucositis grade 3-4 than in the healthy individuals. Simulations showed that the plasma concentrations would be below the toxic limit after repeated dosing every second hour with 25 mg bupivacaine for five days. The 25-mg bupivacaine lozenges were safe without systemic toxic levels of bupivacaine or risk of side effects. Based on PK simulations of repeated doses of 25 mg every two hours for 16 hr a day, the lozenges can be administered with minimum risk of exceeding the toxic limit. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  10. Topical absorption and toxicity studies of jet fuel hydrocarbons in skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Faqir

    Kerosene-based fuels have been used for many decades. Over 2 million military and civilian personnel each year are occupationally exposed to various jet fuel mixtures. Dermatitis is one of the major health concerns associated with these exposures. In the past, separate absorption and toxicity studies have been conducted to find the etiology of such skin disorders. There was a need for integrated absorption and toxicity studies to define the causative constituents of jet fuel responsible for skin irritation. The focus of this thesis was to study the percutaneous absorption and to identify the hydrocarbons (HC) causing irritation in jet fuels so that preventive measures could be taken in the future. The initial study was conducted to understand the possible mechanism for additive interactions on hydrocarbon absorption/disposition in silastic, porcine skin and isolated perfused porcine skin flap (IPPSF) models. The influence of JP-8 (100) additives (MDA, BHT, 8Q405) on the dermal kinetics of 14C-naphthalene and 14C/3H-dodecane as markers of HC absorption was evaluated. This study indicated that individual and combination of additives influenced marker disposition in different membranes. MDA was a significant suppressor while BHT was a significant enhancer of naphthalene absorption in IPPSF. The 8Q405 significantly reduced naphthalene content in dosed silastic and skin indicating a direct interaction between additive and marker HC. Similarly, the individual MDA and BHT significantly retained naphthalene in the stratum corneum of porcine skin, but the combination of both of these additives statistically decreased the marker retention in the stratum corneum suggesting a potential biological interaction. This study concluded that all components of a chemical mixture should be assessed since the effects of single components administered alone or as pairs may be confounded when all are present in the complete mixture. However, this study indicated that the marker HC

  11. Energy Absorption Behaviors of Nanoporous Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER U. S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211... Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 _HLAL1 I - ( 1I. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of...words) In this exploratory research program we investigated the energy absorption behaviors of systems consisting of hydrophobic nanoporous silica

  12. Endovascular vein harvest: systemic carbon dioxide absorption.

    PubMed

    Maslow, Andrew M; Schwartz, Carl S; Bert, Arthur; Hurlburt, Peter; Gough, Jeffrey; Stearns, Gary; Singh, Arun K

    2006-06-01

    Endovascular vein harvest (EDVH) requires CO(2) insufflation to expand the subcutaneous space, allowing visualization and dissection of the saphenous vein. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of CO(2) absorption during EDVH. Prospective observational study. Single tertiary care hospital. Sixty patients (30 EDVH and 30 open-vein harvest) undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Hemodynamic, procedural, and laboratory data were collected prior to (baseline), during, and at it the conclusion (final) of vein harvesting. Data were also collected during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Data were compared by using t tests, analysis of variance, and correlation statistics when needed. There were significant increases in arterial CO(2) (PaCO(2), 35%) and decreases in pH (1.35%) during EDVH. These were associated with increases in heart rate, mean blood pressure, and cardiac output. Within the EDVH group, greater elevations (>10 mmHg) in PaCO2 were more likely during difficult harvest procedures, and these patients exhibited greater increase in heart rate. Elevated CO(2) persisted during CPB, requiring higher systemic gas flows and greater use of phenylephrine to maintain desired hemodynamics. EDVH was associated with systemic absorption of CO(2). Greater absorption was more likely in difficult procedures and was associated with greater hemodynamic changes requiring medical therapy.

  13. Integrated voice and visual systems research topics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Douglas H.; Simpson, Carol A.

    1986-01-01

    A series of studies was performed to investigate factors of helicopter speech and visual system design and measure the effects of these factors on human performance, both for pilots and non-pilots. The findings and conclusions of these studies were applied by the U.S. Army to the design of the Army's next generation threat warning system for helicopters and to the linguistic functional requirements for a joint Army/NASA flightworthy, experimental speech generation and recognition system.

  14. Dilution cycle control for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1984-01-01

    A dilution cycle control system for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The control system includes a time delay relay for sensing shutdown of the absorption refrigeration system and for generating a control signal only after expiration of a preselected time period measured from the sensed shutdown of the absorption refrigeration system, during which the absorption refrigeration system is not restarted. A dilution cycle for the absorption refrigeration system is initiated in response to generation of a control signal by the time delay relay. This control system is particularly suitable for use with an absorption refrigeration system which is frequently cycled on and off since the time delay provided by the control system prevents needless dilution of the absorption refrigeration system when the system is turned off for only a short period of time and then is turned back on.

  15. Cosmological Evolution of QSO Absorption Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stengler-Larrea, Erik

    1995-08-01

    First, the evolution with cosmic time of the hydrogen clouds which produce the Lyman-alpha absorption lines is studied in dependence on the strength of these lines. From the analysis it is concluded that the results show no evidence of a dependence in the sense of stronger lines evolving faster, although for the resolution at which the used observations were done, it can not be ruled out. Within the same analysis, a distribution of the Doppler parameter of the lines was obtained, with large values and a wide spread. This parameter being an indicator of the gas temperature, this result is in accordance with high temperatures and, consequently, large ionised fractions and a large fraction of the baryonic matter of the universe being associated with these clouds. However, recent high resolution studies seem to reveal that much lower temperatures are characteristic of the clouds. The main content of this thesis, however, focuses on the redshift evolution of the absorbing systems producing absorption at the Lyman limit and of the amount of CIV producing CIV absorption lines. Regarding the CIV absorbers, previous predictions on the effects underlying their redshift distribution pointed to an increase with redshift of the absorbing column densities. In this thesis the first direct measurements of such column densities by profile fitting of a large number of absorption systems (73) are presented, confirming the predictions of a decrease of at least a factor of 3 between z=1.5 and z=3.0. The study on the evolution of Lyman limit absorption systems (LLSs) puts an end to previous discrepancies between the results of different groups. Both a smooth single power law dependence of the LLS number density on redshift indicating no evolution in number density for 0.4 <= z <= 4.1, and a broken power law with a rapid increase above z ~ 2.5 had been obtained with different data sets. A detailed analysis reveals here the reasons for these discrepancies and obtains the most reliable

  16. Counterflow absorber for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1984-01-01

    An air-cooled, vertical tube absorber for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. Strong absorbent solution is supplied to the top of the absorber and refrigerant vapor is supplied to the bottom of the absorber to create a direct counterflow of refrigerant vapor and absorbent solution in the absorber. The refrigeration system is designed so that the volume flow rate of refrigerant vapor in the tubes of the absorber is sufficient to create a substantially direct counterflow along the entire length of each tube in the absorber. This provides several advantages for the absorber such as higher efficiency and improved heat transfer characteristics, and allows improved purging of non-condensibles from the absorber.

  17. Spray generators for absorption refrigeration systems

    DOEpatents

    Sibley, Howard W.

    1979-06-19

    A spray generator for an absorption refrigeration system that includes a heat exchanger comprised of a multiplicity of variably spaced heat exchange tubes. The tubes are spaced close together near the top of the heat exchanger and spaced more widely apart near the bottom of the heat exchanger. Dilute absorbent solution is sprayed down through the heat exchanger. The close nesting of the tubes in the top portion of the heat exchanger retards liquid flow and aids heating of the solution. The wide spacing of the tubes in the lower section of the heat exchanger facilitate vapor flow out of the heat exchanger and eliminates liquid "blow-off". The top tubes are covered by a baffle to prevent the liquid solution from splashing out of the heat exchanger off of these top tubes.

  18. Heat exchanger bypass system for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1984-01-01

    A heat exchanger bypass system for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The bypass system operates to pass strong solution from the generator around the heat exchanger to the absorber of the absorption refrigeration system when strong solution builds up in the generator above a selected level indicative of solidification of strong solution in the heat exchanger or other such blockage. The bypass system includes a bypass line with a gooseneck located in the generator for controlling flow of strong solution into the bypass line and for preventing refrigerant vapor in the generator from entering the bypass line during normal operation of the refrigeration system. Also, the bypass line includes a trap section filled with liquid for providing a barrier to maintain the normal pressure difference between the generator and the absorber even when the gooseneck of the bypass line is exposed to refrigerant vapor in the generator. Strong solution, which may accumulate in the trap section of the bypass line, is diluted, to prevent solidification, by supplying weak solution to the trap section from a purge system for the absorption refrigeration system.

  19. Cloud Absorption Radiometer Autonomous Navigation System - CANS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, Duncan; Gatebe, Charles; McCune, Bill; Hellwig, Dustan

    2013-01-01

    CAR (cloud absorption radiometer) acquires spatial reference data from host aircraft navigation systems. This poses various problems during CAR data reduction, including navigation data format, accuracy of position data, accuracy of airframe inertial data, and navigation data rate. Incorporating its own navigation system, which included GPS (Global Positioning System), roll axis inertia and rates, and three axis acceleration, CANS expedites data reduction and increases the accuracy of the CAR end data product. CANS provides a self-contained navigation system for the CAR, using inertial reference and GPS positional information. The intent of the software application was to correct the sensor with respect to aircraft roll in real time based upon inputs from a precision navigation sensor. In addition, the navigation information (including GPS position), attitude data, and sensor position details are all streamed to a remote system for recording and later analysis. CANS comprises a commercially available inertial navigation system with integral GPS capability (Attitude Heading Reference System AHRS) integrated into the CAR support structure and data system. The unit is attached to the bottom of the tripod support structure. The related GPS antenna is located on the P-3 radome immediately above the CAR. The AHRS unit provides a RS-232 data stream containing global position and inertial attitude and velocity data to the CAR, which is recorded concurrently with the CAR data. This independence from aircraft navigation input provides for position and inertial state data that accounts for very small changes in aircraft attitude and position, sensed at the CAR location as opposed to aircraft state sensors typically installed close to the aircraft center of gravity. More accurate positional data enables quicker CAR data reduction with better resolution. The CANS software operates in two modes: initialization/calibration and operational. In the initialization/calibration mode

  20. Topical versus systemic diclofenac in the treatment of temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction symptoms.

    PubMed

    Di Rienzo Businco, L; Di Rienzo Businco, A; D'Emilia, M; Lauriello, M; Coen Tirelli, G

    2004-10-01

    spontaneously. Our results demonstrate that topically applied diclofenac and oral diclofenac are equally effective in the treatment of temporomandibular joint dysfunction symptoms. Topical diclofenac has the advantage that it does not have adverse systemic effects, whereas oral diclofenac had untoward effects on the gastric apparatus. The efficacy of diclofenac topically applied on the temporomandibular joint region observed in group B is explained by the association of diclofenac with dimethyl-sulfoxide, which enables a rapid effective penetration into the joint tissues. It is noteworthy that dimethyl-sulfoxide favours transuctaneous absorption when used in a multi-dose regime as in our study with 4 doses a day. Thus, single, "as required", applications should be avoided because this practice results in scarce absorption of diclofenac.

  1. Design for Manufacturing for Energy Absorption Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Del Prete, A.; Primo, T.; Papadia, G.

    2011-05-04

    In the typical scenario of a helicopter crash, impact with the ground is preceded by a substantially vertical drop, with the result that a seated occupant of a helicopter experiences high spinal loads and pelvic deceleration during such crash due to the sudden arresting of vertical downward motion. It has long been recognized that spinal injuries to occupants of helicopters in such crash scenario can be minimized by seat arrangements which limit the deceleration to which the seated occupant is subjected, relative to the helicopter, to a predetermined maximum, by allowing downward movement of the seated occupant relative to themore » helicopter, at the time of impact with the ground, under a restraining force which, over a limited range of such movement, is limited to a predetermined maximum. In practice, significant benefits, in the way of reduced injuries and reduced seriousness of injuries, can be afforded in this way in such crash situations even where the extent of such controlled vertical movement permitted by the crashworthy seat arrangement is quite limited. Important increase of accident safety is reached with the installation of crashworthy shock absorbers on the main landing gear, but this solution is mostly feasible on military helicopters with long fixed landing gear. Seats can then give high contribution to survivability. Commonly, an energy absorber is a constant load device, if one excludes an initial elastic part of the load-stroke curve. On helicopter seats, this behavior is obtained by plastic deformation of a metal component or scraping of material. In the present work the authors have studied three absorption systems, which differ in relation to their shape, their working conditions and their constructive materials. All the combinations have been analyzed for applications in VIP helicopter seats.« less

  2. Design for Manufacturing for Energy Absorption Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Prete, A.; Primo, T.; Papadia, G.; Manisi, B.

    2011-05-01

    In the typical scenario of a helicopter crash, impact with the ground is preceded by a substantially vertical drop, with the result that a seated occupant of a helicopter experiences high spinal loads and pelvic deceleration during such crash due to the sudden arresting of vertical downward motion. It has long been recognized that spinal injuries to occupants of helicopters in such crash scenario can be minimized by seat arrangements which limit the deceleration to which the seated occupant is subjected, relative to the helicopter, to a predetermined maximum, by allowing downward movement of the seated occupant relative to the helicopter, at the time of impact with the ground, under a restraining force which, over a limited range of such movement, is limited to a predetermined maximum. In practice, significant benefits, in the way of reduced injuries and reduced seriousness of injuries, can be afforded in this way in such crash situations even where the extent of such controlled vertical movement permitted by the crashworthy seat arrangement is quite limited. Important increase of accident safety is reached with the installation of crashworthy shock absorbers on the main landing gear, but this solution is mostly feasible on military helicopters with long fixed landing gear. Seats can then give high contribution to survivability. Commonly, an energy absorber is a constant load device, if one excludes an initial elastic part of the load-stroke curve. On helicopter seats, this behavior is obtained by plastic deformation of a metal component or scraping of material. In the present work the authors have studied three absorption systems, which differ in relation to their shape, their working conditions and their constructive materials. All the combinations have been analyzed for applications in VIP helicopter seats.

  3. Nanofibrous membrane-based absorption refrigeration system

    SciTech Connect

    Isfahani, RN; Sampath, K; Moghaddam, S

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a study on the efficacy of highly porous nanofibrous membranes for application in membrane-based absorbers and desorbers. Permeability studies showed that membranes with a pore size greater than about one micron have a sufficient permeability for application in the absorber heat exchanger. Membranes with smaller pores were found to be adequate for the desorber heat exchanger. The membranes were implemented in experimental membrane-based absorber and desorber modules and successfully tested. Parametric studies were conducted on both absorber and desorber processes. Studies on the absorption process were focused on the effects of water vapor pressure, cooling water temperature,more » and the solution velocity on the absorption rate. Desorption studies were conducted on the effects of wall temperature, vapor and solution pressures, and the solution velocity on the desorption rate. Significantly higher absorption and desorption rates than in the falling film absorbers and desorbers were achieved. Published by Elsevier Ltd.« less

  4. Simultaneous absorption of vitamins C and E from topical microemulsions using reconstructed human epidermis as a skin model.

    PubMed

    Rozman, Branka; Gasperlin, Mirjana; Tinois-Tessoneaud, Estelle; Pirot, Fabrice; Falson, Francoise

    2009-05-01

    Antioxidants provide the mainstay for skin protection against free radical damage. The structure of microemulsions (ME), colloidal thermodynamically stable dispersions of water, oil and surfactant, allows the incorporation of both lipophilic (vitamin E) and hydrophilic (vitamin C) antioxidants in the same system. The objective of this work was to investigate the potential of non-thickened (o/w, w/o and gel-like) and thickened (with colloidal silica) ME as carriers for the two vitamins using reconstructed human epidermis (RHE). The amounts of these vitamins accumulated in and permeated across the RHE were determined, together with factors affecting skin deposition and permeation. Notable differences were observed between formulations. The absorption of vitamins C and E in RHE layers was in general enhanced by ME compared to solutions. The incorporation of vitamins in the outer phase of ME resulted in greater absorption than that when vitamins were in the inner phase. The location of the antioxidants in the ME and affinity for the vehicle appear to be crucial in the case of non-thickened ME. Addition of thickener enhanced the deposition of vitamins E and C in the RHE. By varying the composition of ME, RHE absorption of the two vitamins can be significantly modulated.

  5. Topical vs. systemic treatments for acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Kathy; Parrish, Francie; Swords, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common condition in children that is often treated with systemic antibiotic therapy; however, research suggests that non-complicated AOM will resolve spontaneously using only eardrops. To determine best practice for the use of systematic antibiotics compared to topical treatment of AOM, a systematic review of evidence was conducted. Cochrane, Medline, CINAHL, and other databases were searched. Inclusion criteria were studies published from 1995-2010 that included children with AOM and were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Five systematic reviews and five RCTs were included in the review. Current evidence recommends using topical and other alternative approaches for treating non-complicated AOM in children 2 years of age or older; however, many practitioners are not currently following these recommendations for various reasons. Additional research to address these reasons may help determine how to improve practitioner adherence to best practice evidence and guidelines to help reduce the unnecessary use of systemic antibiotics.

  6. The database management system: A topic and a tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plummer, O. R.

    1984-01-01

    Data structures and data base management systems are common tools employed to deal with the administrative information of a university. An understanding of these topics is needed by a much wider audience, ranging from those interested in computer aided design and manufacturing to those using microcomputers. These tools are becoming increasingly valuable to academic programs as they develop comprehensive computer support systems. The wide use of these tools relies upon the relational data model as a foundation. Experience with the use of the IPAD RIM5.0 program is described.

  7. Deoxycholate-hydrogels: novel drug carrier systems for topical use.

    PubMed

    Valenta, C; Nowack, E; Bernkop-Schnürch, A

    1999-08-05

    Na-deoxycholate (Na-DOC) forms a viscous thixotropic gel when in contact with excess buffer systems. The resulting gels have been tested as novel drug carrier systems for topical use. The influence of differing amounts of mannitol, glycerol and xylitol on the viscous modulus (G"/Pa) was evaluated by oscillatory measurements. Na-DOC (0.5%) in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) with 5% mannitol was chosen as an optimised formulation, taking into account viscosity, distribution and appearance. The release rate of the model drug rutin through an artificial membrane was higher than those from hydroxyethylcellulose- (HEC) and sodium polyacrylate (NaC934)-gels; permeation through excised rat skin was also highest for the Na-DOC systems. The results indicate that Na-DOC significantly increases the membrane permeability. The microbial stability was in the same range as HEC- and NaC934-gels, making a preservation necessary. Na-DOC-gels are novel low molecular weight, multifunctional drug carriers, which also act as penetration enhancers. Their thixotropy is an additional advantage for better application to large skin areas, nasal, vaginal and buccal membranes. Therefore, Na-DOC-gels can be considered promising, alternative drug carrier systems for topical pharmaceutical as well as cosmetic use.

  8. Molecular hydrogen absorption systems in Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balashev, S. A.; Klimenko, V. V.; Ivanchik, A. V.; Varshalovich, D. A.; Petitjean, P.; Noterdaeme, P.

    2014-05-01

    We present a systematic search for molecular hydrogen absorption systems at high redshift in quasar spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-II Data Release 7 and SDSS-III Data Release 9. We have selected candidates using a modified profile fitting technique taking into account that the Lyα forest can effectively mimic H2 absorption systems at the resolution of SDSS data. To estimate the confidence level of the detections, we use two methods: a Monte Carlo sampling and an analysis of control samples. The analysis of control samples allows us to define regions of the spectral quality parameter space where H2 absorption systems can be confidently identified. We find that H2 absorption systems with column densities log NH2 > 19 can be detected in only less than 3 per cent of SDSS quasar spectra. We estimate the upper limit on the detection rate of saturated H2 absorption systems (NH2 > 19) in damped Lyα (DLA) systems to be about 7 per cent. We provide a sample of 23 confident H2 absorption system candidates that would be interesting to follow up with high-resolution spectrographs. There is a 1σ r - i colour excess and non-significant AV extinction excess in quasar spectra with an H2 candidate compared to standard DLA-bearing quasar spectra. The equivalent widths of C II, Si II and Al III (but not Fe II) absorptions associated with H2 candidate DLAs are larger compared to standard DLAs. This is probably related to a larger spread in velocity of the absorption lines in the H2-bearing sample.

  9. Nanostructured Lipid Carriers (NLC) as Vehicles for Topical Administration of Sesamol: In Vitro Percutaneous Absorption Study and Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity.

    PubMed

    Puglia, Carmelo; Lauro, Maria Rosaria; Offerta, Alessia; Crascì, Lucia; Micicchè, Lucia; Panico, Anna Maria; Bonina, Francesco; Puglisi, Giovanni

    2017-03-01

    Sesamol is a natural phenolic compound extracted from Sesamum indicum seed oil. Sesamol is endowed with several beneficial effects, but its use as a topical agent is strongly compromised by unfavorable chemical-physical properties. Therefore, to improve its characteristics, the aim of the present work was the formulation of nanostructured lipid carriers as drug delivery systems for topical administration of sesamol.Two different nanostructured lipid carrier systems have been produced based on the same solid lipid (Compritol® 888 ATO) but in a mixture with two different kinds of oil phase such as Miglyol® 812 (nanostructured lipid carrier-M) and sesame oil (nanostructured lipid carrier-PLUS). Morphology and dimensional distribution of nanostructured lipid carriers have been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and photon correlation spectroscopy, respectively. The release pattern of sesamol from nanostructured lipid carriers was evaluated in vitro determining drug percutaneous absorption through excised human skin. Furthermore, an oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay was used to determine their antioxidant activity.From the results obtained, the method used to formulate nanostructured lipid carriers led to a homogeneous dispersion of particles in a nanometric range. Sesamol has been encapsulated efficiently in both nanostructured lipid carriers, with higher encapsulation efficiency values (> 90 %) when sesame oil was used as the oil phase (nanostructured lipid carrier-PLUS). In vitro evidences show that nanostructured lipid carrier dispersions were able to control the rate of sesamol diffusion through the skin, with respect to the reference formulations.Furthermore, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay pointed out an interesting and prolonged antioxidant activity of sesamol, especially when vehiculated by nanostructured lipid carrier-PLUS. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Percutaneous absorption of topically applied DTIC-14C (NSC-45388) in Yorkshire white pigs. Final report, 14 September-14 November 1976

    SciTech Connect

    Skierkowski, P.; Murphy, J.C.; Watson, E.S.

    1978-03-01

    The absorption of topically applied DTIC (5-(3,3-dimethyl-1-triazeno) imidazole-4-carboxamide-2-14C) (NSC-45388) was studied in female, weanling, Yorkshire white pigs. After 48 hours, an average of 9.61% of the topically applied dose was excreted in the urine of the test animals. Liver and kidney showed the most consistent uptake of radioactivity with heart and adrenal samples also showing significant uptake. Radioactivity was detected in random muscle samples at 6 hours after application, and in bone after 48 hours. A significant percentage of the applied dose was generally detected at and near the site of application.

  11. Christiansen effect in disperse systems with resonant absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Zimnyakov, D A; Isaeva, Elmira A; Isaeva, A A

    We discuss the results of experimental studies of competition of absorption and scattering of laser radiation propagating in dispersive media with resonant absorption. As media under study, use is made of a suspension of polystyrene particles in solutions of rhodamine 6G in ethylene glycol probed by laser light with a wavelength of 532 nm. It is found that an increase in the dye concentration leads to an increase in optical transmittance of suspensions and an increase in speckle modulation of the forward-scattered radiation. We interpret these features as a manifestation of Christiansen effect in disperse systems with resonance absorption.

  12. Bicellar systems for in vitro percutaneous absorption of diclofenac.

    PubMed

    Rubio, L; Alonso, C; Rodríguez, G; Barbosa-Barros, L; Coderch, L; De la Maza, A; Parra, J L; López, O

    2010-02-15

    This work evaluates the effect of different bicellar systems on the percutaneous absorption of diclofenac diethylamine (DDEA) using two different approaches. In the first case, the drug was included in bicellar systems, which were applied on the skin and, in the second case, the skin was treated by applying bicellar systems without drug before to the application of a DDEA aqueous solution. The characterization of bicellar systems showed that the particle size decreased when DDEA was encapsulated. Percutaneous absorption studies demonstrated a lower penetration of DDEA when the drug was included in bicellar systems than when the drug was applied in an aqueous solution. This effect was possibly due to a certain rigidity of the bicellar systems caused by the incorporation of DDEA. The absorption of DDEA on skin pretreated with bicelles increased compared to the absorption of DDEA on intact skin. Bicelles without DDEA could cause certain disorganization of the SC barrier function, thereby facilitating the percutaneous penetration of DDEA subsequently applied. Thus, depending on their physicochemical parameters and on the application conditions, these systems have potential enhancement or retardant effects on percutaneous absorption that result in an interesting strategy, which may be used in future drug delivery applications. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Spectrophotometer-Integrating-Sphere System for Computing Solar Absorptance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, William G., Jr.; Slemp, Wayne S.; Perry, John E., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A commercially available ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared spectrophotometer was modified to utilize an 8-inch-diameter modified Edwards-type integrated sphere. Software was written so that the reflectance spectra could be used to obtain solar absorptance values of 1-inch-diameter specimens. A descriptions of the system, spectral reflectance, and software for calculation of solar absorptance from reflectance data are presented.

  14. Our Solar System. Our Solar System Topic Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Glen

    2006-01-01

    This book examines the planets and other objects in space that make up the solar system. It also shows how technology helps students learn about our neighbors in space. The suggested age range for this book is 3-8 with a guided reading level of Q-R. The Fry level is 3.2.

  15. Role of Honey in Topical and Systemic Bacterial Infections.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Muhammad Barkaat

    2018-01-01

    The development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics has made it more difficult and expensive to treat infections. Honey is getting worldwide attention as a topical therapeutic agent for wound infections and potential future candidate for systemic infections. The purpose of this review was to summarise different antibacterial bio-active compounds in honey, their synergistic interaction and their clinical implications in topical and systemic infections. In addition, contemporary testing methods for evaluating peroxide and non-peroxide antibacterial activity of honey were also critically appraised. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Pub Med, reference lists and databases were used to review the literature. Honey contains several unique antibacterial components. These components are believed to act on diverse bacterial targets, are broad spectrum, operate synergistically, prevent biofilm formation, and decrease production of virulence factors. Moreover, honey has the ability to block bacterial communication (quorum sensing), and therefore, it is unlikely that bacteria develop resistance against honey. Bacterial resistance against honey has not been documented so far. Unlike conventional antibiotics, honey only targets pathogenic bacteria without disturbing the growth of normal gastrointestinal flora when taken orally. It also contains prebiotics, probiotics, and zinc and enhances the growth of beneficial gut flora. The presence of such plethora of antibacterial properties in one product makes it a promising candidate not only in wound infections but also in systemic and particularly for gastrointestinal infections. Agar diffusion assay, being used for evaluating antibacterial activity of honey, is not the most appropriate and sensitive assay as it only detects non-peroxide activity when present at a higher level. Therefore, there is a need to develop more sensitive techniques that may be capable of detecting and evaluating different important components in honey as

  16. Middle infrared optoelectronic absorption systems for monitoring physiological glucose solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, W. Blake

    Tight monitoring of the glucose levels for diabetic individuals is essential to control long-term complications. A definitive diabetes management system has yet to be developed for the diabetic. This research investigates the application of middle infrared absorption frequencies for monitoring glucose levels in biological solutions. Three frequencies were identified using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and correlated to changes in glucose concentrations. The 1035 +/- 1 cm-1 frequency was determined to be the best representative frequency. Other biological molecules contributed no significant interference to monitoring glucose absorption. A second frequency at 1193 cm-1 was suggested as a representative background absorption frequency, which could be used for more accurate glucose absorption values. Next, a quantum cascade laser optoelectronic absorption system was designed and developed to monitor glucose. After careful alignment and design, the system was used to monitor physiological glucose concentrations. Correlation at 1036 cm-1 with glucose changes was comparable to the previous results. The use of the background absorption frequency was verified. This frequency essentially acts as a calibrating frequency to adjust in real-time to any changes in the background absorption that may alter the accuracy of the predicted glucose value. An evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy technique was explored to monitor molecules in a biological solution. Visible light at 425 nm was used to monitor hemoglobin in control urine samples. An adsorption isotherm for hemoglobin was detectable to limit of 5.8 nM. Evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy would be useful for a glucose solution. Given an equivalent system designed for the middle infrared, the molar extinction coefficient of glucose allows for a detectable limit of 45 mg/dl for a free-floating glucose solution, which is below normal physiological concentrations. The future use of a hydrophobic

  17. A new seamless, smooth, interior, absorptive finishing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Antonio, Peter

    2003-10-01

    Government architecture typically employs classic forms of vaults, domes and other focusing or reflective shapes, usually created with hard materials like concrete and plaster. The use of conventional porous absorption is typically rejected as an acoustical surface material for aesthetic reasons. Hence, many of these new and existing facilities have compromised speech intelligibility and music quality. Acousticians have sought a field-applied, absorptive finishing system that resembles a smooth plaster or painted drywall surface, since the dawn of architectural acoustics. Some success has been achieved using sprayed cellulose or cementitious materials, but surface smoothness has been a challenge. A new approach utilizing a thin microporous layer of mineral particles applied over a mineral wool panel will be described. This material can be applied to almost any shape surface, internally pigmented to match almost any color and renovated. Because of these unique characteristics the new seamless, absorptive, finishing system is being specified for many new and renovated spaces. Application examples will be presented.

  18. LASER APPLICATIONS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Study of photoinduced absorption by the method of modified laser photothermal radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skvortsov, L. A.; Maksimov, E. M.; Tuchkov, A. A.

    2008-10-01

    The application of the method of modified laser photothermal radiometry for studying the photoinduced absorption in thin films is considered. The sensitivity of the method is estimated. The mechanism of induced near-IR absorption in titanium dioxide films is proposed and the nature of surface defects responsible for this process is explained. It is shown that kinetic equations describing monomolecular recombination are consistent with the experimental dependences for the thermal activation energy of defects equal to 0.17±0.04 eV.

  19. Nanostructured lipid carriers-based flurbiprofen gel after topical administration: acute skin irritation, pharmacodynamics, and percutaneous absorption mechanism.

    PubMed

    Song, Aihua; Su, Zhen; Li, Sanming; Han, Fei

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the preliminary safety and effectiveness of nanostructured lipid carriers-based flurbiprofen gel (FP NLC-gel), the acute irritation test, in vivo pharmacodynamics evaluation and pharmacokinetic study were investigated after topical application. No dropsy and erythema were observed after continuous dosing 7 d of FP NLC-gel on the rabbit skin, and the xylene-induced ear drossy could be inhibited by FP NLC-gel at different dosages. The maximum concentration of FP in rats muscle was 2.03 μg/g and 1.55 μg/g after oral and topical administration, respectively. While the peak concentration in untreated muscle after topical administration was only 0.37 μg/mL. And at any time, following topical administration the mean muscle-plasma concentration ratio Cmuscle/CPlasma was obviously higher than that following oral administration. Results indicated that FP could directly penetrate into the subcutaneous muscle tissue from the administration site. Thus, the developed FP NLC-gel could be a safe and effective vehicle for topical delivery of FP.

  20. Waste heat driven absorption refrigeration process and system

    DOEpatents

    Wilkinson, William H.

    1982-01-01

    Absorption cycle refrigeration processes and systems are provided which are driven by the sensible waste heat available from industrial processes and other sources. Systems are disclosed which provide a chilled water output which can be used for comfort conditioning or the like which utilize heat from sensible waste heat sources at temperatures of less than 170.degree. F. Countercurrent flow equipment is also provided to increase the efficiency of the systems and increase the utilization of available heat.

  1. Lipid based nanocarriers system for topical delivery of photosensitizers.

    PubMed

    Md, Shadab; Haque, Shadabul; Madheswaran, Thiagarajan; Zeeshan, Farrukh; Meka, Venkata Srikanth; Radhakrishnan, Ammu K; Kesharwani, Prashant

    2017-08-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive technique used in the treatment of malignant and non-malignant skin diseases. It offers great promise because of its simplicity, enhanced patient compliance, localisation of the photosensitizer, as well as the use of light and oxygen to achieve photocytotoxicity. Despite progress in photosensitizer-mediated topical PDT, its clinical application is limited by poor penetration of photosensitizers through the skin. Therefore, much effort has been made to develop nanocarriers that can tackle the challenges of conventional photosensitizer-mediated PDT for topical delivery. This review discusses recent data on the use of different types of lipid-based nanocarriers in delivering photosensitizer for topical PDT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Searching for Variability of NV Intrinsic Narrow Absorption Line Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodruck, Michael; Charlton, Jane; Ganguly, Rajib

    2018-01-01

    The majority of quasar absorption line systems with NV detected are found within the associated region (within 5000 km/s of the quasar redshift) and many/most are believed to be related to the quasar accretion disk wind or outflows. The most definite evidence that these NV absorbers are "intrinsic" is partial covering of the quasar continuum source and/or broad line region. Over 75 quasars containing NV narrow absorption lines have observations obtained at different times with the Keck/HIRES and the VLT/UVES spectrographs at high resolution. The interval between these observations range from months to a decade in the quasar rest frame. While variability is common for intrinsic broad and mini-broad absorption lines, intrinsic narrow absorption lines have been found to be less likely to vary, though systematic studies with large, high quality datasets have been limited. The variability timescales are useful for deriving gas densities and thus the distances from the central engines. This is important in mapping the quasar surroundings, understanding the accretion disk wind mechanism, and assessing the effect the wind has on the galaxy surroundings. We report on the results of a systematic study of variability of NV NALs, exploiting the overlap of targets for observations in the archives of Keck and VLT, and discuss the consequences for interpretation of the origin of intrinsic narrow absorption lines.

  3. Backscatter absorption gas imaging systems and light sources therefore

    DOEpatents

    Kulp, Thomas Jan [Livermore, CA; Kliner, Dahv A. V. [San Ramon, CA; Sommers, Ricky [Oakley, CA; Goers, Uta-Barbara [Campbell, NY; Armstrong, Karla M [Livermore, CA

    2006-12-19

    The location of gases that are not visible to the unaided human eye can be determined using tuned light sources that spectroscopically probe the gases and cameras that can provide images corresponding to the absorption of the gases. The present invention is a light source for a backscatter absorption gas imaging (BAGI) system, and a light source incorporating the light source, that can be used to remotely detect and produce images of "invisible" gases. The inventive light source has a light producing element, an optical amplifier, and an optical parametric oscillator to generate wavelength tunable light in the IR. By using a multi-mode light source and an amplifier that operates using 915 nm pump sources, the power consumption of the light source is reduced to a level that can be operated by batteries for long periods of time. In addition, the light source is tunable over the absorption bands of many hydrocarbons, making it useful for detecting hazardous gases.

  4. Expanded Guidance for NASA Systems Engineering. Volume 2: Crosscutting Topics, Special Topics, and Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirshorn, Steven R.

    2017-01-01

    Historically, most successful NASA projects have depended on effectively blending project management, systems engineering, and technical expertise among NASA, contractors, and third parties. Underlying these successes are a variety of agreements (e.g., contract, memorandum of understanding, grant, cooperative agreement) between NASA organizations or between NASA and other Government agencies, Government organizations, companies, universities, research laboratories, and so on. To simplify the discussions, the term "contract" is used to encompass these agreements. This section focuses on the NASA systems engineering activities pertinent to awarding a contract, managing contract performance, and completing a contract. In particular, NASA systems engineering interfaces to the procurement process are covered, since the NASA engineering technical team plays a key role in the development and evaluation of contract documentation. Contractors and third parties perform activities that supplement (or substitute for) the NASA project technical team accomplishment of the NASA common systems engineering technical process activities and requirements outlined in this guide. Since contractors might be involved in any part of the systems engineering life cycle, the NASA project technical team needs to know how to prepare for, allocate or perform, and implement surveillance of technical activities that are allocated to contractors.

  5. Research topics on EO systems for maritime platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijk, Judith; Bijl, Piet; van den Broek, Sebastiaan P.; van Eijk, Alenxander M. J.

    2014-10-01

    Our world is constantly changing, and this has its effect on worldwide military operations. For example, there is a change from conventional warfare into a domain that contains asymmetric threats as well. The availability of high-quality imaging information from Electro-Optical (EO) sensors is of high importance, for instance for timely detection and identification of small threatening vessels in an environment with a large amount of neutral vessels. Furthermore, Rules of Engagement often require a visual identification before action is allowed. The challenge in these operations is to detect, classify and identify a target at a reasonable range, while avoiding too many false alarms or missed detections. Current sensor technology is not able to cope with the performance requirements under all circumstances. For example, environmental conditions can reduce the sensor range in such a way that the operational task becomes challenging or even impossible. Further, limitations in automatic detection algorithms occur, e.g. due to the effects of sun glints and spray which are not yet well-modelled in the detection filters. For these reasons, Tactical Decision Aids will become an important factor in future operations to select the best moment to act. In this paper, we describe current research within The Netherlands on this topic. The Defence Research and Development Programme "Multifunctional Electro-Optical Sensor Suite (MEOSS)" aims at the development of knowledge necessary for optimal employment of Electro-Optical systems on board of current and future ships of the Royal Netherlands Navy, in order to carry out present and future maritime operations in various environments and weather conditions.

  6. NASA three-laser airborne differential absorption lidar system electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, R. J.; Copeland, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    The system control and signal conditioning electronics of the NASA three laser airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system are described. The multipurpose DIAL system was developed for the remote measurement of gas and aerosol profiles in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. A brief description and photographs of the majority of electronics units developed under this contract are presented. The precision control system; which includes a master control unit, three combined NASA laser control interface/quantel control units, and three noise pulse discriminator/pockels cell pulser units; is described in detail. The need and design considerations for precision timing and control are discussed. Calibration procedures are included.

  7. Computer-Assisted English Learning System Based on Free Conversation by Topic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Sung-Kwon; Kwon, Oh-Woog; Kim, Young-Kil

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to describe a computer-assisted English learning system using chatbots and dialogue systems, which allow free conversation outside the topic without limiting the learner's flow of conversation. The evaluation was conducted by 20 experimenters. The performance of the system based on a free conversation by topic was measured by the…

  8. Triple loop heat exchanger for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1984-01-01

    A triple loop heat exchanger for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The triple loop heat exchanger comprises portions of a strong solution line for conducting relatively hot, strong solution from a generator to a solution heat exchanger of the absorption refrigeration system, conduit means for conducting relatively cool, weak solution from the solution heat exchanger to the generator, and a bypass system for conducting strong solution from the generator around the strong solution line and around the solution heat exchanger to an absorber of the refrigeration system when strong solution builds up in the generator to an undesirable level. The strong solution line and the conduit means are in heat exchange relationship with each other in the triple loop heat exchanger so that, during normal operation of the refrigeration system, heat is exchanged between the relatively hot, strong solution flowing through the strong solution line and the relatively cool, weak solution flowing through the conduit means. Also, the strong solution line and the bypass system are in heat exchange relationship in the triple loop heat exchanger so that if the normal flow path of relatively hot, strong solution flowing from the generator to an absorber is blocked, then this relatively, hot strong solution which will then be flowing through the bypass system in the triple loop heat exchanger, is brought into heat exchange relationship with any strong solution which may have solidified in the strong solution line in the triple loop heat exchanger to thereby aid in desolidifying any such solidified strong solution.

  9. Multiphase gas in quasar absorption-line systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giroux, Mark L.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Shull, J. Michael

    1994-01-01

    In the standard model for H I Lyman-limit (LL) quasar absorption-line systems, the absorbing matter is galactic disk and halo gas, heated and photoionized by the metagalactic radiation field produced by active galaxies. In recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations (Reimers et al. 1992; Vogel & Reimers 1993; Reimers & Vogel 1993) of LL systems along the line of sight to the quasar HS 1700+6416, surprisingly high He I/H I ratios and a wide distribution of column densities of C, N, and O ions are deduced from extreme ultraviolet absorption lines. We show that these observations are incompatible with photoionization equilibrium by a single metagalactic ionizing background. We argue that these quasar absorption systems possess a multiphase interstellar medium similar to that of our Galaxy, in which extended hot, collisionally ionized gas is responsible for some or all of the high ionization stages of heavy elements. From the He/H ratios we obtain -4.0 less than or = log U less than or = -3.0, while the CNO ions are consistent with hot gas in collisional ionization equilibrium at log T = 5.3 and (O/H) = -1.6. The supernova rate necessary to produce these heavy elements and maintain the hot-gas energy budget of approximately 10(exp 41.5) ergs/s is approximately 10(exp -2)/yr, similar to that which maintains the 'three-phase' interstellar medium in our own Galaxy. As a consequence of the change in interpretation from photoionized gas to a multiphase medium, the derived heavy-element abundances (e.g., O/C) of these systems are open to question owing to substantial ionization corrections for unseen C V in the hot phase. The metal-line ratios may also lead to erroneous diagnostics of the shape of the metagalactic ionizaing spectrum and the ionizing parameter of the absorbers.

  10. LARGE SOIL ABSORPTION SYSTEMS FOR WASTEWATERS FROM MULTIPLE-HOME DEVELOPMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An investigation was conducted to provide insight into the design and performance of large soil absorption systems for treatment and disposal of wastewaters from multiple-home developments. The objectives were to investigate absorption system performance and identify potential de...

  11. Airborne differential absorption lidar system for water vapor investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, E. V.; Carter, A. F.; Wilkerson, T. D.

    1981-01-01

    Range-resolved water vapor measurements using the differential-absorption lidar (DIAL) technique is described in detail. The system uses two independently tunable optically pumped lasers operating in the near infrared with laser pulses of less than 100 microseconds separation, to minimize concentration errors caused by atmospheric scattering. Water vapor concentration profiles are calculated for each measurement by a minicomputer, in real time. The work is needed in the study of atmospheric motion and thermodynamics as well as in forestry and agriculture problems.

  12. A new seamless, smooth, interior, absorptive finishing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Antonio, Peter

    2003-04-01

    Architects and acousticians have sought a field-applied, absorptive finishing system that resembles a smooth plaster or painted drywall surface, since the dawn of architectural acoustics. Some success has been achieved using sprayed cellulose or cementitious materials, but surface smoothness has been a challenge. A new approach utilizing a thin microporous layer of mineral particles applied over a mineral wool panel will be described. This material can be applied to almost any shape surface, internally pigmented to match almost any color and renovated. It is currently finding application in many architectural applications, including museums. A recent installation in the New Pinakothek Museum in Munich will be illustrated.

  13. Building bridges across electronic health record systems through inferred phenotypic topics.

    PubMed

    Chen, You; Ghosh, Joydeep; Bejan, Cosmin Adrian; Gunter, Carl A; Gupta, Siddharth; Kho, Abel; Liebovitz, David; Sun, Jimeng; Denny, Joshua; Malin, Bradley

    2015-06-01

    Data in electronic health records (EHRs) is being increasingly leveraged for secondary uses, ranging from biomedical association studies to comparative effectiveness. To perform studies at scale and transfer knowledge from one institution to another in a meaningful way, we need to harmonize the phenotypes in such systems. Traditionally, this has been accomplished through expert specification of phenotypes via standardized terminologies, such as billing codes. However, this approach may be biased by the experience and expectations of the experts, as well as the vocabulary used to describe such patients. The goal of this work is to develop a data-driven strategy to (1) infer phenotypic topics within patient populations and (2) assess the degree to which such topics facilitate a mapping across populations in disparate healthcare systems. We adapt a generative topic modeling strategy, based on latent Dirichlet allocation, to infer phenotypic topics. We utilize a variance analysis to assess the projection of a patient population from one healthcare system onto the topics learned from another system. The consistency of learned phenotypic topics was evaluated using (1) the similarity of topics, (2) the stability of a patient population across topics, and (3) the transferability of a topic across sites. We evaluated our approaches using four months of inpatient data from two geographically distinct healthcare systems: (1) Northwestern Memorial Hospital (NMH) and (2) Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC). The method learned 25 phenotypic topics from each healthcare system. The average cosine similarity between matched topics across the two sites was 0.39, a remarkably high value given the very high dimensionality of the feature space. The average stability of VUMC and NMH patients across the topics of two sites was 0.988 and 0.812, respectively, as measured by the Pearson correlation coefficient. Also the VUMC and NMH topics have smaller variance of characterizing

  14. Pulsed laser linescanner for a backscatter absorption gas imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Kulp, Thomas J.; Reichardt, Thomas A.; Schmitt, Randal L.; Bambha, Ray P.

    2004-02-10

    An active (laser-illuminated) imaging system is described that is suitable for use in backscatter absorption gas imaging (BAGI). A BAGI imager operates by imaging a scene as it is illuminated with radiation that is absorbed by the gas to be detected. Gases become "visible" in the image when they attenuate the illumination creating a shadow in the image. This disclosure describes a BAGI imager that operates in a linescanned manner using a high repetition rate pulsed laser as its illumination source. The format of this system allows differential imaging, in which the scene is illuminated with light at least 2 wavelengths--one or more absorbed by the gas and one or more not absorbed. The system is designed to accomplish imaging in a manner that is insensitive to motion of the camera, so that it can be held in the hand of an operator or operated from a moving vehicle.

  15. Ocular delivery systems for topical application of anti-infective agents.

    PubMed

    Duxfield, Linda; Sultana, Rubab; Wang, Ruokai; Englebretsen, Vanessa; Deo, Samantha; Rupenthal, Ilva D; Al-Kassas, Raida

    2016-01-01

    For the treatment of anterior eye segment infections using anti-infective agents, topical ocular application is the most convenient route of administration. However, topical delivery of anti-infective agents is associated with a number of problems and challenges owing to the unique structure of the eye and the physicochemical properties of these compounds. Topical ocular drug delivery systems can be classified into two forms: conventional and non-conventional. The efficacy of conventional ocular formulations is limited by poor corneal retention and permeation resulting in low ocular bioavailability. Recently, attention has been focused on improving topical ocular delivery of anti-infective agents using advanced drug delivery systems. This review will focus on the challenges of efficient topical ocular delivery of anti-infective agents and will discuss the various types of delivery systems used to improve the treatment anterior segment infections.

  16. Pluronic lecithin organogel as a topical drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Mohit; Belgamwar, Veena; Gattani, Surendra; Surana, Sanjay; Tekade, Avinash

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to formulate and evaluate the pluronic lecithin organogel containing flurbiprofen for topical application. Different formulations of pluronic lecithin organogels were prepared by using pluronic F127, lecithin, flurbiprofen, isopropyl palmitate, water, sorbic acid, and potassium sorbate. To study the in vitro potential of these formulations, permeation studies were performed with Keshary-Chien diffusion cells. The results of the in vitro permeation studies found that release of flurbiprofen from dialysis membrane-70 was more than excised dorsal rat skin. Gelation temperature study was carried out to determine the temperature where sol-gel transformation takes place. The viscosities of different formulations were determined by using Brookfield Viscometer at 25°C, the viscosity of formulations increases as the lecithin concentration increases. Also the formulations were tested for appearance and feel psychorheologically, pH, and drug content. Interactions between the components of the gel have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffractometry. The optimized formulation subjected to differential scanning calorimetry shows no drug-polymer interaction. To investigate the in vivo performance of the formulations, a carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model and skin irritation study was used. The stability studies and freeze-thaw thermal cyclic test were carried out, showing no phase separation of gel, and representing gel stability. Statistical analysis of the data of animal study (anti-inflammatory activity) was done by using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett's test. The formulation shows a statistically significant anti-inflammatory activity and is non-irritant to skin.

  17. Structural Complexity in Linguistic Systems Research Topic 3: Mathematical Sciences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    understanding of structure (pattern, correlation, memory , semantics , ...) observed in linguistic systems and process? On this score we believe the...on our understanding of structure (pattern, correlation, memory , semantics , ...) observed in linguistic systems and process? On this score we believe...promised to overcome these difficulties, since it gives a clear and constructive view of structure in memoryful stochastic processes. In principle, this

  18. Evaluation of absorption cycle for space station environmental control system application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, W. H.; Oneill, M. J.; Reid, H. C.; Bisenius, P. M.

    1972-01-01

    The study to evaluate an absorption cycle refrigeration system to provide environmental control for the space stations is reported. A zero-gravity liquid/vapor separator was designed and tested. The results were used to design a light-weight, efficient generator for the absorption refrigeration system. It is concluded that absorption cycle refrigeration is feasible for providing space station environmental control.

  19. Topics in Complexity: From Physical to Life Science Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charry, Pedro David Manrique

    Complexity seeks to unwrap the mechanisms responsible for collective phenomena across the physical, biological, chemical, economic and social sciences. This thesis investigates real-world complex dynamical systems ranging from the quantum/natural domain to the social domain. The following novel understandings are developed concerning these systems' out-of-equilibrium and nonlinear behavior. Standard quantum techniques show divergent outcomes when a quantum system comprising more than one subunit is far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Abnormal photon inter-arrival times help fulfill the metabolic needs of a terrestrial photosynthetic bacterium. Spatial correlations within incident light can act as a driving mechanism for an organism's adaptation toward more ordered structures. The group dynamics of non-identical objects, whose assembly rules depend on mutual heterogeneity, yield rich transition dynamics between isolation and cohesion, with the cohesion regime reproducing a particular universal pattern commonly found in many real-world systems. Analyses of covert networks reveal collective gender superiority in the connectivity that provides benefits for system robustness and survival. Nodal migration in a network generates complex contagion profiles that lie beyond traditional approaches and yet resemble many modern-day outbreaks.

  20. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Global phase-stable radiointerferometric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dravskikh, A. F.; Korol'kov, Dimitrii V.; Pariĭskiĭ, Yu N.; Stotskiĭ, A. A.; Finkel'steĭn, A. M.; Fridman, P. A.

    1981-12-01

    We discuss from a unitary standpoint the possibility of building a phase-stable interferometric system with very long baselines that operate around the clock with real-time data processing. The various problems involved in the realization of this idea are discussed: the methods of suppression of instrumental and tropospheric phase fluctuations, the methods for constructing two-dimensional images and determining the coordinates of radio sources with high angular resolution, and the problem of the optimal structure of the interferometric system. We review in detail the scientific problems from the various branches of natural science (astrophysics, cosmology, geophysics, geodynamics, astrometry, etc.) whose solution requires superhigh angular resolution.

  1. Educational Systems (ES) in Mathematics and other related topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemiadis, Nicolaos K.

    2009-05-01

    This work is specifically concerned with various Educational Systems that are used for the improvement of Education in Mathematics. It is based on the speaker's as well as of others' viewpoint which has arisen from discussions about this issue at various levels and on different occasions.

  2. TOPICAL REVIEW: Prosthetic interfaces with the visual system: biological issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Ethan D.

    2007-06-01

    The design of effective visual prostheses for the blind represents a challenge for biomedical engineers and neuroscientists. Significant progress has been made in the miniaturization and processing power of prosthesis electronics; however development lags in the design and construction of effective machine brain interfaces with visual system neurons. This review summarizes what has been learned about stimulating neurons in the human and primate retina, lateral geniculate nucleus and visual cortex. Each level of the visual system presents unique challenges for neural interface design. Blind patients with the retinal degenerative disease retinitis pigmentosa (RP) are a common population in clinical trials of visual prostheses. The visual performance abilities of normals and RP patients are compared. To generate pattern vision in blind patients, the visual prosthetic interface must effectively stimulate the retinotopically organized neurons in the central visual field to elicit patterned visual percepts. The development of more biologically compatible methods of stimulating visual system neurons is critical to the development of finer spatial percepts. Prosthesis electrode arrays need to adapt to different optimal stimulus locations, stimulus patterns, and patient disease states.

  3. Optical performance and metallic absorption in nanoplasmonic systems.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Matthew D; Blaber, Martin G

    2009-03-02

    Optical metrics relating to metallic absorption in representative plasmonic systems are surveyed, with a view to developing heuristics for optimizing performance over a range of applications. We use the real part of the permittivity as the independent variable; consider strengths of particle resonances, resolving power of planar lenses, and guiding lengths of planar waveguides; and compare nearly-free-electron metals including Al, Cu, Ag, Au, Li, Na, and K. Whilst the imaginary part of metal permittivity has a strong damping effect, field distribution is equally important and thus factors including geometry, real permittivity and frequency must be considered when selecting a metal. Al performs well at low permittivities (e.g. sphere resonances, superlenses) whereas Au & Ag only perform well at very negative permittivities (shell and rod resonances, LRSPP). The alkali metals perform well overall but present engineering challenges.

  4. Topics in the mechanics of self-organizing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tambe, Dhananjay

    Self-organization, in one of its accepted definitions, is the appearance of non-random structures in a system without explicit constraints from forces outside the system. In this thesis two self-organizing systems are studied from the viewpoint of mechanics. In the first system---semiconductor crystal surfaces---the internal constraints that lead to self-assembly of nanoscale structures on silicon-germanium (SiGe) films are studied. In the second system---actin cytoskeleton---a consequence of dynamic self-organization of actin filaments in the form of motion of micron-sized beads through a cytoplasmic medium is studied. When Ge film is deposited on Si(001) substrate, nanoscale features form on the surface and self-organize by minimizing energy contributions from the surface and the strain resulting from difference in lattice constants of the film and the substrate. Clean Si(001) and Ge(001) surfaces are very similar, but experiments to date have shown that atomic scale defects such as dimer-vacancies self-organize into vacancy lines only on Si(001). Through atomic simulations, we show that the observed difference originate from the magnitude of compressive surface strain which reduces formation energy of the dimer-vacancies. During initial stages of the film deposition, the surface is composed of steps and vacancy lines organized in periodic patterns. Using theory of elasticity and atomic simulations we show that these line defects self-organize due to monopolar nature of steps and dipolar nature of the vacancy lines. This self-organized pattern further develops to form pyramidal islands bounded with (105) facets and high Ge content. Mismatch strain of the island is then reduced by incorporation of Si from the substrate surrounding the island leaving behind trenches whose depth is proportional to the basewidth of the island. Using finite element simulations we show that such a relationship is an outcome of competition between elastic energy and surface energy. Some

  5. Advanced worker protection system. Topical report, Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, J.

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection tomore » DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system, maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles.« less

  6. ABSIM. Simulation of Absorption Systems in Flexible and Modular Form

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, G.

    1994-06-01

    The computer code has been developed for simulation of absorption systems at steady-state in a flexible and modular form, making it possible to investigate various cycle configurations with different working fluids. The code is based on unit subroutines containing the governing equations for the system`s components. When all the equations have been established, a mathematical solver routine is employed to solve them simultaneously. Property subroutines contained in a separate data base serve to provide thermodynamic properties of the working fluids. The code is user-oriented and requires a relatively simple input containing the given operating conditions and the working fluid atmore » each state point. the user conveys to the computer an image of the cycle by specifying the different components and their interconnections. Based on this information, the program calculates the temperature, flowrate, concentration, pressure and vapor fraction at each state point in the system and the heat duty at each unit, from which the coefficient of performance may be determined. A graphical user-interface is provided to facilitate interactive input and study of the output.« less

  7. ABSIM. Simulation of Absorption Systems in Flexible and Modular Form

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, G.

    1994-06-01

    The computer code has been developed for simulation of absorption systems at steady-state in a flexible and modular form, making it possible to investigate various cycle configurations with different working fluids. The code is based on unit subroutines containing the governing equations for the system's components. When all the equations have been established, a mathematical solver routine is employed to solve them simultaneously. Property subroutines contained in a separate data base serve to provide thermodynamic properties of the working fluids. The code is user-oriented and requires a relatively simple input containing the given operating conditions and the working fluid atmore » each state point. the user conveys to the computer an imagev of the cycle by specifying the different components and their interconnections. Based on this information, the program calculates the temperature, flowrate, concentration, pressure and vapor fraction at each state point in the system and the heat duty at each unit, from which the coefficient of performance may be determined. A graphical user-interface is provided to fcilitate interactive input and study of the output.« less

  8. Topics in viscous potential flow of two-phase systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padrino Inciarte, Juan Carlos

    Two-phase flows are ubiquitous, from natural and domestic environments to industrial settings. However, due to their complexity, modeling these fluid systems remains a challenge from both the perspective of fundamental questions on the dynamics of an individual, smooth interface, and the perspective of integral analyses, which involve averaging of the conservation laws over large domains, thereby missing local details of the flow. In this work, we consider a set of five problems concerning the linear and non-linear dynamics of an interface or free surface and the study of cavitation inception. Analyses are carried out by assuming the fluid motion to be irrotational, that is, with zero vorticity, and the fluids to be viscous, although results from rotational analyses are presented for the purpose of comparison. The problems considered here are the following: First, we analyze the non-linear deformation and break-up of a bubble or drop immersed in a uniaxial extensional flow of an incompressible viscous fluid. The method of viscous potential flow, in which the flow field is irrotational and viscosity enters through the balance of normal stresses at the interface, is used in the analysis. The governing equations are solved numerically to track the motion of the interface by coupling a boundary element method with a time-integration routine. When break-up occurs, the break-up time computed here is compared with results obtained elsewhere from numerical simulations of the Navier.Stokes equations, which thus keeps vorticity in the analysis, for several combinations of the relevant dimensionless parameters of the problem. For the bubble, for Weber numbers 3 ≤ We ≤ 6, predictions from viscous potential flow shows good agreement with the results from the Navier.Stokes equations for the bubble break-up time, whereas for larger We, the former underpredicts the results given by the latter. Including viscosity increases the break-up time with respect to the inviscid case

  9. Topical Therapies in Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Torsekar, R.; Gautam, Manjyot M.

    2017-01-01

    Topical therapy as monotherapy is useful in psoriasis patients with mild disease. Topical agents are also used as adjuvant for moderate-to-severe disease who are being concurrently treated with either ultraviolet light or systemic medications. Emollients are useful adjuncts to the treatment of psoriasis. Use of older topical agents such as anthralin and coal tar has declined over the years. However, they are cheaper and can still be used for the treatment of difficult psoriasis refractory to conventional treatment. Salicylic acid can be used in combination with other topical therapies such as topical corticosteroids (TCS) and calcineurin inhibitors for the treatment of thick limited plaques to increase the absorption of the latter into the psoriatic plaques. Low- to mid-potent TCS are used in facial/flexural psoriasis and high potent over palmoplantar/thick psoriasis lesions. The addition of noncorticosteroid treatment can also facilitate the avoidance of long-term daily TCS. Tacrolimus and pimecrolimus can be used for the treatment of facial and intertriginous psoriasis. Tazarotene is indicated for stable plaque psoriasis usually in combination with other therapies such as TCS. Vitamin D analogs alone in combination with TCS are useful in stable plaques over limbs and palmoplantar psoriasis. Topical therapies for scalp psoriasis include TCS, Vitamin D analogs, salicylic acid, coal tar, and anthralin in various formulations such as solutions, foams, and shampoos. TCS, vitamin D analogs, and tazarotene can be used in the treatment of nail psoriasis. PMID:28761838

  10. Comparing the Document Representations of Two IR-Systems: CLARIT and TOPIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paijmans, Hans

    1993-01-01

    Compares two information retrieval systems, CLARIT and TOPIC, in terms of assigned versus derived and precoordinate versus postcoordinate indexing. Models of information retrieval systems are discussed, and a test of the systems using a demonstration database of full-text articles from the "Wall Street Journal" is described. (Contains 21…

  11. Phosphate absorption by air-stressed root systems.

    PubMed

    Dove, L D

    1969-03-01

    Root systems from plants grown in nutrient solution were exposed to air and either transferred to fresh nutrient solution containing (32)P-labeled phosphate or placed in a psychrometer to determine their water potential. The amount of (32)P absorbed by maize and soybean roots in the hour following their exposure to air was proportional to their water potential at the time they were transferred. Some cells, probably located in the stele, were more resistant to moisture stress than others. Absorption of (32)P by all cells was severely inhibited by water potentials below-12 to-15 bars. Nearly normal amounts of the radioisotope and total phosphate were absorbed within 72 hr following root exposure of 4 of 5 species of detopped plants; some phosphorus was lost to the nutrient solution. Uptake of (32)P by passive processes was increased slightly by exposure of roots of intact maize plants to air, but the increase did not compensate for the substantial reduction in actively-absorbed (32)P.

  12. Membrane-Based Absorption Refrigeration Systems: Nanoengineered Membrane-Based Absorption Cooling for Buildings Using Unconcentrated Solar & Waste Heat

    SciTech Connect

    None

    BEETIT Project: UFL is improving a refrigeration system that uses low quality heat to provide the energy needed to drive cooling. This system, known as absorption refrigeration system (ARS), typically consists of large coils that transfer heat. Unfortunately, these large heat exchanger coils are responsible for bulkiness and high cost of ARS. UFL is using new materials as well as system design innovations to develop nanoengineered membranes to allow for enhanced heat exchange that reduces bulkiness. UFL’s design allows for compact, cheaper and more reliable use of ARS that use solar or waste heat.

  13. The Systems Analysis and Design Course: An Educators' Assessment of the Importance and Coverage of Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guidry, Brandi N.; Stevens, David P.; Totaro, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines instructors' perceptions regarding the skills and topics that are most important in the teaching of a Systems Analysis and Design ("SAD") course and the class time devoted to each. A large number of Information Systems ("IS") educators at AACSB accredited schools across the United States were surveyed.…

  14. Polymeric nanoparticles-based topical delivery systems for the treatment of dermatological diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zheng; Tsai, Pei-Chin; Ramezanli, Tannaz; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena B.

    2013-01-01

    Human skin not only functions as a permeation barrier (mainly due to the stratum corneum layer), but also provides a unique delivery pathway for therapeutic and other active agents. These compounds penetrate via intercellular, intracellular and transappendageal routes, resulting in topical delivery (into skin strata) and transdermal delivery (to subcutaneous tissues and into the systemic circulation). Passive and active permeation enhancement methods have been widely applied to increase the cutaneous penetration. The pathology, pathogenesis and topical treatment approaches of dermatological diseases, such as psoriasis, contact dermatitis, and skin cancer, are then discussed. Recent literature has demonstrated that nanoparticles-based topical delivery systems can be successful in treating these skin conditions. The studies are reviewed starting with the nanoparticles based on natural polymers specially chitosan, followed by those made of synthetic, degradable (aliphatic polyesters) and non-degradable (polyarylates) polymers; emphasis is given to nanospheres made of polymers derived from naturally occurring metabolites, the tyrosine-derived nanospheres (TyroSpheres™). In summary, the nanoparticles-based topical delivery systems combine the advantages of both the nano-sized drug carriers and the topical approach, and are promising for the treatment of skin diseases. For the perspectives, the penetration of ultra-small nanoparticles (size smaller than 40 nm) into skin strata, the targeted delivery of the encapsulated drugs to hair follicle stem cells, and the combination of nanoparticles and microneedle array technologies for special applications such as vaccine delivery are discussed. PMID:23386536

  15. Absorption degree analysis on biogas separation with ionic liquid systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Suojiang; Bao, Di; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Xiangping

    2015-01-01

    For biogas upgrading, present work mainly focuses on either thermodynamics or mass transfer properties. A systematical study on these two aspects is important for developing a new biogas separation process. In this work, a new criterion "absorption degree", which combines both thermodynamics and mass transfer properties, was proposed for the first time to comprehensively evaluate the absorption performance. Henry's law constants of CO2 and CH4 in ionic liquids-polyethylene glycol dimethyl ethers mixtures were investigated. The liquid-side mass transfer coefficients (kL) were determined. The results indicate that IL-NHD mixtures exhibit not only a high CO2/CH4 selectivity, but also a fast kL for CO2 absorption. The [bmim][NO3]+NHD mixtures present a high absorption degree value for CO2 but a low value for CH4. For presenting a highest relative absorption degree value, the 50wt% [bmim][NO3]+50wt% NHD mixture is recommended for biogas upgrading. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Photoacoustic Experimental System to Confirm Infrared Absorption Due to Greenhouse Gases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Fumitoshi; Monjushiro, Hideaki; Nishiyama, Masayoshi; Kasai, Toshio; Harris, Harold H.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental system for detecting infrared absorption using the photoacoustic (PA) effect is described. It is aimed for use at high-school level to illustrate the difference in infrared (IR) absorption among the gases contained in the atmosphere in connection with the greenhouse effect. The experimental system can be built with readily…

  17. Properties of low-redshift QSO absorption systems - QSO-galaxy pairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Womble, Donna S.

    1993-01-01

    The chance proximity of QSOs and galaxies provides unique opportunities to probe the extent and content of gas in the foreground galaxies through evaluation of the incidence and strength of absorption lines in the spectra of the background QSOs. Recent results on the observed properties of these low-redshift, heavy-element absorption systems are summarized. These results are discussed in the context of the galaxy morphologies and environments and are briefly compared with Galactic absorption and with the inferred properties of higher-redshift QSO absorption systems.

  18. The effect of age on systemic absorption and systemic disposition of bupivacaine after subarachnoid administration

    SciTech Connect

    Veering, B.T.; Burm, A.G.; Vletter, A.A.

