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Sample records for abstinence odds ratio

  1. Abstinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... opportunity for sperm to fertilize an egg. continue Protection Against STDs Abstinence protects people against STDs. Some STDs spread through oral-genital sex, anal sex, or even intimate skin-to-skin ...

  2. [Odds Ratio: review about the meaning of an epidemiological measure].

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Pedro; Nunes, Baltazar

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: É importante rever a validade do Odds Ratio como medida de associação e efeito, assim como, qual o viés introduzido pelo Odds Ratio quando este representa uma razão de riscos ou uma razão de prevalências em situação de doença mais frequente.Material e Métodos: Simulámos numa coorte de 200 indivíduos com 100 expostos e 100 não expostos a um fator de risco, um cenário de doença rara e outro de doença mais frequente, com razão de riscos igual em ambos os cenários. Determinaram-se o Odds Ratio e o Risco Relativo pelo método clássico (padrão) e respectivamente por regressão logística e regressão de Poisson. Introduziu-se de seguida uma variável de confundimento e determinaram-se o Odds Ratio e o Risco Relativo pelo método de Mantel-Hanszel (análise estratificada padrão) e respectivamente por regressão logística e regressão de Poisson. As análises estatísticas foram efectuadas em SPSS V20.Resultados: Para a doença rara, o Odds Ratio aproximou-se do Risco Relativo. Quando a doença foi mais frequente, o Odds Ratio sobrestimou o Risco Relativo. Nesta situação, e com a presença de uma variável de confundimento, o Risco Relativo ajustado por regressão de Poisson permitiu obter estimativas mais válidas da razão de riscos que o Odds Ratio ajustado por regressão logística. Os intervalos de confiança do Risco Relativo estimado por regressão de Poisson foram sempre mais largos que os determinados por análise de Mantel-Hanszel.Conclusões: O Odds Ratio e a regressão logística múltipla são procedimentos válidos em estudos caso-controlo e em estudosprospetivos e transversais de natureza exploratória. O Odds Ratio não deve ser interpretado como uma razão de riscos ou razão de prevalências se o resultado de saúde não é raro. A análise de regressão múltipla de Poisson deve ser considerada como alternativa válida à regressão logística múltipla, especialmente em estudos de uma exposição específica.

  3. Odds ratio analysis in women with endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Żak, Ewa; Pięta, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite the progress in diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumours, the effects of treatment are insufficient. Reduction of the risk of cervical, ovarian, and endometrial cancer is possible by introducing preventative actions. Aim of the study The aim of the thesis is the analysis of selected risk factors that may affect the increase or decrease in the odds ratio of developing endometrial cancer. Material and methods The study was conducted among patients of the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Hospital of Poznań University of Medical Sciences in the years 2011-2013. The research included a total of 548 female respondents aged between 40 and 84 years. Women responded to questions assessing elements of lifestyle such as consumption of alcohol, smoking, and eating certain groups of foods. Results The respondents consuming fruits and vegetables several times a week have a reduced risk of odds ratio and the OR is 0.85; 95% CI: 0.18-4.09, compared to the women who rarely consume vegetables and fruits. Consumption of whole-wheat bread several times a week reduces the risk of developing the cancer, OR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.14-2.47, compared to women not consuming wholegrain bread at all. Respondents who consumed red meat, such as veal, pork, and lamb in the amount of 101-200 g per day have an increased risk of developing the disease: OR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.09-4.28, compared to women not consuming red meat at all. Conclusions A diet rich in fruit and vegetables, onions, garlic, whole grains, and beans should be introduced in order to reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. The consumption of red meat and white pasta should be reduced or even eliminated. PMID:27095953

  4. Limits on Log Odds Ratios for Unidimensional Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Shelby J.; Holland, Paul W.; Sinharay, Sandip

    2007-01-01

    Bounds are established for log odds ratios (log cross-product ratios) involving pairs of items for item response models. First, expressions for bounds on log odds ratios are provided for one-dimensional item response models in general. Then, explicit bounds are obtained for the Rasch model and the two-parameter logistic (2PL) model. Results are…

  5. Isomer residual ratio of odd-odd isotope {sup 180}Ta in supernova nucleosynthsis

    SciTech Connect

    Hayakawa, Takehito; Kajino, Toshitaka; Chiba, Satoshi; Mathews, Grant

    2010-06-01

    The nucleosynthesis of {sup 180}Ta has remained an unsolved problem and as its origin many nucleosynthesis mechanisms have been proposed. This isotope has the unique feature that the naturally occurring abundance of {sup 180}Ta is actually a meta-stable isomer (half-life of >=10{sup 15} yr), while the ground state is a 1{sup +} unstable state which beta-decays with a half-life of only 8.15 hr. We have made a new time-dependent calculation of {sup 180}Ta meta-stable isomer residual ratio after supernova neutrino-induced reactions. This residual isomer ratio is crucial for understanding the production and survival of this naturally occurring rare isotope. We have constructed a new model under temperature evolution after type II supernova explosion. We include the explicit linking between the isomer and all known excited states and found that the residual ratio is insensitive to astrophysical parameters such as neutrino energy spectrum, explosion energy, decay time constant. We find that the explicit time evolution of the synthesis of {sup 180}Ta avoids the overproduction relative to {sup 138}La for a neutrino process neutrino temperature of 4 MeV.

  6. At Odds: Concerns Raised by Using Odds Ratios for Continuous or Common Dichotomous Outcomes in Research on Physical Activity and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Lovasi, Gina S; Underhill, Lindsay J; Jack, Darby; Richards, Catherine; Weiss, Christopher; Rundle, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Research on obesity and the built environment has often featured logistic regression and the corresponding parameter, the odds ratio. Use of odds ratios for common outcomes such obesity may unnecessarily hinder the validity, interpretation, and communication of research findings. METHODS: We identified three key issues raised by the use of odds ratios, illustrating them with data on walkability and body mass index from a study of 13,102 New York City residents. RESULTS: First, dichotomization of continuous measures such as body mass index discards theoretically relevant information, reduces statistical power, and amplifies measurement error. Second, odds ratios are systematically higher (further from the null) than prevalence ratios; this inflation is trivial for rare outcomes, but substantial for common outcomes like obesity. Third, odds ratios can lead to incorrect conclusions during tests of interactions. The odds ratio in a particular subgroup might higher simply because the outcome is more common (and the odds ratio inflated) compared with other subgroups. CONCLUSION: Our recommendations are to take full advantage of continuous outcome data when feasible and to use prevalence ratios in place of odds ratios for common dichotomous outcomes. When odds ratios must be used, authors should document outcome prevalence across exposure groups.

  7. Understanding relative risk, odds ratio, and related terms: as simple as it can get.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2015-07-01

    Risk, and related measures of effect size (for categorical outcomes) such as relative risks and odds ratios, are frequently presented in research articles. Not all readers know how these statistics are derived and interpreted, nor are all readers aware of their strengths and limitations. This article examines several measures, including absolute risk, attributable risk, attributable risk percent, population attributable risk percent, relative risk, odds, odds ratio, and others. The concept and method of calculation are explained for each of these in simple terms and with the help of examples. The interpretation of each is presented in plain English rather than in technical language. Clinically useful notes are provided, wherever necessary.

  8. Understanding relative risk, odds ratio, and related terms: as simple as it can get.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2015-07-01

    Risk, and related measures of effect size (for categorical outcomes) such as relative risks and odds ratios, are frequently presented in research articles. Not all readers know how these statistics are derived and interpreted, nor are all readers aware of their strengths and limitations. This article examines several measures, including absolute risk, attributable risk, attributable risk percent, population attributable risk percent, relative risk, odds, odds ratio, and others. The concept and method of calculation are explained for each of these in simple terms and with the help of examples. The interpretation of each is presented in plain English rather than in technical language. Clinically useful notes are provided, wherever necessary. PMID:26231012

  9. Constant Latent Odds-Ratios Models and the Mantel-Haenszel Null Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessen, David J.

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper, a new family of item response theory (IRT) models for dichotomous item scores is proposed. Two basic assumptions define the most general model of this family. The first assumption is local independence of the item scores given a unidimensional latent trait. The second assumption is that the odds-ratios for all item-pairs are…

  10. An Odds Ratio Approach for Detecting DDF under the Nested Logit Modeling Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzi, Ragip; Suh, Youngsuk

    2015-01-01

    An odds ratio approach (ORA) under the framework of a nested logit model was proposed for evaluating differential distractor functioning (DDF) in multiple-choice items and was compared with an existing ORA developed under the nominal response model. The performances of the two ORAs for detecting DDF were investigated through an extensive…

  11. Odds Ratio Product of Sleep EEG as a Continuous Measure of Sleep State

    PubMed Central

    Younes, Magdy; Ostrowski, Michele; Soiferman, Marc; Younes, Henry; Younes, Mark; Raneri, Jill; Hanly, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To develop and validate an algorithm that provides a continuous estimate of sleep depth from the electroencephalogram (EEG). Design: Retrospective analysis of polysomnograms. Setting: Research laboratory. Participants: 114 patients who underwent clinical polysomnography in sleep centers at the University of Manitoba (n = 58) and the University of Calgary (n = 56). Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Power spectrum of EEG was determined in 3-second epochs and divided into delta, theta, alpha-sigma, and beta frequency bands. The range of powers in each band was divided into 10 aliquots. EEG patterns were assigned a 4-digit number that reflects the relative power in the 4 frequency ranges (10,000 possible patterns). Probability of each pattern occurring in 30-s epochs staged awake was determined, resulting in a continuous probability value from 0% to 100%. This was divided by 40 (% of epochs staged awake) producing the odds ratio product (ORP), with a range of 0–2.5. In validation testing, average ORP decreased progressively as EEG progressed from wakefulness (2.19 ± 0.29) to stage N3 (0.13 ± 0.05). ORP < 1.0 predicted sleep and ORP > 2.0 predicted wakefulness in > 95% of 30-s epochs. Epochs with intermediate ORP occurred in unstable sleep with a high arousal index (> 70/h) and were subject to much interrater scoring variability. There was an excellent correlation (r2 = 0.98) between ORP in current 30-s epochs and the likelihood of arousal or awakening occurring in the next 30-s epoch. Conclusions: Our results support the use of the odds ratio product (ORP) as a continuous measure of sleep depth. Citation: Younes M, Ostrowski M, Soiferman M, Younes H, Younes M, Raneri J, Hanly P. Odds ratio product of sleep EEG as a continuous measure of sleep state. SLEEP 2015;38(4):641–654. PMID:25348125

  12. Asymptotic stabilisation for a class of feedforward input-delay systems with ratios of odd integers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian; Chen, Weisheng; Miao, Qiguang

    2013-11-01

    This article addresses the stabilisation problem by state-feedback for a class of feedforward input-delay nonlinear systems with ratios of odd integer powers. The designed controller achieves the global asymptotic stability. Based on the appropriate state transformation of time-delay systems and the Lyapunov method, the problem of controller design can be converted into the problem of finding a parameter which can be obtained by appraising the nonlinear terms of the systems. Finally, three simulation examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the control algorithm proposed in this article.

  13. Risk Factors of End Stage Renal Disease in Peshawar, Pakistan: Odds Ratio Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Salahuddin; Hussain, Tariq; Salahuddin, Najma; Mehreen, Salahuddin

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The basic aim of this study was to discover the association of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) with various risk factors. End Stage Renal Failure is the last stage of the chronic renal failure in which kidneys become completely fail to function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data were collected from the patients of renal diseases from three major hospitals in Peshawar, Pakistan. Odds ratio analysis was performed to examine the relationship of ESRD (a binary response variable) with various risk factors: Gender, Diabetic, Hypertension, Glomerulonephritis, Obstructive Nephropathy, Polycystic kidney disease, Myeloma, SLE Nephritis, Heredity, Hepatitis, Excess use of Drugs, heart problem and Anemia. RESULTS: Using odds ratio analysis, the authors found that the ESRD in diabetic patients was 11.04 times more than non-diabetic patients and the ESRD were 7.29 times less in non-hypertensive patients as compared to hypertensive patients. Similarly, glomerulonephritis patients had 3.115 times more risk of having ESRD than non-glomerulonephritis. Other risk factors may also, to some extent, were causes of ESRD but turned out insignificant due to stochastic sample. CONCLUSION: The authors concluded that there is a strong association between ESRD and three risk factors, namely diabetes, hypertension and glomerulonephritis. PMID:27703559

  14. Changes in Obesity Odds Ratio among Iranian Adults, since 2000: Quadratic Inference Functions Method

    PubMed Central

    Etemad, Koorosh; Seifi, Behjat; Mohammad, Kazem; Biglarian, Akbar; Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil

    2016-01-01

    Background. Monitoring changes in obesity prevalence by risk factors is relevant to public health programs that focus on reducing or preventing obesity. The purpose of this paper was to study trends in obesity odds ratios (ORs) for individuals aged 20 years and older in Iran by using a new statistical methodology. Methods. Data collected by the National Surveys in Iran, from 2000 through 2011. Since responses of the member of each cluster are correlated, the quadratic inference functions (QIF) method was used to model the relationship between the odds of obesity and risk factors. Results. During the study period, the prevalence rate of obesity increased from 12% to 22%. By using QIF method and a model selection criterion for performing stepwise regression analysis, we found that while obesity prevalence generally increased in both sexes, all ages, all employment, residence, and smoking levels, it seems to have changes in obesity ORs since 2000. Conclusions. Because obesity is one of the main risk factors for many diseases, awareness of the differences by factors allows development of targets for prevention and early intervention. PMID:27803729

  15. Multiple Imputation for Missing Values Through Conditional Semiparametric Odds Ratio Models

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hua Yun; Xie, Hui; Qian, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Summary Multiple imputation is a practically useful approach to handling incompletely observed data in statistical analysis. Parameter estimation and inference based on imputed full data have been made easy by Rubin's rule for result combination. However, creating proper imputation that accommodates flexible models for statistical analysis in practice can be very challenging. We propose an imputation framework that uses conditional semiparametric odds ratio models to impute the missing values. The proposed imputation framework is more flexible and robust than the imputation approach based on the normal model. It is a compatible framework in comparison to the approach based on fully conditionally specified models. The proposed algorithms for multiple imputation through the Monte Carlo Markov Chain sampling approach can be straightforwardly carried out. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed approach performs better than existing, commonly used imputation approaches. The proposed approach is applied to imputing missing values in bone fracture data. PMID:21210771

  16. Relationships among three popular measures of differential risks: relative risk, risk difference, and odds ratio.

    PubMed

    Feng, Changyong; Wang, Hongyue; Wang, Bokai; Lu, Xiang; Sun, Hao; Tu, Xin M

    2016-02-25

    The relative risk, risk difference, and odds ratio are the three most commonly used measures for comparing the risk of disease between different groups. Although widely popular in biomedical and psychosocial research, the relationship among the three measures has not been clarified in the literature. Many researchers incorrectly assume a monotonic relationship, such that higher (or lower) values in one measure are associated with higher (or lower) values in the other measures. In this paper we discuss three theorems and provide examples demonstrating that this is not the case; there is no logical relationship between any of these measures. Researchers must be very cautious when implying a relationship between the different measures or when combining results of studies that use different measures of risk. PMID:27688647

  17. Relationships among three popular measures of differential risks: relative risk, risk difference, and odds ratio

    PubMed Central

    FENG, Changyong; WANG, Hongyue; WANG, Bokai; LU, Xiang; SUN, Hao; TU, Xin M.

    2016-01-01

    The relative risk, risk difference, and odds ratio are the three most commonly used measures for comparing the risk of disease between different groups. Although widely popular in biomedical and psychosocial research, the relationship among the three measures has not been clarified in the literature. Many researchers incorrectly assume a monotonic relationship, such that higher (or lower) values in one measure are associated with higher (or lower) values in the other measures. In this paper we discuss three theorems and provide examples demonstrating that this is not the case; there is no logical relationship between any of these measures. Researchers must be very cautious when implying a relationship between the different measures or when combining results of studies that use different measures of risk. PMID:27688647

  18. Notes on interval estimation of the generalized odds ratio under stratified random sampling.

    PubMed

    Lui, Kung-Jong; Chang, Kuang-Chao

    2013-05-01

    It is not rare to encounter the patient response on the ordinal scale in a randomized clinical trial (RCT). Under the assumption that the generalized odds ratio (GOR) is homogeneous across strata, we consider four asymptotic interval estimators for the GOR under stratified random sampling. These include the interval estimator using the weighted-least-squares (WLS) approach with the logarithmic transformation (WLSL), the interval estimator using the Mantel-Haenszel (MH) type of estimator with the logarithmic transformation (MHL), the interval estimator using Fieller's theorem with the MH weights (FTMH) and the interval estimator using Fieller's theorem with the WLS weights (FTWLS). We employ Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the performance of these interval estimators by calculating the coverage probability and the average length. To study the bias of these interval estimators, we also calculate and compare the noncoverage probabilities in the two tails of the resulting confidence intervals. We find that WLSL and MHL can generally perform well, while FTMH and FTWLS can lose either precision or accuracy. We further find that MHL is likely the least biased. Finally, we use the data taken from a study of smoking status and breathing test among workers in certain industrial plants in Houston, Texas, during 1974 to 1975 to illustrate the use of these interval estimators.

  19. Estimation of Odds Ratios of Genetic Variants for the Secondary Phenotypes Associated with Primary Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Shete, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    Genetic association studies for binary diseases are designed as case-control studies: the cases are those affected with the primary disease and the controls are free of the disease. At the time of case-control collection, information about secondary phenotypes is also collected. Association studies of secondary phenotype and genetic variants have received a great deal of interest recently. To study the secondary phenotypes, investigators use standard regression approaches, where individuals with secondary phenotypes are coded as cases and those without secondary phenotypes are coded as controls. However, using the secondary phenotype as an outcome variable in a case-control study might lead to a biased estimate of odds ratios (ORs) for genetic variants. The secondary phenotype is associated with the primary disease; therefore, individuals with and without the secondary phenotype are not sampled following the principles of a case-control study. In this article, we demonstrate that such analyses will lead to a biased estimate of OR and propose new approaches to provide more accurate OR estimates of genetic variants associated with the secondary phenotype for both unmatched and frequency-matched (with respect to the secondary phenotype) case-control studies. We also propose a bootstrapping method to estimate the empirical confidence intervals for the corrected ORs. Using simulation studies and analysis of lung cancer data for single-nucleotide polymorphism associated with smoking quantity, we compared our new approaches to standard logistic regression and to an extended version of the inverse-probability-of-sampling-weighted regression. The proposed approaches provide more accurate estimation of the true OR. PMID:21308766

  20. The urinary MHPG/creatinine ratio and its relationship to platelet monoamine oxidase activity in abstinent alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Farren, C K; Tipton, K F

    1999-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the baseline noradrenergic turnover of subgroups of postwithdrawal abstinent alcoholics and healthy controls. The method chosen was an overnight fasting urine sample of the breakdown product of norepinephrine, MHPG, related to urinary creatinine. A comparison was made with platelet monoamine oxidase activity and also within subgroups of the study population. This study found no difference between alcoholics and controls, nor between subgroups of postwithdrawal alcoholics in their level of urinary MHPG corrected for creatinine, and no significant correlation with major subject characteristics or with platelet monoamine oxidase. There was a trend, however, towards a significant correlation with duration of abstinence from alcohol, and there was a correlation with a history of fighting when drinking alcohol, but not with sociopathic traits overall. Within the type 2 alcoholics there was a significant correlation with a history of fighting when drinking and a negative correlation with behavioral tolerance to alcohol. It is possible that only the subset of type 2 alcoholics with certain antisocial characteristics have noradrenergic abnormalities. Although no statistical difference was found between the different groups under study, the information is helpful in increasing understanding of the noradrenergic system in abstinent alcoholics. PMID:20575773

  1. The Overall Odds Ratio as an Intuitive Effect Size Index for Multiple Logistic Regression: Examination of Further Refinements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Huy; Marcus, Justin

    2012-01-01

    This study used Monte Carlo simulation to examine the properties of the overall odds ratio (OOR), which was recently introduced as an index for overall effect size in multiple logistic regression. It was found that the OOR was relatively independent of study base rate and performed better than most commonly used R-square analogs in indexing model…

  2. Abstinence education.

    PubMed

    Zeiler, Alean

    2014-11-01

    The American College of Pediatricians strongly endorses abstinence-until-marriage sex education and recommends adoption by all school systems in lieu of "comprehensive sex education." This position is based on "the public health principle of primary prevention-risk avoidance in lieu of risk reduction," upholding the "human right to the highest attainable standard of health" (Freedman 1995).

  3. Abstinence education*

    PubMed Central

    Zeiler, Alean

    2014-01-01

    The American College of Pediatricians strongly endorses abstinence-until-marriage sex education and recommends adoption by all school systems in lieu of “comprehensive sex education.” This position is based on “the public health principle of primary prevention—risk avoidance in lieu of risk reduction,” upholding the “human right to the highest attainable standard of health” (Freedman 1995). PMID:25473134

  4. The association in a two-way contingency table through log odds ratio analysis: the case of Sarno river pollution.

    PubMed

    Camminatiello, Ida; D'Ambra, Antonello; Sarnacchiaro, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we are proposing a general framework for the analysis of the complete set of log Odds Ratios (ORs) generated by a two-way contingency table. Starting from the RC (M) association model and hypothesizing a Poisson distribution for the counts of the two-way contingency table we are obtaining the weighted Log Ratio Analysis that we are extending to the study of log ORs. Particularly we are obtaining an indirect representation of the log ORs and some synthesis measures. Then for studying the matrix of log ORs we are performing a generalized Singular Value Decomposition that allows us to obtain a direct representation of log ORs. We also expect to get summary measures of association too. We have considered the matrix of complete set of ORs, because, it is linked to the two-way contingency table in terms of variance and it allows us to represent all the ORs on a factorial plan. Finally, a two-way contingency table, which crosses pollution of the Sarno river and sampling points, is to be analyzed to illustrate the proposed framework.

  5. The association in a two-way contingency table through log odds ratio analysis: the case of Sarno river pollution.

    PubMed

    Camminatiello, Ida; D'Ambra, Antonello; Sarnacchiaro, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we are proposing a general framework for the analysis of the complete set of log Odds Ratios (ORs) generated by a two-way contingency table. Starting from the RC (M) association model and hypothesizing a Poisson distribution for the counts of the two-way contingency table we are obtaining the weighted Log Ratio Analysis that we are extending to the study of log ORs. Particularly we are obtaining an indirect representation of the log ORs and some synthesis measures. Then for studying the matrix of log ORs we are performing a generalized Singular Value Decomposition that allows us to obtain a direct representation of log ORs. We also expect to get summary measures of association too. We have considered the matrix of complete set of ORs, because, it is linked to the two-way contingency table in terms of variance and it allows us to represent all the ORs on a factorial plan. Finally, a two-way contingency table, which crosses pollution of the Sarno river and sampling points, is to be analyzed to illustrate the proposed framework. PMID:25126485

  6. Likelihood ratio and score tests to test the non-inferiority (or equivalence) of the odds ratio in a crossover study with binary outcomes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaochun; Li, Huilin; Jin, Man; D Goldberg, Judith

    2016-09-10

    We consider the non-inferiority (or equivalence) test of the odds ratio (OR) in a crossover study with binary outcomes to evaluate the treatment effects of two drugs. To solve this problem, Lui and Chang (2011) proposed both an asymptotic method and a conditional method based on a random effects logit model. Kenward and Jones (1987) proposed a likelihood ratio test (LRTM ) based on a log linear model. These existing methods are all subject to model misspecification. In this paper, we propose a likelihood ratio test (LRT) and a score test that are independent of model specification. Monte Carlo simulation studies show that, in scenarios considered in this paper, both the LRT and the score test have higher power than the asymptotic and conditional methods for the non-inferiority test; the LRT, score, and asymptotic methods have similar power, and they all have higher power than the conditional method for the equivalence test. When data can be well described by a log linear model, the LRTM has the highest power among all the five methods (LRTM , LRT, score, asymptotic, and conditional) for both non-inferiority and equivalence tests. However, in scenarios for which a log linear model does not describe the data well, the LRTM has the lowest power for the non-inferiority test and has inflated type I error rates for the equivalence test. We provide an example from a clinical trial that illustrates our methods. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27095359

  7. Likelihood ratio and score tests to test the non-inferiority (or equivalence) of the odds ratio in a crossover study with binary outcomes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaochun; Li, Huilin; Jin, Man; D Goldberg, Judith

    2016-09-10

    We consider the non-inferiority (or equivalence) test of the odds ratio (OR) in a crossover study with binary outcomes to evaluate the treatment effects of two drugs. To solve this problem, Lui and Chang (2011) proposed both an asymptotic method and a conditional method based on a random effects logit model. Kenward and Jones (1987) proposed a likelihood ratio test (LRTM ) based on a log linear model. These existing methods are all subject to model misspecification. In this paper, we propose a likelihood ratio test (LRT) and a score test that are independent of model specification. Monte Carlo simulation studies show that, in scenarios considered in this paper, both the LRT and the score test have higher power than the asymptotic and conditional methods for the non-inferiority test; the LRT, score, and asymptotic methods have similar power, and they all have higher power than the conditional method for the equivalence test. When data can be well described by a log linear model, the LRTM has the highest power among all the five methods (LRTM , LRT, score, asymptotic, and conditional) for both non-inferiority and equivalence tests. However, in scenarios for which a log linear model does not describe the data well, the LRTM has the lowest power for the non-inferiority test and has inflated type I error rates for the equivalence test. We provide an example from a clinical trial that illustrates our methods. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Increased mortality odds ratio of male liver cancer in a community contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons in groundwater

    PubMed Central

    Lee, L; Chung, C; Ma, Y; Wang, G; Chen, P; Hwang, Y; Wang, J

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the association between cancer mortality risk and exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbons in groundwater of a downstream community near a contaminated site. Methods: Death certificates inclusive for the years 1966–97 were collected from two villages in the vicinity of an electronics factory operated between 1970 and 1992. These two villages were classified into the downstream (exposed) village and the upstream (unexposed) according to groundwater flow direction. Exposure classification was validated by the contaminant levels in 49 residential wells measured with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Mortality odds ratios (MORs) for cancer were calculated with cardiovascular-cerebrovascular diseases as the reference diseases. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to estimate the effects of exposure and period after adjustment for age. Results: Increased MORs were observed among males for all cancer, and liver cancer for the periods after 10 years of latency, namely, 1980–89, and 1990–97. Adjusted MOR for male liver cancer was 2.57 (95% confidence interval 1.21 to 5.46) with a significant linear trend for the period effect. Conclusion: The results suggest a link between exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbons and male liver cancer risk. However, the conclusion is limited by lack of individual information on groundwater exposure and potential confounding factors. PMID:12709523

  9. Signal detection for Thai traditional medicine: examination of national pharmacovigilance data using reporting odds ratio and reported population attributable risk.

    PubMed

    Wechwithan, Sareeya; Suwankesawong, Wimon; Sornsrivichai, Vorasith; McNeil, Edward B; Jiraphongsa, Chuleeporn; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2014-10-01

    Herbal containing medicine consumption has increased while the awareness of adverse drug reaction (ADR) was less than conventional medicine. Early detection of unexpected numbers of ADRs from herbal medicines' reports which are abnormal from the whole database needs quantification. Disproportionality analysis has been performed for signal detection by using reporting odds ratio (ROR) as measurement. The impact of having medicine as exposures in each ADR should be measured by using reported population attributable risks (RPAR). This study aimed to quantify the contribution of Thai traditional medicine (TTM) to ADR reports and to assess the association between TTMs and serious adverse drug reactions. Data were retrieved from the adverse drug reaction surveillance database, Thai-Food and Drug Administration from 2002 to 2013. Crude and adjusted RORs for each drug-ADR pair and RPARs were computed. TTM contributed only 0.001% of all serious ADRs reported. Out of 4208 TTM-ADR pairs were examined, three had the statistically significant RORs, namely Andrographis paniculata and anaphylactic shock (ROR 2.32, 95% CI 1.03, 5.21); green traditional medicine and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (ROR 13.04, 95% CI 5.4-31.51) and Derris scandens Benth and angioedema (ROR 2.71, 95% CI 1.05-6.95). Their RPARs ranged from 0.05% to 0.16%. We conclude that TTMs need more intensive surveillance. PMID:24945744

  10. Binary Logistic Regression Analysis for Detecting Differential Item Functioning: Effectiveness of R[superscript 2] and Delta Log Odds Ratio Effect Size Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidalgo, Mª Dolores; Gómez-Benito, Juana; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2014-01-01

    The authors analyze the effectiveness of the R[superscript 2] and delta log odds ratio effect size measures when using logistic regression analysis to detect differential item functioning (DIF) in dichotomous items. A simulation study was carried out, and the Type I error rate and power estimates under conditions in which only statistical testing…

  11. The Effects of Small Sample Size on Identifying Polytomous DIF Using the Liu-Agresti Estimator of the Cumulative Common Odds Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvajal, Jorge; Skorupski, William P.

    2010-01-01

    This study is an evaluation of the behavior of the Liu-Agresti estimator of the cumulative common odds ratio when identifying differential item functioning (DIF) with polytomously scored test items using small samples. The Liu-Agresti estimator has been proposed by Penfield and Algina as a promising approach for the study of polytomous DIF but no…

  12. Physical Activity as a Strategy for Maintaining Tobacco Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Hall, Sharon M.; Humfleet, Gary; Muňoz, Ricardo F.; Reus, Victor; Gorecki, Julie; Hu, Dixie

    2008-01-01

    Objectives For smoking cessation, physical activity (PA) may help manage withdrawal symptoms, mood, stress, and weight; yet studies of PA as an aid for smoking cessation have been mixed. This study examined: (1) the impact of an extended relapse prevention program on increasing moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) in adults enrolled in a tobacco cessation treatment trial; (2) whether changes in MVPA were associated with sustained abstinence from smoking; and (3) mechanisms by which MVPA may support sustained abstinence from smoking. Method In a randomized controlled trial conducted from 2003-2006 in San Francisco, California, 407 adult smokers received a 12 week group-based smoking cessation treatment with bupropion and nicotine patch with the quit date set at week 3. At week 12, participants were randomized to no further treatment or to 40 weeks of bupropion or placebo with or without an 11-session relapse prevention intervention of which 2 sessions (held at weeks 16 and 20) focused on PA. Participants receiving the PA intervention (n=163) received a pedometer, counseling to increase steps 10% biweekly towards a 10,000 steps/day goal, and personalized reports graphing progress with individualized goals. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire assessed weekly minutes of MVPA at baseline and weeks 12 and 24. Sustained abstinence from tobacco at week 24 was validated with expired carbon monoxide. Results In a repeated mixed model analysis, intervention participants significantly increased their MVPA relative to control participants, F(1,475)=3.95, p=.047. Pedometer step counts also increased significantly, t(23)=2.36, p=.027, though only 15% of intervention participants provided 6 weeks of pedometer monitoring. Controlling for treatment condition, increased MVPA predicted sustained smoking abstinence at week 24, odds ratio=1.84 (95% CI: 1.07, 3.05). Among participants with sustained abstinence, increased MVPA was associated with increased vigor (r=0.23, p=.025

  13. Making Sense of Abstinence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taverner, Bill; Montfort, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Young people need to know that abstinence is a far more complex, difficult concept than it is often portrayed. Abstinence is a decision about sexual behaviors that a person may make throughout his or her life. It is a choice made at a specific time in a specific situation, for a specific period of time, whether one is in a partnered relationship…

  14. Predictors of Smokeless Tobacco Abstinence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbert, Jon O.; Glover, Elbert D.; Shinozaki, Eri; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Dale, Lowell C.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate predictors of tobacco abstinence among smokeless tobacco (ST) users. Methods: Logistic regression analyses assessed characteristics associated with tobacco abstinence among ST users receiving bupropion SR. Results: Older age was associated with increased tobacco abstinence in both placebo and bupropion SR groups at end…

  15. A note on the use of the generalized odds ratio in meta-analysis of association studies involving bi- and tri-allelic polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The generalized odds ratio (GOR) was recently suggested as a genetic model-free measure for association studies. However, its properties were not extensively investigated. We used Monte Carlo simulations to investigate type-I error rates, power and bias in both effect size and between-study variance estimates of meta-analyses using the GOR as a summary effect, and compared these results to those obtained by usual approaches of model specification. We further applied the GOR in a real meta-analysis of three genome-wide association studies in Alzheimer's disease. Findings For bi-allelic polymorphisms, the GOR performs virtually identical to a standard multiplicative model of analysis (e.g. per-allele odds ratio) for variants acting multiplicatively, but augments slightly the power to detect variants with a dominant mode of action, while reducing the probability to detect recessive variants. Although there were differences among the GOR and usual approaches in terms of bias and type-I error rates, both simulation- and real data-based results provided little indication that these differences will be substantial in practice for meta-analyses involving bi-allelic polymorphisms. However, the use of the GOR may be slightly more powerful for the synthesis of data from tri-allelic variants, particularly when susceptibility alleles are less common in the populations (≤10%). This gain in power may depend on knowledge of the direction of the effects. Conclusions For the synthesis of data from bi-allelic variants, the GOR may be regarded as a multiplicative-like model of analysis. The use of the GOR may be slightly more powerful in the tri-allelic case, particularly when susceptibility alleles are less common in the populations. PMID:21645382

  16. A graphic display for the presentation of site-wise odds ratios for score transitions to augment the traditional findings from clinical studies employing dental indexes.

