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Sample records for abstinence odds ratio

  1. Measuring additive interaction using odds ratios

    PubMed Central

    Kalilani, Linda; Atashili, Julius

    2006-01-01

    Interaction measured on the additive scale has been argued to be better correlated with biologic interaction than when measured on the multiplicative scale. Measures of interaction on the additive scale have been developed using risk ratios. However, in studies that use odds ratios as the sole measure of effect, the calculation of these measures of additive interaction is usually performed by directly substituting odds ratios for risk ratios. Yet assessing additive interaction based on replacing risk ratios by odds ratios in formulas that were derived using the former may be erroneous. In this paper, we evaluate the extent to which three measures of additive interaction – the interaction contrast ratio (ICR), the attributable proportion due to interaction (AP), and the synergy index (S), estimated using odds ratios versus using risk ratios differ as the incidence of the outcome of interest increases in the source population and/or as the magnitude of interaction increases. Our analysis shows that the difference between the two depends on the measure of interaction used, the type of interaction present, and the baseline incidence of the outcome. Substituting odds ratios for risk ratios, when calculating measures of additive interaction, may result in misleading conclusions. Of the three measures, AP appears to be the most robust to this direct substitution. Formulas that use stratum specific odds and odds ratios to accurately calculate measures of additive interaction are presented. PMID:16620385

  2. Abstinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... opportunity for sperm to fertilize an egg. continue Protection Against STDs Abstinence protects people against STDs. Some STDs spread through oral-genital sex, anal sex, or even intimate skin-to-skin ...

  3. Computing Power and Sample Size for Informational Odds Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Efird, Jimmy T.

    2013-01-01

    The informational odds ratio (IOR) measures the post-exposure odds divided by the pre-exposure odds (i.e., information gained after knowing exposure status). A desirable property of an adjusted ratio estimate is collapsibility, wherein the combined crude ratio will not change after adjusting for a variable that is not a confounder. Adjusted traditional odds ratios (TORs) are not collapsible. In contrast, Mantel-Haenszel adjusted IORs, analogous to relative risks (RRs) generally are collapsible. IORs are a useful measure of disease association in case-referent studies, especially when the disease is common in the exposed and/or unexposed groups. This paper outlines how to compute power and sample size in the simple case of unadjusted IORs. PMID:24157518

  4. Odds ratios of work related deaths in United States workers.

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, J P

    1988-01-01

    A new data set on job related mortality within 347 3 digit occupations is merged with two national probability samples of United States workers to assess which groups are in hazardous and which in safe jobs. Logistic regressions are fitted to the two samples and the following covariates are assumed to explain employment in a hazardous job: age, race, gender, schooling, region, and marital status. Results from both samples are remarkably similar. Odds ratios for non-whites versus whites are roughly 1.2/1; for high school dropouts versus people with some college education roughly 2.2/1; and for men versus women roughly 5.0/1. PMID:3348992

  5. Odds ratio analysis in women with endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Żak, Ewa; Pięta, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite the progress in diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumours, the effects of treatment are insufficient. Reduction of the risk of cervical, ovarian, and endometrial cancer is possible by introducing preventative actions. Aim of the study The aim of the thesis is the analysis of selected risk factors that may affect the increase or decrease in the odds ratio of developing endometrial cancer. Material and methods The study was conducted among patients of the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Hospital of Poznań University of Medical Sciences in the years 2011-2013. The research included a total of 548 female respondents aged between 40 and 84 years. Women responded to questions assessing elements of lifestyle such as consumption of alcohol, smoking, and eating certain groups of foods. Results The respondents consuming fruits and vegetables several times a week have a reduced risk of odds ratio and the OR is 0.85; 95% CI: 0.18-4.09, compared to the women who rarely consume vegetables and fruits. Consumption of whole-wheat bread several times a week reduces the risk of developing the cancer, OR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.14-2.47, compared to women not consuming wholegrain bread at all. Respondents who consumed red meat, such as veal, pork, and lamb in the amount of 101-200 g per day have an increased risk of developing the disease: OR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.09-4.28, compared to women not consuming red meat at all. Conclusions A diet rich in fruit and vegetables, onions, garlic, whole grains, and beans should be introduced in order to reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. The consumption of red meat and white pasta should be reduced or even eliminated. PMID:27095953

  6. [Razón de posibilidades: a proposed translation of the term odds ratio].

    PubMed

    Tapia, J A; Nieto, F J

    1993-01-01

    In English, odds ratio is a basic epidemiological measure approximating the relative risk. Odds ratio has been translated into Spanish in several ways, which has produced great terminological confusion. On the other hand, the English word odds is often used in epidemiology or statistics English textbooks, alone or as part of other expressions, but always keeping a definite mathematical meaning, which calls for a similarly definite term in Spanish. We discuss several translations of odds ratio found in the literature and propose the Spanish word "posibilidades" as a translation of odds and "razón de posibilidades" as a translation of odds ratio. PMID:8342087

  7. Limits on Log Odds Ratios for Unidimensional Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Shelby J.; Holland, Paul W.; Sinharay, Sandip

    2007-01-01

    Bounds are established for log odds ratios (log cross-product ratios) involving pairs of items for item response models. First, expressions for bounds on log odds ratios are provided for one-dimensional item response models in general. Then, explicit bounds are obtained for the Rasch model and the two-parameter logistic (2PL) model. Results are…

  8. Informational Odds Ratio: A Useful Measure of Epidemiologic Association in Environment Exposure Studies

    PubMed Central

    Efird, Jimmy T.; Lea, Suzanne; Toland, Amanda; Phillips, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The informational odds ratio (IOR) measures the post-exposure odds divided by the pre-exposure odds (ie, information gained after knowing exposure status). A desirable property of an adjusted ratio estimate is collapsibility (ie, the combined crude ratio will not change after adjusting for a variable that is not a confounder). Adjusted traditional odds ratios (TORs) are not collapsible. In contrast, Mantel-Haenszel adjusted IORs generally are collapsible. IORs are a useful measure of disease association in environmental case-referent studies, especially when the disease is common in the exposed and/or unexposed groups. PMID:22518087

  9. Isomer residual ratio of odd-odd isotope {sup 180}Ta in supernova nucleosynthsis

    SciTech Connect

    Hayakawa, Takehito; Kajino, Toshitaka; Chiba, Satoshi; Mathews, Grant

    2010-06-01

    The nucleosynthesis of {sup 180}Ta has remained an unsolved problem and as its origin many nucleosynthesis mechanisms have been proposed. This isotope has the unique feature that the naturally occurring abundance of {sup 180}Ta is actually a meta-stable isomer (half-life of >=10{sup 15} yr), while the ground state is a 1{sup +} unstable state which beta-decays with a half-life of only 8.15 hr. We have made a new time-dependent calculation of {sup 180}Ta meta-stable isomer residual ratio after supernova neutrino-induced reactions. This residual isomer ratio is crucial for understanding the production and survival of this naturally occurring rare isotope. We have constructed a new model under temperature evolution after type II supernova explosion. We include the explicit linking between the isomer and all known excited states and found that the residual ratio is insensitive to astrophysical parameters such as neutrino energy spectrum, explosion energy, decay time constant. We find that the explicit time evolution of the synthesis of {sup 180}Ta avoids the overproduction relative to {sup 138}La for a neutrino process neutrino temperature of 4 MeV.

  10. At Odds: Concerns Raised by Using Odds Ratios for Continuous or Common Dichotomous Outcomes in Research on Physical Activity and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lovasi, Gina S.; Underhill, Lindsay J.; Jack, Darby; Richards, Catherine; Weiss, Christopher; Rundle, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Research on obesity and the built environment has often featured logistic regression and the corresponding parameter, the odds ratio. Use of odds ratios for common outcomes such obesity may unnecessarily hinder the validity, interpretation, and communication of research findings. Methods We identified three key issues raised by the use of odds ratios, illustrating them with data on walkability and body mass index from a study of 13,102 New York City residents. Results First, dichotomization of continuous measures such as body mass index discards theoretically relevant information, reduces statistical power, and amplifies measurement error. Second, odds ratios are systematically higher (further from the null) than prevalence ratios; this inflation is trivial for rare outcomes, but substantial for common outcomes like obesity. Third, odds ratios can lead to incorrect conclusions during tests of interactions. The odds ratio in a particular subgroup might higher simply because the outcome is more common (and the odds ratio inflated) compared with other subgroups. Conclusion Our recommendations are to take full advantage of continuous outcome data when feasible and to use prevalence ratios in place of odds ratios for common dichotomous outcomes. When odds ratios must be used, authors should document outcome prevalence across exposure groups. PMID:23002407

  11. Understanding relative risk, odds ratio, and related terms: as simple as it can get.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2015-07-01

    Risk, and related measures of effect size (for categorical outcomes) such as relative risks and odds ratios, are frequently presented in research articles. Not all readers know how these statistics are derived and interpreted, nor are all readers aware of their strengths and limitations. This article examines several measures, including absolute risk, attributable risk, attributable risk percent, population attributable risk percent, relative risk, odds, odds ratio, and others. The concept and method of calculation are explained for each of these in simple terms and with the help of examples. The interpretation of each is presented in plain English rather than in technical language. Clinically useful notes are provided, wherever necessary. PMID:26231012

  12. Constant Latent Odds-Ratios Models and the Mantel-Haenszel Null Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessen, David J.

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper, a new family of item response theory (IRT) models for dichotomous item scores is proposed. Two basic assumptions define the most general model of this family. The first assumption is local independence of the item scores given a unidimensional latent trait. The second assumption is that the odds-ratios for all item-pairs are…

  13. An Odds Ratio Approach for Detecting DDF under the Nested Logit Modeling Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzi, Ragip; Suh, Youngsuk

    2015-01-01

    An odds ratio approach (ORA) under the framework of a nested logit model was proposed for evaluating differential distractor functioning (DDF) in multiple-choice items and was compared with an existing ORA developed under the nominal response model. The performances of the two ORAs for detecting DDF were investigated through an extensive…

  14. Odds Ratio Product of Sleep EEG as a Continuous Measure of Sleep State

    PubMed Central

    Younes, Magdy; Ostrowski, Michele; Soiferman, Marc; Younes, Henry; Younes, Mark; Raneri, Jill; Hanly, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To develop and validate an algorithm that provides a continuous estimate of sleep depth from the electroencephalogram (EEG). Design: Retrospective analysis of polysomnograms. Setting: Research laboratory. Participants: 114 patients who underwent clinical polysomnography in sleep centers at the University of Manitoba (n = 58) and the University of Calgary (n = 56). Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Power spectrum of EEG was determined in 3-second epochs and divided into delta, theta, alpha-sigma, and beta frequency bands. The range of powers in each band was divided into 10 aliquots. EEG patterns were assigned a 4-digit number that reflects the relative power in the 4 frequency ranges (10,000 possible patterns). Probability of each pattern occurring in 30-s epochs staged awake was determined, resulting in a continuous probability value from 0% to 100%. This was divided by 40 (% of epochs staged awake) producing the odds ratio product (ORP), with a range of 0–2.5. In validation testing, average ORP decreased progressively as EEG progressed from wakefulness (2.19 ± 0.29) to stage N3 (0.13 ± 0.05). ORP < 1.0 predicted sleep and ORP > 2.0 predicted wakefulness in > 95% of 30-s epochs. Epochs with intermediate ORP occurred in unstable sleep with a high arousal index (> 70/h) and were subject to much interrater scoring variability. There was an excellent correlation (r2 = 0.98) between ORP in current 30-s epochs and the likelihood of arousal or awakening occurring in the next 30-s epoch. Conclusions: Our results support the use of the odds ratio product (ORP) as a continuous measure of sleep depth. Citation: Younes M, Ostrowski M, Soiferman M, Younes H, Younes M, Raneri J, Hanly P. Odds ratio product of sleep EEG as a continuous measure of sleep state. SLEEP 2015;38(4):641–654. PMID:25348125

  15. Subjective Social Status Predicts Smoking Abstinence Among Light Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Whembolua, Guy-Lucien; Davis, Julia T.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Guo, Hongfei; Thomas, Janet L.; Goldade, Kate R.; Okuyemi, Kola S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine if community subjective social status (SSS) predicted smoking abstinence through 26 weeks postrandomization among 755 African American light smokers of low SES (socioeconomic status). Methods Participants were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial, which examined the efficacy of nicotine gum and counseling for smoking cessation. Results Results indicated that SSS predicted smoking abstinence over time [P=.046; odds ratio (OR) =1.075 (1.001–1.155)] after adjusting for covariates. Conclusions Further research is needed to understand the effects of community SSS on smoking cessation among heavy smokers and other ethnic groups. PMID:22584091

  16. Multiple Imputation for Missing Values Through Conditional Semiparametric Odds Ratio Models

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hua Yun; Xie, Hui; Qian, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Summary Multiple imputation is a practically useful approach to handling incompletely observed data in statistical analysis. Parameter estimation and inference based on imputed full data have been made easy by Rubin's rule for result combination. However, creating proper imputation that accommodates flexible models for statistical analysis in practice can be very challenging. We propose an imputation framework that uses conditional semiparametric odds ratio models to impute the missing values. The proposed imputation framework is more flexible and robust than the imputation approach based on the normal model. It is a compatible framework in comparison to the approach based on fully conditionally specified models. The proposed algorithms for multiple imputation through the Monte Carlo Markov Chain sampling approach can be straightforwardly carried out. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed approach performs better than existing, commonly used imputation approaches. The proposed approach is applied to imputing missing values in bone fracture data. PMID:21210771

  17. Interpretation of Genetic Association Studies: Markers with Replicated Highly Significant Odds Ratios May Be Poor Classifiers

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsdottir, Johanna; Gorin, Michael B.; Conley, Yvette P.; Ferrell, Robert E.; Weeks, Daniel E.

    2009-01-01

    Recent successful discoveries of potentially causal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for complex diseases hold great promise, and commercialization of genomics in personalized medicine has already begun. The hope is that genetic testing will benefit patients and their families, and encourage positive lifestyle changes and guide clinical decisions. However, for many complex diseases, it is arguable whether the era of genomics in personalized medicine is here yet. We focus on the clinical validity of genetic testing with an emphasis on two popular statistical methods for evaluating markers. The two methods, logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, are applied to our age-related macular degeneration dataset. By using an additive model of the CFH, LOC387715, and C2 variants, the odds ratios are 2.9, 3.4, and 0.4, with p-values of 10−13, 10−13, and 10−3, respectively. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is 0.79, but assuming prevalences of 15%, 5.5%, and 1.5% (which are realistic for age groups 80 y, 65 y, and 40 y and older, respectively), only 30%, 12%, and 3% of the group classified as high risk are cases. Additionally, we present examples for four other diseases for which strongly associated variants have been discovered. In type 2 diabetes, our classification model of 12 SNPs has an AUC of only 0.64, and two SNPs achieve an AUC of only 0.56 for prostate cancer. Nine SNPs were not sufficient to improve the discrimination power over that of nongenetic predictors for risk of cardiovascular events. Finally, in Crohn's disease, a model of five SNPs, one with a quite low odds ratio of 0.26, has an AUC of only 0.66. Our analyses and examples show that strong association, although very valuable for establishing etiological hypotheses, does not guarantee effective discrimination between cases and controls. The scientific community should be cautious to avoid overstating the value of association findings in terms of

  18. The urinary MHPG/creatinine ratio and its relationship to platelet monoamine oxidase activity in abstinent alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Farren, C K; Tipton, K F

    1999-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the baseline noradrenergic turnover of subgroups of postwithdrawal abstinent alcoholics and healthy controls. The method chosen was an overnight fasting urine sample of the breakdown product of norepinephrine, MHPG, related to urinary creatinine. A comparison was made with platelet monoamine oxidase activity and also within subgroups of the study population. This study found no difference between alcoholics and controls, nor between subgroups of postwithdrawal alcoholics in their level of urinary MHPG corrected for creatinine, and no significant correlation with major subject characteristics or with platelet monoamine oxidase. There was a trend, however, towards a significant correlation with duration of abstinence from alcohol, and there was a correlation with a history of fighting when drinking alcohol, but not with sociopathic traits overall. Within the type 2 alcoholics there was a significant correlation with a history of fighting when drinking and a negative correlation with behavioral tolerance to alcohol. It is possible that only the subset of type 2 alcoholics with certain antisocial characteristics have noradrenergic abnormalities. Although no statistical difference was found between the different groups under study, the information is helpful in increasing understanding of the noradrenergic system in abstinent alcoholics. PMID:20575773

  19. Analysis of familial aggregation of atopic eczema and other atopic diseases by ODDS RATIO regression models.

    PubMed

    Diepgen, T L; Blettner, M

    1996-05-01

    In order to determine the relative importance of genetics and the environment on the occurrence of atopic diseases, we investigated the familial aggregation of atopic eczema, allergic rhinitis, and allergic asthma in the relatives of 426 patients with atopic eczema and 628 subjects with no history of eczema (5,136 family members in total). Analyses were performed by regression models for odds ratios (OR) allowing us to estimate OR for the familial aggregation and simultaneously to adjust for other covariates. Three models were analyzed assuming that the OR i) is the same among any two members of a family, ii) depends on different familial constellations, i.e., whether the pairs are siblings, parents, or parent/sibling pairs, and iii) is not the same between the father and the children and between the mother and the children. The OR of familial aggregation for atopic eczema was 2.16 (95% confidence interval (95%-CI) 1.58-2.96) if no distinction was made between the degree of relationship. Further analyses within the members of the family showed a high OR among siblings (OR = 3.86; 95%-CI 2.10-7.09), while the OR between parents and siblings was only 1.90 (95%-CI 1.31-2.97). Only for atopic eczema was the familial aggregation between fathers and siblings (ms: OR = 2.66; fs: OR = 1.29). This can be explained by stronger maternal heritability, shared physical environment of mother and child, or environmental events that affect the fetus in utero. Since for all atopic diseases a stronger correlation was found between siblings than between siblings and parents, our study indicates that environmental factors, especially during childhood, seem to explain the recently observed increased frequencies of atopic diseases. PMID:8618061

  20. The Overall Odds Ratio as an Intuitive Effect Size Index for Multiple Logistic Regression: Examination of Further Refinements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Huy; Marcus, Justin

    2012-01-01

    This study used Monte Carlo simulation to examine the properties of the overall odds ratio (OOR), which was recently introduced as an index for overall effect size in multiple logistic regression. It was found that the OOR was relatively independent of study base rate and performed better than most commonly used R-square analogs in indexing model…

  1. Abstinence education*

    PubMed Central

    Zeiler, Alean

    2014-01-01

    The American College of Pediatricians strongly endorses abstinence-until-marriage sex education and recommends adoption by all school systems in lieu of “comprehensive sex education.” This position is based on “the public health principle of primary prevention—risk avoidance in lieu of risk reduction,” upholding the “human right to the highest attainable standard of health” (Freedman 1995). PMID:25473134

  2. Technical note: The risk ratio, an alternative to the odds ratio for estimating the association between multiple risk factors and a dichotomous outcome.

    PubMed

    Ospina, P A; Nydam, D V; DiCiccio, T J

    2012-05-01

    The objectives were (1) to explain why the risk ratio (RR) is an appropriate measure of association when the outcome of interest is dichotomous (e.g., displaced abomasum or no displaced abomasum) in both cohort studies and randomized trials; and (2) to outline an applied method for estimating the RR using currently available software. Interest in the association between multiple risk factors and a yes or no outcome is very common in the dairy industry; historically, logistic regression, which reports odds ratios (OR), was the method available in common statistical packages to evaluate this kind of association. However, the OR can overestimate the magnitude of the response in cohort studies and randomized trials when the outcome frequency is large. In addition, the interpretation of odds is not intuitive; fortunately, recent advances in statistical software have allowed the estimation of the RR. Because SAS software (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) is commonly used to analyze data, this technical note outlines the basic programming code that may be used to estimate the RR from raw data. Example data from a prospective cohort study was used to compare the OR and RR of developing a displaced abomasum or ketosis or metritis based on multiple predictors, their interaction, and a random effect (e.g., herd). PMID:22541486

  3. The association in a two-way contingency table through log odds ratio analysis: the case of Sarno river pollution.

    PubMed

    Camminatiello, Ida; D'Ambra, Antonello; Sarnacchiaro, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we are proposing a general framework for the analysis of the complete set of log Odds Ratios (ORs) generated by a two-way contingency table. Starting from the RC (M) association model and hypothesizing a Poisson distribution for the counts of the two-way contingency table we are obtaining the weighted Log Ratio Analysis that we are extending to the study of log ORs. Particularly we are obtaining an indirect representation of the log ORs and some synthesis measures. Then for studying the matrix of log ORs we are performing a generalized Singular Value Decomposition that allows us to obtain a direct representation of log ORs. We also expect to get summary measures of association too. We have considered the matrix of complete set of ORs, because, it is linked to the two-way contingency table in terms of variance and it allows us to represent all the ORs on a factorial plan. Finally, a two-way contingency table, which crosses pollution of the Sarno river and sampling points, is to be analyzed to illustrate the proposed framework. PMID:25126485

  4. Likelihood ratio and score tests to test the non-inferiority (or equivalence) of the odds ratio in a crossover study with binary outcomes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaochun; Li, Huilin; Jin, Man; D Goldberg, Judith

    2016-09-10

    We consider the non-inferiority (or equivalence) test of the odds ratio (OR) in a crossover study with binary outcomes to evaluate the treatment effects of two drugs. To solve this problem, Lui and Chang (2011) proposed both an asymptotic method and a conditional method based on a random effects logit model. Kenward and Jones (1987) proposed a likelihood ratio test (LRTM ) based on a log linear model. These existing methods are all subject to model misspecification. In this paper, we propose a likelihood ratio test (LRT) and a score test that are independent of model specification. Monte Carlo simulation studies show that, in scenarios considered in this paper, both the LRT and the score test have higher power than the asymptotic and conditional methods for the non-inferiority test; the LRT, score, and asymptotic methods have similar power, and they all have higher power than the conditional method for the equivalence test. When data can be well described by a log linear model, the LRTM has the highest power among all the five methods (LRTM , LRT, score, asymptotic, and conditional) for both non-inferiority and equivalence tests. However, in scenarios for which a log linear model does not describe the data well, the LRTM has the lowest power for the non-inferiority test and has inflated type I error rates for the equivalence test. We provide an example from a clinical trial that illustrates our methods. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27095359

  5. Making Sense of Abstinence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taverner, Bill; Montfort, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Young people need to know that abstinence is a far more complex, difficult concept than it is often portrayed. Abstinence is a decision about sexual behaviors that a person may make throughout his or her life. It is a choice made at a specific time in a specific situation, for a specific period of time, whether one is in a partnered relationship…

  6. The Effects of Small Sample Size on Identifying Polytomous DIF Using the Liu-Agresti Estimator of the Cumulative Common Odds Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvajal, Jorge; Skorupski, William P.

    2010-01-01

    This study is an evaluation of the behavior of the Liu-Agresti estimator of the cumulative common odds ratio when identifying differential item functioning (DIF) with polytomously scored test items using small samples. The Liu-Agresti estimator has been proposed by Penfield and Algina as a promising approach for the study of polytomous DIF but no…

  7. Binary Logistic Regression Analysis for Detecting Differential Item Functioning: Effectiveness of R[superscript 2] and Delta Log Odds Ratio Effect Size Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidalgo, Mª Dolores; Gómez-Benito, Juana; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2014-01-01

    The authors analyze the effectiveness of the R[superscript 2] and delta log odds ratio effect size measures when using logistic regression analysis to detect differential item functioning (DIF) in dichotomous items. A simulation study was carried out, and the Type I error rate and power estimates under conditions in which only statistical testing…

  8. Abstinence-based incentives in methadone maintenance: interaction with intake stimulant test results.

    PubMed

    Stitzer, Maxine L; Peirce, Jessica; Petry, Nancy M; Kirby, Kimberly; Roll, John; Krasnansky, Joseph; Cohen, Allan; Blaine, Jack; Vandrey, Ryan; Kolodner, Ken; Li, Rui

    2007-08-01

    Baseline drug use detected in urine toxicology has been shown to predict drug abuse treatment outcome, including response to contingency management interventions with drug abstinence as their target. This study examined the association between baseline urine test result and treatment outcome in stabilized methadone maintenance patients with ongoing stimulant use to determine whether abstinence incentives were differentially effective in those testing stimulant negative versus positive at study entry. Participants were 386 methadone-maintained patients who took part in a National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network multisite study aimed at reducing stimulant abuse during treatment (J. M. Peirce et al., 2006). At study intake, 24% of participants tested stimulant negative and 76% tested positive. Those testing negative at entry submitted 82% negative urines during the study versus 36% for those testing positive at entry (odds ratio [OR] = 8.67; confidence interval [CI] = 5.81-12.94). Compared with those receiving usual care, the addition of abstinence incentives resulted in a significant increase in stimulant-negative urine samples submitted during the study both for those testing negative at study entry (OR = 2.27; CI = 1.13- 4.75) and for those testing positive (OR = 1.84; CI = 1.25-2.71). These findings suggest that abstinence incentives have significant clinical benefits independent of initial drug use severity among methadone maintenance patients with ongoing stimulant drug use. PMID:17696681

  9. Neonatal abstinence syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    NAS; Neonatal abstinence symptoms ... may contribute to the severity of a baby's NAS symptoms. ... symptoms of withdrawal. Even after medical treatment for NAS is over and babies leave the hospital, they ...

  10. [Periodic abstinence: its possibilities].

    PubMed

    1981-05-01

    Experience with family planning mehods requiring periodic sexual abstinence has been varied. During the last decade interest has centered on 2 methods, the cervical mucus and the sympto-thermal, which are based on identifying the onset of the fertile period. During the 1970s, the Australian physicians John and Evelyn Billings developed the cervical mucus method, in which changes in the quanitity and characteristics of cervical mucus are used to determine the moment of ovulation. The sympto-thermal method depends on identification of the slight rise in basal body temperature that occurs in the latter part of the menstrual cycle as well as cervical mucus changes and sometimes the calendar to determine the fertile period. The Catholic Church has been the main proponent of periodic abstinence methods, but since 1973 the World Health Organization has invested US$3.3 million on research in such methods. The Billings method requires differentiating between dry, wet, and very wet mucus in the vagina and between different consistencies of mucus. The method ususally requires 1-3 months for instruction and sexual abstinence is usually recommended for the 1st month. The average number of days of required abstinence was 9 in a study of 66 women and 15-18 in a study of 870 women. Many women with short menstrual cycles do not experience postmenstrual dry days, in which case abstinence may be required as many as 13 days out of 23. 18.8% of users of periodic abstinence methods in 1 North American study became pregnant in the 1st year, but most were using the calendar method. Women who desired to terminate childbearing had only about 1/2 as many failures with periodic abstinence methods as did women wishing to postpone a birth. PMID:12311397

  11. Predictors of Smokeless Tobacco Abstinence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbert, Jon O.; Glover, Elbert D.; Shinozaki, Eri; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Dale, Lowell C.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate predictors of tobacco abstinence among smokeless tobacco (ST) users. Methods: Logistic regression analyses assessed characteristics associated with tobacco abstinence among ST users receiving bupropion SR. Results: Older age was associated with increased tobacco abstinence in both placebo and bupropion SR groups at end…

  12. A note on the use of the generalized odds ratio in meta-analysis of association studies involving bi- and tri-allelic polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The generalized odds ratio (GOR) was recently suggested as a genetic model-free measure for association studies. However, its properties were not extensively investigated. We used Monte Carlo simulations to investigate type-I error rates, power and bias in both effect size and between-study variance estimates of meta-analyses using the GOR as a summary effect, and compared these results to those obtained by usual approaches of model specification. We further applied the GOR in a real meta-analysis of three genome-wide association studies in Alzheimer's disease. Findings For bi-allelic polymorphisms, the GOR performs virtually identical to a standard multiplicative model of analysis (e.g. per-allele odds ratio) for variants acting multiplicatively, but augments slightly the power to detect variants with a dominant mode of action, while reducing the probability to detect recessive variants. Although there were differences among the GOR and usual approaches in terms of bias and type-I error rates, both simulation- and real data-based results provided little indication that these differences will be substantial in practice for meta-analyses involving bi-allelic polymorphisms. However, the use of the GOR may be slightly more powerful for the synthesis of data from tri-allelic variants, particularly when susceptibility alleles are less common in the populations (≤10%). This gain in power may depend on knowledge of the direction of the effects. Conclusions For the synthesis of data from bi-allelic variants, the GOR may be regarded as a multiplicative-like model of analysis. The use of the GOR may be slightly more powerful in the tri-allelic case, particularly when susceptibility alleles are less common in the populations. PMID:21645382

  13. Motives for khat use and abstinence in Yemen - a gender perspective

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Khat consumption is widespread in Yemeni society and causes problems both in economic development and public health. Preventive measures have been largely unsuccessful and the cultivation continues to proliferate. The gender-specific motives for khat use and abstinence were studied to create a toe-hold for more specific interventions. Methods In a quota sample with equal numbers of males, females, abstainers and consumers, 320 subjects were interviewed on their specific opinions about khat and its impact on subjective and public health, and on social and community functioning. Strata were compared in their acceptance and denial of opinions. Notions that could predict abstinence status or gender were identified with multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Male khat users had a strong identification with khat use, while females were more ambivalent. The notion that khat consumption is a bad habit (odds ratio (OR) 3.4; p < 0.001) and consumers are malnuorished (OR 2.2; p = 0.046) were associated with female gender among khat users. Among the females worries about health impact (OR 3.2; p = 0.040) and loss of esteem in the family (OR 3.1; p = 0.048) when using khat predicted abstinence. Male abstainers opposed khat users in the belief that khat is the cause of social problems (OR 5.1, p < 0.001). Logistic regression reached an accuracy of 75 and 73% for the prediction of abstinence and 71% for gender among consumers. (All models p < 0.001.) Conclusions Distinct beliefs allow a differentiation between males, females, khat users and abstainers when targeting preventive measures. In accordance to their specific values female khat users are most ambivalent towards their habit. Positive opinions scored lower than expected in the consumers. This finding creates a strong toe-hold for gender-specific public health interventions. PMID:21110889

  14. Men's Understanding of and Experiences During the Postcircumcision Abstinence Period: Results From a Field Study of ShangRing Circumcision During Routine Clinical Services in Kenya and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Philip S.; Zulu, Robert; Awori, Quentin D.; Agot, Kawango; Combes, Stephanie; Simba, Raymond O.; Lee, Richard K.; Hart, Catherine; Lai, Jaim Jou; Zyambo, Zude; Goldstein, Marc; Feldblum, Paul J.; Sokal, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Men's understanding of counseling messages after voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) plays an important role in whether they follow them. Data on triggers for early resumption of sex may be useful as scale-up of VMMC for HIV prevention continues in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: Data on understanding of post-VMMC abstinence recommendations, resumption of sex, condom use, and triggers for resuming sex were collected from participants during a follow-up interview 35–42 days after ShangRing circumcision in Kenya and Zambia. Results: Of 1149 men who had ShangRing circumcision, 1096 (95.4%) completed follow-up. Nearly all (99.2%) reported being counseled to abstain from sex post-VMMC; among those, most (92.2%) recalled the recommended abstinence period was 6 weeks. Most men (94.1%) reported that the counselor gave reasons for post-VMMC abstinence and recalled appropriate reasons. Few (13.4%) men reported resuming sex at 35–42 days' follow-up. Among those, 54.8% reported never using a condom post-VMMC. Younger participants (odds ratio 0.3, 95% confidence interval: 0.2 to 0.5, P < 0.0001) and those reporting at least some condom use at baseline (odds ratio 0.5, 95% confidence interval: 0.3 to 0.7, P = 0.0003) were less likely to report resuming sex. Among men who reported some condom use, most (71.5%) said condoms were much easier or easier to use after circumcision. Men reported various reasons for early resumption of sex, primarily strong sexual desire (76.4%). Conclusions: Most men reported awareness of and adherence to the counseling recommendations for post-VMMC abstinence. A minority reported early resumption of sex, and, among those, condom use was low. Results could be used to improve post-VMMC counseling. PMID:27331585

  15. Differences in Longer-Term Smoking Abstinence After Treatment by Specialist or Nonspecialist Advisors: Secondary Analysis of Data From a Relapse Prevention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Maskrey, Vivienne; Blyth, Annie; Brown, Tracey J.; Barton, Garry R.; Aveyard, Paul; Notley, Caitlin; Holland, Richard; Bachmann, Max O.; Sutton, Stephen; Brandon, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Smokers receiving support in specialist centers tend to have a higher short-term quit rate, compared with those receiving support in other settings from professionals for whom smoking cessation is only a part of their work. We investigated the difference in longer-term abstinence after short-term smoking cessation treatment from specialist and nonspecialist smoking cessation services. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial of self-help booklets for the prevention of smoking relapse. The trial included 1088 short-term quitters from specialist stop smoking clinics and 316 from nonspecialist cessation services (such as general practice, pharmacies, and health trainer services). The difference in prolonged smoking abstinence from months 4 to 12 between specialist and nonspecialist services was compared. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the association between continuous smoking abstinence and the type of smoking cessation services, adjusted for possible confounding factors (including demographic, socioeconomic, and smoking history variables). Results: The proportion of continuous abstinence from 4 to 12 months was higher in short-term quitters from specialist services compared with those from nonspecialist services (39% vs. 32%; P = .023). After adjusting for a range of participant characteristics and smoking variables, the specialist service was significantly associated with a higher rate of longer-term smoking abstinence (odds ratio: 1.48, 95% CI = 1.09% to 2.00%; P = .011). Conclusions: People who receive support to stop smoking from a specialist appear to be at lower risk of relapse than those receiving support from a nonspecialist advisor. PMID:26152558

  16. The Ethics of Abstinence-Only and Abstinence-Plus Sexuality Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, David C.

    2002-01-01

    Highlights some of the ethical dilemmas present in the debate over abstinence-only and abstinence-plus sexuality education in the schools, discussing issues related to: morality, ethics, and values; limitations to codes of ethics; questions about abstinence-only sexuality education; ethics and abstinence- only sexuality education; and sexuality…

  17. Smoking Abstinence, Eating Style, and Food Intake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Joanne; Hall, Sharon M.

    1988-01-01

    Administered the Eating Inventory and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) to smoking subjects assigned to cigarette abstinence or to continued smoking. Found abstinent smokers with high Disinhibition Scale scores overate more than did nonabstinent smokers or abstinent smokers with lower scores when participating in a subsequent ice cream tasting…

  18. Maintenance Sessions Prolong Cigarette Abstinence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, Thomas H.; And Others

    Recent smoking treatment programs have shifted emphasis from initial cessation rates to long-term abstinence, with aversion therapy and coping response training having had the most success. A smoking cessation treatment consisting of rapid smoking and behavioral counseling was supplemented with two maintenance treatments. After completing the…

  19. [Maintaining abstinence after alcohol detoxification].

    PubMed

    Batel, Philippe; Balester-Mouret, Sylvain

    2006-05-31

    "To quit drinking" is not the panacea of alcohol dependence treatment; it is only its first step. Abstinence should be considered more as a mean than a purpose of the after-withdrawal cares. The frequent resistance of the alcoholic patient to undertake in a long term abstinence can be by-passed by suggesting to fix himself renewable terms for periods during which he feels rather confident to raise the bet of a "most accomplished possible" abstinence. To facilitate the realization and the preservation of this abstinence in the best conditions (potentiation of the profits and minimization of the difficulties), a "therapeutic menu" will be proposed to the patient besides a "minimum plan" containing a medical follow-up over one year, with variable frequency of visits according to the evolution and the prescription of one or two anti-craving drugs registered. Psychotherapies using different techniques as Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, group therapy or psychoanalysis could be proposed after a necessary clarification to the patients of the mechanism of action of each and the waited profits. In the final, two thirds of the patients with alcohol dependence fire in one year a profit of their treatments; the practitioner takes, actually, no risk and should propose systematically a project to the only 20% of them who come to consult him. PMID:16836206

  20. Associations between Sexual Abstinence Ideals, Religiosity, and Alcohol Abstinence: A Longitudinal Study of Finnish Twins

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Torsten; Karvonen, Sakari; Rose, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed prevalence and stability of attitudes endorsing sexual abstinence ideals from late adolescence into early adulthood and studied associations of these attitudes with religiosity and alcohol abstinence in a sexually liberal Nordic society. Our population-based sample of Finnish twins permitted comparisons of co-twins concordant for religiosity but discordant for drinking to evaluate the association of sexual abstinence ideals with alcohol abstinence, controlling for household environment. From age 17 to 24, endorsement of sexual abstinence as a romantic ideal declined from 25% to 15%. Religiosity and alcohol abstinence correlated, both separately and together, with endorsing sexual abstinence. Abstinence ideals were associated with literal belief in fundamental tenets of the Bible. The association of sexual abstinence ideals with alcohol abstinence was confirmed in within-family comparisons of co-twins discordant for drinking but concordant for religiosity. Alcohol-abstinent twins were significantly more likely than their non-alcohol-abstinent twin siblings to endorse sexual abstinence ideals; that result suggests the association of sexual abstinence ideals with abstaining from alcohol is not explained by unmeasured confounds in familial background and structure. Our longitudinal results and analyses of discordant twins suggest that attitudes toward sexual abstinence ideals are embedded within other conservative attitudes and behaviors. PMID:23301620

  1. Aberrations Involving Chromosome 1 as a Possible Predictor of Odds Ratio for Colon Cancer - Results from the Krakow Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Galas, Aleksander; Miszczyk, Justyna

    2016-01-01

    Background There is still an open question how to predict colorectal cancer risk before any morphological changes appear in the colon. Objective The purpose was to investigate aberrations in chromosomes 1, 2 and 4 in peripheral blood lymphocytes analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization technique as a tool to assess the likelihood of colorectal cancer. Methods A hospital-based case-control study included 20 colon cancer patients and 18 hospital-based controls. Information about potential covariates was collected by interview. The frequency of stable and unstable chromosome aberrations in chromosome 1, 2 and 4 was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization technique. Results Colorectal cancer patients, as compared to controls, had a relatively higher frequency of chromosome 1 translocations (median: 3.5 versus 1.0 /1000 cells, p = 0.006), stable aberrations (3.8 versus 1.0 /1000 cells, p = 0.007) and total aberrations (p = 0.009). There were no differences observed for chromosomes 2 and 4. Our results showed an increase in the odds of having colon cancer by about 50–80% associated with an increase by 1/1000 cells in the number of chromosome 1 aberrations. Conclusions The results revealed that the frequency of chromosomal aberrations, especially translocations in chromosome 1, seems to be a promising method to show a colon cancer risk. Additionally, our study suggests the reasonableness of use of biomarkers such as chromosome 1 aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes in screening prevention programs for individuals at higher colon cancer risk to identify those who are at increased risk and require more frequent investigations, e.g. by sigmoidoscopy. PMID:26824604

  2. Breastfeeding and abstinence among the Yoruba.

    PubMed

    Dow, T E

    1977-08-01

    Contemporary patterns of breastfeeding and postpartum abstinence among the Yoruba of Nigera are examined. Quite extensive periods of postpartum abstinence are still observed by most rural and poorer urban women to prolong breastfeeding and increase child survivorship. Differentials in duration of breastfeeding and abstinence relate to both socioeconomic factors and age, suggesting the likelihood of large future reductions. Implications for family planning prospects and policies are noted. PMID:888163

  3. The Controversy between Abstinence-Only and Abstinence- Plus Approaches to Sexuality Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Jamie L.

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that the debate over abstinence-only versus abstinence-plus sexuality education has shifted from what best serves students to what best suits adults' beliefs. Though research suggests comprehensive approaches to sexuality education are the most effective in reducing risk, government funding supports abstinence-only programs, which have…

  4. Texas Abstinence Educators' Self-Efficacy to Motivate Youth Sexual Abstinence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasberry, Catherine N.; Goodson, Patricia; Buhi, Eric R.; Pruitt, B. E.; Wilson, Kelly; Suther, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Authors examined self-efficacy to motivate abstinent behavior (among youth) in a sample of instructors teaching abstinence-only-until-marriage education in Texas (N = 104). Sixty-one percent of the sample had been trained/certified to teach abstinence education. Instructors (mostly female and White) were more confident motivating students to…

  5. Abstinence-Only Debate Heating Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    President Bush's proposal to almost double the amount of money the federal government spends on abstinence education to $273 million in fiscal 2005 has raised the stakes in the battle over what to teach children and adolescents about sex. Only a small percentage of Americans believe abstinence-only programs are the best form of sex education for…

  6. Predictors of tobacco smoking abstinence among tuberculosis patients in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Louwagie, Goedele M C; Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A

    2015-06-01

    This study examines predictors of smoking cessation in tuberculosis patients with high HIV co-infection rates in a South African primary care setting. Current smokers were randomly allocated to brief motivational interviewing (n = 205) or receipt of a brief message (n = 204). Multi-level logistic regression was performed to identify predictors of sustained 3- and 6-month abstinence and 7-day point prevalence abstinence (PPA) at 1 month, with the facility as a random effect. The intervention was ineffective among smokers with high nicotine-dependence at 1 month, but was effective for all smokers over longer periods. Higher baseline self-efficacy predicted the 1-month 7-day PPA, but not sustained abstinence. HIV-positive participants' odds of sustained abstinence were about three times higher than those of their HIV-negative counterparts. Results support a more intensive motivational intervention and/or coping skills' training to increase self-efficacy and abstinence rates. Tobacco cessation services can be introduced in tuberculosis services where high HIV co-infection rates occur. PMID:25655663

  7. Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Nathan A. S.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Madsen, Ian C.; Studer, Andrew J.; Manuel, James R.; Kimpton, Justin A.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of basicity, B (CaO:SiO2 ratio) on the thermal range, concentration, and formation mechanisms of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter bonding phases have been investigated using an in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction-based methodology with subsequent Rietveld refinement-based quantitative phase analysis. SFCA and SFCA-I phases are the key bonding materials in iron ore sinter, and improved understanding of the effects of processing parameters such as basicity on their formation and decomposition may assist in improving efficiency of industrial iron ore sintering operations. Increasing basicity significantly increased the thermal range of SFCA-I, from 1363 K to 1533 K (1090 °C to 1260 °C) for a mixture with B = 2.48, to ~1339 K to 1535 K (1066 °C to 1262 °C) for a mixture with B = 3.96, and to ~1323 K to 1593 K (1050 °C to 1320 °C) at B = 4.94. Increasing basicity also increased the amount of SFCA-I formed, from 18 wt pct for the mixture with B = 2.48 to 25 wt pct for the B = 4.94 mixture. Higher basicity of the starting sinter mixture will, therefore, increase the amount of SFCA-I, considered to be more desirable of the two phases. Basicity did not appear to significantly influence the formation mechanism of SFCA-I. It did, however, affect the formation mechanism of SFCA, with the decomposition of SFCA-I coinciding with the formation of a significant amount of additional SFCA in the B = 2.48 and 3.96 mixtures but only a minor amount in the highest basicity mixture. In situ neutron diffraction enabled characterization of the behavior of magnetite after melting of SFCA produced a magnetite plus melt phase assemblage.

  8. Understanding Sexual Abstinence in Urban Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Carey, Michael P.; Côté-Arsenault, Denise; Seibold-Simpson, Susan; Robinson, Kerry Anne

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To gain insight into the context of sexual abstinence and identify potential determinants of abstinence in this population. Design Four focus groups. Participants and Setting Twenty-four, predominantly African American (88%) girls aged 14 to 19 years were recruited from urban health centers and youth development programs in Rochester, New York, between September and December 2006. Data Analysis Content analysis was used to analyze the four verbatim transcripts. Using analytic induction, groups were compared and contrasted at the micro (within-group) and macro (between-group) levels to identify themes. Results Four themes were identified that provided insight into how and why these girls remain abstinent despite being in sexually active social climates. They focused on the following: self-respect (I'm worth it), impact of mothers (Mama says … think before you let it go), influence of boys and other peers (Boys will be boys), and potential negative consequences of sex (Hold on, there's a catch). Conclusions Developing interventions to maintain abstinence, delay onset of sexual activity, and promote protected first and subsequent sexual contact in abstinent girls are key to decreasing future sexual risk. These findings suggest opportunities to develop HIV prevention strategies tailored to the needs of abstinent girls. PMID:18336442

  9. Beyond Abstinence-Only: Relationships between Abstinence Education and Comprehensive Topic Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffries, William L., IV; Dodge, Brian; Bandiera, Frank C.; Reece, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In the United States, a debate exists as to whether abstinence-only or comprehensive sexuality education strategies are most beneficial for school-age youth. Despite abstinence being a fundamental component of comprehensive education, the two are often characterized as polar opposites. Few studies have examined overlaps between the approaches. The…

  10. Abstinence-Related Word Associations and Definitions of Abstinence and Virginity among Missouri High School Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kelly L.; Smith, Matthew Lee; Menn, Mindy

    2013-01-01

    Background: The ways in which adolescents define and view sex, abstinence, and virginity impact the efforts of sexuality educators and sexual health professionals. This study examined terminology used by nonsexually active high school students to define abstinence and virginity and identified words students associate with these terms. Purposes…

  11. Abstinence Self-Efficacy and Abstinence 1 Year After Substance Use Disorder Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilgen, Mark; McKellar, John; Tiet, Quyen

    2005-01-01

    To better understand the relationship between abstinence self-efficacy and treatment outcomes in substance use disorder patients, experts in the field need more information about the levels of abstinence self-efficacy most predictive of treatment outcomes. Participants (N = 2,967) from 15 residential substance use disorder treatment programs were…

  12. Abstinence-Conflict Model: Toward an Optimal Animal Model for Screening Medications Promoting Drug Abstinence.

    PubMed

    Peck, J A

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is a significant health and societal problem for which there is no highly effective long-term behavioral or pharmacological treatment. A rising concern are the use of illegal opiate drugs such as heroin and the misuse of legally available pain relievers that have led to serious deleterious health effects or even death. Therefore, treatment strategies that prolong opiate abstinence should be the primary focus of opiate treatment. Further, because the factors that support abstinence in humans and laboratory animals are similar, several animal models of abstinence and relapse have been developed. Here, we review a few animal models of abstinence and relapse and evaluate their validity and utility in addressing human behavior that leads to long-term drug abstinence. Then, a novel abstinence "conflict" model that more closely mimics human drug-seeking episodes by incorporating negative consequences for drug seeking (as are typical in humans, eg, incarceration and job loss) and while the drug remains readily available is discussed. Additionally, recent research investigating both cocaine and heroin seeking in rats using the animal conflict model is presented and the implications for heroin treatments are examined. Finally, it is argued that the use of animal abstinence/relapse models that more closely approximate human drug addiction, such as the abstinence-conflict model, could lead to a better understanding of the neurobiological and environmental factors that support long-term drug abstinence. In turn, this will lead to the development of more effective environmental and pharmacotherapeutic interventions to treat opiate addiction and addiction to other drugs of abuse. PMID:27055619

  13. Abstinence-Only Sex Education: College Students' Evaluations and Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the abstinence-only sex education experiences of a small group of young adults in the southeastern USA. Most participants felt that their abstinence-only sex education had mixed value and low overall impact in their lives. Perceptions about abstinence, virginity, and marriage varied significantly from those stressed…

  14. The Impact of Abstinence Education: What Does the Research Say?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael; Penhollow, Tina

    2006-01-01

    There has long been controversy in this country about the implementation of school-based sexuality education. In recent years, however, the controversy has centered on abstinence education. Critics of abstinence education programs seem to have three major concerns relative to abstinence education programming: (1) promotion of religion; (2)…

  15. Health Education Curriculum Content--Abstinence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    As a result of House Bill 1229, introduced and passed during the 2011 North Dakota legislative session, every school district, both public and nonpublic, must expand health education to include abstinence education, if teaching sexuality education as part of the general health curriculum. This fact sheet provides guidance for districts in meeting…

  16. A Test of the Abstinence Violation Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruderman, Audrey J.

    According to the abstinence violation effect, highly controlled drinkers tend to overindulge following an initial slip. To investigate this relapse model, 47 male college students, ranging in age from 21 to 46, were assigned either to an unrestrained or a restrained drinker group according to their scores on the Restrained Drinking Scale. Subjects…

  17. Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: Presentation and Treatment Considerations.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hendrée E; Kaltenbach, Karol; Johnson, Elisabeth; Seashore, Carl; Freeman, Emily; Malloy, Erin

    2016-01-01

    This clinical case conference discusses the treatment of a pregnant woman with opioid use disorder in a comprehensive care program that includes buprenorphine pharmacotherapy. The presentation summarizes common experiences that pregnant women who receive buprenorphine pharmacotherapy face, and also what their prenatally opioid-exposed children confront in the immediate postpartum period. It describes the elements of a successful comprehensive care model and corollary neonatal abstinence syndrome treatment regimen. Expert commentary is included on issues that arise in the buprenorphine induction and maintenance throughout the prenatal and postpartum periods and in the treatment of co-occurring mental health problems during both the prenatal and postpartum periods, particularly the treatment of depression. There is also expert commentary on the care of opioid-exposed neonates, with attention to the treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome. PMID:27244045

  18. The role of BMI change on smoking abstinence in a sample of HIV-infected smokers.

    PubMed

    Buchberg, Meredith K; Gritz, Ellen R; Kypriotakis, George; Arduino, Roberto C; Vidrine, Damon J

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of cigarette smoking among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is approximately 40%, significantly higher than that of the general population. Identifying predictors of successful smoking cessation for PLWHA is necessary to alleviate the morbidity and mortality associated with smoking in this population. Weight gain has been associated with smoking relapse in the general population, but has not been studied among PLWHA. Data from 474 PLWHA enrolled in a smoking cessation randomized clinical trial were analyzed to examine the effect of BMI change, from baseline to 3-month follow-up, on smoking outcomes using multiple logistic regression. The odds of 7-day smoking abstinence at 3-month follow-up were 4.22 (95% CI = 1.65, 10.82) times higher for participants classified as BMI decrease and 4.22 (95% CI = 1.62, 11.01) times higher for participants classified as BMI increase as compared to participants with a minimal increase or decrease in BMI. In this sample, both weight gain and loss following smoking cessation were significantly associated with abstinence at 3-month follow-up among HIV-infected smokers. Further research and a better understanding of predictors of abstinence will encourage more tailored interventions, with the potential to reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:26666313

  19. A Randomized Trial of Employment-Based Reinforcement of Cocaine Abstinence in Injection Drug Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Kenneth; Wong, Conrad J.; Needham, Mick; Diemer, Karly N.; Knealing, Todd; Crone-Todd, Darlene; Fingerhood, Michael; Nuzzo, Paul; Kolodner, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    High-magnitude and long-duration abstinence reinforcement can promote drug abstinence but can be difficult to finance. Employment may be a vehicle for arranging high-magnitude and long-duration abstinence reinforcement. This study determined if employment-based abstinence reinforcement could increase cocaine abstinence in adults who inject drugs…

  20. Against the Odds Exhibition Opens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Against the Odds Exhibition Opens Past Issues / Spring 2008 ... Research in Bethesda. Photo courtesy of Bill Branson "Against the Odds" is a remarkable story of achievement ...

  1. Neighborhood Vigilance, Health Locus of Control, and Smoking Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Lahoti, Sejal; Li, Yisheng; Cao, Yumei; Wetter, David W.; Waters, Andrew J.; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether health locus of control mediated relations of self-reported neighborhood vigilance and biochemically verified, continuous short-term smoking abstinence among 200 smokers enrolled in a cohort study. Methods A nonparametric bootstrapping procedure was used to assess mediation. Results Health locus of control-chance mediated relations between neighborhood vigilance and smoking abstinence in analyses adjusted for sociodemographics and tobacco dependence (p < .05). Greater vigilance was associated with greater attributions that health was affected by chance, which was associated with a lower likelihood of smoking abstinence. Conclusions Results suggest that neighborhood perceptions influence residents’ attributions for health outcomes, which can affect smoking abstinence. PMID:23985180

  2. The neurobiology of cognitive control in successful cocaine abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Colm G.; Foxe, John J.; Nierenberg, Jay; Shpaner, Marina; Garavan, Hugh

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Extensive evidence demonstrates that current cocaine abusers show hypoactivity in anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and respond poorly relative to drug-naïve controls on tests of executive function. Relatively little is known about the cognitive sequalae of long-term abstinence in cocaine addicts. Methods Here, we use a GO-NOGO task in which successful performance necessitated withholding a prepotent response to assay cognitive control in short-and long-term abstinent cocaine users (1-5 weeks and 40-102 weeks, respectively). Results We report significantly greater activity in prefrontal, cingulate, cerebellar and inferior frontal gyrii in abstinent cocaine users for both successful response inhibitions and errors of commission. Moreover, this relative hyperactivity was present in both abstinent groups, which, in the presence of comparable behavioral performance, suggests a functional compensation. Conclusions Differences between the short- and long-abstinence groups in the patterns of functional recruitment suggest different cognitive control demands at different stages in abstinence. Short-term abstinence showed increased inhibition-related dorsolateral and inferior frontal activity indicative of the need for increased inhibitory control while long-term abstinence showed increased error-related ACC activity indicative of heightened behavioral monitoring. The results suggest that the integrity of prefrontal systems that underlie cognitive control functions may be an important characteristic of successful long-term abstinence. PMID:21885214

  3. Influence of abstinence and conditions of cocaine access on the reinforcing strength of cocaine in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Czoty, Paul W; Martelle, Jennifer L; Nader, Michael A

    2006-12-01

    The development of addiction is marked by a transition from recreational to uncontrolled drug use. Investigators modeling this phenomenon in rodents observed increases in cocaine self-administration when conditions of drug access were altered as well as after abstinence. The present studies were designed to extend this research to nonhuman primates by examining whether the reinforcing strength of cocaine could be altered by changing conditions of cocaine availability or by introducing abstinence periods. Rhesus monkeys self-administered cocaine (0.03-0.3 mg/kg per injection) under a progressive-ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement in evening sessions, with the number of injections earned serving as a measure of reinforcing strength. Alterations in the reinforcing strength of cocaine were assessed after additional access to cocaine under a fixed-ratio (FR) schedule was provided in morning sessions and following various periods of abstinence (3, 7 and 14 days) from regimens of self-administration that resulted in a range of cocaine intakes. Under baseline PR conditions, the maximum number of cocaine injections increased dose-dependently, peaking when 0.3 mg/kg per injection cocaine was available. No increases in the reinforcing strength of cocaine were observed under any condition. In contrast, a statistically significant decrease in the reinforcing strength of cocaine was observed following 14 days of abstinence under one condition. These results fail to support the views that increasing access to cocaine or abstinence enhances the reinforcing strength of cocaine. PMID:16730922

  4. Is Abstinence Education Theory Based? The Underlying Logic of Abstinence Education Programs in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodson, Patricia; Pruitt, B. E.; Suther, Sandy; Wilson, Kelly; Buhi, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Authors examined the logic (or the implicit theory) underlying 16 abstinence-only-until-marriage programs in Texas (50% of all programs funded under the federal welfare reform legislation during 2001 and 2002). Defined as a set of propositions regarding the relationship between program activities and their intended outcomes, program staff's…

  5. Distorting the odds on AIDS.

    PubMed

    Charen, M

    1992-04-20

    Rep. Pat Schroeder (D-CO) chairs the House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families which just issued a report titled: A Decade of Denial: Teens and AIDS in America. In the report, abstinence is seen as the best protection against AIDS; but, it is unrealistic to think teenagers are not going to have sex. Therefore, they should have free and ready access to condoms in their schools. The report claims that a decade long campaign of abstinence has failed, teenage pregnancy and STD rates are rising. This report fails to understand that our culture does not in fact encourage abstinence. Virgins are rarities because social pressure to have sex is so great that even the threat of AIDS is not enough to stop them. However, giving them condoms will only make the situation worse. If teenagers who used drugs were given free needles, they would continue their drug habits. In the same light, if teenagers are given condoms, they will continue to have sex. If condoms are hard to get, there is a deterrent to have sex, just as clean needle would deter teens from using drugs. According to William Bennett, the problem is cultural in nature. Teenagers seek answers and our society only gives them options. Cultural pressure was used to change drunk driving from accepted behavior to criminal behavior. Cultural pressure could be used to change teen age sexual habits and giving them condoms is not the right kind of pressure. PMID:12285357

  6. Feeling Abstinent? Feeling Comprehensive? Touching the Affects of Sexuality Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesko, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    This interpretive study draws on interdisciplinary scholarship on affect and knowledge to ask: toward what feelings do abstinence-only and comprehensive sexuality education curricula direct us? A methodology that is attuned to double exposures is discussed, and one abstinence-only sexuality education curriculum and one comprehensive sexuality…

  7. Evaluation of an Abstinence Based Intervention for Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rue, Lisa; Chandran, Raj; Pannu, Aman; Bruce, David; Singh, Rana; Traxler, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Outcomes associated with an abstinence education intervention were evaluated using a single group design with a 12-month longitudinal follow-up. The intervention group of adolescents ages 12-14 years (N = 427) were enrolled in an 11.5-hour abstinence education intervention offered during the school day. Significant differences were found in the…

  8. Should We Be Teaching Sex Education or Sexual Abstinence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Del

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author examines the controversial issue whether to teach sex education or sexual abstinence. Sex education has always been fraught with controversy. The discord in Westbrook, Maine, school district is noteworthy because of the vocal support for an abstinence-only curriculum approach to sex education that has reshaped the…

  9. Effectiveness of Abstinence-Only Intervention in Middle School Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borawski, Elaine A.; Trapl, Erika S.; Lovegreen, Loren D.; Colabianchi, Natalie; Block, Tonya

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To examine effectiveness of abstinence-until-marriage curriculum on knowledge, beliefs, efficacy, intentions, and behavior. Methods: Nonrandomized control trial involving 2069 middle school students with a 5-month follow-up. Results: Intervention students reported increases in knowledge and abstinence beliefs, but decreases in…

  10. Implementing the Abstinence Education Provision of the Welfare Reform Legislation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Ron; Bevan, Carol Statuto

    As part of its 1996 welfare reform bill, the U.S. Congress enacted a $50 million per year program to fund abstinence education. The welfare reform law addresses the problem of births to single adolescents by enforcing child support payments, giving states financial incentives to reduce nonmarital births, and creating the abstinence education…

  11. Citizenship Lessons in Abstinence-Only Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Jessica; Hirschman, Celeste

    2007-01-01

    We examine abstinence-only-until-marriage education as part of a broad effort to reassert the primacy of conventional (hetero) sexual norms. While all sexuality education offers students lessons in "good sexual citizenship," abstinence-only-until-marriage education reserves the rights and responsibilities of membership and belonging for those who…

  12. Defining Sex and Abstinence: Dialogue Is the Key

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamill, Shelley D.; Chepko, Stevie

    2005-01-01

    When does abstinence end and sexual activity begin? In previous generations, the continuum of sexual activity was well-defined in the old baseball analogy. Teens, parents, and teachers knew what going to first, second, or third base involved. For the current generation of young people, sex and abstinence are not so well-defined. As parents and…

  13. Factors Affecting Long-Term Abstinence from Substances Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsheikh, Salah Elgaily

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore the attitudes of abstainers from drug use that relate to the factors leading to long-term abstinence. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was carried out in Al-Amal Hospital to examine, which attitudes of abstainers related to long-term abstinence. A random survey was conducted on 62…

  14. A Cautionary Tale About Conducting Research on Abstinence Education: How Do State Abstinence Coordinators Define "Sexual Activity?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, William; Young, Michael; Knickerbocker, Cliff; Doan, Tam

    2002-01-01

    Investigated how state coordinators of abstinence education programs defined "sexual activity." Researchers surveyed Title V abstinence education coordinators from the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and three territories. Of the 17 coordinators providing at least partial responses, none reported having a definition of sexual activity. The…

  15. "Dealing" with Incidence, Prevalence, and Odds Concepts in Undergraduate Epidemiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senchina, David S.; Laurson, Kelly R.

    2009-01-01

    Concepts and associated statistical formulae of incidence, prevalence, and odds/odds ratios are core knowledge in epidemiology yet can be confusing for students. The purpose of this project was to develop, validate, and share one possible pedagogical technique using playing cards that could be employed to improve undergraduate understanding of…

  16. Tilted axis rotation in odd-odd {sup 164}Tm

    SciTech Connect

    Reviol, W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Wang, X.Z.; Zhang, J.Y.

    1996-12-31

    Ten band structures are observed in {sup 164}Tm, among them sets of parallel and anti-parallel couplings of the proton and neutron spins. The Tilted Axis Cranking scheme is applied for the first time to an odd-odd nucleus in a prominent region of nuclear deformation.

  17. Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: Essentials for the Practitioner

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Christine A.

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) has increased dramatically during the past 15 years, likely due to an increase in antepartum maternal opiate use. Optimal care of these patients is still controversial because of the available published literature lacking sufficient sample size, placebo control, and comparative pharmacologic trials. Primary treatment for NAS consists of opioid replacement therapy with either morphine or methadone. Paregoric and tincture of opium have been abandoned because of relative safety concerns. Buprenorphine is emerging as a treatment option with promising initial experience. Adjunctive agents should be considered for infants failing treatment with opioid monotherapy. Traditionally, phenobarbital has been used as adjunctive therapy; however, results of clonidine as adjunctive therapy for NAS appear to be beneficial. Future directions for research in NAS should include validating a simplified scoring tool, conducting comparative studies, exploring home management options, and optimizing management through pharmacogenomics. PMID:25309144

  18. Neonatal abstinence syndrome: essentials for the practitioner.

    PubMed

    Siu, Anita; Robinson, Christine A

    2014-07-01

    The incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) has increased dramatically during the past 15 years, likely due to an increase in antepartum maternal opiate use. Optimal care of these patients is still controversial because of the available published literature lacking sufficient sample size, placebo control, and comparative pharmacologic trials. Primary treatment for NAS consists of opioid replacement therapy with either morphine or methadone. Paregoric and tincture of opium have been abandoned because of relative safety concerns. Buprenorphine is emerging as a treatment option with promising initial experience. Adjunctive agents should be considered for infants failing treatment with opioid monotherapy. Traditionally, phenobarbital has been used as adjunctive therapy; however, results of clonidine as adjunctive therapy for NAS appear to be beneficial. Future directions for research in NAS should include validating a simplified scoring tool, conducting comparative studies, exploring home management options, and optimizing management through pharmacogenomics. PMID:25309144

  19. Drug Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Variation, Nicotine Metabolism, Prospective Abstinence, and Cigarette Consumption.

    PubMed

    Bergen, Andrew W; Michel, Martha; Nishita, Denise; Krasnow, Ruth; Javitz, Harold S; Conneely, Karen N; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Hops, Hyman; Zhu, Andy Z X; Baurley, James W; McClure, Jennifer B; Hall, Sharon M; Baker, Timothy B; Conti, David V; Benowitz, Neal L; Lerman, Caryn; Tyndale, Rachel F; Swan, Gary E

    2015-01-01

    The Nicotine Metabolite Ratio (NMR, ratio of trans-3'-hydroxycotinine and cotinine), has previously been associated with CYP2A6 activity, response to smoking cessation treatments, and cigarette consumption. We searched for drug metabolizing enzyme and transporter (DMET) gene variation associated with the NMR and prospective abstinence in 2,946 participants of laboratory studies of nicotine metabolism and of clinical trials of smoking cessation therapies. Stage I was a meta-analysis of the association of 507 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 173 DMET genes with the NMR in 449 participants of two laboratory studies. Nominally significant associations were identified in ten genes after adjustment for intragenic SNPs; CYP2A6 and two CYP2A6 SNPs attained experiment-wide significance adjusted for correlated SNPs (CYP2A6 PACT=4.1E-7, rs4803381 PACT=4.5E-5, rs1137115, PACT=1.2E-3). Stage II was mega-regression analyses of 10 DMET SNPs with pretreatment NMR and prospective abstinence in up to 2,497 participants from eight trials. rs4803381 and rs1137115 SNPs were associated with pretreatment NMR at genome-wide significance. In post-hoc analyses of CYP2A6 SNPs, we observed nominally significant association with: abstinence in one pharmacotherapy arm; cigarette consumption among all trial participants; and lung cancer in four case:control studies. CYP2A6 minor alleles were associated with reduced NMR, CPD, and lung cancer risk. We confirmed the major role that CYP2A6 plays in nicotine metabolism, and made novel findings with respect to genome-wide significance and associations with CPD, abstinence and lung cancer risk. Additional multivariate analyses with patient variables and genetic modeling will improve prediction of nicotine metabolism, disease risk and smoking cessation treatment prognosis. PMID:26132489

  20. Drug Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Variation, Nicotine Metabolism, Prospective Abstinence, and Cigarette Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Bergen, Andrew W.; Michel, Martha; Nishita, Denise; Krasnow, Ruth; Javitz, Harold S.; Conneely, Karen N.; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N.; Hops, Hyman; Zhu, Andy Z. X.; Baurley, James W.; McClure, Jennifer B.; Hall, Sharon M.; Baker, Timothy B.; Conti, David V.; Benowitz, Neal L.; Lerman, Caryn; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Swan, Gary E.