    1991-02-01

    In order to evaluate the role of the pharmacokinetics of the age-related changes in the clinical profile of spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine, we studied the influence of age on the systemic absorption and systemic disposition of bupivacaine after subarachnoid administration in 20 male patients (22-81 yr), ASA Physical Status 1 or 2, by a stable isotope method. After subarachnoid administration of 3 ml 0.5% bupivacaine in 8% glucose, a deuterium-labeled analog (13.4 mg) was administered intravenously. Blood samples were collected for 24 h. Plasma concentrations of unlabeled and deuterium-labeled bupivacaine were determined with a combination of gas chromatography and massmore » fragmentography. Biexponential functions were fitted to the plasma concentration-time data of the deuterium-labeled bupivacaine. The systemic absorption was evaluated by means of deconvolution. Mono- and biexponential functions were fitted to the data of fraction absorbed versus time. The maximal height of analgesia and the duration of analgesia at T12 increased with age (r = 0.715, P less than 0.001; r = 0.640, P less than 0.01, respectively). In 18 patients the systemic absorption of bupivacaine was best described by a biexponential equation. The half-life of the slow systemic absorption process (r = -0.478; P less than 0.05) and the mean absorption time (r = -0.551; P less than 0.02) decreased with age. The total plasma clearance decreased with age (r = -0.650, P less than 0.002), whereas the mean residence time and terminal half-life increased with age (r = 0.597, P less than 0.01; r = 0.503, P less than 0.05).« less

  19. Evaluation of topical application and systemic administration of rosuvastatin in preventing epidural fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Gürer, Bora; Kahveci, Ramazan; Gökçe, Emre Cemal; Ozevren, Huseyin; Turkoglu, Erhan; Gökçe, Aysun

    2015-03-01

    Epidural fibrosis is a major challenge in spine surgery, with some patients having recurrent symptoms secondary to excessive formation of scar tissue resulting in neurologic compression. One of the most important factors initiating the epidural fibrosis is assumed to be the transforming growth factor-1β (TGF-1β). Rosuvastatin (ROS) has shown to demonstrate preventive effects over fibrosis via inhibiting the TGF-1β. We hypothesized that ROS might have preventive effects over epidural fibrosis through the inhibition of TGF-1β pathways. Experimental animal study. Forty-eight adult male Wistar Albino rats were equally and randomly divided into four groups (laminectomy, spongostan, topical ROS, and systemic ROS). Laminectomy was performed at the L3 level in all rats. Four weeks later, the extent of epidural fibrosis was assessed both macroscopically and histopathologically. Our data revealed that topical application and systemic administration of ROS both were effective in reducing epidural fibrosis formation. Furthermore, the systemic administration of ROS yielded better results than topical application. Both topical application and systemic administration of ROS show meaningful preventive effects over epidural fibrosis through multiple mechanisms. The results of our study provide the first experimental evidence of the preventive effects of ROS over epidural fibrosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Topics on Test Methods for Space Systems and Operations Safety: Applicability of Experimental Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David B.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews topics on test methods for space systems and operations safety through experimentation and analysis. The contents include: 1) Perception of reality through experimentation and analysis; 2) Measurements, methods, and correlations with real life; and 3) Correlating laboratory aerospace materials flammability data with data in spacecraft environments.

  1. Systemic and Topical Use of Tranexamic Acid in Spinal Surgery: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Sebastian F.; Santaguida, Carlo; Wong, Jean; Fehlings, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Combination of narrative and systematic literature reviews. Objectives Massive perioperative blood loss in complex spinal surgery often requires blood transfusions and can negatively affect patient outcome. Systemic use of the antifibrinolytic agent tranexamic acid (TXA) has become widely used in the management of surgical bleeding. We review the clinical evidence for the use of intravenous TXA as a hemostatic agent in spinal surgery and discuss the emerging role for its complementary use as a topical agent to reduce perioperative blood loss from the surgical site. Through a systematic review of published and ongoing investigations on topical TXA for spinal surgery, we wish to make spine practitioners aware of this option and to suggest opportunities for further investigation in the field. Methods A narrative review of systemic TXA in spinal surgery and topical TXA in surgery was conducted. Furthermore, a systematic search (using PRISMA guidelines) of PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases as well as World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, ClinicalTrials.gov (National Institutes of Health), and International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number registries was conducted to identify both published literature and ongoing clinical trials on topical TXA in spinal surgery. Results Of 1,631 preliminary search results, 2 published studies were included in the systematic review. Out of 285 ongoing clinical trials matching the search criteria, a total of 4 relevant studies were included and reviewed. Conclusion Intravenous TXA is established as an efficacious hemostatic agent in spinal surgery. Use of topical TXA in surgery suggests similar hemostatic efficacy and potentially improved safety as compared with intravenous TXA. For spinal surgery, the literature on topical TXA is sparse but promising, warranting further clinical investigation and consideration as a clinical option in cases with

  2. Enhancing topical analgesic administration: review and prospect for transdermal and transbuccal drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Roser; Calpena, Ana C; Mallandrich, Mireia; Clares, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Topical administration is an appealing method for drug delivery due to its non-invasiveness, self-controlled application, avoidance of first-pass metabolism in the liver and reduction of systemic side effects compared to other conventional routes such as oral and parenteral. However, topical administration must overcome the permeable barriers that skin and mucosa represent for the drug to achieve its desired therapeutic effect. Penetration of drugs through human skin is mainly impaired by the stratum corneum- the uppermost keratinized skin layer. In contrast, the stratified squamous epithelium (a nonkeratinized tissue) represents the major physical barrier for transbuccal drug administration in humans. Different technologies have been studied to enhance the bioavailability or local effects of drugs administered through skin and buccal mucosa. Those technologies involve the use of physical or chemical enhancers and new dosage forms such as vesicles, cyclodextrins, nanoparticles and other complex systems. Combinations of these technologies may further increase drug delivery in some cases. As analgesia is one of the main therapeutic effects sought through topical administration, this paper focuses on the review of drug delivery systems to improve the topical and transdermal/transbuccal drug delivery of substances with known analgesic action. A discussion of their possibilities and limitations is also included.

  3. The -145 km/S Absorption System of Eta Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vieira, G.; Gull, T. R.; Danks, A.; Johansson, S.

    2002-01-01

    With the STIS E230H mode (R-118,000) , we have identified about twenty absorption components in line of sight from Eta Carinae. Two components, one at -513 km/s and another at -145 W s , are quite different in character from the others, mostly at intermediate velocities. The -145 km/s component is significantly wider in fwhm, is seen in many more species, and the lower level can be above 20,000/cm, well above the 2000/cm noted in the -513 km/s component. In the spectral region from 2400 to 3160A, approximately 500 absorption lines have been identified. In this poster, we will present line identifications and atomic parameters of the measured lines, hopefully providing insight as to what levels are being excited and by what processes.

  4. The -145 km/s Absorption System of Eta Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vieira, G.; Gull, Theodore R.; Danks, A.; Johansson, S.

    2002-01-01

    With the STIS E230H mode (R approx. 118,000), we have identified about twenty absorption components in line of sight from Eta Carinae. Two components, one at -513 km/s and another at -145 km/s, are quite different in character from the others, mostly at intermediate velocities. The -145 km/s component is significantly wider in fwhm, is seen in many more species, and the lower level can be above 20,000/cm, well above the 2000/cm noted in the -513 km/s component. In the spectral region from 2400 to 3160A, approximately 500 absorption lines have been identified. In this poster, we will present line identifications and atomic parameters of the measured lines, hopefully providing insight as to what levels are being excited and by what processes. Observations were accomplished through STScI under proposal 9242. Funding is through the STIS GTO resources.

  5. Recent Progress in Electromagnetic Absorption and Dosimetry in Biological Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-21

    AEROSPACE M!DICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY NAVAL AIR STATION PENSACOLA, FLORIDA 32508 L4 oj6L I SUMMARY PAGE Ti9(PROSLEM Dosimetry , as a subset of research In...absonce of sound dosimetry design, lacks credibility. This study provides a usable orientation in present and future dosimetric technology through a...leading experiment; while at other times experimental results lead the way. Progress In absorption and dosimetry Is still urderway, and higher degrees

  6. Advanced turbine systems program conceptual design and product development. Task 3 -- System selection; Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.J.

    1994-07-01

    Solar Turbines Incorporated has elected to pursue an intercooled and recuperated (ICR) gas turbine system to exceed the goals of the DOE Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program, which are to develop and commercialize an industrial gas turbine system that operates at thermal efficiencies at least 15% higher than 1991 products, and with emissions not exceeding eight ppmv NOx and 20 ppmv CO and UHC. Solar`s goal is to develop a commercially viable industrial system (3--20 MW) driven by a gas turbine engine with a thermal efficiency of 50% (ATS50), with the flexibility to meet the differing operational requirements of variousmore » markets. Dispersed power generation is currently considered to be the primary future target market for the ICR in the 5--15 MW size class. The ICR integrated system approach provides an ideal candidate for the assumed dispersed power market, with its small footprint, easy transportability, and environmental friendliness. In comparison with other systems that use water or toxic chemicals such as ammonia for NOx control, the ICR has no consumables other than fuel and air. The low pressure ratio of the gas turbine engine also is favorable in that less parasitic power is needed to pump the natural gas into the combustor than for simple-cycle machines. Solar has narrowed the ICR configuration to two basic approaches, a 1-spool, and a 2-spool version of the ATS50. The 1-spool engine will have a lower first-cost but lower part-power efficiencies. The 2-spool ATS may not only have better part-power efficiency, its efficiency will also be less sensitive to reduced turbine rotor inlet temperature levels. Thus hot-end parts life can be increased with only small sacrifices in efficiency. The flexibility of the 2-spool arrangement in meeting customer needs is its major advantage over the 1-spool. This Task 3 Topical Report is intended to present Solar`s preliminary system selection based upon the initial trade-off studies performed to date.« less

  7. Conceptual Design of a Space-Based Multimegawatt MHD Power System, Task 1 Topical Report; Volume 1: Technical Discussion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    system requirements, design guidelines, and interface requirements has been prepared and included as Volume II of this Task 1 topical report. The Volume ...WAESD-TR-88-0002 Conceptual Design Of A Space-Based Multimegawatt MHD Power System ffA«kjjjjjTfc Task 1 Topical Report Volume I: Technical...Space-Based Multimegawatt MHD Power System: Task 1 Topical Report, Volume I: Technical Discussion Personal Author: Dana, RA. Corporate Author Or

  8. Jejunal and ileal absorption of oxprenolol in man: influence of nutrients and digestive secretions on jejunal absorption and systemic availability.

    PubMed Central

    Godbillon, J; Vidon, N; Palma, R; Pfeiffer, A; Franchisseur, C; Bovet, M; Gosset, G; Bernier, J J; Hirtz, J

    1987-01-01

    1 Study I evaluated the absorption of oxprenolol in the ileum, compared to jejunum, in healthy volunteers by an intestinal perfusion technique. Around 80 mg of drug were delivered as a saline solution directly in the small bowel. 2 Samples taken 30 cm distally to the site of perfusion showed that 63% of perfused oxprenolol was absorbed in the jejunum and 48% in the ileum; the differences were significant. 3 The plasma concentration-time profiles were similar for the two perfusions. The AUC and Cmax values of free and conjugated oxprenolol for the jejunal perfusion were significantly lower than those of ileum. They showed large but consistent intersubject variations in the two treatments. 4 Study II investigated, using the same technique, the influence of nutrients and digestive secretions on jejunal absorption and systemic availability of this drug. A saline (in treatments A and B) or a nutrient (in treatment C) solution containing oxprenolol was perfused into the jejunum below a balloon either inflated (A) or deflated (B and C). 5 The disappearance rate of oxprenolol from the jejunum was unaffected by endogenous secretions. The mean amount of drug absorbed along a 30-cm jejunal segment accounted for 52 (A) and 57% (B) of the total amount perfused. The intestinal absorption rate was markedly increased in the presence of nutrients (mean amount absorbed 96% for C). 6 The change in the rate of disappearance from the intestine had no effect on the systemic availability of oxprenolol (mean AUC values 8740, 8250 and 8020 nmol l-1 h for A, B and C, respectively) or its elimination from plasma.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3663450

  9. BMY 30047: A novel topically active retinoid with low local and systemic toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, X.; Quigley, J.; Tramposch, K.M.

    In the treatment of various dermatological disorders, topically applied retinoids have potential therapeutic use with the advantage of improved localized activity and lower toxicity over systemically administered retinoids. However, most retinoids cause a significant degree of local irritation. In the present study, the ability to produce local activity with low local irritation potential was evaluated with a novel retinoic acid derivative. BMY 30047 (11-cis, 13-cis-12-hydroxymethylretinoic acid delta-lactone) is one of a series of retinoic acid derivatives in which the carboxyl function of the polar end was modified with the aim of achieving reduced local irritation and systemic toxicity while retainingmore » the local therapeutic effect. BMY 30047 was evaluated and compared with all-trans retinoic acid for topical retinoid activity in several preclinical assay systems, including the utricle reduction assay in rhino mice, 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate ester-stimulated ornithine decarboxylase induction in hairless mice and the UV light-induced photodamaged skin model in hairless mice. BMY 30047 was assessed for retinoid-type side effects by evaluating the skin irritation potential in rabbits after repeated topical application, and hypervitaminosis A-inducing potential in mice after i.p. injection. BMY 30047 demonstrated significant topical retinoid activity in several in vivo models with less skin irritation potential relative to the most used clinical concentrations of all-trans retinoic acid. BMY 30047 also showed very little systemic activity and did not produce any evidence of hypervitaminosis A syndrome at systemic doses 20 times greater than the no-effect dose of all-trans retinoic acid.« less

  10. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Babassu Oil and Development of a Microemulsion System for Topical Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Mysrayn Y. F. A.; dos Santos, Simone M.; Silva, Danielle R.; Navarro, Daniela M. A. Ferraz; Santos, Geanne K. N.; Hallwass, Fernando; Bianchi, Otávio; Silva, Alexandre G.; Melo, Janaína V.; Machado, Giovanna; Saraiva, Karina L. A.

    2017-01-01

    Babassu oil extraction is the main income source in nut breakers communities in northeast of Brazil. Among these communities, babassu oil is used for cooking but also medically to treat skin wounds and inflammation, and vulvovaginitis. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of babassu oil and develop a microemulsion system with babassu oil for topical delivery. Topical anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in mice ear edema using PMA, arachidonic acid, ethyl phenylpropiolate, phenol, and capsaicin as phlogistic agents. A microemulsion system was successfully developed using a Span® 80/Kolliphor® EL ratio of 6 : 4 as the surfactant system (S), propylene glycol and water (3 : 1) as the aqueous phase (A), and babassu oil as the oil phase (O), and analyzed through conductivity, SAXS, DSC, TEM, and rheological assays. Babassu oil and lauric acid showed anti-inflammatory activity in mice ear edema, through inhibition of eicosanoid pathway and bioactive amines. The developed formulation (39% A, 12.2% O, and 48.8% S) was classified as a bicontinuous to o/w transition microemulsion that showed a Newtonian profile. The topical anti-inflammatory activity of microemulsified babassu oil was markedly increased. A new delivery system of babassu microemulsion droplet clusters was designed to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of vegetable oil. PMID:29430254

  11. Temperature-sensitive microemulsion gel: an effective topical delivery system for simultaneous delivery of vitamins C and E.

    PubMed

    Rozman, Branka; Zvonar, Alenka; Falson, Francoise; Gasperlin, Mirjana

    2009-01-01

    Microemulsions (ME)--nanostructured systems composed of water, oil, and surfactants--have frequently been used in attempts to increase cutaneous drug delivery. The primary objective addressed in this work has been the development of temperature-sensitive microemulsion gel (called gel-like ME), as an effective and safe delivery system suitable for simultaneous topical application of a hydrophilic vitamin C and a lipophilic vitamin E. By changing water content of liquid o/w ME (o/w ME), a gel-like ME with temperature-sensitive rheological properties was formed. The temperature-driven changes in its microstructure were confirmed by rotational rheometry, viscosity measurements, and droplet size determination. The release studies have shown that the vitamins' release at skin temperature from gel-like ME were comparable to those from o/w ME and were much faster and more complete than from o/w ME conventionally thickened with polymer (o/w ME carbomer). According to effectiveness in skin delivery of both vitamins, o/w ME was found the most appropriate, followed by gel-like ME and by o/w ME carbomer, indicating that no simple correlation between vitamins release and skin absorption could be found. The cytotoxicity studies revealed good cell viability after exposure to ME and confirmed all tested microemulsions as nonirritant.

  12. Electromagnetic Modeling, Optimization and Uncertainty Quantification for Antenna and Radar Systems Surfaces Scattering and Energy Absorption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-06

    design of antenna and radar systems, energy absorption and scattering by rough-surfaces. This work has lead to significant new methodologies , including...problems in the field of electromagnetic propagation and scattering, with applicability to design of antenna and radar systems, energy absorption...and scattering by rough-surfaces. This work has lead to significant new methodologies , including introduction of a certain Windowed Green Function

  13. In vitro and in vivo percutaneous absorption of retinol from cosmetic formulations: Significance of the skin reservoir and prediction of systemic absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Yourick, Jeffrey J.; Jung, Connie T.; Bronaugh, Robert L.

    2008-08-15

    The percutaneous absorption of retinol (Vitamin A) from cosmetic formulations was studied to predict systemic absorption and to understand the significance of the skin reservoir in in vitro absorption studies. Viable skin from fuzzy rat or human subjects was assembled in flow-through diffusion cells for in vitro absorption studies. In vivo absorption studies using fuzzy rats were performed in glass metabolism cages for collection of urine, feces, and body content. Retinol (0.3%) formulations (hydroalcoholic gel and oil-in-water emulsion) containing {sup 3}H-retinol were applied and absorption was measured at 24 or 72 h. All percentages reported are % of applied dose.more » In vitro studies using human skin and the gel and emulsion vehicles found 0.3 and 1.3% retinol, respectively, in receptor fluid at 24 h. Levels of absorption in the receptor fluid increased over 72 h with the gel and emulsion vehicles. Using the gel vehicle, in vitro rat skin studies found 23% in skin and 6% in receptor fluid at 24 h, while 72-h studies found 18% in skin and 13% in receptor fluid. Thus, significant amounts of retinol remained in rat skin at 24 h and decreased over 72 h, with proportional increases in receptor fluid. In vivo rat studies with the gel found 4% systemic absorption of retinol after 24 h and systemic absorption did not increase at 72 h. Retinol remaining in rat skin after in vivo application was 18% and 13% of the applied dermal dose after 24 and 72 h, respectively. Similar observations were made with the oil-in water emulsion vehicle in the rat. Retinol formed a reservoir in rat skin both in vivo and in vitro. Little additional retinol was bioavailable after 24 h. Comparison of these in vitro and in vivo results for absorption through rat skin indicates that the 24-h in vitro receptor fluid value accurately estimated 24-h in vivo systemic absorption. Therefore, the best single estimate of retinol systemic absorption from in vitro human skin studies is the 24-h

  14. The potential of polymeric film-forming systems as sustained delivery platforms for topical drugs.

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, Kit; Guy, Richard H; Petersson, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Dosing regimens requiring multiple daily applications frequently result in poor patient compliance, especially in the treatment of chronic skin diseases. Consequently, development of sustained delivery systems for topical drugs permitting less frequent dosing is of continuing interest for dermatological therapy. This potential of polymeric film-forming systems (FFS), created in situ on the skin, as sustained delivery platforms for topical drug delivery is reviewed. Key formulation parameters that determine delivery efficiency are considered focussing on those that permit a drug reservoir to be established in the upper layers of the skin and/or on the skin surface from which release can be sustained over a prolonged period. The advantageous and superior cosmetic attributes of FFS (compared to conventional semi-solid formulations) that offer significantly improved patient compliance are also addressed. The promise of polymeric FFS as convenient and aesthetic platforms for sustained topical drug delivery is clear. Manipulation of the formulation allows the delivery profile to be customized and optimized to take advantage of both a rapid, initial input of drug into the skin (likely due to a transient period of supersaturation) and a slower, controlled release over an extended time from the residual film created thereafter.

  15. Formulation and characterization of liquid crystal systems containing azelaic acid for topical delivery.

    PubMed

    Aytekin, Merve; Gursoy, R Neslihan; Ide, Semra; Soylu, Elif H; Hekimoglu, Sueda

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study is to prepare and characterize azelaic acid (AzA) containing liquid crystal (LC) drug delivery systems for topical use. Two ternary phase diagrams, containing liquid paraffin as the oil component and a mixture of two nonionic surfactants (Brij 721P and Brij 72), were constructed. Formulations chosen from the phase diagrams were characterized by polarized light microscopy, rheological analyses, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and small angle x-ray scattering spectroscopy. Polarized light microscopy proved that except the oil/water emulsion (O/W E), other formulations showed lamellar LC structure. In vitro release studies indicated that the fastest release was achieved by the Lamellar LC (LLC) and O/W E systems, whereas slower release was obtained from the emulsion containing lamellar LC (E-LLC) and distorted lamellar LC (D-LLC) systems. Results of rheological measurements both supported the results of in vitro release studies and showed that the emulsion containing the LC (E-LLC) system had the most stable structure. The formulations and their effect on stratum corneum (SC) were evaluated by DSC studies. The lamellar LC (LLC), emulsion containing lamellar liquid crystal (E-LLC), and O/W E formulations had an effect on both lipid and protein components of SC, whereas distorted lamellar liquid crystal (D-LLC) system had an effect on only the lipid components of SC. LLC systems could be considered promising for the topical delivery of AzA.

  16. Experience with decision support system and comfort with topic predict clinicians' responses to alerts and reminders.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Nerissa S; Carroll, Aaron E; Saha, Chandan; Downs, Stephen M

    2016-04-01

    Clinicians at our institution typically respond to about half of the prompts they are given by the clinic's computer decision support system (CDSS). We sought to examine factors associated with clinician response to CDSS prompts as part of a larger, ongoing quality improvement effort to optimize CDSS use. We examined patient, prompt, and clinician characteristics associated with clinician response to decision support prompts from the Child Health Improvement through Computer Automation (CHICA) system. We asked pediatricians who were nonusers of CHICA to rate decision support topics as "easy" or "not easy" to discuss with patients and their guardians. We analyzed these ratings and data, from July 1, 2009 to January 29, 2013, utilizing a hierarchical regression model, to determine whether factors such as comfort with the prompt topic and the length of the user's experience with CHICA contribute to user response rates. We examined 414 653 prompts from 22 260 patients. The length of time a clinician had been using CHICA was associated with an increase in their prompt response rate. Clinicians were more likely to respond to topics rated as "easy" to discuss. The position of the prompt on the page, clinician gender, and the patient's age, race/ethnicity, and preferred language were also predictive of prompt response rate. This study highlights several factors associated with clinician prompt response rates that could be generalized to other health information technology applications, including the clinician's length of exposure to the CDSS, the prompt's position on the page, and the clinician's comfort with the prompt topic. Incorporating continuous quality improvement efforts when designing and implementing health information technology may ensure that its use is optimized. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Ultraviolet absorption of common spacecraft contaminants. [to control effects of contaminants on optical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colony, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Organic contamination of ultraviolet optical systems is discussed. Degradation of signal by reflection, scattering, interference, and absorption is shown. The first three processes depend on the physical state of the contaminant while absorption depends on its chemical structure. The latter phenomenon is isolated from the others by dissolving contaminants in cyclohexane and determining absorption spectra from 2100A to 3600A. A variety of materials representing the types of contaminants responsible for most spaceflight hardware problems is scanned and the spectra is presented. The effect of thickness is demonstrated for the most common contaminant, di(2 ethyl hexyl)phthalate, by scanning successive dilutions.

  18. Emergency membrane contactor based absorption system for ammonia leaks in water treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jiahui; Fang, Xuliang; He, Yiliang; Jin, Qiang

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Because of the suspected health risks of trihalomethanes (THMs), more and more water treatment plants have replaced traditional chlorine disinfection process with chloramines but often without the proper absorption system installed in the case of ammonia leaks in the storage room. A pilot plant membrane absorption system was developed and installed in a water treatment plant for this purpose. Experimentally determined contact angle, surface tension, and corrosion tests indicated that the sulfuric acid was the proper choice as the absorbent for leaking ammonia using polypropylene hollow fiber membrane contactor. Effects of several operating conditions on the mass transfer coefficient, ammonia absorption, and removal efficiency were examined, including the liquid concentration, liquid velocity, and feed gas concentration. Under the operation conditions investigated, the gas absorption efficiency over 99.9% was achieved. This indicated that the designed pilot plant membrane absorption system was effective to absorb the leaking ammonia in the model storage room. The removal rate of the ammonia in the model storage room was also experimentally and theoretically found to be primarily determined by the ammonia suction flow rate from the ammonia storage room to the membrane contactor. The ammonia removal rate of 99.9% was expected to be achieved within 1.3 h at the ammonia gas flow rate of 500 m3/h. The success of the pilot plant membrane absorption system developed in this study illustrated the potential of this technology for ammonia leaks in water treatment plant, also paved the way towards a larger scale application.

  19. Einstein X-ray observations of QSO's with absorption-line systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junkkarinen, V. T.; Marscher, A. P.; Burbidge, E. M.

    1982-01-01

    The detection of X-ray emission from eight QSO's is reported, plus an upper limit to the X-ray flux from one QSO, using the Einstein X-ray Observatory (HEAO-2). Each object in the sample contains at least one absorption-line system that has been identified in its optical spectrum. The present results are combined with those of other investigators to form a sample of 44 absorption-line QSO's (with 2 sub e greater than 1.2) which have been observed in the X-ray. This sample cannot be distinguished, in terms of X-ray properties, from one which consists of QSO's in which no absorption systems have been identified. These results are consistent with extrinsic models for absorption-line clouds, as well as with current versions of intrinsic models.

  20. Topic Maps: Adopting User-Centred Indexing Technologies in Course Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venkatesh, Vivek; Shaw, Steven; Dicks, Dennis; Lowerison, Gretchen; Zhang, Dai; Sanjakdar, Roukana

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an empirical evaluation of an indexing technology, topic maps (ISO 13250), in the context of an academic task in a higher education context. Topic maps are a form of indexing that define and display the interrelationships between various topics in a given domain, as well as anchor these topics to specific resources that help…

  1. The effects of systemic, topical, and intralesional steroid treatments on apoptosis level of nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Kapucu, Burak; Cekin, Engin; Erkul, Bulent Evren; Cincik, Hakan; Gungor, Atila; Berber, Ufuk

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the apoptotic responses to systemic, topical, and intrapolyp injection of glucocorticoid with no treatment in nasal polyps. Prospective, randomized controlled study. Tertiary training hospital. The study was performed on 48 patients with nasal polyposis in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology between 2008 and 2009. Patients were assigned to 1 of 4 groups of 12 patients. Group A was treated with oral methylprednisolone 1 mg/kg/d, and the dose was tapered gradually. Group B received 0.3 mL triamcinolone acetonide (40 mg/mL), which was injected into polyp tissue. Group C was treated with topical 55 µg triamcinolone acetonide 2 times daily for 1 month. Group D received no medication. Samples were collected endoscopically after the seventh day for groups A and B, the first month for group C, and the first visit for group D. Apoptotic indexes were determined using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling method. Statistically significant differences in apoptotic index were found between each steroid-medicated group and the control group (P (D-A) = .0001; P (D-B) = .003; P (D-C) = .026) and between groups A and C (P (A-C) = .012). Group B did not differ significantly from either group A or C (P (A-B) = .11; P (B-C) = .75). The apoptotic index in nasal polyps treated with systemic, topical, and intrapolyp injection forms of glucocorticoids was higher than that in the control group. Systemic steroid treatment induced the most apoptosis.

  2. Efficacy of topical phenol decontamination strategies on severity of acute phenol chemical burns and dermal absorption: in vitro and in vivo studies in pig skin.

    PubMed

    Monteiro-Riviere, N A; Inman, A O; Jackson, H; Dunn, B; Dimond, S

    2001-05-01

    Pure phenol is colorless and used in the manufacture of phenolic resins, plastics, explosives, fertilizers, paints, rubber, textiles, adhesives, pharmaceuticals, paper, soap, and wood preservatives. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of several phenol decontamination strategies following dermal exposure using the pig as a model for human exposure, and then assess the effect of the two best treatments on phenol absorption in the isolated perfused porcine skin flap (IPPSF). Six anesthetized Yorkshire pigs were exposed to 89% aqueous phenol for 1 min using Hilltop chambers (10 skin sites/pig; 400 microl/site). Exposure to phenol was followed by one of 10 different decontamination procedures: 1-, 5-, 15-, and 30-min water wash; Ivory soap solution; polyethylene glycol (PEG 400); PEG 400/industrial methylated spirits (IMS); PEG 400/ethanol (EtOH); polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP)/70% isopropanol (IPA); and 70% IPA. For each of the last five strategies, 1-min treatment washes were repeatedly alternated with 1-min water washes for a total of 15 min. Evaluation was based on scoring of erythema, edema, and histological parameters such as intracellular and intercellular epidermal edema, papillary dermal edema, perivascular infiltrates, pyknotic stratum basale cells, and epidermal-dermal separation. It was concluded that PEG 400 and 70% IPA were superior to the other treatments investigated and equally efficacious in the reduction of phenol-induced skin damage. In addition, phenol absorption was assessed utilizing the two most effective in vivo treatments in the IPPSF. The assessment of percutaneous absorption of phenol found the PEG 400, 70% IPA, and 15-min water treatments significantly (P < 0.05) reduced phenol absorption relative to no treatment.

  3. [The Research for Trace Ammonia Escape Monitoring System Based on Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-fang; Wang, Fei; Yu, Li-bin; Yan, Jian-hua; Cen, Ke-fa

    2015-06-01

    In order to on-line measure the trace ammonia slip of the commercial power plant in the future, this research seeks to measure the trace ammonia by using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy under ambient temperature and pressure, and at different temperatures, and the measuring temperature is about 650 K in the power plant. In recent years lasers have become commercially available in the near-infrared where the transitions are much stronger, and ammonia's spectroscopy is pretty complicated and the overlapping lines are difficult to resolve. A group of ammonia transitions near 4 433.5 cm(-1) in the v2 +v3 combination band have been thoroughly selected for detecting lower concentration by analyzing its absorption characteristic and considering other absorption interference in combustion gases where H2O and CO2 mole fraction are very large. To illustrate the potential for NH3 concentration measurements, predictions for NH3, H2O and CO2 are simultaneously simulated, NH3 absorption lines near 4 433.5 cm(-1) wavelength meet weaker H2O absorption than the commercial NH3 lines, and there is almost no CO2 absorption, all the parameters are based on the HITRAN database, and an improved detection limit was obtained for interference-free NH3 monitoring, this 2.25 μm band has line strengths several times larger than absorption lines in the 1.53 μm band which was often used by NH3 sensors for emission monitoring and analyzing. The measurement system was developed with a new Herriott cell and a heated gas cell realizing fast absorption measurements of high resolution, and combined with direct absorption and wavelenguh modulation based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy at different temperatures. The lorentzian line shape is dominant at ambient temperature and pressure, and the estimated detectivity is approximately 0.225 x 10(-6) (SNR = 1) for the directed absorption spectroscopy, assuming a noise-equivalent absorbance of 1 x 10(-4). The heated cell

  4. Increasing efficacy and reducing systemic absorption of brimonidine tartrate ophthalmic gels in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xiaochen; Li, Jiawei; Pi, Jiaxin; Qi, Dongli; Guo, Pan; Li, Nan; Wu, Yumei; Liu, Zhidong

    2018-03-01

    Systemic absorption of ocularly administered Brimonidine Tartrate has been reported to give rise to several side-effects. Hence, it has become crucial to develop a delivery system that could increase efficacy and reduce systemic absorption. Therefore, the present work aims to develop Brimonidine Tartrate gels with different concentrations (0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2% w/v, respectively) using Carbopol 974 P and HPMC E4M, and compare the therapeutic efficacy and systemic absorption with that of eye drop (0.2%, w/v) by UPLC-MS/MS. The result of histological analysis did not show any morphological or structural changes after the administration of formulations. In vitro residence time studies demonstrated that the gels exhibited a better precorneal residence time as compared with the eye drop. The gels with lower concentrations of the drug (0.05% and 0.1%, w/v) could significantly decrease intraocular pressure (IOP) in both normal and water-loaded rabbits as compared to the eye drop. Finally, the values of the ratio of AUC (0→∞) in comparison to eye drop showed the gels with lower concentrations of Brimonidine Tartrate could decrease the systemic absorption. From the result, it can be concluded the 0.1% ophthalmic gel has a potential to improve therapeutic efficacy and reduce the potential toxicity caused by systemic absorption.

  5. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Masses of black holes in binary stellar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherepashchuk, Anatolii M.

    1996-08-01

    Mass determination methods and their results for ten black holes in X-ray binary systems are summarised. A unified interpretation of the radial velocity and optical light curves allows one to reliably justify the close binary system model and to prove the correctness of determination of the optical star mass function fv(m).The orbit plane inclination i can be estimated from an analysis of optical light curve of the system, which is due mainly to the ellipsoidal shape of the optical star (the so-called ellipticity effect). The component mass ratio q = mx/mv is obtained from information about the distance to the binary system as well as from data about rotational broadening of absorption lines in the spectrum of the optical star. These data allow one to obtain from the value of fv(m) a reliable value of the black hole mass mx or its low limit, as well as the optical star mass mv. An independent estimate of the optical star mass mv obtained from information about its spectral class and luminosity gives us test results. Additional test comes from information about the absence or presence of X-ray eclipses in the system. Effects of the non-zero dimension of the optical star, its pear-like shape, and X-ray heating on the absorption line profiles and the radial velocity curve are investigated. It is very significant that none of ten known massive (mx > 3M\\odot) X-ray sources considered as black hole candidates is an X-ray pulsar or an X-ray burster of the first kind.

  6. Topics on vitamin D in systemic lupus erythematosus: analysis of evidence and critical literature review.

    PubMed

    Marinho, António; Taveira, Mariana; Vasconcelos, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease with multiorgan inflammation, linked to the loss of immune tolerance to self-antigens and the production of a diversity of autoantibodies. The phenotype and progression of SLE have been linked to a combination of environmental, genetic, and hormonal factors. One such environmental factor is vitamin D, a vital hormone with well-established effects on mineral metabolism, skeletal health, and effects on cardiovascular system. The purpose of this article is to make the analysis of evidence and literature review of the pleomorphic effects of Vitamin D in SLE. The article is structured in topics of interest based in the authors' opinion and summarizes the evidence of studies and trials of vitamin D in SLE.

  7. Optimal extraction of quasar Lyman limit absorption systems from the IUE archive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tytler, David

    1992-01-01

    The IUE archive contains a wealth of information on Lyman limit absorption systems (LLS) in quasar spectra. QSO spectra from the IUE data base were optimally extracted, coadded, and analyzed to yield a homogeneous samples of LLS at low red shifts. This sample comprise 36 LLS, twice the number previously analyzed low z samples. These systems are ideal for the determination of the origin, redshift evolution, ionization, velocity dispersions and the metal abundances of absorption systems. Two of them are also excellent targets for the primordial Deuterium to Hydrogen ratio.

  8. In vitro antifungal activity of topical and systemic antifungal drugs against Malassezia species.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Muñoz, Alfonso Javier; Rojas, Florencia; Tur-Tur, Cristina; de Los Ángeles Sosa, María; Diez, Gustavo Ortiz; Espada, Carmen Martín; Payá, María Jesús; Giusiano, Gustavo

    2013-09-01

    The strict nutritional requirements of Malassezia species make it difficult to test the antifungal susceptibility. Treatments of the chronic and recurrent infections associated with Malassezia spp. are usually ineffective. The objective of this study was to obtain in vitro susceptibility profile of 76 clinical isolates of Malassezia species against 16 antifungal drugs used for topical or systemic treatment. Isolates were identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were obtained by a modified microdilution method based on the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute reference document M27-A3. The modifications allowed a good growth of all tested species. High in vitro antifungal activity of most tested drugs was observed, especially triazole derivatives, except for fluconazole which presented the highest MICs and widest range of concentrations. Ketoconazole and itraconazole demonstrated a great activity. Higher MICs values were obtained with Malassezia furfur indicating a low susceptibility to most of the antifungal agents tested. Malassezia sympodialis and Malassezia pachydermatis were found to be more-susceptible species than M. furfur, Malassezia globosa, Malassezia slooffiae and Malassezia restricta. Topical substances were also active but provide higher MICs than the compounds for systemic use. The differences observed in the antifungals activity and interspecies variability demonstrated the importance to studying the susceptibility profile of each species to obtain reliable information for defining an effective treatment regimen. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Transcriptional transactivator peptide modified lidocaine-loaded nanoparticulate drug delivery system for topical anesthetic therapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Shenhui; Shi, Pengcai

    2016-11-01

    For the topical anesthetic, transcriptional transactivator peptide (TAT) modified lidocaine (LID) loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (TAT-NLCs-LID) were prepared and then used for improving transdermal delivery of local anesthetic drug. In this study, TAT was conjugated with Distearoyl phosphatidylethanolamine-(polyethylene glycol) 2000 -maleimide (DSPE-PEG 2000 -Mal) to obtain TAT-PEG 2000 -DSPE. TAT-NLCs-LID were successfully prepared and characterized by determination of their particle size, morphology, drug encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release behavior. The skin permeation of LID-LNPs was examined using a Franz diffusion cell mounted with depilated mouse skin in vitro and in vivo anesthesia effect was evaluated on mice. The results showed that TAT-NLCs-LID have substantially small mean diameter (157.9 nm) and high encapsulation efficiency (81.8%). From the in vitro skin permeation results, transdermal flux of TAT-NLCs-LID was about several times higher than that of LID solution and NLCs-LID. In vivo anesthesia effect evaluation illustrated that TAT-NLCs-LID can enhance the transdermal delivery of LID by reducing the pain threshold in mice. These results indicate that the novel TAT containing drug delivery system is very useful for overcoming the barrier function of the skin and could deliver anesthetic through the skin. TAT-NLCs-LID could function as promising topical anesthetic system.

  10. Dermal carotenoid level and kinetics after topical and systemic administration of antioxidants: enrichment strategies in a controlled in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Darvin, Maxim E; Fluhr, Joachim W; Schanzer, Sabine; Richter, Heike; Patzelt, Alexa; Meinke, Martina C; Zastrow, Leonhard; Golz, Karin; Doucet, Olivier; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Juergen

    2011-10-01

    High doses of sun-emitted UV-radiation induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) as major pro-oxidants thus inducing premature skin aging. The best prevention of the destructive action of free radicals in human skin is textile coverings, topical sunscreens and the development of a high antioxidative protective network. The effects of topical, systemic and combined application of antioxidants (AO) were investigated on human skin in vivo. Topical application of creams and systemic incorporation of tablets both containing AO was investigated in vivo by resonance Raman spectroscopy. Topical, systemic and combined AO-treatments induced a statistically significant increase of AO levels in human skin while placebo did not show any changes. The highest accumulation was induced by the combination of topical and systemic AO. Carotenoid-tablets combined with placebo-cream induced less carotenoid accumulation than carotenoid-tablets alone. Carotenoid levelling after the end of treatment lasted for around 2 weeks following the topical application of AOs, and up to 5 weeks after systemic administration, depending on the BMI of volunteers. Topically applied AO are stored in the SC for a short time only due to the rapid AO-depletion by desquamation, textile contact, washing and environmental stress. In contrast to topical application, the systemically applied carotenoids are stored in the body fat tissue and slowly released onto the skin surface with sweat and sebum. The combined topical and systemic application of AO represents an optimal form of protection of the AO-network. Copyright © 2011 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A systems approach for analysis of high content screening assay data with topic modeling.

    PubMed

    Bisgin, Halil; Chen, Minjun; Wang, Yuping; Kelly, Reagan; Fang, Hong; Xu, Xiaowei; Tong, Weida

    2013-01-01

    High Content Screening (HCS) has become an important tool for toxicity assessment, partly due to its advantage of handling multiple measurements simultaneously. This approach has provided insight and contributed to the understanding of systems biology at cellular level. To fully realize this potential, the simultaneously measured multiple endpoints from a live cell should be considered in a probabilistic relationship to assess the cell's condition to response stress from a treatment, which poses a great challenge to extract hidden knowledge and relationships from these measurements. In this work, we applied a text mining method of Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) to analyze cellular endpoints from in vitro HCS assays and related to the findings to in vivo histopathological observations. We measured multiple HCS assay endpoints for 122 drugs. Since LDA requires the data to be represented in document-term format, we first converted the continuous value of the measurements to the word frequency that can processed by the text mining tool. For each of the drugs, we generated a document for each of the 4 time points. Thus, we ended with 488 documents (drug-hour) each having different values for the 10 endpoints which are treated as words. We extracted three topics using LDA and examined these to identify diagnostic topics for 45 common drugs located in vivo experiments from the Japanese Toxicogenomics Project (TGP) observing their necrosis findings at 6 and 24 hours after treatment. We found that assay endpoints assigned to particular topics were in concordance with the histopathology observed. Drugs showing necrosis at 6 hour were linked to severe damage events such as Steatosis, DNA Fragmentation, Mitochondrial Potential, and Lysosome Mass. DNA Damage and Apoptosis were associated with drugs causing necrosis at 24 hours, suggesting an interplay of the two pathways in these drugs. Drugs with no sign of necrosis we related to the Cell Loss and Nuclear Size assays, which

  12. Simulation of a solar-assisted absorption air conditioning system for applications in Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.Y.; Hernandez, H.R.; Gonzalez, J.E.

    1995-11-01

    Regions without conventional fuel sources have felt the need for the development of new technologies for air conditioning applications as cost of electrical energy production has continually risen the cost of air conditioning by conventional means. This paper deals with the simulation of a solar-assisted absorption system for air conditioning application in Puerto Rico. A simple thermodynamic model for the solar assisted absorption system has been developed. A solar energy based thermal storage system along with an auxiliary heater is used to provide the required energy in the generator of this absorption system. Results from a parametric analysis to studymore » the influence of the absorber, generator, condenser and evaporator temperatures, on the COP of the system are presented in this paper. The influence of two different refrigerant/absorbent pairs, water/lithium bromide and water/lithium-chloride have also been studied. A sub-system consisting of an array of flat plate solar collectors along with a hot water storage is modeled and verified with the data from an already existing system operating in Sacramento. Finally, off-design performance of a 35 kW solar-assisted absorption system is simulated to report the auxiliary heating requirement for a typical summer day operation in southern Puerto Rico.« less

  13. What are we 'tweeting' about obesity? Mapping tweets with Topic Modeling and Geographic Information System.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debarchana Debs; Guha, Rajarshi

    2013-01-01

    Public health related tweets are difficult to identify in large conversational datasets like Twitter.com. Even more challenging is the visualization and analyses of the spatial patterns encoded in tweets. This study has the following objectives: How can topic modeling be used to identify relevant public health topics such as obesity on Twitter.com? What are the common obesity related themes? What is the spatial pattern of the themes? What are the research challenges of using large conversational datasets from social networking sites? Obesity is chosen as a test theme to demonstrate the effectiveness of topic modeling using Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) and spatial analysis using Geographic Information System (GIS). The dataset is constructed from tweets (originating from the United States) extracted from Twitter.com on obesity-related queries. Examples of such queries are 'food deserts', 'fast food', and 'childhood obesity'. The tweets are also georeferenced and time stamped. Three cohesive and meaningful themes such as 'childhood obesity and schools', 'obesity prevention', and 'obesity and food habits' are extracted from the LDA model. The GIS analysis of the extracted themes show distinct spatial pattern between rural and urban areas, northern and southern states, and between coasts and inland states. Further, relating the themes with ancillary datasets such as US census and locations of fast food restaurants based upon the location of the tweets in a GIS environment opened new avenues for spatial analyses and mapping. Therefore the techniques used in this study provide a possible toolset for computational social scientists in general and health researchers in specific to better understand health problems from large conversational datasets.

  14. Percutaneous absorption

    PubMed Central

    Brisson, Paul

    1974-01-01

    Clinical effectiveness of topically applied medications depends on the ability of the active ingredient to leave its vehicle and penetrate into the epidermis. The stratum corneum is that layer of the epidermis which functionally is the most important in limiting percutaneous absorption, showing the characteristics of a composite semipermeable membrane. A mathematical expression of transepidermal diffusion may be derived from Fick's Law of mass transport; factors altering the rate of diffusion are discussed. PMID:4597976

  15. Comparison of systemic absorption between ofloxacin ophthalmic in situ gels and ofloxacin conventional ophthalmic solutions administration to rabbit eyes by HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiawei; Zhao, Hainan; Okeke, Chukwunweike Ikechukwu; Li, Lin; Liu, Zhidong; Yin, Zhongpeng; Zhuang, Pengwei; Sun, Jingtong; Wu, Tao; Wang, Meng; Li, Nan; Pi, Jiaxin; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Rui; Ma, Li; Pang, Xiaochen; Liu, Zhanbiao; Zhang, Li; Fan, Lili

    2013-06-25

    In recent years, many pharmaceutical scientists have focused on developing the in situ gel-forming systems to overcome the poor bioavailability and therapeutic response exhibited by conventional ophthalmic solutions due to rapid pre-corneal elimination of the drug. The present work was to compare the systemic absorptions of ophthalmic ofloxacin in situ gel with the conventional ofloxacin eye drop after topical instillation to rabbit eyes by HPLC-MS/MS method and also determine the relative contribution of the nasal and the conjunctival mucosae to systemic ofloxacin absorption following topical instillation. The systemic AUC, Cmax, Tmax and Ke for ophthalmic in situ gel and ophthalmic solution after ocular instillation were 202.63±118.85 and 202.25±57.74 ng mL(-1) h, 54.22±28.31 and 48.4±25.97 ng mL(-1), 1.08±0.20 and 1.25±0.88 h, 0.0576±0.0207 and 0.0388±0.0248, respectively. And the values for the ratios of the AUC of anterior chamber of rabbit eye to blood plasma, AUCac/AUCpl, for ofloxacin conventional eye drop and in situ gel were 0.25 and 0.52, respectively. Statistic results showed that there was no significant difference in systemic absorption between the test groups and the reference groups (P>0.05) as both formulations have an AUCsa/AUCpl of 0.35. Therefore, the ophthalmic in situ gel may not decrease the drugs systemic absorption when administered in an equivalent dose as ophthalmic solutions into the rabbit eyes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Absorptive capacity, technological innovation, and product life cycle: a system dynamics model.

    PubMed

    Zou, Bo; Guo, Feng; Guo, Jinyu

    2016-01-01

    While past research has recognized the importance of the dynamic nature of absorptive capacity, there is limited knowledge on how to generate a fair and comprehensive analytical framework. Based on interviews with 24 Chinese firms, this study develops a system-dynamics model that incorporates an important feedback loop among absorptive capacity, technological innovation, and product life cycle (PLC). The simulation results reveal that (1) PLC affects the dynamic process of absorptive capacity; (2) the absorptive capacity of a firm peaks in the growth stage of PLC, and (3) the market demand at different PLC stages is the main driving force in firms' technological innovations. This study also explores a sensitivity simulation using the variables of (1) time spent in founding an external knowledge network, (2) research and development period, and (3) knowledge diversity. The sensitivity simulation results show that the changes of these three variables have a greater impact on absorptive capacity and technological innovation during growth and maturity stages than in the introduction and declining stages of PLC. We provide suggestions on how firms can adjust management policies to improve their absorptive capacity and technological innovation performance during different PLC stages.

  17. The Hubble Space Telescope Quasar Absorption Line Key Project: The Unusual Absorption-Line System in the Spectrum of PG 2302+029--Ejected or Intervening?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jannuzi, B. T.; Hartig, G. F.; Kirhakos, S.; Sargent, W. L. W.; Turnshek, D. A.; Weymann, R. J.; Bahcall, J. N.; Bergeron, J.; Boksenberg, A.; Savage, B. D.; hide

    1996-01-01

    We report the discovery of a high-ionization broad absorption line system at a redshift of z(sub abs) = 0.695 in the spectrum of the z(sub em) = 1.052 radio-quiet quasar PG 2302+029. Broad absorption with FWHM from 3000 to 5000 km/s is detected from C iv, N v, and O vi in Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Faint Object Spectrograph spectra of the quasar. A narrow-line system (FWHM approx. 250 km/s) at z(sub abs) = 0.7016 is resolved from the broad blend and includes absorption by Ly alpha and the C iv, N v, and O vi doublets. No absorption by low-ionization metal species (e.g., Si II and Mg II) is detected in the HST or ground-based spectra for either the broad or the narrow system. The centroids of the broad system lines are displaced by approx. 56,000 km/s to the blue of the quasar's broad emission lines. The reddest extent of the broad-line absorption is more than 50,000 km/s from the quasar. The properties of this system are unprecedented, whether it is an intervening or an ejected system.

  18. Intestinal triacylglycerol synthesis in fat absorption and systemic energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Chi-Liang Eric; Nelson, David W.; Yen, Mei-I

    2015-01-01

    The intestine plays a prominent role in the biosynthesis of triacylglycerol (triglyceride; TAG). Digested dietary TAG is repackaged in the intestine to form the hydrophobic core of chylomicrons, which deliver metabolic fuels, essential fatty acids, and other lipid-soluble nutrients to the peripheral tissues. By controlling the flux of dietary fat into the circulation, intestinal TAG synthesis can greatly impact systemic metabolism. Genes encoding many of the enzymes involved in TAG synthesis have been identified. Among TAG synthesis enzymes, acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 and acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT)1 are highly expressed in the intestine. Their physiological functions have been examined in the context of whole organisms using genetically engineered mice and, in the case of DGAT1, specific inhibitors. An emerging theme from recent findings is that limiting the rate of TAG synthesis in the intestine can modulate gut hormone secretion, lipid metabolism, and systemic energy balance. The underlying mechanisms and their implications for humans are yet to be explored. Pharmacological inhibition of TAG hydrolysis in the intestinal lumen has been employed to combat obesity and associated disorders with modest efficacy and unwanted side effects. The therapeutic potential of inhibiting specific enzymes involved in intestinal TAG synthesis warrants further investigation. PMID:25231105

  19. Intestinal triacylglycerol synthesis in fat absorption and systemic energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chi-Liang Eric; Nelson, David W; Yen, Mei-I

    2015-03-01

    The intestine plays a prominent role in the biosynthesis of triacylglycerol (triglyceride; TAG). Digested dietary TAG is repackaged in the intestine to form the hydrophobic core of chylomicrons, which deliver metabolic fuels, essential fatty acids, and other lipid-soluble nutrients to the peripheral tissues. By controlling the flux of dietary fat into the circulation, intestinal TAG synthesis can greatly impact systemic metabolism. Genes encoding many of the enzymes involved in TAG synthesis have been identified. Among TAG synthesis enzymes, acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 and acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT)1 are highly expressed in the intestine. Their physiological functions have been examined in the context of whole organisms using genetically engineered mice and, in the case of DGAT1, specific inhibitors. An emerging theme from recent findings is that limiting the rate of TAG synthesis in the intestine can modulate gut hormone secretion, lipid metabolism, and systemic energy balance. The underlying mechanisms and their implications for humans are yet to be explored. Pharmacological inhibition of TAG hydrolysis in the intestinal lumen has been employed to combat obesity and associated disorders with modest efficacy and unwanted side effects. The therapeutic potential of inhibiting specific enzymes involved in intestinal TAG synthesis warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. New formulation of chemical peeling agent: 30% salicylic acid in polyethylene glycol. Absorption and distribution of 14C-salicylic acid in polyethylene glycol applied topically to skin of hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Setsuko; Mitsugi, Koichi; Ichige, Kazumi; Yoshida, Kenji; Sakuma, Tomoko; Ninomiya, Shin-ichi; Sudou, Tetsuji

    2002-04-01

    Salicylic acid is used in chemical peeling procedures. However, they have caused many side effects, even salicylism. To achieve a salicylic acid peeling that would be safer for topical use, we recently developed a new formulation consisting of 30% salicylic acid in polyethylene glycol (PEG) vehicle. In an extension of our previous research, we studied the absorption of 30% salicylic acid labeled with 14C in PEG vehicle applied topically to the intact and damaged skin of male hairless mice. An ointment containing 3 mg salicylic acid in 10 mg vehicle was applied to both groups. In animals with intact skin, 1 h after application the plasma concentration of radioactivity was 1665.1 ng eq/ml, significantly lower than the 21437.6 ng eq/ml observed in mice with damaged skin. Microautoradiograms of intact skin showed that the level of radioactivity in the cornified cell layer was similar at 6 h after application. However, in damaged skin, the overall level of radioactivity showed a decrease by 3 h after application. In the carcasses remaining after the treated intact and damaged skin had been removed, 0.09 and 11.38% of the applied radioactivity remained, respectively. These findings confirm that 30% salicylic acid in PEG vehicle is little absorbed through the intact skin of hairless mice, and suggest that salicylism related to absorption through the skin of quantities of topically applied salicylic acid is not likely to occur in humans with intact skin during chemical peeling with this preparation. This new preparation of 30% salicylic acid in PEG vehicle is believed to be safe for application as a chemical peeling agent.

  1. Methods of instruction of the incident command system and related topics at US veterinary schools.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joe S; Kuldau, Gretchen A

    2014-12-01

    The Incident Command System (ICS) is an adaptable construct designed to streamline response efforts to a disaster or other incident. We aimed to examine the methods used to teach the ICS at US veterinary schools and to explore alternative and novel methods for instruction of this material. A total of 29 US accredited veterinary schools (as of February 2012) were surveyed, and 18 of the 29 schools responded. The ICS and related topics were taught by both classroom methods and online instruction by most of the surveyed schools. Several of the schools used readily available Federal Emergency Management Agency and US Department of Agriculture resources to aid in instruction. Most schools used one course to teach the ICS, and some schools also used unique methods such as field exercises, drills, side-by-side training with disaster response teams, elective courses, extracurricular clubs, and externships to reinforce the ICS and related topics. Some of the surveyed institutions also utilized fourth-year clinical rotations and field deployments during actual disasters as a component of their ICS and emergency response curriculum. The ICS is being taught at some form at a significant number of US veterinary schools. Additional research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of the teaching methods of the ICS in US veterinary schools.

  2. Bio-based topical system for enhanced salicylic acid delivery: preparation and performance of gels.

    PubMed

    Langasco, Rita; Spada, Gianpiera; Tanriverdi, Sakine Tuncay; Rassu, Giovanna; Giunchedi, Paolo; Özer, Özgen; Gavini, Elisabetta

    2016-08-01

    New salicylic acid (SA)-loaded gels were developed using excipients made from renewable materials, and our goal was to improve drug permeation in the topical treatment of acne vulgaris. We studied the preparation parameters to obtain suitable gel formulations. Only naturally occurring polymers were used as gelling agents. Two hydrogels and three lipogels were selected and characterized in terms of drug loading, pH, viability cells, rheology, mechanical properties and in vitro permeation; these hydrogels and lipogels were compared with the traditional ointment. We also evaluated skin parameters before and after gel application. The formulations that we studied are non-Newtonian fluids; they have high drug loading and suitable mechanical properties. Lipogels exhibit a slower and more linear in vitro permeation profile compared with hydrogels. The different vehicles that we used affected drug permeation and improve patient compliance. Cytotoxicity studies suggest that all of the formulations are non-toxic. Lipogels demonstrate appropriate technological features and improved performance compared with the traditional ointment with regard to their composition. Lipogels may represent a new bio-based topical system for SA delivery. The use of 'green' excipients leads to 'skin-friendly' formulations that are able to satisfy environmental safety. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  3. Automicroneedle therapy system combined with topical tretinoin shows better regenerative effects compared with each individual treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H; Park, H Y; Jung, M; Choi, E H

    2013-01-01

    Regenerative therapy is a relatively new dermatological field. However, the currently available topical agents are unsuitable for transdermal drug delivery because of their high molecular weight and low liposolubility. Therefore, a more effective transdermal drug delivery system is needed in order to achieve better therapeutic effects with these agents. A recently introduced microneedle therapy system (MTS), which is a mechanical method for making minute holes in the skin, improves transdermal delivery. A recently developed refinement of this technique, the automicroneedle therapy system (AMTS), has several advantages over the traditional MTS, as it can achieve consistent results because of its automatic punching method. To evaluate the cutaneous effects of an AMTS in combination with topical tretinoin. Twelve hairless mice were divided into two groups, and the dorsal skin of each mouse was marked down the centre. The first group was treated with the AMTS plus 0.025% tretinoin on one side of the back, and with 0.025% tretinoin only on the other side. The other group was treated with the AMTS and vehicle on one side, while the other side was left untreated. The effects on cutaneous regeneration and the treatment side-effects were evaluated by functional assessment including transepidermal water loss and skin hydration, and by histopathology including epidermal and dermal thickness, and density of collagen fibres. Western blotting and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR were also performed to determine protein and mRNA expression of procollagen type 1 and matrix metalloproteinase-13. Compared with the individual treatments (the AMTS alone or tretinoin alone) the combination of tretinoin plus the AMTS produced greater dermal regeneration as a result of increased proliferation of collagen fibres. This combination therapy did not result in treatment-related adverse effects. An AMTS combined with topical tretinoin is a safe and effective method for skin regeneration

  4. Accurate universal parameterization of absorption cross sections III--light systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

    1999-01-01

    Our prior nuclear absorption cross sections model [R.K. Tripathi, F.A. Cucinotta, J.W. Wilson, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 117 (1996) 347; R.K. Tripathi, J.W. Wilson, F.A. Cucinotta, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 129 (1997) 11] is extended for light systems (A < or = 4) where either both projectile and target are light particles or one is light particle and the other is medium or heavy nucleus. The agreement with experiment is excellent for these cases as well. Present work in combination with our original model provides a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for light, medium and heavy systems. As a result the extended model can reliably be used in all studies where there is a need for absorption cross sections.

  5. LiCl Dehumidifier LiBr absorption chiller hybrid air conditioning system with energy recovery

    DOEpatents

    Ko, Suk M.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a hybrid air conditioning system that combines a solar powered LiCl dehumidifier with a LiBr absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier removes the latent load by absorbing moisture from the air, and the sensible load is removed by the absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier is coupled to a regenerator and the desiccant in the regenerator is heated by solar heated hot water to drive the moisture therefrom before being fed back to the dehumidifier. The heat of vaporization expended in the desiccant regenerator is recovered and used to partially preheat the driving fluid of the absorption chiller, thus substantially improving the overall COP of the hybrid system.

  6. CALL FOR PAPERS: Topical issue on the nonstationary Casimir effect and quantum systems with moving boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Gabriel; Dodonov, Victor V.; Man'ko, Vladimir I.

    2004-05-01

    The past few years have seen a growing interest in quantum mechanical systems with moving boundaries. One of its manifestations was the First International Workshop on Problems with Moving Boundaries organized by Professor J Dittrich in Prague in October 2003. Another event in this series will be the (first) International Workshop on the Dynamical Casimir Effect in Padua in June 2004, organized by Professor G Carugno (see webpage www.pd.infn.it/casimir/ for details). As Guest Editors we invite researchers working in any area related to moving boundaries to contribute to a Topical Issue of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics on the nonstationary Casimir effect and quantum systems with moving boundaries. Our intention is to cover a wide range of topics. In particular, we envisage possible contributions in the following areas: Theoretical and experimental studies on quantum fields in cavities with moving boundaries and time-dependent media. This area includes, in particular, various manifestations of the nonstationary (dynamical) Casimir effect, such as creation of quanta and modifications of Casimir force due to the motion of boundaries. Other relevant subjects are: generation and evolution of nonclassical states of fields and moving mirrors; interaction between quantized fields and atoms in cavities with moving boundaries; decoherence and entanglement due to the motion of boundaries; field quantization in nonideal cavities with moving boundaries taking into account losses and dispersion; nano-devices with moving boundaries. Quantum particles in domains confined with moving boundaries. This area includes: new exact and approximate solutions of the evolution equations (Schrödinger, Klein-Gordon, Dirac, Fokker-Planck, etc); quantum carpets and revivals; escape and tunnelling through moving barriers; evolution of quantum packets in the presence of moving boundaries; ultracold atoms (ions) in traps with moving boundaries. The topical issue is scheduled

  7. Airborne differential absorption lidar system for measurements of atmospheric water vapor and aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Arlen F.; Allen, Robert J.; Mayo, M. Neale; Butler, Carolyn F.; Grossman, Benoist E.; Ismail, Syed; Grant, William B.; Browell, Edward V.; Higdon, Noah S.; Mayor, Shane D.; hide

    1994-01-01

    An airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system has been developed at the NASA Langley Research Center for remote measurements of atmospheric water vapor (H2O) and aerosols. A solid-state alexandrite laser with a 1-pm linewidth and greater than 99.85% spectral purity was used as the on-line transmitter. Solid-state avalanche photodiode detector technology has replaced photomultiplier tubes in the receiver system, providing an average increase by a factor of 1.5-2.5 in the signal-to-noise ratio of the H2O measurement. By incorporating advanced diagnostic and data-acquisition instrumentation into other subsystems, we achieved additional improvements in system operational reliability and measurement accuracy. Laboratory spectroscopic measurements of H2O absorption-line parameters were performed to reduce the uncertainties in our knowledge of the absorption cross sections. Line-center H2O absorption cross sections were determined, with errors of 3-6%, for more than 120 lines in the 720-nm region. Flight tests of the system were conducted during 1989-1991 on the NASA Wallops Flight Facility Electra aircraft, and extensive intercomparison measurements were performed with dew-point hygrometers and H2O radiosondes. The H2O distributions measured with the DIAL system differed by less than 10% from the profiles determined with the in situ probes in a variety of atmospheric conditions.

  8. Using Solar System Topics to Teach the Scientific Method in an Age of Science Denial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presto, M. C.

    2013-04-01

    A number of excellent opportunities to remind students of the scientific method and how the process of science works come about during coverage of common topics in a Solar System “unit” in an introductory college astronomy course. With the tremendous amount of misinformation about science that students are exposed to through the Internet and other forms of media, this is now more important than ever. If non-science majors can leave introductory astronomy, often the only science course they will take, with a decent appreciation of, or at least an exposure to, how science works, they will then be better able to judge the validity of what they hear about science in the media throughout their lives.

  9. Addressing the immunopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis: advances in topical and systemic treatment.

    PubMed

    Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Stein Gold, Linda F

    2017-03-01

    Several immunologic mediators-phosphodiesterase (PDE), interleukin (IL), small molecules, and Janus kinase-have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis, and evidence has shown that blocking these mediators can help modify the disease process. Several new topical medications have been developed that target the enzyme PDE; crisaborole was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of atopic dermatitis, and phase II studies have been completed on OPA-15406. The phase III clinical trial results of the systemic medication dupilumab, an inhibitor of the IL-4 receptor α subunit (which inhibits both IL-4 and IL-13 signaling), are currently being reviewed by the FDA. ©2017 Frontline Medical Communications.

  10. Nanoformulations of Rilpivirine for Topical Pericoital and Systemic Coitus-Independent Administration Efficiently Prevent HIV Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Date, Abhijit A.; Long, Julie M.; Nochii, Tomonori; Belshan, Michael; Shibata, Annemarie; Vincent, Heather; Baker, Caroline E.; Thayer, William O.; Kraus, Guenter; Lachaud-Durand, Sophie; Williams, Peter; Destache, Christopher J.; Garcia, J. Victor

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal HIV transmission accounts for the majority of new infections worldwide. Currently, multiple efforts to prevent HIV transmission are based on pre-exposure prophylaxis with various antiretroviral drugs. Here, we describe two novel nanoformulations of the reverse transcriptase inhibitor rilpivirine for pericoital and coitus-independent HIV prevention. Topically applied rilpivirine, encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles, was delivered in a thermosensitive gel, which becomes solid at body temperature. PLGA nanoparticles with encapsulated rilpivirine coated the reproductive tract and offered significant protection to BLT humanized mice from a vaginal high-dose HIV-1 challenge. A different nanosuspension of crystalline rilpivirine (RPV LA), administered intramuscularly, protected BLT mice from a single vaginal high-dose HIV-1 challenge one week after drug administration. Using transmitted/founder viruses, which were previously shown to establish de novo infection in humans, we demonstrated that RPV LA offers significant protection from two consecutive high-dose HIV-1 challenges one and four weeks after drug administration. In this experiment, we also showed that, in certain cases, even in the presence of drug, HIV infection could occur without overt or detectable systemic replication until levels of drug were reduced. We also showed that infection in the presence of drug can result in acquisition of multiple viruses after subsequent exposures. These observations have important implications for the implementation of long-acting antiretroviral formulations for HIV prevention. They provide first evidence that occult infections can occur, despite the presence of sustained levels of antiretroviral drugs. Together, our results demonstrate that topically- or systemically administered rilpivirine offers significant coitus-dependent or coitus-independent protection from HIV infection. PMID:26271040

  11. Topic Modeling of NASA Space System Problem Reports: Research in Practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layman, Lucas; Nikora, Allen P.; Meek, Joshua; Menzies, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Problem reports at NASA are similar to bug reports: they capture defects found during test, post-launch operational anomalies, and document the investigation and corrective action of the issue. These artifacts are a rich source of lessons learned for NASA, but are expensive to analyze since problem reports are comprised primarily of natural language text. We apply topic modeling to a corpus of NASA problem reports to extract trends in testing and operational failures. We collected 16,669 problem reports from six NASA space flight missions and applied Latent Dirichlet Allocation topic modeling to the document corpus. We analyze the most popular topics within and across missions, and how popular topics changed over the lifetime of a mission. We find that hardware material and flight software issues are common during the integration and testing phase, while ground station software and equipment issues are more common during the operations phase. We identify a number of challenges in topic modeling for trend analysis: 1) that the process of selecting the topic modeling parameters lacks definitive guidance, 2) defining semantically-meaningful topic labels requires nontrivial effort and domain expertise, 3) topic models derived from the combined corpus of the six missions were biased toward the larger missions, and 4) topics must be semantically distinct as well as cohesive to be useful. Nonetheless,topic modeling can identify problem themes within missions and across mission lifetimes, providing useful feedback to engineers and project managers.