    PubMed

    Proskin, H M; Kleber, C J; Sharma, N C; Nelson, B J

    2001-07-01

    Many of the parameters used in clinical dental research involve the assessment of a condition at each of a number of sites within the mouth. Traditionally, such measurements are averaged over all sites within the mouth (or over all sites of a specified type) for each study participant before statistical analysis. However, a consideration of the original, site-wise scores may provide some additional insights into the performance of therapeutic modalities that might not be made evident through an application of the traditional, means-based approach. A method based on the calculation of site-wise odds ratios of certain types of baseline-to-final examination score transitions was applied to the modified gingival index data from two clinical studies performed to investigate the effect of the daily chewing of a commercially available chewing gum relative to a mint control. A graphical display of these site-specific findings was prepared, which indicated that the chewing gum regimen tended to be associated with a higher frequency of occurrence of favorable score transitions than was the mint control at several measurement sites throughout the mouth. PMID:11913305

  17. Reconstructing 2 X 2 Contingency Tables from Odds Ratios Using the Di Pietrantonj Method: Difficulties, Constraints and Impact in Meta-Analysis Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veroniki, Areti Angeliki; Pavlides, Marios; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A.; Salanti, Georgia

    2013-01-01

    A problem that is frequently encountered during the systematic review process is when studies that meet the inclusion criteria do not provide the appropriate numerical estimates to include in a meta-analysis. For dichotomous outcomes, a method has been suggested by Di Pietrantonj for reconstructing the 2 × 2 table when the Odds Ratio…

  18. Men's Understanding of and Experiences During the Postcircumcision Abstinence Period: Results From a Field Study of ShangRing Circumcision During Routine Clinical Services in Kenya and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Philip S.; Zulu, Robert; Awori, Quentin D.; Agot, Kawango; Combes, Stephanie; Simba, Raymond O.; Lee, Richard K.; Hart, Catherine; Lai, Jaim Jou; Zyambo, Zude; Goldstein, Marc; Feldblum, Paul J.; Sokal, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Men's understanding of counseling messages after voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) plays an important role in whether they follow them. Data on triggers for early resumption of sex may be useful as scale-up of VMMC for HIV prevention continues in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: Data on understanding of post-VMMC abstinence recommendations, resumption of sex, condom use, and triggers for resuming sex were collected from participants during a follow-up interview 35–42 days after ShangRing circumcision in Kenya and Zambia. Results: Of 1149 men who had ShangRing circumcision, 1096 (95.4%) completed follow-up. Nearly all (99.2%) reported being counseled to abstain from sex post-VMMC; among those, most (92.2%) recalled the recommended abstinence period was 6 weeks. Most men (94.1%) reported that the counselor gave reasons for post-VMMC abstinence and recalled appropriate reasons. Few (13.4%) men reported resuming sex at 35–42 days' follow-up. Among those, 54.8% reported never using a condom post-VMMC. Younger participants (odds ratio 0.3, 95% confidence interval: 0.2 to 0.5, P < 0.0001) and those reporting at least some condom use at baseline (odds ratio 0.5, 95% confidence interval: 0.3 to 0.7, P = 0.0003) were less likely to report resuming sex. Among men who reported some condom use, most (71.5%) said condoms were much easier or easier to use after circumcision. Men reported various reasons for early resumption of sex, primarily strong sexual desire (76.4%). Conclusions: Most men reported awareness of and adherence to the counseling recommendations for post-VMMC abstinence. A minority reported early resumption of sex, and, among those, condom use was low. Results could be used to improve post-VMMC counseling. PMID:27331585

  19. If at First You Don’t Succeed: Characterization of Smokers with Late Smoking Abstinence Onset

    PubMed Central

    Leyro, Teresa M.; Hendricks, Peter S.; Hall, Sharon M.

    2015-01-01

    Most cigarette smoking cessation research has aimed to clarify characteristics associated with initial and sustained abstinence, with less attention paid to predictors of gaining abstinence following an initial failure. The current investigation explored pre-treatment demographic, smoking, and psychiatric characteristics related to gaining abstinence among smokers who failed to attain initial abstinence. Participants were 809 individuals enrolled in extended, 52-week, smoking cessation interventions. Of these, 287 (62.4%) failed to achieve initial abstinence. Gaining abstinence following initial abstinence failure was defined as achieving seven-day point prevalent abstinence at any post-initial abstinence assessment. Compared to those who failed to achieved abstinence during treatment (Treatment Failures), those who gained abstinence (Gainers) were more likely to be abstinent at post-treatment follow-up assessments conducted at weeks 64 (χ2 (1, N=268)=56.3, p<.01) and 104 (χ2 (1, N=231)=37.0, p<.01). With regard to correlates of gaining abstinence, Gainers were more likely to have a live-in partner (χ2(1, N=283)=3.8, p=.05, Cramér’s V = .12), identify as Hispanic (χ2(1, N=281)=7.8, p<.01, Cramér’s V = .17), evidence lower baseline expired breath carbon monoxide (F(1, 284)=5.7, p=.02, η2 = .02), report less cigarette dependence (F(1, 278)=7.1, p<.01, η2=.03), and report past week cannabis use (χ2(1, N=284)=5.6, p=.02, Cramér’s V=.14). A logistic regression model suggested having a live-in partner (OR=5.14, 95% CI=1.09–3.02, p=.02) and identifying as Hispanic (OR=4.93, 95% CI=1.20–18.77, p=.03) increased the odds of gaining abstinence. These findings provide insight into an understudied area, contributing an initial framework toward understanding gaining abstinence following initial failure. PMID:25637886

  20. Smoking Abstinence, Eating Style, and Food Intake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Joanne; Hall, Sharon M.

    1988-01-01

    Administered the Eating Inventory and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) to smoking subjects assigned to cigarette abstinence or to continued smoking. Found abstinent smokers with high Disinhibition Scale scores overate more than did nonabstinent smokers or abstinent smokers with lower scores when participating in a subsequent ice cream tasting…

  1. Maintenance Sessions Prolong Cigarette Abstinence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, Thomas H.; And Others

    Recent smoking treatment programs have shifted emphasis from initial cessation rates to long-term abstinence, with aversion therapy and coping response training having had the most success. A smoking cessation treatment consisting of rapid smoking and behavioral counseling was supplemented with two maintenance treatments. After completing the…

  2. Aberrations Involving Chromosome 1 as a Possible Predictor of Odds Ratio for Colon Cancer - Results from the Krakow Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Galas, Aleksander; Miszczyk, Justyna

    2016-01-01

    Background There is still an open question how to predict colorectal cancer risk before any morphological changes appear in the colon. Objective The purpose was to investigate aberrations in chromosomes 1, 2 and 4 in peripheral blood lymphocytes analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization technique as a tool to assess the likelihood of colorectal cancer. Methods A hospital-based case-control study included 20 colon cancer patients and 18 hospital-based controls. Information about potential covariates was collected by interview. The frequency of stable and unstable chromosome aberrations in chromosome 1, 2 and 4 was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization technique. Results Colorectal cancer patients, as compared to controls, had a relatively higher frequency of chromosome 1 translocations (median: 3.5 versus 1.0 /1000 cells, p = 0.006), stable aberrations (3.8 versus 1.0 /1000 cells, p = 0.007) and total aberrations (p = 0.009). There were no differences observed for chromosomes 2 and 4. Our results showed an increase in the odds of having colon cancer by about 50–80% associated with an increase by 1/1000 cells in the number of chromosome 1 aberrations. Conclusions The results revealed that the frequency of chromosomal aberrations, especially translocations in chromosome 1, seems to be a promising method to show a colon cancer risk. Additionally, our study suggests the reasonableness of use of biomarkers such as chromosome 1 aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes in screening prevention programs for individuals at higher colon cancer risk to identify those who are at increased risk and require more frequent investigations, e.g. by sigmoidoscopy. PMID:26824604

  3. Associations between Sexual Abstinence Ideals, Religiosity, and Alcohol Abstinence: A Longitudinal Study of Finnish Twins

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Torsten; Karvonen, Sakari; Rose, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed prevalence and stability of attitudes endorsing sexual abstinence ideals from late adolescence into early adulthood and studied associations of these attitudes with religiosity and alcohol abstinence in a sexually liberal Nordic society. Our population-based sample of Finnish twins permitted comparisons of co-twins concordant for religiosity but discordant for drinking to evaluate the association of sexual abstinence ideals with alcohol abstinence, controlling for household environment. From age 17 to 24, endorsement of sexual abstinence as a romantic ideal declined from 25% to 15%. Religiosity and alcohol abstinence correlated, both separately and together, with endorsing sexual abstinence. Abstinence ideals were associated with literal belief in fundamental tenets of the Bible. The association of sexual abstinence ideals with alcohol abstinence was confirmed in within-family comparisons of co-twins discordant for drinking but concordant for religiosity. Alcohol-abstinent twins were significantly more likely than their non-alcohol-abstinent twin siblings to endorse sexual abstinence ideals; that result suggests the association of sexual abstinence ideals with abstaining from alcohol is not explained by unmeasured confounds in familial background and structure. Our longitudinal results and analyses of discordant twins suggest that attitudes toward sexual abstinence ideals are embedded within other conservative attitudes and behaviors. PMID:23301620

  4. Texas Abstinence Educators' Self-Efficacy to Motivate Youth Sexual Abstinence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasberry, Catherine N.; Goodson, Patricia; Buhi, Eric R.; Pruitt, B. E.; Wilson, Kelly; Suther, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Authors examined self-efficacy to motivate abstinent behavior (among youth) in a sample of instructors teaching abstinence-only-until-marriage education in Texas (N = 104). Sixty-one percent of the sample had been trained/certified to teach abstinence education. Instructors (mostly female and White) were more confident motivating students to…

  5. Abstinence-Only Debate Heating Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    President Bush's proposal to almost double the amount of money the federal government spends on abstinence education to $273 million in fiscal 2005 has raised the stakes in the battle over what to teach children and adolescents about sex. Only a small percentage of Americans believe abstinence-only programs are the best form of sex education for…

  6. Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Nathan A. S.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Madsen, Ian C.; Studer, Andrew J.; Manuel, James R.; Kimpton, Justin A.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of basicity, B (CaO:SiO2 ratio) on the thermal range, concentration, and formation mechanisms of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter bonding phases have been investigated using an in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction-based methodology with subsequent Rietveld refinement-based quantitative phase analysis. SFCA and SFCA-I phases are the key bonding materials in iron ore sinter, and improved understanding of the effects of processing parameters such as basicity on their formation and decomposition may assist in improving efficiency of industrial iron ore sintering operations. Increasing basicity significantly increased the thermal range of SFCA-I, from 1363 K to 1533 K (1090 °C to 1260 °C) for a mixture with B = 2.48, to ~1339 K to 1535 K (1066 °C to 1262 °C) for a mixture with B = 3.96, and to ~1323 K to 1593 K (1050 °C to 1320 °C) at B = 4.94. Increasing basicity also increased the amount of SFCA-I formed, from 18 wt pct for the mixture with B = 2.48 to 25 wt pct for the B = 4.94 mixture. Higher basicity of the starting sinter mixture will, therefore, increase the amount of SFCA-I, considered to be more desirable of the two phases. Basicity did not appear to significantly influence the formation mechanism of SFCA-I. It did, however, affect the formation mechanism of SFCA, with the decomposition of SFCA-I coinciding with the formation of a significant amount of additional SFCA in the B = 2.48 and 3.96 mixtures but only a minor amount in the highest basicity mixture. In situ neutron diffraction enabled characterization of the behavior of magnetite after melting of SFCA produced a magnetite plus melt phase assemblage.

  7. Differences between abstinent and non-abstinent individuals in recovery from alcohol use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina; Witbrodt, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Objective Non-abstinent goals can improve quality of life (QOL) among individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD). However, prior studies have defined “recovery” based on DSM criteria, and thus may have excluded individuals using non-abstinent techniques that do not involve reduced drinking. Furthermore, no prior study has considered length of time in recovery when comparing QOL between abstinent and non-abstinent individuals. The current aims are to identify correlates of non-abstinent recovery and examine differences in QOL between abstainers and non-abstainers accounting for length of time in recovery. Sample A large (N=5,380) national sample of individuals who self-describe as “in recovery” from alcohol problems recruited in the context of the What Is Recovery? (WIR) study. Method Multivariable stepwise regressions estimating the probability of non-abstinent recovery and average quality of life. Results Younger age (OR = 0.72), no prior treatment (OR = 0.63) or AA (OR = 0.32), fewer dependence symptoms (OR = 0.17) and less time in recovery all significantly (P < 0.05) related to non-abstinent recovery. Abstainers reported significantly (P < 0.05) higher QOL than non-abstainers (B = 0.39 for abstinence vs. non-abstinence), and abstinence was one of the strongest correlates of QOL, even beyond sociodemographics variables like education. Conclusions Non-abstainers are younger with less time in recovery and less problem severity but worse QOL than abstainers. Clinically, individuals considering non-abstinent goals should be aware that abstinence may be best for optimal QOL in the long run. Furthermore, time in recovery should be accounted for when examining correlates of recovery. PMID:25117850

  8. Against All Odds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2005-01-01

    More than a decade ago, no one held out much hope for the poor, immigrant children at Kennedy Middle School. Nobody thinks that now. This article presents how Kennedy Middle School transformed and beat all the odds to be a "school to watch." In many ways, Kennedy Middle School has become a model of middle-grades improvement. Test scores, though…

  9. Abstinence-Related Word Associations and Definitions of Abstinence and Virginity among Missouri High School Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kelly L.; Smith, Matthew Lee; Menn, Mindy

    2013-01-01

    Background: The ways in which adolescents define and view sex, abstinence, and virginity impact the efforts of sexuality educators and sexual health professionals. This study examined terminology used by nonsexually active high school students to define abstinence and virginity and identified words students associate with these terms. Purposes…

  10. Abstinence Self-Efficacy and Abstinence 1 Year After Substance Use Disorder Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilgen, Mark; McKellar, John; Tiet, Quyen

    2005-01-01

    To better understand the relationship between abstinence self-efficacy and treatment outcomes in substance use disorder patients, experts in the field need more information about the levels of abstinence self-efficacy most predictive of treatment outcomes. Participants (N = 2,967) from 15 residential substance use disorder treatment programs were…

  11. Abstinence-Conflict Model: Toward an Optimal Animal Model for Screening Medications Promoting Drug Abstinence.

    PubMed

    Peck, J A

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is a significant health and societal problem for which there is no highly effective long-term behavioral or pharmacological treatment. A rising concern are the use of illegal opiate drugs such as heroin and the misuse of legally available pain relievers that have led to serious deleterious health effects or even death. Therefore, treatment strategies that prolong opiate abstinence should be the primary focus of opiate treatment. Further, because the factors that support abstinence in humans and laboratory animals are similar, several animal models of abstinence and relapse have been developed. Here, we review a few animal models of abstinence and relapse and evaluate their validity and utility in addressing human behavior that leads to long-term drug abstinence. Then, a novel abstinence "conflict" model that more closely mimics human drug-seeking episodes by incorporating negative consequences for drug seeking (as are typical in humans, eg, incarceration and job loss) and while the drug remains readily available is discussed. Additionally, recent research investigating both cocaine and heroin seeking in rats using the animal conflict model is presented and the implications for heroin treatments are examined. Finally, it is argued that the use of animal abstinence/relapse models that more closely approximate human drug addiction, such as the abstinence-conflict model, could lead to a better understanding of the neurobiological and environmental factors that support long-term drug abstinence. In turn, this will lead to the development of more effective environmental and pharmacotherapeutic interventions to treat opiate addiction and addiction to other drugs of abuse. PMID:27055619

  12. Abstinence-Only Sex Education: College Students' Evaluations and Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the abstinence-only sex education experiences of a small group of young adults in the southeastern USA. Most participants felt that their abstinence-only sex education had mixed value and low overall impact in their lives. Perceptions about abstinence, virginity, and marriage varied significantly from those stressed…

  13. The Impact of Abstinence Education: What Does the Research Say?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael; Penhollow, Tina

    2006-01-01

    There has long been controversy in this country about the implementation of school-based sexuality education. In recent years, however, the controversy has centered on abstinence education. Critics of abstinence education programs seem to have three major concerns relative to abstinence education programming: (1) promotion of religion; (2)…

  14. Health Education Curriculum Content--Abstinence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    As a result of House Bill 1229, introduced and passed during the 2011 North Dakota legislative session, every school district, both public and nonpublic, must expand health education to include abstinence education, if teaching sexuality education as part of the general health curriculum. This fact sheet provides guidance for districts in meeting…

  15. A Test of the Abstinence Violation Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruderman, Audrey J.

    According to the abstinence violation effect, highly controlled drinkers tend to overindulge following an initial slip. To investigate this relapse model, 47 male college students, ranging in age from 21 to 46, were assigned either to an unrestrained or a restrained drinker group according to their scores on the Restrained Drinking Scale. Subjects…

  16. Is the Universe odd?

    SciTech Connect

    Land, Kate; Magueijo, Joao

    2005-11-15

    We investigate the point-parity and mirror-parity handedness of the large angle anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). In particular we consider whether the observed low CMB quadrupole could more generally signal odd point-parity, i.e., suppression of even multipoles. Even though this feature is 'visually' present in most renditions of the WMAP dataset we find that it never supports parity preference beyond the meagre 95% confidence level. This is fortunate as point-parity handedness implies almost certainly a high level of galactic contamination. Mirror reflection parity, on the contrary, is related to the emergence of a preferred axis, defining the symmetry plane. We use this technique to make contact with recent claims for an anisotropic Universe, showing that the detected preferred axis is associated with positive (even) mirror parity. This feature may be an important clue in identifying the culprit for this unexpected signal.

  17. The role of BMI change on smoking abstinence in a sample of HIV-infected smokers.

    PubMed

    Buchberg, Meredith K; Gritz, Ellen R; Kypriotakis, George; Arduino, Roberto C; Vidrine, Damon J

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of cigarette smoking among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is approximately 40%, significantly higher than that of the general population. Identifying predictors of successful smoking cessation for PLWHA is necessary to alleviate the morbidity and mortality associated with smoking in this population. Weight gain has been associated with smoking relapse in the general population, but has not been studied among PLWHA. Data from 474 PLWHA enrolled in a smoking cessation randomized clinical trial were analyzed to examine the effect of BMI change, from baseline to 3-month follow-up, on smoking outcomes using multiple logistic regression. The odds of 7-day smoking abstinence at 3-month follow-up were 4.22 (95% CI = 1.65, 10.82) times higher for participants classified as BMI decrease and 4.22 (95% CI = 1.62, 11.01) times higher for participants classified as BMI increase as compared to participants with a minimal increase or decrease in BMI. In this sample, both weight gain and loss following smoking cessation were significantly associated with abstinence at 3-month follow-up among HIV-infected smokers. Further research and a better understanding of predictors of abstinence will encourage more tailored interventions, with the potential to reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:26666313

  18. The role of BMI change on smoking abstinence in a sample of HIV-infected smokers.

    PubMed

    Buchberg, Meredith K; Gritz, Ellen R; Kypriotakis, George; Arduino, Roberto C; Vidrine, Damon J

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of cigarette smoking among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is approximately 40%, significantly higher than that of the general population. Identifying predictors of successful smoking cessation for PLWHA is necessary to alleviate the morbidity and mortality associated with smoking in this population. Weight gain has been associated with smoking relapse in the general population, but has not been studied among PLWHA. Data from 474 PLWHA enrolled in a smoking cessation randomized clinical trial were analyzed to examine the effect of BMI change, from baseline to 3-month follow-up, on smoking outcomes using multiple logistic regression. The odds of 7-day smoking abstinence at 3-month follow-up were 4.22 (95% CI = 1.65, 10.82) times higher for participants classified as BMI decrease and 4.22 (95% CI = 1.62, 11.01) times higher for participants classified as BMI increase as compared to participants with a minimal increase or decrease in BMI. In this sample, both weight gain and loss following smoking cessation were significantly associated with abstinence at 3-month follow-up among HIV-infected smokers. Further research and a better understanding of predictors of abstinence will encourage more tailored interventions, with the potential to reduce morbidity and mortality.

  19. Tilted axis rotation in odd-odd {sup 164}Tm

    SciTech Connect

    Reviol, W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Wang, X.Z.; Zhang, J.Y.

    1996-12-31

    Ten band structures are observed in {sup 164}Tm, among them sets of parallel and anti-parallel couplings of the proton and neutron spins. The Tilted Axis Cranking scheme is applied for the first time to an odd-odd nucleus in a prominent region of nuclear deformation.

  20. Morphine causes persistent induction of nitrated neurofilaments in cortex and subcortex even during abstinence.

    PubMed

    Pal, A; Das, S

    2015-04-16

    Morphine has a profound role in neurofilament (NF) expression. However, there are very few studies on the fate of NFs during morphine abstinence coinciding with periods of relapse. Mice were treated chronically with morphine to render them tolerant to and dependent on morphine and sacrificed thereafter while another group, treated similarly, was left for 2 months without morphine. A long-lasting alteration in the stoichiometric ratio of the three NFs was observed under both conditions in both the cortex and subcortex. Morphine abstinence caused significant alterations in the phosphorylated and nitrated forms of the three NF subunits. Nitrated neurofilament light polypeptide chain (NFL) was significantly increased during chronic morphine treatment which persisted even after 2 months of morphine withdrawal. Mass spectrometric analysis following two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE)-gel electrophoresis of cytoskeleton fractions of both cortex and subcortex regions identified enzymes associated with energy metabolism, cytoskeleton-associated proteins as well as NFs which showed sustained regulation even after abstinence of morphine for 2 months. It is suggestive that alteration in the levels of some of these proteins may be instrumental in the increased nitration of NFL during morphine exposure. Such gross alteration in NF dynamics is indicative of a concerted biological process of neuroadaptation during morphine abstinence.

  1. A Randomized Trial of Employment-Based Reinforcement of Cocaine Abstinence in Injection Drug Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Kenneth; Wong, Conrad J.; Needham, Mick; Diemer, Karly N.; Knealing, Todd; Crone-Todd, Darlene; Fingerhood, Michael; Nuzzo, Paul; Kolodner, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    High-magnitude and long-duration abstinence reinforcement can promote drug abstinence but can be difficult to finance. Employment may be a vehicle for arranging high-magnitude and long-duration abstinence reinforcement. This study determined if employment-based abstinence reinforcement could increase cocaine abstinence in adults who inject drugs…

  2. Neighborhood Vigilance, Health Locus of Control, and Smoking Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Lahoti, Sejal; Li, Yisheng; Cao, Yumei; Wetter, David W.; Waters, Andrew J.; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether health locus of control mediated relations of self-reported neighborhood vigilance and biochemically verified, continuous short-term smoking abstinence among 200 smokers enrolled in a cohort study. Methods A nonparametric bootstrapping procedure was used to assess mediation. Results Health locus of control-chance mediated relations between neighborhood vigilance and smoking abstinence in analyses adjusted for sociodemographics and tobacco dependence (p < .05). Greater vigilance was associated with greater attributions that health was affected by chance, which was associated with a lower likelihood of smoking abstinence. Conclusions Results suggest that neighborhood perceptions influence residents’ attributions for health outcomes, which can affect smoking abstinence. PMID:23985180

  3. Influence of abstinence and conditions of cocaine access on the reinforcing strength of cocaine in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Czoty, Paul W; Martelle, Jennifer L; Nader, Michael A

    2006-12-01

    The development of addiction is marked by a transition from recreational to uncontrolled drug use. Investigators modeling this phenomenon in rodents observed increases in cocaine self-administration when conditions of drug access were altered as well as after abstinence. The present studies were designed to extend this research to nonhuman primates by examining whether the reinforcing strength of cocaine could be altered by changing conditions of cocaine availability or by introducing abstinence periods. Rhesus monkeys self-administered cocaine (0.03-0.3 mg/kg per injection) under a progressive-ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement in evening sessions, with the number of injections earned serving as a measure of reinforcing strength. Alterations in the reinforcing strength of cocaine were assessed after additional access to cocaine under a fixed-ratio (FR) schedule was provided in morning sessions and following various periods of abstinence (3, 7 and 14 days) from regimens of self-administration that resulted in a range of cocaine intakes. Under baseline PR conditions, the maximum number of cocaine injections increased dose-dependently, peaking when 0.3 mg/kg per injection cocaine was available. No increases in the reinforcing strength of cocaine were observed under any condition. In contrast, a statistically significant decrease in the reinforcing strength of cocaine was observed following 14 days of abstinence under one condition. These results fail to support the views that increasing access to cocaine or abstinence enhances the reinforcing strength of cocaine. PMID:16730922

  4. Survey of odd-odd deformed nuclear spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.

    1993-09-14

    In this paper, we survey the current experimental data that support assignment of rotational bands in odd-odd deformed nuclear in the rare earth and actinide regions. We present the results of a new study of {sup 170}Mt nuclear structure. In a comparing experimental and calculated Gallagher-Moszkowski matrix elements for rare earth-region nuclei, we have developed a new approach to the systematics of these matrix elements.

  5. Factors Affecting Long-Term Abstinence from Substances Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsheikh, Salah Elgaily

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore the attitudes of abstainers from drug use that relate to the factors leading to long-term abstinence. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was carried out in Al-Amal Hospital to examine, which attitudes of abstainers related to long-term abstinence. A random survey was conducted on 62…

  6. Should We Be Teaching Sex Education or Sexual Abstinence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Del

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author examines the controversial issue whether to teach sex education or sexual abstinence. Sex education has always been fraught with controversy. The discord in Westbrook, Maine, school district is noteworthy because of the vocal support for an abstinence-only curriculum approach to sex education that has reshaped the…

  7. Evaluation of an Abstinence Based Intervention for Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rue, Lisa; Chandran, Raj; Pannu, Aman; Bruce, David; Singh, Rana; Traxler, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Outcomes associated with an abstinence education intervention were evaluated using a single group design with a 12-month longitudinal follow-up. The intervention group of adolescents ages 12-14 years (N = 427) were enrolled in an 11.5-hour abstinence education intervention offered during the school day. Significant differences were found in the…

  8. Citizenship Lessons in Abstinence-Only Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Jessica; Hirschman, Celeste

    2007-01-01

    We examine abstinence-only-until-marriage education as part of a broad effort to reassert the primacy of conventional (hetero) sexual norms. While all sexuality education offers students lessons in "good sexual citizenship," abstinence-only-until-marriage education reserves the rights and responsibilities of membership and belonging for those who…

  9. Smoking Cessation Abstinence Goal in Treatment-Seeking Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Sharon M.; Shi, Yanling; Humfleet, Gary L.; Munoz, Ricardo F.; Reus, Victor I.; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Baseline abstinence goal is a robust predictor of cigarette abstinence. However, important questions about goal remain unanswered. These include variables correlating with goal, changes in goal, the relationship of goal and abstinence status over time, and predictors of change. The current study aimed to address these questions. Method Participants were treatment-seeking volunteers in two clinical trials. In Clinical Trial 1 (N=402), participants smoked ≥10 cigarettes per day (CPD) and were ≥50 years of age. In Clinical Trial 2 (N=406), participants smoked ≥10 CPD, smoked within 30 minutes of arising, and were ≥18 years of age. The outcome variables were biochemically verified 7-day abstinence from cigarettes at weeks 12, 24, 52, and 104. Abstinence goal, demographic, psychological, and smoking related variables were assessed via standard instruments. Results At baseline, the greater the desire to quit and one’s expectations of success, and the lesser the educational level, the more likely participants were to have a quit forever goal. Throughout the two-year study, abstinence from cigarettes and a lower educational level were correlated with a goal of quit forever; 37% of participants changed goal. There were no predictors of goal change. Abstinence goal was related to abstinence status across the study period. Goal predicted abstinence status at subsequent assessments, even when status was controlled. Conclusion Lesser educational levels were consistent predictors of a more stringent goal. Abstinence goal changes over time. These findings suggest that repeated counseling about goal is advisable and participants would benefit from such counseling, independent of demographic characteristics and smoking status. PMID:25462664

  10. Modeling level structures of odd-odd deformed nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.; Kern, J.; Piepenbring, R.; Boisson, J.P.

    1985-01-15

    A technique for modeling quasiparticle excitation energies and rotational parameters in odd-odd deformed nuclei has been applied to actinide species where new experimental data have been obtained by use of neutron-capture gamma-ray spectroscopy. The input parameters required for the calculation were derived from empirical data on single-particle excitations in neighboring odd-mass nuclei. Calculated configuration-specific values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings were used. Calculated and experimental level structures for /sup 238/Np, /sup 244/Am, and /sup 250/Bk are compared, as well as those for several nuclei in the rare-earch region. The agreement for the actinide species is excellent, with bandhead energies deviating 22 keV and rotational parameters 5%, on the average. Corresponding average deviations for five rare-earth nuclei are 47 keV and 7%. Several applications of this modeling technique are discussed.

  11. Modeling level structures of odd-odd deformed nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.; Kern, J.; Piepenbring, R.; Boisson, J.P.

    1984-09-07

    A technique for modeling quasiparticle excitation energies and rotational parameters in odd-odd deformed nuclei has been applied to actinide species where new experimental data have been obtained by use of neutron-capture gamma-ray spectroscopy. The input parameters required for the calculation were derived from empirical data on single-particle excitations in neighboring odd-mass nuclei. Calculated configuration-specific values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings were used. Calculated and experimental level structures for /sup 238/Np, /sup 244/Am, and /sup 250/Bk are compared, as well as those for several nuclei in the rare-earth region. The agreement for the actinide species is excellent, with bandhead energies deviating 22 keV and rotational parameters 5%, on the average. Corresponding average deviations for five rare-earth nuclei are 47 keV and 7%. Several applications of this modeling technique are discussed. 18 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Nonadiabatic effects in odd-odd deformed proton emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Patial, M.; Jain, A. K.; Arumugam, P.; Maglione, E.; Ferreira, L. S.

    2011-11-30

    We present for the first time, the nonadiabatic quasiparticle approach to study proton emission from odd-odd deformed nuclei. Coriolis effects are incorporated in both the parent and daughter wavefunctions and hence our formalism allows us to study their complete role on the decay widths. First results obtained for the nucleus {sup 112}Cs suggest a weak dependance on Coriolis effect. However, we are able to reproduce the experimental half-lives without assuming the exact Nilsson orbital from which the decay proceeds.

