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Sample records for absorption water chiller

  1. Water cooled absorption chillers for solar cooling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biermann, W. J.; Reimann, R. C.

    1982-03-01

    A broad line of absorption chillers designed to operate with hot fluids at as low a temperature as practical while rejecting heat to a stream of water was developed. A packaging concept for solar application in which controls, pumps, valves and other system components could be factor assembled into a unitary solar module was investigated.

  2. Corrosion Problems in Absorption Chillers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetson, Bruce

    1978-01-01

    Absorption chillers use a lithium bromide solution as the medium of absorption and water as the refrigerant. Discussed are corrosion and related problems, tests and remedies, and cleaning procedures. (Author/MLF)

  3. High COP absorption chiller driven by engine cooling water

    SciTech Connect

    Takada, S.

    1995-06-01

    In cogeneration systems, absorption chillers play an important role for utilizing the heat exhausted from engine, especially during summer. A conventional one has low COP of only about 0.65, and its COP falls abruptly according to going down of the engine cooling water temperature. The temperature falls down with decreasing of engine load, and engine runs generally at the light load lower than 80{approximately}90%, therefore COP becomes low more and more. The new type has higher COP of 0.75, and can keep the COP in the wide range of the engine cooling water temperature from 90{degrees}C to 70{degrees}C. To add to the merit, the new one is 3O%{approximately}40% smaller than the old one. These improvements was achieved by the followings: (1) Minimizing the LiBr solution flow rate to get the higher COP. The flow rate becomes the smaller, the weak solution temperature entering the generator will be the higher, by heat exchanging with the high temperature strong solution leaving the generator. The inlet solution temperature to the generator becomes the higher, the heat input to the generator for concentrating the solution will be the smaller, and the COP will be the higher. (2) Adopting the tubes which outside surface can be perfectly wetted by only the minimized solution flow rate to keep the high heat transfer rate. Changing the generator tube arrangement from conventional horizontally long type to new vertically long type to get high dense distribution. (3) Taking the spray type generator instead of the conventional flowed type to hold the high COP in the wide range of engine cooling water temperature. The heat transfer rate of the flowed type descends with the heat load, but the one of the spray type doesn`t. Supposing the light load of engine, the heat input to the generator and the heat transfer rate of the flooded one falls down, therefore the solution temperature also goes down.

  4. Performance characteristics of single effect lithium bromide/ water absorption chiller for small data centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mysore, Abhishek Arun Babu

    A medium data center consists of servers performing operations such as file sharing, collaboration and email. There are a large number of small and medium data centers across the world which consume more energy and are less efficient when compared to large data center facilities of companies such as GOOGLE, APPLE and FACEBOOK. Such companies are making their data center facilities more environmental friendly by employing renewable energy solutions such as wind and solar to power the data center or in data center cooling. This not only reduces the carbon footprint significantly but also decreases the costs incurred over a period of time. Cooling of data center play a vital role in proper functioning of the servers. It is found that cooling consumes about 50% of the total power consumed by the data center. Traditional method of cooling includes the use of mechanical compression chillers which consume lot of power and is not desirable. In order to eliminate the use of mechanical compressor chillers renewable energy resources such as solar and wind should be employed. One such technology is solar thermal cooling by means of absorption chiller which is powered by solar energy. The absorption chiller unit can be coupled with either flat plate or evacuated tube collectors in order to achieve the required inlet temperature for the generator of the absorption chiller unit. In this study a modular data center is considered having a cooling load requirement of 23kw. The performance characteristics of a single stage Lithium Bromide/ water refrigeration is presented in this study considering the cooling load of 23kw. Performance characteristics of each of the 4 heat exchangers within the unit is discussed which helps in customizing the unit according to the users' specific needs. This analysis helps in studying the importance of different properties such as the effect of inlet temperatures of hot water for generator, inlet temperatures of cooling water for absorber and

  5. Measured performance of a 3-ton LiBr absorption water chiller and its effect on cooling system operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A 3-ton lithium bromide absorption water chiller was tested for a number of conditions involving hot-water input, chilled water, and the cooling water. The primary influences on chiller capacity were the hot water inlet temperature and the cooling water inlet temperature. One combination of these two parameters extended the output to as much as 125% of design capacity, but no combination could lower the capacity to below 60% of design. A cooling system was conceptually designed so that it could provide several modes of operation. Such flexibility is needed for any solar cooling system to be able to accommodate the varying solar energy collection and the varying building demand. It is concluded that a 3-ton absorption water chiller with the kind of performance that was measured can be incorporated into a cooling system such as that proposed, to provide efficient cooling over the specified ranges of operating conditions.

  6. Measured performance of a 3 ton LiBr absorption water chiller and its effect on cooling system operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A three ton lithium bromide absorption water chiller was tested for a number of conditions involving hot water input, chilled water, and the cooling water. The primary influences on chiller capacity were the hot water inlet temperature and the cooling water inlet temperature. One combination of these two parameters extended the output to as much as 125% of design capacity, but no combination could lower the capacity to below 60% of design. A cooling system was conceptually designed so that it could provide several modes of operation. Such flexibility is needed for any solar cooling system to be able to accommodate the varying solar energy collection and the varying building demand. It was concluded that a three-ton absorption water chiller with the kind of performance that was measured can be incorporated into a cooling system such as that proposed, to provide efficient cooling over the specified ranges of operating conditions.

  7. CFCs and electric chillers: Selection of large-capacity water chillers in the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This handbook offers a single source of useful information for understanding CFC and HCFC phaseout issues and selecting large- capacity water chillers for cooling commercial buildings. It evaluates the performance of electric, absorption, and natural-gas-engine driven water chillers. An economic evaluation checklist and example are included, using the EPRI COMTECH screening tool. Peak shaving with gas chillers and load shifting with chilled water storage are examined. The handbook, written for a diverse audience, covers chiller hardware, function, performance, and typical installed costs. It provides guidelines and checklists for chiller selection, economic comparison, and operation and maintenance.

  8. CFCS and electric chillers: Selection of large-capacity water chillers in the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Niess, R.C. )

    1992-03-01

    This handbook offers a single source of useful information for understanding CFC and HCFC phaseout issues and selecting large-capacity water chillers for cooling commercial buildings. It evaluates the performance of electric, absorption, and natural-gas-engine driven water chillers. An economic evaluation checklist and example are included, using the EPRI COMTECH screening tool. Peak shaving with gas chillers and load shifting with chilled water storage are examined. The handbook, written for a diverse audience, covers chiller hardware, function, performance, and typical installed costs. It provides guidelines and checklists for chiller selection, economic comparison, and operation and maintenance.

  9. Absorption chillers: Part of the solution

    SciTech Connect

    Occhionero, A.J. ); Hughes, P.J. ); Reid, E.A. )

    1991-01-01

    Acid rain, ozone depletion, global warming, and implementation economics are considered as they relate to the advisability of expanding the application of absorption chillers. Introductory and background information are provided to put the discussion in the proper context. Then all four issues are discussed separately as they relate to absorption chillers. Acid rain and ozone depletion concerns, and implementation economics, are found to support the expanded use of absorption chillers. The global warming concern is found to be more of a gray area, but the areas of benefit correspond well with the conditions of greatest economic advantage. All things considered, absorption chillers are believed to be part of the environmental and economic solution. It is further believed that integrated resource planning (IRP) processes that consider electric and gas technologies on an equal footing would come to the same conclusion for many regions of the United States. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. Dynamic performance testing of prototype 3 ton air-cooled carrier absorption chiller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borst, R. R.; Wood, B. D.

    1985-05-01

    The performance of a prototype three ton cooling capacity air-cooled lithium bromide/water absorption chiller was tested using an absorption chiller test facility which was modified to expand its testing capabilities to include air-cooled chillers in addition to water-cooled chillers. Temperatures of the three externally supplied fluid loops: hot water, chilled water, and cooling air, were varied in order to determine the effects this would have on the two principal measures of chiller performance: cooling capacity and thermal coefficient of performance (COP). A number of interrelated factors were identified as contributing to less than expected performance. For comparison, experimental correlations of other investigators for this and other similar absorption chillers are presented. These have been plotted as both contour and three-dimensional performance maps in order to more clearly show the functional dependence of the chiller performance on the fluid loop temperatures.

  11. CFCs and electric chillers: Selection of large-capacity water chillers in the 1990s. Revision 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This handbook offers a single source of useful information for understanding CFC and HCFC phaseout issues and selecting large- capacity water chillers for cooling commercial buildings. It evaluates the performance of electric, absorption, and natural-gas-engine driven water chillers. An economic evaluation checklist and example are included, using the EPRI COMTECH screening tool. Peak shaving with gas chillers and load shifting with chilled water storage are examined. The handbook, written for a diverse audience, covers chiller hardware, function, performance, and typical installed costs. It provides guidelines and checklists for chiller selection, economic comparison, and operation and maintenance.

  12. CFCS and electric chillers: Selection of large-capacity water chillers in the 1990s. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Niess, R.C.

    1992-03-01

    This handbook offers a single source of useful information for understanding CFC and HCFC phaseout issues and selecting large-capacity water chillers for cooling commercial buildings. It evaluates the performance of electric, absorption, and natural-gas-engine driven water chillers. An economic evaluation checklist and example are included, using the EPRI COMTECH screening tool. Peak shaving with gas chillers and load shifting with chilled water storage are examined. The handbook, written for a diverse audience, covers chiller hardware, function, performance, and typical installed costs. It provides guidelines and checklists for chiller selection, economic comparison, and operation and maintenance.

  13. Air cooled absorption chillers for solar cooling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biermann, W. J.; Reimann, R. C.

    1982-03-01

    The chemical composition of a 'best' absorption refrigerant system is identified, and those properties of the system necessary to design hot water operated, air cooled chilling equipment are determined. Air cooled chillers from single family residential sizes into the commercial rooftop size range are designed and operated.

  14. Cost reduction in absorption chillers: Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh, R.W.

    1989-02-01

    A research program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has addressed the possibility of dramatically lowering the first costs of absorption chillers through lowered material intensity and the use of lower cost materials, primarily in the heat exchangers which make up the bulk of the operating components of these systems. This must be done while retaining the best performance characteristics available today, a gross design point coefficient of performance (COP) of 1.3 and a net design (seasonal) average COP of 1.0 (0.90) in a directly fired, double effect unit. We have investigated several possible routes to these goals, and here report on these findings, focusing on the areas that appear most promising. The candidate technologies include the use of polymer film heat exchangers in several applications, the use of thin strips of new, corrosion resistant alloys to replace thicker, less impervious metals in applications exposed to gas flames, and copper or cupro-nickel foils in contact with system water. The use of such materials is only possible in the context of new heat exchanger and system designs, which are also discussed. To lend focus, we have concentrated on a directly fired double effect system providing capacity only. If successful, these techniques will also find wide applicability in heat pumps, cogeneration systems, solar cooling, heat recovery and chemical process heat transfer. 46 refs., 24 figs., 22 tabs.

  15. Absorption and adsorption chillers applied to air conditioning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuczyńska, Agnieszka; Szaflik, Władysław

    2010-07-01

    This work presents an application possibility of sorption refrigerators driven by low temperature fluid for air conditioning of buildings. Thermodynamic models were formulated and absorption LiBr-water chiller with 10 kW cooling power as well as adsorption chiller with silica gel bed were investigated. Both of them are using water for desorption process with temperature Tdes = 80 °C. Coefficient of performance (COP) for both cooling cycles was analyzed in the same conditions of the driving heat source, cooling water Tc = 25 °C and temperature in evaporator Tevap = 5 °C. In this study, the computer software EES was used to investigate the performance of absorption heat pump system and its behaviour in configuration with geothermal heat source.

  16. Chapter 14: Chiller Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Tiessen, A.

    2014-09-01

    This protocol defines a chiller measure as a project that directly impacts equipment within the boundary of a chiller plant. A chiller plant encompasses a chiller--or multiple chillers--and associated auxiliary equipment. This protocol primarily covers electric-driven chillers and chiller plants. It does not include thermal energy storage and absorption chillers fired by natural gas or steam, although a similar methodology may be applicable to these chilled water system components. Chillers provide mechanical cooling for commercial, institutional, multiunit residential, and industrial facilities. Cooling may be required for facility heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems or for process cooling loads (e.g., data centers, manufacturing process cooling). The vapor compression cycle, or refrigeration cycle, cools water in the chilled water loop by absorbing heat and rejecting it to either a condensing water loop (water cooled chillers) or to the ambient air (air-cooled chillers).

  17. LiCl Dehumidifier LiBr absorption chiller hybrid air conditioning system with energy recovery

    DOEpatents

    Ko, Suk M.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a hybrid air conditioning system that combines a solar powered LiCl dehumidifier with a LiBr absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier removes the latent load by absorbing moisture from the air, and the sensible load is removed by the absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier is coupled to a regenerator and the desiccant in the regenerator is heated by solar heated hot water to drive the moisture therefrom before being fed back to the dehumidifier. The heat of vaporization expended in the desiccant regenerator is recovered and used to partially preheat the driving fluid of the absorption chiller, thus substantially improving the overall COP of the hybrid system.

  18. Operation of a low temperature absorption chiller at rating point and at reduced evaporator temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, R.; Biermann, W.; Reimann, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    The returned fifteen ton Solar Absorption Machine (SAM) 015 chiller was given a cursory visual inspection, some obvious problems were remedied, and then it was placed on a test stand to get a measure of dirty performance. It was then given a standard acid clean, the water side of the tubes was brushed clean, and then the machine was retested. The before and after cleaning data were compared to equivalent data taken before the machine was shipped. The second part of the work statement was to experimentally demonstrate the technical feasibility of operating the chiller at evaporator temperatures below 0(0)C (32(0)F) and identify any operational problems.

  19. Heavy absorption chillers: The Tortoise technology that can win

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, F.E.

    1995-06-01

    Why has Absorption taken over 200 years to become a viable technology and secondarily what is the long term potential for heavy absorption technology? A third interesting question may be as some knowledgeable people in the North America industry have professed, is there a Window of Opportunity which was presented by the electric vapor compressor refrigerant issue which will be the last chance for absorption? Of course we know that absorption is not a new technology in 1994. It is however being rediscovered in many parts of the world by specifiers and engineers who are otherwise totally familiar with HVAC systems technology. As has been well documented in Japan, absorption heavy systems have been dominant for some time to the point that over 90% of the new units installed in the heavy systems category are absorption. Further by now 50% of the installed heavy systems tonnage in the country are absorption chillers. It did not take the electric vapor compressor refrigerant issue to make this huge market for absorption and there aren`t too many people in the HVAC business in Japan that view absorption as the {open_quotes}Tortoise technology.{close_quotes} If we only understood what the drivers were in Japan to create this absorption market then perhaps we could understand and possibly predict the long term potential for the technology in other markets of the world. We could actually go to work and look for markets that mirror the prevailing conditions in Japan. There will be those amongst us who will tell you that Japan is a unique market in almost every product category and most certainly with respect to heavy chiller systems.

  20. Gas Engine-Driven Heat Pump Chiller for Air-Conditioning and Hot Water Supply Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Toshihiko; Mita, Nobuhiro; Moriyama, Tadashi; Hoshino, Norimasa; Kimura, Yoshihisa

    In Part 1 of this study, the performance characteristics of a 457kW gas engine-driven heat pump (GHP) chiller have been obtained from a simulation model analysis for both cooling and heating modes and it has been found that the part-load characteristics of the GHP chiller are fairly well. On the back of Part 1, a computer simulation program has been developed for the evaluation of GHP chiller systems to compare with the other types of heat source systems for air-conditioning and hot water supply applications. The simulation program can be used to estimate annual energy consumption, annual CO2 emission, etc. of the systems with the data of monthly and hourly thermal loads on various buildings, outdoor air conditions, and characteristics of various components comprising the systems. By applying this to some cases of medium-scale hotel, office, shop, and hospital buildings, it has been found that the GHP chiller systems have advantages particularly in the cases of hotels and hospitals where a lot of hot water demand exists. It has also been found that the combination of a GHP chiller and a direct-fired absorption water chiller boiler (hot and chilled water generator) appears promising.

  1. Performance evaluation of an active solar cooling system utilizing low cost plastic collectors and an evaporatively-cooled absorption chiller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lof, G. O.; Westhoff, M. A.; Karaki, S.

    1984-02-01

    During the summer of 1982, air conditioning in Solar House 3 at Colorado State University was provided by an evaporatively-cooled absorption chiller. The single-effect lithium bromide chiller is an experimental three-ton unit from which heat is rejected by direct evaporative cooling of the condenser and absorber walls, thereby eliminating the need for a separate cooling tower. Domestic hot water was also provided by use of a double-walled heat exchanger and 80-gal hot water tank. A schematic of the system is given. Objectives of the project were: (1) evaluation of system performance over the course of one cooling season in Fort Collins, Colorado; (2) optimization of system operation and control; (3) development of a TRNSYS compatible model of the chiller; and (4) determination of cooling system performance in several U.S. climates by use of the model.

  2. Cost reductions in absorption chillers. Final report, June 1984-May 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh, R.W.

    1986-05-01

    Absorption chillers have great difficulty competing with the electric-driven compression alternative, due in part to modest operating efficiencies and largely to high first costs. This project is an assessment of the possibility of lowering the costs of absorption chillers dramatically by the use of low material intensity in the design of a new generation of these machines. Breakeven costs for absorption chillers, their heat exchangers and heat exchanger materials were established which will allow commercial success. Polymeric and metallic materials appropriate to particular components and which meet the cost goals were identified. A subset of these materials were tested and ordered by success in tolerating conditions and materials found in absorption chiller applications. Conceptual designs which indicate the practicality of the low material intensity approach were developed. The work reported here indicates that there is a high probability that this apporach will be successful.

  3. System Analysis on Absorption Chiller Utilizing Intermediate Wasted Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Miki; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Usui, Hiromoto

    A system analysis has been performed for the multi-effect absorption chiller (MEAC) applied as a bottoming system of 30kW class hybrid system including micro gas turbine (MGT) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) hybrid system. In this paper, an intermediate wasted heat utilization (IWHU) system is suggested for lifting up the energy efficiency of the whole system and coefficient of performance (COP) of MEAC. From the results, the suggested IWHU system was found to show the very high energy efficiency compared with a terminal wasted heat utilization (TWHU) system that uses only the heat exhausted from the terminal of MGT/SOFC system. When TWHU system is applied for MEAC, the utilized heat from the MGT/SOFC system is found to remain low because the temperature difference between the high temperature generator and the wasted heat becomes small. Then, the energy efficiency does not become high in spite of high COP of MEAC. On the other hand, the IWHU system could increase the utilized heat for MEAC as performs effectively. The exergy efficiency of IWHU system is also revealed to be higher than that of a direct gas burning system of MEAC, because the wasted heat is effectively utilized in the IWHU system.

  4. Integration of a molten carbonate fuel cell with a direct exhaust absorption chiller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margalef, Pere; Samuelsen, Scott

    A high market value exists for an integrated high-temperature fuel cell-absorption chiller product throughout the world. While high-temperature, molten carbonate fuel cells are being commercially deployed with combined heat and power (CHP) and absorption chillers are being commercially deployed with heat engines, the energy efficiency and environmental attributes of an integrated high-temperature fuel cell-absorption chiller product are singularly attractive for the emerging distributed generation (DG) combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) market. This study addresses the potential of cooling production by recovering and porting the thermal energy from the exhaust gas of a high-temperature fuel cell (HTFC) to a thermally activated absorption chiller. To assess the practical opportunity of serving an early DG-CCHP market, a commercially available direct fired double-effect absorption chiller is selected that closely matches the exhaust flow and temperature of a commercially available HTFC. Both components are individually modeled, and the models are then coupled to evaluate the potential of a DG-CCHP system. Simulation results show that a commercial molten carbonate fuel cell generating 300 kW of electricity can be effectively coupled with a commercial 40 refrigeration ton (RT) absorption chiller. While the match between the two "off the shelf" units is close and the simulation results are encouraging, the match is not ideal. In particular, the fuel cell exhaust gas temperature is higher than the inlet temperature specified for the chiller and the exhaust flow rate is not sufficient to achieve the potential heat recovery within the chiller heat exchanger. To address these challenges, the study evaluates two strategies: (1) blending the fuel cell exhaust gas with ambient air, and (2) mixing the fuel cell exhaust gases with a fraction of the chiller exhaust gas. Both cases are shown to be viable and result in a temperature drop and flow rate increase of the

  5. Microbiology of broiler carcasses and chemistry of chiller water as affected by water reuse.

    PubMed

    Northcutt, J K; Smith, D; Huezo, R I; Ingram, K D

    2008-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of treating and reusing poultry chiller water in a commercial poultry processing facility. Broiler carcasses and chiller water were obtained from a commercial processing facility which had recently installed a TOMCO Pathogen Management System to recycle water in sections 2 and 3 of two 3-compartment chillers. In this system, reused water is blended with fresh water to maintain the chiller volume. Carcasses were sampled prechill and postchill (final exit), and chiller water was sampled from the beginning and end of each of the 3 sections. Carcasses were subjected to a whole carcass rinse (WCR) in 0.1% peptone. Numbers of Escherichia coli (EC), coliforms (CF), and Campylobacter (CPY) were determined from the WCR and chiller water samples. Prevalence of Salmonella (SAL) was also determined on the WCR and chiller water samples. On average, prechill levels of bacteria recovered from rinses were 2.6, 2.9, and 2.6 log10 cfu/mL for EC, CF, and CPY, respectively. Ten out of 40 (25%) prechill carcasses were positive for SAL. After chilling, numbers of EC, CF, and CPY recovered from carcass rinses decreased by 1.5, 1.5, and 2.0 log10 cfu/mL, respectively. However, 9 out of 40 (22%) postchill carcasses were positive for SAL. When the chiller water samples were tested, counts of EC, CF, and CPY were found only in water collected from the first section of the chiller (inlet and outlet). Two of 4 water samples collected from the inlet of the first section tested positive for SAL. This study shows that fresh and reused water can be used to cool poultry in chiller systems to achieve a reduction in numbers of bacteria (EC, CF, and CPY) or equivalent prevalence (SAL) of bacteria recovered from broiler carcasses.

  6. Economic analysis of solar assisted absorption chiller for a commercial building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonyraj, Gnananesan

    Dwindling fossil fuels coupled with changes in global climate intensified the drive to make use of renewable energy resources that have negligible impact on the environment. In this attempt, the industrial community produced various devices and systems to make use of solar energy for heating and cooling of building space as well as generate electric power. The most common components employed for collection of solar energy are the flat plate and evacuated tube collectors that produce hot water that can be employed for heating the building space. In order to cool the building, the absorption chiller is commonly employed that requires hot water at high temperatures for its operation. This thesis deals with economic analysis of solar collector and absorption cooling system to meet the building loads of a commercial building located in Chattanooga, Tennessee. Computer simulations are employed to predict the hourly building loads and performance of the flat plate and evacuated tube solar collectors using the hourly weather data. The key variables affecting the economic evaluation of such system are identified and the influence of these parameters is presented. The results of this investigation show that the flat plate solar collectors yield lower payback period compared to the evacuated tube collectors and economic incentives offered by the local and federal agencies play a major role in lowering the payback period.

  7. Triple effect absorption chiller utilizing two refrigeration circuits

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, Robert C.

    1988-01-01

    A triple effect absorption method and apparatus having a high coefficient of performance. Two single effect absorption circuits are combined with heat exchange occurring between a condenser and absorber of a high temperature circuit, and a generator of a low temperature circuit. The evaporators of both the high and low temperature circuits provide cooling to an external heat load.

  8. Design improvements in LiBr absorption chillers for solar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, G.; Bourne, J. R.; Ben-Dror, J.; Kimchi, Y.; Vardi, I.

    1981-02-01

    The present article describes a theoretical evaluation of two design improvements made in a lithium bromide absorption chiller which contribute substantially to its performance in solar application. One is the addition of a solution preheater which allows for a considerable reduction in generator size and cost, and improves performance at part load. The other is the addition of an auxiliary generator which enables the chiller to operate at nominal capacity or higher at all times, while utilizing to a maximum the solar radiation available at the time, however small. This is an effective solution to the problem of backup required in all solar-powered systems. The evaluation has been performed by computer simulation and results are presented for the performance of the unit with different configurations of the above systems. The results indicate the limitations on the part of the load to be supplied by the preheater. They point toward the advantage of using an auxiliary generator in a separate shell from the solar-powered generator and with a separate condenser. Operating curves for the chiller with the design improvements are given.

  9. Advanced cogeneration and absorption chillers potential for service to Navy bases. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J.W.; Butcher, T.A.; Leigh, R.W.; McDonald, R.J.; Pierce, B.L.

    1996-04-01

    The US military uses millions of Btu`s of thermal energy to heat, cool and deliver process thermal energy to buildings on military bases, much of which is transmitted through a pipeline system incorporating thousands of miles of pipe. Much of this pipeline system is in disrepair and is nearing the end of its useful life, and the boilers which supply it are old and often inefficient. In 1993, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) proposed to SERDP a three-year effort to develop advanced systems of coupled diesel cogenerators and absorption chillers which would be particularly useful in providing a continuation of the services now provided by increasingly antiquated district systems. In mid-February, 1995, BNL learned that all subsequent funding for our program had been canceled. BNL staff continued to develop the Program Plan and to adhere to the requirements of the Execution Plan, but began to look for ways in which the work could be made relevant to Navy and DoD energy needs even without the extensive development plan formerly envisioned. The entire program was therefore re-oriented to look for ways in which small scale cogeneration and absorption chilling technologies, available through procurement rather than development, could provide some solutions to the problem of deteriorated district heating systems. The result is, we believe, a striking new approach to the provision of building services on military bases: in many cases, serious study should be made of the possibility that the old district heating system should be removed or abandoned, and small-scale cogenerators and absorption chillers should be installed in each building. In the remainder of this Summary, we develop the rationale behind this concept and summarize our findings concerning the conditions under which this course of action would be advisable and the economic benefits which will accrue if it is followed. The details are developed in the succeeding sections of the report.

  10. Optimum hot water temperature for absorption solar cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Lecuona, A.; Ventas, R.; Venegas, M.; Salgado, R.; Zacarias, A.

    2009-10-15

    The hot water temperature that maximizes the overall instantaneous efficiency of a solar cooling facility is determined. A modified characteristic equation model is used and applied to single-effect lithium bromide-water absorption chillers. This model is based on the characteristic temperature difference and serves to empirically calculate the performance of real chillers. This paper provides an explicit equation for the optimum temperature of vapor generation, in terms of only the external temperatures of the chiller. The additional data required are the four performance parameters of the chiller and essentially a modified stagnation temperature from the detailed model of the thermal collector operation. This paper presents and discusses the results for small capacity machines for air conditioning of homes and small buildings. The discussion highlights the influence of the relevant parameters. (author)

  11. Demonstration of an on-site PAFC cogeneration system with waste heat utilization by a new gas absorption chiller

    SciTech Connect

    Urata, Tatsuo

    1996-12-31

    Analysis and cost reduction of fuel cells is being promoted to achieve commercial on-site phosphoric acid fuel cells (on-site FC). However, for such cells to be effectively utilized, a cogeneration system designed to use the heat generated must be developed at low cost. Room heating and hot-water supply are the most simple and efficient uses of the waste heat of fuel cells. However, due to the short room-heating period of about 4 months in most areas in Japan, the sites having demand for waste heat of fuel cells throughout the year will be limited to hotels and hospitals Tokyo Gas has therefore been developing an on-site FC and the technology to utilize tile waste heat of fuel cells for room cooling by means of an absorption refrigerator. The paper describes the results of fuel cell cogeneration tests conducted on a double effect gas absorption chiller heater with auxiliary waste heat recovery (WGAR) that Tokyo Gas developed in its Energy Technology Research Laboratory.

  12. Gas Engine-Driven Heat Pump Chiller for Air-Conditioning and Hot Water Supply Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Toshihiko; Mita, Nobuhiro; Moriyama, Tadashi; Hoshino, Norimasa; Kimura, Yoshihisa

    A gas engine-driven heat pump (GHP) uses a natural gas-or LPG-powered engine to drive the compressor in a vapor-compression refrigeration cycle. The GHP has the benefits of being able to use the fuel energy effectively by recovering waste heat from the engine jacket coolant and exhaust gas and also to keep high efficiency even at part-load operation by varying the engine speed with relative ease. Hence, energy-efficient heat source systems for air-conditioning and hot water supply may be constructed with GHP chillers in place of conventional electrical-driven heat pump chillers. GHPs will necessarily contribute to the peak shaving of electrical demand in summer. In this study, the performance characteristics of a 457kW GHP chiller have been investigated by a simulation model analysis, for both cooling and heating modes. From the results of the analysis, it has been found that the part-load characteristics of the GHP chiller are fairly well. The evaluation of the heat source systems using GHP chillers will be described in Part 2.

  13. Hybrid solar receiver as a source of high-temperature medium for an absorption chiller supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przenzak, Estera; Filipowicz, Mariusz

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses the problems related with the cold production, i.e. energy efficiency of the process. The idea of solar cooling systems has been presented as the solution of the problem of big electricity demand. The paper discusses the principle of the operation of absorption chillers. Disadvantages and advantages of the solar cooling systems were discussed. The installation for manufacturing high-temperature heat based on solar collectors and concentrator of solar radiation constructed in AGH in Cracow has been presented. This installation is a first stage of projected, complete solar cooling system. The special attention is paid to the dedicated solar high-temperature heat receiver as a most important element of the system. The achieved values of temperature, power and efficiency depending on the working medium flow has been presented and discussed. The intensity of solar radiation during the measurements has been taken into account. Two versions of heat receiver were investigated: non-insulated and insulated with mineral wool. The obtained efficiency of the heat receiver (less than 30%) is not satisfactory but possibility of improvements exist.

  14. Study of Solar Driven Silica gel-Water based Adsorption Chiller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, K.; Assadi, M. K.; Zainudin, M. H. B.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, a dynamic behaviour of a solar powered single stage four bed adsorption chiller has been analysed designed for Malaysian climate. Silica gel and water have been used as adsorbent-refrigerant pair. A simulation program has been developed for modeling and performance evaluation of the chiller using the meteorological data of Kuala Lumpur. The optimum cooling capacity and coefficient of performance (COP) are calculated in terms of adsorption/desorption cycle time and regeneration temperature. Results indicate that the chiller is feasible even when low temperature heat source is available. Results also show that the adsorption cycle can achieve a cooling capacity of 14 kW when the heat source temperature is about 85°C.

  15. Entropy generation analysis of two-bed, silica gel-water, non-regenerative adsorption chillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua, H. T.; Ng, K. C.; Malek, A.; Kashiwagi, T.; Akisawa, A.; Saha, B. B.

    1998-06-01

    The current thrust on the use of environmentally friendly technologies for cooling applications, inter alia, envisages the adoption of adsorption systems. Adsorption chillers are known to be `inefficient' due to their low coefficient of performance. Although the basic physics of heat and mass transfer in various components of the system is well understood, there is a lacuna in the quantification of irreversibilities. In this paper, a silica gel-water, two-bed, non-regenerative chiller is analysed. It is shown that the largest cycle-averaged rate of entropy generation is in the beds and that the least is in the condenser. The entropy generation rates in the beds are further studied, showing that the maximum contribution is made during the switching phase. In general, manufacturers' effort to maximize cooling capacity is shown to correspond to maximum entropy generation in the evaporator.

  16. Development of a single-family absorption chiller for use in a solar heating and cooling system, phase 3, volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimann, R. C.; Biermann, W. J.

    1984-10-01

    Supporting information is presented on: properties of a chemical system for solar fired, air-cooled absorption equipment, air-side performance of a one-inch tube, absorber plate-fin coil, listings of the programs used for simulation and data reduction, and evaluation of the Carrier three-tone chiller in an integrated heating and cooling system.

  17. Assessing the microbiomes of scalder and chiller tank waters throughout a typical commercial poultry processing day.

    PubMed

    Rothrock, M J; Locatelli, A; Glenn, T C; Thomas, J C; Caudill, A C; Kiepper, B H; Hiett, K L

    2016-10-01

    The commercial poultry processing environment plays a significant role in reducing foodborne pathogens and spoilage organisms from poultry products prior to being supplied to consumers. While understanding the microbiological quality of these products is essential, little is known about the microbiota of processing water tanks within the processing plant. Therefore, the goal of this study was to assess the microbiomes of the scalder and chiller tanks during a typical commercial processing d, and determine how bacterial populations, including foodborne pathogens and spoilage organisms, change during the processing day in relation to the bacterial communities as a whole. Additionally, considering this is the first microbiomic analysis of processing tank waters, 2 water sampling methods also were compared. Results of this study show that Proteobacteria and Firmicutes represented over half of the sequences recovered from both tanks at the phylum level, but the microbiomic profiles needed to be analyzed at the genus level to observe more dynamic population shifts. Bacteria known to predominate in the live production environment were found to increase in the scalder tank and gram negative spoilage-related bacteria were found to decrease in the chiller tank throughout the processing day. Directly sampling the scalder water, as compared to analyzing filtered samples, resulted in significantly different microbiomic profiles dominated by Anoxybacillus species. While no sequences related to major foodborne pathogens were found, further sampling collection and processing optimization should provide researchers and the poultry industry a new tool to understand the ecological role of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria within processing tank waters.

  18. Assessing the microbiomes of scalder and chiller tank waters throughout a typical commercial poultry processing day.

    PubMed

    Rothrock, M J; Locatelli, A; Glenn, T C; Thomas, J C; Caudill, A C; Kiepper, B H; Hiett, K L

    2016-10-01

    The commercial poultry processing environment plays a significant role in reducing foodborne pathogens and spoilage organisms from poultry products prior to being supplied to consumers. While understanding the microbiological quality of these products is essential, little is known about the microbiota of processing water tanks within the processing plant. Therefore, the goal of this study was to assess the microbiomes of the scalder and chiller tanks during a typical commercial processing d, and determine how bacterial populations, including foodborne pathogens and spoilage organisms, change during the processing day in relation to the bacterial communities as a whole. Additionally, considering this is the first microbiomic analysis of processing tank waters, 2 water sampling methods also were compared. Results of this study show that Proteobacteria and Firmicutes represented over half of the sequences recovered from both tanks at the phylum level, but the microbiomic profiles needed to be analyzed at the genus level to observe more dynamic population shifts. Bacteria known to predominate in the live production environment were found to increase in the scalder tank and gram negative spoilage-related bacteria were found to decrease in the chiller tank throughout the processing day. Directly sampling the scalder water, as compared to analyzing filtered samples, resulted in significantly different microbiomic profiles dominated by Anoxybacillus species. While no sequences related to major foodborne pathogens were found, further sampling collection and processing optimization should provide researchers and the poultry industry a new tool to understand the ecological role of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria within processing tank waters. PMID:27444443

  19. Design and Economic Potential of an Integrated High-Temperature Fuel Cell and Absorption Chiller Combined Cooling, Heat, and Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosford, Kyle S.

    Clean distributed generation power plants can provide a much needed balance to our energy infrastructure in the future. A high-temperature fuel cell and an absorption chiller can be integrated to create an ideal combined cooling, heat, and power system that is efficient, quiet, fuel flexible, scalable, and environmentally friendly. With few real-world installations of this type, research remains to identify the best integration and operating strategy and to evaluate the economic viability and market potential of this system. This thesis informs and documents the design of a high-temperature fuel cell and absorption chiller demonstration system at a generic office building on the University of California, Irvine (UCI) campus. This work details the extension of prior theoretical work to a financially-viable power purchase agreement (PPA) with regard to system design, equipment sizing, and operating strategy. This work also addresses the metering and monitoring for the system showcase and research and details the development of a MATLAB code to evaluate the economics associated with different equipment selections, building loads, and economic parameters. The series configuration of a high-temperature fuel cell, heat recovery unit, and absorption chiller with chiller exhaust recirculation was identified as the optimal system design for the installation in terms of efficiency, controls, ducting, and cost. The initial economic results show that high-temperature fuel cell and absorption chiller systems are already economically competitive with utility-purchased generation, and a brief case study of a southern California hospital shows that the systems are scalable and viable for larger stationary power applications.

  20. State-of-the-Art Review on Crystallization Control Technologies for water/LiBr Absorption Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Kai; Abdelaziz, Omar; Kisari, Padmaja; Vineyard, Edward Allan

    2011-01-01

    The key technical barrier to using water/lithium bromide (LiBr) as the working fluid in aircooled absorption chillers and absorption heat-pump systems is the risk of crystallization when the absorber temperature rises at fixed evaporating pressure. This article reviews various crystallization control technologies available to resolve this problem: chemical inhibitors, heat and mass transfer enhancement methods, thermodynamic cycle modifications, and absorption system-control strategies. Other approaches, such as boosting absorber pressure and J-tube technology, are reviewed as well. This review can help guide future efforts to develop water/LiBr air-cooled absorption chillers and absorption heatpump systems.

  1. A Novel Parametric Analysis of a Conventional Silica-Gel Water Adsorption Chiller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, K. C. A.; Saha, B. B.; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    A conventional adsorption chiller with silica gel as adsorbent and water as adsorbate has been analyzed numerically. In the present study, a non-dimensional simulation model has been presented and a set of non-dimensional parameters for conventional adsorption chiller has been derived. The results obtained by simulation method are confirmed by the experimental results. Simulation results show that switching speed is most influential parameter and there is an optimum switching speed for cooling capacity and COP. Results also show that system performance (cooling capacity and COP) is strongly affected by the number of transfer unit of adsorber/desorber, NTUa due to severe sensible heating/cooling requirements. The model is somewhat sensitive to the number of transfer unit of evaporator, NTUe. The number of transfer unit of condenser, NTUc is the least sensitive parameter. Finally, an investigation is made parametrically to obtain the optimum value of switching speed and the number of transfer unit, NTU of different component. The present model can be employed to analyze and to optimize the adsorption cooling/heat pump system.

  2. Analysis of the Solar Radiation Impact on Cooling Performance of the Absorption Chiller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorčák, Pavol; Košičanová, Danica; Nagy, Richard; Mlynár, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Absorption cooling at low power is a new technology which has not yet been applied to current conditioning elements. This paper analyzes the various elements of solar absorption cooling. Individual states were simulated in which working conditions were set for the capability of solar absorption cooling to balance heat loads in the room. The research is based on an experimental device (absorption units with a performance of 10kW) developed at the STU in Bratislava (currently inputs and outputs of cold sources are being measured). Outputs in this paper are processed so that they connect the entire scheme of the solar absorption cooling system (i.e. the relationship between the solar systems hot and cold storage and the absorption unit). To determine the size of the storage required, calculated cooling for summer months is considered by the ramp rate of the absorption unit and required flow rate of the collectors.

  3. Advanced sorption chillers for gas cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Satzger, P.; Ziegler, F.; Alefeld, G.; Stitou, D.; Spinner, B.

    1996-11-01

    The power demand peak caused by compression climatization may be reduced by using direct-fired sorption chillers. Commercial absorption chillers reach a coefficient of performance (COP) of about 1.2, which often is not high enough to compete with compression chillers. Using high-temperature driving heat, the COP of absorption chillers can be improved by multistaging. But at high temperatures, currently used working pairs tend to cause heavy corrosion of the construction materials. Solid sorption systems as high-temperature topping cycles can avoid these problems. In a French-German cooperation a cascading triple-effect system is being realized, consisting of a bottoming double-effect machine working with LiBr/water and a topping solid-reaction machine working with NiCl{sub 2}/ammonia. A COP of 1.35 is expected in this experiment, equivalent to an improvement of about 13% compared to the industrial standard. The solid-reaction topping cycle also can be realized as a two-reaction system. Then a COP of 1.55 can be expected, which means a 28% improvement. Even quadruple-effect operation is possible with a COP of 1.8. Several possible cycle configurations are discussed in this paper. The advantages and problems of the envisaged combined cycles are presented and the principle design of the experiment is outlined.

  4. Enabling the Distributed Generation Market of High Temperature Fuel Cell and Absorption Chiller Systems to Support Critical and Commercial Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiMola, Ashley M.

    Buildings account for over 18% of the world's anthropogenic Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. As a result, a technology that can offset GHG emissions associated with buildings has the potential to save over 9 Giga-tons of GHG emissions per year. High temperature fuel cell and absorption chiller (HTFC/AC) technology offers a relatively low-carbon option for meeting cooling and electric loads for buildings while producing almost no criteria pollutants. GHG emissions in the state of California would decrease by 7.48 million metric tons per year if every commercial building in the State used HTFC/AC technology to meet its power and cooling requirements. In order to realize the benefits of HTFC/AC technology on a wide scale, the distributed generation market needs to be exposed to the technology and informed of its economic viability and real-world potential. This work characterizes the economics associated with HTFC/AC technology using select scenarios that are representative of realistic applications. The financial impacts of various input factors are evaluated and the HTFC/AC simulations are compared to the economics of traditional building utilities. It is shown that, in addition to the emissions reductions derived from the systems, HTFC/AC technology is financially preferable in all of the scenarios evaluated. This work also presents the design of a showcase environment, centered on a beta-test application, that presents (1) system operating data gathered using a custom data acquisition module, and (2) HTFC/AC technology in a clear and approachable manner in order to serve the target audience of market stakeholders.

  5. Analysis of IECC2003 Chiller Heat Recovery for Service Water Heating Requirement for New York State

    SciTech Connect

    Winiarski, David W.

    2004-08-15

    The state of New York asked the U.S. Department of Energy to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the requirement for Heat Recovery for Service Water Heating that exists in the 2003 International Energy Conservation Code to determine whether this requirement should be adopted into the New York State Energy Code. A typical hotel application that would trigger this requirement was examined using whole building simulation software to generate baseline annual chiller and service hot water loads, and a spreadsheet was used to examine the energy savings potential for heat recovery using hourly load files from the simulation. An example application meeting the code requirement was developed, and the energy savings, energy cost savings, and first costs for the heat recovery installation were developed. The calculated payback for this application was 6.3 years using 2002 New York state average energy costs. This payback met the minimum requirements for cost effectiveness established for the state of New York for updating the commercial energy conservation code.

  6. Analyzing Water's Optical Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A cooperative agreement between World Precision Instruments (WPI), Inc., and Stennis Space Center has led the UltraPath(TM) device, which provides a more efficient method for analyzing the optical absorption of water samples at sea. UltraPath is a unique, high-performance absorbance spectrophotometer with user-selectable light path lengths. It is an ideal tool for any study requiring precise and highly sensitive spectroscopic determination of analytes, either in the laboratory or the field. As a low-cost, rugged, and portable system capable of high- sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters, UltraPath will help scientists examine the role that coastal ocean environments play in the global carbon cycle. UltraPath(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc. LWCC(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc.

  7. Chiller Controls-related Energy Saving Opportunities in FederalFacilities

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, Tom

    2003-01-01

    occurs in large buildings, we have focused on water-cooled screw and centrifugal chillers of 100 ton capacity and greater. However, the role of reciprocating and gas chillers (absorption and engine driven) is discussed briefly. Understanding the demographics of chiller deployment in the federal sector, state of practice of energy savings strategies and control features availability will help federal energy managers and program implementers to make informed decisions in support of energy saving performance contracting (ESPC) and other programs.

  8. Enhancements of thermal conductivities with Cu, CuO, and carbon nanotube nanofluids and application of MWNT/water nanofluid on a water chiller system

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this study, enhancements of thermal conductivities of ethylene glycol, water, and synthetic engine oil in the presence of copper (Cu), copper oxide (CuO), and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) are investigated using both physical mixing method (two-step method) and chemical reduction method (one-step method). The chemical reduction method is, however, used only for nanofluid containing Cu nanoparticle in water. The thermal conductivities of the nanofluids are measured by a modified transient hot wire method. Experimental results show that nanofluids with low concentration of Cu, CuO, or carbon nanotube (CNT) have considerably higher thermal conductivity than identical base liquids. For CuO-ethylene glycol suspensions at 5 vol.%, MWNT-ethylene glycol at 1 vol.%, MWNT-water at 1.5 vol.%, and MWNT-synthetic engine oil at 2 vol.%, thermal conductivity is enhanced by 22.4, 12.4, 17, and 30%, respectively. For Cu-water at 0.1 vol.%, thermal conductivity is increased by 23.8%. The thermal conductivity improvement for CuO and CNT nanofluids is approximately linear with the volume fraction. On the other hand, a strong dependence of thermal conductivity on the measured time is observed for Cu-water nanofluid. The system performance of a 10-RT water chiller (air conditioner) subject to MWNT/water nanofluid is experimentally investigated. The system is tested at the standard water chiller rating condition in the range of the flow rate from 60 to 140 L/min. In spite of the static measurement of thermal conductivity of nanofluid shows only 1.3% increase at room temperature relative to the base fluid at volume fraction of 0.001 (0.1 vol.%), it is observed that a 4.2% increase of cooling capacity and a small decrease of power consumption about 0.8% occur for the nanofluid system at a flow rate of 100 L/min. This result clearly indicates that the enhancement of cooling capacity is not just related to thermal conductivity alone. Dynamic effect, such as nanoparticle dispersion

  9. Enhancements of thermal conductivities with Cu, CuO, and carbon nanotube nanofluids and application of MWNT/water nanofluid on a water chiller system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Minsheng; Lin, Mark Chingcheng; Wang, Chichuan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, enhancements of thermal conductivities of ethylene glycol, water, and synthetic engine oil in the presence of copper (Cu), copper oxide (CuO), and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) are investigated using both physical mixing method (two-step method) and chemical reduction method (one-step method). The chemical reduction method is, however, used only for nanofluid containing Cu nanoparticle in water. The thermal conductivities of the nanofluids are measured by a modified transient hot wire method. Experimental results show that nanofluids with low concentration of Cu, CuO, or carbon nanotube (CNT) have considerably higher thermal conductivity than identical base liquids. For CuO-ethylene glycol suspensions at 5 vol.%, MWNT-ethylene glycol at 1 vol.%, MWNT-water at 1.5 vol.%, and MWNT-synthetic engine oil at 2 vol.%, thermal conductivity is enhanced by 22.4, 12.4, 17, and 30%, respectively. For Cu-water at 0.1 vol.%, thermal conductivity is increased by 23.8%. The thermal conductivity improvement for CuO and CNT nanofluids is approximately linear with the volume fraction. On the other hand, a strong dependence of thermal conductivity on the measured time is observed for Cu-water nanofluid. The system performance of a 10-RT water chiller (air conditioner) subject to MWNT/water nanofluid is experimentally investigated. The system is tested at the standard water chiller rating condition in the range of the flow rate from 60 to 140 L/min. In spite of the static measurement of thermal conductivity of nanofluid shows only 1.3% increase at room temperature relative to the base fluid at volume fraction of 0.001 (0.1 vol.%), it is observed that a 4.2% increase of cooling capacity and a small decrease of power consumption about 0.8% occur for the nanofluid system at a flow rate of 100 L/min. This result clearly indicates that the enhancement of cooling capacity is not just related to thermal conductivity alone. Dynamic effect, such as nanoparticle dispersion

  10. Light absorption properties and absorption budget of Southeast Pacific waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bricaud, Annick; Babin, Marcel; Claustre, Hervé; Ras, JoséPhine; TièChe, Fanny

    2010-08-01

    Absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles (NAPs), and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), and their relative contributions to total light absorption, are essential variables for bio-optical and biogeochemical models. However, their actual variations in the open ocean remain poorly documented, particularly for clear waters because of the difficulty in measuring very low absorption coefficients. The Biogeochemistry and Optics South Pacific Experiment (BIOSOPE) cruise investigated a large range of oceanic regimes, from mesotrophic waters around the Marquesas Islands to hyperoligotrophic waters in the subtropical gyre and eutrophic waters in the upwelling area off Chile. The spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton and NAPs were determined using the filter technique, while the CDOM absorption coefficients were measured using a 2 m capillary waveguide. Over the whole transect, the absorption coefficients of both dissolved and particulate components covered approximately two orders of magnitude; in the gyre, they were among the lowest ever reported for open ocean waters. In the oligotrophic and mesotrophic waters, absorption coefficients of phytoplankton and NAPs were notably lower than those measured in other oceanic areas with similar chlorophyll contents, indicating some deviation from the standard chlorophyll-absorption relationships. The contribution of absorption by NAPs to total particulate absorption showed large vertical and horizontal variations. CDOM absorption coefficients covaried with algal biomass, albeit with a high scatter. The spectral slopes of both NAP and CDOM absorption revealed structured spatial variability in relation with the trophic conditions. The relative contributions of each component to total nonwater absorption were (at a given wavelength) weakly variable over the transect, at least within the euphotic layer.

  11. Theoretical and testing performance of an innovative indirect evaporative chiller

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Yi; Xie, Xiaoyun

    2010-12-15

    An indirect evaporative chiller is a device used to produce chilled water at a temperature between the wet bulb temperature and dew point of the outdoor air, which can be used in building HVAC systems. This article presents a theoretical analysis and practical performance of an innovative indirect evaporative chiller. First, the process of the indirect evaporative chiller is introduced; then, the matching characteristics of the process are presented and analyzed. It can be shown that the process that produces cold water by using dry air is a nearly-reversible process, so the ideal produced chilled water temperature of the indirect evaporative chiller can be set close to the dew point temperature of the chiller's inlet air. After the indirect evaporative chiller was designed, simulations were done to analyze the output water temperature, the cooling efficiency relative to the inlet dew point temperature, and the COP that the chiller can performance. The first installation of the indirect evaporative chiller of this kind has been run for 5 years in a building in the city of Shihezi. The tested output water temperature of the chiller is around 14-20 C, which is just in between of the outdoor wet bulb temperature and dew point. The tested COP{sub r,s} of the developed indirect evaporative chiller reaches 9.1. Compared with ordinary air conditioning systems, the indirect evaporative chiller can save more than 40% in energy consumption due to the fact that the only energy consumed is from pumps and fans. An added bonus is that the indirect evaporative chiller uses no CFCs that pollute to the aerosphere. The tested internal parameters, such as the water-air flow rate ratio and heat transfer area for each heat transfer process inside the chiller, were analyzed and compared with designed values. The tested indoor air conditions, with a room temperature of 23-27 C and relative humidity of 50-70%, proved that the developed practical indirect evaporative chiller successfully

  12. Chiller plant design rules...Have they changed?

    SciTech Connect

    Eppelheimer, D.

    1995-09-01

    Chilled water plants are often viewed as energy consumers, actually they are only energy movers. In just the simple process of chilling water, there are four discrete energy moving functions. The chilled water pumps, condenser water pumps, and cooling tower fans are all forms of transport energy. The chiller is a heat pump where energy is consumed to raise the temperature of the heat stream. Insight into improved chiller plant performance can be obtained by tracking the power consumption of these four functions. The performance of centrifugal chillers has improved dramatically in the past 25 years. Certainly some of this improvement is due to technology improvements in heat transfer and compressor efficiency. However, the lion`s share of gain in chiller efficiency is a result of chiller owners budgeting more funds to energy conservation and purchasing more efficient chillers. Since 1970, the efficiency of electric water chillers has improved by nearly 4 percent! The intent of this presentation is to review the energy cost associated with central chilled water plants and identify opportunities in design that may reduce energy costs.

  13. INNOVATIVE HYBRID GAS/ELECTRIC CHILLER COGENERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Todd Kollross; Mike Connolly

    2004-06-30

    Engine-driven chillers are quickly gaining popularity in the market place (increased from 7,000 tons in 1994 to greater than 50,000 tons in 1998) due to their high efficiency, electric peak shaving capability, and overall low operating cost. The product offers attractive economics (5 year pay back or less) in many applications, based on areas cooling requirements and electric pricing structure. When heat is recovered and utilized from the engine, the energy resource efficiency of a natural gas engine-driven chiller is higher than all competing products. As deregulation proceeds, real time pricing rate structures promise high peak demand electric rates, but low off-peak electric rates. An emerging trend with commercial building owners and managers who require air conditioning today is to reduce their operating costs by installing hybrid chiller systems that combine gas and electric units. Hybrid systems not only reduce peak electric demand charges, but also allow customers to level their energy load profiles and select the most economical energy source, gas or electricity, from hour to hour. Until recently, however, all hybrid systems incorporated one or more gas-powered chillers (engine driven and/or absorption) and one or more conventional electric units. Typically, the cooling capacity of hybrid chiller plants ranges from the hundreds to thousands of refrigeration tons, with multiple chillers affording the user a choice of cooling systems. But this flexibility is less of an option for building operators who have limited room for equipment. To address this technology gap, a hybrid chiller was developed by Alturdyne that combines a gas engine, an electric motor and a refrigeration compressor within a single package. However, this product had not been designed to realize the full features and benefits possible by combining an engine, motor/generator and compressor. The purpose of this project is to develop a new hybrid chiller that can (1) reduce end-user energy

  14. Performance Evaluation of a 4.5 kW (1.3 Refrigeration Tons) Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide/Water Solar Powered (Hot-Water-Fired) Absorption Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Zaltash, Abdolreza; Petrov, Andrei Y; Linkous, Randall Lee; Vineyard, Edward Allan

    2007-01-01

    During the summer months, air-conditioning (cooling) is the single largest use of electricity in both residential and commercial buildings with the major impact on peak electric demand. Improved air-conditioning technology has by far the greatest potential impact on the electric industry compared to any other technology that uses electricity. Thermally activated absorption air-conditioning (absorption chillers) can provide overall peak load reduction and electric grid relief for summer peak demand. This innovative absorption technology is based on integrated rotating heat exchangers to enhance heat and mass transfer resulting in a potential reduction of size, cost, and weight of the "next generation" absorption units. Rotartica Absorption Chiller (RAC) is a 4.5 kW (1.3 refrigeration tons or RT) air-cooled lithium bromide (LiBr)/water unit powered by hot water generated using the solar energy and/or waste heat. Typically LiBr/water absorption chillers are water-cooled units which use a cooling tower to reject heat. Cooling towers require a large amount of space, increase start-up and maintenance costs. However, RAC is an air-cooled absorption chiller (no cooling tower). The purpose of this evaluation is to verify RAC performance by comparing the Coefficient of Performance (COP or ratio of cooling capacity to energy input) and the cooling capacity results with those of the manufacturer. The performance of the RAC was tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in a controlled environment at various hot and chilled water flow rates, air handler flow rates, and ambient temperatures. Temperature probes, mass flow meters, rotational speed measuring device, pressure transducers, and a web camera mounted inside the unit were used to monitor the RAC via a web control-based data acquisition system using Automated Logic Controller (ALC). Results showed a COP and cooling capacity of approximately 0.58 and 3.7 kW respectively at 35 C (95 F) design condition for ambient

  15. Water absorption in mortar determined by NMR.

    PubMed

    Pel, L; Hazrati, K; Kopinga, K; Marchand, J

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) offers the possibility to determine moisture profiles in porous building materials. Moreover, the relaxation of the nuclear magnetic resonance signal can provide additional information on the water distribution in the microstructure. For mortar, it is shown that the transverse relaxation yields information on the distribution of water in the gel pores and capillary pores. Moisture profiles and relaxation were measured during water absorption. The effect of the drying treatment on the microstructure and the water absorption was investigated.

  16. Evaluation of HFC-245ca for commercial use in low pressure chillers. Task 1 report: Preliminary estimates of chiller performance

    SciTech Connect

    Keuper, E.F.; Hamm, F.B.; Glamm, P.R.

    1995-04-30

    HFC-245ca has been identified as a potential replacement for both CFC-11 and HCFC-123 in centrifugal chillers based on estimates of its thermodynamic properties, even though serious concerns exist about its flammability characteristics. The overall objective of this project is to assess the commercial viability of HFC-245ca in centrifugal chillers. This first report focuses on preliminary estimates of chiller performance only, while the next report will include laboratory performance data. The chiller performance estimates are based on early correlations of thermodynamic properties and predictions of compressor efficiency, with variations in heat transfer ignored until experimental data are obtained. Conclusions from this study include the following: The theoretical efficiency of HFC-245ca in optimized three stage chiller designs is very close to that for CFC-11 and HCFC-123 chillers. HFC-245ca is not attractive as a service retrofit in CFC-11 and HCFC-123 chillers because significant compressor modifications or dramatic lowering of condenser water temperatures would be required. Hurdles which must be overcome to apply HFC-245ca in centrifugal chillers include the flammability behavior, evaluation of toxicity, unknown heat transfer characteristics, uncertain thermodynamic properties, high refrigerant cost and construction of HFC-245ca manufacturing plants. Although the flammability of HFC-245ca can probably be reduced or eliminated by blending HFC-245ca with various inert compounds, addition of these compounds will lower the chiller performance. The chiller performance will be degraded due to less attractive thermodynamic properties and lower heat transfer performance if the blend fractionates. The experimental phase of the project will improve the accuracy of our performance estimates, and the commercial viability assessment will also include the impact of flammability, toxicity, product cost and product availability.

  17. Transient simulation of absorption machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, D. K.; Allen, R. W.; Kumar, B.

    A model for a water-cooled Lithium-Bromide/water absorption chiller is presented. Its transient response both during the start-up phase and during the shut-off period is predicted. The simulation model incorporates such influencing factors as the thermodynamic properties of the working fluid, the absorbent, the heat-transfer configuration of different components of the chiller and related physical data. The time constants of different components are controlled by a set of key parameters that have been identified. The results show a variable but at times significant amount of time delay before the chiller capacity gets close to its steady-state value. The model is intended to provide an insight into the mechanism of build-up to steady-state performance. By recognizing the significant factors contributing to transient degradation, steps can be taken to reduce such degradation.

  18. Optical absorption coefficients of pure water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zheng; Zhao, Xianzhen; Fry, Edward S.

    2002-10-01

    The integrating cavity absorption meter(ICAM), which is independent of scattering effect, is used to measure the absolute values of small optical absorption coefficients of liquid. A modified ICAM is being used to measure the absorption of water in the wavelength range 300 to 700 nm. The ultrapure water produced by a two-stages water purification system reaches Type I quality. This is equal to or better than ASTM,CAP and NCCLS water quality standards. To avoid the fact that dissolved oxygen absorbs ultraviolet light due to the photochemical effect, the water sample is delivered through a nitrogen sealed system which will prevent the sample from contacting with oxygen. A compassion of our absorption spectrum with other existing data is given.

  19. Transient simulation of absorption machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, D. K.; Allen, R. W.; Kumar, B.

    1982-08-01

    This paper presents a model for a water-cooled Lithium-Bromide/water absorption chiller and predicts its transient response both during the start-up phase and during the shutoff period. The simulation model incorporates such influencing factors as the thermodynamic properties of the working fluid, the absorbent, the heat-transfer configuration of different components of the chiller and related physical data. The time constants of different components are controlled by a set of key parameters that have been identified in this study. The results show a variable but at times significant amount of time delay before the chiller capacity gets close to its steady-state value. The model is intended to provide an insight into the mechanism of build-up to steady-state performance. By recognizing the significant factors contributing to transient degradation, steps can be taken to reduce such degradation. The evaluation of the residual capacity in the shut-off period will yield more realistic estimates of chiller COP for a chiller satisfying dynamic space cooling load.

  20. Water-related absorption in fibrous diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zedgenizov, D. A.; Shiryaev, A. A.; Kagi, H.; Navon, O.

    2003-04-01

    Cubic and coated diamonds from several localities (Brasil, Canada, Yakutia) were investigated using spectroscopic techniques. Special emphasis was put on investigation of water-related features of transmission Infra-red and Raman spectra. Presence of molecular water is inferred from broad absorption bands in IR at 3420 and 1640 cm-1. These bands were observed in many of the investigated samples. It is likely that molecular water is present in microinclusions in liquid state, since no clear indications of solid H_2O (ice VI-VII, Kagi et al., 2000) were found. Comparison of absorption by HOH and OH vibrations shows that diamonds can be separated into two principal groups: those containing liquid water (direct proportionality of OH and HOH absorption) and those with stronger absorption by OH group. Fraction of diamonds in every group depends on their provenance. There might be positive correlation between internal pressure in microinclusions (determined using quartz barometer, Navon et al., 1988) and affiliation with diamonds containing liquid water. In many cases absorption by HOH vibration is considerably lower than absorption by hydroxyl (OH) group. This may be explained if OH groups are partially present in mineral and/or melt inclusions. This hypothesis is supported by following fact: in diamonds with strong absorption by silicates and other minerals shape and position of the OH band differs from that in diamonds with low absorption by minerals. Moreover, in Raman spectra of individual inclusions sometimes the broad band at 3100 cm-1 is observed. This band is OH-related. In some samples water distribution is not homogeneous. Central part of the diamond usually contains more water than outer parts, but this is not a general rule for all the samples. Water absorption usually correlated with absorption of other components (carbonates, silicates and others). At that fibrous diamonds with relatively high content of silicates are characterized by molecular water. OH

  1. High temperature measurement of water vapor absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefer, Dennis; Lewis, J. W. L.; Eskridge, Richard

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to measure the absorption coefficient, at a wavelength of 10.6 microns, for mixtures of water vapor and a diluent gas at high temperature and pressure. The experimental concept was to create the desired conditions of temperature and pressure in a laser absorption wave, similar to that which would be created in a laser propulsion system. A simplified numerical model was developed to predict the characteristics of the absorption wave and to estimate the laser intensity threshold for initiation. A non-intrusive method for temperature measurement utilizing optical laser-beam deflection (OLD) and optical spark breakdown produced by an excimer laser, was thoroughly investigated and found suitable for the non-equilibrium conditions expected in the wave. Experiments were performed to verify the temperature measurement technique, to screen possible materials for surface initiation of the laser absorption wave and to attempt to initiate an absorption wave using the 1.5 kW carbon dioxide laser. The OLD technique was proven for air and for argon, but spark breakdown could not be produced in helium. It was not possible to initiate a laser absorption wave in mixtures of water and helium or water and argon using the 1.5 kW laser, a result which was consistent with the model prediction.

  2. The Correlation of Coupled Heat and Mass Transfer Experimental Data for Vertical Falling Film Absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Keyhani, M; Miller, W A

    1999-11-14

    Absorption chillers are gaining global acceptance as quality comfort cooling systems. These machines are the central chilling plants and the supply for cotnfort cooling for many large commercial buildings. Virtually all absorption chillers use lithium bromide (LiBr) and water as the absorption fluids. Water is the refrigerant. Research has shown LiBr to he one of the best absorption working fluids because it has a high affinity for water, releases water vapor at relatively low temperatures, and has a boiling point much higher than that of water. The heart of the chiller is the absorber, where a process of simultaneous heat and mass transfer occurs as the refrigerant water vapor is absorbed into a falling film of aqueous LiBr. The more water vapor absorbed into the falling film, the larger the chiller's capacity for supporting comfort cooling. Improving the performance of the absorber leads directly to efficiency gains for the chiller. The design of an absorber is very empirical and requires experimental data. Yet design data and correlations are sparse in the open literature. The experimental data available to date have been derived at LiBr concentrations ranging from 0.30 to 0.60 mass fraction. No literature data are readily available for the design operating conditions of 0.62 and 0.64 mass fraction of LiBr and absorber pressures of 0.7 and 1.0 kPa.

  3. Solar powered absorption air conditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardon, J. M.

    1980-04-01

    Artificial means of providing or removing heat from the building are discussed along with the problem of the appropriate building design and construction for a suitable heat climate inside the building. The use of a lithium bromide-water absorption chiller, powered by a hot water store heated by an array of stationary flat collectors, is analyzed. An iterative method of predicting the cooling output from a LiBr-water absorption refrigeration plant having variable heat input is described and a model allowing investigation of the performance of a solar collector and thermal storage system is developed.

  4. Aging assessment of essential HVAC chillers used in nuclear power plants. Phase 1, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Blahnik, D.E.; Klein, R.F.

    1993-09-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a Phase I aging assessment of chillers used in the essential safety air-conditioning systems of nuclear power plants. Centrifugal chillers in the 75- to 750-ton refrigeration capacity range are the predominant type used. The chillers used, and air-conditioning systems served, vary in design from plant-to-plant. It is crucial to keep chiller internals very clean and to prevent the leakage of water, air, and other contaminants into the refrigerant containment system. Periodic operation on a weekly or monthly basis is necessary to remove moisture and noncondensable gases that gradually build up inside the chiller. This is especially desirable if a chiller is required to operate only as an emergency standby unit. The primary stressors and aging mechanisms that affect chillers include vibration, excessive temperatures and pressures, thermal cycling, chemical attack, and poor quality cooling water. Aging is accelerated by moisture, non-condensable gases (e.g., air), dirt, and other contamination within the refrigerant containment system, excessive start/stop cycling, and operating below the rated capacity. Aging is also accelerated by corrosion and fouling of the condenser and evaporator tubes. The principal cause of chiller failures is lack of adequate monitoring. Lack of performing scheduled maintenance and human errors also contribute to failures.

  5. Aging assessment of essential HVAC chillers used in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Blahnik, D.E.; Camp, T.W.

    1996-09-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a comprehensive aging assessment of chillers used in the essential safety air-conditioning systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The chillers used, and air-conditioning systems served, vary in design from plant to plant. The review of operating experience indicated that chillers experience aging degradation and failures. The primary aging factors of concern for chillers include vibration, excessive temperatures and pressures, thermal cycling, chemical attack, and poor quality cooling water. The evaluation of Licensee Event Reports (LERs) indicated that about 38% of the failures were primarily related to aging, 55% were partially aging related, and 7% of the failures were unassignable. About 25% of the failures were primarily caused by human, design, procedure, and other errors. The large number of errors is probably directly related to the complexity of chillers and their interfacing systems. Nearly all of the LERs were the result of entering plant Technical Specification Limiting Condition for Operation (LCO) that initiated remedial actions like plant shutdown procedures. The trend for chiller-related LERs has stabilized at about 0.13 LERs per plant year since 1988. Carefully following the vendor procedures and monitoring the equipment can help to minimize and/or eliminate most of the premature failures. Recording equipment performance can be useful for trending analysis. Periodic operation for a few hours on a weekly or monthly basis is useful to remove moisture and non-condensable gases that gradually build up inside the chiller. Chiller pressurization kits are available that will help minimize the amount of moisture and air ingress to low-pressure chillers during standby periods. The assessment of service life condition monitoring of chillers indicated there are many simple to sophisticated methods available that can help in chiller surveillance and monitoring.

  6. Differential absorption radar techniques: water vapor retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millán, Luis; Lebsock, Matthew; Livesey, Nathaniel; Tanelli, Simone

    2016-06-01

    Two radar pulses sent at different frequencies near the 183 GHz water vapor line can be used to determine total column water vapor and water vapor profiles (within clouds or precipitation) exploiting the differential absorption on and off the line. We assess these water vapor measurements by applying a radar instrument simulator to CloudSat pixels and then running end-to-end retrieval simulations. These end-to-end retrievals enable us to fully characterize not only the expected precision but also their potential biases, allowing us to select radar tones that maximize the water vapor signal minimizing potential errors due to spectral variations in the target extinction properties. A hypothetical CloudSat-like instrument with 500 m by ˜ 1 km vertical and horizontal resolution and a minimum detectable signal and radar precision of -30 and 0.16 dBZ, respectively, can estimate total column water vapor with an expected precision of around 0.03 cm, with potential biases smaller than 0.26 cm most of the time, even under rainy conditions. The expected precision for water vapor profiles was found to be around 89 % on average, with potential biases smaller than 77 % most of the time when the profile is being retrieved close to surface but smaller than 38 % above 3 km. By using either horizontal or vertical averaging, the precision will improve vastly, with the measurements still retaining a considerably high vertical and/or horizontal resolution.

  7. Absorption coefficient instrument for turbid natural waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, E.; Cherdak, A.; Poole, L.; Houghton, W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents an instrument that directly measures multispectral absorption coefficient of turbid natural water. Attention is given to the design, which is shown to incorporate methods for the compensation of variation in the internal light source intensity, correction of the spectrally dependent nature of the optical elements, and correction for variation in the background light level. In addition, when used in conjunction with a spectrally matched total attenuation instrument, the spectrally dependent scattering coefficient can also be derived. Finally, it is reported that systematic errors associated with multiple scattering have been estimated using Monte Carlo techniques.

  8. Intestinal Water Absorption Varies with Expected Dietary Water Load among Bats but Does Not Drive Paracellular Nutrient Absorption.

    PubMed

    Price, Edwin R; Brun, Antonio; Gontero-Fourcade, Manuel; Fernández-Marinone, Guido; Cruz-Neto, Ariovaldo P; Karasov, William H; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Rapid absorption and elimination of dietary water should be particularly important to flying species and were predicted to vary with the water content of the natural diet. Additionally, high water absorption capacity was predicted to be associated with high paracellular nutrient absorption due to solvent drag. We compared the water absorption rates of sanguivorous, nectarivorous, frugivorous, and insectivorous bats in intestinal luminal perfusions. High water absorption rates were associated with high expected dietary water load but were not highly correlated with previously measured rates of (paracellular) arabinose clearance. In conjunction with these tests, we measured water absorption and the paracellular absorption of nutrients in the intestine and stomach of vampire bats using luminal perfusions to test the hypothesis that the unique elongated vampire stomach is a critical site of water absorption. Vampire bats' gastric water absorption was high compared to mice but not compared to their intestines. We therefore conclude that (1) dietary water content has influenced the evolution of intestinal water absorption capacity in bats, (2) solvent drag is not the only driver of paracellular nutrient absorption, and (3) the vampire stomach is a capable but not critical location for water absorption.

  9. Intestinal Water Absorption Varies with Expected Dietary Water Load among Bats but Does Not Drive Paracellular Nutrient Absorption.