  12. Portable Instrument to Measure CDOM Light Absorption in Aquatic Systems: WPI Success Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    World Precision Instruments, Inc. (WPI), of Sarasota, FL, in collaboration with NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center, has developed an innovative instrument to accurately measure Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) absorption in the field. This successful collaboration has culminated in an exciting new device, called the UltraPath, now commercially available through WPI. Traditional methods of measuring absorption of dissolved materials require special handling and storage prior to measurement. Use of laboratory spectrophotometers as the measuring devices have proven time consuming, cumbersome, and delicate to handle. The UltraPath provides a low-cost, highly sensitive, rugged, portable system that is capable of high sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters.

  13. Efficient atom localization via probe absorption in an inverted-Y atomic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianchun; Wu, Bo; Mao, Jiejian

    2018-06-01

    The behaviour of atom localization in an inverted-Y atomic system is theoretically investigated. For the atoms interacting with a weak probe field and several orthogonal standing-wave fields, their position information can be obtained by measuring the probe absorption. Compared with the traditional scheme, we couple the probe field to the transition between the middle and top levels. It is found that the probe absorption sensitively depends on the detuning and strength of the relevant light fields. Remarkably, the atom can be localized at a particular position in the standing-wave fields by coupling a microwave field to the transition between the two ground levels.

  14. Absorption spectrum of a two-level system subjected to a periodic pulse sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Fotso, H. F.; Dobrovitski, V. V.

    We investigate how the quantum control of a two-level system (TLS) coupled to photons can modify and tune the TLS’s photon absorption spectrum. Tuning and controlling the emission and the absorption is of much interest e.g. for the development of efficient interfaces between stationary and flying qubits in modern architectures for quantum computation and quantum communication. We consider the periodic pulse control, where the TLS is subjected to a periodic sequence of the near-resonant Rabi driving pulses, each pulse implementing a 180° rotation. For small inter-pulse delays, the absorption spectrum features a pronounced peak of stimulated emission at the pulsemore » frequency, as well as equidistant satellite peaks with smaller spectral weights. As long as the detuning between the carrier frequency of the driving and the TLS transition frequency remains moderate, this spectral shape shows little change. Therefore, the quantum control allows shifting the absorption peak to a desired position, and locks the absorption peak to the carrier frequency of the driving pulses. Detailed description of the spectrum, and its evolution as a function time, the inter-pulse spacing and the detuning, is presented.« less

  15. Absorption spectrum of a two-level system subjected to a periodic pulse sequence

    DOE PAGES

    Fotso, H. F.; Dobrovitski, V. V.

    2017-06-01

    We investigate how the quantum control of a two-level system (TLS) coupled to photons can modify and tune the TLS’s photon absorption spectrum. Tuning and controlling the emission and the absorption is of much interest e.g. for the development of efficient interfaces between stationary and flying qubits in modern architectures for quantum computation and quantum communication. We consider the periodic pulse control, where the TLS is subjected to a periodic sequence of the near-resonant Rabi driving pulses, each pulse implementing a 180° rotation. For small inter-pulse delays, the absorption spectrum features a pronounced peak of stimulated emission at the pulsemore » frequency, as well as equidistant satellite peaks with smaller spectral weights. As long as the detuning between the carrier frequency of the driving and the TLS transition frequency remains moderate, this spectral shape shows little change. Therefore, the quantum control allows shifting the absorption peak to a desired position, and locks the absorption peak to the carrier frequency of the driving pulses. Detailed description of the spectrum, and its evolution as a function time, the inter-pulse spacing and the detuning, is presented.« less

  16. Pediatric Exposures to Topical Benzocaine Preparations Reported to a Statewide Poison Control System

    PubMed Central

    Vohra, Rais; Huntington, Serena; Koike, Jennifer; Le, Kevin; Geller, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Topical benzocaine is a local anesthetic commonly used to relieve pain caused by teething, periodontal irritation, burns, wounds, and insect bites. Oral preparations may contain benzocaine concentrations ranging from 7.5% to 20%. Pediatric exposure to such large concentrations may result in methemoglobinemia and secondarily cause anemia, cyanosis, and hypoxia. Methods This is a retrospective study of exposures reported to a statewide poison control system. The electronic health records were queried for pediatric exposures to topical benzocaine treated at a healthcare facility from 2004 to 2014. Cases of benzocaine exposure were reviewed for demographic and clinical information, and descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Results The query resulted in 157 cases; 58 were excluded due to co-ingestants, or miscoding of non-benzocaine exposures. Children four years of age and younger represented the majority of cases (93%) with a median age of 1 year. There were 88 cases of accidental/ exploratory exposure, while 6 cases resulted from therapeutic application or error, 4 cases from adverse reactions, and 1 case from an unknown cause. Asymptomatic children accounted for 75.5% of cases, but major clinical effects were observed in 5 patients. Those with serious effects were exposed to a range of benzocaine concentrations (7.5–20%), with 4 cases reporting methemoglobin levels between 20.2%–55%. Methylene blue was administered in 4 of the cases exhibiting major effects. Conclusion The majority of exposures were accidental ingestions by young children. Most exposures resulted in minor to no effects. However, some patients required treatment with methylene blue and admission to a critical care unit. Therapeutic application by parents or caregivers may lead to adverse effects from these commonly available products. PMID:28874945

  17. Pediatric Exposures to Topical Benzocaine Preparations Reported to a Statewide Poison Control System.

    PubMed

    Vohra, Rais; Huntington, Serena; Koike, Jennifer; Le, Kevin; Geller, Richard J

    2017-08-01

    Topical benzocaine is a local anesthetic commonly used to relieve pain caused by teething, periodontal irritation, burns, wounds, and insect bites. Oral preparations may contain benzocaine concentrations ranging from 7.5% to 20%. Pediatric exposure to such large concentrations may result in methemoglobinemia and secondarily cause anemia, cyanosis, and hypoxia. This is a retrospective study of exposures reported to a statewide poison control system. The electronic health records were queried for pediatric exposures to topical benzocaine treated at a healthcare facility from 2004 to 2014. Cases of benzocaine exposure were reviewed for demographic and clinical information, and descriptive statistical analysis was performed. The query resulted in 157 cases; 58 were excluded due to co-ingestants, or miscoding of non-benzocaine exposures. Children four years of age and younger represented the majority of cases (93%) with a median age of 1 year. There were 88 cases of accidental/ exploratory exposure, while 6 cases resulted from therapeutic application or error, 4 cases from adverse reactions, and 1 case from an unknown cause. Asymptomatic children accounted for 75.5% of cases, but major clinical effects were observed in 5 patients. Those with serious effects were exposed to a range of benzocaine concentrations (7.5-20%), with 4 cases reporting methemoglobin levels between 20.2%-55%. Methylene blue was administered in 4 of the cases exhibiting major effects. The majority of exposures were accidental ingestions by young children. Most exposures resulted in minor to no effects. However, some patients required treatment with methylene blue and admission to a critical care unit. Therapeutic application by parents or caregivers may lead to adverse effects from these commonly available products.

  18. Simulation of a 20-ton LiBr/H{sub 2}O absorption cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Wardono, B.; Nelson, R.M.

    The possibility of using solar energy as the main heat input for cooling systems has led to several studies of available cooling technologies that use solar energy. The results show that double-effect absorption cooling systems give relatively high performance. To further study absorption cooling systems, a computer code was developed for a double-effect lithium bromide/water (LiBr/H{sub 2}O) absorption system. To evaluate the performance, two objective functions were developed including the coefficient of performance (COP) and the system cost. Based on the system cost, an optimization to find the minimum cost was performed to determine the nominal heat transfer areas ofmore » each heat exchanger. The nominal values of other system variables, such as the mass flow rates and inlet temperatures of the hot water, cooling water, and chilled water, are specified as commonly used values for commercial machines. The results of the optimization show that there are optimum heat transfer areas. In this study, hot water is used as the main energy input. Using a constant load of 20 tons cooling capacity, the effects of various variables including the heat transfer ares, mass flow rates, and inlet temperatures of hot water, cooling water, and chilled water are presented.« less

  19. Use of a parallel artificial membrane system to evaluate passive absorption and elimination in small fish.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jung-Hwan; Katz, Lynn E; Liljestrand, Howard M

    2006-12-01

    A parallel artificial lipid membrane system was developed to mimic passive mass transfer of hydrophobic organic chemicals in fish. In this physical model system, a membrane filter-supported lipid bilayer separates two aqueous phases that represent the external and internal aqueous environments of fish. To predict bioconcentration kinetics in small fish with this system, literature absorption and elimination rates were analyzed with an allometric diffusion model to quantify the mass transfer resistances in the aqueous and lipid phases of fish. The effect of the aqueous phase mass transfer resistance was controlled by adjusting stirring intensity to mimic bioconcentration rates in small fish. Twenty-three simple aromatic hydrocarbons were chosen as model compounds for purposes of evaluation. For most of the selected chemicals, literature absorption/elimination rates fall into the range predicted from measured membrane permeabilities and elimination rates of the selected chemicals determined by the diffusion model system.

  20. The role of systemic and topical fatty acids for dry eye treatment.

    PubMed

    Barabino, Stefano; Horwath-Winter, Jutta; Messmer, Elisabeth M; Rolando, Maurizio; Aragona, Pasquale; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2017-11-01

    Dry eye is a prevalent condition and one of the main reasons for patients to seek ophthalmic medical care. A low systemic level of omega fatty acids is a risk factor for dry eye disease (DED). There are two groups of essential fatty acids (EFAs): the omega-6 (n-6) family and the omega-3 (n-3) family. Humans evolved on a diet in which the n-6:n-3 ratio was approximately 1:1, however the current Western diet tends to be deficient in n-3 EFAs and this ratio is typically much higher (approaching 17:1). The metabolism of EFAs generates four new families of local acting mediators: lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, and maresins. These molecules have anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution properties. We present a critical overview of animal model studies and human clinical trials that have shown that dietary modification and oral supplementation could be complementary therapeutic strategies for the treatment of dry eye. Furthermore, we discuss preliminary results of the topical application of n-3 and n-6 EFAs because these molecules may act as natural anti-inflammatory agents with positive changes of the entire ocular surface system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Systems having optical absorption layer for mid and long wave infrared and methods for making the same

    DOEpatents

    Kuzmenko, Paul J

    2013-10-01

    An optical system according to one embodiment includes a substrate; and an optical absorption layer coupled to the substrate, wherein the optical absorption layer comprises a layer of diamond-like carbon, wherein the optical absorption layer absorbs at least 50% of mid wave infrared light (3-5 .mu.m wavelength) and at least 50% of long wave infrared light (8-13 .mu.m wavelength). A method for applying an optical absorption layer to an optical system according to another embodiment includes depositing a layer of diamond-like carbon of an optical absorption layer above a substrate using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, wherein the optical absorption layer absorbs at least 50% of mid wave infrared light (3-5 .mu.m wavelength) and at least 50% of long wave infrared light (8-13 .mu.m wavelength). Additional systems and methods are also presented.

  2. Solar Absorption Refrigeration System for Air-Conditioning of a Classroom Building in Northern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Tanmay; Varun; Kumar, Anoop

    2015-10-01

    Air-conditioning is a basic tool to provide human thermal comfort in a building space. The primary aim of the present work is to design an air-conditioning system based on vapour absorption cycle that utilizes a renewable energy source for its operation. The building under consideration is a classroom of dimensions 18.5 m × 13 m × 4.5 m located in Hamirpur district of Himachal Pradesh in India. For this purpose, cooling load of the building was calculated first by using cooling load temperature difference method to estimate cooling capacity of the air-conditioning system. Coefficient of performance of the refrigeration system was computed for various values of strong and weak solution concentration. In this work, a solar collector is also designed to provide required amount of heat energy by the absorption system. This heat energy is taken from solar energy which makes this system eco-friendly and sustainable. A computer program was written in MATLAB to calculate the design parameters. Results were obtained for various values of solution concentrations throughout the year. Cost analysis has also been carried out to compare absorption refrigeration system with conventional vapour compression cycle based air-conditioners.

  3. Instrumentation and optimization of intra-cavity fiber laser gas absorption sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kun; Liu, Tiegen; Jiang, Junfeng; Liang, Xiao; Zhang, Yimo

    2011-11-01

    Detection of pollution, inflammable, explosive gases such as methane, acetylene, carbon monoxide and so on is very important for many areas, such as environmental, mining and petrochemical industry. Intra-cavity gas absorption sensing technique (ICGAST) based on Erbium-doped fiber ring laser (EDFRL) is one of novel methods for trace gas with higher precision. It has attracted considerable attention, and many research institutes focus on it. Instrumentation and optimization of ICGAST was reported in this paper. The system consists of five parts, which are variable gain module, intelligent frequency-selection module, gas cell, DAQ module and computer respectively. Variable gain module and intelligent frequency-selection module are combined to establish the intra-cavity of the ring laser. Gas cell is used as gas sensor. DAQ module is used to realize data acquisition synchronously. And gas demodulation is finished in the computer finally. The system was optimized by adjusting the sequence of the components. Take experimental simulation as an example, the absorptance of gas was increased five times after optimization, and the sensitivity enhancement factor can reach more than twenty. By using Fabry-Perot (F-P) etalon, the absorption wavelength of the detected gas can be obtained, with error less than 20 pm. The spectra of the detected gas can be swept continuously to obtain several absorption lines in one loop. The coefficient of variation (CV) was used to show the repeatability of gas concentration detection. And results of CV value can be less than 0.014.

  4. Field demonstration of the combined effects of absorption and evapotranspiration on septic system drainfield capacity.

    PubMed

    Rainwater, Ken; Jackson, Andrew; Ingram, Wesley; Lee, Chang Yong; Thompson, David; Mollhagen, Tony; Ramsey, Heyward; Urban, Lloyd

    2005-01-01

    Drainfields for disposal of septic tank effluents are typically designed by considering the loss of water by either upward evapotranspiration into the atmosphere or lateral and downward absorption into the adjacent soil. While this approach is appropriate for evapotranspiration systems, absorption systems allow water loss by both mechanisms. It was proposed that, in areas where high evapotranspiration rates coincide with permeable soils, drainfield sizes could be substantially reduced by accounting for both mechanisms. A two-year field demonstration was conducted to determine appropriate design criteria for areas typical of the Texas High Plains. The study consisted of evaluating the long-term acceptance rates for three different drainfield configurations: evapotranspiration only, absorption only, and combined conditions. A second field demonstration repeated the experiments for additional observation of the combined evapotranspiration and absorption and achieved similar results as the first study. The field tests indicated that the current design loading criteria may be increased by at least a factor of two for the Texas High Plains region and other Texas areas with similar soil composition and evapotranspiration rates, while still retaining a factor of safety of two.

  5. Detection of Ne VIII in an Intervening Multiphase Absorption System Toward 3C 263

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Anand; Wakker, Bart P.; Savage, Blair D.

    2009-09-01

    We report the detection of Ne VIII in an intervening multiphase absorption line system at z = 0.32566 in the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer spectrum of the quasar 3C 263 (zem = 0.646). The Ne VIII λ770 Å detection has a 3.9σ significance. At the same velocity, we also find absorption lines from C IV, O III, O IV, and N IV. The line parameter measurements yield log [N(Ne VIII) cm-2] = 13.98+0.10 -0.13 and b = 49.8 ± 5.5 km s-1. We find that the ionization mechanism in the gas phase giving rise to the Ne VIII absorption is inconsistent with photoionization. The absorber has a multiphase structure, with the intermediate ions produced in cool photoionized gas and the Ne VIII most likely in a warm collisionally ionized medium in the temperature range (0.5-1.0) × 106 K. This is the second ever detection of an intervening Ne VIII absorption system. Its properties resemble the previous Ne VIII absorber reported by Savage and colleagues. Direct observations of H I and O VI are needed to better constrain the physical conditions in the collisionally ionized gas phase of this absorber. Based on observations with the NASA-CNES-CSA Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer operated by Johns Hopkins University, supported by NASA contract NAS5-32985.

  6. ORIGINS OF ABSORPTION SYSTEMS OF CLASSICAL NOVA V2659 CYG (NOVA CYG 2014)

    SciTech Connect

    Arai, A.; Kawakita, H.; Shinnaka, Y.

    2016-10-10

    We report on high-dispersion spectroscopy results of a classical nova V2659 Cyg (Nova Cyg 2014) that are taken 33.05 days after the V -band maximum. The spectrum shows two distinct blueshifted absorption systems originating from H i, Fe ii, Ca ii, etc. The radial velocities of the absorption systems are −620 km s{sup −1}, and −1100 to −1500 km s{sup −1}. The higher velocity component corresponds to the P-Cygni absorption features frequently observed in low-resolution spectra. Much larger numbers of absorption lines are identified at the lower velocity. These mainly originate from neutral or singly ionized Fe-peak elements (Fe i,more » Ti ii, Cr ii, etc.). Based on the results of our spectroscopic observations, we discuss the structure of the ejecta of V2659 Cyg. We conclude that the low- and high-velocity components are likely to be produced by the outflow wind and the ballistic nova ejecta, respectively.« less

  7. Spectral control of an alexandrite laser for an airborne water-vapor differential absorption lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponsardin, Patrick; Grossmann, Benoist E.; Browell, Edward V.

    1994-01-01

    A narrow-linewidth pulsed alexandrite laser has been greatly modified for improved spectral stability in an aircraft environment, and its operation has been evaluated in the laboratory for making water-vapor differential absorption lidar measurements. An alignment technique is described to achieve the optimum free spectral range ratio for the two etalons inserted in the alexandrite laser cavity, and the sensitivity of this ratio is analyzed. This technique drastically decreases the occurrence of mode hopping, which is commonly observed in a tunable, two-intracavity-etalon laser system. High spectral purity (greater than 99.85%) at 730 nm is demonstrated by the use of a water-vapor absorption line as a notch filter. The effective cross sections of 760-nm oxygen and 730-nm water-vapor absorption lines are measured at different pressures by using this laser, which has a finite linewidth of 0.02 cm(exp -1) (FWHM). It is found that for water-vapor absorption linewidths greater than 0.04 cm(exp -1) (HWHM), or for altitudes below 10 km, the laser line can be considered monochromatic because the measured effective absorption cross section is within 1% of the calculated monochromatic cross section. An analysis of the environmental sensitivity of the two intracavity etalons is presented, and a closed-loop computer control for active stabilization of the two intracavity etalons in the alexandrite laser is described. Using a water-vapor absorption line as a wavelength reference, we measure a long-term frequency drift (approximately 1.5 h) of less than 0.7 pm in the laboratory.

  8. Ocular and systemic pharmacokinetics of lidocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic gel in rabbits after topical ocular administration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Ding, Li; Xu, Xiaowen; Lin, Hongda; Sun, Chenglong; You, Linjun

    2015-12-01

    Lidocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic gel is a novel ophthalmic preparation for topical ocular anesthesia. The study is aimed at evaluating the ocular and systemic pharmacokinetics of lidocaine hydrochloride 3.5 % ophthalmic gel in rabbits after ocular topical administration. Thirty-six rabbits were randomly placed in 12 groups (3 rabbits per group). The rabbits were quickly killed according to their groups at 0 (predose), 0.0833, 0.167, 0.333, 0.667, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 h postdose and then the ocular tissue and plasma samples were collected. All the samples were analyzed by a validated LC-MS/MS method. The test result showed that the maximum concentration (C max) of lidocaine in different ocular tissues and plasma were all achieved within 20 min after drug administration, and the data of C max were (2,987 ± 1814) μg/g, (44.67 ± 12.91) μg/g, (26.26 ± 7.19) μg/g, (11,046 ± 2,734) ng/mL, and (160.3 ± 61.0) ng/mL for tear fluid, cornea, conjunctiva, aqueous humor, and plasma, respectively. The data of the elimination half-life in these tissues were 1.5, 3.2, 3.5, 1.9, and 1.7 h for tear fluid, cornea, conjunctiva, aqueous humor, and plasma, respectively. The intraocular lidocaine levels were significantly higher than that in plasma, and the elimination half-life of lidocaine in cornea, conjunctiva, and aqueous humor was relatively longer than that in tear fluid and plasma. The high intraocular penetration, low systemic exposure, and long duration in the ocular tissues suggested lidocaine hydrochloride 3.5 % ophthalmic gel as an effective local anesthetic for ocular anesthesia during ophthalmic procedures.

  9. Physical conditions in broad and associated narrow absorption-line systems toward APM 08279+5255

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srianand, R.; Petitjean, P.

    2000-05-01

    Results of a careful analysis of the absorption systems with z_abs =~ z_em seen toward the bright, z_em ~ 3.91, gravitationally lensed quasar APM 08279+5255 are presented. Two of the narrow-line systems, at z_abs = 3.8931 and z_abs = 3.9135, show absorptions from singly ionized species with weak or no N v and O vi absorptions at the same redshift. Absorption due to fine structure transitions of C ii and S ii i (excitation energies corresponding to, respectively, 156mu m and 34mu m) are detected at z_abs = 3.8931. Excitation by IR radiation is favored as the column density ratios are consistent with the shape of APM 08279+5255 IR spectrum. The low-ionization state of the system favors a picture where the cloud is closer to the IR source than to the UV source, supporting the idea that the extension of the IR source is larger than ~ 200 pc. The absence of fine structure lines at z_abs = 3.9135 suggests that the gas responsible for this system is farther away from the IR source. Abundances are ~ 0.01 and 1 Zsun at z_abs = 3.913 and 3.8931 and aluminum could be over-abundant with respect to silicon and carbon by at least a factor of two and five. All this suggests that whereas the z_abs = 3.8931 system is probably located within 200 pc from the QSO and ejected at a velocity larger than 1000 km s-1, the z_abs = 3.9135 system is farther away and part of the host-galaxy. Several narrow-line systems have strong absorption lines due to C iv, O vi and N v and very low neutral hydrogen optical depths. This probably implies metallicities Z>= Z_sun although firm conclusion cannot be drawn as the exact value depends strongly on the shape of the ionizing spectrum. The C iv broad absorption has a complex structure with mini-BALs (width <= 1000 km s-1) and narrow components superposed on a continuous absorption of smaller optical depth. The continuous absorption is much stronger in O vi indicating that the corresponding gas-component is of higher ionization than the other components

  10. [Signal analysis and spectrum distortion correction for tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy system].

    PubMed

    Bao, Wei-Yi; Zhu, Yong; Chen, Jun; Chen, Jun-Qing; Liang, Bo

    2011-04-01

    In the present paper, the signal of a tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) trace gas sensing system, which has a wavelength modulation with a wide range of modulation amplitudes, is studied based on Fourier analysis method. Theory explanation of spectrum distortion induced by laser intensity amplitude modulation is given. In order to rectify the spectrum distortion, a method of synchronous amplitude modulation suppression by a variable optical attenuator is proposed. To validate the method, an experimental setup is designed. Absorption spectrum measurement experiments on CO2 gas were carried out. The results show that the residual laser intensity modulation amplitude of the experimental system is reduced to -0.1% of its original value and the spectrum distortion improvement is 92% with the synchronous amplitude modulation suppression. The modulation amplitude of laser intensity can be effectively reduced and the spectrum distortion can be well corrected by using the given correction method and system. By using a variable optical attenuator in the TDLAS (tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy) system, the dynamic range requirements of photoelectric detector, digital to analog converter, filters and other aspects of the TDLAS system are reduced. This spectrum distortion correction method can be used for online trace gas analyzing in process industry.

  11. Cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) system for measuring atmospheric mercury using differential absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, A.; Obrist, D.; Moosmuller, H.; Moore, C.

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric elemental mercury (Hg0) is a globally pervasive element that can be transported and deposited to remote ecosystems where it poses — particularly in its methylated form — harm to many organisms including humans. Current techniques for measurement of atmospheric Hg0 require several liters of sample air and several minutes for each analysis. Fast-response (i.e., 1 second or faster) measurements would improve our ability to understand and track chemical cycling of mercury in the atmosphere, including high frequency Hg0 fluctuations, sources and sinks, and chemical transformation processes. We present theory, design, challenges, and current results of our new prototype sensor based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) for fast-response measurement of Hg0 mass concentrations. CRDS is a direct absorption technique that implements path-lengths of multiple kilometers in a compact absorption cell using high-reflectivity mirrors, thereby improving sensitivity and reducing sample volume compared to conventional absorption spectroscopy. Our sensor includes a frequency-doubled, dye-laser emitting laser pulses tunable from 215 to 280 nm, pumped by a Q-switched, frequency tripled Nd:YAG laser with a pulse repetition rate of 50 Hz. We present how we successfully perform automated wavelength locking and stabilization of the laser to the peak Hg0 absorption line at 253.65 nm using an external isotopically-enriched mercury (202Hg0) cell. An emphasis of this presentation will be on the implementation of differential absorption measurement whereby measurements are alternated between the peak Hg0 absorption wavelength and a nearby wavelength "off" the absorption line. This can be achieved using a piezo electric tuning element that allows for pulse-by-pulse tuning and detuning of the laser "online" and "offline" of the Hg absorption line, and thereby allows for continuous correction of baseline extinction losses. Unexpected challenges with this approach included

  12. Routine systemic antibiotic prophylaxis for burn injuries in developing countries: A best evidence topic (BET)

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Barclay T; Gyedu, Adam; Agbenorku, Pius; Amankwa, Richcane; Kushner, Adam L; Gibran, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Background Burns are common in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and complicated by unhygienic conditions, malnutrition, use of high-risk homemade dressings and delayed presentation. Resultantly, use of routine systemic antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) to prevent wound infection is common practice despite this intervention being abandoned in high-income countries due to increased antimicrobial resistance and non-bacterial suprainfection, Methods A best evidence topic (BET) was constructed using a structured protocol. The question addressed was: In LMICs, does routine use of SAP reduce burn wound infection, morbidity or mortality? Results From 704 retrieved records, 48 reports met criteria to be examined. Of those, 3 studies represented the best available evidence. Together, two randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and a retrospective cohort study reported no difference in the proportion of wound infection, any infection or length of hospital stay between SAP groups and controls. One RCT described a greater proportion of wounds infected with P. aeruginosa among SAP arms compared to controls. The studies had few participants and significant methodological weaknesses. Conclusion On the basis of limited, currently available evidence, the use of SAP cannot be recommended for patients in LMICs that present soon after burn injury. PMID:26260622

  13. Potential of novel drug delivery systems in the management of topical candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Mahima; Devi, V Kusum

    2017-09-01

    High prevalence of topical fungal infections is perceived in majority of nations worldwide accounting for numerous serious systemic complications. Of several fungal infections, candidiasis is one of the widespread infections which is manifested due to localisation and proliferation of fungi. Present pharmacotherapy offers an effective treatment but possesses serious limitations like inadequate solubility, ineffectiveness in lowering diseased condition and patient incompliance. Several attempts to overcome these shortcomings and building suitable technology platforms for development of appropriate dosage forms which can enhance effectiveness, patient acceptability while maintaining safety, efficacy and affordability of drug delivery, have been made. Present review highlights on different types of fungal infections, its aetiology, pathophysiology, epidemiology and conventional formulations used. It also emphasises on applications of several novel approaches of anti-fungal drugs demonstrating advantages and limitations. Details regarding patterns of drug release and its site specificity with better patient compliance have been focussed. Etiology and pathogenesis of candidiasis should be understood clearly. Mentioned novel dosage forms should be explored to enhance therapeutic efficacy, subsequently investigating marketability and patentability. Nanoparticles seem to be a promising approach befitting all requirements.

  14. Determining CDOM Absorption Spectra in Diverse Aquatic Environments Using a Multiple Pathlength, Liquid Core Waveguide System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Richard L.; Belz, Mathias; DelCastillo, Carlos; Trzaska, Rick

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the accuracy, sensitivity and precision of a multiple pathlength, liquid core waveguide (MPLCW) system for measuring colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption in the UV-visible spectral range (370-700 nm). The MPLCW has four optical paths (2.0, 9.8, 49.3, and 204 cm) coupled to a single Teflon AF sample cell. Water samples were obtained from inland, coastal and ocean waters ranging in salinity from 0 to 36 PSU. Reference solutions for the MPLCW were made having a refractive index of the sample. CDOM absorption coefficients, aCDOM, and the slope of the log-linearized absorption spectra, S, were compared with values obtained using a dual-beam spectrophotometer. Absorption of phenol red secondary standards measured by the MPLCW at 558 nm were highly correlated with spectrophotometer values and showed a linear response across all four pathlengths. Values of aCDOM measured using the MPLCW were virtually identical to spectrophotometer values over a wide range of concentrations. The dynamic range of aCDOM for MPLCW measurements was 0.002 - 231.5 m-1. At low CDOM concentrations spectrophotometric aCDOM were slightly greater than MPLCW values and showed larger fluctuations at longer wavelengths due to limitations in instrument precision. In contrast, MPLCW spectra followed an exponential to 600 nm for all samples.

  15. Miniaturized differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) system for the analysis of NO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, J. Alberto; Walsh, James E.; Treacy, Jack E.; Garland, Wendy E.

    2003-03-01

    Current trends in optical design engineering are leading to the development of new systems which can analyze atmospheric pollutants in a fast and easy way, allowing remote-sensing and miniaturization at a low cost. A small portable fiber-optic based system is presented for the spectroscopic analysis of a common gas pollutant, NO2. The novel optical set-up described consists of a small telescope that collects ultraviolet-visible light from a xenon lamp located 600 m away. The light is coupled into a portable diode array spectrometer through a fiber-optic cable and the system is controlled by a lap-top computer where the spectra are recorded. Using the spectrum of the lamp as a reference, the absorption spectrum of the open path between the lamp and the telescope is calculated. Known absorption features in the NO2 spectrum are used to calculate the concentration of the pollutant using the principles of Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). Calibration is carried by using sample gas bags of known concentration of the pollutant. The results obtained demonstrate that it is possible to detect and determine NO2 concentrations directly from the atmosphere at typical environment levels by using an inexpensive field based fiber-optic spectrometer system.

  16. Energy cost of riding bicycles with shock absorption systems on a flat surface.

    PubMed

    Nielens, H; Lejeune, T M

    2001-08-01

    Bike shock absorption systems reduce the energy variation induced by terrain irregularities, leading to a greater comfort. However, they may also induce an increase in energy expenditure for the rider. More specifically, cross-country racers claim that rear shock absorption systems generate significant energy loss. The energy losses caused by such systems may be divided in terrain-induced or rider-induced. This study aims at evaluating the rider-induced energy loss of modern suspended bicycles riding on a flat surface. Twelve experienced competitive racers underwent three multistage gradational tests (50 to 250 W) on a cross-country bicycle mounted on an electromagnetically braked cycle ergometer. Three different tests were performed on a fully suspended bike, front suspended and non-suspended bicycle, respectively. The suspension mode has no significant effect on VO2. The relative difference of VO2 between the front-suspended or full-suspended bike and the rigid bike reaches a non significant maximum of only 3%. The claims of many competitors who still prefer front shock absorption systems could be related to a possible significant energy loss that could be present at powers superior to 250 W or when they stand on the pedals. It could also be generated by terrain-induced energy loss.

  17. Perfect absorption of low-frequency sound waves by critically coupled subwavelength resonant system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Houyou; Cheng, Ying; Tao, Jiancheng; Liu, Xiaojun

    2017-01-01

    The perfect absorption (PA) for low-frequency audible sound waves has been achieved by critically coupling the inherent loss factor to the inherent leakage factor of a system, which is constructed by attaching a deep-subwavelength lossy resonant plate (LRP) to a backed rigid wall closely. We have certified it by using the graphical method in the complex frequency plane. By coupling the LRP to an air cavity in front of the rigid wall, the high efficient (>80%) low-frequency broadband absorption is obtained from 99.1 Hz to 294.8 Hz. Here, the thickness of LRP is only 1/13.5 of the relevant wavelength at 294.8 Hz. The impedance analyses further demonstrate that the impedances are perfectly matched between the system and the surrounding background medium at PA.

  18. Cascade Reverse Osmosis Air Conditioning System: Cascade Reverse Osmosis and the Absorption Osmosis Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    None

    BEETIT Project: Battelle is developing a new air conditioning system that uses a cascade reverse osmosis (RO)-based absorption cycle. Analyses show that this new cycle can be as much as 60% more efficient than vapor compression, which is used in 90% of air conditioners. Traditional vapor-compression systems use polluting liquids for a cooling effect. Absorption cycles use benign refrigerants such as water, which is absorbed in a salt solution and pumped as liquid—replacing compression of vapor. The refrigerant is subsequently separated from absorbing salt using heat for re-use in the cooling cycle. Battelle is replacing thermal separation of refrigerant withmore » a more efficient reverse osmosis process. Research has shown that the cycle is possible, but further investment will be needed to reduce the number of cascade reverse osmosis stages and therefore cost.« less

  19. Tunable Absorption System based on magnetorheological elastomers and Halbach array: design and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocian, Mirosław; Kaleta, Jerzy; Lewandowski, Daniel; Przybylski, Michał

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the systematic design, construction and testing of a Tunable Absorption System (TAS) incorporating magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) has been investigated. The TAS has been designed for energy absorption and mitigation of vibratory motions from an impact excitation. The main advantage of the designed TAS is that it has the ability to change and adapt to working conditions. Tunability can be realised through a change in the magnetic field caused by the change of an internal arrangement of permanent magnets within a double dipolar circular Halbach array. To show the capabilities of the tested system, experiments based on an impulse excitation have been performed. Significant changes of the TASs natural frequency and damping characteristics have been obtained. By incorporating magnetic tunability within the TAS a significant qualitative and quantitative change in the devices mechanical properties and performance were obtained.

  20. Preparation and evaluation of topical microemulsion system containing metronidazole for remission in rosacea.

    PubMed

    Tirnaksiz, Figen; Kayiş, Ayşegül; Çelebi, Nevin; Adişen, Esra; Erel, Arzu

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare a topical water-in-oil type microemulsion containing metronidazole and to compare its effectiveness with a commercial gel product in the treatment of rosacea. A pseudo-ternary phase diagram (K(m)=2:1) was constructed using lecithin/butanol/isopropyl myristate/water. The microemulsion was chosen from the microemulsion region in the phase diagram. The formulation was a water-in-oil type microemulsion (droplet size: 11.6 nm, viscosity: 457.3 mPa·s, conductivity: 1.5 µs/cm, turbidity: 6.89 NTU) and the addition of the metronidazole did not alter the properties of the system. The release experiment showed that the release rate of metronidazole from the commercial gel product was higher than that of the microemulsion. Stability experiments showed that the metronidazole microemulsion remained stable for at least 6 months; none of the characteristic properties of the microemulsion had changed, the system retained its clarity and there was no sign that crystallization of metronidazole has occurred. Microemulsion was compared to a gel product in a randomized, double-blind, baseline-controlled, split-face clinical trial for the treatment of patients. After the 6-week treatment period there was a statistically significant difference in reduction of the main symptoms of rosacea. Of the patients treated with the microemulsion, 17% experienced complete relief from inflammatory lesions, and 50% from erythema. The microemulsion resulted in complete relief in 38% of the patients with telangiectasia while the commercial product did not provide any relief of telangiectasia symptoms. In conclusion, the microemulsion containing metronidazole was found to be more effective in reducing the symptoms of rosacea compared to the commercial gel product.

  1. Development of Cellular Absorptive Tracers (CATs) for a Quantitative Characterization of Microbial Mass in Flow Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Saripalli, Prasad; Brown, Christopher F.; Lindberg, Michael J.

    We report on a new Cellular Absorptive Tracers (CATs) method, for a simple, non-destructive characterization of bacterial mass in flow systems. Results show that adsorption of a CAT molecule into the cellular mass results in its retardation during flow, which is a good, quantitative measure of the biomass quantity and distribution. No such methods are currently available for a quantitative characterization of cell mass.

  2. Absorption, Transmission and Amplification in a Double-Cavity Optomechanical System with Coulomb-Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, H.; Liu, H. D.

    2018-04-01

    We explore three interesting phenomena in a double-cavity optomechanical system: coherent perfect absorption, coherent perfect transmission and output signal amplification, and find that these phenomena can be realized and controlled by the coulomb-interaction between the dissipative oscillator locates in the cavity and the gain oscillator locates outside. They originate from the efficient hybrid coupling of optical and mechanical modes, and can be used for realizing novel photonic devices in quantum information networks.

  3. The capability of fluoroscopic systems to determine differential Roentgen-ray absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baily, N. A.; Crepeau, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    A clinical fluoroscopic unit used in conjunction with a TV image digitization system was investigated to determine its capability to evaluate differential absorption between two areas in the same field. Fractional contrasts and minimum detectability for air, several concentrations of Renografin-60, and aluminum were studied using phantoms of various thicknesses. Results showed that the videometric response, when treated as contrast, shows a linear response with absorber thickness up to considerable thicknesses.

  4. Topical versus systemic 5-aminolevulinic acid administration for photodynamic therapy of the colon in B10.RBP mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Maciej; Woszczynski, Marek; Regula, Jaroslaw; MacRobert, Alexander J.; Butruk, Eugeniusz; Bown, Stephen G.

    1999-07-01

    5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is an interesting photosensitizing substance for photodynamic therapy (PDT), successfully applied topically for urological malignancy. In gastroenterology it has proven efficacy for treatment of some GI neoplasms after systemic administration. This study was aimed at investigating the possibility of topical 5-ALA administration also for the PDT of gut cancer in a mice model. 5-ALA solution at different concentrations (5%, 1.5%, and 0.5%) was instilled in the colon of mice, which was later removed and examined by fluorescence microscopy. The results of fluorescence studies were compared with those obtained in a control group treated with 5-ALA given systematically. Satisfactory epithelial fluorescence levels and good selectivity between gut layers were obtained after intracolonic 5-ALA instillation. However, mean fluorescence intensity was higher after systemic drug applications. Our results suggest that 5-ALA may probably be used topically for the PDT of some gut neoplasms.

  5. Connecting the Interstellar Gas and Dust Properties in Distant Galaxies Using Quasar Absorption Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aller, Monique C.; Dwek, Eliahu; Kulkarni, Varsha P.; York, Donald G.; Welty, Daniel E.; Vladilo, Giovanni; Som, Debopam; Lackey, Kyle; Dwek, Eli; Beiranvand, Nassim; hide

    2016-01-01

    Gas and dust grains are fundamental components of the interstellar medium and significantly impact many of the physical processes driving galaxy evolution, such as star-formation, and the heating, cooling, and ionization of the interstellar material. Quasar absorption systems (QASs), which trace intervening galaxies along the sightlines to luminous quasars, provide a valuable tool to directly study the properties of the interstellar gas and dust in distant, normal galaxies. We have established the presence of silicate dust grains in at least some gas-rich QASs, and find that they exist at higher optical depths than expected for diffuse gas in the Milky Way. Differences in the absorption feature shapes additionally suggest variations in the silicate dust grain properties, such as in the level of grain crystallinity, from system-to-system. We present results from a study of the gas and dust properties of QASs with adequate archival IR data to probe the silicate dust grain properties. We discuss our measurements of the strengths of the 10 and 18 micron silicate dust absorption features in the QASs, and constraints on the grain properties (e.g., composition, shape, crystallinity) based on fitted silicate profile templates. We investigate correlations between silicate dust abundance, reddening, and gas metallicity, which will yield valuable insights into the history of star formation and chemical enrichment in galaxies.

  6. Computer package for the design and optimization of absorption air conditioning system operated by solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Sofrata, H.; Khoshaim, B.; Megahed, M.

    1980-12-01

    In this paper a computer package for the design and optimization of the simple Li-Br absorption air conditioning system, operated by solar energy, is developed in order to study its performance. This was necessary, as a first step, before carrying out any computations regarding the dual system (1-3). The computer package has the facilities of examining any parameter which may control the system; namely generator, evaporator, condenser, absorber temperatures and pumping factor. The output may be tabulated and also fed to the graph plotter. The flow chart of the programme is explained in an easy way and a typical examplemore » is included.« less

  7. Triple-effect absorption refrigeration system with double-condenser coupling

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

    1993-04-27

    A triple effect absorption refrigeration system is provided with a double-condenser coupling and a parallel or series circuit for feeding the refrigerant-containing absorbent solution through the high, medium, and low temperature generators utilized in the triple-effect system. The high temperature condenser receiving vaporous refrigerant from the high temperature generator is double coupled to both the medium temperature generator and the low temperature generator to enhance the internal recovery of heat within the system and thereby increase the thermal efficiency thereof.

  8. Triple-effect absorption refrigeration system with double-condenser coupling

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, Robert C.; Biermann, Wendell J.

    1993-01-01

    A triple effect absorption refrigeration system is provided with a double-condenser coupling and a parallel or series circuit for feeding the refrigerant-containing absorbent solution through the high, medium, and low temperature generators utilized in the triple-effect system. The high temperature condenser receiving vaporous refrigerant from the high temperature generator is double coupled to both the medium temperature generator and the low temperature generator to enhance the internal recovery of heat within the system and thereby increase the thermal efficiency thereof.

  9. The Mean Metal-line Absorption Spectrum of Damped Ly α Systems in BOSS

    SciTech Connect

    Mas-Ribas, Lluís; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Pérez-Ràfols, Ignasi

    We study the mean absorption spectrum of the Damped Ly α (DLA) population at z ∼ 2.6 by stacking normalized, rest-frame-shifted spectra of ∼27,000 DLA systems from the DR12 of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS)/SDSS-III. We measure the equivalent widths of 50 individual metal absorption lines in five intervals of DLA hydrogen column density, five intervals of DLA redshift, and overall mean equivalent widths for an additional 13 absorption features from groups of strongly blended lines. The mean equivalent width of low-ionization lines increases with N {sub H} {sub i}, whereas for high-ionization lines the increase is much weaker.more » The mean metal line equivalent widths decrease by a factor ∼1.1–1.5 from z ∼ 2.1 to z ∼ 3.5, with small or no differences between low- and high-ionization species. We develop a theoretical model, inspired by the presence of multiple absorption components observed in high-resolution spectra, to infer mean metal column densities from the equivalent widths of partially saturated metal lines. We apply this model to 14 low-ionization species and to Al iii, S iii, Si iii, C iv, Si iv, N v, and O vi. We use an approximate derivation for separating the equivalent width contributions of several lines to blended absorption features, and infer mean equivalent widths and column densities from lines of the additional species N i, Zn ii, C ii*, Fe iii, and S iv. Several of these mean column densities of metal lines in DLAs are obtained for the first time; their values generally agree with measurements of individual DLAs from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra when they are available.« less

  10. Iodine stimulates estrogen receptor singling and its systemic level is increased in surgical patients due to topical absorption.

    PubMed

    He, Shaohua; Wang, Bingchan; Lu, Xiyi; Miao, Suyu; Yang, Fengming; Zava, Theodore; Ding, Qiang; Zhang, Shijiang; Liu, Jiayin; Zava, David; Shi, Yuenian Eric

    2018-01-02

    Iodine is crucial for thyroid hormone production. However, recent epidemiologic studies have shown that breast cancer patients have an elevated risk of developing thyroid cancer and vice versa. A notable finding in this study is that iodine stimulated the transcriptional activity of estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) in breast cancer cells. Iodine stimulated expression of several ER-α regulated gene including PS2 , Cathepsin D , CyclinD1 , and PR both in vitro and in nude mice, which is consistent with its stimulation of both anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of ER-α positive breast cancer cells and the effect to dampen tumor shrinkage of MCF-7 xenograft in ovariectomized nude mice. Analyses of clinical urine samples from breast cancer patients undergoing surgery demonstrated that urinary iodine levels were significantly higher than that in controls; and this increased level is due to the antiseptic use of iodine during breast surgery. The present study indicates that excess iodine intake may be an unfavorable factor in breast cancer by stimulation of ER-α transcriptional activity.

  11. The human heart and the circulatory system as an interesting interdisciplinary topic in lessons of physics and biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volná, M.; Látal, F.; Kubínek, R.; Richterek, L.

    2014-01-01

    Many topics which are closely related can be found in the national curriculum of the Czech Republic for physics and biology. One of them is the heart and the circulatory system in the human body. This topic was examined cross curriculum, a teaching module was created and the topic was chosen for our research. The task was to determine if the students of bachelor study are aware of connections between physics and biology within this topic and whether we can help them effectively to describe the corresponding physics phenomena in the human body connected, for example, with a heart attack or with the measurement of blood pressure. In this paper, the heart and the circulatory system are presented as suitable topics for an interdisciplinary teaching module which includes both theoretical and experimental parts. The module was evaluated by a group of first-year undergraduate students of physics at the Faculty of Science, Palacký University. The acquired knowledge was compared with another control group through a test. The highest efficiency of the module was evaluated on the basis of questions that covered the calculation problems.

  12. Enhanced effectiveness of tocotrienol-based nano-emulsified system for topical delivery against skin carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Pham, Jimmy; Nayel, Amy; Hoang, Christina; Elbayoumi, Tamer

    2016-06-01

    The potent anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic actions of tocotrienols (T3) against cancer, but not normal tissues, have been hampered by their limited systemic bioavailabilty. Recent expansive development of diverse nanoemulsion (NE) vehicles emphasized their vast potential to improve the effective dosing of different clinical and experimental drugs of lipophilic nature, such as T3. The emphasis of the present work is to develop a pharmaceutically scalable, low-energy nano-emulsification approach for optimized incorporation of T3-rich palm oil (Tocomin®), possessing anticancer activity as a potential cutaneous delivery platform for adjunctive therapy of skin carcinomas, either alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. Different Tocomin®-NEs, obtained with different homogenization strategies, were screened based on physicochemical uniformity (droplet size, charge and polydispersity) and subjected to stress physical stability testing, along with chemical content analysis (≥90% Tocomin® - incorporation efficiency). Adopted hybrid nano-emulsification of Tocomin®, correlated with highest preservation of DPPH-radical scavenging capacity of active T3 in prototype formulation, Tocomin®-NE, which effectively permeated diffusion cell membranes 4-folds higher than propyleneglycol (PG)-admixed Tocomin® control. Against two different cell models of human cutaneous carcinoma, Tocomin®-hybrid NE demonstrated significantly stronger cytotoxic profiles (p ≤ 0.01), visible in both concentration- and time- dependent manners, with at least 5-folds lower IC50 values, compared to those estimated for the closest Tocomin®-control. The proposed hybrid nano-emulsified formulation of Tocomin® provides simple and stable delivery platform, for effective topical application against keratinocyte tumors.

  13. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Ron; Carr, Zak; MacLean, Matthew; Dufrene, Aaron; Mehta, Manish

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) measurement of several water transitions that were interrogated during a hot-fire testing of the Space Launch Systems (SLS) sub-scale vehicle installed in LENS II. The temperature of the recirculating gas flow over the base plate was found to increase with altitude and is consistent with CFD results. It was also observed that the gas above the base plate has significant velocity along the optical path of the sensor at the higher altitudes. The line-by-line analysis of the H2O absorption features must include the effects of the Doppler shift phenomena particularly at high altitude. The TDLAS experimental measurements and the analysis procedure which incorporates the velocity dependent flow will be described.

  14. Simultaneous measurements of absorption spectrum and refractive index in a microfluidic system.

    PubMed

    Helseth, Lars Egil

    2012-02-13

    The characterization of dyes in various solvents requires determination of the absorption spectrum of the dye as well as the refractive index of the solvent. Typically, the refractive index of the solvent and the absorption spectrum of the solute are measured using separate experimental setups where significant liquid volumes are required. In this work the first optical measurement system that is able to do simultaneous measurements of the refractive index of the solvent and the spectral properties of the solute in a microscopic volume is presented. The laser dye Rhodamine 6G in glycerol is investigated, and the refractive index of the solution is monitored using the interference pattern of the light scattered off the channel, while its spectral properties is found by monitoring reflected light from the channel.

  15. Investigating the Luminous Environment of SDSS Data Release 4 Mg II Absorption Line Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caler, Michelle A.; Ravi, Sheth K.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the luminous environment within a few hundred kiloparsecs of 3760 Mg II absorption line systems. These systems lie along 3760 lines of sight to Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 4 QSOs, have redshifts that range between 0.37 ≤ z ≤ 0.82, and have rest equivalent widths greater than 0.18 Å. We use the SDSS Catalog Archive Server to identify galaxies projected near 3 arcminutes of the absorbing QSO’s position, and a background subtraction technique to estimate the absolute magnitude distribution and luminosity function of galaxies physically associated with these Mg II absorption line systems. The Mg II absorption system sample is split into two parts, with the split occurring at rest equivalent width 0.8 Å, and the resulting absolute magnitude distributions and luminosity functions compared on scales ranging from 50 h-1 kpc to 880 h-1 kpc. We find that, on scales of 100 h-1 kpc and smaller, the two distributions differ: the absolute magnitude distribution of galaxies associated with systems of rest frame equivalent width ≥ 0.8 Å (2750 lines of sight) seems to be approximated by that of elliptical-Sa type galaxies, whereas the absolute magnitude distribution of galaxies associated with systems of rest frame equivalent width < 0.8 Å (1010 lines of sight) seems to be approximated by that of Sa-Sbc type galaxies. However, on larger scales greater than 200 h-1 kpc, both distributions are broadly consistent with that of elliptical-Sa type galaxies. We note that, in a broader context, these results represent an estimate of the bright end of the galaxy luminosity function at a median redshift of z ˜ 0.65.

  16. Intervening O vi Quasar Absorption Systems at Low Redshift: A Significant Baryon Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Tripp; Savage; Jenkins

    2000-05-01

    Far-UV echelle spectroscopy of the radio-quiet QSO H1821+643 (zem=0.297), obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) at approximately 7 km s-1 resolution, reveals four definite O vi absorption-line systems and one probable O vi absorber at 0.15systems unrelated to the background QSO. In the case of the strong O vi system at zabs=0.22497, multiple components are detected in Si iii and O vi as well as H i Lyman series lines, and the differing component velocity centroids and b-values firmly establish that this is a multiphase absorption system. A weak O vi absorber is detected at zabs=0.22637, i.e., offset by approximately 340 km s-1 from the zabs=0.22497 system. Lyalpha absorption is detected at zabs=0.22613, but no Lyalpha absorption is significantly detected at 0.22637. Other weak O vi absorbers at zabs=0.24531 and 0.26659 and the probable O vi system at 0.21326 have widely diverse O vi/H i column density ratios with N(O vi)/N(H i) ranging from systems is Omegab(Ovi&parr0; greater, similar0.0008 h-175. With an assumed metallicity of 1/10 solar and a conservative assumption that the fraction of oxygen in the O vi ionization stage is 0.2, we obtain Omegab(Ovi&parr0; greater, similar0.004 h-175. This is comparable to the combined cosmological mass density of stars and cool gas in galaxies and X-ray-emitting gas in galaxy clusters at low redshift.

  17. Comparison of Systemic and Topical Hypericum Perforatum on Diabetic Surgical Wounds.

    PubMed

    Altıparmak, Mehmet; Eskitaşçıoğlu, Teoman

    2018-02-01

    Surgical wounds in diabetic patients still remain a problem till the present day. As a common plant found around the world, Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae) is traditionally prepared as an oily extract and used as a folk remedy for various diseases such as wounds, burns, cuts, etc. This study aims to evaluate the effect of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) on problematic wounds while comparing oral and topical applications. Incisional and excisional wound models were made on the dorsal regions of 54 diabetic Spraque-Dawley rats. The rats were divided into the following six groups (n = 9): Group 1: control, Group 2: diabetic, Group 3: diabetic oral Hypericum perforatum, Group 4: diabetic topical Hypericum perforatum, Group 5: diabetic oral olive oil, and Group 6: diabetic topical olive oil. Groups 3 and 4 had significantly higher tensile strength, tissue hydroxyproline concentration, and collagen density compared with Group 2. Inflammatory cell density and collagen density on day 3 were significantly higher in Groups 3 and 6 compared with Group 2. On day 21, Groups 3 and 6 had significantly higher fibroblastic activity compared with Group 2. This study has proved that oral St. John's wort has more positive effects on problematic wounds compared with topical St. John's wort and olive oil, which is a vehicle. Hypericum perforatum results with faster inflammatory response and better healing. These results could be an addition to literature about the clinical usage of Hypericum perforatum on diabetic wounds.

  18. NASA multipurpose airborne DIAL system and measurements of ozone and aerosol profiles. [DIfferential Absorption Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, E. V.; Carter, A. F.; Shipley, S. T.; Siviter, J. H., Jr.; Hall, W. M.; Allen, R. J.; Butler, C. F.; Mayo, M. N.

    1983-01-01

    The hardware, operational characteristics, data processing system, and applications of the NASA airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system are described. DIAL functions by assessing the average gas concentration over a specified range interval by analyzing the difference in lidar backscatter signals for laser wavelengths tuned on and off of the molecular absorption line of a gas under investigation. The system comprises two frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers pumping two high conversion efficiency tunable dye lasers emitting pulses separated by 100 microsec or less. The return signals are digitized and stored on magnetic tape. The signal collector consists of photomultiplier tubes implanted in a cassegrain telescope. Flight tests of the system involved on-measurements at 285.95 nm and off-measurements at 299.40 nm, which yielded a differential cross section of 1.74 x 10 to the -16th sq cm. In situ measurements with another plane at a nominal altitude of 3.2 km for comparison purposes showed accuracy to within 10% in and above the boundary layer. The system is considered as a test apparatus for more developed versions to be flown on the Shuttle

  19. Oral delivery system prolongs blood circulation of docetaxel nanocapsules via lymphatic absorption

    PubMed Central

    Attili-Qadri, Suha; Karra, Nour; Nemirovski, Alina; Schwob, Ouri; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Nassar, Taher; Benita, Simon

    2013-01-01

    An original oral formulation of docetaxel nanocapsules (NCs) embedded in microparticles elicited in rats a higher bioavailability compared with the i.v. administration of the commercial docetaxel solution, Taxotere. In the present study, various animal studies were designed to elucidate the absorption process of docetaxel from such a delivery system. Again, the docetaxel NC formulation elicited a marked enhanced absorption compared with oral Taxotere in minipigs, resulting in relative bioavailability and Cmax values 10- and 8.4-fold higher, respectively, confirming the previous rat study results. It was revealed that orally absorbed NCs altered the elimination and distribution of docetaxel, as shown in the organ biodistribution rat study, due to their reinforced coating, while transiting through the enterocytes by surface adsorption of apoproteins and phospholipids. These findings were demonstrated by the cryogenic-temperature transmission electron microscopy results and confirmed by the use of a chylomicron flow blocker, cycloheximide, that prevented the oral absorption of docetaxel from the NC formulation in an independent pharmacokinetic study. The lipoproteinated NCs reduced the docetaxel release in plasma and its distribution among the organs. The improved anticancer activity compared with i.v. Taxotere, observed in the metastatic lung cancer model in Severe Combined Immune Deficiency-beige (SCID-bg) mice, should be attributed to the extravasation effect, leading to the lipoproteinated NC accumulation in lung tumors, where they exert a significant therapeutic action. To the best of our knowledge, no study has reported that the absorption of NCs was mediated by a lymphatic process and reinforced during their transit. PMID:24101508

  20. Enhancement of absorption and hepatoprotective potential through soya-phosphatidylcholine-andrographolide vesicular system.

    PubMed

    Jain, Pushpendra Kumar; Khurana, Navneet; Pounikar, Yogesh; Gajbhiye, Asmita; Kharya, Murli Dhar

    2013-06-01

    Andrographis paniculata is a medicinal herb used extensively for various ailments and contains therapeutically active phytoconstituent, andrographolide (AN). Although hepatoprotective activity of AN is established, but their bioavailability is restricted due to its rapid clearance. The aim of this study, therefore, was to formulate AN herbosomes (ANH) through complexation with naturally occurring soya-phosphatidylcholine (SPC), in order to enhance absorption. Prepared andrographolide-soy phosphatidylcholine (AN-SPC) complex prepared was subjected for characterisation of complex and formation of vesicular system known as ANH using rotary evaporation techniques. This complex was subjected to in vitro study using everted small intestine sac technique which showed significantly increased absorption of AN from the ANH as compared to the plain AN. The hepatoprotective potential of ANH and plain AN was evaluated using carbon tetrachloride inducing hepatotoxicity rat model and compared, in which ANH equivalent to 50 mg/kg of plain AN significantly restore serum glutamate oxalacetate transaminase (112.4 ± 9.67 for AN whereas 90.2 ± 4.23 for ANH) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (109.3 ± 7.89 for AN whereas 90.6 ± 4.34 for ANH) level as compared to control group. The ANH showed significantly better absorption than plain AN and this effect of ANH was also comparable to the standard drug (Silymarin). The findings of present study reveal that ANH has better bioavailability as shown by in vitro absorption study and hence improved hepatoprotection as compared to plain AN at equivalent dose.

  1. Neomycin Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... area, do not use tightly fitting diapers or plastic pants. They can increase the absorption of the ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  2. Bounds on Energy Absorption and Prethermalization in Quantum Systems with Long-Range Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Wen Wei; Protopopov, Ivan; Abanin, Dmitry A.

    2018-05-01

    Long-range interacting systems such as nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond and trapped ions serve as experimental setups to probe a range of nonequilibrium many-body phenomena. In particular, via driving, various effective Hamiltonians with physics potentially quite distinct from short-range systems can be realized. In this Letter, we derive general rigorous bounds on the linear response energy absorption rates of periodically driven systems of spins or fermions with long-range interactions that are sign changing and fall off as 1 /rα with α >d /2 . We show that the disorder averaged energy absorption rate at high temperatures decays exponentially with the driving frequency. This strongly suggests the presence of a prethermal plateau in which dynamics is governed by an effective, static Hamiltonian for long times, and we provide numerical evidence to support such a statement. Our results are relevant for understanding timescales of heating and new dynamical regimes described by effective Hamiltonians in such long-range systems.

  3. [Study of the Detecting System of CH4 and SO2 Based on Spectral Absorption Method and UV Fluorescence Method].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-tao; Wang, Zhi-fang; Liu, Ming-hua; Wei, Meng; Chen, Dong-ying; Wang, Xing-long

    2016-01-01

    According to the spectral absorption characteristics of polluting gases and fluorescence characteristics, a time-division multiplexing detection system is designed. Through this system we can detect Methane (CH4) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) by using spectral absorption method and the SO2 can be detected by using UV fluorescence method. The system consists of four parts: a combination of a light source which could be switched, the common optical path, the air chamber and the signal processing section. The spectral absorption characteristics and fluorescence characteristics are measured first. Then the experiment of detecting CH4 and SO2 through spectral absorption method and the experiment of detecting SO2 through UV fluorescence method are conducted, respectively. Through measuring characteristics of spectral absorption and fluorescence, we get excitation wavelengths of SO2 and CH4 measured by spectral absorption method at the absorption peak are 280 nm and 1.64 μm, respectively, and the optimal excitation wavelength of SO2 measured by UV fluorescence method is 220 nm. we acquire the linear relation between the concentration of CH4 and relative intensity and the linear relation between the concentration of SO2 and output voltage after conducting the experiment of spectral absorption method, and the linearity are 98.7%, 99.2% respectively. Through the experiment of UV fluorescence method we acquire that the relation between the concentration of SO2 and the voltage is linear, and the linearity is 99.5%. Research shows that the system is able to be applied to detect the polluted gas by absorption spectrum method and UV fluorescence method. Combing these two measurement methods decreases the costing and the volume, and this system can also be used to measure the other gases. Such system has a certain value of application.

  4. [The social security system as a topic in medical education. Own experiences and description of student's contribution].

    PubMed

    Seidel, H J; Schochat, T

    2001-07-01

    The special subject "sociomedicine", as defined for medical students in "items to which the written examination in the second part of the medical examination can relate" has been taught by this department for 25 years as part of the course on medical ecology. There are 4 lectures (structure of the health care system; preventive care by doctors in the community and at the place of work; introduction to health economy; introduction to epidemiology) and the following seminars in small groups: social security systems; health insurance; excursion to a rehabilitation hospital; health reporting; epidemiology. The topics are presented and taught with emphasis on didactically useful and local examples. To ensure student participation "personal data" were introduced: Students give short reports on topics presented to them or they have to formulate questions to the topic of the seminar, questions or subjects to be dealt with. The questions concerning "social security systems" and "health insurance", collected over a 6 year period, were analyzed. Initially, the subject "sociomedicine" is not much appreciated by the students. The analysis shows what students think when they are challenged. The spectrum of questions mainly reflects the discussion in the media: Finance and benefits predominate, also budget and misuse, especially with reference to old-age pension and health insurance. Questions related to specific medical functions as e. g. medical expert opinion, are less often raised. However, topics such as "expansion of preventive measures", "chip card and utilisation" and "unconventional methods" are often addressed. A special demand for personal advice is seen during small talk discussions in intermissions (health insurance). The topics "medical expert opinion" and "comparison of public and private health insurance" have become positive knowledge required for the examination and for practising the medical profession. With these subjects as a starting point it appears easier

  5. The standard calibration instrument automation system for the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Part 3: Program documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, D. P.; Roth, G. S.

    1982-04-01

    Complete documentation of the 15 programs and 11 data files of the EPA Atomic Absorption Instrument Automation System is presented. The system incorporates the following major features: (1) multipoint calibration using first, second, or third degree regression or linear interpolation, (2) timely quality control assessments for spiked samples, duplicates, laboratory control standards, reagent blanks, and instrument check standards, (3) reagent blank subtraction, and (4) plotting of calibration curves and raw data peaks. The programs of this system are written in Data General Extended BASIC, Revision 4.3, as enhanced for multi-user, real-time data acquisition. They run in a Data General Nova 840 minicomputer under the operating system RDOS, Revision 6.2. There is a functional description, a symbol definitions table, a functional flowchart, a program listing, and a symbol cross reference table for each program. The structure of every data file is also detailed.

  6. High-precision piezo-ejection ocular microdosing: Phase II study on local and systemic effects of topical phenylephrine.

    PubMed

    Ianchulev, Tsontcho; Weinreb, Robert; Tsai, James C; Lin, Shan; Pasquale, Louis R

    2018-01-01

    Conventional eyedropper-delivered volumes (25-50 µl) exceed the eye's usual tear-film volume (7 µl) and precorneal reservoir capacity, risking overflow and ocular/systemic complications. Piezoelectric high-precision microdosing may circumvent these limitations. Results & methodology: In this masked, nonrandomized, cross-over study, subjects (n = 12) underwent pupil dilation with topical phenylephrine (PE) administered by 32-µl eyedropper (2.5% or 10% formulation) and 8-µl electronic microdosing (10% formulation). Microdosing with PE-10% achieved comparable peak dilation as 10% eyedropper-delivery and superior dilation to 2.5% eyedropper-delivery (p = 0.009) at 75 min. Microdosing significantly reduced 20-min plasma PE levels versus PE10% eyedropper; neither treatment altered heart rate/blood pressure. Eye irritation occurred significantly less frequently with microdosing than PE10% eyedrops. Piezo-ejection PE microdosing achieves comparable biological effect as eyedropper dosing; reduced systemic absorption may decrease risk of systemic side effects.

  7. In vivo real-time monitoring system of electroporation mediated control of transdermal and topical drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Blagus, Tanja; Markelc, Bostjan; Cemazar, Maja; Kosjek, Tina; Preat, Veronique; Miklavcic, Damijan; Sersa, Gregor

    2013-12-28

    Electroporation (EP) is a physical method for the delivery of molecules into cells and tissues, including the skin. In this study, in order to control the degree of transdermal and topical drug delivery, EP at different amplitudes of electric pulses was evaluated. A new in vivo real-time monitoring system based on fluorescently labeled molecules was developed, for the quantification of transdermal and topical drug delivery. EP of the mouse skin was performed with new non-invasive multi-array electrodes, delivering different amplitudes of electric pulses ranging from 70 to 570 V, between the electrode pin pairs. Patches, soaked with 4 kDa fluorescein-isothiocyanate labeled dextran (FD), doxorubicin (DOX) or fentanyl (FEN), were applied to the skin before and after EP. The new monitoring system was developed based on the delivery of FD to and through the skin. FD relative quantity was determined with fluorescence microscopy imaging, in the treated region of the skin for topical delivery and in a segment of the mouse tail for transdermal delivery. The application of electric pulses for FD delivery resulted in enhanced transdermal delivery. Depending on the amplitude of electric pulses, it increased up to the amplitude of 360 V, and decreased at higher amplitudes (460 and 570 V). Topical delivery steadily enhanced with increasing the amplitude of the delivered electric pulses, being even higher than after tape stripping used as a positive control. The non-invasive monitoring of the delivery of DOX, a fluorescent chemotherapeutic drug, qualitatively and quantitatively confirmed the effects of EP at 360 and 570 V pulse amplitudes on topical and transdermal drug delivery. Delivery of FEN at 360 and 570 V pulse amplitudes verified the observed effects as obtained with FD and DOX, by the measured physiological responses of the mice as well as FEN plasma concentration. This study demonstrates that with the newly developed non-invasive multi-array electrodes and with the

  8. Implications of a primordial origin for the dispersion in D/H in quasar absorption systems

    PubMed Central

    Copi, Craig J.; Olive, Keith A.; Schramm, David N.

    1998-01-01

    We explore the difficulties with a primordial origin of variations of D/H in quasar absorption systems. In particular we examine options such as a very large-scale inhomogeneity in the baryon content of the universe. We show that very large-scale (much larger than 1 Mpc) isocurvature perturbations are excluded by current cosmic microwave background observations. Smaller-scale ad hoc perturbations (∼1 Mpc) still may lead to a large dispersion in primordial abundances but are subject to other constraints. PMID:9501162

  9. Implications of a primordial origin for the dispersion in D/H in quasar absorption systems.

    PubMed

    Copi, C J; Olive, K A; Schramm, D N

    1998-03-17

    We explore the difficulties with a primordial origin of variations of D/H in quasar absorption systems. In particular we examine options such as a very large-scale inhomogeneity in the baryon content of the universe. We show that very large-scale (much larger than 1 Mpc) isocurvature perturbations are excluded by current cosmic microwave background observations. Smaller-scale ad hoc perturbations (approximately 1 Mpc) still may lead to a large dispersion in primordial abundances but are subject to other constraints.