  13. Stress, religiosity, and abstinence from alcohol.

    PubMed

    Krause, N

    1991-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a conceptual model that attempts to identify psychosocial factors associated with the avoidance of alcohol in later life. This model is based on the life stress literature. Although most researchers maintain that life events are associated with greater alcohol consumption, a basic premise of this study is that certain stressors may be related to abstinence from alcohol in later life. In examining this relationship, the effects of a potentially important coping resource (religiosity) were also considered. Findings from a nationwide survey suggest that although greater health problems are associated with a greater probability that elderly people will abstain from using alcohol, financial difficulties had the opposite effect and were instead related to a lesser probability that older adults would avoid drinking alcoholic beverages. Finally, gender and race were found to exert important effects throughout the model.

  14. Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: Essentials for the Practitioner

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Christine A.

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) has increased dramatically during the past 15 years, likely due to an increase in antepartum maternal opiate use. Optimal care of these patients is still controversial because of the available published literature lacking sufficient sample size, placebo control, and comparative pharmacologic trials. Primary treatment for NAS consists of opioid replacement therapy with either morphine or methadone. Paregoric and tincture of opium have been abandoned because of relative safety concerns. Buprenorphine is emerging as a treatment option with promising initial experience. Adjunctive agents should be considered for infants failing treatment with opioid monotherapy. Traditionally, phenobarbital has been used as adjunctive therapy; however, results of clonidine as adjunctive therapy for NAS appear to be beneficial. Future directions for research in NAS should include validating a simplified scoring tool, conducting comparative studies, exploring home management options, and optimizing management through pharmacogenomics. PMID:25309144

  15. Neonatal abstinence syndrome: essentials for the practitioner.

    PubMed

    Siu, Anita; Robinson, Christine A

    2014-07-01

    The incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) has increased dramatically during the past 15 years, likely due to an increase in antepartum maternal opiate use. Optimal care of these patients is still controversial because of the available published literature lacking sufficient sample size, placebo control, and comparative pharmacologic trials. Primary treatment for NAS consists of opioid replacement therapy with either morphine or methadone. Paregoric and tincture of opium have been abandoned because of relative safety concerns. Buprenorphine is emerging as a treatment option with promising initial experience. Adjunctive agents should be considered for infants failing treatment with opioid monotherapy. Traditionally, phenobarbital has been used as adjunctive therapy; however, results of clonidine as adjunctive therapy for NAS appear to be beneficial. Future directions for research in NAS should include validating a simplified scoring tool, conducting comparative studies, exploring home management options, and optimizing management through pharmacogenomics. PMID:25309144

  16. Drug Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Variation, Nicotine Metabolism, Prospective Abstinence, and Cigarette Consumption.

    PubMed

    Bergen, Andrew W; Michel, Martha; Nishita, Denise; Krasnow, Ruth; Javitz, Harold S; Conneely, Karen N; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Hops, Hyman; Zhu, Andy Z X; Baurley, James W; McClure, Jennifer B; Hall, Sharon M; Baker, Timothy B; Conti, David V; Benowitz, Neal L; Lerman, Caryn; Tyndale, Rachel F; Swan, Gary E

    2015-01-01

    The Nicotine Metabolite Ratio (NMR, ratio of trans-3'-hydroxycotinine and cotinine), has previously been associated with CYP2A6 activity, response to smoking cessation treatments, and cigarette consumption. We searched for drug metabolizing enzyme and transporter (DMET) gene variation associated with the NMR and prospective abstinence in 2,946 participants of laboratory studies of nicotine metabolism and of clinical trials of smoking cessation therapies. Stage I was a meta-analysis of the association of 507 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 173 DMET genes with the NMR in 449 participants of two laboratory studies. Nominally significant associations were identified in ten genes after adjustment for intragenic SNPs; CYP2A6 and two CYP2A6 SNPs attained experiment-wide significance adjusted for correlated SNPs (CYP2A6 PACT=4.1E-7, rs4803381 PACT=4.5E-5, rs1137115, PACT=1.2E-3). Stage II was mega-regression analyses of 10 DMET SNPs with pretreatment NMR and prospective abstinence in up to 2,497 participants from eight trials. rs4803381 and rs1137115 SNPs were associated with pretreatment NMR at genome-wide significance. In post-hoc analyses of CYP2A6 SNPs, we observed nominally significant association with: abstinence in one pharmacotherapy arm; cigarette consumption among all trial participants; and lung cancer in four case:control studies. CYP2A6 minor alleles were associated with reduced NMR, CPD, and lung cancer risk. We confirmed the major role that CYP2A6 plays in nicotine metabolism, and made novel findings with respect to genome-wide significance and associations with CPD, abstinence and lung cancer risk. Additional multivariate analyses with patient variables and genetic modeling will improve prediction of nicotine metabolism, disease risk and smoking cessation treatment prognosis. PMID:26132489

  17. Drug Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Variation, Nicotine Metabolism, Prospective Abstinence, and Cigarette Consumption.

    PubMed

    Bergen, Andrew W; Michel, Martha; Nishita, Denise; Krasnow, Ruth; Javitz, Harold S; Conneely, Karen N; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Hops, Hyman; Zhu, Andy Z X; Baurley, James W; McClure, Jennifer B; Hall, Sharon M; Baker, Timothy B; Conti, David V; Benowitz, Neal L; Lerman, Caryn; Tyndale, Rachel F; Swan, Gary E

    2015-01-01

    The Nicotine Metabolite Ratio (NMR, ratio of trans-3'-hydroxycotinine and cotinine), has previously been associated with CYP2A6 activity, response to smoking cessation treatments, and cigarette consumption. We searched for drug metabolizing enzyme and transporter (DMET) gene variation associated with the NMR and prospective abstinence in 2,946 participants of laboratory studies of nicotine metabolism and of clinical trials of smoking cessation therapies. Stage I was a meta-analysis of the association of 507 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 173 DMET genes with the NMR in 449 participants of two laboratory studies. Nominally significant associations were identified in ten genes after adjustment for intragenic SNPs; CYP2A6 and two CYP2A6 SNPs attained experiment-wide significance adjusted for correlated SNPs (CYP2A6 PACT=4.1E-7, rs4803381 PACT=4.5E-5, rs1137115, PACT=1.2E-3). Stage II was mega-regression analyses of 10 DMET SNPs with pretreatment NMR and prospective abstinence in up to 2,497 participants from eight trials. rs4803381 and rs1137115 SNPs were associated with pretreatment NMR at genome-wide significance. In post-hoc analyses of CYP2A6 SNPs, we observed nominally significant association with: abstinence in one pharmacotherapy arm; cigarette consumption among all trial participants; and lung cancer in four case:control studies. CYP2A6 minor alleles were associated with reduced NMR, CPD, and lung cancer risk. We confirmed the major role that CYP2A6 plays in nicotine metabolism, and made novel findings with respect to genome-wide significance and associations with CPD, abstinence and lung cancer risk. Additional multivariate analyses with patient variables and genetic modeling will improve prediction of nicotine metabolism, disease risk and smoking cessation treatment prognosis.

  18. Drug Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Variation, Nicotine Metabolism, Prospective Abstinence, and Cigarette Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Bergen, Andrew W.; Michel, Martha; Nishita, Denise; Krasnow, Ruth; Javitz, Harold S.; Conneely, Karen N.; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N.; Hops, Hyman; Zhu, Andy Z. X.; Baurley, James W.; McClure, Jennifer B.; Hall, Sharon M.; Baker, Timothy B.; Conti, David V.; Benowitz, Neal L.; Lerman, Caryn; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Swan, Gary E.

    2015-01-01

    The Nicotine Metabolite Ratio (NMR, ratio of trans-3’-hydroxycotinine and cotinine), has previously been associated with CYP2A6 activity, response to smoking cessation treatments, and cigarette consumption. We searched for drug metabolizing enzyme and transporter (DMET) gene variation associated with the NMR and prospective abstinence in 2,946 participants of laboratory studies of nicotine metabolism and of clinical trials of smoking cessation therapies. Stage I was a meta-analysis of the association of 507 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 173 DMET genes with the NMR in 449 participants of two laboratory studies. Nominally significant associations were identified in ten genes after adjustment for intragenic SNPs; CYP2A6 and two CYP2A6 SNPs attained experiment-wide significance adjusted for correlated SNPs (CYP2A6 PACT=4.1E-7, rs4803381 PACT=4.5E-5, rs1137115, PACT=1.2E-3). Stage II was mega-regression analyses of 10 DMET SNPs with pretreatment NMR and prospective abstinence in up to 2,497 participants from eight trials. rs4803381 and rs1137115 SNPs were associated with pretreatment NMR at genome-wide significance. In post-hoc analyses of CYP2A6 SNPs, we observed nominally significant association with: abstinence in one pharmacotherapy arm; cigarette consumption among all trial participants; and lung cancer in four case:control studies. CYP2A6 minor alleles were associated with reduced NMR, CPD, and lung cancer risk. We confirmed the major role that CYP2A6 plays in nicotine metabolism, and made novel findings with respect to genome-wide significance and associations with CPD, abstinence and lung cancer risk. Additional multivariate analyses with patient variables and genetic modeling will improve prediction of nicotine metabolism, disease risk and smoking cessation treatment prognosis. PMID:26132489

  19. Investigating Group Contingencies to Promote Brief Abstinence from Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, Steven E.; Dallery, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    In contingency management (CM), monetary incentives are contingent on evidence of drug abstinence. Typically, incentives (e.g., “vouchers” exchangeable for goods or services) are contingent on individual performance. We programmed vouchers contingent on group performance to investigate whether these contingencies would promote brief abstinence from cigarette smoking. Thirty-two participants were divided into small teams (n = 3 per team). During three 5-day within-subject experimental conditions, participants submitted video recordings of breath carbon monoxide (CO) measures twice daily via Mōtiv8 Systems™, an Internet-based remote monitoring application. During the interdependent contingency condition, participants earned vouchers each time they and their teammates submitted breath CO samples indicative of abstinence (i.e., negative samples). During the independent contingency condition, participants earned vouchers each time they submitted negative samples, regardless of their teammates' performance. During the no vouchers condition, no monetary incentives were contingent on abstinence. In addition, half of the participants (n = 16) could communicate with their teammates through an online peer support forum. Although forum access did not appear to promote smoking abstinence, monetary incentives did promote brief abstinence. Significantly more negative samples were submitted when vouchers were contingent on individual performance (56%) or team performance (53%) relative to when no vouchers were available (35%; F = 6.9, p = 0.002). The results show that interdependent contingencies can promote brief abstinence from cigarette smoking. Moreover, the results suggest that these contingencies may help lower treatment costs and promote social support. PMID:23421358

  20. ESTIMATES OF PRENATAL ABSTINENCE FROM ALCOHOL: A MATTER OF PERSPECTIVE

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Grace; McNamara, Tay K.; Wilkins-Haug, Louise; Orav, E. John

    2007-01-01

    Abstinence from alcohol has been recommended for both pregnant and pre-conceptional women. The purpose of this study is to compare self and partner reports of abstinence from alcohol in a sample of 253 pregnant women who were T-ACE (Tolerance, Annoy, Cut-down, Eye-opener) alcohol screen positive. Dyads’ reports of the women’s abstinence from alcohol before, during, and after pregnancy were compared. Based on their own self-report, less than 20% of the pregnant women were abstinent in their first trimester and about half were abstinent for the rest of their pregnancy. Partners significantly over-estimated the women’s abstinence from alcohol at all points except in the post-partum period when the dyad had the highest rate of agreement (85.4%). Reasons for the discrepancies in the self and partner reports of prenatal abstinence, and how partners might influence such behavior remain speculative, but identify areas for future research and prevention. PMID:17187936

  1. Exposure to and Views of Information about Sexual Abstinence among Older Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rachel K.; Biddlecom, Ann E.

    2011-01-01

    There is scant research of adolescents' understanding of abstinence. We conducted interviews with a sample of 58 teens to find out their exposure to abstinence information from a range of sources. Most teens had received abstinence information or messages from school, family members, and friends. For many teens, information about abstinence, or…

  2. Reflection asymmetry in odd-A and odd-odd actinium nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.

    1993-09-01

    Theoretical calculations and measurements indicate that octupole correlations are at a maximum in the ground states of the odd-proton nuclei Ac and Pa. It has been expected that odd-odd nuclei should have even larger amount of octupole-octupole correlations. We have recently made measurements on the structure of {sup 224}Ac. Although spin and parity assignments could not be made, two bands starting at 354.1 and 360.0 keV have properties characteristic of reflection asymmetric shape. These two bands have very similar rotational constants and also similar alpha decay rates, which suggest similarity between the wavefunctions of these bands. These signatures provide evidence for octupole correlations in these nuclides.

  3. On Quantizable Odd Lie Bialgebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoroshkin, Anton; Merkulov, Sergei; Willwacher, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Motivated by the obstruction to the deformation quantization of Poisson structures in infinite dimensions, we introduce the notion of a quantizable odd Lie bialgebra. The main result of the paper is a construction of the highly non-trivial minimal resolution of the properad governing such Lie bialgebras, and its link with the theory of so-called quantizable Poisson structures.

  4. Mismatch Negativity and P50 Sensory Gating in Abstinent Former Cannabis Users

    PubMed Central

    Broyd, Samantha J.; Greenwood, Lisa-marie; van Hell, Hendrika H.; Croft, Rodney J.; Coyle, Hannah; Lee-Bates, Ben; Todd, Juanita; Johnstone, Stuart J.; Michie, Patricia T.; Solowij, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged heavy exposure to cannabis is associated with impaired cognition and brain functional and structural alterations. We recently reported attenuated mismatch negativity (MMN) and altered P50 sensory gating in chronic cannabis users. This study investigated the extent of brain functional recovery (indexed by MMN and P50) in chronic users after cessation of use. Eighteen ex-users (median 13.5 years prior regular use; median 3.5 years abstinence) and 18 nonusers completed (1) a multifeature oddball task with duration, frequency, and intensity deviants and (2) a P50 paired-click paradigm. Trend level smaller duration MMN amplitude and larger P50 ratios (indicative of poorer sensory gating) were observed in ex-users compared to controls. Poorer P50 gating correlated with prior duration of cannabis use. Duration of abstinence was positively correlated with duration MMN amplitude, even after controlling for age and duration of cannabis use. Impaired sensory gating and attenuated MMN amplitude tended to persist in ex-users after prolonged cessation of use, suggesting a lack of full recovery. An association with prolonged duration of prior cannabis use may indicate persistent cannabis-related alterations to P50 sensory gating. Greater reductions in MMN amplitude with increasing abstinence (positive correlation) may be related to either self-medication or an accelerated aging process. PMID:27019754

  5. Mismatch Negativity and P50 Sensory Gating in Abstinent Former Cannabis Users.

    PubMed

    Broyd, Samantha J; Greenwood, Lisa-marie; van Hell, Hendrika H; Croft, Rodney J; Coyle, Hannah; Lee-Bates, Ben; Todd, Juanita; Johnstone, Stuart J; Michie, Patricia T; Solowij, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged heavy exposure to cannabis is associated with impaired cognition and brain functional and structural alterations. We recently reported attenuated mismatch negativity (MMN) and altered P50 sensory gating in chronic cannabis users. This study investigated the extent of brain functional recovery (indexed by MMN and P50) in chronic users after cessation of use. Eighteen ex-users (median 13.5 years prior regular use; median 3.5 years abstinence) and 18 nonusers completed (1) a multifeature oddball task with duration, frequency, and intensity deviants and (2) a P50 paired-click paradigm. Trend level smaller duration MMN amplitude and larger P50 ratios (indicative of poorer sensory gating) were observed in ex-users compared to controls. Poorer P50 gating correlated with prior duration of cannabis use. Duration of abstinence was positively correlated with duration MMN amplitude, even after controlling for age and duration of cannabis use. Impaired sensory gating and attenuated MMN amplitude tended to persist in ex-users after prolonged cessation of use, suggesting a lack of full recovery. An association with prolonged duration of prior cannabis use may indicate persistent cannabis-related alterations to P50 sensory gating. Greater reductions in MMN amplitude with increasing abstinence (positive correlation) may be related to either self-medication or an accelerated aging process. PMID:27019754

  6. Relationship between intravenous use and achieving initial cocaine abstinence.

    PubMed

    Budney, A J; Higgins, S T; Bickel, W; Kent, L

    1993-04-01

    This study assessed whether route of cocaine administration (intravenous vs. intranasal) influences cocaine abstinence during the first 6 weeks of outpatient treatment. Fifty-nine persons received behavioral treatment or standard drug counselling in an outpatient clinic. Based on information collected at intake, intravenous users had fewer years of education, were employed in less skilled jobs, were less likely to be married, reported more negative consequences from cocaine use, reported using more cocaine per occasion and spent more money on cocaine per week than intranasal users. Intravenous and intranasal users did not differ significantly in the average duration of continuous cocaine abstinence (mean = 2.6 vs. mean = 3.3 weeks achieved during 6 weeks of treatment). The duration of abstinence between intravenous and intranasal users was equal in the behavioral treatment (mean = 4.2). In standard treatment the average duration was less among intravenous than intranasal users (mean = 0.9 vs. mean = 2.4), but that difference did not achieve statistical significance. Hepatitis and employment instability were associated with shorter periods of cocaine abstinence among intravenous users, whereas employment instability, lower job skill level, drug use severity and reports of memory loss were associated with shorter periods of cocaine abstinence among intranasal users. These results indicate that i.v. cocaine users can achieve a period of initial abstinence in an outpatient setting comparable to the duration of typical inpatient hospitalizations, although special types of outpatient treatment may be necessary to obtain a positive outcome.

  7. Cognitive functions in abstinent alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Kopera, Maciej; Wojnar, Marcin; Brower, Kirk; Glass, Jennifer; Nowosad, Izabela; Gmaj, Bartłomiej; Szelenberger, Waldemar

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to compare cognitive functioning of abstaining alcohol-dependent (AD) male patients and healthy controls as well as to investigate whether their cognitive performance varied by abstinence length. Forty-two maintaining abstinent (AD) patients and 34 healthy controls were examined. Tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess cognitive functions. Differences in cognitive performance were found between AD patients and healthy controls. Nonverbal tasks in cognitive domains such as attention, visual memory and working memory were impaired in AD patients who presented deficits in visual episodic memory, had slower reaction time and reduced working memory span. Patients who were abstinent for less than one year made more errors in both attentional set shifting and working memory tests than healthy controls and patients with longer durations of abstinence. Impairments identified in multiple cognitive domains in abstinent alcohol-dependent subjects suggest functional deficits in extensive brain networks connecting interrelated brain structures. Attentional control and spatial working memory were less impaired in those AD patients who maintained abstinence for at least one year.

  8. Relationship between intravenous use and achieving initial cocaine abstinence.

    PubMed

    Budney, A J; Higgins, S T; Bickel, W; Kent, L

    1993-04-01

    This study assessed whether route of cocaine administration (intravenous vs. intranasal) influences cocaine abstinence during the first 6 weeks of outpatient treatment. Fifty-nine persons received behavioral treatment or standard drug counselling in an outpatient clinic. Based on information collected at intake, intravenous users had fewer years of education, were employed in less skilled jobs, were less likely to be married, reported more negative consequences from cocaine use, reported using more cocaine per occasion and spent more money on cocaine per week than intranasal users. Intravenous and intranasal users did not differ significantly in the average duration of continuous cocaine abstinence (mean = 2.6 vs. mean = 3.3 weeks achieved during 6 weeks of treatment). The duration of abstinence between intravenous and intranasal users was equal in the behavioral treatment (mean = 4.2). In standard treatment the average duration was less among intravenous than intranasal users (mean = 0.9 vs. mean = 2.4), but that difference did not achieve statistical significance. Hepatitis and employment instability were associated with shorter periods of cocaine abstinence among intravenous users, whereas employment instability, lower job skill level, drug use severity and reports of memory loss were associated with shorter periods of cocaine abstinence among intranasal users. These results indicate that i.v. cocaine users can achieve a period of initial abstinence in an outpatient setting comparable to the duration of typical inpatient hospitalizations, although special types of outpatient treatment may be necessary to obtain a positive outcome. PMID:8508724

  9. Characterizing Smoking and Drinking Abstinence from Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Tamersoy, Acar; De Choudhury, Munmun; Chau, Duen Horng

    2015-01-01

    Social media has been established to bear signals relating to health and well-being states. In this paper, we investigate the potential of social media in characterizing and understanding abstinence from tobacco or alcohol use. While the link between behavior and addiction has been explored in psychology literature, the lack of longitudinal self-reported data on long-term abstinence has challenged addiction research. We leverage the activity spanning almost eight years on two prominent communities on Reddit: StopSmoking and StopDrinking. We use the self-reported “badge” information of nearly a thousand users as gold standard information on their abstinence status to characterize long-term abstinence. We build supervised learning based statistical models that use the linguistic features of the content shared by the users as well as the network structure of their social interactions. Our findings indicate that long-term abstinence from smoking or drinking (~one year) can be distinguished from short-term abstinence (~40 days) with 85% accuracy. We further show that language and interaction on social media offer powerful cues towards characterizing these addiction-related health outcomes. We discuss the implications of our findings in social media and health research, and in the role of social media as a platform for positive behavior change and therapy. PMID:26640831

  10. The abstinence violation effect in child molesters.

    PubMed

    Ward, T; Hudson, S M; Marshall, W L

    1994-05-01

    The reformulation of the abstinence violation effect (AVE) is briefly described together with the empirical support for the construct. Twenty-six incarcerated male child molesters were assessed, using the Differential Emotions Scale and the Attributional Dimension Scale, at three points (high-risk, lapse, and relapse) while they listened to an audiotaped recording of a description of their most typical offense chain. Eighteen Ss experienced an AVE at the point of relapse and 7 as a result of lapse. There were significant increases in most negative emotions and decreases in interest over the relapse chain. There were significantly higher disgust, contempt, hostility, fear, shame, shyness and anger scores reported by those showing an AVE. Conversely, the AVE group showed significantly lower scores for joy and surprise. There were no significant differences on any of the 4 attributional dimensions across the relapse process but those showing an AVE reported significantly more uncontrollability and higher stability scores. The significance of these results for clinical practice are discussed.

  11. Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: Presentation and Treatment Considerations.

    PubMed

    Kaltenbach, Karol; Jones, Hendree E

    2016-01-01

    The increase in opioid use among the general population is reflected in pregnant women and neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) statistics. This increase has produced an unprecedented focus on NAS from both the political-judicial sphere and the medical community. Under the banner of fetal protection, judges and prosecutors have implemented punitive approaches against women who use prescribed and nonprescribed opioids during pregnancy, including arrest, civil commitment, detention, prosecution, and loss of custody or termination of parental rights. Within the medical community, questions have been raised regarding protocols to detect prenatal drug exposure at delivery, NAS treatment protocols, the need for quality-improvement strategies to standardize care and reduce length of stay for mother and infant, and the benefits of engaging the mother in the care of her infant. It is not uncommon for the expression of strong discordant views on these issues both between and among these political-judicial and medical constituencies. Closely examining the issues often reveal a lack of understanding of substance use disorders, their treatment, and the occurrence and treatment of NAS. This study provides an in-depth examination of NAS, including variations in presentation and factors that impact the efficacy of treatment, and also identifying questions that remain unanswered. Finally, 4 key areas on which future research should focus to guide both medical care and public policy are discussed. PMID:26974659

  12. Modafinil and nicotine interactions in abstinent smokers.

    PubMed

    Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Waters, Andrew J; Mooney, Marc

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of a wakefulness-promoting medication, modafinil, alone and with the nicotine lozenge, on subjective, physiological and cognitive measures as well as on nicotine withdrawal in overnight abstinent cigarette smokers. Nineteen smokers, 13 male and 6 female, participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. In each of three experimental sessions, subjects were treated orally with a single 200 mg or 400 mg dose of modafinil or placebo. Two hours and 10 min following the medication treatment, subjects received a single 2 mg nicotine lozenge. Both doses of modafinil alone increased the rating of elated-depressed on the Profile of Mood States (POMS) subscale in the direction of depressed and increased ratings of negative affect on the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). In contrast, the 200 mg modafinil dose combined with a 2 mg nicotine lozenge, increased the rating of energetic-tired in the direction of energetic on the POMS subscale. Modafinil attenuated self-reported rating of 'drug strength' in response to the nicotine lozenge. Modafinil, alone or in combination with the nicotine lozenge, did not affect tobacco withdrawal symptoms. There was an increase in baseline heart rate and systolic blood pressure under modafinil treatment. In addition, modafinil speeded reaction times on a modified Stroop task. The clinical utility of modafinil for smoking cessation needs to be determined in future studies. PMID:17868195

  13. Odd nitrogen production by meteoroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, C.; Menees, G. P.

    1978-01-01

    The process by which odd nitrogen species (atomic nitrogen and nitric oxide) are formed during atmospheric entry of meteoroids is analyzed theoretically. An ablating meteoroid is assumed to be a point source of mass with a continuum regime evolving in its wake. The amounts of odd nitrogen species, produced by high-temperature reactions of air in the continuum wake, are calculated by numerical integration of chemical rate equations. Flow properties are assumed to be uniform across the wake, and 29 reactions involving five neutral species and five singly ionized species are considered, as well as vibrational and electron temperature nonequilibrium phenomena. The results, when they are summed over the observed mass, velocity, and entry-angle distribution of meteoroids, provide odd-nitrogen-species annual global production rates as functions of altitude. The peak production of nitric oxide is found to occur at an altitude of about 85 km; atomic nitrogen production peaks at about 95 km. The total annual rate for nitric oxide is 40 million kg; for atomic nitrogen it is 170 million kg.

  14. Implementation of Cognitive-Behavioral Substance Abuse Treatment in Sub-Saharan Africa: Treatment Engagement and Abstinence at Treatment Exit

    PubMed Central

    Burnhams, Warren; Remmert, Jocelyn E.; Myers, Bronwyn; Joska, John A.; Carrico, Adam W.

    2016-01-01

    Aims This study documented the treatment cascade for engagement in care and abstinence at treatment exit as well as examined correlates of these outcomes for the first certified Matrix Model® substance abuse treatment site in Sub-Saharan Africa. Design This retrospective chart review conducted at a resource-limited community clinic in Cape Town, South Africa, assessed treatment readiness and substance use severity at treatment entry as correlates of the number of sessions attended and biologically confirmed abstinence at treatment exit among 986 clients who initiated treatment from 2009–2014. Sociodemographic and clinical correlates of treatment outcomes were examined using logistic regression, modeling treatment completion and abstinence at treatment exit separately. Results Of the 2,233 clients who completed screening, approximately 44% (n = 986) initiated treatment. Among those who initiated treatment, 45% completed at least four group sessions, 30% completed early recovery skills training (i.e., at least eight group sessions), and 13% completed the full 16-week program. Approximately half (54%) of clients who provided a urine sample had negative urine toxicology results for any substance at treatment exit. Higher motivation at treatment entry was independently associated with greater odds of treatment completion and negative urine toxicology results at treatment exit. Conclusions Findings provide initial support for the successful implementation the Matrix Model in a resource-limited setting. Motivational enhancement interventions could support treatment initiation, promote sustained engagement in treatment, and achieve better treatment outcomes. PMID:26816208

  15. Intolerance for Smoking Abstinence Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties and Relationship to Tobacco Dependence and Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Sirota, Alan D.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; MacKinnon, Selene V.; Martin, Rosemarie A.; Eaton, Cheryl A.; Kaplan, Gary B.; Monti, Peter M.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Swift, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    While smokers’ ability to tolerate emotional or physical distress has been associated with length of smoking cessation, there is no measure of ability to tolerate smoking abstinence discomfort specifically, which may be more heuristic than a measure of tolerance of general emotional stress or physical discomfort. Methods Questionnaires completed by 300 smokers assessed inability to tolerate smoking abstinence discomfort (IDQ-S), general physical discomfort (IDQ-P), and general emotional discomfort (IDQ-E), so that shared variance among these measures could be assessed. Results The IDQ-S has three reliable components: Withdrawal Intolerance, Lack of Cognitive Coping, and Pain Intolerance. The 14-item IDQ-P and 9-item IDQ-E each consist of one reliable component. Intercorrelations suggest only modest shared variance. Support for construct and discriminant validity was seen. Two scales of the IDQ-S showed excellent convergent validity, correlating with smoking use, dependence, motivation, and length of past smoking cessation, while IDQ-P and IDQ-E correlated with few indices of use or dependence and not with smoking cessation. Conclusions The final 17-item IDQ-S with two scales is reliable and valid, and more heuristic than measures of general physical or emotional discomfort intolerance as a correlate of motivation and past success with smoking cessation. PMID:20381260

  16. Sugar-dependent rats show enhanced responding for sugar after abstinence: evidence of a sugar deprivation effect.

    PubMed

    Avena, Nicole M; Long, Kristin A; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2005-03-16

    Studies have shown that intermittent sugar availability (12 h/day) produces signs of dependence in rats, including escalation of intake, mu-opioid and dopamine receptor changes, behavioral and neurochemical indices of withdrawal, and cross-sensitization with amphetamine. "Deprivation-effect" paradigms, whereby abstinence from a substance results in enhanced intake, are often used to measure "craving" for drugs of abuse, such as alcohol. The present study used operant conditioning to investigate consumption of sugar after abstinence in rats selected for glucose avidity. The experimental group was trained on a fixed ratio (FR-1) schedule for 25% glucose for 30 min/day for 28 days and also had glucose access in the home cages for an additional 11.5 h daily. The control group had only the 30-min/day access to glucose in the operant chambers. Then, both groups were deprived of glucose for 2 weeks. After this period of abstinence, animals were put back in the operant chambers. The experimental group responded significantly more than ever before, and significantly more than the control group. In conclusion, daily 12-h access to sugar, in the paradigm used, can result in an altered neural state that lasts throughout 2 weeks of abstinence, leading to enhanced intake. Together with previous results, this deprivation effect supports the theory that animals may become dependent on sugar under selected dietary circumstances.

  17. Dopamine transporter dysfunction in Han Chinese people with chronic methamphetamine dependence after a short-term abstinence.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jie; Lv, Rongbin; Robert Brašić, James; Han, Mei; Liu, Xingdang; Wang, Yuankai; Zhang, Guangming; Liu, Congjin; Li, Yu; Deng, Yanping

    2014-01-30

    Single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT) after the administration of (99m)Tc-TRODAT-1 was performed on healthy subjects and subjects with methamphetamine (METH)dependence at time 1 (T1) after 24-48 h of abstinence, time 2 (T2) after 2 weeks of abstinence, and time 3 (T3) after 4 weeks of abstinence. In contrast to values in controls, the values of the striatal DAT specific uptake ratios (SURs) in subjects with METH dependence were significantly lower at T1 (n=25), T2 (n=9), and T3 (n=8); a mild increase in SURs was observed at T2 and T3, but values were still significantly lower than those in controls. In subjects with METH dependence, there was a trend for a negative correlation of striatal DAT SURs and craving for METH at T1. METH craving, anxiety and depression scores significantly decreased from T1 to T2 to T3. We conclude that Han Chinese people with METH dependence experience significant striatal DAT dysfunction, and that these changes may be mildly reversible after 4 weeks of abstinence, but that DAT levels still remain significantly lower than those in healthy subjects. The mild recovery of striatal DAT may parallel improvements in craving, anxiety and depression.

  18. Level structures in odd-odd deformed nucleus 184Ta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowrishankar, R.; Sood, P. C.

    2016-02-01

    A detailed low-energy level scheme of the odd-odd n-rich nucleus 184 73Ta111 is constructed using the well tested Two-Quasiparticle Rotor Model (TQRM) for calculating the bandhead energies of physically admissible 2qp configurations with the inclusion of residual n-p interaction contribution. The presently available data on this level scheme from 184Hf decay are shown to be in agreement with these calculations. Our analysis concludes that 184Hf ( Q_{β}=1340(30) keV) decay admits of 7 additional (to the 3 presently reported) β-branches to 184Ta with J = 0 or 1 and 8 more physically admissible weak ( 1fu β-branches populating J^{π}=2- levels in 184Ta. Further, a close examination of our level scheme clearly indicates the existence of a low-lying ( Ex = 260(40) keV) high-spin ( J^{π}=10-) long-lived isomer in this nucleus.