    PubMed

    Price, Edwin R; Brun, Antonio; Gontero-Fourcade, Manuel; Fernández-Marinone, Guido; Cruz-Neto, Ariovaldo P; Karasov, William H; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Rapid absorption and elimination of dietary water should be particularly important to flying species and were predicted to vary with the water content of the natural diet. Additionally, high water absorption capacity was predicted to be associated with high paracellular nutrient absorption due to solvent drag. We compared the water absorption rates of sanguivorous, nectarivorous, frugivorous, and insectivorous bats in intestinal luminal perfusions. High water absorption rates were associated with high expected dietary water load but were not highly correlated with previously measured rates of (paracellular) arabinose clearance. In conjunction with these tests, we measured water absorption and the paracellular absorption of nutrients in the intestine and stomach of vampire bats using luminal perfusions to test the hypothesis that the unique elongated vampire stomach is a critical site of water absorption. Vampire bats' gastric water absorption was high compared to mice but not compared to their intestines. We therefore conclude that (1) dietary water content has influenced the evolution of intestinal water absorption capacity in bats, (2) solvent drag is not the only driver of paracellular nutrient absorption, and (3) the vampire stomach is a capable but not critical location for water absorption. PMID:26658415

  10. Fault Diagnosis in HVAC Chillers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Kihoon; Namuru, Setu M.; Azam, Mohammad S.; Luo, Jianhui; Pattipati, Krishna R.; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2005-01-01

    Modern buildings are being equipped with increasingly sophisticated power and control systems with substantial capabilities for monitoring and controlling the amenities. Operational problems associated with heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems plague many commercial buildings, often the result of degraded equipment, failed sensors, improper installation, poor maintenance, and improperly implemented controls. Most existing HVAC fault-diagnostic schemes are based on analytical models and knowledge bases. These schemes are adequate for generic systems. However, real-world systems significantly differ from the generic ones and necessitate modifications of the models and/or customization of the standard knowledge bases, which can be labor intensive. Data-driven techniques for fault detection and isolation (FDI) have a close relationship with pattern recognition, wherein one seeks to categorize the input-output data into normal or faulty classes. Owing to the simplicity and adaptability, customization of a data-driven FDI approach does not require in-depth knowledge of the HVAC system. It enables the building system operators to improve energy efficiency and maintain the desired comfort level at a reduced cost. In this article, we consider a data-driven approach for FDI of chillers in HVAC systems. To diagnose the faults of interest in the chiller, we employ multiway dynamic principal component analysis (MPCA), multiway partial least squares (MPLS), and support vector machines (SVMs). The simulation of a chiller under various fault conditions is conducted using a standard chiller simulator from the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). We validated our FDI scheme using experimental data obtained from different types of chiller faults.

  11. Pollution prevention and stratospheric ozone layer protection through innovative procurement methods: The chiller basic ordering agreement

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, R.E.; Coyle, J.E.; Guice, J.R. Jr.; Kale, S.H.

    1997-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the General Services Administration (GSA) have devised an affirmative procurement vehicle to encourage replacement of chillers using chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants harmful to the Earth`s stratospheric ozone layer. Procurement selections are based on lowest life cycle cost. Linked with a DOE-developed Equipment Specification for 100 to 2,000 ton chillers that is crafted broadly enough to address about 90% of the Federal water-cooled chiller procurements, the Basic Ordering Agreement (BOA) process significantly reduces redundant design, procurement, and other costs associated with Federal purchasing of chillers through the cutting of red tape associated with buying industrial equipment. While serving to minimize the release of ozone-depleting substances (about six million tons of CFCs) to the environment, the installation of more energy-efficient chillers also promotes environmental stewardship in that reduced energy consumption translates into reduced emissions of noxious gases from the generation of electricity. Use of the BOA to purchase chillers consistent with Federal energy efficiency standards will contribute to reductions of almost a million tons annually of nitrous oxides, sulfur dioxide, and other pollutants from power plant emissions. Reduced electricity consumption of approximately 1.5 billion kilowatt hours per year by switching to more efficient chillers equates to an annual monetary savings of $75 million.

  12. Temperature effects on dynamic water absorption into paper.

    PubMed

    Songok, Joel; Salminen, Pekka; Toivakka, Martti

    2014-03-15

    Mechanisms controlling short time water absorption and the effect of temperature on water absorption into paper were investigated by analyzing previously published data. A dynamic contact angle effect caused by contact line friction explained the liquid uptake dynamics at short times. The water absorption rate increase with temperature is suggested to be controlled by the molecular processes occurring in front of the advancing liquid front. The increase in the non-equilibrium vapor pressure at air-liquid interface leads to higher water molecule adsorption onto fibers and associated lowering of the solid-gas interfacial tension, thereby increasing the wetting velocity and water absorption. The classical Lucas-Washburn equation was found to be inadequate for predicting water absorption into paper both at short times and as a function of temperature. PMID:24461858

  13. Truck Thermoacoustic Generator and Chiller

    SciTech Connect

    Keolian, Robert

    2011-03-31

    This Final Report describes the accomplishments of the US Department of Energy (DOE) cooperative agreement project DE-FC26-04NT42113 - Truck Thermoacoustic Generator and Chiller - whose goal is to design, fabricate and test a thermoacoustic piezoelectric generator and chiller system for use on over-the-road heavy-duty-diesel trucks, driven alternatively by the waste heat of the main diesel engine exhaust or by a burner integrated into the thermoacoustic system. The thermoacoustic system would utilize engine exhaust waste heat to generate electricity and cab air conditioning, and would also function as an auxiliary power unit (APU) for idle reduction. The unit was to be tested in Volvo engine performance and endurance test cells and then integrated onto a Class 8 over-the-road heavy-duty-diesel truck for further testing on the road. The project has been a collaboration of The Pennsylvania State University Applied Research Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Clean Power Resources Inc., and Volvo Powertrain (Mack Trucks Inc.). Cost share funding was provided by Applied Research Laboratory, and by Clean Power Resources Inc via its grant from Innovation Works - funding that was derived from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Los Alamos received its funding separately through DOE Field Work Proposal 04EE09.

  14. Water and electrolyte absorption by the colon in tropical sprue.

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishna, B S; Mathan, V I

    1982-01-01

    A defect in colonic absorption of electrolytes and water was demonstrated in patients with tropical sprue by perfusing the colon with normal saline containing a non-absorbable marker. Colonic water absorption correlated negatively with stool weight and was abnormal in patients with steatorrhoea. The possible mechanisms producing this defect are discussed. This defect may be related to colonocyte damage produced by unabsorbed unsaturated fatty acids in patients with steatorrhoea. PMID:7117904

  15. Absorption of water and lubricating oils into porous nylon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertrand, P. A.

    1995-01-01

    Oil and water absorption from air into sintered porous nylon can be described by infiltration into the pores of the material. This process can be modeled by a diffusion-like mechanism. For water absorption, we find a formal diffusion coefficient of 1.5 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min when the nylon is initially dry. The diffusion coefficient is 4 x 10(exp -6)sq cm/min when the nylon is oil-impregnated prior to air exposure. In a 52% RH atmosphere, dry nylon absorbs 3% w/w water, and oil-impregnated nylon absorbs 0.6% w/w water. For oil absorption there are three steps: (1) surface absorption and infiltration into (2) larger and (3) smaller pores. Surface absorption is too fast to be measured in these experiments. The diffusion coefficient for the second step is 6 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min for SRG-60 oil into dry nylon and 4 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min for air-equilibrated nylon. The diffusion coefficient for the third step is about 1 x 10(exp -6)sq cm/min for both cases. The total amount of oil absorbed is 31% w/w. The interaction between water and nylon is not as strong as that between water and cotton-phenolic: oil can replace water, and only a small amount of water can enter previously oil-impregnated nylon.

  16. Solar absorption cooling plant in Seville

    SciTech Connect

    Bermejo, Pablo; Pino, Francisco Javier; Rosa, Felipe

    2010-08-15

    A solar/gas cooling plant at the Engineering School of Seville (Spain) was tested during the period 2008-2009. The system is composed of a double-effect LiBr + water absorption chiller of 174 kW nominal cooling capacity, powered by: (1) a pressurized hot water flow delivered by mean of a 352 m{sup 2} solar field of a linear concentrating Fresnel collector and (2) a direct-fired natural gas burner. The objective of the project is to indentify design improvements for future plants and to serve as a guideline. We focused our attention on the solar collector size and dirtiness, climatology, piping heat losses, operation control and coupling between solar collector and chiller. The daily average Fresnel collector efficiency was 0.35 with a maximum of 0.4. The absorption chiller operated with a daily average coefficient of performance of 1.1-1.25, where the solar energy represented the 75% of generator's total heat input, and the solar cooling ratio (quotient between useful cooling and insolation incident on the solar field) was 0.44. (author)

  17. Proposed human stratum corneum water domain in chemical absorption.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hanjiang; Jung, Eui-Chang; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard

    2016-08-01

    Compounds with varying physical and chemical properties may have different affinities to the stratum corneum (SC) and/or its intercellular lipids, keratin protein, and possible water domains. To better understand the mechanism of percutaneous absorption, we utilized 21 carbon-14 labeled chemicals, with wide hydrophilicity (log P = -0.05 to 6.17), and quantified their absorption/adsorption properties for a short incubation time (15 min) with regards to intact SC membrane, delipidized SC membrane and SC lipid. A facile method was developed for SC/lipid absorption, providing a more equivalent procedure and comparable data. SC lipid absorption of chemical solutes positively correlated with the octanol/water partition coefficient (log P). Differences between the percent dose of chemical absorption to intact SC and the total percent dose contributed by the protein and lipid domains suggest the possibility and significance of a water domain. Absorption rate experiments showed a longer lag time for intact SC than for delipidized SC or SC lipid, suggesting that the water domain may delay chemical binding to protein and lipid domains, and may be a factor in the resistance of many chemicals to current decontamination methods. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Measurement of atmospheric precipitable water using a solar radiometer. [water vapor absorption effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, D. E.; Dillinger, A. E.; Mcallum, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    A technique is described and tested that allows the determination of atmospheric precipitable water from two measurements of solar intensity: one in a water-vapor absorption band and another in a nearby spectral region unaffected by water vapor.

  19. Absorption of impinging water droplet in porous stones.

    PubMed

    Lee, J B; Radu, A I; Vontobel, P; Derome, D; Carmeliet, J

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation and numerical analysis of the absorption of water droplets impacting porous stones. The absorption process of an impinging droplet is here fully characterized from spreading to evaporation in terms of absorbed mass during droplet depletion and moisture content distribution in a time-resolved manner for three different natural stones. High-speed imaging and neutron radiography are used to quantify moisture absorption in porous stones of varying moisture properties from deposition until depletion. During impact and spreading, the droplet exhibits a dynamic non-wetting behavior. At maximum spreading, the droplet undergoes pinning, resulting into the contact radius remaining constant until droplet depletion. Absorption undergoes two phases: initially, absorption is hindered due a contact resistance attributed to entrapped air; afterwards, a more perfect capillary contact occurs and absorption goes on until depletion, concurrently with evaporation and further redistribution. A finite-element numerical model for isothermal unsaturated moisture transport in porous media captures the phases of mass absorption in good agreement with the experimental data. Droplet spreading and absorption are highly determined by the impact velocity of the droplet, while moisture content redistribution after depletion is much less dependent on impact conditions.

  20. Development of solar driven absorption air conditioners and heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dao, K.; Wahlig, M.; Wali, E.; Rasson, J.; Molishever, E.

    1980-03-01

    The development of absorption refrigeration systems for solar active heating and cooling applications is discussed. The approaches investigated are those using air-cooled condenser-absorber and those leading to coefficient of performances (COP) that increase continuously with heat source temperature. This is primarily an experimental project, with the emphasis on designing, fabricating and testing absorption chillers in operating regimes that are particularly suited for solar energy applications. Its demonstrated that the conventional single-effect ammonia-water absorption cycle can be used (with minor modifications) for solar cooling.

  1. Scramjet Performance Assessment Using Water Absorption Diagnostics (U)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavolowsky, John A.; Loomis, Mark P.; Deiwert, George

    1995-01-01

    Simultaneous multiple path measurements of temperature and H2O concentration will be presented for the AIMHYE test entries in the NASA Ames 16-Inch Shock Tunnel. Monitoring the progress of high temperature chemical reactions that define scramjet combustor efficiencies is a task uniquely suited to nonintrusive optical diagnostics. One application strategy to overcome the many challenges and limitations of nonintrusive measurements is to use laser absorption spectroscopy coupled with optical fibers. Absorption spectroscopic techniques with rapidly tunable lasers are capable of making simultaneous measurements of mole fraction, temperature, pressure, and velocity. The scramjet water absorption diagnostic was used to measure combustor efficiency and was compared to thrust measurements using a nozzle force balance and integrated nozzle pressures to develop a direct technique for evaluating integrated scramjet performance. Tests were initially performed with a diode laser tuning over a water absorption feature at 1391.7 nm. A second diode laser later became available at a wavelength near 1343.3 nm covering an additional water absorption feature and was incorporated in the system for a two-wavelength technique. Both temperature and mole fraction can be inferred from the lineshape analysis using this approach. Additional high temperature spectroscopy research was conducted to reduce uncertainties in the scramjet application. The lasers are optical fiber coupled to ports at the combustor exit and in the nozzle region. The output from the two diode lasers were combined in a single fiber, and the resultant two-wavelength beam was subsequently split into four legs. Each leg was directed through 60 meters of optical fiber to four combustor exit locations for measurement of beam intensity after absorption by the water within the flow. Absorption results will be compared to 1D combustor analysis using RJPA and nozzle CFD computations as well as to data from a nozzle metric

  2. Determination of fixed water in rocks by infrared absorption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breger, I.A.; Chandler, J.C.

    1969-01-01

    An infrared absorption technique has been developed for the quantitative determination of "fixed water" (H2O+) in rocks. Potassium bromide disks containing 2-mg samples are scanned in the 3-??m spectral region and absorption at 2.96 ??m is determined. Although the exact nature of this peak is not known, other than that it is caused by an interaction between the potassium bromide and hydroxyl groups and water, it can be used for quantitative analysis. Rock samples, other than those containing significant percentages of clay minerals, can be analyzed with a standard deviation of 0.26%.

  3. Cyclic steady state performance of adsorption chiller with low regeneration temperature zeolite

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Mr. Suxin; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R; Hwang, Dr. Yunho; Radermacher, Reinhard; Chun, Mr. Ho-Hwan

    2013-10-01

    Adsorption chillers are capable of utilizing inexpensive or free low grade thermal energy such as waste heat and concentrated solar thermal energy. Recently developed low regeneration temperature working pairs allow adsorption chillers to be driven by even lower temperature sources such as engine coolant and flat plate solar collectors. In this work, synthetic zeolite/water was implemented into a 3kW adsorption chiller test facility driven by hot water at 70 C. The zeolite was coated onto two fin-and-tube heat exchangers, with heat recovery employed between the two. Cyclic steady state parametric studies were experimentally conducted to evaluate the chiller's performance, resulting in a cooling coefficient of performance (COP) ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 at different operating conditions. Its performance was compared with published values for other low regeneration temperature working pairs. The physical limitations of the synthetic zeolite revealed by parametric study results were then discussed. A novel operating control strategy was proposed based on the unique characteristics of synthetic zeolite. In addition, a physics-based COP prediction model was derived to predict the performance of the chiller under equilibrium loading, and was validated by the experiment results. This analytical expression can be used to estimate the cyclic steady state performance for future studies.

  4. Solvent drag effect in drug intestinal absorption. II. Studies on drug absorption clearance and water influx.

    PubMed

    Karino, A; Hayashi, M; Awazu, S; Hanano, M

    1982-09-01

    In order to study the solvent drag effect, it was shown that back flux of absorbed drug from blood to intestinal lumen can be ignored but the back flux of water cannot. Then, apparent water influx was calculated as a new measure of solvent drag based on the model in which the back flux of D2O from blood to lumen was considered during absorption. Consequently, the correlation between drug absorption clearance (CLdrug) and apparent water influx was highly significant for benzoic acid, salicylic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, antipyrine, cephalexin (CEX) and cefroxadine (CXD), resulting the high solvent drag effects were detected. The mean values of the slopes in the regression lines of CLdrug versus apparent water influx, i.e., sieving coefficients, were smaller than one for benzoic acid and salicylic acid, but the values were not significantly different from one. The sieving coefficients of the other drugs were significantly smaller than one. From these results, the molecular size dependence in the reflection from the intestinal membrane during absorption was clearly shown. And the intercepts of the regression lines including diffusive permeabilities were found to be significantly different from zero in CEX and CXD. On the basis of the sieving coefficients and intercept values obtained in such ways, the appropriateness of this model was discussed.

  5. 40 CFR 1065.376 - Chiller NO2 penetration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chiller NO2 penetration. 1065.376... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calibrations and Verifications Nox and N2o Measurements § 1065.376 Chiller NO2 penetration. (a) Scope and frequency. If you use a chiller to dry a sample upstream of a...

  6. 40 CFR 1065.376 - Chiller NO2 penetration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chiller NO2 penetration. 1065.376... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calibrations and Verifications Nox and N2o Measurements § 1065.376 Chiller NO2 penetration. (a) Scope and frequency. If you use a chiller to dry a sample upstream of a...

  7. 40 CFR 1065.376 - Chiller NO2 penetration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chiller NO2 penetration. 1065.376... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calibrations and Verifications Nox and N2o Measurements § 1065.376 Chiller NO2 penetration. (a) Scope and frequency. If you use a chiller to dry a sample upstream of a...

  8. 40 CFR 1065.376 - Chiller NO2 penetration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chiller NO2 penetration. 1065.376... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calibrations and Verifications Nox and N2o Measurements § 1065.376 Chiller NO2 penetration. (a) Scope and frequency. If you use a chiller to dry a sample upstream of a...

  9. 40 CFR 1065.376 - Chiller NO2 penetration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chiller NO2 penetration. 1065.376... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calibrations and Verifications Nox and N2o Measurements § 1065.376 Chiller NO2 penetration. (a) Scope and frequency. If you use a chiller to dry a sample upstream of a...

  10. Microbial contamination in poultry chillers estimated by Monte Carlo simulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The risk of microbial contamination during poultry processing may be reduced by the operating characteristics of the chiller. The performance of air chillers and immersion chillers were compared in terms of pre-chill and post-chill contamination using Monte Carlo simulations. Three parameters were u...

  11. Absorption depth profile of water on thermoplastic starch films

    SciTech Connect

    Bonno, B.; Laporte, J.L.; Paris, D.; D'Leon, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that petroleum derived polymers are primary environmental contaminants. The study of new packing biodegradable materials has been the object of numerous papers in past years. Some of these new materials are the thermoplastic films derived from wheat starch. In the present paper, the authors study some of properties of wheat starch thermoplastic films, with various amounts of absorbed water, using photoacoustic spectroscopy techniques. The absorption depth profile of water in the starch substrate is determined for samples having a variable water level.

  12. Water vapor absorption in the atmospheric window at 239 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, A.; Godon, M.; Carlier, J.; Ma, Q.

    1995-01-01

    Absolute absorption rates of pure water vapor and mixtures of water vapor and nitrogen have been measured in the atmospheric window at 239 GHz. The dependence on pressure as well as temperature has been obtained. The experimental data are compared with several theoretical or empirical models, and satisfactory agreement is obtained with the models involving a continuum; in the case of pure water vapor, the continuum contribution based upon recent theoretical developments gives good results. The temperature dependence is stronger than that proposed in a commonly used atmospheric transmission model.

  13. An Exergy Analysis of LiBr-Water Absorption Refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Hitoshi; Fujii, Terushige; Wang, Xiao; Origane, Takafumi; Katayama, Masatoshi; Inoue, Umeo

    Absorption refrigerators are very efficient as a heat recovery unit in a co-generation system.In order to design an absorption refrigerator for an arbitrary heat source properly, it is important to consider not only quantity but also quality of heat flow. The evaluation of exergy loss in each component is also effective for the improvement of system. This paper deals with the exergy analysis on a LiBr-water absorption refrigerator consisted of a single-and a double-effect cycle driven by the exhaust gas of the micro gas turbine with the output power of about 30 kW. Moreover, exergy loss in absorption process was eva1uated. As a result, it was shown that 80% of the exergy loss in an absorber was caused in absorption process, and the exergy loss decreased with decreasing the change in solution concentration in absorber. In these calculated results,the maximum cooling load of 77.8 kW was obtained from the exhaust gas with the temperature of 2900°C by utilizing both a single-and a double-effect cycles in combination. The energy and exergy efficiency of the system was 88.0% and 25.6%, respectively.

  14. A water vapor monitor using differential infrared absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burch, D. E.; Goodsell, D. S.

    1981-09-01

    A water vapor monitor was developed with adequate sensitivity and versatility for a variety of applications. Two applications are the continuous monitoring of water in ambient air and the measuring of the mass of water desorbed from aerosol filters. The sample gas may be held static, or flow continuously through the 56 cc sample cell, temperature controlled at 45 C. Infrared energy from a tungsten-iodide bulb passes through a rotating filter wheel and the sample cell to a PbS detector. The infrared beam passes through the sample gas twice to produce a total optical path of 40 cm. The infrared beam passes alternately through two semicircular narrow bandpass filters. Absorption by the water vapor in the sample produces a 30-Hz modulation of the detector signal that is proportional to the water concentration. The maximum concentration that can be measured accurately is approximately 5%.

  15. Effect of cecectomy on water and nutrient absorption of birds.

    PubMed

    Chaplin, S B

    1989-01-01

    The effect of the removal of the avian digestive ceca on osmoregulation and on absorption of certain nutrients is reviewed. While data indicate that the ceca have the potential for absorption of a significant quantity of water, several studies have demonstrated that effects of cecectomy on water intake and output are transitory and that compensatory adjustments made within 2 to 3 weeks postsurgery allow cecectomized birds to eat and gain weight normally. However, cecectomized great horned owls exposed to 27 degrees C turned over their body water 1.6 times faster than intact owls under the same conditions, suggesting that the ceca do have a vital role in water balance of thermally stressed horned owls. Cecectomy resulted in slightly lower metabolizability of food, lower digestibility of crude fiber in low fiber diets, and greater loss of certain amino acids in cecectomized birds that were fasted or fed a protein-free diet. The latter suggests that the ceca are important in recovery of amino acids endogenous protein degradation. Loss of cecal function also resulted in higher energy intake and excretion in Japanese quail, amounting to 5.7% of the total daily energy requirement. PMID:2575133

  16. Water vapor differential absorption lidar development and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, E. V.; Wilkerson, T. D.; Mcllrath, T. J.

    1979-01-01

    A ground-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system is described which has been developed for vertical range-resolved measurements of water vapor. The laser transmitter consists of a ruby-pumped dye laser, which is operated on a water vapor absorption line at 724.372 nm. Part of the ruby laser output is transmitted simultaneously with the dye laser output to determine atmospheric scattering and attenuation characteristics. The dye and ruby laser backscattered light is collected by a 0.5-m diam telescope, optically separated in the receiver package, and independently detected using photomultiplier tubes. Measurements of vertical water vapor concentration profiles using the DIAL system at night are discussed, and comparisons are made between the water vapor DIAL measurements and data obtained from locally launched rawinsondes. Agreement between these measurements was found to be within the uncertainty of the rawinsonde data to an altitude of 3 km. Theoretical simulations of this measurement were found to give reasonably accurate predictions of the random error of the DIAL measurements. Confidence in these calculations will permit the design of aircraft and Shuttle DIAL systems and experiments using simulation results as the basis for defining lidar system performance requirements

  17. Study on two stage activated carbon/HFC-134a based adsorption chiller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    >K Habib, M. Amin B. A.; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar B.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, a theoretical analysis on the performance of a thermally driven two-stage four-bed adsorption chiller utilizing low-grade waste heat of temperatures between 50°C and 70°C in combination with a heat sink (cooling water) of 30°C for air-conditioning applications has been described. Activated carbon (AC) of type Maxsorb III/HFC-134a pair has been examined as an adsorbent/refrigerant pair. FORTRAN simulation program is developed to analyze the influence of operating conditions (hot and cooling water temperatures and adsorption/desorption cycle times) on the cycle performance in terms of cooling capacity and COP. The main advantage of this two-stage chiller is that it can be operational with smaller regenerating temperature lifts than other heat-driven single-stage chillers. Simulation results shows that the two-stage chiller can be operated effectively with heat sources of 50°C and 70°C in combination with a coolant at 30°C.

  18. Water vapor-nitrogen absorption at CO2 laser frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, J. C.; Thomas, M. E.; Nordstrom, R. J.; Damon, E. K.; Long, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The paper reports the results of a series of pressure-broadened water vapor absorption measurements at 27 CO2 laser frequencies between 935 and 1082 kaysers. Both multiple traversal cell and optoacoustic (spectrophone) techniques were utilized together with an electronically stabilized CW CO2 laser. Comparison of the results obtained by these two methods shows remarkable agreement, indicating a precision which has not been previously achieved in pressure-broadened studies of water vapor. The data of 10.59 microns substantiate the existence of the large (greater than 200) self-broadening coefficients determined in an earlier study by McCoy. In this work, the case of water vapor in N2 at a total pressure of 1 atm has been treated.

  19. The water absorption effect on the hardness of composites polyester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, A. A.; Issa, T. T.

    2016-04-01

    Unsaturated polyester resin (UPE) was used as the matrix .The iron woven wire and E-glass fiber type (0 - 9°), were used as a reinforcements additives of weight percentage (5, 10, 15) respectively. Samples were prepared by the hand lay-up method for (UPE), (UPE -Fe) and (UPE- Glass). Chemical analysis was used to identify the composition of Fe wire. Water immersing at room temperature for all samples were done at (2, 5, 7, 9, 12) days. Hardness test (Brinell) showed decreasing with increasing in immersion time for (UPE) from (67) HB to (95) HP after adding the reinforcement Fe fibers, with increasing in the water absorbed content especially in the days (2, 5). The water content of absorption was found to be either decreasing or increasing depending on the number of reinforcing layers added.

  20. Global climate change: Mitigation opportunities high efficiency large chiller technology

    SciTech Connect

    Stanga, M.V.

    1997-12-31

    This paper, comprised of presentation viewgraphs, examines the impact of high efficiency large chiller technology on world electricity consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. Background data are summarized, and sample calculations are presented. Calculations show that presently available high energy efficiency chiller technology has the ability to substantially reduce energy consumption from large chillers. If this technology is widely implemented on a global basis, it could reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 65 million tons by 2010.

  1. Development of a gas engine-driven chiller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koplow, Mike; Morgan, John

    1989-10-01

    The final year of activity in a program to develop a natural gas engine-driven chiller with a nominal capacity of 150 tons is reported. During the overviewed period the field testing of six chillers continued, and the seventh and the final field test chillers was installed and started. Field test hours for the period totalled 17,299, bringing the total field test hours to 24,247. The reliability and serviceability of the chiller proved to be within the bounds of acceptability for this type of equipment. A ton-hour weighted coefficient of performance of 1.26 was obtained.

  2. A nonisothermal emissivity and absorptivity formulation for water vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramanathan, V.; Downey, P.

    1986-01-01

    An emissivity approach is taken to modeling fluxes and cooling rates in the atmosphere. The nonisothermal water vapor long wave radiation emissivity and absorptivity model that is developed satisfies the requirements of defining a monochromatic transfer equation for predicting water vapor emissions. Predictions made with the model compare favorably with fluxes predicted by a radiation model for narrow-band emissions in 5 kayser intervals. The spectral resolution assumed in narrow-band models is shown to be an arbitrary parameter and, if a far wing continuum-type opacity is included in the emissivity scheme presented, results can be obtained which are as accurate as predictions made with state of the art line-by-line (LBL) calculations.

  3. Detection of water vapour absorption around 363nm in measured atmospheric absorption spectra and its effect on DOAS evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampel, Johannes; Polyansky, Oleg. L.; Kyuberis, Alexandra A.; Zobov, Nikolai F.; Tennyson, Jonathan; Lodi, Lorenzo; Pöhler, Denis; Frieß, Udo; Platt, Ulrich; Beirle, Steffen; Wagner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Water vapour is known to absorb light from the microwave region to the blue part of the visible spectrum at a decreasing magnitude. Ab-initio approaches to model individual absorption lines of the gaseous water molecule predict absorption lines until its dissociation limit at 243 nm. We present first evidence of water vapour absorption at 363 nm from field measurements based on the POKAZATEL absorption line list by Polyansky et al. (2016) using data from Multi-Axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) and Longpath (LP)-DOAS measurements. The predicted absorptions contribute significantly to the observed optical depths with up to 2 × 10‑3. Their magnitude correlates well (R2 = 0.89) to simultaneously measured well-established water vapour absorptions in the blue spectral range from 452-499 nm, but is underestimated by a factor of 2.6 ± 0.6 in the ab-initio model. At a spectral resolution of 0.5nm this leads to a maximum absorption cross-section value of 5.4 × 10‑27 cm2/molec at 362.3nm. The results are independent of the employed cross-section data to compensate for the overlayed absorption of the oxygen dimer O4. The newly found absorption can have a significant impact on the spectral retrieval of absorbing trace-gas species in the spectral range around 363 nm. Its effect on the spectral analysis of O4, HONO and OClO are discussed.

  4. Water absorption in a refractive index model for bacterial spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegrist, K. M.; Thrush, E.; Airola, M.; Carr, A. K.; Limsui, D. M.; Boggs, N. T.; Thomas, M. E.; Carter, C. C.

    2009-05-01

    The complexity of biological agents can make it difficult to identify the important factors impacting scattering characteristics among variables such as size, shape, internal structure and biochemical composition, particle aggregation, and sample additives. This difficulty is exacerbated by the environmentally interactive nature of biological organisms. In particular, bacterial spores equilibrate with environmental humidity by absorption/desorption of water which can affect both the complex refractive index and the size/shape distributions of particles - two factors upon which scattering characteristics depend critically. Therefore accurate analysis of experimental data for determination of refractive index must take account of particle water content. First, spectral transmission measurements to determine visible refractive index done on suspensions of bacterial spores must account for water (or other solvent) uptake. Second, realistic calculations of aerosol scattering cross sections should consider effects of atmospheric humidity on particle water content, size and shape. In this work we demonstrate a method for determining refractive index of bacterial spores bacillus atropheus (BG), bacillus thuringiensis (BT) and bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAs) which accounts for these effects. Visible index is found from transmission measurements on aqueous and DMSO suspensions of particles, using an anomalous diffraction approximation. A simplified version of the anomalous diffraction theory is used to eliminate the need for knowledge of particle size. Results using this approach indicate the technique can be useful in determining the visible refractive index of particles when size and shape distributions are not well known but fall within the region of validity of anomalous dispersion theory.

  5. Contact sponge water absorption test implemented for in situ measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaggero, Laura; Scrivano, Simona

    2016-04-01

    The contact sponge method is a non-destructive in-situ methodology used to estimate a water uptake coefficient. The procedure, unlike other in-situ measurement was proven to be directly comparable to the water uptake laboratory measurements, and was registered as UNI 11432:2011. The UNI Normal procedure requires to use a sponge with known density, soaked in water, weighed, placed on the material for 1 minute (UNI 11432, 2011; Pardini & Tiano, 2004), then weighed again. Difficulties arise in operating on test samples or on materials with porosity varied for decay. While carrying on the test, fluctuations in the bearing of the environmental parameters were negligible, but not the pressure applied to the surface, that induced the release of different water amounts towards the material. For this reason we designed a metal piece of the same diameter of the plate carrying the sponge, to be screwed at the tip of a pocket penetrometer. With this instrument the sponge was kept in contact with the surface for 1 minute applying two different loads, at first pushed with 0.3 kg/cm2 in order to press the sponge, but not its holder, against the surface. Then, a load of 1.1 kg/ cm2 was applied, still avoiding deviating the load to the sponge holder. We applied both the current and our implemented method to determine the water absorption by contact sponge on 5 fresh rock types (4 limestones: Fine - and Coarse grained Pietra di Vicenza, Rosso Verona, Breccia Aurora, and the silicoclastic Macigno sandstone). The results show that 1) the current methodology imply manual skill and experience to produce a coherent set of data; the variable involved are in fact not only the imposed pressure but also the compression mechanics. 2) The control on the applied pressure allowed reproducible measurements. Moreover, 3) the use of a thicker sponge enabled to apply the method even on rougher surfaces, as the device holding the sponge is not in contact with the tested object. Finally, 4) the

  6. Site dependent factors affecting the economic feasibility of solar powered absorption cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    A procedure was developed to evaluate the cost effectiveness of combining an absorption cycle chiller with a solar energy system. A basic assumption of the procedure is that a solar energy system exists for meeting the heating load of the building, and that the building must be cooled. The decision to be made is to either cool the building with a conventional vapor compression cycle chiller or to use the existing solar energy system to provide a heat input to the absorption chiller. Two methods of meeting the cooling load not supplied by solar energy were considered. In the first method, heat is supplied to the absorption chiller by a boiler using fossil fuel. In the second method, the load not met by solar energy is net by a conventional vapor compression chiller. In addition, the procedure can consider waste heat as another form of auxiliary energy. Commercial applications of solar cooling with an absorption chiller were found to be more cost effective than the residential applications. In general, it was found that the larger the chiller, the more economically feasible it would be. Also, it was found that a conventional vapor compression chiller is a viable alternative for the auxiliary cooling source, especially for the larger chillers. The results of the analysis gives a relative rating of the sites considered as to their economic feasibility of solar cooling.

  7. Properties of the Carrol system and a machine design for solar-powered, air cooled, absorption space cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-05-01

    The name Carrol was selected as a convenient shorthand designation for a prime candidate chemical system comprising ethylene glycol-lithium bromide as an absorbent mixture with water as a refrigerant. The instrumentation, methods of handling data and numerical results from a systematic determination of Carrol property data required to design an air cooled absorption machine based on this chemical system are described. These data include saturation temperature, relative enthalpy, density, specific heat capacity, thermal conductivity, viscosity and absorber film heat transfer coefficient as functions of solution temperature and Carrol concentration over applicable ranges. For each of the major components of the absorption chiller, i.e., generator, chiller, absorber, condenser, heat exchanger, purge and controls, the report contains an assembly drawing and the principal operating characteristics of that component.

  8. Effect of water absorption on the mechanical properties of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/vegetable fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinho, Vithória A. D.; Carvalho, Laura H.; Canedo, Eduardo L.

    2015-05-01

    The present work studies the effect of water absorption on the performance of composites of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) - a fully biodegradable semi-crystalline thermoplastic obtained from renewable resources through low-impact biotechnological process, biocompatible and non-toxic - and vegetable fiber from the fruit (coconut) of babassu palm tree.Water resistance is an important characteristic of structural composites, that may exposed to rain and humid environments. Both water absorption capacity (water solubility in the material) and the rate of water absorption (controlled by the diffusivity of water in the material) are important parameters. However, water absorption per se may not be the most important characteristic, insofar as the performance and applications of the compounds. It is the effect of the water content on the ultimate properties that determine the suitability of the material for applications that involve prolonged exposure to water.PHB/babassu composites with 0-20% load were prepared in an internal mixer. Two different types of babassu fibers having two different article size ranges were compounded with PHB and test specimens molded by compression. The water absorption capacity and the kinetic constant of water absorption were measured in triplicate. Mechanical properties under tension were measured for dry and moist specimens with different amounts of absorbed water.Results indicate that the performance of the composites is comparable to that of the pure matrix. Water absorption capacity increases from 0.7% (pure PHB) to 4% (PHB/20% babassu), but the water diffusivity (4.10□8 cm2/s) was found to be virtually independent of the water absorption level. Water absorption results in moderate drop in elastic modulus (10-30% at saturation, according to fiber content) but has little effect on tensile strength and elongation at break. Fiber type and initial particle size do not have a significant effect on water absorption or mechanical properties.

  9. Gamma radiation induces hydrogen absorption by copper in water.

    PubMed

    Lousada, Cláudio M; Soroka, Inna L; Yagodzinskyy, Yuriy; Tarakina, Nadezda V; Todoshchenko, Olga; Hänninen, Hannu; Korzhavyi, Pavel A; Jonsson, Mats

    2016-01-01

    One of the most intricate issues of nuclear power is the long-term safety of repositories for radioactive waste. These repositories can have an impact on future generations for a period of time orders of magnitude longer than any known civilization. Several countries have considered copper as an outer corrosion barrier for canisters containing spent nuclear fuel. Among the many processes that must be considered in the safety assessments, radiation induced processes constitute a key-component. Here we show that copper metal immersed in water uptakes considerable amounts of hydrogen when exposed to γ-radiation. Additionally we show that the amount of hydrogen absorbed by copper depends on the total dose of radiation. At a dose of 69 kGy the uptake of hydrogen by metallic copper is 7 orders of magnitude higher than when the absorption is driven by H2(g) at a pressure of 1 atm in a non-irradiated dry system. Moreover, irradiation of copper in water causes corrosion of the metal and the formation of a variety of surface cavities, nanoparticle deposits, and islands of needle-shaped crystals. Hence, radiation enhanced uptake of hydrogen by spent nuclear fuel encapsulating materials should be taken into account in the safety assessments of nuclear waste repositories. PMID:27086752

  10. Micropulse water vapor differential absorption lidar: transmitter design and performance.

    PubMed

    Nehrir, Amin R; Repasky, Kevin S; Carlsten, John L

    2012-10-22

    An all diode-laser-based micropulse differential absorption lidar (DIAL) laser transmitter for tropospheric water vapor and aerosol profiling is presented. The micropulse DIAL (MPD) transmitter utilizes two continuous wave (cw) external cavity diode lasers (ECDL) to seed an actively pulsed, overdriven tapered semiconductor optical amplifier (TSOA). The MPD laser produces up to 7 watts of peak power over a 1 µs pulse duration (7 µJ) and a 10 kHz pulse repetition frequency. Spectral switching between the online and offline seed lasers is achieved on a 1Hz basis using a fiber optic switch to allow for more accurate sampling of the atmospheric volume between the online and offline laser shots. The high laser spectral purity of greater than 0.9996 coupled with the broad tunability of the laser transmitter will allow for accurate measurements of tropospheric water vapor in a wide range of geographic locations under varying atmospheric conditions. This paper describes the design and performance characteristics of a third generation MPD laser transmitter with enhanced laser performance over the previous generation DIAL system.

  11. Micropulse water vapor differential absorption lidar: transmitter design and performance.

    PubMed

    Nehrir, Amin R; Repasky, Kevin S; Carlsten, John L

    2012-10-22

    An all diode-laser-based micropulse differential absorption lidar (DIAL) laser transmitter for tropospheric water vapor and aerosol profiling is presented. The micropulse DIAL (MPD) transmitter utilizes two continuous wave (cw) external cavity diode lasers (ECDL) to seed an actively pulsed, overdriven tapered semiconductor optical amplifier (TSOA). The MPD laser produces up to 7 watts of peak power over a 1 µs pulse duration (7 µJ) and a 10 kHz pulse repetition frequency. Spectral switching between the online and offline seed lasers is achieved on a 1Hz basis using a fiber optic switch to allow for more accurate sampling of the atmospheric volume between the online and offline laser shots. The high laser spectral purity of greater than 0.9996 coupled with the broad tunability of the laser transmitter will allow for accurate measurements of tropospheric water vapor in a wide range of geographic locations under varying atmospheric conditions. This paper describes the design and performance characteristics of a third generation MPD laser transmitter with enhanced laser performance over the previous generation DIAL system. PMID:23187280

  12. Gamma radiation induces hydrogen absorption by copper in water

    PubMed Central

    Lousada, Cláudio M.; Soroka, Inna L.; Yagodzinskyy, Yuriy; Tarakina, Nadezda V.; Todoshchenko, Olga; Hänninen, Hannu; Korzhavyi, Pavel A.; Jonsson, Mats

    2016-01-01

    One of the most intricate issues of nuclear power is the long-term safety of repositories for radioactive waste. These repositories can have an impact on future generations for a period of time orders of magnitude longer than any known civilization. Several countries have considered copper as an outer corrosion barrier for canisters containing spent nuclear fuel. Among the many processes that must be considered in the safety assessments, radiation induced processes constitute a key-component. Here we show that copper metal immersed in water uptakes considerable amounts of hydrogen when exposed to γ-radiation. Additionally we show that the amount of hydrogen absorbed by copper depends on the total dose of radiation. At a dose of 69 kGy the uptake of hydrogen by metallic copper is 7 orders of magnitude higher than when the absorption is driven by H2(g) at a pressure of 1 atm in a non-irradiated dry system. Moreover, irradiation of copper in water causes corrosion of the metal and the formation of a variety of surface cavities, nanoparticle deposits, and islands of needle-shaped crystals. Hence, radiation enhanced uptake of hydrogen by spent nuclear fuel encapsulating materials should be taken into account in the safety assessments of nuclear waste repositories. PMID:27086752

  13. Gamma radiation induces hydrogen absorption by copper in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lousada, Cláudio M.; Soroka, Inna L.; Yagodzinskyy, Yuriy; Tarakina, Nadezda V.; Todoshchenko, Olga; Hänninen, Hannu; Korzhavyi, Pavel A.; Jonsson, Mats

    2016-04-01

    One of the most intricate issues of nuclear power is the long-term safety of repositories for radioactive waste. These repositories can have an impact on future generations for a period of time orders of magnitude longer than any known civilization. Several countries have considered copper as an outer corrosion barrier for canisters containing spent nuclear fuel. Among the many processes that must be considered in the safety assessments, radiation induced processes constitute a key-component. Here we show that copper metal immersed in water uptakes considerable amounts of hydrogen when exposed to γ-radiation. Additionally we show that the amount of hydrogen absorbed by copper depends on the total dose of radiation. At a dose of 69 kGy the uptake of hydrogen by metallic copper is 7 orders of magnitude higher than when the absorption is driven by H2(g) at a pressure of 1 atm in a non-irradiated dry system. Moreover, irradiation of copper in water causes corrosion of the metal and the formation of a variety of surface cavities, nanoparticle deposits, and islands of needle-shaped crystals. Hence, radiation enhanced uptake of hydrogen by spent nuclear fuel encapsulating materials should be taken into account in the safety assessments of nuclear waste repositories.

  14. Absorption by oxygen and water vapor in the real atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Cachorro, V E; de Frutos, A M; Casanova, J L

    1987-02-01

    Unexpected absorption in the real atmosphere in the window from 840 to 890 nm has been clearly observed through measurements of direct solar spectral irradiance under clear, cloud-free skies. This absorption is not predicted by the known theoretical models. The cause of this apparent absorption may be due to the presence of high thin nonvisible cirrus clouds. A quantitative evaluation of this absorption and an improvement of oxygen absorption coefficients has been carried out after a comparison of more than seventy experimental spectra. Moreover, it is necessary to take into account the different behavior of modeled and experimental data at low and high air masses.

  15. Estimation of Concentration and Bonding Environment of Water Dissolved in Common Solvents Using Near Infrared Absorptivity

    PubMed Central

    Dickens, Brian; Dickens, Sabine H.

    1999-01-01

    Integrated near infrared (NIR) absorbance has been used to determine the absorptivity of the υ2 + υ3 combination band of the asymmetric stretch (υ2) and the bending vibration (υ3) for water in several organic solvents. Absorptivity measured in this way is essentially constant across the absorption envelope and is found to be 336 L mol−1 cm−1 with a standard deviation of 4 L mol−1 cm−1 as estimated from a least squares fit of a straight line to data from water concentrations between 0.01 mol/L and 0.06 mol/L. Absorptivity measured from the peak maximum of the υ2 + υ3 combination band of water varies with the type of hydrogen bonding of the water molecule because the shape of the NIR absorption envelope changes with the hydrogen bonding. Because the integrated NIR absorptivity of the υ2 + υ3 combination band of water is essentially constant across the absorption envelope, the NIR absorption envelope reflects the distribution of hydrogen bonding of the water. The shape and location of the absorption envelope appear to be governed mostly by the number of hydrogen bonds from the water molecules to easily polarized atoms. Water that is a donor in hydrogen bonds to atoms which are not easily polarized (such as the oxygen of a typical carbonyl group) absorbs near 5240 cm−1 to 5260 cm−1. Water that donates one hydrogen bond to an easily polarized atom (such as a water molecule oxygen) absorbs near 5130 cm−1 to 5175 cm−1, and water that donates two hydrogen bonds to easily polarized atoms is estimated to absorb near 5000 cm−1 to 5020 cm−1. Water donating two hydrogen bonds to other water molecules may be said to be in a water-like environment. In no case does a small amount of water absorbed in a host material appear to have a water-like environment.

  16. [Water absorption of five dental resins used in bonded restorations].

    PubMed

    Gillet, D; Dupuis, V

    2002-12-01

    The actual restorative dentistry need to bond material which are under the constraint of saliva likely, as all liquid, to enter inside the product with time and to modify its characteristics. In this study, we compare the behaviour of five materials opposite water absorption, in vitro, until one year: two composite resins (Tetric et Pertac II), two ceromer (ceromer (Tetric ceram et Tetric flow) and one compomer (Hytac(r)). Each pastille weight is expressed in percentage of initial weight. All materials loose weight in the first hours except Tetric ceram which stay stable. At 48 h, all materials except Pertac II get back their initial weight. At long-term, all the materials are stable with a profit of 1% for Hytac, 0.5% for Tetric, Tetric ceram et Tetric flow and a loss of à 0.3% for Pertac II. As a result of this study, we understand why the clinical used of Hytac must be done following strict conditions.

  17. Absorption coefficients for water vapor at 193 nm from 300 to 1073 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, W. J.; Carleton, K. L.; Marinelli, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the water absorption coefficient at 193 nm from 300 to 1073 K are reported. The measurements were made using broadband VUV radiation and a monochromator-based detection system. The water vapor was generated by a saturator and metered into a flowing, 99 cm absorption cell via a water vapor mass flow meter. The 193 nm absorption coefficient measurements are compared to room temperature and high temperature shock tube measurements with good agreement. The absorption can be parameterized by a nu3 vibrational mode reaction coordinate and the thermal population of the nu3 mode.

  18. Energy savings potential in air conditioners and chiller systems

    DOE PAGES

    Kaya, Durmus; Alidrisi, Hisham

    2014-01-22

    In the current paper we quantified and evaluated the energy saving potential in air conditioners and chiller systems. Here, we also showed how to reduce the cost of air conditioners and chiller systems in existing facilities on the basis of payback periods. Among the measures investigated were: (1) installing higher efficiency air conditioners, (2) installing higher efficiency chillers, (3) duty cycling air conditioning units, and (4) utilizing existing economizers on air conditioning units. For each method, examples were provided from Arizona, USA. In these examples, the amount of saved energy, the financial evaluation of this energy, and the investment costmore » and pay back periods were calculated.« less

  19. Energy savings potential in air conditioners and chiller systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kaya, Durmus; Alidrisi, Hisham

    2014-01-22

    In the current paper we quantified and evaluated the energy saving potential in air conditioners and chiller systems. Here, we also showed how to reduce the cost of air conditioners and chiller systems in existing facilities on the basis of payback periods. Among the measures investigated were: (1) installing higher efficiency air conditioners, (2) installing higher efficiency chillers, (3) duty cycling air conditioning units, and (4) utilizing existing economizers on air conditioning units. For each method, examples were provided from Arizona, USA. In these examples, the amount of saved energy, the financial evaluation of this energy, and the investment cost and pay back periods were calculated.

  20. Experimental Investigation on a Novel Four-bed Adsorption Chiller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Kim Choon; Chua, Hui Tong; Wang, Jin Bao; Wang, Xiao Lin; Kashiwagi, Takao; Akisawa, Atsushi; Saha, Bidyut Baran

    A prototype multi-bed regenerative adsorption chiller with a novel four-bed operation mode has been designed, fabricated and tested. The rating tests are conducted under assorted ARI coolant, using a purpose-built rating. The 4.bed design exhibits superior heat extraction capability from the heat source as its "slave-first-then-master" arrangement permits individual bed to maximize energy utilization in a batch cycle. Overall system performance of chiller is evaluated for various adsorption-desorption cycle and switching time at assorted coolant inlet temperatures. For fair comparison, the 4-bed chiller is also compared with that of a two-bed mode at the same working conditions.

  1. The water absorption response: a behavioral assay for physiological processes in terrestrial amphibians.

    PubMed

    Hillyard, S D; Hoff, K S; Propper, C

    1998-01-01

    Terrestrial amphibians take up water by abducting the hind limbs and pressing a specialized portion of the ventral skin to a moist surface, using a characteristic behavior called the water absorption response. An assay of the water absorption response was used to quantify physiological factors associated with thirst and water uptake. Dramatic changes in the water absorption response resulted from subtle changes in hydration state and from altering the reserve water supply in the urinary bladder. The water absorption response could be induced by intraperitoneal and intracerebroventricular injection of angiotensin II, demonstrating that components of the renin-angiotensin system on both sides of the blood-brain barrier have a dipsogenic function in amphibians. These experiments also demonstrated that the water absorption response could be influenced by changes in barometric pressure. Toads avoided the water absorption response on hyperosmotic substrates, and behavioral experiments showed that the amphibian skin served a sensory function similar to that of the lingual epithelium of mammals. The water absorption response assay has enormous potential as a tool for the investigation of physiological processes and sensory capabilities of amphibians.

  2. Enhanced Water Vapor Absorption within Tropospheric Clouds: A Partial Explanation for Anomalous Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, David; Zuffada, Cinzia

    1996-01-01

    Comparisons between solar flux measurements and predictions obtained from theoretical radiative transfer models indicate that most of these models underestimate the globally averaged solar energy absorbed by cloudy atmospheres by up to 25Wm&sup-2;.The origin of this anomalous absorption has not yet been established, but it has been attributed to a variety of sources including oversimplified or missing physical processes in the existing models, uncertainties in the input data, and even measurement errors. We used a sophisticated atmospheric radiative transfer model to provide improved constraints on the physical processes that contribute to the absorption of solar radiation by Earth's atmosphere. The results are described herein.

  3. Temperature Dependences of Mechanisms Responsible for the Water-Vapor Continuum Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Qiancheng

    2014-01-01

    The water-vapor continuum absorption plays an important role in the radiative balance in the Earth's atmosphere. It has been experimentally shown that for ambient atmospheric conditions, the continuum absorption scales quadratically with the H2O number density and has a strong, negative temperature dependence (T dependence). Over the years, there have been three different theoretical mechanisms postulated: far-wings of allowed transition lines, water dimers, and collision-induced absorption. The first mechanism proposed was the accumulation of absorptions from the far-wings of the strong allowed transition lines. Later, absorption by water dimers was proposed, and this mechanism provides a qualitative explanation for the continuum characters mentioned above. Despite the improvements in experimental data, at present there is no consensus on which mechanism is primarily responsible for the continuum absorption.

  4. Case studies of chilled water storage

    SciTech Connect

    Andrepont, J.S. )

    1993-01-01

    Centralized chilled water systems are commonly used to meet the air conditioning needs of colleges, universities, medical complexes, and other large campuses or district cooling facilities. Data from the Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers (APPA) indicate that over half its members operate central cooling plants. Various configurations are in use, including single and multiple central chilling plants serving single distribution systems, nonconnected miniature central systems, and combinations of one central and one or more satellite plants on a single distribution loop. Central plant chillers may be electric motor-driven centrifugal compressors, gas engine-driven centrifugal compressors, steam turbine-driven centrifugal compressors, heat-driven absorption chillers, or combinations of these types. The usual refrigerants are chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs); but alternatives such as HCFCs, HFCs, ammonia (NH[sub 3]), and absorption solutions may also be employed. Free cooling via cooling towers is sometimes used, directly or indirectly, during periods of relatively low ambient air temperatures. During any central plant capacity expansion, O and M, capital, and life cycle costs are among the major concerns, as are the increasingly critical issues of reliability, flexibility, safety, and the environment. Specifically, atmospheric ozone depletion and the CFC refrigerant issue are now impacting everyone involved in the air conditioning field. Anyone selecting or planning for new chiller capacity is faced with choosing from such options as CFCs, HCFCs, HFCs, ammonia, and absorption refrigeration. These choices have unique and serious drawbacks. Because of this chilled water storage is now experiencing increased application.

  5. Towards quantitative atmospheric water vapor profiling with differential absorption lidar.

    PubMed

    Dinovitser, Alex; Gunn, Lachlan J; Abbott, Derek

    2015-08-24

    Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) is a powerful laser-based technique for trace gas profiling of the atmosphere. However, this technique is still under active development requiring precise and accurate wavelength stabilization, as well as accurate spectroscopic parameters of the specific resonance line and the effective absorption cross-section of the system. In this paper we describe a novel master laser system that extends our previous work for robust stabilization to virtually any number of multiple side-line laser wavelengths for the future probing to greater altitudes. In this paper, we also highlight the significance of laser spectral purity on DIAL accuracy, and illustrate a simple re-arrangement of a system for measuring effective absorption cross-section. We present a calibration technique where the laser light is guided to an absorption cell with 33 m path length, and a quantitative number density measurement is then used to obtain the effective absorption cross-section. The same absorption cell is then used for on-line laser stabilization, while microwave beat-frequencies are used to stabilize any number of off-line lasers. We present preliminary results using ∼300 nJ, 1 μs pulses at 3 kHz, with the seed laser operating as a nanojoule transmitter at 822.922 nm, and a receiver consisting of a photomultiplier tube (PMT) coupled to a 356 mm mirror. PMID:26368258

  6. Towards quantitative atmospheric water vapor profiling with differential absorption lidar.

    PubMed

    Dinovitser, Alex; Gunn, Lachlan J; Abbott, Derek

    2015-08-24

    Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) is a powerful laser-based technique for trace gas profiling of the atmosphere. However, this technique is still under active development requiring precise and accurate wavelength stabilization, as well as accurate spectroscopic parameters of the specific resonance line and the effective absorption cross-section of the system. In this paper we describe a novel master laser system that extends our previous work for robust stabilization to virtually any number of multiple side-line laser wavelengths for the future probing to greater altitudes. In this paper, we also highlight the significance of laser spectral purity on DIAL accuracy, and illustrate a simple re-arrangement of a system for measuring effective absorption cross-section. We present a calibration technique where the laser light is guided to an absorption cell with 33 m path length, and a quantitative number density measurement is then used to obtain the effective absorption cross-section. The same absorption cell is then used for on-line laser stabilization, while microwave beat-frequencies are used to stabilize any number of off-line lasers. We present preliminary results using ∼300 nJ, 1 μs pulses at 3 kHz, with the seed laser operating as a nanojoule transmitter at 822.922 nm, and a receiver consisting of a photomultiplier tube (PMT) coupled to a 356 mm mirror.

  7. Influence of soil water stress on evaporation, root absorption, and internal water status of cotton.

    PubMed

    Jordan, W R; Ritchie, J T

    1971-12-01

    Diurnal variations in leaf water potential, diffusion resistance, relative water content, stem diameter, leaf temperature, and energy balance components were measured in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. var. Lankart 57) during drought stress under field conditions. A plot of leaf water potential against either relative water content or stem diameter during the 24-hour period yielded a closed hysteresis loop. The relation between cell hydration and evaporation is discussed.Despite low soil water potential in the main root zone, significant plant evaporation rates were maintained. Root absorption rates as a function of soil depth were calculated from water content profiles measured with a neutron probe. The maximal root absorption rate of 3.5 x 10(-3) day(-1) occurred at the 75-centimeter depth, well below the main root zone.Stomatal resistance of individual leaves during the daylight hours remained nearly constant at 2.5 seconds centimeter(-1) even though leaf water potentials approached -30 bars. A growth chamber study indicated stomatal closure occurred at potentials near -16 bars. Possible implications of high soil water stress in relation to stomatal function and growth are discussed. Based on an energy balance method, the actual to potential plant evapotranspiration ratio was 0.43 for the 24-hour period, indicating partial stomatal closure. A surface resistance, r(s), of 4.0 seconds centimeter(-1) was calculated for the incomplete canopy with the use of the energy balance data. Alternatively, a canopy resistance of 1.3 seconds centimeter(-1) was attained from a relationship between leaf area and stomatal resistance of individual leaves. If the soil resistance was assumed to be very large and the canopy resistance was weighted for the fractional ground cover of the crop, the calculated surface resistance was 4.3 seconds centimeter(-1). Under these conditions, the two independent estimates of r(s) were in essential agreement.

  8. Dissolution and absorption modeling: model expansion to simulate the effects of precipitation, water absorption, longitudinally changing intestinal permeability, and controlled release on drug absorption.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kevin C

    2003-09-01

    A previously described model for simulating drug dissolution, absorption, and pharmacokinetics has been expanded beyond the original application of simulating immediate-release dosage forms to include simulation of drug precipitation, water absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, changing gastrointestinal permeability, disintegration, and controlled-release and dissolution from a GITS-type dosage form. A mathematical description of the model is presented as well as a retrospective analysis of nifedipine to demonstrate the utility of the model. The fourth-order Runge-Kutta numerical method was used to solve the series of coupled differential equations used to simulate the process of dissolution, absorption, and drug disposition. The model was able to simulate the clinically demonstrated effect for drug particle size on nifedipine plasma concentrations for an immediate-release dosage form. Further simulations indicated that drug particle size was less important for a GITS-type dosage form at a release rate of 1.7 mg/hr compared to rate of 17 mg/hr. Hypothetical calculations simulated the potential effect of drug precipitation, water absorption, and changing permeability on drug plasma concentrations. The expanded model increases the utility of a previously described model in providing guidance in drug development and selection.

  9. Upper limits for absorption by water vapor in the near-UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Eoin M.; Wenger, John C.; Venables, Dean S.

    2016-02-01

    There are few experimental measurements of absorption by water vapor in the near-UV. Here we report the results of spectral measurements of water vapor absorption at ambient temperature and pressure from 325 nm to 420 nm, covering most tropospherically relevant short wavelengths. Spectra were recorded using a broadband optical cavity in the chemically controlled environment of an atmospheric simulation chamber. No absorption attributable to the water monomer (or the dimer) was observed at the 0.5 nm resolution of our system. Our results are consistent with calculated spectra and recent DOAS field observations, but contradict a report of significant water absorption in the near-UV. Based on the detection limit of our instrument, we report upper limits for the water absorption cross section of less than 5×10-26 cm2 molecule-1 at our instrument resolution. For a typical, indicative slant column density of 4×1023 cm2, we calculate a maximum optical depth of 0.02 arising from absorption of water vapor in the atmosphere at wavelengths between 340 nm and 420 nm, with slightly higher maximum optical depths below 340 nm. The results of this work, together with recent atmospheric observations and computational results, suggest that water vapor absorption across most of the near-UV is small compared to visible and infrared wavelengths.

  10. Water and tissue equivalency of some gel dosimeters for photon energy absorption.

    PubMed

    Un, Adem

    2013-12-01

    The mass energy absorption coefficients,, effective atomic numbers for photon energy absorption, ZPEAeff, and effective electron numbers for photon-energy absorption, NPEAeff, is calculated for 14 polymer gel dosimeter, five gel dosimeter, soft tissue and water, in the energy range from 1 keV to 20 MeV. The ZPEAeff(Gel)/ZPEAeff(Tissue) and NPEAeff(Gel)/NPEAeff (Tissue) are used to evaluate the tissue equivalency.

  11. Nitrogen enrichment of surface water by absorption of ammonia volatilized from cattle feedlots.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, G L; Viets, F G

    1969-10-24

    Apparatus designed to measure absorption of ammonia from the air by aqueous surfaces was installed near several cattle feedlots and in appropriate control areas. Ammonia absorption rates measured near feedlots were as much as 20 times greater than near the control. Their magnitudes indicate that absorption of ammonia volatilized from cattle feedlots contributes significantly to the nitrogen enrichment of surface water in the vicinity of feedlots.

  12. Dataset used to improve liquid water absorption models in the microwave

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, David

    2015-12-14

    Two datasets, one a compilation of laboratory data and one a compilation from three field sites, are provided here. These datasets provide measurements of the real and imaginary refractive indices and absorption as a function of cloud temperature. These datasets were used in the development of the new liquid water absorption model that was published in Turner et al. 2015.

  13. Water absorption and desorption in shuttle ablator and insulation materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F.; Smith, C. F.; Wooden, V. A.; Cothren, B. E.; Gregory, H.

    1982-01-01

    Shuttle systems ablator and insulation materials underwent water soak with subsequent water desorption in vacuum. Water accumulation in these materials after a soak for 24 hours ranged from +1.1% for orbiter tile to +161% for solid rocket booster MSA-1. After 1 minute in vacuum, water retention ranged from none in the orbiter tile to +70% for solid rocket booster cork.

  14. Derivation of water vapour absorption cross-sections in the red region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lal, M.; Chakrabarty, D. K.

    1994-01-01

    Absorption spectrum in 436 to 448 nm wavelength region gives NO2 and O3 column densities. This spectrum can also give H2O column density. The spectrum in the range of 655 to 667 nm contains absorption due to NO3 and H2O. Combining the absorption spectra in the wavelength ranges of 436 to 448 and 655 to 667 nm, water vapor absorption cross-sections in this range comes out to be of the order of 2.0 x 10(exp -24) cm(exp -2).

  15. Ultraviolet (250-550  nm) absorption spectrum of pure water.

    PubMed

    Mason, John D; Cone, Michael T; Fry, Edward S

    2016-09-01

    Data for the spectral light absorption of pure water from 250 to 550 nm have been obtained using an integrating cavity made from a newly developed diffuse reflector with a very high UV reflectivity. The data provide the first scattering-independent measurements of absorption coefficients in the spectral gap between well-established literature values for the absorption coefficients in the visible (>400  nm) and UV (<200  nm). A minimum in the absorption coefficient has been observed in the UV at 344 nm; the value is 0.000811±0.000227  m-1. PMID:27607297

  16. Optoacoustic measurements of water vapor absorption at selected CO laser wavelengths in the 5-micron region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, R. T.; Shumate, M. S.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements of water vapor absorption were taken with a resonant optoacoustical detector (cylindrical pyrex detector, two BaF2 windows fitted into end plates at slight tilt to suppress Fabry-Perot resonances), for lack of confidence in existing spectral tabular data for the 5-7 micron region, as line shapes in the wing regions of water vapor lines are difficult to characterize. The measurements are required for air pollution studies using a CO laser, to find the differential absorption at the wavelengths in question due to atmospheric constituents other than water vapor. The design and performance of the optoacoustical detector are presented. Effects of absorption by ambient NO are considered, and the fixed-frequency discretely tunable CO laser is found suitable for monitoring urban NO concentrations in a fairly dry climate, using the water vapor absorption data obtained in the study.

  17. Absorption of Sunlight by Water Vapor in Cloudy Conditions: A Partial Explanation for the Cloud Absorption Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, D.

    1997-01-01

    The atmospheric radiative transfer algorithms used in most global general circulation models underestimate the globally-averaged solar energy absorbed by cloudy atmospheres by up to 25 W/sq m. The origin of this anomalous absorption is not yet known, but it has been attributed to a variety of sources including oversimplified or missing physical processes in these models, uncertainties in the input data, and even measurement errors. Here, a sophisticated atmospheric radiative transfer model was used to provide a more comprehensive description of the physical processes that contribute to the absorption of solar radiation by the Earth's atmosphere. We found that the amount of sunlight absorbed by a cloudy atmosphere is inversely proportional to the solar zenith angle and the cloud top height, and directly proportional to the cloud optical depth and the water vapor concentration within the clouds. Atmospheres with saturated, optically-thick, low clouds absorbed about 12 W/sq m more than clear atmospheres. This accounts for about 1/2 to 1/3 of the anomalous ab- sorption. Atmospheres with optically thick middle and high clouds usually absorb less than clear atmospheres. Because water vapor is concentrated within and below the cloud tops, this absorber is most effective at small solar zenith angles. An additional absorber that is distributed at or above the cloud tops is needed to produce the amplitude and zenith angle dependence of the observed anomalous absorption.

  18. Development and analysis of micro-polygeneration systems and adsorption chillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gluesenkamp, Kyle

    About a fifth of all primary energy in the US is consumed by residential buildings, mostly for cooling, heating and to provide electricity. Furthermore, retrofits are essential to reducing this consumption, since the buildings that exist today will comprise over half of those in use in 2050. Residential combined heat and power (or micro CHP, defined by <5 kW electrical generation capacity) has been identified as a retrofit technology which can reduce energy consumption in existing homes during the heating season by 5-30%. This thesis investigates the addition of a thermally-driven chiller/heat pump to a CHP system (to form a trigeneration system) to additionally provide savings during the cooling season, and enhance heating season savings. Scenarios are identified in which adding thermally-driven equipment to a micro CHP system reduces primary energy consumption, through analytical and experimental investigations. The experimental focus is on adsorption heat pump systems, which are capable of being used with the CHP engines (prime movers) that are already widely deployed. The analytical analysis identifies energy saving potential off-grid for today's prime movers, with potential on-grid for various fuel cell technologies. A novel dynamic test facility was developed to measure real-world residential trigeneration system performance using a prototype adsorption chiller. The chiller was designed and constructed for this thesis and was driven by waste heat from a commercially available natural gas-fueled 4 kW (electric) CHP engine. A control strategy for the chiller was developed, enabling a 5-day experiment to be run using a thermal load profile based on moderate Maryland summer air conditioning loads and typical single-family domestic hot water demand, with experimental results in agreement with models. In this summer mode, depending on electrical loads, the trigeneration system used up to 36% less fuel than off-grid separate generation and up to 29% less fuel than

  19. Changes in Physical Property of Epoxy Resin with Absorption of Methyl Alcohol and Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Ken; Nohara, Hiroshi; Shintani, Ryuichi

    1994-05-01

    Changes in physical properties with absorption of methyl alcohol and water were investigated. Upon CH3OH absorption, a boundary front appeared between the shell and core. The change in physical properties with absorption depended on the solvent and the volume absorbed. For example, when CH3OH of about 11 wt% was absorbed, Young's modulus decreased from 3.0×108 to 4.9×106 N/m2. In the case of H2O absorption (1 wt%), Young's modulus changed only slightly to 1.7×108 N/m2. The glass transition temperature T g shifted down to room temperature upon CH3OH absorption, but did not shift upon H2O absorption.

  20. Spallation occurrence from polyamide materials irradiated by thermal plasma with water absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Yasunori; Nakagawa, T.; Shinsei, N.; Uesugi, Y.; Ishijima, T.

    2016-09-01

    This paper first describes the effect of water absorption in polyamide material irradiated by thermal plasmas on the occurrence of spallation phenomena. The interaction between polyamide materials and arc plasmas occurs particularly in the low voltage circuit breaker and aerospace fields. Spallation phenomena are those in which polymer particles are ejected from polymer bulk materials irradiated by high heat flux. To confirm the effect of water absorption into the polyamide material on spallation phenomena, polyamide specimens with and without water absorption were irradiated by Ar inductively coupled thermal plasma. The results show that the polyamide specimen with water absorption ejected spallation particles, whereas the polyamide specimen without water absorption were only slightly ejected, indicating that water absorption promotes the occurrence of spallation. The cooling effects of the spallation polyamide 66 (PA66) particles ablation were also estimated in hot air to assess the arc quenching ability from the spallation particle inclusion. This estimation showed that 10 and more PA66 particles inclusion might decrease the air temperature by 3000 K effectively, which can be useful to enhance arc quenching in circuit breakers working in air.

  1. A diurnal rhythm in the absorption of glucose and water by isolated rat small intestine.

    PubMed

    Fisher, R B; Gardner, M L

    1976-01-01

    1. Glucose and water absorption by isolated small intestine from rats which have had unrestricted access to food is 50-60% higher at night than during the daytime. 2. When the feeding time is restricted to 06.00-09.00 hr G.M.T. glucose and water absorption rates in the period from 3 to 7 hr after withdrawal of food are almost as high as the rates observed at night-time in the animals with unrestricted feeding. 3. These changes in absorption rates appear to be associated with feeding time and not with the pattern of illumination.

  2. Interrelation between the crystallinity of polysaccharides and water absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prusov, A. N.; Prusova, S. M.; Radugin, M. V.; Zakharov, A. G.

    2014-05-01

    The maximum sorption of water and its vapors is calculated using experimental data from calorimetric and effusion studies of flax, wood, and cotton cellulose. X-day diffraction is used to determine the crystallinity of cellulose samples. The equations relating crystallinity ( X) with maximum sorption and the enthalpy of interaction between cellulose and water are presented. Experimental results and the literature data on water sorption by chitin, chitosan and other polysaccharides show that our equations for calculating crystallinity are correct.

  3. Whey protein hydrolysates enhance water absorption in the perfused small intestine of anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Makoto; Noma, Teruyuki; Yamaji, Taketo; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Oda, Munehiro

    2016-08-01

    We evaluated the effect of whey protein hydrolysates (WPH) on the water absorption rate in the small intestine using a rat small intestine perfusion model. The rate was significantly higher with 5 g/L WPH than with 5 g/L soy protein hydrolysates or physiological saline (p < 0.05). WPH dose-dependently increased the water absorption rate in the range of 1.25-10.0 g/L. WPH showed a significantly higher rate than an amino acid mixture whose composition was equal to that of WPH (p < 0.05). The addition of 4-aminomethylbenzoic acid, an inhibitor of PepT1, significantly suppressed WPH's enhancement of water absorption (p < 0.05). The rate of water absorption was significantly correlated with that of peptides/amino acids absorption in WPH (r = 0.82, p < 0.01). These data suggest that WPH have a high water absorption-promoting effect, to which PepT1 contributes.

  4. Evaluation of HFC-245ca for commercial use in low pressure chillers. Final report, Volume II: Chiller test data

    SciTech Connect

    Keuper, E.F.