  10. Investigation of periodically driven systems by x-ray absorption spectroscopy using asynchronous data collection mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, H.; Donetsky, D.; Liu, J.; Attenkofer, K.; Cheng, B.; Trelewicz, J. R.; Lubomirsky, I.; Stavitski, E.; Frenkel, A. I.

    2018-04-01

    We report the development, testing, and demonstration of a setup for modulation excitation spectroscopy experiments at the Inner Shell Spectroscopy beamline of National Synchrotron Light Source - II. A computer algorithm and dedicated software were developed for asynchronous data processing and analysis. We demonstrate the reconstruction of X-ray absorption spectra for different time points within the modulation pulse using a model system. This setup and the software are intended for a broad range of functional materials which exhibit structural and/or electronic responses to the external stimulation, such as catalysts, energy and battery materials, and electromechanical devices.

  11. Preparation and Characterization of a Lecithin Nanoemulsion as a Topical Delivery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Huafeng; Yue, Yang; Liu, Guanlan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Gong, Qiu; Yan, Zemin; Duan, Mingxing

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of this study was to establish a lecithin nanoemulsion (LNE) without any synthetic surfactant as a topical delivery vehicle and to evaluate its topical delivery potential by the following factors: particle size, morphology, viscosity, stability, skin hydration and skin penetration. Experimental results demonstrated that an increasing concentration of soybean lecithin and glycerol resulted in a smaller size LNE droplet and increasing viscosity, respectively. The droplet size of optimized LNE, with the glycerol concentration above 75% (w/w), changed from 92 (F10) to 58 nm (F14). Additionally, LNE, incorporated into o/w cream, improved the skin hydration capacity of the cream significantly with about 2.5-fold increase when the concentration of LNE reached 10%. LNE was also demonstrated to improve the penetrability of Nile red (NR) dye into the dermis layer, when an o/w cream, incorporated with NR-loaded LNE, applied on the abdominal skin of rat in vivo. Specifically, the arbitrary unit (ABU) of fluorescence in the dermis layer that had received the cream with a NR-loaded LNE was about 9.9-fold higher than the cream with a NR-loaded general emulsion (GE). These observations suggest that LNE could be used as a promising topical delivery vehicle for lipophilic compounds.

  12. Fluorouracil Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by years of too much exposure to sunlight). Fluorouracil cream and topical solution are also used ... plan to avoid unnecessary or prolonged exposure to sunlight and UV light (such as tanning booths) and ...

  13. Ciclopirox Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... Use the applicator brush attached to the bottle cap to apply ciclopirox topical solution evenly to all ... can reach these areas. Wipe off the bottle cap and neck and replace the cap tightly on ...

  14. H I-SELECTED GALAXIES AS A PROBE OF QUASAR ABSORPTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Okoshi, Katsuya; Nagashima, Masahiro; Gouda, Naoteru

    2010-02-20

    We investigate the properties of H I-rich galaxies detected in blind radio surveys within the hierarchical structure formation scenario using a semianalytic model of galaxy formation. By drawing a detailed comparison between the properties of H I-selected galaxies and H I absorption systems, we argue a link between the local galaxy population and quasar absorption systems, particularly for damped Lyalpha absorption (DLA) systems and sub-DLA systems. First, we evaluate how many H I-selected galaxies exhibit H I column densities as high as those of DLA systems. We find that H I-selected galaxies with H I masses M{sub H{sub I}} {approx}>more » 10{sup 8} M{sub sun} have gaseous disks that produce H I column densities comparable to those of DLA systems. We conclude that DLA galaxies where the H I column densities are as high as those of DLA systems, contribute significantly to the population of H I-selected galaxies at M{sub H{sub I}} {approx}> 10{sup 8} M{sub sun}. Second, we find that star formation rates (SFRs) correlate tightly with H I masses (M{sub H{sub I}}) rather than B- (and J-) band luminosities: SFR {proportional_to} M {sup alpha}{sub H{sub I}}, alpha = 1.25-1.40 for 10{sup 6} <= M{sub H{sub I}}/M{sub sun} <= 10{sup 11}. In the low-mass range M{sub H{sub I}} {approx}< 10{sup 8} M{sub sun}, sub-DLA galaxies replace DLA galaxies as the dominant population. The number fraction of sub-DLA galaxies relative to galaxies reaches 40%-60% for M{sub H{sub I}} {approx} 10{sup 8} M{sub sun} and 30%-80% for M{sub H{sub I}} {approx} 10{sup 7} M{sub sun}. The H I-selected galaxies at M{sub H{sub I}} {approx} 10{sup 7} M{sub sun} are a strong probe of sub-DLA systems that place stringent constraints on galaxy formation and evolution.« less

  15. Modeling of a solar-assisted hybrid absorption/desiccant system for applications in Puerto Rico and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, H.R.; Gonzalez, J.E.; Khan, A.Y.

    1996-11-01

    This study is concerned with the feasibility of different arrangements of solar-assisted air conditioning systems for applications in Puerto Rico. The thermodynamic performance of an absorption system alone and coupled to a liquid or a solid desiccant dehumidification system was investigated under variable cooling load conditions. The dynamic modeling was based on heat and mass balances for the systems components. Simulations for climatic conditions in Puerto Rico show that average solar fractions of more than 85% can be achieved with both the absorption system and the hybrid systems for medium size cooling loads. Results indicate that higher coefficients of performancemore » are obtained when the solar assisted absorption system is not coupled to a desiccant dehumidification system.« less

  16. CoRes utilization for building PCK in pre-service teacher education on the digestive system topic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugraha, Ikmanda

    2017-05-01

    Knowledge of teachers in learning activities in the classroom has a close relationship with how well and how much students learn. Recently, a promising development in teacher education has appeared that centers on the academic construct of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). This study was an exploratory study into a science teacher education program that seeks to build the foundations on which pre-service teachers can begin to build their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). The program involved the use of Content Representations (CoRes), which was initially applied as component of a strategy for exploring and gaining insights into the PCK of in-service science teachers. This study involved the researcher and 20 students (third year) in a pre-service teacher education course (School Science I) in science education when the students worked to make content analysis on the digestive system topic. During the course, the students make their own CoRes through a workshop for digestive system topic individually, in pairs and whole class discussion. Data were recorded from students' CoRes, student reflective journals, interviews, and field notes recorded in the researcher's reflective journal. Pre-service teachers' comments from interviews and reflective journals were coded in relation to references about: (1) the effectiveness of variety strategies in building the knowledge bases required to design a CoRes and (2) their awareness and/or development of tentative components of future PCK for a digestive system topic as a result of CoRes construction. Observational data were examined for indications of increasing independence and competency on the part of student teachers when locating appropriate information for designing their CoRes. From this study, it is hoped that the pre-service science teachers are able to build knowledge and then transform it into a form of PCK for digestive system topic for their first classroom planning and teaching to teach digestive system

  17. Computational Evaluation of Mixtures of Hydrofluorocarbons and Deep Eutectic Solvents for Absorption Refrigeration Systems.

    PubMed

    Abedin, Rubaiyet; Heidarian, Sharareh; Flake, John C; Hung, Francisco R

    2017-10-24

    We used computational tools to evaluate three working fluid mixtures for single-effect absorption refrigeration systems, where the generator (desorber) is powered by waste or solar heat. The mixtures studied here resulted from combining a widely used hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerant, R134a, with three common deep eutectic solvents (DESs) formed by mixing choline chloride (hydrogen bond acceptor, HBA) with urea, glycerol, or ethylene glycol as the hydrogen bond donor (HBD) species. The COSMOtherm/TmoleX software package was used in combination with refrigerant data from NIST/REFPROP, to perform a thermodynamic evaluation of absorption refrigeration cycles using the proposed working fluid mixtures. Afterward, classical MD simulations of the three mixtures were performed to gain insight on these systems at the molecular level. Larger cycle efficiencies are obtained when R134a is combined with choline chloride and ethylene glycol, followed by the system where glycerol is the HBD, and finally that where the HBD is urea. MD simulations indicate that the local density profiles of all species exhibit very sharp variations in systems containing glycerol or urea; furthermore, the Henry's law constants of R134a in these two systems are larger than those observed for the HFC in choline chloride and ethylene glycol, indicating that R134a is more soluble in the latter DES. Interaction energies indicate that the R134a-R134a interactions are weaker in the system where ethylene glycol is the HBD, as compared to in the other DES. Radial distribution functions confirm that in all systems, the DES species do not form strong directional interactions (e.g., hydrogen bonds) with the R134a molecules. Relatively strong interactions are observed between the Cl anions and the hydrogen atoms in R134a; however, the atom-atom interactions between R134a and the cation and HBD species are weaker and do not play a significant role in the solvation of the refrigerant. In all systems, R134a has

  18. Simulation of a double-effect LiBr/H{sub 2}O absorption cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Wardono, B.; Nelson, R.

    1996-10-01

    Since commercially-available, double-effect, absorption cooling systems give relatively high performance for using solar energy or other medium-temperature sources, their performance was simulated and studied. To evaluate the cooling system performance, two objective functions were established: the system performance (COP) and the system cost. The system cost was used as the objective function to determine the optimum design of the system, while the COP was used to evaluate the effects of each variable on the system performance. The system optimization shows that there is an economic optimum heat-transfer area for each heat exchanger. Further study shows that this is a globalmore » minimum cost of the system. The best COPs that could be achieved by changing the heat-transfer areas and the inlet hot water temperature vary between 1.4 and 1.5. Higher COPs of approximately 1.6 were achieved if higher chilled water inlet temperatures or lower cooling water temperatures are used. These conditions are not desirable since higher chilled water inlet temperatures are not useful for cooling, and lower cooling water inlet temperatures are not usually available.« less

  19. Flexural impact force absorption of mouthguard materials using film sensor system.

    PubMed

    Reza, Fazal; Churei, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Iwasaki, Naohiko; Ueno, Toshiaki

    2014-06-01

    Several methods have been used to measure the impact force absorption capacities of mouthguard materials; however, the relationships among these measurement systems have not been clearly determined. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact force-absorbing capability of materials using a drop-ball system with film sensors and load cells to clarify the relationship between these two sensor systems. Disk-shaped specimens (1, 2, and 3 mm thick) were prepared using three commercial thermoplastic mouthguard materials (Bioplast, Impact Guard, MG 21) and one experimental mouthguard material [mixture of Poly (ethyl methacrylate)]. Impact force was applied by letting a stainless steel ball drop free-fall onto the specimens and then measuring the impact load under each specimen using a film sensor system and a load cell sensor system. The total load measured with the film sensor system decreased with an increase in mouthguard thickness, while almost none of the transmitted impact forces measured with the load cell system were statistically different. The film sensor system was considered to be superior to the load cell system because the maximum stress and stress area could be determined. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Continuous optical measurement system of hemolysis during a photosensitization reaction using absorption spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, R.; Ogawa, E.; Arai, T.

    2018-02-01

    To investigate hemolysis phenomena during a photosensitization reaction with the reaction condition continuously and simultaneously for a safety assessment of hemolysis side effect, we constructed an optical system to measure blood sample absorption spectrum during the reaction. Hemolysis degree might be under estimated in general evaluation methods because there is a constant oxygen pressure assumption in spite of oxygen depression take place. By investigating hemoglobin oxidation and oxygen desorption dynamics obtained from the contribution of the visible absorption spectrum and multiple regression analysis, both the hemolysis phenomena and its oxygen environment might be obtained with time. A 664 nm wavelength laser beam for the reaction excitation and 475-650 nm light beam for measuring the absorbance spectrum were arranged perpendicularly crossing. A quartz glass cuvette with 1×10 mm in dimensions for the spectrum measurement was located at this crossing point. A red blood cells suspension medium was arranged with low hematocrit containing 30 μg/ml talaporfin sodium. This medium was irradiated up to 40 J/cm2 . The met-hemoglobin, oxygenatedhemoglobin, and deoxygenated-hemoglobin concentrations were calculated by a multiple regression analysis from the measured spectra. We confirmed the met-hemoglobin concentration increased and oxygen saturation decreased with the irradiation time, which seems to indicate the hemolysis progression and oxygen consumption, respectively. By using our measuring system, the hemolysis progression seems to be obtained with oxygen environment information.

  1. Topical treatment of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Laws, Philip M; Young, Helen S

    2010-08-01

    The majority of patients with psoriasis can be safely and effectively treated with topical therapy alone, either under the supervision of a family physician or dermatologist. For those requiring systemic agents, topical therapies can provide additional benefit. Optimal use of topical therapy requires an awareness of the range and efficacy of all products. The review covers the efficacy and role of topical therapies including emollients, corticosteroids, vitamin D analogs, calcineurin inhibitors, dithranol, coal tar, retinoids, keratolyics and combination therapy. The report was prepared following a PubMed and Embase literature search up to April 2010. The paper provides a broad review of the relevant topical therapeutic options available in routine clinical practice for the management of psoriasis and a recommendation for selection of treatment. Topical therapies used appropriately provide a safe and effective option for the management of psoriasis. An awareness of the available products and their efficacy is key to treatment selection and patient satisfaction.

  2. Concentration measurement of NO using self-absorption spectroscopy of the γ band system in a pulsed corona discharge.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Xiaodong; Ding, Yanjun; Peng, Zhimin; Luo, Rui

    2012-07-10

    Nitric oxide (NO) concentrations were measured using the γ band system spectrum based on the strong self-absorption effect of NO in pulsed corona discharges. The radiative transitional intensities of the NO γ band were simulated based on the theory of molecular spectroscopy. The intensities of some bands, especially γ(0,0) and γ(1,0), are weakened by the self-absorption. The correlations between the spectral self-absorption intensities and NO concentration were validated using a modified Beer-Lambert law with a combined factor K relating the branching ratio and the NO concentration, and a nonlinear index α that is applicable to the broadband system. Optical emissive spectra in pulsed corona discharges in NO and N2/He mixtures were used to evaluate the two parameters for various conditions. Good agreement between the experimental and theoretical results verifies the self-absorption behavior seen in the UV spectra of the NO γ bands.

  3. Multimode fiber-optic temperature sensor system based on dual-wavelength difference absorption principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zaixuan; Lin, Dan; Fang, Xiao; Jing, Shangzhong

    1991-08-01

    The multimode fiber optical temperature sensor system is a cobalt salt solution (CoCl26H2O) in the isoptopyl alcohol and water thermochromic transducer based on the dual-wavelength difference absorption principle. The digital locking-in detection, the operation of signal division and temperature calibration is operated by IBM PC computer. The measurement temperature range of the fiber-optic sensor system is 30 degree(s)C to 50 degree(s)C, accuracy is +/- 0.15 degree(s)C, and the temperature resolution is 0.02 degree(s)C. The most accurate measurements resulting from repeated stability tests over 6 and 12 hours (40 degree(s)C) are +/- $0.05 degree(s)C and +/- 0.18 degree(s)C, and the temperature mean is displayed in real time.

  4. Quantum cascade laser-based multipass absorption system for hydrogen peroxide detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yingchun; Sanchez, Nancy P.; Jiang, Wenzhe; Ren, Wei; Lewicki, Rafal; Jiang, Dongfang; Griffin, Robert J.; Tittel, Frank K.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a relevant molecular trace gas species, that is related to the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, the production of radical species such as OH, the generation of sulfate aerosol via oxidation of S(IV) to S(VI), and the formation of acid rain. The detection of atmospheric H2O2 involves specific challenges due to its high reactivity and low concentration (ppbv to sub-ppbv level). Traditional methods for measuring atmospheric H2O2 concentration are often based on wet-chemistry methods that require a transfer from the gas- to liquid-phase for a subsequent determination by techniques such as fluorescence spectroscopy, which can lead to problems such as sampling artifacts and interference by other atmospheric constituents. A quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy-based system for the measurement of atmospheric H2O2 with a detection limit of 75 ppb for 1-s integration time was previously reported. In this paper, an updated H2O2 detection system based on long-optical-path-length absorption spectroscopy by using a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (DFB-QCL) will be described. A 7.73-μm CW-DFB-QCL and a thermoelectrically cooled infrared detector, optimized for a wavelength of 8 μm, are employed for theH2O2 sensor system. A commercial astigmatic Herriott multi-pass cell with an effective optical path-length of 76 m is utilized for the reported QCL multipass absorption system. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) with second harmonic detection is used for enhancing the signal-to-noise-ratio. A minimum detection limit of 13.4 ppb is achieved with a 2 s sampling time. Based on an Allan-Werle deviation analysis the minimum detection limit can be improved to 1.5 ppb when using an averaging time of 300 s.

  5. Vibration energy absorption in the whole-body system of a tractor operator.

    PubMed

    Szczepaniak, Jan; Tanaś, Wojciech; Kromulski, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Many people are exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) in their occupational lives, especially drivers of vehicles such as tractor and trucks. The main categories of effects from WBV are perception degraded comfort interference with activities-impaired health and occurrence of motion sickness. Absorbed power is defined as the power dissipated in a mechanical system as a result of an applied force. The vibration-induced injuries or disorders in a substructure of the human system are primarily associated with the vibration power absorption distributed in that substructure. The vibration power absorbed by the exposed body is a measure that combines both the vibration hazard and the biodynamic response of the body. The article presents measurement method for determining vibration power dissipated in the human whole body system called Vibration Energy Absorption (VEA). The vibration power is calculated from the real part of the force-velocity cross-spectrum. The absorbed power in the frequency domain can be obtained from the cross-spectrum of the force and velocity. In the context of the vibration energy transferred to a seated human body, the real component reflects the energy dissipated in the biological structure per unit of time, whereas the imaginary component reflects the energy stored/released by the system. The seated human is modeled as a series/parallel 4-DOF dynamic models. After introduction of the excitation, the response in particular segments of the model can be analyzed. As an example, the vibration power dissipated in an operator has been determined as a function of the agricultural combination operating speed 1.39 - 4.16 ms(-1).

  6. Self-consistent continuum solvation for optical absorption of complex molecular systems in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Timrov, Iurii; Biancardi, Alessandro; Andreussi, Oliviero

    2015-01-21

    We introduce a new method to compute the optical absorption spectra of complex molecular systems in solution, based on the Liouville approach to time-dependent density-functional perturbation theory and the revised self-consistent continuum solvation model. The former allows one to obtain the absorption spectrum over a whole wide frequency range, using a recently proposed Lanczos-based technique, or selected excitation energies, using the Casida equation, without having to ever compute any unoccupied molecular orbitals. The latter is conceptually similar to the polarizable continuum model and offers the further advantages of allowing an easy computation of atomic forces via the Hellmann-Feynman theorem andmore » a ready implementation in periodic-boundary conditions. The new method has been implemented using pseudopotentials and plane-wave basis sets, benchmarked against polarizable continuum model calculations on 4-aminophthalimide, alizarin, and cyanin and made available through the QUANTUM ESPRESSO distribution of open-source codes.« less

  7. Highly efficient SO₂ absorption and its subsequent utilization by weak base/polyethylene glycol binary system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen-Zhen; He, Liang-Nian; Zhao, Ya-Nan; Yu, Bing

    2013-02-05

    A binary system consisting of polyethylene glycol (PEG, proton donor)/PEG-functionalized base with suitable basicity was developed for efficient gas desulfurization (GDS) and can be regarded as an alternative approach to circumvent the energy penalty problem in the GDS process. High capacity for SO(2) capture up to 4.88 mol of SO(2)/mol of base was achieved even under low partial pressure of SO(2). Furthermore, SO(2) desorption runs smoothly under mild conditions (N(2), 25 °C) and no significant drop in SO(2) absorption was observed after five-successive absorption-desorption cycles. On the other hand, the absorbed SO(2) by PEG(150)MeIm/PEG(150), being considered as the activated form of SO(2), can be directly transformed into value-added chemicals under mild conditions, thus eliminating the energy penalty for SO(2) desorption and simultaneously realizing recycle of the absorbents. Thus, this SO(2) capture and utilization (SCU) process offers an alternative way for GDS and potentially enables the SO(2) conversion from flue gas to useful chemicals as a value-added process.

  8. Optimization of A 2-Micron Laser Frequency Stabilization System for a Double-Pulse CO2 Differential Absorption Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Songsheng; Yu, Jirong; Bai, Yingsin; Koch, Grady; Petros, Mulugeta; Trieu, Bo; Petzar, Paul; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Beyon, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    A carbon dioxide (CO2) Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) for accurate CO2 concentration measurement requires a frequency locking system to achieve high frequency locking precision and stability. We describe the frequency locking system utilizing Frequency Modulation (FM), Phase Sensitive Detection (PSD), and Proportional Integration Derivative (PID) feedback servo loop, and report the optimization of the sensitivity of the system for the feed back loop based on the characteristics of a variable path-length CO2 gas cell. The CO2 gas cell is characterized with HITRAN database (2004). The method can be applied for any other frequency locking systems referring to gas absorption line.

  9. Safety, tolerability, and systemic absorption of dapivirine vaginal microbicide gel in healthy, HIV-negative women.

    PubMed

    Nel, Annalene M; Coplan, Paul; van de Wijgert, Janneke H; Kapiga, Saidi H; von Mollendorf, Claire; Geubbels, Eveline; Vyankandondera, Joseph; Rees, Helen V; Masenga, Gileard; Kiwelu, Ireen; Moyes, Jocelyn; Smythe, Shanique C

    2009-07-31

    To assess the local and systemic safety of dapivirine vaginal gel vs. placebo gel as well as the systemic absorption of dapivirine in healthy, HIV-negative women. Two prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase I/II studies were conducted at five research centers, four in Africa and one in Belgium. A total of 119 women used dapivirine gel (concentrations of 0.001, 0.002, 0.005, or 0.02%), and 28 used placebo gel twice daily for 42 days. The primary endpoints were colposcopic findings, adverse events, Division of AIDS grade 3 or grade 4 laboratory values, and plasma levels of dapivirine. Safety data were similar for the dapivirine and placebo gels. None of the adverse events with incidence more than 5% occurred with greater frequency in the dapivirine than placebo groups. Similar percentages of placebo and dapivirine gel users had adverse events that were considered by the investigator to be related to study gel. A total of five serious adverse events occurred in the two studies, and none was assessed as related to study gel. Mean plasma concentrations of dapivirine were approximately dose proportional, and, within each dose group, mean concentrations were similar on days 7, 28, and 42. The maximum observed mean concentration was 474 pg/ml in the 0.02% gel group on day 28. Two weeks after the final application of study gel, mean concentrations decreased to 5 pg/ml or less. Twice daily administration of dapivirine vaginal gel for 42 days was safe and well tolerated with low systemic absorption in healthy, HIV-negative women suggesting that continued development is warranted.

  10. Multicomutation flow system for manganese speciation by solid phase extraction and flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiasz, Anna; Sołtys, Monika; Kurys, Ewa; Domagała, Karolina; Dudek-Adamska, Danuta; Walas, Stanisław

    2017-08-01

    In the paper an application of solid phase extraction technique for speciation analysis of manganese in water samples with the use of flame atomic absorption spectrometry is presented. Two types of sorbents, activated silica gel and Dowex 1 × 4, were used respectively for simultaneously Mn2 + and MnO42 - retention and preconcentration. The whole procedure was realized in multicomutation flow system. Different conditions like: type and concentration of eluent, sample pH and loading time were tested during the study. Under appropriate conditions, it was possible to obtained enrichment factors of 20 and 16 for Mn(II) and Mn(VII), respectively. Precision of the procedure was close to 4% (measured as relative standard deviation), whereas the detection limit (3σ) was 1.4 μg·L- 1 for Mn(II) and 4.8 μg·L- 1 for Mn(VII).

  11. Method for Direct Measurement of Cosmic Acceleration by 21-cm Absorption Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hao-Ran; Zhang, Tong-Jie; Pen, Ue-Li

    2014-07-01

    So far there is only indirect evidence that the Universe is undergoing an accelerated expansion. The evidence for cosmic acceleration is based on the observation of different objects at different distances and requires invoking the Copernican cosmological principle and Einstein's equations of motion. We examine the direct observability using recession velocity drifts (Sandage-Loeb effect) of 21-cm hydrogen absorption systems in upcoming radio surveys. This measures the change in velocity of the same objects separated by a time interval and is a model-independent measure of acceleration. We forecast that for a CHIME-like survey with a decade time span, we can detect the acceleration of a ΛCDM universe with 5σ confidence. This acceleration test requires modest data analysis and storage changes from the normal processing and cannot be recovered retroactively.

  12. Quasar 2175 Å dust absorbers - II. Correlation analysis and relationship with other absorption line systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jingzhe; Ge, Jian; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Zhang, Shaohua; Ji, Tuo; Zhao, Yinan; Zhou, Hongyan; Lu, Honglin; Schneider, Donald P.

    2018-03-01

    We present the cold neutral content (H I and C I gas) of 13 quasar 2175 Å dust absorbers (2DAs) at z = 1.6-2.5 to investigate the correlation between the presence of the UV extinction bump with other physical characteristics. These 2DAs were initially selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Surveys I-III and followed up with the Keck-II telescope and the Multiple Mirror Telescope as detailed in our Paper I. We perform a correlation analysis between metallicity, redshift, depletion level, velocity width, and explore relationships between 2DAs and other absorption line systems. The 2DAs on average have higher metallicity, higher depletion levels, and larger velocity widths than Damped Lyman α absorbers (DLAs) or subDLAs. The correlation between [Zn/H] and [Fe/Zn] or [Zn/H] and logΔV90 can be used as alternative stellar mass estimators based on the well-established mass-metallicity relation. The estimated stellar masses of the 2DAs in this sample are in the range of ˜109 to ˜2 × 1011 M⊙ with a median value of ˜2 × 1010 M⊙. The relationship with other quasar absorption line systems can be described as (1) 2DAs are a subset of Mg II and Fe II absorbers, (2) 2DAs are preferentially metal-strong DLAs/subDLAs, (3) More importantly, all of the 2DAs show C I detections with logN(C I) > 14.0 cm-2, and (4) 2DAs can be used as molecular gas tracers. Their host galaxies are likely to be chemically enriched, evolved, massive (more massive than typical DLA/subDLA galaxies), and presumably star-forming galaxies.

  13. Design, characterization, and biological evaluation of curcumin-loaded surfactant-based systems for topical drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-Santos, Bruno; Dos Santos, Aline Martins; Rodero, Camila Fernanda; Gremião, Maria Palmira Daflon; Chorilli, Marlus

    From previous studies, it has been found that curcumin exhibits an anti-inflammatory activity and is being used for the treatment of skin disorders; however, it is hydrophobic and has weak penetrating ability, resulting in poor drug transport through the stratum corneum. The aim of this study was to develop liquid crystalline systems for topical administration of curcumin for the treatment of inflammation. These liquid crystalline systems were developed from oleic acid, polyoxypropylene (5) polyoxyethylene (20) cetyl alcohol, and water as the surfactant, oil phase, and aqueous phase, respectively. These systems were characterized, and polarized light microscopy showed anisotropy with lamellar mesophases (Formulation 1) and hexagonal mesophases (Formulations 2 and 3), which were confirmed by the peak ratio measured using small-angle X-ray scattering. In addition, rheological tests revealed that the formulations exhibited gel-like behavior (G'>G″), as evidenced by the increased G' values that indicate structured systems. Texture profile analysis showed that hexagonal mesophases have high values of hardness, adhesiveness, and compressibility, which indicate structured systems. In vitro studies on bioadhesion revealed that the hexagonal mesophases increased the bioadhesiveness of the systems to the skin of the pig ear. An in vivo inflammation experiment showed that the curcumin-loaded hexagonal mesophase exhibited an anti-inflammatory activity as compared to the positive control (dexamethasone). The results suggest that this system has a potential to be used as a bioadhesive vehicle for the topical administration of curcumin. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that these systems can be used for the optimization of drug delivery systems to the skin.

  14. Systemic and topical drugs for the prevention of HIV infection: antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Baeten, Jared; Celum, Connie

    2013-01-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), in which HIV uninfected persons use oral or topical antiretroviral medications to protect against HIV acquisition, is a promising new HIV prevention strategy. The biologic rationale for evaluation of PrEP for sexual HIV prevention included non-human primate models and antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV-exposed infants. Proof-of-concept that PrEP protects against sexual HIV acquisition has been demonstrated in four clinical trials, which used the antiretroviral medication tenofovir, either as a vaginal gel or as daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, alone or co-formulated with emtricitabine. Importantly, however, two trials failed to demonstrate HIV protection with PrEP, with low adherence to daily use of PrEP the leading hypothesis for lack of efficacy. Next steps in the field include rigorous evaluation of uptake and adherence to PrEP in implementation settings and research into ‘next-generation’ PrEP agents with longer half-life and less user-dependence. PMID:23020883

  15. Intelligent system for topic survey in MEDLINE by keyword recommendation and learning text characteristics.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, M; Nakazono, S; Matsuno, H; Tsujimoto, H; Kitamura, Y; Miyano, S

    2000-01-01

    We have implemented a system for assisting experts in selecting MEDLINE records for database construction purposes. This system has two specific features: The first is a learning mechanism which extracts characteristics in the abstracts of MEDLINE records of interest as patterns. These patterns reflect selection decisions by experts and are used for screening the records. The second is a keyword recommendation system which assists and supplements experts' knowledge in unexpected cases. Combined with a conventional keyword-based information retrieval system, this system may provide an efficient and comfortable environment for MEDLINE record selection by experts. Some computational experiments are provided to prove that this idea is useful.

  16. Topical treatment of oral cavity and wounded skin with a new disinfection system utilizing photolysis of hydrogen peroxide in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yasutomo; Mokudai, Takayuki; Nakamura, Keisuke; Hayashi, Eisei; Kawana, Yoshiko; Kanno, Taro; Sasaki, Keiichi; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the acute locally injurious property of hydroxyl radical generation system by photolysis of H(2)O(2), which is a new disinfection system for the treatment of periodontitis developed in our laboratory. Firstly, generation of the hydroxyl radical by a test device utilizing the photolysis of H(2)O(2) was confirmed by applying an electron spin resonance (ESR)-spin trapping technique. Secondly, the bactericidal effect of the device was examined under a simulant condition in which Staphylococcus aureus suspended in 1 M H(2)O(2) was irradiated with laser light emitted from the test device, resulting in substantial reduction of the colony forming unit of the bacteria within a short time as 2 min. Finally, acute topical effect of the disinfection system on rat oral mucosa and wounded skin was evaluated by histological examination. No abnormal findings were observed in the buccal mucosal region treated three times with 1 M H(2)O(2) and irradiation. Similarly, no abnormal findings were observed during the healing of skin treated with 1 M H(2)O(2) and irradiation immediately after wounding. Since topical treatment with the novel disinfection technique utilizing the photolysis of H(2)O(2) had no detrimental effect on the oral mucosa and the healing of full thickness skin wounds in rats, it is expected that the acute locally injurious property of the disinfection technique is low.

  17. Advanced Sine Wave Modulation of Continuous Wave Laser System for Atmospheric CO2 Differential Absorption Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center in collaboration with ITT Exelis have been experimenting with Continuous Wave (CW) laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) as a means of performing atmospheric CO2 column measurements from space to support the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission.Because range resolving Intensity Modulated (IM) CW lidar techniques presented here rely on matched filter correlations, autocorrelation properties without side lobes or other artifacts are highly desirable since the autocorrelation function is critical for the measurements of lidar return powers, laser path lengths, and CO2 column amounts. In this paper modulation techniques are investigated that improve autocorrelation properties. The modulation techniques investigated in this paper include sine waves modulated by maximum length (ML) sequences in various hardware configurations. A CW lidar system using sine waves modulated by ML pseudo random noise codes is described, which uses a time shifting approach to separate channels and make multiple, simultaneous online/offline differential absorption measurements. Unlike the pure ML sequence, this technique is useful in hardware that is band pass filtered as the IM sine wave carrier shifts the main power band. Both amplitude and Phase Shift Keying (PSK) modulated IM carriers are investigated that exibit perfect autocorrelation properties down to one cycle per code bit. In addition, a method is presented to bandwidth limit the ML sequence based on a Gaussian filter implemented in terms of Jacobi theta functions that does not seriously degrade the resolution or introduce side lobes as a means of reducing aliasing and IM carrier bandwidth.

  18. Systemic Absorption of Rifamycin SV MMX Administered as Modified-Release Tablets in Healthy Volunteers▿

    PubMed Central

    Di Stefano, A. F. D.; Rusca, A.; Loprete, L.; Dröge, M. J.; Moro, L.; Assandri, A.

    2011-01-01

    The new oral 200-mg rifamycin SV MMX modified-release tablets, designed to deliver rifamycin SV directly into the colonic lumen, offer considerable advantages over the existing immediate-release antidiarrheic formulations. In two pharmacokinetics studies of healthy volunteers, the absorption, urinary excretion, and fecal elimination of rifamycin SV after single- and multiple-dose regimens of the new formulation were investigated. Concentrations in plasma of >2 ng/ml were infrequently and randomly quantifiable after single and multiple oral doses. The systemic exposure to rifamycin SV after single and multiple oral doses of MMX tablets under fasting and fed conditions or following a four-times-a-day (q.i.d.) or a twice-a-day (b.i.d.) regimen could be considered negligible. With both oral regimens, the drug was confirmed to be very poorly absorbable systemically. The amount of systemically absorbed antibiotic excreted by the renal route is far lower than 0.01% of the administered dose after both the single- and multiple-dose regimens. The absolute bioavailability, calculated as the mean percent ratio between total urinary excretion amounts (ΣXu) after a single intravenous injection and after a single oral dose under fasting conditions, was 0.0410 ± 0.0617. The total elimination of the unchanged rifamycin SV with feces was 87% of the administered oral dose. No significant effect of rifamycin SV on vital signs, electrocardiograms, or laboratory parameters was observed. PMID:21402860

  19. Evaluation of Student Models on Current Socio-Scientific Topics Based on System Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuhoglu, Hasret

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to 1) enable primary school students to develop models that will help them understand and analyze a system, through a learning process based on system dynamics approach, 2) examine and evaluate students' models related to socio-scientific issues using certain criteria. The research method used is a case study. The study sample…

  20. Improvements in Topical Ocular Drug Delivery Systems: Hydrogels and Contact Lenses.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Andreza Maria; Figueiras, Ana; Veiga, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Conventional ophthalmic systems present very low corneal systemic bioavailability due to the nasolacrimal drainage and the difficulty to deliver the drug in the posterior segment of ocular tissue. For these reasons, recent advances have focused on the development of new ophthalmic drug delivery systems. This review provides an insight into the various constraints associated with ocular drug delivery, summarizes recent findings in soft contact lenses (SCL) and the applications of novel pharmaceutical systems for ocular drug delivery. Among the new therapeutic approaches in ophthalmology, SCL are novel continuous-delivery systems, providing high and sustained levels of drugs to the cornea. The tendency of research in ophthalmic drug delivery systems development are directed towards a combination of several technologies (bio-inspired and molecular imprinting techniques) and materials (cyclodextrins, surfactants, specific monomers). There is a tendency to develop systems which not only prolong the contact time of the vehicle at the ocular surface, but also at the same time slow down the clearance of the drug. Different materials can be applied during the development of contact lenses and can be combined with natural inspired strategies of drug immobilization and release, providing successful tools for ocular drug delivery systems.

  1. A search for ultraviolet circumstellar gas absorption features in alpha Piscis Austrinus (Fomalhaut), a possible Beta Pictoris-like system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, K.-P.; Bruhweiler, Fred C.; Kondo, Yoji

    1994-01-01

    Archival high-dispersion International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spectra have been used to search for circumstellar gas absorption features in alpha PsA (A3 V), a nearby (6.7 pc) proto-planetary system candidate. Recent sub-millimeter mapping observations around the region of alpha PsA indicate a spatially resolved dust disk like the one seen around Beta Pic. To determine how closely this putative disk resembles that of Beta Pic, we have searched for signatures of circumstellar gaseous absorption in all the available IUE high-dispersion data of alpha PsA. Examination of co-added IUE spectra shows weak circumstellar absorptions from excited levels in the resonance multiplet of Fe II near 2600 A. We also conclude that the sharp C I feature near 1657 A, previously identified as interstellar absorption toward alpha PsA, likely has a circumstellar origin. However, because the weakness of these absorption features, we will consider the presence of circumstellar gas as tentative and should be verified by using the Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. No corresponding circumstellar absorption is detected in higher ionization Fe III and Al III. Since the collisionally ionized nonphotospheric Al III resonance absorption seen in Beta Pic is likely formed close to the stellar surface, its absence in the UV spectra of alpha PsA could imply that, in contrast with Beta Pic, there is no active gaseous disk infall onto the central star. In the alpha PsA gaseous disk, if we assume a solar abundance for iron and all the iron is in the form of Fe II, plus a disk temperature of 5000 K, the Fe II UV1 absorption at 2611.8743 A infers a total hydrogen column density along the line of sight through the circumstellar disk of N(H) approximately equals 3.8 x 10(exp 17)/cm.

  2. BOA: Asbestos pipe-insulation removal robot system, Phase 2. Topical report, January--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.E.

    This report explored the regulatory impact and cost-benefit of a robotic thermal asbestos pipe-insulation removal system over the current manual abatement work practice. The authors are currently in the second phase of a two-phase program to develop a robotic asbestos abatement system, comprised of a ground-based support system (including vacuum, fluid delivery, computing/electronics/power, and other subsystems) and several on-pipe removal units, each sized to handle pipes within a given diameter range. The intent of this study was to (i) aid in developing design and operational criteria for the overall system to maximize cost-efficiency, and (ii) to determine the commercial potentialmore » of a robotic pipe-insulation abatement system.« less

  3. Knowledge Based Systems (KBS) Verification, Validation, Evaluation, and Testing (VVE&T) Bibliography: Topical Categorization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    Different?," Jour. of Experimental & Theoretical Artificial Intelligence, Special Issue on Al for Systems Validation and Verification, 12(4), 2000, pp...Hamilton, D., " Experiences in Improving the State of Practice in Verification and Validation of Knowledge-Based Systems," Workshop Notes of the AAAI...Unsuspected Power of the Standard Turing Test," Jour. of Experimental & Theoretical Artificial Intelligence., 12, 2000, pp3 3 1-3 4 0 . [30] Gaschnig

  4. A Faraday rotation search for magnetic fields in quasar damped Ly alpha absorption systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oren, Abraham L.; Wolfe, Arthur M.

    1995-01-01

    We present the results of a Faraday rotation survey of 61 radio-bright QSOs conducted at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) Very Large Array (VLA). The Galactic contribution to the Faraday rotation is estimated and subtracted to determine the extragalactic rotation measure (RRM) for each source. Eleven of these QSOs are known to exhibit damped Ly alpha absorption. The rate of incidence of significant Faraday rotation of these 11 sources is compared to the remaining 50 and is found to be higher at the 99.8% confidence level. However, as this is based upon only two detections of Faraday rotation in the damped Ly alpha sample, the result is only tentative. If the two detections in the damped Ly alpha sample are dug to the absorbing systems, then the inferred rotation measure induced by these systems is roughly 250 rad/sq m. The two detections were for the two lowest redshift absorbers in the sample. We find that a rotation measure of 250 rad/sq m would have gone undetected for any other absorber in the damped Ly alpha sample due to the 1/(1 + 2) squared dilution of the observed RRM with redshift. Thus the data are consistent with, but do not prove, the hypothesis that Faraday rotation is a generic property of damped Ly alpha absorbers. We do not confirm the suggestion that the amplitude of RRMs increases with redshift. Rather, the data are consistent with no redshift evolution. We find that the uncertainty in the estimation of the Galactic rotation measure (GRM) is a more serious problem than previously realized for extra-galactic Faraday rotation studies of QSO absorbers. A careful analysis of current methods for estimating GRM indicate that it can be determined to an accuracy of about 15 - 20 rad/sq m. Previous studies underestimated this uncertainty by more than a factor of 2. Due to this uncertainty, rotation measures such as we suspect are associated with damped Ly alpha absorption systems can only be detected at redshifts less than z approximately

  5. Terbinafine-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus in two patients with systemic lupus erythematosus successfully treated with topical corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Kalińska-Bienias, Agnieszka; Kowalewski, Cezary; Woźniak, Katarzyna

    2013-08-01

    So far in the literature there have been reported only 5 patients with a recognized and well-documented history of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who developed SCLE after terbinafine introduction. Here we report two women suffering from SLE who developed SCLE after initiation of oral terbinafine for onychomycosis. Skin lesions in both of them were extensive, located on the trunk, and upper and lower extremities. No exacerbation of SLE symptoms was observed at that time. Despite severe skin lesions, patients revealed good response to topical corticosteroids within a few weeks. The systemic review of the literature and our experience on terbinafine-induced SCLE developing in patients with SLE allowed to create a description for this special subset: a) terbinafine-induced SCLE usually develop in 1-8 weeks after terbinafine introduction, b) skin lesions are usually severe, disseminated including lower extremities, c) patients present Ro/SS-A La/SS-B antibodies, but anti-histone antibodies are rarely observed, d) exacerbation of SLE symptoms is rather not observed, e) eruptions clear within 2-8 weeks, f) withdrawal of terbinafine and topical corticosteroids should be considered as a first-line therapy in these cases, g) terbinafine should be carefully used in patients suffering from SLE.

  6. SODIUM ABSORPTION SYSTEMS TOWARD SN Ia 2014J ORIGINATE ON INTERSTELLAR SCALES

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, K.; Nogami, D.; Tajitsu, A.

    2016-01-10

    Na i D absorbing systems toward Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have been intensively studied over the last decade with the aim of finding circumstellar material (CSM), which is an indirect probe of the progenitor system. However, it is difficult to deconvolve CSM components from non-variable, and often dominant, components created by interstellar material (ISM). We present a series of high-resolution spectra of SN Ia 2014J from before maximum brightness to ≳250 days after maximum brightness. The late-time spectrum provides unique information for determining the origin of the Na i D absorption systems. The deep late-time observation allows us to probe the environment around themore » SN at a large scale, extending to ≳40 pc. We find that a spectrum of diffuse light in the vicinity, but not directly in the line of sight, of the SN has absorbing systems nearly identical to those obtained for the “pure” SN line of sight. Therefore, basically all Na i D systems seen toward SN 2014J must originate from foreground material that extends to at least ∼40 pc in projection and none at the CSM scale. A fluctuation in the column densities at a scale of ∼20 pc is also identified. After subtracting the diffuse, “background” spectrum, the late-time Na i D profile along the SN line of sight is consistent with profiles near maximum brightness. The lack of variability on a ∼1 year timescale is consistent with the ISM interpretation for the gas.« less

  7. Vibration energy absorption (VEA) in human fingers-hand-arm system.

    PubMed

    Dong, R G; Schopper, A W; McDowell, T W; Welcome, D E; Wu, J Z; Smutz, W P; Warren, C; Rakheja, S

    2004-07-01

    A methodology for measuring the vibration energy absorbed into the fingers and the palm exposed to vibration is proposed to study the distribution of the vibration energy absorption (VEA) in the fingers-hand-arm system and to explore its potential association with vibration-induced white finger (VWF). The study involved 12 adult male subjects, constant-velocity sinusoidal excitations at 10 different discrete frequencies in the range of 16-1000 Hz, and four different hand-handle coupling conditions (finger pull-only, hand grip-only, palm push-only, and combined grip and push). The results of the study suggest that the VEA into the fingers is considerably less than that into the palm at low frequencies (< or = 25 Hz). They are, however, comparable under the excitations in the 250-1000 Hz frequency range. The finger VEA at high frequencies (> or = 100 Hz) is practically independent of the hand-handle coupling condition. The coupling conditions affect the VEA into the fingers and the palm very differently. The finger VEA results suggest that the ISO standardized frequency weighting (ISO 5349-1, 2001) may underestimate the effect of high frequency vibration on vibration-induced finger disorders. The proposed method may provide new opportunities to examine VEA and its association with VWF and other types of vibration-induced disorders in the hand-arm system.

  8. Yearly simulation of a solar-aided R22-DEGDME absorption heat pump system

    SciTech Connect

    Ileri, A.

    1995-12-31

    The performance of a solar-aided R22-DEGDME absorption heat pump system designed for 100 kW cooling capacity is investigated by a computer simulation using hourly data for Ankara. In summer the generator, and in winter the evaporator, receives solar energy while the remaining demands are met by auxiliary heaters. When needed, these boost the temperature of the water from the storage tank to the minimum allowable levels which are determined as 20{degree}C in winter and over 80{degree}C in summer. The system performance, judged by the fraction of the load supplied from solar energy, is affected mostly from the climate, source temperaturemore » limit, collector type and area but little from storage tank size, for the sizes and configuration under investigation. With 400 m{sup 2} of high efficiency collectors, the solar energy supplied 38% of the demand in winter and 91% of the demand in summer. 22 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.« less

  9. Determination of mercury by multisyringe flow injection system with cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Leal, L O; Elsholz, O; Forteza, R; Cerdà, V

    2006-07-28

    A new software-controlled time-based multisyringe flow injection system for mercury determination by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry is proposed. Precise known volumes of sample, reducing agent (1.1% SnCl2 in 3% HCl) and carrier (3% HCl) are dispensed into a gas-liquid separation cell with a multisyringe burette coupled with one three-way solenoid valve. An argon flow delivers the reduced mercury to the spectrometer. The optimization of the system was carried out testing reaction coils and gas-liquid separators of different design as well as changing parameters, such as sample and reagents volumes, reagent concentrations and carrier gas flow rate, among others. The analytical curves were obtained within the range 50-5000 ng L(-1). The detection limit (3sigma(b)/S) achieved is 5 ng L(-1). The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) was 1.4%, evaluated from 16 successive injections of 250 ng L(-1) Hg standard solution. The injection and sample throughput per hour were 44 and 11, respectively. This technique was validated by means of solid and water reference materials with good agreement with the certified values and was successfully applied to fish samples.

  10. Method of analyzing multiple sample simultaneously by detecting absorption and systems for use in such a method

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Gong, Xiaoyi

    2004-09-07

    The present invention provides a method of analyzing multiple samples simultaneously by absorption detection. The method comprises: (i) providing a planar array of multiple containers, each of which contains a sample comprising at least one absorbing species, (ii) irradiating the planar array of multiple containers with a light source and (iii) detecting absorption of light with a detetion means that is in line with the light source at a distance of at leaat about 10 times a cross-sectional distance of a container in the planar array of multiple containers. The absorption of light by a sample indicates the presence of an absorbing species in it. The method can further comprise: (iv) measuring the amount of absorption of light detected in (iii) indicating the amount of the absorbing species in the sample. Also provided by the present invention is a system for use in the abov metho.The system comprises; (i) a light source comrnpising or consisting essentially of at leaat one wavelength of light, the absorption of which is to be detected, (ii) a planar array of multiple containers, and (iii) a detection means that is in line with the light source and is positioned in line with and parallel to the planar array of multiple contiainers at a distance of at least about 10 times a cross-sectional distance of a container.

  11. Learning Computing Topics in Undergraduate Information Systems Courses: Managing Perceived Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Jeffrey D.; Knapp, Janice

    2014-01-01

    Learning technical computing skills is increasingly important in our technology driven society. However, learning technical skills in information systems (IS) courses can be difficult. More than 20 percent of students in some technical courses may dropout or fail. Unfortunately, little is known about students' perceptions of the difficulty of…

  12. What are we ‘tweeting’ about obesity? Mapping tweets with Topic Modeling and Geographic Information System

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Debarchana (Debs); Guha, Rajarshi

    2014-01-01

    Public health related tweets are difficult to identify in large conversational datasets like Twitter.com. Even more challenging is the visualization and analyses of the spatial patterns encoded in tweets. This study has the following objectives: How can topic modeling be used to identify relevant public health topics such as obesity on Twitter.com? What are the common obesity related themes? What is the spatial pattern of the themes? What are the research challenges of using large conversational datasets from social networking sites? Obesity is chosen as a test theme to demonstrate the effectiveness of topic modeling using Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) and spatial analysis using Geographic Information System (GIS). The dataset is constructed from tweets (originating from the United States) extracted from Twitter.com on obesity-related queries. Examples of such queries are ‘food deserts’, ‘fast food’, and ‘childhood obesity’. The tweets are also georeferenced and time stamped. Three cohesive and meaningful themes such as ‘childhood obesity and schools’, ‘obesity prevention’, and ‘obesity and food habits’ are extracted from the LDA model. The GIS analysis of the extracted themes show distinct spatial pattern between rural and urban areas, northern and southern states, and between coasts and inland states. Further, relating the themes with ancillary datasets such as US census and locations of fast food restaurants based upon the location of the tweets in a GIS environment opened new avenues for spatial analyses and mapping. Therefore the techniques used in this study provide a possible toolset for computational social scientists in general and health researchers in specific to better understand health problems from large conversational datasets. PMID:25126022

  13. Preventive and therapeutic anti-inflammatory effects of systemic and topical thalidomide on endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Gustavo Büchele; Passos, Giselle Fazzioni; Di Giunta, Gabriella; Figueiredo, Cláudia Pinto; Rodrigues, Eduardo Büchele; Grumman, Astor; Medeiros, Rodrigo; Calixto, João B

    2007-03-01

    The present study examined the outcomes of systemic or topical treatment with thalidomide, a compound that possesses anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-angiogenic properties, in rats subjected to endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU). The effects of thalidomide were evaluated on endotoxin-induced leucocyte and protein infiltration and also on the production of interleukin (IL)-1beta and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in rat aqueous humour (AqH). Moreover, the actions of thalidomide were assessed on the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression in retinal tissue. EIU was produced by a hindpaw injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), in male Wistar rats. Thalidomide (5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) was administered orally 1 h before LPS injection. In another set of experiments, to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy, 5% thalidomide was applied topically to both eyes at 6, 12 and 18 h after LPS administration. The oral pre-treatment with thalidomide decreased, in a dose-dependent manner, the number of inflammatory cells, the protein concentration, and the levels of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha in the AqH. Similar results were found in the AqH of rats that received a topical application of thalidomide. Furthermore, oral (50 mg/kg) and local (5%) thalidomide treatment also reduced expression of the pro-inflammatory proteins COX-2 and iNOS in the posterior segment of the eye. Thalidomide exhibited marked preventive and curative ocular effects in EIU in rats, a property that might be associated with its ability to inhibit the production of inflammatory cytokines and the expression of COX-2 and iNOS. This assembly of data provides additional molecular and functional insights into beneficial effects of thalidomide as an agent for the management of ocular inflammation.

  14. Role of novel delivery systems in developing topical antioxidants as therapeutics to combat photoageing.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Indu P; Kapila, Meenakshi; Agrawal, Rumjhum

    2007-12-01

    Ageing proceeds by highly complicated biochemical processes, in which the involvement of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals has been implicated. Reactive oxygen species are dramatically enhanced by exposure to the ultraviolet radiation. Free radical scavengers and antioxidants can thus provide a long-term protection against these changes. Currently, dermaceutical and cosmetic industry is growing immensely with its main focus on packaging the active into a suitable/novel delivery system. This not only enhances the customer acceptance but offers better targeting to the upper skin layer, with faster onset, at a lower concentration of the active. Later also counter toxic or adverse effects observed with large doses especially when administered orally. Several of the antioxidant molecules are labile to degradation in the presence of oxygen, water and light, hence it becomes all the more appropriate to use a delivery system which will augment their stability and hence enhance the performance. In the present review, we focus on the pioneering research on novel delivery systems which can promote the therapeutic value of antioxidants for combating UV-induced photoageing.

  15. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS Gravitational radiation of systems and the role of their force field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikishov, Anatolii I.; Ritus, Vladimir I.

    2011-02-01

    Gravitational radiation (GR) from compact relativistic systems with a known energy-momentum tensor (EMT) and GR from two masses elliptically orbiting their common center of inertia are considered. In the ultrarelativistic limit, the GR spectrum of a charge rotating in a uniform magnetic field, a Coulomb field, a magnetic moment field, and a combination of the last two fields differs by a factor 4πGm2Γ2/e2 (Γ being of the order of the charge Lorentz factor) from its electromagnetic radiation (EMR) spectrum. This factor is independent of the radiation frequency but does depend on the wave vector direction and the way the field behaves outside of the orbit. For a plane wave external field, the proportionality between the gravitational and electromagnetic radiation spectra is exact, whatever the velocity of the charge. Qualitative estimates of Γ are given for a charge moving ultrarelativistically in an arbitrary field, showing that it is of the order of the ratio of the nonlocal and local source contributions to the GR. The localization of external forces near the orbit violates the proportionality of the spectra and reduces GR by about the Lorentz factor squared. The GR spectrum of a rotating relativistic string with masses at the ends is given, and it is shown that the contributions by the masses and string are of the same order of magnitude. In the nonrelativistic limit, the harmonics of GR spectra behave universally for all the rotating systems considered. A trajectory method is developed for calculating the GR spectrum. In this method, the spatial (and hence polarization) components of the conserved EMT are calculated in the long wavelength approximation from the time component of the EMTs of the constituent masses of the system. Using this method, the GR spectrum of two masses moving in elliptic orbits about their common center of inertia is calculated, as are the relativistic corrections to it.

  16. A New Data Collection System for Ionospheric Modelling and Related Topics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-15

    Fluctuations of sgn, I strengt g d t1sr are cftcn os.;erved :,t utF frequencies in r ,:’i:- a t-e cayn r at r af’rer sunset. Marke d seasom c dependenc es in...Unfortunately there are few choices for real-time operating systems for PCs. The common alternate operating environments such as DeskView, MS Windows or...of the analog I/O and DMA support functions supplied by MetraByte. The processing module is where all the action is. After receiving a full data buffer

  17. Topical report on sources and systems for aquatic plant biomass as an energy resource

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, J.C.; Ryther, J.H.; Waaland, R.

    1977-10-21

    Background information is documented on the mass cultivation of aquatic plants and systems design that is available from the literature and through consultation with active research scientists and engineers. The biology of microalgae, macroalgae, and aquatic angiosperms is discussed in terms of morphology, life history, mode of existence, and ecological significance, as they relate to cultivation. The requirements for growth of these plants, which are outlined in the test, suggest that productivity rates are dependent primarily on the availability of light and nutrients. It is concluded that the systems should be run with an excess of nutrients and with lightmore » as the limiting factor. A historical review of the mass cultivation of aquatic plants describes the techniques used in commercial large-scale operations throughout the world and recent small-scale research efforts. This review presents information on the biomass yields that have been attained to date in various geographical locations with different plant species and culture conditions, emphasizing the contrast between high yields in small-scale operations and lower yields in large-scale operations.« less

  18. Resonant two-photon absorption and electromagnetically induced transparency in open ladder-type atomic system.

    PubMed

    Moon, Han Seb; Noh, Heung-Ryoul

    2013-03-25

    We have experimentally and theoretically studied resonant two-photon absorption (TPA) and electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the open ladder-type atomic system of the 5S(1/2) (F = 1)-5P(3/2) (F' = 0, 1, 2)-5D(5/2) (F″ = 1, 2, 3) transitions in (87)Rb atoms. As the coupling laser intensity was increased, the resonant TPA was transformed to EIT for the 5S(1/2) (F = 1)-5P(3/2) (F' = 2)-5D(5/2) (F″ = 3) transition. The transformation of resonant TPA into EIT was numerically calculated for various coupling laser intensities, considering all the degenerate magnetic sublevels of the 5S(1/2)-5P(3/2)-5D(5/2) transition. From the numerical results, the crossover from TPA to EIT could be understood by the decomposition of the spectrum into an EIT component owing to the pure two-photon coherence and a TPA component caused by the mixed term.

  19. Hydrogeologic implications of increased septic-tank-soil-absorption system density, Ogden Valley, Weber County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowe, Mike; Miner, Michael L.; ,

    1990-01-01

    Ground water in Ogden Valley occurs in perched, confined, and unconfined aquifers in the valley fill to depths of 600 feet and more. The confined aquifer, which underlies only the western portion of the valley, is overlain by cleyey silt lacustrine sediments probably deposited during the Bonneville Basin's Little Valley lake cycle sometime between 90,000 and 150,000 years ago. The top of this cleyey silt confining layer is generally 25 to 60 feet below the ground surface. Unconfined conditions occur above and beyond the outer margin of the confining layer. The sediments overlying the confining layer are primarily Lake Bonneville deposits. Water samples from springs, streams, and wells around Pineview Reservoir, and from the reservoir itself, were collected and analyzed. These samples indicate that water quality in Ogden Valley is presently good. Average nitrate concentrations in the shallow unconfined aquifer increase toward the center of Ogden Valley. This trend was not observed in the confined aquifer. There is no evidence, however, of significant water-quality deterioration, even in the vicinity of Huntsville, a town that has been densely developed using septic-tank-soil-absorption systems for much of the time since it was founded in 1860.

  20. Finite Element Simulation for Analysing the Design and Testing of an Energy Absorption System

    PubMed Central

    Segade, Abraham; López-Campos, José A.; Fernández, José R.; Casarejos, Enrique; Vilán, José A.

    2016-01-01

    It is not uncommon to use profiles to act as energy absorption parts in vehicle safety systems. This work analyses an impact attenuator based on a simple design and discusses the use of a thermoplastic material. We present the design of the impact attenuator and a mechanical test for the prototype. We develop a simulation model using the finite element method and explicit dynamics, and we evaluate the most appropriate mesh size and integration for describing the test results. Finally, we consider the performance of different materials, metallic ones (steel AISI 4310, Aluminium 5083-O) and a thermoplastic foam (IMPAXX500™). This reflects the car industry’s interest in using new materials to make high-performance, low-mass energy absorbers. We show the strength of the models when it comes to providing reliable results for large deformations and strong non-linearities, and how they are highly correlated with respect to the test results both in value and behaviour. PMID:28773778

  1. Effects of topical and systemic administration of Eugenia caryophyllata buds essential oil on corneal anesthesia and analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Khalilzadeh, Emad; Hazrati, Reza; Saiah, Gholamreza Vafaei

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies suggest that essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata (Clove) buds (EOEC) is efficacious in the treatment of dental pain. In the present study, we investigated the analgesic and local anesthetic effects of EOEC and its possible mechanisms of action in acute corneal pain in rats. EOEC was extracted by hydro-distillation in a Clevenger type apparatus from clove buds. The acute corneal pain was induced by applying a drop (40 µl) of 5 M NaCl solution on the corneal surface, and the numbers of eye wipes were counted during the first 30 s. The mechanical sensation of the cornea was evaluated by calibrated Von Frey filaments. Systemic administration of EOEC (100 and 200 mg/kg, SC) and morphine (2.5 and 5 mg/kg, IP) produced a significant antinociceptive effect in acute corneal pain. Pretreatment with naloxone or atropine prevented the EOEC-induced analgesia. However, L-arginine and methylene blue did not change the suppressive effect of EOEC on corneal pain response. Topical application of EOEC, eugenol and lidocaine significantly decreased corneal sensitivity. Combination treatments of eugenol (25 µg) with lidocaine (0.5%) and EOEC (50 µg) with lidocaine (0.5%) also significantly suppressed corneal sensitivity. Systemic administration of EOEC produced analgesia in the acute corneal pain through mechanisms that involved both opioidergic and cholinergic systems. In addition, topical instillation of EOEC, eugenol, and lidocaine produced local anesthesia in the rat cornea. Sub-anesthetic doses of EOEC or eugenol produced a significant local anesthetic effect when concurrently used with the sub-anesthetic dose of lidocaine. PMID:27651809

  2. Evaluation of an oral carrier system in rats: bioavailability and gastrointestinal absorption properties of curcumin encapsulated PBCA nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Min; Zhao, Lixia; Guo, Chenyu; Cao, Fengliang; Chen, Huanlei; Zhao, Liyan; Tan, Qi; Zhu, Xiuqing; Zhu, Fanping; Ding, Tingting; Zhai, Yingjie; Zhai, Guangxi

    2012-02-01

    A new oral delivery system, polybutylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles (PBCNs), was introduced to improve the oral bioavailability of curcumin (CUR), a poorly soluble drug. The formulation was optimized by orthogonal design and the optimal PBCNs loading CUR exhibited a spherical shape under transmission electron microscopy with a range of 40-400 nm. Physicochemical state of CUR in PBCN was investigated by X-ray diffraction and the possible structure changes occurring in CUR after conjugating with polybutylcyanoacrylate were studied with FTIR. The results indicated that CUR in PBCN was in a non-crystalline state and CUR was encapsulated in PBCN without chemical reaction. The oral pharmacokinetic study was conducted in rats and the relative bioavailability of CUR encapsulated PBCNs to the crude CUR was more than 800%. The in situ absorption experiment in rat intestine indicated the absorption was first order with passive diffusion mechanism. The absorption results in various segments of intestine showed that the main absorption sites were ileum and colon. It can be concluded that PBCNs as an oral carrier can significantly improve the oral absorption of a poorly soluble drug.

  3. TOPICAL REVIEW: Ultra-thin film encapsulation processes for micro-electro-mechanical devices and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoldt, Conrad R.; Bright, Victor M.

    2006-05-01

    A range of physical properties can be achieved in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) through their encapsulation with solid-state, ultra-thin coatings. This paper reviews the application of single source chemical vapour deposition and atomic layer deposition (ALD) in the growth of submicron films on polycrystalline silicon microstructures for the improvement of microscale reliability and performance. In particular, microstructure encapsulation with silicon carbide, tungsten, alumina and alumina-zinc oxide alloy ultra-thin films is highlighted, and the mechanical, electrical, tribological and chemical impact of these overlayers is detailed. The potential use of solid-state, ultra-thin coatings in commercial microsystems is explored using radio frequency MEMS as a case study for the ALD alloy alumina-zinc oxide thin film.

  4. Study of absorption and re-emission processes in a ternary liquid scintillation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hua-Lin; Li, Xiao-Bo; Zheng, Dong; Cao, Jun; Wen, Liang-Jian; Wang, Nai-Yan

    2010-11-01

    Liquid scintillators are widely used as the neutrino target in neutrino experiments. The absorption and emission of different components of a ternary liquid scintillator (Linear Alkyl Benzene (LAB) as the solvent, 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) as the fluor and p-bis-(o-methylstyryl)-benzene (bis-MSB) as wavelength shifter) are studied. It is shown that the absorption of this liquid scintillator is dominant by LAB and PPO at wavelengths less than 349 nm, and the absorption by bis-MSB becomes prevalent at the wavelength larger than 349 nm. The fluorescence quantum yields, which are the key parameters to model the absorption and re-emission processes in large liquid scintillation detectors, are measured.

  5. Absence of systemic hormonal effects in an oestradiol diether topically active on the vaginal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Wolff, J P; Cachelou, R; Guéritée, N

    1982-12-01

    The women in this study were either post-menopausal or ovariectomised for at least 1 yr prior to the study. They had also been treated for cancer of the cervix (27 women), endometrium (5), ovaries (5) or breast (1). All women presented with sexual troubles, mainly genital discomfort (dyspareunia or vaginism). In a double-blind fashion, gynaecological capsules containing either an oestradiol diether (ICD: promestriene) or only the excipient were administered for 40 consecutive days. At the end of the treatment, the FSH, LH, oestrone (E1) and oestradiol (E2) plasma levels were not found to be significantly different from the pre-therapeutic values. These results suggest that promestriene acts on the vaginal mucosa, therefore not being converted back into the hormone from which it was derived. Also, in its dietheroxide form, promestriene is incapable of crossing the malpighian (vaginal or epidermal) epithelium and of reaching the general blood circulation. This discrepancy between the local anti-atrophic effects and the inability to exert systemic oestrogen activities singles out promestriene and justifies its therapeutic use when hormonally active oestrogens are contra-indicated, as in patients who have an oestrogen-sensitive cancer in their medical history.

  6. Simple system for measuring tritium Ad/absorption using a 2. pi. counter and thermal desorption spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Miyake, H.; Matsuyama, M.; Watanabe, K.

    1992-03-01

    In this paper, the authors develop a simple system using tritium tracer and thermal desorption techniques to measure the tritium adsorption and/or absorption on/in a material having typical surface conditions: namely, not cleaned surface. The tritium counting devices used were a 2{pi} counter and conventional proportional counter. With this system, the amounts of ad/absorption could be measured without exposing the samples to air after exposing them to tritium gas. The overall efficiency (F) of the 2{pi} counter was described at F = exp({minus}2.64h), where h is the distance from the sample to the detector. Ad/absorption measurements were carried out formore » several materials used for fabricating conventional vacuum systems. The results were, in the order of decreasing amounts of ad/absorption, as (fiber reinforced plastics(FRP)) {gt} (nickel(Ni), molybdenum disulfide(MoS{sub 2})) {gt} (stainless steel (SS304), iron(Fe), aluminum alloy(A2219)) {gt} (boron nitride(h-BN), silicon carbide (SiC), SS304 passivated by anodic oxidation layers(ASS) and that by boron nitride segregation layers (BSS)). The relative amounts were abut 100 for Ni and 0.1 for ASS and BSS, being normalized to Fe = 1.« less

  7. Optimal design of solid oxide fuel cell, ammonia-water single effect absorption cycle and Rankine steam cycle hybrid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrpooya, Mehdi; Dehghani, Hossein; Ali Moosavian, S. M.