    2015-01-01

    The Nicotine Metabolite Ratio (NMR, ratio of trans-3’-hydroxycotinine and cotinine), has previously been associated with CYP2A6 activity, response to smoking cessation treatments, and cigarette consumption. We searched for drug metabolizing enzyme and transporter (DMET) gene variation associated with the NMR and prospective abstinence in 2,946 participants of laboratory studies of nicotine metabolism and of clinical trials of smoking cessation therapies. Stage I was a meta-analysis of the association of 507 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 173 DMET genes with the NMR in 449 participants of two laboratory studies. Nominally significant associations were identified in ten genes after adjustment for intragenic SNPs; CYP2A6 and two CYP2A6 SNPs attained experiment-wide significance adjusted for correlated SNPs (CYP2A6 PACT=4.1E-7, rs4803381 PACT=4.5E-5, rs1137115, PACT=1.2E-3). Stage II was mega-regression analyses of 10 DMET SNPs with pretreatment NMR and prospective abstinence in up to 2,497 participants from eight trials. rs4803381 and rs1137115 SNPs were associated with pretreatment NMR at genome-wide significance. In post-hoc analyses of CYP2A6 SNPs, we observed nominally significant association with: abstinence in one pharmacotherapy arm; cigarette consumption among all trial participants; and lung cancer in four case:control studies. CYP2A6 minor alleles were associated with reduced NMR, CPD, and lung cancer risk. We confirmed the major role that CYP2A6 plays in nicotine metabolism, and made novel findings with respect to genome-wide significance and associations with CPD, abstinence and lung cancer risk. Additional multivariate analyses with patient variables and genetic modeling will improve prediction of nicotine metabolism, disease risk and smoking cessation treatment prognosis. PMID:26132489

  1. Methamphetamine Dependence and Neuropsychological Functioning: Evaluating Change During Early Abstinence*

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Sara L.; Dean, Andy C.; Cordova, Xochitl; Monterosso, John R.; London, Edythe D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this work was to assess neuropsychological functioning of individuals in early abstinence from methamphetamine dependence and to test for cognitive change over the first month of abstinence. Method: Methamphetamine-dependent subjects in very early abstinence from methamphetamine (4–9 days; n = 27) were compared with healthy comparison subjects (n = 28) on a test battery that evaluated five cognitive domains (attention/processing speed, learning/memory, working memory, timed executive functioning, and untimed executive functioning). A subsample of the methamphetamine-dependent subjects (n = 18), who maintained abstinence for 1 month, as well as a subsample of the comparison subjects (n = 21), were retested. Results: At the first assessment, the methamphetamine-dependent subjects showed significantly worse performance than the comparison group on a test of processing speed; they also performed 0.31 SDs worse than the control group on a global battery composite score (p < .05). After a month of abstinence, methamphetamine-dependent subjects demonstrated slightly more cognitive improvement than healthy control subjects on the entire cognitive battery, but this difference did not approach statistical significance (p = .33). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that methamphetamine-dependent subjects do not show considerable cognitive gains in the first month of abstinence. A greater length of abstinence may be needed for cognitive improvement. PMID:20409426

  2. Investigating Group Contingencies to Promote Brief Abstinence from Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, Steven E.; Dallery, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    In contingency management (CM), monetary incentives are contingent on evidence of drug abstinence. Typically, incentives (e.g., “vouchers” exchangeable for goods or services) are contingent on individual performance. We programmed vouchers contingent on group performance to investigate whether these contingencies would promote brief abstinence from cigarette smoking. Thirty-two participants were divided into small teams (n = 3 per team). During three 5-day within-subject experimental conditions, participants submitted video recordings of breath carbon monoxide (CO) measures twice daily via Mōtiv8 Systems™, an Internet-based remote monitoring application. During the interdependent contingency condition, participants earned vouchers each time they and their teammates submitted breath CO samples indicative of abstinence (i.e., negative samples). During the independent contingency condition, participants earned vouchers each time they submitted negative samples, regardless of their teammates' performance. During the no vouchers condition, no monetary incentives were contingent on abstinence. In addition, half of the participants (n = 16) could communicate with their teammates through an online peer support forum. Although forum access did not appear to promote smoking abstinence, monetary incentives did promote brief abstinence. Significantly more negative samples were submitted when vouchers were contingent on individual performance (56%) or team performance (53%) relative to when no vouchers were available (35%; F = 6.9, p = 0.002). The results show that interdependent contingencies can promote brief abstinence from cigarette smoking. Moreover, the results suggest that these contingencies may help lower treatment costs and promote social support. PMID:23421358

  3. ESTIMATES OF PRENATAL ABSTINENCE FROM ALCOHOL: A MATTER OF PERSPECTIVE

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Grace; McNamara, Tay K.; Wilkins-Haug, Louise; Orav, E. John

    2007-01-01

    Abstinence from alcohol has been recommended for both pregnant and pre-conceptional women. The purpose of this study is to compare self and partner reports of abstinence from alcohol in a sample of 253 pregnant women who were T-ACE (Tolerance, Annoy, Cut-down, Eye-opener) alcohol screen positive. Dyads’ reports of the women’s abstinence from alcohol before, during, and after pregnancy were compared. Based on their own self-report, less than 20% of the pregnant women were abstinent in their first trimester and about half were abstinent for the rest of their pregnancy. Partners significantly over-estimated the women’s abstinence from alcohol at all points except in the post-partum period when the dyad had the highest rate of agreement (85.4%). Reasons for the discrepancies in the self and partner reports of prenatal abstinence, and how partners might influence such behavior remain speculative, but identify areas for future research and prevention. PMID:17187936

  4. Exposure to and Views of Information about Sexual Abstinence among Older Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rachel K.; Biddlecom, Ann E.

    2011-01-01

    There is scant research of adolescents' understanding of abstinence. We conducted interviews with a sample of 58 teens to find out their exposure to abstinence information from a range of sources. Most teens had received abstinence information or messages from school, family members, and friends. For many teens, information about abstinence, or…

  5. Hold the Sex, Please: The Discursive Politics between National and Local Abstinence Education Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Amie

    2010-01-01

    There are many assumptions made about the beliefs behind abstinence-only until marriage (AOUM) sex education, yet comparatively little research examining the views of abstinence education providers. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 21 abstinence grantees throughout New York State, I examine how individuals working in abstinence organizations…

  6. Abstinence from cocaine self-administration heightens neural encoding of goal-directed behaviors in the accumbens.

    PubMed

    Hollander, Jonathan A; Carelli, Regina M

    2005-08-01

    Cocaine addiction in humans is characterized by cycles of abstinence from drug-taking and relapse. Here, electrophysiological recording procedures were used to determine whether nucleus accumbens (Acb) neuronal firing properties are altered following interruption and resumption of cocaine self-administration. Rats (n = 12) were trained to self-administer cocaine (2 h daily sessions) then divided into two groups. Acb activity was recorded for Group 1 (controls) during two additional self-administration sessions completed over the next 2 days (test sessions 1 and 2). Acb activity was recorded for Group 2 (1-month) during one self-administration session completed the next day (test 1), and during a second self-administration session 1 month later (test 2). As in prior reports, a subset of Acb neurons exhibited patterned discharges (short duration and/or long-term cyclic alterations, termed 'phasically active') relative to cocaine-reinforced responding during test session 1. Remarkably, the percentage of phasically active cells dramatically increased (nearly two-fold) following 1-month abstinence, in the core but not the shell of the Acb. Likewise, the strength of the neural correlates (determined via signal-to-baseline ratios) also increased as a function of abstinence. Extinction experiments in another set of rats (n = 12) revealed an increased motivational state for the drug following abstinence. The results show that abstinence from cocaine self-administration causes a dramatic increase in the number and strength of Acb neurons that encode cocaine-related information, thus representing the first neurophysiological correlate of heightened activation of the 'brain reward system' following abstinence and resumption (relapse) of cocaine consumption. PMID:15856078

  7. Survey of odd-odd deformed nuclear spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.

    1993-09-14

    In this paper, we survey the current experimental data that support assignment of rotational bands in odd-odd deformed nuclear in the rare earth and actinide regions. We present the results of a new study of {sup 170}Mt nuclear structure. In a comparing experimental and calculated Gallagher-Moszkowski matrix elements for rare earth-region nuclei, we have developed a new approach to the systematics of these matrix elements.

  8. Mismatch Negativity and P50 Sensory Gating in Abstinent Former Cannabis Users

    PubMed Central

    Broyd, Samantha J.; Greenwood, Lisa-marie; van Hell, Hendrika H.; Croft, Rodney J.; Coyle, Hannah; Lee-Bates, Ben; Todd, Juanita; Johnstone, Stuart J.; Michie, Patricia T.; Solowij, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged heavy exposure to cannabis is associated with impaired cognition and brain functional and structural alterations. We recently reported attenuated mismatch negativity (MMN) and altered P50 sensory gating in chronic cannabis users. This study investigated the extent of brain functional recovery (indexed by MMN and P50) in chronic users after cessation of use. Eighteen ex-users (median 13.5 years prior regular use; median 3.5 years abstinence) and 18 nonusers completed (1) a multifeature oddball task with duration, frequency, and intensity deviants and (2) a P50 paired-click paradigm. Trend level smaller duration MMN amplitude and larger P50 ratios (indicative of poorer sensory gating) were observed in ex-users compared to controls. Poorer P50 gating correlated with prior duration of cannabis use. Duration of abstinence was positively correlated with duration MMN amplitude, even after controlling for age and duration of cannabis use. Impaired sensory gating and attenuated MMN amplitude tended to persist in ex-users after prolonged cessation of use, suggesting a lack of full recovery. An association with prolonged duration of prior cannabis use may indicate persistent cannabis-related alterations to P50 sensory gating. Greater reductions in MMN amplitude with increasing abstinence (positive correlation) may be related to either self-medication or an accelerated aging process. PMID:27019754

  9. Mismatch Negativity and P50 Sensory Gating in Abstinent Former Cannabis Users.

    PubMed

    Broyd, Samantha J; Greenwood, Lisa-marie; van Hell, Hendrika H; Croft, Rodney J; Coyle, Hannah; Lee-Bates, Ben; Todd, Juanita; Johnstone, Stuart J; Michie, Patricia T; Solowij, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged heavy exposure to cannabis is associated with impaired cognition and brain functional and structural alterations. We recently reported attenuated mismatch negativity (MMN) and altered P50 sensory gating in chronic cannabis users. This study investigated the extent of brain functional recovery (indexed by MMN and P50) in chronic users after cessation of use. Eighteen ex-users (median 13.5 years prior regular use; median 3.5 years abstinence) and 18 nonusers completed (1) a multifeature oddball task with duration, frequency, and intensity deviants and (2) a P50 paired-click paradigm. Trend level smaller duration MMN amplitude and larger P50 ratios (indicative of poorer sensory gating) were observed in ex-users compared to controls. Poorer P50 gating correlated with prior duration of cannabis use. Duration of abstinence was positively correlated with duration MMN amplitude, even after controlling for age and duration of cannabis use. Impaired sensory gating and attenuated MMN amplitude tended to persist in ex-users after prolonged cessation of use, suggesting a lack of full recovery. An association with prolonged duration of prior cannabis use may indicate persistent cannabis-related alterations to P50 sensory gating. Greater reductions in MMN amplitude with increasing abstinence (positive correlation) may be related to either self-medication or an accelerated aging process. PMID:27019754

  10. Characterizing Smoking and Drinking Abstinence from Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Tamersoy, Acar; De Choudhury, Munmun; Chau, Duen Horng

    2015-01-01

    Social media has been established to bear signals relating to health and well-being states. In this paper, we investigate the potential of social media in characterizing and understanding abstinence from tobacco or alcohol use. While the link between behavior and addiction has been explored in psychology literature, the lack of longitudinal self-reported data on long-term abstinence has challenged addiction research. We leverage the activity spanning almost eight years on two prominent communities on Reddit: StopSmoking and StopDrinking. We use the self-reported “badge” information of nearly a thousand users as gold standard information on their abstinence status to characterize long-term abstinence. We build supervised learning based statistical models that use the linguistic features of the content shared by the users as well as the network structure of their social interactions. Our findings indicate that long-term abstinence from smoking or drinking (~one year) can be distinguished from short-term abstinence (~40 days) with 85% accuracy. We further show that language and interaction on social media offer powerful cues towards characterizing these addiction-related health outcomes. We discuss the implications of our findings in social media and health research, and in the role of social media as a platform for positive behavior change and therapy. PMID:26640831

  11. Implementation of Cognitive-Behavioral Substance Abuse Treatment in Sub-Saharan Africa: Treatment Engagement and Abstinence at Treatment Exit

    PubMed Central

    Burnhams, Warren; Remmert, Jocelyn E.; Myers, Bronwyn; Joska, John A.; Carrico, Adam W.

    2016-01-01

    Aims This study documented the treatment cascade for engagement in care and abstinence at treatment exit as well as examined correlates of these outcomes for the first certified Matrix Model® substance abuse treatment site in Sub-Saharan Africa. Design This retrospective chart review conducted at a resource-limited community clinic in Cape Town, South Africa, assessed treatment readiness and substance use severity at treatment entry as correlates of the number of sessions attended and biologically confirmed abstinence at treatment exit among 986 clients who initiated treatment from 2009–2014. Sociodemographic and clinical correlates of treatment outcomes were examined using logistic regression, modeling treatment completion and abstinence at treatment exit separately. Results Of the 2,233 clients who completed screening, approximately 44% (n = 986) initiated treatment. Among those who initiated treatment, 45% completed at least four group sessions, 30% completed early recovery skills training (i.e., at least eight group sessions), and 13% completed the full 16-week program. Approximately half (54%) of clients who provided a urine sample had negative urine toxicology results for any substance at treatment exit. Higher motivation at treatment entry was independently associated with greater odds of treatment completion and negative urine toxicology results at treatment exit. Conclusions Findings provide initial support for the successful implementation the Matrix Model in a resource-limited setting. Motivational enhancement interventions could support treatment initiation, promote sustained engagement in treatment, and achieve better treatment outcomes. PMID:26816208

  12. Modeling level structures of odd-odd deformed nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.; Kern, J.; Piepenbring, R.; Boisson, J.P.

    1985-01-15

    A technique for modeling quasiparticle excitation energies and rotational parameters in odd-odd deformed nuclei has been applied to actinide species where new experimental data have been obtained by use of neutron-capture gamma-ray spectroscopy. The input parameters required for the calculation were derived from empirical data on single-particle excitations in neighboring odd-mass nuclei. Calculated configuration-specific values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings were used. Calculated and experimental level structures for /sup 238/Np, /sup 244/Am, and /sup 250/Bk are compared, as well as those for several nuclei in the rare-earch region. The agreement for the actinide species is excellent, with bandhead energies deviating 22 keV and rotational parameters 5%, on the average. Corresponding average deviations for five rare-earth nuclei are 47 keV and 7%. Several applications of this modeling technique are discussed.

  13. Modeling level structures of odd-odd deformed nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.; Kern, J.; Piepenbring, R.; Boisson, J.P.

    1984-09-07

    A technique for modeling quasiparticle excitation energies and rotational parameters in odd-odd deformed nuclei has been applied to actinide species where new experimental data have been obtained by use of neutron-capture gamma-ray spectroscopy. The input parameters required for the calculation were derived from empirical data on single-particle excitations in neighboring odd-mass nuclei. Calculated configuration-specific values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings were used. Calculated and experimental level structures for /sup 238/Np, /sup 244/Am, and /sup 250/Bk are compared, as well as those for several nuclei in the rare-earth region. The agreement for the actinide species is excellent, with bandhead energies deviating 22 keV and rotational parameters 5%, on the average. Corresponding average deviations for five rare-earth nuclei are 47 keV and 7%. Several applications of this modeling technique are discussed. 18 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Intolerance for Smoking Abstinence Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties and Relationship to Tobacco Dependence and Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Sirota, Alan D.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; MacKinnon, Selene V.; Martin, Rosemarie A.; Eaton, Cheryl A.; Kaplan, Gary B.; Monti, Peter M.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Swift, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    While smokers’ ability to tolerate emotional or physical distress has been associated with length of smoking cessation, there is no measure of ability to tolerate smoking abstinence discomfort specifically, which may be more heuristic than a measure of tolerance of general emotional stress or physical discomfort. Methods Questionnaires completed by 300 smokers assessed inability to tolerate smoking abstinence discomfort (IDQ-S), general physical discomfort (IDQ-P), and general emotional discomfort (IDQ-E), so that shared variance among these measures could be assessed. Results The IDQ-S has three reliable components: Withdrawal Intolerance, Lack of Cognitive Coping, and Pain Intolerance. The 14-item IDQ-P and 9-item IDQ-E each consist of one reliable component. Intercorrelations suggest only modest shared variance. Support for construct and discriminant validity was seen. Two scales of the IDQ-S showed excellent convergent validity, correlating with smoking use, dependence, motivation, and length of past smoking cessation, while IDQ-P and IDQ-E correlated with few indices of use or dependence and not with smoking cessation. Conclusions The final 17-item IDQ-S with two scales is reliable and valid, and more heuristic than measures of general physical or emotional discomfort intolerance as a correlate of motivation and past success with smoking cessation. PMID:20381260

  15. Nonadiabatic effects in odd-odd deformed proton emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Patial, M.; Jain, A. K.; Arumugam, P.; Maglione, E.; Ferreira, L. S.

    2011-11-30

    We present for the first time, the nonadiabatic quasiparticle approach to study proton emission from odd-odd deformed nuclei. Coriolis effects are incorporated in both the parent and daughter wavefunctions and hence our formalism allows us to study their complete role on the decay widths. First results obtained for the nucleus {sup 112}Cs suggest a weak dependance on Coriolis effect. However, we are able to reproduce the experimental half-lives without assuming the exact Nilsson orbital from which the decay proceeds.

  16. Tobacco withdrawal symptoms mediate motivation to reinstate smoking during abstinence.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Claudia G; Madrid, Jillian; Leventhal, Adam M

    2015-08-01

    Withdrawal-based theories of addiction hypothesize that motivation to reinstate drug use following acute abstinence is mediated by withdrawal symptoms. Experimental tests of this hypothesis in the tobacco literature are scant and may be subject to methodological limitations. This study utilized a robust within-subject laboratory experimental design to investigate the extent to which composite tobacco withdrawal symptomatology level and 3 unique withdrawal components (i.e., low positive affect, negative affect, and urge to smoke) mediated the effect of smoking abstinence on motivation to reinstate smoking. Smokers (≥10 cigarettes per day; N = 286) attended 2 counterbalanced sessions at which abstinence duration was differentially manipulated (1 hr vs. 17 hr). At both sessions, participants reported current withdrawal symptoms and subsequently completed a task in which they were monetarily rewarded proportional to the length of time they delayed initiating smoking, with shorter latency reflecting stronger motivation to reinstate smoking. Abstinence reduced latency to smoking initiation and positive affect and increased composite withdrawal symptom level, urge, and negative affect. Abstinence-induced reductions in latency to initiating smoking were mediated by each withdrawal component, with stronger effects operating through urge. Combined analyses suggested that urge, negative affect, and low positive affect operate through empirically unique mediational pathways. Secondary analyses suggested similar effects on smoking quantity, few differences among specific urge and affect subtypes, and that dependence amplifies some abstinence effects. This study provides the first experimental evidence that within-person variation in abstinence impacts motivation to reinstate drug use through withdrawal. Urge, negative affect, and low positive affect may reflect unique withdrawal-mediated mechanisms underlying tobacco addiction. PMID:25961814

  17. Sex Differences in Time Perception During Smoking Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Kable, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Nicotine withdrawal leads to impulsive decision-making, which reflects a preference for smaller, immediate rewards and often prompts a relapse to smoking. The mechanism by which nicotine withdrawal leads to impulsive decision-making is not well known. An essential dimension of decision-making is time perception. Impulsive decisions reflect intolerance of temporal delays and the perception that time is passing more slowly. Sex may be an important factor in impulsive decision-making and time perception, but no studies have investigated whether sex moderates the effects of nicotine withdrawal on impulsive decision-making and time perception. Methods: Thirty-three (12 female) adult smokers completed 2 laboratory sessions: following 24-hr abstinence and once smoking-as-usual (order counterbalanced, abstinence biochemically verified). Participants completed 2 time perception tasks, a decision-making task, and self-report measures of craving, withdrawal, and mood. Results: During time reproduction, males overestimated time during abstinence compared to smoking, whereas there was no session effect for females. On the time discrimination task, smokers were less accurate during abstinence, and this effect tended to be stronger among females. In general, males had higher discounting rates compared with females, but there was no effect of abstinence. Conclusions: The current data suggest that the effect of abstinence on time perception may be stronger in males and that males generally exhibit steeper delay discounting rates. Time perception may be an important mechanism in smoking abstinence. Our future work will investigate the role of time perception in smoking relapse and whether this is moderated by sex. PMID:25762755

  18. Food addiction: detox and abstinence reinterpreted?

    PubMed

    Shriner, Richard L

    2013-10-01

    The senior patient and/or the geriatrician are confronted with a confusing literature describing how patients interested in combating metabolic syndrome, diabesity (diabetes plus obesity) or simple obesity might best proceed. The present paper gives a brief outline of the basic disease processes that underlie metabolic pro-inflammation, including how one might go about devising the most potent and practical detoxification from such metabolic compromise. The role that dietary restriction plays in pro-inflammatory detoxification (detox), including how a modified fast (selective food abstinence) is incorporated into this process, is developed. The unique aspects of geriatric bariatric medicine are elucidated, including the concepts of sarcopenia and the obesity paradox. Important caveats involving the senior seeking weight loss are offered. By the end of the paper, the reader will have a greater appreciation for the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead for geriatric patients who wish to overcome food addiction and reverse pro-inflammatory states of ill-heath. This includes the toxic metabolic processes that create obesity complicated by type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) which collectively we call diabesity. In that regard, diabesity is often the central pathology that leads to the evolution of the metabolic syndrome. The paper also affords the reader a solid review of the neurometabolic processes that effectuate anorexigenic versus orexigenic inputs to obesity that drive food addiction. We argue that these processes lead to either weight gain or weight loss by a tripartite system involving metabolic, addictive and relational levels of organismal functioning. Recalibrating the way we negotiate these three levels of daily functioning often determines success or failure in terms of overcoming metabolic syndrome and food addiction. PMID:23267844

  19. Risky Car Following in Abstinent Users of MDMA

    PubMed Central

    Dastrup, Elizabeth; Lees, Monica; Bechara, Antoine; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Rizzo, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Ecstasy (MDMA) use raises concerns because of its association with risky driving. We evaluated driving performance and risk taking in abstinent recreational MDMA users in a simulated car following task that required continuous attention and vigilance. Drivers were asked to follow two car lengths behind a lead vehicle (LV). Three sinusoids generated unpredictable LV velocity changes. Drivers could mitigate risk by following further behind the erratic LV. From vehicle trajectory data we performed a Fourier analysis to derive measures of coherence, gain, and delay. These measures and headway distance were compared between the different groups. All MDMA drivers met coherence criteria indicating cooperation in the car following task. They matched periodic changes in LV velocity similar to controls (abstinent THC users, abstinent alcohol users, and non-drug users), militating against worse vigilance. While all participants traveled approximately 55mph (89kph), the MDMA drivers followed 64m closer to the LV and demonstrated 1.04s shorter delays to LV velocity changes than other driver groups. The simulated car following task safely discriminated between driving behavior in abstinent MDMA users and controls. Abstinent MDMA users do not perform worse than controls, but may assume extra risk. The control theory framework used in this study revealed behaviors that might not otherwise be evident. PMID:20380914

  20. Response inhibition and addiction medicine: from use to abstinence.

    PubMed

    Spechler, Philip A; Chaarani, Bader; Hudson, Kelsey E; Potter, Alexandra; Foxe, John J; Garavan, Hugh

    2016-01-01

    Historically, neuroscientific research into addiction has emphasized affective and reinforcement mechanisms as the essential elements underlying the pursuit of drugs, their abuse, and difficulties associated with abstinence. However, research over the last decade or so has shown that cognitive control systems, associated largely but not exclusively with the frontal lobes, are also important contributors to drug use behaviors. Here, we focus on inhibitory control and its contribution to both current use and abstinence. A body of evidence points to impaired inhibitory abilities across a range of drugs of abuse. Typically, studies suggest that substance-abusing individuals are characterized by relative hypoactivity in brain systems underlying inhibitory control. In contrast, abstinent users tend to show either normal or supernormal levels of activity in the same systems attesting to the importance of inhibitory control in suppressing the drug use urges that plague attempts at abstinence. In this chapter, the brain and behavioral basis of response inhibition will be reviewed, with a focus on neuroimaging studies of response inhibition in current and abstinent drug abusers. PMID:26806775

  1. Reflection asymmetry in odd-A and odd-odd actinium nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.

    1993-09-01

    Theoretical calculations and measurements indicate that octupole correlations are at a maximum in the ground states of the odd-proton nuclei Ac and Pa. It has been expected that odd-odd nuclei should have even larger amount of octupole-octupole correlations. We have recently made measurements on the structure of {sup 224}Ac. Although spin and parity assignments could not be made, two bands starting at 354.1 and 360.0 keV have properties characteristic of reflection asymmetric shape. These two bands have very similar rotational constants and also similar alpha decay rates, which suggest similarity between the wavefunctions of these bands. These signatures provide evidence for octupole correlations in these nuclides.

  2. On Quantizable Odd Lie Bialgebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoroshkin, Anton; Merkulov, Sergei; Willwacher, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Motivated by the obstruction to the deformation quantization of Poisson structures in infinite dimensions, we introduce the notion of a quantizable odd Lie bialgebra. The main result of the paper is a construction of the highly non-trivial minimal resolution of the properad governing such Lie bialgebras, and its link with the theory of so-called quantizable Poisson structures.

  3. Does cigarette reduction while using nicotine replacement therapy prior to a quit attempt predict abstinence following quit date?

    PubMed Central

    Shinkins, Bethany; West, Robert; Michie, Susan; Aveyard, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims Previous studies have reported that people who use a smoking cessation medication while smoking and reduce cigarette consumption spontaneously are three times more likely to stop smoking after a quit date. The aim was to replicate this and assess whether it arises because of willed effortful reduction rather than unwilled reduced drive to smoke caused by medication. Design Secondary analysis of a trial where participants were randomised to smoke as normal or reduce by 75% over 2 weeks prior to quit date, using nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in both arms. Setting Thirty‐one UK primary care practices. Participants A total of 517 adult smokers seeking quitting support in the carbon monoxide (CO) analyses and 421 in the cigarettes/day analyses. Measurements Russell Standard abstinence was recorded 4 weeks after quit date. The randomized groups were combined and the association between reduction and abstinence examined. The second analysis assessed whether this association differed by whether smokers were, or were not, instructed to reduce. Findings In all participants, there was no evidence that reducing cigarettes/day or CO by at least half compared with not reducing predicted abstinence at 4 weeks [risk ratio (RR) = 0.88; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.68–1.14 and RR = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.00–1.44, respectively]. However, in smokers instructed to reduce, CO reduction was associated with 4‐week abstinence (RR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.16–2.00), but not among people advised not to reduce (RR = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.67–1.24). Conclusions Smoking reduction prior to a target quit date while on a smoking cessation medication may only predict subsequent abstinence when smokers are consciously attempting to reduce. PMID:26990374

  4. EMPLOYMENT-BASED ABSTINENCE REINFORCEMENT PROMOTES OPIATE AND COCAINE ABSTINENCE IN OUT-OF-TREATMENT INJECTION DRUG USERS

    PubMed Central

    Holtyn, August F.; Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; DeFulio, Anthony; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O.; Strain, Eric C.; Schwartz, Robert P.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    We examined the use of employment-based abstinence reinforcement in out-of-treatment injection drug users, in this secondary analysis of a previously reported trial. Participants (N = 33) could work in the therapeutic workplace, a model employment-based program for drug addiction, for 30 weeks and could earn approximately $10 per hr. During a 4-week induction, participants only had to work to earn pay. After induction, access to the workplace was contingent on enrollment in methadone treatment. After participants met the methadone contingency for 3 weeks, they had to provide opiate-negative urine samples to maintain maximum pay. After participants met those contingencies for 3 weeks, they had to provide opiate- and cocaine-negative urine samples to maintain maximum pay. The percentage of drug-negative urine samples remained stable until the abstinence reinforcement contingency for each drug was applied. The percentage of opiate- and cocaine-negative urine samples increased abruptly and significantly after the opiate- and cocaine-abstinence contingencies, respectively, were applied. These results demonstrate that the sequential administration of employment-based abstinence reinforcement can increase opiate and cocaine abstinence among out-of-treatment injection drug users. PMID:25292399

  5. Excited states of the odd-odd nucleus 230Pa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotthaus, T.; Reiter, P.; Hess, H.; Kalkühler, M.; Wendt, A.; Wiens, A.; Hertenberger, R.; Morgan, T.; Thirolf, P. G.; Wirth, H.-F.; Faestermann, T.

    2013-04-01

    The completely unknown spectrum of excited states of the odd-odd nucleus 230Pa was studied employing the one-neutron transfer reaction 231Pa(d,t)230Pa at a beam energy of 22 MeV. The excitation energy and the cross section were measured for, in total, 81 states below 1.4 MeV. Level assignments of these states are based on a semiempirical model and comparison with theoretical predictions, based on distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) calculations for the cross sections. For 12 rotational bands the band-head energy and the rotational parameter are determined. The K quantum numbers and the Nilsson configurations are established. Empirical values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings and for Newby shifts are obtained.

  6. Glutamatergic Neurometabolites during Early Abstinence from Chronic Methamphetamine Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Marc C.; Hudkins, Matthew; London, Edythe D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The acute phase of abstinence from methamphetamine abuse is critical for rehabilitation success. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy has detected below-normal levels of glutamate+glutamine in anterior middle cingulate of chronic methamphetamine abusers during early abstinence, attributed to abstinence-induced downregulation of the glutamatergic systems in the brain. This study further explored this phenomenon. Methods: We measured glutamate+glutamine in additional cortical regions (midline posterior cingulate, midline precuneus, and bilateral inferior frontal cortex) putatively affected by methamphetamine. We examined the relationship between glutamate+glutamine in each region with duration of methamphetamine abuse as well as the depressive symptoms of early abstinence. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging was acquired at 1.5 T from a methamphetamine group of 44 adults who had chronically abused methamphetamine and a control group of 23 age-, sex-, and tobacco smoking-matched healthy volunteers. Participants in the methamphetamine group were studied as inpatients during the first week of abstinence from the drug and were not receiving treatment. Results: In the methamphetamine group, small but significant (5–15%, P<.05) decrements (vs control) in glutamate+glutamine were observed in posterior cingulate, precuneus, and right inferior frontal cortex; glutamate+glutamine in posterior cingulate was negatively correlated (P<.05) with years of methamphetamine abuse. The Beck Depression Inventory score was negatively correlated (P<.005) with glutamate+glutamine in right inferior frontal cortex. Conclusions: Our findings support the idea that glutamatergic metabolism is downregulated in early abstinence in multiple cortical regions. The extent of downregulation may vary with length of abuse and may be associated with severity of depressive symptoms emergent in early recovery. PMID:25522400

  7. Abstinence Programs Don't Work, Largest Study to Date Concludes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freking, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on a study conducted by Mathematica Policy Research Inc. of students in four abstinence programs, as well as peers from the same communities who did not participate in the abstinence programs. A federally mandated report said that students who participated in sexual-abstinence education programs partially funded by the federal…

  8. Sublingual Buprenorphine for Treatment of the Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Walter K.; Gibson, Eric; Dysart, Kevin; Damle, Vidula S.; LaRusso, Jennifer L.; Greenspan, Jay S.; Moody, David E.; Kaltenbach, Karol; Ehrlich, Michelle E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective In utero exposure to drugs of abuse can lead to the Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS), a condition that is associated with prolonged hospitalization. Buprenorphine is a partial mu opioid agonist used for treatment of adult detoxification and maintenance, but has never been administered to neonates with opioid abstinence. The primary objective of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility and to the extent possible in this sized study, the safety of sublingual buprenorphine in the treatment of NAS. Secondary goals were to evaluate efficacy relative to standard therapy and to characterize buprenorphine pharmacokinetics when sublingually administered. Methods We conducted a randomized, open-label, active control study of sublingual buprenorphine for the treatment of opiate withdrawal. Thirteen term infants were allocated to sublingual buprenorphine 13.2–39 mcg/kg/day administered in three divided doses and thirteen to standard of care oral neonatal opium solution (NOS). Dose decisions were made using a modified Finnegan scoring system. Results Sublingual buprenorphine was largely effective in controlling NAS. Greater than 98% of plasma concentrations ranged from undetectable to approximately 0.60 ng/ml, which is less than needed to control abstinence symptoms in adults. The ratio of buprenorphine to norbuprenorphine was larger than that seen in adults, suggesting a relative impairment of N-dealkylation. Three infants receiving buprenorphine and one infant receiving standard of care reached protocol-specified maximum doses and required adjuvant therapy with phenobarbital. The mean length of treatment for the NOS group was 32 compared to 22 days for the buprenorphine group. The mean length of stay for the NOS group was 38 days compared to 27 days for the buprenorphine group. Treatment with buprenorphine was well tolerated. Conclusions Buprenorphine administered via the sublingual route is feasible and apparently safe, and may represent a novel treatment

  9. Alcoholic abstinence in elderly subjects with misuse of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Menecier, Pascal; Verny, Marc; Fernandez, Lydia; Ploton, Louis

    2016-06-01

    Alcohol use disorder does not disappear with aging, neither the associated induced-suffering. While the prevalence of alcohol use disorder still remains around 10% in the subjects over 65 year old age, and daily encountered by hospital or nursing-home caregivers. Alcohol misuse is often overlooked in elderly people, which then obtain lesser care than younger adults although the care prognosis remains as good as or better than before the age of 65, alcoholic abstinence gets always a place among care offers to elders suffering of alcohol use disorders and dependence. However abstinence is a complex notion gathering various representations or meanings, and induces necessary psychological changes. Alcoholic abstinence seems thus to be feared by families or caregivers, because of lack of knowledge about the addictive dimension of the disorder. On behalf of ultimate freedom, and allowing a last pleasure, alcohol use disorders and its associated suffering can be neglected because abstinence is considered as aggressive and harmful. However, modalities of reduction of alcohol consumption as well as access control or regulated supply of alcoholic beverages, keep having a place in graduate care offers. Beyond the choice of decreasing or suppress drinking alcohol beverages, which only are terms or conditions of improvement, the main point remains the improvement of well-fare, quality of life and elders' health. PMID:27277151

  10. Smokers’ Expectancies for Abstinence: Preliminary Results from Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Peter S.; Wood, Sabrina B.; Hall, Sharon M.

    2010-01-01

    Smokers’ expectancies regarding the effects of cigarette use are powerful predictors of smoking motivation and behavior. However, studies have not investigated the consequences that smokers expect when they attempt to quit smoking: abstinence-related expectancies. The primary goal of this qualitative study was to gain initial insight into smokers’ expectancies for abstinence. Eight focus groups were conducted with 30 smokers diverse with respect to age, gender, and ethnoracial background. Content analyses indicated that smokers anticipate a variety of outcomes from abstinence. The most frequently reported expectancies included pharmacologic withdrawal symptoms, behavioral withdrawal symptoms, decreased monetary expense, and immediate improvement of certain aspects of physical functioning and health. Additional expectancies concerned weight gain, improved attractiveness, enhanced social functioning/self-esteem, long-term health outcomes, and loss of relationships. Finally, a number of relatively unheralded expectancies were revealed. These involved NRT effectiveness, alcohol and other drug use, vigilance to cue reactivity, cessation-related social support, aversion to smoking, and “political process” implications. This study provides a preliminary step in understanding smokers’ expectancies for abstinence from cigarettes. PMID:19586157

  11. Adolescent Heavy Episodic Drinking: Neurocognitive Functioning during Early Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Winward, Jennifer L.; Hanson, Karen L.; Bekman, Nicole M.; Tapert, Susan F.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The present study investigated the rate and pattern of neuropsychological recovery in heavy episodic drinking teens during the initial days to weeks of abstinence from alcohol. Method Adolescents (ages 16–18) with histories of heavy episodic drinking (HED; N=39) and socio-demographically similar control teens (CON; N=26) were recruited from San Diego area schools. HED and CON were comparable on 5th grade standardized math and language arts test performance to ensure similar functioning prior to onset of substance use. Participants were administered three neuropsychological test batteries with 2-week intervals during a 4-week monitored abstinence period. Results HED teens performed worse overall than CON on tests of prospective memory (p=.005), cognitive switching (p=.039), inhibition task accuracy (p=.001), verbal memory (p's<.045), visuospatial construction (p’s<.043), and language and achievement (p’s<.008). The statistically significant group × time interaction for block design demonstrated normalization within the four weeks of abstinence for the HED (p=.009). Discussion This study identified cognitive performance deficits associated with heavy episodic drinking in adolescence during early abstinence and with sustained 4-week abstention. These findings suggest alcohol-related influences on several underlying brain systems that may predate the onset of alcohol abuse or dependence or take longer than four weeks to recover. PMID:24512674

  12. "Sex Respect": Abstinence Education and Other Deployments for Sexual "Freedom"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Liz

    2006-01-01

    Those who view the right to a religiously neutral, empirically-based public education as fundamental have been able to do little more than watch in terror as abstinence-only sex education, which excludes information on either safe sex or birth control, has come to prevail in United States (US) schools. Among causes for concern are abstinence…

  13. Sexually Abstinent Adolescents: An 18-Month Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blinn-Pike, Lynn; Berger, Thomas J.; Hewett, John; Oleson, Jacob

    2004-01-01

    This study was a longitudinal follow-up of 697 early adolescents from 20 schools in Missouri, investigating students who, in 1997, indicated on a survey of sexual attitudes and behaviors that they had not had sexual intercourse. They completed the Reasons for Abstinence Scale (RAS) by identifying those items that were reasons why they had not had…

  14. Attributions for Abstinence from Illicit Drugs by University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Harold; Baylen, Chelsea; Murray, Shanna; Phillips, Kristina; Tisak, Marie S.; Versland, Amelia; Pristas, Erica

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To assess college students' attributions for abstinence from alcohol and illicit drugs. Method: We recruited 125 undergraduates to rate the degree to which each of 41 listed reasons influenced their abstention from six specific substances (alcohol, MDMA/ecstasy, inhalants, cocaine, marijuana, and hallucinogens). Findings: Internal consistency…

  15. Opioid Abstinence Reinforcement Delays Heroin Lapse during Buprenorphine Dose Tapering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwald, Mark K.

    2008-01-01

    A positive reinforcement contingency increased opioid abstinence during outpatient dose tapering (4, 2, then 0 mg/day during Weeks 1 through 3) in non-treatment-seeking heroin-dependent volunteers who had been maintained on buprenorphine (8 mg/day) during an inpatient research protocol. The control group (n = 12) received $4.00 for completing…

  16. Internet-based group contingency management to promote smoking abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Dallery, Jesse; Meredith, Steven; Jarvis, Brantley; Nuzzo, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Internet-based group contingencies have been shown to promote brief periods of abstinence from cigarette smoking. Under a group contingency, small teams of smokers must collectively meet abstinence goals to receive monetary consequences. The present study investigated two arrangements, one in which all team members had to meet group treatment goals to receive monetary consequences (Full Group), and one in which team members had to meet some group goals and some individual goals to receive these consequences (Mixed Group). Mōtiv8 Systems, an Internet-based remote monitoring platform, was used to collect video-recorded breath carbon monoxide (CO) samples. All team members could communicate with each other via an online discussion forum. During baseline conditions, only 3.3% of CO samples were negative for smoking, which suggests that self-monitoring and access to the online discussion forum were insufficient to initiate abstinence. When the group contingencies were instituted 41.3% of CO samples were negative. There were no statistically significant differences between the two arrangements in the percentage of negative CO samples or point prevalence at the end of treatment or at the 3-month follow-up. Participants posted an average of 25 comments on the discussion forum, most of which were rated as positive by independent observers. The mean cost of vouchers per participant was lower in the Full Group ($33) relative to the Mixed group ($190). The present results replicate and extend previous findings on group contingencies to promote abstinence and social support. PMID:25821915

  17. Greater γ-tocopherol status during acute smoking abstinence with nicotine replacement therapy improved vascular endothelial function by decreasing 8-iso-15(S)-prostaglandin F2α.

    PubMed

    Mah, Eunice; Pei, Ruisong; Guo, Yi; Masterjohn, Christopher; Ballard, Kevin D; Taylor, Beth A; Taylor, Alan W; Traber, Maret G; Volek, Jeff S; Bruno, Richard S

    2015-04-01

    Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) improves the long-term success rate of smoking cessation, but induces oxidative stress and inflammatory responses that may delay the restoration of vascular endothelial function (VEF). No studies have examined co-therapy of NRT-assisted smoking abstinence with γ-tocopherol (γ-T), a vitamin E form with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, on improvements in VEF. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, healthy smokers (25 ± 1 y old; mean ± SEM) received NRT and abstained from smoking for 24 h with placebo (n = 12) or oral administration of γ-T-rich mixture of tocopherols (γ-TmT; n = 11) that provided 500 mg γ-T. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and biomarkers of nitric oxide metabolism, antioxidant status, inflammation, and lipid peroxidation [8-iso-prostaglandin F2α stereoisomers (8-iso-15(R)-PGF2α and 8-iso-15(S)-PGF2α)] were measured prior to and after 24 h of smoking abstinence. Smoking abstinence with NRT regardless of γ-TmT similarly decreased urinary naphthol (P < 0.05) without affecting plasma cotinine. γ-TmT increased plasma γ-T by 4-times and the urinary metabolite of γ-T, γ-carboxyethyl-chromanol, by three times. Smoking abstinence with γ-TmT, but not smoking abstinence alone, increased FMD without affecting plasma nitrate/nitrite or the ratio of asymmetric dimethylarginine/arginine. Urinary 8-iso-15(S)-PGF2α decreased only in those receiving γ-TmT and was inversely correlated to FMD (R = -0.43, P < 0.05). Circulating markers of inflammation were unaffected by smoking abstinence or γ-TmT. Short-term NRT-assisted smoking abstinence with γ-TmT, but not NRT-assisted smoking abstinence alone, improved VEF by decreasing 8-iso-15(S)-PGF2α, a vasoconstrictor that was otherwise unaffected by NRT-assisted smoking abstinence. PMID:25361769

  18. Plasma lipoprotein changes during abstinence in chronic alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Weidman, S W; Beard, J D; Sabesin, S M

    1984-08-01

    Plasma lipoprotein changes during a 2-week period of abstinence were followed in 6 male, chronic alcoholics without evidence of severe liver disease and with initial HDL cholesterol (HDL-CH) greater than 60 mg/dl. Fasting blood samples were obtained on days 1, 3, 7 and 14 of the study. Reference data were obtained from healthy non-alcoholic normolipidemic men who had abstained from alcohol for 10 days. At day 1, plasma- and HDL-CH (by the heparin-Mn2+ technique) were 17 and 69% higher, respectively, than those of controls. During abstinence, VLDL-CH increased 52% whereas HDL-CH decreased 30% compared to day 1 values. (IDL + LDL)-CH increased during abstinence to levels 33% higher than that of controls. Plasma, SF greater than 400, VLDL- and d greater than 1.006 g/ml-triglycerides (TG) were not significantly different from those of the control group. Only the d greater than 1.006 g/ml-TG showed a significant effect of abstinence, increasing by 37%. Initial plasma and d greater than 1.006 g/ml-phospholipid (PL) concentrations were 17 and 31% higher, respectively, than those of controls; and the latter was the only fraction to change significantly with abstinence, decreasing by 13%. Density gradient ultracentrifugation was employed to further resolve the d greater than 1.006 g/ml fraction into IDL, LDL, HDL and VHDL subfractions. Initial levels of IDL- and LDL-CH and -PL in the alcoholic group did not differ from those of controls. IDL-CH and -PL were invariant during abstinence, whereas LDL-CH and -PL levels increased 38 and 28%, during this period. Apo A-I, CH and PL contained in the 'lighter' density HDL region of the gradient (d = 1.063-1.125 g/ml) were 70-108% increased over the corresponding parameters for controls; and with abstinence decreased 30-40% between days 1 and 14. CH and PL in the 'heavier' density HDL region (d = 1.125-1.21 g/ml) were 30% increased over those of controls, while apo A-I levels were similar to controls. During abstinence, 'heavy' HDL

  19. Level structures in odd-odd deformed nucleus 184Ta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowrishankar, R.; Sood, P. C.

    2016-02-01

    A detailed low-energy level scheme of the odd-odd n-rich nucleus 184 73Ta111 is constructed using the well tested Two-Quasiparticle Rotor Model (TQRM) for calculating the bandhead energies of physically admissible 2qp configurations with the inclusion of residual n-p interaction contribution. The presently available data on this level scheme from 184Hf decay are shown to be in agreement with these calculations. Our analysis concludes that 184Hf ( Q_{β}=1340(30) keV) decay admits of 7 additional (to the 3 presently reported) β-branches to 184Ta with J = 0 or 1 and 8 more physically admissible weak ( 1fu β-branches populating J^{π}=2- levels in 184Ta. Further, a close examination of our level scheme clearly indicates the existence of a low-lying ( Ex = 260(40) keV) high-spin ( J^{π}=10-) long-lived isomer in this nucleus.

  20. Reasons for not drinking and perceived injunctive norms as predictors of alcohol abstinence among college students.

    PubMed

    Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Neighbors, Clayton

    2013-07-01

    Few studies have examined the association between reasons for not drinking and social norms among abstinent college students. Research suggests that drinking motives are associated with perceived injunctive norms and drinking. Therefore, it seems likely that reasons for not drinking may also be associated with perceived injunctive norms and abstinence. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between reasons for not drinking and perceived injunctive norms on alcohol abstinence. Participants were 423 light-drinking and abstinent college students from a public northwestern university who completed online surveys at baseline, 3-, and 6-month follow-up. We examined abstinence as a function of all subscales of the Reasons for Not Drinking scale using logistic regression, as well as conducted two mediational analyses indicating: (1) perceived injunctive norms as a mediator of the relationship between reasons for not drinking and abstinence, and (2) reasons for not drinking as a mediator of the relationship between perceived injunctive norms and abstinence. The Disapproval/Lack of Interest subscale was the only subscale of the Reasons for Not Drinking scale that was significantly associated with 6-month abstinence. Further, Disapproval/Lack of Interest both directly predicted abstinence and indirectly predicted abstinence via perceived injunctive norms. Perceived injunctive norms indirectly predicted abstinence via Disapproval/Lack of Interest, but did not directly predict abstinence. Results suggest that self-defining personal values are an important component of keeping abstaining college students abstinent. These results are discussed with regard to implications for interventions designed specifically for maintaining abstinence throughout college. PMID:23578745

  1. Pharmacological Evidence for an Abstinence-Induced Switch in 5-HT1B Receptor Modulation of Cocaine Self-Administration and Cocaine-Seeking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Studies examining serotonin-1B (5-HT1B) receptor manipulations on cocaine self-administration and cocaine-seeking behavior initially seemed discrepant. However, we recently suggested based on viral-mediated 5-HT1B-receptor gene transfer that the discrepancies are likely due to differences in the length of abstinence from cocaine prior to testing. To further validate our findings pharmacologically, we examined the effects of the selective 5-HT1B receptor agonist CP 94,253 (5.6 mg/kg, s.c.) on cocaine self-administration during maintenance and after a period of protracted abstinence with or without daily extinction training. We also examined agonist effects on cocaine-seeking behavior at different time points during abstinence. During maintenance, CP 94,253 shifted the cocaine self-administration dose–effect function on an FR5 schedule of reinforcement to the left, whereas following 21 days of abstinence CP 94,253 downshifted the function and also decreased responding on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement regardless of extinction history. CP 94,253 also attenuated cue-elicited and cocaine-primed drug-seeking behavior following 5 days, but not 1 day, of forced abstinence. The attenuating effects of CP 94,253 on the descending limb of the cocaine dose–effect function were blocked by the selective 5-HT1B receptor antagonist SB 224289 (5 mg/kg, i.p.) at both time points, indicating 5-HT1B receptor mediation. The results support a switch in 5-HT1B receptor modulation of cocaine reinforcement from facilitatory during self-administration maintenance to inhibitory during protracted abstinence. These findings suggest that the 5-HT1B receptor may be a novel target for developing medication for treating cocaine dependence. PMID:24369697

  2. Pharmacological evidence for an abstinence-induced switch in 5-HT1B receptor modulation of cocaine self-administration and cocaine-seeking behavior.

    PubMed

    Pentkowski, Nathan S; Harder, Bryan G; Brunwasser, Samuel J; Bastle, Ryan M; Peartree, Natalie A; Yanamandra, Krishna; Adams, Matt D; Der-Ghazarian, Taleen; Neisewander, Janet L

    2014-03-19

    Studies examining serotonin-1B (5-HT1B) receptor manipulations on cocaine self-administration and cocaine-seeking behavior initially seemed discrepant. However, we recently suggested based on viral-mediated 5-HT1B-receptor gene transfer that the discrepancies are likely due to differences in the length of abstinence from cocaine prior to testing. To further validate our findings pharmacologically, we examined the effects of the selective 5-HT1B receptor agonist CP 94,253 (5.6 mg/kg, s.c.) on cocaine self-administration during maintenance and after a period of protracted abstinence with or without daily extinction training. We also examined agonist effects on cocaine-seeking behavior at different time points during abstinence. During maintenance, CP 94,253 shifted the cocaine self-administration dose-effect function on an FR5 schedule of reinforcement to the left, whereas following 21 days of abstinence CP 94,253 downshifted the function and also decreased responding on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement regardless of extinction history. CP 94,253 also attenuated cue-elicited and cocaine-primed drug-seeking behavior following 5 days, but not 1 day, of forced abstinence. The attenuating effects of CP 94,253 on the descending limb of the cocaine dose-effect function were blocked by the selective 5-HT1B receptor antagonist SB 224289 (5 mg/kg, i.p.) at both time points, indicating 5-HT1B receptor mediation. The results support a switch in 5-HT1B receptor modulation of cocaine reinforcement from facilitatory during self-administration maintenance to inhibitory during protracted abstinence. These findings suggest that the 5-HT1B receptor may be a novel target for developing medication for treating cocaine dependence. PMID:24369697

  3. Duration of detection of methamphetamine in hair after abstinence.

    PubMed

    Suwannachom, Natiprada; Thananchai, Thiwaphorn; Junkuy, Anongphan; O'Brien, Timothy E; Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk

    2015-09-01

    Researchers in the field of hair analysis have known for at least two decades that test results for many chemical compounds remain positive for a considerable period of time after subjects have reported cessation of use. These findings were generally based on small sample populations or individual case studies. Within the last decade, hair analyses of larger populations have investigated the phenomenon of residual positives in abstinent individuals in order to determine the period of time required for various compounds to present negative hair test results at internationally accepted cutoff levels. Such data has primarily been used to establish guidelines for retesting former abusers of illicit drugs in order to evaluate claims of abstinence. To date, research has focused on cocaine and opiates. The present study is the first to examine the duration of detection of methamphetamine (MA) and its metabolite amphetamine (AP) in the hair of chronic MA users who recently ceased their consumption of the drug. The study population (n=63) consisted of inpatients at a hospital drug rehabilitation program in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Drug taking behavior was collected by personal interview at the time of enrollment. Subjects provided hair samples at approximately monthly intervals for MA and AP analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry at 0.2ng/mg cutoff levels. The correlation of baseline MA and AP concentrations in hair at the beginning of abstinence with corresponding duration of detection indicated great individual variability for the rate of clearance of MA and AP from hair. In regard to duration of detection, the majority of chronic MA users remained MA positive for up to about 90 days of reported abstinence, but by 120 days, the detection rate had fallen to about 16%. All subjects tested negative for MA after 153 days of abstinence. For AP, the limit of the duration of detection was reached at 106 days. With the adoption of a margin of safety to compensate for

  4. Use of prior odds for missing persons identifications

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Identification of missing persons from mass disasters is based on evaluation of a number of variables and observations regarding the combination of features derived from these variables. DNA typing now is playing a more prominent role in the identification of human remains, and particularly so for highly decomposed and fragmented remains. The strength of genetic associations, by either direct or kinship analyses, is often quantified by calculating a likelihood ratio. The likelihood ratio can be multiplied by prior odds based on nongenetic evidence to calculate the posterior odds, that is, by applying Bayes' Theorem, to arrive at a probability of identity. For the identification of human remains, the path creating the set and intersection of variables that contribute to the prior odds needs to be appreciated and well defined. Other than considering the total number of missing persons, the forensic DNA community has been silent on specifying the elements of prior odds computations. The variables include the number of missing individuals, eyewitness accounts, anthropological features, demographics and other identifying characteristics. The assumptions, supporting data and reasoning that are used to establish a prior probability that will be combined with the genetic data need to be considered and justified. Otherwise, data may be unintentionally or intentionally manipulated to achieve a probability of identity that cannot be supported and can thus misrepresent the uncertainty with associations. The forensic DNA community needs to develop guidelines for objectively computing prior odds. PMID:21707977

  5. Student evaluation of sex education programs advocating abstinence.

    PubMed

    Olsen, J; Weed, S; Nielsen, A; Jensen, L

    1992-01-01

    This research examined the attitudes of students who were enrolled in three different sex education programs that emphasize abstinence. Data were examined to determine whether secondary school students responded positively to the programs. The programs examined were Values and Choices, Teen Aid, and Sex Respect. Results of the study indicated that all three programs were rated positively, with female, younger (junior high school age), and virgin-naive students rating the programs more highly. PMID:1621567

  6. Internet-based group contingency management to promote smoking abstinence.

    PubMed

    Dallery, Jesse; Meredith, Steven; Jarvis, Brantley; Nuzzo, Paul A

    2015-06-01

    Internet-based group contingencies have been shown to promote brief periods of abstinence from cigarette smoking. Under a group contingency, small teams of smokers must collectively meet abstinence goals to receive monetary consequences. The present study investigated 2 arrangements, 1 in which all team members had to meet group treatment goals to receive monetary consequences (full group), and 1 in which team members had to meet some group goals and some individual goals to receive these consequences (mixed group). Mo̅tiv8 Systems, an Internet-based remote monitoring platform, was used to collect video-recorded breath carbon monoxide (CO) samples. All team members could communicate with each other via an online discussion forum. During baseline conditions, only 3.3% of CO samples were negative for smoking, which suggests that self-monitoring and access to the online discussion forum were insufficient to initiate abstinence. When the group contingencies were instituted 41.3% of CO samples were negative. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 arrangements in the percentage of negative CO samples or point prevalence at the end of treatment or at the 3-month follow-up. Participants posted an average of 25 comments on the discussion forum, most of which were rated as positive by independent observers. The mean cost of vouchers per participant was lower in the full group ($33) relative to the mixed group ($190). The present results replicate and extend previous findings on group contingencies to promote abstinence and social support. PMID:25821915

  7. General parity-odd CMB bispectrum estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, Maresuke; Liguori, Michele; Fergusson, James R. E-mail: michele.liguori@pd.infn.it

    2014-05-01

    We develop a methodology for estimating parity-odd bispectra in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This is achieved through the extension of the original separable modal methodology to parity-odd bispectrum domains (ℓ{sub 1}+ℓ{sub 2}+ℓ{sub 3} = odd). Through numerical tests of the parity-odd modal decomposition with some theoretical bispectrum templates, we verify that the parity-odd modal methodology can successfully reproduce the CMB bispectrum, without numerical instabilities. We also present simulated non-Gaussian maps produced by modal-decomposed parity-odd bispectra, and show the consistency with the exact results. Our new methodology is applicable to all types of parity-odd temperature and polarization bispectra.

  8. Odds of observing the multiverse

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlen, A.

    2010-03-15

    Eternal inflation predicts that our observable universe lies within a bubble (or pocket universe) embedded in a volume of inflating space. The interior of the bubble undergoes inflation and standard cosmology, while the bubble walls expand outward and collide with other neighboring bubbles. The collisions provide either an opportunity to make a direct observation of the multiverse or, if they produce unacceptable anisotropy, a threat to inflationary theory. The probability of an observer in our bubble detecting the effects of collisions has an absolute upper bound set by the odds of being in the part of our bubble that lies in the forward light cone of a collision; in the case of collisions with bubbles of identical vacua, this bound is given by the bubble nucleation rate times (H{sub O}/H{sub I}){sup 2}, where H{sub O} is the Hubble scale outside the bubbles and H{sub I} is the scale of the second round of inflation that occurs inside our bubble. Similar results were obtained by Freigovel et al. using a different method for the case of collisions with bubbles of much larger cosmological constant; here, it is shown to hold in the case of collisions with identical bubbles as well.

  9. Cigarette abstinence impairs memory and metacognition despite administration of 2 mg nicotine gum.

    PubMed

    Kelemen, William L; Fulton, Erika K

    2008-12-01

    The authors assessed the effects of cigarette abstinence (nonabstinent vs. minimum 8 hours abstinent) and nicotine gum (0 mg vs. 2 mg nicotine) on sustained attention, free recall, and metacognition using a within-subjects design. Moderate smokers (10 women and 22 men) received one training session followed by four test sessions on consecutive days. Nicotine gum improved sustained attention in both abstinent and nonabstinent states, but had no significant effect on predicted or actual recall levels. Cigarette abstinence significantly impaired free recall and reduced the magnitude of participants' predictions of their own performance. In addition, participants were significantly more overconfident about their future memory when abstinent. Thus, nicotine gum can improve smokers' performance in basic aspects of cognition (e.g., sustained attention) but may not alleviate the detrimental effects of cigarette abstinence on higher-level processes such memory and metacognition. PMID:19086773

  10. Observed parity-odd CMB temperature bispectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, Maresuke; Liguori, Michele; Fergusson, James R. E-mail: michele.liguori@pd.infn.it

    2015-01-01

    Parity-odd non-Gaussianities create a variety of temperature bispectra in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), defined in the domain: ℓ{sub 1} + ℓ{sub 2} + ℓ{sub 3} = odd. These models are yet unconstrained in the literature, that so far focused exclusively on the more common parity-even scenarios. In this work, we provide the first experimental constraints on parity-odd bispectrum signals in WMAP 9-year temperature data, using a separable modal parity-odd estimator. Comparing theoretical bispectrum templates to the observed bispectrum, we place constraints on the so-called nonlineality parameters of parity-odd tensor non-Gaussianities predicted by several Early Universe models. Our technique also generates a model-independent, smoothed reconstruction of the bispectrum of the data for parity-odd configurations.

  11. [Evaluation of educational effects on drug dependence abstinence for convicts].

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Tomoko; Nishikawa, Kyoko; Tanaka, Takanori

    2011-06-01

    The object of this study is to evaluate the educational effects of group work sessions on drug dependence abstinence for convicts in Fukui Prison. Questionnaire surveys were conducted among participants on the first and last session. The results of surveys were analyzed quantitatively. The average ages of 50 respondents were 39 years. 95.9% of them used methamphetamine among drugs and the majority has used drugs for the past 5 years. 93.9% of respondents had no medical treatment histories and 95.8% of them have not used any formal consultations. The survey result before the sessions showed that 75.5% of respondents showed positive stances towards participations on educational group work sessions. The survey after the sessions showed 67.4% of respondents were able to talk their drug problems in group meetings and 87.0% responded that group work sessions were helpful for solving drug problems. Also, 80.0% responded that they can stop using drugs and the percentage dropped by 11.0% from the first session. In terms of the participation in self-help groups after releases from the prison, the majority responded negatively, although 78.0% showed positive responses to using consultation services. The outcomes by means of evaluation scale also showed a significant improvement on denial and no relevant change on interpersonal trusts. This study revealed that it was possible to confirm the effectiveness of drug abstinence education through group work. It is important to consider three points in further studies; 1) cooperation between judicial and medical institutions for introducing consultation and medical treatments among convicts; 2) follow-up programs for reinforcing education on drug abstinence; 3) social welfare services in cooperation with educational effects to prevent repeated offences. PMID:21861335

  12. Gender difference in hippocampal volume reduction among abstinent methamphetamine users

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jiang; Quan, Meina; Zhuang, Wenxu; Zong, Na; Jiang, Haifeng; Kennedy, David N.; Harrington, Amy; Ziedonis, Douglas; Fan, Xiaoduo; Zhao, Min

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Growing evidence suggests abnormalities in brain morphology including hippocampal structure in patients with methamphetamine (MA) dependence. Yet little is known about the possible gender difference. This study was performed to examine hippocampal volume in abstinent male and female MA users, and to further explore its relationship with cognitive function. Methods 27 abstinent MA users (19 males and 8 females) with average 5.75 months of duration and 29 healthy controls (19 males and 10 females) age 18 to 45 years old were recruited for clinical assessment and imaging scan. FreeSurfer was used to segment the hippocampus bilaterally, and hippocampal volumes were extracted for group and gender comparisons. Cognitive function was measured using the CogState Battery Chinese language version (CSB-C). Results Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) controlling for education showed a significant group by gender interaction for right hippocampal relative volume adjusted for total brain size (p=0.002). Female patients showed significantly less volume compared with female healthy controls; there was no significant difference in volume between male patients and male healthy controls. Within female patients, there were significant negative relationships between right hippocampal volume and average dose of MA use (p=0.001), as well as the total error scores on the Continuous Paired Association Learning Task (CPAL) in CSB-C (p=0.013). Conclusions There seems to be a gender difference in how MA affects hippocampal volume and cognitive function in abstinent MA users. Hippocampus might be an important treatment target for cognitive improvement and functional recovery in this patient population, especially in females. PMID:25920682

  13. Manifestations of early brain recovery associated with abstinence from alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Andreas J; Homola, György; Biller, Armin; Smith, Stephen M; Weijers, Heinz-Gerd; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Jenkinson, Mark; De Stefano, Nicola; Solymosi, László; Bendszus, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse results in morphological, metabolic, and functional brain damage which may, to some extent, be reversible with early effects upon abstinence. Although morphometric, spectroscopic, and neuropsychological indicators of cerebral regeneration have been described previously, the overall amount and spatial preference of early brain recovery attained by abstinence and its associations with other indicators of regeneration are not well established. We investigated global and local brain volume changes in a longitudinal two-timepoint study with T1-weighted MRI at admission and after short-term (6-7 weeks) sobriety follow-up in 15 uncomplicated, recently detoxified alcoholics. Volumetric brain gain was related to metabolic and neuropsychological recovery. On admission and after short-term abstinence, structural image evaluation using normalization of atrophy (SIENA), its voxelwise statistical extension to multiple subjects, proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS), and neuropsychological tests were applied. Upon short-term sobriety, 1H-MRS levels of cerebellar choline and frontomesial N-acetylaspartate (NAA) were significantly augmented. Automatically detected global brain volume gain amounted to nearly two per cent on average and was spatially significant around the superior vermis, perimesencephalic, periventricular and frontal brain edges. It correlated positively with the percentages of cerebellar and frontomesial choline increase, as detected by 1H-MRS. Moreover, frontomesial NAA gains were associated with improved performance on the d2-test of attention. In 10 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects, no significant brain volume or metabolite changes were observed. Although cerebral osmotic regulations may occur initially upon sobriety, significant increases of cerebellar choline and frontomesial NAA levels detected at stable brain water integrals and creatine concentrations, serum electrolytes and red blood cell indices in our patient sample

  14. BOOK REVIEW: The Odd Quantum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Helen

    2000-03-01

    The Odd Quantum is aiming to be odd. Falling between being a quantum mechanics textbook and a `popular' science book, it aims to convey something of the substance of quantum mechanics without being overly technical or professional. It does not shy away from the mathematics of the subject or resort solely to analogy and metaphor, as so often is the case. Books aimed at the lay reader tend to take on a particular aspect of quantum mechanics, for example, wave-particle duality, and can do little more than hint at the complexity of the subject. This book is more than a textbook on quantum mechanics; it gives the reader a comprehensive account of history and an appreciation of the nature of quantum mechanics. The introductory chapters deal with the earlier part of the century and the thinking of that time. The approach is familiar, as are the stories that Treiman tells, but he also manages to convey the speed with which ideas changed and the excitement this brought to the physics community. Classical ideas of force and energy are dealt with succinctly but with sufficient depth to set up the reader for what is to come; Maxwell's equations and a brief glimpse at relativity are included. This is followed by a brief description of what the author terms the `old' quantum mechanics, in effect a highly readable tour around black body radiation and spectroscopy and the models of the atom that emerged from them. The `new' quantum mechanics begins about a third of the way through the book, and in a chapter entitled `Foundations' starts gently but rapidly moves into a detailed mathematical treatment. This section, of necessity, relapses into the style of a textbook and covers a lot of ground quickly. It is at this point that the non-specialist popular science readers for whom Treiman has written this book may become a little bemused. Concepts such as non-degeneracy and operators come thick and fast. It is difficult to imagine an educated non-physicist with little mathematical

  15. Dissociated Grey Matter Changes with Prolonged Addiction and Extended Abstinence in Cocaine Users

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Colm G.; Bell, Ryan P.; Foxe, John J.; Garavan, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that current and recently abstinent cocaine abusers compared to drug-naïve controls have decreased grey matter in regions such as the anterior cingulate, lateral prefrontal and insular cortex. Relatively little is known, however, about the persistence of these deficits in long-term abstinence despite the implications this has for recovery and relapse. Optimized voxel based morphometry was used to assess how local grey matter volume varies with years of drug use and length of abstinence in a cross-sectional study of cocaine users with various durations of abstinence (1–102 weeks) and years of use (0.3–24 years). Lower grey matter volume associated with years of use was observed for several regions including anterior cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and insular cortex. Conversely, higher grey matter volumes associated with abstinence duration were seen in non-overlapping regions that included the anterior and posterior cingulate, insular, right ventral and left dorsal prefrontal cortex. Grey matter volumes in cocaine dependent individuals crossed those of drug-naïve controls after 35 weeks of abstinence, with greater than normal volumes in users with longer abstinence. The brains of abstinent users are characterized by regional grey matter volumes, which on average, exceed drug-naïve volumes in those users who have maintained abstinence for more than 35 weeks. The asymmetry between the regions showing alterations with extended years of use and prolonged abstinence suggest that recovery involves distinct neurobiological processes rather than being a reversal of disease-related changes. Specifically, the results suggest that regions critical to behavioral control may be important to prolonged, successful, abstinence. PMID:23527239

  16. Assessing White Matter Integrity as a Function of Abstinence Duration in Former Cocaine-Dependent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Ryan P.; Foxe, John J.; Nierenberg, Jay; Hoptman, Matthew J.; Garavan, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    Current cocaine-dependent users show reductions in white matter (WM) integrity, especially in cortical regions associated with cognitive control that have been associated with inhibitory dysfunction. A key question is whether these white matter differences are present following abstinence from drug use. To address this, WM integrity was examined using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) obtained on 43 cocaine abstinent patients (abstinence duration ranged between five days and 102 weeks) and 43 non-using controls. Additionally, a cross-sectional comparison separated the patients into three groups (short-term, mid-term and long-term) based upon duration of cocaine abstinence. The 43 cocaine abstinent patients showed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in the left anterior callosal fibers, left genu of the corpus callosum, right superior longitudinal fasciculus, right callosal fibers and the superior corona radiata bilaterally when compared against non-using controls. Higher FA in the cocaine abstinent patients was observed in the splenium of the corpus callosum and right superior longitudinal fasciculus. Differences between the cocaine abstinent groups were observed bilaterally in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, right anterior thalamic radiation, right ventral posterolateral nucleus of the thalamus, left superior corona radiata, superior longitudinal fasciculus bilaterally, right cingulum and the WM of the right precentral gyrus. The results identified WM differences between cocaine abstinent patients and controls as well as distinct differences between abstinent subgroups. The findings suggest that specific white matter differences persist throughout abstinence while other, spatially distinct, differences discriminate as a function of abstinence duration. These differences may, therefore, represent brain changes that mark recovery from addiction. PMID:21075564

  17. Exercise during early, but not late abstinence, attenuates subsequent relapse vulnerability in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Beiter, R M; Peterson, A B; Abel, J; Lynch, W J

    2016-01-01

    Exercise has shown promise as a nonpharmacological intervention for addiction, with evidence suggesting a potential utility for relapse prevention. In humans, exercise as an intervention is typically introduced well after the initiation of abstinence, yet neurobiological data from preclinical studies suggest that it may be more effective if initiated during early abstinence. Here, using rat models, we determined whether the beneficial effects of exercise on relapse vulnerability depends on when exercise is first initiated, during early versus late abstinence. Once rats (n=47) acquired cocaine self-administration, they were given 24-h access to cocaine (1.5 mg/kg per infusion) under a discrete trial procedure (four infusions per hour) for 10 days. The rats then began a 14-day abstinence period in which they had access (2 h per day) to a locked wheel throughout abstinence (sedentary) or an unlocked wheel during early (days 1-7), late (days 8-14) or throughout (days 1-14) abstinence (n=10-14 per group). Cocaine seeking, as assessed under an extinction/cued-induced reinstatement procedure, was examined on day 15 of abstinence. Exercise beginning during early abstinence robustly attenuated subsequent cocaine seeking, and this effect persisted even when exercise ended on the seventh day of abstinence. In contrast, exercise during late abstinence was not effective and these animals displayed high levels of cocaine seeking similar to those observed in sedentary animals. These results indicate that the timing of exercise availability differentially impacts cocaine seeking with results suggesting that exercise during early, but not late, abstinence may provide long-term protection against cocaine relapse. PMID:27115123

  18. Exercise during early, but not late abstinence, attenuates subsequent relapse vulnerability in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Beiter, R M; Peterson, A B; Abel, J; Lynch, W J

    2016-01-01

    Exercise has shown promise as a nonpharmacological intervention for addiction, with evidence suggesting a potential utility for relapse prevention. In humans, exercise as an intervention is typically introduced well after the initiation of abstinence, yet neurobiological data from preclinical studies suggest that it may be more effective if initiated during early abstinence. Here, using rat models, we determined whether the beneficial effects of exercise on relapse vulnerability depends on when exercise is first initiated, during early versus late abstinence. Once rats (n=47) acquired cocaine self-administration, they were given 24-h access to cocaine (1.5 mg/kg per infusion) under a discrete trial procedure (four infusions per hour) for 10 days. The rats then began a 14-day abstinence period in which they had access (2 h per day) to a locked wheel throughout abstinence (sedentary) or an unlocked wheel during early (days 1–7), late (days 8–14) or throughout (days 1–14) abstinence (n=10–14 per group). Cocaine seeking, as assessed under an extinction/cued-induced reinstatement procedure, was examined on day 15 of abstinence. Exercise beginning during early abstinence robustly attenuated subsequent cocaine seeking, and this effect persisted even when exercise ended on the seventh day of abstinence. In contrast, exercise during late abstinence was not effective and these animals displayed high levels of cocaine seeking similar to those observed in sedentary animals. These results indicate that the timing of exercise availability differentially impacts cocaine seeking with results suggesting that exercise during early, but not late, abstinence may provide long-term protection against cocaine relapse. PMID:27115123

  19. Positronium Decay and C-Odd Bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skalsey, M.; Conti, R. S.

    1996-05-01

    Triplet-state orthopositronium (o-Ps) decay rate measurements are in marked disagreement by 0.17% with QED theoretical calculations done up to, but not including order α ^2 radiative and relativistic corrections. The existence of a rare exotic decay branch o-Ps arrow 2γ + X^0 (where X^0 is a neutral, massive C-odd boson) could resolve the discrepancy. We have searched for, but have not found evidence of the X^0 in two recent experiments.(M. Skalsey and R.S. Conti, Phys. Rev. D51), 6292 (1995) and submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett. Stringent limits are placed on the exotic decay branching ratio e^+ +e^- arrow X^0 +γ as a function of the X^0 mass and lifetime. The results are interpreted for two distinct models of X^0 interactions and related to o-Ps decay as well as other experiments, including singlet-state parapositronium decay rate measurements. *Supported by NSF grant PHY-9417854 and the University of Michigan.