    1996-03-01

    The data presented here were taken under Trane Laboratory Test Order 23127 between May and October 1995. The chiller was a 200 nominal ton three stage direct drive centrifugal chiller with two economizers. Three sets of impellers, three refrigerants and two oils were tested in the chiller according to the following matrix. Trane 22 is a mineral oil and Solest 68 is a polyolester oil. Runs 1 through 6 were to optimize the refrigerant charge using CFC-11. This was determined to be 360 lbm (163.3 Kg) and this value was used for all three refrigerants. The chiller takes a charge of six gallons of oil (22.7 liters). These data which follow are divided into Large Impeller, Medium Impeller and Small Impeller sets further subdivided by Imperial and Metric presentation. The data were taken in Imperial Units. These data are presented in four-page sets. Page 1 shows the reduced chiller test data. Page 2 shows some supporting calculations by curve fit, such as motor efficiency and motor speed. Pages 3 and 4 show the raw data as delivered by the laboratory. All following four-page sets are repetition of the form but for successive test runs.

  5. Water-lithium bromide double-effect absorption cooling analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vliet, G.C.; Lawson, M.B.; Lithgow, R.A.

    1980-12-01

    This investigation involved the development of a numerical model for the transient simulation of the double-effect, water-lithium bromide absorption cooling machine, and the use of the model to determine the effect of the various design and input variables on the absorption unit performance. The performance parameters considered were coefficient of performance and cooling capacity. The sensitivity analysis was performed by selecting a nominal condition and determining performance sensitivity for each variable with others held constant. The variables considered in the study include source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water temperatures; source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water flow rates; solution circulation rate; heat exchanger areas; pressure drop between evaporator and absorber; solution pump characteristics; and refrigerant flow control methods. The performance sensitivity study indicated in particular that the distribution of heat exchanger area among the various (seven) heat exchange components is a very important design consideration. Moreover, it indicated that the method of flow control of the first effect refrigerant vapor through the second effect is a critical design feature when absorption units operate over a significant range of cooling capacity. The model was used to predict the performance of the Trane absorption unit with fairly good accuracy. The dynamic model should be valuable as a design tool for developing new absorption machines or modifying current machines to make them optimal based on current and future energy costs.

  6. Grapevine water absorption in different soils. A spatio-temporal analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brillante, Luca; Bois, Benjamin; Lévêque, Jean; Mathieu, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Hillslope vineyards show complex water dynamics between soil and plants. To gain further insight of this relationship, 8 grapevine plots were monitored during two vintages (2011-2013), on Corton Hill, Burgundy, France. Grapevine water status was monitored weekly by surveying water potential, and at harvest, using δ13C analysis of grape juice. Soil volumetric humidity was also measured weekly, using TDR probes. A pedotransfer function was developed to transform Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) into Soil Volume Water and therefore to spatialise and describe variations in space and time in the Fraction of Transpirable Soil Water (FTSW). During the two years of monitoring, grapevines experienced great variation in water status, which ranged from low to substantial water deficit. With this freshly developed method, it was possible to observe differences in water absorption pattern by roots, in different soils, and at different depth. Great heterogeneity was observed, both laterally and vertically in grapevine water absorption. The contribution of each soil region to plant water status varies according to grapevine water status. It is different between day and night and depends from soil characteristics. It is to our knowledge the first time that water absorption by grapevine is revealed in space (2D) and time, and has therefore allowed a deeper comprehension of plant and soil dynamics in grapevine.

  7. In vivo absorption comparison of nanotechnology-based silybin tablets with its water-soluble derivative.

    PubMed

    Xu, Di; Ni, Rui; Sun, Wei; Li, Luk Chiu; Mao, Shirui

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the in vivo oral absorption of a nanocrystal tablet formulation of a BCS II poorly water-soluble drug was compared with that of its water-soluble salt form. Silybin is used as the model drug, and its nanosuspension was prepared by high-pressure homogenization. Effect of process and formulation parameters on properties of the nansuspensions was investigated. Dried powder of the nanosuspension was prepared by spray drying and used for preparing tablets. A pharmacokinetic study was performed in Beagle dogs to compare the absorption for tablets of silybin nanocrystals and silybin meglumine. In vivo absorption of nanocrystal silybin tablet in Beagle dogs was determined. X-ray powder diffraction results indicated that silybin existed in a crystalline state after homogenization. In vivo absorption study in rats showed that the peroral absorption of silybin was enhanced remarkably by decreasing particle size. In vivo absorption of nanocrystal silybin tablet in Beagle dogs was comparable with that of the commercially available tablet of the water-soluble salt form of silybin. In conclusion, it is possible to increase the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs by preparing its water-soluble derivative.

  8. Helium-Based Soundwave Chiller: Trillium: A Helium-Based Sonic Chiller- Tons of Freezing with 0 GWP Refrigerants

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: Penn State is designing a freezer that substitutes the use of sound waves and environmentally benign refrigerant for synthetic refrigerants found in conventional freezers. Called a thermoacoustic chiller, the technology is based on the fact that the pressure oscillations in a sound wave result in temperature changes. Areas of higher pressure raise temperatures and areas of low pressure decrease temperatures. By carefully arranging a series of heat exchangers in a sound field, the chiller is able to isolate the hot and cold regions of the sound waves. Penn State’s chiller uses helium gas to replace synthetic refrigerants. Because helium does not burn, explode or combine with other chemicals, it is an environmentally-friendly alternative to other polluting refrigerants. Penn State is working to apply this technology on a large scale.

  9. A simple method to incorporate water vapor absorption in the 15 microns remote temperature sounding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dallu, G.; Prabhakara, C.; Conhath, B. J.

    1975-01-01

    The water vapor absorption in the 15 micron CO2 band, which can affect the remotely sensed temperatures near the surface, are estimated with the help of an empirical method. This method is based on the differential absorption properties of the water vapor in the 11-13 micron window region and does not require a detailed knowledge of the water vapor profile. With this approach Nimbus 4 IRIS radiance measurements are inverted to obtain temperature profiles. These calculated profiles agree with radiosonde data within about 2 C.

  10. Relative spectral absorption of solar radiation by water vapor and cloud droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, R.; Ridgway, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    A moderate (20/cm) spectral resolution model which accounts for both the highly variable spectral transmission of solar radiation through water vapor within and above cloud, as well as the more slowly varying features of absorption and anisotropic multiple scattering by the cloud droplets, is presented. Results from this model as applied to the case of a typical 1 km thick stratus cloud in a standard atmosphere, with cloud top altitude of 2 km and overhead sun, are discussed, showing the relative importance of water vapor above the cloud, water vapor within the cloud, and cloud droplets on the spectral absorption of solar radiation.

  11. Dynamics of Water Absorption and Evaporation During Methanol Droplet Combustion in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Michael C.; Dietrich, Daniel L.; Nayagam, Vedha; Williams, Forman A.

    2012-01-01

    The combustion of methanol droplets is profoundly influenced by the absorption and evaporation of water, generated in the gas phase as a part of the combustion products. Initially there is a water-absorption period of combustion during which the latent heat of condensation of water vapor, released into the droplet, enhances its burning rate, whereas later there is a water-evaporation period, during which the water vapor reduces the flame temperature suffciently to extinguish the flame. Recent methanol droplet-combustion experiments in ambient environments diluted with carbon dioxide, conducted in the Combustion Integrated Rack on the International Space Station (ISS), as a part of the FLEX project, provided a method to delineate the water-absorption period from the water-evaporation period using video images of flame intensity. These were obtained using an ultra-violet camera that captures the OH* radical emission at 310 nm wavelength and a color camera that captures visible flame emission. These results are compared with results of ground-based tests in the Zero Gravity Facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center which employed smaller droplets in argon-diluted environments. A simplified theoretical model developed earlier correlates the transition time at which water absorption ends and evaporation starts. The model results are shown to agree reasonably well with experiment.

  12. Deriving in situ phytoplankton absorption for bio-optical productivity models in turbid waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Matthew J.; Schofield, Oscar; Bergmann, Trisha; Glenn, Scott; Orrico, Cristina; Moline, Mark

    2004-07-01

    As part of Hyperspectral Coupled Ocean Dynamics Experiment, a high-resolution hydrographic and bio-optical data set was collected from two cabled profilers at the Long-Term Ecosystem Observatory (LEO). Upwelling- and downwelling-favorable winds and a buoyant plume from the Hudson River induced large changes in hydrographic and optical structure of the water column. An absorption inversion model estimated the relative abundance of phytoplankton, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and detritus, as well as the spectral exponential slopes of CDOM and detritus from in situ WET Labs nine-wavelength absorption/attenuation meter (ac-9) absorption data. Derived optical weights were proportional to the parameter concentrations and allowed for their absorptions to be calculated. Spectrally weighted phytoplankton absorption was estimated using modeled spectral irradiances and the phytoplankton absorption spectra inverted from an ac-9. Derived mean spectral absorption of phytoplankton was used in a bio-optical model estimating photosynthetic rates. Measured radiocarbon uptake productivity rates extrapolated with water mass analysis and the bio-optical modeled results agreed within 20%. This approach is impacted by variability in the maximum quantum yield (ϕmax) and the irradiance light-saturation parameter (Ek(PAR)). An analysis of available data shows that ϕmax variability is relatively constrained in temperate waters. The variability of Ek(PAR) is greater in temperate waters, but based on a sensitivity analysis, has an overall smaller impact on water-column-integrated productivity rates because of the exponential decay of light. This inversion approach illustrates the utility of bio-optical models in turbid coastal waters given the measurements of the bulk inherent optical properties.

  13. Impact of MIE-Resonances on the Atmospheric Absorption of Water Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiscombe, W.; Kinne, S.; Nussenzveig, H.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Clouds strongly modulate radiative transfer processes in the Earth's atmosphere. Studies, which simulate bulk properties of clouds, such as absorption, require methods that accurately account for multiple scattering among individual cloud particles. Multiple scattering processes are well described by MIE-theory, if interacting particles have a spherical shape. This is a good assumption for water droplets. Thus, simulations for water clouds (especially for interactions with solar radiation) usually apply readily available MIE-codes. The presence of different drop-sizes, however, necessitates repetitive calculations for many sizes. The usual representation by a few sizes is likely to miss contributions from densely distributed, sharp resonances. Despite their usually narrow width, integrated over the entire size-spectrum of a cloud droplet distribution, the impact of missed resonances could add up. The consideration of these resonances tends to increase cloud extinction and cloud absorption. This mechanism for a larger (than by MIE-methods predicted) solar absorption has the potential to explain observational evidence of larger than predicted cloud absorption at solar wavelengths. The presentation will address the absorption impact of added resonances for typical properties of water clouds (e.g. drop size distributions, drop concentrations and cloud geometry). Special attention will be given to scenarios with observational evidence of law than simulated solar absorption; particularly if simultaneous measurements of cloud micro- and macrophysical properties are available.

  14. Magnesium absorption from mineral water decreases with increasing quantities of magnesium per serving in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Eri; Tai, Hideyuki; Uozumi, Yoshinobu; Nakagawa, Koji; Matsui, Tohru

    2012-01-01

    It is hypothesized that magnesium (Mg) absorption from mineral water is affected by the concentration of Mg in the water, the consumption pattern, and the volume consumed per serving. The present study examined the effect of serving volume and consumption pattern of artificial mineral water (AMW) and Mg concentration on Mg absorption in rats. Magnesium in AMW was labeled with magnesium-25 as a tracer. Each group consisted of 6 or 7 rats. In experiment 1, the rats received 1 mL of AMW containing 200 mg Mg/L at 4 times, 400 mg Mg/L twice, or 800 mg Mg/L at 1 time. In experiment 2, the rats received 1 mL of AMW containing 200 mg Mg/L or 0.25 mL of AMW containing 800 mg Mg/L at 4 times or 1 mL of AMW containing 800 mg Mg/L at 1 time. The absorption of Mg decreased with increasing Mg concentrations in the same serving volume of AMW with different serving frequencies. When the AMW containing 800 mg Mg/L was portioned into 4 servings, Mg absorption increased to the level of absorption in the group exposed to AMW containing 200 mg Mg/L served at the same frequency. These results suggest that the Mg concentration and the volume of AMW do not affect Mg absorption per se, but Mg absorption from AMW decreases when the amount of Mg in each serving is increased. Thus, frequent consumption is preferable for mineral water rich in Mg when the total consumption of mineral water is the same.

  15. 22. DETAIL OF CHILLERS 1 AND 2 (MST AIRCONDITIONING SYSTEM) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL OF CHILLERS 1 AND 2 (MST AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM) INTERIOR, NORTHEAST CORNER, STATION 30, SLC-3W MST - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  16. Centrifugal chillers - CFC retrofit versus replacement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kistler, P.

    1997-09-01

    As of January 1, 1996, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants CFC-11 and CFC-12 can no longer be produced in the United States. It is estimated that as many as 60,000 or 74% of CFC chillers in service today in industrial, commercial, and institutional buildings still use the `banned` refrigerants. In addition, most of the Navy`s centrifugal chillers also use these refrigerants. In May 1994, the Naval Facilities Engineering Command dictated (NAVFAC Notice 5090) that all shore-based Navy Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration (HVACR) equipment containing Class I Ozone Depleting Substance (ODS) be replaced or converted by December 41,2000. Equipment conversions must utilize an approved refrigerant - one with an Ozone Depleting Potential (ODP) of 0.05 or less. The decision to eliminate CFC refrigerants at Navy facilities must begin with a CFC management plan. The plan should address items such as, reducing leakage in existing CFC systems, HVAC maintenance personnel training standards, and retrofitting or replacing CFC refrigerant-using equipment. The decision to retrofit or replace CFC refrigerant chiller must involve the chiller manufacturer. Manufacturers will (often at no cost) evaluate your existing cooling system, determine the most appropriate retrofit method, and determine which option is the most economical choice.

  17. Absorption and exchange of water across rumen epithelium.

    PubMed

    Dobson, A; Sellers, A F; Gatewood, V H

    1976-11-01

    The osmotic pressure of solutions in the ventral sac of the rumen of the conscious cow was varied with Na Cl or mannitol. The mucosal blood flow measured by HTO clearance was minimal when the lumen contained an isotonic solution and rose threefold when the rumen was hypo- or hypertonic to plasma by 150 mosmol/kg. Thus osmotic gradients actoss the rumen epithelium stimulated mucosal blood flow. Using osmotic gradients small enough to avoid blood flow stimulation, the net water flow could be enhanced by butyrate, a chemical stimulator of blood flow. Thus water movement was partially limited by blood flow. This implied an appreciable change in osmotic pressure of the capillary blood toward that of the rumen contents. The relative importance of blood flow, membrane permeability, and solute uptake on water transport was assessed. The osmotic pressure in the rumen was stationary when the rumen solution was distinctly hypotonic to plasma. The absorbate in the absence of an osmotic gradient was thus hypertonic. The net uptake of solute increased rapidly when the solution in the lumen was hypertonic to plasma. This gave rise to a more rapid rate of change of osmotic pressure in the rumen under this condition.

  18. An Accurate Method for Computing the Absorption of Solar Radiation by Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, M. D.

    1980-01-01

    The method is based upon molecular line parameters and makes use of a far wing scaling approximation and k distribution approach previously applied to the computation of the infrared cooling rate due to water vapor. Taking into account the wave number dependence of the incident solar flux, the solar heating rate is computed for the entire water vapor spectrum and for individual absorption bands. The accuracy of the method is tested against line by line calculations. The method introduces a maximum error of 0.06 C/day. The method has the additional advantage over previous methods in that it can be applied to any portion of the spectral region containing the water vapor bands. The integrated absorptances and line intensities computed from the molecular line parameters were compared with laboratory measurements. The comparison reveals that, among the three different sources, absorptance is the largest for the laboratory measurements.

  19. High-speed neutron radiography for monitoring the water absorption by capillarity in porous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cnudde, Veerle; Dierick, Manuel; Vlassenbroeck, Jelle; Masschaele, Bert; Lehmann, Eberhard; Jacobs, Patric; Van Hoorebeke, Luc

    2008-01-01

    Fluid flow through porous natural building stones is of great importance when studying their weathering processes. Many traditional experiments based on mass changes are available for studying liquid transport in porous stones, such as the determination of the water absorption coefficient by capillarity. Because thermal neutrons experience a strong attenuation by hydrogen, neutron radiography is a suitable technique for the study of water absorption by capillarity in porous stones. However, image contrast can be impaired because hydrogen mainly scatters neutrons rather than absorbing them, resulting in a blurred image. Capillarity results obtained by neutron radiography and by the European Standard 1925 for the determination of the water absorption coefficient by capillarity for natural building stones with a variable porosity were compared. It is illustrated that high-speed neutron radiography can be a useful research tool for the visualization of internal fluid flow inside inorganic building materials such as limestones and sandstones.

  20. [Phytoplankton Light Absorption Properties During the Blooms in Adjacent Waters of the Changjiang Estuary].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang-yang; Shen, Fang; Li, Xiu-zhen

    2015-06-01

    Phytoplankton dominant species and their light absorption properties during the blooms occurred in August 2013 in adjacent waters of the Changjiang Estuary were analyzed. The results showed that phytoplankton blooms broke out in 10 out of 34 investigation stations, among which diatom blooms occurred in 6 stations while 3 stations were predominated by dinoflagellate. Phytoplankton absorption coefficients of both bloom and non-bloom waters exhibited large variations, with respective ranges of 0.199-0.832 m(-1) and 0.012-0.109 m(-1), while phytoplankton specific absorption coefficients spanned much narrower range, with the average values of bloom and non-bloom waters being 0.023 and 0.035 m2 x mg(-1), respectively. When transitioned from bloom to non-bloom waters, the proportion of phytoplankton with larger cell size lowered while that of smaller phytoplankton elevated, causing a less extent of package effect and thus higher specific absorption coefficients. Distinctive absorption spectra were observed between different types of bloom (such as diatom and dinoflagellate blooms) with similar phytoplankton cell size, mostly attributed to distinctive accessory pigment composition. The ratios of diadinoxanthin and chlorophyll-c2 concentrations to chlorophyll-a concentration in dinoflagellate blooms were higher than those in diatom blooms, which largely contributed to the shoulder peaks at 465 nm in dinoflagellate blooms.

  1. Low-Dimensional Water on Ru(0001); Model System for X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Studies of Liquid Water

    SciTech Connect

    Nordlund, D.; Ogasawara, H.; Andersson, K.J.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Salmeron, M.; Pettersson, L. G. M.; Nilsson, A.

    2009-05-11

    We present an x-ray absorption spectroscopy results for fully broken to a complete H-bond network of water molecules on Ru(0001) by varying the morphology from isolated water molecules via two-dimensional clusters to a fully covered monolayer as probed by scanning tunneling microscopy. The sensitivity of x-ray absorption to the symmetry of H-bonding is further elucidated for the amino (-NH{sub 2}) group in glycine adsorbed on Cu(110) where the E-vector is parallel either to the NH donating an H-bond or to the non-H-bonded NH. The results give further evidence for the interpretation of the various spectral features of liquid water and for the general applicability of x-ray absorption spectroscopy to analyze H-bonded systems.

  2. Low-Dimensional Water on Ru(0001)Model System for X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Studies of Liquid Water

    SciTech Connect

    Nordlund, D

    2012-02-14

    We present an x-ray absorption spectroscopy results for fully broken to a complete H-bond network of water molecules on Ru(0001) by varying the morphology from isolated water molecules via two-dimensional clusters to a fully covered monolayer as probed by scanning tunneling microscopy. The sensitivity of x-ray absorption to the symmetry of H-bonding is further elucidated for the amino (-NH{sub 2}) group in glycine adsorbed on Cu(110) where the E-vector is parallel either to the NH donating an H-bond or to the non-H-bonded NH. The results give further evidence for the interpretation of the various spectral features of liquid water and for the general applicability of x-ray absorption spectroscopy to analyze H-bonded systems.

  3. Mechanisms of guanylin action on water and ion absorption at different regions of seawater eel intestine.

    PubMed

    Ando, Masaaki; Wong, Marty K S; Takei, Yoshio

    2014-09-15

    Guanylin (GN) inhibited water absorption and short-circuit current (Isc) in seawater eel intestine. Similar inhibition was observed after bumetanide, and the effect of bumetanide was abolished by GN or vice versa, suggesting that both act on the same target, Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC), which is a key player for the Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) transport system responsible for water absorption in marine teleost intestine. However, effect of GN was always greater than that of bumetanide: 10% greater in middle intestine (MI) and 40% in posterior intestine (PI) for Isc, and 25% greater in MI and 34% in PI for water absorption. After treatment with GN, Isc decreased to zero, but 20-30% water absorption still remained. The remainder may be due to the Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger and Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC), since inhibitors for these transporters almost nullified the remaining water absorption. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed the presence of major proteins involved in water absorption; the NKCC2β and AQP1 genes whose expression was markedly upregulated after seawater acclimation. The SLC26A6 (anion exchanger) and NCCβ genes were also expressed in small amounts. Consistent with the inhibitors' effect, expression of NKCC2β was MI > PI, and that of NCCβ was MI < PI. The present study showed that GN not only inhibits the bumetanide-sensitive Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) transport system governed by NKCC2β, but also regulates unknown ion transporters different from GN-insensitive SLC26A6 and NCC. A candidate is cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl(-) channel, as demonstrated in mammals, but its expression is low in eel intestine, and its role may be minor, as indicated by the small effect of its inhibitors.

  4. Transpiration, water absorption, and internal water balance of cotton plants as affected by light and changes in saturation deficit.

    PubMed

    Ehrler, W L; van Bavel, C H; Nakayama, F S

    1966-01-01

    In controlled environment studies of cotton plants (Gossypium barbadense L.) a light-induced acceleration of transpiration upset the water balance established in the dark because of a lag in water absorption. A plant-water deficit could be generated either by sudden illumination at a given saturation deficit (sd) of the air, or by raising the sd in conjunction with illumination, without different effects.Direct water balance measurements were confirmed in every experiment by beta ray gauge detection of changes in leaf-water content resulting from unequal gain and loss of water by the whole plant.Recovery from the initial loss of turgidity always was faster and more complete at the higher than at the lower values of sd. Recovery occurred even in the light at the higher values of sd, but was enhanced by return to darkness and a lower sd, which at times resulted in superhydration.Rehydration in the light could be attributed to at least 2 processes: A) a diminished transpiration rate if earlier water loss was sufficient to induce stomatal closure, and B) an increased rate of water absorption. The data suggest that a water deficit, temporary or persisting, does not cause a significantly lowered transpiration rate; thus, recovery must depend on increased absorption. The communicative link between the 2 processes appears weak, transmitting strong signals only.

  5. The Effect of Heat on Structural Characteristics and Water Absorption Behavior of Agave Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, Dip

    2008-04-01

    The structural characteristics and water absorptions behavior agave fibers were investigated over a range of temperature by using XRD, IR, TG and gravimetric methods. Three distinct thermal processes were observed during heating the fiber in the temperature range 310-760 K in air, oxygen and nitrogen invariably. The cellulose structures of the fibers were unaffected on heating up to 450 K. The samples showed thermal decomposition processes beyond 500 K. Fibers displayed a two-stage diffusion behavior. The structural parameters and kinetic of water absorption of the fibers at specific temperatures were analyzed.

  6. High frequency ultrasonic-assisted CO2 absorption in a high pressure water batch system.

    PubMed

    Tay, W H; Lau, K K; Shariff, A M

    2016-11-01

    Physical absorption process is always nullified by the presence of cavitation under low frequency ultrasonic irradiation. In the present study, high frequency ultrasonic of 1.7MHz was used for the physical absorption of CO2 in a water batch system under elevated pressure. The parameters including ultrasonic power and initial feed pressure for the system have been varied from 0 to 18W and 6 to 41bar, respectively. The mass transfer coefficient has been determined via the dynamic pressure-step method. Besides, the actual ultrasonic power that transmitted to the liquid was measured based on calorimetric method prior to the absorption study. Subsequently, desorption study was conducted as a comparison with the absorption process. The mechanism for the ultrasonic assisted absorption has also been discussed. Based on the results, the mass transfer coefficient has increased with the increasing of ultrasonic power. It means that, the presence of streaming effect and the formation of liquid fountain is more favorable under high frequency ultrasonic irradiation for the absorption process. Therefore, high frequency ultrasonic irradiation is suggested to be one of the potential alternatives for the gas separation process with its promising absorption enhancement and compact design. PMID:27245970

  7. High frequency ultrasonic-assisted CO2 absorption in a high pressure water batch system.

    PubMed

    Tay, W H; Lau, K K; Shariff, A M

    2016-11-01

    Physical absorption process is always nullified by the presence of cavitation under low frequency ultrasonic irradiation. In the present study, high frequency ultrasonic of 1.7MHz was used for the physical absorption of CO2 in a water batch system under elevated pressure. The parameters including ultrasonic power and initial feed pressure for the system have been varied from 0 to 18W and 6 to 41bar, respectively. The mass transfer coefficient has been determined via the dynamic pressure-step method. Besides, the actual ultrasonic power that transmitted to the liquid was measured based on calorimetric method prior to the absorption study. Subsequently, desorption study was conducted as a comparison with the absorption process. The mechanism for the ultrasonic assisted absorption has also been discussed. Based on the results, the mass transfer coefficient has increased with the increasing of ultrasonic power. It means that, the presence of streaming effect and the formation of liquid fountain is more favorable under high frequency ultrasonic irradiation for the absorption process. Therefore, high frequency ultrasonic irradiation is suggested to be one of the potential alternatives for the gas separation process with its promising absorption enhancement and compact design.

  8. Spectral control of an alexandrite laser for an airborne water-vapor differential absorption lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponsardin, Patrick; Grossmann, Benoist E.; Browell, Edward V.

    1994-01-01

    A narrow-linewidth pulsed alexandrite laser has been greatly modified for improved spectral stability in an aircraft environment, and its operation has been evaluated in the laboratory for making water-vapor differential absorption lidar measurements. An alignment technique is described to achieve the optimum free spectral range ratio for the two etalons inserted in the alexandrite laser cavity, and the sensitivity of this ratio is analyzed. This technique drastically decreases the occurrence of mode hopping, which is commonly observed in a tunable, two-intracavity-etalon laser system. High spectral purity (greater than 99.85%) at 730 nm is demonstrated by the use of a water-vapor absorption line as a notch filter. The effective cross sections of 760-nm oxygen and 730-nm water-vapor absorption lines are measured at different pressures by using this laser, which has a finite linewidth of 0.02 cm(exp -1) (FWHM). It is found that for water-vapor absorption linewidths greater than 0.04 cm(exp -1) (HWHM), or for altitudes below 10 km, the laser line can be considered monochromatic because the measured effective absorption cross section is within 1% of the calculated monochromatic cross section. An analysis of the environmental sensitivity of the two intracavity etalons is presented, and a closed-loop computer control for active stabilization of the two intracavity etalons in the alexandrite laser is described. Using a water-vapor absorption line as a wavelength reference, we measure a long-term frequency drift (approximately 1.5 h) of less than 0.7 pm in the laboratory.

  9. Ab initio calculation of the electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martiniano, Hugo F. M. C.; Galamba, Nuno; Cabral, Benedito J. Costa

    2014-04-01

    The electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water was investigated by coupling a one-body energy decomposition scheme to configurations generated by classical and Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics (BOMD). A Frenkel exciton Hamiltonian formalism was adopted and the excitation energies in the liquid phase were calculated with the equation of motion coupled cluster with single and double excitations method. Molecular dynamics configurations were generated by different approaches. Classical MD were carried out with the TIP4P-Ew and AMOEBA force fields. The BLYP and BLYP-D3 exchange-correlation functionals were used in BOMD. Theoretical and experimental results for the electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water are in good agreement. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between the structure of liquid water predicted by the different models and the electronic absorption spectrum. The theoretical gas to liquid phase blue-shift of the peak positions of the electronic absorption spectrum is in good agreement with experiment. The overall shift is determined by a competition between the O-H stretching of the water monomer in liquid water that leads to a red-shift and polarization effects that induce a blue-shift. The results illustrate the importance of coupling many-body energy decomposition schemes to molecular dynamics configurations to carry out ab initio calculations of the electronic properties in liquid phase.

  10. Ab initio calculation of the electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water

    SciTech Connect

    Martiniano, Hugo F. M. C.; Galamba, Nuno; Cabral, Benedito J. Costa

    2014-04-28

    The electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water was investigated by coupling a one-body energy decomposition scheme to configurations generated by classical and Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics (BOMD). A Frenkel exciton Hamiltonian formalism was adopted and the excitation energies in the liquid phase were calculated with the equation of motion coupled cluster with single and double excitations method. Molecular dynamics configurations were generated by different approaches. Classical MD were carried out with the TIP4P-Ew and AMOEBA force fields. The BLYP and BLYP-D3 exchange-correlation functionals were used in BOMD. Theoretical and experimental results for the electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water are in good agreement. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between the structure of liquid water predicted by the different models and the electronic absorption spectrum. The theoretical gas to liquid phase blue-shift of the peak positions of the electronic absorption spectrum is in good agreement with experiment. The overall shift is determined by a competition between the O–H stretching of the water monomer in liquid water that leads to a red-shift and polarization effects that induce a blue-shift. The results illustrate the importance of coupling many-body energy decomposition schemes to molecular dynamics configurations to carry out ab initio calculations of the electronic properties in liquid phase.

  11. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-11-01

    The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  12. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  13. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  14. Studies of Water Absorption Behavior of Plant Fibers at Different Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, Dip

    2010-05-01

    Moisture absorption of natural fiber plastic composites is one major concern in their outdoor applications. The absorbed moisture has many detrimental effects on the mechanical performance of these composites. A knowledge of the moisture diffusivity, permeability, and solubility is very much essential for the application of natural fibers as an excellent reinforcement in polymers. An effort has been made to study the water absorption behavior of some natural fibers such as bowstring hemp, okra, and betel nut at different temperatures to improve the long-term performance of composites reinforced with these fibers. The gain in moisture content in the fibers due to water absorption was measured as a function of exposure time at temperatures ranging from 300 K to 340 K. The thermodynamic parameters of the sorption process, such as diffusion coefficients and corresponding activation energies, were estimated.

  15. A Novel Absorption Cycle for Combined Water Heating, Dehumidification, and Evaporative Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    CHUGH, Devesh; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R; Abdelaziz, Omar; Moghaddam, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    In this study, development of a novel system for combined water heating, dehumidification, and space evaporative cooling is discussed. Ambient water vapor is used as a working fluid in an open system. First, water vapor is absorbed from an air stream into an absorbent solution. The latent heat of absorption is transferred into the process water that cools the absorber. The solution is then regenerated in the desorber, where it is heated by a heating fluid. The water vapor generated in the desorber is condensed and its heat of phase change is transferred to the process water in the condenser. The condensed water can then be used in an evaporative cooling process to cool the dehumidified air exiting the absorber, or it can be drained if primarily dehumidification is desired. Essentially, this open absorption cycle collects space heat and transfers it to process water. This technology is enabled by a membrane-based absorption/desorption process in which the absorbent is constrained by hydrophobic vapor-permeable membranes. Constraining the absorbent film has enabled fabrication of the absorber and desorber in a plate-and-frame configuration. An air stream can flow against the membrane at high speed without entraining the absorbent, which is a challenge in conventional dehumidifiers. Furthermore, the absorption and desorption rates of an absorbent constrained by a membrane are greatly enhanced. Isfahani and Moghaddam (Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 2013) demonstrated absorption rates of up to 0.008 kg/m2s in a membrane-based absorber and Isfahani et al. (Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 2013) have reported a desorption rate of 0.01 kg/m2s in a membrane-based desorber. The membrane-based architecture also enables economical small-scale systems, novel cycle configurations, and high efficiencies. The absorber, solution heat exchanger, and desorber are fabricated on a single metal sheet. In addition to the open arrangement and membrane-based architecture, another novel feature of the

  16. In vivo and in vitro percutaneous absorption and skin decontamination of arsenic from water and soil.

    PubMed

    Wester, R C; Maibach, H I; Sedik, L; Melendres, J; Wade, M

    1993-04-01

    The objective was to determine the percutaneous absorption of arsenic-73 as H3ASO4 from water and soil. Soil (Yolo County 65-California-57-8) was passed through 10-, 20-, and 48-mesh sieves. Soil retained by 80 mesh was mixed with radioactive arsenic-73 at a low (trace) level of 0.0004 microgram/cm2 (micrograms arsenic per square centimeter skin surface area) and a higher dose of 0.6 micrograms/cm2. Water solutions of arsenic-73 at a low (trace) level of 0.000024 micrograms/cm2 and a higher dose of 2.1 micrograms/cm2 were prepared for comparative analysis. In vivo in Rhesus monkey a total of 80.1 +/- 6.7% (SD) intravenous arsenic-73 dose was recovered in urine over 7 days; the majority of the dose was excreted in the first day. With topical administration for 24 hr, absorption of the low dose from water was 6.4 +/- 3.9% and 2.0 +/- 1.2% from the high dose. In vitro percutaneous absorption of the low dose from water with human skin resulted in 24-hr receptor fluid (phosphate-buffered saline) accumulation of 0.93 +/- 1.1% dose and skin concentration (after washing) of 0.98 +/- 0.96%. Combining receptor fluid accumulation and skin concentration gave a combined amount of 1.9%, a value less than that in vivo (6.4%) in the Rhesus monkey. From soil, receptor fluid accumulation was 0.43 +/- 0.54% and skin concentration was 0.33 +/- 0.25%. Combining receptor fluid plus skin concentrations gave an absorption value of 0.8%, an amount less than that with in vivo absorption (4.5%) in the Rhesus. These absorption values did not match current EPA default assumptions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8504907

  17. Arsenic Speciation of Waters from the Aegean Region, Turkey by Hydride Generation: Atomic Absorption Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Çiftçi, Tülin Deniz; Henden, Emur

    2016-08-01

    Arsenic in drinking water is a serious problem for human health. Since the toxicity of arsenic species As(III) and As(V) is different, it is important to determine the concentrations separately. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an accurate and sensitive method for the speciation of arsenic. It was intended with this work to determine the concentrations of arsenic species in water samples collected from Izmir, Manisa and nearby areas. A batch type hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometer was used. As(V) gave no signal under the optimal measurement conditions of As(III). A certified reference drinking water was analyzed by the method and the results showed excellent agreement with the reported values. The procedure was applied to 34 water samples. Eleven tap water, two spring water, 19 artesian well water and two thermal water samples were analyzed under the optimal conditions.

  18. Arsenic Speciation of Waters from the Aegean Region, Turkey by Hydride Generation: Atomic Absorption Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Çiftçi, Tülin Deniz; Henden, Emur

    2016-08-01

    Arsenic in drinking water is a serious problem for human health. Since the toxicity of arsenic species As(III) and As(V) is different, it is important to determine the concentrations separately. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an accurate and sensitive method for the speciation of arsenic. It was intended with this work to determine the concentrations of arsenic species in water samples collected from Izmir, Manisa and nearby areas. A batch type hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometer was used. As(V) gave no signal under the optimal measurement conditions of As(III). A certified reference drinking water was analyzed by the method and the results showed excellent agreement with the reported values. The procedure was applied to 34 water samples. Eleven tap water, two spring water, 19 artesian well water and two thermal water samples were analyzed under the optimal conditions. PMID:27236436

  19. TPS/PCL composite reinforced with treated sisal fibers: property, biodegradation and water-absorption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sisal fibers bleached with sodium-hydroxide followed by hydrogen peroxide treatment were incorporated in a thermoplastic starch;-polycaprolactone (TPS/PCL) blend via extrusion processing and examined for their property, biodegradability and water-absorption. Scanning electron microscopy revealed wel...

  20. Radiation modification of water absorption of cassava starch by acrylic acid/acrylamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiatkamjornwong, Suda; Chomsaksakul, Wararuk; Sonsuk, Manit

    2000-10-01

    Graft copolymerizations of acrylamide and/or acrylic acid onto cassava starch by a simultaneous irradiation technique using gamma-rays as the initiator were studied with regard to various parameters of importance: the monomer-to-cassava starch ratio, total dose (kGy), dose rate (kGy h -1), acrylamide-to-acrylic acid ratio, and the addition of nitric acid and maleic acid as the additives. Grafting parameters were determined in relation to the water absorption of the saponified graft copolymer. The water absorption of the saponified graft copolymer in salt and buffer solutions of different ionic strengths was also measured, from which the superabsorbent properties are found to be pH sensitive. The starch graft copolymers of acrylamide and acrylic acid give higher water absorption than the starch graft copolymers of either acrylamide or acrylic acid alone. The porosity of the saponified starch graft copolymers prepared by the acrylamide/acrylic acid ratios of 70:30 and 50:50 was much higher than the porosity of copolymers in terms of fine networks. Ionic strength and multi-oxidation states of the saline and buffer solutions markedly decreased the water absorption of the saponified cassava starch grafted superabsorbent polymers.

  1. DETERMINING BERYLLIUM IN DRINKING WATER BY GRAPHITE FURNACE ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A direct graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy method for the analysis of beryllium in drinking water has been derived from a method for determining beryllium in urine. Ammonium phosphomolybdate and ascorbic acid were employed as matrix modifiers. The matrix modifiers s...

  2. Influence of Aloe vera on water absorption and enzymatic in vitro degradation of alginate hydrogel films.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Rúben F; Carvalho, Anabela; Gil, M H; Mendes, Ausenda; Bártolo, Paulo J

    2013-10-15

    This study investigates the influence of Aloe vera on water absorption and the in vitro degradation rate of Aloe vera-Ca-alginate hydrogel films, for wound healing and drug delivery applications. The influence of A. vera content (5%, 15% and 25%, v/v) on water absorption was evaluated by the incubation of the films into a 0.1 M HCl solution (pH 1.0), acetate buffer (pH 5.5) and simulated body fluid solution (pH 7.4) during 24h. Results show that the water absorption is significantly higher for films containing high A. vera contents (15% and 25%), while no significant differences are observed between the alginate neat film and the film with 5% of A. vera. The in vitro enzymatic degradation tests indicate that an increase in the A. vera content significantly enhances the degradation rate of the films. Control films, incubated in a simulated body fluid solution without enzymes, are resistant to the hydrolytic degradation, exhibiting reduced weight loss and maintaining its structural integrity. Results also show that the water absorption and the in vitro degradation rate of the films can be tailored by changing the A. vera content.

  3. Systems for recycling water in poultry processing

    SciTech Connect

    Carawan, R.E.; Sheldon, B.W.

    1988-12-31

    The study was conducted to identify effective and economical water treatments, including disinfection, to meet the U.S. Department of Agriculture`s standards for the recycling of poultry chiller water. Reconditioned chiller water meeting these criteria was used to chill hot broiler carcasses, and the quality of the chilled carcasses was then evaluated.

  4. Water absorption in PEEK and PEI matrices. Contribution to the understanding of water-polar group interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courvoisier, E.; Bicaba, Y.; Colin, X.

    2016-05-01

    The water absorption in two aromatic linear polymers (PEEK and PEI) was studied between 10% and 90% RH at 30, 50 and 70°C. It was found that these polymers display classical Henry and Fick's behaviors. Moreover, they have very close values of equilibrium water concentration C∞ and water diffusivity D presumably because their respective polar groups establish molecular interactions of the same nature with water. This assumption was checked from a literature compilation of values of C∞ and D for a large variety of linear and tridimensional polymers containing a single type of polar group. It was then evidenced that almost all types of carbonyl group (in particular, those belonging to imides, amides and ketones) have the same molar contribution to water absorption, except those belonging to esters which are much less hydrophilic. Furthermore, hydroxyl and sulfone groups are much more hydrophilic than carbonyl groups so that their molar contribution is located on another master curve. On this basis, semi-empirical structure/water transport property relationships were proposed. It was found that C∞ increases exponentially with the concentration of polar groups (presumably because water is doubly bonded), but also with the intensity of their molecular interactions with water. In contrast, D is inversely proportional to C∞, which means that polar group-water interactions slow down the rate of water diffusion.

  5. Water vapor absorption into amorphous hydrophobic drug/poly(vinylpyrrolidone) dispersions.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Kieran J; Zografi, George

    2002-10-01

    Water vapor absorption isotherms were measured for three amorphous hydrophobic drug/poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) dispersions in the concentration range 10-90% w/w PVP. Experimental isotherms were compared to predicted isotherms calculated using each individual component isotherm multiplied by its weight fraction. Indomethacin (IMC)/PVP, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA)/PVP and indapamide (IDP)/PVP amorphous dispersions all exhibited experimental isotherms reduced relative to predicted isotherms indicating that dispersion formation altered the water vapor absorption properties of the individual components. For all three drug/PVP systems, deviation from predicted water uptake was greatest close to the 1:1 drug:PVP monomer composition, indicating that intermolecular interaction in amorphous dispersions affects the water uptake properties of the individual components. Using dry glass transition temperature (T(g)) data, the extent of drug/PVP interaction was shown to be greatest in the IDP/PVP system, which could explain why the largest reduction in water vapor absorption was found in this system. The plasticizing effect of absorbed water varied according to dry dispersion PVP content in all systems and the resulting nonideal changes in free volume, calculated using the Vrentas model, were greatest close to the 1:1 drug:PVP monomer composition. A three-component Flory-Huggins model successfully predicted isotherms for IMC/PVP compositions from 60 to 90% w/w PVP and identified an IMC-PVP interaction parameter chi in the range 1.27-1.49, values that suggest poor homogeneity of mixing in the dry system. These data indicate that amorphous dispersion formation causes both chemical and physical changes in the individual amorphous components that can have a significant effect on their water vapor absorption properties.

  6. Absorption properties of high-latitude Norwegian coastal water: The impact of CDOM and particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nima, Ciren; Frette, Øyvind; Hamre, Børge; Erga, Svein Rune; Chen, Yi-Chun; Zhao, Lu; Sørensen, Kai; Norli, Marit; Stamnes, Knut; Stamnes, Jakob J.

    2016-09-01

    We present data from measurements and analyses of the spectral absorption due to colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), total suspended matter (TSM), phytoplankton, and non-algal particles (NAP) in high-latitude northern Norwegian coastal water based on samples taken in spring, summer, and autumn. The Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration was found to vary significantly with season, whereas regardless of season CDOM was found to be the dominant absorber for wavelengths shorter than 600 nm. The absorption spectral slope S350-500 for CDOM varied between 0.011 and 0.022 nm-1 with mean value and standard deviation given by (0.015 ± 0.002) nm-1. The absorption spectral slope was found to be strongly dependent on the wavelength interval used for fitting. On average, S280-500 was found to be 43% higher than S350-500. A linear relationship was found between the base 10 logarithm of the absorption coefficient at 440 nm [log(ag(440))] and S350-500. Regardless of season, phytoplankton were the dominant component of the TSM absorption indicating little influence from land drainage. The mean values of the Chl-a specific absorption coefficient of phytoplankton aph*(λ) at 440 nm and 676 nm were 0.052 m2 mg-1 and 0.023 m2 mg-1, respectively, and aph*(λ) was found to vary with season, being higher in summer and autumn than in spring. The absorption spectral slope SNAP, which is the spectral slope of absorption spectrum for non-algal particles, was lower than that for European coastal water in general. It varied between 0.0048 and 0.022 nm-1 with mean value and standard deviation given by (0.0083-1 ± 0.003) nm-1. Comparisons of absorption coefficients measured in situ using an ac-9 instrument with those measured in the laboratory from water samples show a good agreement.

  7. Development of a gas engine-driven chiller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panora, R.; Koplow, M.; Gehret, J.; Morgan, J.

    1990-05-01

    A development of a natural gas engine-driven chiller with a nominal capacity of 150 tons and an optional engine and exhaust waste-heat recovery system totaling approximately 700,000 Btu/hr is described. The design is based on a conventional vapor-compression cycle, which uses an oil-flooded twin-screw compressor. Three program phases are presented: (1) initial development of the product and assessment of its market viability; (2) final laboratory development and field experiment of an early prototype; and (3) a nationwide field test of 7 production prototypes. The reliability and serviceability of the chiller have met expectations and have proven to be within the bounds of acceptability for this type of equipment.

  8. High Efficiency Adsorption Chillers: High Efficiency Adsorption Cooling Using Metal Organic Heat Carriers

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    BEETIT Project: PNNL is incorporating significant improvements in materials that adsorb liquids or gases to design more efficient adsorption chillers. An adsorption chiller is a type of air conditioner that is powered by heat, solar or waste heat, or combustion of natural gas. Unlike typical chillers, this type has few moving parts and uses almost no electricity to operate. PNNL is designing adsorbent materials at the molecular level with at least 3 times higher refrigerant capacity and up to 20 times faster kinetics than adsorbents used in current chillers. By using the new adsorbent, PNNL is able to create a chiller that is significantly smaller, has twice the energy efficiency, and lower costs for materials and assembly time compared to conventional adsorption chillers.

  9. Determination of water absorption and water holding capacities of different soil mixtures with MINIDRAIN system to enhance the plant growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudan Acharya, Madhu; Rauchecker, Markus; Wu, Wei

    2014-05-01

    Soil water holding capacity is the amount of water that a given soil can hold against the force of gravity. Soil texture and organic matter are the key components that determine soil water holding capacity. Soils with smaller particle sizes, such as silt and clay have larger surface area can hold more water compared to sand which has large particle sizes which results in smaller surface area. A study report showed that 1% increase in soil humus will result in a 4% increase in stored soil water (Morris, 2004) and 1 part humus holds 4 parts of water (Wheeler and Ward, 1998). Therefore, the more humus that can be added to the soil, the greater the water holding capacity of the soil. As the level of organic matter increases in a soil, the water holding capacity also increases due to the affinity of organic matter for water. The water holding capacity of the soil is determined by the amount of water held in the soil sample vs. the dry weight of the sample. MINIDRAIN is a patented system made of geo-fabric (fleece) or combination of geosynthetics and humus. MINIDRAIN and vegetation nets developed by the company ÖKO-TEX (Linz, Austria) will improve the distribution of water and air in the soils, increase the growth of vegetation and reduce the soil erosion. Depending on the physical configuration, there are four different combinations of MINIDRAIN systems developed by ÖKO-TEX. a) Geotextile (fleece) strips of different sizes (e.g. 5x10x250 mm) b) Net formed strips (drainage nets) of different sizes c) Multilayer geotextile mats with humus, seeds or compost of different sizes (e.g. 10x30x200 mm) d) Multilayer geotextile net formed mats with humus, seeds or compost This paper describes the experimental results of the water absorption and water holding capacity of different forms of MINIDRAIN under different soil mixes. In this experiment, potting soil, coarse sand and LECA (Light weight clay aggregates) balls are mixed with different proportion of MINIDRAIN systems and

  10. Electric chillers: Cost-effective choice for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Blatt, M.H. )

    1993-03-01

    This article is a summary of the impact of CFC/HCFC phaseout resolutions on future chiller and refrigerant use and the environmental and economic effects of electric and gas cooling options. Growing concerns over stratospheric ozone depletion have been making chiller selection more difficult. To ease ozone depletion, existing regulations are phasing out the production of refrigerants that contain chlorine, and recent resolutions will accelerate these phaseout schedules. Uncertainty about the availability of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) refrigerants is causing decision makers to be more cautious when evaluating cooling equipment options. To complicate matters further, the gas industry has--quite understandably--seized the opportunity created by this uncertainty to market gas options vigorously. Some gas utilities are promoting gas chillers by offering rebates of up to $450 per ton of installed cooling capacity. This information is now becoming available in part through research conducted by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). This article's brief summary of EPRI's work helps clarify some key points. It discusses the implications of the November 1992 Copenhagen CFC/HCFC phaseout resolutions and examines equipment and refrigerant alternatives for the near- and longterm future. It also describes the environmental and economic impacts of electric and gas cooling options, examines selection choices in light of these impacts, and looks at some of the parameters that determine the costs of electric and gas options. This information provides a solid base for evaluating specific options and alternatives.

  11. Real-time monitoring of corks' water absorption using laser speckle temporal correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassif, Rana; Abou Nader, Christelle; Pellen, Fabrice; Le Jeune, Bernard; Le Brun, Guy; Abboud, Marie

    2015-08-01

    Physical and mechanical properties of cork allow it solving many types of problems and make it suitable for a wide range of applications. Our objective consists into studying cork's water absorption by analyzing the dynamic speckle field using the temporal correlation method. Experimental results show that the medium was inert at first with the absence of activity, and as the cap cork was more and more immersed into water, the presence of the activity becomes more significant. This temporal parameter revealed the sensibility of biospeckle method to monitor the amount of absorbed water by cork caps.

  12. Determination of traces of silver in waters by anion exchange and atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, T.T.; Fishman, M. J.; Ball, J.W.

    1969-01-01

    A method has been developed for the accurate determination of 0.1-1 ??g of silver per liter of water. The method permits stabilization of silver in water without loss to container walls. Optimum conditions have been established for the complete recovery of silver from water with an anion-exchange column, for quantitative elution of silver from the resin, and for measurement of silver by atomic absorption spectrophotometry after chelation with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and extraction of the chelate with MIBK. Silver in the 1-10 ??g 1 range can be determined by extraction without pre-concentration on an ion-exchange resin. ?? 1969.

  13. Robust superhydrophobic/superoleophilic sponge for effective continuous absorption and expulsion of oil pollutants from water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Feng; Lin, Sheng-Jhih

    2013-09-25

    With the growth of oil production and transportation, there is greater potential for accidental oil spills. Here we fabricated a robust superhydrophobic and superoleophilic carbon nanotube/poly(dimethylsiloxane)-coated polyurethane sponge for the continuous absorption and expulsion of oils and organic solvents from water surfaces. When applied in conjunction with a vacuum system, this sponge could separate great amounts of oils-up to 35000 times its own weight-from water in a one-step process and could also separate surfactant-free water-in-oil emulsions with high efficiency (oil purity: >99.97 wt %), making it a promising candidate material for use in oil-spill cleanups.

  14. Advances in Diode-Laser-Based Water Vapor Differential Absorption Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spuler, Scott; Repasky, Kevin; Morley, Bruce; Moen, Drew; Weckwerth, Tammy; Hayman, Matt; Nehrir, Amin

    2016-06-01

    An advanced diode-laser-based water vapor differential absorption lidar (WV-DIAL) has been developed. The next generation design was built on the success of previous diode-laser-based prototypes and enables accurate measurement of water vapor closer to the ground surface, in rapidly changing atmospheric conditions, and in daytime cloudy conditions up to cloud base. The lidar provides up to 1 min resolution, 150 m range resolved measurements of water vapor in a broad range of atmospheric conditions. A description of the instrument and results from its initial field test in 2014 are discussed.

  15. Water vapor absorption coefficients in the 8-13-micron spectral region - A critical review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, William B.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of water vapor absorption coefficients in the thermal IR atmospheric window (8-13 microns) during the past 20 years obtained by a variety of techniques are reviewed for consistency and compared with computed values based on the AFGL spectral data tapes. The methods of data collection considered were atmospheric long path absorption with a CO2 laser or a broadband source and filters, a White cell and a CO2 laser or a broadband source and a spectrometer, and a spectrophone with a CO2 laser. Advantages and disadvantages of each measurement approach are given as a guide to further research. Continuum absorption has apparently been measured accurately to about the 5-10 percent level in five of the measurements reported.

  16. Turbocharger chiller modeling and test evaluation. Final report, March-November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kountz, K.J.; Wurm, J.

    1996-07-01

    The objectives of this project were: To determine the technoeconomic feasibility of a natural gas-fired turbocharger-based chiller system, arranged in a combined-fluid Rankine/Rankine cycle; To design the turbocharger chiller system for a 50 RT cooling rating point capacity, using available vehicle turbocharges and standard chiller heat exchanger technology; and To evaluate several low, medium, and high pressure refrigerants and refrigerant/lubricant pairs for their thermodynamic and thermal stability characteristics and applicability to the chiller cycle.

  17. Water vapor and greenhouse trapping: The role of far infrared absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, A.; Harries, J.E.

    1995-08-15

    Few observations have been made of atmospheric absorption across the far infra-red. Yet water vapour absorption in this spectral region may significantly effect climate. The impact of far infra-red absorption is assessed by calculating the spectral variation of the total and water vapour greenhouse effects, for the sub-arctic winter (SAW) and tropical (TRP) standard atmospheres. Although the calculated efficiency of greenhouse trapping peaks outside of the far infra-red, the low strength there of the Planck function causes relatively small absolute forcings, except in the carbon dioxide and ozone bands. The sensitivity of the normalised greenhouse effect to water vapour concentration is largest in the far infra-red for the SAW atmosphere, and in the window region for the TRP. The sensitivity differs most between the two atmospheres in the far infra-red, over the middle/upper troposphere; in the SAw case the contribution from the water vapour continuum is virtually eliminated. Improved spectral observations and simulations at far infra-red wavelengths thus appear necessary to better understand the contemporary greenhouse effect, and to validate models of climate change. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Water vapour absorption in the clear atmosphere of a Neptune-sized exoplanet.

    PubMed

    Fraine, Jonathan; Deming, Drake; Benneke, Bjorn; Knutson, Heather; Jordán, Andrés; Espinoza, Néstor; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Wilkins, Ashlee; Todorov, Kamen

    2014-09-25

    Transmission spectroscopy has so far detected atomic and molecular absorption in Jupiter-sized exoplanets, but intense efforts to measure molecular absorption in the atmospheres of smaller (Neptune-sized) planets during transits have revealed only featureless spectra. From this it was concluded that the majority of small, warm planets evolve to sustain atmospheres with high mean molecular weights (little hydrogen), opaque clouds or scattering hazes, reducing our ability to observe the composition of these atmospheres. Here we report observations of the transmission spectrum of the exoplanet HAT-P-11b (which has a radius about four times that of Earth) from the optical wavelength range to the infrared. We detected water vapour absorption at a wavelength of 1.4 micrometres. The amplitude of the water absorption (approximately 250 parts per million) indicates that the planetary atmosphere is predominantly clear down to an altitude corresponding to about 1 millibar, and sufficiently rich in hydrogen to have a large scale height (over which the atmospheric pressure varies by a factor of e). The spectrum is indicative of a planetary atmosphere in which the abundance of heavy elements is no greater than about 700 times the solar value. This is in good agreement with the core-accretion theory of planet formation, in which a gas giant planet acquires its atmosphere by accreting hydrogen-rich gas directly from the protoplanetary nebula onto a large rocky or icy core.

  19. Ammonia and ammonium hydroxide sensors for ammonia/water absorption machines: Literature review and data compilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anheier, N. C., Jr.; McDonald, C. E.; Cuta, J. M.; Cuta, F. M.; Olsen, K. B.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes an evaluation of various sensing techniques for determining the ammonia concentration in the working fluid of ammonia/water absorption cycle systems. The purpose was to determine if any existing sensor technology or instrumentation could provide an accurate, reliable, and cost-effective continuous measure of ammonia concentration in water. The resulting information will be used for design optimization and cycle control in an ammonia-absorption heat pump. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) researchers evaluated each sensing technology against a set of general requirements characterizing the potential operating conditions within the absorption cycle. The criteria included the physical constraints for in situ operation, sensor characteristics, and sensor application. PNL performed an extensive literature search, which uncovered several promising sensing technologies that might be applicable to this problem. Sixty-two references were investigated, and 33 commercial vendors were identified as having ammonia sensors. The technologies for ammonia sensing are acoustic wave, refractive index, electrode, thermal, ion-selective field-effect transistor (ISFET), electrical conductivity, pH/colormetric, and optical absorption. Based on information acquired in the literature search, PNL recommends that follow-on activities focus on ISFET devices and a fiber optic evanescent sensor with a colormetric indicator. The ISFET and fiber optic evanescent sensor are inherently microminiature and capable of in situ measurements. Further, both techniques have been demonstrated selective to the ammonium ion (NH4(+)). The primary issue remaining is how to make the sensors sufficiently corrosion-resistant to be useful in practice.

  20. Ammonia and ammonium hydroxide sensors for ammonia/water absorption machines: Literature review and data compilation

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, N.C. Jr.; McDonald, C.E.; Cuta, J.M.; Cuta, F.M.; Olsen, K.B.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes an evaluation of various sensing techniques for determining the ammonia concentration in the working fluid of ammonia/water absorption cycle systems. The purpose of this work was to determine if any existing sensor technology or instrumentation could provide an accurate, reliable, and cost-effective continuous measure of ammonia concentration in water. The resulting information will be used for design optimization and cycle control in an ammonia-absorption heat pump. PNL researchers evaluated each sensing technology against a set of general requirements characterizing the potential operating conditions within the absorption cycle. The criteria included the physical constraints for in situ operation, sensor characteristics, and sensor application. PNL performed an extensive literature search, which uncovered several promising sensing technologies that might be applicable to this problem. Sixty-two references were investigated, and 33 commercial vendors were identified as having ammonia sensors. The technologies for ammonia sensing are acoustic wave, refractive index, electrode, thermal, ion-selective field-effect transistor (ISFET), electrical conductivity, pH/colormetric, and optical absorption. Based on information acquired in the literature search, PNL recommends that follow-on activities focus on ISFET devices and a fiber optic evanescent sensor with a colormetric indicator. The ISFET and fiber optic evanescent sensor are inherently microminiature and capable of in situ measurements. Further, both techniques have been demonstrated selective to the ammonium ion (NH{sub 4}{sup +}). The primary issue remaining is how to make the sensors sufficiently corrosion-resistant to be useful in practice.

  1. Water vapour absorption in the clear atmosphere of a Neptune-sized exoplanet.

    PubMed

    Fraine, Jonathan; Deming, Drake; Benneke, Bjorn; Knutson, Heather; Jordán, Andrés; Espinoza, Néstor; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Wilkins, Ashlee; Todorov, Kamen

    2014-09-25

    Transmission spectroscopy has so far detected atomic and molecular absorption in Jupiter-sized exoplanets, but intense efforts to measure molecular absorption in the atmospheres of smaller (Neptune-sized) planets during transits have revealed only featureless spectra. From this it was concluded that the majority of small, warm planets evolve to sustain atmospheres with high mean molecular weights (little hydrogen), opaque clouds or scattering hazes, reducing our ability to observe the composition of these atmospheres. Here we report observations of the transmission spectrum of the exoplanet HAT-P-11b (which has a radius about four times that of Earth) from the optical wavelength range to the infrared. We detected water vapour absorption at a wavelength of 1.4 micrometres. The amplitude of the water absorption (approximately 250 parts per million) indicates that the planetary atmosphere is predominantly clear down to an altitude corresponding to about 1 millibar, and sufficiently rich in hydrogen to have a large scale height (over which the atmospheric pressure varies by a factor of e). The spectrum is indicative of a planetary atmosphere in which the abundance of heavy elements is no greater than about 700 times the solar value. This is in good agreement with the core-accretion theory of planet formation, in which a gas giant planet acquires its atmosphere by accreting hydrogen-rich gas directly from the protoplanetary nebula onto a large rocky or icy core. PMID:25254473

  2. Surface relaxation in liquid water and methanol studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Kevin R.; Schaller, R. D.; Co, D. T.; Saykally, R. J.; Rude, Bruce S.; Catalano, T.; Bozek, J. D.

    2002-10-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy is a powerful probe of local electronic structure in disordered media. By employing extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy of liquid microjets, the intermolecular O-O distance has been observed to undergo a 5.9% expansion at the liquid water interface, in contrast to liquid methanol for which there is a 4.6% surface contraction. Despite the similar properties of liquid water and methanol (e.g., abnormal heats of vaporization, boiling points, dipole moments, etc.), this result implies dramatic differences in the surface hydrogen bond structure, which is evidenced by the difference in surface tension of these liquids. This result is consistent with surface vibrational spectroscopy, which indicates both stronger hydrogen bonding and polar ordering at the methanol surface as a consequence of "hydrophobic packing" of the methyl group.

  3. Preliminary measurements with an automated compact differential absorption lidar for the profiling of water vapor.

    PubMed

    Machol, Janet L; Ayers, Tom; Schwenz, Karl T; Koenig, Keith W; Hardesty, R Michael; Senff, Christoph J; Krainak, Michael A; Abshire, James B; Bravo, Hector E; Sandberg, Scott P

    2004-05-20

    The design and preliminary tests of an automated differential absorption lidar (DIAL) that profiles water vapor in the lower troposphere are presented. The instrument, named CODI (for compact DIAL), has been developed to be eye safe, low cost, weatherproof, and portable. The lidar design and its unattended operation are described. Nighttime intercomparisons with in situ sensors and a radiosonde are shown. Desired improvements to the lidar, including a more powerful laser, are also discussed.

  4. Inversion of the volume scattering function and spectral absorption in coastal waters with biogeochemical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Huot, Y.; Gray, D. J.; Weidemann, A.; Rhea, W. J.

    2013-06-01

    In the aquatic environment, particles can be broadly separated into phytoplankton (PHY), non-algal particle (NAP) and dissolved (or very small particle, VSP) fractions. Typically, absorption spectra are inverted to quantify these fractions, but volume scattering functions (VSFs) can also be used. Both absorption spectra and VSFs were used to calculate particle fractions for an experiment in Chesapeake Bay. A complete set of water inherent optical properties was measured using a suite of commercial instruments and a prototype Multispectral Volume Scattering Meter (MVSM); the chlorophyll concentration, [Chl] was determined using the HPLC method. The total scattering coefficient (measured by an ac-s) and the VSF (at a few backward angles, measured by a HydroScat 6 and an ECO-VSF) agreed with the LISST and MVSM data within 5%, thus indicating inter-instrument consistency. The size distribution and scattering parameters for PHY, NAP and VSP were inverted from measured VSFs. For the absorption inversion, the "dissolved" absorption spectra were measured for filtrate passing through a 0.2 μm filter, whereas [Chl] and NAP absorption spectra were inverted from the particulate fraction. Even though the total scattering coefficient showed no correlation with [Chl], estimates of [Chl] from the VSF-inversion agreed well with the HPLC measurements (r = 0.68, mean relative error s = -20%). The scattering associated with NAP and VSP both correlated well with the NAP and "dissolved" absorption coefficients, respectively. While NAP dominated forward, and hence total, scattering, our results also suggest that the scattering by VSP was far from negligible and dominated backscattering.

  5. Determining beryllium in drinking water by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lytle, D.A.; Schock, M.R.; Dues, N.R.; Doerger, J.U.

    1993-01-01

    A direct graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy method for the analysis of beryllium in drinking water has been derived from a method for determining beryllium in urine. Ammonium phosphomolybdate and ascorbic acid were employed as matrix modifiers. The matrix modifiers successfully eliminated common chemical interferences in drinking water samples analyzed for beryllium content, as well as interferences encountered during jar testing of beryllium removal by alum coagulation. The method proved to be a simple, accurate, and precise alternative to the method of standard additions. Method detection limit was 0.09 microgram/l, with a linear calibration range of 0 to 6 microgram/l.

  6. Automated atomic absorption spectrometric determination of total arsenic in water and streambed materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fishman, M.

    1977-01-01

    An automated method to determine both inorganic and organic forms of arsenic In water, water-suspended mixtures, and streambed materials Is described. Organic arsenic-containing compounds are decomposed by either ultraviolet radiation or by suHurlc acid-potassium persulfate digestion. The arsenic liberated, with Inorganic arsenic originally present, is reduced to arsine with sodium borohydrlde. The arable Is stripped from the solution with the aid of nitrogen and Is then decomposed In a tube furnace heated to 800 ??C which Is placed in the optical path of an atomic absorption spectrometer. Thirty samples per hour can be analyzed to levels of 1 ??g arsenic per liter.

  7. Stopping-power and mass energy-absorption coefficient ratios for Solid Water.

    PubMed

    Ho, A K; Paliwal, B R

    1986-01-01

    The AAPM Task Group 21 protocol provides tables of ratios of average restricted stopping powers and ratios of mean energy-absorption coefficients for different materials. These values were based on the work of Cunningham and Schulz. We have calculated these quantities for Solid Water (manufactured by RMI), using the same x-ray spectra and method as that used by Cunningham and Schulz. These values should be useful to people who are using Solid Water for high-energy photon calibration. PMID:3724702

  8. Moisture absorption characteristics of the Orbiter thermal protection system and methods used to prevent water ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schomburg, C.; Dotts, R. L.; Tillian, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter's silica tile Thermal Protection System (TPS) is beset by the moisture absorption problems inherently associated with low density, highly porous insulation systems. Attention is presently given to the comparative success of methods for the minimization and/or prevention of water ingestion by the TPS tiles, covering the development of water-repellent agents and their tile application techniques, flight test program results, and materials improvements. The use of external films for rewaterproofing of the TPS tiles after each mission have demonstrated marginal to unacceptable performance. By contrast, a tile interior waterproofing agent has shown promise.

  9. Human skin binding and absorption of contaminants from ground and surface water during swimming and bathing

    SciTech Connect

    Wester, R.C.; Maibach, H.I. )

    1989-10-01

    Contaminants exist in ground and surface water. Human skin has the capacity to bind and then absorb these contaminants into the body during swimming and bathing. Powdered human stratum corneum will bind both lipid-soluble (alachlor, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), benzene) and water-soluble (nitroaniline) chemicals. In vitro (Human skin) and in vivo (Rhesus monkey) studies show that these chemicals readily distribute into skin, and then some of the chemical is absorbed into the body. Linearity in binding and absorption exists for nitroaniline over a 10-fold concentration range. Multiple exposure to benzene is at least cumulative. Binding and adsorption can be significant for exposures as short as 30 minutes, and will increase with time. Adsorption with water dilution increased for alachlor, but not for dinoseb. Soap reversed the partitioning of alachlor between human stratum corneum and water. The PCBs could be removed from skin by soap and water for up to 3 hours and the decontamination potential decreased, due to continuing skin absorption. The model that in vitro and in vivo systems used should permit easy estimation of this area of extensive human exposure effect on risk assessment. 5 refs., 9 tabs.

  10. Airborne differential absorption lidar system for measurements of atmospheric water vapor and aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Arlen F.; Allen, Robert J.; Mayo, M. Neale; Butler, Carolyn F.; Grossman, Benoist E.; Ismail, Syed; Grant, William B.; Browell, Edward V.; Higdon, Noah S.; Mayor, Shane D.; Ponsardin, Patrick; Hueser, Alene W.

    1994-01-01

    An airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system has been developed at the NASA Langley Research Center for remote measurements of atmospheric water vapor (H2O) and aerosols. A solid-state alexandrite laser with a 1-pm linewidth and greater than 99.85% spectral purity was used as the on-line transmitter. Solid-state avalanche photodiode detector technology has replaced photomultiplier tubes in the receiver system, providing an average increase by a factor of 1.5-2.5 in the signal-to-noise ratio of the H2O measurement. By incorporating advanced diagnostic and data-acquisition instrumentation into other subsystems, we achieved additional improvements in system operational reliability and measurement accuracy. Laboratory spectroscopic measurements of H2O absorption-line parameters were performed to reduce the uncertainties in our knowledge of the absorption cross sections. Line-center H2O absorption cross sections were determined, with errors of 3-6%, for more than 120 lines in the 720-nm region. Flight tests of the system were conducted during 1989-1991 on the NASA Wallops Flight Facility Electra aircraft, and extensive intercomparison measurements were performed with dew-point hygrometers and H2O radiosondes. The H2O distributions measured with the DIAL system differed by less than 10% from the profiles determined with the in situ probes in a variety of atmospheric conditions.

  11. Airborne differential absorption lidar system for measurements of atmospheric water vapor and aerosols.

    PubMed

    Higdon, N S; Browell, E V; Ponsardin, P; Grossmann, B E; Butler, C F; Chyba, T H; Mayo, M N; Allen, R J; Heuser, A W; Grant, W B; Ismail, S; Mayor, S D; Carter, A F

    1994-09-20

    An airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system has been developed at the NASA Langley Research Center for remote measurements of atmospheric water vapor (H(2)O) and aerosols. A solid-state alexandrite laser with a 1-pm linewidth and > 99.85% spectral purity was used as the on-line transmitter. Solid-state avalanche photodiode detector technology has replaced photomultiplier tubes in the receiver system, providing an average increase by a factor of 1.5-2.5 in the signal-to-noise ratio of the H(2)O measurement. By incorporating advanced diagnostic and data-acquisition instrumentation into other subsystems, we achieved additional improvements in system operational reliability and measurement accuracy. Laboratory spectroscopic measurements of H(2)O absorption-line parameters were perfo med to reduce the uncertainties in our knowledge of the absorption cross sections. Line-center H(2)O absorption cross sections were determined, with errors of 3-6%, for more than 120 lines in the 720-nm region. Flight tests of the system were conducted during 1989-1991 on the NASA Wallops Flight Facility Electra aircraft, and extensive intercomparison measurements were performed with dew-point hygrometers and H(2)O radiosondes. The H(2)O distributions measured with the DIAL system differed by ≤ 10% from the profiles determined with the in situ probes in a variety of atmospheric conditions.

  12. Airborne differential absorption lidar system for measurements of atmospheric water vapor and aerosols.

    PubMed

    Higdon, N S; Browell, E V; Ponsardin, P; Grossmann, B E; Butler, C F; Chyba, T H; Mayo, M N; Allen, R J; Heuser, A W; Grant, W B; Ismail, S; Mayor, S D; Carter, A F

    1994-09-20

    An airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system has been developed at the NASA Langley Research Center for remote measurements of atmospheric water vapor (H(2)O) and aerosols. A solid-state alexandrite laser with a 1-pm linewidth and > 99.85% spectral purity was used as the on-line transmitter. Solid-state avalanche photodiode detector technology has replaced photomultiplier tubes in the receiver system, providing an average increase by a factor of 1.5-2.5 in the signal-to-noise ratio of the H(2)O measurement. By incorporating advanced diagnostic and data-acquisition instrumentation into other subsystems, we achieved additional improvements in system operational reliability and measurement accuracy. Laboratory spectroscopic measurements of H(2)O absorption-line parameters were perfo med to reduce the uncertainties in our knowledge of the absorption cross sections. Line-center H(2)O absorption cross sections were determined, with errors of 3-6%, for more than 120 lines in the 720-nm region. Flight tests of the system were conducted during 1989-1991 on the NASA Wallops Flight Facility Electra aircraft, and extensive intercomparison measurements were performed with dew-point hygrometers and H(2)O radiosondes. The H(2)O distributions measured with the DIAL system differed by ≤ 10% from the profiles determined with the in situ probes in a variety of atmospheric conditions. PMID:20941181

  13. Ultraviolet Absorption Spectrum of Malonaldehyde in Water Is Dominated by Solvent-Stabilized Conformations

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xuefei; Zheng, Jingjing; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2015-07-01

    Free energy calculations for eight enol isomers of malonaldehyde (MA) and simulation of the ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectrum in both the gas phase and water (pH = 3, where the molecule exists in neutral undeprotonated form) show that in water the two s-trans nonchelated enol conformers of MA become thermodynamically more stable than the internally hydrogen-bonded (“chelated enol”) conformer (CE). The pure CE conformer in water has a slightly red-shifted UV spectrum with respect to that in the gas phase, but the blue-shifted spectrum observed in water at pH 3 is dominated by solvent-stabilized conformations that have negligible populations in the gas phase. Density functional calculations with the solvation model based on density (SMD) and an ensemble-averaged vertical excitation model explain the experimental observations in detail.