    2016-02-01

    A combined system containing solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine power plant, Rankine steam cycle and ammonia-water absorption refrigeration system is introduced and analyzed. In this process, power, heat and cooling are produced. Energy and exergy analyses along with the economic factors are used to distinguish optimum operating point of the system. The developed electrochemical model of the fuel cell is validated with experimental results. Thermodynamic package and main parameters of the absorption refrigeration system are validated. The power output of the system is 500 kW. An optimization problem is defined in order to finding the optimal operating point. Decision variables are current density, temperature of the exhaust gases from the boiler, steam turbine pressure (high and medium), generator temperature and consumed cooling water. Results indicate that electrical efficiency of the combined system is 62.4% (LHV). Produced refrigeration (at -10 °C) and heat recovery are 101 kW and 22.1 kW respectively. Investment cost for the combined system (without absorption cycle) is about 2917 kW-1.

  8. Development of terbinafine solid lipid nanoparticles as a topical delivery system

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Chen; Liu, Der-Zen; Liu, Jun-Jen; Chang, Tsung-Wei; Ho, Hsiu-O; Sheu, Ming-Thau

    2012-01-01

    To resolve problems of long treatment durations and frequent administration of the antifungal agent terbinafine (TB), solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) with the ability to load lipophilic drugs and nanosize were developed. The SLNs were manufactured by a microemulsion technique in which glyceryl monostearate (GMS), glyceryl behenate (Compritol® 888; Gattefossé), and glyceryl palmitostearate (Precirol® ATO 5; Gattefossé) were used as the solid lipid phases, Tween® and Cremophor® series as the surfactants, and propylene glycol as the cosurfactant to construct ternary phase diagrams. The skin of nude mice was used as a barrier membrane, and penetration levels of TB of the designed formulations and a commercial product, Lamisil® Once™ (Novartis Pharmaceuticals), in the stratum corneum (SC), viable epidermis, and dermis were measured; particle sizes were determined as an indicator of stability. The optimal SLN system contained a <5% lipid phase and >50% water phase. The addition of ethanol or etchants had no significant effect on enhancing the amount of TB that penetrated the skin layers, but it was enhanced by increasing the percentage of the lipid phase. Furthermore, the combination of GMS and Compritol® 888 was able to increase the stable amount of TB that penetrated all skin layers. For the ACP1-GM1 (4% lipid phase; Compritol® 888: GMS of 1:1) formulation, the amount of TB that penetrated the SC was similar to that of Lamisil® Once™, whereas the amount of TB of the dermis was higher than that of Lamisil® Once™ at 12 hours, and it was almost the same as that of Lamisil® Once™ at 24 hours. It was concluded that the application of ACP1-GM1 for 12 hours might have an efficacy comparable to that of Lamisil® Once™ for 24 hours, which would resolve the practical problem of the longer administration period that is necessary for Lamisil® Once™. PMID:22923986

  9. Controls on methane expulsion during melting of natural gas hydrate systems. Topic area 2

    SciTech Connect

    Flemings, Peter

    1.1. Project Goal The project goal is to predict, given characteristic climate-induced temperature change scenarios, the conditions under which gas will be expelled from existing accumulations of gas hydrate into the shallow ocean or directly to the atmosphere. When those conditions are met, the fraction of the gas accumulation that escapes and the rate of escape shall be quantified. The predictions shall be applicable in Arctic regions and in gas hydrate systems at the up dip limit of the stability zone on continental margins. The behavior shall be explored in response to two warming scenarios: longer term change due tomore » sea level rise (e.g. 20 thousand years) and shorter term due to atmospheric warming by anthropogenic forcing (decadal time scale). 1.2. Project Objectives During the first budget period, the objectives are to review and categorize the stability state of existing well-studied hydrate reservoirs, develop conceptual and numerical models of the melting process, and to design and conduct laboratory experiments that dissociate methane hydrate in a model sediment column by systematically controlling the temperature profile along the column. The final objective of the first budget period shall be to validate the models against the experiments. In the second budget period, the objectives are to develop a model of gas flow into sediment in which hydrate is thermodynamically stable, and conduct laboratory experiments of this process to validate the model. The developed models shall be used to quantify the rate and volume of gas that escapes from dissociating hydrate accumulations. In addition, specific scaled simulations characteristic of Arctic regions and regions near the stability limit at continental margins shall be performed. 1.3. Project Background and Rationale The central hypothesis proposed is that hydrate melting (dissociation) due to climate change generates free gas that can, under certain conditions, propagate through the gas hydrate

  10. Using collaborative technologies in remote lab delivery systems for topics in automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashby, Joe E.

    communication tools for remote labs involving automation equipment, the results of this work points to making voice chat the default method of communication; but the webcam video with voice chat option should be included. Standards are only beginning to be developed for the design of remote lab systems. Research, design and innovation involving collaboration and presence should be included.

  11. Percutaneous absorption of [3H]tretinoin and systemic exposure to mequinol after dermal application of 2% mequinol/0.01% [3H]tretinoin (Solagé) solution in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Everett, D W; Franz, T J; Chando, T J; Gale, P J; Lehman, P A; Schwarzel, E H; Parab, P V; D'Arienzo, C J; Kripalani, K J

    1999-09-01

    Solagé is a combination product composed of 2% mequinol (4-hydroxyanisole) and 0.01% tretinoin (all-trans-retinoic acid) in an ethanolic solution, which is being studied for its safety and efficacy as a topical treatment for disorders of skin hyperpigmentation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of percutaneous absorption of [3H]tretinoin and to estimate the systemic exposure to mequinol from this combination product when topically applied to the backs of healthy subjects. Eight subjects received bid topical applications of nonradiolabelled 2% mequinol/0.01% tretinoin solution on a 400 cm2 area of the back for 14 days. The subjects then received a single topical application of 2% mequinol/0.01% [3H]tretinoin solution. After 12 h, the radiolabelled dose was removed and bid treatment with nonradiolabelled 2% mequinol/0.01% tretinoin solution was continued for 7 days. Plasma, urine and faecal samples were analysed for total radioactivity and plasma was analysed for both mequinol and tretinoin by GC/MS procedure. Mean percutaneous absorption of [3H]tretinoin based on the cumulative recoveries of radioactivity in the urine and faeces was about 4.5% (median 2.18%). Tretinoin concentrations in plasma did not increase above endogenous levels. This was consistent with the concentrations of radioactivity in plasma, which showed an average Cmax of 91 pg-eq/mL (median 26 ng/mL). Average Cmax and AUC(0-12 h) values for mequinol were 10 ng/mL and 33 ng h/mL, respectively. Based on the results of this study, systemic toxicity from topical application of tretinoin in this formulation is unlikely, because percutaneous absorption of tretinoin is minimal and because endogenous levels of tretinoin are not increased following bid dosing with this combination formulation. The safety of mequinol in this combination formulation is supported by the low systemic exposures of the subjects in this study compared with the systemic exposures at the highest doses in the dermal

  12. Determining CDOM Absorption Spectra in Diverse Coastal Environments Using a Multiple Pathlength, Liquid Core Waveguide System. Measuring the Absorption of CDOM in the Field Using a Multiple Pathlength Liquid Waveguide System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Richard L.; Belz, Mathias; DelCastillo, Carlos; Trzaska, Rick

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated the accuracy, sensitivity and precision of a multiple pathlength, liquid core waveguide (MPLCW) system for measuring colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption in the UV-visible spectral range (370-700 nm). The MPLCW has four optical paths (2.0, 9.8, 49.3, and 204 cm) coupled to a single Teflon AF sample cell. Water samples were obtained from inland, coastal and ocean waters ranging in salinity from 0 to 36 PSU. Reference solutions for the MPLCW were made having a refractive index of the sample. CDOM absorption coefficients, a(sub CDOM), and the slope of the log-linearized absorption spectra, S, were compared with values obtained using a dual-beam spectrophotometer. Absorption of phenol red secondary standards measured by the MPLCW at 558 nm were highly correlated with spectrophotometer values (r > 0.99) and showed a linear response across all four pathlengths. Values of a(sub CDOM) measured using the MPLCW were virtually identical to spectrophotometer values over a wide range of concentrations. The dynamic range of a(sub CDOM) for MPLCW measurements was 0.002 - 231.5/m. At low CDOM concentrations (a(sub 370) < 0.1/m) spectrophotometric a(sub CDOM) were slightly greater than MPLCW values and showed larger fluctuations at longer wavelengths due to limitations in instrument precision. In contrast, MPLCW spectra followed an exponential to 600 nm for all samples. The maximum deviation in replicate MPLCW spectra was less than 0.001 absorbance units. The portability, sampling, and optical characteristics of a MPLCW system provide significant enhancements for routine CDOM absorption measurements in a broad range of natural waters.

  13. LASER APPLICATIONS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Measurement of optical absorption in polycrystalline CVD diamond plates by the phase photothermal method at a wavelength of 10.6 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luk'yanov, A. Yu; Ral'chenko, Viktor G.; Khomich, A. V.; Serdtsev, E. V.; Volkov, P. V.; Savel'ev, A. V.; Konov, Vitalii I.

    2008-12-01

    A highly-efficient phase photothermal method is developed for quantitative measurements of the small optical absorption coefficient in thin plates made of highly transparent materials in which bulk losses significantly exceed surface losses. The bulk absorption coefficient at 10.6 μm is estimated in polycrystalline diamond plates grown from the vapour phase (a CVD diamond). The results are compared with those for natural and synthetic diamond single crystals and with the concentrations of nitrogen and hydrogen impurities. The absorption coefficient of the best samples of the CVD diamond did not exceed 0.06 cm-1, which, taking into account the high thermal conductivity of the CVD diamond (1800-2200 W mK-1 at room temperature), makes this material attractive for fabricating output windows of high-power CO2 lasers, especially for manufacturing large-size optics.

  14. X ray absorption fine structure of systems in the anharmonic limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustredeleon, J.; Conradson, S. D.; Batistic, I.; Bishop, A. R.; Raistrick, I.; Jackson, W. E.; Brown, G. E.

    A new approach to the analysis of x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) data is presented. It is based on the use of radial distribution functions directly calculated from a single-particle ion Hamiltonian containing model potentials. The starting point of this approach is the statistical average of the XAFS for an atomic pair. This average can be computed using a radial distribution function (RDF), which can be expressed in terms of the eigenvalues and wavefunctions associated with the model potential. The pair potential describing the ionic motion is then expressed in terms of parameters that are determined by fitting this statistical average to the experimental XAFS spectrum. This approach allows the use of XAFS as a tool for mapping near-neighbor interatomic potentials, and allows the treatment of systems which exhibit strongly anharmonic potentials which can be treated by perturbative methods. Using this method we have analyzed the high temperature behavior of the oxygen contributions to the Fe K-edge XAFS in the ferrosilicate minerals andradite (Ca3Fe2Si3O12) and magnesiowustite (Mg(0.9)Fe(0.1)O). Using a temperature dependent anharmonic correction derived from these model compounds, we have found evidence for a local structural change in the Fe-O coordination environment upon melting of the geologically important mineral fayalite (Fe2SiO4). We have also employed this method to the study of the axial oxygen contributions to the polarized Cu K-edge XAFS on oriented samples of YBa2Cu3O7 and related compounds. From this study we find evidence for an axial oxygen-centered lattice distortion accompanying the superconducting phase transition and a correlation between this distortion and Tc. The relation of the observed lattice distortion to mechanisms of superconductivity is discussed.

  15. In Silico Modelling of Transdermal and Systemic Kinetics of Topically Applied Solutes: Model Development and Initial Validation for Transdermal Nicotine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Lian, Guoping; Kattou, Panayiotis

    2016-07-01

    The purpose was to develop a mechanistic mathematical model for predicting the pharmacokinetics of topically applied solutes penetrating through the skin and into the blood circulation. The model could be used to support the design of transdermal drug delivery systems and skin care products, and risk assessment of occupational or consumer exposure. A recently reported skin penetration model [Pharm Res 32 (2015) 1779] was integrated with the kinetic equations for dermis-to-capillary transport and systemic circulation. All model parameters were determined separately from the molecular, microscopic and physiological bases, without fitting to the in vivo data to be predicted. Published clinical studies of nicotine were used for model demonstration. The predicted plasma kinetics is in good agreement with observed clinical data. The simulated two-dimensional concentration profile in the stratum corneum vividly illustrates the local sub-cellular disposition kinetics, including tortuous lipid pathway for diffusion and the "reservoir" effect of the corneocytes. A mechanistic model for predicting transdermal and systemic kinetics was developed and demonstrated with published clinical data. The integrated mechanistic approach has significantly extended the applicability of a recently reported microscopic skin penetration model by providing prediction of solute concentration in the blood.

  16. Effluent Storage and Biomat Occurrence among Septic System Absorption Field Architectures in a Typic Fragiudult.

    PubMed

    Prater, N J M; Brye, K R; Dunn, S; Soerens, T S; Sharpley, A N; Mason, E; Gbur, E E

    2013-07-01

    On-site wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs) are commonly used by households in areas of low population density to treat household wastewater and recycle it back to the environment. However, new absorption field products of differing architecture types have recently become available. A 3-yr field study was conducted in Bethel Heights, northwest Arkansas to assess several newer architecture types (i.e., chambers, polystyrene-aggregate, and gravel-less pipe) relative to the traditional pipe-and-gravel design under wet- and dry-soil conditions. Thirteen products of four different architecture types were installed in 46-cm-deep trenches in a Captina silt loam (fine-silty, siliceous, active, mesic Typic Fragiudult). Products were evaluated based on in-trench solution storage measured with an electronic water-level sensor approximately weekly from January 2009 through January 2012. Between May 2010 and January 2012, the thickness of any biomat formation was measured approximately weekly by insertion of a wooden dowel through in-trench monitoring ports. Architecture type alone did not affect ( > 0.05) in-trench solution storage. However, solution storage among individual products differed under wet- and dry-soil conditions ( < 0.05). When present, biomat thickness differed significantly ( < 0.05) among all four architecture types, ranging from 1.4 to 6.2 cm thick on average in the pipe-and-aggregate and polystyrene-aggregate types, respectively. Regression analyses showed that biomat thickness increased in three products, did not change in nine products, and decreased in one product over time. Results showed that several currently approved alternative products had similar in-trench solution storage but that several alternative products also had greater solution storage than that of the traditional pipe-and-gravel system. With no observed effluent surfacing, the soil morphology approach appears to be adequate and appropriately environmentally conservative for assigning

  17. Measured performance of a 3 ton LiBr absorption water chiller and its effect on cooling system operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A three ton lithium bromide absorption water chiller was tested for a number of conditions involving hot water input, chilled water, and the cooling water. The primary influences on chiller capacity were the hot water inlet temperature and the cooling water inlet temperature. One combination of these two parameters extended the output to as much as 125% of design capacity, but no combination could lower the capacity to below 60% of design. A cooling system was conceptually designed so that it could provide several modes of operation. Such flexibility is needed for any solar cooling system to be able to accommodate the varying solar energy collection and the varying building demand. It was concluded that a three-ton absorption water chiller with the kind of performance that was measured can be incorporated into a cooling system such as that proposed, to provide efficient cooling over the specified ranges of operating conditions.

  18. Measured performance of a 3-ton LiBr absorption water chiller and its effect on cooling system operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A 3-ton lithium bromide absorption water chiller was tested for a number of conditions involving hot-water input, chilled water, and the cooling water. The primary influences on chiller capacity were the hot water inlet temperature and the cooling water inlet temperature. One combination of these two parameters extended the output to as much as 125% of design capacity, but no combination could lower the capacity to below 60% of design. A cooling system was conceptually designed so that it could provide several modes of operation. Such flexibility is needed for any solar cooling system to be able to accommodate the varying solar energy collection and the varying building demand. It is concluded that a 3-ton absorption water chiller with the kind of performance that was measured can be incorporated into a cooling system such as that proposed, to provide efficient cooling over the specified ranges of operating conditions.

  19. Biophysical elucidation of the mechanism of enhanced drug release and topical delivery from polymeric film-forming systems.

    PubMed

    Garvie-Cook, Hazel; Frederiksen, Kit; Petersson, Karsten; Guy, Richard H; Gordeev, Sergey N

    2015-08-28

    The effect of incorporating the lipidic medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) into polymeric film-forming systems (FFS) for topical drug delivery has been evaluated. First, the in vitro release of betamethasone-17-valerate (BMV), a representative dermatological drug, was determined from FFS comprising either hydrophobic polyacrylate co-polymers, or hydrophilic hydroxypropyl cellulose, with and without MCT. Release was enhanced from both polymers in the presence of MCT. Atomic force microscopy imaging and nanoindentation of FFS with MCT revealed two-phase structured films with softer inclusions (0.5 to 4μm in diameter) surrounded by a more rigid structure. Chemical mapping with Raman micro-spectroscopy showed that MCT was primarily confined to the inclusions within the polymer, which predominated in the surrounding film. BMV was distributed throughout the film but was more concentrated outside the inclusions. Furthermore, while BMV dissolved better into the hydrophobic films, it was more soluble in the MCT inclusions in hydrophilic films, suggesting its increased availability for diffusion from these softer regions of the polymer and explaining the release enhancement observed. Second, ex vivo skin penetration studies clearly revealed that uptake of BMV was higher from hydrophobic FFS than that from the more hydrophilic polymer due, at least in part, to the superior anti-nucleation efficiency of the former. Drug was quickly taken up into the SC from which it then diffused continuously over a sustained period into the lower, viable skin layers. In the presence of MCT, the overall uptake of BMV was increased and provides the basis for further optimisation of FFS as simple, convenient and sustained formulations for topical therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Current topics in glycemic control by wearable artificial pancreas or bedside artificial pancreas with closed-loop system.

    PubMed

    Hanazaki, Kazuhiro; Munekage, Masaya; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Munekage, Eri; Shiga, Mai; Maeda, Hiromichi; Namikawa, Tsutomu

    2016-09-01

    The incidence of diabetes is increasing at an unprecedented pace and has become a serious health concern worldwide during the last two decades. Despite this, adequate glycemic control using an artificial pancreas has not been established, although the 21st century has seen rapid developments in this area. Herein, we review current topics in glycemic control for both the wearable artificial pancreas for type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients and the bedside artificial pancreas for surgical diabetic patients. In type 1 diabetic patients, nocturnal hypoglycemia associated with insulin therapy remains a serious problem that could be addressed by the recent development of a wearable artificial pancreas. This smart phone-like device, comprising a real-time, continuous glucose monitoring system and insulin pump system, could potentially significantly reduce nocturnal hypoglycemia compared with conventional glycemic control. Of particular interest in this space are the recent inventions of a low-glucose suspend feature in the portable systems that automatically stops insulin delivery 2 h following a glucose sensor value <70 mg/dL and a bio-hormonal pump system consisting of insulin and glucagon pumps. Perioperative tight glycemic control using a bedside artificial pancreas with the closed-loop system has also proved safe and effective for not only avoiding hypoglycemia, but also for reducing blood glucose level variability resulting in good surgical outcomes. We hope that a more sophisticated artificial pancreas with closed-loop system will now be taken up for routine use worldwide, providing enormous relief for patients suffering from uncontrolled hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and/or variability in blood glucose concentrations.

  1. Permeation and Systemic Absorption of R- and S-Baclofen across the Nasal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hefei; Schmidt, Mark; Murry, Daryl J.; Donovan, Maureen D.

    2012-01-01

    Baclofen, an antispasmodic agent that acts as a GABAB agonist, resembles phenylalanine in structure and has been reported to be a substrate of the large amino acid transporter, LAT-1. The objective of this study was to investigate the absorption of baclofen across the nasal mucosa both in vitro and in vivo. Baclofen transport was measured across excised bovine olfactory and respiratory mucosae to investigate site-specific uptake of baclofen, and the intranasal bioavailability of R- and S- baclofen was determined in rats. Increasing flux with increasing baclofen donor concentration and the absence of polarized transport was observed in vitro and similar distribution profiles were observed for both enantiomers following intranasal administration in rats. The absence of stereospecificity in nasal absorption indicates limited involvement of the amino acid or other transporters in the nasal absorption of baclofen. PMID:21283988

  2. Utilizing Near-IR Tunable Laser Absorption Spectroscopy to Study Detonation and Combustion Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    debris, such as soot . Velocity curves for the other equivalence ratios studied in this experiment are shown in Appendix A. Some of these curves show a...James R. Gord. “Measurements of OH mole fraction and temperature up to 20 kHz by using a diode-laser based UV absorption sensor ”. Applied Optics, 44...Davidson, and R.K. Hanson. “CO concentration and temperature sensor for combustion gases using quantum-cascade laser absorption near 4.7µm”. Applied

  3. Special Topics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    training encom- passes several concepts, including cognitive knowledge, a performance assessment or pretest , training, a re- peat assessment or posttest ...significantly decreased mor- tality. For the lessons learned in ca- sualty care to be passed on to the next group of surgeons, the training for deployed...unpaid consultant to Athena GTX, Blackhawk Products Group , CHI Systems, Combat Medical Systems, Composite Resources, Compression Works, Creative

  4. Monte Carlo Analysis of Molecule Absorption Probabilities in Diffusion-Based Nanoscale Communication Systems with Multiple Receivers.

    PubMed

    Arifler, Dogu; Arifler, Dizem

    2017-04-01

    For biomedical applications of nanonetworks, employing molecular communication for information transport is advantageous over nano-electromagnetic communication: molecular communication is potentially biocompatible and inherently energy-efficient. Recently, several studies have modeled receivers in diffusion-based molecular communication systems as "perfectly monitoring" or "perfectly absorbing" spheres based on idealized descriptions of chemoreception. In this paper, we focus on perfectly absorbing receivers and present methods to improve the accuracy of simulation procedures that are used to analyze these receivers. We employ schemes available from the chemical physics and biophysics literature and outline a Monte Carlo simulation algorithm that accounts for the possibility of molecule absorption during discrete time steps, leading to a more accurate analysis of absorption probabilities. Unlike most existing studies that consider a single receiver, this paper analyzes absorption probabilities for multiple receivers deterministically or randomly deployed in a region. For random deployments, the ultimate absorption probabilities as a function of transmitter-receiver distance are shown to fit well to power laws; the exponents derived become more negative as the number of receivers increases up to a limit beyond which no additional receivers can be "packed" in the deployment region. This paper is expected to impact the design of molecular nanonetworks with multiple absorbing receivers.

  5. Mini-DIAL system measurements coupled with multivariate data analysis to identify TIC and TIM simulants: preliminary absorption database analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudio, P.; Malizia, A.; Gelfusa, M.; Martinelli, E.; Di Natale, C.; Poggi, L. A.; Bellecci, C.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays Toxic Industrial Components (TICs) and Toxic Industrial Materials (TIMs) are one of the most dangerous and diffuse vehicle of contamination in urban and industrial areas. The academic world together with the industrial and military one are working on innovative solutions to monitor the diffusion in atmosphere of such pollutants. In this phase the most common commercial sensors are based on “point detection” technology but it is clear that such instruments cannot satisfy the needs of the smart cities. The new challenge is developing stand-off systems to continuously monitor the atmosphere. Quantum Electronics and Plasma Physics (QEP) research group has a long experience in laser system development and has built two demonstrators based on DIAL (Differential Absorption of Light) technology could be able to identify chemical agents in atmosphere. In this work the authors will present one of those DIAL system, the miniaturized one, together with the preliminary results of an experimental campaign conducted on TICs and TIMs simulants in cell with aim of use the absorption database for the further atmospheric an analysis using the same DIAL system. The experimental results are analysed with standard multivariate data analysis technique as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to develop a classification model aimed at identifying organic chemical compound in atmosphere. The preliminary results of absorption coefficients of some chemical compound are shown together pre PCA analysis.

  6. Topical Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention in Women: Becoming a Reality

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Natasha A.; Lee, Anna C.; Herold, Betsy C.

    2011-01-01

    Strategies to protect against sexual transmission of HIV include the development of products formulated for topical application, which limit the toxicities associated with systemic oral pre-exposure prophylaxis. Following several clinical trial failures, attention is now focused on antiretroviral (ARV) agents. Highly potent ARV topical formulations provide a female-controlled, targeted, and feasible option for HIV prevention. A recently completed tenofovir gel trial was the first to demonstrate significant protection against HIV acquisition. Topical ARVs have the advantage of delivering high concentration of drug at the site of transmission of HIV, with low systemic absorption. Sustained-release formulations, such as intravaginal rings, will likely improve adherence and can be designed to provide controlled and continuous delivery of ARV combinations. Further studies to test alternative dosing strategies and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships in the genital tract will provide valuable information as the field strives to improve upon the promising tenofovir gel trial results. PMID:21424725

  7. Transportation: Topic Paper E.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    As one of a series of topic papers assessing federal laws and programs affecting persons with disabilities, this paper reviews the issue of transportation services. In the area of urban mass transit, four relevant pieces of legislation and public transportation accessibility regulations are cited, and cost issues are explored. Paratransit systems,…

  8. Development and operation of a real-time data acquisition system for the NASA-LaRC differential absorption lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, C.

    1985-01-01

    Computer hardware and software of the NASA multipurpose differential absorption lidar (DIAL) sysatem were improved. The NASA DIAL system is undergoing development and experimental deployment for remote measurement of atmospheric trace gas concentration from ground and aircraft platforms. A viable DIAL system was developed with the capability of remotely measuring O3 and H2O concentrations from an aircraft platform. Test flights were successfully performed on board the NASA/Goddard Flight Center Electra aircraft from 1980 to 1984. Improvements on the DIAL data acquisition system (DAS) are described.

  9. An instrumented pendulum system for measuring energy absorption during fracture insult to large animal joints in vivo.

    PubMed

    Diestelmeier, B W; Rudert, M J; Tochigi, Y; Baer, T E; Fredericks, D C; Brown, T D

    2014-06-01

    For systematic laboratory studies of bone fractures in general and intra-articular fractures in particular, it is often necessary to control for injury severity. Quantitatively, a parameter of primary interest in that regard is the energy absorbed during the injury event. For this purpose, a novel technique has been developed to measure energy absorption in experimental impaction. The specific application is for fracture insult to porcine hock (tibiotalar) joints in vivo, for which illustrative intra-operative data are reported. The instrumentation allowed for the measurement of the delivered kinetic energy and of the energy passed through the specimen during impaction. The energy absorbed by the specimen was calculated as the difference between those two values. A foam specimen validation study was first performed to compare the energy absorption measurements from the pendulum instrumentation versus the work of indentation performed by an MTS machine. Following validation, the pendulum apparatus was used to measure the energy absorbed during intra-articular fractures created in 14 minipig hock joints in vivo. The foam validation study showed close correspondence between the pendulum-measured energy absorption and MTS-performed work of indentation. In the survival animal series, the energy delivered ranged from 31.5 to 48.3 Js (41.3±4.0, mean±s.d.) and the proportion of energy absorbed to energy delivered ranged from 44.2% to 64.7% (53.6%±4.5%). The foam validation results support the reliability of the energy absorption measure provided by the instrumented pendulum system. Given that a very substantial proportion of delivered energy passed--unabsorbed--through the specimens, the energy absorption measure provided by this novel technique arguably provides better characterization of injury severity than is provided simply by energy delivery.

  10. Topical botulinum toxin.

    PubMed

    Collins, Ashley; Nasir, Adnan

    2010-03-01

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly growing discipline that capitalizes on the unique properties of matter engineered on the nanoscale. Vehicles incorporating nanotechnology have led to great strides in drug delivery, allowing for increased active ingredient stability, bioavailability, and site-specific targeting. Botulinum toxin has historically been used for the correction of neurological and neuromuscular disorders, such as torticollis, blepharospasm, and strabismus. Recent dermatological indications have been for the management of axillary hyperhydrosis and facial rhytides. Traditional methods of botulinum toxin delivery have been needle-based. These have been associated with increased pain and cost. Newer methods of botulinum toxin formulation have yielded topical preparations that are bioactive in small pilot clinical studies. While there are some risks associated with topical delivery, the refinement and standardization of delivery systems and techniques for the topical administration of botulinum toxin using nanotechnology is anticipated in the near future.

  11. STEM based learning to facilitate middle school students’ conceptual change, creativity and collaboration in organization of living system topic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rustaman, N. Y.; Afianti, E.; Maryati, S.

    2018-05-01

    A study using one group pre-post-test experimental design on Life organization system topic was carried out to investigate student’s tendency in learning abstract concept, their creativity and collaboration in designing and producing cell models through STEM-based learning. A number of seventh grade students in Cianjur district were involved as research subjects (n=34). Data were collected using two tier test for tracing changes in student conception before and after the application of STEM-based learning, and rubrics in creativity design (adopted from Torrance) and product on cell models (individually, in group), and rubric for self-assessment and observed skills on collaboration adapted from Marzano’s for life-long learning. Later the data obtained were analyzed qualitatively by interpreting the tendency of data presented in matrix sorted by gender. Research findings showed that the percentage of student’s scientific concept mastery is moderate in general. Their creativity in making a cell model design varied in category (expressing, emergent, excellent, not yet evident). Student’s collaboration varied from excellent, fair, good, less once, to less category in designing cell model. It was found that STEM based learning can facilitate students conceptual change, creativity and collaboration.

  12. Combined topical and systemic clonazepam therapy for the management of burning mouth syndrome: a retrospective pilot study.

    PubMed

    Amos, Kate; Yeoh, Sue-Ching; Farah, Camile S

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate retrospectively the efficacy of administering an anticonvulsant medication, clonazepam, by dissolving tablets slowly orally before swallowing, for the management of burning mouth syndrome (BMS). A retrospective clinical records audit was performed of patients diagnosed with BMS between January 2006 and June 2009. Patients were prescribed 0.5 mg clonazepam three times daily, and changes were made to this regimen based on their individual response. Patients were asked to dissolve the tablet orally before swallowing and were reviewed over a 6-month period. Pain was assessed by patients on an 11-point numerical scale (0 to 10). A nonparametric (Spearman) two-tailed correlation matrix and a two-tailed Mann-Whitney test were performed. A total of 36 patients (27 women, 9 men) met the criteria for inclusion. The mean (± SEM) pain score reduction between pretreatment and final appointment was 4.7 ± 0.4 points. A large percentage (80%) of patients obtained more than a 50% reduction in pain over the treatment period. One patient reported no reduction in pain symptoms, and one third of the patients had complete pain resolution. Approximately one third of patients experienced side effects that were transient and mild. This pilot study provides preliminary evidence that the novel protocol of combined topical and systemic clonazepam administration provides an effective BMS management tool.

  13. Förster resonance energy transfer, absorption and emission spectra in multichromophoric systems. III. Exact stochastic path integral evaluation.

    PubMed

    Moix, Jeremy M; Ma, Jian; Cao, Jianshu

    2015-03-07

    A numerically exact path integral treatment of the absorption and emission spectra of open quantum systems is presented that requires only the straightforward solution of a stochastic differential equation. The approach converges rapidly enabling the calculation of spectra of large excitonic systems across the complete range of system parameters and for arbitrary bath spectral densities. With the numerically exact absorption and emission operators, one can also immediately compute energy transfer rates using the multi-chromophoric Förster resonant energy transfer formalism. Benchmark calculations on the emission spectra of two level systems are presented demonstrating the efficacy of the stochastic approach. This is followed by calculations of the energy transfer rates between two weakly coupled dimer systems as a function of temperature and system-bath coupling strength. It is shown that the recently developed hybrid cumulant expansion (see Paper II) is the only perturbative method capable of generating uniformly reliable energy transfer rates and emission spectra across a broad range of system parameters.

  14. Fast Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory Calculations of the X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Large Systems.

    PubMed

    Besley, Nicholas A

    2016-10-11

    The computational cost of calculations of K-edge X-ray absorption spectra using time-dependent density functional (TDDFT) within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation is significantly reduced through the introduction of a severe integral screening procedure that includes only integrals that involve the core s basis function of the absorbing atom(s) coupled with a reduced quality numerical quadrature for integrals associated with the exchange and correlation functionals. The memory required for the calculations is reduced through construction of the TDDFT matrix within the absorbing core orbitals excitation space and exploiting further truncation of the virtual orbital space. The resulting method, denoted fTDDFTs, leads to much faster calculations and makes the study of large systems tractable. The capability of the method is demonstrated through calculations of the X-ray absorption spectra at the carbon K-edge of chlorophyll a, C 60 and C 70 .

  15. Topical 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 Inhibition Corrects Cutaneous Features of Systemic Glucocorticoid Excess in Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Tiganescu, Ana; Hupe, Melanie; Uchida, Yoshikazu; Mauro, Theadora; Elias, Peter M; Holleran, Walter M

    2018-01-01

    Glucocorticoid (GC) excess drives multiple cutaneous adverse effects, including skin thinning and poor wound healing. The ubiquitously expressed enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) activates mouse corticosterone from 11-dehydrocorticosterone (and human cortisol from cortisone). We previously demonstrated elevated 11β-HSD1 activity during mouse wound healing, but the interplay between cutaneous 11β-HSD1 and systemic GC excess is unexplored. Here, we examined effects of 11β-HSD1 inhibition by carbenoxolone (CBX) in mice treated with corticosterone (CORT) or vehicle for 6 weeks. Mice were treated bidaily with topical CBX or vehicle (VEH) 7 days before wounding and during wound healing. CORT mice displayed skin thinning and impaired wound healing but also increased epidermal integrity. 11β-HSD1 activity was elevated in unwounded CORT skin and was inhibited by CBX. CORT mice treated with CBX displayed 51%, 59%, and 100% normalization of wound healing, epidermal thickness, and epidermal integrity, respectively. Gene expression studies revealed normalization of interleukin 6, keratinocyte growth factor, collagen 1, collagen 3, matrix metalloproteinase 9, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 4 by CBX during wound healing. Importantly, proinflammatory cytokine expression and resolution of inflammation were unaffected by 11β-HSD1 inhibition. CBX did not regulate skin function or wound healing in the absence of CORT. Our findings demonstrate that 11β-HSD1 inhibition can limit the cutaneous effects of GC excess, which may improve the safety profile of systemic steroids and the prognosis of chronic wounds. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  16. Preliminary evaluation of septic-system absorption-field architecture types in a profile-limited soil.

    PubMed

    Mathis, Amanda J; Brye, Kristofor R; Dunn, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Managing household wastewater is an issue that affects hundreds of thousands of people in rural communities nationwide, many of whom rely on septic systems as their primary means of household wastewater disposal. Septic system absorption field products with architectures quite different from traditional pipe-and-gravel systems are being installed in many states with variances from initial design specifications. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance, as measured by the in-product height of stored solution, of four differing absorption-field product architecture types in a profile-limited soil that was loaded at the maximum allowable rate based on soil morphology. Five chamber, two gravel-less pipe, two polystyrene aggregate, and four pipe-and-gravel systems were installed in a profile-limited, Captina silt loam soil (fine-silty, siliceous, active, mesic Typic Fragiudult) and dosed with raw effluent at rates determined by current State of Arkansas regulations via individual peristaltic pumps. Free-solution monitoring ports were installed within each product, where the depth to free solution was measured periodically and used to evaluate product performance. Data collected from January through August 2009 indicated that preliminary system performance was unaffected by product architecture type. All products performed similarly under dry soil conditions. However, differences among individual products were observed during periods of hydrologic stress (i.e., wet soil conditions). Surfacing of effluent was not observed atop any product, indicating that the current loading rate design method is functioning properly. Preliminary results indicate that some alternative absorption-field products perform similarly to the traditional pipe-and-gravel system, thus providing flexibility and options for homeowners. by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  17. The Hubble Space Telescope quasar absorption line key project. 6: Properties of the metal-rich systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergeron, Jacqueline; Petitjean, Patrick; Sargent, W. L. W.; Bahcall, John N.; Boksenberg, Alec; Hartig, George F.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Savage, Blair D.; Schneider, Donald P.

    1994-01-01

    We present an analysis of the properties of a sample of 18 metal-rich, low-redshift z(sub abs) much less than z(sub em) absorbers seen in low- and medium-resolution spectra obtained for the Quasar Absorption Line Key Project with the Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph (HST/FOS). For most of the C IV and Lyman-limit systems, observations in the optical wavelength range of the expected associated Mg II absorption are available. As at high redshift (z approximately 2), there are two subclasses of absorbers which are characterized by the presence or absence of MG II absorption. However, some low-redshift Mg II and Fe absorptions originate from regions optically thin to UV ionizing photons and thus, at low redshift, the low-ionization systems do not always trace high opacities, as is the case at high redshift. This implies that the mean ionization state of metal-rich, optically thin absorbing clouds falls with decreasing redshift, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the gas is photoionized by the metagalactic UV background radiation field. Two main constraints are derived from the analysis of the Lyman-limit sample, assuming photoionization models are valid. First, a low opacity to ionizing photons (tau(sub LL) approximately less than 1), as observed for several Mg II-Fe II systems at z approximately 0.5, sets limits on the ionization level of hydrogen, thus on the total hydrogen column density and the heavy element abundances, (Z/H) approximately -0.5 to -0.3. Second, the dimensions of individual Mg II clouds are smaller than at high redshift by a factor 3-10. At z approximately greater than 0.6, the O VI absorption doublet is detected in four of the five z(sub abs) much less than z(sub em) systems for which the O VI wavelength range has been observed, whereas the associated N V doublet is detected in only two cases. This suggests that the presence of a high-ionization O VI phase is a general property of z approximately 0.6-1 absorption systems

  18. PREFACE: CEWQO Topical Issue CEWQO Topical Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita

    2009-09-01

    Sascha Wallentowitz), 2004 (Trieste, Italy, by Naseem Rahman and Sascha Wallentowitz), 2005 (Bilkent, Ankara, by Alexander Shumovsky), 2006 (Vienna, by Helmut Rauch), 2007 (Palermo, Italy, by Antonino Messina) and 2008 (Belgrade, by Mirjana Bozic). The CEWQO series developed in two directions following the rapid development of quantum optics and the transitional development of the scientific collaboration of Central European researchers with researchers from old and new emerging Central European countries, and from all over the world. The topics discussed at CEWQO 08 were divided into ten groups that aimed to cover the broad scope of modern quantum optics: Fundamental aspects of quantum optics and quantum mechanics Single photons and photon pairs Cavity and circuit QED Atoms in intense fields Neutron, atom and molecular quantum optics Quantum gases and fluids Coherence, entanglement and decoherence Optical properties of condensed matter and nanostructures Open quantum systems and chaos Quantum information processing Central European Workshops on Quantum Optics realize and are consistent with a wider idea, and a social, economical, cultural and political program promoted since 1989 by the Central European Initiative (CEI), the main goal of which was to help transition countries in Central Europe to become closer to the EU. The resulting support of the CEI, first obtained thanks to the scientific reputation, organizing activities, and efforts of Helmut Rauch, has been very important for the organization of the CEWQO in recent years, particularly in 2008. The support of the Sixth and Seventh Framework Programs of the European Commission was also very important. A short review of papers in this topical issue A principal role in this topical issue is played by the photon. Vuletic et al describe the mapping of the photon-polarization state onto a single collective-spin excitation (magnon) shared between two atomic ensembles. A heralded quantum memory based on this mapping is

  19. Long-term consequences of topical dexamethasone treatment during acute corneal HSV-1 infection on the immune system

    PubMed Central

    Chucair-Elliott, Ana J.; Carr, Meghan M.; Carr, Daniel J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a leading cause of neurotrophic keratitis (NTK). NTK is characterized by decreased corneal sensation from damage to the corneal sensory fibers. We have reported on the regression of corneal nerves and their function during acute HSV-1 infection. That nerve loss is followed by an aberrant process of nerve regeneration during the latent phase of infection that lacks functional recovery. We recently showed the elicited immune response in the infected cornea, and not viral replication itself, is part of the mechanism responsible for the nerve degeneration process after infection. Specifically, we showed infected corneas topically treated with dexamethasone (DEX) significantly retained both structure and sensitivity of the corneal nerve network in comparison to mice treated with control eye drops, consistent with decreased levels of proinflammatory cytokines and reduced influx of macrophages and CD8+ T cells into the cornea. This study was undertaken to analyze the long-term effect of such a localized, immunosuppressive paradigm (DEX drops on the cornea surface during the first 8 d of HSV-1 infection) on the immune system and on corneal pathology. We found the profound immunosuppressive effect of DEX on lymphoid tissue was sustained in surviving mice for up to 30 d postinfection (p.i.). DEX treatment had prolonged effects, preserving corneal innervation and its function and blunting neovascularization, as analyzed at 30 d p.i. Our data support previously reported observations of an association between the persistent presence of inflammatory components in the latently infected cornea and structural and functional nerve defects in NTK. PMID:28115476

  20. Choline- versus imidazole-based ionic liquids as functional ingredients in topical delivery systems: cytotoxicity, solubility, and skin permeation studies.

    PubMed

    Santos de Almeida, Tânia; Júlio, Ana; Saraiva, Nuno; Fernandes, Ana Sofia; Araújo, Maria Eduarda M; Baby, André Rolim; Rosado, Catarina; Mota, Joana Portugal

    2017-11-01

    Poor drug solubility represents a problem for the development of topical formulations. Since ionic liquids (ILs) can be placed in either lipophilic or hydrophilic solutions, they may be advantageous vehicles in such delivery systems. Nonetheless, it is vital to determine their usefulness when used at concentrations were cell viability is maintained, which was considered herein. Five different ILs were prepared-three imidazole-based ILs: [C2mim][Br], [C4mim][Br], and [C6mim][Br]; and two choline-based ILs: [Cho][Phe] and [Cho][Glu]. Their cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes (HaCat cells), their influence in drug solubility and in percutaneous permeation, using pig skin membranes, was evaluated. Caffeine and salicylic acid were used as model actives. Choline-based ILs proved to be more suitable as functional ingredients, since they showed higher impact on drug solubility and a lower cytotoxicity. The major solubility enhancement was observed for caffeine and further solubility studies were carried out with this active in several concentrations of the choline-based ILs (0.1; 0.2; 0.5; 1.0; 3.0 and 5.0%, w/w) at 25 °C and 32 °C. Solubility was greatly influenced by concentrations up to 0.5%. The choline-based ILs showed no significant impact on the skin permeation, for both actives. The size of the imidazole-based ILs alkyl chain enhances the caffeine solubility and permeation, but also the ILs cytotoxicity. Stable O/W emulsions and gels were prepared containing the less toxic choline-based ILs and caffeine. Our results indicate that the choline-based ILs were effective functional ingredients, since, when used at nontoxic concentrations, they allowed a higher drug loading, while maintaining the stability of the formulations.

  1. Optical absorption studies on biodegradable PVA/PVP blend polymer electrolyte system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basha, S. K. Shahenoor; Reddy, K. Veera Bhadra; Rao, M. C.

    2018-05-01

    Biodegradable blend polymer electrolytes of PVA/PVP with different wt% ratios of MgCl2.6H2O have been prepared using solution cast technique. Optical absorption studies were carried-out on to the prepared films at room temperature using JASCO V-670 Spectrophotometer in the wavelength region 200-600 nm. Due to the clusters between the vibrations of molecules a broad peak is obtained due to п-п* transition in the wavelength region 310-340 nm.

  2. Enhanced absorption of indomethacin after oral or rectal administration of a self-emulsifying system containing indomethacin to rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, J Y; Ku, Y S

    2000-01-20

    A self-emulsifying system (SES), a mixture of an oil and a surfactant which forms an oil-in-water emulsion, is expected to improve the in vitro drug dissolution and enhance the in vivo drug absorption. In this study, a poorly water-soluble drug, indomethacin (IDM) was incorporated into the SES to increase bioavailability. The SES with 30% of Tween 85 and 70% of ethyl oleate, EO (w/w) was selected as an optimized formulation (high drug loading, low surfactant concentration, and small particle size). After an oral administration of the SES containing IDM and IDM suspension, (IDM was suspended in methyl cellulose), 22.5 mg/kg as IDM, to rats, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to the last measured time in plasma, 12 h (AUC(0-12 h)) was significantly greater (57% increase) in the SES, suggesting that oral absorption of IDM increased significantly by the SES. After a rectal administration of gelatin hollow type suppositories, filled with the SES containing IDM and IDM powder physically mixed with the SES, 22. 5 mg/kg, to rats, the AUC(0-12 h) also increased significantly (41% increase) by the SES, suggesting that rectal absorption of IDM also increased significantly by the SES.

  3. The mechanism and properties of bio-photon emission and absorption in protein molecules in living systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Xiao-feng

    2012-05-01

    The mechanism and properties of bio-photon emission and absorption in bio-tissues were studied using Pang's theory of bio-energy transport, in which the energy spectra of protein molecules are obtained from the discrete dynamic equation. From the energy spectra, it was determined that the protein molecules could both radiate and absorb bio-photons with wavelengths of <3 μm and 5-7 μm, consistent with the energy level transitions of the excitons. These results were consistent with the experimental data; this consisted of infrared absorption data from collagen, bovine serum albumin, the protein-like molecule acetanilide, plasma, and a person's finger, and the laser-Raman spectra of acidity I-type collagen in the lungs of a mouse, and metabolically active Escherichia coli. We further elucidated the mechanism responsible for the non-thermal biological effects produced by the infrared light absorbed by the bio-tissues, using the above results. No temperature rise was observed; instead, the absorbed infrared light promoted the vibrations of amides as well the transport of the bio-energy from one place to other in the protein molecules, which changed their conformations. These experimental results, therefore, not only confirmed the validity of the mechanism of bio-photon emission, and the newly developed theory of bio-energy transport mentioned above, but also explained the mechanism and properties of the non-thermal biological effects produced by the absorption of infrared light by the living systems.

  4. Development of a Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy System Using HighLuminance LED for Measurement of NO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuchi, Tetsuo; Nayuki, Takuya; Mori, Hideto; Goto, Naohiko; Fujii, Takashi; Nemoto, Koshichi

    A differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) system for measurement of atmospheric NO2 was developed. The system uses a battery-operated, high luminance LED and a fiber-coupled spectrometer, and is portable. Laboratory experiments using a gas cell of length 0.22 m with varying NO2 concentrations were performed to evaluate the sensitivity of the DOAS system. The DOAS measurement results are in agreement with NO2 concentrations obtained simultaneously by a FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infrared) system for NO2 concentrations down to 20 ppm. Experiments with an optical path length of 93 m were also performed, and NO2 concentrations down to 0.20 ppm were measured. Since measurement of atmospheric NO2, which is in the order of several tens of ppb, requires optical path lengths of several hundred m, system improvements to improve the signal detection are necessary.

  5. Handheld dual fluorescence and reflection spectroscopy system for monitoring topical low dose ALA-PDT of actinic keratoses (AK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charamisinau, Ivan; Keymel, Kenneth; Potter, William; Oseroff, Allan R.

    2006-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy is an effective, minimally invasive skin cancer treatment modality with few side effects. Improved therapeutic selectivity and efficacy is expected if treatment is optimized individually for each patient based on detailed measurements prior and during the treatment. The handheld system presented allows measuring optical properties of the skin, the rate of photosensitizer photobleaching during the ALA PDT and oxygen saturation in the tissue. The photobleaching rate is monitored using fluorescence spectroscopy, where protoporphyrin IX in tissue is exited by 410 nm (blue) or 532 nm (green) laser light, and fluorescence in the 580-800 nm range is monitored. The photobleaching rate is calculated by correlating the measured spectrum with known protoporphyrin IX, photoproduct and nonspecific tissue autofluorescence spectra using correlation analysis. Double-wavelength excitation allows a rough estimation of the depth of the fluorescence source due to the significant difference in penetration depth for blue and green light. Blood concentration and oxygenation in the tissue are found from the white light reflectance spectrum in the 460-800 nm range. Known spectra for the oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin, melanin, and tissue baseline absorption and tissue scattering are substituted in nonlinear equations to find the penetration depth and diffuse reflectance coefficient. The nonlinear equation for the diffuse reflectance coefficient is solved for blood and melanin concentrations and blood oxygenation values that provide the best fit to the measured spectrum. The optical properties of the tissue obtained from the reflectance spectroscopy are used to correct the fluorescence data. A noncontact probe with 5 fibers (3 excitation and 2 detection) focused to the same 5 mm diameter spot: 2 excitation lasers, a white light lamp and a two-channel spectrometer are used. A LabView program with custom nonlinear equation solvers written in C++ automatically performs the

  6. Life History of a Topic in an Online Discussion: A Complex Systems Theory Perspective on How One Message Attracts Class Members to Create Meaning Collaboratively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogler, Jane S.; Schallert, Diane L.; Jordan, Michelle E.; Song, Kwangok; Sanders, Anke J. Z.; Te Chiang, Yueh-hui Yan; Lee, Ji-Eun; Park, Jeongbin Hannah; Yu, Li-Tang

    2017-01-01

    Complex adaptive systems theory served as a framework for this qualitative study exploring the process of how meaning emerges from the collective interactions of individuals in a synchronous online discussion through their shared words about a topic. In an effort to bridge levels of analysis from the individual to the small group to the community,…

  7. Critical coupling and coherent perfect absorption for ranges of energies due to a complex gain and loss symmetric system

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, Mohammad, E-mail: mohammadhasan786@gmail.com; Ghatak, Ananya, E-mail: gananya04@gmail.com; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad, E-mail: bhabani.mandal@gmail.com

    2014-05-15

    We consider a non-Hermitian medium with a gain and loss symmetric, exponentially damped potential distribution to demonstrate different scattering features analytically. The condition for critical coupling (CC) for unidirectional wave and coherent perfect absorption (CPA) for bidirectional waves are obtained analytically for this system. The energy points at which total absorption occurs are shown to be the spectral singular points for the time reversed system. The possible energies at which CC occurs for left and right incidence are different. We further obtain periodic intervals with increasing periodicity of energy for CC and CPA to occur in this system. -- Highlights:more » •Energy ranges for CC and CPA are obtained explicitly for complex WS potential. •Analytical conditions for CC and CPA for PT symmetric WS potential are obtained. •Conditions for left and right CC are shown to be different. •Conditions for CC and CPA are shown to be that of SS for the time reversed system. •Our model shows the great flexibility of frequencies for CC and CPA.« less

  8. Recent researches into solid bodies and magnetic fields in the solar system; Proceedings of the Topical Meeting and Symposium, Ottawa, Canada, May 16-June 2, 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vette, J. I. (Editor); Runcorn, S. K. (Editor); Gruen, E. (Editor); Mcdonnell, J. A. M.

    1982-01-01

    Topics discussed include the magnetic history of the early solar system, impact processes in solid bodies (e.g., meteoroids and asteroids), and topics related to cometary missions. The section devoted to cometary missions lays particular stress on missions to Comet Halley; attention is given to such aspects of these missions as the investigation of hypervelocity impact on the Giotto Halley mission dust shield, the detection of energetic cometary and solar particles by the EPONA instrument on the Giotto mission, the dust hazard near Comet Halley in regard to the Vega project, and cometary ephemerides for spacecraft flyby missions.

  9. Spectroscopic, orbital, and physical properties of the binary Feige 24 and detection of transient He II absorption in the system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vennes, Stephane; Thorstensen, John R.

    1994-01-01

    We have obtained new high-dispersion optical spectroscopy at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) and new International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spectroscopy of the white dwarf+red dwarf binary system Feige 24. The optical range shows a composite DA+dM spectrum, together with H I Balmer and He I emission. The orbital phase dependence of the emission shows that it results from extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light reprocessing in the red dwarf upper atmosphere. The systems close enough and hot enough to show this reprocessing signature only recently emerged from common-envelope evolution. The ultraviolet spectrum exclusively emanates from the white dwarf and shows numerous heavy element absorption lines. We measured accurate radial velocities of the red dwarf component motion, traced by both optical absorption and emission lines, and new radial velocities of the white dwarf, traced by ultraviolet Fe V lines. Combining these measurements, we refined the orbital parameters presented by Vennes et al. (1991), and we confirmed that the white dwarf gravitational redshift is exceptionally small with 9 +/- 2 km/s. From this we deduced that the interior is either pure helium or carbon with a thick hydrogen layer, and we derived, for the combined interior compositions, a white dwarf mass and radius of M(sub WD) = 0.44-050 solar mass and R(sub WD) = 0.028-0.036 solar radius. We suggest that Feige 24 could be a typical case of close binary evolution leading to the formation of a low-mass helium white dwarf. The mass of the red dwarf and the inclination of the system naturally follow: M(sub dM) = 0.26-0.33 solar mass, i greater than or equal to 75 deg. High-dispersion H-alpha line profiles are asymmetrical, strongly enhanced toward the blue, suggesting a moving atmosphere possibly linked to a mass loss rate of 10(exp -10) solar mass/yr. The IUE spectra taken when the system is near inferior conjunction show strong He II 1640 A absorption. The profile is highly variable in width and

  10. [Can Topical Negative Pressure Therapy be Performed as a Cost-Effective General Surgery Procedure in the German DRG System?].

    PubMed

    Hirche, Z; Xiong, L; Hirche, C; Willis, S

    2016-04-01

    Topical negative pressure therapy (TNPT) has been established for surgical wound therapy with different indications. Nevertheless, there is only sparse evidence regarding its therapeutic superiority or cost-effectiveness in the German DRG system (G-DRG). This study was designed to analyse the cost-effectiveness of TNPT in the G-DRG system with a focus on daily treatment costs and reimbursement in a general surgery care setting. In this retrospective study, we included 176 patients, who underwent TNPT between 2007 and 2011 for general surgery indications. Analysis of the cost-effectiveness involved 149 patients who underwent a simulation to calculate the reimbursement with or without TNPT by a virtual control group in which the TNP procedure was withdrawn for DRG calculation. This was followed by a calculation of costs for wound dressings and TNPT rent and material costs. Comparison between the "true" and the virtual group enabled calculation of the effective remaining surplus per case. Total reimbursement by included TNPT cases was 2,323 ,70.04 €. Costs for wound dressings and TNPT rent were 102,669.20 €. In 41 cases there was a cost-effectiveness (27.5%) with 607,422.03 € with TNP treatment, while the control group without TNP generated revenues of 442,015.10 €. Costs for wound dressings and TNPT rent were 47,376.68 €. In the final account we could generate a cost-effectiveness of 6759 € in 5 years per 149 patients by TNPT. In 108 cases there was no cost-effectiveness (72.5%). TNPT applied in a representative general surgery setting allows for wound therapy without a major financial burden. Based on the costs for wound dressings and TNPT rent, a primarily medically based decision when to use TNPT can be performed in a balanced product cost accounting. This study does not analyse the superiority of TNPT in wound care, so further prospective studies are required which focus on therapeutic superiority and cost-effectiveness. Georg Thieme

  11. Fixed-wavelength H2O absorption spectroscopy system enhanced by an on-board external-cavity diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brittelle, Mack S.; Simms, Jean M.; Sanders, Scott T.; Gord, James R.; Roy, Sukesh

    2016-03-01

    We describe a system designed to perform fixed-wavelength absorption spectroscopy of H2O vapor in practical combustion devices. The system includes seven wavelength-stabilized distributed feedback (WSDFB) lasers, each with a spectral accuracy of  ±1 MHz. An on-board external cavity diode laser (ECDL) that tunes 1320-1365 nm extends the capabilities of the system. Five system operation modes are described. In one mode, a sweep of the ECDL is used to monitor each WSDFB laser wavelength with an accuracy of  ±30 MHz. Demonstrations of fixed-wavelength thermometry at 10 kHz bandwidth in near-room-temperature gases are presented; one test reveals a temperature measurement error of ~0.43%.

  12. Host galaxy properties of calcium II and sodium I quasar absorption-line systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherinka, Brian

    Many questions remain within the areas of galaxy formation and evolution. Understanding the origin of gas in galaxy environments, whether as tidal debris, infalling High Velocity Clouds, galaxy outflows, or as gaseous material residing in galaxy disks, is an important step in answering those questions. Quasar absorption-lines can often be used to probe the environments of intervening galaxies. Traditionally, quasar absorption-lines are studied independently of the host galaxy but this method denies us the exploration of the connection between galaxy and environment. Instead, one can select pairs of known galaxies and quasars. This gives much more information regarding the host galaxy and allows us to better connect galaxy properties with associated absorbers. We use the seventh data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to generate a sample of spectroscopic galaxy-quasar pairs. We cross-correlated a sample of 105,000 quasars and ˜800,000 galaxies to produce ˜98,000 galaxy-quasar pairs, with the quasar projected within 100 kpc of the galaxy. Adopting an automated line-finding algorithm and using the galaxy redshift as a prior, we search through all quasar spectra and identify Ca II and Na I absorption due to the intervening galaxy. This procedure produced 1745 Ca II absorbers and 4500 Na I absorbers detected at or above 2σ. Stacking analysis of a subset of absorbers at z > 0.01, with significances at or above 3σ, showed strong Ca II and Na I features around external galaxies. Using the same subset of absorbers at z > 0.01, we looked for correlations between absorber and galaxy properties and examined differences in galaxy properties between the absorbers and non-absorbers. We found no correlations with absorber strength or differences between many galaxy properties at the 3σ level. The lack of correlations and differences between absorbers and non-absorbers suggest a ubiquitous nature for Ca II and Na I around all types of galaxies, with the absorbers showing

  13. Using Observations of Deep Convective Systems to Constrain Atmospheric Column Absorption of Solar Radiation in the Optically Thick Limit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dong, Xiquan; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Xi, Baike; Hu, Yongxiang; Mace, Gerald G.; Benson, Sally; Rose, Fred; Kato, Seiji; Charlock, Thomas; Minnis, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric column absorption of solar radiation A(sub col) is a fundamental part of the Earth's energy cycle but is an extremely difficult quantity to measure directly. To investigate A(sub col), we have collocated satellite-surface observations for the optically thick Deep Convective Systems (DCS) at the Department of Energy Atmosphere Radiation Measurement (ARM) Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) and Southern Great Plains (SGP) sites during the period of March 2000 December 2004. The surface data were averaged over a 2-h interval centered at the time of the satellite overpass, and the satellite data were averaged within a 1 deg X 1 deg area centered on the ARM sites. In the DCS, cloud particle size is important for top-of-atmosphere (TOA) albedo and A(sub col) although the surface absorption is independent of cloud particle size. In this study, we find that the A(sub col) in the tropics is approximately 0.011 more than that in the middle latitudes. This difference, however, disappears, i.e., the A(sub col) values at both regions converge to the same value (approximately 0.27 of the total incoming solar radiation) in the optically thick limit (tau greater than 80). Comparing the observations with the NASA Langley modified Fu_Liou 2-stream radiative transfer model for optically thick cases, the difference between observed and model-calculated surface absorption, on average, is less than 0.01, but the model-calculated TOA albedo and A(sub col) differ by 0.01 to 0.04, depending primarily on the cloud particle size observation used. The model versus observation discrepancies found are smaller than many previous studies and are just within the estimated error bounds. We did not find evidence for a large cloud absorption anomaly for the optically thick limit of extensive ice cloud layers. A more modest cloud absorption difference of 0.01 to 0.04 cannot yet be ruled out. The remaining uncertainty could be reduced with additional cases, and by reducing the current

  14. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy in bioinorganic chemistry: Application to M–O2 systems

    PubMed Central

    Sarangi, Ritimukta

    2012-01-01

    Metal K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been extensively applied to bioinorganic chemistry to obtain geometric structure information on metalloprotein and biomimetic model complex active sites by analyzing the higher energy extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) region of the spectrum. In recent years, focus has been on developing methodologies to interpret the lower energy K-pre-edge and rising-edge regions (XANES) and using it for electronic structure determination in complex bioinorganic systems. In this review, the evolution and progress of 3d-transition metal K-pre-edge and rising-edge methodology development is presented with particular focus on applications to bioinorganic systems. Applications to biomimetic transition metal–O2 intermediates (M = Fe, Co, Ni and Cu) are reviewed, which demonstrate the power of the method as an electronic structure determination technique and its impact in understanding the role of supporting ligands in tuning the electronic configuration of transition metal–O2 systems. PMID:23525635

  15. A Ground-Based Profiling Differential Absorption LIDAR System for Measuring CO2 in the Planetary Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Arlyn E.; Burris, John F.; Abshire, James B.; Krainak, Michael A.; Riris, Haris; Sun, Xiao-Li; Collatz, G. James

    2002-01-01

    Ground-based LIDAR observations can potentially provide continuous profiles of CO2 through the planetary boundary layer and into the free troposphere. We will present initial atmospheric measurements from a prototype system that is based on components developed by the telecommunications industry. Preliminary measurements and instrument performance calculations indicate that an optimized differential absorption LIDAR (DIAL) system will be capable of providing continuous hourly averaged profiles with 250m vertical resolution and better than 1 ppm precision at 1 km. Precision increases (decreases) at lower (higher) altitudes and is directly proportional to altitude resolution and acquisition time. Thus, precision can be improved if temporal or vertical resolution is sacrificed. Our approach measures absorption by CO2 of pulsed laser light at 1.6 microns backscattered from atmospheric aerosols. Aerosol concentrations in the planetary boundary layer are relatively high and are expected to provide adequate signal returns for the desired resolution. The long-term goal of the project is to develop a rugged, autonomous system using only commercially available components that can be replicated inexpensively for deployment in a monitoring network.

  16. Electric microwave absorption for the study of GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappe, Hans P.; Jantz, Wolfgang

    1990-12-01

    The use of magnetic-field-dependent microwave absorption as a nondestructive and contact-free means to study transport behavior in GaAs/AlGaAs devices is explored. This technique allows quick measurement of resistance, mobility, and carrier concentration in bulk substrates as well as in the two-dimensional electron gas of heterostructure quantum wells. The two- and three-dimensional conductivities may be separably evaluated, allowing detailed study of conduction in the active layer of high-electron-mobility devices. A brief theoretical foundation is provided, followed by application of the approach to examination of device structural dependencies, carrier-density conduction behavior, and the effects of etch processing on quantum-well integrity.

  17. Systemic Absorption of Catechins after Intraruminal or Intraduodenal Application of a Green Tea Extract in Cows

    PubMed Central

    Wein, Silvia; Beyer, Birgit; Gohlke, Annika; Blank, Ralf; Metges, Cornelia C.; Wolffram, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    Green tea catechins have various potential health benefits in humans including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and hepato-protective effects. If present in the circulation, they might have similar effects in ruminants, which are exposed to oxidative stress and fatty liver disease such as dairy cows during the periparturient phase. However, the bioavailability of a substance is a prerequisite for any post absorptive effect in vivo. This study aimed to investigate the appearance of catechins from a green tea extract (GTE) in cattle plasma after intraruminal and intraduodenal administration because absorption is of major importance regarding the bioavailability of catechins. The studies were performed in 5 rumen-fistulated non-lactating heifers and 6 duodenally fistulated lactating dairy cows, respectively, equipped with indwelling catheters placed in a jugular vein. The GTE was applied intraruminally (10 and 50 mg/kg BW, heifers) or duodenally (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg BW, dairy cows) in a cross‐over design with a 2 d washout period between different dosages. Blood samples were drawn following the GTE administration at various pre-defined time intervals. The concentration of the major GTE catechins (gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin-gallate, epicatechin-gallate) in plasma samples were analysed by HPLC with electrochemical detection. Irrespective of the dose, almost none of the catechins originally contained in the GTE were detected in plasma samples after intraruminal application. In contrast, intraduodenal administration of GTE resulted in increased plasma concentrations of epicatechin, epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate in a dose‐dependent manner. Thus, we can conclude that intraruminally or orally administered catechins are intensively metabolized by ruminal microorganisms. PMID:27427946

  18. Petawatt laser absorption bounded

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Matthew C.; Wilks, Scott C.; Tabak, Max; Libby, Stephen B.; Baring, Matthew G.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of petawatt (1015 W) lasers with solid matter forms the basis for advanced scientific applications such as table-top particle accelerators, ultrafast imaging systems and laser fusion. Key metrics for these applications relate to absorption, yet conditions in this regime are so nonlinear that it is often impossible to know the fraction of absorbed light f, and even the range of f is unknown. Here using a relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot-like analysis, we show for the first time that f exhibits a theoretical maximum and minimum. These bounds constrain nonlinear absorption mechanisms across the petawatt regime, forbidding high absorption values at low laser power and low absorption values at high laser power. For applications needing to circumvent the absorption bounds, these results will accelerate a shift from solid targets, towards structured and multilayer targets, and lead the development of new materials. PMID:24938656

  19. Vehicle effects on human stratum corneum absorption and skin penetration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Alissa; Jung, Eui-Chang; Zhu, Hanjiang; Zou, Ying; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard

    2017-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of three vehicles-ethanol (EtOH), isopropyl alcohol (IPA), and isopropyl myristate (IPM)-on stratum corneum (SC) absorption and diffusion of the [ 14 C]-model compounds benzoic acid and butenafine hydrochloride to better understand the transport pathways of chemicals passing through and resident in SC. Following application of topical formulations to human dermatomed skin for 30 min, penetration flux was observed for 24 h post dosing, using an in vitro flow-through skin diffusion system. Skin absorption and penetration was compared to the chemical-SC (intact, delipidized, or SC lipid film) binding levels. A significant vehicle effect was observed for chemical skin penetration and SC absorption. IPA resulted in the greatest levels of intact SC/SC lipid absorption, skin penetration, and total skin absorption/penetration of benzoic acid, followed by IPM and EtOH, respectively. For intact SC absorption and total skin absorption/penetration of butenafine, the vehicle that demonstrated the highest level of sorption/penetration was EtOH, followed by IPA and IPM, respectively. The percent doses of butenafine that were absorbed in SC lipid film and penetrated through skin in 24 h were greatest for IPA, followed by EtOH and IPM, respectively. The vehicle effect was consistent between intact SC absorption and total chemical skin absorption and penetration, as well as SC lipid absorption and chemical penetration through skin, suggesting intercellular transport as a main pathway of skin penetration for model chemicals. These results suggest the potential to predict vehicle effects on skin permeability with simple SC absorption assays. As decontamination was applied 30 min after chemical exposure, significant vehicle effects on chemical SC partitioning and percutaneous penetration also suggest that skin decontamination efficiency is vehicle dependent, and an effective decontamination method should act on chemical solutes in the lipid domain.