  19. Tobacco Withdrawal Symptoms Mediate Motivation to Reinstate Smoking During Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, Claudia; Madrid, Jillian; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2015-01-01

    Withdrawal-based theories of addiction hypothesize that motivation to reinstate drug use following acute abstinence is mediated by withdrawal symptoms. Experimental tests of this hypothesis in the tobacco literature are scant and may be subject to methodological limitations. This study utilized a robust within-subject laboratory experimental design to investigate the extent to which composite tobacco withdrawal symptomatology level and three unique withdrawal components (i.e., low positive affect, negative affect, and urge to smoke) mediated the effect of smoking abstinence on motivation to reinstate smoking. Smokers (10≥cig/day; N=286) attended two counterbalanced sessions at which abstinence duration was differentially manipulated (1-hour vs. 17-hours). At both sessions, participants reported current withdrawal symptoms and subsequently completed a task in which they were monetarily rewarded proportional to the length of time they delayed initiating smoking, with shorter latency reflecting stronger motivation to reinstate smoking. Abstinence reduced latency to smoking initiation and positive affect and increased composite withdrawal symptom level, urge, and negative affect. Abstinence-induced reductions in latency to initiating smoking were mediated by each withdrawal component, with stronger effects operating through urge. Combined analyses suggested that urge, negative affect, and low positive affect operate through empirically-unique mediational pathways. Secondary analyses suggested similar effects on smoking quantity, few differences among specific urge and affect subtypes, and that dependence amplifies some abstinence effects. This study provides the first experimental evidence that within-person variation in abstinence impacts motivation to reinstate drug use through withdrawal. Urge, negative affect, and low positive affect may reflect unique withdrawal-mediated mechanisms underlying tobacco addiction. PMID:25961814

  20. Tobacco withdrawal symptoms mediate motivation to reinstate smoking during abstinence.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Claudia G; Madrid, Jillian; Leventhal, Adam M

    2015-08-01

    Withdrawal-based theories of addiction hypothesize that motivation to reinstate drug use following acute abstinence is mediated by withdrawal symptoms. Experimental tests of this hypothesis in the tobacco literature are scant and may be subject to methodological limitations. This study utilized a robust within-subject laboratory experimental design to investigate the extent to which composite tobacco withdrawal symptomatology level and 3 unique withdrawal components (i.e., low positive affect, negative affect, and urge to smoke) mediated the effect of smoking abstinence on motivation to reinstate smoking. Smokers (≥10 cigarettes per day; N = 286) attended 2 counterbalanced sessions at which abstinence duration was differentially manipulated (1 hr vs. 17 hr). At both sessions, participants reported current withdrawal symptoms and subsequently completed a task in which they were monetarily rewarded proportional to the length of time they delayed initiating smoking, with shorter latency reflecting stronger motivation to reinstate smoking. Abstinence reduced latency to smoking initiation and positive affect and increased composite withdrawal symptom level, urge, and negative affect. Abstinence-induced reductions in latency to initiating smoking were mediated by each withdrawal component, with stronger effects operating through urge. Combined analyses suggested that urge, negative affect, and low positive affect operate through empirically unique mediational pathways. Secondary analyses suggested similar effects on smoking quantity, few differences among specific urge and affect subtypes, and that dependence amplifies some abstinence effects. This study provides the first experimental evidence that within-person variation in abstinence impacts motivation to reinstate drug use through withdrawal. Urge, negative affect, and low positive affect may reflect unique withdrawal-mediated mechanisms underlying tobacco addiction.

  1. Sex Differences in Time Perception During Smoking Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Kable, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Nicotine withdrawal leads to impulsive decision-making, which reflects a preference for smaller, immediate rewards and often prompts a relapse to smoking. The mechanism by which nicotine withdrawal leads to impulsive decision-making is not well known. An essential dimension of decision-making is time perception. Impulsive decisions reflect intolerance of temporal delays and the perception that time is passing more slowly. Sex may be an important factor in impulsive decision-making and time perception, but no studies have investigated whether sex moderates the effects of nicotine withdrawal on impulsive decision-making and time perception. Methods: Thirty-three (12 female) adult smokers completed 2 laboratory sessions: following 24-hr abstinence and once smoking-as-usual (order counterbalanced, abstinence biochemically verified). Participants completed 2 time perception tasks, a decision-making task, and self-report measures of craving, withdrawal, and mood. Results: During time reproduction, males overestimated time during abstinence compared to smoking, whereas there was no session effect for females. On the time discrimination task, smokers were less accurate during abstinence, and this effect tended to be stronger among females. In general, males had higher discounting rates compared with females, but there was no effect of abstinence. Conclusions: The current data suggest that the effect of abstinence on time perception may be stronger in males and that males generally exhibit steeper delay discounting rates. Time perception may be an important mechanism in smoking abstinence. Our future work will investigate the role of time perception in smoking relapse and whether this is moderated by sex. PMID:25762755

  2. Food addiction: detox and abstinence reinterpreted?

    PubMed

    Shriner, Richard L

    2013-10-01

    The senior patient and/or the geriatrician are confronted with a confusing literature describing how patients interested in combating metabolic syndrome, diabesity (diabetes plus obesity) or simple obesity might best proceed. The present paper gives a brief outline of the basic disease processes that underlie metabolic pro-inflammation, including how one might go about devising the most potent and practical detoxification from such metabolic compromise. The role that dietary restriction plays in pro-inflammatory detoxification (detox), including how a modified fast (selective food abstinence) is incorporated into this process, is developed. The unique aspects of geriatric bariatric medicine are elucidated, including the concepts of sarcopenia and the obesity paradox. Important caveats involving the senior seeking weight loss are offered. By the end of the paper, the reader will have a greater appreciation for the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead for geriatric patients who wish to overcome food addiction and reverse pro-inflammatory states of ill-heath. This includes the toxic metabolic processes that create obesity complicated by type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) which collectively we call diabesity. In that regard, diabesity is often the central pathology that leads to the evolution of the metabolic syndrome. The paper also affords the reader a solid review of the neurometabolic processes that effectuate anorexigenic versus orexigenic inputs to obesity that drive food addiction. We argue that these processes lead to either weight gain or weight loss by a tripartite system involving metabolic, addictive and relational levels of organismal functioning. Recalibrating the way we negotiate these three levels of daily functioning often determines success or failure in terms of overcoming metabolic syndrome and food addiction.

  3. Food addiction: detox and abstinence reinterpreted?

    PubMed

    Shriner, Richard L

    2013-10-01

    The senior patient and/or the geriatrician are confronted with a confusing literature describing how patients interested in combating metabolic syndrome, diabesity (diabetes plus obesity) or simple obesity might best proceed. The present paper gives a brief outline of the basic disease processes that underlie metabolic pro-inflammation, including how one might go about devising the most potent and practical detoxification from such metabolic compromise. The role that dietary restriction plays in pro-inflammatory detoxification (detox), including how a modified fast (selective food abstinence) is incorporated into this process, is developed. The unique aspects of geriatric bariatric medicine are elucidated, including the concepts of sarcopenia and the obesity paradox. Important caveats involving the senior seeking weight loss are offered. By the end of the paper, the reader will have a greater appreciation for the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead for geriatric patients who wish to overcome food addiction and reverse pro-inflammatory states of ill-heath. This includes the toxic metabolic processes that create obesity complicated by type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) which collectively we call diabesity. In that regard, diabesity is often the central pathology that leads to the evolution of the metabolic syndrome. The paper also affords the reader a solid review of the neurometabolic processes that effectuate anorexigenic versus orexigenic inputs to obesity that drive food addiction. We argue that these processes lead to either weight gain or weight loss by a tripartite system involving metabolic, addictive and relational levels of organismal functioning. Recalibrating the way we negotiate these three levels of daily functioning often determines success or failure in terms of overcoming metabolic syndrome and food addiction. PMID:23267844

  4. Response inhibition and addiction medicine: from use to abstinence.

    PubMed

    Spechler, Philip A; Chaarani, Bader; Hudson, Kelsey E; Potter, Alexandra; Foxe, John J; Garavan, Hugh

    2016-01-01

    Historically, neuroscientific research into addiction has emphasized affective and reinforcement mechanisms as the essential elements underlying the pursuit of drugs, their abuse, and difficulties associated with abstinence. However, research over the last decade or so has shown that cognitive control systems, associated largely but not exclusively with the frontal lobes, are also important contributors to drug use behaviors. Here, we focus on inhibitory control and its contribution to both current use and abstinence. A body of evidence points to impaired inhibitory abilities across a range of drugs of abuse. Typically, studies suggest that substance-abusing individuals are characterized by relative hypoactivity in brain systems underlying inhibitory control. In contrast, abstinent users tend to show either normal or supernormal levels of activity in the same systems attesting to the importance of inhibitory control in suppressing the drug use urges that plague attempts at abstinence. In this chapter, the brain and behavioral basis of response inhibition will be reviewed, with a focus on neuroimaging studies of response inhibition in current and abstinent drug abusers. PMID:26806775

  5. Risky Car Following in Abstinent Users of MDMA

    PubMed Central

    Dastrup, Elizabeth; Lees, Monica; Bechara, Antoine; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Rizzo, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Ecstasy (MDMA) use raises concerns because of its association with risky driving. We evaluated driving performance and risk taking in abstinent recreational MDMA users in a simulated car following task that required continuous attention and vigilance. Drivers were asked to follow two car lengths behind a lead vehicle (LV). Three sinusoids generated unpredictable LV velocity changes. Drivers could mitigate risk by following further behind the erratic LV. From vehicle trajectory data we performed a Fourier analysis to derive measures of coherence, gain, and delay. These measures and headway distance were compared between the different groups. All MDMA drivers met coherence criteria indicating cooperation in the car following task. They matched periodic changes in LV velocity similar to controls (abstinent THC users, abstinent alcohol users, and non-drug users), militating against worse vigilance. While all participants traveled approximately 55mph (89kph), the MDMA drivers followed 64m closer to the LV and demonstrated 1.04s shorter delays to LV velocity changes than other driver groups. The simulated car following task safely discriminated between driving behavior in abstinent MDMA users and controls. Abstinent MDMA users do not perform worse than controls, but may assume extra risk. The control theory framework used in this study revealed behaviors that might not otherwise be evident. PMID:20380914

  6. Risky car following in abstinent users of MDMA.

    PubMed

    Dastrup, Elizabeth; Lees, Monica N; Bechara, Antoine; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Rizzo, Matthew

    2010-05-01

    Ecstasy (MDMA) use raises concerns because of its association with risky driving. We evaluated driving performance and risk taking in abstinent recreational MDMA users in a simulated car following task that required continuous attention and vigilance. Drivers were asked to follow two car lengths behind a lead vehicle (LV). Three sinusoids generated unpredictable LV velocity changes. Drivers could mitigate risk by following further behind the erratic LV. From vehicle trajectory data we performed a Fourier analysis to derive measures of coherence, gain, and delay. These measures and headway distance were compared between the different groups. All MDMA drivers met coherence criteria indicating cooperation in the car following task. They matched periodic changes in LV velocity similar to controls (abstinent THC users, abstinent alcohol users, and non-drug users), militating against worse vigilance. While all participants traveled approximately 55 mph (89 kph), the MDMA drivers followed 64 m closer to the LV and demonstrated 1.04 s shorter delays to LV velocity changes than other driver groups. The simulated car following task safely discriminated between driving behavior in abstinent MDMA users and controls. Abstinent MDMA users do not perform worse than controls, but may assume extra risk. The control theory framework used in this study revealed behaviors that might not otherwise be evident.

  7. Chiral Bands in Odd-Odd Triaxially Deformed Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starosta, K.

    2001-10-01

    In rotational bands built on high-j single-particle orbitals in odd-odd nuclei having triaxial shapes, the angular momenta of the valence proton, the valence neutron, and the collective rotation tend to align along the perpendicular axes of the triaxial core. This occurs when the Fermi level is low within the proton (neutron) subshell, but high within the neutron (proton) subshell resulting in their angular momenta oriented along the short and long axes, respectively. The core angular momentum is oriented along the intermediate axis because it has the largest moment of inertia according to the model of irrotational flow. These three mutually perpendicular vectors can be arranged to form two systems which differ by intrinsic chirality, a left- and a right-handed system; the two systems cannot be transformed into each other by rotation or space inversion, but are related by an operator, which involves time reversal. Chirality resulting from orthogonal coupling of angular momenta is unique to rotational bands in atomic nuclei since these are the only systems where a significant part of the total spin results from single-particle contributions. In relation to time reversal, chirality is a novel example of spontaneous symmetry breaking, on the same level as octupole deformation in relation to space inversion. The main experimental fingerprint of chirality in nuclear rotation is the doubling of states in rotational bands. Δ I=1 doublet-band structures with remarkably similar experimental characteristics, recently observed for N=75 and N=73 isotones in the A ~130 region, have been interpreted as chiral-band partners built on the πh_11/2νh_11/2 configuration. Additional transition rate information is being investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The description of the chiral partner bands based on the microscopic Tilted Axis Cranking approach in the intrinsic, body-fixed reference frame and phenomenological core-particle coupling in the laboratory reference

  8. Effects of smoking abstinence on smoking-reinforced responding, withdrawal, and cognition in adults with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    English, Joseph S.; Roley, Michelle E.; O’Brien, Benjamin; Blair, Justin; Lane, Scott D.; McClernon, F. Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have a more difficult time quitting smoking compared to their non-ADHD peers. Little is known about the underlying behavioral mechanisms associated with this increased risk. Objectives This study aims to assess the effects of 24-h smoking abstinence in adult smokers with and without ADHD on the following outcomes: smoking-reinforced responding, withdrawal, and cognitive function. Methods Thirty-three (n=16 with ADHD, 17 without ADHD) adult smokers (more than or equal to ten cigarettes/day) were enrolled. Each participant completed two experimental sessions: one following smoking as usual and one following biochemically verified 24-h smoking abstinence. Smoking-reinforced responding measured via a progressive ratio task, smoking withdrawal measured via questionnaire, and cognition measured via a continuous performance test (CPT) were assessed at each session. Results Smoking abstinence robustly increased responding for cigarette puffs in both groups, and ADHD smokers responded more for puffs regardless of condition. Males in both groups worked more for cigarette puffs and made more commission errors on the CPT than females, regardless of condition. Smoking abstinence also increased ratings of withdrawal symptoms in both groups and smokers with ADHD, regardless of condition, reported greater symptoms of arousal, habit withdrawal, and somatic complaints. Across groups, smoking abstinence decreased inhibitory control and increased reaction time variability on the CPT. Abstinence-induced changes in inhibitory control and negative affect significantly predicted smoking-reinforced responding across groups. Conclusions Smokers with ADHD reported higher levels of withdrawal symptoms and worked more for cigarette puffs, regardless of condition, which could help explain higher levels of nicotine dependence and poorer cessation outcomes in this population. Abstinence-induced changes in smoking

  9. Postpartum smoking abstinence and smoke-free environments.

    PubMed

    Ashford, Kristin; Hahn, Ellen; Hall, Lynne; Peden, Ann R; Rayens, Mary Kay

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to describe factors that contribute to successful postpartum smoking abstinence among women who quit smoking during pregnancy. Research questions addressed the primary motivators and lifestyle characteristics of women who do not return to postpartum smoking. Participants were recruited from a feasibility study (N = 16) based on their ability to remain smoke free for at least 6 months following delivery. Individual interviews were analyzed using content analysis strategies. Women's narratives described the process of postpartum smoking abstinence. Four themes emerged: (a) child's health as the primary motivator, (b) demanding a smoke-free home or environment, (c) smoking perception changes from one of primarily comfort to one of disgust, and (d) viewing abstinence as a lifelong change. Clinical implications include educating families about the effects of smoke-free environments on the health of their children while redirecting smoking habits with healthy behaviors.

  10. Employment-based abstinence reinforcement promotes opiate and cocaine abstinence in out-of-treatment injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Holtyn, August F; Koffarnus, Mikhail N; DeFulio, Anthony; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O; Strain, Eric C; Schwartz, Robert P; Silverman, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    We examined the use of employment-based abstinence reinforcement in out-of-treatment injection drug users, in this secondary analysis of a previously reported trial. Participants (N = 33) could work in the therapeutic workplace, a model employment-based program for drug addiction, for 30 weeks and could earn approximately $10 per hr. During a 4-week induction, participants only had to work to earn pay. After induction, access to the workplace was contingent on enrollment in methadone treatment. After participants met the methadone contingency for 3 weeks, they had to provide opiate-negative urine samples to maintain maximum pay. After participants met those contingencies for 3 weeks, they had to provide opiate- and cocaine-negative urine samples to maintain maximum pay. The percentage of drug-negative urine samples remained stable until the abstinence reinforcement contingency for each drug was applied. The percentage of opiate- and cocaine-negative urine samples increased abruptly and significantly after the opiate- and cocaine-abstinence contingencies, respectively, were applied. These results demonstrate that the sequential administration of employment-based abstinence reinforcement can increase opiate and cocaine abstinence among out-of-treatment injection drug users.

  11. Employment-based abstinence reinforcement promotes opiate and cocaine abstinence in out-of-treatment injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Holtyn, August F; Koffarnus, Mikhail N; DeFulio, Anthony; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O; Strain, Eric C; Schwartz, Robert P; Silverman, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    We examined the use of employment-based abstinence reinforcement in out-of-treatment injection drug users, in this secondary analysis of a previously reported trial. Participants (N = 33) could work in the therapeutic workplace, a model employment-based program for drug addiction, for 30 weeks and could earn approximately $10 per hr. During a 4-week induction, participants only had to work to earn pay. After induction, access to the workplace was contingent on enrollment in methadone treatment. After participants met the methadone contingency for 3 weeks, they had to provide opiate-negative urine samples to maintain maximum pay. After participants met those contingencies for 3 weeks, they had to provide opiate- and cocaine-negative urine samples to maintain maximum pay. The percentage of drug-negative urine samples remained stable until the abstinence reinforcement contingency for each drug was applied. The percentage of opiate- and cocaine-negative urine samples increased abruptly and significantly after the opiate- and cocaine-abstinence contingencies, respectively, were applied. These results demonstrate that the sequential administration of employment-based abstinence reinforcement can increase opiate and cocaine abstinence among out-of-treatment injection drug users. PMID:25292399

  12. Paths to tobacco abstinence: A repeated measures latent class analysis

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Danielle E.; Ebssa, Lemma; Witkiewitz, Katie; Shiffman, Saul

    2015-01-01

    Objective Knowledge of smoking change processes may be enhanced by identifying pathways to stable abstinence. We sought to identify latent classes of smokers based on their day-to-day smoking status in the first weeks of a cessation attempt. We examined treatment effects on class membership and compared classes on baseline individual differences and 6-month abstinence rates. Method In this secondary analysis of a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial (N=1433) of 5 smoking cessation pharmacotherapies (nicotine patch, nicotine lozenge, bupropion SR, patch and lozenge, or bupropion SR and lozenge), we conducted repeated measures latent class analysis of daily smoking status (any smoking vs. none) for the first 27 days of a quit attempt. Treatment and covariate relations with latent class membership were examined. Distal outcome analysis compared confirmed 6-month abstinence rates among the latent classes. Results A 5-class solution was selected. Three-quarters of smokers were in stable smoking or abstinent classes, but 25% were in classes with unstable abstinence probabilities over time. Active treatment (compared to placebo), and particularly the patch and lozenge combination, promoted early quitting. Latent classes differed in 6-month abstinence rates and on several baseline variables, including nicotine dependence, quitting history, self-efficacy, sleep disturbance, and minority status. Conclusions Repeated measures latent class analysis identified latent classes of smoking change patterns affected by treatment, related to known risk factors, and predictive of distal outcomes. Tracking behavior early in a change attempt may identify prognostic patterns of change and facilitate adaptive treatment planning. PMID:25867447

  13. Glutamatergic Neurometabolites during Early Abstinence from Chronic Methamphetamine Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Marc C.; Hudkins, Matthew; London, Edythe D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The acute phase of abstinence from methamphetamine abuse is critical for rehabilitation success. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy has detected below-normal levels of glutamate+glutamine in anterior middle cingulate of chronic methamphetamine abusers during early abstinence, attributed to abstinence-induced downregulation of the glutamatergic systems in the brain. This study further explored this phenomenon. Methods: We measured glutamate+glutamine in additional cortical regions (midline posterior cingulate, midline precuneus, and bilateral inferior frontal cortex) putatively affected by methamphetamine. We examined the relationship between glutamate+glutamine in each region with duration of methamphetamine abuse as well as the depressive symptoms of early abstinence. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging was acquired at 1.5 T from a methamphetamine group of 44 adults who had chronically abused methamphetamine and a control group of 23 age-, sex-, and tobacco smoking-matched healthy volunteers. Participants in the methamphetamine group were studied as inpatients during the first week of abstinence from the drug and were not receiving treatment. Results: In the methamphetamine group, small but significant (5–15%, P<.05) decrements (vs control) in glutamate+glutamine were observed in posterior cingulate, precuneus, and right inferior frontal cortex; glutamate+glutamine in posterior cingulate was negatively correlated (P<.05) with years of methamphetamine abuse. The Beck Depression Inventory score was negatively correlated (P<.005) with glutamate+glutamine in right inferior frontal cortex. Conclusions: Our findings support the idea that glutamatergic metabolism is downregulated in early abstinence in multiple cortical regions. The extent of downregulation may vary with length of abuse and may be associated with severity of depressive symptoms emergent in early recovery. PMID:25522400

  14. PROGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY IN THE ABSTINENCE FROM OPIATE ADDICTION

    PubMed Central

    Satija, D.C.; Sharma, D.K.; Gaur, Arun; Nathawat, S.S.

    1989-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of the present study was to find out the influence of psychopathology on abstinence from opiate addiction. A group of 54 opiate addicts with psychopathology was compared with another group of 55 opiate addicts without psychopathology. Both the groups were detoxified and followed up for a period of 12 months. Common psychopathology in opiate addicts consisted of psychopathic personality disorder, manic depressive psychosis, schizophrenia and psychosomatic and neurotic disorders. Abstinence rate was 18.8% in opiate addicts with psychopathology in contrast to 60.8% in addicts without psychopathology. The implications of the findings have been discussed. PMID:21927375

  15. Use of prior odds for missing persons identifications.

    PubMed

    Budowle, Bruce; Ge, Jianye; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Gill-King, Harrell

    2011-06-27

    Identification of missing persons from mass disasters is based on evaluation of a number of variables and observations regarding the combination of features derived from these variables. DNA typing now is playing a more prominent role in the identification of human remains, and particularly so for highly decomposed and fragmented remains. The strength of genetic associations, by either direct or kinship analyses, is often quantified by calculating a likelihood ratio. The likelihood ratio can be multiplied by prior odds based on nongenetic evidence to calculate the posterior odds, that is, by applying Bayes' Theorem, to arrive at a probability of identity. For the identification of human remains, the path creating the set and intersection of variables that contribute to the prior odds needs to be appreciated and well defined. Other than considering the total number of missing persons, the forensic DNA community has been silent on specifying the elements of prior odds computations. The variables include the number of missing individuals, eyewitness accounts, anthropological features, demographics and other identifying characteristics. The assumptions, supporting data and reasoning that are used to establish a prior probability that will be combined with the genetic data need to be considered and justified. Otherwise, data may be unintentionally or intentionally manipulated to achieve a probability of identity that cannot be supported and can thus misrepresent the uncertainty with associations. The forensic DNA community needs to develop guidelines for objectively computing prior odds.

  16. General parity-odd CMB bispectrum estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, Maresuke; Liguori, Michele; Fergusson, James R. E-mail: michele.liguori@pd.infn.it

    2014-05-01

    We develop a methodology for estimating parity-odd bispectra in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This is achieved through the extension of the original separable modal methodology to parity-odd bispectrum domains (ℓ{sub 1}+ℓ{sub 2}+ℓ{sub 3} = odd). Through numerical tests of the parity-odd modal decomposition with some theoretical bispectrum templates, we verify that the parity-odd modal methodology can successfully reproduce the CMB bispectrum, without numerical instabilities. We also present simulated non-Gaussian maps produced by modal-decomposed parity-odd bispectra, and show the consistency with the exact results. Our new methodology is applicable to all types of parity-odd temperature and polarization bispectra.

  17. Abstinence Programs Don't Work, Largest Study to Date Concludes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freking, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on a study conducted by Mathematica Policy Research Inc. of students in four abstinence programs, as well as peers from the same communities who did not participate in the abstinence programs. A federally mandated report said that students who participated in sexual-abstinence education programs partially funded by the federal…

  18. Odds of observing the multiverse

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlen, A.

    2010-03-15

    Eternal inflation predicts that our observable universe lies within a bubble (or pocket universe) embedded in a volume of inflating space. The interior of the bubble undergoes inflation and standard cosmology, while the bubble walls expand outward and collide with other neighboring bubbles. The collisions provide either an opportunity to make a direct observation of the multiverse or, if they produce unacceptable anisotropy, a threat to inflationary theory. The probability of an observer in our bubble detecting the effects of collisions has an absolute upper bound set by the odds of being in the part of our bubble that lies in the forward light cone of a collision; in the case of collisions with bubbles of identical vacua, this bound is given by the bubble nucleation rate times (H{sub O}/H{sub I}){sup 2}, where H{sub O} is the Hubble scale outside the bubbles and H{sub I} is the scale of the second round of inflation that occurs inside our bubble. Similar results were obtained by Freigovel et al. using a different method for the case of collisions with bubbles of much larger cosmological constant; here, it is shown to hold in the case of collisions with identical bubbles as well.

  19. Abstinence, Social Norms, and Drink Responsibly Messages: A Comparison Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassman, Tavis J.; Kruger, Jessica Sloan; Deakins, Bethany A.; Paprzycki, Peter; Blavos, Alexis A.; Hutzelman, Erin N.; Diehr, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine which type of prevention message (abstinence, social norms, or responsible drinking) was most effective at reducing alcohol consumption. Participants: The subjects from this study included 194 college students from a public university. Methods: Researchers employed a quasi-experimental design,…

  20. Attributions for Abstinence from Illicit Drugs by University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Harold; Baylen, Chelsea; Murray, Shanna; Phillips, Kristina; Tisak, Marie S.; Versland, Amelia; Pristas, Erica

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To assess college students' attributions for abstinence from alcohol and illicit drugs. Method: We recruited 125 undergraduates to rate the degree to which each of 41 listed reasons influenced their abstention from six specific substances (alcohol, MDMA/ecstasy, inhalants, cocaine, marijuana, and hallucinogens). Findings: Internal consistency…

  1. Smoking topography and abstinence in adult female smokers.

    PubMed

    McClure, Erin A; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Carpenter, Matthew J; Gray, Kevin M

    2013-12-01

    Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e., smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers.

  2. Smoking topography and abstinence in adult female smokers

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Erin A.; Saladin, Michael E.; Baker, Nathaniel L.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Gray, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e. smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated, but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad-libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4 weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers. PMID:24018226

  3. Opioid Abstinence Reinforcement Delays Heroin Lapse during Buprenorphine Dose Tapering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwald, Mark K.

    2008-01-01

    A positive reinforcement contingency increased opioid abstinence during outpatient dose tapering (4, 2, then 0 mg/day during Weeks 1 through 3) in non-treatment-seeking heroin-dependent volunteers who had been maintained on buprenorphine (8 mg/day) during an inpatient research protocol. The control group (n = 12) received $4.00 for completing…

  4. Internet-based group contingency management to promote smoking abstinence.

    PubMed

    Dallery, Jesse; Meredith, Steven; Jarvis, Brantley; Nuzzo, Paul A

    2015-06-01

    Internet-based group contingencies have been shown to promote brief periods of abstinence from cigarette smoking. Under a group contingency, small teams of smokers must collectively meet abstinence goals to receive monetary consequences. The present study investigated 2 arrangements, 1 in which all team members had to meet group treatment goals to receive monetary consequences (full group), and 1 in which team members had to meet some group goals and some individual goals to receive these consequences (mixed group). Mo̅tiv8 Systems, an Internet-based remote monitoring platform, was used to collect video-recorded breath carbon monoxide (CO) samples. All team members could communicate with each other via an online discussion forum. During baseline conditions, only 3.3% of CO samples were negative for smoking, which suggests that self-monitoring and access to the online discussion forum were insufficient to initiate abstinence. When the group contingencies were instituted 41.3% of CO samples were negative. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 arrangements in the percentage of negative CO samples or point prevalence at the end of treatment or at the 3-month follow-up. Participants posted an average of 25 comments on the discussion forum, most of which were rated as positive by independent observers. The mean cost of vouchers per participant was lower in the full group ($33) relative to the mixed group ($190). The present results replicate and extend previous findings on group contingencies to promote abstinence and social support.

  5. Alcoholic abstinence in elderly subjects with misuse of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Menecier, Pascal; Verny, Marc; Fernandez, Lydia; Ploton, Louis

    2016-06-01

    Alcohol use disorder does not disappear with aging, neither the associated induced-suffering. While the prevalence of alcohol use disorder still remains around 10% in the subjects over 65 year old age, and daily encountered by hospital or nursing-home caregivers. Alcohol misuse is often overlooked in elderly people, which then obtain lesser care than younger adults although the care prognosis remains as good as or better than before the age of 65, alcoholic abstinence gets always a place among care offers to elders suffering of alcohol use disorders and dependence. However abstinence is a complex notion gathering various representations or meanings, and induces necessary psychological changes. Alcoholic abstinence seems thus to be feared by families or caregivers, because of lack of knowledge about the addictive dimension of the disorder. On behalf of ultimate freedom, and allowing a last pleasure, alcohol use disorders and its associated suffering can be neglected because abstinence is considered as aggressive and harmful. However, modalities of reduction of alcohol consumption as well as access control or regulated supply of alcoholic beverages, keep having a place in graduate care offers. Beyond the choice of decreasing or suppress drinking alcohol beverages, which only are terms or conditions of improvement, the main point remains the improvement of well-fare, quality of life and elders' health. PMID:27277151

  6. Sexually Abstinent Adolescents: An 18-Month Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blinn-Pike, Lynn; Berger, Thomas J.; Hewett, John; Oleson, Jacob

    2004-01-01

    This study was a longitudinal follow-up of 697 early adolescents from 20 schools in Missouri, investigating students who, in 1997, indicated on a survey of sexual attitudes and behaviors that they had not had sexual intercourse. They completed the Reasons for Abstinence Scale (RAS) by identifying those items that were reasons why they had not had…

  7. Smokers' expectancies for abstinence: preliminary results from focus groups.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Peter S; Wood, Sabrina B; Hall, Sharon M

    2009-06-01

    Smokers' expectancies regarding the effects of cigarette use are powerful predictors of smoking motivation and behavior. However, studies have not investigated the consequences that smokers expect when they attempt to quit smoking: abstinence-related expectancies. The primary goal of this qualitative study was to gain initial insight into smokers' expectancies for abstinence. Eight focus groups were conducted with 30 smokers diverse with respect to age, gender, and ethnoracial background. Content analyses indicated that smokers anticipate a variety of outcomes from abstinence. The most frequently reported expectancies included pharmacologic withdrawal symptoms, behavioral withdrawal symptoms, decreased monetary expense, and immediate improvement of certain aspects of physical functioning and health. Additional expectancies concerned weight gain, improved attractiveness, enhanced social functioning/self-esteem, long-term health outcomes, and loss of relationships. Finally, a number of relatively unheralded expectancies were revealed. These involved nicotine replacement therapy effectiveness, alcohol and other drug use, cue reactivity, cessation-related social support, aversion to smoking, and "political process" implications. This study provides a preliminary step in understanding smokers' expectancies for abstinence from cigarettes. PMID:19586157

  8. Adolescent Heavy Episodic Drinking: Neurocognitive Functioning during Early Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Winward, Jennifer L.; Hanson, Karen L.; Bekman, Nicole M.; Tapert, Susan F.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The present study investigated the rate and pattern of neuropsychological recovery in heavy episodic drinking teens during the initial days to weeks of abstinence from alcohol. Method Adolescents (ages 16–18) with histories of heavy episodic drinking (HED; N=39) and socio-demographically similar control teens (CON; N=26) were recruited from San Diego area schools. HED and CON were comparable on 5th grade standardized math and language arts test performance to ensure similar functioning prior to onset of substance use. Participants were administered three neuropsychological test batteries with 2-week intervals during a 4-week monitored abstinence period. Results HED teens performed worse overall than CON on tests of prospective memory (p=.005), cognitive switching (p=.039), inhibition task accuracy (p=.001), verbal memory (p's<.045), visuospatial construction (p’s<.043), and language and achievement (p’s<.008). The statistically significant group × time interaction for block design demonstrated normalization within the four weeks of abstinence for the HED (p=.009). Discussion This study identified cognitive performance deficits associated with heavy episodic drinking in adolescence during early abstinence and with sustained 4-week abstention. These findings suggest alcohol-related influences on several underlying brain systems that may predate the onset of alcohol abuse or dependence or take longer than four weeks to recover. PMID:24512674

  9. "Sex Respect": Abstinence Education and Other Deployments for Sexual "Freedom"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Liz

    2006-01-01

    Those who view the right to a religiously neutral, empirically-based public education as fundamental have been able to do little more than watch in terror as abstinence-only sex education, which excludes information on either safe sex or birth control, has come to prevail in United States (US) schools. Among causes for concern are abstinence…

  10. Greater γ-tocopherol status during acute smoking abstinence with nicotine replacement therapy improved vascular endothelial function by decreasing 8-iso-15(S)-prostaglandin F2α.