  14. Absorption spectra and photolysis of methyl peroxide in liquid and frozen water.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Scott A; Shemesh, Dorit; Tran, Van T; Nizkorodov, Sergey A; Gerber, R Benny

    2012-06-21

    Methyl peroxide (CH(3)OOH) is commonly found in atmospheric waters and ices in significant concentrations. It is the simplest organic peroxide and an important precursor to hydroxyl radical. Many studies have examined the photochemical behavior of gaseous CH(3)OOH; however, the photochemistry of liquid and frozen water solutions is poorly understood. We present a series of experiments and theoretical calculations designed to elucidate the photochemical behavior of CH(3)OOH dissolved in liquid water and ice over a range of temperatures. The molar extinction coefficients of aqueous CH(3)OOH are different from the gas phase, and they do not change upon freezing. Between -12 and 43 °C, the quantum yield of CH(3)OOH photolysis is described by the following equation: Φ(T) = exp((-2175 ± 448)1/T) + 7.66 ± 1.56). We use on-the-fly ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to model structures and absorption spectra of a bare CH(3)OOH molecule and a CH(3)OOH molecule immersed inside 20 water molecules at 50, 200, and 220 K. The simulations predict large sensitivity in the absorption spectrum of CH(3)OOH to temperature, with the spectrum narrowing and shifting to the blue under cryogenic conditions because of constrained dihedral motion around the O-O bond. The shift in the absorption spectrum is not observed in the experiment when the CH(3)OOH solution is frozen suggesting that CH(3)OOH remains in a liquid layer between the ice grains. Using the extinction coefficients and photolysis quantum yields obtained in this work, we show that under conditions with low temperatures, in the presence of clouds with a high liquid-water content and large solar zenith angles, the loss of CH(3)OOH by aqueous photolysis is responsible for up to 20% of the total loss of CH(3)OOH due to photolysis. Gas phase photolysis of CH(3)OOH dominates under all other conditions.

  15. In-Line Capacitance Sensor for Real-Time Water Absorption Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nurge, Mark A.; Perusich, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    A capacitance/dielectric sensor was designed, constructed, and used to measure in real time the in-situ water concentration in a desiccant water bed. Measurements were carried out with two experimental setups: (1) passing nitrogen through a humidity generator and allowing the gas stream to become saturated at a measured temperature and pressure, and (2) injecting water via a syringe pump into a nitrogen stream. Both water vapor generating devices were attached to a downstream vertically-mounted water capture bed filled with 19.5 g of Moisture Gone desiccant. The sensor consisted of two electrodes: (1) a 1/8" dia stainless steel rod placed in the middle of the bed and (2) the outer shell of the stainless steel bed concentric with the rod. All phases of the water capture process (background, heating, absorption, desorption, and cooling) were monitored with capacitance. The measured capacitance was found to vary linearly with the water content in the bed at frequencies above 100 kHz indicating dipolar motion dominated the signal; below this frequency, ionic motion caused nonlinearities in the water concentration/capacitance relationship. The desiccant exhibited a dielectric relaxation whose activation energy was lowered upon addition of water indicating either a less hindered rotational motion or crystal reorientation.

  16. Measurement of atmospheric NO3 1. Improved removal of water vapour absorption features in the analysis for NO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliwell, S. R.; Jones, R. L.

    Atmospheric measurements of the nitrate radical generally detect its absorption of visible radiation in the band near 662 nm. This band is negatively correlated with strong absorptions due to tropospheric water vapour which must therefore be fitted in the spectral analysis to reduce the spectral residual to the level at which sufficient sensitivity to NO3 can be obtained. Previously this had been fitted using a cross-section typically derived from spectra obtained just before sunset or just after sunrise which took no account of the diurnal variation in temperature and water vapour column amounts. An improved method of accounting for water vapour absorptions is presented here. When fitted together with their temperature dependence, water vapour cross-sections calculated using a line-by-line approach gave a more accurate fitting of water vapour absorptions, thus improving the analysis for NO3.

  17. In vitro percutaneous absorption of cadmium from water and soil into human skin.

    PubMed

    Wester, R C; Maibach, H I; Sedik, L; Melendres, J; DiZio, S; Wade, M

    1992-07-01

    The objective was to determine percutaneous absorption of cadmium as the chloride salt from water and soil into and through human skin. Soil (Yolo County 65-California-57-8) was passed through 10-, 20-, and 48-mesh sieves. Soil retained by 80 mesh was mixed with radioactive cadmium-109 at 13 ppb. Water solutions of cadmium-109 at 116 ppb were prepared for comparative analysis. Human cadaver skin was dermatomed to 500-microns, and used in glass diffusion cells with human plasma as the receptor fluid (3 ml/hr flow rate) for a 16-hr skin application time. Cadmium in water (5 microliters/cm2) penetrated skin to concentrations of 8.8 +/- 0.6 and 12.7 +/- 11.7% of the applied dose from two human skin sources. Percentage doses absorbed into plasma were 0.5 +/- 0.2 and 0.6 +/- 0.6%, respectively. Cadmium from soil (0.04 g soil/cm2) penetrated skin at concentrations of 0.06 +/- 0.02 and 0.13 +/- 0.05% for the two human skin sources. Amounts absorbed into plasma were 0.01 +/- 0.01 and 0.07 +/- 0.03%. Most of the nonabsorbed cadmium was recovered in the soap and water skin surface wash. Binding of cadmium from water to soil was greater than binding from water to powdered human stratum corneum, supporting the lower absorption from soil than from water. Short-term exposure of cadmium in water to human skin for 30 min (bath or swim) resulted in skin uptake, which upon further perfusion (48 hr), absorbed into the plasma receptor fluid (systemic). Cadmium in soil was increased from 6.5 to 65 ppb.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1397789

  18. In vitro percutaneous absorption of cadmium from water and soil into human skin

    SciTech Connect

    Wester, R.C.; Maibach, H.I.; Sedik, L.; Melendres, J.; DiZio, S.; Wade, M. )

    1992-07-01

    The objective was to determine percutaneous absorption of cadmium as the chloride salt from water and soil into and through human skin. Soil (Yolo County 65-California-57-8) was passed through 10-, 20-, and 48-mesh sieves. Soil retained by 80 mesh was mixed with radioactive cadmium-109 at 13 ppb. Water solutions of cadmium-109 at 116 ppb were prepared for comparative analysis. Human cadaver skin was dermatomed to 500-microns, and used in glass diffusion cells with human plasma as the receptor fluid (3 ml/hr flow rate) for a 16-hr skin application time. Cadmium in water (5 microliters/cm2) penetrated skin to concentrations of 8.8 +/- 0.6 and 12.7 +/- 11.7% of the applied dose from two human skin sources. Percentage doses absorbed into plasma were 0.5 +/- 0.2 and 0.6 +/- 0.6%, respectively. Cadmium from soil (0.04 g soil/cm2) penetrated skin at concentrations of 0.06 +/- 0.02 and 0.13 +/- 0.05% for the two human skin sources. Amounts absorbed into plasma were 0.01 +/- 0.01 and 0.07 +/- 0.03%. Most of the nonabsorbed cadmium was recovered in the soap and water skin surface wash. Binding of cadmium from water to soil was greater than binding from water to powdered human stratum corneum, supporting the lower absorption from soil than from water. Short-term exposure of cadmium in water to human skin for 30 min (bath or swim) resulted in skin uptake, which upon further perfusion (48 hr), absorbed into the plasma receptor fluid (systemic). Cadmium in soil was increased from 6.5 to 65 ppb.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. In vitro percutaneous absorption of cadmium from water and soil into human skin.

    PubMed

    Wester, R C; Maibach, H I; Sedik, L; Melendres, J; DiZio, S; Wade, M

    1992-07-01

    The objective was to determine percutaneous absorption of cadmium as the chloride salt from water and soil into and through human skin. Soil (Yolo County 65-California-57-8) was passed through 10-, 20-, and 48-mesh sieves. Soil retained by 80 mesh was mixed with radioactive cadmium-109 at 13 ppb. Water solutions of cadmium-109 at 116 ppb were prepared for comparative analysis. Human cadaver skin was dermatomed to 500-microns, and used in glass diffusion cells with human plasma as the receptor fluid (3 ml/hr flow rate) for a 16-hr skin application time. Cadmium in water (5 microliters/cm2) penetrated skin to concentrations of 8.8 +/- 0.6 and 12.7 +/- 11.7% of the applied dose from two human skin sources. Percentage doses absorbed into plasma were 0.5 +/- 0.2 and 0.6 +/- 0.6%, respectively. Cadmium from soil (0.04 g soil/cm2) penetrated skin at concentrations of 0.06 +/- 0.02 and 0.13 +/- 0.05% for the two human skin sources. Amounts absorbed into plasma were 0.01 +/- 0.01 and 0.07 +/- 0.03%. Most of the nonabsorbed cadmium was recovered in the soap and water skin surface wash. Binding of cadmium from water to soil was greater than binding from water to powdered human stratum corneum, supporting the lower absorption from soil than from water. Short-term exposure of cadmium in water to human skin for 30 min (bath or swim) resulted in skin uptake, which upon further perfusion (48 hr), absorbed into the plasma receptor fluid (systemic). Cadmium in soil was increased from 6.5 to 65 ppb.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. 77 FR 7547 - Energy Conservation Standards for Wine Chillers and Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... service, and (3) chest freezers and all other freezers. 55 FR 42845. DOE updated the performance standards... final rule, DOE discussed the issue of wine chiller coverage. See, e.g. 76 FR at 57534. The test... fresh food and those that were not. See 75 FR 78810, 78817 (Dec. 16, 2010). Wine chillers are...

  1. Changes on image texture features of breakfast flakes cereals during water absorption.

    PubMed

    Medina, Wenceslao T; Quevedo, Roberto A; Aguilera, José M

    2013-02-01

    Normally breakfast cereal flakes are consumed by pouring them into a bowl and covering them with fresh or cold milk. During this process the liquid uptake causes changes in the surface and internal matrix of breakfast cereals that influence texture and integrity. Some breakfast cereal as flakes have a translucent structure that could provide information about the solid matrix and air cells and how they change during liquid absorption. The objective of the study was to assess the image texture changes of corn flakes and frosted flakes during water absorption at 5, 15 and 25 °C, employing 11 image feature textures extracted from grey-level co-occurrence matrix and grey-level run length matrix (at three directions) and to relate the fractal dimension (FD) of images with rupture force (RF) reduction during soaking of both flakes at 5 °C. The most relevant result from principal component analysis calculated with a matrix of 54 (soaking times) × 22 (texture features), shows that it was possible to distinguish an isolated group consisting of different soaking times at the same water temperature in each breakfast cereal flakes evaluated, corroborating that superficial liquid imbibition is important during the liquid absorption process when flakes are soaked. Furthermore, standardized FD could be related to RF in the period when samples tend to search for an equilibrium state.

  2. Surface arsenic speciation of a drinking-water treatment residual using X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Makris, Konstantinos C; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Parsons, Jason G; Datta, Rupali; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2007-07-15

    Drinking-water treatment residuals (WTRs) present a low-cost geosorbent for As-contaminated waters and soils. Previous work has demonstrated the high affinity of WTRs for As, but data pertaining to the stability of sorbed As is missing. Sorption/desorption and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), both XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) and EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure) studies, were combined to determine the stability of As sorbed by an Fe-based WTR. Arsenic(V) and As(III) sorption kinetics were biphasic in nature, sorbing >90% of the initial added As (15,000 mg kg(-1)) after 48 h of reaction. Subsequent desorption experiments with a high P load (7500 mg kg(-1)) showed negligible As desorption for both As species, approximately <3.5% of sorbed As; the small amount of desorbed As was attributed to the abundance of sorption sites. XANES data showed that sorption kinetics for either As(III) or As(V) initially added to solution had no effect on the sorbed As oxidation state. EXAFS spectroscopy suggested that As added either as As(III) or as As(V) formed inner-sphere mononuclear, bidentate complexes, suggesting the stability of the sorbed As, which was further corroborated by the minimum As desorption from the Fe-WTR.

  3. Temperature sensitivity of differential absorption lidar measurements of water vapor in the 720-nm region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, Edward V.; Ismail, Syed; Grossmann, Benoist E.

    1991-01-01

    Recently measured properties of water vapor (H2O) absorption lines have been used in calculations to evalute the temperature sensitivity of differential absorption lidar (Dial) H2O measurements. This paper estimates the temperature sensitivity of H2O lines in the 717-733-nm region for both H2O mixing ratio and number density measurements, and discusses the influence of the H2O line ground state energies E-double-prime, the H2O absorption linewidths, the linewidth temperature dependence parameter, and the atmospheric temperature and pressure variations with altitude and location on the temperature sensitivity calculations. Line parameters and temperature sensitivity calculations for 67 H2O lines in the 720-nm band are given which can be directly used in field experiments. Water vapor lines with E-double-prime values in the 100-300/cm range were found to be optimum for Dial measurements of H2O number densities, while E-double-prime values in the 250-500/cm range were found to be optimum for H2O mixing ratio measurements.

  4. Lipid nanoparticles with no surfactant improve oral absorption rate of poorly water-soluble drug.

    PubMed

    Funakoshi, Yuka; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2013-07-15

    A pharmacokinetic study was performed in rats to evaluate the oral absorption ratios of nanoparticle suspensions containing the poorly water-soluble compound nifedipine (NI) and two different types of lipids, including hydrogenated soybean phosphatidylcholine and dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol. NI-lipid nanoparticle (LN) suspensions with a mean particle size of 48.0 nm and a zeta potential of -57.2 mV were prepared by co-grinding combined with a high-pressure homogenization process. The oral administration of NI-LN suspensions to rats led to a significant increase in the NI plasma concentration, and the area under the curve (AUC) value was found to be 108 min μg mL⁻¹, indicating a 4-fold increase relative to the NI suspensions. A comparison of the pharmacokinetic parameters of the NI-LN suspensions with those of the NI solution prepared using only the surfactant polysorbate 80 revealed that although the AUC and bioavailability (59%) values were almost identical, a rapid absorption rate was still observed in the NI-LN suspensions. These results therefore indicated that lipid nanoparticles prepared using only two types of phospholipid with a mean particle size of less than 50 nm could improve the absorption of the poorly water-soluble drug.

  5. Changes on image texture features of breakfast flakes cereals during water absorption.

    PubMed

    Medina, Wenceslao T; Quevedo, Roberto A; Aguilera, José M

    2013-02-01

    Normally breakfast cereal flakes are consumed by pouring them into a bowl and covering them with fresh or cold milk. During this process the liquid uptake causes changes in the surface and internal matrix of breakfast cereals that influence texture and integrity. Some breakfast cereal as flakes have a translucent structure that could provide information about the solid matrix and air cells and how they change during liquid absorption. The objective of the study was to assess the image texture changes of corn flakes and frosted flakes during water absorption at 5, 15 and 25 °C, employing 11 image feature textures extracted from grey-level co-occurrence matrix and grey-level run length matrix (at three directions) and to relate the fractal dimension (FD) of images with rupture force (RF) reduction during soaking of both flakes at 5 °C. The most relevant result from principal component analysis calculated with a matrix of 54 (soaking times) × 22 (texture features), shows that it was possible to distinguish an isolated group consisting of different soaking times at the same water temperature in each breakfast cereal flakes evaluated, corroborating that superficial liquid imbibition is important during the liquid absorption process when flakes are soaked. Furthermore, standardized FD could be related to RF in the period when samples tend to search for an equilibrium state. PMID:23345324

  6. Surface Arsenic Speciation of a Drinking-Water Treatment Residual Using X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Makris, K.C.; Sarkar, D.; Parsons, J.G.; Datta, R.; Gardea-Torresdey, J.L.

    2009-06-03

    Drinking-water treatment residuals (WTRs) present a low-cost geosorbent for As-contaminated waters and soils. Previous work has demonstrated the high affinity of WTRs for As, but data pertaining to the stability of sorbed As is missing. Sorption/desorption and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), both XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) and EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure) studies, were combined to determine the stability of As sorbed by an Fe-based WTR. Arsenic(V) and As(III) sorption kinetics were biphasic in nature, sorbing <90% of the initial added As (15,000 mg kg{sup -1}) after 48 h of reaction. Subsequent desorption experiments with a high P load (7500 mg kg{sup -1}) showed negligible As desorption for both As species, approximately <3.5% of sorbed As; the small amount of desorbed As was attributed to the abundance of sorption sites. XANES data showed that sorption kinetics for either As(III) or As(V) initially added to solution had no effect on the sorbed As oxidation state. EXAFS spectroscopy suggested that As added either as As(III) or as As(V) formed inner-sphere mononuclear, bidentate complexes, suggesting the stability of the sorbed As, which was further corroborated by the minimum As desorption from the Fe-WTR.

  7. Atmospheric Pre-Corrected Differential Absorption Techniques to Retrieve Columnar Water Vapor: Theory and Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borel, Christoph C.; Schlaepfer, Daniel

    1996-01-01

    Two different approaches exist to retrieve columnar water vapor from imaging spectrometer data: (1) Differential absorption techniques based on: (a) Narrow-Wide (N/W) ratio between overlapping spectrally wide and narrow channels; (b) Continuum Interpolated Band Ratio (CIBR) between a measurement channel and the weighted sum of two reference channels. (2) Non-linear fitting techniques which are based on spectral radiative transfer calculations. The advantage of the first approach is computational speed and of the second, improved retrieval accuracy. Our goal was to improve the accuracy of the first technique using physics based on radiative transfer. Using a modified version of the Duntley equation, we derived an "Atmospheric Pre-corrected Differential Absorption" (APDA) technique and described an iterative scheme to retrieve water vapor on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Next we compared both, the CIBR and the APDA using the Duntley equation for MODTRAN3 computed irradiances, transmissions and path radiance (using the DISORT option). This simulation showed that the CIBR is very sensitive to reflectance effects and that the APDA performs much better. An extensive data set was created with the radiative transfer code 6S over 379 different ground reflectance spectra. The calculated relative water vapor error was reduced significantly for the APDA. The APDA technique had about 8% (vs. over 35% for the CIBR) of the 379 spectra with a relative water vapor error of greater than +5%. The APDA has been applied to 1991 and 1995 AVIRIS scenes which visually demonstrate the improvement over the CIBR technique.

  8. Diode laser-based standoff absorption measurement of water film thickness in retro-reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, R.; Brocksieper, C.; Jeffries, J. B.; Dreier, T.; Schulz, C.

    2016-09-01

    A dual-wavelength diode laser-based absorption sensor for standoff point measurements of water film thickness on an opaque surface is presented. The sensor consists of a diode laser source, a foil as backscattering target, and off-axis paraboloids for collecting the fraction of the laser radiation transmitted through the liquid layer via retro-reflection. Laser wavelengths in the near infrared at 1412 and 1353 nm are used where the temperature dependence of the liquid water absorption cross section is known. The lasers are fiber coupled and the detection of the retro-reflected light was accomplished through a multimode fiber and a single photodiode using time-division multiplexing. The water film thickness at a given temperature was determined from measured transmittance ratios at the two laser wavelengths. The sensor concept was first validated with measurement using a temperature-controlled calibration cell providing liquid layers of variable and known thickness between 100 and 1000 µm. Subsequently, the sensor was demonstrated successfully during recording the time-varying thickness of evaporating water films at fixed temperatures. The film thickness was recorded as a function of time at three temperatures down to 50 µm.

  9. THz Absorption Spectra of Fe Water Complexes Interacting with O3 Calculated by Density Functional Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, L.; Lambrakos, S. G.; Shabaev, A.; Massa, L.; Yapijakis, C.

    2013-05-01

    The need for better monitoring of water quality and levels of water contamination implies a need for determining the dielectric response properties of water contaminants with respect to electromagnetic wave excitation. In addition to monitoring contaminants, there is an associated need for monitoring chemical processes that are for deactivation or assistance in the removal of water contaminants. Iron and manganese are two naturally occurring water contaminants, where iron is in general at much higher concentrations. Correspondingly, a process that is highly effective for assisting filtration of water contaminants, including iron and manganese, is the addition in solution of Ozone, i.e., the preozonation process. The present study uses density functional theory (DFT) for the calculation of ground-state resonance structure associated with Fe water complexes interacting with Ozone in solution. The calculations presented are for excitation by electromagnetic waves at frequencies within the THz range. Dielectric response functions can provide for different types of analyses concerning water contaminants. In particular, dielectric response functions can provide quantitative initial estimates of spectral response features for subsequent adjustment with respect to additional information such as laboratory measurements and other types of theory-based calculations. In addition, with respect to qualitative analysis, DFT-calculated absorption spectra provide for molecular level interpretation of response structure. The DFT software GAUSSIAN was used for the calculations of ground-state resonance structure presented in this article.

  10. Organic-inorganic hybrid gels for the selective absorption of oils from water.

    PubMed

    Ozan Aydin, Gulsah; Bulbul Sonmez, Hayal

    2016-06-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid gels were synthesized by the condensation of a linear aliphatic diol (1,8-octanediol) and altering the chain length of the alkyltriethoxysilanes (from ethyltriethoxysilane to hexadecyltrimethoxysilane) through a bulk polymerization process without using any initiator, activator, catalyst, or solvent for the selective removal of oils from water. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and solid-state (13)C and (29)Si cross-polarization magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (CPMAS NMR) were used for the structural analysis of hybrid gels. Thermal properties of the hybrid gels were determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Oil absorbency of organic-inorganic hybrid gels was determined by oil absorption tests. The results showed that hybrid gels have high and fast absorption capacities and excellent reusability. Good selectivity, high thermal stability, low density, and excellent recyclability for the oil removal give the material potential applications. PMID:26939691

  11. Method 200.12 - Determination of Trace Elements in Marine Waters by StabilizedTemperature Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption

    EPA Science Inventory

    This method provides procedures for the determination of total recoverable elements by graphite furnace atomic absorption (GFAA) in marine waters, including estuarine, ocean and brines with salinities of up to 35 ppt.

  12. Kenaf/recycled Jute Natural Fibers Unsaturated Polyester Composites: Water Absorption/dimensional Stability and Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osman, Ekhlas A.; Vakhguelt, Anatoli; Sbarski, Igor; Mutasher, Saad A.

    2012-03-01

    Effects of water absorption on the flexural properties of kenaf-unsaturated polyester composites and kenaf/recycled jute-unsaturated polyester composites were investigated. In the hybrid composites, the total fiber content was fixed to 20 wt%. In this 20 wt%, the addition of jute fiber varied from 0 to 75%, with increment of 25%. The result demonstrates the water absorption and the thickness swelling increased with increase in immersion time. Effects of water absorption on flexural properties of kenaf fiber composites can be reduced significantly with incorporation of recycled jute in composites formulation. The process of absorption of water was found to approach Fickian diffusion behavior for both kenaf composites and hybrid composites.

  13. Determination of soluble aluminium concentration in alkaline humic water using atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, K L; Lewis, D M; Jolly, M; Robinson, J

    2004-11-01

    The steps of the standard method to determine soluble aluminium concentration are filtering, followed by acidifying, then analysing with the atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). When applied to alkaline humic water, acidification gives rise to the formation of humic acid as a brown particulate matter. Of the total soluble aluminium in the original water, 49-61% forms complexes with the particulate humic acid upon acidification. Although the AAS is capable of detecting the binding aluminium, the particulate nature of humic acid easily induces inaccurate readings as a result of the non-uniform distribution of the particulate matter. A more precise analysis of soluble aluminium concentration of alkaline humic water is shown to be achievable in basicified solutions instead. Basicified solutions keep humic acid in the soluble form; hence maintain the homogeneity of the sample.

  14. Absorption of Sunlight by Water Vapor in Cloudy Conditions: A Partial Explaination for the Cloud Absorption Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, D.

    1996-01-01

    The atmospheric radiative transfer algorithms used in most global general circulation models underestimate the globally-averaged solar energy absorbed by cloudy atmospheres by up to 25 Wm(sup -2)...Here, a sophisticated atmospheric radiative transfer model was used to provide a more comprehensive description of the physical processes that contribute to the absorption of solar radiation by the Earth's atmosphere.

  15. RF Path and Absorption Loss Estimation for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks in Different Water Environments.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Umair Mujtaba; Shaikh, Faisal Karim; Aziz, Zuneera; Shah, Syed M Zafi S; Sheikh, Adil A; Felemban, Emad; Qaisar, Saad Bin

    2016-06-16

    Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN) communication at high frequencies is extremely challenging. The intricacies presented by the underwater environment are far more compared to the terrestrial environment. The prime reason for such intricacies are the physical characteristics of the underwater environment that have a big impact on electromagnetic (EM) signals. Acoustics signals are by far the most preferred choice for underwater wireless communication. Because high frequency signals have the luxury of large bandwidth (BW) at shorter distances, high frequency EM signals cannot penetrate and propagate deep in underwater environments. The EM properties of water tend to resist their propagation and cause severe attenuation. Accordingly, there are two questions that need to be addressed for underwater environment, first what happens when high frequency EM signals operating at 2.4 GHz are used for communication, and second which factors affect the most to high frequency EM signals. To answer these questions, we present real-time experiments conducted at 2.4 GHz in terrestrial and underwater (fresh water) environments. The obtained results helped in studying the physical characteristics (i.e., EM properties, propagation and absorption loss) of underwater environments. It is observed that high frequency EM signals can propagate in fresh water at a shallow depth only and can be considered for a specific class of applications such as water sports. Furthermore, path loss, velocity of propagation, absorption loss and the rate of signal loss in different underwater environments are also calculated and presented in order to understand why EM signals cannot propagate in sea water and oceanic water environments. An optimal solk6ution for underwater communication in terms of coverage distance, bandwidth and nature of communication is presented, along with possible underwater applications of UWSNs at 2.4 GHz.

  16. RF Path and Absorption Loss Estimation for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks in Different Water Environments

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Umair Mujtaba; Shaikh, Faisal Karim; Aziz, Zuneera; Shah, Syed M. Zafi S.; Sheikh, Adil A.; Felemban, Emad; Qaisar, Saad Bin

    2016-01-01

    Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN) communication at high frequencies is extremely challenging. The intricacies presented by the underwater environment are far more compared to the terrestrial environment. The prime reason for such intricacies are the physical characteristics of the underwater environment that have a big impact on electromagnetic (EM) signals. Acoustics signals are by far the most preferred choice for underwater wireless communication. Because high frequency signals have the luxury of large bandwidth (BW) at shorter distances, high frequency EM signals cannot penetrate and propagate deep in underwater environments. The EM properties of water tend to resist their propagation and cause severe attenuation. Accordingly, there are two questions that need to be addressed for underwater environment, first what happens when high frequency EM signals operating at 2.4 GHz are used for communication, and second which factors affect the most to high frequency EM signals. To answer these questions, we present real-time experiments conducted at 2.4 GHz in terrestrial and underwater (fresh water) environments. The obtained results helped in studying the physical characteristics (i.e., EM properties, propagation and absorption loss) of underwater environments. It is observed that high frequency EM signals can propagate in fresh water at a shallow depth only and can be considered for a specific class of applications such as water sports. Furthermore, path loss, velocity of propagation, absorption loss and the rate of signal loss in different underwater environments are also calculated and presented in order to understand why EM signals cannot propagate in sea water and oceanic water environments. An optimal solk6ution for underwater communication in terms of coverage distance, bandwidth and nature of communication is presented, along with possible underwater applications of UWSNs at 2.4 GHz. PMID:27322263

  17. Assessment of absorption potential of poorly water-soluble drugs by using the dissolution/permeation system.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Makoto; Yano, Koji; Hamatsu, Yoriko; Masaoka, Yoshie; Sakuma, Shinji; Yamashita, Shinji

    2013-11-01

    This study aims to assess the absorption potential of oral absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs by using the dissolution/permeation system (D/P system). The D/P system can be used to perform analysis of drug permeation under dissolution process and can predict the fraction of absorbed dose in humans. When celecoxib at 1/100 of a clinical dose was applied to the D/P system, percentage of dose dissolved and permeated significantly decreased with an increase in the applied amount, resulting in the oral absorption being predicted to be 22-55%. Whereas similar dissolution and permeation profiles of montelukast sodium were observed, estimated absorption (69-85%) was slightly affected. Zafirlukast absorption (33-36%) was not significantly affected by the dose, although zafirlukast did not show complete dissolution. The relationship between clinical dose and predicted oral absorption of drugs corresponded well to clinical observations. The limiting step of the oral absorption of celecoxib and montelukast sodium was solubility, while that of zafirlukast was dissolution rate. However, due to high permeability of montelukast, oral absorption was not affected by dose. Therefore, the D/P system is a useful tool to assess the absorption potential of poorly water-soluble drugs for oral use.

  18. Assessment of absorption potential of poorly water-soluble drugs by using the dissolution/permeation system.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Makoto; Yano, Koji; Hamatsu, Yoriko; Masaoka, Yoshie; Sakuma, Shinji; Yamashita, Shinji

    2013-11-01

    This study aims to assess the absorption potential of oral absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs by using the dissolution/permeation system (D/P system). The D/P system can be used to perform analysis of drug permeation under dissolution process and can predict the fraction of absorbed dose in humans. When celecoxib at 1/100 of a clinical dose was applied to the D/P system, percentage of dose dissolved and permeated significantly decreased with an increase in the applied amount, resulting in the oral absorption being predicted to be 22-55%. Whereas similar dissolution and permeation profiles of montelukast sodium were observed, estimated absorption (69-85%) was slightly affected. Zafirlukast absorption (33-36%) was not significantly affected by the dose, although zafirlukast did not show complete dissolution. The relationship between clinical dose and predicted oral absorption of drugs corresponded well to clinical observations. The limiting step of the oral absorption of celecoxib and montelukast sodium was solubility, while that of zafirlukast was dissolution rate. However, due to high permeability of montelukast, oral absorption was not affected by dose. Therefore, the D/P system is a useful tool to assess the absorption potential of poorly water-soluble drugs for oral use. PMID:23811221

  19. High-resolution atmospheric water vapor measurements with a scanning differential absorption lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Späth, F.; Behrendt, A.; Muppa, S. K.; Metzendorf, S.; Riede, A.; Wulfmeyer, V.

    2014-11-01

    The scanning differential absorption lidar (DIAL) of the University of Hohenheim (UHOH) is presented. The UHOH DIAL is equipped with an injection-seeded frequency-stabilized high-power Ti:sapphire laser operated at 818 nm with a repetition rate of 250 Hz. A scanning transceiver unit with a 80 cm primary mirror receives the atmospheric backscatter signals. The system is capable of water vapor measurements with temporal resolutions of a few seconds and a range resolution between 30 and 300 m at daytime. It allows to investigate surface-vegetation-atmosphere exchange processes with high resolution. In this paper, we present the design of the instrument and illustrate its performance with recent water vapor measurements taken in Stuttgart-Hohenheim and in the frame of the HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE). HOPE was located near research center Jülich, in western Germany, in spring 2013 as part of the project "High Definition of Clouds and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction" (HD(CP)2). Scanning measurements reveal the 3-dimensional structures of the water vapor field. The influence of uncertainties within the calculation of the absorption cross-section at wavelengths around 818 nm for the WV retrieval is discussed. Radiosonde intercomparisons show a very small bias between the instruments of only (-0.04 ± 0.11) g m-3 or (-1.0 ± 2.3) % in the height range of 0.5 to 3 km.

  20. Microclimate in ski boots--temperature, relative humidity, and water absorption.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Patrick; Hasler, Michael; Fauland, Gulnara; Bechtold, Thomas; Nachbauer, Werner

    2014-05-01

    Ski boot quality is determined by mechanical properties and comfort. Comfort is strongly affected by cold feet. The purpose of this study was to determine the microclimate in ski boots. Climate chamber tests with five male subjects and field tests with two male subjects were conducted. Temperature and relative humidity were measured using four sensors placed on the foot and one on the liner. Absorbed water in liners and socks was measured with a precision balance. The subjects gave subjective ratings for comfort. The toe sensor temperature dropped below 20 °C at an ambient temperature of 0 °C, -10 °C, and -20 °C. Relative humidity values at the foot were as high as 78% in the climate chamber and 93% in the field. Water absorption in socks and liners ranged from 4 to 10 g in the climate chamber and 19 to 45.5 g in the field. The results reveal the importance of keeping the feet and in particular the toes warm during skiing. One possible improvement may be to construct the liner so that sweat and melted snow are kept as far away as possible from the foot. Liner material with high water absorption capacity and hydrophobic socks were suggested to prevent wet feet.

  1. Solar absorption cooling: An innovative use of solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, R.

    1995-12-31

    Solar thermal energy systems that generate hot water for applications in industry, commerce, and government have been available commercially in the US since the 1970s. Absorption chillers to provide space cooling for nonresidential facilities have been available for commercial use since the 1960s. This paper discusses the merging of the two technologies into one: solar absorption cooling. The author will describe the operating principles of small (up to about 200 tons) single- and double-effect solar-driven absorption cooling systems and specify the potential benefits of the technology. Then, the costs and technical and economic performances of two projects are discussed. One is a successfully operating system in a commercial building in Sacramento, CA; the other is a successfully operating system at the US Army`s Yuma Proving Ground in Arizona. While solar absorption cooling technology is available for commercial use, cost, performance, and economic barriers still block market acceptance and widespread use. These barriers are discussed as they relate to the two specific projects.

  2. Simulation model of a single-stage lithium bromide-water absorption cooling unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miao, D.

    1978-01-01

    A computer model of a LiBr-H2O single-stage absorption machine was developed. The model, utilizing a given set of design data such as water-flow rates and inlet or outlet temperatures of these flow rates but without knowing the interior characteristics of the machine (heat transfer rates and surface areas), can be used to predict or simulate off-design performance. Results from 130 off-design cases for a given commercial machine agree with the published data within 2 percent.

  3. Femtosecond supercontinuum generation in water in the vicinity of absorption bands.

    PubMed

    Dharmadhikari, J A; Steinmeyer, G; Gopakumar, G; Mathur, D; Dharmadhikari, A K

    2016-08-01

    We show that it is possible to overcome the perceived limitations caused by absorption bands in water so as to generate supercontinuum (SC) spectra in the anomalous dispersion regime that extend well beyond 2000 nm wavelength. By choosing a pump wavelength within a few hundred nanometers above the zero-dispersion wavelength of 1048 nm, initial spectral broadening extends into the normal dispersion regime and, in turn, the SC process in the visible strongly benefits from phase-matching and matching group velocities between dispersive radiation and light in the anomalous dispersion regime. Some of the SC spectra are shown to encompass two and a half octaves. PMID:27472597

  4. Aerosol absorption measurement at SWIR with water vapor interference using a differential photoacoustic spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenyue; Liu, Qiang; Wu, Yi

    2015-09-01

    Atmospheric aerosol plays an important role in atmospheric radiation balance through absorbing and scattering the solar radiation, which changes local weather and global climate. Accurate measurement is highly requested to estimate the radiative effects and climate effects of atmospheric aerosol. Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) technique, which observes the aerosols on their natural suspended state and is insensitive to light scattering, is commonly recognized as one of the best candidates to measure the optical absorption coefficient (OAC) of aerosols. In the present work, a method of measuring aerosol OAC at the wavelength where could also be absorbed by water vapor was proposed and corresponding measurements of the absorption properties of the atmospheric aerosol at the short wave infrared (SWIR, 1342 nm) wavelength were carried out. The spectrometer was made up of two high performance homemade photoacoustic cells. To improve the sensitivity, several methods were presented to control the noise derived from gas flow and vibration from the sampling pump. Calibration of the OAC and properties of the system were also studied in detail. Using the established PAS instrument, measurement of the optical absorption properties of the atmospheric aerosol were carried out in laboratory and field environment.

  5. The degradation, absorption, and solubility of volatile anesthetics in soda lime depend on water content.

    PubMed

    Strum, D P; Eger, E I

    1994-02-01

    Absorption of anesthetic into soda lime may delay induction of anesthesia and degradation by soda lime may produce toxic products. We determined whether the moisture content of soda lime influences the mechanisms underlying absorption (saturable uptake), degradation, and solubility (nonsaturable uptake). We placed liquid anesthetic (sevoflurane, isoflurane, halothane, enflurane, or desflurane) in 581-mL equilibration flasks containing soda lime of various water contents (0%-15.1% H2O) and sampled the vapor concentrations repeatedly for 24-35 h. Loss of vapor from the gas phase was partitioned into absorption, degradation, and solubility factors by regression analyses. We also found that soda lime in absorbers may dry from H2O contents of 15% to 4%-8.5% in routine clinical use. Our observations suggest that during induction of anesthesia a portion of the delivered anesthetic may be lost to the soda lime, rather than delivered to the patient. In addition, the potential for production of toxic products may be increased when volatile anesthetics are used with dry soda lime.

  6. Aerosol absorption measurement at SWIR with water vapor interference using a differential photoacoustic spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenyue; Liu, Qiang; Wu, Yi

    2015-09-01

    Atmospheric aerosol plays an important role in atmospheric radiation balance through absorbing and scattering the solar radiation, which changes local weather and global climate. Accurate measurement is highly requested to estimate the radiative effects and climate effects of atmospheric aerosol. Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) technique, which observes the aerosols on their natural suspended state and is insensitive to light scattering, is commonly recognized as one of the best candidates to measure the optical absorption coefficient (OAC) of aerosols. In the present work, a method of measuring aerosol OAC at the wavelength where could also be absorbed by water vapor was proposed and corresponding measurements of the absorption properties of the atmospheric aerosol at the short wave infrared (SWIR, 1342 nm) wavelength were carried out. The spectrometer was made up of two high performance homemade photoacoustic cells. To improve the sensitivity, several methods were presented to control the noise derived from gas flow and vibration from the sampling pump. Calibration of the OAC and properties of the system were also studied in detail. Using the established PAS instrument, measurement of the optical absorption properties of the atmospheric aerosol were carried out in laboratory and field environment. PMID:26368414

  7. Near-Infrared Studies of Glucose and Sucrose in Aqueous Solutions: Water Displacement Effect and Red Shift in Water Absorption from Water-Solute Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Youngeui; Hwang, Jungseek

    2013-02-01

    We use near infrared spectroscopy to obtain concentration dependent glucose absorption spectra in their aqueous solutions in the near-infrared range (3800 - 7500 cm^{-1}). We introduce a new method to obtain reliable glucose absorption bands from aqueous glucose solutions without measuring the water displacement coefficients of glucose separately. Additionally, we are able to extract the water displacement coefficients of glucose, and this may give a new general method using spectroscopy techniques applicable to other water soluble materials. We also observe red shifts in the absorption bands of water in the hydration shell around solute molecules, which comes from contribution of the interacting water molecules around the glucose molecules in solutions. The intensity of the red shift get larger as the concentration increases, which indicates that as the concentration increases more water molecules are involved in the interaction. However, the red shift in frequency does not seem to depend significantly on the concentration up to our highest concentration. We also performed the same measurements and analysis with sucrose instead of glucose as solute and compare.

  8. Near-infrared studies of glucose and sucrose in aqueous solutions: water displacement effect and red shift in water absorption from water-solute interaction.

    PubMed

    Jung, Youngeui; Hwang, Jungseek

    2013-02-01

    We used near infrared spectroscopy to obtain concentration dependent glucose absorption spectra in aqueous solutions in the near-infrared range (3800-7500 cm(-1)). Here we introduce a new method to obtain reliable glucose absorption bands from aqueous glucose solutions without measuring the water displacement coefficients of glucose separately. Additionally, we were able to extract the water displacement coefficients of glucose, and this may offer a new general method using spectroscopy techniques applicable to other water-soluble materials. We also observed red shifts in the absorption bands of water in the hydration shell around solute molecules, which comes from the contribution of the interacting water molecules around the glucose molecules in solutions. The intensity of the red shift gets larger as the concentration increases, which indicates that as the concentration increases more water molecules are involved in the interaction. However, the red shift in frequency does not seem to depend significantly on the concentration. We also performed the same measurements and analysis with sucrose instead of glucose as solute and compared.

  9. Communication: Hydrogen bonding interactions in water-alcohol mixtures from X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lam, Royce K; Smith, Jacob W; Saykally, Richard J

    2016-05-21

    While methanol and ethanol are macroscopically miscible with water, their mixtures exhibit negative excess entropies of mixing. Despite considerable effort in both experiment and theory, there remains significant disagreement regarding the origin of this effect. Different models for the liquid mixture structure have been proposed to address this behavior, including the enhancement of the water hydrogen bonding network around the alcohol hydrophobic groups and microscopic immiscibility or clustering. We have investigated mixtures of methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol with water by liquid microjet X-ray absorption spectroscopy on the oxygen K-edge, an atom-specific probe providing details of both inter- and intra-molecular structure. The measured spectra evidence a significant enhancement of hydrogen bonding originating from the methanol and ethanol hydroxyl groups upon the addition of water. These additional hydrogen bonding interactions would strengthen the liquid-liquid interactions, resulting in additional ordering in the liquid structures and leading to a reduction in entropy and a negative enthalpy of mixing, consistent with existing thermodynamic data. In contrast, the spectra of the isopropanol-water mixtures exhibit an increase in the number of broken alcohol hydrogen bonds for mixtures containing up to 0.5 water mole fraction, an observation consistent with existing enthalpy of mixing data, suggesting that the measured negative excess entropy is a result of clustering or micro-immiscibility.

  10. Influence of Water Activated by Far infrared Porous Ceramics on Nitrogen Absorption in the Pig Feed.

    PubMed

    Meng, Junping; Liu, Jie; Liang, Jinsheng; Zhang, Hongchen; Ding, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Under modern and, intensive feeding livestock and poultry density has increased, and brought a deterioration of the farm environment. The livestock and their excrement generate harmful gases such as ammonia, etc. which restricted the sustainable development and improvement of production efficiency of animal husbandry. In this paper, a new kind of far infrared porous ceramics was prepared to activate, the animal drinking water. The activated water and common water were then supplied to pigs, and the fresh pig feces of experimental group and:control group were collected on a regular basis. The residual protein content in feces was tested by Kjeldahl nitrogen method to study the influence law of the porous ceramics on absorbing nitrogen element in animal feces. The results showed that compared with the control group, the protein content in the experimental group decreased on average by 39.2%. The activated drinking water was conducive to the absorption of nitrogen in pig feed. The clusters of water molecules became smaller under the action of the porous ceramics. Hence, they were easy to pass through the water protein channel on the cell membrane for speeding up the metabolism. PMID:27451750

  11. Communication: Hydrogen bonding interactions in water-alcohol mixtures from X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lam, Royce K; Smith, Jacob W; Saykally, Richard J

    2016-05-21

    While methanol and ethanol are macroscopically miscible with water, their mixtures exhibit negative excess entropies of mixing. Despite considerable effort in both experiment and theory, there remains significant disagreement regarding the origin of this effect. Different models for the liquid mixture structure have been proposed to address this behavior, including the enhancement of the water hydrogen bonding network around the alcohol hydrophobic groups and microscopic immiscibility or clustering. We have investigated mixtures of methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol with water by liquid microjet X-ray absorption spectroscopy on the oxygen K-edge, an atom-specific probe providing details of both inter- and intra-molecular structure. The measured spectra evidence a significant enhancement of hydrogen bonding originating from the methanol and ethanol hydroxyl groups upon the addition of water. These additional hydrogen bonding interactions would strengthen the liquid-liquid interactions, resulting in additional ordering in the liquid structures and leading to a reduction in entropy and a negative enthalpy of mixing, consistent with existing thermodynamic data. In contrast, the spectra of the isopropanol-water mixtures exhibit an increase in the number of broken alcohol hydrogen bonds for mixtures containing up to 0.5 water mole fraction, an observation consistent with existing enthalpy of mixing data, suggesting that the measured negative excess entropy is a result of clustering or micro-immiscibility. PMID:27208929

  12. Influence of Water Activated by Far infrared Porous Ceramics on Nitrogen Absorption in the Pig Feed.

    PubMed

    Meng, Junping; Liu, Jie; Liang, Jinsheng; Zhang, Hongchen; Ding, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Under modern and, intensive feeding livestock and poultry density has increased, and brought a deterioration of the farm environment. The livestock and their excrement generate harmful gases such as ammonia, etc. which restricted the sustainable development and improvement of production efficiency of animal husbandry. In this paper, a new kind of far infrared porous ceramics was prepared to activate, the animal drinking water. The activated water and common water were then supplied to pigs, and the fresh pig feces of experimental group and:control group were collected on a regular basis. The residual protein content in feces was tested by Kjeldahl nitrogen method to study the influence law of the porous ceramics on absorbing nitrogen element in animal feces. The results showed that compared with the control group, the protein content in the experimental group decreased on average by 39.2%. The activated drinking water was conducive to the absorption of nitrogen in pig feed. The clusters of water molecules became smaller under the action of the porous ceramics. Hence, they were easy to pass through the water protein channel on the cell membrane for speeding up the metabolism.

  13. A new device for acquiring ground truth on the absorption of light by turbid waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Srna, R.; Treasure, W.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A new device, called a Spectral Attenuation Board, has been designed and tested, which enables ERTS-1 sea truth collection teams to monitor the attenuation depths of three colors continuously, as the board is being towed behind a boat. The device consists of a 1.2 x 1.2 meter flat board held below the surface of the water at a fixed angle to the surface of the water. A camera mounted above the water takes photographs of the board. The resulting film image is analyzed by a micro-densitometer trace along the descending portion of the board. This yields information on the rate of attenuation of light penetrating the water column and the Secchi depth. Red and green stripes were painted on the white board to approximate band 4 and band 5 of the ERTS MSS so that information on the rate of light absorption by the water column of light in these regions of the visible spectrum could be concurrently measured. It was found that information from a red, green, and white stripe may serve to fingerprint the composition of the water mass. A number of these devices, when automated, could also be distributed over a large region to provide a cheap method of obtaining valuable satellite ground truth data at present time intervals.

  14. Communication: Hydrogen bonding interactions in water-alcohol mixtures from X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Royce K.; Smith, Jacob W.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2016-05-01

    While methanol and ethanol are macroscopically miscible with water, their mixtures exhibit negative excess entropies of mixing. Despite considerable effort in both experiment and theory, there remains significant disagreement regarding the origin of this effect. Different models for the liquid mixture structure have been proposed to address this behavior, including the enhancement of the water hydrogen bonding network around the alcohol hydrophobic groups and microscopic immiscibility or clustering. We have investigated mixtures of methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol with water by liquid microjet X-ray absorption spectroscopy on the oxygen K-edge, an atom-specific probe providing details of both inter- and intra-molecular structure. The measured spectra evidence a significant enhancement of hydrogen bonding originating from the methanol and ethanol hydroxyl groups upon the addition of water. These additional hydrogen bonding interactions would strengthen the liquid-liquid interactions, resulting in additional ordering in the liquid structures and leading to a reduction in entropy and a negative enthalpy of mixing, consistent with existing thermodynamic data. In contrast, the spectra of the isopropanol-water mixtures exhibit an increase in the number of broken alcohol hydrogen bonds for mixtures containing up to 0.5 water mole fraction, an observation consistent with existing enthalpy of mixing data, suggesting that the measured negative excess entropy is a result of clustering or micro-immiscibility.

  15. Analysis of process water use in poultry meat production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry processing facilities use large quantities of water for chiller unit operations. The chiller is critical for temperature reduction to inhibit microbial growth and preserve product quality and safety. Process water quality can also influence product safety when bacteria present on poultry sk...

  16. Overview-absorption/Rankine solar cooling program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahlig, M.; Heitz, A.; Boyce, B.

    1980-03-01

    The tasks being performed in the absorption and Rankine program areas run the gamut from basic work on fluids to development of chillers and chiller components, to field and reliability testing of complete cooling systems. In the absorption program, there are six current and five essentially completed projects. In the Rankine program, there are five current projects directly supported by DOE, and three projects funded through and managed by NASA/MSFC (Manned Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama). The basic features of these projects are discussed. The systems under development in five of these current projects were selected for field testing in the SOLERAS program, a joint US-Saudi Arabian enterprise. Some technical highlights of the program are presented.

  17. Determination of scandium in sea-water by atomic-absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chau, Y K; Wong, P Y

    1968-08-01

    A method for the determination of scandium in sea-water at the sub-microgram level has been developed. Scandium is coprecipitated with iron(III) hydroxide at pH 8-9, and then separated from the iron by ion-exchange. The final concentration is achieved by extracting the scandium into a solution of oxine in butanol. A nitrous oxide-acetylene flame is used for the determination by atomic-absorption spectroscopy. Recoveries of 99-100% are obtained. The storage of the solutions before analysis has been investigated by radiometric techniques with (46)Sc. The scandium concentration in surface waters of the South China Sea was found to be 0.01 +/- 0.005 microg/l .

  18. A simple fiber optic humidity sensor based on water-absorption characteristic of CAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guang; Xu, Wei; Huang, Xuguang

    2015-02-01

    A simple fiber-optic relative humidity sensor based on cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and Fresnel reflection is proposed and investigated theoretically and experimentally. The sensing system is only composed of one light source, three optical couplers, two photo-detectors and two fiber sensing ends. The operation principle is based on relative Fresnel reflection and water-absorption characteristic of the CAB which simultaneously contains hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups. The water absorption process will lead to variation of the CAB's refractive index or permittivity. It has to be noted that the double-channel system can effectively eliminate the intensity fluctuation of the light source and the influence of the environment. In this paper, the relative humidity environments approximately ranging from 10 % to 100% are generated and measured both in the humidification and dehumidification processes, which shows a good repeatability and reveals a very good fitting feature with a high value of R2 above 0.99. It is of reflection type and can be simply extend to be a multi-point-monitoring system. The sensing system is of cost- effective, simple operation and high precision.

  19. Changing the unstirred water layer in the intestine and its effect on absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, L.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine possible methods for reducing the thickness of the unstirred water layer (UWL) in the canine intestinal lumen in vivo, and to determine the effects of any reduction obtained upon intestinal absorption. The experimental approaches employed in attempting to improve stirring of the luminal fluid include: (1) addition of oleic acid plus Na-taurocholate (OA + TC) or other bile salts to the fluid used to lavage the intestinal loops since the lavage with OA + TC has been found to increase the motility of the villi; (2) increasing the lavage flow rate to 100 ml/min; (3) introduction of air bubbles into the lavage fluid. The effect of these procedures on the UWL was determined by isotopic analysis of the tissue of the experimental intestinal segment for non-absorbable {sup 14}C-labeled inulin which was included in the lavage solutions. The effects of these procedures on intestinal absorption of water and glucose are examined by measuring the difference in the volumes and the concentrations of {sup 3}H-labeled glucose in the inflowing and outflowing fluids to the experimental segment.

  20. Changes of color and water-absorption of Hungarian porous limestone due to biomineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhász, P.; Kopecskó, K.

    2013-12-01

    Bacteria induced calcium carbonate precipitation nowadays is a widely examined process being a possible alternative for traditional stone conservation methods. While research has been mostly limited to laboratory measurements, application connected, further in situ experiments should be performed in order to evaluate the applicability of the method. In our experiment, several bio-based treating compounds were compared, which have already been analyzed in different laboratories. Method for the treatment was based on the treatment of a French research group, and the compounds were applied on Hungarian porous limestone slabs, in situ. For inoculation bacteria strains Bacillus cereus and Myxococcus xanthus were used, and non-inoculated compounds were also analyzed. After the treatment, specimens were analyzed by means of discoloration effect, water absorption and migration characteristics. Almost all the treating compounds gave favorable or acceptable results for the examined properties, comparing to the properties measured in the non-cured state. Measurements on the chromatic- and on the water absorption aspects gave significant results, while further measurements are running for the more exact evaluation of the migration characteristics, i.e. effective migration depth and wetted volume.

  1. Differential Absorption Measurements of Atmospheric Water Vapor with a Coherent Lidar at 2050.532 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Grady J.; Dharamsi, Amin; Davis, Richard E.; Petros, Mulugeta; McCarthy, John C.

    1999-01-01

    Wind and water vapor are two major factors driving the Earth's atmospheric circulation, and direct measurement of these factors is needed for better understanding of basic atmospheric science, weather forecasting, and climate studies. Coherent lidar has proved to be a valuable tool for Doppler profiling of wind fields, and differential absorption lidar (DIAL) has shown its effectiveness in profiling water vapor. These two lidar techniques are generally considered distinctly different, but this paper explores an experimental combination of the Doppler and DIAL techniques for measuring both wind and water vapor with an eye-safe wavelength based on a solid-state laser material. Researchers have analyzed and demonstrated coherent DIAL water vapor measurements at 10 micrometers wavelength based on CO2 lasers. The hope of the research presented here is that the 2 gm wavelength in a holmium or thulium-based laser may offer smaller packaging and more rugged operation that the CO2-based approach. Researchers have extensively modeled 2 um coherent lasers for water vapor profiling, but no published demonstration is known. Studies have also been made, and results published on the Doppler portion, of a Nd:YAG-based coherent DIAL operating at 1.12 micrometers. Eye-safety of the 1.12 micrometer wavelength may be a concern, whereas the longer 2 micrometer and 10 micrometer systems allow a high level of eyesafety.

  2. Evidence for direct water absorption by shallow-rooted desert plants in desert-oasis ecotone, Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jing

    2014-05-01

    Besides the absorption by roots from the soil substrate, it has long been known that plants exhibit alternative water-absorption strategies, particularly in drought-prone environments. For many tropical epiphytic orchids, air moisture can be absorbed directly by aerial roots. Some conifers are also found to utilize air moisture by foliar absorption during the summer fog season. However, few studies have been carried out on the atmospheric water vapor absorption by shallow-rooted desert plants. We conducted experiments in desert-oasis ecotone and investigated the effects of dew absorbed by three kinds of shallow-rooted seedlings on net photosynthesis rate, as well as on other water relations variables. Three kinds of typical shallow-rooted desert species (Bassia dasyphylla, Salsola collina and Corispermum declinatum) have been chosen and potted. Each species were subjected to contrasting watering regimes (normal and deficient) and different air moisture conditions (having dew and having no dew) for 10 weeks. Net photosynthesis rate was measured on six occasions during the study. Other water relations variables (midday shoot water potential, relative water content, stomatal conductance) were also measured. Under the dew conditions, average net photosynthesis rate, shoot water potential, leaf relative water content and stomatal conductance increased, with greater responses observed for plants subjected to a deficient watering regime than for well-watered plants. These results indicated dew occurred in arid region could be utilized through foliar absorption by some shallow-rooted plants, and for the shallow-rooted plants, the presence of dew could significantly relieve the deficit of water in water-stressed regime.

  3. Atmospheric pre-corrected differential absorption techniques to retrieve columnar water vapor: Theory and simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Borel, C.C.; Schlaepfer, D.

    1996-03-01

    Two different approaches exist to retrieve columnar water vapor from imaging spectrometer data: (1) Differential absorption techniques based on: (a) Narrow-Wide (N/W) ratio between overlapping spectrally wide and narrow channels (b) Continuum Interpolated Band Ratio (CIBR) between a measurement channel and the weighted sum of two reference channels; and (2) Non-linear fitting techniques which are based on spectral radiative transfer calculations. The advantage of the first approach is computational speed and of the second, improved retrieval accuracy. Our goal was to improve the accuracy of the first technique using physics based on radiative transfer. Using a modified version of the Duntley equation, we derived an {open_quote}Atmospheric Pre-corrected Differential Absorption{close_quote} (APDA) technique and described an iterative scheme to retrieve water vapor on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Next we compared both, the CIBR and the APDA using the Duntley equation for MODTRAN3 computed irradiances, transmissions and path radiance (using the DISORT option). This simulation showed that the CIBR is very sensitive to reflectance effects and that the APDA performs much better. An extensive data set was created with the radiative transfer code 6S over 379 different ground reflectance spectra. The calculated relative water vapor error was reduced significantly for the APDA. The APDA technique had about 8% (vs. over 35% for the CIBR) of the 379 spectra with a relative water vapor error of greater than {+-}5%. The APDA has been applied to 1991 and 1995 AVIRIS scenes which visually demonstrate the improvement over the CIBR technique.

  4. US Department of Energy defense programs chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) HVAC/Chiller Retrofit Program

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, R.E.; Coyle, J.E.

    1997-06-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Defense Programs (DP) is responsible for the research, development, and testing of defense-related applications of nuclear energy and the operation and maintenance of facilities required to support these efforts along with any associated production activities. DP had been the landlord for hundreds of individual facilities located at principally 8 sites around the United States, representing about 50% of DOE`s capital assets. In 1994, DP established a CFC HVAC/Chiller Retrofit Program to facilitate the replacement and retrofit of chillers and to promote compliance with CFC environmental and energy conservation laws and regulations. Through comprehensive inventories, DP found that it owns approximately 200 old and inefficient CFC chillers, which if replaced, would greatly reduce electricity consumption and costs, and reduce exposure to potential non-compliance with refrigerant leak regulations. The major domestic chiller manufacturers indicate that they are producing at or near full capacity to meet the demands of both government and private sector customers. With estimates of approximately 63,000 chillers nationally operating with CFCs, DP is concerned that market pressure will raise prices and that shop space for future orders will become increasingly scarce. The Chiller Basic Ordering Agreement (BOA) is an integrated, Federal agency-wide approach to replacing chillers that will save money and help ensure the availability of chillers when appropriations are available. This procurement vehicle is being developed in conjunction with the General Services Administration (GSA), and is expected to be available in the late summer of 1996. Saving energy and money while protecting the stratospheric ozone layer is goal of the DP CFC HVAC/Chiller Retrofit Program.

  5. Evaluation of Aqua-Ammonia Chiller Technologies and Field Site Installation

    SciTech Connect

    Zaltash, Abdolreza

    2007-09-01

    The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) has sponsored Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to review, select, and evaluate advanced, gas-fired, 5-ton, aqua-ammonia, chiller technologies. The selection criteria was that units have COP values of 0.67 or better at Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) 95 F outdoor rating conditions, an active refrigerant flow control, and a variable-speed condenser fan. These features are expected to allow these units to operate at higher ambient temperatures (up to the maximum operating temperature of 110 F) with minimal degradation in performance. ORNL evaluated three potential manufacturers of advanced, gas-fired, 5-ton, aqua-ammonia chillers-Robur, Ambian, and Cooling Technologies. Unfortunately, Robur did not meet the COP requirements and Cooling Technologies could not deliver a unit to be tested at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-ORNL environmental chamber testing facility for thermally activated heat pumps. This eliminated these two technologies from further consideration, leaving only the Ambian chillers for evaluation. Two Ambian chillers were evaluated at the DOE-ORNL test facility. Overall these chillers operated well over a wide range of ambient conditions with minimal degradation in performance due to several control strategies used such as a variable speed condenser fan, a modulating burner, and active refrigerant flow control. These Ambian pre-commercial units were selected for installation and field testing at three federal facilities. NFESC worked with ORNL to assist with the site selection for installation and evaluation of these chillers. Two sites (ORNL and Naval Surface Warfare Center [NSWC] Corona) had a single chiller unit installed; and at one site (Naval Amphibious Base [NAB] Little Creek), two 5-ton chillers linked together were installed to provide 10 tons of cooling. A chiller link controller developed under this project was evaluated in the field test at Little Creek.

  6. [Absorption Characteristics of Particulates and CDOM in Waters of Chagan Lake and Xinlicheng Reservoir in Autumn].

    PubMed

    Li, Si-jia; Song, Kai-shan; Zhao, Ying; Mu, Guang-yi; Shao, Tian-tian; Ma, Jian-hang

    2016-01-15

    Field surveys and laboratory analysis were carried out in Chagan Lake and Xinlicheng Reservoir under different salinity conditions in September 2012. In the laboratory, the absorption coefficients of particulates and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were measured, aiming to compare the absorption features, source of optical active substances and relative contribution of optical active constituents over the range of PAR (400-700 nm) in Chagan Lake and Xinlicheng Reservoir. The results showed that the Chagan Lake and Xinlicheng Reservoir were water bodies with medium eutrophication in autumn by TAL nutrient index and the absorption spectra of particulates matters were similar to those of phytoplankton. For the Chagan Lake with high salinity( EC = 988. 87 micro S x cm(-1)), the total particulate absorption was dominated by the nonalgal particles, and the contribution rate was in the order of nonalgal particles > phytoplankton > CDOM. For the Xinlicheng Reservoir with low salinity (EC = 311.67 microS x -cm(-1)), the total particulate absorption was dominated by the phytoplankton, and the contribution rate was ranked as phytoplankton > nonalgal particles > CDOM. Positive correlation was observed between a(p) (440), a(p) (675), a(d) (440) and total suspended matter (TSM), inorganic suspended matter (ISM), organic suspended matter (OSM) and Chl-a respectively in Chagan Lake, with correlation coefficients all above 0.55. Positive correlation was observed between a(p)(440), a(p) (675) and Chl-a (0.77 and 0.85, P < 0.05) , so did a(d) (440) and ISM (0.74, P < 0.01), while negative correlation was observed between a(p) (440) and OSM in the Xinlicheng Reservoir. In terms of Chagan Lake, negative correlation was merely observed between a(g) (440) and OSM (-0.54, P < 0.05) , but not in the Xinlicheng Reservoir. Both Sg, which was calculated by the fitting absorption curve from 250 to 400 nm, and relative molecular weight M showed that Sg[ (0.021 +/- 0.001) m(-1)] in

  7. [Absorption Characteristics of Particulates and CDOM in Waters of Chagan Lake and Xinlicheng Reservoir in Autumn].

    PubMed

    Li, Si-jia; Song, Kai-shan; Zhao, Ying; Mu, Guang-yi; Shao, Tian-tian; Ma, Jian-hang

    2016-01-15

    Field surveys and laboratory analysis were carried out in Chagan Lake and Xinlicheng Reservoir under different salinity conditions in September 2012. In the laboratory, the absorption coefficients of particulates and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were measured, aiming to compare the absorption features, source of optical active substances and relative contribution of optical active constituents over the range of PAR (400-700 nm) in Chagan Lake and Xinlicheng Reservoir. The results showed that the Chagan Lake and Xinlicheng Reservoir were water bodies with medium eutrophication in autumn by TAL nutrient index and the absorption spectra of particulates matters were similar to those of phytoplankton. For the Chagan Lake with high salinity( EC = 988. 87 micro S x cm(-1)), the total particulate absorption was dominated by the nonalgal particles, and the contribution rate was in the order of nonalgal particles > phytoplankton > CDOM. For the Xinlicheng Reservoir with low salinity (EC = 311.67 microS x -cm(-1)), the total particulate absorption was dominated by the phytoplankton, and the contribution rate was ranked as phytoplankton > nonalgal particles > CDOM. Positive correlation was observed between a(p) (440), a(p) (675), a(d) (440) and total suspended matter (TSM), inorganic suspended matter (ISM), organic suspended matter (OSM) and Chl-a respectively in Chagan Lake, with correlation coefficients all above 0.55. Positive correlation was observed between a(p)(440), a(p) (675) and Chl-a (0.77 and 0.85, P < 0.05) , so did a(d) (440) and ISM (0.74, P < 0.01), while negative correlation was observed between a(p) (440) and OSM in the Xinlicheng Reservoir. In terms of Chagan Lake, negative correlation was merely observed between a(g) (440) and OSM (-0.54, P < 0.05) , but not in the Xinlicheng Reservoir. Both Sg, which was calculated by the fitting absorption curve from 250 to 400 nm, and relative molecular weight M showed that Sg[ (0.021 +/- 0.001) m(-1)] in

  8. L-arginine in low concentration improves rat intestinal water and sodium absorption from oral rehydration solutions.

    PubMed Central

    Wapnir, R A; Wingertzahn, M A; Teichberg, S

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The nitric oxide (NO) precursor L-arginine has been shown to produce variable effects on intestinal absorptive function, including ion transport. AIMS: To determine whether there is an optimal concentration of L-arginine, promoting proabsorptive effects from oral rehydration solutions (ORS) with 90 or 60 mM sodium. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In vivo perfusion of rat jejunum with determination of net water absorption, unidirectional fluid exchanges, sodium and calcium transport, and glucose absorption. RESULTS: L-Arginine (1 mM) added to the 90 mM sodium ORS increased intestinal absorption of both sodium and water. Higher concentrations of L-arginine (2 to 10 mM) lacked this stimulatory effect. At 20 mM, L-arginine decreased sodium absorption below baseline. With a 60 mM sodium ORS, 2 mM L-arginine had a maximal fluid and electrolyte proabsorptive effect. At 20 mM L-arginine, net water absorption was indistinguishable from that obtained in the absence of L-arginine, and lower than with 2 mM L-arginine. Sodium absorption remained raised above baseline in perfusions with 10 and 20 mM L-arginine. Morphologically, villi from perfusions with increased absorption showed a large expansion of intercellular and lamina propria intercellular spaces. CONCLUSIONS: Low concentrations of L-arginine seem to stimulate water and electrolyte absorption by the small intestine. This effect is consistent with NO induced vasodilation, may be vaso-constrictive and thereby reverse fluid and electrolyte transport. Images PMID:9203937

  9. Atmospheric absorption model for dry air and water vapor at microwave frequencies below 100 GHz derived from spaceborne radiometer observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentz, Frank J.; Meissner, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    The Liebe and Rosenkranz atmospheric absorption models for dry air and water vapor below 100 GHz are refined based on an analysis of antenna temperature (TA) measurements taken by the Global Precipitation Measurement Microwave Imager (GMI) in the frequency range 10.7 to 89.0 GHz. The GMI TA measurements are compared to the TA predicted by a radiative transfer model (RTM), which incorporates both the atmospheric absorption model and a model for the emission and reflection from a rough-ocean surface. The inputs for the RTM are the geophysical retrievals of wind speed, columnar water vapor, and columnar cloud liquid water obtained from the satellite radiometer WindSat. The Liebe and Rosenkranz absorption models are adjusted to achieve consistency with the RTM. The vapor continuum is decreased by 3% to 10%, depending on vapor. To accomplish this, the foreign-broadening part is increased by 10%, and the self-broadening part is decreased by about 40% at the higher frequencies. In addition, the strength of the water vapor line is increased by 1%, and the shape of the line at low frequencies is modified. The dry air absorption is increased, with the increase being a maximum of 20% at the 89 GHz, the highest frequency considered here. The nonresonant oxygen absorption is increased by about 6%. In addition to the RTM comparisons, our results are supported by a comparison between columnar water vapor retrievals from 12 satellite microwave radiometers and GPS-retrieved water vapor values.

  10. Interactions between angiotensin peptides and the sympathetic nervous system mediating intestinal sodium and water absorption in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Levens, N R; Peach, M J; Carey, R M

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the locus of interaction of angiotensin peptides with the sympathetic nervous system leading to alterations in jejunal sodium and water transport. At low physiological doses, angiotensin II (AII) stimulates jejunal sodium and water absorption, while at high doses peptide inhibits absorption and/or stimulates secretion. Both the stimulation of jejunal transport and the inhibition of absorption were expressed in adrenalectomized rats. However, the stimulation of jejunal water absorption was abolished and a potentiated inhibition of transport was expressed in peripherally sympathectomized rats (intact adrenal medulla) and in normal rats after administration of guanethadine, phentolamine, and prazosin. The angiotensin analog (Sar1 Leu8)-AII has low efficacy and is a potent competitive antagonist of the parent peptide in pressor and myotropic systems, but is a full agonist with even greater potency than AII in stimulating jejunal transport. The increased water transport in response to (Sar1 Leu8)-AII is not secondary to enhanced renal renin release, as the analog also stimulated jejunal transport in the presence of captopril and after bilateral nephrectomy. The stimulation of absorption in response to (Sar1 Leu8)-AII alone or together with AII was abolished by phentolamine. These data demonstrate that AII-increased intestinal absorption is secondary to the release of norepinephrine from nerve endings in the jejunum and that AII inhibition of absorption is not mediated by the sympathetic nervous system. The analog (Sar1 Leu8)-AII is a full agonist in the stimulation of jejunal transport (increased norepinephrine release), but antagonizes the inhibitory response to high doses of AII. Angiotensin peptides are potent modulators of intestinal sodium and water absorption. PMID:7204574

  11. Comparison of x-ray absorption spectra between water and ice: new ice data with low pre-edge absorption cross-section.

    PubMed

    Sellberg, Jonas A; Kaya, Sarp; Segtnan, Vegard H; Chen, Chen; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Nordlund, Dennis; Pettersson, Lars G M; Nilsson, Anders

    2014-07-21

    The effect of crystal growth conditions on the O K-edge x-ray absorption spectra of ice is investigated through detailed analysis of the spectral features. The amount of ice defects is found to be minimized on hydrophobic surfaces, such as BaF2(111), with low concentration of nucleation centers. This is manifested through a reduction of the absorption cross-section at 535 eV, which is associated with distorted hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, a connection is made between the observed increase in spectral intensity between 544 and 548 eV and high-symmetry points in the electronic band structure, suggesting a more extended hydrogen-bond network as compared to ices prepared differently. The spectral differences for various ice preparations are compared to the temperature dependence of spectra of liquid water upon supercooling. A double-peak feature in the absorption cross-section between 540 and 543 eV is identified as a characteristic of the crystalline phase. The connection to the interpretation of the liquid phase O K-edge x-ray absorption spectrum is extensively discussed.