  20. Change of Oral to Topical Corticosteroid Therapy Exacerbated Glucose Tolerance in a Patient with Plaque Psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Hongo, Yui; Ashida, Kenji; Ohe, Kenji; Enjoji, Munechika; Yamaguchi, Miyuki; Kurata, Tsuyoshi; Emoto, Akiko; Yamanouchi, Hiroko; Takagi, Satoko; Mori, Hitoe; Kawata, Nozomi; Hisata, Yoshio; Sakanishi, Yuta; Izumi, Kenichi; Sugioka, Takashi; Anzai, Keizo

    2017-11-13

    BACKGROUND Psoriasis is known as the most frequent disease treated by long-term topical steroids. It is also known that patients with thick, chronic plaques require the highest potency topical steroids. However, the treatment is limited to up to four weeks due to risk of systemic absorption. CASE REPORT An 80-year-old man was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes 16 years before, and was being administered insulin combined with alpha glucosidase inhibitor. He was diagnosed with plaque psoriasis and his oral steroid treatment was switched to topical steroid treatment due to lack of improvement and poorly controlled blood glucose level. The hypoglycemic events improved after the psoriatic lesions improved. CONCLUSIONS Control of blood glucose level is difficult at the very beginning of topical steroid treatment for psoriasis especially if a patient is receiving insulin treatment. Intense monitoring of blood glucose level during initiation of topical steroid treatment is necessary to prevent unfavorable complications.

  1. Falsely raised whole blood chloride caused by systemic absorption of cerium nitrate cream for burns.

    PubMed

    Ha, Leah Y; Woollard, Gerald A; Chiu, Weldon W

    2015-03-01

    Whole blood, serum or plasma chloride is almost exclusively measured by potentiometry with an ion-selective chloride electrode which utilizes membrane selectivity to chloride ions. Other anions such as bromide, iodide and thiosulphate can interfere but usually are not present in high enough concentration to cause significant cross reactivity. A patient from our burns unit had serial chloride measurements on a Radiometer ABL800 blood gas analyser. The results were higher in contrast to plasma measurements on the Abbott Architect Ci8200, which were within reference intervals and in line with the patient's pathophysiological status. This indicated a likely interference with the blood gas analyser chloride estimation. The chloride results on the ABL800 for 3rd, 4th and 5th day after the burn accident were 170, 137 and 119 mmol/L. Corresponding plasma chloride results on the Ci8200 were all around 105 mmol/L. Nitrate was found to be markedly elevated in these samples, and the results were 6.7, 4.9 and 1.1 mmol/L, respectively (reference limit < 0.08 mmol/L). To further demonstrate nitrate was the causative agent, pooled plasma spiked with 7 mmol/L of sodium nitrate caused a rise in the ABL800 chloride from 105 to 202 mmol/L. Later we confirmed that the patient was topically medicated with cerium nitrate cream (Flammacerium®, Sinclair IS Pharma, UK) for his burns. In summary, the results clearly indicated nitrate was the interferent with the ABL800 chloride estimation and the source was the topical burns cerium nitrate cream. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  2. Surface Composition and Physical Mixture State of the Regoliths of Outer Solar System Satellites: The Role of Scattering and Absorption by the non-Ice Components and Implications for Rayleigh Absorption and Rayleigh Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, R. N.; Perlman, Z. S.; Pearson, N.; Hendrix, A. R.; Cuzzi, J. N.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Bradley, E. T.; Filacchione, G.; Nicholson, P. D.; Hedman, M. M.; Brown, R. H.; Buratti, B. J.; Baines, K. H.; Sotin, C.; Nelson, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Many outer Solar System satellites have surfaces dominated by water ice and a mysterious material(s) causing strong visible to ultraviolet absorption along with trace other compounds with infrared absorptions, including CO2 and organics. Various mechanisms have been proposed for the UV absorber, including tholins, iron oxides, and nano-sized metallic iron particles (e.g. see Clark et al., 2012, Icarus v218 p831, and references therein). We have constructed extensive laboratory analog measurements and radiative transfer modeling of the materials and scattering conditions that can contribute to the optical properties seen on outer Solar System satellites. We have successfully modeled Rayleigh absorption and Rayleigh scattering to produce spectral shapes typical of those seen in spectra of icy Solar System satellites, including those in the Saturn system observed with the Cassini UVIS and VIMS instruments. While it is easy to create these absorptions with radiative transfer modeling, it has been more difficult to do with laboratory analogs. We are finding that laboratory analogs refine and restricts the possible mixing states of the UV absorber in icy satellite surfaces. We have found that just because a particle is highly absorbing, as in metallic iron, if the particle is not embedded in another matrix, scattering will dominate over absorption and Rayleigh absorption will not be observed. Further, the closer the indices of refraction match between the absorbing particle and the matrix, there will be less scattering and more absorption will occur. But we have also found this to be true with other absorbing material, like Tholins. It is very difficult to obtain the very low reflectances observed in the UV in icy satellite spectra using traditional intimate mixtures, as scattering and first surface reflections contribute significantly to the reflectance. The solution, both from radiative transfer modeling and laboratory analogs point to embedded absorbing materials. For

  3. Frequency weighting derived from power absorption of fingers-hand-arm system under z(h)-axis vibration.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ren G; Welcome, Daniel E; McDowell, Thomas W; Wu, John Z; Schopper, Aaron W

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to derive the frequency weighting from three vibration power absorption (VPA) methods (finger VPA, palm VPA, and total or hand VPA), and to explore whether these energy methods are better than the currently accepted acceleration method. To calculate the VPA weightings, the mechanical impedance of eight subjects exposed to a broadband random vibration spectrum in the z(h)-axis using 18 combinations of hand couplings and applied forces was measured. The VPA weightings were compared with the frequency weighting specified in ISO 5349-1 [2001. Mechanical Vibration--Measurement and Evaluation of Human Exposure to Hand--Transmitted Vibration--Part 1: General Requirements. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland]. This study found that the hand and palm VPA weightings are very similar to the ISO weighting but the finger VPA weighting for the combined grip and push action is much higher than the ISO weighting at frequencies higher than 25 Hz. Therefore, this study predicted that the total power absorption of the entire hand-arm system is likely to be correlated with psychophysical response or subjective sensation. However, if the ISO weighting method cannot yield good predictions of the vibration-induced disorders in the fingers and hand, the hand and palm energy methods are unlikely to yield significantly better predictions. The finger VPA is a vibration measure between unweighted and ISO weighted accelerations. The palm VPA method may have some value for studying the disorders in the wrist-arm system.

  4. Effects of gastric pH on oral drug absorption: In vitro assessment using a dissolution/permeation system reflecting the gastric dissolution process.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Makoto; Fukahori, Miho; Ikemura, Atsumi; Kubota, Ayaka; Higashino, Haruki; Sakuma, Shinji; Yamashita, Shinji

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of gastric pH on the oral absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs using an in vitro system. A dissolution/permeation system (D/P system) equipped with a Caco-2 cell monolayer was used as the in vitro system to evaluate oral drug absorption, while a small vessel filled with simulated gastric fluid (SGF) was used to reflect the gastric dissolution phase. After applying drugs in their solid forms to SGF, SGF solution containing a 1/100 clinical dose of each drug was mixed with the apical solution of the D/P system, which was changed to fasted state-simulated intestinal fluid. Dissolved and permeated amounts on applied amount of drugs were then monitored for 2h. Similar experiments were performed using the same drugs, but without the gastric phase. Oral absorption with or without the gastric phase was predicted in humans based on the amount of the drug that permeated in the D/P system, assuming that the system without the gastric phase reflected human absorption with an elevated gastric pH. The dissolved amounts of basic drugs with poor water solubility, namely albendazole, dipyridamole, and ketoconazole, in the apical solution and their permeation across a Caco-2 cell monolayer were significantly enhanced when the gastric dissolution process was reflected due to the physicochemical properties of basic drugs. These amounts resulted in the prediction of higher oral absorption with normal gastric pH than with high gastric pH. On the other hand, when diclofenac sodium, the salt form of an acidic drug, was applied to the D/P system with the gastric phase, its dissolved and permeated amounts were significantly lower than those without the gastric phase. However, the oral absorption of diclofenac was predicted to be complete (96-98%) irrespective of gastric pH because the permeated amounts of diclofenac under both conditions were sufficiently high to achieve complete absorption. These estimations of the effects of

  5. Assessment of the performance of a compact concentric spectrometer system for Atmospheric Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whyte, C.; Leigh, R. J.; Lobb, D.; Williams, T.; Remedios, J. J.; Cutter, M.; Monks, P. S.

    2009-12-01

    A breadboard demonstrator of a novel UV/VIS grating spectrometer has been developed based upon a concentric arrangement of a spherical meniscus lens, concave spherical mirror and curved diffraction grating suitable for a range of atmospheric remote sensing applications from the ground or space. The spectrometer is compact and provides high optical efficiency and performance benefits over traditional instruments. The concentric design is capable of handling high relative apertures, owing to spherical aberration and comma being near zero at all surfaces. The design also provides correction for transverse chromatic aberration and distortion, in addition to correcting for the distortion called "smile", the curvature of the slit image formed at each wavelength. These properties render this design capable of superior spectral and spatial performance with size and weight budgets significantly lower than standard configurations. This form of spectrometer design offers the potential for exceptionally compact instrument for differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) applications from LEO, GEO, HAP or ground-based platforms. The breadboard demonstrator has been shown to offer high throughput and a stable Gaussian line shape with a spectral range from 300 to 450 nm at 0.5 nm resolution, suitable for a number of typical DOAS applications.

  6. Assessment of the performance of a compact concentric spectrometer system for Atmospheric Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whyte, C.; Leigh, R. J.; Lobb, D.; Williams, T.; Remedios, J. J.; Cutter, M.; Monks, P. S.

    2009-08-01

    A breadboard demonstrator of a novel UV/VIS grating spectrometer for atmospheric research has been developed based upon a concentric arrangement of a spherical meniscus lens, concave spherical mirror and curved diffraction grating suitable for a range of remote sensing applications from the ground or space. The spectrometer is compact and provides high optical efficiency and performance benefits over traditional instruments. The concentric design is capable of handling high relative apertures, owing to spherical aberration and coma being near zero at all surfaces. The design also provides correction for transverse chromatic aberration and distortion, in addition to correcting for the distortion called "smile", the curvature of the slit image formed at each wavelength. These properties render this design capable of superior spectral and spatial performance with size and weight budgets significantly lower than standard configurations. This form of spectrometer design offers the potential for an exceptionally compact instrument for differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) applications particularly from space (LEO, GEO orbits) and from HAPs or ground-based platforms. The breadboard demonstrator has been shown to offer high throughput and a stable Gaussian line shape with a spectral range from 300 to 450 nm at better than 0.5 nm resolution, suitable for a number of typical DOAS applications.

  7. Design of a simple cryogenic system for ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy with a back-reflectance fiber optic probe.

    PubMed

    Vinyard, Andrew; Hansen, Kaj A; Byrd, Ross; Stuart, Douglas A; Hansen, John E

    2014-01-01

    We report a convenient and inexpensive technique for the rapid acquisition of absorption spectra from small samples at cryogenic temperatures using a home built cryostat with novel collection optics. A cylindrical copper block was constructed with a coaxial bore to hold a 4.00 mm diameter electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) tube and mounted on a copper feed in thermal contact with liquid nitrogen. A 6.35 mm diameter hole was bored into the side of the cylinder so a fiber optic cable bundle could be positioned orthogonally to the EPR tube. The light passing through the sample is reflected off of the opposing surfaces of the EPR tube and surrounding copper, back through the sample. The emergent light is then collected using the fiber optic bundle and analyzed using a dispersive spectrometer. Absorption spectra for KMnO4 were measured between 400 and 700 nm. Absorption intensity at 506, 525, 545, and 567 nm was found to be proportional to concentration, displaying Beer's law-like behavior. The EPR tube had an internal diameter of 3.2 mm; the double pass of the probe beam through the sample affords a central path length of about 6.4 mm. Comparing these measurements with those recorded on a conventional tabletop spectrometer using a cuvette with a 10.00 mm path length, we consistently found a ratio between intensities of 0.58 rather than the anticipated 0.64. These 6% smaller values we attribute to the curvature of the EPR tube and transmission/reflection losses. This system is particularly well-suited to studying the kinetics and dynamics of chemical reactions at cryogenic temperatures. The rapid response (100 ms) and multiplex advantage provided the opportunity of recording simultaneous time courses at several wavelengths following initiation of a chemical reaction with a pulsed laser source.

  8. Mechanism of enhanced oral absorption of morin by phospholipid complex based self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinjie; Li, Jianbo; Ju, Yuan; Fu, Yao; Gong, Tao; Zhang, Zhirong

    2015-02-02

    Phospholipid complex (PLC) based self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (PLC-SNEDDS) has been developed for efficient delivery of drugs with poor solubility and low permeability. In the present study, a BCS class IV drug and a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, morin, was selected as the model drug to elucidate the oral absorption mechanism of PLC-SNEDDS. PLC-SNEDDS was superior to PLC in protecting morin from degradation by intestinal enzymes in vitro. In situ perfusion study showed increased intestinal permeability by PLC was duodenum-specific. In contrast, PLC-SNEDDS increased morin permeability in all intestinal segments and induced a change in the main absorption site of morin from colon to ileum. Moreover, ileum conducted the lymphatic transport of PLC-SNEDDS, which was proven by microscopic intestinal visualization of Nile red labeled PLC-SNEDDS and lymph fluids in vivo. Low cytotoxicity and increased Caco-2 cell uptake suggested a safe and efficient delivery of PLC-SNEDDS. The increased membrane fluidity and disrupted actin filaments were closely associated with the increased cell uptake of PLC-SNEDDS. PLC-SNEDDS could be internalized into enterocytes as an intact form in a cholesterol-dependent manner via clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis. The enhanced oral absorption of morin was attributed to the P-gp inhibition by Cremophor RH and the intact internalization of M-PLC-SNEDDS into Caco-2 cells bypassing P-gp recognition. Our findings thus provide new insights into the development of novel nanoemulsions for poorly absorbed drugs.

  9. Evaluation of the bioavailability of major withanolides of Withania somnifera using an in vitro absorption model system

    PubMed Central

    Devkar, Santosh T.; Kandhare, Amit D.; Sloley, Brian D.; Jagtap, Suresh D.; Lin, James; Tam, Yun K.; Katyare, Surendra S.; Bodhankar, Subhash L.; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar V.

    2015-01-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, shows several pharmacological properties which are attributed mainly to the withanolides present in the root. The efficacy of medicinally active withanolides constituents depends on the absorption and transportation through the intestinal epithelium. We examined these characteristics by employing the Sino-Veda Madin-Darby canine kidney cells culture system, which under in vitro condition shows the absorption characteristics similar to the human intestinal epithelium. Thus, the aim of the present investigation was to assess the bioavailability of individual withanolides. Withanolides were diluted in Hank's buffered saline at a concentration of 2 μg/ml were tested for permeability studies carried out for 1 h duration. Permeability was measured in terms of efflux pump (Peff) in cm/s. Peff values of withanolide A (WN A), withanone (WNN), 1,2-deoxywithastramonolide (1,2 DWM), withanolide B (WN B), withanoside IV-V (WS IV-V), and withaferin A were 4.05 × 10−5, 2.06 × 10−5, 1.97 × 10−5, 1.80 × 10−5, 3.19 × 10−6, 3.03 × 10−6 and 3.30 × 10−7 respectively. In conclusion, the nonpolar and low molecular weight compounds (WN A, WNN, 1,2 DWM, and WN B) were highly permeable. As against this, the glycosylated and polar WS IV and WS V showed low permeability. Surprisingly and paradoxically, the highly biologically active withaferin A was completely impermeable, suggesting that further studies possibly using human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells may be needed to delineate the absorption characteristics of withanolides, especially withaferin A. PMID:26605156

  10. Evaluation of the bioavailability of major withanolides of Withania somnifera using an in vitro absorption model system.

    PubMed

    Devkar, Santosh T; Kandhare, Amit D; Sloley, Brian D; Jagtap, Suresh D; Lin, James; Tam, Yun K; Katyare, Surendra S; Bodhankar, Subhash L; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar V

    2015-01-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, shows several pharmacological properties which are attributed mainly to the withanolides present in the root. The efficacy of medicinally active withanolides constituents depends on the absorption and transportation through the intestinal epithelium. We examined these characteristics by employing the Sino-Veda Madin-Darby canine kidney cells culture system, which under in vitro condition shows the absorption characteristics similar to the human intestinal epithelium. Thus, the aim of the present investigation was to assess the bioavailability of individual withanolides. Withanolides were diluted in Hank's buffered saline at a concentration of 2 μg/ml were tested for permeability studies carried out for 1 h duration. Permeability was measured in terms of efflux pump (P eff) in cm/s. P eff values of withanolide A (WN A), withanone (WNN), 1,2-deoxywithastramonolide (1,2 DWM), withanolide B (WN B), withanoside IV-V (WS IV-V), and withaferin A were 4.05 × 10(-5), 2.06 × 10(-5), 1.97 × 10(-5), 1.80 × 10(-5), 3.19 × 10(-6), 3.03 × 10(-6) and 3.30 × 10(-7) respectively. In conclusion, the nonpolar and low molecular weight compounds (WN A, WNN, 1,2 DWM, and WN B) were highly permeable. As against this, the glycosylated and polar WS IV and WS V showed low permeability. Surprisingly and paradoxically, the highly biologically active withaferin A was completely impermeable, suggesting that further studies possibly using human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells may be needed to delineate the absorption characteristics of withanolides, especially withaferin A.

  11. First calibration measurements of an FTIR absorption spectroscopy system for liquid hydrogen isotopologues for the isotope separation system of fusion power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Groessle, R.; Beck, A.; Bornschein, B.

    2015-03-15

    Fusion facilities like ITER and DEMO will circulate huge amounts of deuterium and tritium in their fuel cycle with an estimated throughput of kg per hour. One important capability of these fuel cycles is to separate the hydrogen isotopologues (H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, T{sub 2}, HD, HT, DT). For this purpose the Isotope Separation System (ISS), using cryogenic distillation, as part of the Tritium Enrichment Test Assembly (TRENTA) is under development at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR) has been selected to prove its capability for online monitoring of the tritium concentration in the liquid phase atmore » the bottom of the distillation column of the ISS. The actual research-development work is focusing on the calibration of such a system. Two major issues are the identification of appropriate absorption lines and their dependence on the isotopic concentrations and composition. For this purpose the Tritium Absorption IR spectroscopy experiment has been set up as an extension of TRENTA. For calibration a Raman spectroscopy system is used. First measurements, with equilibrated mixtures of H{sub 2}, D{sub 2} and HD demonstrate that FTIR can be used for quantitative analysis of liquid hydro-gen isotopologues and reveal a nonlinear dependence of the integrated absorbance from the D{sub 2} concentration in the second vibrational branch of D{sub 2} FTIR spectra. (authors)« less

  12. The negligible systemic availability of retinoids with multiple and excessive topical application of isotretinoin 0.05% gel (Isotrex) in patients with acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Jensen, B K; McGann, L A; Kachevsky, V; Franz, T J

    1991-03-01

    The potential systemic availability of retinoids from topically applied isotretinoin was assessed in 12 men with acne vulgaris. Isotretinoin 0.05% gel was applied to patients at a daily dose of 20 gm (equivalent to 10 mg of isotretinoin) over a 1900 cm2 surface area of skin on the face, back, and chest for 30 days. Blood samples were collected throughout the study and up to 48 hours after the last topical application; they were assayed for isotretinoin, tretinoin, and 4-oxo-isotretinoin by specific high-performance liquid chromatography. Plasma concentrations of isotretinoin, tretinoin, and 4-oxo-isotretinoin were not measurable (less than 20 ng/ml) at any time. Most adverse experiences were cutaneous; a few systemic adverse experiences were judged to be remotely related to topical drug administration. The lack of measurable plasma concentrations of isotretinoin, tretinoin, or 4-oxo-isotretinoin and systemic adverse experiences indicates negligible systemic availability of retinoids even after multiple application of isotretinoin 0.05% gel at doses approximately 12 times greater than normal daily use.

  13. Asymmetric absorption and emission of energy by a macroscopic mechanical oscillator in a microwave circuit optomechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlow, Jennifer; Palomaki, Tauno; Kerckhoff, Joseph; Teufel, John; Simmonds, Raymond; Lehnert, Konrad

    2012-02-01

    We measure the asymmetry in rates for emission and absorption of mechanical energy in an electromechanical system composed of a macroscopic suspended membrane coupled to a high-Q, superconducting microwave resonant circuit. This asymmetry is inherently quantum mechanical because it arises from the inability to annihilate the mechanical ground state. As such, it is only appreciable when the average mechanical occupancy approaches one. This measurement is now possible due to the recent achievement of ground state cooling of macroscopic mechanical oscillators [1,2]. Crucially, we measure the thermal cavity photon occupancy and account for it in our analysis. Failure to correctly account for the interference of these thermal photons with the mechanical signal can lead to a misinterpretation of the data and an overestimate of the emission/absorption asymmetry. [4pt] [1] J. D. Teufel, T. Donner, Dale Li, J. W. Harlow, M. S. Allman, K. Cicak, A. J. Sirois, J. D. Whittaker, K. W. Lehnert, R. W. Simmonds, ``Sideband Cooling Micromechanical Motion to the Quantum Ground State,'' Nature, 475, 359-363 (2011).[0pt] [2] Jasper Chan, et al, ``Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,'' Nature, 478, 89-92 (2011).

  14. Detection of gastrointestinal cancer by elastic scattering and absorption spectroscopies with the Los Alamos Optical Biopsy System

    SciTech Connect

    Mourant, J.R.; Boyer, J.; Johnson, T.M.

    1995-03-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory has continued the development of the Optical Biopsy System (OBS) for noninvasive, real-time in situ diagnosis of tissue pathologies. In proceedings of earlier SPIE conferences we reported on clinical measurements in the bladder, and we report here on recent results of clinical tests in the gastrointestinal tract. With the OBS, tissue pathologies are detected/diagnosed using spectral measurements of the elastic optical transport properties (scattering and absorption) of the tissue over a wide range of wavelengths. The use of elastic scattering as the key to optical tissue diagnostics in the OBS is based on the factmore » that many tissue pathologies, including a majority of cancer forms, exhibit significant architectural changes at the cellular and sub-cellular level. Since the cellular components that cause elastic scattering have dimensions typically on the order of visible to near-IR wavelengths, the elastic (Mie) scattering properties will be wavelength dependent. Thus, morphology and size changes can be expected to cause significant changes m an optical signature that is derived from the wavelength-dependence of elastic scattering. Additionally, the optical geometry of the OBS beneficially enhances its sensitivity for measuring absorption bands. The OBS employs a small fiber-optic probe that is amenable to use with any endoscope or catheter, or to direct surface examination, as well as interstitial needle insertion. Data acquistion/display time is <1 second.« less

  15. Laser Atmospheric Absorption Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    A. Modification of Commercial C09 Laser 50 B. CW HF/DF Laser System * 53 C. Microcomputer Data Link 55 D . Fourier Transform...improved accuracy are used [5]. c. The absorption coefficient is listed for each absorbing species separately which some codes require. d . A super...series of water vapor absorption measurements was planned. The results of the first four lines studied are presented here in Figures 33a- d . Figure

  16. Aerosol source apportionment based on multi-wavelength photoacoustic light absorption measurements: a simulation method for system's optimisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Károly; Ajtai, Tibor; Kiss-Albert, Gergely; Utry, Noémi; Pintér, Máté; Szabó, Gábor; Bozóki, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    Aerosol source apportionment is currently one of the outstanding challenges for environmental monitoring. In most cases atmospheric aerosol is a heterogeneous mixture as it typically originates from various sources. Consequently, each aerosol type has distinct chemical and physical properties. Contrary to chemical properties, optical absorption and size distribution of airborne particles can be measured in real time with high time resolution i.e. their measurement facilitates real time source apportionment (Favez et al (2009), Ajtai et al (2011), Favez et al (2010)). The wavelength dependency of the optical absorption coefficient (OAC) is usually characterised by the Absorption Angström Exponent (AAE). So far, the selection of light sources (lasers) into a photoacoustic aerosol measuring system was based on rule of thumb type estimations only. Recently, we proposed a simulation method that can be used to estimate the accuracy of aerosol source apportionment in case of a dual wavelength photoacoustic system (Simon et al., (2017)). This simulation is based on the assumption that the atmospheric aerosol load is dominated by two distinct sources and each of them is strongly light absorbing with specific AAE values. This is a typical scenario e.g. for urban measurements under wintry conditions when dominating aerosol sources are fossil fuel and wood burning with characteristic AAE 1 and 2, respectively. The wavelength pair of 405 and 1064 nm was found to be optimal for source apportionment in this case. In the presented study we investigated the situation when there are aerosol components with only slightly different AAE values and searched for a photoacoustic system which is optimal for distinguishing these components. Ajtai, T.; Filep, Á.; Utry, N.; Schnaiter, M.; Linke, C.; Bozóki, Z.; Szabó, G. and Leisner T. (2011) Journal of Aerosol Science 42, 859-866. Favez, O.; Cachier, H.; Sciare, J.; Sarda-Estève, R. and Martinon, L. (2009) Atmospheric Environment 43

  17. Improved oral absorption of dutasteride via Soluplus®-based supersaturable self-emulsifying drug delivery system (S-SEDDS).

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Yeom, Dong Woo; Song, Ye Seul; Cho, Ha Ra; Choi, Yong Seok; Kang, Myung Joo; Choi, Young Wook

    2015-01-15

    A novel supersaturable self-emulsifying drug delivery system (S-SEDDS) was formulated to improve the oral absorption of dutasteride (DTS), a 5α-reductase inhibitor that is poorly water-soluble. A supersaturable system was prepared by employing Soluplus(®) (polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer) as a precipitation inhibitor with a conventional SEDDS vehicle consisted of Capryol™ 90, Cremophor(®) EL and Transcutol(®) HP (DTS:SEDDS vehicle:Soluplus(®)=1.0:67.6:10.0 w/v/w). In an in vitro dissolution test in a non-sink condition, the drug dissolution rate from SEDDS was rapidly increased to 72% for an initial period of 5min, but underwent rapid drug precipitation within 2h, decreasing the amount of drug dissolved to one-seventh of its original amount. On the other hand, S-SEDDS resulted in a slower crystallization of DTS by virtue of a precipitation inhibitor, maintaining a 3 times greater dissolution rate after 2h compared to SEDDS. In an in vivo pharmacokinetic study in rats, the S-SEDDS formulation exhibited 3.9-fold greater area-under-curve value than that of the drug suspension and 1.3-fold greater than that of SEDDS. The maximum plasma concentration of S-SEDDS was 5.6- and 2.0-fold higher compared to drug suspension and SEDDS, respectively. The results of this study suggest that the novel supersaturable system may be a promising tool for improving the physicochemical property and oral absorption of the 5α-reductase inhibitor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Absorption of carbon dioxide by solid hydroxide sorbent beds in closed-loop atmospheric revitalization system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, S. H., Jr.; Kissinger, L. D.

    1982-01-01

    The reactions of carbon dioxide with various metals are discussed. The equations which govern the rates of CO2 removal from the atmosphere in spacecraft environmental control systems are discussed. Results from performance testing of various Space Shuttle environmental control systems are presented with the correlation of the equations to the performance given.

  19. In Vitro-In Vivo Predictive Dissolution-Permeation-Absorption Dynamics of Highly Permeable Drug Extended-Release Tablets via Drug Dissolution/Absorption Simulating System and pH Alteration.

    PubMed

    Li, Zi-Qiang; Tian, Shuang; Gu, Hui; Wu, Zeng-Guang; Nyagblordzro, Makafui; Feng, Guo; He, Xin

    2018-05-01

    Each of dissolution and permeation may be a rate-limiting factor in the absorption of oral drug delivery. But the current dissolution test rarely took into consideration of the permeation property. Drug dissolution/absorption simulating system (DDASS) valuably gave an insight into the combination of drug dissolution and permeation processes happening in human gastrointestinal tract. The simulated gastric/intestinal fluid of DDASS was improved in this study to realize the influence of dynamic pH change on the complete oral dosage form. To assess the effectiveness of DDASS, six high-permeability drugs were chosen as model drugs, including theophylline (pK a1  = 3.50, pK a2  = 8.60), diclofenac (pK a  = 4.15), isosorbide 5-mononitrate (pK a  = 7.00), sinomenine (pK a  = 7.98), alfuzosin (pK a  = 8.13), and metoprolol (pK a  = 9.70). A general elution and permeation relationship of their commercially available extended-release tablets was assessed as well as the relationship between the cumulative permeation and the apparent permeability. The correlations between DDASS elution and USP apparatus 2 (USP2) dissolution and also between DDASS permeation and beagle dog absorption were developed to estimate the predictability of DDASS. As a result, the common elution-dissolution relationship was established regardless of some variance in the characteristic behavior between DDASS and USP2 for drugs dependent on the pH for dissolution. Level A in vitro-in vivo correlation between DDASS permeation and dog absorption was developed for drugs with different pKa. The improved DDASS will be a promising tool to provide a screening method on the predictive dissolution-permeation-absorption dynamics of solid drug dosage forms in the early-phase formulation development.

  20. Design of Advanced Atmospheric Water Vapor Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Luck, William S., Jr.; DeYoung, Russell J.

    1999-01-01

    The measurement of atmospheric water vapor is very important for understanding the Earth's climate and water cycle. The lidar atmospheric sensing experiment (LASE) is an instrument designed and operated by the Langley Research Center for high precision water vapor measurements. The design details of a new water vapor lidar detection system that improves the measurement sensitivity of the LASE instrument by a factor of 10 are discussed. The new system consists of an advanced, very low noise, avalanche photodiode (APD) and a state-of-the-art signal processing circuit. The new low-power system is also compact and lightweight so that it would be suitable for space flight and unpiloted atmospheric vehicles (UAV) applications. The whole system is contained on one small printed circuit board (9 x 15 sq cm). The detection system is mounted at the focal plane of a lidar receiver telescope, and the digital output is read by a personal computer with a digital data acquisition card.

  1. Development of gas fire detection system using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Y. L.; Li, G.; Yang, T.; Wang, J. J.

    2017-01-01

    The conventional fire detection methods mainly produce an alarm through detecting the changes in smoke concentration, flame radiation, heat and other physical parameters in the environment, but are unable to provide an early warning of a fire emergency. We have designed a gas fire detection system with a high detection sensitivity and high selectivity using the tunable semiconductor diode laser as a light source and combining wavelength modulation and harmonic detection technology. This system can invert the second harmonic signal obtained to obtain the concentration of carbon monoxide gas (a fire characteristic gas) so as to provide an early warning of fire. We reduce the system offset noise and the background noise generated due to the laser interference by deducting the system background spectrum lines from the second harmonic signal. This can also eliminate the interference of other gas spectral lines to a large extent. We detected the concentration of the carbon monoxide gas generated in smoldering sandalwood fire and open beech wood fire with the homemade fire simulator, and tested the lowest detectable limit of system. The test results show that the lowest detectable limit can reach 5×10-6 the system can maintain stable operation for a long period of time and can automatically trigger a water mist fire extinguishing system, which can fully meet the needs of early fire warning.

  2. Depolarisation of light scattered by disperse systems of low-dimensional potassium polytitanate nanoparticles in the fundamental absorption band

    SciTech Connect

    Zimnyakov, D A; Yuvchenko, S A; Pravdin, A B

    2014-07-31

    The results of experimental studies of depolarising properties of disperse systems on the basis of potassium polytitanate nanoplatelets and nanoribbons in the visible and near-UV spectral regions are presented. It is shown that in the fundamental absorption band of the nanoparticle material the increase in the depolarisation factor takes place for the radiation scattered perpendicularly to the direction of the probing beam. For nanoribbons a pronounced peak of depolarisation is observed, which is caused by the essential anisotropy of the particles shape and the peculiarities of the behaviour of the material dielectric function. The empirical data are compared with themore » theoretical results for 'nanodiscs' and 'nanoneedles' with the model dielectric function, corresponding to that obtained from optical constants of the titanium dioxide dielectric function. (laser biophotonics)« less

  3. An Ozone Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) Receiver System for Use on Unpiloted Atmospheric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeYoung, Russell J.; Goldschmidt, Soenke

    1999-01-01

    Measurements of global atmosphere ozone concentrations call for flexible lidar systems that can be operated from an unpiloted atmospheric vehicle (UAV) to reduce the cost of measurement missions. A lidar receiver system consisting of a fiber-optic-coupled telescope has been designed and tested for this purpose. The system weight is 13 kg and its volume of 0.06 m 3 would fit into the payload compartment of a Perseus B UAV. The optical efficiency of the telescope is 37 percent at 288 nm and 64 percent at 300 nm. Atmospheric measurements with a DIAL laser system have been performed, and the measured ozone density has matched the data from ozonesondes to an altitude of 7 km.

  4. Real-time intraoperative fluorescence imaging system using light-absorption correction.

    PubMed

    Themelis, George; Yoo, Jung Sun; Soh, Kwang-Sup; Schulz, Ralf; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel fluorescence imaging system developed for real-time interventional imaging applications. The system implements a correction scheme that improves the accuracy of epi-illumination fluorescence images for light intensity variation in tissues. The implementation is based on the use of three cameras operating in parallel, utilizing a common lens, which allows for the concurrent collection of color, fluorescence, and light attenuation images at the excitation wavelength from the same field of view. The correction is based on a ratio approach of fluorescence over light attenuation images. Color images and video is used for surgical guidance and for registration with the corrected fluorescence images. We showcase the performance metrics of this system on phantoms and animals, and discuss the advantages over conventional epi-illumination systems developed for real-time applications and the limits of validity of corrected epi-illumination fluorescence imaging.

  5. Emittance and absorptance of NASA ceramic thermal barrier coating system. [for turbine cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, C. H.

    1978-01-01

    Spectral emittance measurements were made on a two-layer ceramic thermal barrier coating system consisting of a metal substrate, a NiCrAly bond coating and a yttria-stabilized zirconia ceramic coating. Spectral emittance data were obtained for the coating system at temperatures of 300 to 1590 K, ceramic thickness of zero to 0.076 centimeter, and wavelengths of 0.4 to 14.6 micrometers. The data were transformed into total hemispherical emittance values and correlated with respect to ceramic coating thickness and temperature using multiple regression curve fitting techniques. The results show that the ceramic thermal barrier coating system is highly reflective and significantly reduces radiation heat loads on cooled gas turbine engine components. Calculation of the radiant heat transfer within the nonisothermal, translucent ceramic coating material shows that the gas-side ceramic coating surface temperature can be used in heat transfer analysis of radiation heat loads on the coating system.

  6. Design of mini-multi-gas monitoring system based on IR absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Qiu-lin; Zhang, Wen-dong; Xue, Chen-yang; Xiong, Ji-jun; Ma, You-chun; Wen, Fen

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, a novel non-dispersive infrared ray (IR) gas detection system is described. Conventional devices typically include several primary components: a broadband source (usually an incandescent filament), a rotating chopper shutter, a narrow-band filter, a sample tube and a detector. But we mainly use the mini-multi-channel detector, electrical modulation means and mini-gas-cell structure. To solve the problems of gas accidents in coal mines, and for family safety that results from using gas, this new IR detection system with integration, miniaturization and non-moving parts has been developed. It is based on the principle that certain gases absorb infrared radiation at specific (and often unique) wavelengths. The infrared detection optics principle used in developing this system is mainly analyzed. The idea of multi-gas detection is introduced and guided through the analysis of the single-gas detection. Through researching the design of cell structure, a cell with integration and miniaturization has been devised. By taking a single-chip microcomputer (SCM) as intelligence handling, the functional block diagram of a gas detection system is designed with the analyzing and devising of its hardware and software system. The way of data transmission on a controller area network (CAN) bus and wireless data transmission mode is explained. This system has reached the technology requirement of lower power consumption, mini-volume, wide measure range, and is able to realize multi-gas detection.

  7. An in vivo study of low back pain and shock absorption in the human locomotor system.

    PubMed

    Voloshin, A; Wosk, J

    1982-01-01

    In this second of three papers, the principles of a non-invasive in vivo method to quantitatively evaluate the shock absorbing capacity of the human musculoskeletal system and the correlation of this shock absorbing capacity with low back pain (LPB) symptoms are presented. The experiments involved patients suffering from low back pain (as well as other degenerative joint diseases) and healthy patients. The obtained results reveal that low back pain correlates with the reduced capacity of the human musculoskeletal system between the femoral condyle and the forehead to attenuate incoming shock waves. Examination of the absolute values of the amplitude of the propagated waves leads to the conclusion that the human locomotor system, which possesses reduced attenuation capacity, tries to prevent overloading of the head from insufficiently attenuated shock waves. Results of the present investigation support the idea that the repetitive loading resulting from gait generates intermittent waves that propagate through the entire human musculoskeletal system from the heel up to the head. These waves are gradually attenuated along this course by the natural shock absorbers (bone and soft tissues). Contemporary methods for examination of the human musculoskeletal system may by improved by using the proposed non-invasive in vivo technique for quantitative characterization of the locomotor system's shock absorbing capacity.

  8. Atopic dermatitis: a review of topical nonsteroid therapy

    PubMed Central

    Papier, Ariana

    2018-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that affects up to 20% of children and 3% of adults globally. Although topical corticosteroids are considered to be the first-line agents, they can be associated with cutaneous and systemic adverse effects. Since the early 2000s, two new classes of nonsteroid topical therapies, topical calcineurin inhibitors and phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors, have been introduced and provide a safe treatment alternative. Method We performed a search and review of clinical trials that examined the safety and efficacy of topical calcineurin inhibitors and PDE4 inhibitors. The search was conducted using the PubMed database as well as preselected keywords and filters. This review focuses on the safety and efficacy of each therapy. Results Sixty-nine clinical trials identified in this study have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of topical calcineurin and a single novel PDE4 inhibitor in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Topical calcineurin inhibitors have been shown to be effective in both achieving lesion clearance as well as reducing relapse when used long-term and proactively. Similarly, in clinical trials the PDE4 inhibitor showed success in lesion clearance and symptom management. All three therapies (pimecrolimus, tacrolimus, crisaborole) are associated with low systemic absorption. No clinical trials to date have shown an increased risk of systemic adverse events or malignancy such as lymphoma. The most commonly reported treatment-related adverse event across all three therapies was application-site discomfort, pain or pruritus. It is important to note that long-term studies are not yet available for the novel PDE4 inhibitor. Discussion Topical calcineurin inhibitors provide a safe and effective alternative to topical corticosteroid use in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Although the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) black box warning for topical calcineurin inhibitors remains, studies

  9. Atopic dermatitis: a review of topical nonsteroid therapy.

    PubMed

    Papier, Ariana; Strowd, Lindsay C

    2018-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that affects up to 20% of children and 3% of adults globally. Although topical corticosteroids are considered to be the first-line agents, they can be associated with cutaneous and systemic adverse effects. Since the early 2000s, two new classes of nonsteroid topical therapies, topical calcineurin inhibitors and phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors, have been introduced and provide a safe treatment alternative. We performed a search and review of clinical trials that examined the safety and efficacy of topical calcineurin inhibitors and PDE4 inhibitors. The search was conducted using the PubMed database as well as preselected keywords and filters. This review focuses on the safety and efficacy of each therapy. Sixty-nine clinical trials identified in this study have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of topical calcineurin and a single novel PDE4 inhibitor in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Topical calcineurin inhibitors have been shown to be effective in both achieving lesion clearance as well as reducing relapse when used long-term and proactively. Similarly, in clinical trials the PDE4 inhibitor showed success in lesion clearance and symptom management. All three therapies (pimecrolimus, tacrolimus, crisaborole) are associated with low systemic absorption. No clinical trials to date have shown an increased risk of systemic adverse events or malignancy such as lymphoma. The most commonly reported treatment-related adverse event across all three therapies was application-site discomfort, pain or pruritus. It is important to note that long-term studies are not yet available for the novel PDE4 inhibitor. Topical calcineurin inhibitors provide a safe and effective alternative to topical corticosteroid use in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Although the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) black box warning for topical calcineurin inhibitors remains, studies have not shown an increased risk of

  10. Mechanistic Oral Absorption Modeling and Simulation for Formulation Development and Bioequivalence Evaluation: Report of an FDA Public Workshop.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Duan, J; Kesisoglou, F; Novakovic, J; Amidon, G L; Jamei, M; Lukacova, V; Eissing, T; Tsakalozou, E; Zhao, L; Lionberger, R

    2017-08-01

    On May 19, 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) hosted a public workshop, entitled "Mechanistic Oral Absorption Modeling and Simulation for Formulation Development and Bioequivalence Evaluation." The topic of mechanistic oral absorption modeling, which is one of the major applications of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling and simulation, focuses on predicting oral absorption by mechanistically integrating gastrointestinal transit, dissolution, and permeation processes, incorporating systems, active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), and the drug product information, into a systemic mathematical whole-body framework. © 2017 The Authors CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  11. Modulated Sine Waves for Differential Absorption Measurements Using a CW Laser System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel F. (Inventor); Lin, Bing (Inventor); Nehrir, Amin R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A continuous wave Light Detection and Ranging (CW LiDAR) system utilizes two or more laser frequencies and time or range shifted pseudorandom noise (PN) codes to discriminate between the laser frequencies. The performance of these codes can be improved by subtracting out the bias before processing. The CW LiDAR system may be mounted to an artificial satellite orbiting the earth, and the relative strength of the return signal for each frequency can be utilized to determine the concentration of selected gases or other substances in the atmosphere.

  12. In vivo bioluminescence imaging to evaluate systemic and topical antibiotics against community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-infected skin wounds in mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yi; Ramos, Romela Irene; Cho, John S; Donegan, Niles P; Cheung, Ambrose L; Miller, Lloyd S

    2013-02-01

    Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) frequently causes skin and soft tissue infections, including impetigo, cellulitis, folliculitis, and infected wounds and ulcers. Uncomplicated CA-MRSA skin infections are typically managed in an outpatient setting with oral and topical antibiotics and/or incision and drainage, whereas complicated skin infections often require hospitalization, intravenous antibiotics, and sometimes surgery. The aim of this study was to develop a mouse model of CA-MRSA wound infection to compare the efficacy of commonly used systemic and topical antibiotics. A bioluminescent USA300 CA-MRSA strain was inoculated into full-thickness scalpel wounds on the backs of mice and digital photography/image analysis and in vivo bioluminescence imaging were used to measure wound healing and the bacterial burden. Subcutaneous vancomycin, daptomycin, and linezolid similarly reduced the lesion sizes and bacterial burden. Oral linezolid, clindamycin, and doxycycline all decreased the lesion sizes and bacterial burden. Oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole decreased the bacterial burden but did not decrease the lesion size. Topical mupirocin and retapamulin ointments both reduced the bacterial burden. However, the petrolatum vehicle ointment for retapamulin, but not the polyethylene glycol vehicle ointment for mupirocin, promoted wound healing and initially increased the bacterial burden. Finally, in type 2 diabetic mice, subcutaneous linezolid and daptomycin had the most rapid therapeutic effect compared with vancomycin. Taken together, this mouse model of CA-MRSA wound infection, which utilizes in vivo bioluminescence imaging to monitor the bacterial burden, represents an alternative method to evaluate the preclinical in vivo efficacy of systemic and topical antimicrobial agents.

  13. In Vivo Bioluminescence Imaging To Evaluate Systemic and Topical Antibiotics against Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus-Infected Skin Wounds in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yi; Ramos, Romela Irene; Cho, John S.; Donegan, Niles P.; Cheung, Ambrose L.

    2013-01-01

    Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) frequently causes skin and soft tissue infections, including impetigo, cellulitis, folliculitis, and infected wounds and ulcers. Uncomplicated CA-MRSA skin infections are typically managed in an outpatient setting with oral and topical antibiotics and/or incision and drainage, whereas complicated skin infections often require hospitalization, intravenous antibiotics, and sometimes surgery. The aim of this study was to develop a mouse model of CA-MRSA wound infection to compare the efficacy of commonly used systemic and topical antibiotics. A bioluminescent USA300 CA-MRSA strain was inoculated into full-thickness scalpel wounds on the backs of mice and digital photography/image analysis and in vivo bioluminescence imaging were used to measure wound healing and the bacterial burden. Subcutaneous vancomycin, daptomycin, and linezolid similarly reduced the lesion sizes and bacterial burden. Oral linezolid, clindamycin, and doxycycline all decreased the lesion sizes and bacterial burden. Oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole decreased the bacterial burden but did not decrease the lesion size. Topical mupirocin and retapamulin ointments both reduced the bacterial burden. However, the petrolatum vehicle ointment for retapamulin, but not the polyethylene glycol vehicle ointment for mupirocin, promoted wound healing and initially increased the bacterial burden. Finally, in type 2 diabetic mice, subcutaneous linezolid and daptomycin had the most rapid therapeutic effect compared with vancomycin. Taken together, this mouse model of CA-MRSA wound infection, which utilizes in vivo bioluminescence imaging to monitor the bacterial burden, represents an alternative method to evaluate the preclinical in vivo efficacy of systemic and topical antimicrobial agents. PMID:23208713

  14. In-situ liquid storage capacity measurement of subsurface wastewater absorption system products.

    PubMed

    Quisenberry, Virgil; Brown, Philip; Smith, Bill; Hallahan, Dennis F

    2006-11-01

    A method is presented for measuring the in-situ liquid storage capacity of subsurface wastewater infiltration system (SWIS) products. While these products vary in composition, geometry, and porosity, they all have the same function: to provide a conduit for the flow of effluent from a septic tank to and through a trench so that infiltration into the soil can occur. A functional SWIS must also provide temporary liquid storage. Storage is necessary for periods when discharge from the septic tank exceeds the infiltration rate of the soil. Storage is also important during times when the soil in and around the trench is saturated. Many states now have regulatory requirements pertaining to storage volume, and these requirements commonly establish the traditional gravel-pipe system as the standard for minimally acceptable volume. Raliable comparisons between various alternative products and gravel have been difficult or impossible, because there has been no standard method for measuring storage volume. Some products have been evaluated under realistic field conditions; others have been evaluated under theoretical or ideal conditions. The protocol developed by the study reported here can serve as a common, accurate basis for comparisons. A 3-foot-deep trench was excavated, and the bottom was leveled. Markers (nails or rods) were attached to the products to indicate the invert and full-volume heights. The products were then enclosed in plastic, placed in a trench, and covered with soil. A 4-inch-diameter pipe extended from the product to the surface to allow metered additions of water into the products and precise determinations when the systems had been filled to capacity. Four plastic chambers, three expanded polystyrene (ESP) products, two multipipe arrangements, and a standard gravel-pipe system were evaluated. The standard gravel-pipe system held 10.2 gal/ft Three of the four plastic chambers stored from 100 to 130 percent of what the standard system held. The

  15. ASYMMETRIC ABSORPTION PROFILES OF Ly{alpha} AND Ly{beta} IN DAMPED Ly{alpha} SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hee-Won, E-mail: hwlee@sejong.ac.kr

    2013-08-01

    Damped Ly{alpha} systems observed in the quasar spectra are characterized by a high neutral hydrogen column density, N{sub HI} > 2 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2}. The absorption wing profiles are often fitted using the Voigt function due to the fact that the scattering cross section near the resonant line center is approximately described by the Lorentzian function. Since a hydrogen atom has infinitely many p states that participate in the electric dipole interaction, the cross section starts to deviate from the Lorentzian in an asymmetric way in the line wing regions. We investigate this asymmetry in the absorption linemore » profiles around Ly{alpha} and Ly{beta} as a function of the neutral hydrogen column density N{sub HI}. In terms of {Delta}{lambda} {identical_to} {lambda} - {lambda}{sub {alpha}}, we expand the Kramers-Heisenberg formula around Ly{alpha} to find {sigma}({lambda}) {approx_equal} (0.5f{sub 12}){sup 2}{sigma}{sub T}({Delta}{lambda}/{lambda}{sub {alpha}}){sup -2}[1 + 3.792({Delta}{lambda}/{lambda}{sub {alpha}})], where f{sub 12} and {sigma}{sub T} are the oscillator strength of Ly{alpha} and the Thomson scattering cross section, respectively. In terms of {Delta}{lambda}{sub 2} {identical_to} {lambda} - {lambda}{sub {beta}} in the vicinity of Ly{beta}, the total scattering cross section, given as the sum of cross sections for Rayleigh and Raman scattering, is shown to be {sigma}({lambda}) {approx_equal} {sigma}{sub T}(0.5f{sub 13}){sup 2}(1 + R{sub 0})({Delta}{lambda}{sub 2}/{lambda}{sub {beta}}){sup -2}[1 - 24.68({Delta}{lambda}{sub 2}/{lambda}{sub {beta}})] with f{sub 13} and the factor R{sub 0} = 0.1342 being the oscillator strength for Ly{beta} and the ratio of the Raman cross section to Rayleigh cross section, respectively. A redward asymmetry develops around Ly{alpha}, whereas a blue asymmetry is obtained for Ly{beta}. The absorption center shifts are found to be almost proportional to the neutral hydrogen column density.« less

  16. Mental Mechanisms for Topics Identification

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Topics identification (TI) is the process that consists in determining the main themes present in natural language documents. The current TI modeling paradigm aims at acquiring semantic information from statistic properties of large text datasets. We investigate the mental mechanisms responsible for the identification of topics in a single document given existing knowledge. Our main hypothesis is that topics are the result of accumulated neural activation of loosely organized information stored in long-term memory (LTM). We experimentally tested our hypothesis with a computational model that simulates LTM activation. The model assumes activation decay as an unavoidable phenomenon originating from the bioelectric nature of neural systems. Since decay should negatively affect the quality of topics, the model predicts the presence of short-term memory (STM) to keep the focus of attention on a few words, with the expected outcome of restoring quality to a baseline level. Our experiments measured topics quality of over 300 documents with various decay rates and STM capacity. Our results showed that accumulated activation of loosely organized information was an effective mental computational commodity to identify topics. It was furthermore confirmed that rapid decay is detrimental to topics quality but that limited capacity STM restores quality to a baseline level, even exceeding it slightly. PMID:24744775

  17. Regulatory Information By Topic

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA develops and enforces regulations that span many environmental topics, from acid rain reduction to wetlands restoration. Each topic listed below may include related laws and regulations, compliance enforcement information, policies guidance

  18. Molecular dynamics simulation of a nanofluidic energy absorption system: effects of the chiral vector of carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Ganjiani, Sayed Hossein; Hossein Nezhad, Alireza

    2018-02-14

    A Nanofluidic Energy Absorption System (NEAS) is a novel nanofluidic system with a small volume and weight. In this system, the input mechanical energy is converted to surface tension energy during liquid infiltration in the nanotube. The NEAS is made of a mixture of nanoporous material particles in a functional liquid. In this work, the effects of the chiral vector of a carbon nanotube (CNT) on the performance characteristics of the NEAS are investigated by using molecular dynamics simulation. For this purpose, six CNTs with different diameters for each type of armchair, zigzag and chiral, and several chiral CNTs with different chiral vectors (different values of indices (m,n)) are selected and studied. The results show that in the chiral CNTs, the contact angle shows the hydrophobicity of the CNT, and infiltration pressure is reduced by increasing the values of m and n (increasing the CNT diameter). Contact angle and infiltration pressure are decreased by almost 1.4% and 9% at all diameters, as the type of CNT is changed from chiral to zigzag and then to armchair. Absorbed energy density and efficiency are also decreased by increasing m and n and by changing the type of CNT from chiral to zigzag and then to armchair.

  19. H2O absorption tomography in a diesel aftertreatment system using a polymer film for optical access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ze; Sanders, Scott T.; Backhaus, Jacob A.; Munnannur, Achuth; Schmidt, Niklas M.

    2017-12-01

    Film-optical-access H2O absorption tomography is, for the first time, applied to a practical diesel aftertreatment system. A single rotation stage and a single translation stage are used to move a single laser beam to obtain each of the 3480 line-of-sight measurements used in the tomographic reconstruction. It takes 1 h to acquire one image in a 60-view-angle measurement. H2O images are acquired in a 292.4-mm-diameter selective catalytic reduction (SCR) can with a 5-mm spatial resolution at temperatures in the 158-185 °C range. When no liquid H2O is injected into the gas, the L1 norm-based uniformity index is 0.994, and the average mole fraction error is - 6% based on a separate FTIR measurement. When liquid water is injected through the reductant dosing system designed to inject diesel exhaust fluid, nonuniformity is observed, as evidenced by measured uniformity indices for H2O in the 0.977-0.986 range. A mixing plate installed into the system is able to improve the uniformity of the H2O mole fraction.

  20. Time-resolved X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of a Cobalt-Based Hydrogen Evolution System for Artificial Photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moonshiram, Dooshaye; Gimbert, Carolina; Lehmann, Carl; Southworth, Stephen; Llobet, Antoni; Argonne National Laboratory Team; Institut Català d'Investigació Química Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Production of cost-effective hydrogen gas through solar power is an important challenge of the Department of Energy among other global industry initiatives. In natural photosynthesis, the oxygen evolving complex(OEC) can carry out four-electron water splitting to hydrogen with an efficiency of around 60%. Although, much progress has been carried out in determining mechanistic pathways of the OEC, biomimetic approaches have not duplicated Nature's efficiency in function. Over the past years, we have witnessed progress in developments of light harvesting modules, so called chromophore/catalytic assemblies. In spite of reportedly high catalytic activity of these systems, quantum yields of hydrogen production are below 40 % when using monochromatic light. Proper understanding of kinetics and bond making/breaking steps has to be achieved to improve efficiency of hydrogen evolution systems. This project shows the timing implementation of ultrafast X-ray absorption spectroscopy to visualize in ``real time'' the photo-induced kinetics accompanying a sequence of redox reactions in a cobalt-based molecular photocatalytic system. Formation of a Co(I) species followed by a Co(III) hydride species all the way towards hydrogen evolution is shown through time-resolved XANES.

  1. Curcumin and its topical formulations for wound healing applications.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Chandana; Sahoo, Sanjeeb K

    2017-10-01

    Oxidative damage and inflammation have been identified, through clinical and preclinical studies, as the main causes of nonhealing chronic wounds. Reduction of persistent chronic inflammation by application of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents such as curcumin has been well studied. However, low aqueous solubility, poor tissue absorption, rapid metabolism and short plasma half-life have made curcumin unsuitable for systemic administration for better wound healing. Recently, various topical formulations of curcumin such as films, fibers, emulsion, hydrogels and different nanoformulations have been developed for targeted delivery of curcumin at wounded sites. In this review, we summarize and discuss different topical formulations of curcumin with emphasis on their wound-healing properties in animal models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Modeling of intensity-modulated continuous-wave laser absorption spectrometer systems for atmospheric CO(2) column measurements.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bing; Ismail, Syed; Wallace Harrison, F; Browell, Edward V; Nehrir, Amin R; Dobler, Jeremy; Moore, Berrien; Refaat, Tamer; Kooi, Susan A

    2013-10-10

    The focus of this study is to model and validate the performance of intensity-modulated continuous-wave (IM-CW) CO(2) laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) systems and their CO(2) column measurements from airborne and satellite platforms. The model accounts for all fundamental physics of the instruments and their related CO(2) measurement environments, and the modeling results are presented statistically from simulation ensembles that include noise sources and uncertainties related to the LAS instruments and the measurement environments. The characteristics of simulated LAS systems are based on existing technologies and their implementation in existing systems. The modeled instruments are specifically assumed to be IM-CW LAS systems such as the Exelis' airborne multifunctional fiber laser lidar (MFLL) operating in the 1.57 μm CO(2) absorption band. Atmospheric effects due to variations in CO(2), solar radiation, and thin clouds, are also included in the model. Model results are shown to agree well with LAS atmospheric CO(2) measurement performance. For example, the relative bias errors of both MFLL simulated and measured CO(2) differential optical depths were found to agree to within a few tenths of a percent when compared to the in situ observations from the flight of 3 August 2011 over Railroad Valley (RRV), Nevada, during the summer 2011 flight campaign. In addition, the horizontal variations in the model CO(2) differential optical depths were also found to be consistent with those from MFLL measurements. In general, the modeled and measured signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the CO(2) column differential optical depths (τd) agreed to within about 30%. Model simulations of a spaceborne IM-CW LAS system in a 390 km dawn/dusk orbit for CO(2) column measurements showed that with a total of 42 W of transmitted power for one offline and two different sideline channels (placed at different locations on the side of the CO(2) absorption line), the accuracy of the

  3. A FOURTH H I 21 cm ABSORPTION SYSTEM IN THE SIGHT LINE OF MG J0414+0534: A RECORD FOR INTERVENING ABSORBERS

    SciTech Connect

    Tanna, A.; Webb, J. K.; Curran, S. J.

    2013-08-01

    We report the detection of a strong H I 21 cm absorption system at z = 0.5344, as well as a candidate system at z = 0.3389, in the sight line toward the z = 2.64 quasar MG J0414+0534. This, in addition to the absorption at the host redshift and the other two intervening absorbers, takes the total to four (possibly five). The previous maximum number of 21 cm absorbers detected along a single sight line is two and so we suspect that this number of gas-rich absorbers is in some way related to the very red color of themore » background source. Despite this, no molecular gas (through OH absorption) has yet been detected at any of the 21 cm redshifts, although, from the population of 21 cm absorbers as a whole, there is evidence for a weak correlation between the atomic line strength and the optical-near-infrared color. In either case, the fact that so many gas-rich galaxies (likely to be damped Ly{alpha} absorption systems) have been found along a single sight line toward a highly obscured source may have far-reaching implications for the population of faint galaxies not detected in optical surveys, a possibility which could be addressed through future wide-field absorption line surveys with the Square Kilometer Array.« less

  4. Effect of Moisture Exchange on Interface Formation in the Repair System Studied by X-ray Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Lukovic, Mladena; Ye, Guang

    2015-01-01

    In concrete repair systems, material properties of the repair material and the interface are greatly influenced by the moisture exchange between the repair material and the substrate. If the substrate is dry, it can absorb water from the repair material and reduce its effective water-to-cement ratio (w/c). This further affects the hydration rate of cement based material. In addition to the change in hydration rate, void content at the interface between the two materials is also affected. In this research, the influence of moisture exchange on the void content in the repair system as a function of initial saturation level of the substrate is investigated. Repair systems with varying level of substrate saturation are made. Moisture exchange in these repair systems as a function of time is monitored by the X-ray absorption technique. After a specified curing age (3 d), the internal microstructure of the repair systems was captured by micro-computed X-ray tomography (CT-scanning). From reconstructed images, different phases in the repair system (repair material, substrate, voids) can be distinguished. In order to quantify the void content, voids were thresholded and their percentage was calculated. It was found that significantly more voids form when the substrate is dry prior to application of the repair material. Air, initially filling voids and pores of the dry substrate, is being released due to the moisture exchange. As a result, air voids remain entrapped in the repair material close to the interface. These voids are found to form as a continuation of pre-existing surface voids in the substrate. Knowledge about moisture exchange and its effects provides engineers with the basis for recommendations about substrate preconditioning in practice. PMID:28787801

  5. Absorption fluids data survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macriss, R. A.; Zawacki, T. S.

    Development of improved data for the thermodynamic, transport and physical properties of absorption fluids were studied. A specific objective of this phase of the study is to compile, catalog and coarse screen the available US data of known absorption fluid systems and publish it as a first edition document to be distributed to manufacturers, researchers and others active in absorption heat pump activities. The methodology and findings of the compilation, cataloguing and coarse screening of the available US data on absorption fluid properties and presents current status and future work on this project are summarized. Both in house file and literature searches were undertaken to obtain available US publications with pertinent physical, thermodynamic and transport properties data for absorption fluids. Cross checks of literature searches were also made, using available published bibliographies and literature review articles, to eliminate secondary sources for the data and include only original sources and manuscripts. The properties of these fluids relate to the liquid and/or vapor state, as encountered in normal operation of absorption equipment employing such fluids, and to the crystallization boundary of the liquid phase, where applicable. The actual data were systematically classified according to the type of fluid and property, as well as temperature, pressure and concentration ranges over which data were available. Data were sought for 14 different properties: Vapor-Liquid Equilibria, Crystallization Temperature, Corrosion Characteristics, Heat of Mixing, Liquid-Phase-Densities, Vapor-Liquid-Phase Enthalpies, Specific Heat, Stability, Viscosity, Mass Transfer Rate, Heat Transfer Rate, Thermal Conductivity, Flammability, and Toxicity.

  6. Freshman Health Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovde, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a cluster of health topics that are frequently selected by students in lower division classes. Topics address issues relating to addictive substances, including alcohol and tobacco, eating disorders, obesity, and dieting. Analysis of the topics examines their interrelationships and organization in the reference literature.…

  7. The theory of QSO absorption line systems and their relationship to the galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlton, Jane

    1993-01-01

    The fundamental goal of this effort is to paint a picture of what the Ly-alpha forest clouds are and how they are distributed in space. Progress during the first phase of this program involved development of the 'Cheshire Cat Model' of Ly-alpha clouds in which systems over a large range of column densities are produced by disks with somewhat smaller column densities than those of normal galaxies. A prediction of the slab model of Ly-alpha clouds was confirmed by a new observational result, and the comparison of models to the new data allowed an estimate of the pressure of the intergalactic medium. This result should be forthcoming in pre-print form within the next month. The various results will now be described in more detail.

  8. Development and evaluation of ultra-small nanostructured lipid carriers: novel topical delivery system for athlete's foot.

    PubMed

    Singh, Samipta; Singh, Mahendra; Tripathi, Chandra Bhushan; Arya, Malti; Saraf, Shubhini A

    2016-02-01

    Athlete's foot is a fungal infection of the foot which causes dry, itchy, flaky condition of the skin caused by Trichophyton species. In this study, the potential of ultra-small nanostructured lipid carrier (usNLC)-based topical gel of miconazole nitrate for the treatment of athlete's foot was evaluated. Nanostructure lipid carriers (NLCs) prepared by melt emulsification and sonication technique were characterized for particle size, drug entrapment, zeta potential and drug release. The optimized usNLC revealed particle size 53.79 nm, entrapment efficiency 86.77%, zeta potential -12.9 mV and polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.27. The drug release studies of usNLC showed initial fast release followed by sustained release with 91.99% drug released in 24 h. Optimized usNLCs were incorporated into carbopol-934 gel and evaluated for pH (6.8), viscosity (36,400 mPa s) and texture analysis. Antifungal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes exhibited wider zone of inhibition, 6.6 ± 1.5 mm for optimized usNLC3 gel viz-à-viz marketed gel formulation (3.7 ± 1.2 mm). Hen's egg test-chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM) irritation test confirmed optimized usNLC gel to be non-irritant to chorioallantoic membrane. Improved dermal delivery of miconazole by usNLC gel could be achieved for treatment of athlete's foot.

  9. Evaluation of intestinal metabolism and absorption using the Ussing chamber system equipped with intestinal tissue from rats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Masateru; Kondo, Satoshi; Koga, Toshihisa; Yoda, Noriaki; Nakazato, Satoru; Emoto, Chie; Mukai, Tadashi; Toguchi, Hajime

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intestinal metabolism and absorption in a mini-Ussing chamber equipped with animal intestinal tissues, based on the transport index (TI). TI value was defined as the sum of drug amounts transported to the basal-side component (X corr ) and drug amounts accumulated in the tissue (T corr ), which are normalized by AUC of a drug in the apical compartment, as an index for drug absorption. Midazolam was used as a test compound for the evaluation of intestinal metabolism and absorption. The metabolite formulation of midazolam was observed in both rats and dogs. Ketoconazole inhibited the intestinal metabolism of midazolam in rats and improved its intestinal absorption to a statistically significant extent. Therefore, the mini-Ussing chamber, equipped with animal intestinal tissues, showed potential to use the evaluation of the intestinal metabolism and absorption, including the assessment of species differences. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Crisaborole Topical Ointment, 2% in Patients Ages 2 to 17 Years with Atopic Dermatitis: A Phase 1b, Open-Label, Maximal-Use Systemic Exposure Study.

    PubMed

    Zane, Lee T; Kircik, Leon; Call, Robert; Tschen, Eduardo; Draelos, Zoe Diana; Chanda, Sanjay; Van Syoc, Merrie; Hebert, Adelaide A

    2016-07-01

    Phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) is a promising target in atopic dermatitis (AD) treatment. The pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and efficacy of crisaborole topical ointment, 2% (formerly AN2728) (Anacor Pharmaceuticals, Palo Alto, CA), a boron-based benzoxaborole PDE4 inhibitor, were evaluated in children with mild to moderate AD. This phase 1b, open-label, maximal-use study of crisaborole topical ointment, 2% applied twice daily (dose 3 mg/cm(2) ) for 28 days enrolled patients ages 2 to 17 years with extensive AD involving 25% or more or 35% or more treatable body surface area, depending on age. Primary PK and safety assessments included systemic exposure to crisaborole and its metabolites after 7 days of treatment and the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). Secondary efficacy assessments included change from baseline in Investigator Static Global Assessment (ISGA), treatment success (ISGA score ≤1 with a two-grade or greater improvement from baseline), and improvement in five AD signs and symptoms. Of 34 patients enrolled, 31 completed the study. Crisaborole was rapidly absorbed, with limited systemic exposure between days 1 and 8. Twenty-three of 34 patients reported one or more TEAEs; 95% were mild or moderate and one patient discontinued because of a TEAE. Mean ISGA scores declined from 2.65 at baseline to 1.15 at day 29, 47.1% of patients achieved treatment success, and 64.7% of patients achieved ISGA scores of clear (0) or almost clear . Mean severity scores for AD signs and symptoms declined throughout the study. This open-label study provides evidence that crisaborole topical ointment, 2% was well tolerated, with limited systemic exposure under maximal-use conditions in patients ages 2 years and older. © 2016 The Authors. Pediatric Dermatology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. On the selection of damped Lyman α systems using Mg II absorption at 2 < zabs < 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, T. A. M.; Ellison, S. L.; Prochaska, J. X.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Lopez, S.; D'Odorico, V.; Becker, G.; Christensen, L.; Cupani, G.; Denney, K.; Worseck, G.