  20. The Competition Between Collective and Single - Effects in the Odd-Odd Nuclei LANTHANUM-128,130.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfrey, Mark Jonathan

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Excited states in the odd-odd nuclei ^{128,130}La have been investigated to high-spin using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The nucleus ^{128}La was identified using the Daresbury Recoil Separator, and gamma -gamma coincidence data were taken on both nuclei with the TESSA3 array. Angular distributions were also measured for ^{128} La. Seven distinct bands have been observed, three in ^{128}La and four in ^{130}La, with four of these structures being seen for the first time. Two of the bands in each nucleus correspond to near-prolate nuclear shapes, one based on a pih _{11/2} otimes nuh _{11/2} structure and the other on a pih_{11/2 } otimes nug_{7/2 } configuration. A further band in each nucleus has similar properties to what would be expected for a collective oblate structure. In addition the first odd -proton system superdeformed band has been found in ^{130}La. The experimental evidence for these structures will be discussed in terms of the variation in energy level signature splitting, B(M1)/B(E2) ratios and mixing ratios as a function of rotational frequency and single particle configuration. The nature of the particles responsible for backbends in the near-prolate bands will be conclusively proved. The results will be interpreted in terms of the cranked shell model, an odd-odd particle-rotor model and deformation self-consistent cranking calculations. They will be compared to other odd and odd-odd systems in the A = 130 region. Long-range p-n and n-n interactions are investigated through the measurement of residual interactions. Theoretical interactions are obtained from deformation self-consistent cranking calculations, which contain no long-range interactions, to estimate the nuclear mean field. The results are discussed in terms of the variation in the spatial overlap of the various wavefunctions and changes in the mean field, as a function of particle number, configuration and rotational frequency.

  1. Modification of sperm quality after sexual abstinence in Seba's short-tailed bat, Carollia perspicillata.

    PubMed

    Wesseling, Charlotte; Fasel, Nicolas; Richner, Heinz; Helfenstein, Fabrice

    2016-05-01

    In polygynous mating systems, few males have stable access to sexual mates. With an expected higher copulation rate, harem males may deplete seminal fluids or increase epididymal sperm maturation, generating poor sperm quality. In a first study, we reported a higher sperm quality in sneaker males of Carollia perspicillata To test whether the lower sperm quality observed in harem males was generated by an elevated copulation rate, we temporarily removed males of both social statuses from the colony. We thus assessed status-related changes of sperm quality resulting from sexual abstinence. Moreover, released from territory and female guarding, harem males were expected to show a reduction in somatic costs. On the basis of sperm competition models, we predicted a higher resource investment in the ejaculate with the reduction of pre-copulatory efforts. In line with our predictions, sperm quality of harem males improved significantly in contrast to sneaker males, whose sperm quality did not change. Without an increase in ejaculate lipid peroxidation, our results also provide evidence that the duration of sexual abstinence was not sufficient to generate sperm oxidative damage through senescence. Harem males did not show a reduction in blood lipid peroxidation or in the ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione. In line with the maintenance of these somatic costs, harem males did not invest more superoxide dismutase to the ejaculate to maintain sperm quality. Our results suggest that a difference in copulation rate rather than an adaptation to sperm competition provides sneaker males with higher sperm quality in C. perspicillata. PMID:27208034

  2. Improving the Odds of Surviving Sepsis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Improving the Odds of Surviving Sepsis Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Improving the Odds of Surviving Sepsis ... Threatening Bacterial Infection Remains Mysterious This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

  3. A Guided Abstinence Experience to Illustrate Addiction Recovery Principles

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To develop and implement an elective pharmacy course that included a guided abstinence experience to illustrate addiction recovery principles. Design A 1-credit elective course to illustrate addiction recovery principles was developed and implemented. The course required students to give up a habit for 6 weeks that was causing them problems, meet weekly to discuss addiction recovery processes, and relate their experiences in a journal. Course grades were determined by class participation, submitted worksheets, and submission of the journal and a paper concerning their role as a pharmacist in dealing with those with addictions and in recovery. Pre- and posttests consisting of addiction case scenarios were used to assess students' application of course material. Assessment Graded course elements, pretesting and posttesting, and student course evaluations indicated that course objectives were met. Over the past 15 years, student enrollment has grown from approximately 10% of pharmacy classes to approximately 50% (average 31 students). Conclusion A guided abstinence experience was an effective tool for teaching pharmacy students the concepts of addiction and recovery. PMID:19002278

  4. Cue reactivity in active pathological, abstinent pathological, and regular gamblers.

    PubMed

    Sodano, Ruthlyn; Wulfert, Edelgard

    2010-03-01

    Twenty-one treatment-seeking pathological gamblers, 21 pathological gamblers in recovery, and 21 recreational gamblers watched two video-taped exciting gambling scenarios and an exciting roller-coaster control scenario while their arousal (heart rate and subjective excitement) and urge to gamble were being measured. The gamblers did not differ significantly in cue-elicited heart rate elevations or excitement. However, the active pathological gamblers reported significantly greater urges to gamble across all cues compared to the abstinent pathological gamblers and, with marginal significance (p = 0.06), also compared to the social gamblers. Further exploration of these findings revealed that active pathological gamblers experience urges to gamble in response to exciting situations, whether or not they are gambling related, whereas abstinent and social gamblers only report urges to an exciting gambling-related cue. This suggests that for pathological gamblers excitement itself, irrespective of its source, may become a conditioned stimulus capable of triggering gambling behavior. Implications for treatment and future research are discussed. PMID:19662519

  5. Biased Perception of Mean Emotion in Abstinent Heroin Abusers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Wang, Xuan; Hu, Chun; Liao, Huayu; Yang, Tong; Shen, Mowei

    2015-01-01

    Although evidence suggests that drug abusers exhibit biases when coding individual emotional facial expressions, little is known about how they process multiple expressions simultaneously. The present study evaluated the mean emotions perceived by abstinent heroin abusers. Male abstinent heroin abusers (AHs) and healthy controls (HCs) were randomly assigned into three emotional conditions (happy, sad, or angry), viewed sets of four faces (Experiment 1) or individual faces (Experiment 2) that varied in emotionality (neutral to happy/sad/angry), and judged whether a test face presented later was more/less emotional than the preceding stimuli. Average points of subjective equality were calculated to reflect participants' biases in perceiving emotions of sets or single faces. Relative to HCs, AHs overestimated mean emotions for sad and angry faces in Experiment 1; however, no such biases were found in Experiment 2. This suggests biased ensemble coding towards negative emotional facial expressions in AHs. Furthermore, when controlling for depression and anxiety, AHs' enhanced perception of mean emotion for angry or sad faces in Experiment 1 decreased, indicating a possible mediating effect of these psychopathological variables in the relationship between drug addiction history and abnormal ensemble processing for sets of emotional expressions. PMID:26595559

  6. The nuclear structure of deformed odd-odd nuclei: Experimental and theoretical investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.; Jain, A.K.; Sood, P.C.; Sheline, R.K.

    1988-06-06

    Previous surveys of experimental level structure in deformed odd-odd nuclei have been updated with recent results for the lanthanide and actinide regions. The relative strengths of the effective neutron-proton interaction derived from these data are compared. The predictive power of a semi-empirical model for level structure in deformed odd-odd nuclei is demonstrated. Comparison is made with recent Hartree-Fock calculations of selected nuclei.

  7. Effects of an Internet-Based Voucher Reinforcement Program for Smoking Abstinence: A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallery, Jesse; Glenn, Irene M.

    2005-01-01

    The present study tested the feasibility of an Internet-based method to obtain objective evidence of smoking abstinence and to deliver vouchers for evidence of abstinence. Four heavy smokers participated in this 4-week study. Twice daily, participants made video recordings of themselves providing a breath carbon monoxide (CO) sample with a Web…

  8. Attitudes toward Sexual Abstinence among Black Seventh-Day Adventist College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashley, George; Ramirez, Octavio; Cort, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify Black Seventh-Day Adventist (SDA) college students' attitudes toward the concept of sexual abstinence. Attitude toward abstinence was operationalized as a dichotomy of acceptance or rejection of the concept as a way to order sexual behavior. The study utilized a convenience sample ("N" =…

  9. Abstinence Violation Effect: Validation of an Attributional Construct with Smoking Cessation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Susan; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The abstinence violation effect (AVE) proposed in Marlatt and Gordon's model of smoking relapse was operationalized as a combination of internal, stable, and global causal attributions for smoking following the attainment of abstinence from smoking. Smoking cessation program participants who relapsed following a slip reported significantly higher…

  10. Abstinence, Sex, and Virginity: Do They Mean What We Think They Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hans, Jason D.; Kimberly, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Ambiguous definitions concerning which behaviors constitute sex, abstinence, and virginity may lead to arbitrary interpretations of meaning or miscommunication, which could be particularly problematic in health care, educational, and research contexts. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare definitions of sex, abstinence, and…

  11. Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budney, Alan J.; Moore, Brent A.; Rocha, Heath L.; Higgins, Stephen T.

    2006-01-01

    Ninety cannabis-dependent adults seeking treatment were randomly assigned to receive cognitive-behavioral therapy, abstinence-based voucher incentives, or their combination. Treatment duration was 14 weeks, and outcomes were assessed for 12 months post treatment. Findings suggest that (a) abstinence-based vouchers were effective for engendering…

  12. Influence of Materials on Teacher Adoption of Abstinence-Only-Until-Marriage Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kelly L.; Wiley, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Given the growing scientific evidence against abstinence-only-until-marriage education, health educators are supporting an evidence-based approach to teaching sexuality education. However, there is still an abundance of federal support and funding streams allocated to sustain abstinence-only programs. This study assessed indicators…

  13. 77 FR 42768 - Leadership Meeting on Maternal, Fetal, and Infant Opioid Exposure and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... CONTROL POLICY Leadership Meeting on Maternal, Fetal, and Infant Opioid Exposure and Neonatal Abstinence... Meeting on Maternal, Fetal and Infant Opioid Exposure and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) will bring together leaders in the field of policy, opioid exposed infants, pain treatment during pregnancy,...

  14. Comprehensive Sexuality Education or Abstinence-Only Education: Which Is More Effective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Vicki; Gahungu, Athanase

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in effectiveness between comprehensive sexuality abstinence-based education and abstinence-only education. A survey was developed and distributed to over 140 individuals via a variety of sources such as: (1) the researcher's e-mail lists; (2) a group of City Core/City Year volunteers; (3) a…

  15. A Qualitative Evaluation of the Students of Service (SOS) Program for Sexual Abstinence in Louisiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Seunghyun; Johnson, Carolyn C.; Rice, Janet; Manuel, Powlin

    2004-01-01

    Abstinence-only programs for preventing teen pregnancy are the only options in some states but are the programs of choice in others. Effectiveness data, however, are lacking. The SOS Adolescent Family Life Program (SOS), an abstinence-only teen pregnancy prevention program, was implemented in south central Louisiana. Peer mentoring with an…

  16. A Review of 21 Curricula for Abstinence-Only-until-Marriage Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kelly L.; Goodson, Patricia; Pruitt, B.E.; Buhi, Eric; Davis-Gunnels, Emily

    2005-01-01

    The authors reviewed the content, methods, and overall quality of 21 curricula used in abstinence-only-until-marriage programs. Only materials designed for use in middle school grades (fifth to eighth) or with middle school-aged audiences (9-13 years of age), which presented the abstinence message in at least 40% of their content, were included. A…

  17. Randomized Trial of Prize-Based Reinforcement Density for Simultaneous Abstinence from Cocaine and Heroin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghitza, Udi E.; Epstein, David H.; Schmittner, John; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Lin, Jia-Ling; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2007-01-01

    To examine the effect of reinforcer density in prize-based abstinence reinforcement, heroin/cocaine users (N = 116) in methadone maintenance (100 mg/day) were randomly assigned to a noncontingent control group (NonC) or to 1 of 3 groups that earned prize draws for abstinence: manual drawing with standard prize density (MS) or computerized drawing…

  18. Social Adjustment among Taiwanese Children with Symptoms of ADHD, ODD, and ADHD Comorbid with ODD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Wan-Ling; Kawabata, Yoshito; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined social problems at school and relationships with peers, siblings, mothers, and fathers among children with ADHD only (n = 41), ODD only (n = 14), ADHD + ODD (n = 47), and normal controls (n = 204) from a school-based sample of 2,463 first to ninth graders in Taiwan. ADHD and ODD symptoms were determined by teacher and mother…

  19. Emotional reactivity to emotional and smoking cues during smoking abstinence: Potentiated startle and P300 suppression

    PubMed Central

    Engelmann, Jeffrey M.; Gewirtz, Jonathan C.; Cuthbert, Bruce N.

    2012-01-01

    Negative affect is thought to be an important factor in the maintenance of cigarette smoking, and thus it is important to further develop objective measures of smoking-related emotional responses. Nonsmokers, nonabstinent smokers, and abstinent smokers participated in a cue reactivity task where eyeblink startle amplitude and startle probe P300 (P3) suppression were measured during the presentation of emotional pictures. During unpleasant pictures, the amplitude of both measures was smaller in nonabstinent smokers than in nonsmokers or abstinent smokers. P3 suppression, but not startle amplitude, was larger in abstinent smokers than in nonsmokers. Abstinence-induced increases in cigarette craving were associated with P3 suppression during tobacco-related pictures. Results suggest that tobacco abstinence increases emotional reactivity to unpleasant stimuli, which is consistent with negative reinforcement models of tobacco addiction. PMID:24015407

  20. The Relationship of Self-Control and Abstinence Maintenance: An Exploratory Analysis of Self-Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Joseph R.; Stevens, Edward B.; Jason, Leonard A.

    2010-01-01

    Studies of self-regulation suggested that self-control requires finite resources which, in turn, may present a significant challenge for those trying to recover from or control addictive behaviors. The present study examined the relationships between self-regulation and abstinence maintenance among adults in recovery (n = 606: 407 men, 199 women; M age = 38.5 years) residing in self-governed, communal living, abstinent homes across the United States. Self-regulation scores (controlling for sex and age) were positively related to length of abstinence. In addition, a factor analysis of self-regulation scores resulted in some differentiation between general self-discipline and impulsivity in self-control related to addiction. The relationship between impulsivity and length of abstinence was stronger than the relationship derived between general self-regulation and length of abstinence. PMID:20689650

  1. A Randomized Trial of Long-Term Reinforcement of Cocaine Abstinence in Methadone-Maintained Patients Who Inject Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Kenneth; Robles, Elias; Mudric, Timothy; Bigelow, George E.; Stitzer, Maxine L.

    2004-01-01

    This study determined whether long-term abstinence reinforcement could maintain cocaine abstinence throughout a yearlong period. Patients who injected drugs and used cocaine during methadone treatment (n = 78) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 abstinence-reinforcement groups or to a usual care control group. Participants in the 2…

  2. Alignments, additivity, and signature inversion in odd-odd {sup 170}Ta : a comprehensive high-spin study.

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar, A.; Hartley, D. J.; Riley, M. A.; Teal, C.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chowdhury, P.; Danchev, M.; Djongolov, M. K.; Hagemann, G. B.; Hecht, A. A.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Kondev, F. G.; Lauritsen, T.; Ma, W. C.; Mohr, W. H.; Moore, E. F.; Odegard, S. W.; Riedinger, L. L.; Sletten, G.; Tandel, S. K.; Vanhoy, J. R.; Wang, X.; Zhu, S.; Florida State Univ.; U.S. Naval Academy; Univ. of Massachusetts; Univ. of Tennessee; Niels Bohr Inst.; Mississippi State Univ.; Univ. of Oslo

    2010-01-01

    High-spin states (I?50?) of the odd-odd nucleus 170Ta have been investigated with the 124Sn(51V,5n) reaction. The resolving power of Gammasphere has allowed for the observation of eleven rotational bands (eight of which are new) and over 430 transitions ( 350 of which are new) in this nucleus. Many interband transitions have been observed such that the relative spins and excitation energies of the 11 bands have been established. This is an unusual circumstance in an odd-odd study. Configurations have been assigned to most of these bands based upon features such as alignment properties, band crossings, B(M1)/B(E2) ratios, and the additivity of Routhians. A systematic study of the frequency at which normal signature ordering occurs in the ?h9/2?i13/2 band has been performed and it is found that its trend is opposite to that observed in the ?h11/2?i13/2 bands. A possible interpretation of these trends is discussed based on a proton-neutron interaction.

  3. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.

  4. Emotional intelligence, risk perception in abstinent cocaine dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Romero-Ayuso, Dulce; Mayoral-Gontán, Yolanda; Triviño-Juárez, José-Matías

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine is now responsible for the second-highest number of cessation intervention requests. In this study we analyze the different skills of emotional intelligence in cocaine- dependent patients maintaining abstinence. The Mayer- Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) and the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) were administered to 50 subjects (25 individuals with no history of drug use and 25 individuals in treatment at the Addictive Behaviors Unit in a state of withdrawal at the time of evaluation). The results showed differences between these groups in overall emotional intelligence quotient, strategic emotional intelligence, understanding emotions and emotional management. Cocaine-addicted participants showed difficulties in analyzing complex emotions and regulating their emotional response, aspects that can interfere with interactions in daily life. PMID:27099213

  5. Attributes that Differentiate Children Who Sip Alcohol from Abstinent Peers

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Christine; Ennett, Susan T.; Dickinson, Denise M.; Bowling, J. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Sipping alcohol during childhood may be a marker of differentiation as regards children’s future risk of underage drinking; yet very little is known about alcohol use when it occurs among elementary school-aged children. The purpose of the present study is to examine alcohol sipping behavior in a sample of third-grade school children to learn whether sipping is associated with attributes that could increase children’s likelihood of further underage drinking. We collected telephone interview data from 1050 mothers and their third grade children (mean age 9.2 years; 48.2% male) residing in the Southeastern United States. The majority of mothers were White non-Hispanic (69.02%) or Black non-Hispanic (21.3%); most (85%) lived in households shared with fathers or other adult caretakers. We hypothesized that children who sip alcohol would score lower than abstinent peers on indicators of competence and score higher on indicators of exposure to alcohol-specific socialization by parents and peers. A multivariate model controlling for frequency of parent alcohol use and demographic covariates showed that children who had sipped alcohol were significantly less likely than abstinent peers to affirm indicators of competence and significantly more likely to affirm indicators of exposure to alcohol specific socialization by parents and by same age peers. These preliminary findings suggest that developmental attributes associated with risk of underage drinking begin to differentiate at least as young as middle childhood. Research is needed to test prospectively for continuity between alcohol risk attributes present in middle childhood and future alcohol use. PMID:23224982

  6. Systematic Review of Abstinence-Plus HIV Prevention Programs in High-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Underhill, Kristen; Operario, Don; Montgomery, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Background Abstinence-plus (comprehensive) interventions promote sexual abstinence as the best means of preventing HIV, but also encourage condom use and other safer-sex practices. Some critics of abstinence-plus programs have suggested that promoting safer sex along with abstinence may undermine abstinence messages or confuse program participants; conversely, others have suggested that promoting abstinence might undermine safer-sex messages. We conducted a systematic review to investigate the effectiveness of abstinence-plus interventions for HIV prevention among any participants in high-income countries as defined by the World Bank. Methods and Findings Cochrane Collaboration systematic review methods were used. We included randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of abstinence-plus programs for HIV prevention among any participants in any high-income country; trials were included if they reported behavioural or biological outcomes. We searched 30 electronic databases without linguistic or geographical restrictions to February 2007, in addition to contacting experts, hand-searching conference abstracts, and cross-referencing papers. After screening 20,070 abstracts and 325 full published and unpublished papers, we included 39 trials that included approximately 37,724 North American youth. Programs were based in schools (10), community facilities (24), both schools and community facilities (2), health care facilities (2), and family homes (1). Control groups varied. All outcomes were self-reported. Quantitative synthesis was not possible because of heterogeneity across trials in programs and evaluation designs. Results suggested that many abstinence-plus programs can reduce HIV risk as indicated by self-reported sexual behaviours. Of 39 trials, 23 found a protective program effect on at least one sexual behaviour, including abstinence, condom use, and unprotected sex (baseline n = 19,819). No trial found adverse program effects on any behavioural outcome

  7. Brain Activity in Cigarette Smokers Performing a Working Memory Task: Effect of Smoking Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiansong; Mendrek, Adrianna; Cohen, Mark S.; Monterosso, John; Rodriguez, Paul; Simon, Sara L.; Brody, Arthur; Jarvik, Murray; Domier, Catherine P.; Olmstead, Richard; Ernst, Monique; London, Edythe D.

    2009-01-01

    Background When nicotine-dependent human subjects abstain from cigarette smoking, they exhibit deficits in working memory. An understanding of the neural substrates of such impairments may help to understand how nicotine affects cognition. Our aim, therefore, was to identify abnormalities in the circuitry that mediates working memory in nicotine-dependent subjects after they initiate abstinence from smoking. Methods We used blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study eight smokers while they performed a letter version of the N-Back working memory task under satiety (≤1.5 hours abstinence) and abstinence (≥14 hours abstinence) conditions. Results Task-related activity in the left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) showed a significant interaction between test session (satiety, abstinence) and task load (1-back, 2-back, and 3-back). This interaction reflected the fact that task-related activity in the satiety condition was relatively low during performance of the 1-back task but greater at the more difficult task levels, whereas task-related activity in the abstinence condition was relatively high at the 1-back level and did not increase at the more difficult task levels. Conclusions We conclude that neural processing related to working memory in the left DLPFC is less efficient during acute abstinence from smoking than at smoking satiety. PMID:16038685

  8. Predictors of Abstinence Self-Efficacy: Examining the role of HIV-risk Sexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Majer, John M.; Glantsman, Olya; Palmer, John S.; Jason, Leonard A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstinence self-efficacy, or the confidence in ones’ beliefs in one’s ability to effectively engage in behaviors to maintain substance use abstinence, is a crucial recovery resource. However, little research has been conducted on what predicts increases in this recovery resource. Understanding predictors of abstinence self-efficacy could help social service practitioners in creating effective treatment plans/interventions while extending what is presently known in this small body of research. Predictors of abstinence self-efficacy were analyzed among a sample of ex-offenders (224 men and 46 women) who were completing inpatient treatment for substance use disorders. Hierarchical linear regression was conducted to examine changes in participants’ abstinence self-efficacy in relation to factors directly related (HIV-risk drug use behaviors, substance use, 12-step meeting attendance) and indirectly related (HIV-risk sexual behaviors, incarceration histories) to substance use. HIV-risk sexual behaviors and substance use predicted significant decreases in abstinence self-efficacy whereas 12-step meeting attendance predicted significant increases. However, incarceration histories and HIV-risk drug use behaviors were not significant predictors of abstinence self-efficacy. Findings suggest HIV-risk sexual behavior should be considered when assessing relapse prevention for persons with substance use disorders, and that researchers should examine behaviors that are not directly related to substance use when investigating recovery resources.

  9. Repeated episodes of heroin cause enduring alterations of circadian activity in protracted abstinence.

    PubMed

    Stinus, Luis; Cador, Martine; Caille, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Opiate withdrawal is followed by a protracted abstinence syndrome consisting of craving and physiological changes. However, few studies have been dedicated to both the characterization and understanding of these long-term alterations in post-dependent subjects. The aim of the present study was to develop an opiate dependence model, which induces long-lasting behavioral changes in abstinent rats. Here, we first compared the effects of several protocols for the induction of opiate dependence (morphine pellets, repeated morphine or heroin injections) on the subsequent response to heroin challenges (0.25 mg/kg) at different time points during abstinence (3, 6, 9 and 18 weeks). In a second set of experiments, rats were exposed to increasing doses of heroin and subsequently monitored for general circadian activity up to 20 weeks of abstinence. Results show that heroin injections rather than the other methods of opiate administration have long-term consequences on rats' sensitivity to heroin with its psychostimulant effects persisting up to 18 weeks of abstinence. Moreover, intermittent episodes of heroin dependence rather than a single exposure produce enduring alteration of the basal circadian activity both upon heroin cessation and protracted abstinence. Altogether, these findings suggest that the induction of heroin dependence through intermittent increasing heroin injections is the optimal method to model long-term behavioral alterations during protracted abstinence in rats. This animal model would be useful in further characterizing long-lasting changes in post-dependent subjects to help understand the prolonged vulnerability to relapse. PMID:24961201

  10. Repeated Episodes of Heroin Cause Enduring Alterations of Circadian Activity in Protracted Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Stinus, Luis; Cador, Martine; Caille, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Opiate withdrawal is followed by a protracted abstinence syndrome consisting of craving and physiological changes. However, few studies have been dedicated to both the characterization and understanding of these long-term alterations in post-dependent subjects. The aim of the present study was to develop an opiate dependence model, which induces long-lasting behavioral changes in abstinent rats. Here, we first compared the effects of several protocols for the induction of opiate dependence (morphine pellets, repeated morphine or heroin injections) on the subsequent response to heroin challenges (0.25 mg/kg) at different time points during abstinence (3, 6, 9 and 18 weeks). In a second set of experiments, rats were exposed to increasing doses of heroin and subsequently monitored for general circadian activity up to 20 weeks of abstinence. Results show that heroin injections rather than the other methods of opiate administration have long-term consequences on rats’ sensitivity to heroin with its psychostimulant effects persisting up to 18 weeks of abstinence. Moreover, intermittent episodes of heroin dependence rather than a single exposure produce enduring alteration of the basal circadian activity both upon heroin cessation and protracted abstinence. Altogether, these findings suggest that the induction of heroin dependence through intermittent increasing heroin injections is the optimal method to model long-term behavioral alterations during protracted abstinence in rats. This animal model would be useful in further characterizing long-lasting changes in post-dependent subjects to help understand the prolonged vulnerability to relapse. PMID:24961201

  11. A qualitative study of methamphetamine users' perspectives on barriers and facilitators of drug abstinence.

    PubMed

    Herbeck, Diane M; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Christou, Dayna; Lovinger, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    To better understand methamphetamine (MA) use patterns and the process of recovery, qualitative interviews were conducted with adult MA users (n = 20), comparing a sample that received substance abuse treatment with those who had not received treatment. Respondents provided detailed information on why and how they changed from use to abstinence and factors they considered to be barriers to abstinence. Audio recordings and transcripts were reviewed for common themes. Participants reported a range of mild/moderate to intensely destructive problems, including loss of important relationships and profound changes to who they felt they were at their core; e.g., "I didn't realize how dark and mean I was … I was like a different person." Initial abstinence was often facilitated by multiple external forces (e.g., drug testing, child custody issues, prison, relocation), but sustained abstinence was attributed to shifts in thinking and salient realizations about using. The treatment group reported using more and different resources to maintain their abstinence than the no-treatment group. Findings indicate individualized interventions and multiple, simultaneous approaches and resources were essential in reaching stable abstinence. Understanding long-term users' experiences with MA use, addiction, and abstinence can inform strategies for engaging and sustaining MA users in treatment and recovery. PMID:25052880

  12. Genetic markers associated with abstinence length in alcohol-dependent subjects treated with acamprosate.

    PubMed

    Karpyak, V M; Biernacka, J M; Geske, J R; Jenkins, G D; Cunningham, J M; Rüegg, J; Kononenko, O; Leontovich, A A; Abulseoud, O A; Hall-Flavin, D K; Loukianova, L L; Schneekloth, T D; Skime, M K; Frank, J; Nöthen, M M; Rietschel, M; Kiefer, F; Mann, K F; Weinshilboum, R M; Frye, M A; Choi, D S

    2014-01-01

    Acamprosate supports abstinence in some alcohol-dependent subjects, yet predictors of response are unknown. To identify response biomarkers, we investigated associations of abstinence length with polymorphisms in candidate genes in glycine and glutamate neurotransmission pathways and genes previously implicated in acamprosate response. Association analyses were conducted in the discovery sample of 225 alcohol-dependent subjects treated with acamprosate for 3 months in community-based treatment programs in the United States. Data from 110 alcohol-dependent males treated with acamprosate in the study PREDICT were used for replication of the top association findings. Statistical models were adjusted for relevant covariates, including recruitment site and baseline clinical variables associated with response. In the discovery sample, shorter abstinence was associated with increased intensity of alcohol craving and lower number of days between the last drink and initiation of acamprosate treatment. After adjustment for covariates, length of abstinence was associated with the GRIN2B rs2058878 (P=4.6 × 10(-5)). In the replication sample, shorter abstinence was associated with increased craving, increased depressive mood score and higher alcohol consumption. Association of abstinence length with GRIN2B rs2058878 was marginally significant (P=0.0675); as in the discovery sample, the minor A allele was associated with longer abstinence. Furthermore, rs2300272, which is in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs2058878, was also associated with abstinence length (P=0.049). This is the first report of a replicated association of genetic markers with the length of abstinence in acamprosate-treated alcoholics. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms of this association and its usefulness for individualized treatment selection should follow. PMID:25290263

  13. The application of Bandura's self-efficacy theory to abstinence-oriented alcoholism treatment.

    PubMed

    Rollnick, S; Heather, N

    1982-01-01

    This paper explores the relevance of self-efficacy theory (Bandura, 1977b) to the process of abstinence treatment and the phenomenon of relapse. By distinguishing between the particular efficacy and outcome expectations created in treatment it is possible to clarify some of the problems encountered between clinicians and alcoholics. Bandura's theory also explains why some treatment methods might be more effective than others. Analysis of relapse suggests that while some of the expectations created in treatment might serve to promote abstinence, others might unwittingly precipitate relapse. The understanding of abstinence treatment could be enhanced by the testing of hypotheses which emerge from this analysis. PMID:7180618

  14. Even-odd staggering of the spectroscopic factor as new evidence for α clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delion, D. S.; Dumitrescu, A.; Baran, V. V.

    2016-04-01

    We evidence a staggering effect of the experimental spectroscopic factors corresponding to even-even and odd-mass (odd-mass and odd-odd) α emitters. The comparison to the theoretical estimate within the standard Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) approach reveals a similar staggering, but with a different behavior. It turns out that the ratio between corresponding experimental and theoretical spectroscopic factors is proportional to the experimental reduced decay width. A similar dependence was found in a previous work between the strength of the quadrupole-quadrupole α -core interaction, describing the α -decay fine structure and the reduced width. Thus, the even-odd staggering effect in the spectroscopic factor is a new evidence of the α -clustering phenomenon in medium and heavy nuclei.

  15. Odd-frequency Superconductivity in Driven Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triola, Christopher; Balatsky, Alexander

    We show that Berezinskii's classification of the symmetries of Cooper pair amplitudes in terms of parity under transformations that invert spin, space, time, and orbital degrees of freedom holds for driven systems even in the absence of translation invariance. We then discuss the conditions under which pair amplitudes which are odd in frequency can emerge in driven systems. Considering a model Hamiltonian for a superconductor coupled to an external driving potential, we investigate the influence of the drive on the anomalous Green's function, density of states, and spectral function. We find that the anomalous Green's function develops odd in frequency component in the presence of an external drive. Furthermore we investigate how these odd-frequency terms are related to satellite features in the density of states and spectral function. Supported by US DOE BES E 304.

  16. Tilted excitation implies odd periodic resonances.

    PubMed

    Depetri, G I; Sartorelli, J C; Marin, B; Baptista, M S

    2016-07-01

    Our aim is to unveil how resonances of parametric systems are affected when symmetry is broken. We showed numerically and experimentally that odd resonances indeed come about when the pendulum is excited along a tilted direction. Applying the Melnikov subharmonic function, we not only determined analytically the loci of saddle-node bifurcations delimiting resonance regions in parameter space but also explained these observations by demonstrating that, under the Melnikov method point of view, odd resonances arise due to an extra torque that appears in the asymmetric case. PMID:27575118

  17. Tilted excitation implies odd periodic resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depetri, G. I.; Sartorelli, J. C.; Marin, B.; Baptista, M. S.

    2016-07-01

    Our aim is to unveil how resonances of parametric systems are affected when symmetry is broken. We showed numerically and experimentally that odd resonances indeed come about when the pendulum is excited along a tilted direction. Applying the Melnikov subharmonic function, we not only determined analytically the loci of saddle-node bifurcations delimiting resonance regions in parameter space but also explained these observations by demonstrating that, under the Melnikov method point of view, odd resonances arise due to an extra torque that appears in the asymmetric case.

  18. “That's Nasty” to Curiosity: Early Adolescent Cognitions about Sexual Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Mary A.; Pfeiffer, Elizabeth J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Effective sex education for early adolescents should make use of age-appropriate cultural models about sexual abstinence. However, little is known about how early adolescents view this topic. We describe developmental differences in cognitions about sexual abstinence among high risk early adolescents. Methods After IRB approval and informed consent, we interviewed twenty-two 11-14 year-olds, using a qualitative, two-stage interview. Participants were first asked a series of open-ended questions about sexual abstinence, and then asked to explain their answers. Interviews were transcribed, organized by age, and read in their entirety. Codes were developed from the literature, field notes, and transcripts. Key concepts were identified and models were developed with a focus on developmental change. Results We observed three distinct views of sexual abstinence, “That's Nasty,” “Curious,” and Normative. All viewed abstinence as a starting point and sex as a transition to adulthood. “That's Nasty” participants identified sex as distasteful, displayed limited understanding of sex, and viewed abstinence as appropriate for kids like themselves. Curious participants expressed a desire for information about sex, and a sense of missing something important. Normative participants viewed the transition from abstinence to sexual experience as part of a normal, albeit challenging, transition to adulthood. Conclusions Participants demonstrated differences in cognitions about sexual abstinence, related to age and development. The transition from viewing sex as distasteful to curiosity appears to be a time of both vulnerability and openness, and may provide an opportunity for intervention. PMID:19465322

  19. Abstinence from chronic cocaine self-administration alters striatal dopamine systems in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, Thomas J R; Smith, Hilary R; Nader, Michael A; Porrino, Linda J

    2009-04-01

    Although dysregulation within the dopamine (DA) system is a hallmark feature of chronic cocaine exposure, the question of whether these alterations persist into abstinence remains largely unanswered. Nonhuman primates represent an ideal model in which to assess the effects of abstinence on the DA system following chronic cocaine exposure. In this study, male rhesus monkeys self-administered cocaine (0.3 mg/kg per injection, 30 reinforcers per session) under a fixed-interval 3-min schedule for 100 days followed by either 30 or 90 days abstinence. This duration of cocaine self-administration has been previously shown to decrease DA D2-like receptor densities and increase levels of D1-like receptors and DA transporters (DAT). Responding by control monkeys was maintained by food presentation under an identical protocol and the same abstinence periods. [(3)H]SCH 23390 binding to DA D1 receptors following 30 days of abstinence was significantly higher in all portions of the striatum, compared to control animals, whereas [(3)H]raclopride binding to DA D2 receptors was not different between groups. [(3)H]WIN 35 428 binding to DAT was also significantly higher throughout virtually all portions of the dorsal and ventral striatum following 30 days of abstinence. Following 90 days of abstinence, however, levels of DA D1 receptors and DAT were not different from control values. Although these results indicate that there is eventual recovery of the separate elements of the DA system, they also highlight the dynamic nature of these components during the initial phases of abstinence from chronic cocaine self-administration. PMID:18769473

  20. Abstinence from Chronic Cocaine Self-Administration Alters Striatal Dopamine Systems in Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Beveridge, Thomas JR; Smith, Hilary R; Nader, Michael A; Porrino, Linda J

    2013-01-01

    Although dysregulation within the dopamine (DA) system is a hallmark feature of chronic cocaine exposure, the question of whether these alterations persist into abstinence remains largely unanswered. Nonhuman primates represent an ideal model in which to assess the effects of abstinence on the DA system following chronic cocaine exposure. In this study, male rhesus monkeys self-administered cocaine (0.3 mg/kg per injection, 30 reinforcers per session) under a fixed-interval 3-min schedule for 100 days followed by either 30 or 90 days abstinence. This duration of cocaine self-administration has been previously shown to decrease DA D2-like receptor densities and increase levels of D1-like receptors and DA transporters (DAT). Responding by control monkeys was maintained by food presentation under an identical protocol and the same abstinence periods. [3H]SCH 23390 binding to DA D1 receptors following 30 days of abstinence was significantly higher in all portions of the striatum, compared to control animals, whereas [3H]raclopride binding to DA D2 receptors was not different between groups. [3H]WIN 35 428 binding to DAT was also significantly higher throughout virtually all portions of the dorsal and ventral striatum following 30 days of abstinence. Following 90 days of abstinence, however, levels of DA D1 receptors and DAT were not different from control values. Although these results indicate that there is eventual recovery of the separate elements of the DA system, they also highlight the dynamic nature of these components during the initial phases of abstinence from chronic cocaine self-administration. PMID:18769473

  1. Incentive Learning for Morphine-Associated Stimuli During Protracted Abstinence Increases Conditioned Drug Preference

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rachel J; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory found that rats express increased preference for drug-paired stimuli following 2 or 5 weeks of protracted abstinence from chronic drug exposure as compared with naive animals. Here, we show that this increased morphine place preference depends upon experiencing drug-stimulus pairings specifically in the abstinent state, indicating a critical role for incentive learning. Male Sprague Dawley rats were initially conditioned for morphine place preference (8 mg/kg) and then made dependent on morphine (by subcutaneous morphine pellets) and subjected to forced abstinence. Place preference was tested every 1–2 weeks with no additional drug-cue conditioning. In this paradigm, there was no difference between morphine-pelleted (dependent) and placebo-pelleted (non-dependent) rats in place preference at any time during abstinence (up to 6 weeks). However, these same morphine-pelleted rats expressed significantly increased preference when they were subsequently re-conditioned for morphine place preference during protracted abstinence. Placebo-pelleted rats did not show enhanced preference after re-conditioning. These findings reveal that incentive learning has a key role in increased morphine place preference when drug is experienced during protracted abstinence. This indicates that incentive learning is involved not only in instrumental responding (as previously reported), but also in updating Pavlovian-conditioned responses to morphine-associated stimuli. Therefore, enhanced morphine preference is not a direct consequence of the negative affective state of abstinence, but instead reflects increased acquisition of morphine-stimulus associations during abstinence. These results indicate that, during the development of addiction in humans, drug-associated stimuli acquire increasingly stronger incentive properties each time they are re-experienced. PMID:23942418

  2. What is the role of harm reduction when drug users say they want abstinence?

    PubMed

    Neale, Joanne; Nettleton, Sarah; Pickering, Lucy

    2011-05-01

    Quantitative survey data indicate that most drug users starting treatment want abstinence rather than harm reduction (McKeganey et al., 2004). This finding has been seized upon by those seeking 'evidence' that abstinence is the bedrock of recovery and harm reduction is a negative and oppositional philosophy. However, all research involves questions of meaning, definition and value and an alternative research paradigm and different study design can provide important additional insights into treatment aspirations, including the desire for abstinence. Qualitative interviews conducted with 30 recovering heroin users (15 males and 15 females) in Southern England in 2009 confirm that those starting treatment often report a desire for abstinence. Nonetheless, drug users are frequently uncertain about their ability to achieve this and can have very different and inconsistent understandings of what being abstinent means. We suggest that the work of the critical theorist Habermas (1970, 1991) could improve our understanding of abstinence and is consistent with recent efforts to achieve a working definition of recovery. Importantly, our qualitative data also reveal that drug users have treatment aspirations that extend far beyond their drug consumption. They additionally want to improve relationships, engage in meaningful activities, acquire material possessions, and achieve better mental and physical health. Moreover, these broader life goals are often inextricably linked to their drug taking. From this, we conclude that both abstinence and harm reduction discourses should more routinely prioritise the many diverse 'wellness' goals that so clearly motivate treatment clients. The harm reduction field will then likely find that it has more in common with abstinence-oriented services and the broader recovery agenda than it might otherwise have imagined. PMID:21055914

  3. Experimental level-structure determination in odd-odd actinide nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.

    1985-04-04

    The status of experimental determination of level structure in odd-odd actinide nuclei is reviewed. A technique for modeling quasiparticle excitation energies and rotational parameters in odd-odd deformed nuclei is applied to actinide species where new experimental data have been obtained by use of neutron-capture gamma-ray spectroscopy. The input parameters required for the calculation are derived from empirical data on single-particle excitations in neighboring odd-mass nuclei. Calculated configuration-specific values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings are used. Calculated and experimental level structures for /sup 238/Np, /sup 244/Am, and /sup 250/Bk are compared, as well as those for several nuclei in the rare-earth region. The agreement for the actinide species is excellent, with bandhead energies deviating 22 keV and rotational parameters 5%, on the average. Applications of this modeling technique are discussed.

  4. Predictors of motivation for abstinence at the end of outpatient substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Laudet, Alexandre B; Stanick, Virginia

    2010-06-01

    Commitment to abstinence, a motivational construct, is a strong predictor of reductions in drug and alcohol use. Level of commitment to abstinence at treatment end predicts sustained abstinence, a requirement for recovery. This study sought to identify predictors of commitment to abstinence at treatment end to guide clinical practice and to inform the conceptualization of motivational constructs. Polysubstance users (N = 250) recruited at the start of outpatient treatment were reinterviewed at the end of services. Based on the extant literature, potential predictors were during treatment measures of substance use and related cognitions, psychological functioning, recovery supports, stress, quality of life satisfaction, and treatment experiences. In multivariate analyses, perceived harm of future drug use, abstinence self-efficacy, quality of life satisfaction, and number of network members in 12-step recovery contributed 26.6% of the variance explained in the dependent variable, a total of 49.6% when combined with the control variables (demographics and baseline level of the outcome). Gender subgroup analyses yielded largely similar results. Clinical implications of findings for maximizing commitment to abstinence when clients leave treatment are discussed as are future research directions. PMID:20185267

  5. Subjective Social Status Affects Smoking Abstinence During Acute Withdrawal Through Affective Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Li, Yisheng; Cao, Yumei; Businelle, Michael S.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Direct and mediated associations between subjective social status (SSS), a subjective measure of socioeconomic status, and smoking abstinence were examined during the period of acute withdrawal among a diverse sample of 421 smokers (33% Caucasian, 34% African-American, 33% Latino) undergoing a quit attempt. Methods Logistic regressions examined relations between SSS and abstinence, controlling for sociodemographic variables. Depression, stress, positive affect, and negative affect on the quit day were examined as potential affective mediators of the SSS-abstinence association, with and without adjusting for pre-quit mediator scores. Results SSS predicted abstinence through 2 weeks post-quit. Abstinence rates were approximately 2.5 times higher in the highest versus the lowest SSS quartile. Depression and positive affect mediated the SSS-abstinence relationships, but only depression maintained significance when adjusting for the baseline mediator score. Conclusions Among a diverse sample of quitting smokers, low SSS predicted relapse during acute withdrawal after controlling for numerous covariates, an effect partially accounted for by quit day affective symptomatology. Smokers endorsing lower SSS face significant hurdles in achieving cessation, highlighting the need for targeted interventions encompassing attention to quit day mood reactivity. PMID:20219054

  6. The Alleged Oddness of Ethical Egoism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marietta, Don E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    There are some critics of ethical egoism who treat it seriously as an ethical doctrine, but consider it an odd approach. Examines this doctrine and suggests that if we are to have the benefit of egoism as a sound ethical approach, or rightly assess its inadequacies, we must first see it fairly. (Author/RK)

  7. Odd numbers of photons and teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Enk, S.J. van

    2003-02-01

    Several teleportation protocols, namely those using entangled coherent states, entangled squeezed states, and the single-photon Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen state, are all shown to be particular instances of a more general scheme that relies on the detection of an odd number of photons.

  8. Odd-Man-Out and Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diascro, Matthew N.; Brody, Nathan

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between odd-man-out reaction time tasks and intelligence was examined in 2 experiments involving 79 college students. The two experiments indicate that tasks that assess the ability to perceive relationships among stimuli rapidly are good measures of general intelligence. (SLD)

  9. Confusion between Odds and Probability, a Pandemic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Lawrence V.; Mendez, Francis A.; Bastian, Nathaniel D.; Musal, R. Muzaffer

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript discusses the common confusion between the terms probability and odds. To emphasize the importance and responsibility of being meticulous in the dissemination of information and knowledge, this manuscript reveals five cases of sources of inaccurate statistical language imbedded in the dissemination of information to the general…

  10. Cortical activation during delay discounting in abstinent methamphetamine dependent individuals

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Daniel L.; Huckans, Marilyn S.; McFarland, Bentson H.; Meiri, Gal; Stevens, Alexander A.; Mitchell, Suzanne H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine (MA)-dependent individuals prefer smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards in delay discounting (DD) tasks. Human and animal data implicate ventral (amygdala, ventral striatum, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex insula) and dorsal (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and posterior parietal cortex) systems in DD decisions. The ventral system is hypothesized to respond to the salience and immediacy of rewards while the dorsal system is implicated in the process of comparison and choice. Methods We used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to probe the neural correlates of DD in 19 recently abstinent MA-dependent patients and 17 age- and gender-matched controls. Results Hard DD choices were associated with greatest activation in bilateral middle cingulate, posterior parietal cortex (PPC), and the right rostral insula. Control subjects showed more activation than MA patients bilaterally in the precuneus and in the right caudate nucleus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Magnitude of discounting was correlated with activity in the amygdala, DLPFC, posterior cingulate cortex and PPC. Conclusions Our findings were consistent with a model wherein dorsal cognitive systems modulate the neural response of ventral regions. Patients addicted to MA, who strongly prefer smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards, activate the dorsal cognitive control system in order to overcome their preference. Activation of the amygdala during choice of delayed rewards was associated with a greater degree of discounting, suggesting that heavily discounting MA-dependent individuals may be more responsive to the negative salience of delayed rewards than controls. PMID:18685833

  11. Large-Scale Brain Network Coupling Predicts Acute Nicotine Abstinence Effects on Craving and Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Lerman, Caryn; Gu, Hong; Loughead, James; Ruparel, Kosha; Yang, Yihong; Stein, Elliot A.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Interactions of large-scale brain networks may underlie cognitive dysfunctions in psychiatric and addictive disorders. OBJECTIVES To test the hypothesis that the strength of coupling among 3 large-scale brain networks–salience, executive control, and default mode–will reflect the state of nicotine withdrawal (vs smoking satiety) and will predict abstinence-induced craving and cognitive deficits and to develop a resource allocation index (RAI) that reflects the combined strength of interactions among the 3 large-scale networks. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A within-subject functional magnetic resonance imaging study in an academic medical center compared resting-state functional connectivity coherence strength after 24 hours of abstinence and after smoking satiety. We examined the relationship of abstinence-induced changes in the RAI with alterations in subjective, behavioral, and neural functions. We included 37 healthy smoking volunteers, aged 19 to 61 years, for analyses. INTERVENTIONS Twenty-four hours of abstinence vs smoking satiety. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Inter-network connectivity strength (primary) and the relationship with subjective, behavioral, and neural measures of nicotine withdrawal during abstinence vs smoking satiety states (secondary). RESULTS The RAI was significantly lower in the abstinent compared with the smoking satiety states (left RAI, P = .002; right RAI, P = .04), suggesting weaker inhibition between the default mode and salience networks. Weaker inter-network connectivity (reduced RAI) predicted abstinence-induced cravings to smoke (r = −0.59; P = .007) and less suppression of default mode activity during performance of a subsequent working memory task (ventromedial prefrontal cortex, r = −0.66, P = .003; posterior cingulate cortex, r = −0.65, P = .001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Alterations in coupling of the salience and default mode networks and the inability to disengage from the default mode network may

  12. Prenatal Methadone Exposure, Meconium Biomarker Concentrations and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Teresa R.; Choo, Robin E.; Concheiro, Marta; Williams, Erica; Elko, Andrea; Jansson, Lauren M.; Jones, Hendrée E.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2010-01-01

    Aims Methadone is standard pharmacotherapy for opioid-dependent pregnant women, yet the relationship between maternal methadone dose and neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) severity is still unclear. This research evaluated whether quantification of fetal methadone and drug exposure via meconium would reflect maternal dose and predict neonatal outcomes. Design Prospective clinical study Setting An urban drug treatment facility treating pregnant and post-partum women and their children Participants Forty-nine opioid-dependent pregnant women received 30–110 mg methadone daily. Measurements Maternal methadone dose, infant birth parameters and NAS assessments were extracted from medical records. Thrice-weekly urine specimens were screened for opioids and cocaine. Newborn meconium specimens were quantified for methadone, opioid, cocaine and tobacco biomarkers. Findings There was no relationship between meconium methadone concentrations, presence of opioids, cocaine and/or tobacco in meconium, maternal methadone dose or NAS severity. Opioid, cocaine and tobacco biomarkers also were found in 36.7, 38.7 and 81.1% of meconium specimens, respectively, and were associated with positive urine specimens in the third trimester. The presence of opioids other than methadone in meconium correlated with increased rates of preterm birth, longer infant hospital stays and decreased maternal time in drug treatment. Conclusions Methadone and its metabolite 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) concentrations in meconium did not predict infant birth parameters or NAS severity. Prospective urine testing defined meconium drug detection windows for opiates and cocaine as three months, rather than the currently accepted six months. The presence of opioids in meconium could be used as a biomarker for infants at elevated risk in the newborn period. PMID:20854338

  13. Incidence of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome - 28 States, 1999-2013.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jean Y; Patrick, Stephen W; Tong, Van T; Patel, Roshni; Lind, Jennifer N; Barfield, Wanda D

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a postnatal drug withdrawal syndrome that occurs primarily among opioid-exposed infants shortly after birth, often manifested by central nervous system irritability, autonomic overreactivity, and gastrointestinal tract dysfunction (1). During 2000-2012, the incidence of NAS in the United States significantly increased (2,3). Several recent publications have provided national estimates of NAS (2,3); however, data describing incidence at the state level are limited. CDC examined state trends in NAS incidence using all-payer, hospital inpatient delivery discharges compiled in the State Inpatient Databases of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) during 1999-2013. Among 28 states with publicly available data in HCUP during 1999-2013, the overall NAS incidence increased 300%, from 1.5 per 1,000 hospital births in 1999, to 6.0 per 1,000 hospital births in 2013. During the study period, significant increases in NAS incidence occurred in 25 of 27 states with at least 3 years of data, with annual incidence rate changes ranging from 0.05 (Hawaii) to 3.6 (Vermont) per 1,000 births. In 2013, NAS incidence ranged from 0.7 cases per 1,000 hospital births (Hawaii) to 33.4 cases per 1,000 hospital births (West Virginia). The findings underscore the importance of state-based public health programs to prevent unnecessary opioid use and to treat substance use disorders during pregnancy, as well as decrease the incidence of NAS. PMID:27513154

  14. Latino High School Graduation. Defying the Odds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romo, Harriett D.; Falbo, Toni

    This book describes how "at-risk" Hispanic youth defy the odds and stay in school to earn a high school diploma. Information about success is needed because Hispanic youth drop out at about twice the rate of non-Hispanic Whites. The discussion is based on the results of a 4-year longitudinal study of 100 Hispanic youth labeled at-risk by their…

  15. Stratospheric distributions of odd nitrogen and odd hydrogen in a two-dimensional model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, R. G.; Alyea, F. N.; Cunnold, D. M.

    1975-01-01

    A two-dimensional pole-to-pole chemical model of the stratosphere is developed which extends from 8 to 38 km in altitude. Atmospheric motions are simulated by mean vertical and meridional winds and eddy diffusion coefficients. Seasonally averaged distributions of important odd nitrogen (NO, NO2, and HNO3) and odd hydrogen (H, OH, HO2, H2O2) compounds are computed. Photodissociation of N2O leads to production of odd nitrogen in the stratosphere, and the odd nitrogen is ultimately removed by downward transport into the troposphere and by rain-out (modeled by a rain-out lifetime of 30 days below 8-km altitude). Results are presented for a quasi-steady state in which seasonal cycles repeat themselves. These results show significant latitudinal as well as vertical variations in the predicted species which emphasize the need for at least two dimensions in accurate stratospheric modeling. Computed concentrations are compared with observations when they exist.

  16. Odd top partners at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandakrishnan, Archana; Collins, Jack H.; Farina, Marco; Kuflik, Eric; Perelstein, Maxim

    2016-04-01

    LHC searches for fermionic top partners T focus on three decay topologies: T →b W , T →t Z , and T →t h . However, top partners may carry new conserved quantum numbers that forbid these decays. The simplest possibility is a conserved parity, under which the top partner is odd and all SM states are even. In this case, decays of top partners may involve new particle-odd scalars, leading to signal topologies more commonly associated with supersymmetry, either with or without R -parity conservation. We study a simplified model in which this possibility is realized, and estimate the bounds on the top partner mass in this model implied by LHC searches for supersymmetry. We find that the bounds can be significantly weaker than in the conventional top partner decay scenario. For example, if the new parity is exact, a 500 GeV top partner is allowed as long as the lightest parity-odd scalar mass is between 325 and 500 GeV. The lower allowed top partner mass reduces the need for fine-tuning in the Higgs mass parameter, compared to the conventional decay scenario. We also present an explicit model, the oddest little Higgs, which exhibits this phenomenology.

  17. Study of Even-Even/Odd-Even/Odd-Odd Nuclei in Zn-Ga-Ge Region in the Proton-Neutron IBM/IBFM/IBFFM

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, N.; Brant, S.; Zuffi, L.

    2009-08-26

    We study the even-even, odd-even and odd-odd nuclei in the region including Zn-Ga-Ge in the proton-neutron IBM and the models derived from it: IBM2, IBFM2, IBFFM2. We describe {sup 67}Ga, {sup 65}Zn, and {sup 68}Ga by coupling odd particles to a boson core {sup 66}Zn. We also calculate the beta{sup +}-decay rates among {sup 68}Ge, {sup 68}Ga and {sup 68}Zn.

  18. Relations between in-treatment and follow-up abstinence among cocaine-dependent homeless persons in three clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Vuchinich, Rudy; Wallace, Dennis; Milby, Jesse B; Schumacher, Joseph E; Mennemeyer, Stephen; Kertesz, Stefan

    2009-06-01

    Clinical trials with cocaine-dependent outpatients have found a strong relation between in-treatment and follow-up abstinence, and the strength of this relation is constant across treatment conditions with variable efficacy in generating abstinence. The authors conducted secondary analyses of data from 3 clinical trials to determine whether this relation generalizes to cocaine-dependent homeless persons. The 3 trials (total N = 543) were conducted in a community health care facility for homeless people. The 7 treatment arms across the 3 trials were combinations of day treatment, abstinence-contingent housing, and vocational training. Drug use was measured with urine toxicology testing. Consecutive weeks of abstinence during treatment were strongly related to abstinence at the 12-month follow-up, whether or not missing 12-month data were included in the analysis. The treatment arms differed in their efficacy in generating abstinence, but the relation between in-treatment and follow-up abstinence did not differ across treatment arms. These results replicate earlier reports of these relations and extend them to a population of homeless people. The lack of differences between treatment arms in the in-treatment-follow-up abstinence relation implies that that relation is independent of the treatment-specific intervention components that generate group differences in abstinence. PMID:19586231

  19. Sailing against the tide? Sustaining sexual abstinence among Christian youth in a university setting in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mbotho, Mbali; Cilliers, Michelle; Akintola, Olagoke

    2013-03-01

    This qualitative study sought to understand the perceptions and experiences of abstinence among young Christians in a University in South Africa. Willingness to adhere to Christian teachings of sexual chastity is the primary motivation for sexual abstinence while spiritual, mental and physical health benefits of abstinence as well as enforcement of Christian teachings by members and peers are secondary motivations that help sustain sexual abstinence. Sexual pressures come from desire to satisfy sexual urge, subtle coercion, peer pressure, momentary loss of self-control. There is need for multi-pronged interventions aimed at empowering Christian youth to deal with sources of sexual pressures. PMID:21253847

  20. Provider views of harm reduction versus abstinence policies within homeless services for dually diagnosed adults

    PubMed Central

    Padgett, Deborah K.; Tiderington, Emmy

    2013-01-01

    Harm reduction is considered by many to be a legitimate alternative to abstinence-based services for dually diagnosed individuals, yet there is limited understanding of how varying approaches affect front-line practice within supportive housing services for homeless adults. This paper examines how front-line providers working with individuals who have experienced homelessness, serious mental illness, and addiction view policies of harm reduction versus abstinence within two distinctly different approaches to homeless services: the traditional or ‘treatment first’ (TF) approach that requires abstinence and the more recent Housing First (HF) approach that incorporates harm reduction. As part of a federally-funded qualitative study, 129 in-depth interviews conducted with 41 providers were thematically analyzed to understand how providers view a harm reduction versus abstinence approach. Themes included: (a) harm reduction as a welcomed alternative; (b) working with ambiguity; and (c) accommodating abstinence. Drawing on recovery principles, we consider the broader implications of the findings for behavioral health care with this population. PMID:23404076

  1. Cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment alters cerebral metabolism in dopaminergic reward regions. Bromocriptine enhances recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Clow, D.W.; Hammer, R.P. Jr. )

    1991-01-01

    2-(14C)deoxyglucose autoradiography was used to determine local cerebral glucose utilization (lCGU) in rats following chronic cocaine treatment and subsequent abstinence. lCGU was examined in 43 discrete brain regions in animals which had received daily injections of cocaine for 14 days (10 mg/kg) followed by 3 days of saline or bromocriptine (10 mg/kg) treatment. Cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment significantly reduced lCGU in several regions including mesocorticolimbic structures such as ventral tegmental area, medial prefrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens (NAc). Within the NAc, however, only the rostral pole showed significant reduction. In contrast, when bromocriptine treatment accompanied abstinence, lCGU was no longer reduced in mesocorticolimbic and most other regions, implying that metabolic recovery was enhanced by bromocriptine treatment during early abstinence following chronic cocaine treatment. These data suggest that cerebral metabolism is decreased during cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment in critical brain regions, and that this alteration can be prevented by treatment with direct-acting dopamine agonists such as bromocriptine.

  2. Surviving Drug Addiction: The Effect of Treatment and Abstinence on Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Michael L.; Laudet, Alexandre; Funk, Rodney R.; Simeone, Ronald S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationships between substance abuse treatment, abstinence, and mortality in a sample of individuals entering treatment. We also estimated overall mortality rates and the extent to which they varied according to demographic, clinical severity, and treatment variables. Methods. We used data from a 9-year longitudinal study of 1326 adults entering substance abuse treatment on the west side of Chicago, of whom 131 died (11.0 per 1000 person-years). Baseline predictors, initial and long-term treatment response, and substance use patterns were used to predict mortality rates and time to mortality. Results. Older age, health problems, and substance use were associated with an increased risk of mortality, and higher percentages of time abstinent and longer durations of continuous abstinence were associated with a reduced risk of mortality. Treatment readmission in the first 6 months after baseline was related to an increased likelihood of abstinence, whereas readmission after 6 months was related to a decreased likelihood of abstinence, suggesting that treatment timing is significant. Conclusions. Our findings suggest the need to shift the addiction treatment field from an acute care model to a chronic disease management paradigm and the need for more aggressive screening, intervention, and addiction management over time. PMID:21330586

  3. A Multistudy Analysis of the Effects of Early Cocaine Abstinence on Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Matuskey, D; Pittman, B; Forselius, E; Malison, RT; Morgan, PT

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe the sleep patterns of early cocaine abstinence in chronic users by polysomnographic and subjective measures. Methods 28 cocaine-dependent participants (ages 24-55) underwent polysomnographic sleep (PSG) recording on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd weeks of abstinence on a research dedicated inpatient facility. Objective measures of total sleep time, total REM time, slow wave sleep, sleep efficiency and a subjective measure (sleep quality) along with demographic data were collected from three different long term research studies over a five year period. Data were reanalyzed to allow greater statistical power for comparisons. Results Progressive weeks of abstinence had main effects on all assessed PSG sleep measures showing decreased total sleep time, REM sleep, stage 1 and 2 sleep, and sleep efficiency; increases in sleep onset and REM latencies and a slight increase in slow-wave sleep time were also present. Total sleep time and slow wave sleep were negatively associated with years of cocaine use. Total sleep time was positively associated with the amount of current ethanol use. Sex differences were found with females having more total REM time and an increase at a near significance level in slow wave sleep. Subjective measures were reported as improving with increasing abstinence over the same time period. Conclusions Chronic cocaine users show a general deterioration in objective sleep measures over a three-week period despite an increase in subjective overall sleep quality providing further evidence for “occult insomnia” during early cocaine abstinence. PMID:21144676

  4. A model to examine the validity of the 6-month abstinence criterion for liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yates, W R; Martin, M; LaBrecque, D; Hillebrand, D; Voigt, M; Pfab, D

    1998-04-01

    Six months of abstinence from alcohol is a commonly used criterion for liver transplantation eligibility for patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. There is limited evidence to document the validity of this criterion with regard to risk of alcoholism relapse. Ninety-one patients with alcoholic cirrhosis were interviewed for relapse risk using the High Risk Alcoholism Relapse (HRAR) Scale. The HRAR model can be used to predict relapse risk independent of duration of sobriety and therefore can be used to examine the validity of the 6 months of abstinence criteria in this clinical population. The two methods demonstrated poor to fair agreement. Agreement was highest with a cutoff allowing a 5% 6-month relapse risk when 79% agreement (c = 0.56) was demonstrated between the two methods. Using the 6-month abstinence criterion alone disallows a significant number of candidates who have a low relapse risk based on their HRAR score. The validity of the 6-month abstinence criterion is supported somewhat by comparison with the HRAR model. However, use of the 6-month abstinence criterion alone forces a significant number of patients with a low relapse risk by HRAR to wait for transplant listing. A relapse risk model based on an estimate of alcoholism severity in addition to duration of sobriety may more accurately select patients who are most likely to benefit from liver transplantation. PMID:9581661

  5. Amount of earnings during prize contingency management treatment is associated with post-treatment abstinence outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Petry, Nancy M.; Roll, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) treatments that provide patients with the opportunity to earn chances of winning prizes of varying magnitudes are becoming increasingly popular. In the CM literature, magnitude of reinforcement is linked with effect sizes, such that CM treatments that provide larger magnitude reinforcement are more efficacious than those that provide lower magnitude reinforcement. With prize CM, even when magnitudes of overall expected prize earnings are constant, some patients win more prizes than others. Thus, patients who win larger overall amounts of prizes during treatment may have better outcomes than those who win fewer prizes. This study evaluated the impact of overall amounts of prizes won on long-term abstinence outcomes. The dollar amount of prizes won during prize CM treatments was determined from 78 cocaine abusing methadone maintenance patients who were randomized to prize CM treatments in three clinical trials. Abstinence three months following the end of the CM intervention was the primary dependent variable. The dollar amount of prizes won during CM treatment was a significant predictor of submission of cocaine-negative urine samples and self reports of cocaine abstinence at the follow-up evaluation, even after controlling for other variables associated with long-term abstinence such as pre-treatment urinalysis results and longest duration of abstinence achieved during treatment. These results suggest that magnitudes of earnings during prize CM may impact outcomes and call for further experimentation of parameters related to the efficacy of prize CM. PMID:21707189

  6. Comparative study of Gamow-Teller strength distributions in the odd-odd nucleus {sup 50}V and its impact on electron capture rates in astrophysical environments

    SciTech Connect

    Nabi, Jameel-Un; Sajjad, Muhammad

    2007-11-15

    Gamow-Teller (GT) strength transitions are an ideal probe for testing nuclear structure models. In addition to nuclear structure, GT transitions in nuclei directly affect the early phases of Type Ia and Type-II supernovae core collapse since the electron capture rates are partly determined by these GT transitions. In astrophysics, GT transitions provide an important input for model calculations and element formation during the explosive phase of a massive star at the end of its life-time. Recent nucleosynthesis calculations show that odd-odd and odd-A nuclei cause the largest contribution in the rate of change of lepton-to-baryon ratio. In the present manuscript, we have calculated the GT strength distributions and electron capture rates for odd-odd nucleus {sup 50}V by using the pn-QRPA theory. At present {sup 50}V is the first experimentally available odd-odd nucleus in fp-shell nuclei. We also compare our GT strength distribution with the recently measured results of a {sup 50}V(d, {sup 2}He){sup 50}Ti experiment, with the earlier work of Fuller, Fowler, and Newman (referred to as FFN) and subsequently with the large-scale shell model calculations. One curious finding of the paper is that the Brink's hypothesis, usually employed in large-scale shell model calculations, is not a good approximation to use at least in the case of {sup 50}V. SNe Ia model calculations performed using FFN rates result in overproduction of {sup 50}Ti, and were brought to a much acceptable value by employing shell model results. It might be interesting to study how the composition of the ejecta using presently reported QRPA rates compare with the observed abundances.