  12. Comparison of x-ray absorption spectra between water and ice: New ice data with low pre-edge absorption cross-section

    SciTech Connect

    Sellberg, Jonas A.; Nilsson, Anders; Kaya, Sarp; Segtnan, Vegard H.; Chen, Chen; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Nordlund, Dennis; Pettersson, Lars G. M.

    2014-07-21

    The effect of crystal growth conditions on the O K-edge x-ray absorption spectra of ice is investigated through detailed analysis of the spectral features. The amount of ice defects is found to be minimized on hydrophobic surfaces, such as BaF{sub 2}(111), with low concentration of nucleation centers. This is manifested through a reduction of the absorption cross-section at 535 eV, which is associated with distorted hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, a connection is made between the observed increase in spectral intensity between 544 and 548 eV and high-symmetry points in the electronic band structure, suggesting a more extended hydrogen-bond network as compared to ices prepared differently. The spectral differences for various ice preparations are compared to the temperature dependence of spectra of liquid water upon supercooling. A double-peak feature in the absorption cross-section between 540 and 543 eV is identified as a characteristic of the crystalline phase. The connection to the interpretation of the liquid phase O K-edge x-ray absorption spectrum is extensively discussed.

  13. Study of Water Absorption in Raffia vinifera Fibres from Bandjoun, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Sikame Tagne, N. R.; Njeugna, E.; Fogue, M.; Drean, J.-Y.; Nzeukou, A.; Fokwa, D.

    2014-01-01

    The study is focused on the water diffusion phenomenon through the Raffia vinifera fibre from the stem. The knowledge on the behavior of those fibres in presence of liquid during the realization of biocomposite, is necessary. The parameters like percentage of water gain at the point of saturation, modelling of the kinetic of water absorption, and the effective diffusion coefficient were the main objectives. Along a stem of raffia, twelve zones of sampling were defined. From Fick's 2nd law of diffusion, a new model was proposed and evaluated compared to four other models at a constant temperature of 23°C. From the proposed model, the effective diffusion coefficient was deduced. The percentage of water gain was in the range of 303–662%. The proposed model fitted better to the experimental data. The estimated diffusion coefficient was evaluated during the initial phase and at the final phase. In any cross section located along the stem of Raffia vinifera, it was found that the effective diffusion coefficient increases from the periphery to the centre during the initial and final phases. PMID:24592199

  14. Gastric emptying and intestinal absorption of ingested water and saline by hypovolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Stricker, Edward M; Bykowski, Michael R; Hossler, Carrie A Smith; Curtis, Kathleen S; Smith, James C

    2009-12-01

    Recent experiments showed that in a one-bottle test conducted 16h after sc injection of polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution, hypovolemic rats consumed water or 0.30 M NaCl in an initial drinking episode but did not empty the ingested fluid from the stomach or absorb it from the small intestine very rapidly, certainly not as rapidly as when 0.15M NaCl was consumed (Smith et al., Am J Physiol 292: R2089-R2099, 2007). The present experiments examined the patterns of water and 0.30 M NaCl ingestion and the movement of consumed fluid through the gastrointestinal tract when PEG-treated rats were given a two-bottle delayed-access test. We found that both fluids always were consumed in the first drinking episode, that the fluid mixture ingested was equivalent to 0.10-0.15M NaCl, and that gastric emptying rate and net fluid absorption from the small intestine usually were much faster than when PEG-treated rats drank either water or hypertonic saline alone. Thus, ingestion of water and 0.30 M NaCl by hypovolemic rats in the same episode adaptively facilitated the movement into the circulation of a near-isotonic fluid that is ideal for restoring plasma volume deficits.

  15. Laboratory Measurements of the 940, 1130, and 1370 nm Water Vapor Absorption Band Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giver, Lawrence P.; Gore, Warren J.; Pilewskie, P.; Freedman, R. S.; Chackerian, C., Jr.; Varanasi, P.

    2001-01-01

    We have used the solar spectral flux radiometer (SSFR) flight instrument with the Ames 25 meter base-path White cell to obtain about 20 moderate resolution (8 nm) pure water vapor spectra from 650 to 1650 nm, with absorbing paths from 806 to 1506 meters and pressures up to 14 torr. We also obtained a set at 806 meters with several different air-broadening pressures. Model simulations were made for the 940, 1130, and 1370 nm absorption bands for some of these laboratory conditions using the Rothman, et al HITRAN-2000 linelist. This new compilation of HITRAN includes new intensity measurements for the 940 nm region. We compared simulations for our spectra of this band using HITRAN-2000 with simulations using the prior HITRAN-1996. The simulations of the 1130 nm band show about 10% less absorption than we measured. There is some evidence that the total intensity of this band is about 38% stronger than the sum of the HITRAN line intensities in this region. In our laboratory conditions the absorption depends approximately on the square root of the intensity. Thus, our measurements agree that the band is stronger than tabulated in HITRAN, but by about 20%, substantially less than the published value. Significant differences have been shown between Doppler-limited resolution spectra of the 1370 nm band obtained at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and HITRAN simulations. Additional new intensity measurements in this region are continuing to be made. We expect the simulations of our SSFR lab data of this band will show the relative importance of improving the HITRAN line intensities of this band for atmospheric measurements.

  16. Water absorption characteristics of novel Cu/LDPE nanocomposite for use in intrauterine devices.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xianping; Cai, Shuizhou; Hu, Junhui; Xie, Changsheng

    2006-11-01

    Intrauterine devices (IUDs), especially the copper-containing IUDs (Cu-IUDs), are one of the worldwide used forms for birth control, owing to their advantages of long-lasting and high efficacy, economy, safety, and reversibility. However, it is not perfect for the existing Cu-IUDs; some shortcomings related to its side effects have not been overcome yet. For this reason, a new Cu-IUDs material, the copper/low-density polyethylene (Cu/LDPE) nanocomposite, has been developed in our research team. The structure and water uptake characteristics of this new Cu-IUDs material have been investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and gravimetric analysis in this paper. The results of XRD, SEM, EDS, and FT-IR show three important outcomes associated with the structure of the nanocomposite. First, the nanocomposite is hybrid of the polymer and the copper nanoparticles (nano-Cu). Second, porosities, nano-Cu aggregates, and primary alcohol (R--CH(2)--OH) are existed in the nanocomposite. Third, the nano-Cu aggregates are distributed uniformly in the polymer matrix in general. The results of Gravimetric analysis, which associated with the water uptake characteristics of the nanocomposite, exhibit that the water absorption behavior of the nanocomposite obeys the classical diffusion theory very well, the water uptake of the nanocomposite increases with the increasing of the nano-Cu loading, and that the water uptake ability of the nanocomposite with 15.0 wt % nano-Cu (50 nm in diameter) is about 150 times larger than that of the base resin and about 45 times higher than that of the Cu/LDPE microcomposite with 15.0 wt % copper microparticles (5 microm in diameter). These water uptake characteristics are mainly attributed to the structure of the Cu/LDPE composites and the size effect of the nano-Cu.

  17. Effect of line, soaking and cooking time on water absorption, texture and splitting of red kidney beans.

    PubMed

    Zamindar, Nafiseh; Baghekhandan, Mohamad Shahedi; Nasirpour, Ali; Sheikhzeinoddin, Mahmoud

    2013-02-01

    Dry beans are rich sources of dietary fiber and phytochemicals such as flavonoids and phenolics that exhibit good functional properties. In current study line, cooking and soaking time effects were investigated on water absorption, splitting and texture of different Iranian red kidney beans to determine the best lines and the best soaking time related to them for industrial use. D81083 line had the highest level of water absorption after 24 h soaking followed by Akhtar and KS31164 lines while Azna, Goli and Naz lines had the lowest level of water absorption (p < 0.05). Akhtar and Sayyad had the highest level of splitting while KS31164 had the lowest level of splitting (p < 0.05). Soaking of Akhtar line for 24 h caused the highest level of water absorption accompanied with low splitting level. 24 h soaking and longer cooking time is recommended for Sayyad, while 12 h soaking and longer cooking time is recommended for KS31164 line. 24 h soaking causes higher level of water absorption and lower level of splitting in Derakhshan line. The effects of line, cooking and soaking time on red bean texture were significant (p < 0.01).

  18. Effect of line, soaking and cooking time on water absorption, texture and splitting of red kidney beans.

    PubMed

    Zamindar, Nafiseh; Baghekhandan, Mohamad Shahedi; Nasirpour, Ali; Sheikhzeinoddin, Mahmoud

    2013-02-01

    Dry beans are rich sources of dietary fiber and phytochemicals such as flavonoids and phenolics that exhibit good functional properties. In current study line, cooking and soaking time effects were investigated on water absorption, splitting and texture of different Iranian red kidney beans to determine the best lines and the best soaking time related to them for industrial use. D81083 line had the highest level of water absorption after 24 h soaking followed by Akhtar and KS31164 lines while Azna, Goli and Naz lines had the lowest level of water absorption (p < 0.05). Akhtar and Sayyad had the highest level of splitting while KS31164 had the lowest level of splitting (p < 0.05). Soaking of Akhtar line for 24 h caused the highest level of water absorption accompanied with low splitting level. 24 h soaking and longer cooking time is recommended for Sayyad, while 12 h soaking and longer cooking time is recommended for KS31164 line. 24 h soaking causes higher level of water absorption and lower level of splitting in Derakhshan line. The effects of line, cooking and soaking time on red bean texture were significant (p < 0.01). PMID:24425894

  19. 19. INTERIOR, 'CHILLER NO. 2' (G.S.A. PHOTOCOPY, N.D.) (4 x ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. INTERIOR, 'CHILLER NO. 2' (G.S.A. PHOTOCOPY, N.D.) (4 x 5 NEGATIVE) - U.S. General Services Administration, Central Heating Plant, C & D Streets between Twelfth & Thirteenth Streets Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. Predictions of silicon avalanche photodiode detector performance in water vapor differential absorption lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenimer, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    Performance analyses are presented which establish that over most of the range of signals expected for a down-looking differential absorption lidar (DIAL) operated at 16 km the silicon avalanche photodiode (APD) is the preferred detector for DIAL measurements of atmospheric water vapor in the 730 nm spectral region. The higher quantum efficiency of the APD's, (0.8-0.9) compared to a photomultiplier's (0.04-0.18) more than offsets the higher noise of an APD receiver. In addition to offering lower noise and hence lower random error the APD's excellent linearity and impulse recovery minimize DIAL systematic errors attributable to the detector. Estimates of the effect of detector system parameters on overall random and systematic DIAL errors are presented, and performance predictions are supported by laboratory characterization data for an APD receiver system.

  1. Unconjugated bilirubin and the bile from light exposed Gunn rats inhibit intestinal water and electrolyte absorption.

    PubMed Central

    Guandalini, S; Fasano, A; Albini, F; Marchesano, G; Nocerino, A; De Curtis, M; Rubaltelli, F F; Pettenazzo, A; Rubino, A

    1988-01-01

    Jaundiced babies undergoing phototherapy often develop diarrhoea. The cause of it is still uncertain. Increasing evidence supports a role of a secretory mechanism for the diarrhoea. We therefore studied the effects of bile from congenitally jaundiced rats undergoing phototherapy and of unconjugated bilirubin on rat small intestine in vivo and in vitro. Results suggest that: (1) the bile from homozygous Gunn rats under phototherapy has an anti-absorptive effect when tested in the perfused jejunum of normal Wistar rats; (2) unconjugated bilirubin has a dose dependent secretory effect on the intestinal transport of water and electrolytes, when tested in the same system. Alteration of cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP, known intracellular mediators of secretion, was not observed. We conclude that free bilirubin is an intestinal secretagogue acting by an as yet unknown mechanism, that may mediate the secretory type of diarrhoea in jaundiced neonates undergoing phototherapy. PMID:3356369

  2. Evaluation of tropospheric water vapor profiling using eye-safe, infrared differential absorption lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Rye, B.J. |; Machol, J.L.; Grund, C.J.; Hardesty, R.M.

    1996-05-14

    Continuous, high quality profiles of water vapor, free of systematic bias, and of moderate temporal and spatial resolution are fundamental to the success of the ARM CART program. In addition, these should be acquired over long periods at low operational and maintenance cost. The development and verification of realistic climate model parameterizations for clouds and net radiation balance, and the correction of other CART site sensor observations for interferences due to the presence of water vapor are critically dependent on water vapor profile measurements. To date, application of profiles have been limited by vertical resolution and uniqueness and high operating cost, or diminished daytime performance, lack of eye-safety, and high maintenance cost. Recent developments in infrared laser and detector technology make possible compact IR differential absorption lidar (DIAL) systems at eye-safe wavelengths. In the studies reported here, we develop DIAL system performance models and examine the potential of solving some of the shortcomings of previous methods using parameters representative of current technologies. These simulations are also applied to determine the strengths and weaknesses unique to the DIAL method for this application.

  3. Non-Fickian behavior of water absorption in an epoxy-amidoamine network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brethous, R.; Colin, X.; Fayolle, B.; Gervais, M.

    2016-05-01

    The water absorption in a DGEBA-amidoamine network synthesized with an amine excess was studied between 10 and 90% RH at 30, 50 and 70°C. This quasi-ideal epoxy network displays deviations from the classical Fick's behavior after the transient period. The amplitude of these deviations is an increasing function of both the relative humidity and temperature. In a first approximation, it was assumed that they result exclusively from the hydrolysis of the elastically active chains constituted by the amidoamine hardener. Indeed, at low conversion ratios, the reaction of amides with water and the accumulation of dangling chains with highly polar extremities (carboxylic acids) in the epoxy network could explain the progressive increase in the equilibrium water mass uptake m∞ over time. At highest conversions ratios, i.e. when the probability of having two hydrolysis events on a same elastically active chain cannot be ignored, the physical loss of short macromolecular fragments (of diacid type) from the epoxy network could then explain the decrease in m∞ over time. Complementary physico-chemical analyses are in progress to check these assumptions.

  4. A Water Vapor Differential Absorption LIDAR Design for Unpiloted Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeYoung, Russell J.; Mead, Patricia F.

    2004-01-01

    This system study proposes the deployment of a water vapor Differential Absorption LIDAR (DIAL) system on an Altair unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platform. The Altair offers improved payload weight and volume performance, and longer total flight time as compared to other commercial UAV's. This study has generated a preliminary design for an Altair based water vapor DIAL system. The design includes a proposed DIAL schematic, a review of mechanical challenges such as temperature and humidity stresses on UAV deployed DIAL systems, an assessment of the available capacity for additional instrumentation (based on the proposed design), and an overview of possible weight and volume improvements associated with the use of customized electronic and computer hardware, and through the integration of advanced fiber-optic and laser products. The results of the study show that less than 17% of the available weight, less than 19% of the volume capacity, and approximately 11% of the electrical capacity is utilized by the proposed water vapor DIAL system on the Altair UAV.

  5. VARIABILITY OF WATER AND OXYGEN ABSORPTION BANDS IN THE DISK-INTEGRATED SPECTRA OF EARTH

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Yuka; Suto, Yasushi; Turner, Edwin L.

    2013-03-10

    We study the variability of major atmospheric absorption features in the disk-integrated spectra of Earth with future application to Earth-analogs in mind, concentrating on the diurnal timescale. We first analyze observations of Earth provided by the EPOXI mission, and find 5%-20% fractional variation of the absorption depths of H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} bands, two molecules that have major signatures in the observed range. From a correlation analysis with the cloud map data from the Earth Observing Satellite (EOS), we find that their variation pattern is primarily due to the uneven cloud cover distribution. In order to account for the observed variation quantitatively, we consider a simple opaque cloud model, which assumes that the clouds totally block the spectral influence of the atmosphere below the cloud layer, equivalent to assuming that the incident light is completely scattered at the cloud top level. The model is reasonably successful, and reproduces the EPOXI data from the pixel-level EOS cloud/water vapor data. A difference in the diurnal variability patterns of H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} bands is ascribed to the differing vertical and horizontal distribution of those molecular species in the atmosphere. On Earth, the inhomogeneous distribution of atmospheric water vapor is due to the existence of its exchange with liquid and solid phases of H{sub 2}O on the planet's surface on a timescale short compared with atmospheric mixing times. If such differences in variability patterns were detected in spectra of Earth-analogs, it would provide the information on the inhomogeneous composition of their atmospheres.

  6. Ground-state ammonia and water in absorption towards Sgr B2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirström, E. S.; Bergman, P.; Black, J. H.; Hjalmarson, Å.; Larsson, B.; Olofsson, A. O. H.; Encrenaz, P. J.; Falgarone, E.; Frisk, U.; Olberg, M.; Sandqvist, Aa.

    2010-11-01

    Context. Observations of transitions to the ground-state of a molecule are essential to obtain a complete picture of its excitation and chemistry in the interstellar medium, especially in diffuse and/or cold environments. For the important interstellar molecules H2O and NH3, these ground-state transitions are heavily absorbed by the terrestrial atmosphere, hence not observable from the ground. Aims: We attempt to understand the chemistry of nitrogen, oxygen, and their important molecular forms, NH3 and H2O in the interstellar medium of the Galaxy. Methods: We have used the Odin* submillimetre-wave satellite telescope to observe the ground state transitions of ortho-ammonia and ortho-water, including their 15N, 18O, and 17O isotopologues, towards Sgr B2. The extensive simultaneous velocity coverage of the observations, >500 km s-1, ensures that we can probe the conditions of both the warm, dense gas of the molecular cloud Sgr B2 near the Galactic centre, and the more diffuse gas in the Galactic disk clouds along the line-of-sight. Results: We present ground-state NH3 absorption in seven distinct velocity features along the line-of-sight towards Sgr B2. We find a nearly linear correlation between the column densities of NH3 and CS, and a square-root relation to N2H+. The ammonia abundance in these diffuse Galactic disk clouds is estimated to be about 0.5-1 × 10-8, similar to that observed for diffuse clouds in the outer Galaxy. On the basis of the detection of H_218O absorption in the 3 kpc arm, and the absence of such a feature in the H_217O spectrum, we conclude that the water abundance is around 10-7, compared to ~10-8 for NH3. The Sgr B2 molecular cloud itself is seen in absorption in NH3, 15NH3, H2O, H_218O, and H_217O, with emission superimposed on the absorption in the main isotopologues. The non-LTE excitation of NH3 in the environment of Sgr B2 can be explained without invoking an unusually hot (500 K) molecular layer. A hot layer is similarly not required

  7. Development of facile property calculation model for adsorption chillers based on equilibrium adsorption cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Masato; Hirose, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Minoru; Thermal management technology Team

    Facile property calculation model for adsorption chillers was developed based on equilibrium adsorption cycles. Adsorption chillers are one of promising systems that can use heat energy efficiently because adsorption chillers can generate cooling energy using relatively low temperature heat energy. Properties of adsorption chillers are determined by heat source temperatures, adsorption/desorption properties of adsorbent, and kinetics such as heat transfer rate and adsorption/desorption rate etc. In our model, dependence of adsorption chiller properties on heat source temperatures was represented using approximated equilibrium adsorption cycles instead of solving conventional time-dependent differential equations for temperature changes. In addition to equilibrium cycle calculations, we calculated time constants for temperature changes as functions of heat source temperatures, which represent differences between equilibrium cycles and real cycles that stemmed from kinetic adsorption processes. We found that the present approximated equilibrium model could calculate properties of adsorption chillers (driving energies, cooling energies, and COP etc.) under various driving conditions quickly and accurately within average errors of 6% compared to experimental data.

  8. The influence of water vapor on atmospheric exchange measurements with an ICOS* based Laser absorption analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunk, Rüdiger; Quan, Zhi; Wandel, Matthias; Yi, Zhigang; Bozem, Heiko; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    Carbonyl sulfide and carbon monoxide are both atmospheric trace gases of high interest. Recent advances in the field of spectroscopy have enabled instruments that measure the concentration of the above and other trace gases very fast and with good precision. Increasing the effective path length by reflecting the light between two mirrors in a cavity, these instruments reach impressive sensitivities. Often it is possible to measure the concentration of more than one trace gas at the same time. The OCS/CO2 Analyzer by LGR (Los Gatos Research, Inc.) measures the concentration of water vapor [H2O], carbonyl sulfide [COS], carbon dioxide [CO2] and carbon monoxide [CO] simultaneously. For that the cavity is saturated with light, than the attenuation of light is measured as in standard absorption spectroscopy. The instrument proved to be very fast with good precision and to be able to detect even very low concentrations, especially for COS (as low as 30ppt in the case of COS). However, we observed a rather strong cross sensitivity to water vapor. Altering the water vapor content of the sampled air with two different methods led to a change in the perceived concentration of COS, CO and CO2. This proved especially problematic for enclosure (cuvette) measurements, where the concentrations of one of the above species in an empty cuvette are compared to the concentration of another cuvette containing a plant whose exchange of trace gases with the atmosphere is of interest. There, the plants transpiration leads to a large difference in water vapor content between the cuvettes and that in turn produces artifacts in the concentration differences between the cuvettes for the other above mentioned trace gases. For CO, simultaneous measurement with a UV-Emission Analyzer (AL 5002, Aerolaser) and the COS/CO Analyzer showed good agreement of perceived concentrations as long as the sample gas was dry and an increasing difference in perceived concentration when the sample gas was

  9. Differential absorption lidar measurements of atmospheric water vapor using a pseudonoise code modulated AlGaAs laser. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rall, Jonathan A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Lidar measurements using pseudonoise code modulated AlGaAs lasers are reported. Horizontal path lidar measurements were made at night to terrestrial targets at ranges of 5 and 13 km with 35 mW of average power and integration times of one second. Cloud and aerosol lidar measurements were made to thin cirrus clouds at 13 km altitude with Rayleigh (molecular) backscatter evident up to 9 km. Average transmitter power was 35 mW and measurement integration time was 20 minutes. An AlGaAs laser was used to characterize spectral properties of water vapor absorption lines at 811.617, 816.024, and 815.769 nm in a multipass absorption cell using derivative spectroscopy techniques. Frequency locking of an AlGaAs laser to a water vapor absorption line was achieved with a laser center frequency stability measured to better than one-fifth of the water vapor Doppler linewidth over several minutes. Differential absorption lidar measurements of atmospheric water vapor were made in both integrated path and range-resolved modes using an externally modulated AlGaAs laser. Mean water vapor number density was estimated from both integrated path and range-resolved DIAL measurements and agreed with measured humidity values to within 6.5 percent and 20 percent, respectively. Error sources were identified and their effects on estimates of water vapor number density calculated.

  10. Improved water and sodium absorption from oral rehydration solutions based on rice syrup in a rat model of osmotic diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Wapnir, R A; Litov, R E; Zdanowicz, M M; Lifshitz, F

    1991-04-01

    Rice syrup solids, rice protein, and casein hydrolysate were added to experimental oral rehydration solutions in various combinations and tested in a rat intestinal perfusion system. Chronic osmotic diarrhea was induced in juvenile rats by supplying the cathartic agents, magnesium citrate and phenolphthalein, in their drinking water for 1 week. The experimental oral rehydration solutions were compared with standard oral rehydration solutions containing 20 gm/L or 30 gm/L of glucose and with each other to determine if there were significant differences in net water, sodium, or potassium absorption. An oral rehydration solution containing 30 gm/L of rice syrup solids had a net water absorption rate significantly higher than that of the standard 20 gm/L glucose-based oral rehydration solution (2.1 +/- 0.62 versus 1.5 +/- 0.48 microliters/[min x cm], p less than 0.05). Casein hydrolysate did not significantly affect net water absorption. However, combinations of 30 gm/L rice syrup solids and 5 gm/L casein hydrolysate significantly increased (p less than 0.05) net sodium and potassium absorption compared with the 20 gm/L glucose-based oral rehydration solution but not versus rice syrup solids alone. Oral rehydration solutions containing 30 gm/L rice syrup solids plus 5 gm/L rice protein, and 30 gm/L rice syrup solids plus 5 gm/L casein hydrolysate, had net water absorption rates significantly higher than the rate of a 30 gm/L glucose-based oral rehydration solution (2.5 +/- 0.36 and 2.4 +/- 0.38, respectively, versus 0.87 +/- 0.40 microliters/[min x cm], p less than 0.05). Rice protein and casein hydrolysate, however, did not significantly affect net water, sodium, or potassium absorption when added to rice protein glucose-based oral rehydration solutions. An inverse correlation between osmolality and net water absorption was observed (r = -0.653, p less than 0.02). The data suggest that substitution of rice syrup solids for glucose in oral rehydration solutions will

  11. Diode-laser-based water vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL) profiler evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spuler, S.; Weckwerth, T.; Repasky, K. S.; Nehrir, A. R.; Carbone, R.

    2012-12-01

    We are in the process of evaluating the performance of an eye-safe, low-cost, diode-laser-based, water vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL) profiler. This class of instrument may be capable of providing continuous water vapor and aerosol backscatter profiles at high vertical resolution in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) for periods of months to years. The technology potentially fills a national long term observing facility gap and could greatly benefit micro- and meso-meteorology, water cycle, carbon cycle and, more generally, biosphere-hydrosphere-atmosphere interaction research at both weather and climate variability time scales. For the evaluation, the Montana State University 3rd generation water vapor DIAL was modified to enable unattended operation for a period of several weeks. The performance of this V3.5 version DIAL was tested at MSU and NCAR in June and July of 2012. Further tests are currently in progress with Howard University at Beltsville, Maryland; and with the National Weather Service and Oklahoma University at Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas. The presentation will include a comparison of DIAL profiles against meteorological "truth" at the aforementioned locations including: radiosondes, Raman lidars, microwave and IR radiometers, AERONET and SUOMINET systems. Instrument reliability, uncertainty, systematic biases, detection height statistics, and environmental complications will be evaluated. Performance will be judged in the context of diverse scientific applications that range from operational weather prediction and seasonal climate variability, to more demanding climate system process studies at the land-canopy-ABL interface. Estimating the extent to which such research and operational applications can be satisfied with a low cost autonomous network of similar instruments is our principal objective.

  12. Calculation of vibrational and electronic excited state absorption spectra of arsenic-water complexes using density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, L.; Lambrakos, S. G.; Shabaev, A.; Massa, L.

    2016-05-01

    Calculations are presented of vibrational and electronic excited-state absorption spectra for As-H2O complexes using density function theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). DFT and TD-DFT can provide interpretation of absorption spectra with respect to molecular structure for excitation by electromagnetic waves at frequencies within the IR and UV-visible ranges. The absorption spectrum corresponding to excitation states of As-H2O complexes consisting of relatively small numbers of water molecules should be associated with response features that are intermediate between that of isolated molecules and that of a bulk system. DFT and TD-DFT calculated absorption spectra represent quantitative estimates that can be correlated with additional information obtained from laboratory measurements and other types of theory based calculations. The DFT software GAUSSIAN was used for the calculations of excitation states presented here.

  13. A theoretical investigation of gaseous absorption by water droplets from SO2-HNO3-NH3-CO2-HCl mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adewuyi, Y. G.; Carmichael, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    A physical-chemical model is developed and used to investigate gaseous absorption by water droplets from trace gas mixtures. The model is an extension of that of Carmichael and Peters (1979) and includes the simultaneous absorption of SO2, NH3, HNO3, CO2, and HCl. Gas phase depletion is also considered. Presented results demonstrate that the absorption behavior of raindrops is strongly dependent on drop size, fall distance, trace gas concentrations, and the chemical and physical properties of the constituents of the mixture. In addition, when gas phase depletion is considered, the absorption rates and equilibrium values are also dependent on the precipitation rate itself. Also, the trace constituents liquid phase concentrations may be a factor of six or more lower when gas depletion is considered then when the depletion is ignored. However, the hydrogen ion concentration may be insensitive to the gas phase depletion.

  14. Effect of a Disintegration Mechanism on Wetting, Water Absorption, and Disintegration Time of Orodispersible Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Pabari, RM; Ramtoola, Z

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of disintegration mechanism of various types of disintegrants on the absorption ratio (AR), wetting time (WT), and disintegration time (DT) of orodispersible tablets (ODTs). ODTs were prepared by direct compression using mannitol as filler and disintegrants selected from a range of swellable, osmotic, and porous disintegrants. Tablets formed were characterized for their water AR, WT, and DT. The porosity and mechanical strength of the tablets were also measured. Results show that the DT of formulated ODTs was directly related to the WT and was a function of the disintegration mechanism of the disintegrant used. The lowest WT and DT were observed for tablets formulated using the osmotic disintegrant sodium citrate and these tablets also showed the lowest AR and porosity. The wetting and disintegration of tablets containing the highly swellable disintegrant, sodium starch glycollate, was slowest despite their high water AR and high tablet porosity. Rapid wetting and disintegration of ODTs were therefore not necessarily related to the porosity of the tablets. PMID:23112534

  15. Simultaneous enhancements in photon absorption and charge transport of bismuth vanadate photoanodes for solar water splitting

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Woo; Ping, Yuan; Galli, Giulia A.; Choi, Kyoung-Shin

    2015-01-01

    n-Type bismuth vanadate has been identified as one of the most promising photoanodes for use in a water-splitting photoelectrochemical cell. The major limitation of BiVO4 is its relatively wide bandgap (∼2.5 eV), which fundamentally limits its solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency. Here we show that annealing nanoporous bismuth vanadate electrodes at 350 °C under nitrogen flow can result in nitrogen doping and generation of oxygen vacancies. This gentle nitrogen treatment not only effectively reduces the bandgap by ∼0.2 eV but also increases the majority carrier density and mobility, enhancing electron–hole separation. The effect of nitrogen incorporation and oxygen vacancies on the electronic band structure and charge transport of bismuth vanadate are systematically elucidated by ab initio calculations. Owing to simultaneous enhancements in photon absorption and charge transport, the applied bias photon-to-current efficiency of nitrogen-treated BiVO4 for solar water splitting exceeds 2%, a record for a single oxide photon absorber, to the best of our knowledge. PMID:26498984

  16. Terahertz Absorption of Chemicals in Water: Ideal and Real Solutions and Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funkner, Stefan; Niehues, Gudrun; Schmidt, Diedrich A.; Bründermann, Erik

    2013-08-01

    Complex biomolecules, such as proteins in liquids, show specific terahertz dynamics in reactions or in protein folding as measured by static or kinetic absorption. The complex nature of biomolecules requires investigating their frequency, space, and time characteristics via a multimodal approach that changes external parameters such as temperature, pressure, concentration, and solvents. Terahertz spectroscopy can add a new and deeper understanding to existing techniques in other spectral regions of the biological dynamics in the solvent of life, i.e. water. To understand more deeply complex liquids or macromolecules in water, it is essential to understand the building blocks of solutions, which may contain salts, or are components of larger molecules such as amino acids. Although this research mainly affects basic science, a few applications are in progress, some create interest in industry, and several pathways for new applications relevant to medical science are in view. In this article, we review THz spectroscopy of solutions and concentrate our description to liquids with small solutes such as salts and amino acids, and review the prerequisites for obtaining THz data from aqueous solutions.

  17. Enhancement of the grafting performance and of the water absorption of cassava starch graft copolymer by gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiatkamjornwong, Suda; Meechai, Nispa

    1997-06-01

    Enhancement of the gamma radiation grafting of acrylonitrile onto gelatinized cassava starch was investigated. Infrared spectrometry was used to follow the chemical changes in the grafting reaction and from saponification. The saponified starch- g-PAN (HSPAN) was then characterized in terms of grafting parameters to provide a guide for the optimum total dose (kGy) and the appropriate ratio of starch/acrylonitrile for a fixed dose rate of 2.5 × 10 -1 kGy/min. Other dose rates were also carried out to obtain the appropriate result of grafting copolymerization and of water absorption. A thin aluminium foil, covering the inner wall of the reaction vessel, was found to be far more effective than any other metal films in the enhancement of the grafting reaction and the water absorption as well. Nitric acid in the medium increases the grafting yield and the water absorption. Methyl ether hydroquinone inhibitor was evaluated for its ability to increase homopolymerization and decrease graft reaction. When styrene was used as a comonomer, it hampered the grafting of acrylonitrile onto starch backbone. The water absorption capacity was improved by freeze-drying the HSPAN. The treatment of the HSPAN with aluminium trichloride hexahydrate was found to enhance the degree of wicking, but to decrease the water absorbency.

  18. Alternative schemes for production of chilled water and cogeneration of electricity at Ashley Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    William Tao Associates, Inc. (TAO) evaluated alternative systems for the generation of Chilled Water at Ashley Plant. The generation of chilled water is necessary for several reason; initially as a source of revenue for St. Louis Thermal Energy Corporation (SLTEC), but more importantly as a necessary component of the Trash-to-Energy Plant proposed north of Ashley Plant. The chilled water system provides a base load for steam generated by the Trash-to-Energy Plant. The benefits include reduced tip-fees to the City of St. Louis, lower cost of energy to customers of both the district steam system and the proposed chilled water system, and will result in lower energy and operating costs for the system than if individual services are provided. This symbiotic relationship is main advantage of the Trash-to-Energy system. TAO provided preliminary engineering of the chilled water line route. The basic assumptions of an initial load of 10,000 tons with an ultimate load of 20,000 tons at a temperature difference of 16{degree}F remain. The findings of the pipeline study, although not incorporated into this document, remain valid. Assumptions include the following: An initial design load of 6000 tons which has the capability of growing to 20,000 tons; Incremental costs of steam generated by Ashley Plant and the Trash-to-Energy plant; The turbine room at Ashley Plant is suitable for gut rehab except for turbines No. 7 and No. 9 which should remain operational; and Daily chilled water flow and annual load profile. The paper describes the findings on 8 alternative chiller systems. Additional studies were performed on the following: chilled water storage; low-pressure absorption chiller for balancing plant steam loads; economizer cycle for chiller system; auxiliary equipment energy source; variable flow water pumps; and comparison to satellite chilled water plant study.

  19. Temperature and salinity correction coefficients for light absorption by water in the visible to infrared spectral region.

    PubMed

    Röttgers, Rüdiger; McKee, David; Utschig, Christian

    2014-10-20

    The light absorption coefficient of water is dependent on temperature and concentration of ions, i.e. the salinity in seawater. Accurate knowledge of the water absorption coefficient, a, and/or its temperature and salinity correction coefficients, Ψ(T) and Ψ(S), respectively, is essential for a wide range of optical applications. Values are available from published data only at specific narrow wavelength ranges or at single wavelengths in the visible and infrared regions. Ψ(T) and Ψ(S) were therefore spectrophotometrically measured throughout the visible, near, and short wavelength infrared spectral region (400 to ~2700 nm). Additionally, they were derived from more precise measurements with a point-source integrating-cavity absorption meter (PSICAM) for 400 to 700 nm. When combined with earlier measurements from the literature in the range of 2600 - 14000 nm (wavenumber: 3800 - 700 cm(-1)), the coefficients are provided for 400 to 14000 nm (wavenumber: 25000 to 700 cm(-1)).

  20. Feasibility of tropospheric water vapor profiling using infrared heterodyne differential absorption lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Grund, C.J.; Hardesty, R.M.; Rye, B.J.

    1995-04-03

    Continuous, high quality profiles of water vapor, free of systematic bias, and of moderate temporal and spatial resolution, acquired over long periods at low operational and maintenance cost, are fundamental to the success of the ARM CART program. The development and verification of realistic climate model parameterizations for clouds and net radiation balance, and the correction of other CART site sensor observations for interferences due to the presence of water vapor are critically dependent on water vapor profile measurements. Application of profiles acquired with current techniques, have, to date, been limited by vertical resolution and uniqueness of solution [e.g. high resolution infrared (IR) Fourier transform radiometry], poor spatial and temporal coverage and high operating cost (e.g. radiosondes), or diminished daytime performance, lack of eye-safety, and high maintenance cost (e.g. Raman lidar). Recent developments in infrared laser and detector technology make possible compact IR differential absorption lidar (DIAL) systems at eye-safe wavelengths. In the study reported here, we develop DIAL system performance models and examine the potential of to solve some of the shortcomings of previous methods using parameterizations representative of current technologies. These models are also applied to diagnose and evaluate other strengths and weaknesses unique to the DIAL method for this application. This work is to continue in the direction of evaluating yet smaller and lower-cost laser diode-based systems for routine monitoring of the lower altitudes using photon counting detection methods. We regard the present report as interim in nature and will update and extend it as a final report at the end of the term of the contract.

  1. Seed ultrastructure and water absorption pathway of the root-parasitic plant Phelipanche aegyptiaca (Orobanchaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Joel, Daniel M.; Bar, Hilla; Mayer, Alfred M.; Plakhine, Dina; Ziadne, Hammam; Westwood, James H.; Welbaum, Gregory E.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Obligate root parasitic plants of the Orobanchaceae do not germinate unless they chemically detect a host plant nearby. Members of this family, like Orobanche, Phelipanche and Striga, are noxious weeds that cause heavy damage to agriculture. In spite of their economic impact, only a few light microscopical studies of their minute seeds have been published, and there is no knowledge of their ultrastructure and of the role each tissue plays during the steps preceding germination. This paper describes the ultrastructure of Phelipanche seeds and contributes to our understanding of seed tissue function. Methods Seeds of P. aegyptiaca were examined under light, scanning electron, transmission electron and fluorescence microscopy following various fixations and staining protocols. The results were interpreted with physiological data regarding mode of water absorption and germination stimulation. Key Results and Conclusions The endothelium, which is the inner layer of the testa, rapidly absorbs water. Its interconnected cells are filled with mucilage and contain labyrinthine walls, facilitating water accumulation for germination that starts after receiving germination stimuli. Swelling of the endothelium leads to opening of the micropyle. The perisperm cells underneath this opening mediate between the rhizosphere and the embryo and are likely to be the location for the receptors of germination stimuli. The other perisperm cells are loaded with lipids and protein bodies, as are the endosperm and parts of the embryo. In the endosperm, the oil bodies fuse with each other while they are intact in the embryo and perisperm. Plasmodesmata connect the perisperm cells to each other, and the cells near the micropyle tightly surround the emerging seedling. These perisperm cells, and also the proximal embryo cells, have dense cytoplasmic contents, and they seem to represent the two seed components that are actively involved in transfer of reserve nutrients to the

  2. Longitudinal dose distribution and energy absorption in PMMA and water cylinders undergoing CT scans

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xinhua; Zhang, Da; Liu, Bob

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: The knowledge of longitudinal dose distribution provides the most direct view of the accumulated dose in computed tomography (CT) scanning. The purpose of this work was to perform a comprehensive study of dose distribution width and energy absorption with a wide range of subject sizes and beam irradiated lengths. Methods: Cumulative dose distribution along the z-axis was calculated based on the previously published CT dose equilibration data by Li, Zhang, and Liu [Med. Phys. 40, 031903 (10pp.) (2013)] and a mechanism for computing dose on axial lines by Li, Zhang, and Liu [Med. Phys. 39, 5347–5352 (2012)]. Full width at half maximum (FWHM), full width at tenth maximum (FWTM), the total energy (E) absorbed in a small cylinder of unit mass per centimeter square about the central or peripheral axis, and the energy (E{sub in}) absorbed inside irradiated length (L) were subsequently extracted from the dose distribution. Results: Extensive results of FWHM, FWTM, and E{sub in}/E were presented on the central and peripheral axes of infinitely long PMMA (diameters 6–50 cm) and water (diameters 6–55 cm) cylinders with L < 100 cm. FWHM was greater than the primary beam width only on the central axes of large phantoms and also with L ranging from a few centimeter to about 33 cm. FWTM generally increased with phantom diameter, and could be up to 32 cm longer than irradiated length, depending on L, phantom diameter and axis, but was insensitive to phantom material (PMMA or water). E{sub in}/E increased with L and asymptotically approached unity for large L. As phantom diameter increased, E{sub in}/E generally decreased, but asymptotically approached constant levels on the peripheral axes of large phantoms. A heuristic explanation of dose distribution width results was presented. Conclusions: This study enables the reader to gain a comprehensive view of dose distribution width and energy absorption and provides useful data for estimating doses to organs inside or

  3. Influence of polarization of the walnut plywood in the process of preparation on its water and moisture absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamilova, A. F.; Galikhanov, M. F.

    2016-09-01

    This paper demonstrates data on the effect of the polarization on the hygroscopic properties of plywood. The polarization of the plywood using a constant electric field can allow reducing slightly the amount of water and moisture absorption of the plywood material.

  4. Atmospheric Pre-Corrected Differential Absorption Techniques to Retrieve Columnar Water Vapor: Application to AVIRIS 91/95 Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlaepfer, Daniel; Borel, Christoph C.; Keller, Johannes; Itten, Klaus I.

    1996-01-01

    Water vapor is one of the main forces for weather development as well as for mesoscale air transport processes. The monitoring of water vapor is therefore an important aim in remote sensing of the atmosphere. Current operational systems for water vapor detection use primarily the emission in the thermal infrared (AVHRR, GOES, ATSR, Meteosat) or in the microwave radiation bands (DMSP). The disadvantage of current satellite systems is either a coarse spatial (horizontal) resolution ranging from one to tens of kilometers or a limited insight into the lower atmosphere. Imaging spectrometry on the other hand measures total column water vapor contents at a high spatial horizontal resolution and has therefore the potential of filling these gaps. The sensors of the AVIRIS instrument are capable of acquiring hyperspectral data in 224 bands located in the visible and near infrared at 10 nm resolution. This data includes the information on constituents of the earth's surface as well as of the atmosphere. The optical measurement of water vapor can be performed using sensor channels located in bands or lines of the absorption spectrum. The AVIRIS sensor has been used to retrieve water vapor and with less accuracy carbon dioxide, oxygen and ozone. To retrieve the water vapor amount, the so called differential absorption technique has been applied. The goal of this technique is to eliminate background factors by taking a ratio between channels within the absorption band and others besides the band. Various ratioing methods on the basis of different channels and calculation techniques were developed. The influence of a trace gas of interest on the radiance at the sensor level is usually simulated by using radiative transfer codes. In this study, the spectral transmittance and radiance are calculated by MODTRAN3 simulations with the new DISORT option. The objective of this work is to test the best performing differential absorption techniques for imaging spectrometry of

  5. Atmospheric pre-corrected differential absorption techniques to retrieve columnar water vapor: Application to AVIRIS 91/95 data

    SciTech Connect

    Schlaepfer, D.; Borel, C.C.; Keller, J.

    1996-03-01

    Water vapor is one of the main forces for weather development as well as for mesoscale air transport processes. The monitoring of water vapor is therefore an important aim in remote sensing of the atmosphere. Current operational systems for water vapor detection use primarily the emission in the thermal infrared (AVHRR, GOES, ATSR, Meteosat) or in the microwave radiation bands (DMSP). The disadvantage of current satellite systems is either a coarse spatial (horizontal) resolution ranging from one to tens of kilometers or a limited insight into the lower atmosphere. Imaging spectrometry on the other hand measures total column water vapor contents at a high spatial horizontal resolution and has therefore the potential of filling these gaps. The sensors of the AVIRIS instrument are capable of acquiring hyperspectral data in 224 bands located in the visible and near infrared at 10 run resolution. This data includes information on constituents of the earth`s surface as well as of the atmosphere. The optical measurement of water vapor can be performed using sensor channels located in bands or lines of the absorption spectrum. The AVIRIS sensor has been used to retrieve water vapor and with less accuracy carbon dioxide, oxygen and ozone. To retrieve the water vapor amount, the so called differential absorption technique has been applied. The goal of this technique is to eliminate background factors by taking a ratio between channels within the absorption band and others besides the band. Various rationing methods on the basis of different channels and calculation techniques were developed. The influence of a trace gas of interest on the radiance at the sensor level is usually simulated by using radiative transfer codes. In this study, spectral transmittance and radiance are calculated by MODTRAN3 simulations with the new DISORT option. This work testS the best performing differential absorption techniques for imaging spectrometry of tropospheric water vapor.

  6. Effect of acetylation and succinylation on solubility profile, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity and emulsifying properties of mucuna bean (Mucuna pruriens) protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Lawal, O S; Adebowale, K O

    2004-04-01

    Mucuna protein concentrate was acylated with succinic and acetic anhydride. The effects of acylation on solubility, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity and emulsifying properties were investigated. The pH-dependent solubility profile of unmodified mucuna protein concentrate (U-mpc) showed a decrease in solubility with decrease in pH and resolubilisation at pH values acidic to isoelectric pH (pH 4). Apart from pH 2, both acetylated mucuna protein concentrates (A-mpc) and succinylated mucuna protein concentrate (S-mpc) had improved solubility over the unmodified derivative. Acylation increased the water absorption capacity (WAC) at all levels of ionic strength (0.1-1.0 M). WAC of the protein samples increased with increase in ionic strength up to 0.2 M after which a decline occurred with increase in ionic strength from 0.4-1.0 M. When protein solutions were prepared in salts of various ions, increase in WAC followed the Hofmeister series in the order: NaSCN < NaClO4 < NaI < NaBr < NaCl < Na2SO. Acetylation improved the oil absorption capacity while the lipophilic tendency reduced the following succinylation. Emulsifying capacity increased with increase in concentration up to 2, 4 and 5% w/v for U-mpc, A-mpc and S-mpc, respectively, after which an increase in concentration reduced the emulsifying capacity. Both acetylation and succinylation significantly (P < 0.05) improved the emulsifying capacity at pH 4-10. Initial increase in ionic strength up to 0.4 M for U-mpc and 0.4 M for A-mpc and S-mpc increased the emulsion capacity progressively. Further increase in ionic strength reduced emulsion capacity (EC). Contrary to the effect of various salts on WAC, increase in EC generally follows the series Na2SO4 < NaCl < NaBr < NaI < NaClO4 < NaSCN. At all levels of ionic strength studied, S-mpc had a better emulsifying activity (EA) than both A-mpc and U-mpc. EA and emulsifying stability (ES) were pH-dependent. Maximum EA and ES were recorded at pH 10. ES of

  7. Ultra Narrowband Optical Filters for Water Vapor Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenholm, Ingrid; DeYoung, Russell J.

    2001-01-01

    Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) systems are being deployed to make vertical profile measurements of atmospheric water vapor from ground and airborne platforms. One goal of this work is to improve the technology of such DIAL systems that they could be deployed on space-based platforms. Since background radiation reduces system performance, it is important to reduce it. One way to reduce it is to narrow the bandwidth of the optical receiver system. However, since the DIAL technique uses two or more wavelengths, in this case separated by 0.1 nm, a fixed-wavelength narrowband filter that would encompass both wavelengths would be broader than required for each line, approximately 0.02 nm. The approach employed in this project is to use a pair of tunable narrowband reflective fiber Bragg gratings. The Bragg gratings are germanium-doped silica core fiber that is exposed to ultraviolet radiation to produce index-of-refraction changes along the length of the fiber. The gratings can be tuned by stretching. The backscattered laser radiation is transmitted through an optical circulator to the gratings, reflected back to the optical circulator by one of the gratings, and then sent to a photodiode. The filter reflectivities were >90 percent, and the overall system efficiency was 30 percent.

  8. Measurement of the Spectral Absorption of Liquid Water in Melting Snow With an Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Dozier, Jeff

    1995-01-01

    Melting of the snowpack is a critical parameter that drives aspects of the hydrology in regions of the Earth where snow accumulates seasonally. New techniques for measurement of snow melt over regional scales offer the potential to improve monitoring and modeling of snow-driven hydrological processes. In this paper we present the results of measuring the spectral absorption of liquid water in a melting snowpack with the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). AVIRIS data were acquired over Mammoth Mountain, in east central California on 21 May 1994 at 18:35 UTC. The air temperature at 2926 m on Mammoth Mountain at site A was measured at 15-minute intervals during the day preceding the AVIRIS data acquisition. At this elevation. the air temperature did not drop below freezing the night of the May 20 and had risen to 6 degrees Celsius by the time of the overflight on May 21. These temperature conditions support the presence of melting snow at the surface as the AVIRIS data were acquired.

  9. Profiling tropospheric water vapour with a coherent infrared differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, Philippe; Ishii, Shoken; Mizutani, Kohei; Itabe, Toshikazu; Yasui, Motoaki

    2012-11-01

    In the last decade the precision of coherent Doppler differential absorption lidar (DIAL) has been greatly improved in near and middle infra-red domains for measuring greenhouse gases such as CO2, CH4 and winds. The National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT, Japan) has developed and is operating a CO2 and wind measuring ground-based coherent DIAL at 2.05 μm (4878 cm-1). The application of this technology from space is now considered. In this analysis we study the use of the NICT DIAL for profiling tropospheric water vapour from space. We present the methodology to select the spectral lines and summarized the results of the selected lines between 4000 and 7000 cm-1. The choice of the frequency offset, the pulse energy and repetition frequency are discussed. Retrieval simulations from the line at 4580 cm-1 (2.18 μm) suitable for the boundary layer and the stronger one at 5621 cm-1 (1.78 μm) for sounding the boundary layer and the middle troposphere, are shown.

  10. Measurements of Water Absorption in the Warm Exo-Uranus GJ 3470b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benneke, Björn; Crossfield, Ian; Knutson, Heather; McCullough, Peter; Lothringer, Joshua; Howard, Andrew; Morley, Caroline; Fortney, Jonathan; Dragomir, Diana; Gilliland, Ron

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of short-period planets with masses and radii intermediate between Earth and Neptune was one of the biggest surprises in the brief history of exoplanet science. These “super-Earths” and “sub-Neptunes” are an order of magnitude more abundant than close-in giant planets. Despite this ubiquity, we know little about their typical compositions and formation histories. Spectroscopic transit observations can shed new light on these mysterious worlds by probing their atmospheric compositions. In this talk, we will give an overview of our ongoing 124-orbit (200-hour) Hubble Space Telescope program to reveal the chemical diversity and formation histories of super-Earths. This unprecedented survey will provide the first comprehensive look at this intriguing new class of planets ranging from 1 Neptune mass and temperatures close to 2000K to a 1 Earth mass planet near the habitable zone of its host star. In this talk, I will discuss the scope of the program and present early science results including measurements of water absorption in the atmosphere of the warm exo-Uranus GJ3470b.

  11. Measurement of the spectral absorption of liquid water in melting snow with an imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Dozier, Jeff

    1995-01-01

    Melting of the snowpack is a critical parameter that drives aspects of the hydrology in regions of the earth where snow accumulates seasonally. New techniques for measurement of snow melt over regional scales offer the potential to improve monitoring and modeling of snow-driven hydrological processes. We present the results of measuring the spectral absorption of liquid water in a melting snowpack with the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). AVIRIS data were acquired over Mammoth Mountain, in east central California on 21 May 1994 at 18:35 UTC. The air temperature at 2926 m on Mammoth Mountain at site A was measured at 15-minute intervals during the day preceding the AVIRIS data acquisition. At this elevation, the air temperature did not drop below freezing the night of May 20 and had risen to 6 degrees Celsius by the time of the overflight on May 21. These temperature conditions support the presence of melting snow at the surface as the AVIRIS data were acquired.

  12. Field-deployable diode-laser-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL) for profiling water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spuler, S. M.; Repasky, K. S.; Morley, B.; Moen, D.; Hayman, M.; Nehrir, A. R.

    2015-03-01

    A field-deployable water vapor profiling instrument that builds on the foundation of the preceding generations of diode-laser-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL) laboratory prototypes was constructed and tested. Significant advances are discussed, including a unique shared telescope design that allows expansion of the outgoing beam for eye-safe operation with optomechanical and thermal stability; multistage optical filtering enabling measurement during daytime bright-cloud conditions; rapid spectral switching between the online and offline wavelengths enabling measurements during changing atmospheric conditions; and enhanced performance at lower ranges by the introduction of a new filter design and the addition of a wide field-of-view channel. Performance modeling, testing, and intercomparisons are performed and discussed. In general, the instrument has a 150 m range resolution with a 10 min temporal resolution; 1 min temporal resolution in the lowest 2 km of the atmosphere is demonstrated. The instrument is shown capable of autonomous long-term field operation - 50 days with a > 95% uptime - under a broad set of atmospheric conditions and potentially forms the basis for a ground-based network of eye-safe autonomous instruments needed for the atmospheric sciences research and forecasting communities.

  13. 3-D water vapor field in the atmospheric boundary layer observed with scanning differential absorption lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Späth, Florian; Behrendt, Andreas; Muppa, Shravan Kumar; Metzendorf, Simon; Riede, Andrea; Wulfmeyer, Volker

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) water vapor data of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) are required to improve our understanding of land-atmosphere exchange processes. For this purpose, the scanning differential absorption lidar (DIAL) of the University of Hohenheim (UHOH) was developed as well as new analysis tools and visualization methods. The instrument determines 3-D fields of the atmospheric water vapor number density with a temporal resolution of a few seconds and a spatial resolution of up to a few tens of meters. We present three case studies from two field campaigns. In spring 2013, the UHOH DIAL was operated within the scope of the HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE) in western Germany. HD(CP)2 stands for High Definition of Clouds and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction and is a German research initiative. Range-height indicator (RHI) scans of the UHOH DIAL show the water vapor heterogeneity within a range of a few kilometers up to an altitude of 2 km and its impact on the formation of clouds at the top of the ABL. The uncertainty of the measured data was assessed for the first time by extending a technique to scanning data, which was formerly applied to vertical time series. Typically, the accuracy of the DIAL measurements is between 0.5 and 0.8 g m-3 (or < 6 %) within the ABL even during daytime. This allows for performing a RHI scan from the surface to an elevation angle of 90° within 10 min. In summer 2014, the UHOH DIAL participated in the Surface Atmosphere Boundary Layer Exchange (SABLE) campaign in southwestern Germany. Conical volume scans were made which reveal multiple water vapor layers in three dimensions. Differences in their heights in different directions can be attributed to different surface elevation. With low-elevation scans in the surface layer, the humidity profiles and gradients can be related to different land cover such as maize, grassland, and forest as well as different surface layer

  14. Creating an automated chiller fault detection and diagnostics tool using a data fault library.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Margaret B; Kreider, Jan F

    2003-07-01

    Reliable, automated detection and diagnosis of abnormal behavior within vapor compression refrigeration cycle (VCRC) equipment is extremely desirable for equipment owners and operators. The specific type of VCRC equipment studied in this paper is a 70-ton helical rotary, air-cooled chiller. The fault detection and diagnostic (FDD) tool developed as part of this research analyzes chiller operating data and detects faults through recognizing trends or patterns existing within the data. The FDD method incorporates a neural network (NN) classifier to infer the current state given a vector of observables. Therefore the FDD method relies upon the availability of normal and fault empirical data for training purposes and therefore a fault library of empirical data is assembled. This paper presents procedures for conducting sophisticated fault experiments on chillers that simulate air-cooled condenser, refrigerant, and oil related faults. The experimental processes described here are not well documented in literature and therefore will provide the interested reader with a useful guide. In addition, the authors provide evidence, based on both thermodynamics and empirical data analysis, that chiller performance is significantly degraded during fault operation. The chiller's performance degradation is successfully detected and classified by the NN FDD classifier as discussed in the paper's final section. PMID:12858981

  15. Alternative refrigerant performance: Field test of a nonchlorofluorocarbon chiller at Fort Leonard Wood, MO. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, C.W.; Tomlinson, J.J.; Herring, N.C.; Boughton, B.E.

    1995-01-01

    Production of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants will stop permanently by the end of 1995, and air-conditioning and refrigeration (AC/R) systems will have to use alternatives to CFC. The U.S. Army`s AC/R systems have a total cooling capacity of more than 1 million tons; approximately 55 percent of these systems use CFC-based refrigerants. Chillers currently using CFC refrigerants must be replaced or converted to operate with non-CFC refrigerants. The U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL) and the U.S. Army Center for Public Works (USACPW) are doing research to find an efficient, alternative refrigerant for Army installations. The current project monitored the performance of a non-CFC (R-134a) centrifugal chiller at Fort Leonard Wood (FLW), MO. Performance of this chiller under field conditions was compared with the manufacturer`s published ratings. Operational characteristics of the R-134a chiller were obtained by measuring electrical energy consumption, cooling delivered to the chiller cooling loop, and heat rejected by the condenser. Results indicated an average performance of approximately 0.68 kilowatts per ton (kW/ton) for the study period. The manufacturer`s design projection was 0.73 kW/ton. The performance evaluation of the R-134a system shows that it is an efficient addition to the FLW facility.

  16. Osmotic pressure, water kinetics and volatile fatty acid absorption in the rumen of sheep sustained by intragastric infusions.

    PubMed

    López, S; Hovell, F D; MacLeod, N A

    1994-02-01

    The effects of changing rumen osmotic pressure (OP) upon water kinetics and volatile fatty acid (VFA) absorption in the rumen of sheep were studied in two 4 x 4 Latin square experiments, each using four lambs with a rumen cannula and an abomasal catheter. In both experiments the lambs were sustained by the intragastric infusion of all nutrients (VFA, Ca, P, Mg and a buffer solution into the rumen, and casein, vitamins and trace elements into the abomasum). On experimental days, which were at least 1 week apart, drinking water and the casein infusion were withdrawn, and the ruminal OP was changed and held constant for 9.5 h, by incorporating NaCl at different concentrations in the buffer solution being infused. In Expt 1 the target OP values were 300, 340, 380 and 420 mosmol/kg, and in Expt 2 were 261 (no saline addition), 350, 420 and 490 mosmol/kg. Using soluble non-absorbable markers (PEG in continuous infusion and Cr-EDTA injected in pulse doses) rumen volume, liquid outflow rates, apparent water absorption through the rumen wall and VFA absorption rates were estimated at six sampling times corresponding to the 1.5 h intervals during the last 7.5 h following the change in rumen OP. Liquid outflow rate (F; ml/h) showed a significant and positive linear relationship with the rumen OP (mosmol/kg), resulting in the equation F = 1.24 OP (SE 0.096)-36.5 (SE 36.6) (r2 0.96). Similarly, water absorption rate (W; ml/h) was significantly affected by rumen OP, and this relationship was given by W = 395 (SE 39.9)-1.16 OP (SE 0.105) (r2 0.95), which means that for an OP of 341 mosmol/kg the net movement of water across the rumen wall would be zero, and either a net efflux or a net influx of water would be observed with lower or higher OP respectively. In Expt 2 there was a significant linear effect of OP on rumen volume (P < 0.01), with higher OP being associated with increases in rumen liquid contents of about 10-20%. As rumen OP was increased there was also a decline in

  17. PTHrP regulates water absorption and aquaporin expression in the intestine of the marine sea bream (Sparus aurata, L.).

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Edison S M; Gregório, Sílvia F; Canário, Adelino V M; Power, Deborah M; Fuentes, Juan

    2015-03-01

    Water ingestion by drinking is fundamental for ion homeostasis in marine fish. However, the fluid ingested requires processing to allow net water absorption in the intestine. The formation of luminal carbonate aggregates impacts on calcium homeostasis and requires epithelial HCO3(-) secretion to enable water absorption. In light of its endocrine importance in calcium handling and the indication of involvement in HCO3(-) secretion the present study was designed to expose the role of the parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) in HCO3(-) secretion, water absorption and the regulation of aqp1 gene expression in the anterior intestine of the sea bream. HCO3(-) secretion rapidly decreased when PTHrP(1-34) was added to anterior intestine of the sea bream mounted in Ussing chambers. The effect achieved a maximum inhibition of 60% of basal secretion rates, showing a threshold effective dose of 0.1 ng ml(-1) compatible with reported plasma values of PTHrP. When applied in combination with the adenylate cyclase inhibitor (SQ 22.536, 100 μmol l(-1)) or the phospholipase C inhibitor (U73122, 10 μmol l(-1)) the effect of PTHrP(1-34) on HCO3(-) secretion was reduced by about 50% in both cases. In parallel, bulk water absorption measured in intestinal sacs was sensitive to inhibition by PTHrP. The inhibitory action conforms to a typical dose-response curve in the range of 0.1-1000 ng ml(-1), achieves a maximal effect of 60-65% inhibition from basal rates and shows threshold significant effects at hormone levels of 0.1 ng ml(-1). The action of PTHrP in water absorption was completely abolished in the presence of the adenylate cyclase inhibitor (SQ 22.536, 100 μmol l(-1)) and was insensitive to the phospholipase C inhibitor (U73122, 10 μmol l(-1)). In vivo injections of PTHrP(1-34) or the PTH/PTHrP receptor antagonist PTHrP(7-34) evoked respectively, a significant decrease or increase of aqp1ab, but not aqp1a. Overall the present results suggest that PTHrP acts as a key

  18. PTHrP regulates water absorption and aquaporin expression in the intestine of the marine sea bream (Sparus aurata, L.).

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Edison S M; Gregório, Sílvia F; Canário, Adelino V M; Power, Deborah M; Fuentes, Juan

    2015-03-01

    Water ingestion by drinking is fundamental for ion homeostasis in marine fish. However, the fluid ingested requires processing to allow net water absorption in the intestine. The formation of luminal carbonate aggregates impacts on calcium homeostasis and requires epithelial HCO3(-) secretion to enable water absorption. In light of its endocrine importance in calcium handling and the indication of involvement in HCO3(-) secretion the present study was designed to expose the role of the parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) in HCO3(-) secretion, water absorption and the regulation of aqp1 gene expression in the anterior intestine of the sea bream. HCO3(-) secretion rapidly decreased when PTHrP(1-34) was added to anterior intestine of the sea bream mounted in Ussing chambers. The effect achieved a maximum inhibition of 60% of basal secretion rates, showing a threshold effective dose of 0.1 ng ml(-1) compatible with reported plasma values of PTHrP. When applied in combination with the adenylate cyclase inhibitor (SQ 22.536, 100 μmol l(-1)) or the phospholipase C inhibitor (U73122, 10 μmol l(-1)) the effect of PTHrP(1-34) on HCO3(-) secretion was reduced by about 50% in both cases. In parallel, bulk water absorption measured in intestinal sacs was sensitive to inhibition by PTHrP. The inhibitory action conforms to a typical dose-response curve in the range of 0.1-1000 ng ml(-1), achieves a maximal effect of 60-65% inhibition from basal rates and shows threshold significant effects at hormone levels of 0.1 ng ml(-1). The action of PTHrP in water absorption was completely abolished in the presence of the adenylate cyclase inhibitor (SQ 22.536, 100 μmol l(-1)) and was insensitive to the phospholipase C inhibitor (U73122, 10 μmol l(-1)). In vivo injections of PTHrP(1-34) or the PTH/PTHrP receptor antagonist PTHrP(7-34) evoked respectively, a significant decrease or increase of aqp1ab, but not aqp1a. Overall the present results suggest that PTHrP acts as a key

  19. Laser absorption spectroscopy of water vapor confined in nanoporous alumina: wall collision line broadening and gas diffusion dynamics.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Tomas; Lewander, Märta; Svanberg, Sune

    2010-08-01

    We demonstrate high-resolution tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) of water vapor confined in nanoporous alumina. Strong multiple light scattering results in long photon pathlengths (1 m through a 6 mm sample). We report on strong line broadening due to frequent wall collisions (gas-surface interactions). For the water vapor line at 935.685 nm, the HWHM of confined molecules are about 4.3 GHz as compared to 2.9 GHz for free molecules (atmospheric pressure). Gas diffusion is also investigated, and in contrast to molecular oxygen (that moves rapidly in and out of the alumina), the exchange of water vapor is found very slow.

  20. Non-isothermal effects on SO2 absorption by water droplets. I - Model development. II - Results and discussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reda, M.; Carmichael, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    An analytic model of SO2 absorption in a falling water droplet is developed and a simulation of SO2 washout is performed. Nonisothermic effects on drop growth, droplet physical parameters, reaction rates, and multicomponent diffusion are treated in the model. The gas-liquid interface is assumed to be at equilibrium, and interfacial resistance is negligible. Raindrops are simulated as falling from a 2 km height through an atmospheric region containing SO2. The droplets decrease in size from evaporation and cooling, and their slightly basic pH aids SO2 absorption. The simulation indicates higher SO2 absorption at higher altitudes, and desorption may occur at ground level. Isothermal effects are concluded to be significant, and quantification of effects will depend on further modelling.

  1. Nano-sized water-in-oil-in-water emulsion enhances intestinal absorption of calcein, a high solubility and low permeability compound.

    PubMed

    Koga, Kenjiro; Takarada, Nobuo; Takada, Kanji

    2010-02-01

    Our goal was to develop safe and stable multilayer emulsions capable of enhancing intestinal absorption of biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) class III drugs. First, w/o emulsions were prepared using calcein as a model BCS class III compound and condensed ricinoleic acid tetraglycerin ester as a hydrophobic emulsifier. Then water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) emulsions were prepared with shirasu porous glass (SPG) membranes. Particle size analyses and calcein leakage from oil droplets in w/o/w emulsions led us to select stearic acid hexaglycerin esters (HS-11) and Gelucire 44/14 as hydrophilic emulsifiers. Analyses of the absorption-enhancing effects of w/o/w emulsions on intestinal calcein absorption in rats showed that calcein bioavailability after intraduodenal (i.d.) administration of HS-11 or Gelucire 44/14+polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) w/o/w emulsions prepared with 0.1-microm pore-sized SPGs was significantly higher than that of the calcein control. However, serum calcein concentration vs. time profiles after i.d. administration of w/o/w emulsions prepared with 1.1-microm and 30-microm pore-sized SPGs and an emulsion prepared with a calcein-containing outer water phase were comparable to control profiles. These results suggested that HS-11 or Gelucire 44/14+PVA are safe outer water phase additives and that 0.1-microm pore-sized SPGs are important for preparing w/o/w emulsions that enhanced intestinal calcein absorption.

  2. Thermodynamic optimization of a solar system for cogeneration of water heating/purification and absorption cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovsapian, Zohrob O.

    This dissertation presents a contribution to understanding the behavior of solar powered air conditioning and refrigeration systems with a view to determining the manner in which refrigeration rate; mass flows, heat transfer areas, and internal architecture are related. A cogeneration system consisting of a solar concentrator, a cavity-type receiver, a gas burner, and a thermal storage reservoir is devised to simultaneously produce water heating/purification and cooling (absorption refrigerator system). A simplified mathematical model, which combines fundamental and empirical correlations, and principles of classical thermodynamics, mass and heat transfer, is developed. An experimental setup was built to adjust and validate the numerical results obtained with the mathematical model. The proposed model is then utilized to simulate numerically the system transient and steady state response under different operating and design conditions. A system global optimization for maximum performance (or minimum exergy destruction) in the search for minimum pull-down and pull-up times, and maximum system second law efficiency is performed with low computational time. Appropriate dimensionless groups are identified and the results presented in normalized charts for general application. The numerical results show that the three way maximized system second law efficiency, etaII,max,max,max, occurs when three system characteristic mass flow rates are optimally selected in general terms as dimensionless heat capacity rates, i.e., (Psisps , Psiwxwx, PsiHs)opt ≅ (1.43, 0.17, 0.19). The minimum pull-down and pull-up times, and maximum second law efficiencies found with respect to the optimized operating parameters are sharp and, therefore important to be considered in actual design. As a result, the model is expected to be a useful tool for simulation, design, and optimization of solar energy systems in the context of distributed power generation.

  3. Radiation effects in water ice: A near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laffon, C.; Lacombe, S.; Bournel, F.; Parent, Ph.

    2006-11-01

    The changes in the structure and composition of vapor-deposited ice films irradiated at 20K with soft x-ray photons (3-900eV) and their subsequent evolution with temperatures between 20 and 150K have been investigated by near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) at the oxygen K edge. We observe the hydroxyl OH, the atomic oxygen O, and the hydroperoxyl HO2 radicals, as well as the oxygen O2 and hydrogen peroxide H2O2 molecules in irradiated porous amorphous solid water (p-ASW) and crystalline (Icryst) ice films. The evolution of their concentrations with the temperature indicates that HO2, O2, and H2O2 result from a simple step reaction fuelled by OH, where O2 is a product of HO2 and HO2 a product of H2O2. The local order of ice is also modified, whatever the initial structure is. The crystalline ice Icryst becomes amorphous. The high-density amorphous phase (Iah ) of ice is observed after irradiation of the p-ASW film, whose initial structure is the normal low-density form of the amorphous ice (Ial). The phase Iah is thus peculiar to irradiated ice and does not exist in the as-deposited ice films. A new "very high density" amorphous phase—we call Iavh—is obtained after warming at 50K the irradiated p-ASW ice. This phase is stable up to 90K and partially transforms into crystalline ice at 150K.