    PubMed

    Mah, Eunice; Pei, Ruisong; Guo, Yi; Masterjohn, Christopher; Ballard, Kevin D; Taylor, Beth A; Taylor, Alan W; Traber, Maret G; Volek, Jeff S; Bruno, Richard S

    2015-04-01

    Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) improves the long-term success rate of smoking cessation, but induces oxidative stress and inflammatory responses that may delay the restoration of vascular endothelial function (VEF). No studies have examined co-therapy of NRT-assisted smoking abstinence with γ-tocopherol (γ-T), a vitamin E form with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, on improvements in VEF. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, healthy smokers (25 ± 1 y old; mean ± SEM) received NRT and abstained from smoking for 24 h with placebo (n = 12) or oral administration of γ-T-rich mixture of tocopherols (γ-TmT; n = 11) that provided 500 mg γ-T. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and biomarkers of nitric oxide metabolism, antioxidant status, inflammation, and lipid peroxidation [8-iso-prostaglandin F2α stereoisomers (8-iso-15(R)-PGF2α and 8-iso-15(S)-PGF2α)] were measured prior to and after 24 h of smoking abstinence. Smoking abstinence with NRT regardless of γ-TmT similarly decreased urinary naphthol (P < 0.05) without affecting plasma cotinine. γ-TmT increased plasma γ-T by 4-times and the urinary metabolite of γ-T, γ-carboxyethyl-chromanol, by three times. Smoking abstinence with γ-TmT, but not smoking abstinence alone, increased FMD without affecting plasma nitrate/nitrite or the ratio of asymmetric dimethylarginine/arginine. Urinary 8-iso-15(S)-PGF2α decreased only in those receiving γ-TmT and was inversely correlated to FMD (R = -0.43, P < 0.05). Circulating markers of inflammation were unaffected by smoking abstinence or γ-TmT. Short-term NRT-assisted smoking abstinence with γ-TmT, but not NRT-assisted smoking abstinence alone, improved VEF by decreasing 8-iso-15(S)-PGF2α, a vasoconstrictor that was otherwise unaffected by NRT-assisted smoking abstinence. PMID:25361769

  11. Greater γ-tocopherol status during acute smoking abstinence with nicotine replacement therapy improved vascular endothelial function by decreasing 8-iso-15(S)-prostaglandin F2α

    PubMed Central

    Mah, Eunice; Pei, Ruisong; Guo, Yi; Masterjohn, Christopher; Ballard, Kevin D; Taylor, Beth A; Taylor, Alan W; Traber, Maret G; Volek, Jeff S

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) improves the long-term success rate of smoking cessation, but induces oxidative stress and inflammatory responses that may delay the restoration of vascular endothelial function (VEF). No studies have examined co-therapy of NRT-assisted smoking abstinence with γ-tocopherol (γ-T), a vitamin E form with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, on improvements in VEF. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, healthy smokers (25 ± 1 y old; mean ± SEM) received NRT and abstained from smoking for 24 h with placebo (n = 12) or oral administration of γ-T-rich mixture of tocopherols (γ-TmT; n = 11) that provided 500 mg γ-T. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and biomarkers of nitric oxide metabolism, antioxidant status, inflammation, and lipid peroxidation [8-iso-prostaglandin F2α stereoisomers (8-iso-15(R)-PGF2α and 8-iso-15(S)-PGF2α)] were measured prior to and after 24 h of smoking abstinence. Smoking abstinence with NRT regardless of γ-TmT similarly decreased urinary naphthol (P < 0.05) without affecting plasma cotinine. γ-TmT increased plasma γ-T by 4-times and the urinary metabolite of γ-T, γ-carboxyethyl-chromanol, by three times. Smoking abstinence with γ-TmT, but not smoking abstinence alone, increased FMD without affecting plasma nitrate/nitrite or the ratio of asymmetric dimethylarginine/arginine. Urinary 8-iso-15(S)-PGF2α decreased only in those receiving γ-TmT and was inversely correlated to FMD (R = −0.43, P < 0.05). Circulating markers of inflammation were unaffected by smoking abstinence or γ-TmT. Short-term NRT-assisted smoking abstinence with γ-TmT, but not NRT-assisted smoking abstinence alone, improved VEF by decreasing 8-iso-15(S)-PGF2α, a vasoconstrictor that was otherwise unaffected by NRT-assisted smoking abstinence. PMID:25361769

  12. Greater γ-tocopherol status during acute smoking abstinence with nicotine replacement therapy improved vascular endothelial function by decreasing 8-iso-15(S)-prostaglandin F2α.

    PubMed

    Mah, Eunice; Pei, Ruisong; Guo, Yi; Masterjohn, Christopher; Ballard, Kevin D; Taylor, Beth A; Taylor, Alan W; Traber, Maret G; Volek, Jeff S; Bruno, Richard S

    2015-04-01

    Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) improves the long-term success rate of smoking cessation, but induces oxidative stress and inflammatory responses that may delay the restoration of vascular endothelial function (VEF). No studies have examined co-therapy of NRT-assisted smoking abstinence with γ-tocopherol (γ-T), a vitamin E form with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, on improvements in VEF. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, healthy smokers (25 ± 1 y old; mean ± SEM) received NRT and abstained from smoking for 24 h with placebo (n = 12) or oral administration of γ-T-rich mixture of tocopherols (γ-TmT; n = 11) that provided 500 mg γ-T. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and biomarkers of nitric oxide metabolism, antioxidant status, inflammation, and lipid peroxidation [8-iso-prostaglandin F2α stereoisomers (8-iso-15(R)-PGF2α and 8-iso-15(S)-PGF2α)] were measured prior to and after 24 h of smoking abstinence. Smoking abstinence with NRT regardless of γ-TmT similarly decreased urinary naphthol (P < 0.05) without affecting plasma cotinine. γ-TmT increased plasma γ-T by 4-times and the urinary metabolite of γ-T, γ-carboxyethyl-chromanol, by three times. Smoking abstinence with γ-TmT, but not smoking abstinence alone, increased FMD without affecting plasma nitrate/nitrite or the ratio of asymmetric dimethylarginine/arginine. Urinary 8-iso-15(S)-PGF2α decreased only in those receiving γ-TmT and was inversely correlated to FMD (R = -0.43, P < 0.05). Circulating markers of inflammation were unaffected by smoking abstinence or γ-TmT. Short-term NRT-assisted smoking abstinence with γ-TmT, but not NRT-assisted smoking abstinence alone, improved VEF by decreasing 8-iso-15(S)-PGF2α, a vasoconstrictor that was otherwise unaffected by NRT-assisted smoking abstinence.

  13. Abstinence Rates among College Cigarette Smokers Enrolled in A Randomized Clinical Trial Evaluating Quit and Win Contests: The Impact of Concurrent Hookah Use

    PubMed Central

    Bengtson, J.E.; Wang, Q.; Luo, X.; Marigi, Erick; Winta, Ghidei; Ahluwalia, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine baseline characteristics and biochemically verified 1-, 4-, and 6-month tobacco quit rates among college students enrolled in a Quit and Win cessation trial, comparing those who concurrently smoke both hookah and cigarettes with those who deny hookah use. Methods Analyses were conducted on data from 1,217 college students enrolled in a Quit and Win tobacco cessation randomized clinical trial from 2010–2012. Multivariable logistic regression (MLR) analyses examined group differences in baseline characteristics and cotinine verified 30-day abstinence at 1, 4, and 6-month follow-up, adjusting for baseline covariates. Results Participants smoked 11.5(±8.1) cigarettes per day on 28.5(±3.8) days/month, and 22% smoked hookah in the past 30 days. Hookah smokers (n=270) were more likely to be male (p<0.0001), younger (p<0.0001), report more binge drinking (p<0.0001) and score higher on impulsivity (p<0.001). MLR results indicate that hookah users, when compared to non-users, had a 36% decrease in odds of self-reported 30-day abstinence at 4-months (OR= 0.64, 95% CI=0.45–0.93, p=0.02) and a 63% decrease in odds in biochemically verified continuous abstinence at 6-months (OR = 0.37, CI=0.14–0.99, p=0.05). Conclusion College cigarette smokers who concurrently use hookah display several health risk factors and demonstrate lower short and long-term tobacco abstinence rates. PMID:25773472

  14. Time dependency of craving and response inhibition during nicotine abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Tsaur, Stephen; Strasser, Andrew A.; Souprountchouk, Valentina; Evans, Gretchen C.; Ashare, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nicotine withdrawal produces increased craving for cigarettes and deficits in response inhibition, and these withdrawal symptoms are predictive of relapse. Although it is well-established that these symptoms emerge early during abstinence, there is mixed evidence regarding whether they occur simultaneously. Given the importance of the early withdrawal period, this study examined craving and response inhibition at 24h and 72h abstinence. Methods Twenty-one non-treatment seeking adult smokers were evaluated at baseline, 24h, and 72h abstinence for craving (Questionnaire on Smoking Urges – Brief) and response inhibition (Stop Signal Task, Stroop Task, Continuous Performance Task). Generalized linear regression models were used for primary outcomes, and Pearson correlations for examining the association between craving and response inhibition. Results Factor 2 craving (anticipated relief of negative affect) increased from baseline to 24h abstinent (p=0.004), which subsided by 72h (p=0.08). Deficits in response inhibition measured by the Stop Signal Task were observed at 72h (p=0.046), but not 24h (p=0.318). No correlation was found between response inhibition and craving at any time point (p-values>0.19), except between the Stroop Task and factor 1 craving at baseline (p=0.025). Conclusions Factor 2 craving peaked at 24h, whereas deficits in response inhibition did not emerge until 72h, indicating that need to target craving and cognitive function during early abstinence may not occur simultaneously. Further characterizing the time course of withdrawal symptoms may guide development of targeted treatments for smoking cessation. PMID:26052265

  15. Elevated Plasma Prolactin in Abstinent Methamphetamine-Dependent Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Zorick, Todd; Mandelkern, Mark A.; Lee, Buyean; Wong, Ma-Li; Miotto, Karen; Shabazian, Jon; London, Edythe D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine use disorders are pervasive global social problems that produce large medical and public health burdens. Abnormalities in pituitary hormonal regulation have been observed in preclinical models of substance abuse and in human substance abusers. They have not been studied before, however, in methamphetamine-dependent human subjects. Objectives To determine if methamphetamine-dependent research volunteers differ from healthy control subjects in plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, or prolactin, or in pituitary dopamine D2 receptor availability during early abstinence from methamphetamine. Methods Methamphetamine-dependent subjects (N=31), who were not seeking treatment, resided on an inpatient ward for up to 5 weeks. Abstinence was confirmed by daily urine drug screening. Venous blood was sampled for plasma hormone levels, and positron emission tomography with [18F]fallypride was performed to determine dopamine D2 receptor availability during the first week of abstinence. Venous blood was sampled again for hormone levels during the fourth week of abstinence. Matched healthy volunteers (N=23) participated as a comparison group. Results Methamphetamine-dependent and healthy comparison subjects did not differ in plasma ACTH or cortisol levels, but had an elevated plasma prolactin at both the first week and fourth week of abstinence. There was no group difference in pituitary dopamine D2 receptor availability. Conclusion Methamphetamine-dependent individuals have abnormalities in prolactin regulation, which is not likely due to alterations in pituitary dopamine D2 receptor availability. Scientific Significance Methamphetamine dependence is associated with elevated prolactin levels, which may contribute to medical co-morbidity in afflicted individuals. PMID:21142706

  16. Observed parity-odd CMB temperature bispectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, Maresuke; Liguori, Michele; Fergusson, James R. E-mail: michele.liguori@pd.infn.it

    2015-01-01

    Parity-odd non-Gaussianities create a variety of temperature bispectra in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), defined in the domain: ℓ{sub 1} + ℓ{sub 2} + ℓ{sub 3} = odd. These models are yet unconstrained in the literature, that so far focused exclusively on the more common parity-even scenarios. In this work, we provide the first experimental constraints on parity-odd bispectrum signals in WMAP 9-year temperature data, using a separable modal parity-odd estimator. Comparing theoretical bispectrum templates to the observed bispectrum, we place constraints on the so-called nonlineality parameters of parity-odd tensor non-Gaussianities predicted by several Early Universe models. Our technique also generates a model-independent, smoothed reconstruction of the bispectrum of the data for parity-odd configurations.

  17. A randomized trial of employment-based reinforcement of cocaine abstinence in injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Kenneth; Wong, Conrad J; Needham, Mick; Diemer, Karly N; Knealing, Todd; Crone-Todd, Darlene; Fingerhood, Michael; Nuzzo, Paul; Kolodner, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    High-magnitude and long-duration abstinence reinforcement can promote drug abstinence but can be difficult to finance. Employment may be a vehicle for arranging high-magnitude and long-duration abstinence reinforcement. This study determined if employment-based abstinence reinforcement could increase cocaine abstinence in adults who inject drugs and use cocaine during methadone treatment. Participants could work 4 hr every weekday in a workplace where they could earn about $10.00 per hour in vouchers; they were required to provide routine urine samples. Participants who attended the workplace and provided cocaine-positive urine samples during the initial 4 weeks were invited to work 26 weeks and were randomly assigned to an abstinence-and-work (n = 28) or work-only (n = 28) group. Abstinence-and-work participants had to provide urine samples showing cocaine abstinence to work and maintain maximum pay. Work-only participants could work independent of their urinalysis results. Abstinence-and-work participants provided more (p = .004; OR = 5.80, 95% CI = 2.03-16.56) cocaine-negative urine samples (29%) than did work-only participants (10%). Employment-based abstinence reinforcement can increase cocaine abstinence.

  18. A randomized trial of employment-based reinforcement of cocaine abstinence in injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Kenneth; Wong, Conrad J; Needham, Mick; Diemer, Karly N; Knealing, Todd; Crone-Todd, Darlene; Fingerhood, Michael; Nuzzo, Paul; Kolodner, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    High-magnitude and long-duration abstinence reinforcement can promote drug abstinence but can be difficult to finance. Employment may be a vehicle for arranging high-magnitude and long-duration abstinence reinforcement. This study determined if employment-based abstinence reinforcement could increase cocaine abstinence in adults who inject drugs and use cocaine during methadone treatment. Participants could work 4 hr every weekday in a workplace where they could earn about $10.00 per hour in vouchers; they were required to provide routine urine samples. Participants who attended the workplace and provided cocaine-positive urine samples during the initial 4 weeks were invited to work 26 weeks and were randomly assigned to an abstinence-and-work (n = 28) or work-only (n = 28) group. Abstinence-and-work participants had to provide urine samples showing cocaine abstinence to work and maintain maximum pay. Work-only participants could work independent of their urinalysis results. Abstinence-and-work participants provided more (p = .004; OR = 5.80, 95% CI = 2.03-16.56) cocaine-negative urine samples (29%) than did work-only participants (10%). Employment-based abstinence reinforcement can increase cocaine abstinence. PMID:17970256

  19. Comparison of Hemodynamic Effects and Negative Predictive Value of Normal Adenosine Gated Myocardial Perfusion Scan With or Without Caffeine Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    uz Zaman, Maseeh; Fatima, Nosheen; Zaman, Areeba; Zaman, Unaiza; Tahseen, Rabia

    2016-01-01

    For vasodilator stress, myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with at least 12-h caffeine abstinence is recommended, as it attenuates cardiovascular hyperemic response of adenosine and dipyridamole. However, many published conflicting results have shown no significant effect upon perfusion abnormalities in MPI performed without caffeine abstinence. The aim of this study was to compare the hemodynamic changes and negative predictive value (NPV) of normal MPIs with adenosine stress performed with or without caffeine abstinence. This was a prospective study that accrued 50 patients from May 2013 till September 2013 and followed till November 2014. These patients had a normal adenosine-gated MPI (GMPI) with technetium-99m methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) after 12-h caffeine abstinence (no-caffeine). Next day, all patients had a repeat adenosine stress within 60 min after ingestion of a cup of coffee (about 80 mg of caffeine) followed by no MPI in 30 patients due to concern about radiation dose (prior-caffeine adenosine—no MPI; group A). Twenty patients opted for a repeat MPI (prior-caffeine adenosine—MPI; group B). Adenosine-induced hemodynamic response and NPV of the normal MPI with no-caffeine and prior-caffeine protocols were compared. The mean age of the study cohort was 57 ± 9 years with a male-to-female ratio of 76:24% and mean body mass index (BMI) of 26.915 ± 4.121 kg/m2. Prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and positive family history were 76%, 20%, 22%, and 17%, respectively. Comparison of group A with group B revealed no significant difference in demographic parameters, hemodynamic or electrocardiography (ECG) parameters, or left ventricular (LV) function parameters during adenosine intervention with prior-caffeine and no-caffeine protocols. During the follow-up, no fatal myocardial infarction (MI) was reported but 6 nonfatal MIs were reported based upon the history of short hospitalization for chest pain but without biochemical or

  20. Comparison of Hemodynamic Effects and Negative Predictive Value of Normal Adenosine Gated Myocardial Perfusion Scan With or Without Caffeine Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    uz Zaman, Maseeh; Fatima, Nosheen; Zaman, Areeba; Zaman, Unaiza; Tahseen, Rabia

    2016-01-01

    For vasodilator stress, myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with at least 12-h caffeine abstinence is recommended, as it attenuates cardiovascular hyperemic response of adenosine and dipyridamole. However, many published conflicting results have shown no significant effect upon perfusion abnormalities in MPI performed without caffeine abstinence. The aim of this study was to compare the hemodynamic changes and negative predictive value (NPV) of normal MPIs with adenosine stress performed with or without caffeine abstinence. This was a prospective study that accrued 50 patients from May 2013 till September 2013 and followed till November 2014. These patients had a normal adenosine-gated MPI (GMPI) with technetium-99m methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) after 12-h caffeine abstinence (no-caffeine). Next day, all patients had a repeat adenosine stress within 60 min after ingestion of a cup of coffee (about 80 mg of caffeine) followed by no MPI in 30 patients due to concern about radiation dose (prior-caffeine adenosine—no MPI; group A). Twenty patients opted for a repeat MPI (prior-caffeine adenosine—MPI; group B). Adenosine-induced hemodynamic response and NPV of the normal MPI with no-caffeine and prior-caffeine protocols were compared. The mean age of the study cohort was 57 ± 9 years with a male-to-female ratio of 76:24% and mean body mass index (BMI) of 26.915 ± 4.121 kg/m2. Prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and positive family history were 76%, 20%, 22%, and 17%, respectively. Comparison of group A with group B revealed no significant difference in demographic parameters, hemodynamic or electrocardiography (ECG) parameters, or left ventricular (LV) function parameters during adenosine intervention with prior-caffeine and no-caffeine protocols. During the follow-up, no fatal myocardial infarction (MI) was reported but 6 nonfatal MIs were reported based upon the history of short hospitalization for chest pain but without biochemical or

  1. Comparison of Hemodynamic Effects and Negative Predictive Value of Normal Adenosine Gated Myocardial Perfusion Scan With or Without Caffeine Abstinence.

    PubMed

    Uz Zaman, Maseeh; Fatima, Nosheen; Zaman, Areeba; Zaman, Unaiza; Tahseen, Rabia

    2016-09-01

    For vasodilator stress, myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with at least 12-h caffeine abstinence is recommended, as it attenuates cardiovascular hyperemic response of adenosine and dipyridamole. However, many published conflicting results have shown no significant effect upon perfusion abnormalities in MPI performed without caffeine abstinence. The aim of this study was to compare the hemodynamic changes and negative predictive value (NPV) of normal MPIs with adenosine stress performed with or without caffeine abstinence. This was a prospective study that accrued 50 patients from May 2013 till September 2013 and followed till November 2014. These patients had a normal adenosine-gated MPI (GMPI) with technetium-99m methoxy isobutyl isonitrile ((99m)Tc-MIBI) after 12-h caffeine abstinence (no-caffeine). Next day, all patients had a repeat adenosine stress within 60 min after ingestion of a cup of coffee (about 80 mg of caffeine) followed by no MPI in 30 patients due to concern about radiation dose (prior-caffeine adenosine-no MPI; group A). Twenty patients opted for a repeat MPI (prior-caffeine adenosine-MPI; group B). Adenosine-induced hemodynamic response and NPV of the normal MPI with no-caffeine and prior-caffeine protocols were compared. The mean age of the study cohort was 57 ± 9 years with a male-to-female ratio of 76:24% and mean body mass index (BMI) of 26.915 ± 4.121 kg/m(2). Prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and positive family history were 76%, 20%, 22%, and 17%, respectively. Comparison of group A with group B revealed no significant difference in demographic parameters, hemodynamic or electrocardiography (ECG) parameters, or left ventricular (LV) function parameters during adenosine intervention with prior-caffeine and no-caffeine protocols. During the follow-up, no fatal myocardial infarction (MI) was reported but 6 nonfatal MIs were reported based upon the history of short hospitalization for chest pain but without biochemical or

  2. BOOK REVIEW: The Odd Quantum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Helen

    2000-03-01

    The Odd Quantum is aiming to be odd. Falling between being a quantum mechanics textbook and a `popular' science book, it aims to convey something of the substance of quantum mechanics without being overly technical or professional. It does not shy away from the mathematics of the subject or resort solely to analogy and metaphor, as so often is the case. Books aimed at the lay reader tend to take on a particular aspect of quantum mechanics, for example, wave-particle duality, and can do little more than hint at the complexity of the subject. This book is more than a textbook on quantum mechanics; it gives the reader a comprehensive account of history and an appreciation of the nature of quantum mechanics. The introductory chapters deal with the earlier part of the century and the thinking of that time. The approach is familiar, as are the stories that Treiman tells, but he also manages to convey the speed with which ideas changed and the excitement this brought to the physics community. Classical ideas of force and energy are dealt with succinctly but with sufficient depth to set up the reader for what is to come; Maxwell's equations and a brief glimpse at relativity are included. This is followed by a brief description of what the author terms the `old' quantum mechanics, in effect a highly readable tour around black body radiation and spectroscopy and the models of the atom that emerged from them. The `new' quantum mechanics begins about a third of the way through the book, and in a chapter entitled `Foundations' starts gently but rapidly moves into a detailed mathematical treatment. This section, of necessity, relapses into the style of a textbook and covers a lot of ground quickly. It is at this point that the non-specialist popular science readers for whom Treiman has written this book may become a little bemused. Concepts such as non-degeneracy and operators come thick and fast. It is difficult to imagine an educated non-physicist with little mathematical

  3. Duration of detection of methamphetamine in hair after abstinence.

    PubMed

    Suwannachom, Natiprada; Thananchai, Thiwaphorn; Junkuy, Anongphan; O'Brien, Timothy E; Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk

    2015-09-01

    Researchers in the field of hair analysis have known for at least two decades that test results for many chemical compounds remain positive for a considerable period of time after subjects have reported cessation of use. These findings were generally based on small sample populations or individual case studies. Within the last decade, hair analyses of larger populations have investigated the phenomenon of residual positives in abstinent individuals in order to determine the period of time required for various compounds to present negative hair test results at internationally accepted cutoff levels. Such data has primarily been used to establish guidelines for retesting former abusers of illicit drugs in order to evaluate claims of abstinence. To date, research has focused on cocaine and opiates. The present study is the first to examine the duration of detection of methamphetamine (MA) and its metabolite amphetamine (AP) in the hair of chronic MA users who recently ceased their consumption of the drug. The study population (n=63) consisted of inpatients at a hospital drug rehabilitation program in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Drug taking behavior was collected by personal interview at the time of enrollment. Subjects provided hair samples at approximately monthly intervals for MA and AP analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry at 0.2ng/mg cutoff levels. The correlation of baseline MA and AP concentrations in hair at the beginning of abstinence with corresponding duration of detection indicated great individual variability for the rate of clearance of MA and AP from hair. In regard to duration of detection, the majority of chronic MA users remained MA positive for up to about 90 days of reported abstinence, but by 120 days, the detection rate had fallen to about 16%. All subjects tested negative for MA after 153 days of abstinence. For AP, the limit of the duration of detection was reached at 106 days. With the adoption of a margin of safety to compensate for

  4. Increasing Progesterone Levels Are Associated With Smoking Abstinence Among Free-Cycling Women Smokers Who Receive Brief Pharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Erin A.; Baker, Nathaniel L.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Hartwell, Karen J.; Gray, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Preclinical and human laboratory research suggests that (a) progesterone may decrease drug reward, craving, and smoking behavior, and (b) estradiol may enhance drug reward and smoking behavior. A modest majority of treatment research examining the relationship between menstrual cycle phase and outcomes suggests that the luteal menstrual phase, with its uniquely higher progesterone levels, is associated with better cessation outcomes. However, no studies to date have examined the effects of naturally occurring variation in progesterone and estradiol levels on medication-assisted smoking cessation. The present study sought to fill this notable gap in the treatment literature. Methods: Weekly plasma progesterone and estradiol levels were obtained from nicotine-dependent female smokers enrolled in a 4-week cessation trial. Participants (N = 108) were randomized to receive a 4-week course of either varenicline (VAR) tablets and placebo patches or placebo tablets and nicotine patches. Plasma samples were obtained 1 week before their cessation attempt and weekly during medication administration. Abstinence was assessed weekly. Results: Weekly hormone data replicated commonly observed menstrual cycle patterns of progesterone and estradiol levels. Importantly, increases in progesterone level were associated with a 23% increase in the odds for being abstinent within each week of treatment. This effect was driven primarily by nicotine patch–treated versus VAR-treated females. Conclusions: This study was the first to identify an association between progesterone level (increasing) and abstinence outcomes in free-cycling women smokers who participated in a medication-based treatment. Furthermore, the potential benefits of progesterone may vary across different pharmacotherapies. Implications of these findings for smoking cessation intervention are discussed. PMID:25762749

  5. Pharmacological Evidence for an Abstinence-Induced Switch in 5-HT1B Receptor Modulation of Cocaine Self-Administration and Cocaine-Seeking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Studies examining serotonin-1B (5-HT1B) receptor manipulations on cocaine self-administration and cocaine-seeking behavior initially seemed discrepant. However, we recently suggested based on viral-mediated 5-HT1B-receptor gene transfer that the discrepancies are likely due to differences in the length of abstinence from cocaine prior to testing. To further validate our findings pharmacologically, we examined the effects of the selective 5-HT1B receptor agonist CP 94,253 (5.6 mg/kg, s.c.) on cocaine self-administration during maintenance and after a period of protracted abstinence with or without daily extinction training. We also examined agonist effects on cocaine-seeking behavior at different time points during abstinence. During maintenance, CP 94,253 shifted the cocaine self-administration dose–effect function on an FR5 schedule of reinforcement to the left, whereas following 21 days of abstinence CP 94,253 downshifted the function and also decreased responding on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement regardless of extinction history. CP 94,253 also attenuated cue-elicited and cocaine-primed drug-seeking behavior following 5 days, but not 1 day, of forced abstinence. The attenuating effects of CP 94,253 on the descending limb of the cocaine dose–effect function were blocked by the selective 5-HT1B receptor antagonist SB 224289 (5 mg/kg, i.p.) at both time points, indicating 5-HT1B receptor mediation. The results support a switch in 5-HT1B receptor modulation of cocaine reinforcement from facilitatory during self-administration maintenance to inhibitory during protracted abstinence. These findings suggest that the 5-HT1B receptor may be a novel target for developing medication for treating cocaine dependence. PMID:24369697

  6. Craving among long-abstinent smokers: An Internet survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: This survey estimated the prevalence and correlates of craving among long-abstinent smokers. Methods: We surveyed 403 former smokers (abstinent 1–10 years) via an Internet consumer sample (www.zoomerang.com). Results: Although the majority (59%) of former smokers reported a desire to smoke in the last year, this desire appeared to be clinically significant in only 11%. Those with significant prolonged craving were more nicotine dependent and appeared to have more mental health problems but did differ from other former smokers on demographics or family history of smoking. Discussion: A minority of smokers appears to continue to struggle with cravings long after cessation. Replications in larger more generalizable surveys are needed. In addition, whether prolonged craving indicates risk for relapse needs to be determined. PMID:20164170

  7. Improving the Odds of Surviving Sepsis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Improving the Odds of Surviving Sepsis Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Improving the Odds of Surviving Sepsis ... Threatening Bacterial Infection Remains Mysterious This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

  8. Abnormal cerebellar morphometry in abstinent adolescent marijuana users

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Nagel, Bonnie J.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2010-01-01

    Background Functional neuroimaging data from adults have, in general, found frontocerebellar dysfunction associated with acute and chronic marijuana (MJ) use (Loeber & Yurgelun-Todd, 1999). One structural neuroimaging study found reduced cerebellar vermis volume in young adult MJ users with a history of heavy polysubstance use (Aasly et al., 1993). The goal of this study was to characterize cerebellar volume in adolescent chronic MJ users following one month of monitored abstinence. Method Participants were MJ users (n=16) and controls (n=16) aged 16-18 years. Extensive exclusionary criteria included history of psychiatric or neurologic disorders. Drug use history, neuropsychological data, and structural brain scans were collected after 28 days of monitored abstinence. Trained research staff defined cerebellar volumes (including three cerebellar vermis lobes and both cerebellar hemispheres) on high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Results Adolescent MJ users demonstrated significantly larger inferior posterior (lobules VIII-X) vermis volume (p<.009) than controls, above and beyond effects of lifetime alcohol and other drug use, gender, and intracranial volume. Larger vermis volumes were associated with poorer executive functioning (p’s<.05). Conclusions Following one month of abstinence, adolescent MJ users had significantly larger posterior cerebellar vermis volumes than non-using controls. These greater volumes are suggested to be pathological based on linkage to poorer executive functioning. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine typical cerebellar development during adolescence and the influence of marijuana use. PMID:20413277

  9. The Effects of Acute Abstinence from Smoking and Performance-Based Rewards on Performance Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Schlienz, Nicolas J.; Hawk, Larry W.; Rosch, Keri S.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Abstinence from smoking disrupts performance in multiple cognitive domains, and such cognitive effects may serve to maintain smoking behavior. Rather than having specific effects on a narrow domain of processing, abstinence may disrupt more general cognitive control processes and/or motivation. Objectives The present study tested the prediction that overnight abstinence from smoking would disrupt a general performance monitoring system indexed via the error-related negativity (ERN). A secondary aim was to determine the extent to which performance-based monetary rewards improved the ERN among smokers and whether the effect of reward was diminished during abstinence. Methods The ERN was assessed during a flanker task among 25 heavy, non-treatment-seeking smokers both when smoking as usual and after overnight abstinence; reward and no-reward trial blocks occurred within each session. Results As predicted, mean ERN amplitude was reduced during abstinence. The ERN was enhanced by reward; this effect did not vary with smoking abstinence. Conclusion This study provides novel data that suggest acute abstinence from smoking disrupts a neurophysiological index of a general performance monitoring system that is involved in a range of cognitive functions. The ERN may be a useful complement to narrow-band cognitive studies of abstinence and interventions designed to target cognition in addiction. Because the ERN was concurrently sensitive to abstinence and performance-based incentives, it may be particular useful for examining the interplay of cognition and motivation in smoking and smoking cessation. PMID:23681159

  10. The nuclear structure of deformed odd-odd nuclei: Experimental and theoretical investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.; Jain, A.K.; Sood, P.C.; Sheline, R.K.