  7. Odd-parity D states in He.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.

    1972-01-01

    The states considered lie below the n = 2 threshold of He(+) and decay radiatively to the lower states. The most general D-state wave function of odd parity of two electrons is examined. The results presented are optimized with respect to four nonlinear parameters for 112 terms. A mass-polarization correction is given for all the states listed. The positions of the D states, including the reduced mass and the mass-polarization corrections, with respect to the ground state of He are reported.

  8. A role for the prefrontal cortex in heroin-seeking after forced abstinence by adult male rats but not adolescents.

    PubMed

    Doherty, James M; Cooke, Bradley M; Frantz, Kyle J

    2013-02-01

    Adolescent drug abuse is hypothesized to increase the risk of drug addiction. Yet male rats that self-administer heroin as adolescents show attenuated drug-seeking after abstinence, compared with adults. Here we explore a role for neural activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in age-dependent heroin-seeking. Adolescent (35-day-old at start; adolescent-onset) and adult (86-day-old at start) male rats acquired lever-pressing maintained by heroin using a fixed ratio one reinforcement schedule (0.05 and 0.025 mg/kg per infusion). Following 12 days of forced abstinence, rats were tested for heroin-seeking over 1 h by measuring the number of lever presses on the active lever. Unbiased stereology was then used to estimate the number of Fos-ir(+) and Fos-ir(-) neurons in prelimbic and infralimbic mPFC. As before, adolescents and adults self-administered similar amounts of heroin, but subsequent heroin-seeking was attenuated in the younger rats. Similarly, the adolescent-onset group failed to show significant neural activation in the prelimbic or infralimbic mPFC during the heroin-seeking test, whereas the adult-onset heroin self-administration group showed two to six times more Fos-ir(+) neurons than their saline counterparts in both mPFC subregions. Finally, the overall number of neurons in the infralimbic cortex was greater in rats from the adolescent-onset groups than adults. The mPFC may thus have a key role in some age-dependent effects of heroin self-administration. PMID:23072838

  9. A Role For The Prefrontal Cortex In Heroin-Seeking After Forced Abstinence By Adult Male Rats But Not Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, James M; Cooke, Bradley M; Frantz, Kyle J

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent drug abuse is hypothesized to increase the risk of drug addiction. Yet male rats that self-administer heroin as adolescents show attenuated drug-seeking after abstinence, compared with adults. Here we explore a role for neural activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in age-dependent heroin-seeking. Adolescent (35-day-old at start; adolescent-onset) and adult (86-day-old at start) male rats acquired lever-pressing maintained by heroin using a fixed ratio one reinforcement schedule (0.05 and 0.025 mg/kg per infusion). Following 12 days of forced abstinence, rats were tested for heroin-seeking over 1 h by measuring the number of lever presses on the active lever. Unbiased stereology was then used to estimate the number of Fos-ir+ and Fos-ir− neurons in prelimbic and infralimbic mPFC. As before, adolescents and adults self-administered similar amounts of heroin, but subsequent heroin-seeking was attenuated in the younger rats. Similarly, the adolescent-onset group failed to show significant neural activation in the prelimbic or infralimbic mPFC during the heroin-seeking test, whereas the adult-onset heroin self-administration group showed two to six times more Fos-ir+ neurons than their saline counterparts in both mPFC subregions. Finally, the overall number of neurons in the infralimbic cortex was greater in rats from the adolescent-onset groups than adults. The mPFC may thus have a key role in some age-dependent effects of heroin self-administration. PMID:23072838

  10. Effectiveness of abstinence-based incentives: interaction with intake stimulant test results.

    PubMed

    Stitzer, Maxine L; Petry, Nancy; Peirce, Jessica; Kirby, Kimberly; Killeen, Therese; Roll, John; Hamilton, John; Stabile, Patricia Q; Sterling, Robert; Brown, Chanda; Kolodner, Ken; Li, Rui

    2007-10-01

    Intake urinalysis test result (drug positive vs. negative) has been previously identified as a strong predictor of drug abuse treatment outcome, but there is little information about how this prognostic factor may interact with the type of treatment delivered. The authors used data from a multisite study of abstinence incentives for stimulant abusers enrolled in outpatient counseling treatment (N. M. Petry, J. M. Peirce, et al., 2005) to examine this question. The first study urine was used to stratify participants into stimulant negative (n = 306) versus positive (n = 108) subgroups. Abstinence incentives significantly improved retention in those testing negative but not in those testing positive. Findings suggest that stimulant abusers presenting to treatment with a stimulant-negative urine benefit from abstinence incentives, but alternative treatment approaches are needed for those who test stimulant positive at intake. PMID:17907862

  11. Alcohol liver disease: A review of current therapeutic approaches to achieve long-term abstinence

    PubMed Central

    García, María Luisa Gutiérrez; Blasco-Algora, Sara; Fernández-Rodríguez, Conrado M

    2015-01-01

    Harmful alcohol drinking may lead to significant damage on any organ or system of the body. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the most prevalent cause of advanced liver disease in Europe. In ALD, only alcohol abstinence was associated with a better long-term survival. Therefore, current effective therapeutic strategy should be oriented towards achieving alcohol abstinence or a significant reduction in alcohol consumption. Screening all primary care patients to detect those cases with alcohol abuse has been proposed as population-wide preventive intervention in primary care. It has been suggested that in patients with mild alcohol use disorder the best approach is brief intervention in the primary care setting with the ultimate goal being abstinence, whereas patients with moderate-to-severe alcohol use disorder must be referred to specialized care where detoxification and medical treatment of alcohol dependence must be undertaken. PMID:26229395

  12. A Deposit Contract Method to Deliver Abstinence Reinforcement for Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Dallery, Jesse; Meredith, Steven; Glenn, Irene M

    2008-01-01

    Eight smokers were randomly assigned to a deposit contract ($50.00) or to a no-deposit group. Using a reversal design, participants could recoup their deposit (deposit group) or earn vouchers (no-deposit group) for smoking reductions and abstinence (breath carbon monoxide [CO] ≤ 4 parts per million) during treatment phases. Treatment was delivered via a novel Internet-based method to monitor smoking status. Although equivalent decreases in breath CO and abstinence were observed during treatment in both groups, $178.50 in vouchers were distributed to participants in the no-deposit group, whereas a small surplus remained in the deposit group. A deposit contract method may represent a cost-effective model to deliver abstinence reinforcement for cigarette smoking. PMID:19192864

  13. Alcohol liver disease: A review of current therapeutic approaches to achieve long-term abstinence.

    PubMed

    García, María Luisa Gutiérrez; Blasco-Algora, Sara; Fernández-Rodríguez, Conrado M

    2015-07-28

    Harmful alcohol drinking may lead to significant damage on any organ or system of the body. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the most prevalent cause of advanced liver disease in Europe. In ALD, only alcohol abstinence was associated with a better long-term survival. Therefore, current effective therapeutic strategy should be oriented towards achieving alcohol abstinence or a significant reduction in alcohol consumption. Screening all primary care patients to detect those cases with alcohol abuse has been proposed as population-wide preventive intervention in primary care. It has been suggested that in patients with mild alcohol use disorder the best approach is brief intervention in the primary care setting with the ultimate goal being abstinence, whereas patients with moderate-to-severe alcohol use disorder must be referred to specialized care where detoxification and medical treatment of alcohol dependence must be undertaken. PMID:26229395

  14. Empirical residual neutron-proton interaction in odd-odd nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zheying; Changizi, S. A.; Qi, Chong

    2016-03-01

    Two types of average neutron-proton interaction formulas are compared: In the first type, neutron-proton interactions for even-even and odd-A nuclei extracted from experimental binding energies show a smooth behavior as a function of mass number A and are dominated by the contribution from the symmetry energy. Whereas in the second type large systematic staggering is seen between even-A and odd-A nuclei. This deviation is understood in terms of the additional neutron-proton interaction in odd-odd nuclei relative to the neighboring even-even and odd-A systems. We explore three possible ways to extract this additional interaction from the binding energy difference of neighboring nuclei. The extracted interactions are positive in nearly all cases and show weak dependence on the mass number. The empirical interactions are also compared with theoretical values extracted from recent nuclear mass models where large unexpected fluctuations are seen in certain nuclei. The reproduction of the residual neutron-proton interaction and the correction of those irregular fluctuations can be a good criterion for the refinement of those mass models.

  15. Enhanced T-odd, P-odd electromagnetic moments in reflection asymmetric nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Spevak, V.; Auerbach, N.; Flambaum, V.V.

    1997-09-01

    Collective P- and T-odd moments produced by parity and time invariance violating forces in reflection asymmetric nuclei are considered. The enhanced collective Schiff, electric dipole, and octupole moments appear due to the mixing of rotational levels of opposite parity. These moments can exceed single-particle moments by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The enhancement is due to the collective nature of the intrinsic moments and the small energy separation between members of parity doublets. In turn these nuclear moments induce enhanced T- and P-odd effects in atoms and molecules. A simple estimate is given and a detailed theoretical treatment of the collective T-, P-odd electric moments in reflection asymmetric, odd-mass nuclei is presented. In the present work we improve on the simple liquid drop model by evaluating the Strutinsky shell correction and include corrections due to pairing. Calculations are performed for octupole deformed long-lived odd-mass isotopes of Rn, Fr, Ra, Ac, and Pa and the corresponding atoms. Experiments with such atoms may improve substantially the limits on time reversal violation. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  16. Olfactory bulbectomy increases reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking after a forced abstinence in rats.

    PubMed

    Babinska, Zuzana; Ruda-Kucerova, Jana; Amchova, Petra; Merhautova, Jana; Dusek, Ladislav; Sulcova, Alexandra

    2016-01-15

    Drug addiction is commonly associated with depression and comorbid patients also suffer from higher cravings and increased relapse rate. To address this issue preclinically we combined the olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) model of depression and intravenous methamphetamine self-administration procedure in rats to assess differences in relapse-like behavior. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into two groups; in one group the bilateral olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) was performed while the other group was sham operated. After recovery, intracardiac catheter was implanted. Intravenous self-administration procedure was conducted in operant boxes using nose-poke operandi (Coulbourn Instruments, Inc., USA) under fixed ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement. Methamphetamine was available at dose 0.08 mg/kg/infusion. After stable methamphetamine intake was maintained, a period of forced abstinence was initiated and rats were kept in their home-cages for 14 days. Finally, one reinstatement session was conducted in operant boxes with no drug delivery. In the reinstatement session the mean of 138.4 active nose-pokes was performed by the OBX group, while the sham group displayed 41 responses, i.e. 140 % and 48 % of basal nose-poking during maintenance phase in OBX and sham operated group respectively. OBX group also showed significantly more passive nose-pokes indicating hyperactive behavioral traits in bulbectomized rats. However, the % of active operandum preference was equal in both groups. Olfactory bulbectomy model significantly increased reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking behavior. This paradigm can be used to evaluate potential drugs that are able to suppress the drug-seeking behavior. PMID:26431766

  17. Convergent evidence from alcohol-dependent humans and rats for a hyperdopaminergic state in protracted abstinence.

    PubMed

    Hirth, Natalie; Meinhardt, Marcus W; Noori, Hamid R; Salgado, Humberto; Torres-Ramirez, Oswaldo; Uhrig, Stefanie; Broccoli, Laura; Vengeliene, Valentina; Roßmanith, Martin; Perreau-Lenz, Stéphanie; Köhr, Georg; Sommer, Wolfgang H; Spanagel, Rainer; Hansson, Anita C

    2016-03-15

    A major hypothesis in addiction research is that alcohol induces neuroadaptations in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system and that these neuroadaptations represent a key neurochemical event in compulsive drug use and relapse. Whether these neuroadaptations lead to a hypo- or hyperdopaminergic state during abstinence is a long-standing, unresolved debate among addiction researchers. The answer is of critical importance for understanding the neurobiological mechanism of addictive behavior. Here we set out to study systematically the neuroadaptive changes in the DA system during the addiction cycle in alcohol-dependent patients and rats. In postmortem brain samples from human alcoholics we found a strong down-regulation of the D1 receptor- and DA transporter (DAT)-binding sites, but D2-like receptor binding was unaffected. To gain insight into the time course of these neuroadaptations, we compared the human data with that from alcohol-dependent rats at several time points during abstinence. We found a dynamic regulation of D1 and DAT during 3 wk of abstinence. After the third week the rat data mirrored our human data. This time point was characterized by elevated extracellular DA levels, lack of synaptic response to D1 stimulation, and augmented motor activity. Further functional evidence is given by a genetic rat model for hyperdopaminergia that resembles a phenocopy of alcohol-dependent rats during protracted abstinence. In summary, we provide a new dynamic model of abstinence-related changes in the striatal DA system; in this model a hyperdopaminergic state during protracted abstinence is associated with vulnerability for relapse. PMID:26903621

  18. Psychological symptoms are associated with both abstinence and risky sex among men with HIV.

    PubMed

    Miller, Carol T; Solomon, Sondra E; Bunn, Janice Y; Varni, Susan E; Hodge, James J

    2015-02-01

    Sexual abstinence is often deemed the "safest behavior" in HIV prevention, but is sometimes associated with psychological symptoms (e.g., depression) just as sexually risky behavior is. This study explored whether sexual abstinence and risky sexual behavior among men with HIV were associated with similar constellations of psychological symptoms. Prior research has not addressed this issue because abstinent people often are not included in the sample or, when data are analyzed, researchers combine abstinent people with sexually active people who practice safer sex. Past research also neglects the co-morbidity of psychological symptoms. A latent class analysis of the psychological symptoms (assessed with the Symptom Check List 90-R; Derogatis, 1994) of 140 men with HIV, mostly from rural New England, revealed three latent classes: men who were asymptomatic on all symptom domains (28.8 %), men who were symptomatic on all domains (34.1 %), and men who were symptomatic on internalizing domains (37.1 %), but were asymptomatic on the externalizing symptoms of hostility and paranoid ideation. Logistic regression showed that sexual behavior during the past 90 days of men in the all symptom class and the internalizing symptoms class was similar, with abstinence and risky sex predominating, and safer sex being relatively uncommon for both classes. The sexual behavior of men in the asymptomatic class differed, with safer sex being relatively more likely to occur compared to the symptomatic classes. These findings suggest that the psychological symptom profile of sexually abstinent people places them at risk for inconsistent condom use should they engage in sexual behavior. PMID:25614050

  19. Psychological Symptoms are Associated with Both Abstinence and Risky Sex among Men with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Carol T.; Solomon, Sondra E.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Varni, Susan E.; Hodge, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual abstinence is often deemed the “safest behavior” in HIV prevention, but is sometimes associated with psychological symptoms (e.g., depression) just as sexually risky behavior is. This study explored whether sexual abstinence and risky sexual behavior among men with HIV are associated with similar constellations of psychological symptoms. Prior research has not addressed this issue because abstinent people often are not included in the sample, or when data are analyzed, researchers combine abstinent people with sexually active people who practice safer sex. Past research also neglects the co-morbidity of psychological symptoms. A latent class analysis of the psychological symptoms (assessed with the Symptom Check List 90-R; Derogatis, 1994) of 140 men with HIV, mostly from rural New England, revealed three latent classes; men who were asymptomatic on all symptom domains (28.8%), men who were symptomatic on all domains (34.1%), and men who were symptomatic on internalizing domains (37.1%), but were asymptomatic on the externalizing symptoms of hostility and paranoid ideation. Logistic regression showed that sexual behavior during the past 90 days of men in the all symptom class and the internalizing symptoms class was similar, with abstinence and risky sex predominating, and safer sex being relatively uncommon for both classes. The sexual behavior of men in the asymptomatic class differed, with safer sex being relatively more likely to occur compared to the symptomatic classes. These findings suggest that the psychological symptom profile of sexually abstinent people places them at risk for inconsistent condom use should they engage in sexual behavior. PMID:25614050

  20. Acceptability of OCT and Abstinence Requirements among Women Participating in Microbicide Safety Trials

    PubMed Central

    Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Loza, Melissa; Vincent, Kathleen; Moench, Thomas; Stanberry, Lawrence R.; Rosenthal, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Developing effective and safe microbicides requires study procedures (e.g. technology used, abstinence requirements, and product use) that are acceptable to participants. Methods Thirty women completed 4 study visits including pelvic examination, colposcopy, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and semi-structured, qualitative interviews. Additional requirements included abstinence (for approximately 16 days) and twice daily vaginal product use (for 5.5 days). Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using framework analysis. Themes addressing OCT experiences, acceptability of abstinence, and vaginal product use were examined. Results OCT was viewed favorably as an imaging technology. Some women reported feeling the fiber-optic probe “poking” them and over one-third spontaneously reported feeling pressure or pinching upon rotation of the speculum in connection with the OCT evaluation. Compliance with vaginal gel use was high, but for many women assigned to use a product containing nonoxynol-9 (versus placebo), the post-product use exam was more uncomfortable, relative to the initial exam or one week following product discontinuation. Nearly all women experienced product leakage; acceptability of leakage varied. Two women were not abstinent and several more found abstinence challenging. Some women involved their partner in decision making regarding trial enrollment. Strategies to remain abstinent included participating when the partner was away, avoiding early intimacy, and engaging in alternative sexual activities. Conclusions Qualitative interviews in early-phase studies provide insights and capture information that would be missed by behavioral inference alone. Understanding participant’s experiences is important in order to provide anticipatory guidance and plan future microbicide studies that facilitate adherence with trial requirements. PMID:22183842

  1. Soil clay content underlies prion infection odds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    David, Walter W.; Walsh, D.P.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; Winkelman, D.L.; Miller, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental factors-especially soil properties-have been suggested as potentially important in the transmission of infectious prion diseases. Because binding to montmorillonite (an aluminosilicate clay mineral) or clay-enriched soils had been shown to enhance experimental prion transmissibility, we hypothesized that prion transmission among mule deer might also be enhanced in ranges with relatively high soil clay content. In this study, we report apparent influences of soil clay content on the odds of prion infection in free-ranging deer. Analysis of data from prion-infected deer herds in northern Colorado, USA, revealed that a 1% increase in the clay-sized particle content in soils within the approximate home range of an individual deer increased its odds of infection by up to 8.9%. Our findings suggest that soil clay content and related environmental properties deserve greater attention in assessing risks of prion disease outbreaks and prospects for their control in both natural and production settings. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  2. Sigma decomposition: the CP-odd Lagrangian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hierro, I. M.; Merlo, L.; Rigolin, S.

    2016-04-01

    In Alonso et al., JHEP 12 (2014) 034, the CP-even sector of the effective chiral Lagrangian for a generic composite Higgs model with a symmetric coset has been constructed, up to four momenta. In this paper, the CP-odd couplings are studied within the same context. If only the Standard Model bosonic sources of custodial symmetry breaking are considered, then at most six independent operators form a basis. One of them is the weak- θ term linked to non-perturbative sources of CP violation, while the others describe CP-odd perturbative couplings between the Standard Model gauge bosons and an Higgs-like scalar belonging to the Goldstone boson sector. The procedure is then applied to three distinct exemplifying frameworks: the original SU(5)/SO(5) Georgi-Kaplan model, the minimal custodial-preserving SO(5)/SO(4) model and the minimal SU(3)/(SU(2) × U(1)) model, which intrinsically breaks custodial symmetry. Moreover, the projection of the high-energy electroweak effective theory to the low-energy chiral effective Lagrangian for a dynamical Higgs is performed, uncovering strong relations between the operator coefficients and pinpointing the differences with the elementary Higgs scenario.

  3. Meissner effect of odd-frequency superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Katsufumi

    2001-10-01

    We present theoretical results on the Meissner effect of odd-frequency superconductors with the order parameter of the form, sgn(ωn)φ(k,iωn), where φ(k,iωn) is even in the Matsubara frequency ωn as in the conventional case. It is shown that the spectral function of the anomalous Green's function is given in the form of the Hilbert transformation of the one for the even-frequency part, and the anomalous contribution to the paramagnetic kernel consists of the conventional term but with the opposite sign and a term expressed by the digamma function. In the static limit the latter term reduces to twice the former one with the opposite sign so that the net contribution becomes the same as the conventional one. This indicates the presence of the Meissner effect for this class of the odd-frequency superconductors. A model interaction is discussed that leads to the order parameter mentioned above.

  4. Learning To Speak Out in an Abstinence Based Sex Education Group: Gender and Race Work in an Urban Magnet School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Lois

    This paper describes an abstinence-based sex education group for diverse girls in grades 7-12 in an urban magnet school. Data were gathered from a within-school program, My Bottom Line, which was designed to prevent or delay the onset of sexual activity, build self-esteem, and increase young women's self-sufficiency through an abstinence based,…

  5. Adult Discrimination against Children: The Case of Abstinence-Only Education in Twenty-First-Century USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greslé-Favier, Claire

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses abstinence-only education programmes and discourses within the frame of theories of adult discrimination against children. To begin with, a definition of abstinence-only programmes and of the political context in which they were created will be provided. These programmes will then be analysed through the lens of children's…

  6. Effect of odd hydrogen on ozone depletion by chlorine reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, T. M.; Cicerone, R. J.; Liu, S. C.; Chameides, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    The present paper discusses how the shape of the ozone layer changes under the influence of injected ClX for several choices of two key HOx reaction rates. The two HOx reactions are: OH + HO2 yields H2O + O2 and O + HO2 yields OH + O2. Results of calculations are presented which show that the two reaction rates determine the stratospheric concentrations of OH and HO2, and that these concentrations regulate the amount by which the stratospheric ozone column can be reduced due to injections of odd chlorine. It is concluded that the amount of ozone reduction by a given mixing ratio of ClX will remain very uncertain until the significance of several possible feedback effects involving HOx in a chlorine-polluted atmosphere are determined and measurements of the reaction rates and HOx concentrations are made at the relevant temperatures.

  7. Comparison of model results transporting the odd nitrogen family with results transporting separate odd nitrogen species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglass, Anne R.; Jackman, Charles H.; Stolarski, Richard S.

    1989-01-01

    A fast two-dimensional residual circulation stratospheric family transport model, designed to minimize computer requirements, is developed. The model was used to calculate the ambient and perturbed atmospheres in which odd nitrogen species are transported as a family, and the results were compared with calculations in which HNO3, N2O5, ClONO2, and HO2NO2 are transported separately. It was found that ozone distributions computed by the two models for a present-day atmosphere are nearly identical. Good agreement was also found between calculated species concentrations and the ozone response, indicating the general applicability of the odd-nitrogen family approximations.

  8. Shell Model Description of the Odd-Odd Co and Cu Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, N. H.; Allegro, P. R. P.; Oliveira, J. R. B. de; Ribas, R. V.; Seale, W. A.; Toufen, D. L.; Silveira, M. A. G.

    2007-10-26

    The known excited states of the odd-odd nuclei {sup 54,56,58,60}Co and 60,62,64,66Cu were interpreted in the framework of the large scale shell model (LSSM), using several effective interactions and configuration spaces. For the description of the negative parity states, we have allowed one particle excitation to the g{sub 9/2} orbital. The LSSM using the GXPF1 effective interaction reproduces well the first excited states in all of these nuclei.

  9. Proton emission from the deformed odd-odd nuclei near drip line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patial, M.; Arumugam, P.; Jain, A. K.; Maglione, E.; Ferreira, L. S.

    2016-01-01

    Proton emission from odd-odd nuclei is studied within the two quasiparticle plus rotor model which includes the non-adiabatic effects and the residual interaction between valence proton and neutron. Justification of the formalism is discussed through corroboration of our results with the experimental spectrum of 180Ta. Exact calculations are performed to get the proton emission halflives. Our results for the proton emitter 130Eu leads to the assignment of spin and parity Jπ = 1+ for the ground state. The role of Coriolis and residual neutron-proton interactions on the proton emission halflives and their interplay are also discussed.

  10. Odd perfect numbers have at least nine distinct prime factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Pace P.

    2007-12-01

    An odd perfect number, N , is shown to have at least nine distinct prime factors. If 3nmid N then N must have at least twelve distinct prime divisors. The proof ultimately avoids previous computational results for odd perfect numbers.

  11. W${'}$ signatures with odd Higgs particles

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Peterson, Andrea D.

    2014-08-13

    We point out that W' bosons may decay predominantly into Higgs particles associated with their broken gauge symmetry. We demonstrate this in a renormalizable model where the W' and W couplings to fermions differ only by an overall normalization. This "meta-sequential" W' boson decays into a scalar pair, with the charged one subsequently decaying into a W boson and a neutral scalar. These scalars are odd under a parity of the Higgs sector, which consists of a complex bidoublet and a doublet. Finally, the W' and Z' bosons have the same mass and branching fractions into scalars, and may show up at the LHC in final states involving one or two electroweak bosons and missing transverse energy.

  12. W$${'}$$ signatures with odd Higgs particles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Peterson, Andrea D.

    2014-08-13

    We point out that W' bosons may decay predominantly into Higgs particles associated with their broken gauge symmetry. We demonstrate this in a renormalizable model where the W' and W couplings to fermions differ only by an overall normalization. This "meta-sequential" W' boson decays into a scalar pair, with the charged one subsequently decaying into a W boson and a neutral scalar. These scalars are odd under a parity of the Higgs sector, which consists of a complex bidoublet and a doublet. Finally, the W' and Z' bosons have the same mass and branching fractions into scalars, and may showmore » up at the LHC in final states involving one or two electroweak bosons and missing transverse energy.« less

  13. A Deposit Contract Method to Deliver Abstinence Reinforcement for Cigarette Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallery, Jesse; Meredith, Steven; Glenn, Irene M.

    2008-01-01

    Eight smokers were randomly assigned to a deposit contract ($50.00) or to a no-deposit group. Using a reversal design, participants could recoup their deposit (deposit group) or earn vouchers (no-deposit group) for smoking reductions and abstinence (breath carbon monoxide [CO] less than or equal to 4 parts per million) during treatment phases.…

  14. Government Influence and Community Involvement on Abstinence-Only Programs in 1999 and 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gusrang, Jamie L.; Cheng, Simon

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we compare federal government influence on abstinence-only programs in 1999 and 2003 to better see how shifts in the federal government's sex education polices impacted other government and community actors. Using data from the Sex Education in America Surveys (SEAS), we find that changes in federal policy, particularly after the…

  15. Hippocampal volume reduction in female but not male recent abstinent methamphetamine users.

    PubMed

    Du, Jiang; Quan, Meina; Zhuang, Wenxu; Zhong, Na; Jiang, Haifeng; Kennedy, David N; Harrington, Amy; Ziedonis, Douglas; Fan, Xiaoduo; Zhao, Min

    2015-08-01

    Growing evidence suggests abnormalities in brain morphology including hippocampal structure in patients with methamphetamine (MA) dependence. This study was performed to examine hippocampal volume in abstinent MA users, and to further explore its relationship with cognitive function. 30 abstinent MA users (20 males and 10 females) with average 5.52 months of duration of abstinence and 29 healthy controls (19 males and 10 females) age 18-45 years old were recruited for clinical assessment and imaging scan. FreeSurfer was used to segment the hippocampus bilaterally, and hippocampal volumes were extracted for group and gender comparisons. Cognitive function was measured using the CogState Battery Chinese language version (CSB-C). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) controlling for education showed a significant group by gender interaction for the right hippocampal relative volume adjusted for total brain size (p = 0.020); there was a significant difference between male controls and female controls (p < 0.001), but such a difference did not exist between male patients and female patients (p = 0.203). No significant correlations were found between hippocampal volume and cognitive measures. There seems to be a gender difference in how MA affects hippocampal volume in abstinent MA users. Hippocampus might be an important treatment target for cognitive improvement and functional recovery in this patient population, especially in females. PMID:25920682

  16. Teacher Perspectives on Abstinence and Safe Sex Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Dennis A.; DePalma, Renée

    2014-01-01

    The stakes are high for sex education in South Africa: it has been estimated that 8.7% of young people live with HIV. Within primarily US and UK contexts, there has been much debate over the relative merits of abstinence-only and comprehensive sexual education programmes. These perspectives have largely been presented as irreconcilable, but…

  17. Group-Based Randomized Trial of Contingencies for Health and Abstinence in HIV Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Alessi, Sheila M.; Lewis, Marilyn W.; Dieckhaus, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Contingency management (CM) treatments are usually applied individually for drug abstinence, but CM can also be targeted toward health behaviors and implemented in groups. This study evaluated effects of a group-based CM intervention that focused on reinforcing health behaviors. Method: HIV-positive patients with cocaine or opioid use…

  18. Effectiveness of Abstinence-Based Incentives: Interaction with Intake Stimulant Test Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stitzer, Maxine L.; Petry, Nancy; Peirce, Jessica; Kirby, Kimberly; Killeen, Therese; Roll, John; Hamilton, John; Stabile, Patricia Q.; Sterling, Robert; Brown, Chanda; Kolodner, Ken; Li, Rui

    2007-01-01

    Intake urinalysis test result (drug positive vs. negative) has been previously identified as a strong predictor of drug abuse treatment outcome, but there is little information about how this prognostic factor may interact with the type of treatment delivered. The authors used data from a multisite study of abstinence incentives for stimulant…

  19. Attacking the Personal Fable: Role-Play and Its Effect on Teen Attitudes toward Sexual Abstinence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltz, Eli; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examines role playing as a tool for changing teenagers' attitudes about sex behavior and the consequences of teen pregnancy. A sample of 267 ninth-grade students attending a high-risk urban school participated. Role playing and watching videos of friends' role playing significantly increased favorable attitudes toward abstinence in girls but not…

  20. Making sense of abstinence: social representations in young Africans' HIV-related narratives from six countries.

    PubMed

    Winskell, Kate; Beres, Laura K; Hill, Elizabeth; Mbakwem, Benjamin Chigozie; Obyerodhyambo, Oby

    2011-09-01

    Despite the prominence of abstinence promotion in HIV prevention for young Africans, there is little documentation concerning its reception and interpretation. With the purpose of informing programmatic practice, we examined how young Africans from six countries with contrasting HIV prevalence rates make sense of abstinence. 'Scenarios from Africa' scriptwriting contests invite young people to contribute ideas for short films about HIV. Using thematic narrative-based approaches, we analyzed a stratified random sample of these narratives written in 2005 by young women and men aged 10-24 years from Senegal, Burkina Faso, South-East Nigeria, Kenya, Namibia and Swaziland. Abstinence was considerably more prominent as a theme in the samples from SE Nigeria, Kenya and Swaziland. It was articulated in relation to conservative Christian sexual morality and in opposition to condom use with particular intensity in SE Nigeria, with stigmatising implications for non-abstainers. However, cross-national commonalities were more striking than differences. Examples of non-stigmatising pro-abstinence messaging highlighted the appeal of discourses of romantic love and future plans across countries and demographic characteristics. The analysis yielded contextual understanding, youth-driven ideas and recommendations to inform comprehensive HIV-prevention efforts. PMID:21787256

  1. Associations between University Students' Reported Reasons for Abstinence from Illicit Substances and Type of Drug

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Harold; Bonar, Erin E.; Pavlick, Michelle; Jones, Lance D.; Hoffmann, Erica; Murray, Shanna; Faigin, Carol Ann; Cabral, Kyle; Baylen, Chelsea

    2012-01-01

    We recruited 211 undergraduates to rate the degree to which each of 34 listed reasons for not taking drugs had influenced their abstinence from MDMA/ecstasy, cocaine, marijuana, and hallucinogens. Participants rated reasons such as personal and family medical histories, religion, and physiological consequences of drug use as having little or no…

  2. Sexual Partners and Contraceptive Use: A 16-Year Prospective Study Predicting Abstinence and Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebenbruner, Jessica; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Egeland, Byron

    2007-01-01

    Antecedents and correlates of sexual behavior among 167 (46 female) adolescents were examined in this multi-informant longitudinal study. Data were collected at birth through middle adolescence. Data on number of sexual partners and contraception use at age 16 defined sexual abstinence (SAs, n = 73), high-risk sexual behavior (HRTs, n = 45) and…

  3. Resting state synchrony in long-term abstinent alcoholics with versus without comorbid drug dependence☆

    PubMed Central

    Camchong, Jazmin; Stenger, Victor Andrew; Fein, George

    2013-01-01

    Background We previously reported that when long-term abstinent alcoholics (LTAA; with no drug comorbidity) are compared to controls, they show increased resting state synchrony (RSS) in the executive control network and reduced RSS in the appetitive drive network suggestive of compensatory mechanisms that may facilitate abstinence. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether long-term abstinent alcoholics with comorbid stimulants dependence (LTAAS) show similar RSS mechanisms. Methods Resting-state functional MRI data were collected on 36 LTAAS (20 females, age: 47.85 ± 7.30), 23 LTAA (8 females, age: M = 47.91 ± 6.76), and 23 non-substance abusing controls (NSAC; 8 females, age: M = 47.99 ± 6.70). Using seed-based measures, we examined RSS with the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC). Results Results showed commonalities in LTAA and LTAAS RSS (similar enhanced executive control RSS and left insula RSS) as well as differences (no attenuation of appetitive drive RSS in LTAAS and no enhancement of RSS in right insula in LTAA). Conclusions We believe these differences are adaptive mechanisms that support abstinence. These findings suggest common as well as specific targets for treatment in chronic alcoholics with vs without comorbid stimulant dependence. PMID:23639390

  4. Impacts of Four Title V, Section 510 Abstinence Education Programs. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trenholm, Christopher; Devaney, Barbara; Fortson, Ken; Quay, Ken; Wheeler, Justin; Clark, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    Since fiscal year 1998, the Title V, Section 510 program has allocated $50 million annually in federal funding for programs that teach abstinence form sexual activity outside of marriage as the expected standard for school-age children. A new impact report from Mathematica's congressionally mandated multi-year evaluation of four abstinence…

  5. Implementing and Evaluating a Rural Community-Based Sexual Abstinence Program: Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stauss, Kimberly; Boyas, Javier; Murphy-Erby, Yvette

    2012-01-01

    Informing both program evaluation and practice research, this paper describes lessons learned during the planning, implementation, and pilot phases of an abstinence education program based in a rural community in a southern state in the USA. Although a number of challenges can emerge in successfully implementing and evaluating such a program in a…

  6. An Evaluation of an Abstinence-Only Sex Education Curriculum: An 18-Month Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, George; Young, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The article examines the results from an 18-month follow-up evaluation of an abstinence education curriculum series. Participants were students from 15 school districts recruited to participate in the project. The intervention was the Sex Can Wait curriculum series, consisting of upper elementary, middle school, and high school components. The…

  7. Evaluation of an Abstinence-Only Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Program: A Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roosa, Mark W.; Christopher, F. Scott

    1990-01-01

    Second evaluation of abstinence-only adolescent pregnancy prevention program included 528 subjects. None of desired changes in attitudes or behavior (premarital sexual attitudes, sexual behaviors, self-esteem, family communication) occurred for total sample or for virgins in sample. Findings question federal policy of relying exclusively on…

  8. Differential Transitions between Cocaine Use and Abstinence for Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallop, Robert J.; Crits-Christoph, Paul; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Barber, Jacques P.; Frank, Arlene; Griffin, Margaret L.; Thase, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    The longitudinal course of cocaine dependence is characterized by alternating periods of abstinence and relapse. Although gender has emerged as an important predictor of relapse, previous studies have examined mean differences in use by gender. Focusing strictly on differences in averages between men and women does not address potential gender…

  9. Spinal cord thyrotropin releasing hormone receptors of morphine tolerant-dependent and abstinent rats

    SciTech Connect

    Rahmani, N.H.; Gulati, A.; Bhargava, H.N. )

    1990-07-01

    The effect of chronic administration of morphine and its withdrawal on the binding of 3H-(3-MeHis2)thyrotropin releasing hormone (3H-MeTRH) to membranes of the spinal cord of the rat was determined. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with either 6 placebo or 6 morphine pellets (each containing 75-mg morphine base) during a 7-day period. Two sets of animals were used. In one, the pellets were left intact at the time of sacrificing (tolerant-dependent) and in the other, the pellets were removed 16 hours prior to sacrificing (abstinent rats). In placebo-pellet-implanted rats, 3H-MeTRH bound to the spinal cord membranes at a single high affinity binding site with a Bmax of 21.3 +/- 1.6 fmol/mg protein, and an apparent dissociation constant Kd of 4.7 +/- 0.8 nM. In morphine tolerant-dependent or abstinent rats, the binding constants of 3H-MeTRH to spinal cord membranes were unaffected. Previous studies from this laboratory indicate that TRH can inhibit morphine tolerance-dependence and abstinence processes without modifying brain TRH receptors. Together with the present results, it appears that the inhibitory effect of TRH on morphine tolerance-dependence and abstinence is probably not mediated via central TRH receptors but may be due to its interaction with other neurotransmitter systems.

  10. Motivational interviewing group at inpatient detoxification, its influence in maintaining abstinence and treatment retention after discharge.

    PubMed

    Bachiller, Diana; Grau-López, Lara; Barral, Carmen; Daigre, Constanza; Alberich, Cristina; Rodríguez-Cintas, Laia; Valero, Sergi; Casas, Miquel; Roncero, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The relapse rate after discharge from inpatient detoxification is high. The objective of this pilot study is to assess the sociodemographic, clinical and therapeutic factors associated with maintaining abstinence in patients who participated in a brief motivational interviewing group during admission for detoxification. A total of 46 patients, diagnosed substance dependent according to DSM -IV, and admitted to the Hospital Detoxification Unit, participated in a brief motivational interviewing group. Sociodemographic, clinical, motivation to change (University of Rhode Island Change Assessment, URICA) and satisfaction with the treatment group (Treatment Perceptions Questionnaire, CPT) data were collected. Abstinence and treatment retention two months after discharge were assessed by weekly telephone calls. A survival analysis was performed. Being male, having more cognitions of the maintenance stage of change at discharge, being satisfied with group therapy and therapist during hospitalization are associated with longer abstinence after discharge. The brief motivational interviewing group approach with patients admitted for detoxification is related to greater likelihood of maintaining abstinence and subsequent treatment retention. PMID:26132300

  11. Sex Can Wait: An Abstinence-Based Sexuality Curriculum for Upper Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael; Young, Tamera

    This curriculum, directed primarily to students in grades five and six, is a 5-week sexuality education program designed to promote sexual abstinence as the best decision young people can make for themselves. The guide is divided into three general areas of emphasis: Knowing Myself, Reltating to Others, and Planning My Future. These sections are…

  12. Sex Can Wait: An Abstinence-Based Sexuality Curriculum for High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Core-Gebhart, Pennie; And Others

    This curriculum, directed primarily to students in grades nine and ten, is a 5-week sexuality education program designed to promote sexual abstinence as the best decision young people can make for themselves. The guide is divided into four general areas of emphasis. Section one, "Knowing Myself," helps students feel good about who they are as…

  13. The Evaluation of Abstinence Education Programs Funded Under Title V Section 510: Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devaney, Barbara; Johnson, Amy; Maynard, Rebecca; Trenholm, Chris

    This report presents interim findings from an independent, federally funded evaluation of the abstinence education programs authorized under the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) and defined under Title V, Section 510 (b)(2)(A-H) of the Social Security Act. The report draws heavily on 4 years of…

  14. Adolescents' Thoughts about Abstinence Curb the Return of Marijuana Use during and after Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kevin M.; Chung, Tammy; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    Despite evidence showing that readiness to change substance use predicts reductions in substance use among treated adolescents, there is little research on changes in thoughts about abstinence and marijuana use during and after treatment. The current study tested whether time-varying changes in adolescents' motivation to abstain and perceived…

  15. Six month abstinence rule for liver transplantation in severe alcoholic liver disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Obed, Aiman; Stern, Steffen; Jarrad, Anwar; Lorf, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the second most common diagnosis among patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT). The recovery results of patients transplanted for ALD are often at least as good as those of patients transplanted for other diagnoses and better than those suffering from hepatitis C virus, cryptogenic cirrhosis, or hepatocellular carcinoma. In the case of medically non-responding patients with severe acute alcoholic hepatitis or acute-on chronic liver failure, the refusal of LT is often based on the lack of the required alcohol abstinence period of six months. The obligatory abidance of a period of abstinence as a transplant eligibility requirement for medically non-responding patients seems unfair and inhumane, since the majority of these patients will not survive the six-month abstinence period. Data from various studies have challenged the 6-mo rule, while excellent survival results of LT have been observed in selected patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis not responding to medical therapy. Patients with severe advanced ALD should have legal access to LT. The mere lack of pre-LT abstinence should not be an obstacle for being listed. PMID:25892898

  16. Effects of Initial Abstinence and Programmed Lapses on the Relative Reinforcing Effects of Cigarette Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chivers, Laura L.; Higgins, Stephen T.; Heil, Sarah H.; Proskin, Rebecca W.; Thomas, Colleen S.

    2008-01-01

    Fifty-eight smokers received abstinence-contingent monetary payments for 1 (n = 15) or 14 (n = 43) days. Those who received contingent payments for 14 days also received 0, 1, or 8 experimenter-delivered cigarette puffs on 5 evenings. The relative reinforcing effects of smoking were assessed in a 3-hr session on the final study day, when…

  17. Experiences of violence and association with decreased drug abstinence among women in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Reed, Elizabeth; Myers, Bronwyn; Novak, Scott P; Browne, Felicia A; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2015-01-01

    Drug abuse is a contributing factor in women's HIV risk in low-income communities in Cape Town, South Africa. This study assessed whether experiencing violence is associated with reduced drug abstinence among adult women (n = 603) participating in a randomized field trial for an HIV prevention study in Cape Town. In relation to drug abstinence at 12-month follow-up, multivariable regression models were used to assess (1) baseline partner and non-partner victimization, and (2) victimization at 12-month follow-up among participants reporting baseline victimization. Baseline partner (AOR = 0.6; 95 % CI 0.4-0.9) and non-partner victimization (AOR = 0.6; 95 % CI 0.4-0.9) were associated with a reduced likelihood of drug abstinence at follow-up. Among participants who reported victimization at baseline, those no longer reporting victimization at follow-up did not differ significantly in drug abstinence compared with those who reported victimization at follow-up. The study findings highlight the lasting impact of victimization on women's drug use outcomes, persisting regardless of whether violence was no longer reported at follow-up. Overall, the findings support the need for the primary prevention of violence to address the cycle of violence, drug use, and HIV among women in this setting. PMID:24934652

  18. Sex Can Wait: An Abstinence-Based Sexuality Curriculum for Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Core-Gebhart, Pennie; And Others

    This curriculum, directed primarily to students in grades seven and eight, is a five-week sexuality education program designed to promote sexual abstinence as the best decision young people can make for themselves. The guide is divided into three general areas of emphasis. These sections are divided into six units that focus the content of the…

  19. Remaining Off Alcohol and Drugs: A Self-Management Skills Program for Abstinence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunphy, Peter Hughes

    The Remaining Off Alcohol and Drugs Program (ROAD) was developed to teach newly abstinent chemical misusing clients how to remain alcohol and drug free. It provides its participants with a repertoire of knowledge, skills and behaviors that they can use in dealing with the most common problems caused by discontinuing chemical use and which can be…

  20. Evidence on the Effectiveness of Abstinence Education: An Update. No. 2372

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Christine C.; Rector, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Teen sexual activity is costly, not just for teens, but also for society. Teens who engage in sexual activity risk a host of negative outcomes including STD infection, emotional and psychological harm, and out-of-wedlock childbearing. Genuine abstinence education is therefore crucial to the physical and psycho-emotional well-being of the nation's…

  1. Experiences of Violence and Association with Decreased Drug Abstinence Among Women in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Elizabeth; Myers, Bronwyn; Novak, Scott P.; Browne, Felicia A.; Wechsberg, Wendee M.

    2015-01-01

    Drug abuse is a contributing factor in women’s HIV risk in low-income communities in Cape Town, South Africa. This study assessed whether experiencing violence is associated with reduced drug abstinence among adult women (n = 603) participating in a randomized field trial for an HIV prevention study in Cape Town. In relation to drug abstinence at 12-month follow-up, multivariable regression models were used to assess (1) baseline partner and non-partner victimization, and (2) victimization at 12-month follow-up among participants reporting baseline victimization. Baseline partner (AOR = 0.6; 95 % CI 0.4–0.9) and non-partner victimization (AOR = 0.6; 95 % CI 0.4–0.9) were associated with a reduced likelihood of drug abstinence at follow-up. Among participants who reported victimization at baseline, those no longer reporting victimization at follow-up did not differ significantly in drug abstinence compared with those who reported victimization at follow-up. The study findings highlight the lasting impact of victimization on women’s drug use outcomes, persisting regardless of whether violence was no longer reported at follow-up. Overall, the findings support the need for the primary prevention of violence to address the cycle of violence, drug use, and HIV among women in this setting. PMID:24934652

  2. Voucher-Based Contingent Reinforcement of Smoking Abstinence among Methadone-Maintained Patients: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Kelly E.; Sigmon, Stacey C.; Thomas, Colleen S.; Heil, Sarah H.; Higgins, Stephen T.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a contingency management (CM) intervention to promote smoking cessation in methadone-maintained patients. Twenty participants, randomized into contingent (n = 10) or noncontingent (n = 10) experimental conditions, completed the 14-day study. Abstinence was determined using breath carbon monoxide and urine…

  3. Even-odd effects in Z and N distributions of fragments emitted at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, I.; Lanzalone, G.; Agodi, C.; Amorini, F.; Anzalone, A.; Han, J.; Maiolino, C.; Auditore, L.; Loria, D.; Trifiro, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Berceanu, I.; Cardella, G.; De Filippo, E.; Pagano, A.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S.; Cavallaro, S.; Porto, F.; Rizzo, F.

    2011-08-15

    Even-odd effects in Z and N distributions of light fragments emitted at forward angles in nuclear collisions {sup 40}Ca + {sup 40}Ca, {sup 40}Ca + {sup 48}Ca, and {sup 48}Ca + {sup 48}Ca at 25 MeV/nucleon and identified in charge and mass with the Chimera multidetector have been analyzed. The amplitude of even-odd staggering effects seems to be related to the neutron to proton ratio N/Z of the entrance channels. A qualitative explanation of this effect, taking into account the deexcitation phase of primary excited fragments, is discussed.

  4. The ODD protocol: A review and first update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimm, Volker; Berger, Uta; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Polhill, J. Gary; Giske, Jarl; Railsback, Steve F.

    2010-01-01

    The 'ODD' (Overview, Design concepts, and Details) protocol was published in 2006 to standardize the published descriptions of individual-based and agent-based models (ABMs). The primary objectives of ODD are to make model descriptions more understandable and complete, thereby making ABMs less subject to criticism for being irreproducible. We have systematically evaluated existing uses of the ODD protocol and identified, as expected, parts of ODD needing improvement and clarification. Accordingly, we revise the definition of ODD to clarify aspects of the original version and thereby facilitate future standardization of ABM descriptions. We discuss frequently raised critiques in ODD but also two emerging, and unanticipated, benefits: ODD improves the rigorous formulation of models and helps make the theoretical foundations of large models more visible. Although the protocol was designed for ABMs, it can help with documenting any large, complex model, alleviating some general objections against such models.

  5. Stress enhances retrieval of drug-related memories in abstinent heroin addicts.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Yan; Shi, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Epstein, David H; Zhang, Xiang-Yang; Liu, Yu; Kosten, Thomas R; Lu, Lin

    2010-02-01

    Stress is associated with relapse to drugs after abstinence, but the mechanisms for this association are unclear. One mechanism may be that stress enhances abstinent addicts' recall of memories of drugs as stress relievers. This study assessed the effects of stress on free recall and cued recall of 10 heroin-related and 10 neutral words learned 24 h earlier by 102 abstinent heroin addicts. These participants were randomly assigned to three experiments that also assessed attention and working memory. Experiment 1 used a psychosocial stressor (Trier social stress test (TSST)) before testing for recall of heroin-related words. Experiment 2 added administration of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol 1 h before the psychosocial stressor. Experiment 3 added administration of either cortisol with propranolol, cortisol alone, or propranolol alone 1 h before word recall to determine whether stress enhancement of heroin-related word recall required noradrenergic-glucocorticoid interactions. We found that free recall of heroin-related words in abstinent addicts was enhanced after stress or cortisol administration when compared with a non-stress condition or placebo, respectively, whereas these interventions had no effect on neutral word recall. beta-adrenergic blockade blocked the enhancing effect of stress or cortisol on free recall of heroin-related words. Neither stress nor cortisol affected cued recall, attention, or working memory. The potential of beta-adrenergic blockade to reduce or block stress-induced enhancement of drug-related memory retrieval may be relevant to preventing stress-induced relapse in abstinent heroin addicts. PMID:19890257

  6. Dysregulated responses to emotions among abstinent heroin users: correlation with childhood neglect and addiction severity.

    PubMed

    Gerra, G; Somaini, L; Manfredini, M; Raggi, M A; Saracino, M A; Amore, M; Leonardi, C; Cortese, E; Donnini, C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the subjective responses of abstinent heroin users to both neutral and negative stimuli and the related hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal reactions to emotional experience in relationship to their perception of childhood adverse experiences. Thirty male abstinent heroin dependents were included in the study. Emotional responses and childhood neglect perception were measured utilizing the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Y-1 and the Child Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Neutral and unpleasant pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System and the Self-Assessment Manikin procedure have been used to determine ratings of pleasure and arousal. These ratings were compared with normative values obtained from healthy volunteers used as control. Blood samples were collected before and after the experimental sessions to determine both adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol plasma levels. Basal anxiety scores, cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels were higher in abstinent heroin users than in controls. Tests showed that anxiety scores did not change in controls after the vision of neutral slides, whilst they did in abstinent heroin addicts, increasing significantly; and increased less significantly after the unpleasant task, in comparison to controls. Abstinent heroin users showed significantly higher levels of parent antipathy and childhood emotional neglect perception than controls for both the father and the mother. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels did not significantly increase after unpleasant slide set viewing among addicted individuals, because of the significantly higher basal levels characterizing the addicted subjects in comparison with controls. Multiple regression correlation showed a significant relationship between childhood neglect perception, arousal reaction, impaired hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis response and addiction severity. Early adverse experiences

  7. Internet and Telephone Treatment for Smoking Cessation: Mediators and Moderators of Short-Term Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Papandonatos, George D.; Cobb, Caroline O.; Cobb, Nathan K.; Niaura, Raymond S.; Abrams, David B.; Tinkelman, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study examined mediators and moderators of short-term treatment effectiveness from the iQUITT Study (Quit Using Internet and Telephone Treatment), a 3-arm randomized trial that compared an interactive smoking cessation Web site with an online social network (enhanced Internet) alone and in conjunction with proactive telephone counseling (enhanced Internet plus phone) to a static Internet comparison condition (basic Internet). Methods: The analytic sample was N = 1,236 participants with complete 3-month data on all mediating variables. The primary outcome was 30-day point prevalence abstinence (ppa) at 3 months. Recognizing the importance of temporal precedence in mediation analyses, we also present findings for 6-month outcomes. Purported mediators were treatment utilization and changes in psychosocial constructs. Proposed moderators included baseline demographic, smoking, and psychosocial variables. Mediation analyses examined the extent to which between-arm differences in 30-day ppa could be attributed to differential Web site utilization, telephone counseling, and associated changes in smoking self-efficacy and social support for quitting. Effect modification analyses fitted interactions between treatment and prespecified moderators on abstinence. Results: Significant mediators of 30-day ppa were changes in smoking temptations, quitting confidence, and positive and negative partner support, which were strongly associated with increased Web site utilization. The addition of telephone counseling to an enhanced Web site further improved abstinence rates, partly via an association with increased quitting confidence. Baseline smoking rate was the only significant moderator. Conclusions: Increased treatment utilization and associated changes in several psychosocial measures yielded higher abstinence rates. Findings validate the importance of treatment utilization, smoking self-efficacy, and social support to promote abstinence. PMID:25156528

  8. Online Community Use Predicts Abstinence in Combined Internet/Phone Intervention for Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Papandonatos, George D.; Erar, Bahar; Stanton, Cassandra A.; Graham, Amanda L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the causal effects of online community use on 30-day point prevalence abstinence at 3 months among smokers randomized to combined Internet+Phone intervention for smoking cessation. Method Participants were N=399 adult smokers in the Internet+Phone arm of The iQUITT Study, a randomized trial of Internet and proactive telephone counseling for smoking cessation. All participants accessed a web-based smoking-cessation program with an established online community and received telephone counseling. Automated tracking metrics of passive (e.g., reading posts, viewing profiles) and active (e.g., writing posts, sending messages) community use were extracted at 3 months. Self-selected community use defines the groups of interest: None, Passive, and Both (passive+active). Inverse probability of treatment weighting corrected for baseline imbalances on demographic, smoking, and psychosocial variables. Propensity weights estimated via generalized boosted models were used to calculate Average Treatment Effects (ATE) and Average Treatment effects on the Treated (ATT). Results Patterns of community use were: None=145 (36.3%), Passive=82 (20.6%), and Both=172 (43.1%). ATE-weighted abstinence rates were: None=12.2% (95% CI=6.7–17.7); Passive=25.2% (95% CI=15.1–35.2); Both=35.5% (95% CI=28.1–42.9). ATT-weighted abstinence rates indicated even greater benefits of passive community use by non-users. Conclusions More than one third of participants who received telephone counseling and used the community both passively and actively achieved abstinence. Participation in an established online community as part of a combined Internet+phone intervention has the potential to promote short-term abstinence. Results also demonstrated that information and support that originate in the community can serve as a resource for all users. PMID:27100127

  9. Rapid Recovery of Vesicular Dopamine Levels in Methamphetamine Users in Early Abstinence.

    PubMed

    Boileau, Isabelle; McCluskey, Tina; Tong, Junchao; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Houle, Sylvain; Kish, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    We previously reported very low levels of dopamine in post-mortem striatum of chronic methamphetamine users, raising the possibility that restoration of normal dopamine levels could help in this addiction and perhaps prevent early relapse. To establish relevance of this finding to the living brain, we tested whether striatal [(11)C]-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine binding, a vesicular monoamine transporter probe sensitive to changes in (stored) vesicular dopamine, is elevated in methamphetamine users. Chronic methamphetamine users underwent [(11)C]-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine positron emission tomography scans during early (mean 2.6 days) and later (~10 days) abstinence. Striatal [(11)C]-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine binding was elevated (suggesting low stored dopamine) in methamphetamine users (n=28; 2.6 days after last use) relative to controls (n=22) (+28%, p<0.0001) and correlated with severity and recency of drug use and with cognitive impairment and withdrawal symptoms. Mean [(11)C]-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine binding levels in the subgroup of methamphetamine users who could remain abstinent ~10 days following last use (n=17) were normal at the follow-up scan. Our imaging data support post-mortem findings and suggest that chronic methamphetamine users have low brain levels of stored dopamine during very early abstinence from MA, which could contribute to behavioral and cognitive deficits. Findings also suggest a rapid recovery of stored dopamine in some methamphetamine users who become abstinent and who therefore might not benefit from dopamine replacement medication (eg, levodopa). Further study is necessary to establish whether those users who could not maintain abstinence for the second scan might have a more severe and persistent dopamine deficiency and who could benefit from this medication. PMID:26321315

  10. Changes in cerebral CB1 receptor availability after acute and chronic alcohol abuse and monitored abstinence.

    PubMed

    Ceccarini, Jenny; Hompes, Titia; Verhaeghen, Anne; Casteels, Cindy; Peuskens, Hendrik; Bormans, Guy; Claes, Stephan; Van Laere, Koen

    2014-02-19

    Involvement of the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) in the effects of alcohol on the brain is supported by animal experiments, but how in vivo CB1R levels are altered in alcoholic patients is still unclear. To assess the short-time effects of a binge drinking episode on CB1R availability, 20 healthy social drinkers underwent [(18)F]MK-9470-positron emission tomography (PET) at baseline and after intravenous ethanol administration (ALC ACU). Moreover, 26 alcoholic patients underwent sequential CB1R PET after chronic heavy drinking (ALC CHR) and after 1 month of abstinence (ALC ABST). Seventeen healthy subjects served as controls. Compared with baseline, ALC ACU resulted in a global increase of CB1R availability (+15.8%). In contrast, a global decreased CB1R availability was found in ALC CHR patients (-16.1%) compared with controls, which remained unaltered after abstinence (-17.0%). Voxel-based analysis showed that ALC CHR patients had reduced CB1R availability, especially in the cerebellum and parieto-occipital cortex. After abstinence, reduced CB1R availability extended also to other areas such as the ventral striatum and mesotemporal lobe. In conclusion, whereas the acute alcohol effect is an increase in CB1R availability, chronic heavy drinking leads to reduced CB1R availability that is not reversible after 1 month of abstinence. Longer follow-up is required to differentiate whether this is a compensatory effect of repeated endocannabinoid overstimulation or an enduring trait-like feature. An enhanced CB1R signaling may offer a new therapeutic direction for treatment of the negative affective state produced by alcohol withdrawal and abstinence, which is critical for the maintenance of alcohol addiction. PMID:24553924

  11. Use of an Online Smoking Cessation Community Promotes Abstinence: Results of Propensity Score Weighting

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Amanda L.; Papandonatos, George D.; Erar, Bahar; Stanton, Cassandra A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the causal effects of use of an online smoking cessation community on 30-day point prevalence abstinence at 3 months. Methods Participants were N=492 adult current smokers in the enhanced Internet arm of The iQUITT Study, a randomized trial of Internet and telephone treatment for smoking cessation. All participants accessed a web-based smoking-cessation program that included a large, established online community. Automated tracking metrics of passive (e.g., reading forum posts, viewing member profiles) and active (e.g., writing forum posts, sending private messages) community use were extracted from the site at 3 months. Self-selected community use defines the groups of interest: “None”, “Passive”, and “Both” (passive+active). Inverse probability of treatment weighting corrected for baseline imbalances on demographic, smoking, psychosocial, and medical history variables. Propensity weights estimated via generalized boosted models were used to calculate Average Treatment Effects (ATE) and Average Treatment effects on the Treated (ATT). Results Patterns of community use were: None=198 (40.2%), Passive=110 (22.4%), and Both=184 (37.4%). ATE-weighted abstinence rates were: None=4.2% (95% CI=1.5–6.9); Passive=15.1% (95% CI=8.4–21.9); Both=20.4% (95% CI=13.9–26.8). ATT-weighted abstinence rates indicated even greater benefits of community use. Conclusions Community users were more likely to quit smoking at 3 months than nonusers. The estimated benefit from use of online community resources was even larger among subjects with high propensity to use them. No differences in abstinence emerged between passive and passive/active users. Results suggest that lurking in online communities confers specific abstinence benefits. Implications of these findings for online cessation communities are discussed. PMID:26651470

  12. Effect of Abstinence on Depression, Anxiety, and Quality of Life in Chronic Methamphetamine Users in a Therapeutic Community

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Maryam; Mokri, Azarakhsh; Khosravi, Aliakbar; Kabir, Kourosh

    2015-01-01

    Background: During withdrawal, patients experience different symptoms. These symptoms are associated with relapse. Understanding different outcomes of methamphetamine abstinence is useful for finding better treatments for dependence. Objectives: This study aimed to show the effects of abstinence on depression, anxiety, and quality of life in methamphetamine users. Patients and Methods: A prospective quasi-experimental (before and after study) method was used to show the effect of 3 weeks abstinence on depression, anxiety, and quality of life. A convenient sample of addicted people entered into the study and 34 people completed the study. Beck Depression Scale, Cattell Anxiety Inventory and Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) (for assessing quality of life), were used for outcome assessments. Results: The mean depression score after abstinence decreased significantly (P < 0.001). Both hidden and obvious anxiety and total anxiety had a high level at admission and after 3 weeks of abstinence, the mean level of anxiety did not change significantly (P < 0.096). However, the quality of life increased after 3 weeks of abstinence (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Depression and anxiety are prevalent in methamphetamine users. Short-term abstinence improves depression and quality of life but does not improve anxiety in methamphetamine abusers. During follow up of these patients, addressing depression and anxiety is important to achieve better results. PMID:26495258

  13. Redistribution of reactive odd nitrogen in the lower arctic stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebler, G.; Fahey, D. W.; Kelly, K. K.; Montzka, D. D.; Carroll, M. A.; Tuck, A. F.; Heidt, L. E.; Pollock, W. H.; Gregory, G. L.; Vedder, J. F.

    1990-01-01

    In-situ measurements of total reactive odd nitrogen NO(y), were made from the NASA DC-8 aircraft in the lower arctic stratosphere during the 1989 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition. Throughout January and February, NO(y) mixing ratios were typically between 0.5 and 3 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) at altitudes between 10 and 12.5 km. During several flights late in the mission, events of unusually light NO(y) occurred with mixing ratios up to 12 ppbv at these altitudes. Simultaneous measurements of N2O, O3, and H2O during these events suggest that large changes in NO(y) are not expected. The elevated NO(y) values are interpreted as a vertical redistribution of NO(y) in the lower stratosphere resulting from gravitational sedimentation of aerosol particles containing HNO3. No evidence of the redistribution of H2O is noted, consistent with observations of denitrification without dehydration higher in the stratosphere.

  14. Effects of naltrexone on post-abstinence alcohol drinking in C57BL/6NCRL and DBA/2J mice.

    PubMed

    Tomie, Arthur; Azogu, Idu; Yu, Lei

    2013-07-01

    The present experiment evaluated the effects of naltrexone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, on post-abstinence alcohol drinking in C57BL/6NCRL and DBA/2J male mice. Home cage 2-bottle (alcohol vs. water) free-choice procedures were employed. During the pre-abstinence period, alcohol intake was much lower for the DBA/2J mice relative to the C57BL/6NCRL mice, and this strain difference was observed for groups receiving either 3% or 10% alcohol concentrations. The four-day abstinence period effectively reduced alcohol intakes (i.e., a negative alcohol deprivation effect, negative ADE) in both groups of DBA/2J mice, but had no effect on alcohol intakes in either group of C57BL/6NCRL mice. Both groups trained with 3% alcohol received the second four-day abstinence period, where the effects of acute administration of either naltrexone or saline on post-abstinence alcohol drinking were assessed. Naltrexone was more effective in reducing post-abstinence drinking of 3% alcohol in the DBA/2J mice than in the C57BL/6NCRL mice. In the DBA/2J mice, naltrexone further reduced, relative to saline-injected controls, the low levels of post-abstinence alcohol intake. Thus, the low baseline levels of alcohol drinking in DBA/2J mice were further diminished by the four-day abstinence period (negative ADE), and this suppressed post-abstinence level of alcohol drinking was still further reduced by acute administration of naltrexone. The results indicate that naltrexone is effective in reducing further the low levels of alcohol drinking induced by the negative ADE. PMID:23499782

  15. Isospin and deformation studies in the odd-odd N=Z nucleus {sup 54}Co

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, D.; Andersson, L.-L.; Ekman, J.; Erten, O.; Fahlander, C.; Johansson, E. K.; Andreoiu, C.; Bengtsson, R.; Ragnarsson, I.; Bentley, M. A.; Williams, S. J.; Carpenter, M. P.; Seweryniak, D.; Charity, R. J.; Reviol, W.; Sarantites, D. G.; Clark, R. M.; Fallon, P.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Svensson, C. E.

    2010-11-15

    High-spin states in the odd-odd N=Z nucleus {sup 54}Co have been investigated by the fusion-evaporation reaction {sup 28}Si({sup 32}S,1{alpha}1p1n){sup 54}Co. Gamma-ray information gathered with the Ge detector array Gammasphere was correlated with evaporated particles detected in the charged particle detector system Microball and a 1{pi} neutron detector array. A significantly extended excitation scheme of {sup 54}Co is presented, which includes a candidate for the isospin T=1, 6{sup +} state of the 1f{sub 7/2}{sup -2} multiplet. The results are compared to large-scale shell-model calculations in the fp shell. Effective interactions with and without isospin-breaking terms have been used to probe isospin symmetry and isospin mixing. A quest for deformed high-spin rotational cascades proved negative. This feature is discussed by means of cranking calculations.

  16. Influence of Traxiality on the Signature Inversion in Odd Odd Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Ren-Rong; Zhu, Shun-Quan; Luo, Xiang-Dong; Janos, Timár; Andree, Gizon; Jean, Gizon; Sohler, D.; Nyakó M., B.; Zolnai, L.; Paul S., E.

    2004-08-01

    The nature of signature inversion in the pig9/2nuh11/2 bands of odd-odd 98,102Rh nuclei is studied. Calculations are performed by using a triaxial rotor plus two-quasiparticle model and are compared with the experimentally observed signature inversions. The calculations reproduce well the observations and suggest that, in these bands, the signature inversion can be interpreted mainly as a competition between the Coriolis and the proton-neutron residual interactions in low K space. The triaxiality applied in the Hamiltonian enlarges the amplitudes of high spin signature zigzags at small triaxial deformation and might push the signature inversion point to higher spin at large triaxial deformation.