  4. Meta-Analysis of the Copper, Zinc, and Cadmium Absorption Capacities of Aquatic Plants in Heavy Metal-Polluted Water

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Yu, Haixin; Luan, Yaning

    2015-01-01

    The use of aquatic plants for phytoremediation is an important method for restoring polluted ecosystems. We sought to analyze the capacity of different aquatic plant species to absorb heavy metals and to summarize available relevant scientific data on this topic. We present a meta-analysis of Cu, Zn, and Cd absorption capacities of aquatic plants to provide a scientific basis for the selection of aquatic plants suitable for remediation of heavy-metal pollution. Plants from the Gramineae, Pontederiaceae, Ceratophyllaceae, Typhaceae and Haloragaceae showed relatively strong abilities to absorb these metals. The ability of a particular plant species to absorb a given metal was strongly correlated with its ability to absorb the other metals. However, the absorption abilities varied with the plant organ, with the following trend: roots > stems > leaves. The pH of the water and the life habits of aquatic plants (submerged and emerged) also affect the plant’s ability to absorb elements. Acidic water aids the uptake of heavy metals by plants. The correlation observed between element concentrations in plants with different aquatic life habits suggested that the enrichment mechanism is related to the surface area of the plant exposed to water. We argue that this meta-analysis would aid the selection of aquatic plants suitable for heavy-metal absorption from polluted waters. PMID:26703632

  5. Meta-Analysis of the Copper, Zinc, and Cadmium Absorption Capacities of Aquatic Plants in Heavy Metal-Polluted Water.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Yu, Haixin; Luan, Yaning

    2015-12-01

    The use of aquatic plants for phytoremediation is an important method for restoring polluted ecosystems. We sought to analyze the capacity of different aquatic plant species to absorb heavy metals and to summarize available relevant scientific data on this topic. We present a meta-analysis of Cu, Zn, and Cd absorption capacities of aquatic plants to provide a scientific basis for the selection of aquatic plants suitable for remediation of heavy-metal pollution. Plants from the Gramineae, Pontederiaceae, Ceratophyllaceae, Typhaceae and Haloragaceae showed relatively strong abilities to absorb these metals. The ability of a particular plant species to absorb a given metal was strongly correlated with its ability to absorb the other metals. However, the absorption abilities varied with the plant organ, with the following trend: roots > stems > leaves. The pH of the water and the life habits of aquatic plants (submerged and emerged) also affect the plant's ability to absorb elements. Acidic water aids the uptake of heavy metals by plants. The correlation observed between element concentrations in plants with different aquatic life habits suggested that the enrichment mechanism is related to the surface area of the plant exposed to water. We argue that this meta-analysis would aid the selection of aquatic plants suitable for heavy-metal absorption from polluted waters. PMID:26703632

  6. The influence of recycled expanded polystyrene (EPS) on concrete properties: Influence on flexural strength, water absorption and shrinkage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsalah, Jamaleddin; Al-Sahli, Yosra; Akish, Ahmed; Saad, Omar; Hakemi, Abdurrahman

    2013-12-01

    Expanded polystyrene waste in a granular form was used as a lightweight aggregate in order to produce lightweight concretë Lightweight EPS concrete composites were produced by replacing the coarse aggregate, either partially or fully with equal volume of EPS aggregates. The coarse aggregate replacements levels used were 25, 50, 75, and 100%, which corresponded to (9.20, 18.40, 27.60, and 36.8%) from total volume. The investigation is directed towards the development and performance evaluation of the concrete composites containing EPS aggregates, without addition of either bonding additives, or super-plasticizers on some concrete properties such as flexure strength, water absorption and change in length (or shrinkage). Experimental results showed that a density reduction of 12% caused flexure strength to decrease by 25.3% at a replacement level of 25% EPS. However, the reduction percentage strongly depends upon the replacement level of EPS granules. Moreover, the lower strength concretes showed a higher water absorption values compared to higher strength concrete, i.e., increasing the volume percentage of EPS increases the water absorption as well as the negative strain (shrinkage). The negative strain was higher at concretes of lower density (containing a high amount of EPS aggregate). The water to cement ratio of EPS aggregate concrete is found to be slightly lower than that of conventional concrete.

  7. Meta-Analysis of the Copper, Zinc, and Cadmium Absorption Capacities of Aquatic Plants in Heavy Metal-Polluted Water.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Yu, Haixin; Luan, Yaning

    2015-11-26

    The use of aquatic plants for phytoremediation is an important method for restoring polluted ecosystems. We sought to analyze the capacity of different aquatic plant species to absorb heavy metals and to summarize available relevant scientific data on this topic. We present a meta-analysis of Cu, Zn, and Cd absorption capacities of aquatic plants to provide a scientific basis for the selection of aquatic plants suitable for remediation of heavy-metal pollution. Plants from the Gramineae, Pontederiaceae, Ceratophyllaceae, Typhaceae and Haloragaceae showed relatively strong abilities to absorb these metals. The ability of a particular plant species to absorb a given metal was strongly correlated with its ability to absorb the other metals. However, the absorption abilities varied with the plant organ, with the following trend: roots > stems > leaves. The pH of the water and the life habits of aquatic plants (submerged and emerged) also affect the plant's ability to absorb elements. Acidic water aids the uptake of heavy metals by plants. The correlation observed between element concentrations in plants with different aquatic life habits suggested that the enrichment mechanism is related to the surface area of the plant exposed to water. We argue that this meta-analysis would aid the selection of aquatic plants suitable for heavy-metal absorption from polluted waters.

  8. WVR-GPS comparison measurements and calibration of the 20-32 GHz tropospheric water vapor absorption model.

    SciTech Connect

    Keihm, S. J.; Bar-Server, Y.; Liljegren, J. C.; Environmental Research; NASA

    2002-06-01

    Collocated measurements of opacity (from water vapor radiometer brightness temperatures) and wet path delay (from ground-based tracking of global positioning satellites) are used to constrain the model of atmospheric water vapor absorption in the 20-32 GHz band. A differential approach is presented in which the slope of opacity-versus-wet delay data is used as the absorption model constraint. This technique minimizes the effects of radiometric calibration errors and oxygen model uncertainties in the derivation of a best-fit vapor absorption model. A total of approximately five months of data was obtained from two experiment sites. At the Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site near Lamont, Oklahoma, three independent water vapor radiometers (WVRs) provided near-continuous opacity measurements over the interval July-September 1998. At the NASA/Goldstone tracking station in the California desert two WVRs; obtained opacity data over the September-October 1997 interval. At both sites a Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) receiver and surface barometer obtained the data required for deriving the zenith wet delays over the same time frames. Measured values of the opacity-versus-wet delay slope parameter were obtained at four WVR frequencies (20.7, 22.2, 23.8, and 31.4 GHz) and compared with predictions of four candidate absorption models referenced in the literature. With one exception, all three models provide agreement within 5% of the opacity-versus-wet delay slope measurements at all WVR frequencies at both sites. One model provides agreement for all channels at both sites to the 2-3% level. This absorption model accuracy level represents a significant improvement over that attainable using radiosondes.

  9. Experimental study of negative temperatures in lithium-bromide absorption refrigerating machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, K. I.; Mukhin, D. G.; Alekseenko, S. V.; Volkova, O. V.

    2015-07-01

    The authors have developed a method and presented experimental data for obtaining negative temperatures of evaporation in lithium-bromide absorption chillers driven by heat recovery. It has been found that the attainable temperature of the refrigerated medium is the value of -5 °C.

  10. An assessment of microwave absorption models and retrievals of cloud liquid water using clear-sky data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, Roger; Ackerman, Thomas; Westwater, Ed R.; Clough, Shepard A.; Cady-Pereira, Karen; Liljegren, James C.

    2003-12-01

    Passive microwave radiometers have a long history in the remote sensing of atmospheric liquid and water vapor. Retrievals of these quantities are sensitive to variations in pressure and temperature of the liquid and water vapor. Rather than use a statistical or climatological approach to account for the natural variability in atmospheric pressure and temperature, additional information on the atmospheric profile at the time of the radiometer measurements can be directly incorporated into the retrieval process. Such an approach has been referred to in the literature as a "physical-iterative" solution. This paper presents an assessment of the accuracy of the column liquid water path that can be expected using such an iterative technique as a result of uncertainties in the microwave emissions from oxygen and water vapor. It is shown that the retrieval accuracy is influenced by the accuracy of the instrument measurements and the quality of the atmospheric profiles of temperature and pressure, as one would expect. However, also critical is the uncertainty in the absorption coefficients used in the underlying microwave radiative transfer model. The uncertainty in the absorption coefficients is particularly problematic in that it may well bias the liquid water retrieval. The differences between three absorption models examined in this paper are equivalent to a bias of 15 to 30 g/m2, depending on the total column water vapor. An examination of typical liquid water paths from the Southern Great Plains region of the United States shows that errors of this magnitude have significant implications for shortwave radiation and retrievals of cloud effective particle size.

  11. Evaluation of chiller modeling approaches and their usability for fault detection

    SciTech Connect

    Sreedharan, Priya

    2001-05-01

    Selecting the model is an important and essential step in model based fault detection and diagnosis (FDD). Several factors must be considered in model evaluation, including accuracy, training data requirements, calibration effort, generality, and computational requirements. All modeling approaches fall somewhere between pure first-principles models, and empirical models. The objective of this study was to evaluate different modeling approaches for their applicability to model based FDD of vapor compression air conditioning units, which are commonly known as chillers. Three different models were studied: two are based on first-principles and the third is empirical in nature. The first-principles models are the Gordon and Ng Universal Chiller model (2nd generation), and a modified version of the ASHRAE Primary Toolkit model, which are both based on first principles. The DOE-2 chiller model as implemented in CoolTools{trademark} was selected for the empirical category. The models were compared in terms of their ability to reproduce the observed performance of an older chiller operating in a commercial building, and a newer chiller in a laboratory. The DOE-2 and Gordon-Ng models were calibrated by linear regression, while a direct-search method was used to calibrate the Toolkit model. The ''CoolTools'' package contains a library of calibrated DOE-2 curves for a variety of different chillers, and was used to calibrate the building chiller to the DOE-2 model. All three models displayed similar levels of accuracy. Of the first principles models, the Gordon-Ng model has the advantage of being linear in the parameters, which allows more robust parameter estimation methods to be used and facilitates estimation of the uncertainty in the parameter values. The ASHRAE Toolkit Model may have advantages when refrigerant temperature measurements are also available. The DOE-2 model can be expected to have advantages when very limited data are available to calibrate the model, as

  12. [Generation of reactive oxygen species in water under exposure of visible or infrared irradiation at absorption band of molecular oxygen].

    PubMed

    Gudkov, S V; Karp, O E; Garmash, S A; Ivanov, V E; Chernikov, A V; Manokhin, A A; Astashev, M E; Iaguzhinskiĭ, L S; Bruskov, V I

    2012-01-01

    It is found that in bidistilled water saturated with oxygen hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals are formed under the influence of visible and infrared radiation in the absorption bands of molecular oxygen. Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurs under the influence of both solar and artificial light sourses, including the coherent laser irradiation. The oxygen effect, i.e. the impact of dissolved oxygen concentration on production of hydrogen peroxide induced by light, is detected. It is shown that the visible and infrared radiation in the absorption bands of molecular oxygen leads to the formation of 8-oxoguanine in DNA in vitro. Physicochemical mechanisms of ROS formation in water when exposed to visible and infrared light are studied, and the involvement of singlet oxygen and superoxide anion radicals in this process is shown.

  13. Absorption of water and sodium and activity of adenosine triphosphatases in the rectal mucosa in tropical sprue.

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishna, B S; Mathan, V I

    1988-01-01

    In 10 southern Indian patients with tropical sprue, in vivo dialysis showed a defect of absorption of water and sodium from the rectum, when compared with 11 healthy volunteers. Sodium-potassium-ATPase activity, measured in homogenates of rectal biopsies, was significantly diminished in patients with sprue. Magnesium-ATPase and alkaline phosphatase were normal in biopsy homogenates. Decreased activity of colonic sodium-potassium-ATPase may contribute to diarrhoea in some patients with tropical sprue. PMID:2840363

  14. The relationship between water absorption characteristics and the mechanical strength of resin-modified glass-ionomer cements in long-term water storage.

    PubMed

    Akashi, A; Matsuya, Y; Unemori, M; Akamine, A

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate the water absorption characteristics of resin-modified glass-ionomer cements and to also investigate the relationship between the characteristics and mechanical strength after long-term water storage. The mechanism of water diffusion in these cements is also discussed. Water absorption was measured using a gravimetric analysis for 12 m, while the diffusion coefficient was calculated using Fick's law of diffusion. Water solubility was determined based on the weight of the residue in the immersed water. The compressive and diametral tensile strength were measured at 1, 2, 6, and 12 m. A correlation was observed between the diffusion coefficient and equilibrium water uptake, which thus suggests the water in the cements to diffuse through micro-voids in accordance with the 'Free volumetric theory'. A correlation was seen between the solubility and diffusion coefficient of the cements. The deterioration ratio, defined as the ratio of the strength at 12 m versus that at 1 m, was also calculated. Finally, a negative correlation was observed between the deterioration ratio of the compressive strength and the diffusion coefficients of the cements.

  15. Biogeochemical origins of particles obtained from the inversion of the volume scattering function and spectral absorption in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Huot, Y.; Gray, D. J.; Weidemann, A.; Rhea, W. J.

    2013-09-01

    In the aquatic environment, particles can be broadly separated into phytoplankton (PHY), non-algal particle (NAP) and dissolved (or very small particle, VSP) fractions. Typically, absorption spectra are inverted to quantify these fractions, but volume scattering functions (VSFs) can also be used. Both absorption spectra and VSFs were used to estimate particle fractions for an experiment in the Chesapeake Bay. A complete set of water inherent optical properties was measured using a suite of commercial instruments and a prototype Multispectral Volume Scattering Meter (MVSM); the chlorophyll concentration, [Chl] was determined using the HPLC method. The total scattering coefficient measured by an ac-s and the VSF at a few backward angles measured by a HydroScat-6 and an ECO-VSF agreed with the LISST and MVSM data within 5%, thus indicating inter-instrument consistency. The size distribution and scattering parameters for PHY, NAP and VSP were inverted from measured VSFs. For the absorption inversion, the "dissolved" absorption spectra were measured for filtrate passing through a 0.2 μm filter, whereas [Chl] and NAP absorption spectra were inverted from the particulate fraction. Even though the total scattering coefficient showed no correlation with [Chl], estimates of [Chl] from the VSF-inversion agreed well with the HPLC measurements (r = 0.68, mean relative errors = -20%). The scattering associated with NAP and VSP both correlated well with the NAP and "dissolved" absorption coefficients, respectively. While NAP dominated forward, and hence total, scattering, our results also suggest that the scattering by VSP was far from negligible and dominated backscattering. Since the sizes of VSP range from 0.02 to 0.2 μm, covering (a portion of) the operationally defined "dissolved" matter, the typical assumption that colored dissolved organic matter (i.e., CDOM) does not scatter may not hold, particularly in a coastal or estuarine environment.

  16. BELINDA: Broadband Emission Lidar with Narrowband Determination of Absorption. A new concept for measuring water vapor and temperature profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theopold, F. A.; Weitkamp, C.; Michaelis, W.

    1992-01-01

    We present a new concept for differential absorption lidar measurements of water vapor and temperature profiles. The idea is to use one broadband emission laser and a narrowband filter system for separation of the 'online' and 'offline' return signals. It is shown that BELINDA offers improvements as to laser emission shape and stability requirements, background suppression, and last and most important a significant reduction of the influence of Rayleigh scattering. A suitably designed system based on this concept is presented, capable of measuring water vapor or temperature profiles throughout the planetary boundary layer.

  17. Water vapor absorption in porous media polluted by calcium nitrate studied by time domain nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Gombia, Mirko; Bortolotti, Villiam; Brown, Robert J S; Camaiti, Mara; Cavallero, Luisa; Fantazzini, Paola

    2009-08-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation analysis of liquid water (1)H nuclei in real porous media, selected for their similar composition (carbonate rocks) and different pore space architecture, polluted with calcium nitrate, is presented to study the kinetics of water condensation and salt deliquescence inside the pore space. These phenomena are responsible for deterioration of porous materials when exposed to environmental injury by pollution in a humid atmosphere. The theory is well described for simple pore geometries, but it is not yet well understood in real porous media with wide distributions of pore sizes and connections. The experiment is performed by following in time the formation of liquid water inside the pore space by T(1) and T(2) relaxation time distributions. The distributions allow one to see the effects of both the salt concentration and the pore space structure on the amount of water vapor condensed and its kinetics. It is shown that, for a given lithotype, even with different amounts of pollutant, the rate-average relaxation time T(1ra) tends to increase monotonically with NMR signal, proportional to the amount of liquid water. T(1ra) is often inversely associated with surface-to-volume ratio. This suggests a trend toward the filling of larger pores as amounts of liquid water increase, but it does not indicate a strict sequential filling of pores in order of size and starting with the smallest; in fact, relaxation time distributions show clearly that this is not the case. Increased amounts of salt lead to both markedly increased rates and markedly increased amounts of water absorption. NMR measurements of amounts of water, together with relaxation time distributions, give the possibility of information on the effect of pollution in porous materials exposed to humid atmospheres but sheltered from liquid water, even before the absorption of large amounts of moisture and subsequent damage. These phenomena are of importance also in other fields

  18. Water vapor absorption in porous media polluted by calcium nitrate studied by time domain nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Gombia, Mirko; Bortolotti, Villiam; Brown, Robert J S; Camaiti, Mara; Cavallero, Luisa; Fantazzini, Paola

    2009-08-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation analysis of liquid water (1)H nuclei in real porous media, selected for their similar composition (carbonate rocks) and different pore space architecture, polluted with calcium nitrate, is presented to study the kinetics of water condensation and salt deliquescence inside the pore space. These phenomena are responsible for deterioration of porous materials when exposed to environmental injury by pollution in a humid atmosphere. The theory is well described for simple pore geometries, but it is not yet well understood in real porous media with wide distributions of pore sizes and connections. The experiment is performed by following in time the formation of liquid water inside the pore space by T(1) and T(2) relaxation time distributions. The distributions allow one to see the effects of both the salt concentration and the pore space structure on the amount of water vapor condensed and its kinetics. It is shown that, for a given lithotype, even with different amounts of pollutant, the rate-average relaxation time T(1ra) tends to increase monotonically with NMR signal, proportional to the amount of liquid water. T(1ra) is often inversely associated with surface-to-volume ratio. This suggests a trend toward the filling of larger pores as amounts of liquid water increase, but it does not indicate a strict sequential filling of pores in order of size and starting with the smallest; in fact, relaxation time distributions show clearly that this is not the case. Increased amounts of salt lead to both markedly increased rates and markedly increased amounts of water absorption. NMR measurements of amounts of water, together with relaxation time distributions, give the possibility of information on the effect of pollution in porous materials exposed to humid atmospheres but sheltered from liquid water, even before the absorption of large amounts of moisture and subsequent damage. These phenomena are of importance also in other fields

  19. [Effects of tillage in fallow period on soil water and nitrogen absorption and translocation by wheat plant].

    PubMed

    Ren, Ai-Xia; Sun, Min; Zhao, Wei-Feng; Deng, Lian-Feng; Deng, Yan; Gao, Zhi-Qiang

    2013-12-01

    Field test was carried out to study the effect of tillage in fallow period on soil water before sowing and growth stages, and nitrogen (N) absorption, translocation by wheat plant. The current data showed that tillage in fallow period improved the soil water at the depth of 0-300 cm before sowing and growth stages, especially in dry years. Such tillage significantly improved N accumulation in leaf, stem and sheath (SS) at anthesis, grain N accumulation at maturity, N mobilization in SS and the contribution of mobilized N to grain N, amount of mobilized N in leaf, level of N accumulation before anthesis, N transportation from vegetative organs to grains after anthesis, and nitrogen accumulation after anthesis, which in turn enhanced the efficiency of N uptake. Deep tillage at 45 days after harvest had the best effect. Significant correlations were detected between soil water and N accumulation before anthesis as well as N translation from vegetative organs grains after anthesis, particularly in dry years, while the correlation between soil water from sowing to an thesis and nitrogen accumulation amount after anthesis was significant in wet years, but not in dry years. Tillage in fallow period especially deep tillage after raining could benefit soil water preservation, as well as N absorption and translocation by plant.

  20. EEAP - boiler/chiller study, Ft. Dix, New Jersey. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    1987-12-31

    This report covering the twenty-two boilers and three chillers at Ft. Dix, New Jersey, has identified well over $1,600,000.00 of potential energy savings. All of the savings recommendations have been cordially reviewed by Ft. Dix personnel and several have already been agreed upon for implementation.

  1. Evaluation of HFC-245ca for commercial use in low pressure chillers. Final report, Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Keuper, E.F.

    1996-03-01

    Federal regulations banned the production of CFC-11 on January 1, 1996. HCFC-123, the only commercial alternative, will be limited to service applications after January 1, 2020 and will be eliminated from production on January 1, 2030. HFC-245ca has been identified as a potential replacement for CFC-11 in retrofit applications and for HCFC-123 in new chillers, but the marginal flammability of HFC-245ca is a major obstacle to its commercial use as a refrigerant in the United States. This report assesses the commercial viability of HFC-245ca based on its experimental performance in a direct drive low pressure centrifugal chiller exclusive of its flammability characteristics. Three different impeller diameters were tested in the chiller, with all impellers having identical discharge blade angles. Experimental work included tests in a 200 ton 3 stage direct drive chiller with 3 impeller sets properly sized for each of three refrigerants, CFC-11, HCFC-123, and HFC-245ca. The commercial viability assessment focused on both retrofit and new product performance and cost.

  2. IDENTIFYING AND EVALUATING ALTERNATIVES TO CFC-114 FOR NAVY SHIPBOARD CHILLERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper outlines EPA's role in investigating alternatives to replace the chlorofluorocarbon CFC-114 (1,1,2,2-tetrafluorodichloroethane) as the refrigerant in retrofitted Navy shipboard chillers. The isomers HFC-236ea (1,1,1,2,3,3-hexafluoropropane) and HFC-236fa (1,1,1,3,3,3-he...

  3. Optimal design of solid oxide fuel cell, ammonia-water single effect absorption cycle and Rankine steam cycle hybrid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrpooya, Mehdi; Dehghani, Hossein; Ali Moosavian, S. M.

    2016-02-01

    A combined system containing solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine power plant, Rankine steam cycle and ammonia-water absorption refrigeration system is introduced and analyzed. In this process, power, heat and cooling are produced. Energy and exergy analyses along with the economic factors are used to distinguish optimum operating point of the system. The developed electrochemical model of the fuel cell is validated with experimental results. Thermodynamic package and main parameters of the absorption refrigeration system are validated. The power output of the system is 500 kW. An optimization problem is defined in order to finding the optimal operating point. Decision variables are current density, temperature of the exhaust gases from the boiler, steam turbine pressure (high and medium), generator temperature and consumed cooling water. Results indicate that electrical efficiency of the combined system is 62.4% (LHV). Produced refrigeration (at -10 °C) and heat recovery are 101 kW and 22.1 kW respectively. Investment cost for the combined system (without absorption cycle) is about 2917 kW-1.

  4. Isotope effects in liquid water probed by transmission mode x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the oxygen K-edge.

    PubMed

    Schreck, Simon; Wernet, Philippe

    2016-09-14

    The effects of isotope substitution in liquid water are probed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the O K-edge as measured in transmission mode. Confirming earlier x-ray Raman scattering experiments, the D2O spectrum is found to be blue shifted with respect to H2O, and the D2O spectrum to be less broadened. Following the earlier interpretations of UV and x-ray Raman spectra, the shift is related to the difference in ground-state zero-point energies between D2O and H2O, while the difference in broadening is related to the difference in ground-state vibrational zero-point distributions. We demonstrate that the transmission-mode measurements allow for determining the spectral shapes with unprecedented accuracy. Owing in addition to the increased spectral resolution and signal to noise ratio compared to the earlier measurements, the new data enable the stringent determination of blue shift and broadening in the O K-edge x-ray absorption spectrum of liquid water upon isotope substitution. The results are compared to UV absorption data, and it is discussed to which extent they reflect the differences in zero-point energies and vibrational zero-point distributions in the ground-states of the liquids. The influence of the shape of the final-state potential, inclusion of the Franck-Condon structure, and differences between liquid H2O and D2O resulting from different hydrogen-bond environments in the liquids are addressed. The differences between the O K-edge absorption spectra of water from our transmission-mode measurements and from the state-of-the-art x-ray Raman scattering experiments are discussed in addition. The experimentally extracted values of blue shift and broadening are proposed to serve as a test for calculations of ground-state zero-point energies and vibrational zero-point distributions in liquid H2O and D2O. This clearly motivates the need for new calculations of the O K-edge x-ray absorption spectrum of liquid water. PMID:27634266

  5. Isotope effects in liquid water probed by transmission mode x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the oxygen K-edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreck, Simon; Wernet, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    The effects of isotope substitution in liquid water are probed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the O K-edge as measured in transmission mode. Confirming earlier x-ray Raman scattering experiments, the D2O spectrum is found to be blue shifted with respect to H2O, and the D2O spectrum to be less broadened. Following the earlier interpretations of UV and x-ray Raman spectra, the shift is related to the difference in ground-state zero-point energies between D2O and H2O, while the difference in broadening is related to the difference in ground-state vibrational zero-point distributions. We demonstrate that the transmission-mode measurements allow for determining the spectral shapes with unprecedented accuracy. Owing in addition to the increased spectral resolution and signal to noise ratio compared to the earlier measurements, the new data enable the stringent determination of blue shift and broadening in the O K-edge x-ray absorption spectrum of liquid water upon isotope substitution. The results are compared to UV absorption data, and it is discussed to which extent they reflect the differences in zero-point energies and vibrational zero-point distributions in the ground-states of the liquids. The influence of the shape of the final-state potential, inclusion of the Franck-Condon structure, and differences between liquid H2O and D2O resulting from different hydrogen-bond environments in the liquids are addressed. The differences between the O K-edge absorption spectra of water from our transmission-mode measurements and from the state-of-the-art x-ray Raman scattering experiments are discussed in addition. The experimentally extracted values of blue shift and broadening are proposed to serve as a test for calculations of ground-state zero-point energies and vibrational zero-point distributions in liquid H2O and D2O. This clearly motivates the need for new calculations of the O K-edge x-ray absorption spectrum of liquid water.

  6. Effect of curing agent polarity on water absorption and free volume in epoxy resin studied by PALS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junjun; Gong, Jing; Gong, Zhenli; Yan, Xiaoli; Wang, Bo; Wu, Qili; Li, Shanjun

    2010-07-01

    Microstructure and water absorption were systematically studied by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS), gravimetric measurements and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) for epoxy resins DER331 (E51) cured with three different kinds of amine curing agents DDS, DDM and MOCA. Experimental results indicated that the water absorption as a function of immersed time could be well fitted to Fick's second law. Based on the gravimetric measurement, we found that the equilibrium water sorption M∞ and the diffusion coefficients D of the epoxy resins have an order: E51-DDS > E51-DDM > E51-MOCA, which indicated that the curing agent plays an important role in determining the content of the water absorbed. Positron experimental results showed that the o-Ps lifetime dramatically decreased with the immersed time from 0 to 6 h, which suggested that water molecules were filled into free-volume holes and the interaction between the water-polymer decreased the mobility of molecular chains. In order to deeply discern the influence of water absorption upon the free volume, the continuous lifetime analysis, i.e. the maximum entropy lifetime method (MELT) was employed to obtain the distributions of the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime and the of the free-volume holes. From MELT analyses, we found the existences of two the long-lived components ( τ3 and τ4), which indicated that two kinds of different o-Ps states exist. The shorter long-lived component ( τ3) is related to the segmental packing density in local ordered region. Compared to dry sample, two peaks of the o-Ps lifetime and the free-volume hole in the wet samples all drift to low values, especially, this drifts is more marked for the water sorption occurring at higher temperature 75 °C. This fact suggested that when the epoxy resin is in the glassy state, the interaction between the water and matrix restricts the motion of segmental chains and prevents from the free-volume hole swelling.

  7. Microbial growth on pall rings: a problem when upgrading biogas with the water-wash absorption technique.

    PubMed

    Tynell, Asa; Börjesson, Gunnar; Persson, Margareta

    2007-01-01

    Biogas is upgraded using an absorption with water-wash technique by 11 of a total of 14 upgrading plants in Sweden. However, problems with microbial growth on the pall rings in the absorption column, and in one case in the desorption column, have a negative impact on the upgrading of raw gas to vehicle gas. Five of the nine biogas plants studied here have experienced problems with microbial growth. The objectives of this study were to identify such microbial growth and to determine possible factors for its control, in order to provide recommendations for process management. A questionnaire was sent out and visits were made to the upgrading plants to collect information about the upgrading process. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis was performed to determine microbial biomass and community structure in samples from four upgrading plants. In samples from two of the plants, methane-oxidizing bacteria (type I methanotrophs) were indicated, while samples from one of the other plants showed biomarkers indicating actinomycetes. Factors affecting development of microbial growth were found to be water quality and the pH and temperature of the process water. Plants that used wastewater in the upgrading process experienced far more problems than those using clean water of drinking quality.

  8. A broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer for aircraft measurements of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, nitrous acid, nitrogen dioxide, and water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, K.-E.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Dubé, W. P.; Langford, A. O.; Edwards, P. M.; Zarzana, K. J.; Stutz, J.; Lu, K.; Rohrer, F.; Zhang, Y.; Brown, S. S.

    2016-02-01

    We describe a two-channel broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer (BBCEAS) for aircraft measurements of glyoxal (CHOCHO), methylglyoxal (CH3COCHO), nitrous acid (HONO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and water (H2O). The instrument spans 361-389 and 438-468 nm, using two light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and a single grating spectrometer with a charge-coupled device (CCD) detector. Robust performance is achieved using a custom optical mounting system, high-power LEDs with electronic on/off modulation, high-reflectivity cavity mirrors, and materials that minimize analyte surface losses. We have successfully deployed this instrument during two aircraft and two ground-based field campaigns to date. The demonstrated precision (2σ) for retrievals of CHOCHO, HONO and NO2 are 34, 350, and 80 parts per trillion (pptv) in 5 s. The accuracy is 5.8, 9.0, and 5.0 %, limited mainly by the available absorption cross sections.

  9. A broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer for aircraft measurements of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, nitrous acid, nitrogen dioxide, and water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, K.-E.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Dubé, W. P.; Langford, A. O.; Edwards, P. M.; Zarzana, K. J.; Stutz, J.; Lu, K.; Rohrer, F.; Zhang, Y.; Brown, S. S.

    2015-10-01

    We describe a two-channel broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer (BBCEAS) for aircraft measurements of glyoxal (CHOCHO), methylglyoxal (CH3COCHO), nitrous acid (HONO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and water (H2O). The instrument spans 361-389 and 438-468 nm, using two light emitting diodes (LEDs) and a grating spectrometer with a charge-coupled device (CCD) detector. Robust performance is achieved using a custom optical mounting system, high power LEDs with electronic on/off modulation, state-of-the-art cavity mirrors, and materials that minimize analyte surface losses. We have successfully deployed this instrument during two aircraft and two ground-based field campaigns to date. The demonstrated precision (2σ) for retrievals of CHOCHO, HONO and NO2 are 34, 350 and 80 pptv in 5 s. The accuracy is 5.8, 9.0 and 5.0 % limited mainly by the available absorption cross sections.

  10. Optimization of a solar powered absorption cycle under Abu Dhabi's weather conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Alili, A.; Hwang, Y.; Radermacher, R.; Kubo, I.

    2010-12-15

    In order for the solar absorption air conditioners to become a real alternative to the conventional vapour compression systems, their performance has to be improved and their total cost has to be reduced. A solar powered absorption cycle is modeled using the Transient System Simulation (TRNSYS) program and Typical Meteorological Year 2 data of Abu Dhabi. It uses evacuated tube collectors to drive a 10 kW ammonia-water absorption chiller. Firstly, the system performance and its total cost are optimized separately using single objective optimization algorithms. The design variables considered are: the collector slope, the collector mass flow rate, the collector area and the storage tank volume. The single objective optimization results show that MATLAB global optimization methods agree with the TRNSYS optimizer. Secondly, MATLAB is used to solve a multi-objective optimization problem to improve the system's performance and cost, simultaneously. The optimum designs are presented using Pareto curve and show the potential improvements of the baseline system. (author)

  11. Determination of cadmium in spring water by graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after coprecipitation with ytterbium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Atsumi, Kousuke; Minami, Tomoharu; Ueda, Joichi

    2005-06-01

    A coprecipitation method with ytterbium hydroxide was studied for the determination of cadmium in water samples by graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Up to 40 ng of cadmium in water samples was quantitatively coprecipitated with ytterbium hydroxide at pH 8.0-11.2. The concentration factor was 100 fold. The coprecipitated cadmium was sensitively determined without any influence of ytterbium and the calibration curve was linear from 0.1 to 4 ng/mL of cadmium. The detection limit (signal/noise = 2) was 2.9 pg/mL in 100 mL of the initial sample solution. Twenty-nine diverse ions tested did not interfere with the determination in at least a 10000-fold mass ratio to cadmium. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of cadmium in spring water.

  12. Water absorption behavior and residual strength assessment of glass/epoxy and glass-carbon/epoxy hybrid composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, S. C.; Singh, B. P.; Mahato, K. K.; Rathore, D. K.; Prusty, R. K.; Ray, B. C.

    2016-02-01

    Present investigation is aimed to study the water absorption behaviour and evaluation of residual strength of glass fibre/epoxy (GE) and alternate plies of glass- carbon/epoxy (GCE) hybrid composite. Both the composite systems were exposed to water at 70°C. Specimens were weighed after certain time periods to study the water uptake kinetic. Flexural tests were conducted after 4, 100 and 450 hours of ageing to evaluate the effect of hot water ageing on the mechanical properties of these potential materials. The water uptake kinetic was found to follow Fickian diffusion kinetic for GE as well as GCE hybrid composite but the rate of diffusion was higher for GE composite over GCE composite. The water content was also higher in GE composite over GCE composite after 450 hours of ageing. Significant decrement in flexural strength was observed with the increase in ageing time. Presence of water in the composite also imparted significant embrittlement to the matrix as reflected in the decrease in strain at peak for both the composite systems.

  13. Measurements of mesospheric water vapour, aerosols and temperatures with the Spectral Absorption Line Imager (SALI-AT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, M. G.; Mullins, M.; Brown, S.; Sargoytchev, S. I.

    2001-08-01

    Water vapour concentration is one of the most important, yet one of the least known quantities of the mesosphere. Knowledge of water vapour concentration is the key to understanding many mesospheric processes, including the one that is primary focus of our investigation, mesospheric clouds (MC). The processes of formation and occurrence parameters of MC constitute an interesting problem in their own right, but recently evidence has been provided which suggests that they are a critical indicator of atmospheric change. The aim of the SALI-AT experiment is to make simultaneous (although not strictly collocated) measurements of water vapour, aerosols and temperature in the mesosphere and the mesopause region under twilight condition in the presence of mesospheric clouds. The water vapour will be measured in the regime of solar occultation utilizing a water vapour absorption band at 936 nm wavelength employing the SALI (Spectral Absorption Line Imager) instrument concept. A three-channel zenith photometer, AT-3, with wavelengths of 385 nm, 525 nm, and 1040 nm will measure Mie and Rayleigh scattering giving both mesospheric temperature profiles and the particle size distribution. Both instruments are small, low cost and low mass. It is envisioned that the SALI-AT experiment be flown on a small rocket - the Improved Orion/Hotel payload configuration, from the Andoya Rocket range, Norway. Alternatively the instrument can be flown as a "passenger" on larger rocket carrying other experiments. In either case flight costs are relatively low. Some performance simulations are presented showing that the instrument we have designed will be sufficiently sensitive to measure water vapor in concentrations that are expected at the summer mesopause, about 85 km height.

  14. BREATH MEASUREMENT AND MODELS TO ASSESS VOC DERMAL ABSORPTION IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dermal exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water results from environmental contamination of surface, ground-, and drinking waters. This exposure occurs both in occupational and residential settings. Compartmental models incorporating body burden measurements have ...

  15. Monitoring water stable isotope composition in soils using gas-permeable tubing and infrared laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothfuss, Youri; Vereecken, Harry; Brüggemann, Nicolas

    2013-04-01

    -permeable polypropylene tubing and a cavity ring-down laser absorption spectrometer. By analyzing water vapor δ2H and δ18O sampled with the tubing from a fine sand for temperatures ranging between 8-24° C, we demonstrate that (i) our new method is capable of monitoring δ2H and δ18O in soils online with high precision and, after calibration, also with high accuracy, (ii) our sampling protocol enabled detecting changes of δ2H and δ18O following non-fractionating addition and removal of liquid water and water vapor of different isotopic compositions, and (iii) the time needed for the tubing to monitor these changes is compatible with the observed variations of δ2H and δ18O in soils under natural conditions.

  16. Synthesis and water absorption transport mechanism of a pH-sensitive polymer network structured on vinyl-functionalized pectin.

    PubMed

    Guilherme, Marcos R; Moia, Thais A; Reis, Adriano V; Paulino, Alexandre T; Rubira, Adley F; Mattoso, Luiz H C; Muniz, Edvani C; Tambourgi, Elias B

    2009-01-12

    Polysaccharide-structured copolymer hydrogel having excellent pH-sensitivity was developed from N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMAc) and vinyl-functionalized Pectin (Pec). The Pec was vinyl-functionalized by way of chemical reaction with glycidyl metacrylate (GMA) in water under acidic and thermal stimuli. 13C NMR, 1H NMR, and FT-IR spectra revealed that the vinyl groups coming from the GMA were attached onto backbone of the polysaccharide. The hydrogels were obtained by polymerization of the Pec-vinyl with the DMAc. 13C-CP/MAS NMR and FTIR spectra confirmed that the gelling process occurred by way of the vinyl groups attached on Pec-vinyl backbone. The values of apparent swelling rate constant (k) decreased appreciably for pH greater than 6, demonstrating the swelling process of the hydrogel becomes slower at more alkaline conditions. There was an increase of diffusional exponent (n) with increasing pH of the surrounding liquid. This means the water absorption profile becomes more dependent on the polymer relaxation in basified swelling media. In this condition, a longer water absorption half-time (t1/2) was verified, suggesting the polymer relaxation mechanism of the hydrogel would have a considerable effect on the t1/2.

  17. Emission, absorption and group delay of microwaves in the atmosphere in relation to water vapour content over the Indian subcontinent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, A. K.; Gupta, A. K. D.; Karmakar, P. K.; Barman, S. D.; Bhattacharya, A. B.; Purkait, N.; Gupta, M. K. D.; Sehra, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    The advent of satellite communication for global coverage has apparently indicated a renewed interest in the studies of radio wave propagation through the atmosphere, in the VHF, UHF and microwave bands. The extensive measurements of atmosphere constituents, dynamics and radio meterological parameters during the Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) have opened up further the possibilities of studying tropospheric radio wave propagation parameters, relevant to Earth/space link design. The three basic parameters of significance to radio propagation are thermal emission, absorption and group delay of the atmosphere, all of which are controlled largely by the water vapor content in the atmosphere, particular at microwave bands. As good emitters are also good absorbers, the atmospheric emission as well as the absorption attains a maximum at the frequency of 22.235 GHz, which is the peak of the water vapor line. The group delay is practically independent of frequency in the VHF, UHF and microwave bands. However, all three parameters exhibit a similar seasonal dependence originating presumably from the seasonal dependence of the water vapor content. Some of the interesting results obtained from analyses of radiosonde data over the Indian subcontinent collected by the India Meteorological Department is presented.

  18. Modification of water absorption capacity of a plastic based on bean protein using gamma irradiated starches as additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köber, E.; Gonzalez, M. E.; Gavioli, N.; Salmoral, E. M.

    2007-01-01

    Some properties of a bean protein-starch plastic were modified by irradiation of the starch. Two kinds of starch from bean and cassava were irradiated with doses until 50 kGy before their inclusion in the composite. Water absorption of the resultant product was reduced by 36% and 60% in materials containing bean and cassava starch, respectively. A large decline in the elongation is observed till 10 kGy in both materials, while tensile strength diminished by 11% in the cassava composite.

  19. Soluplus-coated colloidal silica nanomatrix system for enhanced supersaturation and oral absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Soo

    2013-12-01

    In this study, a Soluplus-coated colloidal silica nanomatrix (SCCSN) formulation for the entrapment of poorly water-soluble drugs was devised. The maximum supersaturation of the drug-loaded nanomatrix was higher than that of a physical mixture as indicated by the results of in vitro kinetic solubility studies. For atorvastatin calcium, dutasteride, and sorafenib tosylate, there were 2.8-, 326-, and 46.4-fold increases in solubility, respectively. For dutasteride, a promising 4.7-fold increase for in vivo oral drug absorption in the entrapped nanomatrix was observed as compared to the free physical mixture, supported by statistical significance testing of pharmacokinetic parameters.

  20. Size-resolved measurements of brown carbon and estimates of their contribution to ambient fine particle light absorption based on water and methanol extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Bergin, M.; Guo, H.; King, L.; Kotra, N.; Edgerton, E.; Weber, R. J.

    2013-07-01

    Light absorbing organic carbon, often termed brown carbon, has the potential to significantly contribute to the visible light absorption budget, particularly at shorter wavelengths. Currently, the relative contributions of particulate brown carbon to light absorption, as well as the sources of brown carbon are poorly understood. With this in mind field measurements were made at both urban (Atlanta), and rural (Yorkville) sites in Georgia. Measurements in Atlanta were made at both a central site and a road side site adjacent to a main highway near the city center. Fine particle brown carbon optical absorption is estimated based on Mie calculations using direct size resolved measurements of chromophores in filter extracts. Size-resolved atmospheric aerosol samples were collected using a cascade impactor and analyzed for water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), and solution light absorption spectra of water and methanol extracts. Methanol extracts were more light-absorbing than water extracts for all size ranges and wavelengths. Absorption refractive indices of the organic extracts were calculated from solution measurements for a range of wavelengths and used with Mie theory to predict the light absorption by fine particles comprised of these components, under the assumption that brown carbon and other aerosol components were externally mixed. For all three sites, chromophores were predominately in the accumulation mode with an aerodynamic mean diameter of 0.5 μm, an optically effective size range resulting in predicted particle light absorption being a factor of 2 higher than bulk solution absorption. Fine particle absorption was also measured with a Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP) and seven-wavelength Aethalometer. Scattering-corrected aethalometer and MAAP absorption were in good agreement at 670 nm and Mie-estimated absorption based on size-resolved EC data were within 30% of these optical instruments. When applied

  1. Light absorption properties of CDOM in the Changjiang (Yangtze) estuarine and coastal waters: An alternative approach for DOC estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaolong; Shen, Fang; Liu, Yangyang

    2016-11-01

    Field measurements of CDOM absorption properties and DOC concentrations were collected in the Changjiang estuarine and coastal waters from 2011 to 2013. CDOM absorption coefficient at 355 nm (ag (355)) was found to be inversely correlated with salinity, with Pearson's coefficients r of -0.901 and -0.826 for summer and winter observations, respectively. Analysis results of the relationships between salinity and CDOM optical properties (i.e., absorption coefficient and spectral slope) suggested that terrigenous inputs dominated CDOM sources in the Changjiang estuary, but the proportion of terrigenous CDOM declined with increasing salinity. The level of CDOM in the Changjiang estuary was lower compared to some of the major estuaries in the world, which could be attributed to several controlling factors such as vegetation cover in the drainage basin, the origin of recharged streams and high sediment load in the Changjiang estuary. We further evaluated the relationships between CDOM and DOC and their mixing behavior among world's major estuaries. An empirical model was finally developed to estimate DOC concentration from ag (355) and spectral slope S275-295 using a non-linear regression. This empirical relationship was calibrated using the Cal dataset, and was validated with the Val dataset, resulting in an acceptable error with the R2 of 0.746, the RMSE of 20.99 μmol/L and the rMAD of 14.46%.

  2. The effect of saline and hyperoncotic dextran infusion on canine ileal salt and water absorption and regional blood flow.

    PubMed

    Mailman, D; Jordan, K

    1975-10-01

    1. The unidirectional Na and H2O fluxes, vascular pressures and total and absorptive site blood flows in the canine ileum were determined before and during I.V. saline infusion and subsequent I.V. infusion of hyperoncotic dextran. The intestinal perfusion solutions were isotonic saline or isotonic saline and mannitol, but the effects of I.V. saline or I.V. hyperoncotic dextran infusion were generally the same for both luminal solutions. 2. Continuous I.V. infusion of saline caused a continuous increase in the unidirectional flux of Na and H2O into the ileal lumen, an increase in total blood flow, and an increase in venous pressure. 3. The net absorption of Na and H2O was decreased by I.V. saline infusion. 4. The unidirectional fluxes of Na and H2O out of the lumen, arterial pressure, and absorptive site blood flow were not affected by I.V. saline infusion. 5. I.V. hyperoncotic dextran infusion reversed most of the effects of saline infusion. 6. The unidirectional fluxes of Na and H2O into the lumen were significantly correlated with Starling forces during I.V. saline infusion. 7. It was concluded that intestinal transport of salt and water was subject to regulation by physical forces at the capillary level.

  3. Atmospheric Profiling Combining the Features of GPS ro & Mls: Satellite to Satellite Occultations Near Water & Ozone Absorption Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kursinski, E. R.; Ward, D.; Otarola, A. C.; McGhee, J.; Reed, H.; Erickson, D.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing climate models & their predictions requires observations that determine the state of the real climate system precisely and unambiguously, independently from models. For this purpose, we have been developing a new orbiting remote sensing system called the Active Temperature, Ozone & Moisture Microwave Spectrometer (ATOMMS) which is a cross between GPS RO and the Microwave Limb Sounder. ATOMMS actively probes water vapor, ozone & other absorption lines at cm & mm wavelengths in a satellite to satellite occultation geometry to simultaneously profile temperature, pressure, water vapor and ozone as well as other important constituents. Individual profiles of water vapor, temperature & pressure heights will extend from near the surface into the mesosphere with ~1%, 0.4K and 10 m precision respectively and still better accuracy, with 100 m vertical resolution. Ozone profiles will extend upward from the upper troposphere. Line of sight wind profiles will extend upwards from the mid-stratosphere. ATOMMS is a doubly differential absorption system which eliminates drift and both sees clouds and sees thru them, to deliver performance in clouds within a factor of 2 of the performance in clear skies. This all-weather sampling combined with insensitivity to surface emissivity avoids sampling biases that limit most existing satellite records. ATOMMS will profile slant liquid water in clouds & rain and as well as turbulence via scintillations ("twinkling of a star"). Using prototype ATOMMS instrumentation that we developed with funding from NSF, several ATOMMS ground field campaigns precisely measured water vapor, cloud amount, rainfall, turbulence and absorption line spectroscopy. ATOMMS's dynamic range was demonstrated as water vapor was derived to 1% precision in optical depths up to 17. We are developing high altitude aircraft to aircraft instrumentation to further demonstrate ATOMMS performance, refine spectroscopy & support future field campaigns. Our vision is a

  4. Water absorption and bicarbonate secretion in the intestine of the sea bream are regulated by transmembrane and soluble adenylyl cyclase stimulation.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Edison S M; Gregório, Sílvia F; Power, Deborah M; Canário, Adelino V M; Fuentes, Juan

    2012-12-01

    In the marine fish intestine luminal, HCO₃⁻ can remove divalent ions (calcium and magnesium) by precipitation in the form of carbonate aggregates. The process of epithelial HCO₃⁻ secretion is under endocrine control, therefore, in this study we aimed to characterize the involvement of transmembrane (tmACs) and soluble (sACs) adenylyl cyclases on the regulation of bicarbonate secretion (BCS) and water absorption in the intestine of the sea bream (Sparus aurata). We observed that all sections of sea bream intestine are able to secrete bicarbonate as measured by pH-Stat in Ussing chambers. In addition, gut sac preparations reveal net water absorption in all segments of the intestine, with significantly higher absorption rates in the anterior intestine that in the rectum. BCS and water absorption are positively correlated in all regions of the sea bream intestinal tract. Furthermore, stimulation of tmACs (10 μM FK + 500 μM IBMX) causes a significant decrease in BCS, bulk water absorption and short circuit current (Isc) in a region dependent manner. In turn, stimulation of sACs with elevated HCO₃⁻ results in a significant increase in BCS, and bulk water absorption in the anterior intestine, an action completely reversed by the sAC inhibitor KH7 (200 μM). Overall, the results reveal a functional relationship between BCS and water absorption in marine fish intestine and modulation by tmACs and sAC. In light of the present observations, it is hypothesized that the endocrine effects on intestinal BCS and water absorption mediated by tmACs are locally and reciprocally modulated by the action of sACs in the fish enterocyte, thus fine-tuning the process of carbonate aggregate production in the intestinal lumen. PMID:22752677

  5. Water absorption and bicarbonate secretion in the intestine of the sea bream are regulated by transmembrane and soluble adenylyl cyclase stimulation.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Edison S M; Gregório, Sílvia F; Power, Deborah M; Canário, Adelino V M; Fuentes, Juan

    2012-12-01

    In the marine fish intestine luminal, HCO₃⁻ can remove divalent ions (calcium and magnesium) by precipitation in the form of carbonate aggregates. The process of epithelial HCO₃⁻ secretion is under endocrine control, therefore, in this study we aimed to characterize the involvement of transmembrane (tmACs) and soluble (sACs) adenylyl cyclases on the regulation of bicarbonate secretion (BCS) and water absorption in the intestine of the sea bream (Sparus aurata). We observed that all sections of sea bream intestine are able to secrete bicarbonate as measured by pH-Stat in Ussing chambers. In addition, gut sac preparations reveal net water absorption in all segments of the intestine, with significantly higher absorption rates in the anterior intestine that in the rectum. BCS and water absorption are positively correlated in all regions of the sea bream intestinal tract. Furthermore, stimulation of tmACs (10 μM FK + 500 μM IBMX) causes a significant decrease in BCS, bulk water absorption and short circuit current (Isc) in a region dependent manner. In turn, stimulation of sACs with elevated HCO₃⁻ results in a significant increase in BCS, and bulk water absorption in the anterior intestine, an action completely reversed by the sAC inhibitor KH7 (200 μM). Overall, the results reveal a functional relationship between BCS and water absorption in marine fish intestine and modulation by tmACs and sAC. In light of the present observations, it is hypothesized that the endocrine effects on intestinal BCS and water absorption mediated by tmACs are locally and reciprocally modulated by the action of sACs in the fish enterocyte, thus fine-tuning the process of carbonate aggregate production in the intestinal lumen.

  6. The water-absorption region of ventral skin of several semiterrestrial and aquatic anuran amphibians identified by aquaporins.

    PubMed

    Ogushi, Yuji; Tsuzuki, Azumi; Sato, Megumi; Mochida, Hiroshi; Okada, Reiko; Suzuki, Masakazu; Hillyard, Stanley D; Tanaka, Shigeyasu

    2010-11-01

    Regions of specialization for water absorption across the skin of Bufonid and Ranid anurans were identified by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis, using antibodies raised against arginine vasotocin (AVT)-stimulated aquaporins (AQPs) that are specific to absorbing regions of Hyla japonica. In Bufo marinus, labeling for Hyla urinary bladder-type AQP (AQP-h2), which is also localized in the urinary bladder, occurred in the ventral surface of the hindlimb, pelvic, and pectoral regions. AQP-h2 was not detected in any skin regions of Rana catesbeiana, Rana japonica, or Rana nigromaculata. Hyla ventral skin-type AQP (AQP-h3), which is found in the ventral skin but not the bladder of H. japonica, was localized in the hindlimb, pelvic, and pectoral skins of Bufo marinus, in addition to AQP-h2. AQP-h3 was also localized in ventral skin of the hindlimb of all three Rana species and also in the pelvic region of R. catesbiana. Messenger RNA for AQP-x3, a homolog of AQP-h3, could be identified by RT-PCR from the hindlimb, pectoral, and pelvic regions of the ventral skin of Xenopus laevis, although AVT had no effect on water permeability. In contrast, 10(-8) M AVT-stimulated water permeability and translocation of AQP-h2 and AQP-h3 into the apical membrane of epithelial cells in regions of the skin of species where they had been localized by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Finally, water permeability of the hindlimb skin of B. marinus and all the Rana species was stimulated by hydrins 1 and 2 to a similar level as seen for AVT. The present data demonstrate species differences in the occurrence, distribution, and regulation of AQPs in regions of skin specialized for rapid water absorption that can be associated with habitat and also phylogeny. PMID:20811008

  7. Multistage quantum absorption heat pumps.

    PubMed

    Correa, Luis A

    2014-04-01

    It is well known that heat pumps, while being all limited by the same basic thermodynamic laws, may find realization on systems as "small" and "quantum" as a three-level maser. In order to quantitatively assess how the performance of these devices scales with their size, we design generalized N-dimensional ideal heat pumps by merging N-2 elementary three-level stages. We set them to operate in the absorption chiller mode between given hot and cold baths and study their maximum achievable cooling power and the corresponding efficiency as a function of N. While the efficiency at maximum power is roughly size-independent, the power itself slightly increases with the dimension, quickly saturating to a constant. Thus, interestingly, scaling up autonomous quantum heat pumps does not render a significant enhancement beyond the optimal double-stage configuration.

  8. WATER ABSORPTION IN GALACTIC TRANSLUCENT CLOUDS: CONDITIONS AND HISTORY OF THE GAS DERIVED FROM HERSCHEL /HIFI PRISMAS OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Flagey, N.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Lis, D. C.; Monje, R.; Phillips, T. G.; Gerin, M.; De Luca, M.; Godard, B.; Neufeld, D.; Sonnentrucker, P.; Goicoechea, J. R.

    2013-01-01

    We present Herschel/HIFI observations of the three ground state transitions of H{sub 2}O (556, 1669, and 1113 GHz) and H{sub 2}{sup 18}O (547, 1655, and 1101 GHz)-as well as the first few excited transitions of H{sub 2}O (987, 752, and 1661 GHz)-toward six high-mass star-forming regions, obtained as part of the PRISMAS (PRobing InterStellar Molecules with Absorption line Studies) Guaranteed Time Key Program. Water vapor associated with the translucent clouds in Galactic arms is detected in absorption along every line of sight in all the ground state transitions. The continuum sources all exhibit broad water features in emission in the excited and ground state transitions. Strong absorption features associated with the source are also observed at all frequencies except 752 GHz. We model the background continuum and line emission to infer the optical depth of each translucent cloud along the lines of sight. We derive the column density of H{sub 2}O or H{sub 2}{sup 18}O for the lower energy level of each transition observed. The total column density of water in translucent clouds is usually about a few 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}. We find that the abundance of water relative to hydrogen nuclei is 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} in agreement with models for oxygen chemistry in which high cosmic ray ionization rates are assumed. Relative to molecular hydrogen, the abundance of water is remarkably constant through the Galactic plane with X(H{sub 2}O) =5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}, which makes water a good traced of H{sub 2} in translucent clouds. Observations of the excited transitions of H{sub 2}O enable us to constrain the abundance of water in excited levels to be at most 15%, implying that the excitation temperature, T {sub ex}, in the ground state transitions is below 10 K. Further analysis of the column densities derived from the two ortho ground state transitions indicates that T {sub ex} {approx_equal} 5 K and that the density n(H{sub 2}) in the translucent clouds

  9. Water Absorption in Galactic Translucent Clouds: Conditions and History of the Gas Derived from Herschel/HIFI PRISMAS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flagey, N.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Lis, D. C.; Gerin, M.; Neufeld, D.; Sonnentrucker, P.; De Luca, M.; Godard, B.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Monje, R.; Phillips, T. G.

    2013-01-01

    We present Herschel/HIFI observations of the three ground state transitions of H2O (556, 1669, and 1113 GHz) and H218O (547, 1655, and 1101 GHz)—as well as the first few excited transitions of H2O (987, 752, and 1661 GHz)—toward six high-mass star-forming regions, obtained as part of the PRISMAS (PRobing InterStellar Molecules with Absorption line Studies) Guaranteed Time Key Program. Water vapor associated with the translucent clouds in Galactic arms is detected in absorption along every line of sight in all the ground state transitions. The continuum sources all exhibit broad water features in emission in the excited and ground state transitions. Strong absorption features associated with the source are also observed at all frequencies except 752 GHz. We model the background continuum and line emission to infer the optical depth of each translucent cloud along the lines of sight. We derive the column density of H2O or H218O for the lower energy level of each transition observed. The total column density of water in translucent clouds is usually about a few 1013 cm-2. We find that the abundance of water relative to hydrogen nuclei is 1 × 10-8 in agreement with models for oxygen chemistry in which high cosmic ray ionization rates are assumed. Relative to molecular hydrogen, the abundance of water is remarkably constant through the Galactic plane with X(H2O) =5 × 10-8, which makes water a good traced of H2 in translucent clouds. Observations of the excited transitions of H2O enable us to constrain the abundance of water in excited levels to be at most 15%, implying that the excitation temperature, T ex, in the ground state transitions is below 10 K. Further analysis of the column densities derived from the two ortho ground state transitions indicates that T ex ~= 5 K and that the density n(H2) in the translucent clouds is below 104 cm-3. We derive the water ortho-to-para ratio for each absorption feature along the line of sight and find that most of the clouds

  10. A new direct absorption measurement for high precision and accurate measurement of water vapor in the UT/LS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, M. R.; Sayres, D. S.; Smith, J. B.; Anderson, J.

    2011-12-01

    Highly accurate and precise water vapor measurements in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere are critical to understanding the climate feedbacks of water vapor and clouds in that region. However, the continued disagreement among water vapor measurements (~1 - 2 ppmv) are too large to constrain the role of different hydration and dehydration mechanisms operating in the UT/LS, with model validation dependent upon which dataset is chosen. In response to these issues, we present a new instrument for measurement of water vapor in the UT/LS that was flown during the April 2011 MACPEX mission out of Houston, TX. The dual axis instrument combines the heritage and validated accuracy of the Harvard Lyman-alpha instrument with a newly designed direct IR absorption instrument, the Harvard Herriott Hygrometer (HHH). The Lyman-alpha detection axis has flown aboard NASA's WB-57 and ER2 aircraft since 1994, and provides a requisite link between the new HHH instrument and the long history of Harvard water vapor measurements. The instrument utilizes the highly sensitive Lyman-alpha photo-fragment fluorescence detection method; its accuracy has been demonstrated though rigorous laboratory calibrations and in situ diagnostic procedures. The Harvard Herriott Hygrometer employs a fiber coupled near-IR laser with state-of-the-art electronics to measure water vapor via direct absorption in a spherical Herriott cell of 10 cm length. The instrument demonstrated in-flight precision of 0.1 ppmv (1-sec, 1-sigma) at mixing ratios as low as 5 ppmv with accuracies of 10% based on careful laboratory calibrations and in-flight performance. We present a description of the measurement technique along with our methodology for calibration and details of the measurement uncertainties. The simultaneous utilization of radically different measurement techniques in a single duct in the new Harvard Water Vapor (HWV) instrument allows for the constraint of systematic errors inherent in each technique

  11. Intestinal water absorption through aquaporin 1 expressed in the apical membrane of mucosal epithelial cells in seawater-adapted Japanese eel.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Mayumi; Kaneko, Toyoji; Katoh, Fumi; Hasegawa, Sanae; Tsutsui, Naoaki; Aida, Katsumi

    2003-10-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms associated with water absorption in the intestine, we compared drinking and intestinal water absorption in freshwater- and seawater-adapted Japanese eels, and investigated a possible involvement of aquaporin (AQP) in the absorption of water in the intestine. Seawater eels ingested more water than freshwater eels, the drinking rate being 0.02 ml kg(-1) h(-1) in fresh water and 0.82 ml kg(-1) h(-1) in sea water. In intestinal sacs prepared from freshwater and seawater eels, water absorption increased in time- and hydrostatic pressure-dependent manners. The water absorption rates were greater in seawater sacs than in freshwater sacs, and also greater in the posterior intestine than in the anterior. In view of the enhanced water permeability in the intestine of seawater eel, we cloned two cDNAs encoding AQP from the seawater eel intestine, and identified two eel homologues (S-AQP and L-AQP) of mammalian AQP1. S-AQP and L-AQP possessed the same amino acid sequence, except that one amino acid was lacking in S-AQP and two amino acids were substituted. Eel AQP1 was expressed predominantly in the intestine, and the expression levels were higher in seawater eel than in freshwater eel. Immunocytochemical studies revealed intense AQP1 immunoreaction in the apical surface of columnar epithelial cells in seawater eel, in which the immunoreaction was stronger in the posterior intestine than in the anterior. In contrast, the immunoreaction was faint in the freshwater eel intestine. Preferential localization of AQP1 in the apical membrane of epithelial cells in the posterior intestine of seawater eel indicates that this region of the intestine is responsible for water absorption, and that AQP1 may act as a water entry site in the epithelial cells.

  12. Direct measurement of the soil water retention curve using X-ray absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, A.; Vogel, H.-J.; Roth, K.

    X-ray absorption measurements have been explored as a fast experimental approach to determine soil hydraulic properties and to study rapid dynamic processes. As examples, the pressure-saturation relation θ(Ψ) for a uniform sand column has been considered as has capillary rise in an initially dry sintered glass column. The θ(Ψ)-relation is in reasonable agreement with that obtained by inverting a traditional multi-step outflow experiment. Monitoring the initial phase of capillary rise reveals behaviour that deviates qualitatively from the single-phase, local-equilibrium regime described by Richards’ equation.

  13. Feasibility of tropospheric water vapor profiling using infrared heterodyne differential absorption lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Grund, C.J.; Hardesty, R.M.; Rye, B.J.

    1996-04-01

    The development and verification of realistic climate model parameterizations for clouds and net radiation balance and the correction of other site sensor observations for interferences due to the presence of water vapor are critically dependent on water vapor profile measurements. In this study, we develop system performance models and examine the potential of infrared differential absoroption lidar (DIAL) to determine the concentration of water vapor.

  14. Scale coloration change following water absorption in the beetle Hoplia coerulea (Coleoptera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rassart, Marie; Simonis, Priscilla; Bay, Annick; Deparis, Olivier; Vigneron, Jean Pol

    2009-09-01

    The blue scales on the cuticle of the male beetle Hoplia coerulea can absorb water, with the consequence that these scales, which have been shown to be responsible for the beetle’s bright blue coloration, reversibly turn to emerald green with increasing water contents. Optical measurements are shown, by analytic photonic-crystal models, to be compatible with the full filling of the scales structures with water. The natural mechanism shows the way to produce a very efficient hygrochromic material: a medium which significantly changes color when its water contents are modified.

  15. Scale coloration change following water absorption in the beetle Hoplia coerulea (Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Rassart, Marie; Simonis, Priscilla; Bay, Annick; Deparis, Olivier; Vigneron, Jean Pol

    2009-09-01

    The blue scales on the cuticle of the male beetle Hoplia coerulea can absorb water, with the consequence that these scales, which have been shown to be responsible for the beetle's bright blue coloration, reversibly turn to emerald green with increasing water contents. Optical measurements are shown, by analytic photonic-crystal models, to be compatible with the full filling of the scales structures with water. The natural mechanism shows the way to produce a very efficient hygrochromic material: a medium which significantly changes color when its water contents are modified.

  16. Regional Climate Zone Modeling of a Commercial Absorption Heat Pump Hot Water Heater Part 1: Southern and South Central Climate Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Geoghegan, Patrick J; Shen, Bo; Keinath, Christopher M.; Garrabrant, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Commercial hot water heating accounts for approximately 0.78 Quads of primary energy use with 0.44 Quads of this amount from natural gas fired heaters. An ammonia-water based commercial absorption system, if fully deployed, could achieve a high level of savings, much higher than would be possible by conversion to the high efficiency nonheat-pump gas fired alternatives. In comparison with air source electric heat pumps, the absorption system is able to maintain higher coefficients of performance in colder climates. The ammonia-water system also has the advantage of zero Ozone Depletion Potential and low Global Warming Potential. A thermodynamic model of a single effect ammonia-water absorption system for commercial space and water heating was developed, and its performance was investigated for a range of ambient and return water temperatures. This allowed for the development of a performance map which was then used in a building energy modeling software. Modeling of two commercial water heating systems was performed; one using an absorption heat pump and another using a condensing gas storage system. The energy and financial savings were investigated for a range of locations and climate zones in the southern and south central United States. A follow up paper will analyze northern and north/central regions. Results showed that the system using an absorption heat pump offers significant savings.

  17. Injection-seeded alexandrite ring laser: performance and application in a water-vapor differential absorption lidar.

    PubMed

    Wulfmeyer, V; Bösenberg, J; Lehmann, S; Senff, C; Schmitz, S

    1995-03-15

    A new laser system for use of differential absorption lidar (DIAL) in measurements of tropospheric water vapor and temperature is introduced. This system operates in the 720-780-nm region and is configured as an alexandrite ring laser injection seeded by a cw Ti:sapphire ring laser. This combination provides for the necessary narrow-bandwidth, high-frequency stability and excellent spectral purity. A bandwidth of <5.0 x 10(-3) cm(-1), a frequency stability of 2.1 x 10(-3) cm(-1) rms, and a spectral purity of 99.995% at 726 nm have been achieved during extended periods of operation. A comparison of a DIAL water-vapor measurement with a radiosonde in the boundary layer between 500 and 2000 m was performed. The maximum deviation between the humidity profiles is 15%, the standard deviation 1.6%, and the difference between the mean values 1%.

  18. Method and apparatus for simulating atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to water vapor and CO{sub 2}

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, B.L.

    1995-06-20

    A method and apparatus for improving the accuracy of the simulation of sunlight reaching the earth`s surface includes a relatively small heated chamber having an optical inlet and an optical outlet, the chamber having a cavity that can be filled with a heated stream of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. A simulated beam comprising infrared and near infrared light can be directed through the chamber cavity containing the CO{sub 2} and water vapor, whereby the spectral characteristics of the beam are altered so that the output beam from the chamber contains wavelength bands that accurately replicate atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to atmospheric CO{sub 2} and moisture. 8 figs.

  19. Method and apparatus for simulating atomospheric absorption of solar energy due to water vapor and CO.sub.2

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1995-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the accuracy of the simulation of sunlight reaching the earth's surface includes a relatively small heated chamber having an optical inlet and an optical outlet, the chamber having a cavity that can be filled with a heated stream of CO.sub.2 and water vapor. A simulated beam comprising infrared and near infrared light can be directed through the chamber cavity containing the CO.sub.2 and water vapor, whereby the spectral characteristics of the beam are altered so that the output beam from the chamber contains wavelength bands that accurately replicate atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to atmospheric CO.sub.2 and moisture.

  20. Depth and Shape of the 0.94-microm Water Vapor Absorption Band for Clear and Cloudy Skies.

    PubMed

    Volz, F E

    1969-11-01

    Sky radiation near zenith and solar radiation in the rhosigmatau band region were recorded by means of a rotating interference filter (lambda0.98-0.88 microm) and a silicon detector. Although the spectral resolution of the simple spectrometer was not high, the water vapor content of the cloud free atmosphere was obtained with reasonable accuracy. The band depth of the radiation from thin, bright clouds was only slightly greater than that of the cloud free atmosphere, but dense and dark clouds showed deep bands mainly caused by increased path length as a result of multiple scattering. Considerable distortion of the band due to absorption by liquid water is observed in the radiation from very dark and dense clouds, and sometimes during snowfall. Some laboratory measurements are also discussed.

  1. Enhanced two-photon absorption and fluorescence upconversion in Thioflavin T micelle-type aggregates in glycerol/water solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Julie; Vesga, Yuly; Hernandez, Florencio E.

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we report the systematic characterization of the two-photon absorption of ThT in different mixtures of glycerol/water solution. The relationships of TPA peak position and amplitude revealed a dependence on particle size suggesting that the curious trend observed in TPA with changing glycerol content can be attributed to the presence of micelle-type aggregates. Consequently, the relatively strong TPA cross-section (δTPA = 300 GM) obtained in 8.75% glycerol/water solutions could be attributed to the immobilization of dye molecules and the strong coupling of the molecular transition dipoles in micelle-type aggregates. This enhancement of TPA, in addition to the already reported significant fluorescence quantum yield of ThT attached to brain tissue, is expected to boost the application of this compound for in vitro and perhaps in vivo high resolution multiphoton bioimaging of amyloids in brain tissue.

  2. Cloud point extraction thermospray flame quartz furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for determination of ultratrace cadmium in water and urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Peng; Zhang, Yunchang; Lv, Yi; Hou, Xiandeng

    2006-12-01

    A simple, low cost and highly sensitive method based on cloud point extraction (CPE) for separation/preconcentration and thermospray flame quartz furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was proposed for the determination of ultratrace cadmium in water and urine samples. The analytical procedure involved the formation of analyte-entrapped surfactant micelles by mixing the analyte solution with an ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) solution and a Triton X-114 solution. When the temperature of the system was higher than the cloud point of Triton X-114, the complex of cadmium-PDC entered the surfactant-rich phase and thus separation of the analyte from the matrix was achieved. Under optimal chemical and instrumental conditions, the limit of detection was 0.04 μg/L for cadmium with a sample volume of 10 mL. The analytical results of cadmium in water and urine samples agreed well with those by ICP-MS.

  3. Atmospheric profiling via satellite to satellite occultations near water and ozone absorption lines for weather and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kursinski, E. R.; Ward, D.; Otarola, A. C.; McGhee, J.; Stovern, M.; Sammler, K.; Reed, H.; Erickson, D.; McCormick, C.; Griggs, E.

    2016-05-01

    Significantly reducing weather and climate prediction uncertainty requires global observations with substantially higher information content than present observations provide. While GPS occultations have provided a major advance, GPS observations of the atmosphere are limited by wavelengths chosen specifically to minimize interaction with the atmosphere. Significantly more information can be obtained via satellite to satellite occultations made at wavelengths chosen specifically to characterize the atmosphere. Here we describe such a system that will probe cm- and mmwavelength water vapor absorption lines called the Active Temperature, Ozone and Moisture Microwave Spectrometer (ATOMMS). Profiling both the speed and absorption of light enables ATOMMS to profile temperature, pressure and humidity simultaneously, which GPS occultations cannot do, as well as profile clouds and turbulence. We summarize the ATOMMS concept and its theoretical performance. We describe field measurements made with a prototype ATOMMS instrument and several important capabilities demonstrated with those ground based measurements including retrieving temporal variations in path-averaged water vapor to 1%, in clear, cloudy and rainy conditions, up to optical depths of 17, remotely sensing turbulence and determining rain rates. We conclude with a vision of a future ATOMMS low Earth orbiting satellite constellation designed to take advantage of synergies between observational needs for weather and climate, ATOMMS unprecedented orbital remote sensing capabilities and recent cubesat technological innovations that enable a constellation of dozens of very small spacecraft to achieve many critical, but as yet unfulfilled, monitoring and forecasting needs.