    1988-06-06

    Previous surveys of experimental level structure in deformed odd-odd nuclei have been updated with recent results for the lanthanide and actinide regions. The relative strengths of the effective neutron-proton interaction derived from these data are compared. The predictive power of a semi-empirical model for level structure in deformed odd-odd nuclei is demonstrated. Comparison is made with recent Hartree-Fock calculations of selected nuclei.

  11. Social Adjustment among Taiwanese Children with Symptoms of ADHD, ODD, and ADHD Comorbid with ODD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Wan-Ling; Kawabata, Yoshito; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined social problems at school and relationships with peers, siblings, mothers, and fathers among children with ADHD only (n = 41), ODD only (n = 14), ADHD + ODD (n = 47), and normal controls (n = 204) from a school-based sample of 2,463 first to ninth graders in Taiwan. ADHD and ODD symptoms were determined by teacher and mother…

  12. Effects of N-acetylcysteine on alcohol abstinence and alcohol-induced adverse effects in rats.

    PubMed

    Ferreira Seiva, Fábio Rodrigues; Amauchi, Juliana Fujihara; Ribeiro Rocha, Katiucha Karolina; Souza, Gisele Aparecida; Ebaid, Geovana Xavier; Burneiko, Regina Miranda; Novelli, Ethel Lourenzi Barbosa

    2009-03-01

    Alcoholism is rampant in modern society and some antioxidant compound could perhaps be useful to reduce the damage done by alcohol consumption and abstinence. The present study was undertaken to investigate the association of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) intake, alcoholism, and alcohol abstinence on lipid profile, in vivo low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, oxidative stress, and antioxidant status in serum and liver of rats. Initially, male Wistar 30 rats were divided into two groups: (C, N=6) given standard chow and water; (E, N=24) receiving standard chow and aqueous ethanol solution in semi-voluntary research. After 30 days of ethanol exposure, (E) group was divided into four subgroups (N=6/group): (E-E) continued drinking 30% ethanol solution; (E-NAC) drinking ethanol solution containing 2 g/L NAC; (AB) changed ethanol solution to water; (AB-NAC) changed ethanol to aqueous solution 2 g/L NAC. After 15 days of the E-group division, E-E rats had higher serum alanine transaminase, lower body weight, and surface area, despite higher energy intake than C. E-E rats had also lower feed efficiency, dyslipidemia with enhanced triacylglycerol, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), lipid hydroperoxide (LH) and in vivo oxidized-LDL (ox-LDL). AB, E-NAC, and AB-NAC rats ameliorated serum oxidative stress markers and normalized serum lipids. E-E rats had higher hepatic LH and lower reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio than C, indicating hepatic oxidative stress. AB and E-NAC rats normalized hepatic LH, GSSG, and the GSH/GSSG ratio, compared to E-E. AB-NAC rats had the lowest serum ox-LDL, hepatic LH levels, and the highest GSH reductase activity in hepatic tissue. In conclusion, the present study brought new insights into alcohol consumption, because ethanol exposure enhanced serum in vivo ox-LDL, as well as serum and hepatic oxidative stress. N-acetylcysteine offers promising therapeutic value to inhibit ethanol-induced adverse effects. Ethanol

  13. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.

  14. Exercise during early, but not late abstinence, attenuates subsequent relapse vulnerability in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Beiter, R M; Peterson, A B; Abel, J; Lynch, W J

    2016-01-01

    Exercise has shown promise as a nonpharmacological intervention for addiction, with evidence suggesting a potential utility for relapse prevention. In humans, exercise as an intervention is typically introduced well after the initiation of abstinence, yet neurobiological data from preclinical studies suggest that it may be more effective if initiated during early abstinence. Here, using rat models, we determined whether the beneficial effects of exercise on relapse vulnerability depends on when exercise is first initiated, during early versus late abstinence. Once rats (n=47) acquired cocaine self-administration, they were given 24-h access to cocaine (1.5 mg/kg per infusion) under a discrete trial procedure (four infusions per hour) for 10 days. The rats then began a 14-day abstinence period in which they had access (2 h per day) to a locked wheel throughout abstinence (sedentary) or an unlocked wheel during early (days 1–7), late (days 8–14) or throughout (days 1–14) abstinence (n=10–14 per group). Cocaine seeking, as assessed under an extinction/cued-induced reinstatement procedure, was examined on day 15 of abstinence. Exercise beginning during early abstinence robustly attenuated subsequent cocaine seeking, and this effect persisted even when exercise ended on the seventh day of abstinence. In contrast, exercise during late abstinence was not effective and these animals displayed high levels of cocaine seeking similar to those observed in sedentary animals. These results indicate that the timing of exercise availability differentially impacts cocaine seeking with results suggesting that exercise during early, but not late, abstinence may provide long-term protection against cocaine relapse. PMID:27115123

  15. Modification of sperm quality after sexual abstinence in Seba's short-tailed bat, Carollia perspicillata.

    PubMed

    Wesseling, Charlotte; Fasel, Nicolas; Richner, Heinz; Helfenstein, Fabrice

    2016-05-01

    In polygynous mating systems, few males have stable access to sexual mates. With an expected higher copulation rate, harem males may deplete seminal fluids or increase epididymal sperm maturation, generating poor sperm quality. In a first study, we reported a higher sperm quality in sneaker males of Carollia perspicillata To test whether the lower sperm quality observed in harem males was generated by an elevated copulation rate, we temporarily removed males of both social statuses from the colony. We thus assessed status-related changes of sperm quality resulting from sexual abstinence. Moreover, released from territory and female guarding, harem males were expected to show a reduction in somatic costs. On the basis of sperm competition models, we predicted a higher resource investment in the ejaculate with the reduction of pre-copulatory efforts. In line with our predictions, sperm quality of harem males improved significantly in contrast to sneaker males, whose sperm quality did not change. Without an increase in ejaculate lipid peroxidation, our results also provide evidence that the duration of sexual abstinence was not sufficient to generate sperm oxidative damage through senescence. Harem males did not show a reduction in blood lipid peroxidation or in the ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione. In line with the maintenance of these somatic costs, harem males did not invest more superoxide dismutase to the ejaculate to maintain sperm quality. Our results suggest that a difference in copulation rate rather than an adaptation to sperm competition provides sneaker males with higher sperm quality in C. perspicillata. PMID:27208034

  16. Biased Perception of Mean Emotion in Abstinent Heroin Abusers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Wang, Xuan; Hu, Chun; Liao, Huayu; Yang, Tong; Shen, Mowei

    2015-01-01

    Although evidence suggests that drug abusers exhibit biases when coding individual emotional facial expressions, little is known about how they process multiple expressions simultaneously. The present study evaluated the mean emotions perceived by abstinent heroin abusers. Male abstinent heroin abusers (AHs) and healthy controls (HCs) were randomly assigned into three emotional conditions (happy, sad, or angry), viewed sets of four faces (Experiment 1) or individual faces (Experiment 2) that varied in emotionality (neutral to happy/sad/angry), and judged whether a test face presented later was more/less emotional than the preceding stimuli. Average points of subjective equality were calculated to reflect participants' biases in perceiving emotions of sets or single faces. Relative to HCs, AHs overestimated mean emotions for sad and angry faces in Experiment 1; however, no such biases were found in Experiment 2. This suggests biased ensemble coding towards negative emotional facial expressions in AHs. Furthermore, when controlling for depression and anxiety, AHs' enhanced perception of mean emotion for angry or sad faces in Experiment 1 decreased, indicating a possible mediating effect of these psychopathological variables in the relationship between drug addiction history and abnormal ensemble processing for sets of emotional expressions. PMID:26595559

  17. Cue reactivity in active pathological, abstinent pathological, and regular gamblers.

    PubMed

    Sodano, Ruthlyn; Wulfert, Edelgard

    2010-03-01

    Twenty-one treatment-seeking pathological gamblers, 21 pathological gamblers in recovery, and 21 recreational gamblers watched two video-taped exciting gambling scenarios and an exciting roller-coaster control scenario while their arousal (heart rate and subjective excitement) and urge to gamble were being measured. The gamblers did not differ significantly in cue-elicited heart rate elevations or excitement. However, the active pathological gamblers reported significantly greater urges to gamble across all cues compared to the abstinent pathological gamblers and, with marginal significance (p = 0.06), also compared to the social gamblers. Further exploration of these findings revealed that active pathological gamblers experience urges to gamble in response to exciting situations, whether or not they are gambling related, whereas abstinent and social gamblers only report urges to an exciting gambling-related cue. This suggests that for pathological gamblers excitement itself, irrespective of its source, may become a conditioned stimulus capable of triggering gambling behavior. Implications for treatment and future research are discussed. PMID:19662519

  18. Opioid neonatal abstinence syndrome: controversies and implications for practice.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Kim; Perez-Montejano, Raul

    2014-01-01

    The Opioid Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) is a term used to describe a cluster of signs and symptoms seen in infants experiencing withdrawal from opioid drugs. Despite a substantial literature the relationship between maternal methadone dose, NAS and the method of assessment of NAS symptoms has not been agreed. The following review will address current and historical controversies surrounding these issues and will examine the evidence concerned with the evaluation of neonates exposed to methadone in utero. The key findings are as follows: A variety of NAS scales are used to assess the severity of neonatal withdrawal symptoms including locally adapted validated tools. Inconsistencies in the use of NAS scales have included the timing, duration and frequency of administration; the degree to which observers were trained to reliability; the use of NAS scales designed for term neonates to assess pre-term neonates who may have a qualitatively different expression of abstinence symptoms and; the research setting in which the tool was administered. There is a lack of research investigating the observant bias' effect upon scoring NAS, the basis for treatment decisions and the influence of concomitant maternal use of non-opioid drugs late in pregnancy. We also discuss the implications of the lack of recognition of NAS symptoms leading to possible under reporting and inappropriate, early neonatal discharge from hospital. In addition, this paper also discusses the merits and problems of conducting research in this area and highlights gaps in our knowledge and areas for further research.

  19. Biased Perception of Mean Emotion in Abstinent Heroin Abusers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Wang, Xuan; Hu, Chun; Liao, Huayu; Yang, Tong; Shen, Mowei

    2015-01-01

    Although evidence suggests that drug abusers exhibit biases when coding individual emotional facial expressions, little is known about how they process multiple expressions simultaneously. The present study evaluated the mean emotions perceived by abstinent heroin abusers. Male abstinent heroin abusers (AHs) and healthy controls (HCs) were randomly assigned into three emotional conditions (happy, sad, or angry), viewed sets of four faces (Experiment 1) or individual faces (Experiment 2) that varied in emotionality (neutral to happy/sad/angry), and judged whether a test face presented later was more/less emotional than the preceding stimuli. Average points of subjective equality were calculated to reflect participants' biases in perceiving emotions of sets or single faces. Relative to HCs, AHs overestimated mean emotions for sad and angry faces in Experiment 1; however, no such biases were found in Experiment 2. This suggests biased ensemble coding towards negative emotional facial expressions in AHs. Furthermore, when controlling for depression and anxiety, AHs' enhanced perception of mean emotion for angry or sad faces in Experiment 1 decreased, indicating a possible mediating effect of these psychopathological variables in the relationship between drug addiction history and abnormal ensemble processing for sets of emotional expressions.

  20. Abstinence Violation Effect: Validation of an Attributional Construct with Smoking Cessation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Susan; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The abstinence violation effect (AVE) proposed in Marlatt and Gordon's model of smoking relapse was operationalized as a combination of internal, stable, and global causal attributions for smoking following the attainment of abstinence from smoking. Smoking cessation program participants who relapsed following a slip reported significantly higher…

  1. The Effect of Contracted Abstinence on College Students' Behavior toward Alcohol Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Steven B.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Assessed the relative effects of contracted abstinence and a class in alcoholism on college students' attitudes and behavior toward alcohol use. The alcohol class was effective in modifying self-reported drinking behavior,while contracted abstinence was an effective tool when used in the context of an alcohol class. (Author)

  2. Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budney, Alan J.; Moore, Brent A.; Rocha, Heath L.; Higgins, Stephen T.

    2006-01-01

    Ninety cannabis-dependent adults seeking treatment were randomly assigned to receive cognitive-behavioral therapy, abstinence-based voucher incentives, or their combination. Treatment duration was 14 weeks, and outcomes were assessed for 12 months post treatment. Findings suggest that (a) abstinence-based vouchers were effective for engendering…

  3. Randomized Trial of Prize-Based Reinforcement Density for Simultaneous Abstinence from Cocaine and Heroin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghitza, Udi E.; Epstein, David H.; Schmittner, John; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Lin, Jia-Ling; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2007-01-01

    To examine the effect of reinforcer density in prize-based abstinence reinforcement, heroin/cocaine users (N = 116) in methadone maintenance (100 mg/day) were randomly assigned to a noncontingent control group (NonC) or to 1 of 3 groups that earned prize draws for abstinence: manual drawing with standard prize density (MS) or computerized drawing…

  4. Abstinence, Sex, and Virginity: Do They Mean What We Think They Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hans, Jason D.; Kimberly, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Ambiguous definitions concerning which behaviors constitute sex, abstinence, and virginity may lead to arbitrary interpretations of meaning or miscommunication, which could be particularly problematic in health care, educational, and research contexts. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare definitions of sex, abstinence, and…

  5. Attitudes toward Sexual Abstinence among Black Seventh-Day Adventist College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashley, George; Ramirez, Octavio; Cort, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify Black Seventh-Day Adventist (SDA) college students' attitudes toward the concept of sexual abstinence. Attitude toward abstinence was operationalized as a dichotomy of acceptance or rejection of the concept as a way to order sexual behavior. The study utilized a convenience sample ("N" =…

  6. A Review of 21 Curricula for Abstinence-Only-until-Marriage Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kelly L.; Goodson, Patricia; Pruitt, B.E.; Buhi, Eric; Davis-Gunnels, Emily

    2005-01-01

    The authors reviewed the content, methods, and overall quality of 21 curricula used in abstinence-only-until-marriage programs. Only materials designed for use in middle school grades (fifth to eighth) or with middle school-aged audiences (9-13 years of age), which presented the abstinence message in at least 40% of their content, were included. A…

  7. Effects of an Internet-Based Voucher Reinforcement Program for Smoking Abstinence: A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallery, Jesse; Glenn, Irene M.

    2005-01-01

    The present study tested the feasibility of an Internet-based method to obtain objective evidence of smoking abstinence and to deliver vouchers for evidence of abstinence. Four heavy smokers participated in this 4-week study. Twice daily, participants made video recordings of themselves providing a breath carbon monoxide (CO) sample with a Web…

  8. Tilted excitation implies odd periodic resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depetri, G. I.; Sartorelli, J. C.; Marin, B.; Baptista, M. S.

    2016-07-01

    Our aim is to unveil how resonances of parametric systems are affected when symmetry is broken. We showed numerically and experimentally that odd resonances indeed come about when the pendulum is excited along a tilted direction. Applying the Melnikov subharmonic function, we not only determined analytically the loci of saddle-node bifurcations delimiting resonance regions in parameter space but also explained these observations by demonstrating that, under the Melnikov method point of view, odd resonances arise due to an extra torque that appears in the asymmetric case.

  9. CPT-Odd resonances in neutrino oscillations

    PubMed

    Barger; Pakvasa; Weiler; Whisnant

    2000-12-11

    We consider the consequences for future neutrino factory experiments of small CPT-odd interactions in neutrino oscillations. The nu(&mgr;)-->nu(&mgr;) and nu;(&mgr;)-->nu;(&mgr;) survival probabilities at a baseline L = 732 km can test for CPT-odd contributions at orders of magnitude better sensitivity than present neutrino sector limits. Interference between the CPT-violating interaction and CPT-even mass terms in the Lagrangian can lead to a resonant enhancement of the oscillation amplitude. For oscillations in matter, a simultaneous enhancement of both neutrino and antineutrino oscillation amplitudes is possible.

  10. Tilted excitation implies odd periodic resonances.

    PubMed

    Depetri, G I; Sartorelli, J C; Marin, B; Baptista, M S

    2016-07-01

    Our aim is to unveil how resonances of parametric systems are affected when symmetry is broken. We showed numerically and experimentally that odd resonances indeed come about when the pendulum is excited along a tilted direction. Applying the Melnikov subharmonic function, we not only determined analytically the loci of saddle-node bifurcations delimiting resonance regions in parameter space but also explained these observations by demonstrating that, under the Melnikov method point of view, odd resonances arise due to an extra torque that appears in the asymmetric case. PMID:27575118

  11. Odd-frequency superconductivity in driven systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triola, Christopher; Balatsky, Alexander V.

    2016-09-01

    We show that Berezinskii's classification of the symmetries of Cooper pair amplitudes holds for driven systems even in the absence of translation invariance. We then consider a model Hamiltonian for a superconductor coupled to an external driving potential and, treating the drive as a perturbation, we investigate the corrections to the anomalous Green's function, density of states, and spectral function. We find that in the presence of an external drive the anomalous Green's function develops terms that are odd in frequency and that the same mechanism responsible for these odd-frequency terms generates additional features in the density of states and spectral function.

  12. Provider views of harm reduction versus abstinence policies within homeless services for dually diagnosed adults.

    PubMed

    Henwood, Benjamin F; Padgett, Deborah K; Tiderington, Emmy

    2014-01-01

    Harm reduction is considered by many to be a legitimate alternative to abstinence-based services for dually diagnosed individuals, yet there is limited understanding of how varying approaches affect front-line practice within services for homeless adults. This paper examines how front-line providers working with individuals who have experienced homelessness, serious mental illness, and addiction view policies of harm reduction versus abstinence within two different approaches to homeless services: the traditional or "treatment first" approach that requires abstinence, and the more recent housing first approach that incorporates harm reduction. As part of a federally funded qualitative study, 129 in-depth interviews conducted with 41 providers were thematically analyzed to understand how providers view harm reduction versus abstinence approaches. Themes included the following: (a) harm reduction as a welcomed alternative, (b) working with ambiguity, and (c) accommodating abstinence. Drawing on recovery principles, the authors consider the broader implications of the findings for behavioral health care with this population.

  13. Abstinence Memorable Message Narratives: A New Exploratory Research Study Into Young Adult Sexual Narratives.

    PubMed

    Cooke-Jackson, Angela; Orbe, Mark P; Johnson, Amber L; Kauffman, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    Abstinence for most adolescent-aged college students relates to several factors, including strong religious beliefs, an aversion to taking risks, high career expectations, or limited attractiveness. Young adults receive hundreds of messages from various sources; therefore, understanding their memorable sexual messages is essential. This exploratory research uses an interpretive method to unravel the memorable sexual narratives of 65 virgin respondents. Findings yield two primary themes: involuntary abstinence, and conscious abstinence, which demonstrate that messages of abstinence are important yet often imbue punitive internal attitudes and beliefs derived from mainstream media and peer relationships. The article concludes with a recommendation for health practitioners and communication scholars to create positive open spaces where young adults can discuss sexuality, sexual relationships, and sexual behaviors. Additionally, understanding stigmas related to abstinence helps reframe normative sex communication messages and promote constructive short- and long-term sexual health behaviors.

  14. Neuroplasticity in Human Alcoholism: Studies of Extended Abstinence with Potential Treatment Implications.

    PubMed

    Fein, George; Cardenas, Valerie A

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholism is characterized by a lack of control over excessive alcohol consumption despite significant negative consequences. This impulsive and compulsive behavior may be related to functional abnormalities within networks of brain regions responsible for how we make decisions. The abnormalities may result in strengthened networks related to appetitive drive-or the need to fulfill desires-and simultaneously weakened networks that exercise control over behaviors. Studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in abstinent alcoholics suggest that abstinence is associated with changes in the tone of such networks, decreasing resting tone in appetitive drive networks, and increasing resting tone in inhibitory control networks to support continued abstinence. Identifying electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of resting tone in these networks initially identified using fMRI, and establishing in longitudinal studies that these abstinence-related changes in network tone are progressive would motivate treatment initiatives to facilitate these changes in network tone, thereby supporting successful ongoing abstinence. PMID:26259093

  15. Experimental level-structure determination in odd-odd actinide nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.

    1985-04-04

    The status of experimental determination of level structure in odd-odd actinide nuclei is reviewed. A technique for modeling quasiparticle excitation energies and rotational parameters in odd-odd deformed nuclei is applied to actinide species where new experimental data have been obtained by use of neutron-capture gamma-ray spectroscopy. The input parameters required for the calculation are derived from empirical data on single-particle excitations in neighboring odd-mass nuclei. Calculated configuration-specific values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings are used. Calculated and experimental level structures for /sup 238/Np, /sup 244/Am, and /sup 250/Bk are compared, as well as those for several nuclei in the rare-earth region. The agreement for the actinide species is excellent, with bandhead energies deviating 22 keV and rotational parameters 5%, on the average. Applications of this modeling technique are discussed.

  16. Confusion between Odds and Probability, a Pandemic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Lawrence V.; Mendez, Francis A.; Bastian, Nathaniel D.; Musal, R. Muzaffer

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript discusses the common confusion between the terms probability and odds. To emphasize the importance and responsibility of being meticulous in the dissemination of information and knowledge, this manuscript reveals five cases of sources of inaccurate statistical language imbedded in the dissemination of information to the general…

  17. The Alleged Oddness of Ethical Egoism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marietta, Don E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    There are some critics of ethical egoism who treat it seriously as an ethical doctrine, but consider it an odd approach. Examines this doctrine and suggests that if we are to have the benefit of egoism as a sound ethical approach, or rightly assess its inadequacies, we must first see it fairly. (Author/RK)

  18. (abstract) Odd Hydrogen in the Atmospheres of Earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nair, Hari; Allen, Mark; Yung, Yuk L.

    1994-01-01

    The Martian atmosphere has many features in common with the terrestrial mesosphere. Both share similar pressure and temperature ranges, and much of the same chemistry operates in each. For example, the radical species H, OH, and H(sub 2)O, which comprise the odd hydrogen family, are of central importance in the catalytic destruction of CO and O(sub 3) in both atmospheres. The inclusion of recent chemical kinetics data, specifically temperature dependent CO(sub 2) absorption cross-sections, into our one dimensional photochemical model of the Martial atmosphere shows that oxidation of CO by odd hydrogen is too efficient. The incorporation of smaller cross sections for CO(sub 2) leads to an enhanced photolysis rate of water vapor, increasing odd hydrogen to the point where the predicted mixing ratio of CO in our model is substantially less than the observed value of 6.5 x 10(sup -4). Interestingly, most photochemical models of the terrestrial mesosphere underestimate the CO and O(sub 3) densities using currently accepted photodissociation and kinetic rate coefficients. This has also been attributed to an overabundance of odd hydrogen in the models. We shall show that agreement between models and observations of CO in the Martian atmosphere as well as of CO and O(sub 3) in the terrestrial mesosphere can be achieved by revising the rate constants for the reactions OH + HO(sub 2) and CO + OH within their published uncertainties. The fact that similar revisions alleviate discrepancies in both the terrestrial and Martian atmospheres warrants a re-evaluation of these key rate constants at the appropriate temperatures and pressures.

  19. A Randomized Trial of Long-Term Reinforcement of Cocaine Abstinence in Methadone-Maintained Patients Who Inject Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Kenneth; Robles, Elias; Mudric, Timothy; Bigelow, George E.; Stitzer, Maxine L.

    2004-01-01

    This study determined whether long-term abstinence reinforcement could maintain cocaine abstinence throughout a yearlong period. Patients who injected drugs and used cocaine during methadone treatment (n = 78) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 abstinence-reinforcement groups or to a usual care control group. Participants in the 2…

  20. Emotional intelligence, risk perception in abstinent cocaine dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Romero-Ayuso, Dulce; Mayoral-Gontán, Yolanda; Triviño-Juárez, José-Matías

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine is now responsible for the second-highest number of cessation intervention requests. In this study we analyze the different skills of emotional intelligence in cocaine- dependent patients maintaining abstinence. The Mayer- Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) and the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) were administered to 50 subjects (25 individuals with no history of drug use and 25 individuals in treatment at the Addictive Behaviors Unit in a state of withdrawal at the time of evaluation). The results showed differences between these groups in overall emotional intelligence quotient, strategic emotional intelligence, understanding emotions and emotional management. Cocaine-addicted participants showed difficulties in analyzing complex emotions and regulating their emotional response, aspects that can interfere with interactions in daily life.

  1. Alcohol and pregnancy: do abstinence policies have unintended consequences?

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Colleen M

    2012-01-01

    Most policies and guidelines recommend that women abstain from alcohol during pregnancy. This can be difficult to achieve in developed nations where the majority of women consume alcohol and almost half of pregnancies are unplanned, leading to many pregnancies being exposed to alcohol prior to pregnancy awareness. Concerns have been raised that abstinence policies may lead women in this situation to terminate their pregnancy out of fear that they have harmed their baby; however, the evidence is limited. A recent study found that while few women reported alcohol as the reason for seeking an abortion, in almost all cases where alcohol was the reason, the women were either binge drinking or reported alcohol-related problems and the pregnancy was unplanned.

  2. Nonpharmacologic Management of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: An Integrative Review.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Lindy; Brown, Lisa F

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) affects 3.39 in every 1,000 live births. A literature review was conducted to determine the varying types of nonpharmacologic management being used currently and its effect on the treatment of NAS symptoms. Fourteen articles were found that used nonpharmacologic management in the treatment of NAS. Therapies included breastfeeding, positioning, rooming-in, acupuncture/acupressure, and beds. Each of the nonpharmacologic therapies in these articles, with the exception of rocking beds, was shown to have a positive effect on the newborn with NAS. These effects include a shorter length of stay, a decrease in NAS scores, a decrease need for pharmacologic treatment, less agitation, a better quality of sleep, and a decrease in the severity of NAS symptoms. This review article shows that nonpharmacologic management is an effective tool for NAS symptom treatment. PMID:27636695

  3. The abstinence violation effect and very low calorie diet success.

    PubMed

    Mooney, J P; Burling, T A; Hartman, W M; Brenner-Liss, D

    1992-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between Marlatt and Gordon's (1985) Abstinence Violation Effect (AVE) and fasting outcomes of patients enrolled in a Very Low Calorie Diet (VLCD) and behavior education program. Within the first 11 weeks of the VLCD, 41 of 76 patients reported a fasting lapse and rated this lapse on an attribution scale. Patients reporting greater characterological attributions for their first lapse (i.e., a higher AVE) lost a smaller percentage of their excess weight during active fasting than patients reporting more situational attributions r(39) = -.36, p less than .025. First lapse AVE ratings did not distinguish between program dropout versus completer status, but high AVE dropouts did spend fewer weeks in the VLCD program than low AVE dropouts, r(12) = -.54, p less than .05. Although a faster's initial level of obesity accounted for the largest portion of weight loss outcome variance, the AVE accounted for a significant additional portion of outcome.

  4. Long-Term Outcomes of Infants with Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Denise J; Taylor, Susan; Armstrong, Kathleen; Shaffer-Hudkins, Emily; Germain, Aaron M; Brooks, Sandra S; Cline, Genieveve J; Clark, Leah

    2016-01-01

    Parents of infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) in the NICU may have questions about the long-term consequences of prenatal exposure to methadone, both asked and unasked. Although the signs of withdrawal will abate relatively quickly, parents should be aware of potential vision, motor, and behavioral/cognitive problems, as well as sleeping disturbances and ear infections so their infants can be followed closely and monitored by their pediatrician with appropriate referrals made. Furthermore, this knowledge may inspire parents to enroll their infants in an early intervention program to help optimize their outcomes. There are still many unanswered questions about epigenetic consequences, risk for child abuse/neglect, and risk of future substance abuse in this population. PMID:27636691

  5. Emotional intelligence, risk perception in abstinent cocaine dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Romero-Ayuso, Dulce; Mayoral-Gontán, Yolanda; Triviño-Juárez, José-Matías

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine is now responsible for the second-highest number of cessation intervention requests. In this study we analyze the different skills of emotional intelligence in cocaine- dependent patients maintaining abstinence. The Mayer- Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) and the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) were administered to 50 subjects (25 individuals with no history of drug use and 25 individuals in treatment at the Addictive Behaviors Unit in a state of withdrawal at the time of evaluation). The results showed differences between these groups in overall emotional intelligence quotient, strategic emotional intelligence, understanding emotions and emotional management. Cocaine-addicted participants showed difficulties in analyzing complex emotions and regulating their emotional response, aspects that can interfere with interactions in daily life. PMID:27099213

  6. Attributes that Differentiate Children Who Sip Alcohol from Abstinent Peers

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Christine; Ennett, Susan T.; Dickinson, Denise M.; Bowling, J. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Sipping alcohol during childhood may be a marker of differentiation as regards children’s future risk of underage drinking; yet very little is known about alcohol use when it occurs among elementary school-aged children. The purpose of the present study is to examine alcohol sipping behavior in a sample of third-grade school children to learn whether sipping is associated with attributes that could increase children’s likelihood of further underage drinking. We collected telephone interview data from 1050 mothers and their third grade children (mean age 9.2 years; 48.2% male) residing in the Southeastern United States. The majority of mothers were White non-Hispanic (69.02%) or Black non-Hispanic (21.3%); most (85%) lived in households shared with fathers or other adult caretakers. We hypothesized that children who sip alcohol would score lower than abstinent peers on indicators of competence and score higher on indicators of exposure to alcohol-specific socialization by parents and peers. A multivariate model controlling for frequency of parent alcohol use and demographic covariates showed that children who had sipped alcohol were significantly less likely than abstinent peers to affirm indicators of competence and significantly more likely to affirm indicators of exposure to alcohol specific socialization by parents and by same age peers. These preliminary findings suggest that developmental attributes associated with risk of underage drinking begin to differentiate at least as young as middle childhood. Research is needed to test prospectively for continuity between alcohol risk attributes present in middle childhood and future alcohol use. PMID:23224982

  7. Systematic Review of Abstinence-Plus HIV Prevention Programs in High-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Underhill, Kristen; Operario, Don; Montgomery, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Background Abstinence-plus (comprehensive) interventions promote sexual abstinence as the best means of preventing HIV, but also encourage condom use and other safer-sex practices. Some critics of abstinence-plus programs have suggested that promoting safer sex along with abstinence may undermine abstinence messages or confuse program participants; conversely, others have suggested that promoting abstinence might undermine safer-sex messages. We conducted a systematic review to investigate the effectiveness of abstinence-plus interventions for HIV prevention among any participants in high-income countries as defined by the World Bank. Methods and Findings Cochrane Collaboration systematic review methods were used. We included randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of abstinence-plus programs for HIV prevention among any participants in any high-income country; trials were included if they reported behavioural or biological outcomes. We searched 30 electronic databases without linguistic or geographical restrictions to February 2007, in addition to contacting experts, hand-searching conference abstracts, and cross-referencing papers. After screening 20,070 abstracts and 325 full published and unpublished papers, we included 39 trials that included approximately 37,724 North American youth. Programs were based in schools (10), community facilities (24), both schools and community facilities (2), health care facilities (2), and family homes (1). Control groups varied. All outcomes were self-reported. Quantitative synthesis was not possible because of heterogeneity across trials in programs and evaluation designs. Results suggested that many abstinence-plus programs can reduce HIV risk as indicated by self-reported sexual behaviours. Of 39 trials, 23 found a protective program effect on at least one sexual behaviour, including abstinence, condom use, and unprotected sex (baseline n = 19,819). No trial found adverse program effects on any behavioural outcome

  8. Effect of abstinence on left ventricular performance in asymptomatic chronic alcoholics

    SciTech Connect

    Slutsky, R.; Berger, F.; Garver, P.