    2017-01-01

    The XQ-100 survey provides optical and near-infrared coverage of 36 blindly selected, intervening damped Lyman α systems (DLAs) at 2 < zabs < 4, simultaneously covering the Mg II doublet at λλ2796, 2803Å, and the Ly α transition. Using the XQ-100 DLA sample, we investigate the completeness of selecting DLA absorbers based on their Mg II rest-frame equivalent width (W0^{2796}) at these redshifts. Of the 29 DLAs with clean Mg II profiles, we find that six (20 per cent of DLAs) have W0^{2796} < 0.6 Å. The DLA incidence rate of W0^{2796} < 0.6 Å absorbers is a factor of ˜5 higher than what is seen in z ˜ 1 samples, indicating a potential evolution in the Mg II properties of DLAs with redshift. All of the W0^{2796} < 0.6 Å DLAs have low metallicities (-2.5 < [M/H] < -1.7), small velocity widths (v90 < 50 km s-1), and tend to have relatively low N(H I). We demonstrate that the exclusion of these low W0^{2796} DLAs results in a higher mean N(H I) which in turn leads to an ˜7 per cent increase in the cosmological gas density of H I of DLAs at 2 < zabs < 4; and that this exclusion has a minimal effect on the H I-weighted mean metallicity.

  12. Recent Advances in Delivery Systems and Therapeutics of Cinnarizine: A Poorly Water Soluble Drug with Absorption Window in Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Kamla

    2014-01-01

    Low solubility causing low dissolution in gastrointestinal tract is the major problem for drugs meant for systemic action after oral administration, like cinnarizine. Pharmaceutical products of cinnarizine are commercialized globally as immediate release preparations presenting low absorption with low and erratic bioavailability. Approaches to enhance bioavailability are widely cited in the literature. An attempt has been made to review the bioavailability complications and clinical therapeutics of poorly water soluble drug: cinnarizine. The interest of writing this paper is to summarize the pharmacokinetic limitations of drug with special focus on strategies to improvise bioavailability along with effectiveness of novel dosage forms to circumvent the obstacle. The paper provides insight to the approaches to overcome low and erratic bioavailability of cinnarizine by cyclodextrin complexes and novel dosage forms: self-nanoemulsifying systems and buoyant microparticulates. Nanoformulations need to systematically explored in future, for their new clinical role in prophylaxis of migraine attacks in children. Clinical reports have affirmed the role of cinnarizine in migraine prophylaxis. Research needs to be dedicated to develop dosage forms for efficacious bioavailability and drug directly to brain. PMID:25478230

  13. Mathematical Investigation of Gamma Ray and Neutron Absorption Grid Patterns for Homeland Defense Related Fourier Imaging Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boccio, Dona

    2003-01-01

    Terrorist suitcase nuclear devices typically using converted Soviet tactical nuclear warheads contain several kilograms of plutonium. This quantity of plutonium emits a significant number of gamma rays and neutrons as it undergoes radioactive decay. These gamma rays and neutrons normally penetrate ordinary matter to a significant distance. Unfortunately this penetrating quality of the radiation makes imaging with classical optics impractical. However, this radiation signature emitted by the nuclear source may be sufficient to be imaged from low-flying aerial platforms carrying Fourier imaging systems. The Fourier imaging system uses a pair of co-aligned absorption grids to measure a selected range of spatial frequencies from an object. These grids typically measure the spatial frequency in only one direction at a time. A grid pair that looks in all directions simultaneously would be an improvement over existing technology. A number of grid pairs governed by various parameters were investigated to solve this problem. By examining numerous configurations, it became apparent that an appropriate spiral pattern could be made to work. A set of equations was found to describe a grid pattern that produces straight fringes. Straight fringes represent a Fourier transform of a point source at infinity. An inverse Fourier transform of this fringe pattern would provide an accurate image (location and intensity) of a point source.

  14. Constant Head Evaluation of Full Scale Soil Absorption Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dix, S. P.

    2001-05-01

    Design loading rates for septic tank effluent in trenches of various designs with different geometry and media has been debated for decades. The role of bottom and sidewall is a hot topic with many opinion by experts in the field of agricultural and environmental engineering. Research institutions have conducted numerous studies and developed procedures for measuring both test systems and fundamental of soil hydraulics. Falling head tests have been used more recently to evaluate mature test cells and evaluate both sidewall and basal absorption, (Keys et al). The proposed paper will discuss the design and testing of a constant head permeameter. Testing this equipment and developing the test protocol followed the application of the procedure to on a number of residential systems in both sandy and clay loam soil. Results from this testing showed the relability step that must be taken to successfully use this equipment. Result of the testing show the variability and consistency of absorption, the changes in absorption when systems are flooded above their equilibrium condition and the longer-term changes that occur when trenches are rested in a warm climate. More recent application of the test procedure evaluated affects of head and increased depth sidewall on absorption rates when the effluent level in the trenches was raised. Future modification of the test equipment and procedure by integrating a data logger will permits more exact recording of dose cycles and improved estimate of soil absorption efficiency over time.

  15. Mechanistic Oral Absorption Modeling and Simulation for Formulation Development and Bioequivalence Evaluation: Report of an FDA Public Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Duan, J; Kesisoglou, F; Novakovic, J; Amidon, GL; Jamei, M; Lukacova, V; Eissing, T; Tsakalozou, E; Zhao, L; Lionberger, R

    2017-01-01

    On May 19, 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) hosted a public workshop, entitled “Mechanistic Oral Absorption Modeling and Simulation for Formulation Development and Bioequivalence Evaluation.”1 The topic of mechanistic oral absorption modeling, which is one of the major applications of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling and simulation, focuses on predicting oral absorption by mechanistically integrating gastrointestinal transit, dissolution, and permeation processes, incorporating systems, active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), and the drug product information, into a systemic mathematical whole‐body framework.2 PMID:28571121

  16. Dust and Diffuse Interstellar Bands in the za = 0.524 Absorption System toward AO 0235+164

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junkkarinen, V. T.; Cohen, Ross D.; Beaver, E. A.; Burbidge, E. M.; Lyons, R. W.; Madejski, G.

    2004-10-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) NUV-MAMA and STIS CCD observations of the BL Lac object AO 0235+164 and the intervening damped Lyα (DLA) line at za=0.524. The line profile gives N(HI)=(5+/-1)×1021 cm-2 and, combined with the H I 21 cm absorption data, leads to a spin temperature of Ts=220+/-60 K. Those spectra also show a strong, broad feature at the expected position of the 2175 Å graphitic dust feature at za=0.524. Assuming a Galactic-type dust extinction curve at za=0.524 gives a dust-to-gas ratio of 0.19 times the Galactic value, but the fit, assuming that the underlying, unreddened spectrum is a single power law, is poor in the far-UV. A dust-to-gas ratio of 0.19 times the Galactic value is similar to the LMC, but the AO 0235+164 spectrum does not fit either the LMC extinction curve or the SMC extinction curve (which has practically no 2175 Å feature). A possible interpretation includes dust similar to that in the Galaxy, but with fewer of the small particles that produce the far-UV extinction. The metallicity of the za=0.524 absorber, estimated from the observed N(HI) and excess X-ray absorption (beyond Galactic) derived from contemporaneous and archival ASCA and ROSAT X-ray data, is Z=0.72+/-0.28 Zsolar, implying in turn a dust-to-metals ratio of 0.27 times the Galactic value. If the dust mass density is the same in the za=0.524 DLA system as in our Galaxy, only 14% (+/-6%) of the metals (by mass) are in dust, compared to 51%, 36%, and 46% for the Galaxy, LMC, and SMC, respectively. Such a dusty za=0.524 AO 0235+164 absorption system is a good example of the kind of DLA system that will be missed because of selection effects, which in turn can bias the measurement of the comoving density of interstellar gas (in units of the closure density), Ωg, as a function of z. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by

  17. Topical medication instillation techniques for glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li; Wang, Xuemei; Wu, Meijing

    2017-01-01

    Background Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide and the second most common cause of blindness after cataracts. The primary treatment for glaucoma aims to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) with the use of topical medicines. Topical medication instillation techniques, such as eyelid closure and nasolacrimal occlusion when instilling drops, have been proposed as potential methods to increase ocular absorption and decrease systemic absorption of the drops. Objectives To investigate the effectiveness of topical medication instillation techniques compared with usual care or another method of instillation of topical medication in the management of glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2016, Issue 12), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 8 December 2016), Embase Ovid (1947 to 8 December 2016), PubMed (1948 to 8 December 2016), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database) (1982 to 8 December 2016), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts Database (1970 to 8 December 2016), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com) (last searched 13 May 2013), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) (searched 8 December 2016) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en) (searched 8 December 2016). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials which had compared any topical medication instillation technique with usual care or a different method of instillation of topical medication. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently screened records from the searches for eligibility, assessed the risk of bias, and extracted data. We followed methods recommended by Cochrane. Main results We identified two trials

  18. Topical tacrolimus for atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Cury Martins, Jade; Martins, Ciro; Aoki, Valeria; Gois, Aecio F T; Ishii, Henrique A; da Silva, Edina M K

    2015-07-01

    .98, 1 study, n = 139, low-quality evidence), but the effects were equivocal when evaluating BSA. In the comparison of tacrolimus 0.03% with moderate-to-potent corticosteroids, no difference was found in most of the outcomes measured (including physician's and participant's assessment and also for the secondary outcomes), but in two studies, a marginal benefit favouring the corticosteroid group was found for the EASI and BSA scores.Burning was more frequent in those using calcineurin inhibitors than those using corticosteroid tacrolimus 0.03% (RR 2.48, 95% CI 1.96 to 3.14, 5 studies, 1883 participants, high-quality evidence), but no difference was found for skin infections. Symptoms observed were mild and transient. The comparison between the two calcineurin inhibitors (pimecrolimus and tacrolimus) showed the same overall incidence of adverse events, but with a small difference in the frequency of local effects.Serious adverse events were rare; occurred in both the tacrolimus and corticosteroid groups; and in most cases, were considered to be unrelated to the treatment. No cases of lymphoma were noted in the included studies nor in the non-comparative studies. Cases were only noted in spontaneous reports, cohorts, and case-control studies. Systemic absorption was rarely detectable, only in low levels, and this decreased with time. Exception is made for diseases with severe barrier defects, such as Netherton's syndrome, lamellar ichthyosis, and a few others, with case reports of a higher absorption. We evaluated clinical trials; case reports; and in vivo, in vitro, and animal studies; and didn't find any evidence that topical tacrolimus could cause skin atrophy. Tacrolimus 0.1% was better than low-potency corticosteroids, pimecrolimus 1%, and tacrolimus 0.03%. Results were equivocal when comparing both dose formulations to moderate-to-potent corticosteroids. Tacrolimus 0.03% was superior to mild corticosteroids and pimecrolimus. Both tacrolimus formulations seemed to be

  19. Wide-area remote-sensing system of pollution and gas dispersal by near-infrared absorption based on low-loss optical fiber network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inaba, H.

    1986-01-01

    An all optical remote sensing system utilizing long distance, ultralow loss optical fiber networks is studied and discussed for near infrared absorption measurements of combustible and/or explosive gases such as CH4 and C3H8 in our environment, including experimental results achieved in a diameter more than 20 km. The use of a near infrared wavelength range is emphasized.

  20. A possible connection between the spin temperature of damped Lyman α absorption systems and star formation history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curran, S. J.

    2017-09-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the spin temperature/covering factor degeneracy, Tspin/f, in damped Lyman α absorption systems. By normalizing the upper limits and including these via a survival analysis, there is, as previously claimed, an apparent increase in Tspin/f with redshift at zabs ≳ 1. However, when we account for the geometry effects of an expanding Universe, neglected by the previous studies, this increase in Tspin at zabs ≳ 1 is preceded by a decrease at zabs ≲ 1. Using high resolution radio images of the background continuum sources, we can transform the Tspin/f degeneracy to T_spin/d_abs^{ 2}, where dabs is the projected linear size of the absorber. Again, there is no overall increase with redshift, although a dip at zabs ≈ 2 persists. Furthermore, we find d_abs^{ 2}/T_spin to follow a similar variation with redshift as the star formation rate, ψ*. This suggests that, although the total hydrogen column density, N_{H I}, shows little relation to ψ*, the fraction of the cold neutral medium, \\int τ_obs dv/N_{H I}, may. Therefore, further efforts to link the neutral gas with the star formation history should also consider the cool component of the gas.

  1. Room temperature exciton-polariton resonant reflection and suppressed absorption in periodic systems of InGaN quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolshakov, A. S.; Chaldyshev, V. V.; Zavarin, E. E.; Sakharov, A. V.; Lundin, W. V.; Tsatsulnikov, A. F.; Yagovkina, M. A.

    2017-04-01

    We studied the optical properties of periodic InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well systems with different numbers of periods. A resonant increase in the optical reflection and simultaneous suppression of the optical absorption have been revealed experimentally at room temperature when the Bragg and exciton resonances were tuned to each other. Numerical modeling with a single set of parameters gave a quantitatively accurate fit of the experimental reflection and transmission spectra in a wide wavelength range and various angles of the light incidence. The model included both exciton resonance and non-resonant band-to-band transitions in the InGaN quantum wells, as well as Rayleigh light scattering in the GaN buffer layer. The analysis also involved x-ray diffraction and photoluminescence data. It allowed us to determine the key parameters of the structure. In particular, the radiative broadening of the InGaN QW excitons was evaluated as 0.20 ± 0.02 meV.

  2. [Role of the autonomous nervous system in the regulation of the transit, absorption and storage of nutriments].

    PubMed

    Mei, N

    1986-01-01

    The possible role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in nutrition must be reevaluated in view of recent experimental data. The ANS plays a major part in both initiating and maintaining peristalsis and in coordinating gastrointestinal motility. Intestinal absorption involves extra-epithelial mechanisms such as motility and vasomotricity of the digestive tract. In addition, the ANS (sympathetic fibres) might act directly on enterocytes, or indirectly via the intestinal plexuses through a glucose-dependent mechanism. The control of exocrine and endocrine secretions depends partly on the ANS. In particular the mucous mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors and thermoreceptors located in the intestinal area supply the sensory information needed in that kind of regulation. The efferent fibres of the ANS intervene in the control of storage of carbohydrates in the liver and of lipids in brown adipose tissue. On the other hand, gastrointestinal afferents might be implicated in this mechanism through the hypothalamic ventro-median nucleus. Finally, these data are consistent with a modern conception suggesting that the ANS is largely involved in the regulation of visceral motility, homeostasis and alimentary behaviour.

  3. Absorption systems at z ˜ 2 as a probe of the circum galactic medium: a probabilistic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mongardi, C.; Viel, M.; D'Odorico, V.; Kim, T.-S.; Barai, P.; Murante, G.; Monaco, P.

    2018-05-01

    We characterize the properties of the intergalactic medium (IGM) around a sample of galaxies extracted from state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulations of structure formation in a cosmological volume of 25 Mpc comoving at z ˜ 2. The simulations are based on two different sub-resolution schemes for star formation and supernova feedback: the MUlti-Phase Particle Integrator (MUPPI) scheme and the Effective Model. We develop a quantitative and probabilistic analysis based on the apparent optical depth method of the properties of the absorbers as a function of impact parameter from their nearby galaxies: in such a way we probe different environments from circumgalactic medium (CGM) to low density filaments. Absorbers' properties are then compared with a spectroscopic observational data set obtained from high resolution quasar spectra. Our main focus is on the NCIV - NHI relation around simulated galaxies: the results obtained with MUPPI and the Effective model are remarkably similar, with small differences only confined to regions at impact parameters b = [1 - 3] × rvir. Using {C IV} as a tracer of the metallicity, we obtain evidence that the observed metal absorption systems have the highest probability to be confined in a region of 150-400 kpc around galaxies. Near-filament environments have instead metallicities too low to be probed by present-day telescopes, but could be probed by future spectroscopical studies. Finally we compute {C IV} covering fractions which are in agreement with observational data.

  4. Selenium speciation in seleniferous agricultural soils under different cropping systems using sequential extraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hai-Bo; Zhu, Jian-Ming; Lin, Zhi-Qing; Xu, Wen-Po; Tan, De-Can; Zheng, Li-Rong; Takahashi, Yoshio

    2017-06-01

    Selenium (Se) speciation in soil is critically important for understanding the solubility, mobility, bioavailability, and toxicity of Se in the environment. In this study, Se fractionation and chemical speciation in agricultural soils from seleniferous areas were investigated using the elaborate sequential extraction and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The speciation results quantified by XANES technique generally agreed with those obtained by sequential extraction, and the combination of both approaches can reliably characterize Se speciation in soils. Results showed that dominant organic Se (56-81% of the total Se) and lesser Se(IV) (19-44%) were observed in seleniferous agricultural soils. A significant decrease in the proportion of organic Se to the total Se was found in different types of soil, i.e., paddy soil (81%) > uncultivated soil (69-73%) > upland soil (56-63%), while that of Se(IV) presented an inverse tendency. This suggests that Se speciation in agricultural soils can be significantly influenced by different cropping systems. Organic Se in seleniferous agricultural soils was probably derived from plant litter, which provides a significant insight for phytoremediation in Se-laden ecosystems and biofortification in Se-deficient areas. Furthermore, elevated organic Se in soils could result in higher Se accumulation in crops and further potential chronic Se toxicity to local residents in seleniferous areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Far-ultraviolet "Continuum" in Protoplanetary Disk Systems. II. Carbon Monoxide Fourth Positive Emission and Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France, Kevin; Schindhelm, Eric; Burgh, Eric B.; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Harper, Graham M.; Brown, Alexander; Green, James C.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Yang, Hao; Abgrall, Hervé; Ardila, David R.; Bergin, Edwin; Bethell, Thomas; Brown, Joanna M.; Calvet, Nuria; Espaillat, Catherine; Gregory, Scott G.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Hussain, Gaitee; Ingleby, Laura; Johns-Krull, Christopher M.; Roueff, Evelyne; Valenti, Jeff A.; Walter, Frederick M.

    2011-06-01

    We exploit the high sensitivity and moderate spectral resolution of the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph to detect far-ultraviolet (UV) spectral features of carbon monoxide (CO) present in the inner regions of protoplanetary disks for the first time. We present spectra of the classical T Tauri stars HN Tau, RECX-11, and V4046 Sgr, representative of a range of CO radiative processes. HN Tau shows CO bands in absorption against the accretion continuum. The CO absorption most likely arises in warm inner disk gas. We measure a CO column density and rotational excitation temperature of N(CO) = (2 ± 1) × 1017 cm-2 and T rot(CO) 500 ± 200 K for the absorbing gas. We also detect CO A-X band emission in RECX-11 and V4046 Sgr, excited by UV line photons, predominantly H I Lyα. All three objects show emission from CO bands at λ > 1560 Å, which may be excited by a combination of UV photons and collisions with non-thermal electrons. In previous observations these emission processes were not accounted for due to blending with emission from the accretion shock, collisionally excited H2, and photo-excited H2, all of which appeared as a "continuum" whose components could not be separated. The CO emission spectrum is strongly dependent upon the shape of the incident stellar Lyα emission profile. We find CO parameters in the range: N(CO) ~ 1018-1019 cm-2, T rot(CO) >~ 300 K for the Lyα-pumped emission. We combine these results with recent work on photo-excited and collisionally excited H2 emission, concluding that the observations of UV-emitting CO and H2 are consistent with a common spatial origin. We suggest that the CO/H2 ratio (≡ N(CO)/N(H2)) in the inner disk is ~1, a transition between the much lower interstellar value and the higher value observed in solar system comets today, a result that will require future observational and theoretical study to confirm. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data

  6. Topical use and systemic action of green and roasted coffee oils and ground oils in a cutaneous incision model in rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus).

    PubMed

    Lania, Bruno Grosselli; Morari, Joseane; Souza, Aglécio Luis de; Silva, Marilene Neves da; de Almeida, Amanda Roberta; Veira-Damiani, Gislaine; Alegre, Sarah Monte; César, Carlos Lenz; Velloso, Lício Augusto; Cintra, Maria Letícia; Maia, Nilson Borlina; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    Wounds are a common health problem. Coffee is widely consumed and its oil contains essential fatty acids. We evaluated the local (skin) and systemic effects associated with the topical use of coffee oils in rats. Punch skin wounds (6 mm) incisions were generated on the backs of 75 rats. Saline (SS), mineral oil (MO), green coffee oil (GCO), roasted coffee oil (RCO), green coffee ground oil (GCGO) or roasted coffee ground oil (RCGO) were topically applied to the wounds. Healing was evaluated by visual and histological/morphometric optical microscopy examination; second harmonics generation (SHG) microscopy, wound tissue q-PCR (values in fold-change) and blood serum (ELISA, values in pg/mL). RCO treated animals presented faster wound healing (0.986 vs. 0.422), higher mRNA expression of IGF-1 (2.78 vs. 1.00, p = 0.01), IL-6 (10.72 vs. 1.00, p = 0.001) and IL-23 (4.10 vs. 1.2, p = 0.05) in early stages of wound healing; higher IL-12 (3.32 vs. 1.00, p = 0.05) in the later stages; and lower serum levels of IFN-γ (11.97 vs. 196.45, p = 0.01). GCO treatment led to higher mRNA expression of IL-6 (day 2: 7.94 vs. 1.00, p = 0.001 and day 4: 6.90 vs. 1.00, p = 0.01) and IL-23 (7.93 vs. 1.20, p = 0.001) in the early stages. The RCO treatment also produced higher serum IFN-α levels throughout the experiment (day 2: 52.53 vs. 21.20; day 4: 46.98 vs.21.56; day 10: 83.61 vs. 25.69, p = 0.05) and lower levels of IL-4 (day 4: 0.9 vs.13.36, p = 0.01), adiponectin (day 10: 8,367.47 vs. 16,526.38, p = 0.001) and IFN-γ (day 4: 43.03 vs.196.45, p = 0.05). The SHG analysis showed a higher collagen density in the RCO and GCO treatments (p = 0.05). Topical treatment with coffee oils led to systemic actions and faster wound healing in rats. Further studies should be performed are necessary to assess the safety of topical vegetal oil use for skin lesions.

  7. Topical use and systemic action of green and roasted coffee oils and ground oils in a cutaneous incision model in rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus)

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Aglécio Luis; Alegre, Sarah Monte; César, Carlos Lenz

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Wounds are a common health problem. Coffee is widely consumed and its oil contains essential fatty acids. We evaluated the local (skin) and systemic effects associated with the topical use of coffee oils in rats. Methods Punch skin wounds (6 mm) incisions were generated on the backs of 75 rats. Saline (SS), mineral oil (MO), green coffee oil (GCO), roasted coffee oil (RCO), green coffee ground oil (GCGO) or roasted coffee ground oil (RCGO) were topically applied to the wounds. Healing was evaluated by visual and histological/morphometric optical microscopy examination; second harmonics generation (SHG) microscopy, wound tissue q-PCR (values in fold-change) and blood serum (ELISA, values in pg/mL). Results RCO treated animals presented faster wound healing (0.986 vs. 0.422), higher mRNA expression of IGF-1 (2.78 vs. 1.00, p = 0.01), IL-6 (10.72 vs. 1.00, p = 0.001) and IL-23 (4.10 vs. 1.2, p = 0.05) in early stages of wound healing; higher IL-12 (3.32 vs. 1.00, p = 0.05) in the later stages; and lower serum levels of IFN-γ (11.97 vs. 196.45, p = 0.01). GCO treatment led to higher mRNA expression of IL-6 (day 2: 7.94 vs. 1.00, p = 0.001 and day 4: 6.90 vs. 1.00, p = 0.01) and IL-23 (7.93 vs. 1.20, p = 0.001) in the early stages. The RCO treatment also produced higher serum IFN-α levels throughout the experiment (day 2: 52.53 vs. 21.20; day 4: 46.98 vs.21.56; day 10: 83.61 vs. 25.69, p = 0.05) and lower levels of IL-4 (day 4: 0.9 vs.13.36, p = 0.01), adiponectin (day 10: 8,367.47 vs. 16,526.38, p = 0.001) and IFN-γ (day 4: 43.03 vs.196.45, p = 0.05). The SHG analysis showed a higher collagen density in the RCO and GCO treatments (p = 0.05). Conclusion Topical treatment with coffee oils led to systemic actions and faster wound healing in rats. Further studies should be performed are necessary to assess the safety of topical vegetal oil use for skin lesions. PMID:29236720

  8. Intraocular distribution of topically applied hydrophilic and lipophilic substances in rat eyes.

    PubMed

    Abdul Nasir, Nurul Alimah; Agarwal, Puneet; Agarwal, Renu; Iezhitsa, Igor; Alyautdin, Renad; Nukolova, Natalia N; Chekhonin, Vladimir P; Mohd Ismail, Nafeeza

    2016-10-01

    Topical administration is the preferred route of drug delivery for ophthalmic ailments. However, poor permeation through ocular surface and significant systemic absorption, makes the topical drug delivery challenging. Furthermore, distribution of topically delivered drugs varies with their physicochemical properties and the type of formulation used. Hence, this study was done to understand the pattern of ocular drug distribution of topically applied hydrophilic and lipophilic substances in two different formulations. 5-Carboxyfluorescein and 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate were used as representative candidates for hydrophilic and lipophilic substances, respectively. They were formulated in solution and liposomes. Single drop of either formulation containing hydrophilic or lipophilic substance was instilled topically, unilaterally to rat eyes. Subsequently, rats were sacrificed at 10, 30 and 120 min post-instillation. Eyes were cryosectioned and examined under confocal microscope to determine the fluorescence intensity in ocular tissues. Corneal permeation of hydrophilic and lipophilic substances in both formulations peaked at 30 min post-instillation. Liposomal-lipophilic dye and non-liposomal-hydrophilic dye showed better corneal distribution. Fluorescence was absent in contralateral eyes of non-liposomal-hydrophilic dye-treated animals but was present in contralateral eyes of liposomal-hydrophilic dye-treated animals. Fluorescence in contralateral eyes of liposomal-lipophilic dye-treated animals was significantly higher compared to non-liposomal-lipophilic dye-treated animals. Topically applied liposomal formulation of lipophilic substance provides higher corneal concentration of drug with lesser systemic absorption compared to its solution. For hydrophilic substance, topical use of solution provides greater corneal concentration compared to liposomes which is more likely to be absorbed systemically.

  9. Structural determination of individual chemical species in a mixed system by iterative transformation factor analysis-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy combined with UV-visible absorption and quantum chemical calculation.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Atsushi; Hennig, Christoph; Rossberg, André; Tsushima, Satoru; Scheinost, Andreas C; Bernhard, Gert

    2008-02-15

    A multitechnique approach using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy based on iterative transformation factor analysis (ITFA), UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations has been performed in order to investigate the speciation of uranium(VI) nitrate species in acetonitrile and to identify the complex structure of individual species in the system. UV-visible spectral titration suggests that there are four different species in the system, that is, pure solvated species, mono-, di-, and trinitrate species. The pure EXAFS spectra of these individual species are extracted by ITFA from the measured spectral mixtures on the basis of the speciation distribution profile calculated from the UV-visible data. Data analysis of the extracted EXAFS spectra, with the help of DFT calculations, reveals the most probable complex structures of the individual species. The pure solvated species corresponds to a uranyl hydrate complex with an equatorial coordination number (CNeq) of 5, [UO2(H2O)5]2+. Nitrate ions tend to coordinate to the uranyl(VI) ion in a bidentate fashion rather than a unidentate one in acetonitrile for all the nitrate species. The mononitrate species forms the complex of [UO2(H2O)3NO3]+ with a CNeq value of 5, while the di- and trinitrate species have a CNeq value of 6, corresponding to [UO2(H2O)2(NO3)2]0 (D2h) and [UO2(NO3)3]- (D3h), respectively.

  10. Comparison of two methods for blood lead analysis in cattle: graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and LeadCare(R) II system.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Karyn; Gaskill, Cynthia; Erb, Hollis N; Ebel, Joseph G; Hillebrandt, Joseph

    2010-09-01

    The current study compared the LeadCare(R) II test kit system with graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for blood lead (Pb) analysis in 56 cattle accidentally exposed to Pb in the field. Blood Pb concentrations were determined by LeadCare II within 4 hr of collection and after 72 hr of refrigeration. Blood Pb concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, and samples that were coagulated (n = 12) were homogenized before analysis. There was strong rank correlation (R(2) = 0.96) between atomic absorption and LeadCare II (within 4 hr of collection), and a conversion formula was determined for values within the observed range (3-91 mcg/dl, although few had values >40 mcg/dl). Median and mean blood pb concentrations for atomic absorption were 7.7 and 15.9 mcg/dl, respectively; for LeadCare II, medians were 5.2 mcg/dl at 4 hr and 4.9 mcg/dl at 72 hr, and means were 12.4 and 11.7, respectively. LeadCare II results at 4 hr strongly correlated with 72 hr results (R(2) = 0.96), but results at 72 hr were lower (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference between coagulated and uncoagulated samples run by atomic absorption. Although there have been several articles that compared LeadCare with other analytical techniques, all were for the original system, not LeadCare II. The present study indicated that LeadCare II results correlated well with atomic absorption over a wide range of blood Pb concentrations and that refrigerating samples for up to 72 hr before LeadCare II analysis was acceptable for clinical purposes.

  11. ABSORPTION ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Brooksbank, W.A. Jr.; Leddicotte, G.W.; Strain, J.E.; Hendon, H.H. Jr.

    1961-11-14

    A means was developed for continuously computing and indicating the isotopic assay of a process solution and for automatically controlling the process output of isotope separation equipment to provide a continuous output of the desired isotopic ratio. A counter tube is surrounded with a sample to be analyzed so that the tube is exactly in the center of the sample. A source of fast neutrons is provided and is spaced from the sample. The neutrons from the source are thermalized by causing them to pass through a neutron moderator, and the neutrons are allowed to diffuse radially through the sample to actuate the counter. A reference counter in a known sample of pure solvent is also actuated by the thermal neutrons from the neutron source. The number of neutrons which actuate the detectors is a function of a concentration of the elements in solution and their neutron absorption cross sections. The pulses produced by the detectors responsive to each neu tron passing therethrough are amplified and counted. The respective times required to accumulate a selected number of counts are measured by associated timing devices. The concentration of a particular element in solution may be determined by utilizing the following relation: T2/Ti = BCR, where B is a constant proportional to the absorption cross sections, T2 is the time of count collection for the unknown solution, Ti is the time of count collection for the pure solvent, R is the isotopic ratlo, and C is the molar concentration of the element to be determined. Knowing the slope constant B for any element and when the chemical concentration is known, the isotopic concentration may be readily determined, and conversely when the isotopic ratio is known, the chemical concentrations may be determined. (AEC)

  12. Effect of 5E Instructional Model in Student Success in Primary School 6th Year Circulatory System Topic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardak, Osman; Dikmenli, Musa; Saritas, Ozge

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to research the effect of the 5E instructional model on primary (sixth grade) student success during the circulatory system unit. This study was conducted with 38 students in two different classes by the same researcher in 2006-2007. One of the classes was assigned as the control group and the other as the experimental…

  13. LASER APPLICATIONS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Optimal two-mirror system for laser radiation focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitin, Andrey V.

    2009-10-01

    An optical system for laser radiation focusing, which consists of parabolic and elliptic mirrors, is considered. It is shown by the method of elementary reflections that the maximum concentration of laser radiation on the target can be achieved at a certain position of these mirrors.

  14. Topical nitroglycerin and lidocaine locally vasodilate the radial artery without affecting systemic blood pressure: a dose-finding phase I study.

    PubMed

    Majure, David T; Hallaux, Melanie; Yeghiazarians, Yerem; Boyle, Andrew J

    2012-10-01

    Small radial artery diameter (RAD) and vasospasm are barriers to radial artery cannulation. We performed this study to determine if topical nitroglycerin and/or nitroglycerin plus topical lidocaine increases RAD without affecting systemic blood pressure. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. In the first visit, to determine the optimal dose of nitroglycerin, subjects were randomized to either 15 or 30 mg nitroglycerin on one wrist and placebo on the other. In visit 2, to assess for any effect of lidocaine on the vasodilator function of nitroglycerin, the same subjects were randomized to 20 mg lidocaine + 30 mg nitroglycerin vs 20 mg lidocaine + placebo, or 40 mg lidocaine + 30 mg nitroglycerin vs 40 mg lidocaine + placebo. In both visits, blood pressure and RAD using ultrasonography were measured for 2 hours. In visit 1, both nitroglycerin groups significantly increased RAD, with greater increases with 30 mg nitroglycerin (P < .01) and no significant increase in RAD in placebo wrists. In visit 2, increase in RAD was significantly greater with 20 mg lidocaine + 30 mg nitroglycerin vs 20 mg lidocaine + placebo (P < .001), and 40 mg lidocaine + 30 mg nitroglycerin vs 40 mg lidocaine + placebo (P < .001), indicating that lidocaine does not alter the effect of nitroglycerin. There were significant increases in RAD seen as early as 30 minutes. There were no significant change in RAD in lidocaine + placebo-treated wrists and no change in blood pressure in any group. Topical nitroglycerin and lidocaine significantly increase RAD within 30 to 60 minutes with no effect on contralateral radial artery or blood pressure, indicating a direct, local effect on the radial artery. (Clinicaltrials.gov number NCT00686231). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of a portable active long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy system for volcanic gas measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vita, Fabio; Kern, Christoph; Inguaggiato, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Active long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-DOAS) has been an effective tool for measuring atmospheric trace gases for several decades. However, instruments were large, heavy and power-inefficient, making their application to remote environments extremely challenging. Recent developments in fibre-coupling telescope technology and the availability of ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDS) have now allowed us to design and construct a lightweight, portable, low-power LP-DOAS instrument for use at remote locations and specifically for measuring degassing from active volcanic systems. The LP-DOAS was used to measure sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from La Fossa crater, Vulcano, Italy, where column densities of up to 1.2 × 1018 molec cm−2 (~ 500 ppmm) were detected along open paths of up to 400 m in total length. The instrument's SO2 detection limit was determined to be 2 × 1016 molec cm−2 (~ 8 ppmm), thereby making quantitative detection of even trace amounts of SO2 possible. The instrument is capable of measuring other volcanic volatile species as well. Though the spectral evaluation of the recorded data showed that chlorine monoxide (ClO) and carbon disulfide (CS2) were both below the instrument's detection limits during the experiment, the upper limits for the X / SO2 ratio (X = ClO, CS2) could be derived, and yielded 2 × 10−3 and 0.1, respectively. The robust design and versatility of the instrument make it a promising tool for monitoring of volcanic degassing and understanding processes in a range of volcanic systems.

  16. Enabling the Distributed Generation Market of High Temperature Fuel Cell and Absorption Chiller Systems to Support Critical and Commercial Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiMola, Ashley M.

    Buildings account for over 18% of the world's anthropogenic Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. As a result, a technology that can offset GHG emissions associated with buildings has the potential to save over 9 Giga-tons of GHG emissions per year. High temperature fuel cell and absorption chiller (HTFC/AC) technology offers a relatively low-carbon option for meeting cooling and electric loads for buildings while producing almost no criteria pollutants. GHG emissions in the state of California would decrease by 7.48 million metric tons per year if every commercial building in the State used HTFC/AC technology to meet its power and cooling requirements. In order to realize the benefits of HTFC/AC technology on a wide scale, the distributed generation market needs to be exposed to the technology and informed of its economic viability and real-world potential. This work characterizes the economics associated with HTFC/AC technology using select scenarios that are representative of realistic applications. The financial impacts of various input factors are evaluated and the HTFC/AC simulations are compared to the economics of traditional building utilities. It is shown that, in addition to the emissions reductions derived from the systems, HTFC/AC technology is financially preferable in all of the scenarios evaluated. This work also presents the design of a showcase environment, centered on a beta-test application, that presents (1) system operating data gathered using a custom data acquisition module, and (2) HTFC/AC technology in a clear and approachable manner in order to serve the target audience of market stakeholders.

  17. HierarchicalTopics: visually exploring large text collections using topic hierarchies.

    PubMed

    Dou, Wenwen; Yu, Li; Wang, Xiaoyu; Ma, Zhiqiang; Ribarsky, William

    2013-12-01

    Analyzing large textual collections has become increasingly challenging given the size of the data available and the rate that more data is being generated. Topic-based text summarization methods coupled with interactive visualizations have presented promising approaches to address the challenge of analyzing large text corpora. As the text corpora and vocabulary grow larger, more topics need to be generated in order to capture the meaningful latent themes and nuances in the corpora. However, it is difficult for most of current topic-based visualizations to represent large number of topics without being cluttered or illegible. To facilitate the representation and navigation of a large number of topics, we propose a visual analytics system--HierarchicalTopic (HT). HT integrates a computational algorithm, Topic Rose Tree, with an interactive visual interface. The Topic Rose Tree constructs a topic hierarchy based on a list of topics. The interactive visual interface is designed to present the topic content as well as temporal evolution of topics in a hierarchical fashion. User interactions are provided for users to make changes to the topic hierarchy based on their mental model of the topic space. To qualitatively evaluate HT, we present a case study that showcases how HierarchicalTopics aid expert users in making sense of a large number of topics and discovering interesting patterns of topic groups. We have also conducted a user study to quantitatively evaluate the effect of hierarchical topic structure. The study results reveal that the HT leads to faster identification of large number of relevant topics. We have also solicited user feedback during the experiments and incorporated some suggestions into the current version of HierarchicalTopics.

  18. Extrapolation of systemic bioavailability assessing skin absorption and epidermal and hepatic metabolism of aromatic amine hair dyes in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Manwaring, John, E-mail: manwaring.jd@pg.com; Rothe, Helga; Obringer, Cindy

    Approaches to assess the role of absorption, metabolism and excretion of cosmetic ingredients that are based on the integration of different in vitro data are important for their safety assessment, specifically as it offers an opportunity to refine that safety assessment. In order to estimate systemic exposure (AUC) to aromatic amine hair dyes following typical product application conditions, skin penetration and epidermal and systemic metabolic conversion of the parent compound was assessed in human skin explants and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and hepatocyte cultures. To estimate the amount of the aromatic amine that can reach the general circulation unchanged after passagemore » through the skin the following toxicokinetically relevant parameters were applied: a) Michaelis–Menten kinetics to quantify the epidermal metabolism; b) the estimated keratinocyte cell abundance in the viable epidermis; c) the skin penetration rate; d) the calculated Mean Residence Time in the viable epidermis; e) the viable epidermis thickness and f) the skin permeability coefficient. In a next step, in vitro hepatocyte K{sub m} and V{sub max} values and whole liver mass and cell abundance were used to calculate the scaled intrinsic clearance, which was combined with liver blood flow and fraction of compound unbound in the blood to give hepatic clearance. The systemic exposure in the general circulation (AUC) was extrapolated using internal dose and hepatic clearance, and C{sub max} was extrapolated (conservative overestimation) using internal dose and volume of distribution, indicating that appropriate toxicokinetic information can be generated based solely on in vitro data. For the hair dye, p-phenylenediamine, these data were found to be in the same order of magnitude as those published for human volunteers. - Highlights: • An entirely in silico/in vitro approach to predict in vivo exposure to dermally applied hair dyes • Skin penetration and epidermal conversion assessed in

  19. Incorporating Software Requirements into the System RFP: Survey of RFP Language for Software by Topic, v. 2.0

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    CDRL) System - Terminal S TMOS - SEIT CL TMOS - IA/ Crypto CL Space - Payload S Space - SEIT C Space - IA/ Crypto C Role Legend: CL...strategy for maintaining the currency of the technology (through Commercial off-the-shelf software (COTS) and other reusable Non-Developmental Items (NDI...the strategy for maintaining the currency of technology (e.g., through Commercial off-the-shelf software (COTS) insertion, technology refresh

  20. Parametric Investigation of Holographic Gratings and Optical Phase Conjugation Through Degenerate Four Wave Mixing in Saturable Absorptive/Resonant/Nonresonant Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-26

    WAVE MIXING IN SATURABLE ABSORPTIVEIRESONANTINONRESONANT SYSTEMS I Final Report Putcha Venkateswarlu November 26, 1991 U.S. ARMY RESEARCH OFFICE GRANT...and Optical Phase Conjugation Through Degenerate Four Wave Mixin2 in Saturable Absorptive/Resonant/Nonresonant System DAAL03-87-G-0078 6. AUTHOR(S) P...author(s) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army position, policy, or decision, unless so designated by other

  1. Development of vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy system for wide measurement range of number density using a dual-tube inductively coupled plasma light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Akira; Matsui, Makoto; Yamagiwa, Yoshiki

    2012-12-01

    A vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy system for a wide measurement range of atomic number densities is developed. Dual-tube inductively coupled plasma was used as a light source. The probe beam profile was optimized for the target number density range by changing the mass flow rate of the inner and outer tubes. This system was verified using cold xenon gas. As a result, the measurement number density range was extended from the conventional two orders to five orders of magnitude.

  2. Design and Economic Potential of an Integrated High-Temperature Fuel Cell and Absorption Chiller Combined Cooling, Heat, and Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosford, Kyle S.

    Clean distributed generation power plants can provide a much needed balance to our energy infrastructure in the future. A high-temperature fuel cell and an absorption chiller can be integrated to create an ideal combined cooling, heat, and power system that is efficient, quiet, fuel flexible, scalable, and environmentally friendly. With few real-world installations of this type, research remains to identify the best integration and operating strategy and to evaluate the economic viability and market potential of this system. This thesis informs and documents the design of a high-temperature fuel cell and absorption chiller demonstration system at a generic office building on the University of California, Irvine (UCI) campus. This work details the extension of prior theoretical work to a financially-viable power purchase agreement (PPA) with regard to system design, equipment sizing, and operating strategy. This work also addresses the metering and monitoring for the system showcase and research and details the development of a MATLAB code to evaluate the economics associated with different equipment selections, building loads, and economic parameters. The series configuration of a high-temperature fuel cell, heat recovery unit, and absorption chiller with chiller exhaust recirculation was identified as the optimal system design for the installation in terms of efficiency, controls, ducting, and cost. The initial economic results show that high-temperature fuel cell and absorption chiller systems are already economically competitive with utility-purchased generation, and a brief case study of a southern California hospital shows that the systems are scalable and viable for larger stationary power applications.

  3. The use of One-Dimensional Laboratory Experiments to Assess Hydraulic Processes in Wastewater Soil Absorption Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntzinger, D. N.; McCray, J. E.; Siegrist, R.; Lowe, K.; VanCuyk, S.

    2001-05-01

    Sixteen, one-dimensional column lysimeters have been developed to evaluate the influence of loading regime and infiltrative surface character on hydraulic performance in wastewater soil absorption systems. A duplicate design was utilized to evaluate two infiltrative surface conditions (gravel-free vs. gravel-laden) under four hydraulic loading regimes representative of possible field conditions. By loading the columns at rates of 25 to 200 cm/day, the 17 weeks of column operation actually reflect up to approximately 13 yrs of field operation (at 5 cm/day). Therefore, the cumulative mass throughput and infiltrative rate loss for each loading regime can be examined to determine the viability of accelerated loading as a means to compress the time scale of observation, while still producing meaningfully results for the field scale. During operation, the columns were loaded with septic tank effluent at a prescribed rate and routinely monitoring for applied effluent composition, infiltration rate, time-dependant soil water content, water volume throughput, and percolate composition. Bromide tracer tests were completed prior to system startup and at weeks 2, 6, and 17 of system operation. Hydraulic characterization of the columns is based on measurements of the hydraulic loading rate, volumetric throughput, soil water content, and bromide breakthrough curves. Incipient ponding of wastewater developed during the 1st week of operation for columns loaded at the highest hydraulic rate (loading regimes 1 and 2), and during the 3rd and 6th week of operation for loading regimes 3 and 4, respectfully. The bromide breakthrough curves exhibit later breakthrough and tailing as system life increases, indicating the development of spatially variability in hydraulic conductivity within the column and the development of a clogging zone at the infiltrative surface. Throughput is assessed for each loading regime to determine the infiltration rate loss versus days of operation. Loading

  4. Salicylic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... stinging in the area where you applied topical salicylic acid Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of ... of the eyes, face, lips, or tongue Topical salicylic acid may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual ...

  5. Optical absorption, electron spin resonance, and electron spin echo studies of the photoionization of tetramethylbenzidine in cationic and anionic synthetic vesicles: comparison with analogous micellar systems

    SciTech Connect

    Li, A.S.W.; Kevan, L.

    1983-09-07

    The photoionization of N,N,N',N'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) in dihexadecylphosphate anionic vesicles and in dioctadecyldimethylammonium chloride cationic vesicles has been studied by optical absorption and electron spin resonance in liquid and frozen solutions. The TMB cation has been observed to be stabilized in both types of vesicles. The photoionization efficiency is about twofold greater in the cationic vesicles compared to the anionic vesicles. Shifts in the optical absorption maximum between micellar and vesicle solutions indicate that TMB is in a less polar environment in the vesicle systems. Electron spin echo modulation spectrometry has been used to detect TMB cation-water interactions that are foundmore » to be weaker than in previously studied micellar solutions. This is consistent with the optical absorption results and with an asymmetric solubilization site for TMB and TMB/sup +/ within the vesicular structure. A new absorption in the photoionized vesicles is assigned to a nonparamagnetic diamine-diimine charge-transfer complex between two TMB cations in the same vesicle. This complex is not formed in micellar systems. 5 figures.« less

  6. Study of a Steel’s Energy Absorption System for Heavy Quadricycles and Nonlinear Explicit Dynamic Analysis of its Behavior under Impact by FEM

    PubMed Central

    López Campos, José Ángel; Segade Robleda, Abraham; Vilán Vilán, José Antonio; García Nieto, Paulino José; Blanco Cordero, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Current knowledge of the behavior of heavy quadricycles under impact is still very poor. One of the most significant causes is the lack of energy absorption in the vehicle frame or its steel chassis structure. For this reason, special steels (with yield stresses equal to or greater than 350 MPa) are commonly used in the automotive industry due to their great strain hardening properties along the plastic zone, which allows good energy absorption under impact. This paper presents a proposal for a steel quadricycle energy absorption system which meets the percentages of energy absorption for conventional vehicles systems. This proposal is validated by explicit dynamics simulation, which will define the whole problem mathematically and verify behavior under impact at speeds of 40 km/h and 56 km/h using the finite element method (FEM). One of the main consequences of this study is that this FEM–based methodology can tackle high nonlinear problems like this one with success, avoiding the need to carry out experimental tests, with consequent economical savings since experimental tests are very expensive. Finally, the conclusions from this innovative research work are given. PMID:28793607

  7. Study of a Steel's Energy Absorption System for Heavy Quadricycles and Nonlinear Explicit Dynamic Analysis of its Behavior under Impact by FEM.

    PubMed

    López Campos, José Ángel; Segade Robleda, Abraham; Vilán Vilán, José Antonio; García Nieto, Paulino José; Blanco Cordero, Javier

    2015-10-10

    Current knowledge of the behavior of heavy quadricycles under impact is still very poor. One of the most significant causes is the lack of energy absorption in the vehicle frame or its steel chassis structure. For this reason, special steels (with yield stresses equal to or greater than 350 MPa) are commonly used in the automotive industry due to their great strain hardening properties along the plastic zone, which allows good energy absorption under impact. This paper presents a proposal for a steel quadricycle energy absorption system which meets the percentages of energy absorption for conventional vehicles systems. This proposal is validated by explicit dynamics simulation, which will define the whole problem mathematically and verify behavior under impact at speeds of 40 km/h and 56 km/h using the finite element method (FEM). One of the main consequences of this study is that this FEM-based methodology can tackle high nonlinear problems like this one with success, avoiding the need to carry out experimental tests, with consequent economical savings since experimental tests are very expensive. Finally, the conclusions from this innovative research work are given.

  8. Nonlinear absorption kinetics of self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) containing tocotrienols as lipophilic molecules: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Alqahtani, Saeed; Alayoubi, Alaadin; Nazzal, Sami; Sylvester, Paul W; Kaddoumi, Amal

    2013-07-01

    Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) have been broadly used to promote the oral absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the in vivo oral bioavailability of vitamin E isoforms, δ-tocotrienol (δ-T3) and γ-tocotrienol (γ-T3) administered as SEDDS, as compared to commercially available UNIQUE E® Tocotrienols capsules. Results from studies in rats showed that low dose treatment with δ-T3 (90%) and γ-T3 (10%) formulated SEDDS showed bioavailability of 31.5% and 332%, respectively. However, bioavailability showed a progressive decrease with increased treatment dose that displayed nonlinear absorption kinetics. Additional in vitro studies examining cellular uptake studies in Caco 2 cells revealed that the SEDDS formulation increased passive permeability of δ-T3 and γ-T3 by threefold as compared to the commercial capsule formulation. These studies also showed that free surfactants decreased δ-T3 and γ-T3 absorption. Specifically, combined treatment cremophor EL or labrasol with tocotrienols caused a 60-85% reduction in the cellular uptake of δ-T3 and γ-T3 and these effects appear to result from surfactant-induced inhibition of the δ-T3 and γ-T3 transport protein Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1). In summary, results showed that SEDDS formulation significantly increases the absorption and bioavailability δ-T3 and γ-T3. However, this effect is self-limiting because treatment with increasing doses of SEDDS appears to be associated with a corresponding increase in free surfactants levels that directly and negatively impact tocotrienol transport protein function and results in nonlinear absorption kinetics and a progressive decrease in δ-T3 and γ-T3 absorption and bioavailability.

  9. The effect of volatility on percutaneous absorption.

    PubMed

    Rouse, Nicole C; Maibach, Howard I

    2016-01-01

    Topically applied chemicals may volatilize, or evaporate, from skin leaving behind a chemical residue with new percutaneous absorptive capabilities. Understanding volatilization of topical medications, such as sunscreens, fragrances, insect repellants, cosmetics and other commonly applied topicals may have implications for their safety and efficacy. A systematic review of English language articles from 1979 to 2014 was performed using key search terms. Articles were evaluated to assess the relationship between volatility and percutaneous absorption. A total of 12 articles were selected and reviewed. Key findings were that absorption is enhanced when coupled with a volatile substance, occlusion prevents evaporation and increases absorption, high ventilation increases volatilization and reduces absorption, and pH of skin has an affect on a chemical's volatility. The articles also brought to light that different methods may have an affect on volatility: different body regions; in vivo vs. in vitro; human vs. Data suggest that volatility is crucial for determining safety and efficacy of cutaneous exposures and therapies. Few articles have been documented reporting evaporation in the context of percutaneous absorption, and of those published, great variability exists in methods. Further investigation of volatility is needed to properly evaluate its role in percutaneous absorption.

  10. Systemic Candidiasis in Extremely Low Birthweight (ELBW) Neonates Despite the Routine Use of Topical Miconazole Prophylaxis: Trends, Risk Factors and Outcomes over an 11-Year Period.

    PubMed

    Sriram, Bhavani; Agarwal, Pratibha K; Tee, Nancy W S; Rajadurai, Victor S

    2014-05-01

    This study aims to determine the incidence, trends of systemic candidiasis and meningitis in extremely low birthweight (ELBW) neonates (<1000 gms) despite the routine use of topical miconazole prophylaxis and to compare the risk factors, adverse outcomes and comorbidities with controls. Retrospective cohort study of ELBW neonates with systemic candidiasis and meningitis over an 11-year period (1997 to 2007). Matched case control analyses were performed to determine the risk factors and comorbidities which were severe intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH), severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) requiring treatment, necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), chronic lung disease (CLD) and cholestatic jaundice. Mortality and end organ involvement secondary to systemic candidiasis were identified as adverse outcomes. Of the 757 ELBW neonates, 51 (6.7%) had evidence of systemic candidiasis with a significant 3-fold increase in trend noted in 2007 as compared against 1997 (12.1% vs 3.8%) (RR 1.2, 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.36, P <0.001). This corresponds to a significant increasing trend of preceding or co-existent bacterial blood stream infections (BSI) in neonates with systemic candidiasis (0% in 1997 vs 7.1% in 2007, RR 1.40, 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.25, P = 0.005). On logistic regression analysis, decreasing gestational age was an independent risk factor for systemic candidiasis (OR 2.0, 95% CI, 1.52 to 2.63, P <0.001). Candida meningitis was detected in 4/38 (10.5%) and end organ involvement in 17 (33%). The organisms isolated were Candida parapsilosis 31 (61%), Candida albicans 17 (33%) and Candida glabrata 3 (5.8%). Significantly higher mortality was seen in cases when compared to controls 10/51 (19.6%) vs 76/706 (10.7%) (OR 2.02, 95% CI, 1.02 to 4.40, P <0.001). Increasing trend in the incidence of systemic candidiasis despite routine use of topical miconazole prophylaxis is of concern and future studies comparing the use of systemic fl uconazole versus oral

  11. Exciton exciton annihilation dynamics in chromophore complexes. II. Intensity dependent transient absorption of the LH2 antenna system.

    PubMed

    Bruggemann, B; May, V

    2004-02-01

    Using the multiexciton density matrix theory of excitation energy transfer in chromophore complexes developed in a foregoing paper [J. Chem. Phys. 118, 746 (2003)], the computation of ultrafast transient absorption spectra is presented. Beside static disorder and standard mechanisms of excitation energy dissipation the theory incorporates exciton exciton annihilation (EEA) processes. To elucidate signatures of EEA in intensity dependent transient absorption data the approach is applied to the B850 ring of the LH2 found in rhodobacter sphaeroides. As main indications for two-exciton population and resulting EEA we found (i) a weakening of the dominant single-exciton bleaching structure in the transient absorption, and (ii) an intermediate suppression of long-wavelength and short-wavelength shoulders around the bleaching structure. The suppression is caused by stimulated emission from the two-exciton to the one-exciton state and the return of the shoulders follows from a depletion of two-exciton population according to EEA. The EEA-signature survives as a short-wavelength shoulder in the transient absorption if orientational and energetic disorder are taken into account. Therefore, the observation of the EEA-signatures should be possible when doing frequency resolved transient absorption experiments with a sufficiently strongly varying pump-pulse intensity. Copyright 2004 American Institute of Physics

  12. Ideology of a multiparametric system for estimating the insulation system of electric machines on the basis of absorption testing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kislyakov, M. A.; Chernov, V. A.; Maksimkin, V. L.; Bozhin, Yu. M.

    2017-12-01

    The article deals with modern methods of monitoring the state and predicting the life of electric machines. In 50% of the cases of failure in the performance of electric machines is associated with insulation damage. As promising, nondestructive methods of control, methods based on the investigation of the processes of polarization occurring in insulating materials are proposed. To improve the accuracy of determining the state of insulation, a multiparametric approach is considered, which is a basis for the development of an expert system for estimating the state of health.

  13. Integration of Ground-Based Solar FT-IR Absorption Spectroscopy and Open-Path Systems for Atmospheric Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steill, J. D.; Hager, J. S.; Compton, R. N.

    2006-05-01

    Air quality issues in the Knoxville and East Tennessee region are of great concern, particularly as regards the nearby Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Infrared absorption spectroscopy of the atmosphere provides a unique opportunity to analyze the local chemical composition, since many trace atmospheric constituents are open to this analysis, such as O3, CO, CH4, and N2O. Integration of a Bomem DA8 FT-IR spectrometer with rooftop sun-tracking optics and an open-path system provide solar-sourced and boundary- layer atmospheric infrared spectra of these and other relevant atmospheric components. Boundary layer concentrations as well as total column abundances and vertical concentration profiles are derived. Vertical concentration profiles are determined by fitting solar-sourced absorbance lines with the SFIT2 algorithm. Improved fitting of solar spectra has been demonstrated by incorporating the tropospheric concentrations as determined by open-path measurements. A record of solar-sourced atmospheric spectra of greater than two years duration is under analysis to characterize experimental error and thus the limit of precision in the concentration determinations. Initial efforts using atmospheric O2 as a calibration indicate the solar- sourced spectra may not yet meet the precision required for accurate atmospheric CO2 quantification by such efforts as the OCO and NDSC. However, this variability is also indicative of local concentration fluxes pertinent to the regional atmospheric chemistry. In addition to providing a means to improve the analysis of solar spectra, the open-path data is useful for elucidation of seasonal and diurnal trends in the local trace gas concentrations.

  14. [Topical therapy of ulcerative colitis].

    PubMed

    Rogler, G; Beglinger, C; Mottet, C; Seibold, F; Gross, V

    2011-11-16

    The availability of new topical preparations for the treatment of left sided ulcerative colitis ulcerosa offers a therapy optimization for many patients. Rectal application of steroids and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is associated with fewer side effects and has a higher therapeutic efficacy in mild to moderate-active left-sided colitis as compared to a systemic therapy. Often it is argued that the patients' compliance is insufficient with a rectal therapy. However, with sufficient information on the proven advantages this is usually not the case. The rectal application of drugs in distal ulcerative colitis is suitable also for the maintenance of remission. Therefore the new therapy guidelines recommend topical therapy more than in former times. Subsequently, these manuscripts focussed specifically on the topical therapy of distal colitis, to elucidate that clear treatment advantages are present in daily practice.

  15. The Cutaneous Microbiome and Aspects of Skin Antimicrobial Defense System Resist Acute Treatment with Topical Skin Cleansers.

    PubMed

    Two, Aimee M; Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Kotol, Paul F; Arvanitidou, Evangelia; Du-Thumm, Laurence; Hata, Tissa R; Gallo, Richard L

    2016-10-01

    The human skin microbiome has been suggested to play an essential role in maintaining health by contributing to innate defense of the skin. These observations have inspired speculation that the use of common skin washing techniques may be detrimental to the epidermal antibacterial defense system by altering the microbiome. In this study, several common skin cleansers were used to wash human forearms and the short-term effect on the abundance of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 and the abundance and diversity of bacterial DNA was measured. Despite small but significant decreases in the amount of LL-37 on the skin surface shortly after washing, no significant change in the bacterial community was detected. Furthermore, Group A Streptococcus did not survive better on the skin after washing. In contrast, the addition of antimicrobial compounds such as benzalkonium chloride or triclocarban to soap before washing decreased the growth of Group A Streptococcus applied after rinse. These results support prior studies that hand washing techniques in the health care setting are beneficial and should be continued. Additional research is necessary to better understand the effects of chronic washing and the potential impact of skin care products on the development of dysbiosis in some individuals. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Gamma–Gamma Absorption in the γ-ray Binary System PSR B1259-63/LS 2883

    SciTech Connect

    Sushch, Iurii; Van Soelen, Brian, E-mail: iurii.sushch@desy.de, E-mail: vansoelenb@ufs.ac.za

    2017-03-10

    The observed TeV light curve from the γ -ray binary PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 shows a decrease in the flux at periastron that has not been fully explained by emission mechanisms alone. This observed decrease can, however, be explained by γγ absorption due to the stellar and disk photons. We calculate the γγ absorption in PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 taking into account photons from both the circumstellar disk and star, assuming that the γ -rays originate at the position of the pulsar. The γγ absorption due to the circumstellar disk photons produces a ≈14% decrease in the flux, and there is amore » total decrease of ≈52% (>1 TeV) within a few days before periastron, accompanied by a hardening of the γ -ray photon index. While the γγ absorption alone is not sufficient to explain the full complexity of the H.E.S.S. γ -ray light curve, it results in a significant decrease in the predicted flux, which is coincident with the observed decrease. In addition, we have calculated an upper limit on the γγ absorption, assuming that the emission is produced at the apex of the bow shock. Future observations with CTA during the 2021 periastron passage may be able to confine the location of the emission based on the degree of γγ absorption, as well as measure the hardening of the spectrum around periastron.« less

  17. Tactile friction of topical formulations.

    PubMed

    Skedung, L; Buraczewska-Norin, I; Dawood, N; Rutland, M W; Ringstad, L

    2016-02-01

    The tactile perception is essential for all types of topical formulations (cosmetic, pharmaceutical, medical device) and the possibility to predict the sensorial response by using instrumental methods instead of sensory testing would save time and cost at an early stage product development. Here, we report on an instrumental evaluation method using tactile friction measurements to estimate perceptual attributes of topical formulations. Friction was measured between an index finger and an artificial skin substrate after application of formulations using a force sensor. Both model formulations of liquid crystalline phase structures with significantly different tactile properties, as well as commercial pharmaceutical moisturizing creams being more tactile-similar, were investigated. Friction coefficients were calculated as the ratio of the friction force to the applied load. The structures of the model formulations and phase transitions as a result of water evaporation were identified using optical microscopy. The friction device could distinguish friction coefficients between the phase structures, as well as the commercial creams after spreading and absorption into the substrate. In addition, phase transitions resulting in alterations in the feel of the formulations could be detected. A correlation was established between skin hydration and friction coefficient, where hydrated skin gave rise to higher friction. Also a link between skin smoothening and finger friction was established for the commercial moisturizing creams, although further investigations are needed to analyse this and correlations with other sensorial attributes in more detail. The present investigation shows that tactile friction measurements have potential as an alternative or complement in the evaluation of perception of topical formulations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. An Intercomparison Study of Two Proximate Damped Lyα Systems with Residual Flux upon the Lyα Absorption Trough toward Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiaoyi; Zhou, Hongyan; Pan, Xiang; Jiang, Peng; Shi, Xiheng; Ji, Tuo; Zhang, Shaohua; Wu, Shengmiao; Zhong, Zhihao

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we present an intercomparison study of two quasars, SDSS J145618.32+340037.2 and SDSS J215331.50–025514.1, which have proximate damped Lyα systems (PDLAs) with residual flux upon the Lyα absorption trough. Though they both have residual flux as luminous as 1043 erg s‑1, their PDLAs are quite different in, e.g., neutral hydrogen column density, metal line absorption strength, high-ionization absorption lines as well as residual flux strength. For J1456+3400, the H I column density is log(N H I /cm–2) = 20.6 ± 0.2, with z abs = 2.3138, nearly identical to the quasar redshift (z = 2.3142) determined from the [O III] emission line. The metallicity of this system is typical of DLAs and there is high ionization therein, suggesting that the PDLA system is multiphase, putting it in the quasar environment. For J2153–0255, we measure the H I column density to be log(N H I /cm–2) = 21.5 ± 0.1 at z abs = 3.511, slightly redshifted with respect to the quasar (z = 3.490) measured from C III]. The metallicity of this system is quite low and there is a lack of significant high-ionization absorption lines therein, suggesting that the system is beyond the quasar host galaxy. The residual flux is wide (∼1000 km s‑1) in J1456, with a significance of ∼8σ, while also wide (∼1500 km s‑1) but with a smaller significance of ∼3σ in J2153. Among many explanations, we find that Lyα fuzz or resonant scattering can be used to explain the residual flux in the two sources while partial coverage cannot be excluded for J1456. By comparing these two cases, together with a similar case reported previously, we suggest that the strength of the residual flux is related to properties such as metallicity and high-ionization absorption lines of PDLAs. The residual flux recorded upon the PDLA absorption trough opens a window for us to see the physical conditions and processes of the quasar environment, and their profile and strength further remind us of their

  19. Determination of serum aluminum by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry: A comparison between Zeeman and continuum background correction systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruger, Pamela C.; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2007-03-01

    Excessive exposure to aluminum (Al) can produce serious health consequences in people with impaired renal function, especially those undergoing hemodialysis. Al can accumulate in the brain and in bone, causing dialysis-related encephalopathy and renal osteodystrophy. Thus, dialysis patients are routinely monitored for Al overload, through measurement of their serum Al. Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is widely used for serum Al determination. Here, we assess the analytical performances of three ETAAS instruments, equipped with different background correction systems and heating arrangements, for the determination of serum Al. Specifically, we compare (1) a Perkin Elmer (PE) Model 3110 AAS, equipped with a longitudinally (end) heated graphite atomizer (HGA) and continuum-source (deuterium) background correction, with (2) a PE Model 4100ZL AAS equipped with a transversely heated graphite atomizer (THGA) and longitudinal Zeeman background correction, and (3) a PE Model Z5100 AAS equipped with a HGA and transverse Zeeman background correction. We were able to transfer the method for serum Al previously established for the Z5100 and 4100ZL instruments to the 3110, with only minor modifications. As with the Zeeman instruments, matrix-matched calibration was not required for the 3110 and, thus, aqueous calibration standards were used. However, the 309.3-nm line was chosen for analysis on the 3110 due to failure of the continuum background correction system at the 396.2-nm line. A small, seemingly insignificant overcorrection error was observed in the background channel on the 3110 instrument at the 309.3-nm line. On the 4100ZL, signal oscillation was observed in the atomization profile. The sensitivity, or characteristic mass ( m0), for Al at the 309.3-nm line on the 3110 AAS was found to be 12.1 ± 0.6 pg, compared to 16.1 ± 0.7 pg for the Z5100, and 23.3 ± 1.3 pg for the 4100ZL at the 396.2-nm line. However, the instrumental detection limits (3

  20. 'Hot Topics' in Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maran, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    Three current topics in astrophysics are described here on the occasion of the joint meeting of the American Association of Physics Teachers and the American Astronomical Society (Jan. 7-11, 2001, San Diego, Calif.). Many equally exciting topics--ranging from the dozens of newly discovered planets of sunlike stars to evidence suggesting that the expansion of the universe is accelerating--could have been chosen. The topics discussed are: (1) the habitability of Mars, (2) black holes, galaxy bulges, and the X-ray background, and (3) the greatest explosions since the Big Bang.