  4. Efficient tissue ablation using a laser tunable in the water absorption band at 3 microns with little collateral damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nierlich, Alexandra; Chuchumishev, Danail; Nagel, Elizabeth; Marinova, Kristiana; Philipov, Stanislav; Fiebig, Torsten; Buchvarov, Ivan; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2014-03-01

    Lasers can significantly advance medical diagnostics and treatment. At high power, they are typically used as cutting tools during surgery. For lasers that are used as knifes, radiation wavelengths in the far ultraviolet and in the near infrared spectral regions are favored because tissue has high contents of collagen and water. Collagen has an absorption peak around 190 nm, while water is in the near infrared around 3,000 nm. Changing the wavelength across the absorption peak will result in significant differences in laser tissue interactions. Tunable lasers in the infrared that could optimize the laser tissue interaction for ablation and/or coagulation are not available until now besides the Free Electron Laser (FEL). Here we demonstrate efficient tissue ablation using a table-top mid-IR laser tunable between 3,000 to 3,500 nm. A detailed study of the ablation has been conducted in different tissues. Little collateral thermal damage has been found at a distance above 10-20 microns from the ablated surface. Furthermore, little mechanical damage could be seen in conventional histology and by examination of birefringent activity of the samples using a pair of cross polarizing filters.

  5. Significance of active ion transport in transalveolar water absorption: a study on isolated rat lung.

    PubMed

    Basset, G; Crone, C; Saumon, G

    1987-03-01

    1. Experiments were performed on isolated rat lungs perfused with Ringer solutions containing red cells. The goal was to clarify the role of active transport of Na+ for the absorption of fluid across the alveolar membrane, and to characterize active and passive pathways. 2. Partially degassed lungs were filled with 5 ml of an isotonic Ringer solution containing 125I-labelled albumin in order to calculate the fluid movement, and 22Na+ or 36Cl- for measurement of ion fluxes. Passive non-electrolyte permeability was determined in all experiments using [3H]mannitol. 3. The average rate of fluid absorption in phosphate-buffered instillates was 134 nl/s (S.E., 18.5; n = 14). With ouabain (10(-4) M) in the perfusate the fluid absorption rate fell to 57 nl/s (S.E., 8.2; n = 18). Amiloride (10(-3)-10(-4) M) in the instillate reduced the absorption to 75 nl/s (S.E., 8.6; n = 16). These results show that fluid absorption depends on transcellular transport of Na+ and that alveolar epithelial cells have a Na+ entry system in the luminal membrane and a Na+-K+ pump in the abluminal membrane. 4. The transcellular ion transport operates in parallel with a paracellular, passive leak that allows mannitol to pass with a permeability surface area product of 1.2 X 10(-4) ml/s, corresponding to a permeability coefficient of 2.4 X 10(-8) cm/s, assuming an alveolar surface area of 5000 cm2. 5. The passive fluxes of Na+ were 9.4 pmol/(cm2s) (S.E., 1.3; n = 25) in the direction from alveoli to perfusate and 8.0 pmol/(cm2s) (S.E., 0.86; n = 6) from perfusate to plasma. The passive fluxes of Cl- in the two directions were not significantly different either. Thus the transalveolar electrical potential difference is too small to affect ion movements measurably. 6. The passive permeability to Na+ was 6.7 X 10(-8) cm/s and to Cl- was 10.2 X 10(-8) cm/s (alveolar surface area assumed to be 5000 cm2). The ratio of the permeabilities is close to the ratio of the diffusion coefficients in free

  6. A Two-Line Absorption Instrument for Scramjet Temperature and Water Vapor Concentration Measurement in HYPULSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, C. Y.

    1998-01-01

    A three beam water vapor sensor system has been modified to provide for near simultaneous temperature measurement. The system employs a tunable diode laser to scan spectral line of water vapor. The application to measurements in a scramjet combustor environment of a shock tunnel facility is discussed. This report presents and discusses die initial calibration of the measurement system.

  7. Metal-and hydrogen-bonding competition during water absorption on Pd(111) and Ru(0001)

    SciTech Connect

    Tatarkhanov, Mouslim; Ogletree, D. Frank; Rose, Franck; Mitsui, Toshiyuki; Fomin, Evgeny; Rose, Mark; Cerda, Jorge I.; Salmeron, Miquel

    2009-09-03

    The initial stages of water adsorption on the Pd(111) and Ru(0001) surfaces have been investigated experimentally by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy in the temperature range between 40 K and 130 K, and theoretically with Density Functional Theory (DFT) total energy calculations and STM image simulations. Below 125 K water dissociation does not occur at any appreciable rate and only molecular films are formed. Film growth starts by the formation of flat hexamer clusters where the molecules bind to the metal substrate through the O-lone pair while making H-bonds with neighboring molecules. As coverage increases, larger networks of linked hexagons are formed with a honeycomb structure, which requires a fraction of the water molecules to have their molecular plane perpendicular to the metal surface with reduced water-metal interaction. Energy minimization favors the growth of networks with limited width. As additional water molecules adsorb on the surface they attach to the periphery of existing islands, where they interact only weakly with the metal substrate. These molecules hop along the periphery of the clusters at intermediate temperatures. At higher temperatures they bind to the metal to continue the honeycomb growth. The water-Ru interaction is significantly stronger than the water-Pd interaction, which is consistent with the greater degree of hydrogen-bonded network formation and reduced water-metal bonding observed on Pd relative to Ru.

  8. Wettability, polarity, and water absorption of holm oak leaves: effect of leaf side and age.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Victoria; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Guzmán, Paula; Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Gil, Luis; Karabourniotis, George; Khayet, Mohamed; Fasseas, Costas; Heredia-Guerrero, José Alejandro; Heredia, Antonio; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2014-09-01

    Plant trichomes play important protective functions and may have a major influence on leaf surface wettability. With the aim of gaining insight into trichome structure, composition, and function in relation to water-plant surface interactions, we analyzed the adaxial and abaxial leaf surface of holm oak (Quercus ilex) as a model. By measuring the leaf water potential 24 h after the deposition of water drops onto abaxial and adaxial surfaces, evidence for water penetration through the upper leaf side was gained in young and mature leaves. The structure and chemical composition of the abaxial (always present) and adaxial (occurring only in young leaves) trichomes were analyzed by various microscopic and analytical procedures. The adaxial surfaces were wettable and had a high degree of water drop adhesion in contrast to the highly unwettable and water-repellent abaxial holm oak leaf sides. The surface free energy and solubility parameter decreased with leaf age, with higher values determined for the adaxial sides. All holm oak leaf trichomes were covered with a cuticle. The abaxial trichomes were composed of 8% soluble waxes, 49% cutin, and 43% polysaccharides. For the adaxial side, it is concluded that trichomes and the scars after trichome shedding contribute to water uptake, while the abaxial leaf side is highly hydrophobic due to its high degree of pubescence and different trichome structure, composition, and density. Results are interpreted in terms of water-plant surface interactions, plant surface physical chemistry, and plant ecophysiology.

  9. Water Absorption of Jute/Polylactic Acid Composite Intended for an Interior Application and Comparison with Wood-Based Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandvliet, C.; Bandyopadhyay, N. R.; Ray, D.

    2014-04-01

    Jute/polylactic acid (PLA) composite is of special interest because it is entirely from renewable resources with high mechanical properties. Thus, it could be a more eco-friendly alternative to the conventional wood-based panels made of formaldehyde resin which is asserted to be carcinogenic. Yet the water affinity of the natural fibres and susceptibility of polylactic acid towards hydrolysis raise a question about the water resistance of such composites in service condition. In this work, the water absorption behaviour of jute/PLA composites, jute/maleated polypropylene was investigated with regard to interior applications following the standard test method in accordance to ISO 16983:2003 `Wood-based panels—determination of swelling in thickness after immersion in water' and compared to standard of wood-based panels. Untreated and treated jute/PLA composites exhibited a superior water resistance property compared to particleboard, MDF and hardboard and they are by far, below the minimum requirement of the ISO standard 16983.

  10. A critical review of measurements of water vapor absorption in the 840 to 1100 cm(-1) spectral region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, William B.

    1987-01-01

    A set of eleven measurements of the water vapor continuum absorption in the 840 to 1100 sq cm spectral region is reviewed and compared with spectral models maintained by the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory. The measurements were made in four different ways: spectrometer with a White cell, CO2 laser with a White cell, CO2 laser with a spectrophone, and broadband radiation source over a long atmospheric path. Where possible, the data were selected at a water vapor partial pressure of ten torr buffered to 760 torr with N2 or synthetic air and a temperature of between 296 and 300 K. The intercomparison of the data leads to several observations and conclusions. First, there are four sets of laboratory data taken with nitrogen as the buffer gas which generally agree well mutually and with AFGL's HITRAN code. Second, there is one set of laboratory data that shows that using air as the buffer gas gives a few percent decrease in the water vapor continuum compared with using nitrogen as the buffer gas. Third, the atmospheric long-path measurements for water vapor partial pressure below about 12 torr are roughly grouped within 20 percent of the HITRAN values. Fourth, there are three sets of spectrophone data for water vapor in synthetic air which are significantly higher than any of the other measurements. This discrepancy is attributed to the effects of impurity gases in the cell.

  11. Development of Absorption Heat Pump Driven by Low Temperature Hot Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshida, Toshihiro; Nakamura, Naoto; Asai, Hiroshi; Hasatani, Masanobu; Watanabe, Fujio; Fujisawa, Ryou

    We developed an Adsorption Heat Pump (AHP) system, which applies silica-gel as adsorbent and H2O as refrigerant, and is possibly intended to use low temperature hot water (333K) as a driving force. The growing importance to save energy, leads us to develop energy saving systems such as Co-generation systems, including fuel cell system. It is important to use low temperature hot water in order to achieve high efficiency in total. It is, however, noticed that the lower water temperature is, the more difficult its' heat recovery becomes. We reported experimental results of the AHP system, and estimated the possibility to apply low temperature hot water from fuel cell system to the AHP system. We showed quantitatively that the AHP system is able to be driven by low temperature hot water(333K).

  12. Energy Engineering Analysis Program, energy survey of boiler and chiller plants, Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    This report summarizes all work for the Energy Survey of Boiler and Chiller Plants, Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP) at U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, authorized under Contract DACA05-92-C-0155 with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Sacramento District, California. The purpose of this study is to develop projects and actions that will reduce facilities energy consumption and operating costs at Yuma Proving Ground. Implementation of these projects will contribute to achieving the goal of the Army Facilities Energy Plan of a reduction in energy consumption per square foot of building floor area of 20 percent by FY2000 from FY1983 baseline levels. The survey and evaluation effort was limited to chillers and direct expansion cooling units in Buildings 451, 506, 2105, 3482, 3490, and 3510 boilers in Building 506.

  13. Development of a Low-Lift Chiller Controller and Simplified Precooling Control Algorithm - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gayeski, N.; Armstrong, Peter; Alvira, M.; Gagne, J.; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2011-11-30

    KGS Buildings LLC (KGS) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have developed a simplified control algorithm and prototype low-lift chiller controller suitable for model-predictive control in a demonstration project of low-lift cooling. Low-lift cooling is a highly efficient cooling strategy conceived to enable low or net-zero energy buildings. A low-lift cooling system consists of a high efficiency low-lift chiller, radiant cooling, thermal storage, and model-predictive control to pre-cool thermal storage overnight on an optimal cooling rate trajectory. We call the properly integrated and controlled combination of these elements a low-lift cooling system (LLCS). This document is the final report for that project.

  14. Effect of water vapor on sound absorption in nitrogen at low frequency/pressure ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.; Griffin, W. A.

    1981-01-01

    Sound absorption measurements were made in N2-H2O binary mixtures at 297 K over the frequency/pressure range f/P of 0.1-2500 Hz/atm to investigate the vibrational relaxation peak of N2 and its location on f/P axis as a function of humidity. At low humidities the best fit to a linear relationship between the f/P(max) and humidity yields an intercept of 0.013 Hz/atm and a slope of 20,000 Hz/atm-mole fraction. The reaction rate constants derived from this model are lower than those obtained from the extrapolation of previous high-temperature data.

  15. Size-resolved measurements of brown carbon in water and methanol extracts and estimates of their contribution to ambient fine-particle light absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Bergin, M.; Guo, H.; King, L.; Kotra, N.; Edgerton, E.; Weber, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    Light absorbing organic carbon, often called brown carbon, has the potential to significantly contribute to the visible light-absorption budget, particularly at shorter wavelengths. Currently, the relative contributions of particulate brown carbon to light absorption, as well as the sources of brown carbon, are poorly understood. With this in mind size-resolved direct measurements of brown carbon were made at both urban (Atlanta), and rural (Yorkville) sites in Georgia. Measurements in Atlanta were made at both a representative urban site and a road-side site adjacent to a main highway. Fine particle absorption was measured with a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP) and seven-wavelength Aethalometer, and brown carbon absorption was estimated based on Mie calculations using direct size-resolved measurements of chromophores in solvents. Size-resolved samples were collected using a cascade impactor and analyzed for water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), and solution light-absorption spectra of water and methanol extracts. Methanol extracts were more light-absorbing than water extracts for all size ranges and wavelengths. Absorption refractive indices of the organic extracts were calculated from solution measurements for a range of wavelengths and used with Mie theory to predict the light absorption by fine particles comprised of these components, under the assumption that brown carbon and other aerosol components were externally mixed. For all three sites, chromophores were predominately in the accumulation mode with an aerodynamic mean diameter of 0.5 μm, an optically effective size range resulting in predicted particle light absorption being a factor of 2 higher than bulk solution absorption. Mie-predicted brown carbon absorption at 350 nm contributed a significant fraction (20 to 40%) relative to total light absorption, with the highest contributions at the rural site where organic to elemental carbon ratios were

  16. Water absorption kinetics in different wettability conditions studied at pore and sample scales in porous media by NMR with portable single-sided and laboratory imaging devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortolotti, V.; Camaiti, M.; Casieri, C.; De Luca, F.; Fantazzini, P.; Terenzi, C.

    2006-08-01

    NMR relaxation time distributions of water 1H obtained by a portable single-sided surface device have been compared with MRI internal images obtained with a laboratory imaging apparatus on the same biocalcarenite (Lecce Stone) samples during capillary water uptake. The aim of this work was to check the ability of NMR methods to quantitatively follow the absorption phenomenon under different wettability conditions of the internal pore surfaces. Stone wettability changes were obtained by capillary absorption of a chloroform solution of Paraloid PB72, a hydrophobic acrylic resin frequently used to protect monuments and buildings, through one face of each sample. Both relaxation and imaging data have been found in good quantitative agreement each other and with masses of water determined by weighing the samples. In particular the Washburn model of water capillary rise applied to the imaging data allowed us to quantify the sorptivity in both treated and untreated samples. Combining relaxation and imaging data, a synergetic improvement of our understanding of the water absorption kinetics at both pore and sample scales is obtained. Since relaxation data have been taken over the course of time without interrupting the absorption process, simply by keeping the portable device on the surface opposite to the absorption, the results show that the single-sided NMR technique is a powerful tool for in situ evaluation of water-repellent treatments frequently used for consolidation and/or protection of stone artifacts.

  17. Water absorption kinetics in different wettability conditions studied at pore and sample scales in porous media by NMR with portable single-sided and laboratory imaging devices.

    PubMed

    Bortolotti, V; Camaiti, M; Casieri, C; De Luca, F; Fantazzini, P; Terenzi, C

    2006-08-01

    NMR relaxation time distributions of water (1)H obtained by a portable single-sided surface device have been compared with MRI internal images obtained with a laboratory imaging apparatus on the same biocalcarenite (Lecce Stone) samples during capillary water uptake. The aim of this work was to check the ability of NMR methods to quantitatively follow the absorption phenomenon under different wettability conditions of the internal pore surfaces. Stone wettability changes were obtained by capillary absorption of a chloroform solution of Paraloid PB72, a hydrophobic acrylic resin frequently used to protect monuments and buildings, through one face of each sample. Both relaxation and imaging data have been found in good quantitative agreement each other and with masses of water determined by weighing the samples. In particular the Washburn model of water capillary rise applied to the imaging data allowed us to quantify the sorptivity in both treated and untreated samples. Combining relaxation and imaging data, a synergetic improvement of our understanding of the water absorption kinetics at both pore and sample scales is obtained. Since relaxation data have been taken over the course of time without interrupting the absorption process, simply by keeping the portable device on the surface opposite to the absorption, the results show that the single-sided NMR technique is a powerful tool for in situ evaluation of water-repellent treatments frequently used for consolidation and/or protection of stone artifacts.

  18. Design of Advanced Atmospheric Water Vapor Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Luck, William S., Jr.; DeYoung, Russell J.

    1999-01-01

    The measurement of atmospheric water vapor is very important for understanding the Earth's climate and water cycle. The lidar atmospheric sensing experiment (LASE) is an instrument designed and operated by the Langley Research Center for high precision water vapor measurements. The design details of a new water vapor lidar detection system that improves the measurement sensitivity of the LASE instrument by a factor of 10 are discussed. The new system consists of an advanced, very low noise, avalanche photodiode (APD) and a state-of-the-art signal processing circuit. The new low-power system is also compact and lightweight so that it would be suitable for space flight and unpiloted atmospheric vehicles (UAV) applications. The whole system is contained on one small printed circuit board (9 x 15 sq cm). The detection system is mounted at the focal plane of a lidar receiver telescope, and the digital output is read by a personal computer with a digital data acquisition card.

  19. Transient absorption in water-micellar solutions of rhodamine 6G with flash lamp excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, M.B.; Cherkasov, A.S.

    1986-06-01

    This paper studies the kinetics of transient losses in water-micellar solutions of rhodamine 6G by using flash lamp excitation. During the experiments, the laser radiation energy was measured, the time evolution of stimulated emission spectra was recorded; pulse shape was monitored by an oscillograph. The change of generation characteristics of water-micellar solutions of rhodamine 6G as a function of cyclooctatetraene concentration is shown.

  20. Evaluation of potential performance additives for the advanced lithium bromide chiller

    SciTech Connect

    Reiner, R.H.; Del Cul, W.; Perez-Blanco, H.; Ally, M.R.; Zaltash, A.

    1991-04-01

    The effectiveness and stability of potential heat-and-mass transfer (performance) additives for an advanced lithium bromide (LiBr) chiller were evaluated in a series of experimental studies. These studies of additive effectiveness and stability were necessary because many currently used performance additives decompose at the high generator temperatures (220{degrees}C to 260{degrees}C) desired for this particular advanced LiBr chiller. For example, one common performance additive, 2-ethyl-l-hexanol (2EH), reacts with the corrosion inhibitor, lithium chromate (Li{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}), even at moderate generator temperatures ({ge}180{degrees}C). These stability problems can be mitigated by using less reactive corrosion inhibitors such as lithium molybdate (Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}) and by using more stable performance additives such as 1-heptanol (HEP) or 1H,1H,7H-dodecafluoro-1-heptanol (DFH). There seems to be a trade-off between additive stability and effectiveness: the most effective performance additives are not the most stable additives. These studies indicate that HEP or DFH may be effective additives in the advanced LiBr chiller if Li{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} is used as a corrosion inhibitor.

  1. High-accuracy measurement of low-water-content in liquid using NIR spectral absorption method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Bao-Jin; Wan, Xu; Jin, Hong-Zhen; Zhao, Yong; Mao, He-Fa

    2005-01-01

    Water content measurement technologies are very important for quality inspection of food, medicine products, chemical products and many other industry fields. In recent years, requests for accurate low-water-content measurement in liquid are more and more exigent, and great interests have been shown from the research and experimental work. With the development and advancement of modern production and control technologies, more accurate water content technology is needed. In this paper, a novel experimental setup based on near-infrared (NIR) spectral technology and fiber-optic sensor (OFS) is presented. It has a good measurement accuracy about -/+ 0.01%, which is better, to our knowledge, than most other methods published until now. It has a high measurement resolution of 0.001% in the measurement range from zero to 0.05% for water-in-alcohol measurement, and the water-in-oil measurement is carried out as well. In addition, the advantages of this method also include pollution-free to the measured liquid, fast measurement and so on.

  2. Effect of water and temperature on absorption of CO2 by amine-functionalized anion-tethered ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, Brett F; de la Fuente, Juan C; Gurkan, Burcu E; Lopez, Zulema K; Price, Erica A; Huang, Yong; Brennecke, Joan F

    2011-07-28

    Amine-functionalized anion-tethered ionic liquids (ILs) trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium asparaginate [P(66614)][Asn], glutaminate [P(66614)][Gln], lysinate [P(66614)][Lys], methioninate [P(66614)][Met], prolinate [P(66614)][Pro], taurinate [P(66614)][Tau], and threoninate [P(66614)][Thr] were synthesized and investigated as potential absorbents for CO(2) capture from postcombustion flue gas. Their physical properties, including density, viscosity, glass transition temperature, and thermal decomposition temperature were determined. Furthermore, the CO(2) absorption isotherms of [P(66614)][Lys], [P(66614)][Tau], [P(66614)][Pro], and [P(66614)][Met] were measured using a volumetric method, and the results were modeled with two different Langmuir-type absorption models. The most important result of this study is that the viscosity of [P(66614)][Pro] only increased by a factor of 2 when fully complexed with 1 bar of CO(2) at room temperature. This is in stark contrast to the other chemically reacted ILs investigated here and all other amino acid-based ILs reported in the literature, which dramatically increase in viscosity, typically by 2 orders of magnitude, when complexed with CO(2). The unique behavior of [P(66614)][Pro] is likely due to its ring structure, which limits the number and availability of hydrogen atoms that can participate in a hydrogen bonding network. We found that water can be used to further reduce the viscosity of the CO(2)-complexed IL, while only slightly decreasing the CO(2) capacity. Finally, from temperature-dependent isotherms, we estimate a heat of absorption of -63 kJ/mol of CO(2) for the 1:1 reaction of CO(2) with [P(66614)][Pro], when we use the two-reaction model.

  3. Heavy metal mobility in runoff water and absorption by eggplant fruits from sludge treated soil.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F; Turley, Eric T; Sikora, Frank; Snyder, John C

    2008-08-01

    Sewage sludge addition to agricultural lands requires judicious management to avoid environmental risks arising from heavy metal and nitrate contamination of surface water and accumulation in edible plants. A field study was conducted on a silty-loam soil of 10% slope at Kentucky State University Research Farm. Eighteen plots of 22 x 3.7 m each were separated using metal borders and the soil in six plots was mixed with sewage sludge and yard waste compost mix (SS-YW) at 15 t acre(-1), six plots were mixed with sewage sludge (SS) at 15 t acre(-1), and six unamended plots that never received sludge were used for comparison purposes. Plots were planted with eggplant, Solanum melongena L. as the test plant. The objectives of this investigation were to: 1) assess the effect of soil amendments on the transport of NO3, NH4, and heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Mo) into surface water; 2) investigate the effect of soil amendments on heavy metal bioavailability in eggplant fruits at harvest; and 3) assess chemical and physical properties of soil following addition of soil amendments and their impact on the yield and quality of eggplant fruit. SS-YW treatments reduced runoff water by 63% while plots incorporated with sewage sludge alone reduced runoff water by 37% compared to control treatment. The SS-YW treatments transported more mineral nitrogen (NO3-N and NH4-N) in runoff water than SS treatments. Total marketable yield (lbs acre(-1)) and number of eggplant fruits were greatest in SS-YW treatments. This response may be due to improved soil porosity, water, and nutrient retention of the soil amended with SS-YW mixture. Concentrations of heavy metals in soil amended with sludge were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) limits. Chromium, Ni, Zn, and Cu were taken up by eggplant fruits but their concentrations were below the Codex Commission allowable levels.

  4. Solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system installed at Kaw Valley State Bank and Trust Company, Topeka, Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy was used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system had an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water was the transfer medium that delivered solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivered solar heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy was insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provided auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are presented.

  5. Solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system installed at Kaw Valley State Bank and Trust Company, Topeka, Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy was used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system had an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water was the transfer medium that delivered solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivered solar heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy was insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provided auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are presented.

  6. Surfactant/oil/water system for the determination of selenium in eggs by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ieggli, C. V. S.; Bohrer, D.; Noremberg, S.; do Nascimento, P. C.; de Carvalho, L. M.; Vieira, S. L.; Reis, R. N.

    2009-06-01

    An oil-in-water formulation has been optimized to determine trace levels of selenium in whole hen eggs by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. This method is simpler and requires fewer reagents when compared with other sample pre-treatment procedures. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric (GF AAS) measurement was carried out using standard addition calibration and Pd as a modifier. The precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, was better than 5% and the limit of detection was 1 µg L - 1 . The validation of the method was performed against a standard reference material Whole Egg Powder (RM 8415), and the measured Se corresponded to 95.2% of the certified value. The method was used for the determination of the Se level in eggs from hens treated with Se dietary supplements. Inorganic and organic Se sources were added to hen feed. The Se content of eggs was higher when hens were fed with organic Se compared to the other treatments. The proposed method, including sample emulsification for subsequent Se determination by GF AAS has proved to be sensitive, reproducible, simple and economical.

  7. Micelle mediated extraction of magnesium from water samples with trizma-chloranilate and determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Giokas, Dimosthenis L; Paleologos, Evangelos K; Veltsistas, Panayotis G; Karayannis, Miltiades I

    2002-03-01

    This article describes an analytical method for the determination of magnesium taking advantage of the cloud point phenomenon employing a suitable chelating agent (chloranilate) for Mg analysis. The method encompasses pre-concentration of the metal chelate followed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) analysis. The chelating agent chosen for this task is a newly synthesised salt of chloranilic acid, trizma-chloranilate, which reacts with Mg but at the same time has a very low affinity for other metallic cations like silicon, aluminium and sodium, which interfere with the determination of Mg in FAAS. The condensed surfactant phase with the metal chelate(s) is introduced into the flame of an atomic absorption spectrometer after its treatment with an acidified methanolic solution. In this way, complex and time-consuming steps for sample treatment are avoided while increased sensitivity is achieved by the presence of both methanol and surfactant in the aspirated sample. The analytical curve was rectilinear in the range of 5-220 mugl(-1) and the limit of detection was as low as 0.75 mugl(-1) with a standard deviation of 5.2%. The method was applied for the determination of Mg in natural and mineral waters with satisfactory results and recoveries in the range of 97-102%. PMID:18968513

  8. Theoretical modeling and interpretation of X-ray absorption spectra of liquid water.

    PubMed

    Wang, R L C; Kreuzer, H J; Grunze, M

    2006-11-01

    We report extensive calculations to examine the capability of theory to explain the XAS spectra of liquid water. Several aspects that enter the theoretical model are addressed, such as the quantum mechanical methods, the statistics and the XAS model. As input into our quantum mechanical calculations we will use structural information on liquid water obtained from first principles and from classical molecular dynamics simulations. As XAS models, we will examine the full core hole and the half core hole approximations to transition state theory. The quantum mechanics is performed on the basis of density functional theory. We conclude from this study that recent experimental results are fully consistent with, and can be completely explained by, present day theory, in particular, the pre-edge peak is reproduced. We also find that the average bond coordination in liquid water is 3.1 and that the assertion in a recent paper that the hydrogen bond number is much less than that cannot be substantiated. Our calculations emphasize that further advances in our understanding of water can only be made by more sophisticated spectroscopy with significantly increased resolution.

  9. Total absorption and photoionization cross sections of water vapor between 100 and 1000 A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, G. N.; Samson, J. A. R.

    1986-01-01

    Absolute photoabsorption and photoionization cross sections of water vapor are reported at a large number of discrete wavelengths between 100 and 1000 A with an estimate error of + or - 3 percent in regions free from any discrete structure. The double ionization chamber technique utilized is described. Recent calculations are shown to be in reasonable agreement with the present data.

  10. Novel Fiber Optic Sensor Probe with a Pair of Highly Reflected Connectors and a Vessel of Water Absorption Material for Water Leak Detection

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Tae-Sik; Choi, Ki-Sun; Seo, Dae-Cheol; Kwon, Il-Bum; Lee, Jung-Ryul

    2012-01-01

    The use of a fiber optic quasi-distributed sensing technique for detecting the location and severity of water leakage is suggested. A novel fiber optic sensor probe is devised with a vessel of water absorption material called as water combination soil (WCS) located between two highly reflected connectors: one is a reference connector and the other is a sensing connector. In this study, the sensing output is calculated from the reflected light signals of the two connectors. The first reflected light signal is a reference and the second is a sensing signal which is attenuated by the optical fiber bending loss due to the WCS expansion absorbing water. Also, the bending loss of each sensor probe is determined by referring to the total number of sensor probes and the total power budget of an entire system. We have investigated several probe characteristics to show the design feasibility of the novel fiber sensor probe. The effects of vessel sizes of the probes on the water detection sensitivity are studied. The largest vessel probe provides the highest sensitivity of 0.267 dB/mL, while the smallest shows relatively low sensitivity of 0.067 dB/mL, and unstable response. The sensor probe with a high output value provides a high sensitivity with various detection levels while the number of total installable sensor probes decreases. PMID:23112637

  11. Impact of the analytical blank in the uncertainty evaluation of the copper content in waters by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Elcio Cruz; Monteiro, Maria Inês Couto; Pontes, Fernanda Veronesi Marinho; de Almeida, Marcelo Dominguez; Carneiro, Manuel Castro; da Silva, Lílian Irene Dias; Alcover Neto, Arnaldo

    2012-01-01

    Chemical analysts use analytical blanks in their analyses, but seldom is this source of uncertainty evaluated. Generally, there is great confusion. Although the numerical value of the blank, in some situations, can be negligible, its source of uncertainty cannot be. This article discusses the uncertainty contribution of the analytical blank using a numerical example of the copper content in waters by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The results indicate that the uncertainties of the analytical blank can contribute up to 50% when the blank sample is considered in this analysis, confirming its high impact. This effect can be primarily observed where the analyte concentration approaches the lower range of the analytical curve. Even so, the blank is not always computed. Therefore, the relevance of the analytical blank can be confirmed by uncertainty evaluation.

  12. The Effect of Platinum-coatings on Hydrogen- and Water-absorption and Desorption Characteristics of Lithium Zirconate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, B.; Bandow, S.; Nagata, S.; Saito, K.; Tokunaga, K.; Morita, K.

    Hydrogen (H)- and water (H2O)-storage and desorption characteristics of 25 nm thick Pt films onLi2ZrO3composite materials, exposed to normal air at room temperature, have been investigated by means of elastic recoil detection (ERD), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), weight gain measurement (WGM), and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) techniques. It was found by the ERD and TDS that H and H2O were absorbed into the Pt-coated Li2ZrO3 in air at room temperature and desorbed from it in vacuum at much low temperatures of approximately 317 and 309 K, respectively. In addition, the WGM and TDS spectra revealed that the absorption and desorption characters ofsome gases such as CH4, CO, and CO2including H as well as H2Ointo the Li2ZrO3 bulk were improved by Pt deposition.

  13. Pre-concentration of trace metals from sea-water for determination by graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sturgeon, R E; Berman, S S; Desaulniers, A; Russell, D S

    1980-02-01

    Determination of Cd, Zn, Pb, Cu, Fe, Mn, Co, Cr and Ni in coastal sea-water by graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry after preconcentration by solvent extraction and use of a chelating ion-exchange resin is described. Following the extraction of the pyrrolidine-N-carbodithioate and oxinate complexes into methyl isobutyl ketone, the trace metals are further preconcentrated by back-extraction into 1.5M nitric acid. Preconcentration on the chelating resin is effected by a combined column and batch technique, allowing greater preconcentration factors to be obtained. Provided samples are appropriately treated to release non-labile metal species prior to preconcentration, both methods yield comparable analytical results with respect to the mean concentrations determined as well as to mean relative standard deviations. Control and treatment of the analytical blank is also described. PMID:18962623

  14. X-ray absorption and infrared spectra of water and ice: A first-principles electronic structure study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei

    Water is of essential importance for chemistry and biology, yet the physics concerning many of its distinctive properties is not well known. In this thesis we present a theoretical study of the x-ray absorption (XA) and infrared (IR) spectra of water in liquid and solid phase. Our theoretical tools are the density functional theory (DFT), Car-Parrinello (CP) molecular dynamics (MD), and the so-called GW method. Since a systematic review of these ab initio methods is not the task of this thesis, we only briefly recall the main concepts of these methods as needed in the course of our exposition. The focus is, instead, an investigation of what is the important physics necessary for a better description of these excitation processes, in particular, core electron excitations (in XA) that reveal the local electronic structure, and vibrational excitations (in IR) associated to the molecular dynamics. The most interesting question we are trying to answer is: as we include better approximations and more complete physical descriptions of these processes, how do the aforementioned spectra reflect the underlying hydrogen-bonding network of water? The first part of this thesis consists of the first four chapters, which focus on the study of core level excitation of water and ice. The x-ray absorption spectra of water and ice are calculated with a many-body approach for electron-hole excitations. The experimental features, even the small effects of a temperature change in the liquid, are reproduced with quantitative detail using molecular configurations generated by ab initio molecular dynamics. We find that the spectral shape is controlled by two major modifications of the short range order that mark the transition from ice to water. One is associated to dynamic breaking of the hydrogen bonds which leads to a strong enhancement of the pre-edge intensity in the liquid. The other is due to densification, which follows the partial collapse of the hydrogen bond network and is

  15. Compact sieve-tray distillation column for ammonia-water absorption heat pump: Part 1 -- Design methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, G.; Erickson, D.C.

    1999-07-01

    The distillation column is a key component of ammonia-water absorption units including advanced generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) cycle heat pumps. The design of the distillation column is critical to unit performance, size, and cost. The distillation column can be designed with random packing, structured packing, or various tray configurations. A sieve-tray distillation column is the least complicated tray design and is less costly than high-efficiency packing. Substantial literature is available on sieve tray design and performance. However, most of the correlations and design recommendations were developed for large industrial hydrocarbon systems and are generally not directly applicable to the compact ammonia-water column discussed here. The correlations were reviewed and modified as appropriate for this application, and a sieve-tray design model was developed. This paper presents the sieve-tray design methodology for highly compact ammonia-water columns. A conceptual design of the distillation column for an 8 ton vapor exchange (VX) GAX heat pump is presented, illustrating relevant design parameters and trends. The design process revealed several issues that have to be investigated experimentally to design the final optimized rectifier. Validation of flooding and weeping limits and tray/point efficiencies are of primary importance.

  16. Ground-based differential absorption lidar for water-vapor profiling: assessment of accuracy, resolution, and meteorological applications.

    PubMed

    Wulfmeyer, V; Bösenberg, J

    1998-06-20

    The accuracy and the resolution of water-vapor measurements by use of the ground-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system of the Max-Planck-Institute (MPI) are determined. A theoretical analysis, intercomparisons with radiosondes, and measurements in high-altitude clouds allow the conclusion that, with the MPI DIAL system, water-vapor measurements with a systematic error of <5% in the whole troposphere can be performed. Special emphasis is laid on the outstanding daytime and nighttime performance of the DIAL system in the lower troposphere. With a time resolution of 1 min the statistical error varies between 0.05 g/m(3) in the near range using 75 m and-depending on the meteorological conditions-approximately 0.25 g/m(3) at 2 km using 150-m vertical resolution. When the eddy correlation method is applied, this accuracy and resolution are sufficient to determine water-vapor flux profiles in the convective boundary layer with a statistical error of <10% in each data point to approximately 1700 m. The results have contributed to the fact that the DIAL method has finally won recognition as an excellent tool for tropospheric research, in particular for boundary layer research and as a calibration standard for radiosondes and satellites. PMID:18273352

  17. Ground-based differential absorption lidar for water-vapor profiling: assessment of accuracy, resolution, and meteorological applications.

    PubMed

    Wulfmeyer, V; Bösenberg, J

    1998-06-20

    The accuracy and the resolution of water-vapor measurements by use of the ground-based differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system of the Max-Planck-Institute (MPI) are determined. A theoretical analysis, intercomparisons with radiosondes, and measurements in high-altitude clouds allow the conclusion that, with the MPI DIAL system, water-vapor measurements with a systematic error of <5% in the whole troposphere can be performed. Special emphasis is laid on the outstanding daytime and nighttime performance of the DIAL system in the lower troposphere. With a time resolution of 1 min the statistical error varies between 0.05 g/m(3) in the near range using 75 m and-depending on the meteorological conditions-approximately 0.25 g/m(3) at 2 km using 150-m vertical resolution. When the eddy correlation method is applied, this accuracy and resolution are sufficient to determine water-vapor flux profiles in the convective boundary layer with a statistical error of <10% in each data point to approximately 1700 m. The results have contributed to the fact that the DIAL method has finally won recognition as an excellent tool for tropospheric research, in particular for boundary layer research and as a calibration standard for radiosondes and satellites.

  18. Ultrasonic-assisted cloud point extraction for determination of nickel in water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Song, Jun; Zhen, Wei; Li, Zonghao; Lian, Yuanpei; Yang, Yaling

    2012-01-01

    A novel method for the determination of nickel was established by ultrasonic-assisted cloud point extraction (UA-CPE) prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) analysis. The nickel reacted with N,N'-bis(salicylidene)-1,2-ethanediamine (BSE) to form hydrophobic chelates, which were extracted into the micelles of alpha-[3,5-dimethyl-1-(2-methylpropyl)hexyl]-omega- poly(oxy-2-ethanediyl) (Tergitol TMN-6). Tergitol TMN-6 was used as green nonionic surfactant. BSE was synthesized and checked by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The phase diagrams of the binary system, water-surfactant (Tergitol TMN-6), and the ternary systems, water-surfactant-salt, were determined. The effects of experimental conditions including pH of sample solution, concentration of chelating agent and surfactant, ultrasonic power, equilibration temperature and incubation time were evaluated in order to enhance sensitivity of the method. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration graph was linear in the range of 10-500 μg L(-1). The values obtained for the limit of detection and enrichment factor were 1.0 μg L(-1) and 30, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of nickel in water samples. PMID:22766868

  19. Determination of Trace Silver in Water Samples by Online Column Preconcentration Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Using Termite Digestion Product

    PubMed Central

    Bianchin, Joyce Nunes; Martendal, Edmar; Carasek, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    A new method for Ag determination in water samples using solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled to a flow injection system and flame atomic absorption spectrometry was developed. The sorbent used for Ag preconcentration and extraction was the termite digestion product. Flow and chemical variables of the system were optimized through a multivariate procedure. The factors selected were adsorbent mass, buffer type and concentration, sample pH, and sample flow rate. The detection limit and precision were 3.4 μg L−1 and 3.8% (n = 6, 15 μg L−1), respectively. The enrichment factor and the linear working range were, respectively, 21 and 10–50 μg L−1. Results for recovery tests using different water samples were between 96 and 107%. The proposed methodology was applied with success for the determination of Ag in water used to wash clothes impregnated with silver nanoparticles, supplied by a factory located in Santa Catarina, Brazil. PMID:21804766

  20. Modelling absorption and dilution of unconfined releases of hazardous gases by water curtains or monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Blewitt, D.N.; Hague, W.J.

    1995-05-01

    OSHA Process Safety Management guidelines suggest that a facility operator investigate and document a plan for installing systems to detect, contain, or mitigate accidental releases if such systems are not already in place. In addition, proposed EPA 112(r) regulations would require such analysis. This paper illustrates how mathematical modelling can aid such an evaluation and describes some recent enhancements of the HGSPRAY model: (1) Adding algorithms for modeling NH{sub 3} and LNG mitigation; (2) Modeling spraying of releases with fire water monitors encircling the point of release; (3) Combining wind tunnel modeling with mathematical modeling; and (4) Linking HGSPRAY and BEGADAS. Case cases are presented as examples of how HGSPRAY can aid the design of water spray systems for initiation of toxic gases (e.g., BF, NH,) or dilution/dispersion of flammable vapors (e.g., LNG).

  1. Compressive Strength and Water Absorption of Pervious Concrete that Using the Fragments of Ceramics and Roof Tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prahara, E.; Meilani

    2014-03-01

    Pervious concrete was introduced in America in 2003, popularized by Dan Brown and used as a rigid pavement in the open parking lot. Rigid pavement using pervious concrete can absorb water in the surface to go straight through the concrete to the ground below.This water flow is one of the benefit of using the pervious concrete. Using of wastes such as broken roof and ceramics tiles are not commonly used in Indonesia. Utilization these kind of wastes is predicted lower the compressive strength of pervious concrete as they are used as a substitute for coarse aggregate.In this research, pervious concrete is made using a mixture of the fragment of ceramics and roof tiles.This research using broken ceramics and roof tiles with a grain size that loose from 38 mm sieve, retained on 19 mm sieve and the coarse aggregate from crushed stone that loose 12.5 mm sieve, retained on 9.5 mm sieve. The water cement ratio is 0.3 and to assist the mixing process, the addition of addictive in pervious concrete is used.The size of coarse aggregate used in the mixture affects the strength of pervious concrete. The larger the size of aggregate, the obtained compressive strength becomes smaller. It also affects the density of pervious concrete. The using of mixture of ceramics and roof tiles only reduce 2 MPa of pervious concrete compressive strength so this mixture can be used as a substitute for coarse aggregate with a maximum portion of 30 %. The high porosity of the specimens causes the reduction of pervious concrete density that affect the compressive strength. This high level of porosity can be seen from the high level of water absorption that exceed the required limit of water infiltration.

  2. Multilayer Cloud Detection with the MODIS Near-Infrared Water Vapor Absorption Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wind, Galina; Platnick, Steven; King, Michael D.; Hubanks, Paul A,; Pavolonis, Michael J.; Heidinger, Andrew K.; Yang, Ping; Baum, Bryan A.

    2009-01-01

    Data Collection 5 processing for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the NASA Earth Observing System EOS Terra and Aqua spacecraft includes an algorithm for detecting multilayered clouds in daytime. The main objective of this algorithm is to detect multilayered cloud scenes, specifically optically thin ice cloud overlying a lower-level water cloud, that presents difficulties for retrieving cloud effective radius using single layer plane-parallel cloud models. The algorithm uses the MODIS 0.94 micron water vapor band along with CO2 bands to obtain two above-cloud precipitable water retrievals, the difference of which, in conjunction with additional tests, provides a map of where multilayered clouds might potentially exist. The presence of a multilayered cloud results in a large difference in retrievals of above-cloud properties between the CO2 and the 0.94 micron methods. In this paper the MODIS multilayered cloud algorithm is described, results of using the algorithm over example scenes are shown, and global statistics for multilayered clouds as observed by MODIS are discussed. A theoretical study of the algorithm behavior for simulated multilayered clouds is also given. Results are compared to two other comparable passive imager methods. A set of standard cloudy atmospheric profiles developed during the course of this investigation is also presented. The results lead to the conclusion that the MODIS multilayer cloud detection algorithm has some skill in identifying multilayered clouds with different thermodynamic phases

  3. A comparison of simultaneous plasma, atomic absorption, and iron colorimetric determinations of major and trace constituents in acid mine waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, J.W.; Nordstrom, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    Sixty-three water samples collected during June to October 1982 from the Leviathan/Bryant Creek drainage basin were originally analyzed by simultaneous multielement direct-current plasma (DCP) atomic-emission spectrometry, flame atomic-absorption spectrometry, graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) (thallium only), ultraviolet-visible spectrometry, and hydride-generation atomic-absorption spectrometry.Determinations were made for the following metallic and semi-metallic constituents: AI, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe(11), Fe(total), Li, Pb, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, K, Sb, Se, Si, Na, Sr, TI, V, and Zn. These samples were re-analyzed later by simultaneous multielement inductively coupled plasma (ICP) atomic-emission spectrometry and Zeeman-corrected GFAAS to determine the concentrations of many of the same constituents with improved accuracy, precision, and sensitivity. The result of this analysis has been the generation of comparative concentration values for a significant subset of the solute constituents. Many of the more recently determined values replace less-than-detection values for the trace metals; others constitute duplicate analyses for the major constituents. The multiple determinations have yielded a more complete, accurate, and precise set of analytical data. They also have resulted in an opportunity to compare the performance of the plasma-emission instruments operated in their respective simultaneous multielement modes. Flame atomic-absorption spectrometry was judged best for Na and K and hydride-generation atomic-absorption spectrometry was judged best for As because of their lower detection limit and relative freedom from interelement spectral effects. Colorimetric determination using ferrozine as the color agent was judged most accurate, precise, and sensitive for Fe. Cadmium, lead, and vanadium concentrations were too low in this set of samples to enable a determination of whether ICP or DCP is a more suitable technique. Of

  4. Statistical models for sediment/detritus and dissolved absorption coefficients in coastal waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Rebecca E.; Gould, Richard W., Jr.; Ko, Dong S.

    2008-06-01

    We developed statistically-based, optical models to estimate tripton (sediment/detrital) and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption coefficients ( a sd, a g) from physical hydrographic and atmospheric properties. The models were developed for northern Gulf of Mexico shelf waters using multi-year satellite and physical data. First, empirical algorithms for satellite-derived a sd and a g were developed, based on comparison with a large data set of cruise measurements from northern Gulf shelf waters; these algorithms were then applied to a time series of ocean color (SeaWiFS) satellite imagery for 2002-2005. Unique seasonal timing was observed in satellite-derived optical properties, with a sd peaking most often in fall/winter on the shelf, in contrast to summertime peaks observed in a g. Next, the satellite-derived values were coupled with the physical data to form multiple regression models. A suite of physical forcing variables were tested for inclusion in the models: discharge from the Mississippi River and Mobile Bay, Alabama; gridded fields for winds, precipitation, solar radiation, sea surface temperature and height (SST, SSH); and modeled surface salinity and currents (Navy Coastal Ocean Model, NCOM). For satellite-derived a sd and a g time series (2002-2004), correlation and stepwise regression analyses revealed the most important physical forcing variables. Over our region of interest, the best predictors of tripton absorption were wind speed, river discharge, and SST, whereas dissolved absorption was best predicted by east-west wind speed, river discharge, and river discharge lagged by 1 month. These results suggest the importance of vertical mixing (as a function of winds and thermal stratification) in controlling a sd distribution patterns over large regions of the shelf, in comparison to advection as the most important control on a g. The multiple linear regression models for estimating a sd and a g were applied on a pixel-by-pixel basis and

  5. Chiller plant CFC, energy and operational improvements{hor_ellipsis} or, killing three birds with one stone

    SciTech Connect

    Waltz, J.P.

    1996-05-01

    This paper explores the hidden opportunities that exist when planning CFC abatement or modernization projects for central cooling plants, both small and large. It is critically important to perform an in-depth, comprehensive, and integrated re-evaluation of the entire cooling plant, its auxiliaries and its distribution system. By doing so, numerous system improvements can be identified and implemented which will reduce operating costs, simplify maintenance, improve plant operations, enhance plant reliability and even improve building comfort. Among the improvement measures are more efficient chillers, cooling tower replacement and optimization, plant re-sizing, optimizing, primary and auxiliary equipment {open_quotes}mix{close_quotes}chilled water variable flow conversion, multiple-plant integration, installation of dedicated cooling systems and fuel substitution. These measures can all independently, or concurrently, contribute to dramatically improved cooling operations. The paper refers to numerous actual projects that have already employed these techniques and also discusses the major CFC abatement compliance dates. The hidden opportunities presented and explained in this paper can do much to take the{open_quote}sting{close_quote} out of an otherwise onerous regulatory {open_quotes}predicament{close_quotes} and, perhaps most significantly, help to secure funding from management for much-needed projects sooner rather than later.

  6. Numerical study of an internal-reforming solid oxide fuel cell and adsorption chiller co-generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Leong, K. C.

    A study is conducted on a cogeneration system that incorporates a natural gas fed internal-reforming solid oxide fuel cell (IRSOFC) and a zeolite/water adsorption chiller (AC). The main aim is to investigate the performance of this combined system under different operating conditions and design parameters. A mathematical model is developed to simulate the combined system under steady-state conditions. The effects of fuel flow rate, fuel utilization factor, circulation ratio, mass of adsorbent and inlet air temperature on the performance are considered. The results show that the proposed IRSOFC-AC cogeneration system can achieve a total efficiency (combined electrical power and cooling power) of more than 77%. The electrical efficiency is found to decrease as the fuel flow rate increases, while the cooling power increases to a constant value. The total efficiency reaches a maximum value with variation of the fuel utilization factor. Both the circulation ratio and the inlet air temperature exert positive impacts on system efficiency.

  7. Emission from water vapor and absorption from other gases at 5-7.5 μm in Spitzer-IRS Spectra Of Protoplanetary Disks

    SciTech Connect

    Sargent, B. A.; Forrest, W.; Watson, Dan M.; Kim, K. H.; Richter, I.; Tayrien, C.; D'Alessio, P.; Calvet, N.; Furlan, E.; Green, J.; Pontoppidan, K.

    2014-09-10

    We present spectra of 13 T Tauri stars in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region showing emission in Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph 5-7.5 μm spectra from water vapor and absorption from other gases in these stars' protoplanetary disks. Seven stars' spectra show an emission feature at 6.6 μm due to the ν{sub 2} = 1-0 bending mode of water vapor, with the shape of the spectrum suggesting water vapor temperatures >500 K, though some of these spectra also show indications of an absorption band, likely from another molecule. This water vapor emission contrasts with the absorption from warm water vapor seen in the spectrum of the FU Orionis star V1057 Cyg. The other 6 of the 13 stars have spectra showing a strong absorption band, peaking in strength at 5.6-5.7 μm, which for some is consistent with gaseous formaldehyde (H{sub 2}CO) and for others is consistent with gaseous formic acid (HCOOH). There are indications that some of these six stars may also have weak water vapor emission. Modeling of these stars' spectra suggests these gases are present in the inner few AU of their host disks, consistent with recent studies of infrared spectra showing gas in protoplanetary disks.

  8. Enhanced absorption cycle computer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, G.; Wilk, M.

    1993-09-01

    Absorption heat pumps have received renewed and increasing attention in the past two decades. The rising cost of electricity has made the particular features of this heat-powered cycle attractive for both residential and industrial applications. Solar-powered absorption chillers, gas-fired domestic heat pumps, and waste-heat-powered industrial temperature boosters are a few of the applications recently subjected to intensive research and development. The absorption heat pump research community has begun to search for both advanced cycles in various multistage configurations and new working fluid combinations with potential for enhanced performance and reliability. The development of working absorption systems has created a need for reliable and effective system simulations. A computer code has been developed for simulation of absorption systems at steady state in a flexible and modular form, making it possible to investigate various cycle configurations with different working fluids. The code is based on unit subroutines containing the governing equations for the system's components and property subroutines containing thermodynamic properties of the working fluids. The user conveys to the computer an image of his cycle by specifying the different subunits and their interconnections. Based on this information, the program calculates the temperature, flow rate, concentration, pressure, and vapor fraction at each state point in the system, and the heat duty at each unit, from which the coefficient of performance (COP) may be determined. This report describes the code and its operation, including improvements introduced into the present version. Simulation results are described for LiBr-H2O triple-effect cycles, LiCl-H2O solar-powered open absorption cycles, and NH3-H2O single-effect and generator-absorber heat exchange cycles. An appendix contains the user's manual.

  9. Absorption and retention of uranium from drinking water by rats and rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Tracy, B.L.; Quinn, J.M.; Lahey, J.; Gilman, A.P.; Mancuso, K.; Yagminas, A.P.; Villeneuve, D.C. )

    1992-01-01

    Uranium in the form of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate was administered in drinking water to Sprague-Dawley rats for periods of 28 and 91 d and New Zealand White rabbits for 91 d. The animals consumed food and water ad libitum. Subgroups of rabbits were followed for recovery periods of up to 91 d; 24-h collections of urine and feces were performed for some of the rabbits at various times during the exposure and recovery periods. At the end of the experiment, all animals were sacrificed and femur and kidney samples were analyzed for uranium residues. The results show that both rats and rabbits absorb about 0.06% of ingested uranium in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The distribution and retention of uranium in the skeleton and kidneys of rats are comparable to parameters reported for humans. The retention half-time in rabbit bone is substantially longer than for humans. The implications of extrapolating from animal data to effects on humans are discussed.

  10. Superhydrophobic and superoleophilic polydimethylsiloxane-coated cotton for oil-water separation process: An evidence of the relationship between its loading capacity and oil absorption ability.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yangxin; Jiang, Peng; Ke, Qingping; Cheng, Feihuan; Zhu, Yinshengnan; Zhang, Yixiang

    2015-12-30

    Developing functional porous materials with highly efficient oil-water separation ability are of great importance due to the global scale of severe water pollution arising from oil spillage and chemical leakage. A solution immersion process was used to fabricate polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated cotton, which exhibited superhydrophobic and superoleophilic properties. The water contact angle of ∼ 157° and mass of ∼ 1.49 g were retained after 1000 compression cycles, indicating that the PDMS was strongly attached to the cotton fibres. The PDMS-coated cotton absorbed various oils and organic solvents with high selectivity, high absorption capacity (up to 7080 wt.%), and good recyclability (exceeding 500 cycles). Notably, the loading capacity of the PDMS-coated cotton against water exhibited a similar trend to its oil absorption capacity. These findings will further the application of superhydrophobic and superoleophilic porous materials in oil/water separation.

  11. Development of a large-tonnage engine-driven chiller with integrated thermal storage. Annual report, September 1988-September 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Clavin, K.L.; Ericksen, L.

    1989-09-01

    The widespread use of high demand charges and time of use energy rates by electric utilities has attracted engineers and building owners to various peak shaving strategies. Gas chillers and thermal energy storage are two technologies that have been updated and are generally thought to be competing in the market place. The combination of these two strategies into one competitively priced product is the goal of the Gas Research Institute/American Gas Association project. The analysis phase is presented in the report. The economic analysis consisted of office building load and equipment simulations in ESAS, thermal storage sizing and strategy, installed costs of chillers and heat rejection equipment, and utility rate inputs. Maintenance and replacement costs during a 25 year plant life are included. A standard electric centrifugal chiller is used as a base case. The results indicate that the engine-driven thermal storage system can be economically attractive due to lower first cost than gas chillers of the same rated capacity. Electric-drive thermal storage, engine-driven thermal storage and engine-driven chillers are each competitive under different utility rate structures.

  12. Detection of carbon monoxide and water absorption lines in an exoplanet atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Konopacky, Quinn M; Barman, Travis S; Macintosh, Bruce A; Marois, Christian

    2013-03-22

    Determining the atmospheric structure and chemical composition of an exoplanet remains a formidable goal. Fortunately, advancements in the study of exoplanets and their atmospheres have come in the form of direct imaging--spatially resolving the planet from its parent star--which enables high-resolution spectroscopy of self-luminous planets in jovian-like orbits. Here, we present a spectrum with numerous, well-resolved molecular lines from both water and carbon monoxide from a massive planet orbiting less than 40 astronomical units from the star HR 8799. These data reveal the planet's chemical composition, atmospheric structure, and surface gravity, confirming that it is indeed a young planet. The spectral lines suggest an atmospheric carbon-to-oxygen ratio that is greater than that of the host star, providing hints about the planet's formation.

  13. Detection of carbon monoxide and water absorption lines in an exoplanet atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Konopacky, Quinn M; Barman, Travis S; Macintosh, Bruce A; Marois, Christian

    2013-03-22

    Determining the atmospheric structure and chemical composition of an exoplanet remains a formidable goal. Fortunately, advancements in the study of exoplanets and their atmospheres have come in the form of direct imaging--spatially resolving the planet from its parent star--which enables high-resolution spectroscopy of self-luminous planets in jovian-like orbits. Here, we present a spectrum with numerous, well-resolved molecular lines from both water and carbon monoxide from a massive planet orbiting less than 40 astronomical units from the star HR 8799. These data reveal the planet's chemical composition, atmospheric structure, and surface gravity, confirming that it is indeed a young planet. The spectral lines suggest an atmospheric carbon-to-oxygen ratio that is greater than that of the host star, providing hints about the planet's formation. PMID:23493423

  14. Vibrational absorption and vibrational circular dichroism spectra of leucine in water under different pH conditions: Hydrogen-bonding interactions with water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poopari, Mohammad Reza; Zhu, Peiyan; Dezhahang, Zahra; Xu, Yunjie

    2012-11-01

    Vibrational absorption (VA) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy have been used to study leucine, a flexible branched-chain amino acid, in aqueous solution. The VA spectra in the range of 1800-1250 cm-1 of leucine in D2O under three representative pHs from strongly acidic (pH = 1), near neutral (pH = 6), to strongly basic (pH = 13), have been measured. The related VCD spectrum has been obtained under near neutral condition. Searches have been carried out to identify the most stable conformers of the Zwitterionic, protonated, and deprotonated forms of leucine in water. The geometry optimization, harmonic frequency calculations, and VA and VCD intensities have been computed at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level with the implicit polarizable continuum solvation model. While the observed VA spectra under three pHs can be well interpreted with the inclusion of the implicit solvation model, both implicit and explicit solvation models have been found to be crucial for the adequate interpretation of the complex VCD features observed. Molecular dynamics simulations and radial distribution functions have been used to aid the modeling of the leucine-(water)N clusters. It has been recognized that the insertion of a water molecule between the COO- and NH3+ functional groups in the explicit solvated clusters is critical to reproduce the VCD signatures observed. Furthermore, the inclusion of the implicit bulk water environment has been found to be essential to lock water molecules, which are directly hydrogen bonded to leucine, into the positions expected in solution. The application of the explicit and implicit solvation models simultaneously allows new insights into the hydrogen bonding network surrounding leucine in aqueous solution and the role of the surrounding bulk water in stabilizing such hydrogen-bonding network.

  15. Accurate calculation of the x-ray absorption spectrum of water via the GW/Bethe-Salpeter equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, Keith; Vinson, John; Kas, Josh; Vila, Fernando; Rehr, John

    2014-03-01

    We calculate x-ray absorption spectra (XAS) of water within the OCEAN code, which combines plane-wave, pseudopotential electronic structure, PAW transition elements, GW self-energy corrections, and the NIST BSE solver. Due to the computational demands of this approach, our initial XAS calculations were limited to 17 molecule super cells. This lead to unphysical, size dependent effects in the calculated spectra. To treat larger systems, we extended the OCEAN interface to support well-parallelized codes such as QuantumESPRESSO. We also implemented an efficient interpolation scheme of Shirley. We applied this large-scale GW/BSE approach to 64 molecule unit cell structures of water obtained from classical DFT/MD and PIMD simulations. In concurrence with previous work, we find the calculated spectrum both qualitatively and quantitatively reproduces the experimental features. The agreement implies that structures based on PIMD, which are similar to the traditional distorted tetrahedral view, are consistent with experimental observations. Supported by the DOE CMCSN through DOE award DE-SC0005180 (Princeton University) and in part by DOE Grant No. DE-FG03-97ER45623 (JJR) with computer support from NERSC.

  16. Silicon alleviates drought stress of rice plants by improving plant water status, photosynthesis and mineral nutrient absorption.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Yao, Xiaoqin; Cai, Kunzheng; Chen, Jining

    2011-07-01

    Drought is a major constraint for rice production in the rainfed lowlands in China. Silicon (Si) has been verified to play an important role in enhancing plant resistance to environmental stress. Two near-isogenic lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.), w-14 (drought susceptible) and w-20 (drought resistant), were selected to study the effects of exogenous Si application on the physiological traits and nutritional status of rice under drought stress. In wet conditions, Si supply had no effects on growth and physiological parameters of rice plants. Drought stress was found to reduce dry weight, root traits, water potential, photosynthetic parameters, basal quantum yield (F(v)/F(0)), and maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (F(v)/F(m)) in rice plants, while Si application significantly increased photosynthetic rate (Pr), transpiration rate (Tr), F(v)/F(0), and F(v)/F(m) of rice plants under drought stress. In addition, water stress increased K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe content of rice plants, but Si treatment significantly reduced these nutrient level. These results suggested that silicon application was useful to increase drought resistance of rice through the enhancement of photochemical efficiency and adjustment of the mineral nutrient absorption in rice plants.

  17. Solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system installed at Kaw Valley State Bank and Trust Company, Topeka, Kansas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-11-01

    The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy is used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system has an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water is the transfer medium that delivers solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivers solar-heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy is insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provides auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  18. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of chromium in water by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLain, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry is a sensitive, precise, and accurate method for the determination of chromium in natural water samples. The detection limit for this analytical method is 0.4 microg/L with a working linear limit of 25.0 microg/L. The precision at the detection limit ranges from 20 to 57 percent relative standard deviation (RSD) with an improvement to 4.6 percent RSD for concentrations more than 3 microg/L. Accuracy of this method was determined for a variety of reference standards that was representative of the analytical range. The results were within the established standard deviations. Samples were spiked with known concentrations of chromium with recoveries ranging from 84 to 122 percent. In addition, a comparison of data between graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry and direct-current plasma atomic emission spectrometry resulted in suitable agreement between the two methods, with an average deviation of +/- 2.0 microg/L throughout the analytical range.

  19. Spectroscopic Character and Spatial Distribution of Hydroxyl and Water Absorption Features Measured on the Lunar Surface by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper Imaging Spectrometer on Chandrayaan-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, R. O.; Pieters, C. M.; Goswami, J.; Clark, R. N.; Annadurai, M.; Boardman, J. W.; Buratti, B. J.; Combe, J.; Dyar, M. D.; Head, J. W.; Hibbitts, C.; Hicks, M.; Isaacson, P.; Klima, R. L.; Kramer, G. Y.; Kumar, S.; Livo, K. E.; Lundeen, S.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T. B.; Mustard, J. F.; Nettles, J. W.; Petro, N. E.; Runyon, C. J.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J. M.; Taylor, L. A.; Tompkins, S.; Varanasi, P.

    2009-12-01

    The Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer on Chandrayaan-1 has a broad spectral range from 430 to 3000 nm. By design, the range was specified to extend to 3000 nm to allow for possible detection of trace volatile compounds that possess absorption bands near 3000 nm. Soon after acquisition and calibration of a large fraction of the lunar surface in early February 2009, absorption features in the 2700 to 3000 nm region were detected over unexpectedly large regional areas. This extraordinary discovery has withstood extensive re-analysis and falsification efforts. We have concluded these absorption features are fundamentally present in the M3 measurements and are indicators of extensive hydroxyl and water-bearing materials occurring on the surface of the Moon. Based on current analyses, these absorption features appear strongest at high latitudes, but also occur in association with several fresh feldspathic craters. Interestingly, the distribution of these absorption features are not directly correlated with existing neutron spectrometer hydrogen abundance data for the sunlight surface. This may indicate that the formation and retention of hydroxyl and water is an active process largely restricted to the upper most surface. We present the detailed spectroscopic character of these absorption features in the 2700 to 3000 nm spectral region, including selected examples through all levels of measurement processing from raw data to calibrated apparent surface reflectance. In summary we show the measured strength and latitudinal distribution of the absorptions as well as selected localized occurrences in association with fresh feldspathic craters. The presence of hydroxyl and water bearing material over extensive regions of the lunar surface provides a new and unexpected source of volatiles. Options for harvesting these elements directly from the regolith may provide an alternate supply of volatiles for long term human exploration objectives.

  20. Identification of intestinal bicarbonate transporters involved in formation of carbonate precipitates to stimulate water absorption in marine teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Kurita, Yukihiro; Nakada, Tsutomu; Kato, Akira; Doi, Hiroyuki; Mistry, Abinash C; Chang, Min-Hwang; Romero, Michael F; Hirose, Shigehisa

    2008-04-01

    Marine teleost fish precipitate divalent cations as carbonate deposits in the intestine to minimize the potential for excessive Ca2+ entry and to stimulate water absorption by reducing luminal osmotic pressure. This carbonate deposit formation, therefore, helps maintain osmoregulation in the seawater (SW) environment and requires controlled secretion of HCO3(-) to match the amount of Ca2+ entering the intestinal lumen. Despite its physiological importance, the process of HCO3(-) secretion has not been characterized at the molecular level. We analyzed the expression of two families of HCO3(-) transporters, Slc4 and Slc26, in fresh-water- and SW-acclimated euryhaline pufferfish, mefugu (Takifugu obscurus), and obtained the following candidate clones: NBCe1 (an Na+-HCO3(-) cotransporter) and Slc26a6A and Slc26a6B (putative Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchangers). Heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes showed that Slc26a6A and Slc26a6B have potent HCO3(-)-transporting activity as electrogenic Cl(-)/nHCO3(-) exchangers, whereas mefugu NBCe1 functions as an electrogenic Na+-nHCO3(-) cotransporter. Expression of NBCe1 and Slc26a6A was highly induced in the intestine in SW and expression of Slc26a6B was high in the intestine in SW and fresh water, suggesting their involvement in HCO3(-) secretion and carbonate precipitate formation. Immunohistochemistry showed staining on the apical (Slc26a6A and Slc26a6B) and basolateral (NBCe1) membranes of the intestinal epithelial cells in SW. We therefore propose a mechanism for HCO3(-) transport across the intestinal epithelial cells of marine fish that includes basolateral HCO3(-) uptake (NBCe1) and apical HCO3(-) secretion (Slc26a6A and Slc26a6B). PMID:18216137

  1. Coacervative extraction of trace lead from natural waters prior to its determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagarová, Ingrid; Bujdoš, Marek; Matúš, Peter; Kubová, Jana

    2013-10-01

    In this work, a relatively simple and sensitive method for separation/preconcentration of trace lead from natural waters prior to its determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry has been proposed. The method is based on the extraction of Pb-dithizone chelate with coacervates made up of lauric acid in the presence of potassium ions and methanol. Several important factors affecting extraction efficiency such as pH, concentration of lauric acid and dithizone, ionic strength, incubation and centrifugation time were investigated and optimized. After separation of aqueous bulk solution from surfactant-rich phase, the final extract was redissolved by using 500 μl of methanol acidified with 0.2 mol l- 1 HNO3. Under the optimized conditions (using initial sample volume of 10 ml), enrichment factor of 17.0, detection limit of 0.12 μg l- 1, quantification limit of 0.38 μg l- 1, relative standard deviation of 4.2% (for 2 μg l- 1 of Pb; n = 26), linearity of the calibration graph in the range of 0.5-4.0 μg l- 1 (with correlation coefficient better than 0.995) were achieved. The method was validated by the analysis of certified reference material (TMDA-61). Extraction recoveries for the CRM, spiked model solutions and spiked natural water samples were in the range of 91-96%. Finally, the method was applied to the separation/preconcentration and determination of trace lead in natural waters.

  2. Modeled performance of non-chlorinated substitutes for CFC-11 and CFC-12 in centrifugal chillers

    SciTech Connect

    Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.; Joyner, P.A.

    1991-12-31

    Current scientific evidence indicates that stratospheric chlorine concentrations below two parts-per-billion will be necessary to reverse and prevent ``ozone hole`` formations over the Earth`s polar regions each spring. This makes it unlikely that HCFC alternatives with non-zero ozone depletion potentials (ODPs), no matter how small, will be accepted as refrigerants or blowing agents for foamed insulations for the long term. Pressure to eventually eliminate all high volume uses of chlorine containing refrigerants provides a strong incentive to find HFC or alternative, chlorine-free compounds with P-V-T characteristics similar to R-11 and R-123 for new and existing large centrifugal chiller applications. Stable chlorine-free compounds with normal boiling points near CFC-11 and HCFC-123 are found in the fluorinated propane or butane or fluorinated ether families. These larger molecules have larger vapor phase heat capacities (Cp), molecular weights, and lower critical temperatures which thermodynamically decrease their volumetric capacity and coefficient of performance in simple cycle applications. Larger molar latent heats of vaporization caused by hydrogen bonding in the ethers may improve their net refrigerating effect over CFC-11 and HCFC-123, however. Consideration was given to the effects of acoustic velocity in the refrigerant, rotational mach numbers, the application of superheat to avoid ``wet isentropic compression,`` and liquid subcooling before isenthalpic expansion. The results indicate that there are several chlorine-free compounds that give modeled chiller performance comparable to CFC-11 and HCF-123 and better that CFC-12 and HFC-134a. Blends of these refrigerants may be required to mitigate the flammability of some of the alternatives which show the best performance, and modifications to the current chiller cycle such as liquid subcooling and suction gas superhead may offer unique advantages for more complicated, larger refrigerant molecules.

  3. Modeled performance of non-chlorinated substitutes for CFC-11 and CFC-12 in centrifugal chillers

    SciTech Connect

    Sand, J R; Fischer, S K; Joyner, P A

    1991-01-01

    Current scientific evidence indicates that stratospheric chlorine concentrations below two parts-per-billion will be necessary to reverse and prevent ozone hole'' formations over the Earth's polar regions each spring. This makes it unlikely that HCFC alternatives with non-zero ozone depletion potentials (ODPs), no matter how small, will be accepted as refrigerants or blowing agents for foamed insulations for the long term. Pressure to eventually eliminate all high volume uses of chlorine containing refrigerants provides a strong incentive to find HFC or alternative, chlorine-free compounds with P-V-T characteristics similar to R-11 and R-123 for new and existing large centrifugal chiller applications. Stable chlorine-free compounds with normal boiling points near CFC-11 and HCFC-123 are found in the fluorinated propane or butane or fluorinated ether families. These larger molecules have larger vapor phase heat capacities (Cp), molecular weights, and lower critical temperatures which thermodynamically decrease their volumetric capacity and coefficient of performance in simple cycle applications. Larger molar latent heats of vaporization caused by hydrogen bonding in the ethers may improve their net refrigerating effect over CFC-11 and HCFC-123, however. Consideration was given to the effects of acoustic velocity in the refrigerant, rotational mach numbers, the application of superheat to avoid wet isentropic compression,'' and liquid subcooling before isenthalpic expansion. The results indicate that there are several chlorine-free compounds that give modeled chiller performance comparable to CFC-11 and HCF-123 and better that CFC-12 and HFC-134a. Blends of these refrigerants may be required to mitigate the flammability of some of the alternatives which show the best performance, and modifications to the current chiller cycle such as liquid subcooling and suction gas superhead may offer unique advantages for more complicated, larger refrigerant molecules.