  17. Meeting report for "OddPols" 2014: the odds invite an even.

    PubMed

    Roy-Engel, Astrid M

    2015-02-01

    The Ninth International Biennial Conference on RNA Polymerases I and III (the "OddPols") was held on June 19-21, 2014 at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA. Sponsored by New England Biolabs, the Cayman Chemical Company, the Rackham Graduate School and the University of Michigan Health System, and organized by David Engelke, Craig Pikaard, Lawrence Rothblum, Andrzej Wierzbicki and Astrid Engel. This year at the conference, the "odds" were increased by expanding the usual topics on the advances in RNA polymerases I and III research to include presentations on RNA polymerase IV and V. The keynote speaker, Craig Pikaard, opened the meeting with his presentation entitled "Five nuclear multisubunit RNA polymerases". The meeting drew attendees from fourteen countries that shared their research discoveries through oral and poster presentations. The talks were organized into 11 sessions covering seven distinct topics. Here we present some of the highlights from the meeting using summaries provided by the participants. PMID:25445280

  18. Chiral Symmetry and Signature Splitting in Odd-Odd Neutron deficient Pr Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetea, Mirela; Nikolova, Veronika; Crider, Benjamin

    2004-10-01

    Over the past few years, sufficient data have been accumulated to enable a meaningful study of the systematic trends in nuclei far from stability. While general characteristics seen in experiments are understood by various mean-field nuclear models, there are key features that are not fully explained. Of particular interest are the chiral symmetry (chiral bands) and signature splitting/inversion phenomena. We report on our investigation on the association of signature inversion in an odd-odd band of two quasiparticles pointed along different axes with the formation of chiral twin bands, and understanding systematic chiral symmetry and signature splitting/inversion features within the framework of particle rotor model for neutron deficient Pr nuclei. This work was supported by the NSF Grant No. PHY 0204811 and U.S. Research Corporation Grant No. CC5494.

  19. Structure of the yrast band in the odd-odd deformed nucleus {sup 156}Pm

    SciTech Connect

    Sood, P. C.; Sai, K. Vijay; Gowrishankar, R.; Sainath, M.

    2011-05-15

    The six-level sequence deduced for the odd-odd nucleus {sup 156}Pm in the high-spin studies following spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf is shown to constitute the K{sup {pi}=}4{sup +} yrast band having the two-quasiparticle configuration {l_brace}p:5/2[532]+ n:3/2[521]{r_brace}. Spin parities I{sup {pi}=}4{sup +} through 9{sup +} are assigned to the earlier suggested six levels. The location and the decay {gamma}'s of the 10{sup +} level of this band are indicated. It is also pointed out that there are no {gamma} rays common to these postfission high-spin spectra and those seen in the {sup 156}Nd {beta}-decay studies.

  20. Odd frequency pairing of interacting Majorana fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhoushen; Woelfle, Peter; Balatsky, Alexandar

    Majorana fermions are rising as a promising key component in quantum computation. While the prevalent approach is to use a quadratic (i.e. non-interacting) Majorana Hamiltonian, when expressed in terms of Dirac fermions, generically the Hamiltonian involves interaction terms. Here we focus on the possible pair correlations in a simple model system. We study a model of Majorana fermions coupled to a boson mode and show that the anomalous correlator between different Majorana fermions, located at opposite ends of a topological wire, exhibits odd frequency behavior. It is stabilized when the coupling strength g is above a critical value gc. We use both, conventional diagrammatic theory and a functional integral approach, to derive the gap equation, the critical temperature, the gap function, the critical coupling, and a Ginzburg-Landau theory allowing to discuss a possible subleading admixture of even-frequency pairing. Work supported by USDOE DE-AC52-06NA25396 E304, Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, and ERC DM-321031.

  1. Large odd{endash}even effect in RbC{sup {minus}}{sub {ital n}} cluster size distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenbosch, R.; Will, D.I.

    1996-04-01

    RbC{sub {ital n}} cluster anions have been produced by Rb sputtering of graphite. The intensity ratio of clusters with an even number of carbon atoms to those with an odd number of carbons is much larger for RbC{sup {minus}}{sub {ital n}} clusters than for C{sup {minus}}{sub {ital n}} clusters. {ital Ab} {ital initio} quantum mechanical calculations suggest that this arises from RbC{sub {ital n}} electron affinities that are close to zero or negative for odd {ital n}, rather than from an enhanced odd{endash}even alternation in the affinities. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Employment-Based Abstinence Reinforcement as a Maintenance Intervention for the Treatment of Cocaine Dependence: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    DeFulio, Anthony; Donlin, Wendy D.; Wong, Conrad J.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Context: Due to the chronic nature of cocaine dependence, long-term maintenance treatments may be required to sustain abstinence. Abstinence reinforcement is among the most effective means of initiating cocaine abstinence. Practical and effective means of maintaining abstinence reinforcement programs over time are needed. Objective: Determine whether employment-based abstinence reinforcement can be an effective long-term maintenance intervention for cocaine dependence. Design: Participants (N=128) were enrolled in a 6-month job skills training and abstinence initiation program. Participants who initiated abstinence, attended regularly, and developed needed job skills during the first six months were hired as operators in a data entry business and randomly assigned to an employment only (Control, n = 24) or abstinence-contingent employment (n = 27) group. Setting: A nonprofit data entry business. Participants: Unemployed welfare recipients who persistently used cocaine while enrolled in methadone treatment in Baltimore. Intervention: Abstinence-contingent employment participants received one year of employment-based contingency management, in which access to employment was contingent on provision drug-free urine samples under routine and then random drug testing. If a participant provided drug-positive urine or failed to provide a mandatory sample, then that participant received a temporary reduction in pay and could not work until urinalysis confirmed recent abstinence. Main Outcome Measure: Cocaine-negative urine samples at monthly assessments across one year of employment. Results: During the one-year of employment, abstinence-contingent employment participants provided significantly more cocaine-negative urine samples than employment only participants (79.3% and 50.7%, respectively; p = 0.004, OR = 3.73, 95% CI = 1.60 – 8.69). Conclusions: Employment-based abstinence reinforcement that includes random drug testing is effective as a long-term maintenance

  3. The Effects of Lithium Carbonate Supplemented with Nitrazepam on Sleep Disturbance during Cannabis Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Allsop, David J.; Bartlett, Delwyn J.; Johnston, Jennifer; Helliwell, David; Winstock, Adam; McGregor, Iain S.; Lintzeris, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep disturbance is a hallmark feature of cannabis withdrawal. In this study we explored the effects of lithium treatment supplemented with nitrazepam on objective and subjective measures of sleep quality during inpatient cannabis withdrawal. Methods: Treatment-seeking cannabis-dependent adults (n = 38) were admitted for 8 days to an inpatient withdrawal unit and randomized to either oral lithium (500 mg) or placebo, twice daily in a double-blind RCT. Restricted nitrazepam (10 mg) was available on demand (in response to poor sleep) on any 3 of the 7 nights. Dependent outcome measures for analysis included repeated daily objective actigraphy and subjective sleep measures throughout the 8 day detox, subjective cannabis withdrawal ratings, and detoxification completion rates. Results: Based on actigraphy, lithium resulted in less fragmented sleep compared to placebo (p = 0.04), but no other objective measures were improved by lithium. Of the subjective measures, only nightmares were suppressed by lithium (p = 0.04). Lithium did not have a significant impact on the use of nitrazepam. Sleep bout length (p < 0.0001), sleep efficiency (p < 0.0001), and sleep fragmentation (p = 0.05) were improved on nights in which nitrazepam was used. In contrast, only night sweats improved with nitrazepam from the subjective measures (p = 0.04). A Cox regression with daily repeated measures of sleep efficiency averaged across all people in the study a predictor suggests that a one-unit increase in sleep efficiency (the ratio of total sleep time to the total time in bed expressed as a percentage) resulted in a 14.6% increase in retention in treatment (p = 0.008, Exp(B) = 0.854, 95% CI = 0.759–0.960). None of the other sleep measures, nor use of lithium or nitrazepam were significantly associated with retention in treatment. Conclusions: Lithium seems to have only limited efficacy on sleep disturbance in cannabis withdrawal. However the nitrazepam improved several

  4. GT Strength in Odd-A Nuclei^*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, J. W.; Du, Q. Q.

    1998-04-01

    We measured the complete set of polarization-transfer observables (D_ij) for the ^13C(p,n)^13N and ^15N(p,n)^15O reactions at 135 MeV. From the D_ijs we constructed the spin-independent, spin-longitudinal, and spin-transverse responses [1] D_0, D_q, Dn and D_p. From these responses we extracted, in a model-independent way, the Δ J=0 and Δ J=1 (``F'' and ``GT'') fractions of the J^π=1/2^-arrow1/2^- g.s. to g.s. transitions for these reactions. The ``F'' fraction, f_F=D_0(0^circ); the ``GT'' fraction, f_GT=D_q(0^circ)+D_n(0^circ)+D_p(0^circ)= 1- D_0(0^circ). The extracted GT fractions, f_GT, are substantially larger than one would predict from β-decay matrix elements and the systematics of the (p,n) reaction on even-A nuclei. These results confirm earlier, model-dependent determinations of f_GT obtained from the (p,n) reaction on ^13C, ^15N and ^39K at other energies [2], [3], [4], indicating that considerable caution must be used when extracting B(GT) matrix elements from odd-A (p,n) data. * Research supported in part by the U.S. NSF. [1] M. Ichimura, K. Kawahigashi, Phys. Rev. C 45 1822 (1992). [2] T. N. Taddeucci, C. A. Goulding, T. A. Carey, R. C. Byrd, C. D. Goodman, C. Gaarde, J. Larsen, D. Horen, J. Rapaport, and E. Sugarbaker, Nucl. Phys. A469 125 (1987). [3] H. Sakai, H. Okamura, N. Matsuoka, A. Shimizu, T. Suda, M. Ieiri and H. M. Shimizu, Nuclear Physics A579 45-61 (1994). [4] W. Huang, Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana U., 1991, (unpublished).

  5. The Knowledge Gap Versus the Belief Gap and Abstinence-Only Sex Education.

    PubMed

    Hindman, Douglas Blanks; Yan, Changmin

    2015-08-01

    The knowledge gap hypothesis predicts widening disparities in knowledge of heavily publicized public affairs issues among socioeconomic status groups. The belief gap hypothesis extends the knowledge gap hypothesis to account for knowledge and beliefs about politically contested issues based on empirically verifiable information. This analysis of 3 national surveys shows belief gaps developed between liberals and conservatives regarding abstinence-only sex education; socioeconomic status-based knowledge gaps did not widen. The findings partially support both belief gap and knowledge gap hypotheses. In addition, the unique contributions of exposure to Fox News, CNN, and MSNBC in this process were investigated. Only exposure to Fox News was linked to beliefs about abstinence-only sex education directly and indirectly through the cultivation of conservative ideology. PMID:25950234

  6. Factors Associated with Sexual Abstinence among Adolescents in Four Sub-Saharan African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Kabiru, Caroline W.; Ezeh, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on nationally representative data collected from Burkinabé, Ghanaian, Malawian, and Ugandan adolescents, this study examines differences among four groups of never married, 15–19 year olds: primary abstainers (sexually inexperienced), secondary abstainers (last sex more than 12 months prior to the survey), recent abstainers (sexually active in last year but not in the last 3 months), and sexually active (had sexual intercourse in the last 3 months). The percentage of primary abstinent adolescents ranged from 42% (Malawian males) to 85% (Ghanaian males). In general, a greater proportion of females than males were primary abstainers. Primary abstainers were younger than sexually experienced adolescents. Current involvement in a romantic relationship was a significant predictor of sexual status with primary abstainers being the least likely to be romantically involved. Overall, findings suggest that adolescents’ gender, prior sexual experiences and contextual circumstances, such as romantic partnerships, should be considered when designing abstinence promotion programs. PMID:19122794

  7. I want to hold your hand: abstinence curricula, bioethics, and the silencing of desire.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, Abby

    2013-06-01

    The abstinence approach to sex education remains influential despite its demonstrated ineffectiveness. One bill forbids the "promotion" of "gateway sexual activity," while requiring outright condemnation of "non-abstinence," defined so loosely as to plausibly include handholding. Bioethics seldom (if ever) contributes to sex-ed debates, yet exploring the pivotal role of medical discourse reveals the need for bioethical intervention. Sex-ed debates revolve around a theory of human flourishing based on heteronormative temporality, a developmental teleology ensuring the transmission of various supposed social goods through heterosexual marriage (Halberstam, 2005). Heteronormative temporality also constitutes a moralized discourse in which the values of health and presumed certainties of medicine serve to justify conservative religious dictates that otherwise would appear controversial as the basis for public policy. Overall, this analysis explores how moralized medical discourses compound existing injustices, while suggesting bioethics' potential contributions to moral and political analysis of sex-ed policies. PMID:23468394

  8. From Abstinence to Relapse: A Preliminary Qualitative Study of Drug Users in a Compulsory Drug Rehabilitation Center in Changsha, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mei; Mamy, Jules; Gao, Pengcheng; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Relapse among abstinent drug users is normal. Several factors are related to relapse, but it remains unclear what individuals’ actual life circumstances are during periods of abstinence, and how these circumstances facilitate or prevent relapse. Objective To illuminate drug users’ experiences during abstinence periods and explore the real-life catalysts and inhibitors contributing to drug use relapse. Method Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 drug users recruited from a compulsory isolated drug rehabilitation center in Changsha. The interviews were guided by open-ended questions on individuals’ experiences in drug use initiation, getting addicted, treatment history, social environment, abstinence, and relapse. Participants were also encouraged to share their own stories. Interviews were digitally recorded and fully transcribed. The data of 18 participants who reported abstinence experiences before admission were included in the analyses. The data were analyzed using a thematic analysis with inductive hand coding to derive themes. Results Most drug users were able to successfully abstain from drugs. During abstinence, their lives were congested with challenges, such as adverse socioeconomic conditions, poor family/social support, interpersonal conflicts, and stigma and discrimination, all of which kept them excluded from mainstream society. Furthermore, the police’s system of ID card registration, which identifies individuals as drug users, worsened already grave situations. Relapse triggers reported by the participants focused mainly on negative feelings, interpersonal conflicts, and stressful events. Craving was experienced but not perceived as a relapse trigger by most participants. Conclusions This study of in-depth interview with drug users found evidence of situations and environments they live during abstinence appear rather disadvantaged, making it extremely difficult for them to remain abstinent. Comprehensive programs

  9. Nigerian secondary school adolescents' perspective on abstinence-only sexual education as an effective tool for promotion of sexual health.

    PubMed

    Inyang, Mfrekemfon P; Inyang, Obonganyie P

    2013-01-01

    The success of any type of sexual education programme depends on the knowledge and preparedness for practice by adolescents. A recent study has found that an 'abstinence-only' sexual education programme is effective in reducing sexual activity among adolescents. Knowledge of abstinence-only sexual education and preparedness for practice as an effective tool for promotion of sexual health among Nigerian secondary school adolescents was studied. An analytic descriptive survey design was used for the study. The research population comprised of all public secondary schools in three southern geopolitical zones of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 2020 senior secondary school (SS1-SS3) students as sample for the study. A partially self-designed and partially adapted questionnaire from an 'abstinence-only versus comprehensive sex education' debate, from debatepedia (http://wiki.idebate.org/), entitled 'Questionnaire on Nigerian Secondary School Adolescents' Perspective on Abstinence-Only Sexual Education (QNSSAPAOSE)' was used in eliciting information from respondents. Hypotheses were formulated and tested. Frequency counts, percentage and Pearson Product Moment Correlation were used in analysing data. A greater proportion of secondary school adolescents in this study lacked knowledge of sexual education. About 80% of the respondents could not define sexual education. The general perspective on abstinence-only sexual education was negative, as revealed by the larger number of respondents who demonstrated unwillingness to practice abstinence-only sexual education. Specifically, of those who responded in favour of abstinence-only sexual education, the youngest group of adolescents (11-13 years) and the male respondents were more likely to accept this type of education than the other groups. Poor knowledge of sexual education could be responsible for unwillingness to practice abstinence-only sexual education. Sexual

  10. Abstinence duration modulates striatal functioning during monetary reward processing in cocaine patients.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Juan-Carlos; Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso; Costumero, Víctor; Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Rosell-Negre, Patricia; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Llopis, Juan-José; Ávila, César

    2014-09-01

    Pre-clinical and clinical studies in cocaine addiction highlight alterations in the striatal dopaminergic reward system that subserve maintenance of cocaine use. Using an instrumental conditioning paradigm with monetary reinforcement, we studied striatal functional alterations in long-term abstinent cocaine-dependent patients and striatal functioning as a function of abstinence and treatment duration. Eighteen patients and 20 controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a Monetary Incentive Delay task. Region of interest analyses based on masks of the dorsal and ventral striatum were conducted to test between-group differences and the functional effects in the cocaine group of time (in months) with no more than two lapses from the first time patients visited the clinical service to seek treatment at the scanning time (duration of treatment), and the functional effects of the number of months with no lapses or relapses at the scanning session time (length of abstinence). We applied a voxel-wise and a cluster-wise FWE-corrected level (pFWE) at a threshold of P < 0.05. The patient group showed lower activation in the right caudate during reward anticipation than the control group. The regression analyses in the patients group revealed a positive correlation between duration of treatment and brain activity in the left caudate during reward anticipation. Likewise, length of abstinence negatively correlated with brain activity in the bilateral nucleus accumbens during monetary outcome processing. In conclusion, caudate and nucleus accumbens show a different brain response pattern to non-drug rewards during cocaine addiction, which can be modulated by treatment success. PMID:23445167

  11. Investigation of the neuroanatomical substrates of reward seeking following protracted abstinence in mice

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Heather B; Brown, Robyn M; Short, Jennifer L; Lawrence, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Persistent vulnerability to relapse represents a major challenge in the treatment of drug addiction. The brain circuitry that underlies relapse-like behaviour can be investigated using animal models of drug seeking. As yet there have been no comprehensive brain mapping studies that have specifically examined the neuroanatomical substrates of cue-induced opiate seeking following abstinence in a mouse operant paradigm. The aim of this study was to compare the brain regions involved in sucrose vs. morphine seeking following protracted abstinence in mice. Male CD1 mice were trained to respond for either sucrose (10% w/v) or intravenous morphine (0.1 mg kg−1 per infusion) in an operant paradigm in the presence of a discrete cue. Once stable responding was established, mice were subjected to abstinence in their home cages for 3 weeks and then perfused for tissue collection, or returned to the operant chambers to assess cue-induced reward seeking before being perfused for tissue collection. Brain tissue was processed for Fos immunohistochemistry and Fos expression was quantified in a range of brain nuclei. We identified unique patterns of neuronal activation for sucrose and morphine seeking mice as well as some overlap. Structures activated in both ‘relapse’ groups included the anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens shell, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, substantia nigra pars compacta, ventral tegmental area, hippocampus, periaqueductal grey, locus coeruleus and lateral habenula. Structures that were more activated in morphine seeking mice included the nucleus accumbens core, basolateral amygdala, substantia nigra pars reticulata, and the central nucleus of the amygdala. The dorsal raphe was the only structure examined that was specifically activated in sucrose seeking mice. Overall our findings support a cortico-striatal limbic circuit driving opiate seeking, and we have identified some additional circuitry potentially relevant to

  12. Animal models of drug relapse and craving: From drug priming-induced reinstatement to incubation of craving after voluntary abstinence.

    PubMed

    Venniro, Marco; Caprioli, Daniele; Shaham, Yavin

    2016-01-01

    High rates of relapse to drug use during abstinence is a defining feature of drug addiction. In abstinent drug users, drug relapse is often precipitated by acute exposure to the self-administered drug, drug-associated cues, stress, as well as by short-term and protracted withdrawal symptoms. In this review, we discuss different animal models that have been used to study behavioral and neuropharmacological mechanisms of these relapse-related phenomena. In the first part, we discuss relapse models in which abstinence is achieved through extinction training, including the established reinstatement model, as well as the reacquisition and resurgence models. In the second part, we discuss recent animal models in which drug relapse is assessed after either forced abstinence (e.g., the incubation of drug craving model) or voluntary (self-imposed) abstinence achieved either by introducing adverse consequences to ongoing drug self-administration (e.g., punishment) or by an alternative nondrug reward using a discrete choice (drug vs. palatable food) procedure. We conclude by briefly discussing the potential implications of the recent developments of animal models of drug relapse after voluntary abstinence to the development of medications for relapse prevention. PMID:26822352

  13. Prolonged sexual abstinence after childbirth: gendered norms and perceived family health risks. Focus group discussions in a Tanzanian suburb

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prolonged sexual abstinence after childbirth is a socio-cultural practice with health implications, and is described in several African countries, including Tanzania. This study explored discourses on prolonged postpartum sexual abstinence in relation to family health after childbirth in low-income suburbs of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Data for the discourse analysis were collected through focus group discussions with first-time mothers and fathers and their support people in Ilala, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Results In this setting, prolonged sexual abstinence intended at promoting child health was the dominant discourse in the period after childbirth. Sexual relations after childbirth involved the control of sexuality for ensuring family health and avoiding the social implications of non-adherence to sexual abstinence norms. Both abstinence and control were emphasised more with regard to women than to men. Although the traditional discourse on prolonged sexual abstinence for protecting child health was reproduced in Ilala, some modern aspects such as the use of condoms and other contraceptives prevailed in the discussion. Conclusion Discourses on sexuality after childbirth are instrumental in reproducing gender-power inequalities, with women being subjected to more restrictions and control than men are. Thus, interventions that create openness in discussing sexual relations and health-related matters after childbirth and mitigate gendered norms suppressing women and perpetuating harmful behaviours are needed. The involvement of males in the interventions would benefit men, women, and children through improving the gender relations that promote family health. PMID:23316932

  14. Longitudinal Mapping of Gyral and Sulcal Patterns of Cortical Thickness and Brain Volume Regain during Early Alcohol Abstinence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Ying; Demirakca, Traute; van Eijk, Julia; Frischknecht, Ulrich; Ruf, Matthias; Ucar, Serhat; Hermann, Derik; Mann, Karl; Kiefer, Falk; Ende, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    We explored brain volume recovery in terms of cortical thickness (CTh; gyral, sulcal pattern) and surface area (SA), as well as subcortical volume recovery in the first 2 weeks of abstinence in 49 alcohol-dependent patients (ADPs). A widespread reduction of CTh in ADPs at day 1 of abstinence compared to healthy controls, with more pronounced differences in sulci relative to gyri was found. After 2 weeks of abstinence, partial recovery to varying degrees of CTh loss in ADPs was observed for several regions. The longitudinal CTh changes were greater in sulci than in gyri of affected regions. No longitudinal change in SAs and subcortical volumes was found. Alterations of CTh contribute to brain volume loss in alcoholism and recovery during early abstinence. Sulci seem to be more vulnerable to excessive alcohol consumption and to drive abstinence-induced volume recovery. During the initial 2 weeks of abstinence no subcortical volume regain was observed. Either the time span was too short or the lower subcortical volume could represent a predisposing trait marker. PMID:26343988

  15. Persistent Microstructural Deficits of Internal Capsule in One-Year Abstinent Male Methamphetamine Users: a Longitudinal Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Wenxu; Tang, Yingying; Zhong, Na; Jiang, Haifeng; Du, Jiang; Wang, Jijun; Zhao, Min

    2016-09-01

    White matter (WM) alterations have been reported in methamphetamine (MA) users. However, knowledge about longitudinal changes in WM during abstinence from MA remains unknown. The present study aimed to examine how WM changes in long-term MA abstinent, in particular, whether the WM deficits would recover as the duration of abstinence extended. Twenty male MA dependent individuals and 19 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited and participated in both clinical assessments and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans. The MA group underwent two DTI scans, a baseline scan with a duration of abstinence of 6.4 months and and a follow-up scan with a duration of abstinence of 13.0 months. Tract-Based Spatial Statistics was utilized to conduct baseline DTI analysis of MA group compared with HCs. The clusters with significant group differences of factional anisotropy (FA) were extracted as region of interests (ROIs). Mean values of DTI measurements (FA, mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity) were calculated within the ROIs in each subject's native space at baseline and follow-up. The MA group showed significant lower FA in the right internal capsule and superior corona radiate than HCs. The deficits did not recover when the duration of abstinence from MA reached 13 months. No significant correlations were found between FA and clinical measurements. Our results suggested persistent microstructure deficits of WM tracts surrounding the basal ganglia in MA dependent individuals. PMID:27115910

  16. Abnormal resting-state functional connectivity of the nucleus accumbens in multi-year abstinent heroin addicts.

    PubMed

    Zou, Feng; Wu, Xinhuai; Zhai, Tianye; Lei, Yu; Shao, Yongcong; Jin, Xiao; Tan, Shuwen; Wu, Bing; Wang, Lubin; Yang, Zheng

    2015-11-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies suggest that abnormal brain functional connectivity may be the neural underpinning of addiction to illicit drugs and of relapse after successful cessation therapy. Aberrant brain networks have been demonstrated in addicted patients and in newly abstinent addicts. However, it is not known whether abnormal brain connectivity patterns persist after prolonged abstinence. In this cross-sectional study, whole-brain resting-state functional magnetic resonance images (8 min) were collected from 30 heroin-addicted individuals after a long period of abstinence (more than 3 years) and from 30 healthy controls. We first examined the group differences in the resting-state functional connectivity of the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a brain region implicated in relapse-related processes, including craving and reactivity to stress following acute and protracted withdrawal from heroin. We then examined the relation between the duration of abstinence and the altered NAc functional connectivity in the heroin group. We found that, compared with controls, heroin-dependent participants exhibited significantly greater functional connectivity between the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the NAc and weaker functional connectivity between the NAc and the left putamen, left precuneus, and supplementary motor area. However, with longer abstinence time, the strength of NAc functional connectivity with the left putamen increased. These results indicate that dysfunction of the NAc functional network is still present in long-term-abstinent heroin-dependent individuals. PMID:26280556

  17. Comparison of expired carbon monoxide and plasma cotinine as markers of cigarette abstinence.

    PubMed

    Jatlow, Peter; Toll, Benjamin A; Leary, Vanessa; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; O'Malley, Stephanie S

    2008-12-01

    The clinical pharmacology of biochemical measures of nicotine exposure has been thoroughly reviewed with regard to usefulness and limitations in detecting abstinence from cigarette smoking. While plasma nicotine concentration measures only acute nicotine exposure, plasma, salivary, and urine cotinine concentrations reflect exposure over an extended period of time. Although, expired carbon monoxide (CO) is frequently used to confirm self reports, it has a relatively short half life, calling into question whether this measure might provide misleading information by exaggerating smoking cessation success rates. To examine this question, we analyzed expired CO, plasma cotinine and self report data collected in a clinical trial in which subjects (N=207) were randomly assigned to gain- or loss-framed messages for smoking cessation in combination with open label sustained-release bupropion (300 mg/day). In examining measurements collected at 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months, results showed that CO significantly overestimated abstinence rates as compared with cotinine, although the discrepancy was less at the later time points. These data suggest that while expired CO is a useful and well-established marker in certain contexts, when testing extended abstinence from smoking with non-nicotine medications, cotinine measurements should be preferred. PMID:18650033

  18. Impact of a brief telephone referral on quitline use, quit attempts and abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Amanda R.; Burris, Jessica L.; Alberg, Anthony J.; Cummings, K. Michael; Carpenter, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Quitline use can prompt quit attempts and promote abstinence among smokers, but rates of use are low and outcomes of brief quitline referrals unclear. In this study, a brief intervention was delivered to smokers who expressed motivation to quit in the next 30 days (N = 221) to encourage use of their state quitline. Correlates of quitline use were examined, and quitline callers versus non-callers were compared on the following outcomes at 2-month follow-up: cessation medication use, quit attempts and abstinence. Of the 221 smokers given a quitline referral, 34% called the quitline. Baseline motivation alone distinguished quitline callers from non-callers. Quitline use was positively associated with use of cessation medication, an association that remained robust even after adjusting for baseline motivation to quit. A trend was observed in which callers were marginally more likely than non-callers to report both a 24-h quit attempt and 7-day point prevalence abstinence. Relative to non-callers, callers also endorsed greater confidence to quit and increased self-efficacy to resist smoking temptations at follow-up. This study demonstrates a minimal intervention can promote acceptance of quitlines and favorable cessation outcomes among smokers motivated to quit. PMID:25092882

  19. An endocannabinoid signal associated with desire for alcohol is suppressed in recently abstinent alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Mangieri, Regina A.; Hong, Kwang-Ik A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Alcoholics report persistent alcohol craving that is heightened by cognitive cues, stressful situations, and abstinence. The role of endogenous cannabinoids in human alcohol craving—though long suspected—remains elusive. Materials and methods We employed laboratory exposure to stress, alcohol cue, and neutral relaxed situations through guided imagery procedures to evoke alcohol desire and craving in healthy social drinkers (n=11) and in treatment-engaged, recently abstinent alcoholic subjects (n=12) and assessed alcohol craving, heart rate, and changes in circulating endocannabinoid levels. Subjective anxiety was also measured as a manipulation check for the procedures. Results In healthy social drinkers, alcohol cue imagery increased circulating levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide, whereas neutral and stress-related imagery had no such effect. Notably, baseline and response anandamide levels in these subjects were negatively and positively correlated with self-reported alcohol craving scores, respectively. Cue-induced increases in heart rate were also correlated with anandamide responses. By contrast, no imagery-induced anandamide mobilization was observed in alcoholics, whose baseline anandamide levels were markedly reduced compared to healthy drinkers and were uncorrelated to either alcohol craving or heart rate. Conclusions The results suggest that plasma anandamide levels provide a marker of the desire for alcohol in social drinkers, which is suppressed in recently abstinent alcoholics. PMID:19343330

  20. Alcohol abstinence or harm-reduction? Parental messages for college-bound light drinkers.

    PubMed

    LaBrie, Joseph W; Boyle, Sarah C; Napper, Lucy E

    2015-07-01

    Parental communications about alcohol can have a significant impact on college students' alcohol use; however, it is unclear what types of communication may be most beneficial for reducing alcohol risk, particularly among students who have already initiated alcohol use. The present research examines differences in alcohol use and employment of drinking protective behavioral strategies between pre-college matriculation high school seniors receiving predominantly abstinence parent messaging and students primarily receiving harm-reduction parent messaging. Students who identified as light drinkers were recruited during their last month in high school and completed an online assessment of alcohol use and parent alcohol communication. Analyses revealed that, in comparison to light drinkers who primarily received harm-reduction messaging from parents, light drinkers who received more abstinence messaging reported less frequent alcohol use, lower peak alcohol consumption, and greater use of protective drinking strategies aimed at changing the way they drank and avoiding serious hazards associated with drinking. Findings from this study underscore the utility of messages related to abstinence even for parents who are aware that their children have had previous experiences with alcohol and highlight the need for longitudinal research assessing additional mechanisms associated with message efficacy among light, moderate and heavy drinking students transitioning to college. PMID:25753930

  1. Effects of DA-Phen, a dopamine-aminoacidic conjugate, on alcohol intake and forced abstinence.

    PubMed

    Sutera, Flavia Maria; De Caro, Viviana; Cannizzaro, Carla; Giannola, Libero Italo; Lavanco, Gianluca; Plescia, Fulvio

    2016-09-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system plays a key role in drug reinforcement and is involved in the development of alcohol addiction. Manipulation of the DAergic system represents a promising strategy to control drug-seeking behavior. Previous studies on 2-amino-N-[2-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-ethyl]-3-phenyl-propionamide (DA-Phen) showed in vivo effects as a DA-ergic modulator. This study was aimed at investigate DA-Phen effects on operant behavior for alcohol seeking behavior, during reinstatement following subsequent periods of alcohol deprivation. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were tested in an operant paradigm of self-administration; behavioral reactivity and anxiety like-behavior during acute abstinence were evaluated. A characterization of DA-Phen CNS targeting by its quantification in the brain was also carried out. Our findings showed that DA-Phen administration was able to reduce relapse in alcohol drinking by 50% and reversed the alterations in behavioral reactivity and emotionality observed during acute abstinence. In conclusion, DA-Phen can reduce reinstatement of alcohol drinking in an operant-drinking paradigm following deprivation periods and reverse abstinence-induced behavioral phenotype. DA-Phen activity seems to be mediated by the modulation of the DAergic transmission. However further studies are needed to characterize DA-Phen pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and its potential therapeutic profile in alcohol addiction. PMID:27155501

  2. Relations among Affect, Abstinence Motivation and Confidence, and Daily Smoking Lapse Risk

    PubMed Central

    Minami, Haruka; Yeh, Vivian M.; Bold, Krysten W.; Chapman, Gretchen B.; McCarthy, Danielle E.

    2016-01-01

    Aims This study tested the hypothesis that changes in momentary affect, abstinence motivation, and confidence would predict lapse risk over the next 12–24 hours using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) data from smokers attempting to quit smoking. Method 103 adult, daily, treatment-seeking smokers recorded their momentary affect, motivation to quit, abstinence confidence, and smoking behaviors in near real time with multiple EMA reports per day using electronic diaries post-quit. Results Multilevel models indicated that initial levels of negative affect were associated with smoking, even after controlling for earlier smoking status, and that short-term increases in negative affect predicted lapses up to 12, but not 24, hours later. Positive affect had significant effects on subsequent abstinence confidence, but not motivation to quit. High levels of motivation appeared to reduce increases in lapse risk that occur over hours while momentary changes in confidence did not predict lapse risk over 12 hours. Conclusion Negative affect had short-lived effects on lapse risk, whereas higher levels of motivation protected against the risk of lapsing that accumulates over hours. An increase in positive affect was associated with greater confidence to quit, but such changes in confidence did not reduce short-term lapse risk, contrary to expectations. Relations observed among affect, cognitions, and lapse seem to depend critically on the timing of assessments. PMID:24955665

  3. GLOBAL AND LOCAL MORPHOMETRIC DIFFERENCES IN RECENTLY ABSTINENT METHAMPHETAMINE-DEPENDENT INDIVIDUALS

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Daniel L.; Mitchell, Alex D.; Lahna, David L.; Luber, Hannah S.; Huckans, Marilyn S.; Mitchell, Suzanne H.; Hoffman, William F.

    2010-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is associated with behavioral and cognitive deficits that may be related to macrostructural abnormalities. Quantitative anatomical comparisons between controls and methamphetamine-dependent individuals have produced conflicting results. We examined local and global differences in brain structure in 61 abstinent methamphetamine-dependent individuals and 44 controls with voxel-based morphometry and tissue segmentation. We related regional differences in gray matter density and whole brain segmentation volumes to performance on a behavioral measure of impulsivity and group membership using multiple linear regression. Within the MA group, we related cortical and subcortical gray matter density to MA use history, length of abstinence and age of first use. Controls had greater density relative to MA in bilateral insula and left middle frontal gyrus. Impulsivity was higher in the MA group and, within all subjects, impulsivity was positively correlated with gray matter density in posterior cingulate cortex and ventral striatum and negatively correlated in left superior frontal gyrus. Length of abstinence from MA was associated with greater amygdalar density. Earlier age of first use of MA (in subjects who initiated use before age 21) was associated with smaller intracranial volume. The findings are consistent with multiple possible mechanisms including neuroadaptations due to addictive behavior, neuroinflammation as well as dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotoxicity. PMID:20096794

  4. Relations among affect, abstinence motivation and confidence, and daily smoking lapse risk.

    PubMed

    Minami, Haruka; Yeh, Vivian M; Bold, Krysten W; Chapman, Gretchen B; McCarthy, Danielle E

    2014-06-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that changes in momentary affect, abstinence motivation, and confidence would predict lapse risk over the next 12-24 hr using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) data from smokers attempting to quit smoking. One hundred and three adult, daily, treatment-seeking smokers recorded their momentary affect, motivation to quit, abstinence confidence, and smoking behaviors in near real time with multiple EMA reports per day using electronic diaries postquit. Multilevel models indicated that initial levels of negative affect were associated with smoking, even after controlling for earlier smoking status, and that short-term increases in negative affect predicted lapses up to 12, but not 24, hr later. Positive affect had significant effects on subsequent abstinence confidence, but not motivation to quit. High levels of motivation appeared to reduce increases in lapse risk that occur over hours although momentary changes in confidence did not predict lapse risk over 12 hr. Negative affect had short-lived effects on lapse risk, whereas higher levels of motivation protected against the risk of lapsing that accumulates over hours. An increase in positive affect was associated with greater confidence to quit, but such changes in confidence did not reduce short-term lapse risk, contrary to expectations. Relations observed among affect, cognitions, and lapse seem to depend critically on the timing of assessments. PMID:24955665

  5. Abstinence Funding Was Not Associated With Reductions In HIV Risk Behavior In Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Lo, Nathan C; Lowe, Anita; Bendavid, Eran

    2016-05-01

    The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has been the largest funder of abstinence and faithfulness programming in sub-Saharan Africa, with a cumulative investment of over US $1.4 billion in the period 2004-13. We examined whether PEPFAR funding for abstinence and faithfulness programs, which aimed to reduce the risk of HIV transmission, was associated with a relative change in five outcomes indicative of high-risk sexual behavior: number of sexual partners in the past twelve months for men and for women, age at first sexual intercourse for men and for women, and teenage pregnancies. Using nationally representative surveys from twenty-two sub-Saharan African countries, we compared trends between people living in countries that received PEPFAR abstinence and faithfulness funding and those living in countries that did not in the period 1998-2013. We found no evidence to suggest that PEPFAR funding was associated with population-level reductions in any of the five outcomes. These results suggest that alternative funding priorities for HIV prevention may yield greater health benefits. PMID:27140992

  6. Diabatic crossing of chiral "twins" in the odd-odd 106Ag nucleus: A theoretical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Sham S.

    2016-07-01

    A systematic study of both the observed positive-parity magnetic rotation band and the negative-parity Δ I =1 doublet bands in an odd-odd 106Ag nucleus is carried out. The negative-parity doublet bands depict some unusual features that have not been observed in any isotope in the mass A =100 region. For instance, (i) the moment of inertia of the partner band is quite different from that of the yrast band, and (ii) these bands cross each other at an angular momentum of I =14 ℏ . Also, the observed significantly large but constant B (M 1 ) transitions confirm that the strong M 1 transitions are being reinforced by the contributions from collective rotation. To explain these features, a collective model has been developed whose kinetic and potential energies are extracted from the tilted-axis cranking model. Instead of the triaxial parameter γ , a second-order phase transition is found to be responsible for the spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry. Analytical solution of the Schrödinger equation has generated a doublet nondegenerate eigenvalue spectrum. The ensuing model results based on the two-quasiparticle configuration π g9/2⊗ν h11/2 exhibit similarities with many observed features of the negative-parity doublet bands and hence confirm their chiral character. The cranking mass parameter in kinetic energy plays an important role in diabatic crossing between these emerged chiral twin bands.

  7. Neutron-proton multiplets in the odd-odd nucleus 53 37 90Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czerwiński, M.; RzÄ ca-Urban, T.; Urban, W.; BÄ czyk, P.; Sieja, K.; Timár, J.; Nyakó, B. M.; Kuti, I.; Tornyi, T. G.; Atanasova, L.; Blanc, A.; Jentschel, M.; Mutti, P.; Köster, U.; Soldner, T.; de France, G.; Simpson, G. S.; Ur, C. A.

    2016-03-01

    Medium-spin excited levels in 90Rb, populated in the fission of 235U induced by neutrons, have been observed for the first time. γ radiation from fission has been measured by using the EXILL array of Ge detectors at the cold-neutron-beam facility PF1B of the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble. Low-energy levels are interpreted as members of the π p3/2 -1ν (d5/2) 3 , π f5/2 -1ν (d5/2) 3 , and π g9 /2ν (d5/2) 3 multiplets with the 0- ground state due to the seniority-3 coupling in the ν d5 /2 shell. Analogous anomalous coupling within the π g9 /2ν (d5/2) 3 configuration explains the 5+, 6+, and 7+ triplet of states, observed at medium spins, similar to the triplet seen in the N =53 isotone, 88Br. Shell-model calculations reproduce well the proposed structures in Rb,9088 and support the seniority-3 coupling in N =53 isotones and its absence in N =51 isotones. The structure of the odd-odd 88Rb and 90Rb nuclei provides an argument in favor of the collectivity building up at the neutron number N =53 .

  8. An Analytical Evaluation of Two Common-Odds Ratios as Population Indicators of DIF.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pommerich, Mary; And Others

    The Mantel-Haenszel (MH) statistic for identifying differential item functioning (DIF) commonly conditions on the observed test score as a surrogate for conditioning on latent ability. When the comparison group distributions are not completely overlapping (i.e., are incongruent), the observed score represents different levels of latent ability…

  9. Asymptotically Unbiased Estimation of Exposure Odds Ratios in Complete Records Logistic Regression

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Jonathan W.; Harel, Ofer; Carpenter, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Missing data are a commonly occurring threat to the validity and efficiency of epidemiologic studies. Perhaps the most common approach to handling missing data is to simply drop those records with 1 or more missing values, in so-called “complete records” or “complete case” analysis. In this paper, we bring together earlier-derived yet perhaps now somewhat neglected results which show that a logistic regression complete records analysis can provide asymptotically unbiased estimates of the association of an exposure of interest with an outcome, adjusted for a number of confounders, under a surprisingly wide range of missing-data assumptions. We give detailed guidance describing how the observed data can be used to judge the plausibility of these assumptions. The results mean that in large epidemiologic studies which are affected by missing data and analyzed by logistic regression, exposure associations may be estimated without bias in a number of settings where researchers might otherwise assume that bias would occur. PMID:26429998

  10. Odds Ratio, Delta, ETS Classification, and Standardization Measures of DIF Magnitude for Binary Logistic Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Patrick O.; McHorney, Colleen A.; Stump, Timothy E.; Perkins, Anthony J.

    2007-01-01

    Previous methodological and applied studies that used binary logistic regression (LR) for detection of differential item functioning (DIF) in dichotomously scored items either did not report an effect size or did not employ several useful measures of DIF magnitude derived from the LR model. Equations are provided for these effect size indices.…

  11. Could Weight-Loss Surgery Boost Odds of Preemie Birth?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160596.html Could Weight-Loss Surgery Boost Odds of Preemie Birth? Monitoring is ... HealthDay News) -- Mothers-to-be who've had weight-loss surgery may have increased odds for premature delivery, ...

  12. On the largest prime divisor of an odd harmonic number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chishiki, Yusuke; Goto, Takeshi; Ohno, Yasuo

    2007-09-01

    A positive integer is called a (Ore's) harmonic number if its positive divisors have integral harmonic mean. Ore conjectured that every harmonic number greater than 1 is even. If Ore's conjecture is true, there exist no odd perfect numbers. In this paper, we prove that every odd harmonic number greater than 1 must be divisible by a prime greater than 10^5 .

  13. Checking the odd Goldbach conjecture up to 10(20)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saouter, Y.

    1998-04-01

    Vinogradov's theorem states that any sufficiently large odd integer is the sum of three prime numbers. This theorem allows us to suppose the conjecture that this is true for all odd integers. In this paper, we describe the implementation of an algorithm which allowed us to-check this conjecture up to 10(20).

  14. Cerebral white matter recovery in abstinent alcoholics—a multimodality magnetic resonance study

    PubMed Central

    Durazzo, Timothy C.; Mon, Anderson; Yeh, Ping-Hong; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.

    2010-01-01

    Most previous neuroimaging studies of alcohol-induced brain injury and recovery thereof during abstinence from alcohol used a single imaging modality. They have demonstrated widespread microstructural, macrostructural or metabolite abnormalities that were partially reversible with abstinence, with the cigarette smoking potentially modulating these processes. The goals of this study were to evaluate white matter injury and recovery thereof, simultaneously with diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy in the same cohort; and to evaluate the relationships between outcome measures of similar regions. We scanned 16 non-smoking and 20 smoking alcohol-dependent individuals at 1 week of abstinence from alcohol and 22 non-smoking light drinkers using a 1.5 T magnetic resonance scanner. Ten non-smoking alcohol-dependent individuals and 11 smoking alcohol-dependent individuals were re-scanned at 1 month of abstinence. All regional diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopic outcome measures were calculated over comparable volumes of frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital white matter. At 1 week of abstinence and relative to non-smoking light drinkers, non-smoking alcohol-dependent individuals had higher mean diffusivity in frontal, temporal and parietal white matter (all P < 0.008), whereas smoking alcohol-dependent individuals had elevated mean diffusivity only in frontal white matter (P = 0.03). Smoking alcohol-dependent individuals demonstrated lower concentrations of N-acetyl-aspartate (a marker of neuronal viability) in frontal white matter (P = 0.03), whereas non-smoking alcohol-dependent individuals had lower N-acetyl-aspartate in parietal white matter (P = 0.05). These abnormalities were not accompanied by detectable white matter atrophy. However, the patterns of white matter recovery were different between non-smoking alcohol-dependent individuals and smoking alcohol-dependent individuals. In non

  15. Properties of the {pi}i{sub 13/2}x{nu}i{sub 13/2} band in odd-odd {sup 184}Au

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.H.; Fang, Y.D.; Wang, H.L.; Zhou, X.H.; Guo, W.T.; Liu, M.L.; Guo, Y.X.; Lei, X.G.; De Angelis, G.; Marginean, N.; Gadea, A.; Napoli, D.R.; Axiotis, M.; Rusu, C.; Martinez, T.; Oshima, M.; Toh, Y.

    2004-11-01

    High-spin level structure in {sup 184}Au has been reinvestigated using the multidetector array of GASP via the {sup 159}Tb({sup 29}Si,4n{gamma}){sup 184}Au reaction at a beam energy of 140 MeV. The ground-state band and the excited {pi}i{sub 13/2}x{nu}i{sub 13/2} 2-qp band have been extended up to lower and higher spin states. An upbend has been observed in the excited band at ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){omega}{approx}0.25 MeV and is interpreted as resulting from a pair of {pi}h{sub 9/2} alignment. This low-frequency ({pi}h{sub 9/2}){sup 2} alignment is supported by the measured B(M1)/B(E2) ratios and alignment properties in neighboring odd-A nuclei. The linking transitions between the two bands and to the ground state have been established leading to a firm spin-and-parity assignment for the {pi}i{sub 13/2}x{nu}i{sub 13/2} band in {sup 184}Au. This result provides strong evidence for the low-spin signature inversion in the {pi}i{sub 13/2}x{nu}i{sub 13/2} bands of odd-odd nuclei in the A{approx}180 mass region.

  16. Nuclear spin of odd-odd α emitters based on the behavior of α -particle preformation probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, M.; Adel, A.; Botros, M. M.

    2016-05-01

    The preformation probabilities of an α cluster inside radioactive parent nuclei for both odd-even and odd-odd nuclei are investigated. The calculations cover the isotopic chains from Ir to Ac in the mass regions 166 ≤A ≤215 and 77 ≤Z ≤89 . The calculations are employed in the framework of the density-dependent cluster model. A realistic density-dependent nucleon-nucleon (N N ) interaction with a finite-range exchange part is used to calculate the microscopic α -nucleus potential in the well-established double-folding model. The main effect of antisymmetrization under exchange of nucleons between the α and daughter nuclei has been included in the folding model through the finite-range exchange part of the N N interaction. The calculated potential is then implemented to find both the assault frequency and the penetration probability of the α particle by means of the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation in combination with the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition. The correlation of the α -particle preformation probability and the neutron and proton level sequences of the parent nucleus as obtained in our previous work is extended to odd-even and odd-odd nuclei to determine the nuclear spin and parities. Two spin coupling rules are used, namely, strong and weak rules to determine the nuclear spin for odd-odd isotopes. This work can be a useful reference for theoretical calculation of undetermined nuclear spin of odd-odd nuclei in the future.

  17. Nicotine content and abstinence state have different effects on subjective ratings of positive versus negative reinforcement from smoking

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Kimberly P.; Bracken, Bethany K.; MacLean, Robert R.; Ryan, Elizabeth T.; Lukas, Scott E.; Frederick, Blaise deB.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the well-known adverse health consequences of smoking, approximately 20% of US adults smoke tobacco cigarettes. Much of the research on smoking reinforcement and the maintenance of tobacco smoking behavior has focused on nicotine; however, a number of other non-nicotine factors are likely to influence the reinforcing effects of smoked tobacco. A growing number of studies suggest that non-nicotine factors, through many pairings with nicotine, are partially responsible for the reinforcing effect of smoking. Additionally, both clinical studies and preclinical advances in our understanding of nicotinic receptor regulation suggest that abstinence from smoking may influence smoking reinforcement. These experiments were conducted for 2 reasons: to validate a MRI-compatible cigarette smoking device; and to simultaneously investigate the impact of nicotine, smoking-associated conditioned reinforcers, and smoking abstinence state on subjective ratings of smoking reinforcement. Participants smoked nicotine and placebo cigarettes through an fMRI compatible device in an overnight-abstinent state or in a nonabstinent state, after having smoked a cigarette 25 minutes prior. Outcome measures were within-subject changes in physiology and subjective ratings of craving and drug effect during the smoking of nicotine or placebo cigarettes on different days in both abstinence states. Cigarette type (nicotine vs. placebo) had a significant effect on positive subjective ratings of smoking reinforcement (“High”, “Like Drug”, “Feel Drug”; nicotine>placebo). In contrast, abstinence state was found to have significant effects on both positive and negative ratings of smoking reinforcement (“Crave”, “Anxiety”, “Irritability”; abstinence > nonabstinence). Interaction effects between abstinence and nicotine provide clues about the importance of neuroadaptive mechanisms operating in dependence, as well as the impact of conditioned reinforcement on subjective ratings

  18. Effects of abstinence from chronic cocaine self-administration on nonhuman primate dorsal and ventral noradrenergic bundle terminal field structures.

    PubMed

    Smith, Hilary R; Beveridge, Thomas J R; Nader, Michael A; Porrino, Linda J

    2016-06-01

    Repeated exposure to cocaine is known to dysregulate the norepinephrine system, and norepinephrine has also been implicated as having a role in abstinence and withdrawal. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of exposure to cocaine self-administration and subsequent abstinence on regulatory elements of the norepinephrine system in the nonhuman primate brain. Rhesus monkeys self-administered cocaine (0.3 mg/kg/injection, 30 reinforcers/session) under a fixed-interval 3-min schedule of reinforcement for 100 sessions. Animals in the abstinence group then underwent a 30-day period during which no operant responding was conducted, followed by a final session of operant responding. Control animals underwent identical schedules of food reinforcement and abstinence. This duration of cocaine self-administration has been shown previously to increase levels of norepinephrine transporters (NET) in the ventral noradrenergic bundle terminal fields. In contrast, in the current study, abstinence from chronic cocaine self-administration resulted in elevated levels of [(3)H]nisoxetine binding to the NET primarily in dorsal noradrenergic bundle terminal field structures. As compared to food reinforcement, chronic cocaine self-administration resulted in decreased binding of [(3)H]RX821002 to α2-adrenoceptors primarily in limbic-related structures innervated by both dorsal and ventral bundles, as well as elevated binding in the striatum. However, following abstinence from responding for cocaine binding to α2-adrenoceptors was not different than in control animals. These data demonstrate the dynamic nature of the regulation of norepinephrine during cocaine use and abstinence, and provide further evidence that the norepinephrine system should not be overlooked in the search for effective pharmacotherapies for cocaine dependence. PMID:26013302

  19. Observation of odd toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes.

    PubMed

    Kramer, G J; Sharapov, S E; Nazikian, R; Gorelenkov, N N; Budny, R V

    2004-01-01

    Experimental evidence is presented for the existence of the theoretically predicted odd toroidicity induced Alfvén eigenmode (TAE) from the simultaneous appearance of odd and even TAEs in a normal shear discharge of the joint European torus. The modes are observed in low central magnetic shear plasmas created by injecting lower hybrid current drive. A fast ion population was created by applying ion cyclotron heating at the high-field side to excite the TAEs. The odd TAEs were identified from their frequency, mode number, and timing relative to the even TAEs. PMID:14753994

  20. The competition between alpha decay and spontaneous fission in odd-even and odd-odd nuclei in the range 99 ≤ Z ≤ 129

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh, K. P.; Priyanka, B.

    2015-08-01

    The predictions on the mode of decay of the odd-even and odd-odd isotopes of heavy and superheavy nuclei with Z = 99- 129, in the range 228 ≤ A ≤ 336, have been done within the Coulomb and proximity potential model for deformed nuclei (CPPMDN). A comparison of our calculated alpha half lives with the values computed using other theoretical models shows good agreement with each other. An extensive study on the spontaneous fission half lives of all the isotopes under study has been performed to identify the long-lived isotopes in the mass region. The study reveals that the alpha decay half lives and the mode of decay of the isotopes with Z = 109, 111, 113, 115 and 117, evaluated using our formalisms, agree well with the experimental observations. As our study on the odd-even and odd-odd isotopes of Z = 99- 129 predicts that, the isotopes 238,240-25499, 244,246-258101, 248,250,252-260,262103, 254,256,258-262,264105, 258,260,262-264,266107, 262,264,266-274109, 266,268-279111, 270-284,286113, 272-289,291115, 274-299117, 276-307119, 281-314121, 287-320,322123, 295-325125, 302-327127 and 309-329129 survive fission and have alpha decay channel as the prominent mode of decay, these nuclei could possibly be synthesized in the laboratory and this could be of great interest to the experimentalists. The behavior of these nuclei against the proton decay has also been studied to identify the probable proton emitters in this region of nuclei.

  1. Superdeformation studies in the odd-odd nucleus {sup 192}Tl

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, S.; Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F.

    1995-08-01

    The study of yrast and near-yrast structures of odd-odd nuclei to high spins is somewhat limited due to the complexity of the spectra resulting from the many proton-neutron couplings near the Fermi surface. In superdeformed nuclei, the number of available protons and neutrons near the Fermi surface is somewhat limited due to the presence of large-shell gaps which stabilize the nuclear shape. A relatively small number of available neutron and proton configurations can lead to fragmentation of the SD intensity into a number of different bands. Two good examples of this phenomenon were found in {sup 192}Tl and {sup 194}Tl where the presence of six superdeformed bands were reported in both nuclei. We reexamined {sup 192}Tl at Gammasphere using the {sup 160}Gd({sup 37}Cl,5n) reaction at 178 MeV to populate states in the superdeformed well of this nucleus. While our previous study on {sup 192}Tl at ATLAS was very successful, a number of questions remained which formed the basis of our objectives in this experiment: obtain better {gamma}-ray energies for the known transitions and identify higher spin members in each band; determine how the bands feed the known yrast states in {sup 192}Tl as well as determine the complete spectrum in coincidence with the SD bands; look for M1 transitions connecting proposed signature partners; and attempt to identify other excitations in the superdeformed well. Analysis is underway and four of the six bands were confirmed. The reasons that two of the reported bands were not observed in this latest work is still under investigation. As of this time, no other superdeformed bands were identified in the data. Two of the confirmed SD bands have a constant moment of inertia and show indications of cross-talk between each other. This observation is not unexpected since the calculated M1 rates for the proposed configuration of the band, {pi}{sub 13/2} x {upsilon}j{sub 15/2}, indicate that M1 transitions linking the two SD bands should be observed.

  2. New description of the doublet bands in doubly odd nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ganev, H. G.; Georgieva, A. I.; Brant, S.; Ventura, A.

    2009-04-15

    The experimentally observed {delta}I=1 doublet bands in some odd-odd nuclei are analyzed within the orthosymplectic extension of the interacting vector boson model (IVBM). A new, purely collective interpretation of these bands is given on the basis of the obtained boson-fermion dynamical symmetry of the model. It is illustrated by its application to three odd-odd nuclei from the A{approx}130 region, namely {sup 126}Pr, {sup 134}Pr, and {sup 132}La. The theoretical predictions for the energy levels of the doublet bands as well as E2 and M1 transition probabilities between the states of the yrast band in the last two nuclei are compared with experiment and the results of other theoretical approaches. The obtained results reveal the applicability of the orthosymplectic extension of the IVBM.

  3. Two Genes May Raise Odds for Fraternal Twin Pregnancies

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158554.html Two Genes May Raise Odds for Fraternal Twin Pregnancies Variants ... families, researchers say they've just pinpointed two genes that seem to be associated with having such ...

  4. Two Genes May Raise Odds for Fraternal Twin Pregnancies

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158554.html Two Genes May Raise Odds for Fraternal Twin Pregnancies Variants ... families, researchers say they've just pinpointed two genes that seem to be associated with having such ...

  5. Veterans' Painkiller Abuse Can Raise Odds for Heroin Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Veterans' Painkiller Abuse Can Raise Odds for Heroin Use 3 of 4 who tried the illicit ... narcotic painkillers may be at high risk for heroin use, a new study cautions. The research included ...

  6. The antecedents and benefits of achieving abstinence in opioid addicts: a 2.5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Rounsaville, B J; Kosten, T R; Kleber, H D

    1987-01-01

    This report examines long-term and short-term benefits of achieving abstinence from opioids in a sample of opioid addicts who were reevaluated 2.5 years following seeking treatment. Extensive assessment of drug use history and drug-associated problems had been obtained when the subjects applied for treatment. At follow-up evaluations, detailed information was obtained on intervening course of drug use, treatment, legal problems, psychological problems, social functioning, occupational functioning, and medical status. The results were as follows: (1) Achieving abstinence from illicit opioids was associated with concurrent improvement in other aspects of functioning including reduction of criminal activity, improved medical status, improved social functioning, and reduced abuse of other psychoactive substances. However, many of these improvements were reversed immediately if relapse to opioid use occurred. (2) Achieving abstinence was associated with being in drug treatment, especially treatment in a methadone maintenance program. (3) Achievement of abstinence was not successfully predicted by client characteristics measured at entrance into treatment. (4) Long-range benefits of abstinence were detectable in social functioning even for those who had relapsed at the time of follow-up reevaluation. PMID:3687888

  7. Cognitive function during early abstinence from opioid dependence: a comparison to age, gender, and verbal intelligence matched controls

    PubMed Central

    Rapeli, Pekka; Kivisaari, Reetta; Autti, Taina; Kähkönen, Seppo; Puuskari, Varpu; Jokela, Olga; Kalska, Hely

    2006-01-01

    Background Individuals with opioid dependence have cognitive deficits during abuse period in attention, working memory, episodic memory, and executive function. After protracted abstinence consistent cognitive deficit has been found only in executive function. However, few studies have explored cognitive function during first weeks of abstinence. The purpose of this study was to study cognitive function of individuals with opioid dependence during early abstinence. It was hypothesized that cognitive deficits are pronounced immediately after peak withdrawal symptoms have passed and then partially recover. Methods Fifteen patients with opioid dependence and fifteen controls matched for, age, gender, and verbal intelligence were tested with a cognitive test battery When patients performed worse than controls correlations between cognitive performance and days of withdrawal, duration of opioid abuse, duration of any substance abuse, or opioid withdrawal symptom inventory score (Short Opiate Withdrawal Scale) were analyzed. Results Early abstinent opioid dependent patients performed statistically significantly worse than controls in tests measuring complex working memory, executive function, and fluid intelligence. Their complex working memory and fluid intelligence performances correlated statistically significantly with days of withdrawal. Conclusion The results indicate a rather general neurocognitive deficit in higher order cognition. It is suggested that cognitive deficit during early abstinence from opioid dependence is related to withdrawal induced neural dysregulation in the prefrontal cortex and is partly transient. PMID:16504127

  8. Smoking Abstinence-related Expectancies among American Indians, African Americans, and Women: Potential Mechanisms of Tobacco-related Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Peter S.; Westmaas, J. Lee; Park, Van M. Ta; Thorne, Christopher B.; Wood, Sabrina B.; Baker, Majel R.; Lawler, R. Marsh; Hooper, Monica Webb; Delucchi, Kevin L.; Hall, Sharon M.

    2014-01-01

    Research has documented tobacco-related health disparities by race and gender. Prior research, however, has not examined expectancies about the smoking cessation process (i.e., abstinence-related expectancies) as potential contributors to tobacco-related disparities in special populations. This cross-sectional study compared abstinence-related expectancies between American Indian (n = 87), African American (n = 151), and White (n = 185) smokers, and between women (n = 231) and men (n = 270) smokers. Abstinence-related expectancies also were examined as mediators of race and gender relationships with motivation to quit and abstinence self-efficacy. Results indicated that American Indians and African Americans were less likely than Whites to expect withdrawal effects, and more likely to expect that quitting would be unproblematic. African Americans also were less likely than Whites to expect smoking cessation interventions to be effective. Compared to men, women were more likely to expect withdrawal effects and weight gain.These expectancy differences mediated race and gender relationships with motivation to quit and abstinence self-efficacy. Findings emphasize potential mechanisms underlying tobacco-related health disparities among American Indians, African Americans, and women, and suggest a number of specific approaches for targeting tobacco dependence interventions to these populations. PMID:23528192

  9. Mediators of the relationship between nicotine replacement therapy and smoking abstinence among people living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Cassandra A; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E; Papandonatos, George D; de Dios, Marcel A; Niaura, Raymond

    2009-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is highly prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS and poses unique health risks. Smoking cessation programs tailored to this population have documented improved smoking outcomes with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). The current study examined 6-month abstinence rates from a randomized clinical trial targeting 412 HIV-positive adult current smokers (51% European American, 19% African American, and 17% Hispanic American) and tested whether psychosocial variables, such as self-efficacy and decisional balance, mediated the relationship between NRT and long-term abstinence. Meeting criteria for complete mediation, 6-month smoking abstinence rates improved significantly with increases in these mediators, and the association of NRT and smoking abstinence was no longer significant once changes in self-efficacy and decisional balance were taken into account . Failure to translate gains in self-efficacy among African Americans into improved abstinence rates accounted for racial/ethnic differences among participants. Specific psychosocial factors, such as self-efficacy, may be particularly amenable to change in cessation interventions and should be addressed with greater awareness of how cultural and social contextual factors impact treatment response among people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:19537955

  10. Differences in the acceptability of non-abstinence goals by type of drug among American substance abuse clinicians.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Harold; Davis, Alan K

    2014-02-01

    To assess whether acceptability of non-abstinence outcome goals varied depending on the specific drug a client consumes (alcohol, cannabis, amphetamine, heroin, cocaine, MDMA/ecstasy, polydrug), severity of diagnosis (DSM-IV Abuse vs. Dependence), and finality of outcome goal (intermediate vs. final), we recruited 432 clinicians to complete a web-based questionnaire. More respondents rated non-abstinence acceptable as an intermediate goal for clients diagnosed with alcohol abuse (44%) or cannabis abuse (43%) than for clients diagnosed as abusing the other listed drugs (23 to 31%). Similarly, larger proportions of respondents rated non-abstinence as acceptable as a final goal for clients diagnosed with alcohol abuse (30%) or cannabis abuse (24%) than for clients diagnosed as abusing the other drugs (11 to 13%). Only 9 to 13% of respondents rated non-abstinence as an acceptable final goal for clients diagnosed with dependence, but 20% to 30% rated non-abstinence as acceptable as an intermediate goal for clients diagnosed as dependent. PMID:23953169

  11. Addiction: From Context-Induced Hedonia to Appetite, Based on Transition of Micro-behaviors in Morphine Abstinent Tree Shrews.