    1983-08-01

    Twelve asymptomatic men who were chronic alcoholics (42.3+-10.7 years, mean age +- 1 SD) underwent supine bicycle exercise and gated cardiac blood pool imaging 4-7 days after alcohol withdrawal and then again 32-65 days after abstinence (42.2+-15.0 days). Workloads and exercise stages were identical during both exercise studies. Rest and exercise heart rates, blood pressures, cardiac outputs, double products, and systemic vascular resistances were similar in both studies. Ejection fraction (EF) was higher after abstinence at peak exercise (0,68+-0,07 vs. 0.61+-0.08 P<0.05); end-systolic volume (ESV) was smaller at rest and at peak exercise after abstinence (P<0.05). During the first exercise study, 6 of 12 (50%) subjects did not increase their EF by 0.05 units and 4 of 12 (33%) had no EF increase after abstinence. Even the original ''normal'' responders had greater rest and exercise EFs after abstinence. In the first exercise study end diastolic volume (EDV) rose during exercise (P<0.05) while ESV did not change. After abstinence, EDV did not change during exercise, while ESV declined (P<0.05). These results show that latent cardiac dysfunction exists in asymptomatic chronic alcoholics, which is partially although not completely resolved by abstinence of brief periods.

  9. Reduced Influence of Monetary Incentives on Go/NoGo Performance During Smoking Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Nicole J.; Geier, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Smokers may experience decreased sensitivity to nondrug incentives during acute smoking deprivation. This decreased sensitivity may undermine attempts to encourage continued abstinence by enhancing cognitive processes through the use of monetary incentives. This study assessed whether the capacity for monetary incentives to enhance cognitive performance was compromised in nicotine-deprived smokers. Method: Eighteen smokers performed an incentivized Go/NoGo task on 2 occasions, once after smoking as usual prior to the session, and once after undergoing 12-hr abstinence. Participants could earn up to $5.00 ($2.50 per session) based on their performance on reward blocks of the Go/NoGo task. Results: Performance was significantly more accurate on incentivized NoGo, frequent-Go, and infrequent-Go trials relative to neutral trials during the smoke as usual session. Participants also produced fewer premature, impulsive responses on rewarded versus neutral blocks during the smoke as usual session. No significant difference between reward and neutral blocks was observed on any of the 4 performance indices during the abstinent session. Conclusions: The ability for monetary incentives to enhance inhibitory control may be compromised during acute abstinence in smokers. These findings may have implications for contingency management treatment programs which are thought to promote continued abstinence partly by facilitating the allocation of cognitive resources to processes that encourage continued abstinence by increasing the value associated with continued abstinence. PMID:25542919

  10. A qualitative study of methamphetamine users' perspectives on barriers and facilitators of drug abstinence.

    PubMed

    Herbeck, Diane M; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Christou, Dayna; Lovinger, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    To better understand methamphetamine (MA) use patterns and the process of recovery, qualitative interviews were conducted with adult MA users (n = 20), comparing a sample that received substance abuse treatment with those who had not received treatment. Respondents provided detailed information on why and how they changed from use to abstinence and factors they considered to be barriers to abstinence. Audio recordings and transcripts were reviewed for common themes. Participants reported a range of mild/moderate to intensely destructive problems, including loss of important relationships and profound changes to who they felt they were at their core; e.g., "I didn't realize how dark and mean I was … I was like a different person." Initial abstinence was often facilitated by multiple external forces (e.g., drug testing, child custody issues, prison, relocation), but sustained abstinence was attributed to shifts in thinking and salient realizations about using. The treatment group reported using more and different resources to maintain their abstinence than the no-treatment group. Findings indicate individualized interventions and multiple, simultaneous approaches and resources were essential in reaching stable abstinence. Understanding long-term users' experiences with MA use, addiction, and abstinence can inform strategies for engaging and sustaining MA users in treatment and recovery. PMID:25052880

  11. A Qualitative Study of Methamphetamine Users’ Perspectives on Barriers and Facilitators of Drug Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Herbeck, Diane M.; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Christou, Dayna; Lovinger, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    To better understand methamphetamine (MA) use patterns and the process of recovery, qualitative interviews were conducted with adult MA users (n=20), comparing a sample that received substance abuse treatment with those who had not received treatment. Respondents provided detailed information on why and how they changed from use to abstinence, and factors they considered to be barriers to abstinence. Audio recordings and transcripts were reviewed for common themes. Participants reported a range of mild/moderate to intensely destructive problems, including loss of important relationships and profound changes to who they felt they were at their core, e.g., “I didn’t realize how dark and mean I was... I was like a different person.” Initial abstinence was often facilitated by multiple external forces (e.g., drug testing, child custody issues, prison, relocation), but sustained abstinence was attributed to shifts in thinking and salient realizations about using. The treatment group reported using more and different resources to maintain their abstinence than the no treatment group. Findings indicate individualized interventions and multiple, simultaneous approaches and resources were essential in reaching stable abstinence. Understanding long-term users’ experiences with MA use, addiction and abstinence can inform strategies for engaging and sustaining MA users in treatment and recovery. PMID:25052880

  12. Genetic markers associated with abstinence length in alcohol-dependent subjects treated with acamprosate

    PubMed Central

    Karpyak, V M; Biernacka, J M; Geske, J R; Jenkins, G D; Cunningham, J M; Rüegg, J; Kononenko, O; Leontovich, A A; Abulseoud, O A; Hall-Flavin, D K; Loukianova, L L; Schneekloth, T D; Skime, M K; Frank, J; Nöthen, M M; Rietschel, M; Kiefer, F; Mann, K F; Weinshilboum, R M; Frye, M A; Choi, D S

    2014-01-01

    Acamprosate supports abstinence in some alcohol-dependent subjects, yet predictors of response are unknown. To identify response biomarkers, we investigated associations of abstinence length with polymorphisms in candidate genes in glycine and glutamate neurotransmission pathways and genes previously implicated in acamprosate response. Association analyses were conducted in the discovery sample of 225 alcohol-dependent subjects treated with acamprosate for 3 months in community-based treatment programs in the United States. Data from 110 alcohol-dependent males treated with acamprosate in the study PREDICT were used for replication of the top association findings. Statistical models were adjusted for relevant covariates, including recruitment site and baseline clinical variables associated with response. In the discovery sample, shorter abstinence was associated with increased intensity of alcohol craving and lower number of days between the last drink and initiation of acamprosate treatment. After adjustment for covariates, length of abstinence was associated with the GRIN2B rs2058878 (P=4.6 × 10−5). In the replication sample, shorter abstinence was associated with increased craving, increased depressive mood score and higher alcohol consumption. Association of abstinence length with GRIN2B rs2058878 was marginally significant (P=0.0675); as in the discovery sample, the minor A allele was associated with longer abstinence. Furthermore, rs2300272, which is in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs2058878, was also associated with abstinence length (P=0.049). This is the first report of a replicated association of genetic markers with the length of abstinence in acamprosate-treated alcoholics. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms of this association and its usefulness for individualized treatment selection should follow. PMID:25290263

  13. Stratospheric distributions of odd nitrogen and odd hydrogen in a two-dimensional model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, R. G.; Alyea, F. N.; Cunnold, D. M.

    1975-01-01

    A two-dimensional pole-to-pole chemical model of the stratosphere is developed which extends from 8 to 38 km in altitude. Atmospheric motions are simulated by mean vertical and meridional winds and eddy diffusion coefficients. Seasonally averaged distributions of important odd nitrogen (NO, NO2, and HNO3) and odd hydrogen (H, OH, HO2, H2O2) compounds are computed. Photodissociation of N2O leads to production of odd nitrogen in the stratosphere, and the odd nitrogen is ultimately removed by downward transport into the troposphere and by rain-out (modeled by a rain-out lifetime of 30 days below 8-km altitude). Results are presented for a quasi-steady state in which seasonal cycles repeat themselves. These results show significant latitudinal as well as vertical variations in the predicted species which emphasize the need for at least two dimensions in accurate stratospheric modeling. Computed concentrations are compared with observations when they exist.

  14. The effects of moderate drinking and abstinence on serum and urinary beta-hexosaminidase levels.

    PubMed

    Kärkkäinen, P; Jokelainen, K; Roine, R; Suokas, A; Salaspuro, M

    1990-02-01

    The effects of moderate alcohol intake on serum (SHEX)- and urinary beta-hexosaminidase (UHEX) were studied in ten healthy volunteers, who ingested 60 g of 100% ethanol daily for 10 days. The drinking period was preceded and followed by an abstinence period. Moderate drinking and abstinence were rapidly and significantly reflected on SHEX, while UHEX levels did not change significantly during the study. Gramma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) decreased during the first abstinence period (P less than 0.05), but stayed thereafter at a constant level. It is concluded that SHEX may better reflect recent alcohol consumption than UHEX, GGT, ASAT or ALAT.

  15. Study of Even-Even/Odd-Even/Odd-Odd Nuclei in Zn-Ga-Ge Region in the Proton-Neutron IBM/IBFM/IBFFM

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, N.; Brant, S.; Zuffi, L.

    2009-08-26

    We study the even-even, odd-even and odd-odd nuclei in the region including Zn-Ga-Ge in the proton-neutron IBM and the models derived from it: IBM2, IBFM2, IBFFM2. We describe {sup 67}Ga, {sup 65}Zn, and {sup 68}Ga by coupling odd particles to a boson core {sup 66}Zn. We also calculate the beta{sup +}-decay rates among {sup 68}Ge, {sup 68}Ga and {sup 68}Zn.

  16. Effects of Smoking Abstinence, Smoking Cues and Nicotine Replacement in Smokers with Schizophrenia and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Tidey, Jennifer W.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Kaplan, Gary B.; Swift, Robert M.; Adolfo, Amy B.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the low smoking cessation rates among smokers with schizophrenia (SS) are unknown. In this laboratory study, we compared the responses of 21 SS and 21 non-psychiatric controls (CS) to manipulations of 5-hour smoking abstinence, transdermal nicotine replacement (0, 21 and 42 mg), and in vivo smoking cues. Results indicate that SS were more sensitive than CS to the effects of acute abstinence on CO boost, but not more sensitive to the effects of abstinence on urge levels or withdrawal symptoms. SS and CS did not differ in urge response to in vivo smoking cues, but SS were less consistent in their reactions. These findings suggest that heightened sensitivity to the effects of abstinence on smoke intake may partially account for the low cessation rates experienced by SS, but other potential mechanisms should be explored using behavioral laboratory models. PMID:18584468

  17. Odd-parity D states in He.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.

    1972-01-01

    The states considered lie below the n = 2 threshold of He(+) and decay radiatively to the lower states. The most general D-state wave function of odd parity of two electrons is examined. The results presented are optimized with respect to four nonlinear parameters for 112 terms. A mass-polarization correction is given for all the states listed. The positions of the D states, including the reduced mass and the mass-polarization corrections, with respect to the ground state of He are reported.

  18. Incentive learning for morphine-associated stimuli during protracted abstinence increases conditioned drug preference.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rachel J; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory found that rats express increased preference for drug-paired stimuli following 2 or 5 weeks of protracted abstinence from chronic drug exposure as compared with naive animals. Here, we show that this increased morphine place preference depends upon experiencing drug-stimulus pairings specifically in the abstinent state, indicating a critical role for incentive learning. Male Sprague Dawley rats were initially conditioned for morphine place preference (8 mg/kg) and then made dependent on morphine (by subcutaneous morphine pellets) and subjected to forced abstinence. Place preference was tested every 1-2 weeks with no additional drug-cue conditioning. In this paradigm, there was no difference between morphine-pelleted (dependent) and placebo-pelleted (non-dependent) rats in place preference at any time during abstinence (up to 6 weeks). However, these same morphine-pelleted rats expressed significantly increased preference when they were subsequently re-conditioned for morphine place preference during protracted abstinence. Placebo-pelleted rats did not show enhanced preference after re-conditioning. These findings reveal that incentive learning has a key role in increased morphine place preference when drug is experienced during protracted abstinence. This indicates that incentive learning is involved not only in instrumental responding (as previously reported), but also in updating Pavlovian-conditioned responses to morphine-associated stimuli. Therefore, enhanced morphine preference is not a direct consequence of the negative affective state of abstinence, but instead reflects increased acquisition of morphine-stimulus associations during abstinence. These results indicate that, during the development of addiction in humans, drug-associated stimuli acquire increasingly stronger incentive properties each time they are re-experienced.

  19. “That's Nasty” to Curiosity: Early Adolescent Cognitions about Sexual Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Mary A.; Pfeiffer, Elizabeth J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Effective sex education for early adolescents should make use of age-appropriate cultural models about sexual abstinence. However, little is known about how early adolescents view this topic. We describe developmental differences in cognitions about sexual abstinence among high risk early adolescents. Methods After IRB approval and informed consent, we interviewed twenty-two 11-14 year-olds, using a qualitative, two-stage interview. Participants were first asked a series of open-ended questions about sexual abstinence, and then asked to explain their answers. Interviews were transcribed, organized by age, and read in their entirety. Codes were developed from the literature, field notes, and transcripts. Key concepts were identified and models were developed with a focus on developmental change. Results We observed three distinct views of sexual abstinence, “That's Nasty,” “Curious,” and Normative. All viewed abstinence as a starting point and sex as a transition to adulthood. “That's Nasty” participants identified sex as distasteful, displayed limited understanding of sex, and viewed abstinence as appropriate for kids like themselves. Curious participants expressed a desire for information about sex, and a sense of missing something important. Normative participants viewed the transition from abstinence to sexual experience as part of a normal, albeit challenging, transition to adulthood. Conclusions Participants demonstrated differences in cognitions about sexual abstinence, related to age and development. The transition from viewing sex as distasteful to curiosity appears to be a time of both vulnerability and openness, and may provide an opportunity for intervention. PMID:19465322

  20. Abstinence from chronic cocaine self-administration alters striatal dopamine systems in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, Thomas J R; Smith, Hilary R; Nader, Michael A; Porrino, Linda J

    2009-04-01

    Although dysregulation within the dopamine (DA) system is a hallmark feature of chronic cocaine exposure, the question of whether these alterations persist into abstinence remains largely unanswered. Nonhuman primates represent an ideal model in which to assess the effects of abstinence on the DA system following chronic cocaine exposure. In this study, male rhesus monkeys self-administered cocaine (0.3 mg/kg per injection, 30 reinforcers per session) under a fixed-interval 3-min schedule for 100 days followed by either 30 or 90 days abstinence. This duration of cocaine self-administration has been previously shown to decrease DA D2-like receptor densities and increase levels of D1-like receptors and DA transporters (DAT). Responding by control monkeys was maintained by food presentation under an identical protocol and the same abstinence periods. [(3)H]SCH 23390 binding to DA D1 receptors following 30 days of abstinence was significantly higher in all portions of the striatum, compared to control animals, whereas [(3)H]raclopride binding to DA D2 receptors was not different between groups. [(3)H]WIN 35 428 binding to DAT was also significantly higher throughout virtually all portions of the dorsal and ventral striatum following 30 days of abstinence. Following 90 days of abstinence, however, levels of DA D1 receptors and DAT were not different from control values. Although these results indicate that there is eventual recovery of the separate elements of the DA system, they also highlight the dynamic nature of these components during the initial phases of abstinence from chronic cocaine self-administration. PMID:18769473

  1. Genetic and behavioral determinants of hippocampal volume recovery during abstinence from alcohol.

    PubMed

    Hoefer, Michael E; Pennington, David L; Durazzo, Timothy C; Mon, Anderson; Abé, Christoph; Truran, Diana; Hutchison, Kent E; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2014-11-01

    Alcohol-dependent individuals (ALC) have smaller hippocampi and poorer neurocognition than healthy controls. Results from studies on the association between alcohol consumption and hippocampal volume have been mixed, suggesting that comorbid or premorbid factors (i.e., those present prior to the initiation of alcohol dependence) determine hippocampal volume in ALC. We aimed to characterize the effects of select comorbid (i.e., cigarette smoking) and premorbid factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF] genotype [Val66Met rs6265]) on hippocampal volume in an ALC cohort followed longitudinally into extended abstinence. One hundred twenty-one adult ALC in treatment (76 smokers, 45 non-smokers) and 35 non-smoking light-drinking controls underwent quantitative magnetic resonance imaging, BDNF genotyping, and neurocognitive assessments. Representative subgroups were studied at 1 week, 1 month, and at an average of 7 months of abstinence. ALC had smaller hippocampi than healthy controls at all time points. Hippocampal volume at 1 month of abstinence correlated with lower visuospatial function. Smoking status did not influence hippocampal volume or hippocampal volume recovery during abstinence. However, only BDNF Val homozygotes tended to have hippocampal volume increases over 7 months of abstinence, and Val homozygotes had significantly larger hippocampi than Met carriers at 7 months of abstinence. These findings suggest that BDNF genotype, but not smoking status or measures of drinking severity, regulate functionally relevant hippocampal volume recovery in abstinent ALC. Future studies aimed at exploring genetic determinants of brain morphometry in ALC may need to evaluate individuals during extended abstinence after the acute environmental effects of chronic alcohol consumption have waned.

  2. Enhanced T-odd, P-odd electromagnetic moments in reflection asymmetric nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Spevak, V.; Auerbach, N.; Flambaum, V.V.

    1997-09-01

    Collective P- and T-odd moments produced by parity and time invariance violating forces in reflection asymmetric nuclei are considered. The enhanced collective Schiff, electric dipole, and octupole moments appear due to the mixing of rotational levels of opposite parity. These moments can exceed single-particle moments by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The enhancement is due to the collective nature of the intrinsic moments and the small energy separation between members of parity doublets. In turn these nuclear moments induce enhanced T- and P-odd effects in atoms and molecules. A simple estimate is given and a detailed theoretical treatment of the collective T-, P-odd electric moments in reflection asymmetric, odd-mass nuclei is presented. In the present work we improve on the simple liquid drop model by evaluating the Strutinsky shell correction and include corrections due to pairing. Calculations are performed for octupole deformed long-lived odd-mass isotopes of Rn, Fr, Ra, Ac, and Pa and the corresponding atoms. Experiments with such atoms may improve substantially the limits on time reversal violation. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  3. Incubation of alcohol craving during abstinence in patients with alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Wu, Ping; Xin, Xue; Fan, Yun-Li; Wang, Gui-Bin; Wang, Fan; Ma, Meng-Ying; Xue, Ming-Ming; Luo, Yi-Xiao; Yang, Fu-De; Bao, Yan-Ping; Shi, Jie; Sun, Hong-Qiang; Lu, Lin

    2015-05-01

    Time-dependent increases in cue-induced nicotine and methamphetamine craving during abstinence were recently reported in human drug-dependent individuals. In the present study, we sought to determine whether this 'incubation of craving' phenomenon also occurs in alcoholics. Four groups of 80 inpatient adult male alcoholics were assessed in a single session (between-group design) for cue-induced alcohol craving at 7, 14, 30 and 60 days of abstinence. Another group that included 19 patients was repeatedly tested for cue-induced alcohol craving at the same abstinence days as above. Other psychological and physiological measures were assessed at the four abstinence timepoints. Cue-induced alcohol craving measured with visual analogue scales was the highest at 60 days of abstinence both between and within groups. However, heart rate, blood pressure and skin conductance responses did not differ between abstinent groups. These results provide evidence of the incubation of alcohol craving in humans, extending previous reports with smokers and methamphetamine addicts. PMID:24698092

  4. Daily marijuana users with past alcohol problems increase alcohol consumption during marijuana abstinence.

    PubMed

    Peters, Erica N; Hughes, John R

    2010-01-15

    Drug abuse treatment programs typically recommend complete abstinence because of a fear that clients who stop use of one drug will substitute another. A within-subjects study investigated whether consumption of alcohol and other substances changes during marijuana abstinence. Twenty-eight daily marijuana users who were not trying to stop or reduce their marijuana consumption completed an 8-day baseline period in which they used marijuana and other drugs as usual, a 13-day marijuana abstinence period, and a 7-day return-to-baseline period. Participants provided self-report of substance use daily and submitted urine samples twice weekly to verify marijuana abstinence. A diagnosis of past alcohol abuse or dependence significantly moderated the alcohol increase from baseline to marijuana abstinence (p<0.01), such that individuals with this diagnosis significantly increased alcohol use (52% increase) but those without this history did not (3% increase). Increases in marijuana withdrawal discomfort scores and alcohol craving scores from baseline to marijuana abstinence significantly and positively correlated with increases in alcohol use. Increases in cigarettes, caffeine, and non-marijuana illicit drugs did not occur. This study provides empirical validation of drug substitution in a subgroup of daily marijuana users, but results need to be replicated in individuals who seek treatment for marijuana problems.

  5. Environmental enrichment and abstinence attenuate ketamine-induced cardiac and renal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingxing; Li, Shuangyan; Zheng, Wenhui; Pan, Jian; Huang, Kunyu; Chen, Rong; Pan, Tonghe; Liao, Guorong; Chen, Zhongming; Zhou, Dongsheng; Shen, Wenwen; Zhou, Wenhua; Liu, Yu

    2015-06-26

    The current study was designed to investigate the effect of abstinence in combination with environmental enrichment (EE) on cardiac and renal toxicity induced by 2 weeks of ketamine self-administration (SA) in rodents. In Experiment 1, one group of rats underwent ketamine SA for 14 days. In Experiment 2, the animals completed 2 weeks of ketamine SA followed by 2 and 4 weeks of abstinence. In Experiment 3, animals underwent 14 days of ketamine SA and 4 weeks of abstinence in which isolated environment (IE) and EE was introduced. The corresponding control groups were included for each experiment. Two weeks of ketamine SA caused significant increases in organ weight, Apoptosis Stimulating Fragment/Kidney Injury Molecule-1, and apoptotic level of heart and kidney. The extended length of withdrawal from ketamine SA partially reduced toxicity on the heart and kidney. Finally, introduction of EE during the period of abstinence greatly promoted the effect of abstinence on ketamine-induced cardiac and renal toxicity. The interactive effect of EE and abstinence was promising to promote the recovery of cardiac and renal toxicity of ketamine.

  6. Transdermal nicotine patch enhances type I collagen synthesis in abstinent smokers.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Lars T; Jorgensen, Lars N; Zillmer, Rikke; Vange, Jakob; Hemmingsen, Ulla; Gottrup, Finn

    2006-01-01

    Cigarette smokers deposit less collagen, expressed as hydroxyproline, in granulation tissue than nonsmokers. We studied the effect of abstinence from smoking and transdermal nicotine patches on deposition of hydroxyproline, proline, type I procollagen, and total proteins. Fifty-four healthy smokers were studied during 10 days of smoking and again from days 10 to 20 following smoking cessation. After the first 10 days of abstinence they were randomized to double-blind treatment with transdermal nicotine patches of 25 mg/day or placebo for a period of 10 days. During this period and during smoking, an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene tube was implanted into the subcutis. Following removal of the implant, total amino acids and peptides were extracted. Hydroxyproline and proline were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography, type I procollagen was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunoassay, and total proteins were determined colorimetrically. In the 39 subjects who complied with the study protocol, abstinence from smoking did not affect the deposition of hydroxyproline, proline, type I procollagen, or total protein in the implants. During abstinence, the type I procollagen level increased by 18% in the transdermal nicotine patches group and decreased by 10% in the placebo group (p<0.05). We conclude that 20 days of abstinence from smoking does not affect collagen deposition in granulation tissue. However, in abstinent smokers, transdermal nicotine patches appears to increase type I collagen synthesis.

  7. Acute withdrawal, protracted abstinence and negative affect in alcoholism: Are they linked?

    PubMed Central

    Heilig, M.; Egli, M.; Crabbe, J.C.; Becker, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    The role of withdrawal-related phenomena in development and maintenance of alcohol addiction remains under debate. A “self-medication” framework postulates that emotional changes are induced by a history of alcohol use, persist into abstinence, and are a major factor in maintaining alcoholism. This view initially focused on negative emotional states during early withdrawal: these are pronounced, occur in the vast majority of alcohol dependent patients, and are characterized by depressed mood and elevated anxiety. This concept lost popularity with the realization that, in most patients, these symptoms abate over 3 – 6 weeks of abstinence, while relapse risk persists long beyond this period. More recently, animal data have established that a prolonged history of alcohol dependence induces more subtle neuroadaptations. These confer altered emotional processing that persists long into protracted abstinence. The resulting behavioral phenotype is characterized by excessive voluntary alcohol intake and increased behavioral sensitivity to stress. Emerging human data support the clinical relevance of negative emotionality for protracted abstinence and relapse. These developments prompt a series of research questions: 1) Are processes observed during acute withdrawal, while transient in nature, mechanistically related to those that remain during protracted abstinence? 2) Is susceptibility to negative emotionality in acute withdrawal in part due to heritable factors, similar to what animal models have indicated for susceptibility to physical aspects of withdrawal? 3) To what extent is susceptibility to negative affect that persists into protracted abstinence heritable? PMID:20148778

  8. Internet-based group contingency management to promote abstinence from cigarette smoking: A feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, Steven E.; Grabinski, Michael J.; Dallery, Jesse

    2011-01-01

    Background In contingency management (CM) interventions, monetary consequences are contingent on evidence of drug abstinence. Typically, these consequences are contingent on individual performance. Consequences contingent on group performance may promote social support (e.g., praise). Methods Thus, to combine social support with the monetary incentives of CM, we integrated independent and interdependent group contingencies of reinforcement into an Internet-based intervention to promote smoking abstinence. Breath carbon monoxide (CO) measures were compared between treatment conditions and a baseline control condition. Thirteen participants were divided into 5 groups or “teams” (n = 2–3 per team). Each participant submitted video recordings of CO measurement twice daily via the Internet. Teammates could monitor each other’s progress and communicate with one another through an online peer support forum. During a 4-day tapering condition, vouchers exchangeable for goods were contingent on gradual reductions in breath CO. During a 10-day abstinence induction condition, vouchers were contingent on abstinence (CO ≤4 ppm). In both treatment conditions, concurrent independent and interdependent group contingencies were arranged (i.e., a mixed contingency arrangement). Results Less than 1% of CO samples submitted during baseline were ≤4 ppm, compared to 57% submitted during abstinence induction. Sixty-five percent of participants’ comments on the online peer support forum were rated as positive by independent observers. Participants rated the intervention favorably on a treatment acceptability questionnaire. Conclusion The results suggest that the intervention is feasible and acceptable for promoting abstinence from cigarette smoking. PMID:21414733

  9. Incubation of alcohol craving during abstinence in patients with alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Wu, Ping; Xin, Xue; Fan, Yun-Li; Wang, Gui-Bin; Wang, Fan; Ma, Meng-Ying; Xue, Ming-Ming; Luo, Yi-Xiao; Yang, Fu-De; Bao, Yan-Ping; Shi, Jie; Sun, Hong-Qiang; Lu, Lin

    2015-05-01

    Time-dependent increases in cue-induced nicotine and methamphetamine craving during abstinence were recently reported in human drug-dependent individuals. In the present study, we sought to determine whether this 'incubation of craving' phenomenon also occurs in alcoholics. Four groups of 80 inpatient adult male alcoholics were assessed in a single session (between-group design) for cue-induced alcohol craving at 7, 14, 30 and 60 days of abstinence. Another group that included 19 patients was repeatedly tested for cue-induced alcohol craving at the same abstinence days as above. Other psychological and physiological measures were assessed at the four abstinence timepoints. Cue-induced alcohol craving measured with visual analogue scales was the highest at 60 days of abstinence both between and within groups. However, heart rate, blood pressure and skin conductance responses did not differ between abstinent groups. These results provide evidence of the incubation of alcohol craving in humans, extending previous reports with smokers and methamphetamine addicts.

  10. Recovery of sexual function in abstinent alcoholic men.

    PubMed

    Van Thiel, D H; Gavaler, J S; Sanghvi, A

    1983-04-01

    Sixty chronically alcoholic men who were impotent and known to have abstained from alcohol were followed prospectively to determine (a) the frequency of spontaneous recovery of normal sexual functioning, (b) indicators of spontaneous recovery, and (c) the response of those who did not achieve a spontaneous recovery to agents known to interact with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Twenty-five percent of the men studied experienced a spontaneous recovery. Indicators of a spontaneous recovery were absence of testicular atrophy and normal gonadotropin responses to luteinizing hormone releasing factor or clomiphene, or both. Interestingly, the severity of the biochemical or histologic liver disease at admission to study did not have value in predicting endocrine responses or recovery of sexual functioning with continued abstinence. Those not recovering spontaneously were treated sequentially with clomiphene, human chorionic gonadotropin, and an oral exogenous androgen, fluoxymesterone. Only the androgen produced acceptable results and then only at unusually high doses, suggesting some degree of androgen insensitivity in such men.

  11. Is resilience relevant to smoking abstinence for Indigenous Australians?

    PubMed

    Tsourtos, George; Ward, Paul R; Lawn, Sharon; Winefield, Anthony H; Hersh, Deborah; Coveney, John

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence rate of tobacco smoking remains high for Australian Indigenous people despite declining rates in other Australian populations. Given many Indigenous Australians continue to experience a range of social and economic structural problems, stress could be a significant contributing factor to preventing smoking abstinence. The reasons why some Indigenous people have remained resilient to stressful adverse conditions, and not rely on smoking to cope as a consequence, may provide important insights and lessons for health promotion policy and practice. In-depth interviews were employed to collect oral histories from 31 Indigenous adults who live in metropolitan Adelaide. Participants were recruited according to smoking status (non-smokers were compared with current smokers to gain a greater depth of understanding of how some participants have abstained from smoking). Perceived levels of stress were associated with encouraging smoking behaviour. Many participants reported having different stresses compared with non-Indigenous Australians, with some participants reporting having additional stressors such as constantly experiencing racism. Resilience often occurred when participants reported drawing upon internal psychological assets such as being motivated to quit and where external social support was available. These findings are discussed in relation to a recently developed psycho-social interactive model of resilience, and how this resilience model can be improved regarding the historical and cultural context of Indigenous Australians' experience of smoking.

  12. Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Following Tianeptine Dependence During Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bence, Camille; Bonord, Alexandre; Rebillard, Camille; Vaast, Pascal; Alexandre, Charlotte; Jardri, Renaud; Rolland, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Tianeptine, an atypical antidepressant, has been found to exhibit a potential for abuse. The use of therapeutic doses of tianeptine during pregnancy has never raised safety concerns. However, the impact of tianeptine abuse on the mother-child dyad has never been assessed. We report herein the case of a female patient who presented with dependence on tianeptine, with the use of >650 mg of the drug per day. She had 2 successive pregnancies with similar doses. The state of dependence remained unidentified throughout the first pregnancy, but just after delivery, her full-term newborn exhibited unexpected neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). The NAS was successfully treated with morphine, although both the mother's and newborn's urine drug screen was negative. The causality of tianeptine in inducing NAS was retrospectively assessed as "probable" by using a validated causality algorithm. During the second pregnancy, this patient sought addiction treatment and was admitted for residential detoxification treatment in her seventh month of pregnancy. Delivery occurred at full term with a low birth weight neonate. No further developmental insults or medical problems were subsequently identified in the 2 children. Maternal tianeptine dependence during pregnancy may induce a type of NAS that mimics opiate NAS. This finding appears to be consistent with a recent finding of the agonist action of tianeptine on the opiate μ-receptor. PMID:26659818

  13. Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Following Tianeptine Dependence During Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bence, Camille; Bonord, Alexandre; Rebillard, Camille; Vaast, Pascal; Alexandre, Charlotte; Jardri, Renaud; Rolland, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Tianeptine, an atypical antidepressant, has been found to exhibit a potential for abuse. The use of therapeutic doses of tianeptine during pregnancy has never raised safety concerns. However, the impact of tianeptine abuse on the mother-child dyad has never been assessed. We report herein the case of a female patient who presented with dependence on tianeptine, with the use of >650 mg of the drug per day. She had 2 successive pregnancies with similar doses. The state of dependence remained unidentified throughout the first pregnancy, but just after delivery, her full-term newborn exhibited unexpected neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). The NAS was successfully treated with morphine, although both the mother's and newborn's urine drug screen was negative. The causality of tianeptine in inducing NAS was retrospectively assessed as "probable" by using a validated causality algorithm. During the second pregnancy, this patient sought addiction treatment and was admitted for residential detoxification treatment in her seventh month of pregnancy. Delivery occurred at full term with a low birth weight neonate. No further developmental insults or medical problems were subsequently identified in the 2 children. Maternal tianeptine dependence during pregnancy may induce a type of NAS that mimics opiate NAS. This finding appears to be consistent with a recent finding of the agonist action of tianeptine on the opiate μ-receptor.