  4. Assessment and economic analysis of the MOD III Stirling-engine driven chiller system. Final report, October 1989-July 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Moryl, J.

    1990-07-01

    The Stirling engine is an inherently clean and efficient engine. With the requirements for environmentally benign emissions and high energy efficiency, the Stirling engine is an attractive alternative to both internal combustion (IC) engines and electric motors. The study evaluated a Stirling-engine-driven chiller package. Technically, the Stirling engine is a good selection as a compressor drive, with inherently low vibrations, quiet operation, long life, and low maintenance. Exhaust emissions are below the projected 1995 stringent California standards. Economically, the Stirling-engine-driven chiller is a viable alternative to both IV-engine and electric-driven chillers, trading off slightly higher installed cost against lower total operating expenses. The penetration of a small portion of the projected near-term stationary engine market opportunity will provide the volume production basis to achieve competitively priced engines.

  5. Energy audits of boiler chiller plants, Energy Engineering Analysis Program, Fort Bragg, North Carolina, volume 1: Narrative report

    SciTech Connect

    1991-03-01

    This document constitutes the Pre-Final Submittal for Contract DACA21-84-C-0603, Energy Audits of Boiler/Chiller Plants, Ft. Bragg, North Carolina. The purpose of this report is to indicate the work accomplished to date, show samples of field data collected, illustrate the methods and justifications of the approaches taken, outline the present conditions, and make recommendations for the potential energy efficiency improvements to the central energy plants of Fort Bragg. The specific buildings analyzed are: (1) Building C-1432 82nd Heating Plant; (2) Building D-3529 JFK Heating Cooling Plant, and (3) Building C-6039 82nd Chiller Plant. The following buildings were part of the original scope of work, but were deleted for reasons explained further in Section 1.0 of this report: (1) Building C-7549 Standby Plant for C-1432; (2) Building N-6002 New EM Barracks Complex; and (3) Building H-6240 `H` Area Chiller Plant.

  6. Nighttime water absorption by a bare loess soil in a coastal desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninari, N.; Berliner, P. R.

    2003-04-01

    The role of dew in arid and semi-arid ecosystems is considered to be of great importance. It can serve as a water source for the bacteria of biological crust, for plants and for small insects. The Negev Desert is a semiarid region characterized by winter rainfall with a very large inter-annual variability. Reports on measurements carried out in this area mention that up to 180 nights a year with dew were registered by a conventional Hiltner Dew Balance, with intensities that ranged from 0.1 to 0.2 mm per night (yielding a total of 15 mm per year, which is more than 10% of the total rainfall). The Hiltner dew balance is based on the continuous weighing of an artificial condensation plate that has a completely different energy balance from that of the soil surface above which it is installed. The Hiltner dew balance could, therefore, be considered as a ``potential dew" gauge, whose results are probably mainly correlated to atmospheric conditions. The prime objective of this work was, therefore, to quantify the amounts of dew deposition on the soil surface, and to compare these amounts to those measured by the Hiltner balance. Measurements were carried out at the Wadi Mashash Experimental Farm in the Negev. To estimate deposition and evaporation of dew, a micro-lysimeter (diameter: 20 cm; soil depth: 50 cm) with an undisturbed soil sample was installed flush with the soil surface. The following were continuously monitored: micro-lysimeter weight, incoming and reflected short wave radiation, net radiation, dry and wet bulb temperatures, wind speed, and soil heat flux. A Hiltner Dew Balance was placed close by as a reference to compare with previous measurements. Throughout the ``dew period" (spring, summer and fall), and at random intervals, soil samples were taken hourly during the whole night. The uppermost 10 cm of the soil was divided into 1 cm intervals, and the soil moisture content was measured (oven dry). During the above-mentioned night campaigns, no dew

  7. Calculation tool for transported geothermal energy using two-step absorption process

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kyle Gluesenkamp

    2016-02-01

    This spreadsheet allows the user to calculate parameters relevant to techno-economic performance of a two-step absorption process to transport low temperature geothermal heat some distance (1-20 miles) for use in building air conditioning. The parameters included are (1) energy density of aqueous LiBr and LiCl solutions, (2) transportation cost of trucking solution, and (3) equipment cost for the required chillers and cooling towers in the two-step absorption approach. More information is available in the included public report: "A Technical and Economic Analysis of an Innovative Two-Step Absorption System for Utilizing Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources to Condition Commercial Buildings"

  8. Engineering Task Plan for Tank 241-C-106 contingency chiller definitive design

    SciTech Connect

    Rensink, G.E.; Kriskovich, J.R.

    1995-05-22

    This document identifies the scope, cost, schedule and responsible organizations for completing a design of a contingency ventilation inlet air cooling system for Tank 241-C-106. The air cooling system, described in Rensink (1995), consists of a chiller, cooling coils, and supporting equipment that, when installed will be capable of assuring that the waste temperatures in Tank 241-C-106 are maintained within acceptable limits for safe storage. The effort described herein is scheduled for completion by May 31, 1995 to support Performance Based Incentive (PBI) Milestone SI-2x.

  9. Relationship of high molecular weight glutenin subunit composition and molecular weight distribution of wheat flour protein with water absorption and color characteristics of noodle dough

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colors of noodle doughs made from hard white winter wheat flours from Oregon were measured at optimum noodle water absorptions (NWA). Partial correlations, removing effect of protein concentration, indicated that NWA had negative relationships with 0 hr L* and 24 hr b*, and positive relationships wi...

  10. Mineral Specific IR Molar Absorption Coefficients for Routine Water Determination in Olivine, SiO2 polymorphs and Garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, S.; Koch-Mueller, M.; Reichart, P.; Rhede, D.; Thomas, R.

    2007-12-01

    Conventionally applied Infrared (IR) calibrations [1, 2] for quantitative water analyses in solids are established on hydrous minerals and glasses with several wt% water. These calibrations are based on a negative correlation between the IR molar absorption coefficient (ɛ) for water and the mean wavenumber of the corresponding OH pattern. The correlation reflects the dependence of the OH band position on the appropriate O- H...O distances and thereby the magnitude of the dipole momentum which is proportional to the band intensity. However, it has been observed that these calibrations can not be adopted to nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) [3].To study the potential dependence of ɛ on structure and chemistry in NAMs we synthesized olivine and SiO2 polymorphs with specific isolated hydroxyl point defects, e.g. quartz, coesite and stishovite with B3++H+=Si4+ and/or Al3++H+=Si4+ substitutions. Experiments were performed with water in excess in piston cylinder and multi-anvil presses. Single crystal IR spectra demonstrate that we successfully managed to seperate generally complex OH patterns as e.g. observed in natural quartz and synthetic coesite. We quantified sample water contents of both natural samples and our run products by applying proton-proton-scattering [4], confocal microRaman spectroscopy [5] and Secondary Ion mass spectrometry. Resulting water concentrations were used to calculate new mineral specific ɛs. For olivine with the mean wavenumber of 3517 cm-1 we determined an ɛ value of 41,000±5,000 lmol-1H2Ocm-2. Quantification of olivine with the mean wavenumber of 3550 cm-1 in contrast resulted in an ɛ value of 47,000±1,000 lmol-1H2Ocm-2. Taking into account previous studies [6, 7] there is evidence to suggest a linear wavenumber dependent correlation for olivine, where ɛ increases with decreasing wavenumber. In case of the SiO2 system it turns out that the magnitude of ɛ within one structure type is independent of the liable OH point defect and

  11. Systematic trend of water vapour absorption in red giant atmospheres revealed by high resolution TEXES 12 μm spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryde, N.; Lambert, J.; Farzone, M.; Richter, M. J.; Josselin, E.; Harper, G. M.; Eriksson, K.; Greathouse, T. K.

    2015-01-01

    Context. The structures of the outer atmospheres of red giants are very complex. Recent interpretations of a range of different observations have led to contradictory views of these regions. It is clear, however, that classical model photospheres are inadequate to describe the nature of the outer atmospheres. The notion of large optically thick molecular spheres around the stars (MOLspheres) has been invoked in order to explain spectro-interferometric observations and low- and high-resolution spectra. On the other hand high-resolution spectra in the mid-IR do not easily fit into this picture because they rule out any large sphere of water vapour in LTE surrounding red giants. Aims: In order to approach a unified scenario for these outer regions of red giants, more empirical evidence from different diagnostics are needed. Our aim here is to investigate high-resolution, mid-IR spectra for a range of red giants, spanning spectral types from early K to mid M. We want to study how the pure rotational lines of water vapour change with effective temperature, and whether we can find common properties that can put new constraints on the modelling of these regions, so that we can gain new insights. Methods: We have recorded mid-IR spectra at 12.2 - 12.4 μm at high spectral resolution of ten well-studied bright red giants, with TEXES mounted on the IRTF on Mauna Kea. These stars span effective temperatures from 3450 K to 4850 K. Results: We find that all red giants in our study cooler than 4300 K, spanning a wide range of effective temperatures (down to 3450 K), show water absorption lines stronger than expected and none are detected in emission, in line with what has been previously observed for a few stars. The strengths of the lines vary smoothly with spectral type. We identify several spectral features in the wavelength region that are undoubtedly formed in the photosphere. From a study of water-line ratios of the stars, we find that the excitation temperatures, in the

  12. Recent advances in delivery systems and therapeutics of cinnarizine: a poorly water soluble drug with absorption window in stomach.

    PubMed

    Raghuvanshi, Smita; Pathak, Kamla

    2014-01-01

    Low solubility causing low dissolution in gastrointestinal tract is the major problem for drugs meant for systemic action after oral administration, like cinnarizine. Pharmaceutical products of cinnarizine are commercialized globally as immediate release preparations presenting low absorption with low and erratic bioavailability. Approaches to enhance bioavailability are widely cited in the literature. An attempt has been made to review the bioavailability complications and clinical therapeutics of poorly water soluble drug: cinnarizine. The interest of writing this paper is to summarize the pharmacokinetic limitations of drug with special focus on strategies to improvise bioavailability along with effectiveness of novel dosage forms to circumvent the obstacle. The paper provides insight to the approaches to overcome low and erratic bioavailability of cinnarizine by cyclodextrin complexes and novel dosage forms: self-nanoemulsifying systems and buoyant microparticulates. Nanoformulations need to systematically explored in future, for their new clinical role in prophylaxis of migraine attacks in children. Clinical reports have affirmed the role of cinnarizine in migraine prophylaxis. Research needs to be dedicated to develop dosage forms for efficacious bioavailability and drug directly to brain. PMID:25478230

  13. Thermal design of lithium bromide-water solution vapor absorption cooling system for indirect evaporative cooling for IT pod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawant, Digvijay Ramkrishna

    Nowadays with increase use of internet, mobile there is increase in heat which ultimately increases the efficient cooling system of server room or IT POD. Use of traditional ways of cooling system has ultimately increased CO2 emission and depletion of CFC's are serious environmental issues which led scientific people to improve cooling techniques and eliminate use of CFC's. To reduce dependency on fossil fuels and 4environmental friendly system needed to be design. For being utilizing low grade energy source such as solar collector and reducing dependency on fossil fuel vapour absorption cooling system has shown a great driving force in today's refrigeration systems. This LiBr-water aabsorption cooling consists of five heat exchanger namely: Evaporator, Absorber, Solution Heat Exchanger, Generator, Condenser. The thermal design was done for a load of 23 kW and the procedure was described in the thesis. There are 120 servers in the IT POD emitting 196 W of heat each on full load and some of the heat was generated by the computer placed inside the IT POD. A detailed procedure has been discussed. A excel spreadsheet was to prepared with varying tube sizes to see the effect on flows and ultimately overall heat transfer coefficient.

  14. Investigation of PBL schemes combining the WRF model simulations with scanning water vapor differential absorption lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovac, Josipa; Warrach-Sagi, Kirsten; Behrendt, Andreas; Späth, Florian; Ingwersen, Joachim; Wulfmeyer, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Six simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model differing in planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes and land surface models (LSMs) are investigated in a case study in western Germany during clear-sky weather conditions. The simulations were performed at 2 km resolution with two local and two nonlocal PBL schemes, combined with two LSMs (NOAH and NOAH-MP). Resulting convective boundary layer (CBL) features are investigated in combination with high-resolution water vapor differential absorption lidar measurements at an experimental area. Further, the simulated soil-vegetation-atmosphere feedback processes are quantified applying a mixing diagram approach. The investigation shows that the nonlocal PBL schemes simulate a deeper and drier CBL than the local schemes. Furthermore, the application of different LSMs reveals that the entrainment of dry air depends on the energy partitioning at the land surface. The study demonstrates that the impact of processes occurring at the land surface is not constrained to the lower CBL but extends up to the interfacial layer and the lower troposphere. With respect to the choice of the LSM, the discrepancies in simulating a diurnal change of the humidity profiles are even more significant at the interfacial layer than close to the land surface. This indicates that the representation of land surface processes has a significant impact on the simulation of mixing properties within the CBL.

  15. Recent Advances in Delivery Systems and Therapeutics of Cinnarizine: A Poorly Water Soluble Drug with Absorption Window in Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Kamla

    2014-01-01

    Low solubility causing low dissolution in gastrointestinal tract is the major problem for drugs meant for systemic action after oral administration, like cinnarizine. Pharmaceutical products of cinnarizine are commercialized globally as immediate release preparations presenting low absorption with low and erratic bioavailability. Approaches to enhance bioavailability are widely cited in the literature. An attempt has been made to review the bioavailability complications and clinical therapeutics of poorly water soluble drug: cinnarizine. The interest of writing this paper is to summarize the pharmacokinetic limitations of drug with special focus on strategies to improvise bioavailability along with effectiveness of novel dosage forms to circumvent the obstacle. The paper provides insight to the approaches to overcome low and erratic bioavailability of cinnarizine by cyclodextrin complexes and novel dosage forms: self-nanoemulsifying systems and buoyant microparticulates. Nanoformulations need to systematically explored in future, for their new clinical role in prophylaxis of migraine attacks in children. Clinical reports have affirmed the role of cinnarizine in migraine prophylaxis. Research needs to be dedicated to develop dosage forms for efficacious bioavailability and drug directly to brain. PMID:25478230

  16. Cloud point extraction-flame atomic absorption spectrometry method for preconcentration and determination of trace cadmium in water samples.

    PubMed

    Ning, Jinyan; Jiao, Yang; Zhao, Jiao; Meng, Lifen; Yang, Yaling

    2014-01-01

    A method based on cloud point extraction (CPE) separation/preconcentration of trace cadmium (Cd) as a prior step to its determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry has been developed. Cadmium reacted with 8-hydroxyquinoline to form hydrophobic chelates, which were extracted into the micelles of nonionic surfactant oligoethylene glycol monoalkyl ether (Genapol X-080) in an alkaline medium. Octanol was used to depress the cloud point of Genapol X-080 in the extraction process. The chemical variables that affect the CPE, such as pH of complexation reaction, amount of chelating agent, Genapol X-080 and octanol were evaluated and optimized. Under optimized conditions, linearity was obeyed in the range of 10-500 μg/L, with the correlation coefficient of 0.9993. For 5 mL of sample solution, the enhancement factor was about 20. The limit of detection and limit of quantification of the method were 0.21 and 0.63 μg/L, respectively. The relative standard deviations (n = 6) was 3.2% for a solution containing 100 μg/L of Cd. The accuracy of the preconcentration system was evaluated by recovery measurements on spiked water samples. Recoveries of spiked samples varied in the range of 94.1-103.8%.

  17. X-ray absorption spectra of water within a plane-wave Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalleri, Matteo; Odelius, Michael; Nilsson, Anders; Pettersson, Lars G. M.

    2004-11-01

    We describe the implementation of a simple technique to simulate core-level spectra within the Car-Parrinello plane-waves molecular dynamics framework. The x-ray absorption (XA) spectra are generated using the transition potential technique with the effect of the core hole included through a specifically developed pseudopotential for the core-excited atom. Despite the lack of 1s core orbitals in the pseudopotential treatment, the required transition moments are accurately calculated without reconstruction of the all-electron orbitals. The method is applied to the oxygen XA spectra of water in its various aggregation states, but it is transferable to any first-row element. The computed spectra are compared favorably with the results from all-electron cluster calculations, as well as with experimental data. The periodicity of the plane-wave technique improves the description of condensed phases. The molecular dynamics simulation enables in principle a proper treatment of thermal effects and dynamical averaging in complex systems.

  18. An automated on-line minicolumn preconcentration cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometer: application to determination of cadmium in water samples.

    PubMed

    Sahan, Serkan; Sahin, Uğur

    2012-01-15

    A method was developed for on-line solid phase preconcentration and cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometric determination of Cd(II) in aqueous samples. Lewatit Monoplus TP207 iminodiacetate chelating resin was used for the separation and preconcentration of Cd(II) ions at pH 4.0. The whole system was labmade. The influence of analytical parameters such as concentration of eluent and sodium tetrahydroborate solution, flow rate of eluent, sample, and Ar, and matrix ions were investigated. A preconcentration factor of 20 and a detection limit (3s(b)) of 2.1ngL(-1), along with a sampling frequency of 28h(-1) were achieved with 1.4min of sample loading time and with 2.8mL sample consumption. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) was 2.5% for 0.05μgL(-1) Cd(II) level. The developed method was used for Cd(II) analysis in water samples. The certified reference material (LGC6019) experimental results are in good agreement with the certified value.

  19. Ingestion of chromium(VI) in drinking water by human volunteers: Absorption, distribution, and excretion of single and repeated doses

    SciTech Connect

    Kerger, B.D.; Corbett, G.E.; Dodge, D.G.

    1997-01-01

    This study examines the magnitude of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] absorption, distribution, and excretion following oral exposure to 5 and 10 mg Cr(VI)/L in drinking water administered as a single bolus dose or for 3 d at a dosage of 1 L/d. Adult male volunteers were used. In the bolus dose studies, a fairly consistent pattern of urinary chromium excretion was observed, with an average half life of about 39 h. However, 4-d total urinary chromium excretion and peak concentrations in urine and blood varied considerably among the 5 volunteers. Studies of repeated exposure to small volumes ingested at a more gradual rate showed similar urinary chromium excretion patterns but generally lower chromium uptake/excretion. These data suggest that virtually all of the ingested Cr(VI) at 5 and 10 mg Cr(VI)/L was reduced to Cr(III) before entering the bloodstream. The interindividual differences in total chromium uptake and excretion are plausibly explained by ingestion of appreciable doses on an empty stomach, likely results in the formation of well-absorbed Cr(III) organic complexes. No clinical indications of toxicity in the volunteers and the patterns of blood uptake and urinary excretion of chromium are consistent with a predominant uptake of Cr(III) organic complexes that are excreted more slowly than inorganic forms of Cr(III). Therefore, it appears that the endogenous reducing agents within the upper gastrointestinal tract and the blood provide sufficient reducing potential to prevent any substantial systemic uptake of Cr(VI) following drinking-water exposures at 5-10 mg Cr(VI)/L. Based on these data, the chemical environment in the gastrointestinal tract and the blood is effective even under relative fasting condition in reducing Cr(VI) to one or more forms of Cr(III). 54 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Improving Atmospheric Correction for Visible/Short Wave Infrared (VSWIR) Imaging Spectrometers with Iterative Fitting of Absorption By Three Phases of Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennington, E. A.; Thompson, D. R.; Green, R. O.; Gao, B. C.

    2014-12-01

    Airborne imaging spectrometers like the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) offer valuable insight into the Earth's terrestrial and ocean ecosystems, mineralogy, and land use. Estimating surface reflectance requires accounting for atmospheric absorption, which is sensitive to the local abundance of water vapor. Analysts typically estimate water vapor concentrations using the depths of absorption features, which can be inaccurate by up to 50% over surface features containing liquid water or ice. This can bias the retrieved water vapor maps and create atmospheric artifacts in reflectance spectra. A new retrieval method offers significant accuracy improvements over plant canopies or ice by estimating the path lengths of all three phases of water simultaneously, adjusting absorptions to best fit the measurement over a broader spectral interval. This paper assesses the remaining sources of error for the three-phase retrieval technique. We analyze retrievals for synthetic data when the 940 and 1140 nm wavelength features are fitted, for initial vapor path estimates ranging from 0 to ±50% accuracy. These tests indicate that most error comes from inaccuracy in the initial path estimate used to obtain vapor absorption coefficients. We evaluate a modified algorithm that uses multiple iterations to refine this estimate. Error is found to approach a constant value, demonstrating improved robustness to initialization conditions. We also assess the new iterative method using corrected AVIRIS data over various environments. The iterative method yields significantly better water vapor maps, reducing spurious correlations between vegetation canopy water and vapor estimates. The new iterative method offers accuracy improvements over traditional Visible/Short Wave Infrared (VSWIR) atmospheric correction methods, at modest computational cost.

  1. Effects of surface texture and measurement geometry on the near infrared water-of-hydration absorption bands. Implications for the Martian regolith water content.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommerol, A.; Schmitt, B.

    Near-IR reflectance spectroscopy is widely used to detect mineral hydration on Solar System surfaces by the observation of absorption bands at 1.9 and 3 µm. Recent studies established empirical relationships between the strength of the 3 µm band and the water content of the studied minerals (Milliken et al., 2005). These results have especially been applied to the OMEGA dataset to derive global maps of the Martian regolith water content (Jouglet et al., 2006 and Milliken et al., 2006). However, parameters such as surface texture and measurement geometry are known to have a strong effect on reflectance spectra but their influence on the hydration bands is poorly documented. The aim of this work is the determination of the quantitative effects of particle size, mixing between materials with different albedo and measurement geometry on the absorption bands at 1.9 and 3 µm. We used both an experimental and a modeling approach to study these effects. Bidirectional reflectance spectra were measured for series of well characterized samples (smectite, volcanic tuff and coals, pure and mixed) and modeled with optical constants of a smectite (Roush, 2005). Criteria commonly used to estimate the strength of the bands were then calculated on these spectra. We show that particle size has a strong effect on the 1.9 and 3 µm bands strength, especially for the finest particles (less than 200 µm). Mixing between a fine smectite powder and anthracite powders with various particle sizes (modeled by a synthetic neutral material) highlights the strong effect of the materials albedo on the hydration band estimation criteria. Measurement geometry has a significant effect on the bands strength for high phase angles. Furthermore, the relative variations of band strength with measurement geometry appear very dependent on the surface texture. We will present in details the relationships between these physical parameters and various criteria chosen to estimate the hydration bands

  2. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of antimony by automated-hydride atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, G.E.; McLain, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    The analysis of natural-water samples for antimony by automated-hydride atomic absorption spectrophotometry is described. Samples are prepared for analysis by addition of potassium and hydrochloric acid followed by an autoclave digestion. After the digestion, potassium iodide and sodium borohydride are added automatically. Antimony hydride (stibine) gas is generated, then swept into a heated quartz cell for determination of antimony by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Precision and accuracy data are presented. Results obtained on standard reference water samples agree with means established by interlaboratory studies. Spike recoveries for actual samples range from 90 to 114 percent. Replicate analyses of water samples of varying matrices give relative standard deviations from 3 to 10 percent.

  3. On the influence of water on the electronic structure of firefly oxyluciferin anions from absorption spectroscopy of bare and monohydrated ions in vacuo.

    PubMed

    Støchkel, Kristian; Hansen, Christian Nygaard; Houmøller, Jørgen; Nielsen, Lisbeth Munksgaard; Anggara, Kelvin; Linares, Mathieu; Norman, Patrick; Nogueira, Fernando; Maltsev, Oleg V; Hintermann, Lukas; Brøndsted Nielsen, Steen; Naumov, Panče; Milne, Bruce F

    2013-05-01

    A complete understanding of the physics underlying the varied colors of firefly bioluminescence remains elusive because it is difficult to disentangle different enzyme-lumophore interactions. Experiments on isolated ions are useful to establish a proper reference when there are no microenvironmental perturbations. Here, we use action spectroscopy to compare the absorption by the firefly oxyluciferin lumophore isolated in vacuo and complexed with a single water molecule. While the process relevant to bioluminescence within the luciferase cavity is light emission, the absorption data presented here provide a unique insight into how the electronic states of oxyluciferin are altered by microenvironmental perturbations. For the bare ion we observe broad absorption with a maximum at 548 ± 10 nm, and addition of a water molecule is found to blue-shift the absorption by approximately 50 nm (0.23 eV). Test calculations at various levels of theory uniformly predict a blue-shift in absorption caused by a single water molecule, but are only qualitatively in agreement with experiment highlighting limitations in what can be expected from methods commonly used in studies on oxyluciferin. Combined molecular dynamics simulations and time-dependent density functional theory calculations closely reproduce the broad experimental peaks and also indicate that the preferred binding site for the water molecule is the phenolate oxygen of the anion. Predicting the effects of microenvironmental interactions on the electronic structure of the oxyluciferin anion with high accuracy is a nontrivial task for theory, and our experimental results therefore serve as important benchmarks for future calculations.

  4. Turbulent Humidity Fluctuations in the Convective Boundary Layer: Case Studies Using Water Vapour Differential Absorption Lidar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muppa, Shravan Kumar; Behrendt, Andreas; Späth, Florian; Wulfmeyer, Volker; Metzendorf, Simon; Riede, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Turbulent humidity fluctuations in the convective boundary layer (CBL) under clear-sky conditions were investigated by deriving moments up to fourth-order. High-resolution humidity measurements were collected with a water vapour differential absorption lidar system during the HD(CP)}2 Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE). Two cases, both representing a well-developed CBL around local noon, are discussed. While the first case (from the intensive observation period (IOP) 5 on 20 April 2013) compares well with what is considered typical CBL behaviour, the second case (from IOP 6 on 24 April 2013) shows a number of non-typical characteristics. Both cases show similar capping inversions and wind shear across the CBL top. However, a major difference between both cases is the advection of a humid layer above the CBL top during IOP 6. While the variance profile of IOP 5 shows a maximum at the interfacial layer, two variance peaks are observed near the CBL top for IOP 6. A marked difference can also be seen in the third-order moment and skewness profiles: while both are negative (positive) below (above) the CBL top for IOP 5, the structure is more complex for IOP 6. Kurtosis is about three for IOP 5, whereas for IOP 6, the distribution is slightly platykurtic. We believe that the entrainment of an elevated moist layer into the CBL is responsible for the unusual findings for IOP 6, which suggests that it is important to consider the structure of residual humidity layers entrained into the CBL.

  5. X-ray CT imaging as a scientific tool to study the capillary water absorption in sedimentary rocks used in cultural heritages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberghina, M. F.; Barraco, R.; Brai, M.; Lo Casto, A.; Mazzocchio, A.; Schillaci, T.

    2009-07-01

    This paper proposes the X-Ray CT imaging as appropriate tool for investigating the capillary water absorption in sedimentary rocks. This technique, in fact, provides information useful for deeping the knowledge about of the porosity and the kinetics of the water capillary absorption in porous materials. The possibility to improve in non invasive manner, the understanding of this phenomenon, constitutes a fundamental aspect to take actions in the restoration and conservation of lapideous artifact and monuments from cultural heritages. The investigated sedimentary rocks come from different Sicilian quarries and were used for the building of the Greek temples in the archaeological areas of Agrigento, Selinunte and in the baroque monuments of the Val di Noto area. The image acquisition was carried out at different times after contact with water. The wetting front progression along the height of the sample was evaluated on the basis of the estimated CT attenuation value maps. An average of the CT attenuation values measured by the ROI (Region of Interest) was used to evaluate the mean height of the wetting front, with different CT scans at fixed time intervals after sample wetting, in order to describe the dynamic behaviour of the imbibition process. CT imaging results have shown that the water absorption is highly subject to the sample porous morphology.

  6. Water (H2O and D2O) molar absorptivity in the 1000-4000 cm-1 range and quantitative infrared spectroscopy of aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Venyaminov SYu; Prendergast, F G

    1997-06-01

    Water (H2O and D2O) molar absorptivity was measured by Fourier transform infrared transmission spectroscopy in the 1000-4000 cm-1 range at 25 degrees C. A series of assembled cells with path lengths from 1.2 to 120.5 microns was used for these measurements. The optimal path length (the path length of aqueous solution at which the IR spectrum of solute, corrected for water absorbance, has the highest signal-to-noise ratio) was calculated for all water absorbance bands. The results presented here show that the optimal path length does not depend on solute properties and is inversely proportional to the solvent (water) molar absorptivity. The maximal signal-to-noise ratio for measurements of IR spectra of aqueous solution in the 1650 cm-1 spectral region, of primary interest in biological applications, can be obtained at an optimal cell path lengths of 3-4 microns (H2O) and 40-60 microns (D2O). As an example, the signal-to-noise ratio was calculated as a function of the cell path length for the amide I (H2O) and amide I' (D2O) bands of an aqueous lysozyme solution. The molar absorptivities of water bands are several orders of magnitude weaker than those of the strongest bands of biological macromolecules in the same spectral regions. High net water absorbance in aqueous solutions is due simply to the very high molar concentration of water. A method is proposed for the quantitative measuring of the path length of the cell which exploits the molar absorptivity of the strongest water bands (stretching vibrations) or of bands which do not overlap with solute absorbance. A path length in the range from approximately 0.01 micron to approximately 1.0 mm can be determined with high precision using this technique for a samples of known concentration. Problems involved in the proper correction of strong water absorbance in IR spectra of aqueous solutions of biomolecules are discussed, including multiple reflections within the cell, the effects of pH, temperature, and

  7. Solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems installed at Richland, Washington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The project described is part of the U. S. Department of Energy's solar demonstration program, and became operational in April 1978. The solar system uses 6,000 square feet of flat-plate liquid collectors in a closed loop to deliver solar energy through a liquid-liquid heat exchanger to the building heat-pump duct work or 9,000-gallon thermal energy storage tank. A 25-ton Arkla solar-driven absorption chiller provides the cooling, in conjunction with a 2,000 gallon chilled water storage tank and reflective ponds on three sides of the building surplus heat. A near-by building is essentially identical except for having conventional heat-pump heating and cooling, and can serve as an experimental control. An on-going public relations program was provided from the beginning of the program, and resulted in numerous visitors and tour groups.

  8. Solar radiation absorption in the atmosphere due to water and ice clouds: Sensitivity experiments with plane-parallel clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Gautier, C.

    1995-09-01

    One cloud radiation issue that has been troublesome for several decades is the absorption of solar radiation by clouds. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the discrepancies between observations and modeling results. A good review of these often-competing hypotheses has been provided by Stephens and Tsay. They characterize the available hypotheses as failing into three categories: (1) those linked to cloud microphysical and consequent optical properties; (2) those linked to the geometry and heterogeneity of clouds; and (3) those linked to atmospheric absorption.Current modeling practice is seriously inconsistent with new observational inferences concerning absorption of solar radiation in the atmosphere. The author and her colleagues contend that an emphasis on R may, therefore, not be the optimal way of addressing the cloud solar absorption issue. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Preparation and Absorption Spectral Property of a Multifunctional Water-Soluble Azo Compound with D-π-A Structure, 4-(4- Hydroxy-1-Naphthylazo)Benzoic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, L.; Lv, H.; Xie, C. G.; Chang, W. G.; Yan, Z. Q.

    2015-07-01

    A multifunctional water-soluble azo dye with the D-π-A conjugated structure, 4-(4-hydroxy-1-naphthylazo) benzoic acid ( HNBA), was designed and synthesized using 1-naphanol as the electron donator, benzoic acid as the electron acceptor, and -N=N- as the bridging group. After its structure was characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, and element analysis, the UV-Vis absorption spectral performance of the target dye was studied in detail. The results showed that the dye, combining hydroxyl group, azo group, and carboxyl group, possessed excellent absorption spectral properties (ɛ = 1.2·104 l·mol-1·cm-1) changing with pH and solvents. In particular, in polar and protonic water, it had excellent optical response to some metal ions, i.e., Fe3+ and Pb2+, which might make it a latent colorimetric sensor for detecting heavy metal ions.

  10. Chloride absorption in salt-sensitive Carrizo citrange and salt-tolerant Cleopatra mandarin citrus rootstocks is linked to water use.

    PubMed

    Moya, José Luís; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Talon, Manuel

    2003-02-01

    In this work, seedlings of two citrus rootstocks, the salt-tolerant Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.) and the salt-sensitive Carrizo citrange (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osb. x Poncirus trifoliata [L.] Raf.) were used to study the relationship between chloride and water uptake. The results indicated that net chloride uptake rates in both genotypes were alike and decreased linearly with the time of salinity exposure, although they were more rapidly reduced in the tolerant genotype. In each rootstock, chloride uptake rates paralleled the decreases in transpiration rates. When transpiration was modified, concomitant changes in leaf Cl(-) concentrations were observed. There was a high positive correlation between total chloride content per plant and total water absorbed. In addition, the data indicate that the tolerant genotype "excluded" more chloride, i.e. it absorbed lower amounts of chloride per volume of water. Cleopatra also possessed a less efficient root system for water uptake and a higher shoot-to-root ratio. The results show that, overall, chloride absorption is linked to water use and that further tolerance in Cleopatra is mostly conferred by superior root resistance to Cl(-) uptake. Therefore, it is proposed that chloride absorption and, hence, salt tolerance in citrus depends to a great extent upon water use.

  11. New configurations of a heat recovery absorption heat pump integrated with a natural gas boiler for boiler efficiency improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Ming; Abdelaziz, Omar; Yin, Hongxi

    2014-11-01

    Conventional natural gas-fired boilers exhaust flue gas direct to the atmosphere at 150 200 C, which, at such temperatures, contains large amount of energy and results in relatively low thermal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80%. Although condensing boilers for recovering the heat in the flue gas have been developed over the past 40 years, their present market share is still less than 25%. The major reason for this relatively slow acceptance is the limited improvement in the thermal efficiency of condensing boilers. In the condensing boiler, the temperature of the hot water return at the range of 50 60 C, which is used to cool the flue gas, is very close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas. Therefore, the latent heat, the majority of the waste heat in the flue gas, which is contained in the water vapor, cannot be recovered. This paper presents a new approach to improve boiler thermal efficiency by integrating absorption heat pumps with natural gas boilers for waste heat recovery (HRAHP). Three configurations of HRAHPs are introduced and discussed. The three configurations are modeled in detail to illustrate the significant thermal efficiency improvement they attain. Further, for conceptual proof and validation, an existing hot water-driven absorption chiller is operated as a heat pump at operating conditions similar to one of the devised configurations. An overall system performance and economic analysis are provided for decision-making and as evidence of the potential benefits. These three configurations of HRAHP provide a pathway to achieving realistic high-efficiency natural gas boilers for applications with process fluid return temperatures higher than or close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas.

  12. Enhancement of the dissolution rate and gastrointestinal absorption of pranlukast as a model poorly water-soluble drug by grinding with gelatin.

    PubMed

    Chono, Sumio; Takeda, Eri; Seki, Toshinobu; Morimoto, Kazuhiro

    2008-01-22

    The effect of grinding with gelatin on the dissolution behavior and gastrointestinal absorption of a poorly water-soluble drug was evaluated using the antiasthmatic agent, pranlukast, as a model poorly water-soluble drug. A ground pranlukast-gelatin mixture was prepared by grinding equal quantities of pranlukast and gelatin. In the dissolution testing, the dissolution rate of pranlukast in the suspension of the ground pranlukast-gelatin mixture under conditions of pH 3.0, 5.0 and 7.0 was markedly faster than that in the suspension of pranlukast. According to powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, the enhanced dissolution rate of pranlukast produced by grinding with gelatin was caused by changing the crystalline state of pranlukast into an amorphous state. In an animal experiment, the bioavailability of pranlukast following oral administration of the ground pranlukast-gelatin mixture to rats was threefold greater than that following administration of pranlukast. In the in vitro permeation experiment, the amount of permeated pranlukast through Caco-2 cell monolayers after application of the ground pranlukast-gelatin mixture was greater than that after application of pranlukast. These results suggest that the enhancement of the gastrointestinal absorption of pranlukast by grinding with gelatin is due to enhancement of the dissolution rate. Grinding a poorly water-soluble drug with gelatin is a useful method of enhancing its gastrointestinal absorption.

  13. Light absorption properties of water soluble organic aerosol from Residential Wood Burning in Fresno, CA: Results from 2013 NASA DISCOVER-AQ Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Zhang, Q.; Young, D. E.; Parworth, C.

    2015-12-01

    Light absorption properties of water soluble organic aerosol were investigated at Fresno, CA from 13 January to 11 February, 2013 as part of the NASA DISCOVER-AQ campaign. The light absorption spectra of water soluble organic aerosol in PM2.5 was measured using a UV/vis diode array detector (DAD) coupled with a particle into liquid sampler (PILS) that sampled downstream of a PM2.5 cyclone (URG). The PILS was also coupled with two ion chromatographs (IC) to measure inorganic and organic ionic species in PM2.5. In addition, an Aerodyne High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed at the same site to measure size-resolved chemical composition of submicrometer aerosol (PM1) in real time during this study. Light absorption at 365 nm (Abs365), which is typically used as a proxy of water-soluble brown carbon (BrC), showed strong enhancement during night time and appeared to correlate well (r = 0.71) with biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) from residential wood burning for heating in the Fresno area. The tight correlations between Abs365 and biomass burning relevant tracers such as acetonitrile (r = 0.69), AMS-signature ions for phenolic compounds (r = 0.52-0.71), PAH (r = 0.74), and potassium (r = 0.67) further confirm that biomass burning contributed significantly to water soluble brown carbon during this study. The absorption angstrom exponent (Åa) values fitted between 300 and 700 nm wavelength were 3.3 ± 1.1, 2.0 ± 0.9 and 4.0 ± 0.8, respectively, in the morning, afternoon and nighttime, indicating that BrC is prevalent at night in Fresno during wintertime. However, there are also indications that small amount of BrC existed during the daytime as well, likely due to daytime wood burning and other sources such as the formation of light-absorbing secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Finally, light absorption at 300 nm, 330 nm, and 390 nm were found to correlate tightly with BBOA, which indicate that biomass burning also emits

  14. Absorption and fluorescence properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter: implications for the monitoring of water quality in a large subtropical reservoir.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaohan; Zhang, Yunlin; Shi, Kun; Zhu, Guangwei; Xu, Hai; Zhu, Mengyuan

    2014-12-01

    The development of techniques for real-time monitoring of water quality is of great importance for effectively managing inland water resources. In this study, we first analyzed the absorption and fluorescence properties in a large subtropical reservoir and then used a chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence monitoring sensor to predict several water quality parameters including the total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and CDOM fluorescence parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) components in the reservoir. The CDOM absorption coefficient at 254 nm (a(254)), the humic-like component (C1), and the tryptophan-like component (C3) decreased significantly along a gradient from the northwest to the lake center, northeast, southwest, and southeast region in the reservoir. However, no significant spatial difference was found for the tyrosine-like component (C2), which contributed only four marked peaks. A highly significant linear correlation was found between the a(254) and CDOM concentration measured using the CDOM fluorescence sensor (r(2) = 0.865, n = 76, p < 0.001), indicating that CDOM concentrations could act as a proxy for the CDOM absorption coefficient measured in the laboratory. Significant correlations were also found between the CDOM concentration and TN, TP, COD, DOC, and the maximum fluorescence intensity of C1, suggesting that the real-time monitoring of CDOM concentrations could be used to predict these water quality parameters and trace the humic-like fluorescence substance in clear aquatic ecosystems with DOC <2 mg/L and total suspended matter (TSM) concentrations <15 mg/L. These results demonstrate that the CDOM fluorescence sensor is a useful tool for on-line water quality monitoring if the empirical relationship between the CDOM concentration measured using the CDOM fluorescence sensor and the water quality parameters is calibrated and validated.

  15. Preconcentrator with high volume chiller for high vapor pressure particle detection

    SciTech Connect

    Linker, Kevin L

    2013-10-22

    Apparatus and method for collecting particles of both high and low vapor pressure target materials entrained in a large volume sample gas stream. Large volume active cooling provides a cold air supply which is mixed with the sample gas stream to reduce the vapor pressure of the particles. In embodiments, a chiller cools air from ambient conditions to 0-15.degree. C. with the volumetric flow rate of the cold air supply being at least equal to the volumetric flow rate of the sample gas stream. In further embodiments an adsorption media is heated in at least two stages, a first of which is below a threshold temperature at which decomposition products of the high vapor pressure particle are generated.

  16. A new direct absorption tunable diode laser spectrometer for high precision measurement of water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, M. R.; Sayres, D. S.; Smith, J. B.; Witinski, M.; Allen, N. T.; Demusz, J. N.; Rivero, M.; Tuozzolo, C.; Anderson, J. G.

    2013-07-01

    We present a new instrument for the measurement of water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS), the Harvard Herriott Hygrometer (HHH). HHH employs a tunable diode near-IR laser to measure water vapor via direct absorption in a Herriott cell. The direct absorption technique provides a direct link between the depth of the observed absorption line and the measured water vapor concentration, which is calculated based on spectroscopic parameters in the HITRAN database. While several other tunable diode laser (TDL) instruments have been used to measure water vapor in the UT/LS, HHH is set apart by its use of an optical cell an order of magnitude smaller than those of other direct absorption TDLs in operation, allowing for a more compact, lightweight instrument. HHH is also unique in its integration into a common duct with the Harvard Lyman-α hygrometer, an independent photo-fragment fluorescence instrument which has been thoroughly validated over 19 years of flight measurements. The instrument was flown for the first time in the Mid-latitude Airborne Cirrus Properties Experiment (MACPEX) on NASA's WB-57 aircraft in spring, 2011, during which it demonstrated in-flight precision of 0.1 ppmv (1 s) with 1-sigma uncertainty of 5% ± 0.7 ppmv. Since the campaign, changes to the instrument have lead to improved accuracy of 5% ± 0.2 ppmv as demonstrated in the laboratory. During MACPEX, HHH successfully measured water vapor at concentrations from 3.5 to 600 ppmv in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. HHH and Lyman-α, measuring independently but under the same sampling conditions, agreed on average to within 1% at water vapor mixing ratios above 20 ppmv and to within 0.3 ppmv at lower mixing ratios. HHH also agreed with a number of other in situ water vapor instruments on the WB-57 to within their stated uncertainties, and to within 0.7 ppmv at low water. This agreement constitutes a significant improvement over past in situ comparisons, in

  17. A new direct absorption tunable diode laser spectrometer for high precision measurement of water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere.

    PubMed

    Sargent, M R; Sayres, D S; Smith, J B; Witinski, M; Allen, N T; Demusz, J N; Rivero, M; Tuozzolo, C; Anderson, J G

    2013-07-01

    We present a new instrument for the measurement of water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT∕LS), the Harvard Herriott Hygrometer (HHH). HHH employs a tunable diode near-IR laser to measure water vapor via direct absorption in a Herriott cell. The direct absorption technique provides a direct link between the depth of the observed absorption line and the measured water vapor concentration, which is calculated based on spectroscopic parameters in the HITRAN database. While several other tunable diode laser (TDL) instruments have been used to measure water vapor in the UT∕LS, HHH is set apart by its use of an optical cell an order of magnitude smaller than those of other direct absorption TDLs in operation, allowing for a more compact, lightweight instrument. HHH is also unique in its integration into a common duct with the Harvard Lyman-α hygrometer, an independent photo-fragment fluorescence instrument which has been thoroughly validated over 19 years of flight measurements. The instrument was flown for the first time in the Mid-latitude Airborne Cirrus Properties Experiment (MACPEX) on NASA's WB-57 aircraft in spring, 2011, during which it demonstrated in-flight precision of 0.1 ppmv (1 s) with 1-sigma uncertainty of 5% ± 0.7 ppmv. Since the campaign, changes to the instrument have lead to improved accuracy of 5% ± 0.2 ppmv as demonstrated in the laboratory. During MACPEX, HHH successfully measured water vapor at concentrations from 3.5 to 600 ppmv in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. HHH and Lyman-α, measuring independently but under the same sampling conditions, agreed on average to within 1% at water vapor mixing ratios above 20 ppmv and to within 0.3 ppmv at lower mixing ratios. HHH also agreed with a number of other in situ water vapor instruments on the WB-57 to within their stated uncertainties, and to within 0.7 ppmv at low water. This agreement constitutes a significant improvement over past in situ comparisons

  18. Coupled optical absorption, charge carrier separation, and surface electrochemistry in surface disordered/hydrogenated TiO2 for enhanced PEC water splitting reaction.

    PubMed

    Behara, Dilip Kumar; Ummireddi, Ashok Kumar; Aragonda, Vidyasagar; Gupta, Prashant Kumar; Pala, Raj Ganesh S; Sivakumar, Sri

    2016-03-28

    The central governing factors that influence the efficiency of photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting reaction are photon absorption, effective charge-carrier separation, and surface electrochemistry. Attempts to improve one of the three factors may debilitate other factors and we explore such issues in hydrogenated TiO2, wherein a significant increase in optical absorption has not resulted in a significant increase in PEC performance, which we attribute to the enhanced recombination rate due to the formation of amorphization/disorderness in the bulk during the hydrogenation process. To this end, we report a methodology to increase the charge-carrier separation with enhanced optical absorption of hydrogenated TiO2. Current methodology involves hydrogenation of non-metal (N and S) doped TiO2 which comprises (1) lowering of the band gap through shifting of the valence band via less electronegative non-metal N, S-doping, (2) lowering of the conduction band level and the band gap via formation of the Ti(3+) state and oxygen vacancies by hydrogenation, and (3) material processing to obtain a disordered surface structure which favors higher electrocatalytic (EC) activity. This design strategy yields enhanced PEC activity (%ABPE = 0.38) for the N-S co-doped TiO2 sample hydrogenated at 800 °C for 24 h over possible combinations of N-S co-doped TiO2 samples hydrogenated at 500 °C/24 h, 650 °C/24 h and 800 °C/72 h. This suggests that hydrogenation at lower temperatures does not result in much increase in optical absorption and prolonged hydrogenation results in an increase in optical absorption but a decrease in charge carrier separation by forming disorderness/oxygen vacancies in the bulk. Furthermore, the difference in double layer capacitance (C(dl)) calculated from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements of these samples reflects the change in the electrochemical surface area (ECSA) and facilitates assessing the key role of surface

  19. Coupled optical absorption, charge carrier separation, and surface electrochemistry in surface disordered/hydrogenated TiO2 for enhanced PEC water splitting reaction.

    PubMed

    Behara, Dilip Kumar; Ummireddi, Ashok Kumar; Aragonda, Vidyasagar; Gupta, Prashant Kumar; Pala, Raj Ganesh S; Sivakumar, Sri

    2016-03-28

    The central governing factors that influence the efficiency of photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting reaction are photon absorption, effective charge-carrier separation, and surface electrochemistry. Attempts to improve one of the three factors may debilitate other factors and we explore such issues in hydrogenated TiO2, wherein a significant increase in optical absorption has not resulted in a significant increase in PEC performance, which we attribute to the enhanced recombination rate due to the formation of amorphization/disorderness in the bulk during the hydrogenation process. To this end, we report a methodology to increase the charge-carrier separation with enhanced optical absorption of hydrogenated TiO2. Current methodology involves hydrogenation of non-metal (N and S) doped TiO2 which comprises (1) lowering of the band gap through shifting of the valence band via less electronegative non-metal N, S-doping, (2) lowering of the conduction band level and the band gap via formation of the Ti(3+) state and oxygen vacancies by hydrogenation, and (3) material processing to obtain a disordered surface structure which favors higher electrocatalytic (EC) activity. This design strategy yields enhanced PEC activity (%ABPE = 0.38) for the N-S co-doped TiO2 sample hydrogenated at 800 °C for 24 h over possible combinations of N-S co-doped TiO2 samples hydrogenated at 500 °C/24 h, 650 °C/24 h and 800 °C/72 h. This suggests that hydrogenation at lower temperatures does not result in much increase in optical absorption and prolonged hydrogenation results in an increase in optical absorption but a decrease in charge carrier separation by forming disorderness/oxygen vacancies in the bulk. Furthermore, the difference in double layer capacitance (C(dl)) calculated from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements of these samples reflects the change in the electrochemical surface area (ECSA) and facilitates assessing the key role of surface

  20. [Light Absorption Properties of Water-Soluble Organic Carbon (WSOC ) Associated with Particles in Autumn and Winter in the Urban Area of Guangzhou].

    PubMed

    Huang, Huan; Bi, Xin-hui; Peng, Long; Wang, Xin-ming; Sheng, Guo-ying; Fu, Jia-mo

    2016-01-15

    Light absorption properties of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) were investigated in the urban area of Guangzhou. The fine particulate matter (PM₂.₅) and size-segregated samples were collected in September and December of 2014 and January of 2015. The variation of absorption with wavelength of WSOC was characterized by the absorption Angström exponent (AAEabs). The AAE values of WSOC in PM₂.₅ were 3.72 ± 0.41 in autumn and 3.91 ± 0.70 in winter, which were lower than those in Beijing and north America. The mass absorption efficiency (MAE) of WSOC at 365 nm wavelength was 0.52 m² · g⁻¹ in autumn and 0.92 m² · g⁻¹ in winter, exhibiting distinct variations between autumn and winter. In winter, the MAEwsoc values exhibited a decreasing trend with increasing particle size, and all size-segregated MAE(WSOC) values in autumn were lower than those in winter, particularly for the particles < 0.95 µm, suggesting more contribution of the secondary formation to WSOC. Comparing the MAE values of elemental carbon (EC) and WSOC, it could be found that the contribution of WSOC to the light extinction of particles couldn't be ignored when the particles were mainly emitted from primary sources.

  1. [Light Absorption Properties of Water-Soluble Organic Carbon (WSOC ) Associated with Particles in Autumn and Winter in the Urban Area of Guangzhou].

    PubMed

    Huang, Huan; Bi, Xin-hui; Peng, Long; Wang, Xin-ming; Sheng, Guo-ying; Fu, Jia-mo

    2016-01-15

    Light absorption properties of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) were investigated in the urban area of Guangzhou. The fine particulate matter (PM₂.₅) and size-segregated samples were collected in September and December of 2014 and January of 2015. The variation of absorption with wavelength of WSOC was characterized by the absorption Angström exponent (AAEabs). The AAE values of WSOC in PM₂.₅ were 3.72 ± 0.41 in autumn and 3.91 ± 0.70 in winter, which were lower than those in Beijing and north America. The mass absorption efficiency (MAE) of WSOC at 365 nm wavelength was 0.52 m² · g⁻¹ in autumn and 0.92 m² · g⁻¹ in winter, exhibiting distinct variations between autumn and winter. In winter, the MAEwsoc values exhibited a decreasing trend with increasing particle size, and all size-segregated MAE(WSOC) values in autumn were lower than those in winter, particularly for the particles < 0.95 µm, suggesting more contribution of the secondary formation to WSOC. Comparing the MAE values of elemental carbon (EC) and WSOC, it could be found that the contribution of WSOC to the light extinction of particles couldn't be ignored when the particles were mainly emitted from primary sources. PMID:27078935

  2. Absolute OH density measurements in an atmospheric pressure dc glow discharge in air with water electrode by broadband UV absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Qing; Yang, Zhiqiang; Bruggeman, Peter J.

    2015-10-01

    Spatially resolved absolute OH radical density measurements are performed in an atmospheric pressure glow discharge generated in ambient air with water electrode by broadband UV absorption spectroscopy. The radial distributions of OH density and gas temperature are obtained for the positive column, anode and cathode regions both for water-cathode and water-anode discharges. It is found that for both polarities of the water electrode the radial profiles of the ground state OH density and gas temperature are significantly broader than the total discharge emission intensity and the emission intensity originating from OH(\\text{A}{}2{{\\text{ }Σ\\text{ }}+} ) only. Exceptional large OH densities exceeding 1023 m-3 are found. The OH kinetics are discussed in detail.

  3. Combining in vitro and in silico methods for better prediction of surfactant effects on the absorption of poorly water soluble drugs-a fenofibrate case example.

    PubMed

    Berthelsen, Ragna; Sjögren, Erik; Jacobsen, Jette; Kristensen, Jakob; Holm, René; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Müllertz, Anette

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a sensitive and discriminative in vitro-in silico model able to simulate the in vivo performance of three fenofibrate immediate release formulations containing different surfactants. In addition, the study was designed to investigate the effect of dissolution volume when predicting the oral bioavailability of the formulations. In vitro dissolution studies were carried out using the USP apparatus 2 or a mini paddle assembly, containing 1000 mL or 100mL fasted state biorelevant medium, respectively. In silico simulations of small intestinal absorption were performed using the GI-Sim absorption model. All simulation runs were performed twice adopting either a total small intestinal volume of 533 mL or 105 mL, in order to examine the implication of free luminal water volumes for the in silico predictions. For the tested formulations, the use of a small biorelevant dissolution volume was critical for in vitro-in silico prediction of drug absorption. Good predictions, demonstrating rank order in vivo-in vitro-in silico correlations for Cmax, were obtained with in silico predictions utilizing a 105 mL estimate for the human intestinal water content combined with solubility and dissolution data performed in a mini paddle apparatus with 100mL fasted state simulated media.

  4. [Using ultraviolet-visible ( UV-Vis) absorption spectrum to estimate the dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentration in water, soils and sediments of typical water-level fluctuation zones of the Three Gorges Reservoir areas].

    PubMed

    Li, Lu-lu; Jiang, Tao; Lu, Song; Yan, Jin-long; Gao, Jie; Wei, Shi-qiang; Wang, Ding-yong; Guo, Nian; Zhao, Zhena

    2014-09-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a very important component in terrestrial ecosystem. Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is a significant constituent of DOM, which can be measured by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectrum. Thus the relationship between CDOM and DOM was investigated and established by several types of models including single-wavelength model, double-wavelength model, absorption spectrum slope (S value) model and three-wavelength model, based on the UV-Vis absorption coefficients of soil and sediment samples (sampled in July of 2012) and water samples (sampled in November of 2012) respectively. The results suggested that the three-wavelength model was the best for fitting, and the determination coefficients of water, soil and sediment data were 0. 788, 0. 933 and 0. 856, respectively. Meanwhile, the nominal best model was validated with the UV-Vis data of 32 soil samples and 36 water samples randomly collected in 2013, showing the RRMSE and MRE were 16. 5% and 16. 9% respectively for soil DOM samples, 10. 32% and 9. 06% respectively for water DOM samples, which further suggested the prediction accuracy was higher in water DOM samples as compared with that in soil DOM samples.

  5. Approach for determining the contributions of phytoplankton, colored organic material, and nonalgal particles to the total spectral absorption in marine waters.

    PubMed

    Lin, Junfang; Cao, Wenxi; Wang, Guifeng; Hu, Shuibo

    2013-06-20

    Using a data set of 1333 samples, we assess the spectral absorption relationships of different wave bands for phytoplankton (ph) and particles. We find that a nonlinear model (second-order quadratic equations) delivers good performance in describing their spectral characteristics. Based on these spectral relationships, we develop a method for partitioning the total absorption coefficient into the contributions attributable to phytoplankton [a(ph)(λ)], colored dissolved organic material [CDOM; a(CDOM)(λ)], and nonalgal particles [NAP; a(NAP)(λ)]. This method is validated using a data set that contains 550 simultaneous measurements of phytoplankton, CDOM, and NAP from the NASA bio-Optical Marine Algorithm Dataset. We find that our method is highly efficient and robust, with significant accuracy: the relative root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) are 25.96%, 38.30%, and 19.96% for a(ph)(443), a(CDOM)(443), and the CDOM exponential slope, respectively. The performance is still satisfactory when the method is applied to water samples from the northern South China Sea as a regional case. The computed and measured absorption coefficients (167 samples) agree well with the RMSEs, i.e., 18.50%, 32.82%, and 10.21% for a(ph)(443), a(CDOM)(443), and the CDOM exponential slope, respectively. Finally, the partitioning method is applied directly to an independent data set (1160 samples) derived from the Bermuda Bio-Optics Project that contains relatively low absorption values, and we also obtain good inversion accuracy [RMSEs of 32.37%, 32.57%, and 11.52% for a(ph)(443), a(CDOM)(443), and the CDOM exponential slope, respectively]. Our results indicate that this partitioning method delivers satisfactory performance for the retrieval of a(ph), a(CDOM), and a(NAP). Therefore, this may be a useful tool for extracting absorption coefficients from in situ measurements or remotely sensed ocean-color data. PMID:23842167

  6. Approach for determining the contributions of phytoplankton, colored organic material, and nonalgal particles to the total spectral absorption in marine waters.

    PubMed

    Lin, Junfang; Cao, Wenxi; Wang, Guifeng; Hu, Shuibo

    2013-06-20

    Using a data set of 1333 samples, we assess the spectral absorption relationships of different wave bands for phytoplankton (ph) and particles. We find that a nonlinear model (second-order quadratic equations) delivers good performance in describing their spectral characteristics. Based on these spectral relationships, we develop a method for partitioning the total absorption coefficient into the contributions attributable to phytoplankton [a(ph)(λ)], colored dissolved organic material [CDOM; a(CDOM)(λ)], and nonalgal particles [NAP; a(NAP)(λ)]. This method is validated using a data set that contains 550 simultaneous measurements of phytoplankton, CDOM, and NAP from the NASA bio-Optical Marine Algorithm Dataset. We find that our method is highly efficient and robust, with significant accuracy: the relative root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) are 25.96%, 38.30%, and 19.96% for a(ph)(443), a(CDOM)(443), and the CDOM exponential slope, respectively. The performance is still satisfactory when the method is applied to water samples from the northern South China Sea as a regional case. The computed and measured absorption coefficients (167 samples) agree well with the RMSEs, i.e., 18.50%, 32.82%, and 10.21% for a(ph)(443), a(CDOM)(443), and the CDOM exponential slope, respectively. Finally, the partitioning method is applied directly to an independent data set (1160 samples) derived from the Bermuda Bio-Optics Project that contains relatively low absorption values, and we also obtain good inversion accuracy [RMSEs of 32.37%, 32.57%, and 11.52% for a(ph)(443), a(CDOM)(443), and the CDOM exponential slope, respectively]. Our results indicate that this partitioning method delivers satisfactory performance for the retrieval of a(ph), a(CDOM), and a(NAP). Therefore, this may be a useful tool for extracting absorption coefficients from in situ measurements or remotely sensed ocean-color data.

  7. Accurate measurements and temperature dependence of the water vapor self-continuum absorption in the 2.1 μm atmospheric window.

    PubMed

    Ventrillard, I; Romanini, D; Mondelain, D; Campargue, A

    2015-10-01

    In spite of its importance for the evaluation of the Earth radiative budget, thus for climate change, very few measurements of the water vapor continuum are available in the near infrared atmospheric windows especially at temperature conditions relevant for our atmosphere. In addition, as a result of the difficulty to measure weak broadband absorption signals, the few available measurements show large disagreements. We report here accurate measurements of the water vapor self-continuum absorption in the 2.1 μm window by Optical Feedback Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (OF-CEAS) for two spectral points located at the low energy edge and at the center of the 2.1 μm transparency window, at 4302 and 4723 cm(-1), respectively. Self-continuum cross sections, CS, were retrieved with a few % relative uncertainty, from the quadratic dependence of the spectrum base line level measured as a function of water vapor pressure, between 0 and 16 Torr. At 296 K, the CS value at 4302 cm(-1) is found 40% higher than predicted by the MT_CKD V2.5 model, while at 4723 cm(-1), our value is 5 times larger than the MT_CKD value. On the other hand, these OF-CEAS CS values are significantly smaller than recent measurements by Fourier transform spectroscopy at room temperature. The temperature dependence of the self-continuum cross sections was also investigated for temperatures between 296 K and 323 K (23-50 °C). The derived temperature variation is found to be similar to that derived from previous Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) measurements performed at higher temperatures, between 350 K and 472 K. The whole set of measurements spanning the 296-472 K temperature range follows a simple exponential law in 1/T with a slope close to the dissociation energy of the water dimer, D0 ≈ 1100 cm(-1). PMID:26450311

  8. Microwave-assisted synthesis of water-soluble, fluorescent gold nanoclusters capped with small organic molecules and a revealing fluorescence and X-ray absorption study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmbrecht, C.; Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Frank, W.

    2015-03-01

    Colourless solutions of blue light-emitting, water-soluble gold nanoclusters (AuNC) were synthesized from gold colloids under microwave irradiation using small organic molecules as ligands. Stabilized by 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (TPA) or l-glutamine (GLU), fluorescence quantum yields up to 5% were obtained. AuNC are considered to be very promising for biological labelling, optoelectronic devices and light-emitting materials but the structure-property relationships have still not been fully clarified. To expand the knowledge about the AuNC apart from their fluorescent properties they were studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy elucidating the oxidation state of the nanoclusters' gold atoms. Based on curve fitting of the XANES spectra in comparison to several gold references, optically transparent fluorescent AuNC are predicted to be ligand-stabilized Au5+ species. Additionally, their near edge structure compared with analogous results of polynuclear clusters known from the literature discloses an increasing intensity of the feature close to the absorption edge with decreasing cluster size. As a result, a linear relationship between the cluster size and the X-ray absorption coefficient can be established for the first time.Colourless solutions of blue light-emitting, water-soluble gold nanoclusters (AuNC) were synthesized from gold colloids under microwave irradiation using small organic molecules as ligands. Stabilized by 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (TPA) or l-glutamine (GLU), fluorescence quantum yields up to 5% were obtained. AuNC are considered to be very promising for biological labelling, optoelectronic devices and light-emitting materials but the structure-property relationships have still not been fully clarified. To expand the knowledge about the AuNC apart from their fluorescent properties they were studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy elucidating the oxidation state of the nanoclusters' gold atoms. Based on curve fitting of the XANES

  9. The effect of administration of copper nanoparticles to chickens in drinking water on estimated intestinal absorption of iron, zinc, and calcium.

    PubMed

    Ognik, Katarzyna; Stępniowska, Anna; Cholewińska, Ewelina; Kozłowski, Krzysztof

    2016-09-01

    Copper nanoparticles used as a dietary supplement for poultry could affect the absorption of mineral elements. Hence the aim of the study was to determine the effect of administration of copper nanoparticles to chickens in drinking water on intestinal absorption of iron, zinc, and calcium. The experiment was carried out on 126 chicks assigned to seven experimental groups of 18 birds each (3 replications of 6 individuals each). The control group (G-C) did not receive copper nanoparticles. Groups: Cu-5(7), Cu-10(7), and Cu-15(7) received gold nanoparticles in their drinking water in the amounts of 5 mg/L for group Cu-5(7), 10 mg/L for group Cu-10(7), and 15 mg/L for group Cu-15(7) during 8 to 14, 22 to 28, and 36 of 42 days of the life of the chicks. The birds in groups Cu-5(3), Cu-10(3), and Cu-15(3) received copper nanoparticles in the same amounts, but only during 8 to 10, 22 to 24, and 36 to 38 days of life. Blood for analysis was collected from the wing vein of all chicks at the age of 42 days. After the rearing period (day 42), six birds from each experimental group with body weight similar to the group average were slaughtered. The carcasses were dissected and samples of the jejunum were collected for analysis of absorption of selected minerals. Mineral absorption was tested using the in vitro gastrointestinal sac technique. Oral administration of copper nanoparticles to chickens in the amount of 5, 10, and 15 mg/L led to accumulation of this element in the intestinal walls. The highest level of copper nanoparticles applied increased Cu content in the blood plasma of the birds. The in vitro study suggests that copper accumulated in the intestines reduces absorption of calcium and zinc, but does not affect iron absorption. PMID:27307476

  10. Assessing the Microbiomes of Scalder and Chiller Tank Waters Throughout a Typical Commercial Poultry Processing Day

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The commercial poultry processing environment plays a significant role in reducing foodborne pathogens and spoilage organisms from poultry products prior to being supplied to consumers. While understanding the microbiological quality of these products is essential, little is known about the microbi...

  11. Design and experimental testing of the performance of an outdoor LiBr/H{sub 2}O solar thermal absorption cooling system with a cold store

    SciTech Connect

    Agyenim, Francis; Knight, Ian; Rhodes, Michael

    2010-05-15

    A domestic-scale prototype experimental solar cooling system has been developed based on a LiBr/H{sub 2}O absorption system and tested during the 2007 summer and autumn months in Cardiff University, UK. The system consisted of a 12 m{sup 2} vacuum tube solar collector, a 4.5 kW LiBr/H{sub 2}O absorption chiller, a 1000 l cold storage tank and a 6 kW fan coil. The system performance, as well as the performances of the individual components in the system, were evaluated based on the physical measurements of the daily solar radiation, ambient temperature, inlet and outlet fluid temperatures, mass flow rates and electrical consumption by component. The average coefficient of thermal performance (COP) of the system was 0.58, based on the thermal cooling power output per unit of available thermal solar energy from the 12 m{sup 2} Thermomax DF100 vacuum tube collector on a hot sunny day with average peak insolation of 800 W/m{sup 2} (between 11 and 13.30 h) and ambient temperature of 24 C. The system produced an electrical COP of 3.6. Experimental results prove the feasibility of the new concept of cold store at this scale, with chilled water temperatures as low as 7.4 C, demonstrating its potential use in cooling domestic scale buildings. (author)

  12. Preparative separation of polyphenols from water-soluble fraction of Chinese propolis using macroporous absorptive resin coupled with preparative high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Aifeng; Xuan, Hongzhuan; Sun, Ailing; Liu, Renmin; Cui, Jichun

    2016-02-15

    In this study, a preparative separation method was developed for isolation of eleven polyphenols from water-soluble fraction of Chinese propolis using macroporous absorptive resin (MAR) coupled with preparative high performance liquid chromatography (PHPLC). Water-soluble fraction of Chinese propolis was first "prefractioned" using MAR, which yielded four subfractions. The four subfractions were then isolated by PHPLC with an isocratic elution of methanol-water. Finally, eleven polyphenols were purified from Chinese propolis including caffeic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid, 3,4-dimethoxy cinnamic acid, pinobanksin, caffeic acid benzyl ester, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, apigenin, pinocembrin, chrysin and galangin. The purities of the compounds were determined by HPLC and the chemical structures were confirmed by UV and NMR analysis. The method developed was simple, effective, rapid, scalable and economical, and it was a promising basis for large-scale preparation of multiple components from natural products. PMID:26807704

  13. Preparative separation of polyphenols from water-soluble fraction of Chinese propolis using macroporous absorptive resin coupled with preparative high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Aifeng; Xuan, Hongzhuan; Sun, Ailing; Liu, Renmin; Cui, Jichun

    2016-02-15

    In this study, a preparative separation method was developed for isolation of eleven polyphenols from water-soluble fraction of Chinese propolis using macroporous absorptive resin (MAR) coupled with preparative high performance liquid chromatography (PHPLC). Water-soluble fraction of Chinese propolis was first "prefractioned" using MAR, which yielded four subfractions. The four subfractions were then isolated by PHPLC with an isocratic elution of methanol-water. Finally, eleven polyphenols were purified from Chinese propolis including caffeic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid, 3,4-dimethoxy cinnamic acid, pinobanksin, caffeic acid benzyl ester, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, apigenin, pinocembrin, chrysin and galangin. The purities of the compounds were determined by HPLC and the chemical structures were confirmed by UV and NMR analysis. The method developed was simple, effective, rapid, scalable and economical, and it was a promising basis for large-scale preparation of multiple components from natural products.

  14. X-ray absorption spectra of nucleotides (AMP, GMP, and CMP) in liquid water solutions near the nitrogen K-edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukai, Masatoshi; Yokoya, Akinari; Fujii, Kentaro; Saitoh, Yuji

    2010-07-01

    The X-ray absorption of nucleotides (adenosine-5'-monophosphate, guanosine 5'-monophosphate, and cytidine 5'-monophosphate) are measured in both water solutions and thin solid films at X-ray energies near the nitrogen K-edge in the 'water-window' region. Each spectrum corresponds to the selective excitation of a nucleobase site in a nucleotide, and thus has features similar to the spectrum of the corresponding nucleobase. An additional new peak in the energy region of the nitrogen 1s → π* resonance is observed for each nucleotide. No significant difference between the water solutions and thin solid films is found, which might be attributable to the hydrophobic properties of a nucleobase in a nucleotide.

  15. Magnetic, durable, and superhydrophobic polyurethane@Fe3O4@SiO2@fluoropolymer sponges for selective oil absorption and oil/water separation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Li, Lingxiao; Li, Bucheng; Zhang, Junping; Wang, Aiqin

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic, durable, and superhydrophobic polyurethane (PU) sponges were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) to bind the Fe3O4 nanoparticles tightly on the sponge and then dip-coating in a fluoropolymer (FP) aqueous solution. The sponges were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and other analytical techniques. The effects of CVD time of TEOS and FP concentration on wettability, mechanical properties, oil absorbency, and oil/water selectivity of the sponges were also investigated. The sponges exhibit fast magnetic responsivity and excellent superhydrophobicity/superoleophilicity (CAwater = 157° and CAoil ≈ 0°). The sponges also show very high efficiency in oil/water separation and could, driven by a magnet, quickly absorb floating oils on the water surface and heavy oils under water. Moreover, the PU@Fe3O4@SiO2@FP sponges could be used as membranes for oil/water separation and for continuous separation of large amounts of oil pollutants from the water surface with the help of a pump. The in turn binding of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, SiO2, and FP can also improve mechanical properties of the PU sponge. The sponges maintain the superhydrophobicity even when they are stretched with 200% strain or compressed with 50% strain. The sponges also show excellent mechanical stab