    PubMed

    Duan, Ying; Shen, Fang; Gu, Tingting; Sui, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is viewed as a maladaptive memory induced by contextual cues even in the abstinent state. However, the variations of hedonia and appetite induced by the context during the abstinence have been neglected. To distinguish the representative behaviors between hedonia and appetite, micro-behaviors in abstinent animal such as psycho-activity and drug seeking behaviors were observed in morphine conditioned place preference (CPP). To confirm the different effects of reward between drug and natural reward, a palatable food CPP paradigm was compared in current work. After a 10-day training in CPP with morphine or food, the preference was tested on day 1, 14, 28, and the changes of micro-behaviors were analyzed further. Our data showed that tree shrews treated with morphine performed more jumps on day 1 and more visits to saline paired side on day 28, which indicated a featured behavioral transition from psycho-activity to seeking behavior during drug abstinence. Meanwhile, food-conditioned animals only displayed obvious seeking behaviors in the three tests. The results suggest that the variations of micro-behaviors could imply such a transition from hedonic response to appetitive behaviors during morphine abstinence, which provided a potential behavioral basis for further neural mechanism studies. PMID:27375516

  12. Addiction: From Context-Induced Hedonia to Appetite, Based on Transition of Micro-behaviors in Morphine Abstinent Tree Shrews

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Ying; Shen, Fang; Gu, Tingting; Sui, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is viewed as a maladaptive memory induced by contextual cues even in the abstinent state. However, the variations of hedonia and appetite induced by the context during the abstinence have been neglected. To distinguish the representative behaviors between hedonia and appetite, micro-behaviors in abstinent animal such as psycho-activity and drug seeking behaviors were observed in morphine conditioned place preference (CPP). To confirm the different effects of reward between drug and natural reward, a palatable food CPP paradigm was compared in current work. After a 10-day training in CPP with morphine or food, the preference was tested on day 1, 14, 28, and the changes of micro-behaviors were analyzed further. Our data showed that tree shrews treated with morphine performed more jumps on day 1 and more visits to saline paired side on day 28, which indicated a featured behavioral transition from psycho-activity to seeking behavior during drug abstinence. Meanwhile, food-conditioned animals only displayed obvious seeking behaviors in the three tests. The results suggest that the variations of micro-behaviors could imply such a transition from hedonic response to appetitive behaviors during morphine abstinence, which provided a potential behavioral basis for further neural mechanism studies. PMID:27375516

  13. Baclofen promotes alcohol abstinence in alcohol dependent cirrhotic patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection

    PubMed Central

    Leggio, L.; Ferrulli, A.; Zambon, A.; Caputo, F.; Kenna, G.A.; Swift, R.M.; Addolorato, G.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD), either alone or in combination, count for more than two thirds of all liver diseases in the Western world. There is no safe level of drinking in HCV-infected patients and the most effective goal for these patients is total abstinence. Baclofen, a GABAB receptor agonist, represents a promising pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence (AD). Previously, we performed a randomized clinical trial (RCT), which demonstrated the safety and efficacy of baclofen in patients affected by AD and cirrhosis. The goal of this post-hoc analysis was to explore baclofen's effect in a subgroup of alcohol-dependent HCV-infected cirrhotic patients. Any patient with HCV infection was selected for this analysis. Among the 84 subjects randomized in the main trial, 24 alcohol-dependent cirrhotic patients had a HCV infection; 12 received baclofen 10mg t.i.d. and 12 received placebo for 12-weeks. With respect to the placebo group (3/12, 25.0%), a significantly higher number of patients who achieved and maintained total alcohol abstinence was found in the baclofen group (10/12, 83.3%; p=0.0123). Furthermore, in the baclofen group, compared to placebo, there was a significantly higher increase in albumin values from baseline (p=0.0132) and a trend toward a significant reduction in INR levels from baseline (p=0.0716). In conclusion, baclofen was safe and significantly more effective than placebo in promoting alcohol abstinence, and improving some LFTs (i.e. albumin, INR) in alcohol-dependent HCV-infected cirrhotic patients. Baclofen may represent a clinically relevant alcohol pharmacotherapy for these patients. PMID:22244707

  14. Emotion-word Processing Difficulties in Abstinent Alcoholics with and without Lifetime Externalizing Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Endres, Michael J.; Fein, George

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that abstinent alcoholics have difficulties processing a variety of emotion-laden stimuli, and some of these difficulties may not fully resolve with long-term abstinence. The current study examined whether emotion-word processing difficulties were present in long-term abstinent alcoholics (LTAA; 18+ months of sobriety) with and without a previously diagnosed externalizing (EXT; ASPD and/or ADHD diagnosis) disorder. Method Subjects (N=121) completed an affective go/no-go (AGNG) task with positive, negative, and neutral emotion-word stimuli, and a lexical decision-making (LDM) task with non-emotion word and non-word stimuli. Non-substance abusing controls (NSAC; n=38, 50.0 % Female, mean age=48±7.8), LTAA with EXT (n=32, 41% Female, mean age=47.1±6.6 years), and LTAA without EXT (n=51, 47% Female, mean age=49.7±6.5 years) were compared on signal discriminability (d’) and mean RT for correct responses (mcRT). Results In the LDM task, LTAA had lower (d’) values and slower mcRT than NSAC. In the AGNG task, LTAA and NSAC did not differ in AGNG task mcRT. LTAA had lower (d’) values than NSAC, and this effect was partially associated with group differences in LDM task (d’) values. In LTAA, lower AGNG (d’) values also were associated with an earlier age of first drink, greater lifetime alcohol use, and a history of externalizing disorder. Conclusions Our findings suggest that detecting the emotional content of words is impaired in LTAA, and this impairment is over and above LTAA’s more general lexical processing difficulties. Results also suggest that specific emotion processing impairments in LTAA may be exacerbated by greater lifetime alcohol use burden and other comorbid EXT diagnoses. PMID:23278634

  15. MISH publishes new framework for fear-based, abstinence-only education.

    PubMed

    Mayer, R

    1997-01-01

    The US Medical Institute for Sexual Health (MISH) "National Guidelines for Sexuality and Character Education" is a fear-based, abstinence-only framework for sexuality education. This document is virtually identical in format, conceptual framework, and typeface to that produced by the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States (SIECUS) and adopts SIECUS language in many sections. SIECUS agrees with approximately 60% of the MISH messages and finds it noteworthy that the MISH guidelines provide a blueprint for sex education from elementary school through high school. However, MISH and SIECUS follow very different approaches to sex education. SIECUS seeks to help young people acquire the necessary information to safeguard their sexual health and make proper decisions, while the single goal of MISH is to promote abstinence until marriage (avoiding sexual intercourse and any activity involving genital contact or stimulation). MISH promotes this view with fear-based messages, uses only negative terms to describe adolescent sexual relations, and provides scant and misleading information about contraception (including the assertion that adolescent use of birth control is often ineffective). The MISH curriculum also promotes the anti-abortion viewpoint that life begins at conception. While acknowledging the changing composition of the US family, MISH promotes a view of the nuclear family as the "best" type of family in which to rear children. MISH skirts the issue of sexual orientation and avoids giving information about ways to seek treatment for sexually transmitted diseases or prenatal care. MISH guidelines make unsubstantiated statements about the value of abstinence, provide almost no information about how to adapt their framework to various communities, discuss contraceptives and condoms only in terms of failures, and suggest that all adolescent sexual relations have negative consequences. PMID:12319710

  16. Sperm Chromatin Immaturity Observed in Short Abstinence Ejaculates Affects DNA Integrity and Longevity In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Salian, Sujith Raj; Kumar, Dayanidhi; Singh, Vikram Jeet; D’Souza, Fiona; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Kamath, Asha; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background The influence of ejaculatory abstinence (EA) on semen parameters and subsequent reproductive outcome is still debatable; hence understanding the impact of EA on sperm structural and functional integrity may provide a valuable information on predicting successful clinical outcome. Objective To understand the influence of EA on sperm chromatin maturity, integrity, longevity and global methylation status. Methods This experimental prospective study included 76 ejaculates from 19 healthy volunteers who provided ejaculates after observing 1, 3, 5 and 7 days of abstinence. Sperm chromatin maturity, DNA integrity and global methylation status were assessed in the neat ejaculate. Sperm motility, DNA integrity and longevity were assessed in the processed fraction of the fresh and frozen-thawed ejaculates to determine their association with the length of EA. Results Spermatozoa from 1 day ejaculatory abstinence (EA-1) displayed significantly higher level of sperm chromatin immaturity in comparison to EA-3 (P < 0.05) and EA-5 (P < 0.01) whereas; the number of 5-methyl cytosine immunostained spermatozoa did not vary significantly across groups. On the other hand, in vitro incubation of processed ejaculate from EA-1 resulted in approximately 20 and 40 fold increase in the DNA fragmented spermatozoa at the end of 6 and 24h respectively (P < 0.01–0.001). Conclusion Use of short-term EA for therapeutic fertilization would be a clinically valuable strategy to improve the DNA quality. However, use of such spermatozoa after prolonged incubation in vitro should be avoided as it can carry a substantial risk of transmitting DNA fragmentation to the oocytes. PMID:27043437

  17. Abstinence versus Moderation Goals in Brief Motivational Treatment for Pathological Gambling.

    PubMed

    Stea, Jonathan N; Hodgins, David C; Fung, Tak

    2015-09-01

    The present study examined the nature and impact of participant goal selection (abstinence versus moderation) in brief motivational treatment for pathological gambling via secondary analyses from a randomized controlled trial. The results demonstrated that the pattern of goal selection over time could be characterized by both fluidity and stability, whereby almost half of participants switched their goal at least one time, over 25% of participants selected an unchanging goal of 'quit most problematic type of gambling', almost 20% selected an unchanging goal of 'quit all types of gambling', and approximately 10% selected an unchanging goal of 'gamble in a controlled manner.' The results also demonstrated that pretreatment goal selection was uniquely associated with three variables, whereby compared to participants who selected the goal to 'cut back on problem gambling', those who selected the goal to 'quit problem gambling' were more likely to have greater gambling problem severity, to have identified video lottery terminal play as problematic, and to have greater motivation to overcome their gambling problem. Finally, the results demonstrated that goal selection over time had an impact on the average number of days gambled over the course of treatment, whereby those with abstinence-based goals gambled significantly fewer days than those with moderation-based goals. Nevertheless, goal selection over time was not related to dollars gambled, dollars per day gambled, or perceived goal achievement. The findings do not support the contention that abstinence-based goals are more advantageous than moderation goals and are discussed in relation to the broader alcohol treatment literature. PMID:24748014

  18. The odd-number sequence: squares and sums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyendekkers, J. V.; Shannon, A. G.

    2015-11-01

    Direct study of various characteristics of integers and their interactions is readily accessible to undergraduate students. Integers obviously fall in different classes of modular rings and thus have features unique to that class which can result in a variety of formations, particularly with sums of squares. The sum of the first n odd numbers is itself the square of n within the odd number sequence, from which testing for primality within the Fibonacci sequence is investigated in this note.

  19. Predictors of sexual abstinence among Wolaita Sodo University Students, South Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is over 30 years since the first case of AIDS [Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome] was identified. Attention has been focused recently on the promotion of the “ABCs” of HIV prevention (being abstinent or delaying sex, remaining faithful to one sexual partner, and using condoms consistently during sexual intercourse). As programs that focus on ABCs to prevent heterosexual transmission HIV are rolled out, questions of how well university students who come from varied cultural contexts actually understand the terms and address challenges to adopt behaviors is unanswered. In Ethiopia, despite the mushrooming number of students in the higher learning institutions with the current figure being 210,000 students accommodated in 33 public and 72 private higher learning institutions, sexual and reproductive health services, are not delivered in an organized way. The objective of this study is to identify factors associated with Sexual abstinence among Wolaita Sodo University students to provide evidence for designing appropriate interventions. Methods A Cross-Sectional study was conducted among 750 undergraduate students selected from Wolaita Sodo University using a stratified simple random sampling technique during the academic year. Data were collected using structured self administered questionnaire, focus group discussion and in depth interview guides as tools for data collection. Ethical clearance was obtained from Jimma University and informed consent was obtained from the participants after explaining purpose of study. Statistical tests were employed wherever necessary at the significance level of 0.05. Results All of the participants had heard about HIV/AIDS of which 97.3% had good knowledge. Higher proportions of male students were sexually active than their counter parts. Students with better knowledge on HIV AIDS were 6.6 (95%CI=1.6, 12.9) times more likely to abstain from sexual intercourse than their counter parts. Conclusions Knowledge of

  20. Cardiac autonomic function during sleep: effects of alcohol dependence and evidence of partial recovery with abstinence

    PubMed Central

    de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Willoughby, Adrian R.; Baker, Fiona C.; Sugarbaker, David S.; Colrain, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic alcoholism is associated with the development of cardiac and peripheral autonomic nervous system (ANS) pathology. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which recovery in ANS function could be demonstrated over the first 4 months of abstinence. Fifteen alcoholics (7 women) were studied on three occasions: within a month of detoxification, at approximately 2 months post-detox, and at 4 months post-detox. Thirteen control subjects (6 women) were also studied on three occasions with inter-study intervals matching those of the alcoholics. Six alcoholics relapsed, 48.7 ± 27.9 days following the initial PSG session. ANS function was assessed in the first part of stable non-rapid eye movement sleep. Frequency-domain power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) produced variables including: heart rate (HR), total power (TP; an index representing total HR variability), High Frequency power (HFa; an index reflecting cardiac vagal modulation), HF proportion of total power (HFprop sympathovagal balance), and HF peak frequency (HFpf; an index reflecting respiration rate). Overall, high total and high frequency variability and low sympathovagal balance and myocardial contractility are considered as desired conditions to promote cardiovascular health. At initial assessment, alcoholics had a higher HR (p < 0.001) and respiratory rate (p < 0.01), and lower vagal activity (HFa; p < 0.01) than controls. Alcoholics showed evidence of recovery in HR (p = 0.039) and HFa (p = 0.031) with 4 months of abstinence. Alcoholics with higher TP at the initial visit showed a greater improvement in TP from the initial to the 4-month follow-up session (r = 0.75, p < 0.05). Alcoholics showed substantial recovery in HR and vagal modulation of HRV with 4 months of abstinence, with evidence that the extent of recovery in HRV may be partially determined by the extent of alcohol dependence-related insult to the cardiac ANS system. These data support other studies

  1. Physicians' views of periodic abstinence methods: a study in four countries.

    PubMed

    Snowden, R; Kennedy, K I; Leon, F; Orense, V C; Perera, H W; Phillips, R; Askew, I; Flynn, A; Severy, L J

    1988-01-01

    A study of the knowledge, perceptions, and behavioral intentions of physicians regarding periodic abstinence (PA) methods was undertaken in Mauritius, Peru, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka. Most respondents considered PA to be useful, although even the PA providers prescribed mainly non-PA methods. Detailed knowledge of PA methods was not evident, but most physicians were willing to initiate general discussion about PA with patients. Physicians favored methods perceived as "scientific" and "modern," which primarily prevent pregnancy and secondarily avoid other health risks. When carefully presented as "scientific" and "modern," methods presented to medical audiences may find acceptance and be more likely to result in referral. PMID:3176094

  2. Adolescent Heavy Drinkers’ Amplified Brain Responses to Alcohol Cues Decrease Over One Month of Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Brumback, Ty; Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Jacobus, Joanna; Pulido, Carmen; Tapert, Susan F.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Heavy drinking during adolescence is associated with increased reactivity to alcohol related stimuli and to differential neural development. Alcohol cue reactivity has been widely studied among adults with alcohol use disorders, but little is known about the neural substrates of cue reactivity in adolescent drinkers. The current study aimed to identify changes in blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal during a cue reactivity task pre- and post-monitored abstinence from alcohol. Method Demographically matched adolescents (16.0–18.9 years, 54% female) with histories of heavy episodic drinking (HD; n=22) and light or non-drinking control teens (CON; n=16) were recruited to participate in a month-long study. All participants completed a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scan with an alcohol cue reactivity task and substance use assessments at baseline and after 28 days of monitored abstinence from alcohol and drugs (i.e., urine toxicology testing every 48-72 hours). Repeated-measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) examined main effects of group, time, and group × time interactions on BOLD signal response in regions of interest defined by functional differences at baseline. Results The HD group exhibited greater (p<.01) BOLD activation than CON to alcohol cues relative to neutral cues in all regions of interest (ROIs; bilateral striatum/globus pallidus, left anterior cingulate, bilateral cerebellum, and parahippocampal gyrus extending to the thalamus/substantia nigra) across time points. Group × time effects showed that HD exhibited greater BOLD activation to alcohol cues than CON at baseline in left anterior cingulate cortex and in the right cerebellar region, but these decreased to non-significance after one month of monitored abstinence. Conclusions In all ROIs examined, HD exhibited greater BOLD response than CON to alcohol relative to neutral beverage picture cues at baseline, indicating heightened cue reactivity to alcohol cues in

  3. Cardiac autonomic function during sleep: effects of alcohol dependence and evidence of partial recovery with abstinence.

    PubMed

    de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Willoughby, Adrian R; Baker, Fiona C; Sugarbaker, David S; Colrain, Ian M

    2015-06-01

    Chronic alcoholism is associated with the development of cardiac and peripheral autonomic nervous system (ANS) pathology. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which recovery in ANS function could be demonstrated over the first 4 months of abstinence. Fifteen alcoholics (7 women) were studied on three occasions: within a month of detoxification, at approximately 2 months post-detox, and at 4 months post-detox. Thirteen control subjects (6 women) were also studied on three occasions with inter-study intervals matching those of the alcoholics. Six alcoholics relapsed, 48.7 ± 27.9 days following the initial PSG session. ANS function was assessed in the first part of stable non-rapid eye movement sleep. Frequency-domain power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) produced variables including: heart rate (HR), total power (TP; an index representing total HR variability), High Frequency power (HFa; an index reflecting cardiac vagal modulation), HF proportion of total power (HFprop sympathovagal balance), and HF peak frequency (HFpf; an index reflecting respiration rate). Overall, high total and high frequency variability and low sympathovagal balance and myocardial contractility are considered as desired conditions to promote cardiovascular health. At initial assessment, alcoholics had a higher HR (p < 0.001) and respiratory rate (p < 0.01), and lower vagal activity (HFa; p < 0.01) than controls. Alcoholics showed evidence of recovery in HR (p = 0.039) and HFa (p = 0.031) with 4 months of abstinence. Alcoholics with higher TP at the initial visit showed a greater improvement in TP from the initial to the 4 month follow-up session (r = 0.75, p < 0.05). Alcoholics showed substantial recovery in HR and vagal modulation of HRV with 4 months of abstinence, with evidence that the extent of recovery in HRV may be partially determined by the extent of alcohol dependence-related insult to the cardiac ANS system. These data support other studies

  4. Orexin-A level elevation in recently abstinent male methamphetamine abusers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Yin; Kao, Chung-Feng; Chen, Po-Yu; Lin, Shih-Ku; Huang, Ming-Chyi

    2016-05-30

    Research has suggested that methamphetamine (METH) use influences orexin regulation. We examined the difference in orexin-A levels between METH abusers and healthy controls. Fasting serum orexin-A levels were measured in 35 participants who used METH in the preceding 3 weeks and 36 healthy controls. We found METH abusers had significantly higher orexin-A levels. No association was observed between orexin-A levels and METH use variables. Our results, consistent with prior preclinical evidence, showed that recent METH exposure is associated with increased orexin-A expression. Further investigation is required to determine whether orexin-A levels normalize after a longer term of abstinence. PMID:27137956

  5. Reinforcing value of smoking relative to physical activity and the effects of physical activity on smoking abstinence symptoms among young adults

    PubMed Central

    Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Strasser, Andrew A.; Ashare, Rebecca; Wileyto, E. Paul

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate whether individual differences in the reinforcing value of smoking relative to physical activity (RRVS) moderated the effects of physical activity on smoking abstinence symptoms in young adult smokers. The repeated measures within-subjects design included daily smokers (n=79) 18–26 years old. RRVS was measured with a validated behavioral choice task. On two subsequent visits, participants completed self-report measures of craving, withdrawal, mood, and affective valence before and after they engaged in passive sitting or a bout of physical activity. RRVS did not moderate any effects of physical activity (p’s > .05). Physical activity compared to passive sitting predicted decreased withdrawal symptoms (β=−5.23, CI= −6.93, −3.52; p<0.001), negative mood (β=−2.92, CI= −4.13, −1.72; p<0.001), and urge to smoke (β=−7.13, CI= −9.39, −4.86; p<0.001). Also, physical activity compared to passive sitting predicted increased positive affect (β=3.08, CI= 1.87, 4.28; p<0.001) and pleasurable feelings (β=1.07, CI= 0.58, 1.55; p<0.001), and greater time to first cigarette during the ad-libitum smoking period (β=211.76, CI= 32.54, 390.98; p=0.02). RRVS predicted higher levels of pleasurable feelings (β=0.22, CI= 0.01 – 0.43, p=0.045), increased odds of smoking versus remaining abstinent during the ad-libitum smoking period (β=0.04, CI= 0.01, 0.08; p=0.02), and reduced time to first cigarette (β=−163.00, CI = −323.50, −2.49; p=0.047). Regardless of the RRVS, physical activity produces effects that may aid smoking cessation in young adult smokers. However, young adult smokers who have a higher RRVS will be less likely to choose to engage physical activity, especially when smoking is an alternative. PMID:26348158

  6. Characterization of isomers in the neutron-rich odd-odd nucleus {sup 156}Pm

    SciTech Connect

    Sood, P. C.; Gowrishankar, R; Sai, K. Vijay; Sainath, M.

    2011-02-15

    Critical examination of the experimental data from {sup 156}Nd and {sup 156}Pm {beta} decays and the observed location of relevant neutron and proton orbitals in the neighboring odd-A isotones and isotopes, taken together with the low-lying two-quasiparticle (2qp) structures expected in {sup 156}Pm from the rotor-particle model, lead to the conclusion that a consistent description of all the available data is achieved with the I{sup {pi}}=4{sup +} spin-parity assignment to the 26.7s {sup 156}Pm ground state (g.s.) and assignment of I{sup {pi}}=1{sup +} to its 150.3-keV isomer with the 2qp configuration 4{sub g.s.}{sup +}{l_brace}p{sub o}:5/2[532{up_arrow}]{+-}n{sub o}:3/2[521{up_arrow}]{r_brace}1{sub 150}{sup +}. In the process, a two-neutron configuration is also suggested for the 1509-keV 4{sup +} level in the daughter nucleus {sup 156}Sm. The present analysis reiterates the important question of whether the {beta}-decay log ft value, by itself, can be employed to deduce the relative parity of the {beta}-connected states.

  7. Double Brillouin frequency shift through circulation of odd-order Stokes signal.

    PubMed

    Shee, Yu Gang; Al-Mansoori, Mohammed Hayder; Ismail, Alyani; Hitam, Salasiah; Mahdi, Mohd Adzir

    2010-07-10

    We demonstrate a simple configuration for generating a double Brillouin frequency shift through the circulation of an odd-order Brillouin Stokes signal. It is operated based on cascaded Brillouin scattering in single-mode optical fibers that behave as the Brillouin gain media. A four-port circulator is incorporated into the setup to circulate the odd-order Brillouin Stokes signal in the fiber. It thus initiates a higher order Brillouin Stokes signal, which is double Brillouin frequency downshifted from the input signal. For the 5 km long fiber, the Brillouin pump power at 23 mW gives a clean output spectrum with 30 dB sideband suppression ratio. The output signal is 0.174 nm or approximately 21.7 GHz downshifted from the input signal. PMID:20648173

  8. A reinforcement-based therapeutic workplace for the treatment of drug abuse: six-month abstinence outcomes.

    PubMed

    Silverman, K; Svikis, D; Robles, E; Stitzer, M L; Bigelow, G E

    2001-02-01

    This study evaluated a novel drug abuse treatment, the Therapeutic Workplace. In this treatment, patients are paid to perform jobs or to participate in job training. Salary is linked to abstinence by requiring patients to provide drug-free urine samples to gain access to the workplace. Pregnant and postpartum drug abuse patients (N = 40) were randomly assigned to a Therapeutic Workplace or usual care control group. Therapeutic Workplace participants were invited to work 3 hr every weekday for 6 months and could earn up to $4,030 in vouchers for abstinence, workplace attendance, and performance. On average, 45% of participants attended the workplace per day. Relative to controls, the Therapeutic Workplace nearly doubled patients' abstinence from opiates and cocaine (33% vs. 59% of thrice-weekly urine samples drug negative, respectively, p < .05). The Therapeutic Workplace can effectively treat heroin and cocaine abuse in pregnant and postpartum women. PMID:11519628

  9. Excited states of deformable odd {sup 157,159}Tb nuclei: Nonconservation of the angular momentum of external nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Sharipov, Sh.; Ermamatov, M. J.

    2009-01-15

    The previously developed rotationally single-particle and vibrational model of the triaxial deformable odd nuclei is extended to the case where the total angular momentum of an external nucleon is not conserved. The calculated ratios of the excitation energies of the {sup 157,159}Tb nuclei are compared with the existing experimental data. The ratios of E2-transition probabilities and those of quadrupole moments of the above nuclei are calculated using parameters determined from the spectra of these nuclei.

  10. A Critical Role of Lateral Hypothalamus in Context-Induced Relapse to Alcohol Seeking after Punishment-Imposed Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Rabei, Rana; Kaganovsky, Konstantin; Caprioli, Daniele; Bossert, Jennifer M.; Bonci, Antonello

    2014-01-01

    In human alcoholics, abstinence is often self-imposed, despite alcohol availability, because of the negative consequences of excessive use. During abstinence, relapse is often triggered by exposure to contexts associated with alcohol use. We recently developed a rat model that captures some features of this human condition: exposure to the alcohol self-administration environment (context A), after punishment-imposed suppression of alcohol self-administration in a different environment (context B), provoked renewal of alcohol seeking in alcohol-preferring P rats. The mechanisms underlying context-induced renewal of alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence are unknown. Here, we studied the role of the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and its forebrain projections in this effect. We first determined the effect of context-induced renewal of alcohol seeking on Fos (a neuronal activity marker) expression in LH. We next determined the effect of LH reversible inactivation by GABAA + GABAB receptor agonists (muscimol + baclofen) on this effect. Finally, we determined neuronal activation in brain areas projecting to LH during context-induced renewal tests by measuring double labeling of the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit B (CTb; injected in LH) with Fos. Context-induced renewal of alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence was associated with increased Fos expression in LH. Additionally, renewal was blocked by muscimol + baclofen injections into LH. Finally, double-labeling analysis of CTb + Fos showed that context-induced renewal of alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence was associated with selective activation of accumbens shell neurons projecting to LH. The results demonstrate an important role of LH in renewal of alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence and suggest a role of accumbens shell projections to LH in this form of relapse. PMID:24872550

  11. A critical role of lateral hypothalamus in context-induced relapse to alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Nathan J; Rabei, Rana; Kaganovsky, Konstantin; Caprioli, Daniele; Bossert, Jennifer M; Bonci, Antonello; Shaham, Yavin

    2014-05-28

    In human alcoholics, abstinence is often self-imposed, despite alcohol availability, because of the negative consequences of excessive use. During abstinence, relapse is often triggered by exposure to contexts associated with alcohol use. We recently developed a rat model that captures some features of this human condition: exposure to the alcohol self-administration environment (context A), after punishment-imposed suppression of alcohol self-administration in a different environment (context B), provoked renewal of alcohol seeking in alcohol-preferring P rats. The mechanisms underlying context-induced renewal of alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence are unknown. Here, we studied the role of the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and its forebrain projections in this effect. We first determined the effect of context-induced renewal of alcohol seeking on Fos (a neuronal activity marker) expression in LH. We next determined the effect of LH reversible inactivation by GABAA + GABAB receptor agonists (muscimol + baclofen) on this effect. Finally, we determined neuronal activation in brain areas projecting to LH during context-induced renewal tests by measuring double labeling of the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit B (CTb; injected in LH) with Fos. Context-induced renewal of alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence was associated with increased Fos expression in LH. Additionally, renewal was blocked by muscimol + baclofen injections into LH. Finally, double-labeling analysis of CTb + Fos showed that context-induced renewal of alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence was associated with selective activation of accumbens shell neurons projecting to LH. The results demonstrate an important role of LH in renewal of alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence and suggest a role of accumbens shell projections to LH in this form of relapse. PMID:24872550

  12. Parent-adolescent conflict in teenagers with ADHD and ODD.

    PubMed

    Edwards, G; Barkley, R A; Laneri, M; Fletcher, K; Metevia, L

    2001-12-01

    Eighty-seven male teens (ages 12-18 years) with ADHD/ODD and their parents were compared to 32 male teens and their parents in a community control (CC) group on mother, father, and teen ratings of parent-teen conflict and communication quality, parental self-reports of psychological adjustment, and direct observations of parent-teen problem-solving interactions during a neutral and conflict discussion. Parents and teens in the ADHD/ODD group rated themselves as having significantly more issues involving parent-teen conflict, more anger during these conflict discussions, and more negative communication generally, and used more aggressive conflict tactics with each other than did parents and teens in the CC group. During a neutral discussion, only the ADHD/ODD teens demonstrated more negative behavior. During the conflict discussion, however, the mothers, fathers, and teens in the ADHD/ODD group displayed more negative behavior, and the mothers and teens showed less positive behavior than did participants in the CC group. Differences in conflicts related to sex of parent were evident on only a few measures. Both mother and father self-rated hostility contributed to the level of mother-teen conflict whereas father self-rated hostility and anxiety contributed to father-teen conflict beyond the contribution made by level of teen ODD and ADHD symptoms. Results replicated past studies of mother-child interactions in ADHD/ODD children, extended these results to teens with these disorders, showed that greater conflict also occurs in father-teen interactions, and found that degree of parental hostility, but not ADHD symptoms, further contributed to levels of parent-teen conflict beyond the contribution made by severity of teen ADHD and ODD symptoms. PMID:11761288

  13. Alterations in mesolimbic dopamine function during the abstinence period following chronic ethanol consumption.

    PubMed

    Bailey, C P; O'Callaghan, M J; Croft, A P; Manley, S J; Little, H J

    2001-12-01

    Previous work demonstrated that the locomotor stimulant actions of amphetamine, cocaine and nicotine were increased when these drugs were given during the abstinence phase after chronic ethanol consumption. These changes were seen at 6 days and at 2 months after cessation of alcohol. The present study examined neuronal alterations which might be related to these changes in behaviour. Markedly reduced spontaneous firing rates of dopaminergic cells in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in midbrain slices were seen 6 days into the abstinence period after cessation of chronic ethanol consumption, but by 2 months the firing rates had returned to control values. Increased affinity of striatal receptors for the D1-like receptor ligand 3H-SCH23390, but no change in the receptor density, was found both at the 6 day and the 2 month intervals. The binding properties of striatal D2-like receptors, of D1-like and D2-like receptors in the frontal cerebral cortex, and the release of tritiated dopamine from slices of striatum or frontal cerebral cortex, were unchanged at 6 days and 2 months. It is suggested that the decreased neuronal firing leads to a persistent increase in sensitivity of D1-like receptors and that these changes could explain the increased effects of the other drugs of abuse. PMID:11747903

  14. Frontostriatal Circuit Dynamics Correlate with Cocaine Cue-Evoked Behavioral Arousal during Early Abstinence.

    PubMed

    Smith, Wesley C; Rosenberg, Matthew H; Claar, Leslie D; Chang, Victoria; Shah, Sagar N; Walwyn, Wendy M; Evans, Christopher J; Masmanidis, Sotiris C

    2016-01-01

    It is thought that frontostriatal circuits play an important role in mediating conditioned behavioral responses to environmental stimuli that were previously encountered during drug administration. However, the neural correlates of conditioned responses to drug-associated cues are not well understood at the level of large populations of simultaneously recorded neurons, or at the level of local field potential (LFP) synchrony in the frontostriatal network. Here we introduce a behavioral assay of conditioned arousal to cocaine cues involving pupillometry in awake head-restrained mice. After just 24 h of drug abstinence, brief exposures to olfactory stimuli previously paired with cocaine injections led to a transient dilation of the pupil, which was greater than the dilation effect to neutral cues. In contrast, there was no cue-selective change in locomotion, as measured by the rotation of a circular treadmill. The behavioral assay was combined with simultaneous recordings from dozens of electrophysiologically identified units in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and ventral striatum (VS). We found significant relationships between cocaine cue-evoked pupil dilation and the proportion of inhibited principal cells in the mPFC and VS. Additionally, LFP coherence analysis revealed a significant correlation between pupillary response and synchrony in the 25-45 Hz frequency band. Together, these results show that pupil dilation is sensitive to drug-associated cues during acute stages of abstinence, and that individual animal differences in this behavioral arousal response can be explained by two complementary measures of frontostriatal network activity. PMID:27390774

  15. Proteomic profiling of human sera for discovery of potential biomarkers to monitor abstinence from alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Xianyin; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Li, Kaigang; Witzmann, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    Although numerous biomarkers or biomarker candidates have been discovered to detect levels of drinking and intervals of time after last drinking episode, only a few biomarkers have been applied to monitor abstinence in a longer interval (≥ 6 weeks) from alcohol abuse. Considering sample sources, sensitivity, and specificity, new biomarkers from blood with better accuracy are needed. To address this, serum proteomic profiles were compared between pre- and post- treatment samples from subjects seeking treatment for alcohol abuse and dependence in an intensive 6-week daily outpatient program using high-abundance plasma protein immunodepletion and LC-MS/MS techniques. Protein identification, quantification, candidate biomarker selection, and prioritization analyses were carried out. Among the 246 quantified serum proteins, abundance of 13 and 45 proteins in female and male subjects were significantly changed (p ≤ 0.05), respectively. Of these biomarker candidate proteins, 2 (female) and 8 (male) proteins were listed in category 1, with high area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, and fold change. In summary, several new biomarker candidates have been identified to monitor abstinence from alcohol abuse. PMID:25475211

  16. Emotion differentiation and intensity during acute tobacco abstinence: A comparison of heavy and light smokers.

    PubMed

    Sheets, Erin S; Bujarski, Spencer; Leventhal, Adam M; Ray, Lara A

    2015-08-01

    The ability to recognize and label discrete emotions, termed emotion differentiation, is particularly pertinent to overall emotion regulation abilities. Patterns of deficient emotion differentiation have been associated with mood and anxiety disorders but have yet to be examined in relation to nicotine dependence. This study employed ecological momentary assessment to examine smokers' subjective experience of discrete emotions during 24-h of forced tobacco abstinence. Thirty daily smokers rated their emotions up to 23 times over the 24-hour period, and smoking abstinence was biologically verified. From these data, we computed individual difference measures of emotion differentiation, overall emotion intensity, and emotional variability. As hypothesized, heavy smokers reported poorer negative emotion differentiation than light smokers (d=0.55), along with more intense negative emotion (d=0.97) and greater negative emotion variability (d=0.97). No differences were observed in positive emotion differentiation. Across the sample, poorer negative emotion differentiation was associated with greater endorsement of psychological motives to smoke, including negative and positive reinforcement motives, while positive emotion differentiation was not. PMID:25885662

  17. Guanfacine enhances inhibitory control and attentional shifting in early abstinent cocaine-dependent individuals

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Helen; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Sinha, Rajita

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Attenuation of adrenergic drive and cognitive enhancement, via stimulation of alpha2 pre- and post-synaptic receptors, may selectively enhance executive performance in early abstinent cocaine-dependent individuals. As these cognitive processes underpin important treatment-related behaviors, the alpha2 agonist, guanfacine HCl, may represent an effective pharmaco-therapeutic intervention. Methods Twenty-five early abstinent cocaine-dependent individuals were administered a battery of neurocognitive tasks on entry into treatment (baseline) and again following 3 weeks of either placebo or guanfacine treatment (up to 3 mg). Tasks included: Stop Signal, Stroop, 3-Dimentional Intra-dimensional/Extra-dimensional (IDED) task, Spatial Working Memory (SWM), Paired Associates Learning (PAL), Verbal Fluency and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). Results Compared with placebo, the guanfacine group demonstrated attenuated anxiety and negative affect as well as improved performance on selective executive tests. This included fewer directional errors on the stop signal task, fewer errors on the extra-dimensional shift component of the IDED task and better attentional switching during verbal fluency. Guanfacine did not improve strategic working memory or peripheral memory. Conclusion Guanfacine improves selective cognitive processes which may underlie salient treatment-related regulatory behaviors. Alpha2 agonists may therefore represent important agents for cocaine dependence. PMID:25567555

  18. PROOF-OF-CONCEPT HUMAN LABORATORY STUDY FOR PROTRACTED ABSTINENCE IN ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE: EFFECTS OF GABAPENTIN

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Barbara J.; Light, John M.; Williams, Lauren D.; Drobes, David J.

    2009-01-01

    There is a need for safe medications that can effectively support recovery by treating symptoms of protracted abstinence in alcoholics that may precipitate relapse e.g., craving and disturbances in sleep and mood. This proof-of-concept study reports on the effectiveness of gabapentin 1200 mg for attenuating these symptoms in a non treatment-seeking sample of cue-reactive, alcohol-dependent individuals. Subjects were 33 paid volunteers with current DSM-IV alcohol dependence and a strength of craving rating 1σ or greater for alcohol than water cues. Subjects were randomly assigned to gabapentin or placebo for 1-week and then participated in a within-subjects trial where each was exposed to standardized sets of pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant visual stimuli followed by alcohol or water cues. We found a significant attenuating effect of gabapentin (vs. placebo) on several measures of subjective craving for alcohol as well as for affectively-evoked craving. Gabapentin was also found to significantly improve several measures of sleep quality. Side effects were minimal, and gabapentin effects were not found to resemble any major classes of abused drugs. Results suggest that gabapentin may be effective for treating the protracted abstinence phase in alcohol dependence and, hence, that a randomized clinical trial would be an appropriate next step. The study also suggests the value of cue reactivity studies as proof-of-concept screens for potential anti relapse drugs. PMID:18855801

  19. Experiences of food abstinence in patients with type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Buchmann, Maike; Wermeling, Matthias; Lucius-Hoene, Gabriele; Himmel, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Objective People with type 2 diabetes often report pressure to abstain from many of life's pleasures. We tried to reconstruct these patients’ sense of pressure to better understand how people with diabetes make sense of, and integrate, these feelings into their life. Design, setting and participants A secondary analysis of narrative interviews with 14 patients with type 2 diabetes who are part of a website project. Main outcome measures Grounded theory-based analysis of narrative interviews, consisting of open, axial and selective coding. Results People with type 2 diabetes felt obliged to give up many pleasures and live a life of abstinence. They perceived a pressure to display a modest culinary lifestyle via improved laboratory test results and weight. Their verbal efforts to reassure and distance themselves from excessiveness indicate a high moral pressure. With regard to the question of how to abstain, food and behaviour were classified into healthy and unhealthy. Personal rules sometimes led to surprising experiences of freedom. Conclusions People with diabetes have internalised that their behaviour is a barrier to successful treatment. They experience an intensive pressure to show abstinence and feel misjudged when their efforts have no visible effect. Taking into account this moral pressure, and listening to patients’ personal efforts and strategies to establish healthy behaviours, might help to build a trusting relationship with healthcare providers. PMID:26739724

  20. Frontostriatal Circuit Dynamics Correlate with Cocaine Cue-Evoked Behavioral Arousal during Early Abstinence123

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sagar N.; Evans, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    It is thought that frontostriatal circuits play an important role in mediating conditioned behavioral responses to environmental stimuli that were previously encountered during drug administration. However, the neural correlates of conditioned responses to drug-associated cues are not well understood at the level of large populations of simultaneously recorded neurons, or at the level of local field potential (LFP) synchrony in the frontostriatal network. Here we introduce a behavioral assay of conditioned arousal to cocaine cues involving pupillometry in awake head-restrained mice. After just 24 h of drug abstinence, brief exposures to olfactory stimuli previously paired with cocaine injections led to a transient dilation of the pupil, which was greater than the dilation effect to neutral cues. In contrast, there was no cue-selective change in locomotion, as measured by the rotation of a circular treadmill. The behavioral assay was combined with simultaneous recordings from dozens of electrophysiologically identified units in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and ventral striatum (VS). We found significant relationships between cocaine cue-evoked pupil dilation and the proportion of inhibited principal cells in the mPFC and VS. Additionally, LFP coherence analysis revealed a significant correlation between pupillary response and synchrony in the 25–45 Hz frequency band. Together, these results show that pupil dilation is sensitive to drug-associated cues during acute stages of abstinence, and that individual animal differences in this behavioral arousal response can be explained by two complementary measures of frontostriatal network activity. PMID:27390774

  1. Initial Abstinence Status and Contingency Management Treatment Outcomes: Does Race Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, LaTrice; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Limited research has evaluated African American substance users’ response to evidence-based treatments. This study examined the efficacy of contingency management (CM) in African American and White cocaine users. Method A secondary analysis evaluated effects of race, treatment condition, and baseline cocaine urine sample results on treatment outcomes of African American (n = 444) and White (n = 403) cocaine abusers participating in one of six randomized clinical trials comparing CM to standard care. Results African American and White patients who initiated treatment with a cocaine-negative urine sample remained in treatment for similar durations and submitted a comparable proportion of negative samples during treatment regardless of treatment type; CM was efficacious in both races in terms of engendering longer durations of abstinence in patients who began treatment abstinent. Whites who began treatment with a cocaine positive sample remained in treatment longer and submitted a higher proportion of negative samples when assigned to CM than standard care. African Americans who initiated treatment with a cocaine positive sample, however, did not remain in treatment longer with CM compared with standard care, and gains in terms of drug use outcomes were muted in nature relative to Whites. This interaction effect persisted through the 9-month follow-up period. Conclusions CM is not equally effective in reducing drug use among all subgroups, specifically African American patients who are using cocaine upon treatment entry. Future research on improving treatment outcomes in this population is needed. PMID:25798729

  2. Effects of fluvoxamine and citalopram in maintaining abstinence in a sample of Italian detoxified alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Angelone, S M; Bellini, L; Di Bella, D; Catalano, M

    1998-01-01

    A 16-week, randomized study was performed to test the efficacy of two selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) fluvoxamine and citalopram, in decreasing relapse and craving in alcoholics, and to investigate possible differences in their clinical profile. After detoxification, each of the 81 patients (55 males and 26 females) was randomly assigned to one of three groups: 23 subjects did not receive any pharmacological treatment, 25 were treated with fluvoxamine, 150mg/day, and 33 with citalopram, 20 mg/day. All patients received standard cognitive-behavioural therapy. Craving was assessed twice a month using a 10-step scale. Every intake of alcohol was considered a relapse and the subject was taken out of the study. At the end of the study, both the fluvoxamine and citalopram groups showed a statistically higher rate of continuous abstinence (63.6 and 60.7%, respectively) compared to the group without pharmacological treatment (30.4%). Relapse severity did not differ among the three groups. Only citalopram showed a significant effect on craving throughout the study period. This study confirmed the efficacy of SSRIs as an adjunct to psychotherapy to prevent relapse in alcoholics. The relationship between the effects of these SSRIs on abstinence and craving, as well as the differences between their profiles, are discussed. PMID:9566477

  3. Social stress, economic hardship, and psychological distress as predictors of sustained abstinence from substance use after treatment.

    PubMed

    Wahler, Elizabeth A; Otis, Melanie D

    2014-11-01

    Social characteristics associated with disadvantage, such as racial/ethnic minority status, female gender, and low socioeconomic status (SES), are often associated with increased psychological distress and substance use disorders. This project tests a conceptual model derived from Pearlin's social stress theory for predicting abstinence from substance use between baseline and 1-year follow-up in secondary data from a large statewide sample of Kentucky substance abuse treatment participants (N = 1,123). Racial minority status, employment, and higher education level were predictive of substance use at follow-up, while female gender was predictive of abstinence. Limitations, implications for practice, and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:25050587

  4. Cocaine Abstinence and Reduced Use Associated With Lowered Marker of Endothelial Dysfunction in African Americans: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Hong; Stitzer, Maxine; Treisman, Glenn; Moore, Richard; Brinker, Jeffrey; Gerstenblith, Gary; Kickler, Thomas S.; Li, Ji; Chen, Shaoguang; Fishman, Elliot; Lai, Shenghan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Clinical and epidemiological evidence suggests that cocaine use is associated with an increased risk of premature atherosclerosis. The objectives of this study were to explore (1) whether cocaine abstinence is associated with a reduced marker of endothelial dysfunction, (2) whether cocaine abstinence is associated with a slower coronary plaque progression, and (3) whether reduction in cocaine use is associated with a reduced marker of endothelial dysfunction in African American chronic cocaine users with contrast-enhanced coronary CT angiography-confirmed less than 50% coronary stenosis. Methods Between March and June 2014, a total of 57 African American cocaine users with contrast-enhanced CT angiography-confirmed less than 50% coronary stenosis in Baltimore, Maryland, were enrolled in a 6-month follow-up study to investigate whether cocaine abstinence or reduction in cocaine use is associated with decreased endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels and coronary plaque progression at the 6-month follow-up. A voucher-based incentive approach was used to systematically reinforce cocaine abstinence, and urine benzoylecgonine test was implemented to confirm cocaine use. Results Among the 57 participants, 44 were HIV-infected. The median of duration of cocaine use was 18 (interquartile range, 7–30) years. According to generalized estimating equation analyses, both cocaine abstinence and reduction in cocaine use in the 6 months were independently associated with decreased ET-1. The incidence of coronary plaque progression was 7.4/100 person-years and 23.1/100 person-years in those who were totally abstinent from cocaine and those who continued to use cocaine, respectively. However, the difference in the incidence between these 2 groups was not significant (exact P = 0.30). Conclusions The findings of this study revealed a possible association of cocaine abstinence/reduction with lowered ET levels, which suggests that such changes in cocaine use might be beneficial for

  5. "If I Could Really Say that and Get Away with It!" Accountability and Ambivalence in American Parents' Sexuality Lessons in the Age of Abstinence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Sinikka

    2010-01-01

    Based on in-depth interviews with 64 American parents of teenagers, I examine how parents navigate the complex landscape of abstinence, personal responsibility, and sexual well-being in their sexuality lessons to their children. Reflecting the dominance of the abstinence-only discourse, many parents expressed a sense of accountability to promote…

  6. Queer Youth Experiences with Abstinence-Only-until-Marriage Sexuality Education: "I Can't Get Married so where Does that Leave Me?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Christopher Micheal

    2009-01-01

    Abstinence-only-until-marriage sexuality education has received increasing attention vis-a-vis policy, funding, and research. Despite large sums of federal money to develop, implement, and to some extent, assess abstinence-only education, virtually no studies have looked to assess the experiences of such a curriculum for gay and bisexual male…

  7. Dipole strength distributions of the stable odd-mass N=82 isotones {sup 139}La and {sup 141}Pr

    SciTech Connect

    Scheck, M.; Brentano, P. von; Fransen, C.; Linnemann, A.; Muecher, D.; Pietralla, N.; Scholl, C.; Werner, V.; Kneissl, U.; Kohstall, C.; Pitz, H. H.; Stedile, F.; Walter, S.; Yates, S. W.

    2007-04-15

    The low-lying dipole strength distributions of the odd-mass isotopes {sup 139}La and {sup 141}Pr were studied in nuclear resonance fluorescence experiments using bremsstrahlung beams. Excited states were observed at excitation energies up to 4 MeV. Spectroscopic information was obtained on excitation energies, decay widths, decay branching ratios, and transition probabilities. The states belonging to the [[2{sup +}(multiply-in-circle sign)3{sup -}](multiply-in-circle sign)particle/hole] coupling were a special focus, and the results are compared with other stable odd-mass nuclei at or near the N=82 shell closure.

  8. Multicomponent fluids of hard hyperspheres in odd dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrmann, René D.; Santos, Andrés

    2011-01-01

    Mixtures of hard hyperspheres in odd-space dimensionalities are studied with an analytical approximation method. This technique is based on the so-called rational function approximation and provides a procedure for evaluating equations of state, structure factors, radial distribution functions, and direct correlation functions of additive mixtures of hard hyperspheres with any number of components and in arbitrary odd-dimension space. The method gives the exact solution of the Ornstein-Zernike equation coupled with the Percus-Yevick closure, thus, extending the solution for hard-sphere mixtures [J. L. Lebowitz, Phys. Rev.PHRVAO0031-899X10.1103/PhysRev.133.A895 133, A895 (1964)] to arbitrary odd dimensions. Explicit evaluations for binary mixtures in five dimensions are performed. The results are compared with computer simulations, and a good agreement is found.

  9. Evening chronotypes have the increased odds for bronchial asthma and nocturnal asthma.

    PubMed

    Merikanto, Ilona; Englund, Ani; Kronholm, Erkki; Laatikainen, Tiina; Peltonen, Markku; Vartiainen, Erkki; Partonen, Timo

    2014-02-01

    Earlier studies have found associations of chronotypes with a range of health-related factors. In the light of these findings, the behavioral trait of eveningness in particular associates with determinants that might have a negative impact on health. In this study, based on a random sample of population aged 25-74 years living in five large geographical areas in Finland (N = 6089), we tested whether the evening chronotypes have the increased odds for respiratory symptoms and diseases. As a result, after controlling for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors, evening-types had wheezy breathing without respiratory infection, a diagnosed or treated bronchial asthma, awoken in shortness of breath, awoken in heavy to breath, wheezy breathing with dyspnea, wheezy breathing as such and medication for asthma more often than morning-types (odds ratios (ORs) of 1.5-1.9) and intermediate-types (ORs of 1.3-1.6). In addition, evening-types had current medication for asthma, and awoken in coughing more often (OR = 1.5 and OR = 1.4, respectively) than morning-types. Evening-types did not have a diagnosed or treated chronic bronchitis more frequently than others. Our results suggest that the behavioral trait of eveningness associates with the increased odds for the bronchial asthma and nocturnal asthma in particular. PMID:24131153

  10. Effect of time-odd fields on odd-even mass differences of semi-magic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kun; Zhou, XianRong; Cui, JiWei; Sagawa, H.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of time-odd fields of Skyrme interaction on neutron odd-even mass differences is studied in the framework of axially deformed Skyrme Hartree-Fock (DSHF)+BCS model. To this end, we take into account both the time-even and time-odd fields to calculate the one-neutron and two-neutron separation energies and pairing gaps of semi-magic Ca, Ni, and Sn isotopic chains. In the calculations, a surface-type pairing interaction (IS pairing) and an isospin dependent contact pairing interaction (IS+IV pairing) are adopted on top of Skyrme interactions SLy4, SLy6 and SkM*, respectively. We find that the time-odd fields have in general small effects on pairing gaps, but achieve better agreement with experimental data using SLy4 and Sly6 interactions, respectively. It is also shown that the calculations with IS+IV pairing reproduce the one-neutron separation energies of Sn isotopes better than those with the IS pairing interaction when the contributions of the time-odd fields are included.

  11. Extremal charged rotating dilaton black holes in odd dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahverdizadeh, Masoud; Kunz, Jutta; Navarro-Lérida, Francisco

    2010-09-01

    Employing higher-order perturbation theory, we find a new class of charged rotating black hole solutions of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory with general dilaton coupling constant. Starting from the Myers-Perry solutions, we use the electric charge as the perturbative parameter, and focus on extremal black holes with equal-magnitude angular momenta in odd dimensions. We perform the perturbations up to 4th order for black holes in 5 dimensions and up to 3rd order in higher odd dimensions. We calculate the physical properties of these black holes and study their dependence on the charge and the dilaton coupling constant.

  12. Search for a very light CP-odd neutral Higgs boson of the MSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buskulic, D.; Decamp, D.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Mours, B.; Alemany, R.; Ariztizabal, F.; Comas, P.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Fernandez, E.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Pacheco, A.; Pascual, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Quattromini, M.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Gao, Y.; Hu, H.; Huang, D.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Lou, J.; Qiao, C.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, R.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, W.; Atwood, W. B.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Blucher, E.; Bonvicini, G.; Bossi, F.; Boudreau, J.; Burnett, T. H.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Haywood, S.; Hilgart, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Jost, B.; Knobloch, J.; Lançon, E.; Lehraus, I.; Lohse, T.; Lusiani, A.; Martinez, M.; Mato, P.; Mattison, T.; Meinhard, H.; Menary, S.; Meyer, T.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Moser, H.-G.; Nash, J.; Palazzi, P.; Perlas, J. A.; Ranjard, F.; Redlinger, G.; Rolandi, L.; Roth, A.; Rothberg, J.; Ruan, T.; Saich, M.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Sefkow, F.; Tejessy, W.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wildish, T.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Badaud, F.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; Bencheikh, A. M.; El Fellous, R.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Proriol, J.; Prulhière, F.; Stimpfl, G.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Møllerud, R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Kyriakis, A.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Badier, J.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Fouque, G.; Gamess, A.; Orteu, S.; Rosowsky, A.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Veitch, E.; Moneta, L.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Ikeda, M.; Lannutti, J.; Levinthal, D.; Mermikides, M.; Sawyer, L.; Wasserbaech, S.; Antonelli, A.; Baldini, R.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; D'Ettorre-Piazzoli, B.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Picchi, P.; Altoon, B.; Boyle, O.; Colrain, P.; Ten Have, I.; Lynch, J. G.; Maitland, W.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Thompson, A. S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Brandl, B.; Braun, O.; Geiges, R.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Maumary, Y.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Stahl, A.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Belk, A. T.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Colling, D. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Dugeay, S.; Greene, A. M.; Hassard, J. F.; Lieske, N. M.; Patton, S. J.; Payne, D. G.; Phillips, M. J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Tomalin, I. R.; Wright, A. G.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jackson, D.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Patel, A.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Whelan, E. P.; Barczewski, T.; Kleinknecht, K.; Raab, J.; Renk, B.; Roehn, S.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, H.; Steeg, F.; Walther, S. M.; Wolf, B.; Aubert, J.-J.; Benchouk, C.; Bernard, V.; Bonissent, A.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Drinkard, J.; Etienne, F.; Papalexiou, S.; Payre, P.; Qian, Z.; Rousseau, D.; Schwemling, P.; Talby, M.; Adlung, S.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Cowan, G.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Frank, M.; Halley, A. W.; Lauber, J.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Richter, R.; Schröder, J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stierlin, U.; Stiegler, U.; St. Denis, R.; Takashima, M.; Thomas, J.; Wolf, G.; Bertin, V.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Chen, X.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Janot, P.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Schune, M.-H.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F.; Abbaneo, D.; Amendolia, S. R.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bosisio, L.; Bottigli, U.; Bradaschia, C.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Foà, L.; Focardi, E.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Ligabue, F.; Mannelli, E. B.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Carter, J. M.; Green, M. G.; March, P. V.; Mir, Ll. M.; Medcalf, T.; Quazi, I. S.; Strong, J. A.; West, L. R.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Edwards, M.; Fisher, S. M.; Jones, T. J.; Norton, P. R.; Salmon, D. P.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Kozanecki, W.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Loucatos, S.; Monnier, E.; Perez, P.; Perrier, F.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Si Mohand, D.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Litke, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Wear, J.; Ashman, J. G.; Babbage, W.; Booth, C. N.; Buttar, C.; Carney, R. E.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Hatfield, F.; Reeves, P.; Thompson, L. F.; Barberio, E.; Brandt, S.; Grupen, C.; Mirabito, L.; Schäfer, U.; Ganis, G.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Ragusa, F.; Bellantoni, L.; Cinabro, D.; Conway, J. S.; Cowen, D. F.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Jared, R. C.; Leclaire, B. W.; Lishka, C.; Pan, Y. B.; Pater, J. R.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Saadi, Y.; Sharma, V.; Schmitt, M.; Shi, Z. H.; Walsh, A. M.; Weber, F. V.; Whitney, M. H.; Sau Lan Wu; Wu, X.; Zobernig, G.; Aleph Collaboration

    1992-07-01

    The reactions e+e- → hZ∗ande+e- → hA have been used to search for the neutral Higgs bosons h and A of the MSSM in the case where the CP-odd A is lighter than 2 mμ, taking into account the large h → AA decay branching ratio. No signal was found in the data sample collected until the end of 1991 by the ALEPH experiment at LEP. For tan β ⩾, mA < 2 mμ is excluded at 95% CL for any mh.

  13. Using incentives to encourage smoking abstinence among pregnant indigenous women? A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Glover, Marewa; Kira, Anette; Walker, Natalie; Bauld, Linda

    2015-06-01

    Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of many adverse health outcomes for both the mother and the unborn child (Morton et al. 2010). Indigenous people often have a higher smoking prevalence during pregnancy than non-Indigenous populations. In New Zealand (NZ), the smoking rates among Indigenous Māori women who are pregnant have reduced since 1991 (68 %) but still remains high in 2007 (34 %) (Morton et al. 2010). The success rate of most smoking cessation interventions for pregnant smokers is low at <6 % (Lumley et al. 2009). In other populations of pregnant women, financial incentives have been shown to increase the attractiveness of smoking cessation programs and increase the number of quit attempts. A feasibility study was undertaken to determine the likely effectiveness of an incentives-based cessation trial among pregnant Māori women that smoked. Pregnant smokers, aged 16 years and older, who self-identified as Māori, were 2-30 weeks pregnant, and currently smoked, were recruited through health practitioners, print media, and radio adverts in Auckland, NZ. Participants were randomised to (1) usual cessation support, including information about different cessation products and services, and access to nicotine replacement therapy (control), (2) usual cessation support plus a retail voucher to the value of NZ$25 for each 'abstinent from smoking' week for 8 weeks (voucher), or (3) usual cessation support plus product to the value of NZ$25 for each 'abstinent from smoking' week for 8 weeks (product). Outcomes measures included weekly self-reported and monthly biochemically verified smoking status, and acceptability. Of the 74 referred women, 50 declined involvement in the study and 24 consented and were randomised (eight control, eight voucher and eight to product). The mean age of participants was 25 years old (±2.25). Overall 21 % (n = 5) of the women were abstinent from smoking for at least 6 weeks of the eight, one from the control, six from the

  14. Relapse prevention and maintaining abstinence in older adults with alcohol-use disorders.

    PubMed

    Barrick, Christopher; Connors, Gerard J

    2002-01-01

    Although older adults are sometimes believed to have the lowest rates of alcohol abuse as an age cohort, the prevalence of alcohol use and abuse in this group is clearly underestimated. The under-diagnosis of alcohol abuse is due, in part, to the facts that the effects of alcohol use among older adults tend to be less clearly visible than among other age groups and that older adults are less likely to seek treatment than younger age groups. An additional challenge to diagnosis may be a lack of previous alcohol abuse by the patient, as approximately one-third of older adults with alcohol-use problems first develop their drinking problem after the age of 60 years. With a demographic shift that is expected to increase the number of older adults with alcohol problems, the awareness and understanding of this problem becomes increasingly important. Under-diagnosis of problem drinking in older adults is particularly unfortunate because the risks associated with alcohol abuse and relapse for the elderly are significant. Relapse, or the return to drinking following abstinence, may follow situations that are of particularly high risk for older adults. These include situations related to anxiety, interpersonal conflict, depression, loneliness, loss or social isolation. By helping patients to monitor these high-risk situations, to identify strategies that have been successful in promoting abstinence in the past, and to become engaged in treatment, relapse may be avoided and abstinence maintained. Treatments such as cognitive-behavioural therapy, group and family therapies and self-help groups are just as effective for older adults as they are for other age groups. In fact, group and family therapies and self-help groups may be of particular benefit to older adults because of the emphasis on social support. Medicinal adjuncts are also equally effective in the elderly, but strict compliance and careful monitoring of adverse effects are especially important in patients who take

  15. Entrance-channel effects in odd-Z tranactinide compound nucleus reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.L.; Gregorich, K.E.; Dragojevic, I.; Dullmann, Ch.E.; Eichler, R.; Folden III, C.M.; Garcia, M.A.; Gates, J.M.; Stavsetra, L.; Sudowe, R.; Nitsche, H.

    2007-09-01

    Swiatecki, Siwek-Wilczynska, and Wilczynski's 'Fusion By Diffusion' description [1] of transactinide (TAN) compound nucleus (CN) formation utilizes a three-step model. The first step is the 'sticking', or capture, which can be calculated relatively accurately. The second step is the probability for the formation of a CN by 'diffusion' analogous to that of Brownian motion. Lastly, there exists the probability of the CN 'surviving' deexcitation by neutron emission, which competes with fission and other de-excitation modes. This model predicts and reproduces cross sections typically within a factor of two. Producing the same CN with different projectile-target pairs is a very sensitive way to test entrance channel effects on heavy element production cross sections. If the same CN is produced at or near the same excitation energy the survival portion of the theory is nearly identical for the two reactions. This method can be used as a critical test of the novel 'diffusion' portion of the model. The reactions producing odd-Z TAN CN such as Db, Bh, Mt, and Rg (Z = 105, 107, 109, and 111, respectively) were first studied using even-Z projectiles on {sup 209}Bi targets (as opposed to odd-Z projectiles on {sup 208}Pb targets) because lower effective fissility [2] was expected to lead to larger cross sections. Many odd-Z projectile reactions producing odd-Z CN had not been studied in-depth until very recently. We have completed studies of these reaction pairs with the 88-Inch Cyclotron and the Berkeley Gas-Filled Separator (BGS) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), see Figure 1. Cross section ratios for several pairs of reactions will be presented and compared with theory.

  16. Abstinence-What?: A Critical Look at the Language of Educational Approaches to Adolescent Sexual Risk Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beshers, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-six years ago, Ronald Reagan signed the Adolescent Family Life Act, and the abstinence education movement began its rapid ascendancy to political dominance, a process marked by increasingly generous federal funding, which reached a peak of $176 million in FY 2006. Throughout this period, a debate ensued over the appropriate approach to…

  17. Sodium oxybate: a review of its use in alcohol withdrawal syndrome and in the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2014-01-01

    A liquid formulation of sodium oxybate (Alcover(®)), the sodium salt of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), is approved in Italy and Austria for use in alcohol withdrawal syndrome and for the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol dependence. This article reviews the efficacy and tolerability of sodium oxybate in alcohol withdrawal syndrome and in the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol dependence, as well as summarizing its pharmacological properties. Results of randomized controlled trials indicate that sodium oxybate was at least as effective as diazepam and clomethiazole in patients with alcohol withdrawal syndrome, rapidly alleviating symptoms, and was at least as effective as naltrexone or disulfiram in the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol-dependent patients. Sodium oxybate was generally well tolerated. The risk of sodium oxybate abuse is generally low when it is administered to alcohol-dependent patients at its approved dosage, under the supervision of a designated family member and with continuous strict medical surveillance. However, certain patient groups, such as patients with alcohol dependence and borderline personality disorder or who are in remission from heroin or cocaine addiction, may not be suitable candidates for sodium oxybate therapy because of an increased risk of abuse. In conclusion, sodium oxybate is a useful option for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and for the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol dependence. PMID:24307430

  18. An Eight-Year Perspective on the Relationship between the Duration of Abstinence and Other Aspects of Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Michael L.; Foss, Mark A.; Scott, Christy K.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from 1,162 people entering treatment and followed up (greater than 94%) for 8 years, this article examines the relationship between the duration of abstinence (1 month to 5 or more years) and other aspects of recovery (e.g., health, mental health, coping responses, legal involvement, vocational involvement, housing, peers, social and…

  19. A Randomized Trial Adapting Contingency Management Targets Based on Initial Abstinence Status of Cocaine-Dependent Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Barry, Danielle; Alessi, Sheila M.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Contingency management (CM) reduces drug use, but questions remain regarding optimal targets and magnitudes of reinforcement. We evaluated the efficacy of CM reinforcing attendance in patients who initiated treatment with cocaine-negative samples, and of higher magnitude abstinence-based CM in patients who began treatment positive.…

  20. Smoking Abstinence-Induced Changes in Resting State Functional Connectivity with Ventral Striatum Predict Lapse During a Quit Attempt.

    PubMed

    Sweitzer, Maggie M; Geier, Charles F; Addicott, Merideth A; Denlinger, Rachel; Raiff, Bethany R; Dallery, Jesse; McClernon, F Joseph; Donny, Eric C

    2016-09-01

    The ventral and dorsal striatum are critical substrates of reward processing and motivation and have been repeatedly linked to addictive disorders, including nicotine dependence. However, little is known about how functional connectivity between these and other brain regions is modulated by smoking withdrawal and may contribute to relapse vulnerability. In the present study, 37 smokers completed resting state fMRI scans during both satiated and 24-h abstinent conditions, prior to engaging in a 3-week quit attempt supported by contingency management. We examined the effects of abstinence condition and smoking outcome (lapse vs non-lapse) on whole-brain connectivity with ventral and dorsal striatum seed regions. Results indicated a significant condition by lapse outcome interaction for both right and left ventral striatum seeds. Robust abstinence-induced increases in connectivity with bilateral ventral striatum were observed across a network of regions implicated in addictive disorders, including insula, superior temporal gyrus, and anterior/mid-cingulate cortex among non-lapsers; the opposite pattern was observed for those who later lapsed. For dorsal striatum seeds, 24-h abstinence decreased connectivity across both groups with several regions, including medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, hippocampus, and supplemental motor area. These findings suggest that modulation of striatal connectivity with the cingulo-insular network during early withdrawal may be associated with smoking cessation outcomes. PMID:27091382

  1. EEG of Chronic Marijuana Users during Abstinence: Relationship to Years of Marijuana Use, Cerebral Blood Flow and Thyroid Function

    PubMed Central

    Herning, Ronald I.; Better, Warren; Cadet, Jean L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Marijuana abuse is associated with neurological changes including increases in frontal EEG alpha during abstinence. Research is needed to assess to what extent these EEG patterns are indicative of cerebral perfusion deficits. Methods We recorded the resting eyes closed EEG of 75 abstinent marijuana users and 33 control subjects. Fifty-six marijuana users used marijuana for less than eight years and 19 used for eight years or more. The EEG evaluation occurred within 72 hours of admission to an inpatient unit. Fifty-nine marijuana users remained abstinent for a month and were tested twice. Supplemental psychological and physiological data were also collected. Results Log alpha2 and beta2 power at posterior sites were significantly lower for the marijuana abusers that used eight years or more than the other marijuana abusers and the control subjects. These EEG changes continued for the month of abstinence. The marijuana users who used marijuana for more than eight years, also, had lower heart rates and thyroid function (T4) compared to the other marijuana users and the control subjects. Conclusions Chronic marijuana use was also associated with reduced EEG power in alpha and beta bands at posterior sites. These reductions in EEG power appear to be related to cerebral perfusion deficits and/or thyroid function in marijuana abusers. Significance Our results suggest EEG, cerebral blood flow velocity, cardiovascular and thyroid function alterations in marijuana abuser with an extended period of use. These alterations reflect under arousal in these systems. PMID:18065267

  2. The Impact of Middle School Principals on Adoption of Abstinence-Only-until-Marriage Programs in Their School's Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kelly; Pruitt, B. E.; Goodson, P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Diffusion of Innovations theory has been used to predict rates of adoption for a variety of programs. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess indicators that influence adoption of abstinence-only-until-marriage education as an innovation by middle school principals in Texas (N=433) as well as their likelihood of adopting such…

  3. The Legacy of Abstinence-Only Discourses and the Place of Pleasure in US Discourses on Teenage Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresle-Favier, Claire

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the potential long-term legacy of abstinence-only discourses in the USA in order to consider the extent of the changes that might actually occur as a consequence of the 2009 presidential election. It first provides a brief overview of the history of discourses regarding youth sexuality and sex education over the past 30…

  4. Changing Social Work Students' Attitudes toward Substance Abusers through the Use of an Abstinence Assignment: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaid, Wanda M.; Squires, Stuart P.

    2005-01-01

    Per se, increased knowledge about substance abuse has not been effective in altering social workers' negative attitudes towards substance abusers or their failure to recognize or address substance abuse problems among clients. In this paper, we describe an experiential abstinence assignment integrated with the content of an elective substance…

  5. Dangerous Omissions: Abstinence-Only-until-Marriage School-Based Sexuality Education and the Betrayal of LGBTQ Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elia, John P.; Eliason, Mickey J.

    2010-01-01

    To gain an understanding of how abstinence-only-until-marriage school-based sexuality education has been exclusionary, it is important to explore how heteronormativity has been endorsed, played out, and reproduced ever since school-based sexuality education has been offered in the United States. Such an exploration reveals glaring evidence that…

  6. Impacts of Abstinence Education on Teen Sexual Activity, Risk of Pregnancy, and Risk of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trenholm, Christopher; Devaney, Barbara; Fortson, Kenneth; Clark, Melissa; Bridgespan, Lisa Quay; Wheeler, Justin

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impacts of four abstinence-only education programs on adolescent sexual activity and risks of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Based on an experimental design, the impact analysis uses survey data collected in 2005 and early 2006 from more than 2,000 teens who had been randomly assigned to either a…

  7. Psychology in School-based Prevention, Early Intervention, Treatment and Abstinence Maintenance: Some Reponses to Marijuana Use in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Robbie N.; McLaughlin, Robert J.; McClanahan, Kimberly K.