  1. Detection of a z=0.0515, 0.0522 absorption system in the QSO S4 0248+430 due to an intervening galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Womble, Donna S.; Junkkarinen, Vesa T.; Cohen, Ross D.; Burbidge, E. Margaret

    1990-01-01

    In some of the few cases where the line of sight to a Quasi-Stellar Object (QSO) passes near a galaxy, the galaxy redshift is almost identical to an absorption redshift in the spectrum of the QSO. Although these relatively low redshift QSO-galaxy pairs may not be typical of the majority of the narrow heavy-element QSO absorption systems, they provide a direct measure of column densities in the outer parts of galaxies and some limits on the relative abundances of the gas. Observations are presented here of the QSO S4 0248+430 and a nearby anonymous galaxy (Kuhr 1977). The 14 second separation of the line of sight to the QSO (z sub e = 1.316) and the z=0.052 spiral galaxy, (a projected separation of 20 kpc ((h sub o = 50, q sub o = 0)), makes this a particularly suitable pair for probing the extent and content of gas in the galaxy. Low resolution (6A full width half maximum), long slit charge coupled device (CCD) spectra show strong CA II H and K lines in absorption at the redshift of the galaxy (Junkkarinen 1987). Higher resolution spectra showing both Ca II H and K and Na I D1 and D2 in absorption and direct images are reported here.

  2. A Candidate for an Intrinsic Dusty Absorber with a Metal-rich Damped Lyα Absorption Line System in the Quasar J170542.91+354340.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xiang; Zhou, Hongyan; Ge, Jian; Jiang, Peng; Yang, Bin; Lu, Honglin; Ji, Tuo; Zhang, Shaohua; Shi, Xiheng

    2017-02-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the unusual damped Lyα absorption line system (DLA) toward the quasar SDSS J170542.91+354340.2 at a redshift of 2, previously reported by Noterdaeme et al. as one of the very few CO absorbers known to date at high z. This DLA is exceptional in that: (1) its extinction curve is similar to peculiar Milky Way sightlines penetrating star formation regions; (2) its absorption components are redshifted at a speed of several hundred km s-1 compared to broad Balmer emission lines; (3) its gas-phase metallicity is super-solar as evaluated from more than 30 absorption lines; (4) detection of residual flux in the DLA trough and variability of {{C}} {{IV}} absorption is possible. Based on these facts, we argue that this dusty DLA is a good candidate for an intrinsic quasar 2175 Å absorber, and can originate from star formation regions of the quasar’s host galaxy. We discuss in detail the gas and dust properties, and the dust depletion. Follow-up observations, such as spectropolarimetry and optical/infrared spectroscopy, will help to confirm the system’s intrinsic nature and to explore how dust grains behave in the extreme environments proximate to quasars.

  3. Multiculturalism in Schools: The Professional Absorption of Immigrant Teachers from the Former USSR into the Education System in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Orly

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the professional absorption of immigrant teachers from the Former Soviet Union in comparison to veteran teachers working in the same schools in Israel. Findings are based on data from 272 questionnaires. The sample included 117 teachers working in Israeli schools who immigrated from the Former Soviet…

  4. Annette Bunge: developing the principles in percutaneous absorption using chemical engineering principles.

    PubMed

    Stinchcomb, A L

    2013-01-01

    Annette Bunge and her research group have had the central theme of mathematically modeling the dermal absorption process. Most of the research focus has been on estimating dermal absorption for the purpose of risk assessment, for exposure scenarios in the environment and in the occupational setting. Her work is the basis for the United States Environmental Protection Agency's estimations for dermal absorption from contaminated water. It is also the basis of the dermal absorption estimates used in determining if chemicals should be assigned a 'skin notation' for potential systemic toxicity following occupational skin exposure. The work is truly translational in that it started with mathematical theory, is validated with preclinical and human experiments, and then is used in guidelines to protect human health. Her valued research has also extended into the topical drug bioavailability and bioequivalence assessment field.

  5. The physics of heterodyne detection in the far-infrared: Transition from electric-field to photon-absorption detection in a simple system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teich, M. C.

    1980-01-01

    The history of heterodyne detection is reviewed from the radiowave to the optical regions of the electromagnetic spectrum with emphasion the submillimeter/far infrared. The transition from electric field to photon absorption detection in a simple system is investigated. The response of an isolated two level detector to a coherent source of incident radiation is calculated for both heterodyne and video detection. When the processes of photon absorption and photon emission cannot be distinguished, the relative detected power at double- and sum-frequencies is found to be multiplied by a coefficient, which is less than or equal to unity, and which depends on the incident photon energy and on the effective temperature of the system.

  6. [Construction of research system for processing mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine based on chemical composition transformation combined with intestinal absorption barrier].

    PubMed

    Sun, E; Xu, Feng-Juan; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Wei, Ying-Jie; Tan, Xiao-Bin; Cheng, Xu-Dong; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2014-02-01

    Based on practice of Epimedium processing mechanism for many years and integrated multidisciplinary theory and technology, this paper initially constructs the research system for processing mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine based on chemical composition transformation combined with intestinal absorption barrier, which to form an innovative research mode of the " chemical composition changes-biological transformation-metabolism in vitro and in vivo-intestinal absorption-pharmacokinetic combined pharmacodynamic-pharmacodynamic mechanism". Combined with specific examples of Epimedium and other Chinese herbal medicine processing mechanism, this paper also discusses the academic thoughts, research methods and key technologies of this research system, which will be conducive to systematically reveal the modem scientific connotation of traditional Chinese medicine processing, and enrich the theory of Chinese herbal medicine processing.

  7. Diclofenac Topical (osteoarthritis pain)

    MedlinePlus

    ... gel (Voltaren) is used to relieve pain from osteoarthritis (arthritis caused by a breakdown of the lining ... Diclofenac topical liquid (Pennsaid) is used to relieve osteoarthritis pain in the knees. Diclofenac is in a ...

  8. Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia.

    PubMed

    Yıldırım, Ahmet; Üsküdarlı, Suzan; Özgür, Arzucan

    2016-01-01

    Twitter is an extremely high volume platform for user generated contributions regarding any topic. The wealth of content created at real-time in massive quantities calls for automated approaches to identify the topics of the contributions. Such topics can be utilized in numerous ways, such as public opinion mining, marketing, entertainment, and disaster management. Towards this end, approaches to relate single or partial posts to knowledge base items have been proposed. However, in microblogging systems like Twitter, topics emerge from the culmination of a large number of contributions. Therefore, identifying topics based on collections of posts, where individual posts contribute to some aspect of the greater topic is necessary. Models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), propose algorithms for relating collections of posts to sets of keywords that represent underlying topics. In these approaches, figuring out what the specific topic(s) the keyword sets represent remains as a separate task. Another issue in topic detection is the scope, which is often limited to specific domain, such as health. This work proposes an approach for identifying domain-independent specific topics related to sets of posts. In this approach, individual posts are processed and then aggregated to identify key tokens, which are then mapped to specific topics. Wikipedia article titles are selected to represent topics, since they are up to date, user-generated, sophisticated articles that span topics of human interest. This paper describes the proposed approach, a prototype implementation, and a case study based on data gathered during the heavily contributed periods corresponding to the four US election debates in 2012. The manually evaluated results (0.96 precision) and other observations from the study are discussed in detail.

  9. Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia

    PubMed Central

    Yıldırım, Ahmet; Üsküdarlı, Suzan; Özgür, Arzucan

    2016-01-01

    Twitter is an extremely high volume platform for user generated contributions regarding any topic. The wealth of content created at real-time in massive quantities calls for automated approaches to identify the topics of the contributions. Such topics can be utilized in numerous ways, such as public opinion mining, marketing, entertainment, and disaster management. Towards this end, approaches to relate single or partial posts to knowledge base items have been proposed. However, in microblogging systems like Twitter, topics emerge from the culmination of a large number of contributions. Therefore, identifying topics based on collections of posts, where individual posts contribute to some aspect of the greater topic is necessary. Models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), propose algorithms for relating collections of posts to sets of keywords that represent underlying topics. In these approaches, figuring out what the specific topic(s) the keyword sets represent remains as a separate task. Another issue in topic detection is the scope, which is often limited to specific domain, such as health. This work proposes an approach for identifying domain-independent specific topics related to sets of posts. In this approach, individual posts are processed and then aggregated to identify key tokens, which are then mapped to specific topics. Wikipedia article titles are selected to represent topics, since they are up to date, user-generated, sophisticated articles that span topics of human interest. This paper describes the proposed approach, a prototype implementation, and a case study based on data gathered during the heavily contributed periods corresponding to the four US election debates in 2012. The manually evaluated results (0.96 precision) and other observations from the study are discussed in detail. PMID:26991442

  10. Prediction of drug intestinal absorption in human using the Ussing chamber system: A comparison of intestinal tissues from animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Masateru; Koga, Toshihisa; Kondo, Satoshi; Yoda, Noriaki; Emoto, Chie; Mukai, Tadashi; Toguchi, Hajime

    2017-01-01

    An adequate evaluation system for drug intestinal absorption is essential in the pharmaceutical industry. Previously, we established a novel prediction system of drug intestinal absorption in humans, using the mini-Ussing chamber equipped with human intestinal tissues. In this system, the TI value was defined as the sum of drug amounts transported to the basal-side component (X corr ) and drug amounts accumulated in the tissue (T corr ), which are normalized by AUC of a drug in the apical compartment, as an index for drug absorption. In order to apply this system to the screening assay, it is important to understand the differences between animal and human tissues in the intestinal absorption of drugs. In this study, the transport index (TI) values of three drugs, with different levels of membrane permeability, were determined to evaluate the rank order of drug absorbability in intestinal tissues from rats, dogs, and monkeys. The TI values in small intestinal tissues in rats and dogs showed a good correlation with those in humans. On the other hand, the correlation of TI values in monkeys was lower compared to rats and dogs. The rank order of the correlation coefficient between human and investigated animal tissues was as follows: dog (r 2 =0.978), rat (r 2 =0.955), and monkey (r 2 =0.620). TI values in large intestinal tissues from rats (r 2 =0.929) and dogs (r 2 =0.808) also showed a good correlation. The obtained TI values in small intestinal tissues in rats and dogs were well correlated with the fraction of drug absorbed (F a ) in humans. From these results, the mini-Ussing chamber, equipped with intestinal tissues in rats and dogs, would be useful as a screening tool in the drug discovery stage. In addition, the obtained TI values can be used for the prediction of the F a in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Topical treatment of melasma.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment. Multiple options for topical treatment are available, of which hydroquinone (HQ) is the most commonly prescribed agent. Besides HQ, other topical agents for which varying degrees of evidence for clinical efficacy exist include azelaic acid, kojic acid, retinoids, topical steroids, glycolic acid, mequinol, and arbutin. Topical medications modify various stages of melanogenesis, the most common mode of action being inhibition of the enzyme, tyrosinase. Combination therapy is the preferred mode of treatment for the synergism and reduction of untoward effects. The most popular combination consists of HQ, a topical steroid, and retinoic acid. Prolonged HQ usage may lead to untoward effects like depigmentation and exogenous ochronosis. The search for safer alternatives has given rise to the development of many newer agents, several of them from natural sources. Well-designed controlled clinical trials are needed to clarify their role in the routine management of melasma.

  12. TOPICAL TREATMENT OF MELASMA

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment. Multiple options for topical treatment are available, of which hydroquinone (HQ) is the most commonly prescribed agent. Besides HQ, other topical agents for which varying degrees of evidence for clinical efficacy exist include azelaic acid, kojic acid, retinoids, topical steroids, glycolic acid, mequinol, and arbutin. Topical medications modify various stages of melanogenesis, the most common mode of action being inhibition of the enzyme, tyrosinase. Combination therapy is the preferred mode of treatment for the synergism and reduction of untoward effects. The most popular combination consists of HQ, a topical steroid, and retinoic acid. Prolonged HQ usage may lead to untoward effects like depigmentation and exogenous ochronosis. The search for safer alternatives has given rise to the development of many newer agents, several of them from natural sources. Well-designed controlled clinical trials are needed to clarify their role in the routine management of melasma. PMID:20101327

  13. QSO absorption spectroscopy and baryonic dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirković, Milan M.

    2005-04-01

    The present book should serve a double purpose: first, as an introduction into the host of tightly related topics in astrophysics and cosmology all dealing with the history and evolution of the baryonic matter in the universe. Secondly, it gives argument for still somewhat controversial view that large baryonic reservoirs are present (at least in the low-redshift regime) in form of huge gaseous galactic haloes surrounding normal luminous galaxies, and manifesting through the Lyman-α absorption lines in spectra of background sources. If accepted, this view would profoundly impact our understanding of the galactic structure and evolution, and will deeply influence our views of the future evolution of galactic systems. After an introduction into cosmological jargon and symbols used throughout, and other important introductory material given in Chapter 1, the bulk of the argumentation is given in Chapter 2, which exposes phenomenology of Lyα absorption systems and various theories advanced to account for their physical origin. Chapter 3 deals with models of absorbing gas in the extended haloes of normal galaxies, and Chapter 4 gives a global discussion of main candidates for the reservoirs of the still elusive baryonic dark matter. A set of closely related technical issues which are used at several places in the main narrative are given in the appendices.

  14. Efficacy and safety of topical NSAIDs in the management of osteoarthritis: Evidence from real-life setting trials and surveys.

    PubMed

    Rannou, François; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne

    2016-02-01

    Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are recommended in international and national guidelines as an early treatment option for the symptomatic management of knee and hand osteoarthritis (OA), and may be used ahead of oral NSAIDs due to their superior safety profile. The European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) treatment algorithm recommends topical NSAIDs for knee OA in addition to the pharmacological background of symptomatic slow-acting drugs for osteoarthritis (SYSADOAs) and rescue analgesia with paracetamol and non-pharmacological treatment, if the patient is still symptomatic. Topical NSAIDs have a moderate effect on pain relief, with efficacy similar to that of oral NSAIDs, with the advantage of a better risk:benefit ratio. In real-life studies, topical and oral NSAIDs demonstrate an equivalent effect on knee pain over 1 year of treatment, with fewer adverse events due to lower systemic absorption of topical NSAIDs compared with oral NSAIDs. As a result, topical NSAIDs may be the preferred treatment option, especially in OA patients aged ≥75 years, and those with co-morbidities or at an increased risk of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, or renal side effects. Furthermore, using topical NSAIDs in inflammatory rheumatic diseases leads to a 40% reduction in the need for concomitant oral NSAIDs. When selecting a topical NSAID, absorption and bioavailability are important because of heterogeneity among topical drug formulations. Molecules like etofenamate have a bioavailability of >20% and evidence for accumulation in synovial tissues, with efficacy demonstrated as improvement in pain and function in real-life studies of OA patients. Diclofenac also shows good efficacy alongside evidence that diclofenac accumulates in the synovium. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Theory and operation of the real-time data acquisition system for the NASA-LaRC differential absorption lidar (DIAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, C.

    1986-01-01

    The improvement of computer hardware and software of the NASA Multipurpose Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system is documented. The NASA DIAL system is undergoing development and experimental deployment at NASA Langley Research Center for the remote measurement of atmospheric trace gas concentrations from ground and aircraft platforms. A viable DIAL system was developed capable of remotely measuring O3 and H2O concentrations from an aircraft platform. Test flights of the DIAL system were successfully performed onboard the NASA Goddard Flight Center Electra aircraft from 1980 to 1985. The DIAL Data Acquisition System has undergone a number of improvements over the past few years. These improvements have now been field tested. The theory behind a real time computer system as it applies to the needs of the DIAL system is discussed. This report is designed to be used as an operational manual for the DIAL DAS.

  16. High resolution absorption cross sections for the A2Pi-X2Pi system of ClO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wine, P. H.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Philen, D. L.; Davis, D. D.; Watson, R. T.

    1977-01-01

    High-resolution ultraviolet absorption cross-sections for the ClO molecule are obtained, with the aim of facilitating studies of ozone depletion resulting from the injection of chlorofluorocarbons into the atmosphere. The spectroscopic analysis, which involves a frequency-doubled tunable dye laser with a bandwidth of 0.015 A, is described. Studies of the rotational lines of the ClO A 2Pi 3/2-X2Pi 3/2 9-10 band were conducted. Peak cross-sections for the P and R lines of the 9-0 band are found to be 10.0, 9.6, 8.6, 10.6, 10.3, and 9.2 times ten to the negative seventeenth power cm squared, with estimated accuracy of plus or minus 25%. Problems in distinguishing between Cl-35 and Cl-37 absorption are also considered.

  17. THE ALFALFA H I ABSORPTION PILOT SURVEY: A WIDE-AREA BLIND DAMPED Ly{alpha} SYSTEM SURVEY OF THE LOCAL UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Darling, Jeremy; Macdonald, Erin P.; Haynes, Martha P.

    2011-11-20

    We present the results of a pilot survey for neutral hydrogen (H I) 21 cm absorption in the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (ALFALFA) Survey. This project is a wide-area 'blind' search for H I absorption in the local universe, spanning -650 km s{sup -1} < cz < 17, 500 km s{sup -1} and covering 517.0 deg{sup 2} (7% of the full ALFALFA survey). The survey is sensitive to H I absorption lines stronger than 7.7 mJy (8983 radio sources) and is 90% complete for lines stronger than 11.0 mJy (7296 sources). The total redshift interval sensitive tomore » all damped Ly{alpha} (DLA) systems (N{sub H{sub i}}{>=}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2}) is {Delta}z = 7.0 (129 objects, assuming T{sub s} = 100 K and covering fraction unity); for super-DLAs (N{sub H{sub i}}{>=}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2}) it is {Delta}z = 128.2 (2353 objects). We re-detect the intrinsic H I absorption line in UGC 6081 but detect no intervening absorption line systems. We compute a 95% confidence upper limit on the column density frequency distribution function f(N{sub H{sub i}},X) spanning four orders of magnitude in column density, 10{sup 19} (T{sub s} /100 K) (1/f) cm{sup -2}absorption line search of the complete ALFALFA survey-or any higher redshift, larger bandwidth, or more sensitive survey, such as those planned for Square Kilometer Array pathfinders or a low-frequency lunar array-will either make numerous detections or will set a strong statistical lower limit on the typical spin temperature of neutral hydrogen gas.« less

  18. Survey of international regulatory bioequivalence recommendations for approval of generic topical dermatological drug products.

    PubMed

    Braddy, April C; Davit, Barbara M; Stier, Ethan M; Conner, Dale P

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to discuss the similarities and differences in accepted bioequivalence (BE) approaches for generic topical dermatological drug products between international regulatory authorities and organizations. These drug products are locally applied and not intended for systemic absorption. Therefore, the BE approaches which serve as surrogates to establish safety and efficacy for topical dosage forms tend to differ from the traditional solid oral dosage forms. We focused on 15 different international jurisdictions and organizations that currently participate in the International Generic Drug Regulators Pilot Project. These are Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Chinese Taipei, the European Medicines Association (EMA), Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Singapore (a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations), South Africa, South Korea, Switzerland, the USA and the World Health Organization (WHO). Upon evaluation, we observed that currently only Canada, the EMA, Japan, and the USA have specific guidance documents for topical drug products. Across all jurisdictions and organizations, the three approaches consistently required are (1) BE studies with clinical endpoints for most topical drug products; (2) in vivo pharmacodynamic studies, in particular the vasoconstrictor assay for topical corticosteroids; and (3) waivers from BE study requirements for topical solutions. Japan, South Africa, the USA, and the WHO are also making strides to accept other BE approaches such as in vivo pharmacokinetic studies for BE assessment, in vivo dermatopharmacokinetic studies and/or BE studies with in vitro endpoints.

  19. Combined effects of the drug distribution and mucus diffusion properties of self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems on the oral absorption of fenofibrate.

    PubMed

    Sunazuka, Yushi; Ueda, Keisuke; Higashi, Kenjirou; Tanaka, Yusuke; Moribe, Kunikazu

    2018-05-24

    We present the absorption improvement mechanism of fenofibrate (FFB), a Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) class II drug, from self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS), centered on improving the diffusion of FFB through the unstirred water layer (UWL). Four SMEDDS formulations containing Labrafac™ lipophile WL 1349 (WL1349) or Labrafil ® M 1944CS (M1944) oils and NIKKOL HCO-40 (HCO40) or NIKKOL HCO-60 (HCO60) surfactants were prepared. Every SMEDDS formulation formed microemulsion droplets of approximately 30 nm. In vitro tests showed that the microemulsion droplets containing M1944 had relatively small FFB solubilization capacities, causing larger amounts of FFB to be dissolved in the bulk water phase, compared to the droplets containing WL1349. The diffusivity of the microemulsion droplets through the mucin solution layer was enhanced when using HCO40 compared to HCO60. The oral absorption in rats was the highest when using the SMEDDS formulation containing M1944 and HCO40. High FFB distribution in the bulk water phase and fast diffusion of microemulsion droplets through the mucus layer contributed to the efficient delivery of FFB molecules through the UWL to the epithelial cells, leading to enhanced FFB absorption. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Quick-scanning x-ray absorption spectroscopy system with a servo-motor-driven channel-cut monochromator with a temporal resolution of 10 ms.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, T; Dohmae, K; Araki, T; Hayashi, Y; Hirose, Y; Uruga, T; Yamazaki, H; Mochizuki, T; Tanida, H; Goto, S

    2012-08-01

    We have developed a quick-scanning x-ray absorption fine structure (QXAFS) system and installed it at the recently constructed synchrotron radiation beamline BL33XU at the SPring-8. Rapid acquisition of high-quality QXAFS data was realized by combining a servo-motor-driven Si channel-cut monochromator with a tapered undulator. Two tandemly aligned monochromators with channel-cut Si(111) and Si(220) crystals covered energy ranges of 4.0-28.2 keV and 6.6-46.0 keV, respectively. The system allows the users to adjust instantly the energy ranges of scans, the starting angles of oscillations, and the frequencies. The channel-cut crystals are cooled with liquid nitrogen to enable them to withstand the high heat load from the undulator radiation. Deformation of the reflecting planes is reduced by clamping each crystal with two cooling blocks. Performance tests at the Cu K-edge demonstrated sufficiently high data quality for x-ray absorption near-edge structure and extended x-ray absorption fine-structure analyses with temporal resolutions of up to 10 and 25 ms, respectively.

  1. Discriminative Relational Topic Models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ning; Zhu, Jun; Xia, Fei; Zhang, Bo

    2015-05-01

    Relational topic models (RTMs) provide a probabilistic generative process to describe both the link structure and document contents for document networks, and they have shown promise on predicting network structures and discovering latent topic representations. However, existing RTMs have limitations in both the restricted model expressiveness and incapability of dealing with imbalanced network data. To expand the scope and improve the inference accuracy of RTMs, this paper presents three extensions: 1) unlike the common link likelihood with a diagonal weight matrix that allows the-same-topic interactions only, we generalize it to use a full weight matrix that captures all pairwise topic interactions and is applicable to asymmetric networks; 2) instead of doing standard Bayesian inference, we perform regularized Bayesian inference (RegBayes) with a regularization parameter to deal with the imbalanced link structure issue in real networks and improve the discriminative ability of learned latent representations; and 3) instead of doing variational approximation with strict mean-field assumptions, we present collapsed Gibbs sampling algorithms for the generalized relational topic models by exploring data augmentation without making restricting assumptions. Under the generic RegBayes framework, we carefully investigate two popular discriminative loss functions, namely, the logistic log-loss and the max-margin hinge loss. Experimental results on several real network datasets demonstrate the significance of these extensions on improving prediction performance.

  2. Imaging at an x-ray absorption edge using free electron laser pulses for interface dynamics in high energy density systems [Resonant phase contrast imaging for interface physics

    DOE PAGES

    Beckwith, M. A.; Jiang, S.; Schropp, A.; ...

    2017-05-01

    Tuning the energy of an x-ray probe to an absorption line or edge can provide material-specific measurements that are particularly useful for interfaces. Simulated hard x-ray images above the Fe K-edge are presented to examine ion diffusion across an interface between Fe 2O 3 and SiO 2 aerogel foam materials. The simulations demonstrate the feasibility of such a technique for measurements of density scale lengths near the interface with submicron spatial resolution. A proof-of-principle experiment is designed and performed at the Linac coherent light source facility. Preliminary data show the change of the interface after shock compression and heating withmore » simultaneous fluorescence spectra for temperature determination. Here, the results provide the first demonstration of using x-ray imaging at an absorption edge as a diagnostic to detect ultrafast phenomena for interface physics in high-energy-density systems.« less

  3. IP Internal Movement and Topicalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Pei-Jung

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigate the phenomenon of internal topicalization cross-linguistically, using Chinese as a starting point. Internal topicalization refers to constructions in which a topic phrase is placed between the subject and the verb (in contrast to external topicalization, which involves a topic in the CP domain). I argue that…

  4. Aconite poisoning following the percutaneous absorption of Aconitum alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2012-11-30

    In vitro experiment using the modified Franz-type diffusion cell has demonstrated that the human skin is permeable to aconitine and mesaconitine. To characterise the risk of systemic toxicity following the topical applications of aconite tincture and raw aconite roots, relevant reports of percutaneous absorption of Aconitum alkaloids and aconite poisoning are reviewed. Published reports indicate that aconite tincture and raw aconite roots can be absorbed through the skin into systemic circulation to cause fatal and non-fatal aconite poisoning. Both aconite tincture and raw aconite roots contain very high concentrations of Aconitum alkaloids, which allow penetration of the stratum corneum along the diffusion gradient. The risk of systemic toxicity is even higher if Aconitum alkaloids are held in occlusive contact with the skin and the epidermis (stratum corneum) is already damaged. The public should be warned of the danger in using these topical aconite preparations and the risk of systemic toxicity following percutaneous absorption of Aconitum alkaloids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Portable ultrahigh-vacuum sample storage system for polarization-dependent total-reflection fluorescence x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Yoshihide, E-mail: e0827@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Nishimura, Yusaku F.; Suzuki, Ryo

    A portable ultrahigh-vacuum sample storage system was designed and built to investigate the detailed geometric structures of mass-selected metal clusters on oxide substrates by polarization-dependent total-reflection fluorescence x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (PTRF-XAFS). This ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) sample storage system provides the handover of samples between two different sample manipulating systems. The sample storage system is adaptable for public transportation, facilitating experiments using air-sensitive samples in synchrotron radiation or other quantum beam facilities. The samples were transferred by the developed portable UHV transfer system via a public transportation at a distance over 400 km. The performance of the transfer system was demonstratedmore » by a successful PTRF-XAFS study of Pt{sub 4} clusters deposited on a TiO{sub 2}(110) surface.« less

  6. Reports - Current Topics - Queries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Biology Teacher, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Short notes describe the use of articles concerning the creationist/evolutionist controversy in teacher education, a simple demonstration of digestion and absorption, and the use of a planetarium in biology motivation. A short report discusses the social need for living with conflict." (AL)

  7. Tunneling induced absorption with competing Nonlinearities

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yandong; Yang, Aihong; Xu, Yan; Wang, Peng; Yu, Yang; Guo, Hongju; Ren, Tingqi

    2016-01-01

    We investigate tunneling induced nonlinear absorption phenomena in a coupled quantum-dot system. Resonant tunneling causes constructive interference in the nonlinear absorption that leads to an increase of more than an order of magnitude over the maximum absorption in a coupled quantum dot system without tunneling. Resonant tunneling also leads to a narrowing of the linewidth of the absorption peak to a sublinewidth level. Analytical expressions show that the enhanced nonlinear absorption is largely due to the fifth-order nonlinear term. Competition between third- and fifth-order nonlinearities leads to an anomalous dispersion of the total susceptibility. PMID:27958303

  8. Tunneling induced absorption with competing Nonlinearities.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yandong; Yang, Aihong; Xu, Yan; Wang, Peng; Yu, Yang; Guo, Hongju; Ren, Tingqi

    2016-12-13

    We investigate tunneling induced nonlinear absorption phenomena in a coupled quantum-dot system. Resonant tunneling causes constructive interference in the nonlinear absorption that leads to an increase of more than an order of magnitude over the maximum absorption in a coupled quantum dot system without tunneling. Resonant tunneling also leads to a narrowing of the linewidth of the absorption peak to a sublinewidth level. Analytical expressions show that the enhanced nonlinear absorption is largely due to the fifth-order nonlinear term. Competition between third- and fifth-order nonlinearities leads to an anomalous dispersion of the total susceptibility.

  9. Minimization of Local and Systemic Adverse Effects of Topical Glucocorticoids by Nanoencapsulation: In Vivo Safety of Hydrocortisone-Hydroxytyrosol Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Muhammad Irfan; Katas, Haliza; Amin, Mohd Cairul Iqbal Mohd; Ng, Shiow-Fern; Zulfakar, Mohd Hanif; Buang, Fhataheya; Jamil, Adawiyah

    2015-12-01

    Hydrocortisone (HC) is a topical glucocorticoid for the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD); the local as well as systemic side effects limit its use. Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is a polyphenol present in olive oil that has strong antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. HC-HT coloaded chitosan nanoparticles (HC-HT CSNPs) were therefore developed to improve the efficacy against AD. In this study, HC-HT CSNPs of 235 ± 9 nm in size and with zeta potential +39.2 ± 1.6 mV were incorporated into aqueous cream (vehicle) and investigated for acute dermal toxicity, dermal irritation, and repeated dose toxicity using albino Wistar rats. HC-HT CSNPs exhibited LD50 > 125 mg/body surface area of active, which is 100-fold higher than the normal human dose of HC. Compared with the commercial formulation, 0.5 g of HC-HT CSNPs did not cause skin irritation, as measured by Tewameter®, Mexameter®, and as observed visually. Moreover, no-observed-adverse-effect level was observed with respect to body weight, organ weight, feed consumption, blood hematological and biochemical, urinalysis, and histopathological parameters at a dose of 1000 mg/body surface area per day of HC-HT CSNPs for 28 days. This in vivo study demonstrated that nanoencapsulation significantly reduced the toxic effects of HC and this should allow further clinical investigations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  10. Systemic exposure to benzoic acid and hippuric acid following topical application of clindamycin 1%/benzoyl peroxide 3% fixed-dose combination gel in Japanese patients with acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Ino, Hiroko; Takahashi, Naoki; Saenz, Alessandra Alio; Wakamatsu, Akira; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Nakahara, Norie; Hasegawa, Setsuo

    2015-01-01

    Clindamycin 1%/benzoyl peroxide 3% fixed-dose combination gel (CLDM/BPO3%) is a topical product for the treatment of acne vulgaris. In this study, plasma and urine concentrations of benzoic acid (BA) and hippuric acid (HA) were analyzed to estimate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of BPO after application of CLDM/BPO3% twice-daily for 7 days in Japanese patients with acne vulgaris. Seven-day repeated application of CLDM/BPO3% appears to be safe in this patient population. Concentrations of plasma and urine BA were below the limit of quantification before and after repeated application in most of the 12 adult male patients. Mean difference in Cmax and AUC0-last for plasma HA indicated increased exposures after repeated application, but with wide 90% confidence intervals. Mean Ae0-12 for urine HA was similar before and after repeated application. Repeated application of CLDM/BPO3% is thus unlikely to result in accumulation of BA and HA. The study suggests negligible systemic exposure to BPO metabolites from CLDM/BPO3% after 7-day repeated application in male patients with acne vulgaris. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  11. Absorption spectra of 4f electron transitions of neodymium and erbium with 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid and diethylamine systems and its analytical application

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Naixing; Qi Ping

    1992-06-01

    In this paper the absorption spectra of 4f electron transitions of the systems of neodymium and erbium with 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid and diethylamine have been studied by normal and third-derivative spectrophotometry. Their molar absorptivities are 80 1.mol{sup {minus}1}.cm{sup {minus}1} for neodymium and 65 1.mol{sup {minus}1}.cm{sup {minus}1} for erbium. Use of the third-derivative spectra, eliminates the interference by other rare earths and increases the sensitivity for Nd and Er. The derivative molar absorptivities are 390 1.mol{sup {minus}1}.cm{sup {minus}1} for Nd and 367 1.mol{sup {minus}1}.cm{sup {minus}1} for Er. The calibration graphs were linear up to 11.8 {mu}g/ml of Nd and 12.3 {mu}g/ml ofmore » Er, respectively. The relative standard deviations evaluated from eleven independent determinations of 7.2 {mu}g/ml (for Nd) and 8.3 {mu}g/ml (for Er) are 1.3% and 1.4%, respectively. The detection limits are 0.2 {mu}g/ml for Nd and 0.3 {mu}g/ml for Er. The method has been developed for determining those two elements in mixture of lanthanides by means of the third-derivative spectra and the analytical results obtained are satisfactory.« less

  12. Topical Research: Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Karen

    This lesson plan can be used in social studies, language arts, or library research. The instructional objective is for students to select a topic of study relating to Africa, write a thesis statement, collect information from media sources, and develop a conclusion. The teacher may assign the lesson for written or oral evaluation. The teacher…

  13. Differential Topic Models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changyou; Buntine, Wray; Ding, Nan; Xie, Lexing; Du, Lan

    2015-02-01

    In applications we may want to compare different document collections: they could have shared content but also different and unique aspects in particular collections. This task has been called comparative text mining or cross-collection modeling. We present a differential topic model for this application that models both topic differences and similarities. For this we use hierarchical Bayesian nonparametric models. Moreover, we found it was important to properly model power-law phenomena in topic-word distributions and thus we used the full Pitman-Yor process rather than just a Dirichlet process. Furthermore, we propose the transformed Pitman-Yor process (TPYP) to incorporate prior knowledge such as vocabulary variations in different collections into the model. To deal with the non-conjugate issue between model prior and likelihood in the TPYP, we thus propose an efficient sampling algorithm using a data augmentation technique based on the multinomial theorem. Experimental results show the model discovers interesting aspects of different collections. We also show the proposed MCMC based algorithm achieves a dramatically reduced test perplexity compared to some existing topic models. Finally, we show our model outperforms the state-of-the-art for document classification/ideology prediction on a number of text collections.

  14. Topical anesthesia in phacoemulsification.

    PubMed

    Waheeb, Saad

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of topical anesthesia; topical Benoxinate 0.4% (Oxybuprocaine) and Xylocaine (Lidocaine) gel, in selected cataract patients as an alternative to peribulbar or retrobulbar block anesthesia during cataract surgery. Prospective non-comparative evaluation of patients' and surgeon's satisfaction at the end of the procedure. Three hundred patients (300 eyes) were included in the study. The procedure was explained to patients with details regarding what will happen and what to expect during surgery. All patients received topical anesthesia with Benoxinate 0.4% eye drops and Xylocaine gel 2%. All surgeries were done by the same surgeon using the same machine (updated LEGACY phacoemulsifier, Alcon) and approach (clear corneal incision) and followed by a foldable intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. None of the patients had severe pain during the procedure; only 2% (six of 300) required use of intravenous sedation (Propofol), both the surgeon's and the patients' satisfaction were high. Eye movements and blepharospasm were not significant problems, and no serious complications occurred. Rate of vitreous loss due to posterior capsule tear/rupture was within literature reported range and not different from our previous experience. Topical anesthesia is a satisfactory and safe alternative to retrobulbar and peribulbar anesthesia for clear corneal phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation in selected cataract patients in the hands of experienced cataract surgeon.

  15. Topical anesthesia in phacoemulsification

    PubMed Central

    Waheeb, Saad

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of topical anesthesia; topical Benoxinate 0.4% (Oxybuprocaine) and Xylocaine (Lidocaine) gel, in selected cataract patients as an alternative to peribulbar or retrobulbar block anesthesia during cataract surgery. Materials and Methods: Prospective non-comparative evaluation of patients’ and surgeon’s satisfaction at the end of the procedure. Three hundred patients (300 eyes) were included in the study. The procedure was explained to patients with details regarding what will happen and what to expect during surgery. All patients received topical anesthesia with Benoxinate 0.4% eye drops and Xylocaine gel 2%. All surgeries were done by the same surgeon using the same machine (updated LEGACY phacoemulsifier, Alcon) and approach (clear corneal incision) and followed by a foldable intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. Results: None of the patients had severe pain during the procedure; only 2% (six of 300) required use of intravenous sedation (Propofol), both the surgeon’s and the patients’ satisfaction were high. Eye movements and blepharospasm were not significant problems, and no serious complications occurred. Rate of vitreous loss due to posterior capsule tear/rupture was within literature reported range and not different from our previous experience. Conclusion: Topical anesthesia is a satisfactory and safe alternative to retrobulbar and peribulbar anesthesia for clear corneal phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation in selected cataract patients in the hands of experienced cataract surgeon. PMID:21120050

  16. Topics for Mathematics Clubs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, LeRoy C., Ed.; Snyder, Henry D., Ed.

    The ten chapters in this booklet cover topics not ordinarily discussed in the classroom: Fibonacci sequences, projective geometry, groups, infinity and transfinite numbers, Pascal's Triangle, topology, experiments with natural numbers, non-Euclidean geometries, Boolean algebras, and the imaginary and the infinite in geometry. Each chapter is…

  17. Theory and operation of the real-time data acquisition system for the NASA-LaRC differential absorption lidar (DIAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Carolyn; Spencer, Randall

    1988-01-01

    The improvement of computer hardware and software of the NASA Multipurpose Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system is documented. The NASA DIAL system has undergone development and experimental deployment at NASA/Langley Res. Center for the remote measurement of atmospheric trace gas concentrations from ground and aircraft platforms. A viable DIAL system was developed capable of remotely measuring O3 and H2O concentrations from an aircraft platform. The DIAL Data Acquisition System (DAS) has undergone a number of improvements also. Due to the participation of the DIAL in the Global Tropospheric Experiment, modifications and improvements of the system were tested and used both in the lab and in air. Therefore, this is an operational manual for the DIAL DAS.

  18. Evaluation of β-blocker gel and effect of dosing volume for topical delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Chantasart, Doungdaw; Li, S Kevin

    2015-05-01

    Although topical administration of β-blockers is desired because of the improved therapeutic efficacy and reduced systemic adverse effects compared with systemic administration in the treatment of infantile hemangioma, the permeation of β-blockers across skin under finite dose conditions has not been systematically studied and an effective topical β-blocker formulation for skin application is not available. The present study evaluated the permeation of β-blockers propranolol, betaxolol, and timolol across human epidermal membrane (HEM) from a topical gel in Franz diffusion cells in vitro under various dosing conditions. The effects of occlusion and dosing volume on percutaneous absorption of β-blockers from the gel were studied. The permeation data were compared with those of finite dose diffusion theory. The results showed that skin permeation of β-blockers generally could be enhanced two to three times by skin occlusion. The cumulative amounts of β-blockers permeated across HEM increased with increasing dosing volume. An adequate fit was obtained between the theoretical curve and experimental permeation data, indicating that the experimental results of the gel are consistent with finite dose diffusion theory. In conclusion, the findings suggest the feasibility of using topical gels of β-blockers for infantile hemangioma treatment and topical application with skin occlusion is preferred. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  19. A preconcentration system for determination of copper and nickel in water and food samples employing flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tuzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa; Citak, Demirhan; Ferreira, Hadla S; Korn, Maria G A; Bezerra, Marcos A

    2009-03-15

    A separation/preconcentration procedure using solid phase extraction has been proposed for the flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of copper and nickel at trace level in food samples. The solid phase is Dowex Optipore SD-2 resin contained on a minicolumn, where analyte ions are sorbed as 5-methyl-4-(2-thiazolylazo) resorcinol chelates. After elution using 1 mol L(-1) nitric acid solution, the analytes are determinate employing flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The optimization step was performed using a full two-level factorial design and the variables studied were: pH, reagent concentration (RC) and amount of resin on the column (AR). Under the experimental conditions established in the optimization step, the procedure allows the determination of copper and nickel with limit of detection of 1.03 and 1.90 microg L(-1), respectively and precision of 7 and 8%, for concentrations of copper and nickel of 200 microg L(-1). The effect of matrix ions was also evaluated. The accuracy was confirmed by analyzing of the followings certified reference materials: NIST SRM 1515 Apple leaves and GBW 07603 Aquatic and Terrestrial Biological Products. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of copper and nickel in real samples including human hair, chicken meat, black tea and canned fish.

  20. Pump-Flow-Probe X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy as a Tool for Studying Intermediate States of Photocatalytic Systems.

    PubMed

    Smolentsev, Grigory; Guda, Alexander; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Haldrup, Kristoffer; Andreiadis, Eugen; Chavarot-Kerlidou, Murielle; Canton, Sophie E; Nachtegaal, Maarten; Artero, Vincent; Sundstrom, Villy

    2013-08-29

    A new setup for pump-flow-probe X-ray absorption spectroscopy has been implemented at the SuperXAS beamline of the Swiss Light Source. It allows recording X-ray absorption spectra with a time resolution of tens of microseconds and high detection efficiency for samples with sub-mM concentrations. A continuous wave laser is used for the photoexcitation, with the distance between laser and X-ray beams and velocity of liquid flow determining the time delay, while the focusing of both beams and the flow speed define the time resolution. This method is compared with the alternative measurement technique that utilizes a 1 kHz repetition rate laser and multiple X-ray probe pulses. Such an experiment was performed at beamline 11ID-D of the Advanced Photon Source. Advantages, limitations and potential for improvement of the pump-flow-probe setup are discussed by analyzing the photon statistics. Both methods, with Co K-edge probing were applied to the investigation of a cobaloxime-based photo-catalytic reaction. The interplay between optimizing for efficient photoexcitation and time resolution as well as the effect of sample degradation for these two setups are discussed.

  1. Pump-Flow-Probe X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy as a Tool for Studying Intermediate States of Photocatalytic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Smolentsev, Grigory; Guda, Alexander; Zhang, XIaoyi; Haldrup, Kristoffer; Andreiadis, Eugen; Chavarot-Kerlidou, Murielle; Canton, Sophie E.; Nachtegaal, Maarten; Artero, Vincent; Sundstrom, Villy

    2014-01-01

    A new setup for pump-flow-probe X-ray absorption spectroscopy has been implemented at the SuperXAS beamline of the Swiss Light Source. It allows recording X-ray absorption spectra with a time resolution of tens of microseconds and high detection efficiency for samples with sub-mM concentrations. A continuous wave laser is used for the photoexcitation, with the distance between laser and X-ray beams and velocity of liquid flow determining the time delay, while the focusing of both beams and the flow speed define the time resolution. This method is compared with the alternative measurement technique that utilizes a 1 kHz repetition rate laser and multiple X-ray probe pulses. Such an experiment was performed at beamline 11ID-D of the Advanced Photon Source. Advantages, limitations and potential for improvement of the pump-flow-probe setup are discussed by analyzing the photon statistics. Both methods, with Co K-edge probing were applied to the investigation of a cobaloxime-based photo-catalytic reaction. The interplay between optimizing for efficient photoexcitation and time resolution as well as the effect of sample degradation for these two setups are discussed. PMID:24443663

  2. Design and Economic Analysis of a Heating/Absorption Cooling System Operating with Municipal Solid Waste Digester: A Case Study of Gazi University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coşar, Gökhan; Pooyanfar, Mirparham; Amirabedin, Ehsan; Topal, Hüseyin

    2013-12-01

    Recovering energy from municipal solid waste (MSW) is one of the most important issues of energy management in developed countries. This raises even more interest as world fossil fuel reserves diminish and fuel prices rise. Being one of main processes of waste disposal, anaerobic digestion can be used as a means to reduce fossil fuel and electricity consumption as well as reducing emissions. With growing demand for cooling in Turkey, especially during warm seasons and considering the energy costs, utilizing heat-driven absorption cooling systems coupled with an anaerobic digester for local cooling purposes is a potentially interesting alternative for electricity driven compression cooling. The aim of this article is to study the viability of utilizing biogas obtained from MSW anaerobic digestion as the main fuel for heating facilities of Gazi University, Turkey and also the energy source for an absorption cooling system designed for the central library of the aforementioned campus. The results prove that the suggested system is sustainably and financially appealing and has the potential to replace the conventional electricity driven cooling systems with a reasonable net present worth; moreover, it can notably reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

  3. The impact of supersaturation level for oral absorption of BCS class IIb drugs, dipyridamole and ketoconazole, using in vivo predictive dissolution system: Gastrointestinal Simulator (GIS).

    PubMed

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Matsui, Kazuki; Searls, Amanda L; Takeuchi, Susumu; Amidon, Gregory E; Sun, Duxin; Amidon, Gordon L

    2017-05-01

    The development of formulations and the assessment of oral drug absorption for Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) class IIb drugs is often a difficult issue due to the potential for supersaturation and precipitation in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The physiological environment in the GI tract largely influences in vivo drug dissolution rates of those drugs. Thus, those physiological factors should be incorporated into the in vitro system to better assess in vivo performance of BCS class IIb drugs. In order to predict oral bioperformance, an in vitro dissolution system with multiple compartments incorporating physiologically relevant factors would be expected to more accurately predict in vivo phenomena than a one-compartment dissolution system like USP Apparatus 2 because, for example, the pH change occurring in the human GI tract can be better replicated in a multi-compartmental platform. The Gastrointestinal Simulator (GIS) consists of three compartments, the gastric, duodenal and jejunal chambers, and is a practical in vitro dissolution apparatus to predict in vivo dissolution for oral dosage forms. This system can demonstrate supersaturation and precipitation and, therefore, has the potential to predict in vivo bioperformance of oral dosage forms where this phenomenon may occur. In this report, in vitro studies were performed with dipyridamole and ketoconazole to evaluate the precipitation rates and the relationship between the supersaturation levels and oral absorption of BCS class II weak base drugs. To evaluate the impact of observed supersaturation levels on oral absorption, a study utilizing the GIS in combination with mouse intestinal infusion was conducted. Supersaturation levels observed in the GIS enhanced dipyridamole and ketoconazole absorption in mouse, and a good correlation between their supersaturation levels and their concentration in plasma was observed. The GIS, therefore, appears to represent in vivo dissolution phenomena and

  4. Predicting CO2 Solubility in Imidazole Ionic Liquids for Use in Absorption Refrigeration Systems by Using the Group Contribution Equation of State Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei-Dong; Wu, Jun; Hou, Yong; Su, Lin; Zhang, Hua

    2017-09-01

    Traditional absorption refrigeration such as H2O-LiBr- and NH3-H2O-based refrigeration has limited applications because of several issues, including crystallization, corrosion, and large volume. CO2-ionic liquids (ILs) as new absorption working pairs were investigated in this study. The objective was to use the group contribution equation of state (GC-EOS) method to predict the solubilities of binary systems containing high-pressure CO2-imidazole bis(trifluoromethanesulfonimide) ILs and to investigate the applicability and accuracy of the GC-EOS model. The results showed that at pressures up to 11.0 MPa and temperatures of 273 K to 400 K, the CO2 solubility in the ILs increased with increasing system pressure but decreased with increasing temperature, and its variation rate was lower at higher pressures or temperatures. Also, CO2 solubility increased in the order of [emim][Tf2N] < [bmim][Tf2N] < [hmim][Tf2N] < [omim][Tf2N], indicating that longer alkyl chains of identical IL families resulted in higher CO_{2 } solubility. The model prediction of CO2 solubility in the four different ILs showed reasonable consistency with the corresponding experimental results from the literature; the largest deviation was 5.7 % for CO2-[emim][Tf2N]. Therefore, it can be concluded that the GC-EOS model is a promising theoretical solution that can be used to search for suitable CO2-IL working pairs for absorption refrigeration systems.

  5. Topical concentrated epinephrine (1:1000) does not cause acute cardiovascular changes during endoscopic sinus surgery.

    PubMed

    Gunaratne, Dakshika A; Barham, Henry P; Christensen, Jenna M; Bhatia, Daman D S; Stamm, Aldo C; Harvey, Richard J

    2016-02-01

    Topical epinephrine is used in endoscopic sinonasal surgery for local vasoconstriction. Potential for cardiovascular complications remains a concern for some due to the possibility of systemic absorption. Topical vs injected epinephrine was examined in a prospective analysis of perioperative cardiovascular effects, and in an audit of cardiovascular complications during endoscopic sinonasal surgery. A prospective cohort study of patients undergoing endoscopic sinonasal surgery was performed. Topical (1:1000) and injected (1:100,000) epinephrine were assessed. Cardiovascular outcomes of heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and electrocardiogram (ECG) changes were examined at baseline and minutely post-topical application (to 10 minutes) and postinjection (to 5 minutes). A retrospective assessment of cardiovascular events associated with a standardized regimen of topical (1:2000) and injected (1:100,000) epinephrine was performed. Nineteen patents were assessed (43.42 ± 15.90 years, 47.4% female) in the prospective analysis. Post-topical epinephrine, no significant changes occurred in any cardiovascular parameter. However, following injected epinephrine, changes in HR (59.53 vs 64.11 bpm, p < 0.001), SBP (96.16 vs 102.95 mmHg, p = 0.015), DBP (56.53 vs 60.74 mmHg, p = 0.019), and MAP (69.74 vs 74.81 mmHg, p = 0.002) occurred. On repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) all parameters were significantly affected by injection. No ECG abnormalities were seen in either topical or injection phases. The retrospective analysis of 1260 cases identified 2 cases of cardiovascular complications (0.16%), both relating to injected epinephrine. Combination topical (1:1000 to 1:2000) and injectable (1:100,000) epinephrine is safe for use in endoscopic sinonasal surgery. Injection resulted in the cardiovascular changes and accounted for the cardiovascular events reported. © 2015 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  6. Electromagnetically induced absorption and transparency in degenerate two level systems of metastable Kr atoms and measurement of Landé g-factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kale, Y. B.; Tiwari, V. B.; Mishra, S. R.; Singh, S.; Rawat, H. S.

    2016-12-01

    We report electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) and transparency (EIT) resonances of sub-natural linewidth in degenerate two level systems (DTLSs) of metastable 84Kr (84Kr*) and 83Kr (83Kr*) atoms. Using the spectrally narrow EIA signals obtained corresponding to the closed hyperfine transition 4p55s[3/2]2(F=13/2) to 4p55p[5/2]3(F‧ = 15 / 2) in 83Kr* atom, we have measured the Landé g-factor (gF) for the lower hyperfine level involved in this transition by application of small values of magnetic field of few Gauss.

  7. Re-investigation of the (3, 0) band in the b4Σ- - a4Π system for nitric oxide by laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuanliang; Shao, Ligang; Wang, Hailing; Zhou, Qinghong; Qiu, Xuanbing; Wei, Jilin; Deng, Lunhua; Chen, Yangqin

    2018-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) radicals in the a4Π state were produced by discharging the mixture of NO gas and helium at the audio frequency. In the near infrared region, the spectra of the b4Σ- - a4Π system of the NO radical were studied by optical heterodyne - concentration modulation laser absorption spectroscopy. More than one hundred and thirty lines and eleven branches were recorded for the first time and assigned to the (3, 0) band. A global fitting was carried out to extract the molecular constants. In particular, the parameters D, p, γ and AD were precisely determined.

  8. Determination of the Mass Absorption Coefficient in Two-Layer Ti/V and V/Ti Thin Film Systems by the X-Ray Fluorescence Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashin, N. I.; Chernyaeva, E. A.; Tumanova, A. N.; Gafarova, L. M.

    2016-03-01

    A new XRF procedure for the determination of the mass absorption coefficient in thin film Ti/V and V/Ti two-layer systems has been proposed. The procedure uses easy-to-make thin-film layers of sputtered titanium and vanadium on a polymer film substrate. Correction coefficients have been calculated that take into account attenuation of primary radiation of the X-ray tube, as well as attenuation of the spectral line of the bottom layer element in the top layer.

  9. Portable sample preparation and analysis system for micron and sub-micron particle characterization using light scattering and absorption spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Stark, Peter C [Los Alamos, NM; Zurek, Eduardo [Barranquilla, CO; Wheat, Jeffrey V [Fort Walton Beach, FL; Dunbar, John M [Santa Fe, NM; Olivares, Jose A [Los Alamos, NM; Garcia-Rubio, Luis H [Temple Terrace, FL; Ward, Michael D [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-07-26

    There is provided a method and device for remote sampling, preparation and optical interrogation of a sample using light scattering and light absorption methods. The portable device is a filtration-based device that removes interfering background particle material from the sample matrix by segregating or filtering the chosen analyte from the sample solution or matrix while allowing the interfering background particles to be pumped out of the device. The segregated analyte is then suspended in a diluent for analysis. The device is capable of calculating an initial concentration of the analyte, as well as diluting the analyte such that reliable optical measurements can be made. Suitable analytes include cells, microorganisms, bioparticles, pathogens and diseases. Sample matrixes include biological fluids such as blood and urine, as well as environmental samples including waste water.

  10. Dramatically Variable C IV Mini-Broad Absorption Line System in the Quasar HS 1603+3820

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, T.; Eracleous, M.; Charlton, J. C.; Chartas, G.; Kashikawa, N.

    2008-10-01

    We observed the quasar HS 1603+3820 (z_{em} = 2.542, first discovered by Dobrzycki et al. 1996) six times over an interval of 4.2 yrs (1.2 yrs in the quasar rest frame) using the High Dispersion Spectrograph on Subaru telescope. The purpose was to study the mini-broad absorption line (mini-BAL; FWHM ˜ 1,000 km s^{-1}) that is blue-shifted from the quasar by ˜ 9,500 km s^{-1}. We found significant time variability, which supported the physical association of the mini-BAL gas with an outflow from the quasar. We have narrowed down the cause of the variability to two possible scenarios. We also used archival Chandra x-ray data to study the x-ray properties of this quasar. The results constrain the location of the absorbing gas relative to the overall outflow.

  11. Determination of papaverine and cocaine by use of a precipitation system coupled on-line to an atomic absorption spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Eisman, M; Gallego, M; Varcárcel, M

    1994-02-01

    A continuous-precipitation flame-atomization atomic absorption spectrometric method for the determination of papaverine and cocaine hydrochlorides is proposed. The method is based on the precipitation of reineckates by injection of Reinecke's salt into a carrier containing the alkaloids and their subsequent retention on a stainless steel filter. In this way, papaverine and cocaine hydrochlorides can be determine over the ranges 5-85 and 50-850 micrograms ml-1 with a relative standard deviation of 1.3 and 3.2%, respectively, and a sampling frequency of 150 h-1. The proposed method is more sensitive and selective for papaverine than it is for cocaine and can be applied to the determination of papaverine HCl in pharmaceutical preparations.

  12. Pavement sound absorption measurements in the U.S.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-08-19

    In the U.S., the topic of pavement sound absorption in regard to tire-pavement noise has shown increased interest and research over the last several years. Four types of pavement sound absorption measurements with various applications are discussed: ...

  13. Low Z elements (Mg, Al, and Si) K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy in minerals and disordered systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ildefonse, Ph.; Calas, G.; Flank, A. M.; Lagarde, P.

    1995-05-01

    Soft X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy have been performed at the Mg-, Al- and Si-K edges in order to establish the ability of this spectroscopy to derive structural information in disordered solids such as glasses and gels. Mg- and Al-K XANES are good structural probes to determine the coordination state of these elements in important minerals, glasses and gels. In a CaOsbnd MgOsbnd 2SiO2 glass Mg XANES spectra differ from that found in the crystalline equivalent, with a significant shift of the edge maxima to lower energy, consistent with a CN lower than 6. Mg-EXAFS on the same sample are in agreement and indicate the presence of 5-coordinated Mg with Mgsbnd O distances of 2.01Å. In aluminosilicate gels, Alsbnd K XANES has been used to investigate the [4]Al/Altotal ratios. These ratios increase as the Al/Si ratios decrease. Aluminosilicate and ferric-silicate gels were studied by using Sisbnd K edge XANES. XANES spectra differ significantly among the samples studied. Aluminosilicate gels with Al/Si= 1 present a different Al and Si local environment from that known in clay minerals with the same Al/Si ratio. The gel-to-mineral transformation thus implies a dissolution-recrystallization mechanism. On the contrary, ferric-silicate gel presents a Si local environment close to that found in nontronite which may be formed by a long range ordering of the initial gels.

  14. Biopharmaceutical Assessment and Irritation Potential of Microemulsions and Conventional Systems Containing Oil from Syagrus cearensis for Topical Delivery of Amphotericin B Using Alternative Methods.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Giovana D; Kishishita, Juliana; Aquino, Kátia A S; Presgrave, Octávio A F; Leal, Leila B; Santana, Davi P

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the biopharmaceutical characteristics and irritation potentials of microemulsions (MEs) and conventional systems (CSs) containing oil from Syagrus cearensis for topical delivery of Amphotericin B (AmB). Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed using a water titration method to develop the MEs, and the CSs were prepared according to the classical technique of phase inversion. In the skin permeation and retention study, dermatomed pig skin without stratum corneum was used as an alternative disturbed skin model. The irritation potential was evaluated using three different methods, chorioallantoic membrane assays (HET-CAM and CAM-TBS), and bovine corneal opacity and permeability (BCOP) test. The optimized formulation (ME1) consisting of 0.1% (w/w) Amphotericin B, 9.1% (w/w) catolé oil, 81% (w/w) Smix (1:1, Tween 20 and Kolliphor EL) possessed droplet size of 31.02 ± 0.9 nm, zeta potential of -23.4 mV, and viscosity 0.63 ± 0.1 Pa.s. ME1 exhibited greater retention of AmB in to skin layers (84.79 ± 2.08 μg cm -2 ) than all the others formulations. In general, MEs showed higher drug release and retention than CSs and all of the formulations showed greater retentivity than permeability. Only MEs developed using Labrasol/Plurol Oleique (L/PO) as the surfactant and co-surfactant exhibited a moderate irritation potential; all other MEs and CSs were classified as non-irritants or slight irritants. The results indicate that formulations containing oil from S. cearensis are promising alternatives for the delivery of AmB targeting the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  15. A truncated spherical shell model for nuclear collective excitations: Applications to the odd-mass systems, neutron-proton systems, and other topics

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hua.

    1989-01-01

    One of the most elusive quantum system in nature is the nucleus, which is a strongly interacting many body system. In the hadronic (a la neutrons and protons) phase, the primary concern of this thesis, the nucleus' single particle excitations are intertwined with their various collective excitations. Although the underpinning of the nucleus is the spherical shell model, it is rendered powerless without a severe, but intelligent truncation of the infinite Hilbert space. The recently proposed Fermion Dynamical Symmetry Model (FDSM) is precisely such a truncation scheme and in which a symmetry-dictated truncation scheme is introduced in nuclear physics formore » the first time. In this thesis, extensions and explorations of the FDSM are made to specifically study the odd mass (where the most intricate mixing of the single particle and the collective excitations are observed) and the neutron-proton systems. In particular, the author finds that the previously successful phenomenological particle-rotor-model of the Copenhagen school can now be well understood microscopically via the FDSM. Furthermore, the well known Coriolis attenuation and variable moment of inertia effects are naturally understood from the model as well. A computer code FDUO was written by one of us to study, for the first time, the numerical implications of the FDSM. Several collective modes were found even when the system does not admit a group chain description. In addition, the code is most suitable to study the connection between level statistical behavior (a at Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble) and dynamical symmetry. It is found that there exist critical region of the interaction parameter space were the system behaves chaotically. This information is certainly crucial to understanding quantum chaotic behavior.« less

  16. Temperature-controlled electrothermal atomization-atomic absorption spectrometry using a pyrometric feedback system in conjunction with a background monitoring device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Deijck, W.; Roelofsen, A. M.; Pieters, H. J.; Herber, R. F. M.

    The construction of a temperature-controlled feedback system for electrothermal atomization-atomic absorption spectrometry (ETA-AAS) using an optical pyrometer applied to the atomization stage is described. The system was used in conjunction with a fast-response background monitoring device. The heating rate of the furnace amounted to 1400° s -1 with a reproducibility better than 1%. The precision of the temperature control at a steady state temperature of 2000°C was 0.1%. The analytical improvements offered by the present system have been demonstrated by the determination of cadmium and lead in blood and finally by the determination of lead in serum. Both the sensitivity and the precision of the method have been improved. The accuracy of the method was checked by determining the lead content for a number of scrum samples both by ETA-AAS and differential pulse anodic stripping voltametry (DPASV) and proved to be satisfactory.

  17. TopicLens: Efficient Multi-Level Visual Topic Exploration of Large-Scale Document Collections.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minjeong; Kang, Kyeongpil; Park, Deokgun; Choo, Jaegul; Elmqvist, Niklas

    2017-01-01

    Topic modeling, which reveals underlying topics of a document corpus, has been actively adopted in visual analytics for large-scale document collections. However, due to its significant processing time and non-interactive nature, topic modeling has so far not been tightly integrated into a visual analytics workflow. Instead, most such systems are limited to utilizing a fixed, initial set of topics. Motivated by this gap in the literature, we propose a novel interaction technique called TopicLens that allows a user to dynamically explore data through a lens interface where topic modeling and the corresponding 2D embedding are efficiently computed on the fly. To support this interaction in real time while maintaining view consistency, we propose a novel efficient topic modeling method and a semi-supervised 2D embedding algorithm. Our work is based on improving state-of-the-art methods such as nonnegative matrix factorization and t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding. Furthermore, we have built a web-based visual analytics system integrated with TopicLens. We use this system to measure the performance and the visualization quality of our proposed methods. We provide several scenarios showcasing the capability of TopicLens using real-world datasets.

  18. Group Discussion Topics. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Area Education Agency 7, Cedar Falls, IA.

    A collection of group disussion topics, developed and field-tested by a group of Iowa teachers, is presented in this guide. Twenty-eight topics for K-6 students, 24 topics for K-12 students, and 7 topics for students in grades 7-12 are included. Warm-up activities are given for introducing some of the topics, and lists of questions to provoke…

  19. a Truncated Spherical Shell Model for Nuclear Collective Excitations: Applications to the Odd Mass Systems, Neutron-Proton Systems and Other Topics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hua

    One of the most elusive quantum system in nature is the nucleus, which is a strongly interacting many body system. In the hadronic (a la neutrons and protons) phase, the primary concern of this thesis, the nucleus' single particle excitations are intertwined with their various collective excitations. Although the underpinning of the nucleus is the spherical shell model, it is rendered powerless without a severe, but "intelligent" truncation of the infinite Hilbert space. The recently proposed Fermion Dynamical Symmetry Model (FDSM) is precisely such a truncation scheme and in which a symmetry-dictated turncation scheme is introduced in nuclear physics for the first time. In this thesis, extensions and explorations of the FDSM are made to specifically study the odd mass (where the most intricate mixing of the single particle and the collective excitations are observed) and the neutron-proton systems. In particular, we find that the previously successful phenomenological particle-rotor-model of the Copenhagen school can now be well understood microscopically via the FDSM. Furthermore, the well known Coriolis attenuation and variable moment of inertia effects are naturally understood from the model as well. A computer code FDU0 was written by one of us to study, for the first time, the numerical implications of the FDSM. Several collective modes were found even when the system does not admit a group chain description. In addition, the code is most suitable to study the connection between level statistical behavior (a al Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble) and dynamical symmetry. It is found that there exist critical region of the interaction parameter space were the system behaves "chaotically". This information is certainly crucial to understanding quantum "chaotic" behavior. Also, some of the primitive assumptions of the FDSM are investigated and we concluded that the assumption of the quasi-spin behavior for the so-called abnormal parity particles is inadequate and needs

  20. The effect of a topical anaesthetic formulation, systemic flunixin and carprofen, singly or in combination, on cortisol and behavioural responses of Merino lambs to mulesing.

    PubMed

    Paull, D R; Lee, C; Colditz, I G; Atkinson, S J; Fisher, A D

    2007-03-01

    To determine the pain responses of lambs to mulesing, and the effectiveness of potential analgesic treatments. Merino lambs (n=64) were allocated at 5 weeks of age to eight treatment groups: 1) sham mules; 2) conventional mules; 3) topical anaesthetic, incorporating lignocaine, bupivicaine, adrenaline and cetrimide, applied immediately after mulesing; 4) flunixin + topical anaesthetic, with flunixin administered 2.5 mg/kg s.c. 90 min before mulesing; 5) carprofen + topical anaesthetic, with carprofen administered 4 mg/kg s.c. 90 min before mulesing; 6) carprofen, administered as above; 7) flunixin, administered as above; and 8) carprofen + flunixin, administered as above. Plasma cortisol was measured at 0, 0.5, 6, 12 and 24 h relative to mulesing. Animal behaviour, including posture, was recorded for 12 h after mulesing. The conventional mules lambs exhibited large increases in plasma cortisol, reduced lying and increased standing with a hunched back compared with sham mules animals. Topical anaesthetic reduced the cortisol peak to mulesing and hunched standing, and increased lying compared with the conventional mules treatment, but generally did not result in values equivalent to sham mules animals. Carprofen, flunixin, and carprofen + flunixin treatments did not reduce the cortisol response to mulesing but substantially ameliorated some changes in behavioural postures. Flunixin + topical anaesthetic reduced the cortisol peak following mulesing and substantially ameliorated most changes in behavioural postures. Carprofen + topical anaesthetic abolished the cortisol peak following mulesing and substantially ameliorated most changes in behavioural postures. All mulesed animals lost weight in the week after mulesing regardless of analgesic administration, but there were no significant differences in growth rate between any of the eight treatments over the 3 weeks after mulesing. Analgesics can moderate the pain response of lambs to mulesing. The welfare outcome for