    1999-01-01

    Outlines factors to consider when planning prevention, treatment, or abstinence maintenance intervention for drug abuse, particularly marijuana abuse in schools. Discusses literature on effectiveness of anti-drug campaigns on drug use; reviews spectrum of mental health interventions; and provides examples of programming. Examines role that…

  8. Long-Term Abstinence Following Holotropic Breathwork as Adjunctive Treatment of Substance Use Disorders and Related Psychiatric Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewerton, Timothy D.; Eyerman, James E.; Cappetta, Pamela; Mithoefer, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Addictions remain challenging conditions despite various promising traditional approaches. Although complete, long-term abstinence may be ideal, its attainment remains elusive. Many recovering addicts and clinicians stress the importance of spiritual issues in recovery, and 12-step programs such as AA are well-known approaches that embrace this…

  9. Predictors of Abstinence: National Institute of Drug Abuse Multisite Buprenorphine/Naloxone Treatment Trial in Opioid-Dependent Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Geetha A.; Warden, Diane; Minhajuddin, Abu; Fishman, Marc J.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Adinoff, Bryon; Trivedi, Madhukar; Weiss, Roger; Potter, Jennifer; Poole, Sabrina A.; Woody, George E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine predictors of opioid abstinence in buprenorphine/naloxone (Bup/Nal)-assisted psychosocial treatment for opioid-dependent youth. Method: Secondary analyses were performed of data from 152 youth (15-21 years old) randomly assigned to 12 weeks of extended Bup/Nal therapy or up to 2 weeks of Bup/Nal detoxification with weekly…

  10. Mother-Daughter Communication about Sexual Maturation, Abstinence and Unintended Pregnancy: Experiences from an Informal Settlement in Nairobi, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crichton, Joanna; Ibisomi, Latifat; Gyimah, Stephen Obeng

    2012-01-01

    Parental communication and support is associated with improved developmental, health and behavioral outcomes in adolescence. This study explores the quality of mother-daughter communication about sexual maturation, abstinence and unintended pregnancy in Korogocho, an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. We use data from 14 focus group…

  11. Attendance Rates in a Workplace Predict Subsequent Outcome of Employment-Based Reinforcement of Cocaine Abstinence in Methadone Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlin, Wendy D.; Knealing, Todd W.; Needham, Mick; Wong, Conrad J.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed whether attendance rates in a workplace predicted subsequent outcome of employment-based reinforcement of cocaine abstinence. Unemployed adults in Baltimore methadone programs who used cocaine (N = 111) could work in a workplace for 4 hr every weekday and earn $10.00 per hour in vouchers for 26 weeks. During an induction…

  12. Can intermittent theta burst stimulation as add-on to psychotherapy improve nicotine abstinence? Results from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dieler, Alica C; Dresler, Thomas; Joachim, Kathrin; Deckert, Jürgen; Herrmann, Martin J; Fallgatter, Andreas J

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is among the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Discontinuing smoking can increase life expectancy to the presmoking level. Unaided attempts are often ineffective, strengthening the necessity of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), nicotine replacement or pharmacotherapy. Still, relapse rates are high. Recently, a modulation of nicotine craving, which predicts relapse, through transcranial magnetic stimulation to the prefrontal cortex was shown. In a pilot study, we investigated whether 4 sessions of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) as add-on treatment to CBT reduces nicotine craving and improves long-term abstinence (at 3, 6 and 12 months). Smokers were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 38) or a sham group (n = 36). Although we did not find reduced craving, we could show higher abstinence rates in the treatment group at 3 months. At 6 and 12 months abstinence rates did not differ significantly. Results at 12 months, however, have to be interpreted cautiously due to significant differences in the dropout rates between the two groups at this time point. We provide first evidence for a beneficial effect of additional iTBS on intermediate nicotine abstinence; however, the low number of iTBS sessions might have prevented longer effects. More lasting effects might be achieved by iTBS maintenance sessions in analogy to the treatment of depression. PMID:24924851

  13. New spin assignments in the odd-odd N=Z nucleus Sc42 and the breaking of the Ca40 core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, C.; Petkov, P.; Werner, V.; Linnemann, A.; Adachi, T.; Dewald, A.; Fitzler, A.; Fransen, C.; Fujita, Y.; Jolie, J.; Langanke, K.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Martinez-Pinedo, G.; Mücher, D.; Orce, J. N.; Pietralla, N.; Warr, N.; Zell, K. O.; Brentano, P. Von

    2007-06-01

    Using the Ca40(He3,p) reaction at E3He=9 MeV and the multidetector array HORUS, angular correlations of coincident pairs of γ transitions in the odd-odd N=Z nucleus Sc42 have been measured at the FN tandem Van de Graaff accelerator of the University of Cologne. The analysis of the data allowed nine new spin assignments and the determination of a series of new multipole mixing ratios. In particular, the spin and parity of the 5+ and 7+ levels belonging to the lowest T=0πf7/2νf7/2 multiplet have been determined and the (6+) level from the T=1 multiplet has been tentatively assigned. In this way, all T=1 states up to an excitation energy of 3.2 MeV now have known spins as well as the lowest T=0 quadruplet (Jπ=1+,3+,5+,7+) and many other T=0 states of unknown structure. The comparison with shell-model calculations reveals that a breaking of the Ca40 core has to be invoked to describe the level structure of Sc42.

  14. New spin assignments in the odd-odd N=Z nucleus {sup 42}Sc and the breaking of the {sup 40}Ca core

    SciTech Connect

    Scholl, C.; Linnemann, A.; Dewald, A.; Fitzler, A.; Fransen, C.; Jolie, J.; Muecher, D.; Warr, N.; Zell, K. O.; Brentano, P. von; Petkov, P.; Werner, V.; Adachi, T.; Fujita, Y.; Langanke, K.; Martinez-Pinedo, G.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Orce, J. N.; Pietralla, N.

    2007-06-15

    Using the {sup 40}Ca({sup 3}He,p) reaction at E{sub {sup 3}He}=9 MeV and the multidetector array HORUS, angular correlations of coincident pairs of {gamma} transitions in the odd-odd N=Z nucleus {sup 42}Sc have been measured at the FN tandem Van de Graaff accelerator of the University of Cologne. The analysis of the data allowed nine new spin assignments and the determination of a series of new multipole mixing ratios. In particular, the spin and parity of the 5{sup +} and 7{sup +} levels belonging to the lowest T=0{pi}f{sub 7/2}{nu}f{sub 7/2} multiplet have been determined and the (6{sup +}) level from the T=1 multiplet has been tentatively assigned. In this way, all T=1 states up to an excitation energy of 3.2 MeV now have known spins as well as the lowest T=0 quadruplet (J{sup {pi}}=1{sup +},3{sup +},5{sup +},7{sup +}) and many other T=0 states of unknown structure. The comparison with shell-model calculations reveals that a breaking of the {sup 40}Ca core has to be invoked to describe the level structure of {sup 42}Sc.

  15. The Antarctic ozone minimum - Relationship to odd nitrogen, odd chlorine, the final warming, and the 11-year solar cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, L. B.; Natarajan, M.

    1986-01-01

    Photochemical calculations along 'diabatic trajectories' in the meridional phase are used to search for the cause of the dramatic springtime minimum in Antarctic column ozone. The results indicate that the minimum is principally due to catalytic destruction of ozone by high levels of total odd nitrogen. Calculations suggest that these levels of odd nitrogen are transported within the polar vortex and during the polar night from the middle to upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere to the lower stratosphere. The possibility that these levels are related to the 11-year solar cycle and are increased by enhanced formation in the thermosphere and mesosphere during solar maximum conditions is discussed.

  16. CP-odd phase correlations and electric dipole moments

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, Keith A.; Pospelov, Maxim; Ritz, Adam; Santoso, Yudi

    2005-10-01

    We revisit the constraints imposed by electric dipole moments (EDMs) of nucleons and heavy atoms on new CP-violating sources within supersymmetric theories. We point out that certain two-loop renormalization group corrections induce significant mixing between the basis-invariant CP-odd phases. In the framework of the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model, the CP-odd invariant related to the soft trilinear A-phase at the grand unified theory (GUT) scale, {theta}{sub A}, induces nontrivial and distinct CP-odd phases for the three gaugino masses at the weak scale. The latter give one-loop contributions to EDMs enhanced by tan{beta}, and can provide the dominant contribution to the electron EDM induced by {theta}{sub A}. We perform a detailed analysis of the EDM constraints within the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model, exhibiting the reach, in terms of sparticle spectra, which may be obtained assuming generic phases, as well as the limits on the CP-odd phases for some specific parameter points where detailed phenomenological studies are available. We also illustrate how this reach will expand with results from the next generation of experiments which are currently in development.

  17. Are the Odds Against the Origin of Life Too Great?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Statistics are offered to "prove" odds against the origin of life. Presents a summary analysis of all known examples to be used to check these claims whenever they are brought up in conversations, debates, books, or articles. Addresses scientific work misused by anti-evolutionists and the pseudoscientific assertions of the anti-evolutionists…

  18. Band structure of doubly-odd nuclei around mass 130

    SciTech Connect

    Higashiyama, Koji; Yoshinaga, Naotaka

    2011-05-06

    Nuclear structure of the doublet bands in the doubly-odd nuclei with mass A{approx}130 is studied in terms of a pair-truncated shell model. The model reproduces quite well the energy levels of the doublet bands and the electromagnetic transitions. The analysis of the electromagnetic transitions reveals new band structure of the doublet bands.

  19. Against the Odds: Disadvantaged Students Who Succeed in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report explores the factors and conditions that could help more students succeed at school despite challenging socio-economic backgrounds. It does this by studying resilient students and what sets them apart from their less successful peers. Understanding how educational systems can support disadvantaged students and help them "beat the odds"…

  20. Despite the Odds: The Contentious Politics of Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grindle, Merilee S.

    2004-01-01

    "Despite the Odds" poses an important question: How can we account for successful policy reform initiatives when the political cards are stacked against change? Theories of politics usually predict that reform initiatives will be unsuccessful when powerful groups are opposed to change and institutions are biased against it. This book, however,…

  1. The Differential Graded Odd NilHecke Algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Alexander P.; Qi, You

    2016-05-01

    We equip the odd nilHecke algebra and its associated thick calculus category with diagrammatically local differentials. The resulting differential graded Grothendieck groups are isomorphic to two different forms of the positive part of quantum {{{sl}_2}} at a fourth root of unity.

  2. Quantum description of T-odd correlations in ternary fission

    SciTech Connect

    Bunakov, V. E.; Kadmensky, S. G.

    2008-07-15

    A quantum version of a unified description of two T-odd effects recently observed in the ternary fission of nuclei that is induced by polarized neutrons is considered. These effects are explained by the effect of the Coriolis interaction of the rotating fissile system on the angular distributions of light charged particles in the interior and exterior regions of the nucleus.

  3. A Study of Odd- and Even-Number Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    Japanese prefer odd numbers, whereas Westerners emphasize even numbers, an observation that is clear from the distribution of number-related words in Japanese and English dictionaries. In this article, the author explains why these two cultures differ by surveying the history of numbers, including yin-yang thought from ancient China, ancient Greek…

  4. Abstinence Promotion Under PEPFAR: The Shifting Focus of HIV Prevention For Youth

    PubMed Central

    Santelli, John S.; Speizer, Ilene S.; Edelstein, Zoe R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstinence-until-marriage (AUM) – strongly supported by religious conservatives in the U.S. - became a key element of initial HIV prevention efforts under the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). AUM programs have demonstrated limited efficacy in changing behaviors, promoted medically inaccurate information, and withheld life-saving information about risk reduction. A focus on AUM also undermined national efforts in Africa to create integrated youth HIV prevention programs. PEPFAR prevention efforts after 2008 shifted to science-based programming, however vestiges of AUM remain. Primary prevention programs within PEPFAR are essential and nations must be able to design HIV prevention based on local needs and prevention science. PMID:23327516

  5. Abstinence promotion under PEPFAR: the shifting focus of HIV prevention for youth.

    PubMed

    Santelli, John S; Speizer, Ilene S; Edelstein, Zoe R

    2013-01-01

    Abstinence-until-marriage (AUM) - strongly supported by religious conservatives in the USA - became a key element of initial human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention efforts under the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). AUM programmes have demonstrated limited efficacy in changing behaviours, promoted medically inaccurate information and withheld life-saving information about risk reduction. A focus on AUM also undermined national efforts in Africa to create integrated youth HIV prevention programmes. PEPFAR prevention efforts after 2008 shifted to science-based programming, however, vestiges of AUM remain. Primary prevention programmes within PEPFAR are essential and nations must be able to design HIV prevention based on local needs and prevention science. PMID:23327516

  6. Hope and Abstinence Self-Efficacy: Positive Predictors of Negative Affect in Substance Abuse Recovery

    PubMed Central

    May, Emily M.; Hunter, Bronwyn A.; Ferrari, Joseph; Noel, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Goal-oriented thinking, including hope and self-efficacy, might play a constructive and integral role in the substance abuse recovery process, although such an effect may differ by race. The current study investigated hope and self-efficacy, specifically abstinence self-efficacy, as predictors of negative affect (i.e. depression and anxiety) in a longitudinal sample of men and women in substance abuse recovery who lived in sober living homes. We found hope agency and self-efficacy were related but not identical constructs; hope agency and self-efficacy predicted depressive and anxiety symptoms for individuals in recovery, yet these relationships were moderated by race. Theoretical and clinical implications for promoting positive affect among individuals in substance abuse recovery are discussed. PMID:25990539

  7. Sleep deprivation differentially impairs cognitive performance in abstinent methylenedioxymethamphetamine ("Ecstasy") users.

    PubMed

    McCann, Una D; Wilson, Michael J; Sgambati, Francis P; Ricaurte, George A

    2009-11-01

    Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; "Ecstasy") is a popular recreational drug and brain serotonin (5-HT) neurotoxin. Neuroimaging data indicate that some human MDMA users develop persistent deficits in brain 5-HT neuronal markers. Although the consequences of MDMA-induced 5-HT neurotoxicity are not fully understood, abstinent MDMA users have been found to have subtle cognitive deficits and altered sleep architecture. The present study sought to test the hypothesis that sleep disturbance plays a role in cognitive deficits in MDMA users. Nineteen abstinent MDMA users and 21 control subjects participated in a 5 d inpatient study in a clinical research unit. Baseline sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory. Cognitive performance was tested three times daily using a computerized cognitive battery. On the third day of admission, subjects began a 40 h sleep deprivation period and continued cognitive testing using the same daily schedule. At baseline, MDMA users performed less accurately than controls on a task of working memory and more impulsively on four of the seven computerized tests. During sleep deprivation, MDMA users, but not controls, became increasingly impulsive, performing more rapidly at the expense of accuracy on tasks of working and short-term memory. Tests of mediation implicated baseline sleep disturbance in the cognitive decline seen during sleep deprivation. These findings are the first to demonstrate that memory problems in MDMA users may be related, at least in part, to sleep disturbance and suggest that cognitive deficits in MDMA users may become more prominent in situations associated with sleep deprivation. PMID:19890014

  8. Brain Reactivity to Smoking Cues Prior to Smoking Cessation Predicts Ability to Maintain Tobacco Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Janes, Amy C.; Pizzagalli, Diego A.; Richardt, Sarah; Frederick, Blaise deB.; Chuzi, Sarah; Pachas, Gladys; Culhane, Melissa A.; Holmes, Avram J.; Fava, Maurizio; Evins, A. Eden; Kaufman, Marc J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Developing means to identify smokers at high risk for relapse could advance relapse prevention therapy. We hypothesized that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) reactivity to smoking-related cues, measured prior to a quit attempt, could identify smokers with heightened relapse vulnerability. Methods Twenty-one nicotine-dependent women underwent fMRI prior to quitting smoking, during which smoking-related and neutral images were shown. These smokers also were tested for possible attentional biases to smoking-related words using a computerized emotional Stroop (ES) task previously found to predict relapse. Smokers then made a quit attempt and were grouped based on outcomes (abstinence versus slip: smoking 1 cigarette after attaining abstinence). Pre-quit fMRI and ES measurements in these groups were compared. Results Slip subjects had heightened fMRI reactivity to smoking-related images in brain regions implicated in emotion, interoceptive awareness, and motor planning and execution. Smoking cue-induced insula and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) reactivity correlated with an attentional bias to smoking-related words. A discriminant analysis of ES and fMRI data predicted outcomes with 79% accuracy. Additionally, smokers who slipped had decreased fMRI functional connectivity between an insula-containing network and brain regions involved in cognitive control, including the dACC and dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, possibly reflecting reduced top-down control of smoking-related cue-induced emotions. Conclusions These findings suggest that the insula and dACC are important substrates of smoking relapse vulnerability. The data also suggest that relapse-vulnerable smokers can be identified prior to quit attempts, which could enable personalized treatment, improve tobacco-dependence treatment outcomes, and reduce smoking-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:20172508

  9. Predictors of Abstinence: NIDA Multi-site Buprenorphine/Naloxone Treatment Trial in Opioid Dependent Youth

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Geetha A.; Warden, Diane; Minhajuddin, Abu; Fishman, Marc J.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Adinoff, Bryon; Trivedi, Madhukar; Weiss, Roger; Potter, Jennifer; Poole, Sabrina A.; Woody, George E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine predictors of opioid abstinence in buprenorphine/naloxone (Bup/Nal) assisted psychosocial treatment for opioid dependent youth Method Secondary analyses of data from 152 youth (ages 15–21) randomly assigned to 12 weeks of extended Bup/Nal therapy or up to 2 weeks of Bup/Nal detoxification, both with weekly individual and group drug counseling. Logistic regression models were constructed to identify baseline and during-treatment predictors of opioid positive urines (OPU) at week-12. Predictors were selected based on significance or trend toward significance (i.e. p<0.1) and backward stepwise selection was used, controlling for treatment group, to produce final independent predictors at p ≤ 0.05. Results Youth presenting to treatment with past 30-day injection drug use (IDU) and more active medical/psychiatric problems were less likely to have a week-12 OPU. Those with early treatment opioid abstinence (i.e. weeks 1 and 2); and those who received additional non-study treatments during the study were less likely to have a week-12 OPU; and those not completing 12 weeks of treatment were more likely to have an OPU. Conclusions Youth with advanced illness (i.e. reporting IDU and additional health problems), and those receiving ancillary treatments to augment study treatment were more likely to have lower opioid use. Treatment success in the first 2 weeks and completion of 12 weeks of treatment were associated with lower rates of OPU. These findings suggest that youth with advanced illness respond well to Bup/Nal treatment, and identify options for tailoring treatment for opioid-dependent youth presenting at community-based settings. PMID:22024000

  10. Motivated Attention to Cocaine and Emotional Cues in Abstinent and Current Cocaine Users: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Dunning, Jonathan P.; Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Hajcak, Greg; Maloney, Thomas; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Woicik, Patricia A.; Telang, Frank; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2011-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) are a direct measure of neural activity and are ideally suited to study the time-course of attentional engagement with emotional and drug-related stimuli in addiction. In particular, the late positive potential (LPP) appears enhanced following cocaine-related compared to neutral stimuli in individuals with cocaine use disorders (CUD). However, previous studies have not directly compared cocaine-related to emotional stimuli while examining potential differences between abstinent and current cocaine users. The present study examined ERPs in 55 CUD (27 abstinent and 28 current users) and 29 matched healthy controls while they passively viewed pleasant, unpleasant, neutral, and cocaine-related pictures. To examine the time-course of attention to these stimuli, we analyzed both an early and later window in the LPP as well as the early posterior negativity (EPN), established in assessing motivated attention. Cocaine pictures elicited increased electrocortical measures of motivated attention in ways similar to affectively pleasant and unpleasant pictures in all CUD, an effect that was no longer discernible during the late LPP window for the current users. This group also exhibited deficient processing of the other emotional stimuli (early LPP window: pleasant pictures; late LPP window: pleasant and unpleasant pictures). Results were unique to the LPP and not EPN. Taken together, results support a relatively early attention bias to cocaine stimuli in cocaine addicted individuals further suggesting that recent cocaine use decreases such attention bias during later stages of processing but at the expense of deficient processing of other emotional stimuli. PMID:21450043

  11. Voluntary co-consumption of alcohol and nicotine: Effects of abstinence, intermittency, and withdrawal in mice.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Kyu Y; Touchette, Jillienne C; Hartell, Elizabeth C; Bade, Elizabeth J; Lee, Anna M

    2016-10-01

    Alcohol and nicotine are often used together, and there is a high rate of co-occurrence between alcohol and nicotine addiction. Most animal models studying alcohol and nicotine interactions have utilized passive drug administration, which may not be relevant to human co-addiction. In addition, the interactions between alcohol and nicotine in female animals have been understudied, as most studies have used male animals. To address these issues, we developed models of alcohol and nicotine co-consumption in male and female mice that utilized voluntary, oral consumption of unsweetened alcohol, nicotine and water. We first examined drug consumption and preference in single-drug, sequential alcohol and nicotine consumption tests in male and female C57BL/6 and DBA/2J mice. We then tested chronic continuous and intermittent access alcohol and nicotine co-consumption procedures. We found that male and female C57BL/6 mice readily co-consumed unsweetened alcohol and nicotine. In our continuous co-consumption procedures, we found that varying the available nicotine concentration during an alcohol abstinence period affected compensatory nicotine consumption during alcohol abstinence, and affected rebound alcohol consumption when alcohol was re-introduced. Consumption of alcohol and nicotine in an intermittent co-consumption procedure produced higher alcohol consumption levels, but not nicotine consumption levels, compared with the continuous co-consumption procedures. Finally, we found that intermittent alcohol and nicotine co-consumption resulted in physical dependence. Our data show that these voluntary co-consumption procedures can be easily performed in mice and can be used to study behavioral interactions between alcohol and nicotine consumption, which may better model human alcohol and nicotine co-addiction. PMID:27342124

  12. Altered Functional Connectivity Strength in Abstinent Chronic Cocaine Smokers Compared to Healthy Controls.

    PubMed

    Ray, Suchismita; Gohel, Suril; Biswal, Bharat B

    2015-10-01

    Past research involving cocaine and resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) has shown altered functional connectivity within the frontal and between the frontal and other cortical and subcortical brain regions in chronic users of cocaine. However, there have been discrepancies in literature regarding the relationship between RSFC between brain regions and cocaine use behavior. This study explored the RSFC between brain regions in cocaine smokers abstinent from cocaine use for 72 h and healthy controls. Also, the relationship between RSFC between brain regions and various cocaine use measures (cocaine use duration; frequency, and money spent on cocaine/week) was examined. Twenty chronic cocaine users and 17 controls completed a resting-state scan and an anatomical MPRAGE scan. Group independent component analysis performed on functional magnetic resonance imaging data identified 13 ICs pertaining to distinct resting-state networks, and group-level differences were examined. To examine inter-network functional connectivity between brain regions, these 13 ICs were divided into 61 distinct regions of interest (ROIs). Correlations were calculated between 61 ROI time series. For the ROI pairs that significantly differed from controls in connectivity strength, correlations were computed between connectivity strength and cocaine use measures. Results showed an enhanced RSFC within the sensory motor cortex and the left frontal-parietal network in cocaine users than controls. An increased inter-network RSFC between frontal-temporal and frontal-parietal brain regions, and a decreased RSFC between parietal-parietal, occipital-limbic, occipital-occipital, and occipital-parietal brain regions was found in cocaine users. This study demonstrated that intra-network connectivity strength of sensory motor cortex was negatively correlated with years of cocaine use. Inter-network connectivity strength between occipital-limbic brain regions was positively correlated with years of

  13. Environmental living conditions introduced during forced abstinence alter cocaine-seeking behavior and Fos protein expression

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, Kenneth J.; Pentkowski, Nathan S.; Peartree, Natalie A.; Painter, Michael R.; Neisewander, Janet L.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) introduced during abstinence from cocaine self-administration is protective in reducing cue-elicited incentive motivation for cocaine in rats. This study examined neural activation associated with this protective effect of EE using Fos protein expression as a marker. Rats were trained to press a lever reinforced by cocaine (0.75 mg/kg/0.1 ml infusion) and light and tone cues across 15 consecutive days during which they were all housed in isolated conditions (IC). Rats were then assigned to either remain in IC, or to live in pair-housed conditions (PC) or EE for 30 days of forced abstinence from cocaine. Subsequently, cocaine-seeking behavior (lever presses without cocaine reinforcement) elicited by response-contingent cue presentations was assessed for 90 min, after which the rats' brains were immediately harvested for Fos protein immunohistochemistry. EE attenuated, whereas IC enhanced, cue-elicited cocaine-seeking behavior relative to PC. Also, within the prelimbic and orbitofrontal cortices and basolateral amygdala, IC enhanced, whereas EE reduced, Fos expression relative to PC. Furthermore, EE attenuated Fos expression in the infralimbic and anterior cingulate cortices, the nucleus accumbens (core and shell), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and ventral tegmental area, evident as a reduction relative to both PC and IC. In contrast, IC enhanced Fos expression in the dorsal caudate putamen, substantia nigra, and central amygdala, evident as an increase relative to both PC and EE. These results suggest that EE blunts neural activation throughout the mesocorticolimbic circuitry involved in cue-elicited incentive motivation for cocaine, whereas IC enhances activation primarily within the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway. These findings have important implications for understanding and treating drug-conditioned craving in humans. PMID:20933585

  14. Environmental living conditions introduced during forced abstinence alter cocaine-seeking behavior and Fos protein expression.

    PubMed

    Thiel, K J; Pentkowski, N S; Peartree, N A; Painter, M R; Neisewander, J L

    2010-12-29

    Environmental enrichment (EE) introduced during abstinence from cocaine self-administration is protective in reducing cue-elicited incentive motivation for cocaine in rats. This study examined neural activation associated with this protective effect of EE using Fos protein expression as a marker. Rats were trained to press a lever reinforced by cocaine (0.75 mg/kg/0.1 mL infusion) and light and tone cues across 15 consecutive days during which they were all housed in isolated conditions (IC). Rats were then assigned to either remain in IC, or to live in pair-housed conditions (PC) or EE for 30 days of forced abstinence from cocaine. Subsequently, cocaine-seeking behavior (lever presses without cocaine reinforcement) elicited by response-contingent cue presentations was assessed for 90 min, after which the rats' brains were immediately harvested for Fos protein immunohistochemistry. EE attenuated, whereas IC enhanced, cue-elicited cocaine-seeking behavior relative to PC. Also, within the prelimbic and orbitofrontal cortices and basolateral amygdala, IC enhanced, whereas EE reduced, Fos expression relative to PC. Furthermore, EE attenuated Fos expression in the infralimbic and anterior cingulate cortices, the nucleus accumbens (core and shell), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and ventral tegmental area, evident as a reduction relative to both PC and IC. In contrast, IC enhanced Fos expression in the dorsal caudate putamen, substantia nigra, and central amygdala, evident as an increase relative to both PC and EE. These results suggest that EE blunts neural activation throughout the mesocorticolimbic circuitry involved in cue-elicited incentive motivation for cocaine, whereas IC enhances activation primarily within the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway. These findings have important implications for understanding and treating drug-conditioned craving in humans. PMID:20933585

  15. Antiferromagnetic molecular nanomagnets with odd-numbered coupled spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owerre, S. A.; Nsofini, J.

    2015-05-01

    In recent years, studies on cyclic molecular nanomagnets have captivated the attention of researchers. These magnets are finite in size and contain very large spins. They are interesting because they possess macroscopic quantum tunneling of Néel vectors. For antiferromagnetic molecular nanomagnets with finite number of even-numbered coupled spins, tunneling involves two classical localized Néel ground states separated by a magnetic energy barrier. The question is: can such phenomena be observed in nanomagnets with odd number of magnetic ions? The answer is not directly obvious because cyclic chains with odd-numbered coupled spins are frustrated as one cannot obtain a perfect Néel order. These frustrated spins can indeed be observed experimentally, so they are of interest. In this letter, we theoretically investigate macroscopic quantum tunneling in this odd spin system with arbitrary spins s, in the presence of a magnetic field applied along the plane of the magnet. In contrast to systems with an even-numbered coupled spins, the ground state of the cyclic odd-spin system contains a topological soliton due to spin frustration. Thus, the classical ground state is 2N-fold degenerate as the soliton can be placed anywhere along the ring with total S_z=+/- s . Small quantum fluctuations delocalize the soliton with a formation of an energy band. We obtain this energy band using degenerate perturbation theory at order 2s. We show that the soliton ground state is chiral for half-odd integer spins and non-chiral for integer spins. From the structure of the energy band we infer that as the value of the spin increases the inelastic polarized neutron-scattering intensity may increase or decrease depending on the strengths of the parameters of the Hamiltonian.

  16. Biosynthesis of odd-chain fatty alcohols in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ying-Xiu; Xiao, Wen-Hai; Liu, Duo; Zhang, Jin-Lai; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2015-05-01

    Engineered microbes offer the opportunity to design and implement artificial molecular pathways for renewable production of tailored chemical commodities. Targeted biosynthesis of odd-chain fatty alcohols is very challenging in microbe, due to the specificity of fatty acids synthase for two-carbon unit elongation. Here, we developed a novel strategy to directly tailor carbon number in fatty aldehydes formation step by incorporating α-dioxygenase (αDOX) from Oryza sativa (rice) into Escherichia coli αDOX oxidizes Cn fatty acids (even-chain) to form Cn-1 fatty aldehydes (odd-chain). Through combining αDOX with fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein (-ACP) thioesterase (TE) and aldehyde reductase (AHR), the medium odd-chain fatty alcohols profile (C11, C13, C15) was firstly established in E. coli. Also, medium even-chain alkanes (C12, C14) were obtained by substitution of AHR to aldehyde decarbonylase (AD). The titer of odd-chain fatty alcohols was improved from 7.4mg/L to 101.5mg/L in tube cultivation by means of fine-tuning endogenous fatty acyl-ACP TE (TesA'), αDOX, AHRs and the genes involved in fatty acids metabolism pathway. Through high cell density fed-batch fermentation, a titer of 1.95g/L odd-chain fatty alcohols was achieved, which was the highest reported titer in E. coli. Our system has greatly expanded the current microbial fatty alcohols profile that provides a new brand solution for producing complex and desired molecules in microbes. PMID:25773521

  17. Sexual abstinence: What is the understanding and views of secondary school learners in a semi-rural area of North West Province, South Africa?

    PubMed

    Mokwena, Kebogile; Morabe, Mamaponesa

    2016-12-01

    Among strategies to prevent HIV, other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancies, are programs that promote sexual abstinence among adolescents. However, literature suggests that there may be differences in the understanding of abstinence across adolescents, and this study sought to explore the understanding of sexual abstinence among both male and female learners in a secondary school in a semi-rural area of North West Province, South Africa. Focus group discussions were used to collect data from learners who were in grades 8-10 at the time of the study. The findings are that the learners in this area understand sexual abstinence as the decision not to have sex, and this was associated with prevention of HIV, STIs and unwanted pregnancies, which ensures a better future. Barriers to sexual abstinence include peer pressure, myths and wrong perceptions about sex, influence of drugs and alcohol and the influence of television. Based on how it is delivered, school-based sex education was viewed as both an enabler and barrier to sexual abstinence. It is recommended that programs to promote sexual abstinence be strengthened and such programs be community-based. PMID:27315574

  18. Executive Functioning in Children: A Comparison of Hospitalised ODD and ODD/ADHD Children and Normal Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Snoek, Heddeke; Matthys, Walter; Swaab-Barneveld, Hanna; Van Engeland, Herman

    2004-01-01

    Background: Deficits in executive functioning are supposed to have a predisposing influence on impulsive or aggressive behaviour. We tested the hypothesis that oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) children with or without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have problems in executive functioning. Method: Seventy-seven 7- to 12-year-old…

  19. Mass media campaigns: the odds against finding behavior change.

    PubMed

    Wallack, L M

    1981-01-01

    The use of mass media has long been an attractive method for implementing and discharging institutional responsibility for the promotion of good health practices and the prevention of various social and health problems. Although there is a long history of such efforts, relatively little is known about the effects such campaigns might have. The large number of programs currently being conceived and implemented on local, state, and federal levels have not benefited as much as they might have from the experience of past mass media efforts. This paper reviews the history, commonalities, assumptions, and effects of planned largescale campaigns to communicate information to the general population to encourage moderation or abstinence in the use of alcohol, drugs, or tobacco. The concept of experimental design is critiqued regarding the appropriateness of such a model for evaluation of mass media campaigns. Suggestions are offered for making evaluations of such campaigns more able to generate useful information for program and planning purposes. This includes expanding evaluation questions through additional forms of inquiry rather than constricting the information obtained through methods based on assumptions of experimental design. PMID:7037686

  20. Regional and neighborhood disparities in the odds of type 2 diabetes: results from 5 population-based studies in Germany (DIAB-CORE consortium).

    PubMed

    Müller, Grit; Kluttig, Alexander; Greiser, Karin Halina; Moebus, Susanne; Slomiany, Uta; Schipf, Sabine; Völzke, Henry; Maier, Werner; Meisinger, Christa; Tamayo, Teresa; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Berger, Klaus

    2013-07-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between residential environment and type 2 diabetes. We pooled cross-sectional data from 5 population-based German studies (1997-2006): the Cardiovascular Disease, Living and Ageing in Halle Study, the Dortmund Health Study, the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study, the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg Study, and the Study of Health in Pomerania. The outcome of interest was the presence of self-reported type 2 diabetes. We conducted mixed logistic regression models in a hierarchical data set with 8,879 individuals aged 45-74 years on level 1; 226 neighborhoods on level 2; and 5 study regions on level 3. The analyses were adjusted for age, sex, social class, and employment status. The odds ratio for type 2 diabetes was highest in eastern Germany (odds ratio = 1.98, 95% confidence interval: 1.81, 2.14) and northeastern Germany (odds ratio = 1.58, 95% confidence interval: 1.40, 1.77) and lowest in southern Germany (reference) after adjustment for individual variables. Neighborhood unemployment rates explained a large proportion of regional differences. Individuals residing in neighborhoods with high unemployment rates had elevated odds of type 2 diabetes (odds ratio = 1.62, 95% confidence interval: 1.25, 2.09). The diverging levels of unemployment in neighborhoods and regions are an independent source of disparities in type 2 diabetes. PMID:23648804

  1. Precision spectroscopy of the {sup 207}Pb{sup 19}F molecule: Implications for measurement of P-odd and T-odd effects

    SciTech Connect

    Alphei, Lukas D.; Grabow, Jens-Uwe; Petrov, A. N.; Mawhorter, Richard; Murphy, Benjamin; Baum, Alexander; Sears, Trevor J.; Yang, T. Zh.; Rupasinghe, P. M.; McRaven, C. P.; Shafer-Ray, N. E.

    2011-04-15

    Here we report precision microwave spectroscopy of pure rotational transitions of the {sup 207}Pb{sup 19}F isotopologue. We use these data to make predictions of the sensitivity of the molecule to P-odd, T-even and P-odd, T-odd effects.

  2. Exposure to prescription opioid analgesics in utero and risk of neonatal abstinence syndrome: population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Huybrechts, Krista F; Hernandez-Diaz, Sonia; Mogun, Helen; Patorno, Elisabetta; Kaltenbach, Karol; Kerzner, Leslie S; Bateman, Brian T

    2015-01-01

    Objective To provide absolute and relative risk estimates of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) based on duration and timing of prescription opioid use during pregnancy in the presence or absence of additional NAS risk factors of history of opioid misuse or dependence, misuse of other substances, non-opioid psychotropic drug use, and smoking. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Medicaid data from 46 US states. Participants Pregnant women filling at least one prescription for an opioid analgesic at any time during pregnancy for whom opioid exposure characteristics including duration of therapy: short term (<30 days) or long term (≥30 days); timing of use: early use (only in the first two trimesters) or late use (extending into the third trimester); and cumulative dose (in morphine equivalent milligrams) were assessed. Main outcome measure Diagnosis of NAS in liveborn infants. Results 1705 cases of NAS were identified among 290 605 pregnant women filling opioid prescriptions, corresponding to an absolute risk of 5.9 per 1000 deliveries (95% confidence interval 5.6 to 6.2). Long term opioid use during pregnancy resulted in higher absolute risk of NAS per 1000 deliveries in the presence of additional risk factors of known opioid misuse (220.2 (200.8 to 241.0)), alcohol or other drug misuse (30.8 (26.1 to 36.0)), exposure to other psychotropic medications (13.1 (10.6 to 16.1)), and smoking (6.6 (4.3 to 9.6)) than in the absence of any of these risk factors (4.2 (3.3 to 5.4)). The corresponding risk estimates for short term use were 192.0 (175.8 to 209.3), 7.0 (6.0 to 8.2), 2.0 (1.5 to 2.6), 1.5 (1.0 to 2.0), and 0.7 (0.6 to 0.8) per 1000 deliveries, respectively. In propensity score matched analyses, long term prescription opioid use compared with short term use and late use compared with early use in pregnancy demonstrated greater risk of NAS (risk ratios 2.05 (95% confidence interval 1.81 to 2.33) and 1.24 (1.12 to 1.38), respectively). Conclusions Use of

  3. Does the Prevalence of CD and ODD Vary across Cultures?

    PubMed Central

    Canino, Glorisa; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Bauermeister, Jose J.; Rohde, Luis A.; Frick, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is presented in order to examine the first of four criteria used in other studies to determine the validity of psychiatric disorders across cultures. The authors searched Medline and PsycINFO from 1987 to 2008. Studies were included if they were representative of specific communities or countries and reported point prevalence of CD or ODD according to DSM-III-R or DSM-IV criteria for children 18 years or younger. Only methodological and not geographic factors were associated with variability of the prevalence estimates. The results are discussed in terms of their significance for the classification of disorders and the need for further research to establish the validity of these two disorders across cultures. PMID:20532864

  4. Mesospheric Odd Nitrogen Enhancements During Relativistic Electron Precipitation Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, A. C.; Smith, H. J. P.

    1999-01-01

    The behavior of mesospheric odd nitrogen species during and following relativistic and diffuse auroral precipitation events is simulated, Below 75 km nitric oxide is enhanced in proportion to the ion pair production function associated with the electron precipitation and the length of the event. Nitrogen dioxide and nitric acid are also enhanced. At 65 km the percentage of odd nitrogen for N is 0.1%, HNO3 is 1.6%, NO2 is 15%, and NO is 83.3%. Between 75 and 85 km NO is depleted during particle events due to the faster destruction of NO by N relative to the production of NO by N reacting with O2. Recovery of NO depends on transport from the lower thermosphere, where NO is produced in abundant amounts during particle events.

  5. Beating the regulatory odds with new simulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, M.B.

    1994-06-20

    Complying with environmental regulations is like a horse race. When it comes to selecting pollution control technologies, the odds against picking a winner are high. A system that`s supposedly an odds-on favorite can come up short if the track conditions are wrong. The penalty for picking a loser is steep and even the best manufacturers can be put out to pasture for poor performance. Certainly, the stakes are high: the federal government projects that environmental rules will cost industry $184 billion annually by 2000. Others say it could be four times that. {open_quotes}But unless you have a crystal ball no one knows what it will cost{close_quotes}, says Robert Sackellares, head of the Atlanta office of SBE Environmental Company, New York City. {open_quotes}The final price tag will depend on the technologies that companies choose, and how effective they are.{close_quotes}.

  6. Predator fitness increases with selectivity for odd prey.

    PubMed

    Rutz, Christian

    2012-05-01

    The fundamental currency of normative models of animal decision making is Darwinian fitness. In foraging ecology, empirical studies typically assess foraging strategies by recording energy intake rates rather than realized reproductive performance. This study provides a rare empirical link, in a vertebrate predator-prey system, between a predator's foraging behavior and direct measures of its reproductive fitness. Goshawks Accipiter gentilis selectively kill rare color variants of their principal prey, the feral pigeon Columba livia, presumably because targeting odd-looking birds in large uniform flocks helps them overcome confusion effects and enhances attack success. Reproductive performance of individual hawks increases significantly with their selectivity for odd-colored pigeons, even after controlling for confounding age effects. Older hawks exhibit more pronounced dietary preferences, suggesting that hunting performance improves with experience. Intriguingly, although negative frequency-dependent predation by hawks exerts strong selection against rare pigeon phenotypes, pigeon color polymorphism is maintained through negative assortative mating. PMID:22503502

  7. Investigation of odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in atomic vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Yaqi; Wu, Zhenkun; Si, Jinhai; Yan, Lihe; Zhang, Yiqi; Yuan, Chenzhi; Sun, Jia; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2013-06-15

    We theoretically deduce the macroscopic symmetry constraints for arbitrary odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in homogeneous media including atomic vapors for the first time. After theoretically calculating the expressions using a semiclassical method, we demonstrate that the expressions for third- and fifth-order nonlinear susceptibilities for undressed and dressed four- and six-wave mixing (FWM and SWM) in atomic vapors satisfy the macroscopic symmetry constraints. We experimentally demonstrate consistence between the macroscopic symmetry constraints and the semiclassical expressions for atomic vapors by observing polarization control of FWM and SWM processes. The experimental results are in reasonable agreement with our theoretical calculations. -- Highlights: •The macroscopic symmetry constraints are deduced for homogeneous media including atomic vapors. •We demonstrate that odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities satisfy the constraints. •We experimentally demonstrate the deduction in part.

  8. Shape phase transitions in odd-A nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, C. E.; Arias, J. M.; Fortunato, L.; Vitturi, A.

    2008-11-11

    We investigate shape phase transitions in odd nuclei within the Interacting Boson Fermion Model. Special attention is given to the case of the transition from the vibrational behaviour to the stable axial deformation. The odd particle is assumed to be moving in the three single particle orbitals j = 1/2,3/2,5/2 with a boson-fermion Hamiltonian that leads to the occurrence of the SU{sup BF}(3) boson-fermion symmetry when the boson part approaches the SU(3) condition. Both energy spectra and electromagnetic transitions show characteristic patterns similar to those displayed by the even nuclei at the corresponding critical point. The role of the additional particle in characterizing the properties of the critical points in finite quantal systems is investigated by resorting to the formalism based on the intrinsic frame.

  9. Alternating parity structure in doubly odd /sup 218/Ac

    SciTech Connect

    Debray, M.E.; Davidson, M.; Kreiner, A.J.; Davidson, J.; Falcone, G.; Hojman, D.; Santos, D.

    1989-03-01

    States in doubly odd /sup 218/Ac have been studied using in-beam ..cap alpha..-, ..gamma..-, and e/sup -/-spectroscopy techniques mainly through the /sup 209/Bi(/sup 12/C,3n)= fusion-evaporation reaction. /sup 218/Ac shows a band structure, with interleaved states of alternating parities connected by enhanced B(E1) transitions, which is strikingly similar to the one in its isotone /sup 217/Ra.

  10. Improved techniques for lower bounds for odd perfect numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brent, R. P.; Cohen, G. L.; Riele, H. J. J. Te

    1991-10-01

    If N is an odd perfect number, and {q^k}\\vert\\vert N , q prime, k even, then it is almost immediate that N > {q^{2k}} . We prove here that, subject to certain conditions verifiable in polynomial time, in fact N > {q^{5k/2}} . Using this and related results, we are able to extend the computations in an earlier paper to show that N > {10^{300}} .

  11. Even-odd effect in short antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machens, A.; Konstantinidis, N. P.; Waldmann, O.; Schneider, I.; Eggert, S.

    2013-04-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on chemically synthesized magnetic molecular chains, we investigate the lowest-lying energy band of short spin-s antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains focusing on effects of open boundaries. By numerical diagonalization we find that the Landé pattern in the energy levels, i.e., E(S)∝S(S+1) for total spin S, known from, e.g., ring-shaped nanomagnets, can be recovered in odd-membered chains, while strong deviations are found for the lowest excitations in chains with an even number of sites. This particular even-odd effect in the short Heisenberg chains cannot be explained by simple effective Hamiltonians and symmetry arguments. We go beyond these approaches, taking into account quantum fluctuations by means of a path-integral description and the valence bond basis, but the resulting quantum edge-spin picture which is known to work well for long chains does not agree with the numerical results for short chains and cannot explain the even-odd effect. Instead, by analyzing also the classical chain model, we show that spatial fluctuations dominate the physical behavior in short chains, with length N≲eπs, for any spin s. Such short chains are found to display a unique behavior, which is not related to the thermodynamic limit and cannot be described well by theories developed for this regime.

  12. Wind-induced odd gravitational harmonics of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald

    2015-06-01

    While the rotational distortion of Jupiter makes a major contribution to its lowermost order even zonal gravitational coefficients Jn with n ≥ 2, the component of the zonal winds with equatorial antisymmetry, if sufficiently deep, produces a gravitational signature contained in the odd zonal gravitational coefficients Jn with n ≥ 3. Based on a non-spherical model of a polytropic Jupiter with index unity, we compute Jupiter's odd gravitational coefficients J3, J5, J7, …, J11 induced by the equatorially antisymmetric zonal winds that are assumed to be deep. It is found that the lowermost odd gravitational coefficients J3, J5 and J7 are of the same order of magnitude with J3 = -1.6562 × 10-6, J5 = 1.5778 × 10-6 and J7 = -0.7432 × 10-6, and are within the accuracy of high-precision gravitational measurements to be carried out by the Juno spacecraft.

  13. Fluctuation theorems and entropy production with odd-parity variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyunggyu; Lee, Hyun Keun; Kwon, Chulan

    2013-03-01

    We show that the total entropy production in stochastic processes with odd-parity variables (under time reversal) is separated into three parts, only two of which satisfy the integral fluctuation theorems in general. One is the usual excess contribution, which can appear only transiently and is called non-adiabatic. Another one is attributed solely to the breakage of detailed balance. The last part not satisfying the fluctuation theorem comes from the steady-state distribution asymmetry for odd-parity variables, which is activated in a non-transient manner. The latter two parts combine together as the house-keeping (adiabatic) contribution, whose positivity is not guaranteed except when the excess contribution completely vanishes. Our finding reveals that the equilibrium requires the steady-state distribution symmetry for odd-parity variables independently, in addition to the usual detailed balance. This work was supported by Mid-career Researcher Program through NRF grant (No. 2010-0026627) funded by the MEST.

  14. Decline in Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Odds of Incident Sleep Complaints

    PubMed Central

    Dishman, Rodney K.; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Kline, Christopher E.; Youngstedt, Shawn D.; Blair, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine longitudinal change in cardiorespiratory fitness and odds of incident sleep problems. Methods A cohort of 7368 men and 1155 women, aged 20–85 years, from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. The cohort did not complain of sleep problems, depression, or anxiety at their first clinic visit. Cardiorespiratory fitness assessed at 4 clinic visits between 1971–2006, each separated by an average of 2–3 years, was used as a proxy measure of cumulative physical activity exposure. Sleep complaints were made to a physician during follow-up. Results Across visits, there were 784 incident cases of sleep complaints in men and 207 cases in women. After adjustment for age, time between visits, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, chronic medical conditions, complaints of depression or anxiety at each visit, and fitness at Visit 1, each minute decline in treadmill endurance (i.e., a decline in cardiorespiratory fitness of approximately one-half MET) between ages 51 to 56 increased the odds of incident sleep complaints by 1.7% (1.0–2.4%) in men and 1.3% (0.0–2.8%) in women. Odds were ~8% higher per minute decline in people with sleep complaints at 2 or 3 visits. Conclusion The results indicate that maintenance of cardiorespiratory fitness during middle-age, when decline in fitness typically accelerates and risk of sleep problems is elevated, helps protect against the onset of sleep complaints made to a physician. PMID:25207930

  15. A loop group extension of the odd Chern character

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Scott O.

    2016-04-01

    We show that the universal odd Chern form, defined on the stable unitary group U, extends to the loop group LU as an equivariantly closed differential form. This provides an odd analogue to the Bismut-Chern form that appears in supersymmetric field theories. We also describe the associated transgression form, the so-called Bismut-Chern-Simons form, and explicate some properties it inherits as a differential form on the space of maps of a cylinder into the stable unitary group. As one corollary, we show that in a precise sense the spectral flow of a loop of self adjoint Fredholm operators equals the lowest degree component of the Bismut-Chern-Simons form, and the latter, when restricted to cylinders which are tori, is an equivariantly closed extension of spectral flow. As another corollary, we construct the Chern character homomorphism from odd K-theory to the periodic cohomology of the free loop space, represented geometrically on the level of differential forms.

  16. A history of chronic morphine exposure during adolescence increases despair-like behaviour and strain-dependently promotes sociability in abstinent adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, PE; Reiss, D; Ouagazzal, AM; Kieffer, BL

    2013-01-01

    A crucial issue in treating opiate addiction, a chronic relapsing disorder, is to maintain a drug-free abstinent state. Prolonged abstinence associates with mood disorders, strongly contributing to relapse. In particular, substance use disorders occurring during adolescence predispose to depression later in adulthood. Using our established mouse model of opiate abstinence, we characterized emotional consequences into adulthood of morphine exposure during adolescence. Our results indicate that morphine treatment in adolescent mice has no effect on anxiety-like behaviours in adult mice, after abstinence. In contrast, morphine treatment during adolescence increases behavioural despair in adult mice. We also show that morphine exposure strain-dependently enhances sociability in adult mice. Additional research will be required to understand where and how morphine acts during brain maturation to affect emotional and social behaviours into adulthood. PMID:23295400

  17. Isomer ratio calculations using modeled discrete levels

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, M.A.; Gardner, D.G.; Hoff, R.W.

    1984-10-16

    Isomer ratio calculations were made for the reactions: /sup 175/Lu(n,..gamma..)/sup 176m,g/Lu, /sup 175/Lu(n,2n)/sup 174m,g/Lu, /sup 237/Np(n,2n)/sup 236m,g/Np, /sup 241/Am(n,..gamma..)/sup 242m,g/Am, and /sup 243/Am(n,..gamma..)/sup 244m,g/Am using modeled level structures in the deformed, odd-odd product nuclei. The hundreds of discrete levels and their gamma-ray branching ratios provided by the modeling are necessary to achieve agreement with experiment. Many rotational bands must be included in order to obtain a sufficiently representative selection of K quantum numbers. The levels of each band must be extended to appropriately high values of angular momentum.

  18. Perceptions about sexual abstinence and knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention among in-school adolescents in a western Nigerian city

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Young people are becoming increasingly exposed to the risk of HIV infection. According to the 2008 HIV/Syphilis sentinel survey in Nigeria, 3.3% of young people aged 15-19 years are infected. Primary prevention especially abstinence, remains one of the most realistic interventions for reducing further spread of the virus. However, the adoption of sexual abstinence as a prevention strategy among adolescents remains low and factors influencing its practice among urban young people in Nigeria are relatively unknown. The aim of the study was to document the sexual abstinence behaviour of in-school adolescents, the factors influencing or obstructing abstinence, and knowledge of HIV and AIDS in Ibadan, South-West Nigeria. Methods The study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey of students in Ibadan South-West Local Government Area. A total of 420 respondents (52% males and 48% females), selected through a multistage sampling technique, completed a semi-structured questionnaire. This was supplemented with eight focus group discussions (FGDs) which had an average of 9 respondents within the 10 and 19 years age group. The data from the FGDs were transcribed and summarized manually while the quantitative data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences to generate frequencies, cross tabulations of variables and logistic regression analysis. Results Twelve percent of the entire sample had ever had sex. Overall, knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention was high and most respondents favoured the promotion of abstinence as an HIV prevention strategy. A smaller proportion of male respondents (79%) abstained compared with the females (98%). Major predictors of sexual abstinence were being a female, not having a boyfriend or girl friend, not using alcohol and having a positive attitude towards abstinence (P < 0.05). Sexual abstinence was also significantly associated with perceived self efficacy to refuse sex and negative perception of peers

  19. Dopamine and 5-HT supersensitivity in nonorganic central pain and in morphine abstinence: fortuitous or renal analogy?

    PubMed

    Sicuteri, F; Anselmi, B; Del Bianco, P L

    1980-01-01

    Unexplained pain, such as central panalgesia, might be the most common clinical expression of a deficiency, central in nature, of the endorphin system. Acute natural opioid deficiency is comparable to morphine withdrawal in addicts characterized by vegetative, psychic disorder and the appearance of pain. An impressive supersensitivity (up to 1000 fold) to dopamine and 5-HT of the smooth muscle (hand dorsal vein: venotest) is detected both in central panalgesia sufferers and in addicts during spontaneous (withdrawal) or pharmacological (naloxone) abstinence. A 5-HT and dopamine supersensitivity, of less intensity, however, (10-30 fold), is found during migraine attacks: on these occasions, morphine-like factors in CSF appear reduced or undetectable, reinforcing the chemical analogy between morphine abstinence and migraine attacks. In the present study, evidence of opiate receptors in the human vein is also provided: 5-HT venospasms, inhibited by morphine, promptly emerge when naloxone is inoculated locally. PMID:7395606

  20. Specificity of verbal learning impairment and recovery in a marijuana-dependent male: the effects of sustained marijuana abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Vadhan, Nehal P.; van Gorp, Wilfred G.; Levin, Frances R.

    2011-01-01

    We present the case of a young adult in treatment for marijuana dependence, with recurrent depression and a history of possible TBI, complaining of concentration, memory and initiation problems. Testing at treatment baseline revealed performance that was generally in the High Average range on measures of reaction time and attention, with a selective impairment in verbal learning (Borderline to Extremely Low range). Following 8 weeks of abstinence from marijuana, his verbal learning recovered to expected levels (High Average range), with signs of improved learning strategy, efficiency, rate, and capacity. However, his reaction time and attention showed minimal evidence of change. This finding is consistent with the literature that demonstrates that marijuana-associated neurocognitive impairments may be specific to verbal learning and may remit with abstinence. The clinical implications of these case findings and recommendations for neuropsychological assessment of marijuana abusers are discussed. PMID:21253958

  1. Closely Spaced Pregnancies Are Associated With Increased Odds of Autism in California Sibling Births

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kayuet; Bearman, Peter S.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the interpregnancy interval (IPI) is associated with the risk of autism in subsequent births. METHODS: Pairs of first- and second-born singleton full siblings were identified from all California births that occurred from 1992 to 2002 using birth records, and autism diagnoses were identified by using linked records of the California Department of Developmental Services. IPI was calculated as the time interval between birth dates minus the gestational age of the second sibling. In the primary analysis, logistic regression models were used to determine whether odds of autism in second-born children varied according to IPI. To address potential confounding by unmeasured family-level factors, a case-sibling control analysis determined whether affected sibling (first versus second) varied with IPI. RESULTS: An inverse association between IPI and odds of autism among 662 730 second-born children was observed. In particular, IPIs of <12, 12 to 23, and 24 to 35 months were associated with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for autism of 3.39 (3.00–3.82), 1.86 (1.65–2.10), and 1.26 (1.10–1.45) relative to IPIs of ≥36 months. The association was not mediated by preterm birth or low birth weight and persisted across categories of sociodemographic characteristics, with some attenuation in the oldest and youngest parents. Second-born children were at increased risk of autism relative to their firstborn siblings only in pairs with short IPIs. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that children born after shorter intervals between pregnancies are at increased risk of developing autism; the highest risk was associated with pregnancies spaced <1 year apart. PMID:21220394

  2. Type of Diabetes Mellitus and the Odds of Gleason Score 8 to 10 Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Josephine; Chen Minghui; Zhang Yuanye; Moran, Brian J.; Dosoretz, Daniel E.; Katin, Michael J.; Braccioforte, Michelle H.; Salenius, Sharon A.; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: It has been recently shown that diabetes mellitus (DM) is significantly associated with the likelihood of presenting with high-grade prostate cancer (PCa) or Gleason score (GS) 8 to 10; however, whether this association holds for both Type 1 and 2 DM is unknown. In this study we evaluated whether DM Type 1, 2, or both are associated with high-grade PCa after adjusting for known predictors of high-grade disease. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2010, a total of 15,330 men diagnosed with PCa and treated with radiation therapy were analyzed. A polychotomous logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate whether Type 1 or 2 DM was associated with odds of GS 7 or GS 8 to 10 compared with 6 or lower PCa, adjusting for African American race, age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, and digital rectal examination findings. Results: Men with Type 1 DM (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-3.27; p = 0.003) or Type 2 DM (AOR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.26-1.99; p < 0.001) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with GS 8 to 10 PCa compared with nondiabetic men. However this was not true for GS 7, for which these respective results were AOR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.93-1.82; p = 0.12 and AOR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.98-1.32; p = 0.10. Conclusion: Type 1 and 2 DM were associated with a higher odds of being diagnosed with Gleason score 8 to 10 but not 7 PCa. Pending validation, men who are diagnosed with Type I DM with GS 7 or lower should be considered for additional workup to rule out occult high-grade disease.

  3. Ketamine and MAG Lipase Inhibitor-Dependent Reversal of Evolving Depressive-Like Behavior During Forced Abstinence From Alcohol Drinking.

    PubMed

    Holleran, Katherine M; Wilson, Hadley H; Fetterly, Tracy L; Bluett, Rebecca J; Centanni, Samuel W; Gilfarb, Rachel A; Rocco, Lauren E R; Patel, Sachin; Winder, Danny G

    2016-07-01

    Although alcoholism and depression are highly comorbid, treatment options that take this into account are lacking, and mouse models of alcohol (ethanol (EtOH)) intake-induced depressive-like behavior have not been well established. Recent studies utilizing contingent EtOH administration through prolonged two-bottle choice access have demonstrated depression-like behavior following EtOH abstinence in singly housed female C57BL/6J mice. In the present study, we found that depression-like behavior in the forced swim test (FST) is revealed only after a protracted (2 weeks), but not acute (24 h), abstinence period. No effect on anxiety-like behavior in the EPM was observed. Further, we found that, once established, the affective disturbance is long-lasting, as we observed significantly enhanced latencies to approach food even 35 days after ethanol withdrawal in the novelty-suppressed feeding test (NSFT). We were able to reverse affective disturbances measured in the NSFT following EtOH abstinence utilizing the N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist and antidepressant ketamine but not memantine, another NMDAR antagonist. Pretreatment with the monoacylglycerol (MAG) lipase inhibitor JZL-184 also reduced affective disturbances in the NSFT in ethanol withdrawn mice, and this effect was prevented by co-administration of the CB1 inverse agonist rimonabant. Endocannabinoid levels were decreased within the BLA during abstinence compared with during drinking. Finally, we demonstrate that the depressive behaviors observed do not require a sucrose fade and that this drinking paradigm may favor the development of habit-like EtOH consumption. These data could set the stage for developing novel treatment approaches for alcohol-withdrawal-induced mood and anxiety disorders. PMID:26751284

  4. Abnormal gray matter volume and resting-state functional connectivity in former heroin-dependent individuals abstinent for multiple years.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lubin; Zou, Feng; Zhai, Tianye; Lei, Yu; Tan, Shuwen; Jin, Xiao; Ye, Enmao; Shao, Yongcong; Yang, Yihong; Yang, Zheng

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have suggested that heroin addiction is associated with structural and functional brain abnormalities. However, it is largely unknown whether these characteristics of brain abnormalities would be persistent or restored after long periods of abstinence. Considering the very high rates of relapse, we hypothesized that there may exist some latent neural vulnerabilities in abstinent heroin users. In this study, structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 30 former heroin-dependent (FHD) subjects who were drug free for more than 3 years and 30 non-addicted control (CN) volunteers. Voxel-based morphometry was used to identify possible gray matter volume differences between the FHD and CN groups. Alterations in resting-state functional connectivity in FHD were examined using brain areas with gray matter deficits as seed regions. Significantly reduced gray matter volume was observed in FHD in an area surrounding the parieto-occipital sulcus, which included the precuneus and cuneus. Functional connectivity analyses revealed that the FHD subjects showed reduced positive correlation within the default mode network and visual network and decreased negative correlation between the default mode network, visual network and task positive network. Moreover, the altered functional connectivity was correlated with self-reported impulsivity scores in the FHD subjects. Our findings suggest that disruption of large-scale brain systems is present in former heroin users even after multi-year abstinence, which could serve as system-level neural underpinnings for behavioral dysfunctions associated with addiction. PMID:25727574

  5. Aspiring to physical health: The role of aspirations for physical health in facilitating long-term tobacco abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Niemiec, Christopher P.; Ryan, Richard M.; Deci, Edward L.; Williams, Geoffrey C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess aspirations for physical health over 18 months. To examine whether maintained importance of aspirations for physical health mediated and/or moderated the effect of an intensive intervention on long-term tobacco abstinence. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention based on self-determination theory or to community care, and provided data at baseline and at 18 and 30 months post-randomization. Results Aspirations for physical health were better maintained over 18 months among participants in the intervention (mean change = .05), relative to community care (mean change = -.13), t = 2.66, p < .01. Maintained importance of aspirations for physical health partially mediated the treatment condition effects on seven-day point prevalence tobacco abstinence (z′ = 1.68, p < .01) and the longest number of days not smoking (z′ = 2.16, p < .01), and interacted with treatment condition to facilitate the longest number of days not smoking (β = .08, p < .05). Conclusion Maintained importance of aspirations for physical health facilitated tobacco abstinence. Practice implications Smokers may benefit from discussing aspirations for physical health within autonomy-supportive interventions. Patients may benefit from discussing aspirations during counseling about therapeutic lifestyle change and medication use. PMID:18838243

  6. Voucher-based contingent reinforcement of marijuana abstinence among individuals with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Sigmon, Stacey C; Higgins, Stephen T

    2006-06-01

    Previous studies by our group have used money given contingent on abstinence to reduce drug use by individuals with schizophrenia. In this study, we examined the sensitivity of marijuana use by individuals with serious mental illness to voucher-based contingent reinforcement, which represents the first study to date investigating the efficacy of voucher incentives with this population. This within-subject reversal design consisted of three conditions: 4-week baseline, 12-week voucher intervention, and 4-week baseline. During baseline periods, subjects received 10 US dollars vouchers per urine specimen, independent of urinalysis results. During voucher intervention, only specimens testing negative for marijuana earned vouchers, with total possible earnings of 930 US dollars. Seven adults with schizophrenia or other serious mental illnesses participated in the study. The percentage of marijuana-negative specimens was significantly greater during voucher intervention than during baseline periods. These results provide evidence that marijuana use among individuals with serious mental illness is sensitive to voucher-based incentives and further support the potential feasibility of using voucher-based contingency management to reduce substance abuse in this challenging population. PMID:16716843

  7. Immune Function Alterations during 12 Weeks of Abstinence in Heroin Users.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Yang, X-R; Song, H; Cao, B-R; Yin, F; An, Z-M; Kang, L; Li, J

    2015-01-01

    The intent of the study was to evaluate immune system changes during 12 weeks of abstinence in heroin users. We recruited men (N = 65) aged 18-45 years and collected demographic and heroin use pattern data. Serum blood levels of total interleukin 2 (IL-2), interferon γ (IFN-γ), immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgG, and IgM were assessed at five time points. The IL-2 level was increased on day 84 as compared to that in healthy controls. The IFN-γ level was higher in heroin users than in healthy controls between days 0 and 28, and was decreased on day 84. IgG and IgM levels in heroin users were higher than those in healthy controls in our 12-week study, and were in positive correlation with the way of using the drug, duration of heroin dependence, and daily heroin intake. Our data revealed that the immune system was not restored during the 12 weeks of heroin withdrawal. PMID:26789146

  8. Gene × Abstinence Effects on Drug Cue Reactivity in Addiction: Multimodal Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Scott J.; Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Shumay, Elena; Beebe-Wang, Nicasia; Konova, Anna B.; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Volkow, Nora D.

    2013-01-01

    Functional polymorphisms in the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1 or SLC6A3) modulate responsiveness to salient stimuli, such that carriers of one 9R-allele of DAT1 (compared with homozygote carriers of the 10R-allele) show heightened reactivity to drug-related reinforcement in addiction. Here, using multimodal neuroimaging and behavioral dependent variables in 73 human cocaine-addicted individuals and 47 healthy controls, we hypothesized and found that cocaine-addicted carriers of a 9R-allele exhibited higher responses to drug cues, but only among individuals who had used cocaine within 72 h of the study as verified by positive cocaine urine screens (a state characterized by intense craving). Importantly, this responsiveness to drug cues was reliably preserved across multimodal imaging and behavioral probes: psychophysiological event-related potentials, self-report, simulated cocaine choice, and fMRI. Because drug cues contribute to relapse, our results identify the DAT1R 9R-allele as a vulnerability allele for relapse especially during early abstinence (e.g., detoxification). PMID:23761898

  9. Ondansetron Pharmacokinetics in Pregnant Women and Neonates: Towards a New Treatment for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Elkomy, Mohammed H.; Sultan, Pervez; Carvalho, Brendan; Peltz, Gary; Wu, Manhong; Clavijo, Claudia; Galinkin, Jeffery L.; Drover, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Ondansetron is the drug of choice to prevent nausea in women undergoing cesarean surgery and can be used to prevent neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Pharmacokinetics of ondansetron has not been characterized in pregnant women or in newborns. A nonlinear mixed-effects modeling approach was used to analyze plasma samples obtained from 20 non-pregnant and 40 pregnant women following single administration of 4 or 8 mg ondansetron, from umbilical cord blood at delivery, and from neonates after birth. The analysis indicates that: ondansetron disposition is not affected by pregnancy (p>0.05), but influenced by dose (p<0.05), and is characterized by rapid transplacental transfer and longer elimination half-life in neonates compared to their mother. A dosing regimen for prevention of NAS was designed based on the model. The regimen involves IV administration of 4 mg to the mothers shortly before cord clamping, or oral administration of 0.07 mg/kg (or equivalently 0.04 mg/kg IV) to neonates. PMID:25670522

  10. Semen characteristics in consecutive ejaculates with short abstinence in subfertile males.

    PubMed

    Bahadur, G; Almossawi, O; Zeirideen Zaid, R; Ilahibuccus, A; Al-Habib, A; Muneer, A; Okolo, S

    2016-03-01

    This study reports the favourable semen characteristics of 73 subfertile oligozoospermic men with short abstinence periods up to 40 min. Semen characteristics were compared between initial and consecutive ejaculate showing improved semen parameters: progressive grade A spermatozoa, morphology and sperm concentration. Median concentrations in initial and consecutive ejaculates were 10 million/ml and 17 million/ml, respectively. The second sample had a higher median normal morphology (7% versus 6%, P < 0.001). The median of non-progressive spermatozoa (Grade C) was significantly lower in the consecutive sample than the initial sample (0% versus 5%, P < 0.01). Medians for slow progression spermatozoa (B grade) and immotile spermatozoa (D grade) were lower in the consecutive samples (20% versus 13%, P < 0.01 and 60% versus 50%, P < 0.001, respectively). The median for rapid motility (Grade A) was significantly higher in the consecutive sample than the first (30% versus 5%, P < 0.001). Overall median progressive motility as benchmarked by the WHO 2010 criteria was significantly higher in the consecutive sample (43% versus 25%, P < 0.001). Semen analyses of consecutive semen samples collected 30 min (mean) apart in oligozoospemic men should be checked routinely for diagnostic purposes and for managing potential subfertility treatment. PMID:26776821

  11. Ondansetron pharmacokinetics in pregnant women and neonates: towards a new treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome.

    PubMed

    Elkomy, M H; Sultan, P; Carvalho, B; Peltz, G; Wu, M; Clavijo, C; Galinkin, J L; Drover, D R

    2015-02-01

    Ondansetron is the drug of choice to prevent nausea in women undergoing cesarean surgery and can be used to prevent neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). The pharmacokinetics of ondansetron have not been characterized in pregnant women or in newborns. A nonlinear mixed-effects modeling approach was used to analyze plasma samples obtained from 20 nonpregnant and 40 pregnant women following a single administration of 4 or 8 mg ondansetron, from umbilical cord blood at delivery, and from neonates after birth. The analysis indicates that: ondansetron disposition is not affected by pregnancy (P > 0.05), but influenced by dose (P < 0.05), and is characterized by rapid transplacental transfer and longer elimination half-life in neonates compared to their mother. A dosing regimen for prevention of NAS was designed based on the model. The regimen involves IV administration of 4 mg to the mothers shortly before cord clamping, or oral administration of 0.07 mg/kg (or equivalently 0.04 mg/kg IV) to neonates. PMID:25670522

  12. Unique Brain Areas Associated with Abstinence Control Are Damaged in Multiply Detoxified Alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Duka, Theodora; Trick, Leanne; Nikolaou, Kyriaki; Gray, Marcus A.; Kempton, Matthew J.; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Steven C.R.; Critchley, Hugo D.; Stephens, David N.

    2011-01-01

    Background The ability to abstain from drinking, despite incentives to imbibe, is essential to recovery from alcoholism. Methods We used an incentive conflict task to investigate ability to abstain from responding during presentations of incentive cues. Both alcoholic (n = 23) and healthy subjects (n = 22) were required to withhold responding during the simultaneous presentation of two visual stimuli in which the individual presentation allowed responding for monetary reward. Brain structures activated during performance of the task were studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy volunteers (n = 8), and changes in gray matter volume were studied in a separate group of patients (n = 29) compared with control subjects (n = 31) in regions of interest identified on functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results Abstinent alcoholic patients were severely impaired on the incentive conflict task. The impairment was greater in patients with experience of several versus a single detoxification. Healthy volunteers, during the same incentive conflict task, showed distinct patterns of brain activation (including gyrus rectus, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and superior frontal gyrus). Reduction of gray matter volume in ventromedial prefrontal cortex and superior frontal gyrus of patients was more extensive in those with multiple detoxifications. Conclusions Performance deficits in alcoholics are associated with withdrawal-induced impairments in prefrontal subfields, which are exacerbated following repeated episodes of detoxification. Detoxification thus compromises functional and structural integrity of prefrontal cortex and may thus impair the ability to control future drinking. Performance in the incentive conflict task is a sensitive biomarker for such deficits. PMID:21612768

  13. Personality Measures In Former Heroin Users Receiving Methadone or in Protracted Abstinence from Opiates

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Lisa J.; Gertmenian-King, Enid; Kunik, Lauren; Weaver, Carrie; London, Edythe D.; Galynker, Igor

    2007-01-01

    Objective Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT) and detoxification to abstinence are among the most common treatment options for opiate-dependent patients. This paper compares personality traits in detoxified former heroin users and those on MMT in order to assess their relevance to treatment selection. Methods Twenty-six formerly heroin-dependent subjects receiving MMT (MM), 33 formerly heroin-dependent subjects withdrawn from MMT (MW), and 43 healthy controls were compared on the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II) and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Results On the TCI, MM patients had higher Novelty Seeking and lower Self Directedness scores than controls. Both MM and MW subjects scored higher than controls on multiple MCMI-II scales. MW but not MM subjects scored higher than controls on 2 Cluster A scales and the Delusional Disorder scale. Conclusions Schizophrenia-spectrum pathology in former opiate users may be greater than previously recognized and could potentially be relevant to treatment selection. PMID:15992397

  14. Longitudinal clinical course following pharmacological treatment of methamphetamine psychosis which persists after long-term abstinence.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Kazufumi

    2006-08-01

    The present article investigated clinical symptoms and their longitudinal clinical course following pharmacological treatment in 32 female incarcerated patients suffering from methamphetamine (METH) psychosis who were referred to psychiatric consultation. The length of METH-abuse periods of the patients ranged from 2 to 31 years. A total of 31 patients suffered from psychosis at abstinence after 5-31 months from the self-injection of METH. Nine of these 31 patients experienced episodes of psychotic relapse. The following symptoms were observed: auditory hallucination (29 cases), delusion of persecution (29 cases), thought broadcasting (24 cases), visual hallucination (22 cases), depressive mood (29 cases), and suicidal idea (22 cases). Patients exhibited symptoms of psychosis and depression, which persisted for more than several months despite commencement of administration of antipsychotics and antidepressants. There were significant correlations among length of periods required for improvement in total Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) scores, and BPRS subscale scores representing positive symptoms and depression/anxiety dimensions. Three groups of patients, according to severity of positive and depressive/anxiety symptoms, showed apparent differences in prognoses during pharmacological treatment. Average degree of extrapyramidal symptoms significantly correlated with average daily dose of antipsychotics and length-of-treatment period required for improvement in BPRS subscale scores representing positive symptom dimension. These results suggest that both psychotic and affective symptoms are involved in therapeutic response and prognosis of METH psychosis. PMID:17105910

  15. GENERAL: Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution with Odd Coherent State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shi-Hai; Gao, Ming; Dai, Hong-Yi; Chen, Ping-Xing; Li, Cheng-Zu

    2008-07-01

    We propose a decoy state quantum key distribution scheme with odd coherent state which follows sub-Poissonian distributed photon count and has low probability of the multi-photon event and vacuum event in each pulse. The numerical calculations show that our scheme can improve efficiently the key generation rate and secure communication distance. Furthermore, only one decoy state is necessary to approach to the perfect asymptotic limit with infinite decoy states in our scheme, but at least two decoy states are needed in other scheme.

  16. Dimension-5 C P -odd operators: QCD mixing and renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Gupta, Rajan; Mereghetti, Emanuele; Yoon, Boram

    2015-12-01

    We study the off-shell mixing and renormalization of flavor-diagonal dimension-five T - and P -odd operators involving quarks, gluons, and photons, including quark electric dipole and chromoelectric dipole operators. We present the renormalization matrix to one loop in the MS ¯ scheme. We also provide a definition of the quark chromoelectric dipole operator in a regularization-independent momentum-subtraction scheme suitable for nonperturbative lattice calculations and present the matching coefficients with the MS ¯ scheme to one loop in perturbation theory, using both the naïve dimensional regularization and 't Hooft-Veltman prescriptions for γ5.

  17. Neutron-proton pairing correlations in odd mass systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fellah, M. Allal, N. H.; Oudih, M. R.

    2015-03-30

    An expression of the ground-state which describes odd mass systems within the BCS approach in the isovector neutron-proton pairing case is proposed using the blocked level technique. The gap equations as well as the energy expression are then derived. It is shown that they exactly generalize the expressions obtained in the pairing between like-particles case. The various gap parameters and the energy are then numerically studied as a function of the pairing-strength within the schematic one-level model.

  18. The odds of wrong-way crashes and resulting fatalities: A comprehensive analysis.

    PubMed

    Ponnaluri, Raj V

    2016-03-01

    The United States of America and other nations are grappling with the incidence of wrong-way driving (WWD). The issue is as important today (NTSB, 2012) as it was a half-century ago (Hulbert and Beers, 1966). In the absence of a comprehensive analysis, any effort to implement WWD countermeasures can be counterproductive. Hence, this effort began with the express intent to identify the factors that cause WWD crashes and fatalities. This work is sizeable in that it evaluated one million complete crash records from Florida. The methodology comprised (a) administering a survey on the perceptions about WWD; (b) developing binomial logistic models for computing the odds of WWD crashes, and of fatal crashes within the WWD space; (c) analyzing the contributing variables; and (d) comparing perceptions with crash analysis results. The study parameters included driver's age, gender, licensing state, physical defect, blood alcohol concentration, vehicle use, seatbelt compliance, day and time of crash, roadway lighting, facility type, weather conditions, road geometrics, and traffic volumes. Individual variable analysis of 23 parameters and the model development process included the determination of odds ratios and statistical tests for the predictive power and goodness-of-fit. The results of this work are generally consistent with expectation, yet surprising at times. This work concludes with decision-making inputs to the scientist, policy-maker and practitioner on the need for effectively engineering the roads, actively educating people about wrong-way driving, and strictly enforcing traffic laws, rules and regulations. PMID:26745273

  19. Rat nucleus accumbens core astrocytes modulate reward and the motivation to self-administer ethanol after abstinence.

    PubMed

    Bull, Cecilia; Freitas, Kelen C C; Zou, Shiping; Poland, Ryan S; Syed, Wahab A; Urban, Daniel J; Minter, Sabrina C; Shelton, Keith L; Hauser, Kurt F; Negus, S Stevens; Knapp, Pamela E; Bowers, M Scott

    2014-11-01

    Our understanding of the active role that astrocytes play in modulating neuronal function and behavior is rapidly expanding, but little is known about the role that astrocytes may play in drug-seeking behavior for commonly abused substances. Given that the nucleus accumbens is critically involved in substance abuse and motivation, we sought to determine whether nucleus accumbens astrocytes influence the motivation to self-administer ethanol following abstinence. We found that the packing density of astrocytes that were expressing glial fibrillary acidic protein increased in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcore) during abstinence from EtOH self-administration. No change was observed in the nucleus accumbens shell. This increased NAcore astrocyte density positively correlated with the motivation for ethanol. Astrocytes can communicate with one another and influence neuronal activity through gap-junction hemichannels. Because of this, the effect of blocking gap-junction hemichannels on the motivation for ethanol was examined. The motivation to self-administer ethanol after 3 weeks abstinence was increased following microinjection of gap-junction hemichannel blockers into the NAcore at doses that block both neuronal and astrocytic channels. In contrast, no effect was observed following microinjection of doses that are not thought to block astrocytic channels or following microinjection of either dose into the nucleus accumbens shell. Additionally, the motivation for sucrose after 3 weeks abstinence was unaffected by NAcore gap-junction hemichannel blockers. Next, Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) were selectively expressed in NAcore astrocytes to test the effect of astrocyte stimulation. DREADD activation increased cytosolic calcium in primary astrocytes, facilitated responding for rewarding brain stimulation, and reduced the motivation for ethanol after 3 weeks abstinence. This is the first work to modulate drug-seeking behavior with

  20. Rat Nucleus Accumbens Core Astrocytes Modulate Reward and the Motivation to Self-Administer Ethanol after Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Cecilia; Freitas, Kelen CC; Zou, Shiping; Poland, Ryan S; Syed, Wahab A; Urban, Daniel J; Minter, Sabrina C; Shelton, Keith L; Hauser, Kurt F; Negus, S Stevens; Knapp, Pamela E; Bowers, M Scott

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of the active role that astrocytes play in modulating neuronal function and behavior is rapidly expanding, but little is known about the role that astrocytes may play in drug-seeking behavior for commonly abused substances. Given that the nucleus accumbens is critically involved in substance abuse and motivation, we sought to determine whether nucleus accumbens astrocytes influence the motivation to self-administer ethanol following abstinence. We found that the packing density of astrocytes that were expressing glial fibrillary acidic protein increased in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcore) during abstinence from EtOH self-administration. No change was observed in the nucleus accumbens shell. This increased NAcore astrocyte density positively correlated with the motivation for ethanol. Astrocytes can communicate with one another and influence neuronal activity through gap-junction hemichannels. Because of this, the effect of blocking gap-junction hemichannels on the motivation for ethanol was examined. The motivation to self-administer ethanol after 3 weeks abstinence was increased following microinjection of gap-junction hemichannel blockers into the NAcore at doses that block both neuronal and astrocytic channels. In contrast, no effect was observed following microinjection of doses that are not thought to block astrocytic channels or following microinjection of either dose into the nucleus accumbens shell. Additionally, the motivation for sucrose after 3 weeks abstinence was unaffected by NAcore gap-junction hemichannel blockers. Next, Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) were selectively expressed in NAcore astrocytes to test the effect of astrocyte stimulation. DREADD activation increased cytosolic calcium in primary astrocytes, facilitated responding for rewarding brain stimulation, and reduced the motivation for ethanol after 3 weeks abstinence. This is the first work to modulate drug-seeking behavior with

  1. An Odd Parity Checker Prototype Using DNAzyme Finite State Machine.

    PubMed

    Eshra, Abeer; El-Sayed, Ayman

    2014-01-01

    A finite-state machine (FSM) is an abstract mathematical model of computation used to design both computer programs and sequential logic circuits. Considered as an abstract model of computation, FSM is weak; it has less computational power than some other models of computation such as the Turing machine. This paper discusses the finite-state automata based on Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and different implementations of DNA FSMs. Moreover, a comparison was made to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of each kind of presented DNA FSMS. Since it is a major goal for nanoscince, nanotechnology and super molecular chemistry is to design synthetic molecular devices that are programmable and run autonomously. Programmable means that the behavior of the device can be modified without redesigning the whole structure. Autonomous means that it runs without externally mediated change to the work cycle. In this paper we present an odd Parity Checker Prototype Using DNAzyme FSM. Our paper makes use of a known design for a DNA nanorobotic device due to Reif and Sahu for executing FSM computations using DNAzymes. The main contribution of our paper is a description of how to program that device to do a FSM computation known as odd parity checking. We describe in detail finite state automaton built on 10-23 DNAzyme, and give its procedure of design and computation. The design procedure has two major phases: designing the language potential alphabet DNA strands, and depending on the first phase to design the DNAzyme possible transitions. PMID:26355779

  2. Odd-even staggering in neutron drip line nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changizi, S. A.; Qi, Chong

    2016-07-01

    We have done systematic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations in coordinate space on the one-quasi-particle energies and binding energy odd-even staggering (OES) in semi-magic nuclei with the zero-range volume, mixed and surface pairing forces in order to explore the influence of their density dependence. The odd-N isotopes are calculated within the blocking scheme. The strengths for the pairing forces are determined in two schemes by fitting locally to reproduce pairing gap in 120Sn and globally to all available data on the OES of semi-magic nuclei with Z ≥ 8. In the former calculations, there is a noticeable difference between the neutron mean gaps in neutron-rich O, Ca, Ni and Sn isotopes calculated with the surface pairing and those with the mixed and volume pairing. The difference gets much smaller if the globally optimized pairing strengths are employed. The heavier Pb isotopes show the opposite trend. Moreover, large differences between the mean gap and the OES may be expected in both calculations when one goes towards the neutron drip line.

  3. Beyond mean-field calculations for odd-mass nuclei.

    PubMed

    Bally, B; Avez, B; Bender, M; Heenen, P-H

    2014-10-17

    Beyond mean-field methods are very successful tools for the description of large-amplitude collective motion for even-even atomic nuclei. The state-of-the-art framework of these methods consists in a generator coordinate method based on angular-momentum and particle-number projected triaxially deformed Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) states. The extension of this scheme to odd-mass nuclei is a long-standing challenge. We present for the first time such an extension, where the generator coordinate space is built from self-consistently blocked one-quasiparticle HFB states. One of the key points for this success is that the same Skyrme interaction is used for the mean-field and the pairing channels, thus avoiding problems related to the violation of the Pauli principle. An application to ^{25}Mg illustrates the power of our method, as agreement with experiment is obtained for the spectrum, electromagnetic moments, and transition strengths, for both positive and negative parity states and without the necessity for effective charges or effective moments. Although the effective interaction still requires improvement, our study opens the way to systematically describe odd-A nuclei throughout the nuclear chart. PMID:25361253

  4. Structure of hard-hypersphere fluids in odd dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrmann, René D.; Santos, Andrés

    2007-11-01

    The structural properties of single component fluids of hard hyperspheres in odd space dimensionalities d are studied with an analytical approximation method that generalizes the rational function approximation earlier introduced in the study of hard-sphere fluids [S. B. Yuste and A. Santos, Phys. Rev. A 43, 5418 (1991)]. The theory makes use of the exact form of the radial distribution function to first order in density and extends it to finite density by assuming a rational form for a function defined in Laplace space, the coefficients being determined by simple physical requirements. Fourier transform in terms of reverse Bessel polynomials constitute the mathematical framework of this approximation, from which an analytical expression for the static structure factor is obtained. In its most elementary form, the method recovers the solution of the Percus-Yevick closure to the Ornstein-Zernike equation for hyperspheres at odd dimensions. The present formalism allows one to go beyond by yielding solutions with thermodynamic consistency between the virial and compressibility routes to any desired equation of state. Excellent agreement with available computer simulation data at d=5 and d=7 is obtained.

  5. Beyond Mean-Field Calculations for Odd-Mass Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, B.; Avez, B.; Bender, M.; Heenen, P.-H.

    2014-10-01

    Beyond mean-field methods are very successful tools for the description of large-amplitude collective motion for even-even atomic nuclei. The state-of-the-art framework of these methods consists in a generator coordinate method based on angular-momentum and particle-number projected triaxially deformed Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) states. The extension of this scheme to odd-mass nuclei is a long-standing challenge. We present for the first time such an extension, where the generator coordinate space is built from self-consistently blocked one-quasiparticle HFB states. One of the key points for this success is that the same Skyrme interaction is used for the mean-field and the pairing channels, thus avoiding problems related to the violation of the Pauli principle. An application to Mg25 illustrates the power of our method, as agreement with experiment is obtained for the spectrum, electromagnetic moments, and transition strengths, for both positive and negative parity states and without the necessity for effective charges or effective moments. Although the effective interaction still requires improvement, our study opens the way to systematically describe odd-A nuclei throughout the nuclear chart.

  6. B meson dileptonic decays in the next-to-minimal supersymmetric model with a light CP-odd Higgs boson

    SciTech Connect

    Heng Zhaoxia; Oakes, Robert J.; Wang Wenyu; Yang Jinmin; Xiong Zhaohua

    2008-05-01

    In the next-to-minimal supersymmetric model (NMSSM) a light CP-odd Higgs boson is so far allowed by current experiments, which, together with a large tan{beta}, may greatly enhance the rare dileptonic decays B{yields}X{sub s}l{sup +}l{sup -} and B{sub s}{yields}l{sup +}l{sup -}{gamma}. We examine these decays paying special attention to the new operator allowed by the light CP-odd Higgs boson. We find that in the parameter space allowed by current experiments like CERN LEP II and b{yields}s{gamma}, the branching ratios of these rare decays can be greatly enhanced, and thus the existing experimental data on B{yields}X{sub s}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} can further stringently constrain the parameter space (especially the region with a superlight CP-odd Higgs boson and large tan{beta}). In the surviving parameter space we give the predictions for other dileptonic decay branching ratios and also show the results for the forward-backward asymmetry.

  7. Mixed symmetry states and {beta} decays of odd-A Xe to I isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Khudair, Falih H.

    2009-07-15

    The energy spectra of the parent and daughter nuclei in the {beta} decays ({sup 121-127}Xe,{beta}{sup +121-127}I) are considered in the interacting boson fermion model (IBFM-2) with the g{sub 7/2},d{sub 5/2},d{sub 3/2},s{sub 1/2}, and h{sub 11/2} single-particle orbitals. Electromagnetic transition probabilities and branching ratios in odd {sup 121-127}I isotopes are investigated. Special attention is given to the occurrence of mixed symmetry states, and the F-spin structures of the wave functions are analyzed. The log{sub 10}ft values of the allowed {beta} decay transitions are calculated. It is found that the IBFM-2 results agree with the experimental data quite well.

  8. On strontium isotopic anomalies and odd-A p-process abundances. [in solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, D. D.

    1978-01-01

    Several aspects of the nucleosynthesis of Sr isotopes are considered in an attempt to shed light on the problem of the Sr isotopic anomalies discovered in an inclusion of the Allende meteorite. Decomposition of the Sr isotopes into average r-, s-, and p-process nucleosynthetic classes is performed. It is suggested that the Allende inclusion most likely has an excess of s-process Sr and that the initial Sr-87/Sr-86 isotopic ratio is probably slightly more primitive than basaltic achondrites. The results also show that Sn-115 is mostly due to the r-process and that odd-A yields are very small. It is concluded that if the Sr anomaly in the inclusion is an average s enhancement, it argues somewhat in favor of a model of gas/dust fractionation of s and r isotopes during accumulation of the inclusion parent in the protosolar cloud.

  9. Sensitivity of calculated odd nitrogen distributions to the diabatic wind fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boughner, R. E.; Callis, L. B., Jr.; Natarajan, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper compares atmospheric total odd nitrogen and ozone computed with two different advective wind fields, one using climatological averages of ozone and temperature to obtain monthly averaged horizontal and vertical winds and the other using measurements from the LIMS instrument. Calculations using the former data show stronger poleward and downward motion in the winter season compared to those using the LIMS data. This leads to NO(y) mixing ratios in the lower stratosphere that are about 20 percent larger in the polar regions of both hemispheres and about 40 percent higher in the equatorial region for climatological transport fields compared to those derived from LIMS data. Consequently, the NO(y) distributions calculated with the LIMS advective field show worse agreement with the NO(y) values inferred from the LIMS measurements than similar results obtained with the climatological wind field.

  10. Exposure to childhood traumas ups the odds of giving birth to daughters.

    PubMed

    Kaitz, Marsha; Rokem, Ann Marie; Mankuta, David; Davidov, Maayan; Faraone, Stephen V

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the likelihood of giving birth to a daughter as a function of women's exposure to four categories of stressors: childhood trauma, adult trauma, chronic stressors, and recent (adverse) life events. Hypothesis 1 stated that exposure to recent life events (near conception) and to childhood traumas would increase women's chances of having a girl baby. Hypothesis 2 stated that the relationship between stress and gender outcome is mediated by persistent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The final sample was comprised of 225 women. The design was prospective observational. At first contact, women were retained if they were <27 weeks pregnant and met initial inclusion criteria. In interview 2, at 27-30 weeks, women were excluded for positive diagnoses of anxiety disorders besides PTSD with or without depression (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders). In interview 3 (30-34 weeks), reports on stress categories (Social Stress Indicator Questionnaire) and PTSD symptoms (Post-Traumatic Checklist) were obtained. Infant gender was obtained from medical records. The relationship between stress categories and the distribution of girl/boy infants was examined with Chi Squares and logistic regression analyses. Mediation was tested with the macro PROCESS (Hayes 2012). Childhood trauma was the only stress category that increased the odds of having a girl, with an odds ratio of >3.0 for women who had been exposed to more than two such events. PTSD symptoms (partially) mediated the relationship between childhood trauma and infant gender. Findings suggest that women's exposure to childhood trauma contributes to the determination of the sex ratio at birth and that PTSD symptoms are part of the cause. PMID:24221408

  11. The Oxytocin Analogue Carbetocin Prevents Emotional Impairment and Stress-Induced Reinstatement of Opioid-Seeking in Morphine-Abstinent Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zanos, Panos; Georgiou, Polymnia; Wright, Sherie R; Hourani, Susanna M; Kitchen, Ian; Winsky-Sommerer, Raphaëlle; Bailey, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    The main challenge in treating opioid addicts is to maintain abstinence due to the affective consequences associated with withdrawal which may trigger relapse. Emerging evidence suggests a role of the neurohypophysial peptide oxytocin (OT) in the modulation of mood disorders as well as drug addiction. However, its involvement in the emotional consequences of drug abstinence remains unclear. We investigated the effect of 7-day opioid abstinence on the oxytocinergic system and assessed the effect of the OT analogue carbetocin (CBT) on the emotional consequences of opioid abstinence, as well as relapse. Male C57BL/6J mice were treated with a chronic escalating-dose morphine regimen (20–100 mg/kg/day, i.p.). Seven days withdrawal from this administration paradigm induced a decrease of hypothalamic OT levels and a concomitant increase of oxytocin receptor (OTR) binding in the lateral septum and amygdala. Although no physical withdrawal symptoms or alterations in the plasma corticosterone levels were observed after 7 days of abstinence, mice exhibited increased anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors and impaired sociability. CBT (6.4 mg/kg, i.p.) attenuated the observed negative emotional consequences of opioid withdrawal. Furthermore, in the conditioned place preference paradigm with 10 mg/kg morphine conditioning, CBT (6.4 mg/kg, i.p.) was able to prevent the stress-induced reinstatement to morphine-seeking following extinction. Overall, our results suggest that alterations of the oxytocinergic system contribute to the mechanisms underlying anxiety, depression, and social deficits observed during opioid abstinence. This study also highlights the oxytocinergic system as a target for developing pharmacotherapy for the treatment of emotional impairment associated with abstinence and thereby prevention of relapse. PMID:24129263

  12. A critical role of nucleus accumbens dopamine D1-family receptors in renewal of alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Marchant, Nathan J.; Kaganovsky, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    In humans, places or contexts previously associated with alcohol use often provoke relapse during abstinence. This phenomenon is modeled in laboratory animals using the ABA renewal procedure, where alcohol seeking that is suppressed with extinction training in a context (B) renews when the animal returns to the original training context (A). However, extinction training does not adequately capture the motivation for abstinence in human alcoholics who typically self-initiate abstinence due to the negative consequences of excessive use. We recently developed a procedure to study renewal in laboratory rats after abstinence is imposed by negative consequences (footshock punishment). The mechanisms of renewal of punished alcohol seeking are largely unknown. Here we used the D1-family receptor antagonist SCH 23390 to examine the role of nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell and core dopamine in renewal of alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence. We trained alcohol preferring ‘P rats’ to self-administer 20% alcohol in context A and subsequently suppressed alcohol taking via response-contingent footshock punishment in context B. We tested the effects of systemic, NAc shell, or NAc core injections of SCH 23390 on renewal of alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence. We found that both systemic and NAc shell and core injections of SCH 23390 decreased renewal of punished alcohol seeking. Our results demonstrate a critical role of NAc dopamine in renewal of alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence. We discuss these results in reference to the brain mechanisms of renewal of alcohol seeking after extinction versus punishment. PMID:25914922

  13. An exploratory randomized controlled trial of a novel high-school-based smoking cessation intervention for adolescent smokers using abstinence-contingent incentives and cognitive behavioral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A.; Cooney, Judith L.; Schepis, Ty S.; Kong, Grace; Liss, Thomas B.; Liss, Amanda K.; McMahon, Thomas J.; Nich, Charla; Babuscio, Theresa; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Background There are few effective smoking cessation interventions for adolescent smokers. We developed a novel intervention to motivate tobacco use behavior change by 1) enhancing desire to quit through the use of abstinence-contingent incentives (CM), 2) increasing cessation skills through the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and 3) removing cessation barriers through delivery within high schools. Methods An exploratory four-week, randomized controlled trial was conducted in Connecticut high schools to dismantle the independent and combined effects of CM and CBT; smokers received CM alone, CBT alone, or CM+CBT. Participants included 82 adolescent smokers seeking smoking cessation treatment. The primary outcome was seven-day end-of-treatment (EOT) point prevalence (PP) abstinence, determined using self-reports confirmed using urine cotinine levels. Secondary outcomes included one-day EOT PP abstinence and cigarette use during treatment and follow up. Results Among participants who initiated treatment (n=72), group differences in seven-day EOT-PP abstinence were observed (χ2=10.48, p<0.01) with higher abstinence in the CM+CBT (36.7%) and CM (36.3%) conditions when compared with CBT (0%). One-day EOT-PP abstinence evidenced similar effects (χ2= 10·39, p<0·01; CM+CBT: 43%, CM: 43%, CBT: 4·3%). Survival analyses indicated differences in time to first cigarette during treatment (χ2=8·73, p =·003; CBT: Day 3, CM: Day 9, CM+CBT: Day 20). At one-and three-month follow ups, while no differences were observed, the CM alone group had the slowest increase in cigarette use. Conclusions High-school, incentive-based smoking cessation interventions produce high rates of short-term abstinence among adolescent smokers; adding cognitive behavioral therapy does not appear to further enhance outcomes. PMID:23523130

  14. The oxytocin analogue carbetocin prevents emotional impairment and stress-induced reinstatement of opioid-seeking in morphine-abstinent mice.

    PubMed

    Zanos, Panos; Georgiou, Polymnia; Wright, Sherie R; Hourani, Susanna M; Kitchen, Ian; Winsky-Sommerer, Raphaëlle; Bailey, Alexis

    2014-03-01

    The main challenge in treating opioid addicts is to maintain abstinence due to the affective consequences associated with withdrawal which may trigger relapse. Emerging evidence suggests a role of the neurohypophysial peptide oxytocin (OT) in the modulation of mood disorders as well as drug addiction. However, its involvement in the emotional consequences of drug abstinence remains unclear. We investigated the effect of 7-day opioid abstinence on the oxytocinergic system and assessed the effect of the OT analogue carbetocin (CBT) on the emotional consequences of opioid abstinence, as well as relapse. Male C57BL/6J mice were treated with a chronic escalating-dose morphine regimen (20-100 mg/kg/day, i.p.). Seven days withdrawal from this administration paradigm induced a decrease of hypothalamic OT levels and a concomitant increase of oxytocin receptor (OTR) binding in the lateral septum and amygdala. Although no physical withdrawal symptoms or alterations in the plasma corticosterone levels were observed after 7 days of abstinence, mice exhibited increased anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors and impaired sociability. CBT (6.4 mg/kg, i.p.) attenuated the observed negative emotional consequences of opioid withdrawal. Furthermore, in the conditioned place preference paradigm with 10 mg/kg morphine conditioning, CBT (6.4 mg/kg, i.p.) was able to prevent the stress-induced reinstatement to morphine-seeking following extinction. Overall, our results suggest that alterations of the oxytocinergic system contribute to the mechanisms underlying anxiety, depression, and social deficits observed during opioid abstinence. This study also highlights the oxytocinergic system as a target for developing pharmacotherapy for the treatment of emotional impairment associated with abstinence and thereby prevention of relapse. PMID:24129263

  15. Repeated transcranial direct current stimulation prevents abnormal behaviors associated with abstinence from chronic nicotine consumption.

    PubMed

    Pedron, Solène; Monnin, Julie; Haffen, Emmanuel; Sechter, Daniel; Van Waes, Vincent

    2014-03-01

    Successful available treatments to quit smoking remain scarce. Recently, the potential of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) as a tool to reduce craving for nicotine has gained interest. However, there is no documented animal model to assess the neurobiological mechanisms of tDCS on addiction-related behaviors. To address this topic, we have developed a model of repeated tDCS in mice and used it to validate its effectiveness in relieving nicotine addiction. Anodal repeated tDCS was applied over the frontal cortex of Swiss female mice. The stimulation electrode (anode) was fixed directly onto the cranium, and the reference electrode was placed onto the ventral thorax. A 2 × 20 min/day stimulation paradigm for five consecutive days was used (0.2 mA). In the first study, we screened for behaviors altered by the stimulation. Second, we tested whether tDCS could alleviate abnormal behaviors associated with abstinence from nicotine consumption. In naive animals, repeated tDCS had antidepressant-like properties 3 weeks after the last stimulation, improved working memory, and decreased conditioned place preference for nicotine without affecting locomotor activity and anxiety-related behavior. Importantly, abnormal behaviors associated with chronic nicotine exposure (ie, depression-like behavior, increase in nicotine-induced place preference) were normalized by repeated tDCS. Our data show for the first time in an animal model that repeated tDCS is a promising, non-expensive clinical tool that could be used to reduce smoking craving and facilitate smoking cessation. Our animal model will be useful to investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects of tDCS on addiction and other psychiatric disorders. PMID:24154668

  16. Increasing Incidence and Geographic Distribution of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: United States 2009-2012

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Stephen W.; Davis, Matthew M.; Lehman, Christoph U.; Cooper, William O.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), a postnatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, increased 3-fold from 2000 to 2009. Since 2009, opioid pain reliever prescriptions and complications increased markedly throughout the US. Understanding recent changes in NAS and its geographic variability would inform state and local governments in targeting public health responses. Study Design We utilized diagnostic and demographic data for hospital discharges from 2009 to 2012 from the Kids’ Inpatient Database and the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. NAS-associated diagnoses were identified utilizing ICD-9-CM codes. All analyses were conducted with nationally weighted data. Expenditure data were adjusted to 2012 US dollars. Between-year differences were determined utilizing least squares regression. Results From 2009 to 2012, NAS incidence increased nationally from 3.4 (95%CI: 3.2-3.6) to 5.8 (95%CI 5.5-6.1) per 1,000 hospital births, reaching a total of 21,732 infants with the diagnosis. Aggregate hospital charges for NAS increased from $732M to $1.5B (p<0.001), with 81% attributed to state Medicaid programs in 2012. NAS incidence varied by geographic Census division, with the highest incidence rate (per 1000 hospital births) of 16.2 (95%CI 12.4-18.9) in the East South Central Division (KY, TN, MS, AL) and the lowest in West South Central Division 2.6 (95%CI 2.3-2.9; [OK, TX, AR, LA]). Conclusion NAS incidence and hospital charges grew substantially during our study period. This costly public health problem merits a public health approach to alleviate harm to women and children. States, particularly in areas of the country most affected by the syndrome, must continue to pursue primary prevention strategies to limit the effects of opioid pain reliever misuse. PMID:25927272

  17. Advanced Gestational Age Increases Serum Carbohydrate-Deficient Transferrin Levels in Abstinent Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Bakhireva, Ludmila N.; Cano, Sandra; Rayburn, William F.; Savich, Renate D.; Leeman, Lawrence; Anton, Raymond F.; Savage, Daniel D.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT) is a well-established and highly specific biomarker for sustained heavy consumption of alcohol. However, in pregnant women, the specificity of this biomarker might be affected by advanced gestational age, even after accounting for increased transferrin concentrations in pregnancy. The goal of this prospective study was to assess the variability in %CDT during pregnancy among alcohol-abstaining patients. Methods: Patients were recruited during one of the first prenatal care visits and followed-up to term. Abstinence was confirmed by maternal self-report and by alcohol biomarkers. Biomarkers assessed in the mother included serum gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, urine ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate, and whole blood phosphatidylethanol (PEth). In addition, PEth was measured in a dry blood spot card obtained from a newborn. For %CDT analysis, serum samples were collected at baseline and at term and analyzed by an internationally validated high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometric detection method. Results: At recruitment (mean gestational age 22.6 ± 7.3 weeks), the mean %CDT concentration was 1.49 ± 0.30%, while at term, it increased to 1.67 ± 0.28% (P = 0.001). Using a conventional cutoff concentration %CDT >1.7%, 22.9 and 45.7% of the sample would be classified as ‘positive’ for this biomarker at recruitment and at term, respectively (P = 0.011 ). Conclusion: These results suggest that a conventional cutoff of 1.7% might be too low for pregnant women and would generate false-positive results. We propose that %CDT >2.0% be used as a cutoff concentration indicative of alcohol exposure in pregnant women. The sensitivity of %CDT at this cutoff for heavy drinking during pregnancy needs to be assessed further. PMID:22878591

  18. Novel pharmacotherapeutic strategies for treatment of opioid-induced neonatal abstinence syndrome

    PubMed Central

    McLemore, Gabrielle L.; Lewis, Tamorah; Jones, Catherine H.; Gauda, Estelle B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The non-medical use of prescription drugs, in general, and opioids, in particular, is a national epidemic, resulting in enormous addiction rates, healthcare expenditures, and overdose deaths. Prescription opioids are overly prescribed, illegally trafficked, and frequently abused, all of which have created a new opioid addiction pathway, adding to the number of opioid-dependent newborns requiring treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), and contributing to challenges in effective care in maternal and fetal/neonatal (M-F/N) medicine. The standard of care for illicit or prescription opioid dependence during pregnancy is opioid agonist (methadone or buprenorphine) substitution therapy, which are also frequently abused. The next generation of pharmacotherapies for the treatment of illicit or prescription opioid addiction in the M-F/N interactional dyad must take into consideration the interplay between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. Addiction to illicit drugs during pregnancy presents unique challenges to effectively treat the mother, and the developing fetus and infant after delivery. New pharmacotherapies should be safe to the developing fetus, effective in treating the physical and psychological consequences of addiction in the mother, and reduce the incidence and severity of NAS in the infant after birth. More pharmacotherapeutic options should be available to the physician such that a more individualized rather than a one-drug/strategy-fits-all approach can be used. A myriad of new and exciting pharmacotherapeutic strategies for the treatment of opioid dependence and addiction are on the horizon. This review focuses on such three strategies: (i) pharmacotherapeutic targeting of the serotoninergic system; (ii) mixed opioid immunotherapeutics (vaccines); (iii) pharmacogenomics as a therapeutic strategy to insure personalized care. We review and discuss how these strategies may offer additional treatment modalities for the treatment

  19. Attentional dysfunction in abstinent long-term cannabis users with and without schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rentzsch, Johannes; Stadtmann, Ada; Montag, Christiane; Kunte, Hagen; Plöckl, Doris; Hellweg, Rainer; Gallinat, Jürgen; Kronenberg, Golo; Jockers-Scherübl, Maria Christiane

    2016-08-01

    Long-term cannabis use may confer cognitive deficits and increased risk of psychosis. However, the relationship between cannabis use and schizophrenia is complex. In particular, little is known about the effects of chronic cannabis use on the attention-related electric brain response in schizophrenia. We investigated auditory novelty and oddball P300 evoked potentials in a mixed sample of first-episode and chronic schizophrenic patients and healthy controls with (SZCA, n = 20; COCA, n = 20, abstinence ≥28 days) or without (SZ, n = 20; CO, n = 20) chronic cannabis use. Duration of regular cannabis use was 8.3 ± 5.6 (SZCA) and 9.1 ± 7.1 (COCA) years. In general, schizophrenic patients showed reduced P300 amplitudes. Cannabis use was associated with both a reduced early and late left-hemispheric novelty P300. There was a significant 'diagnosis × cannabis' interaction for the left-hemispheric late novelty P300 in that cannabis use was associated with a reduced amplitude in the otherwise healthy but not in the schizophrenic group compared with their relative control groups (corrected p < 0.02; p > 0.9, respectively). The left-hemispheric late novelty P300 in the otherwise healthy cannabis group correlated inversely with amount and duration of cannabis use (r = -0.50, p = 0.024; r = -0.57, p = 0.009, respectively). Our study confirms attentional deficits with chronic cannabis use. However, cannabis use may lead to different cognitive sequelae in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy controls, possibly reflecting preexisting alterations in the endocannabinoid system in schizophrenia. PMID:26182894

  20. The Effects of E-Cigarette Visual Appearance on Craving and Withdrawal Symptoms in Abstinent Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Dawkins, Lynne; Munafò, Marcus; Christoforou, Gina; Olumegbon, Naomi; Soar, Kirstie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is becoming increasing popular among smokers and there is a plethora of devices available. Nicotine delivery is clearly important for reducing tobacco craving and withdrawal symptoms, but other sensor-motor aspects of e-cigarettes (such as visual appearance) may contribute to this effect. This study explored whether it is important for an e-cigarette to visually resemble a tobacco cigarette in order to reduce craving and withdrawal symptoms. Methods Sixty-three abstinent smokers (40% female, aged 18-65 years) who were not current e-cigarette users were randomly allocated to take ten 3-second puffs from either a white or a red first generation e-cigarette. Current craving (urge to smoke) and nicotine withdrawal symptoms (using the Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale; MPSS) were measured before and ten minutes after use. Results Linear regression revealed higher craving and withdrawal symptoms in the red versus the white condition but only among those who were e-cigarette naive (craving: B = .76, p = .009; withdrawal symptoms: B = 2.18, p = 0.009), not among those with e-cigarette experience (craving: B = −.08, p = 0.89; withdrawal symptoms: B = .24, p = .81), and these effects differed between groups (p = 0.04 and 0.01 for craving and withdrawal symptoms respectively). Conclusion Cigarette-like appearance was associated with a greater reduction in craving and withdrawal symptoms but only for those with no prior e-cigarette experience. This effect, putatively mediated via classical conditioning or expectancies, may aid understanding of smokers’ initial preferences for ‘cigalike’ e-cigarette devices. PMID:26415054

  1. Infant and maternal characteristics in neonatal abstinence syndrome--selected hospitals in Florida, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Lind, Jennifer N; Petersen, Emily E; Lederer, Philip A; Phillips-Bell, Ghasi S; Perrine, Cria G; Li, Ruowei; Hudak, Mark; Correia, Jane A; Creanga, Andreea A; Sappenfield, William M; Curran, John; Blackmore, Carina; Watkins, Sharon M; Anjohrin, Suzanne

    2015-03-01

    Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a constellation of physiologic and neurobehavioral signs exhibited by newborns exposed to addictive prescription or illicit drugs taken by a mother during pregnancy. The number of hospital discharges of newborns diagnosed with NAS has increased more than 10-fold (from 0.4 to 4.4 discharges per 1,000 live births) in Florida since 1995, far exceeding the three-fold increase observed nationally. In February 2014, the Florida Department of Health requested the assistance of CDC to 1) assess the accuracy and validity of using Florida's hospital inpatient discharge data, linked to birth and infant death certificates, as a means of NAS surveillance and 2) describe the characteristics of infants with NAS and their mothers. This report focuses only on objective two, describing maternal and infant characteristics in the 242 confirmed NAS cases identified in three Florida hospitals during a 2-year period (2010-2011). Infants with NAS experienced serious medical complications, with 97.1% being admitted to an intensive care unit, and had prolonged hospital stays, with a mean duration of 26.1 days. The findings of this investigation underscore the important public health problem of NAS and add to current knowledge on the characteristics of these mothers and infants. Effective June 2014, NAS is now a mandatory reportable condition in Florida. Interventions are also needed to 1) increase the number and use of community resources available to drug-abusing and drug-dependent women of reproductive age, 2) improve drug addiction counseling and rehabilitation referral and documentation policies, and 3) link women to these resources before or earlier in pregnancy. PMID:25742381

  2. Genuine episodic memory deficits and executive dysfunctions in alcoholic subjects early in abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Pitel, Anne Lise; Beaunieux, Hélène; Witkowski, Thomas; Vabret, François; Guillery-Girard, Bérengère; Quinette, Peggy; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis

    2007-01-01

    Background Chronic alcoholism is known to impair episodic memory function, but the specific nature of this impairment is still unclear. Moreover, it has never been established whether episodic memory deficit in alcoholism is an intrinsic memory deficit or whether it has an executive origin. Thus, the objectives are to specify which episodic memory processes are impaired early in abstinence from alcohol and to determine whether they should be regarded as genuine memory deficits or rather as the indirect consequences of executive impairments. Methods Forty recently detoxified alcoholic inpatients at alcohol entry treatment and fifty five group-matched controls underwent a neuropsychological assessment of episodic memory and executive functions. The episodic memory evaluation consisted of three tasks complementing each other designed to measure the different episodic memory components (learning, storage, encoding and retrieval, contextual memory and autonoetic consciousness) and five executive tasks testing capacities of organization, inhibition, flexibility, up-dating and integration. Results Compared with control subjects, alcoholic patients presented impaired learning abilities, encoding processes, retrieval processes, contextual memory and autonoetic consciousness. However, there was no difference between the two groups regarding the storage capacities assessed by the rate of forgetting. Concerning executive functions, alcoholics displayed deficits in each executive task used. Nevertheless, stepwise regression analyses showed that only performances on fluency tasks were significantly predictive of some of the episodic memory disorders (learning abilities for 40%, encoding processes for 20%, temporal memory for 21% and state of consciousness associated with memories for 26%) in the alcoholic group. Discussion At alcohol treatment entry, alcoholic patients present genuine episodic memory deficits which cannot be regarded solely as the consequences of executive

  3. Epigenetic Variation in the Mu-opioid Receptor Gene in Infants with Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wachman, Elisha M; Hayes, Marie J; Lester, Barry M; Terrin, Norma; Brown, Mark S; Nielsen, David A; Davis, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    Objective Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) from in utero opioid exposure is highly variable with genetic factors appearing to play an important role. Epigenetic changes in cytosine:guanine (CpG) dinucleotide methylation can occur after drug exposure and may help to explain NAS variability. We correlated DNA methylation levels in the mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) promoter in opioid-exposed infants and correlate them with NAS outcomes. Study design DNA samples from cord blood or saliva were analyzed for 86 infants being treated for NAS according to institutional protocol. Methylation levels at 16 OPRM1 CpG sites were determined and correlated with NAS outcome measures, including need for treatment, treatment with >2 medications, and length of hospital stay. We adjusted for co-variates and multiple genetic testing. Results Sixty-five percent of infants required treatment for NAS, and 24% required ≥2 medications. Hypermethylation of the OPRM1 promoter was measured at the −10 CpG in treated versus non-treated infants [adjusted difference δ=3.2% (95% CI 0.3–6.0%), p=0.03; NS after multiple testing correction]. There was hypermethylation at the −14 [δ=4.9% (95% CI 1.8–8.1%), p=0.003], −10 [δ=5.0% (95% CI 2.3–7.7%), p=0.0005)], and +84 [δ=3.5% (95% CI 0.6 – 6.4), p=0.02] CpG sites in infants requiring ≥2 medications which remained significant for −14 and −10 after multiple testing correction. Conclusions Increased methylation within the OPRM1 promoter is associated with worse NAS outcomes, consistent with gene silencing. PMID:24996986

  4. Odd-frequency superconducting states with different types of Meissner response: Problem of coexistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fominov, Ya. V.; Tanaka, Y.; Asano, Y.; Eschrig, M.

    2015-04-01

    We consider physical properties of a superconductor with a recently proposed type of odd-frequency pairing that exhibits diamagnetic Meissner response ("odd-dia state"). Such a state was suggested in order to address stability issues arising in an odd-frequency superconducting state with paramagnetic Meissner response ("odd-para state"). Assuming the existence of an odd-dia state (due to a proper retarded interaction), we study its coexistence with an odd-para state. The latter is known to be generated as an induced superconducting component in, e.g., singlet superconductor/ferromagnet proximity structures or triplet superconductor/normal metal systems. Calculating the superfluid density of the mixed odd-para/odd-dia state and the Josephson current between the odd-para and odd-dia states, we find that the expressions for the currents in both cases have nonvanishing imaginary contributions and are therefore unphysical. We show that a realization of the odd-dia state implies the absence of a Hamiltonian description of the system, and suggest that there exists no physically realizable perturbation that could give rise to the spontaneous symmetry breaking necessary for an actual realization of the odd-dia superconducting state.

  5. Isotopic Ratio, Isotonic Ratio, Isobaric Ratio and Shannon Information Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chun-Wang; Wei, Hui-Ling

    2014-11-01

    The isoscaling and the isobaric yield ratio difference (IBD) probes, both of which are constructed by yield ratio of fragment, provide cancelation of parameters. The information entropy theory is introduced to explain the physical meaning of the isoscaling and IBD probes. The similarity between the isoscaling and IBD results is found, i.e., the information uncertainty determined by the IBD method equals to β - α determined by the isoscaling (α (β) is the parameter fitted from the isotopic (isotonic) yield ratio).

  6. Preconception maternal polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and the secondary sex ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Kira C.; Jackson, Leila W.; Lynch, Courtney D.; Kostyniak, Paul J.; Buck Louis, Germaine M. . E-mail: louisg@mail.nih.gov

    2007-01-15

    The secondary sex ratio is the ratio of male to female live births and historically has ranged from 102 to 106 males to 100 females. Temporal declines have been reported in many countries prompting authors to hypothesize an environmental etiology. Blood specimens were obtained from 99 women aged 24-34 prior to attempting pregnancy and quantified for 76 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners using dual column gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Women were prospectively followed until pregnancy or 12 cycles of trying. The odds of a male birth for three PCB groupings (total, estrogenic, anti-estrogenic) controlling for maternal characteristics were estimated using logistic regression. Among the 50 women with live births and PCB data, 26 female and 24 male infants were born (ratio 0.92). After adjusting for age and body mass index, odds of a male birth were elevated among women in the second (OR=1.29) and third (OR=1.48) tertiles of estrogenic PCBs; odds (OR=0.70) were reduced among women in the highest tertile of anti-estrogenic PCBs. All confidence intervals included one. The direction of the odds ratios in this preliminary study varied by PCB groupings, supporting the need to study specific PCB patterns when assessing environmental influences on the secondary sex ratio.

  7. The Euler current and relativistic parity odd transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golkar, Siavash; Roberts, Matthew M.; Son, Dam T.

    2015-04-01

    For a spacetime of odd dimensions endowed with a unit vector field, we introduce a new topological current that is identically conserved and whose charge is equal to the Euler character of the even dimensional spacelike foliations. The existence of this current allows us to introduce new Chern-Simons-type terms in the effective field theories describing relativistic quantum Hall states and (2 + 1) dimensional superfluids. Using effective field theory, we calculate various correlation functions and identify transport coefficients. In the quantum Hall case, this current provides the natural relativistic generalization of the Wen-Zee term, required to characterize the shift and Hall viscosity in quantum Hall systems. For the superfluid case this term is required to have nonzero Hall viscosity and to describe superfluids with non s-wave pairing.

  8. Phase transition in odd-N Pd-isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hou-Bing; Dong, Guo-Xiang; Sun, Xiao-Jun; Xu, Fu-Rong

    2015-11-01

    Phase transition in odd-N isotopes 99,101,103Pd are investigated via the E-GOS (E-Gamma Over Spin) curves, which strongly suggest a structure evolution from vibration to rotation along the yrast lines with increasing spin. Theoretical calculations have been performed for the ground state bands of 99,101,103Pd in the framework of the cranked shell model (CSM) and the alignment properties observed experimentally are analyzed employing this model. The results show that the phase transition in the ground state bands of 99,101,103Pd can be interpreted as the valence nucleons start to occupy the g9/2 proton orbitals with increasing spin which would polarize the core to a small, but rigid quadrupole deformation. Supported by Natural Science Foundation of Guangxi (2014jjBA10016, 2014jjDA10012) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11465005)

  9. Topological Blount's theorem of odd-parity superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayshi, Shingo; Shiozaki, Ken; Sato, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Yukio

    2014-03-01

    Nontrivial nodal structures are one of the most salient features of gap functions of the unconventional superconductors. In a system with spin-orbit coupling and crystal field, the group theory plays a key role to determine the node of the gap function. From the group theoretical ground, Blount proved that the line node is ``vanishingly improbable'' in spin-triplet superconductors. Namely, it is impossible to create a stable line node in odd-parity superconductors. Our motivation is to compare the group theoretical result with topological stability of nodes by K-theory As a result, we found that K-theory not only rebuilds the original Blount's argument but also exhibits counterexamples with the stable line node. In this talk, we will show the physical interpretation of them.

  10. Near yrast states in doubly odd [sup 214]Fr

    SciTech Connect

    Debray, M.E.; Kreiner, A.J.; Kesque, J.M.; Ozafran, M.; Romo, A.; Somacal, H.; Vazquez, M.E. ); Davidson, J.; Davidson, M. ); Ahn, K.; Fossan, D.B.; Liang, Y.; Ma, R.; Paul, E.S.; Piel, W.F. Jr.; Xu, N. )

    1993-11-01

    High spin states of doubly odd [sup 214]Fr[sub 127] have been investigated using in-beam [gamma]-ray and conversion electron spectroscopy techniques through the [sup 206]Pb([sup 11]B, 3[ital n]) and [sup 208]Pb([sup 11]B, 5[ital n]) fusion-evaporation reactions. Completely new spectrocopic information has been obtained. The yrast level structure is established up to spin (19[sup +]) and some information on [gamma] transitions from higher-lying levels is also obtained. Two new isomers [ital T][sub 1/2]=174(20) ns and [ital T][sub 1/2]=11(2) ns were found. Configuration assignments for the low-lying levels are discussed. Information on residual proton-neutron interactions is extracted.

  11. Cotunneling into a Kondo lattice with odd hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruselli, Pier Paolo; Vojta, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Cotunneling into Kondo systems, where an electron enters an f -electron material via a cotunneling process through the local-moment orbital, has been proposed to explain the characteristic line shapes observed in scanning-tunneling-spectroscopy (STS) experiments. Here we extend the theory of electron cotunneling to Kondo-lattice systems in which the bulk hybridization between conduction and f electrons is odd under inversion, being particularly relevant to Kondo insulators. Compared to the case of even hybridization, we show that the interference between normal tunneling and cotunneling processes is fundamentally altered: it is entirely absent for layered, i.e., quasi-two-dimensional materials, while its energy dependence is strongly modified for three-dimensional materials. We discuss implications for STS experiments.

  12. Summertime distribution and relations of reactive odd nitrogen species and NO(y) in the troposphere over Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, R. W.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Sandholm, S. T.; Singh, H. B.; Sachse, G. W.; Collins, J.; Gregory, G. L.; Anderson, B.; Blake, D.; Barrick, J.

    1994-01-01

    We report here large-scale features of the distribution of NO(x), HNO3, PAN, particle NO3, and NO(y) in the troposphere from 0.15 to 6 km altitude over central Canada. These measurements were conducted in July - August 1990 from the NASA Wallops Electra aircraft as part of the joint United States-Canadian Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE) 3B-Northern Wetlands Study. Our findings show that this region is generally NO(x) limited, with NO(x) mixing ratios typically 20-30 parts per trillion by volume (pptv). We found little direct evidence for anthropogenic enhancement of mixing ratios of reactive odd nitrogen species and NO(y) above those in 'background' air. Instead, it appears that enhancements in the mixing ratios of these species were primarily due to emissions from several day old or CO-rich-NO(x)-poor smoldering local biomass-burning fires. NO(x) mixing ratios in biomass-burning impacted air masses were usually less than 50 pptv, but those of HNO3 and PAN were typically 100-300 pptv representing a twofold-threefold enhancement over 'background' air. During our study period, inputs of what appeared to be aged tropical air were a major factor influencing the distribution of reactive odd nitrogen in the midtroposphere over northeastern North America. These air masses were quite depleted in NO(y) (generally less than 150 pptv), and a frequent summertime occurrence of such air masses over this region would imply a significant influence on the reactive odd nitrogen budget. Our findings show that the chemical composition of aged air masses over subarctic Canada and those documented in the Arctic during ABLE 3A have strikingly similar chemistries, suggesting large-scale connection between the air masses influencing these regions.

  13. Multiply enhanced odd-order wave-mixing spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Nathan A; Block, Stephen B; Yurs, Lena A; Kornau, Kathryn M; Pakoulev, Andrei V; Wright, John C

    2009-12-01

    Extending current coherent multidimensional spectroscopy (CMDS) methods to higher order multiwave mixing requires excitation intensities where dynamic Stark effects become important. This paper examines the dynamic Stark effects that occur in mixed frequency/time domain CMDS methods at high excitation intensities in a model system with an isolated vibrational state. The phase-matching restrictions in CMDS define the excitation beams that interact by nonlinear mixing while the dynamic Stark effects create vibrational ladders of increasingly more energetic overtone and combination band states. The excited quantum states form coherences that reemit the output beams. This paper uses the phase-matching conditions k(out) = k(1) - k(2) + k(2') and k(out) =- k(1) + k(2) + k(2'), where the subscripts denote the excitation frequencies of each excitation pulse and the output pulse. The phase-matching condition constrains each pulse to have an odd number of interactions so the overall mixing process that creates the output coherence must also involve an odd number of interactions. Tuning the excitation frequencies and spectrally resolving the output intensity creates three-dimensional spectra that resolve the individual overtone states. Changing the excitation pulse time delays measures the dynamics of the coherences and populations created by the multiple excitations. The multidimensional spectra probe the highly excited states of a molecular potential energy surface. This paper uses tungsten hexacarbonyl (W(CO)(6)) as a model for observing how dynamic Stark effects change the multidimensional spectra of a simple system. The simplicity of the W(CO)(6) system provides the experimental data required to develop the nonperturbative theoretical methods that will be necessary to model this new approach to CMDS. PMID:19860444

  14. An Overview of Modeling Middle Atmospheric Odd Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Odd nitrogen (N, NO, NO2, NO3, N2O5, HNO3, HO2NO2, ClONO2, and BrONO2) constituents are important components in the control of middle atmospheric ozone. Several processes lead to the production of odd nitrogen (NO(sub y)) in the middle atmosphere (stratosphere and mesosphere) including the oxidation of nitrous oxide (N2O), lightning, downflux from the thermosphere, and energetic charged particles (e.g., galactic cosmic rays, solar proton events, and energetic electron precipitation). The dominant production mechanism of NO(sub y) in the stratosphere is N2O oxidation, although other processes contribute. Mesospheric NO(sub y) is influenced by N2O oxidation, downflux from the thermosphere, and energetic charged particles. NO(sub y) is destroyed in the middle atmosphere primarily via two processes: 1) dissociation of NO to form N and O followed by N + NO yielding N2 + O to reform even nitrogen; and 2) transport to the troposphere where HNO3 can be rapidly scavenged in water droplets and rained out of the atmosphere. There are fairly significant differences among global models that predict NO(sub y). NO(sub y) has a fairly long lifetime in the stratosphere (months to years), thus disparate transport in the models probably contributes to many of these differences. Satellite and aircraft measurement provide modeling tests of the various components of NO(sub y). Although some recent reaction rate measurements have led to improvements in model/measurement agreement, significant differences do remain. This presentation will provide an overview of several proposed sources and sinks of NO(sub y) and their regions of importance. Multi-dimensional modeling results for NO(sub y) and its components with comparisons to observations will also be presented.

  15. Correlations between compulsory drug abstinence treatments and HIV risk behaviors among injection drug users in a border city of South China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huey T; Tuner, Nannette; Chen, Charlene J; Lin, Hui-yi; Liang, Shaoling; Wang, Siven

    2013-08-01

    Compulsory drug abstinence treatments (CAT) provided by the public security system have been one of the predominant methods of addressing drug abuse and HIV risks in China. This study assessed the association between CAT and HIV risk behaviors by surveying a community sample of 613 injection drug users (IDUs) at a city located in South China. The data indicated that the great majority of the participants (89.6%) had received the institutionalized treatments an average of 4.5 times. The study found that the number of compulsory drug abstinence treatments increased IDUs' HIV/AIDS knowledge. However, other HIV-related outcomes were not encouraging. The study found that the number of compulsory drug abstinence treatments was not related to an increase in condom use. Furthermore, the frequency of compulsory drug abstinence treatments was not related to needle/syringe sharing, but was positively associated with cooker/cotton/rinse water sharing and drug solution sharing. The number of compulsory drug abstinence treatments was positively associated with HIV status. In general, this study found little support that CAT has accomplished its goal in reducing HIV risks among injection drug users in the sample. Policy implications for reforming CAT are suggested. PMID:23837811

  16. Intact inhibitory control processes in abstinent drug abusers (II): a high-density electrical mapping study in former cocaine and heroin addicts.

    PubMed

    Morie, Kristen P; Garavan, Hugh; Bell, Ryan P; De Sanctis, Pierfilippo; Krakowski, Menachem I; Foxe, John J

    2014-07-01

    Response inhibition deficits are well-documented in drug users, and are related to the impulsive tendencies characteristic of the addictive phenotype. Addicts also show significant motivational issues that may accentuate these inhibitory deficits. We investigated the extent to which these inhibitory deficits are present in abstinence. Salience of the task stimuli was also manipulated on the premise that emotionally-valenced inputs might impact inhibitory efficacy by overcoming the blunted responses to everyday environmental inputs characteristic of this population. Participants performed response inhibition tasks consisting of both neutral and emotionally valenced stimuli while high-density event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Electrophysiological responses (N2/P3 components) to successful inhibitions in abstinent abusers (N = 20) and non-using participants (N = 21) were compared. In contrast to previous work in current users, our abstinent cohort showed no detectable behavioral or electrophysiological differences in their inhibitory responses, and no differences on self-reports of impulsivity, despite their long histories of chronic use (mean = 10.3 years). The current findings are consistent with a recovery of inhibitory control processes as a function of abstinence. Abstinent former users, however, did show a reduced modulation, relative to controls, of their ERPs to valenced input while performing successful inhibitions, although contrary to our hypothesis, the use of valenced inputs had no impact on inhibitory performance. Reduced ERP modulation to emotionally valenced inputs may have implications for relapse in emotional contexts outside the treatment center. PMID:23507565

  17. Expectancies for the Effectiveness of Different Tobacco Interventions Account for Racial and Gender Differences in Motivation to Quit and Abstinence Self-Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Leventhal, Adam M.; Stevens, Erin N.; Trent, Lindsay R.; Clark, C. Brendan; Lahti, Adrienne C.; Hendricks, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Racial and gender disparities for smoking cessation might be accounted for by differences in expectancies for tobacco interventions, but few studies have investigated such differences or their relationships with motivation to quit and abstinence self-efficacy. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 673 smokers (African American: n = 443, 65.8%; women: n = 222, 33.0%) under criminal justice supervision who enrolled in a clinical smoking cessation trial in which all received bupropion and half received counseling. All participants completed pretreatment measures of expectancies for different tobacco interventions, motivation to quit, and abstinence self-efficacy. The indirect effects of race and gender on motivation to quit and abstinence self-efficacy through expectancies for different tobacco interventions were evaluated. Results: African Americans’ stronger expectancies that behavioral interventions would be effective accounted for their greater motivation to quit and abstinence self-efficacy. Women’s stronger expectancies for the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy accounted for their greater motivation to quit, whereas their stronger expectancies for the effectiveness of behavioral treatments accounted for their greater abstinence self-efficacy. Conclusions: Findings point to the mediating role of expectancies for treatment effectiveness and suggest the importance of exploring expectancies among African Americans and women as a way to augment motivation and self-efficacy. PMID:24719492

  18. The Effect of Combination Oral Contraceptives on Smoking-Related Symptomatology during Short-Term Smoking Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Hinderaker, Katie; Tosun, Nicole; al'Absi, Mustafa; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Allen, Sharon S.

    2014-01-01

    Although an estimated 25% of premenopausal smokers report using oral contraceptives (OC), little is known about how OC use may influence smoking cessation. The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in smoking-related symptomatology during acute smoking abstinence between women on a standardized combination OC (Tri-Sprintec ™) compared to women not on OCs (no-OC). Participants were women aged 18-40 who smoked ≥5 cigarettes/day and reported regular menstrual cycles. Using a controlled cross-over design, participants completed two six-day testing weeks: Low Progesterone Week (LPW; Follicular (F) phase in no-OC or 1st week of pills in OC) and High Progesterone Week (HPW; Luteal (L) phase in no-OC or 3rd week of pills in OC). Each testing week included daily assessment of symptomatology and biochemical confirmation of smoking status. During smoking abstinence, the OC group (n=14) reported significantly lower levels of positive affect (21.56±7.12 vs. 24.57±6.46; β=3.63, p=0.0323) than the no-OC group (n=28). Further significant interactions between group and testing week were observed as follows: Smoking satisfaction was higher during LPW in the OC group (LPW: 4.29±1.30 vs. HPW: 4.10±1.37) but higher during HPW in the no-OC group (LPW: 3.91 ± 1.30 vs. HPW: 4.23 ± 1.30; β=-0.5499, p<0.0001). Similar interactions were noted in negative affect and psychological reward of smoking. These results suggest that women on OCs may have different patterns of smoking-related symptomatology during short-term smoking abstinence as compared to women not on OCs. Additional work is needed to examine how this may affect smoking cessation efforts. PMID:25452059

  19. The effect of combination oral contraceptives on smoking-related symptomatology during short-term smoking abstinence.

    PubMed

    Hinderaker, Katie; Allen, Alicia M; Tosun, Nicole; al'Absi, Mustafa; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Allen, Sharon S

    2015-02-01

    Although an estimated 25% of premenopausal smokers report using oral contraceptives (OC), little is known about how OC use may influence smoking cessation. The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in smoking-related symptomatology during acute smoking abstinence between women on a standardized combination OC (Tri-Sprintec(™)) compared to women not on OCs (no-OC). Participants were women aged 18-40 who smoked ≥5 cigarettes/day and reported regular menstrual cycles. Using a controlled cross-over design, participants completed two six-day testing weeks: Low Progesterone Week (LPW; Follicular (F) phase in no-OC or 1st week of pills in OC) and High Progesterone Week (HPW; Luteal (L) phase in no-OC or 3rd week of pills in OC). Each testing week included daily assessment of symptomatology and biochemical confirmation of smoking status. During smoking abstinence, the OC group (n=14) reported significantly lower levels of positive affect (21.56±7.12 vs. 24.57±6.46; β=3.63, p=0.0323) than the no-OC group (n=28). Further significant interactions between group and testing week were observed as follows: Smoking satisfaction was higher during LPW in the OC group (LPW: 4.29±1.30 vs. HPW: 4.10±1.37) but higher during HPW in the no-OC group (LPW: 3.91±1.30 vs. HPW: 4.23±1.30; β=-0.5499, p<0.0001). Similar interactions were noted in negative affect and psychological reward of smoking. These results suggest that women on OCs may have different patterns of smoking-related symptomatology during short-term smoking abstinence as compared to women not on OCs. Additional work is needed to examine how this may affect smoking cessation efforts. PMID:25452059

  20. Characterization of babies discharged from Cabell Huntington Hospital during the calendar year 2005 with the diagnoses of neonatal abstinence syndrome.

    PubMed

    Baxter, F Ross; Nerhood, Robert; Chaffin, David

    2009-01-01

    Recent concern regarding the impact of maternal drug abuse on neonatal well being was the impetus for this retrospective cohort study of newborns diagnosed with neonatal abstinence syndrome that were discharged from Cabell Huntington Hospital during the calendar year 2005. Medical records of the neonates and their mothers were analyzed for a variety of health related outcomes and healthcare cost. Forty-eight neonates were diagnosed with Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome in 2005, forty of which required NICU assistance. The average maternal age at delivery was 26; gravity was 3.1 and most were single, separated or divorced. The majority had poor or inconsistent prenatal care. Twenty-one delivered by cesarean section most often for fetal distress. Most delivered prematurely with an average gestation of 35.9 weeks. Half of the mothers went into preterm labor with half of those having premature ruptured membranes. Opiates were the most common maternal substance found, while neonates most often tested positive for methadone. Nearly 90% of the mothers smoked. Thirty-four of the mothers were found to continue illicit drug abuse while pregnant, while another eight were seen in a methadone clinic for a history of abuse. Most of the neonates required weaning with methadone. The majority of our study cases were funded by Medicaid, mostly by West Virginia with total hospital costs exceeding 1.7 million dollars. Direct cost attributed to detoxification was in excess of $180,000. The number of neonates diagnosed with Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome has nearly tripled from 2003 to 2007. The problem of maternal drug abuse and addiction during pregnancy has dramatic effects on both their unborn children and our local healthcare system. Increased awareness of this growing problem is needed so that earlier interventions can be implemented. It is our opinion that all obstetrical patients at risk should be screened early and often so that those affected individuals can be managed more