  14. Comparative study of Gamow-Teller strength distributions in the odd-odd nucleus {sup 50}V and its impact on electron capture rates in astrophysical environments

    SciTech Connect

    Nabi, Jameel-Un; Sajjad, Muhammad

    2007-11-15

    Gamow-Teller (GT) strength transitions are an ideal probe for testing nuclear structure models. In addition to nuclear structure, GT transitions in nuclei directly affect the early phases of Type Ia and Type-II supernovae core collapse since the electron capture rates are partly determined by these GT transitions. In astrophysics, GT transitions provide an important input for model calculations and element formation during the explosive phase of a massive star at the end of its life-time. Recent nucleosynthesis calculations show that odd-odd and odd-A nuclei cause the largest contribution in the rate of change of lepton-to-baryon ratio. In the present manuscript, we have calculated the GT strength distributions and electron capture rates for odd-odd nucleus {sup 50}V by using the pn-QRPA theory. At present {sup 50}V is the first experimentally available odd-odd nucleus in fp-shell nuclei. We also compare our GT strength distribution with the recently measured results of a {sup 50}V(d, {sup 2}He){sup 50}Ti experiment, with the earlier work of Fuller, Fowler, and Newman (referred to as FFN) and subsequently with the large-scale shell model calculations. One curious finding of the paper is that the Brink's hypothesis, usually employed in large-scale shell model calculations, is not a good approximation to use at least in the case of {sup 50}V. SNe Ia model calculations performed using FFN rates result in overproduction of {sup 50}Ti, and were brought to a much acceptable value by employing shell model results. It might be interesting to study how the composition of the ejecta using presently reported QRPA rates compare with the observed abundances.

  15. Comparative study of Gamow-Teller strength distributions in the odd-odd nucleus V50 and its impact on electron capture rates in astrophysical environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabi, Jameel-Un; Sajjad, Muhammad

    2007-11-01

    Gamow-Teller (GT) strength transitions are an ideal probe for testing nuclear structure models. In addition to nuclear structure, GT transitions in nuclei directly affect the early phases of Type Ia and Type-II supernovae core collapse since the electron capture rates are partly determined by these GT transitions. In astrophysics, GT transitions provide an important input for model calculations and element formation during the explosive phase of a massive star at the end of its life-time. Recent nucleosynthesis calculations show that odd-odd and odd-A nuclei cause the largest contribution in the rate of change of lepton-to-baryon ratio. In the present manuscript, we have calculated the GT strength distributions and electron capture rates for odd-odd nucleus V50 by using the pn-QRPA theory. At present V50 is the first experimentally available odd-odd nucleus in fp-shell nuclei. We also compare our GT strength distribution with the recently measured results of a V50(d, He2)Ti50 experiment, with the earlier work of Fuller, Fowler, and Newman (referred to as FFN) and subsequently with the large-scale shell model calculations. One curious finding of the paper is that the Brink's hypothesis, usually employed in large-scale shell model calculations, is not a good approximation to use at least in the case of V50. SNe Ia model calculations performed using FFN rates result in overproduction of Ti50, and were brought to a much acceptable value by employing shell model results. It might be interesting to study how the composition of the ejecta using presently reported QRPA rates compare with the observed abundances.

  16. Soil clay content underlies prion infection odds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    David, Walter W.; Walsh, D.P.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; Winkelman, D.L.; Miller, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental factors-especially soil properties-have been suggested as potentially important in the transmission of infectious prion diseases. Because binding to montmorillonite (an aluminosilicate clay mineral) or clay-enriched soils had been shown to enhance experimental prion transmissibility, we hypothesized that prion transmission among mule deer might also be enhanced in ranges with relatively high soil clay content. In this study, we report apparent influences of soil clay content on the odds of prion infection in free-ranging deer. Analysis of data from prion-infected deer herds in northern Colorado, USA, revealed that a 1% increase in the clay-sized particle content in soils within the approximate home range of an individual deer increased its odds of infection by up to 8.9%. Our findings suggest that soil clay content and related environmental properties deserve greater attention in assessing risks of prion disease outbreaks and prospects for their control in both natural and production settings. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  17. Soil clay content underlies prion infection odds

    PubMed Central

    David Walter, W.; Walsh, Daniel P.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; Winkelman, Dana L.; Miller, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental factors—especially soil properties—have been suggested as potentially important in the transmission of infectious prion diseases. Because binding to montmorillonite (an aluminosilicate clay mineral) or clay-enriched soils had been shown to enhance experimental prion transmissibility, we hypothesized that prion transmission among mule deer might also be enhanced in ranges with relatively high soil clay content. In this study, we report apparent influences of soil clay content on the odds of prion infection in free-ranging deer. Analysis of data from prion-infected deer herds in northern Colorado, USA, revealed that a 1% increase in the clay-sized particle content in soils within the approximate home range of an individual deer increased its odds of infection by up to 8.9%. Our findings suggest that soil clay content and related environmental properties deserve greater attention in assessing risks of prion disease outbreaks and prospects for their control in both natural and production settings. PMID:21326232

  18. Sigma decomposition: the CP-odd Lagrangian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hierro, I. M.; Merlo, L.; Rigolin, S.

    2016-04-01

    In Alonso et al., JHEP 12 (2014) 034, the CP-even sector of the effective chiral Lagrangian for a generic composite Higgs model with a symmetric coset has been constructed, up to four momenta. In this paper, the CP-odd couplings are studied within the same context. If only the Standard Model bosonic sources of custodial symmetry breaking are considered, then at most six independent operators form a basis. One of them is the weak- θ term linked to non-perturbative sources of CP violation, while the others describe CP-odd perturbative couplings between the Standard Model gauge bosons and an Higgs-like scalar belonging to the Goldstone boson sector. The procedure is then applied to three distinct exemplifying frameworks: the original SU(5)/SO(5) Georgi-Kaplan model, the minimal custodial-preserving SO(5)/SO(4) model and the minimal SU(3)/(SU(2) × U(1)) model, which intrinsically breaks custodial symmetry. Moreover, the projection of the high-energy electroweak effective theory to the low-energy chiral effective Lagrangian for a dynamical Higgs is performed, uncovering strong relations between the operator coefficients and pinpointing the differences with the elementary Higgs scenario.

  19. Proton emission from the deformed odd-odd nuclei near drip line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patial, M.; Arumugam, P.; Jain, A. K.; Maglione, E.; Ferreira, L. S.

    2016-01-01

    Proton emission from odd-odd nuclei is studied within the two quasiparticle plus rotor model which includes the non-adiabatic effects and the residual interaction between valence proton and neutron. Justification of the formalism is discussed through corroboration of our results with the experimental spectrum of 180Ta. Exact calculations are performed to get the proton emission halflives. Our results for the proton emitter 130Eu leads to the assignment of spin and parity Jπ = 1+ for the ground state. The role of Coriolis and residual neutron-proton interactions on the proton emission halflives and their interplay are also discussed.

  20. Comparison of model results transporting the odd nitrogen family with results transporting separate odd nitrogen species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglass, Anne R.; Jackman, Charles H.; Stolarski, Richard S.

    1989-01-01

    A fast two-dimensional residual circulation stratospheric family transport model, designed to minimize computer requirements, is developed. The model was used to calculate the ambient and perturbed atmospheres in which odd nitrogen species are transported as a family, and the results were compared with calculations in which HNO3, N2O5, ClONO2, and HO2NO2 are transported separately. It was found that ozone distributions computed by the two models for a present-day atmosphere are nearly identical. Good agreement was also found between calculated species concentrations and the ozone response, indicating the general applicability of the odd-nitrogen family approximations.

  1. Shell Model Description of the Odd-Odd Co and Cu Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, N. H.; Allegro, P. R. P.; Oliveira, J. R. B. de; Ribas, R. V.; Seale, W. A.; Toufen, D. L.; Silveira, M. A. G.

    2007-10-26

    The known excited states of the odd-odd nuclei {sup 54,56,58,60}Co and 60,62,64,66Cu were interpreted in the framework of the large scale shell model (LSSM), using several effective interactions and configuration spaces. For the description of the negative parity states, we have allowed one particle excitation to the g{sub 9/2} orbital. The LSSM using the GXPF1 effective interaction reproduces well the first excited states in all of these nuclei.

  2. Effect of odd hydrogen on ozone depletion by chlorine reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, T. M.; Cicerone, R. J.; Liu, S. C.; Chameides, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    The present paper discusses how the shape of the ozone layer changes under the influence of injected ClX for several choices of two key HOx reaction rates. The two HOx reactions are: OH + HO2 yields H2O + O2 and O + HO2 yields OH + O2. Results of calculations are presented which show that the two reaction rates determine the stratospheric concentrations of OH and HO2, and that these concentrations regulate the amount by which the stratospheric ozone column can be reduced due to injections of odd chlorine. It is concluded that the amount of ozone reduction by a given mixing ratio of ClX will remain very uncertain until the significance of several possible feedback effects involving HOx in a chlorine-polluted atmosphere are determined and measurements of the reaction rates and HOx concentrations are made at the relevant temperatures.

  3. W$${'}$$ signatures with odd Higgs particles

    DOE PAGES

    Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Peterson, Andrea D.

    2014-08-13

    We point out that W' bosons may decay predominantly into Higgs particles associated with their broken gauge symmetry. We demonstrate this in a renormalizable model where the W' and W couplings to fermions differ only by an overall normalization. This "meta-sequential" W' boson decays into a scalar pair, with the charged one subsequently decaying into a W boson and a neutral scalar. These scalars are odd under a parity of the Higgs sector, which consists of a complex bidoublet and a doublet. Finally, the W' and Z' bosons have the same mass and branching fractions into scalars, and may showmore » up at the LHC in final states involving one or two electroweak bosons and missing transverse energy.« less

  4. W${'}$ signatures with odd Higgs particles

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Peterson, Andrea D.

    2014-08-13

    We point out that W' bosons may decay predominantly into Higgs particles associated with their broken gauge symmetry. We demonstrate this in a renormalizable model where the W' and W couplings to fermions differ only by an overall normalization. This "meta-sequential" W' boson decays into a scalar pair, with the charged one subsequently decaying into a W boson and a neutral scalar. These scalars are odd under a parity of the Higgs sector, which consists of a complex bidoublet and a doublet. Finally, the W' and Z' bosons have the same mass and branching fractions into scalars, and may show up at the LHC in final states involving one or two electroweak bosons and missing transverse energy.

  5. Airborne measurements of total reactive odd nitrogen (NO(y))

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebler, G.; Fahey, D. W.; Ridley, B. A.; Gregory, G. L.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.

    1992-01-01

    Airborne total reactive odd nitrogen measurements were made during August and September 1986 over the continental United States and off the west coast over the Pacific Ocean during NASA's Global Tropospheric Experiment/Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 2 program. Measurements were made in the marine and continental boundary layer and the free troposphere up to 6.1 km altitude. NO(y) mixing ratios between 24 pptv and more than 1 ppbv were found, with median values of 101 pptv in the marine boundary layer, 298 pptv in the marine free troposphere, and 288 pptv in the continental free troposphere, respectively. The marine troposphere exhibited layered structure which was also seen in the simultaneously measured ozone mixing ratio and dew point temperature. The averaged vertical NO(y) profile over the ocean does not show a distinct gradient. The NO(y) mixing ratio over the continent decreases with increasing altitude. The latter is consistent with our understanding that the continents are the major source region for these gases.

  6. ODD, ADHD, versus ODD+ADHD in Clinic and Community Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Sprafkin, Joyce; Schneider, Jayne; Nolan, Edith E.; Schwartz, Joseph; Weiss, Margaret D.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To seek evidence for the validity of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) as a behavioral syndrome in adults. Method: Two samples of adults, mental health outpatient clinic referrals (N = 490) and community controls (N = 900), completed a "Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders"--referenced rating scale and a brief…

  7. Modeling naturalistic craving, withdrawal, and affect during early nicotine abstinence: a pilot EMA study

    PubMed Central

    Bujarski, Spencer; Roche, Daniel J.O.; Sheets, Erin S.; Krull, Jennifer L.; Guzman, Iris; Ray, Lara A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the critical role of withdrawal, craving, and positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) in smoking relapse, relatively little is known about the temporal and predictive relationship between these constructs within the first day of abstinence. This pilot study aims to characterize dynamic changes in withdrawal, craving and affect over the course of early abstinence using ecological momentary assessment. Beginning immediately after smoking, moderate and heavy smoking participants (n = 15 per group) responded to hourly surveys assessing craving, withdrawal, NA, and PA. Univariate and multivariate multilevel random coefficient modeling was used to describe the progression of craving, withdrawal/NA and PA and to test correlations between these constructs at the subject-level over the course of early abstinence. Heavy smokers reported greater craving from 1–4 hours of abstinence and greater withdrawal/NA after 3 or more hours as compared to moderate smokers. Level of withdrawal/NA was strongly positively associated with craving, and PA was negatively correlated with craving, however the temporal dynamics of these correlations differed substantially. The association between withdrawal/NA and craving decreased over early abstinence, whereas the reverse was observed for PA. These findings can inform experimental studies of nicotine abstinence as well as their clinical applications to smoking cessation efforts. In particular, these results help to elucidate the role of PA in nicotine abstinence by demonstrating its independent association with nicotine craving over and above withdrawal/NA. If supported by future studies, these findings can refine experimental methods and clinical approaches for smoking cessation. PMID:25844632

  8. Borderline Personality Symptoms in Short-Term and Long-Term Abstinent Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Fein, George; Nip, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Background Comorbidity of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and Substance and Alcohol Use Disorders (SUDs and AUDs is very high. The literature suggests a negative synergy between BPD and SUDs, which may impact an individual’s ability to achieve and maintain remission of either disorder in the face of the other. Methods We examined lifetime and current (past year) BPD symptom counts in three gender- and age-comparable groups: short-term abstinent alcoholics (STA, 6–15 weeks abstinent), long-term abstinent alcoholics (LTA, more than 18 months abstinent), and non-substance-abusing controls (NSAC). Abstinent individuals were recruited primarily from mutual-help recovery networks and about half had comorbid drug dependence. BPD symptoms were obtained using the SCID-II, followed up with questions regarding currency, but did not require that BPD symptoms represent persistent or pervasive behavior such as would meet criteria for BPD diagnosis. Thus our study dealt only with BPD symptoms, not BPD diagnoses. Results Alcoholics had more lifetime and current symptoms for most all BPD criteria than NSAC. In general, STA and LTA did not differ in BPD symptoms, except for a group-by-gender effect for both lifetime and current anger-associated symptoms and for lifetime abandonment-avoidance symptoms. For these cases, there were much higher symptom counts for STA women vs. men, with comparable symptom counts for LTA women vs. men. Conclusions Our results suggest for the most part that BPD symptoms do not prevent the maintenance of recovery in AUD and SUD individuals who have established at least six weeks abstinence within the mutual-help recovery network – in fact the presence of BPD symptoms is the norm. However, we did find difficulty in establishing longer-term abstinence in women with anger-associated symptoms and abandonment avoidance symptoms. PMID:22309234

  9. Smoking Abstinence and Depressive Symptoms Modulate the Executive Control System During Emotional Information Processing

    PubMed Central

    Froeliger, Brett; Modlin, Leslie A.; Kozink, Rachel V.; Wang, Lihong; McClernon, F. Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Background Smoking abstinence disrupts affective and cognitive processes. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the effects of smoking abstinence on emotional information processing (EIP). Methods Smokers (n=17) and nonsmokers (n=18) underwent fMRI while performing an emotional distractor oddball task in which rare targets were presented following negative and neutral task-irrelevant distractors. Smokers completed two sessions: once following 24-hr abstinence and once while satiated. The abstinent versus satiated states were compared by evaluating responses to distractor images and to targets following each distractor valence within frontal executive and limbic brain regions. Regression analyses were done to investigate whether self-reported negative affect influences brain response to images and targets. Exploratory regression analyses examined relations between baseline depressive symptoms and smoking state on brain function. Results Smoking state affected response to target detection in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). During satiety, activation was greater in response to targets following negative versus neutral distractors; following abstinence, the reverse was observed. Withdrawal-related negative affect was associated with right insula activation to negative images. Finally, depression symptoms were associated with abstinence-induced hypoactive response to negative emotional distractors and task-relevant targets following negative distractors in frontal brain regions. Conclusions Neural processes related to novelty detection/attention in the right IFG may be disrupted by smoking abstinence and negative stimuli. Reactivity to emotional stimuli and the interfering effects on cognition are moderated by the magnitude of smoking state-dependent negative affect and baseline depressive symptoms. PMID:22081878

  10. Increased impulsivity in rats as a result of repeated cycles of alcohol intoxication and abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Irimia, Cristina; Wiskerke, Joost; Natividad, Luis A.; Polis, Ilham Y.; de Vries, Taco J.; Pattij, Tommy; Parsons, Loren H.

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity is a risk factor for alcoholism and long-term alcohol exposure may further impair impulse control in a manner that propels problematic alcohol use. The present study employed the rat 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task (5-CSRTT) to measure behavioral inhibition and attentional capacity during abstinence from repeated 5d cycles of alcohol liquid diet consumption. Task performance was not disrupted following the first cycle of alcohol exposure, however, evidence of impaired behavioral inhibition emerged following the third cycle of alcohol exposure. In comparison with controls, alcohol rats exhibited deficits in inhibitory control during cognitively challenging 5-CSRTT tests employing variable inter-trial intervals (varITI). This behavioral disruption was not present during early abstinence (3d) but was evident by 7d abstinence and persisted for at least 34d. Interestingly, renewed alcohol consumption ameliorated these disruptions in impulse control, though deficient behavioral inhibition re-emerged during subsequent abstinence. Indices of increased impulsivity were no longer present in tests conducted after 49 days of abstinence. Alcohol-related impairments in impulse control were not evident in sessions employing highly familiar task parameters regardless of abstinence period and control experiments confirmed that performance deficits during the challenge sessions were unlikely to result from alcohol-related disruption in the adaptation to repeated varITI testing. Together, the current findings demonstrate that chronic intermittent alcohol consumption results in decreased behavioral inhibition in rats that is temporally similar to clinical observations of disrupted impulsive control in abstinent alcoholics performing tasks of behavioral inhibition. PMID:24341858

  11. Modeling naturalistic craving, withdrawal, and affect during early nicotine abstinence: A pilot ecological momentary assessment study.

    PubMed

    Bujarski, Spencer; Roche, Daniel J O; Sheets, Erin S; Krull, Jennifer L; Guzman, Iris; Ray, Lara A

    2015-04-01

    Despite the critical role of withdrawal, craving, and positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) in smoking relapse, relatively little is known about the temporal and predictive relationship between these constructs within the first day of abstinence. This pilot study aims to characterize dynamic changes in withdrawal, craving, and affect over the course of early abstinence using ecological momentary assessment. Beginning immediately after smoking, moderate and heavy smoking participants (n = 15 per group) responded to hourly surveys assessing craving, withdrawal, NA, and PA. Univariate and multivariate multilevel random coefficient modeling was used to describe the progression of craving, withdrawal/NA, and PA and to test correlations between these constructs at the subject level over the course of early abstinence. Heavy smokers reported greater craving from 1-4 hr of abstinence and greater withdrawal/NA after 3 or more hours as compared with moderate smokers. Level of withdrawal/NA was strongly positively associated with craving, and PA was negatively correlated with craving; however, the temporal dynamics of these correlations differed substantially. The association between withdrawal/NA and craving decreased over early abstinence, whereas the reverse was observed for PA. These findings can inform experimental studies of nicotine abstinence as well as their clinical applications to smoking cessation efforts. In particular, these results help to elucidate the role of PA in nicotine abstinence by demonstrating its independent association with nicotine craving over and above withdrawal/NA. If supported by future studies, these findings can refine experimental methods and clinical approaches for smoking cessation.

  12. Resurgence of instrumental behavior after an abstinence contingency.

    PubMed

    Bouton, Mark E; Schepers, Scott T

    2014-06-01

    In resurgence, an extinguished instrumental behavior (R1) recovers when a behavior that has replaced it (R2) is also extinguished. The phenomenon may be relevant to understanding relapse that can occur after the termination of "contingency management" treatments, in which an unwanted behavior (e.g., substance abuse) is reduced by reinforcing an alternative behavior. When reinforcement is discontinued, the unwanted behavior might resurge. However, unlike most resurgence experiments, contingency management treatments also introduce a negative contingency, in which reinforcers are not delivered unless the client has abstained from the unwanted behavior. In two experiments with rats, we therefore examined the effects of adding a negative "abstinence" contingency to the resurgence design. During response elimination, R2 was not reinforced unless R1 had not been emitted for a minimum period of time (45, 90, or 135 s). In both experiments, adding such a contingency to simple R1 extinction reduced, but did not eliminate, resurgence. In Experiment 2, we found the same effect in a yoked group that could earn reinforcers for R2 at the same points in time as the negative-contingency group, but without the requirement to abstain from R1. Thus, the negative contingency per se did not contribute to the reduction in resurgence. These results suggest that the contingency reduced resurgence by making reinforcers more difficult to earn and more widely spaced in time. This could have allowed the animal to learn that R1 was extinguished in the "context" of infrequent reinforcement-a context more like that of resurgence testing. The results are thus consistent with a contextual (renewal) account of resurgence. The method might provide a better model of relapse after termination of a contingency management treatment. PMID:24366673

  13. Variations in Opioid Receptor Genes in Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome*

    PubMed Central

    Wachman, Elisha M; Hayes, Marie J; Sherva, Richard; Brown, Mark S; Davis, Jonathan M; Farrer, Lindsay A; Nielsen, David A

    2015-01-01

    Background There is significant variability in the severity of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) due to in-utero opioid exposure. We wanted to determine if single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in key candidate genes contribute to this variability. Methods Full-term opioid-exposed newborns and their mothers (n=86 pairs) were studied. DNA was genotyped for 80 SNPs from 14 genes utilizing a custom designed microarray. The association of each SNP with NAS outcomes was evaluated. Results SNPs in two opioid receptor genes in the infants were associated with worse NAS severity: 1) The PNOC rs732636 A allele (OR=3.8, p=0.004) for treatment with 2 medications and a longer hospital stay (LOS) of 5.8 days (p=0.01), and 2) The OPRK1 rs702764 C allele (OR=4.1, p=0.003) for treatment with 2 medications. The OPRM1 rs1799971 G allele (β= −6.9 days, p=0.02) and COMT rs740603 A allele (β= −5.3 days, p=0.01) were associated with shorter LOS. The OPRD1 rs204076 A allele in the mothers was associated with a longer LOS by 6.6 days (p=0.008). Results were significant point-wise but did not meet the experiment-wide significance level. Conclusions These findings suggest that SNPs in opioid receptor and the PNOC genes are associated with NAS severity. However, further testing in a large sample is warranted. This has important implications for prenatal prediction and personalized treatment regimens for infants at highest risk for severe NAS. PMID:26233486

  14. Factors influencing abstinence, anticipation, and delay of sex among adolescent boys in high-STI prevalence communities

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Teresa; Auerswald, Colette L.; Ott, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Abstinence is a core pregnancy and STI prevention strategy. We explore the attitudinal, behavioral, and family contexts relating to abstinence and the decision to delay sex among adolescent boys. Methods Adolescent boys ages 14–17 were recruited from community sites using a venue-based sampling method. All eligible boys at venues were invited to participate in an electronic survey. Question items included sexual behaviors, attitudes related to sex, relationships, masculine values, and family contextual items. Results We enrolled 667 participants, age 15.7 years, of diverse ethnicity. 252 (38%) were abstinent. Abstinent participants were younger, less likely to report non-coital behaviors, and reported lower conventional masculine values. Among abstinent participants, 62% planned to delay sex, while 38% anticipated sex in the next year. Participants with lower conventional masculine values, and more religious or moral motivations for abstinence were more likely to plan to delay sex. Discussion Abstinence among boys is common, even in high STI risk communities. For these boys, abstinence appears to be a complex behavioral decision, influenced by demographic, behavioral, attitudinal and contextual factors such as age, race, non-coital sexual behaviors and masculine values. Understanding the attitudes and contexts of abstinence, including plans to delay sex, can inform the development of public health programs for early fatherhood and STI prevention. PMID:24355627

  15. Sailing against the tide? Sustaining sexual abstinence among Christian youth in a university setting in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mbotho, Mbali; Cilliers, Michelle; Akintola, Olagoke

    2013-03-01

    This qualitative study sought to understand the perceptions and experiences of abstinence among young Christians in a University in South Africa. Willingness to adhere to Christian teachings of sexual chastity is the primary motivation for sexual abstinence while spiritual, mental and physical health benefits of abstinence as well as enforcement of Christian teachings by members and peers are secondary motivations that help sustain sexual abstinence. Sexual pressures come from desire to satisfy sexual urge, subtle coercion, peer pressure, momentary loss of self-control. There is need for multi-pronged interventions aimed at empowering Christian youth to deal with sources of sexual pressures.

  16. Effects of Smoking Abstinence on Cigarette Craving, Nicotine Withdrawal, and Nicotine Reinforcement in Smokers With and Without Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Schizophrenia is associated with a high prevalence of cigarette smoking. The aims of this study were to compare smokers with schizophrenia (SS) and control smokers without psychiatric illness (CS) on (a) cigarette craving and nicotine withdrawal symptom severity during a 72-hr smoking abstinence period; (b) nicotine reinforcement, before and after abstinence; and (c) latency to smoking lapse following abstinence. We also explored mediators of smoking lapse in SS and CS. Methods: SS (n = 28) and CS (n = 27) underwent a nicotine versus denicotinized cigarette puff choice task before and after a 72-hr period of smoking abstinence that was experimentally controlled by providing cash reinforcement contingent on biochemical verification of abstinence. Twenty-four hours after the second choice task, participants could receive a low-value reinforcer if they had continued to abstain since the previous day. Those who remained abstinent were recontacted a week later to determine time of their smoking lapse. Results: SS reported more severe cigarette craving and nicotine withdrawal symptoms throughout the 72-hr abstinence period, had greater nicotine preference after abstinence, and lapsed back to smoking significantly sooner than CS. The relationship between group and smoking lapse latency was mediated by baseline depression and nicotine withdrawal symptom severity but not by effects of abstinence on craving or nicotine reinforcement. Conclusions: Overall, these results indicate that negative affect is a key contributor to poor smoking cessation outcomes among those with schizophrenia. PMID:24113929

  17. Understanding Motivations for Abstinence among Adolescent Young Women: Insights into Effective Sexual Risk Reduction Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Long-Middleton, Ellen R.; Burke, Pamela J.; Lawrence, Cheryl A. Cahill; Blanchard, Lauren B.; Amudala, Naomi H.; Rankin, Sally H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections pose a significant threat to the health and wellbeing of adolescent young women. Abstinence when practiced provides the most effective means in preventing these problems, yet the perspective of abstinent young women is not well understood. The purpose of the investigation was to characterize female adolescents’ motivations for abstinence. Method As part of a larger, cross-sectional quantitative study investigating predictors of HIV risk reduction behaviors, qualitative responses from study participants who never had intercourse were analyzed in a consensus-based process using content analysis and frequency counts. An urban primary care site in a tertiary care center served as the setting, with adolescent young women ages 15–19 years included in the sample. Results Five broad topic categories emerged from the data that characterized motivations for abstinence in this sample: 1) Personal Readiness, 2) Fear, 3) Beliefs and Values, 4) Partner Worthiness and 5) Lack of Opportunity. Discussion A better understanding of the motivations for abstinence may serve to guide the development of interventions to delay intercourse. PMID:22525893

  18. A model to examine the validity of the 6-month abstinence criterion for liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yates, W R; Martin, M; LaBrecque, D; Hillebrand, D; Voigt, M; Pfab, D

    1998-04-01

    Six months of abstinence from alcohol is a commonly used criterion for liver transplantation eligibility for patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. There is limited evidence to document the validity of this criterion with regard to risk of alcoholism relapse. Ninety-one patients with alcoholic cirrhosis were interviewed for relapse risk using the High Risk Alcoholism Relapse (HRAR) Scale. The HRAR model can be used to predict relapse risk independent of duration of sobriety and therefore can be used to examine the validity of the 6 months of abstinence criteria in this clinical population. The two methods demonstrated poor to fair agreement. Agreement was highest with a cutoff allowing a 5% 6-month relapse risk when 79% agreement (c = 0.56) was demonstrated between the two methods. Using the 6-month abstinence criterion alone disallows a significant number of candidates who have a low relapse risk based on their HRAR score. The validity of the 6-month abstinence criterion is supported somewhat by comparison with the HRAR model. However, use of the 6-month abstinence criterion alone forces a significant number of patients with a low relapse risk by HRAR to wait for transplant listing. A relapse risk model based on an estimate of alcoholism severity in addition to duration of sobriety may more accurately select patients who are most likely to benefit from liver transplantation. PMID:9581661

  19. Belief about drug assignment and abstinence in treatment of cigarette smoking using nortriptyline.

    PubMed

    Hall, Sharon M; Gorecki, Julie A; Reus, Victor I; Humfleet, Gary L; Muñoz, Ricardo F

    2007-04-01

    This study assessed the relationship between beliefs about drug assignment and abstinence status in two treatment studies using nortriptyline hydrochloride as an adjunct to smoking cessation. Smokers (N = 345) drawn from two clinical trials were asked at the final follow-up (FFU) at 52 or 64 weeks whether they believed they had received active or placebo drug. Responses were obtained from 262 participants, or 76% of the sample. Biochemically verified abstinence was collected at end of treatment (EOT) and FFU. In both studies, participants were correct in guessing drug assignment. At FFU, belief about drug assignment was not related to abstinence for either active or placebo participants. Participants who received active drug and who were smoking at EOT were more likely to believe they had received placebo than active drug participants who were abstinent at EOT. We found no significant relationship between belief about drug and abstinence status for placebo participants at EOT. Baseline variables did not significantly predict correctness of drug identification. Participants who experienced drug side-effects not easily attributable to nicotine withdrawal were more likely to identify their drug assignment as nortriptyline. We conclude that experience during the active treatment period, including side-effects and treatment success, may be related to belief about drug assignment, that the field would be well served by at least two assessments of blindness in clinical trials, and that discrepancy between these findings and those regarding nicotine replacement therapy may be related to differences in dependent variables. PMID:17454701

  20. Cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment alters cerebral metabolism in dopaminergic reward regions. Bromocriptine enhances recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Clow, D.W.; Hammer, R.P. Jr. )

    1991-01-01

    2-(14C)deoxyglucose autoradiography was used to determine local cerebral glucose utilization (lCGU) in rats following chronic cocaine treatment and subsequent abstinence. lCGU was examined in 43 discrete brain regions in animals which had received daily injections of cocaine for 14 days (10 mg/kg) followed by 3 days of saline or bromocriptine (10 mg/kg) treatment. Cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment significantly reduced lCGU in several regions including mesocorticolimbic structures such as ventral tegmental area, medial prefrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens (NAc). Within the NAc, however, only the rostral pole showed significant reduction. In contrast, when bromocriptine treatment accompanied abstinence, lCGU was no longer reduced in mesocorticolimbic and most other regions, implying that metabolic recovery was enhanced by bromocriptine treatment during early abstinence following chronic cocaine treatment. These data suggest that cerebral metabolism is decreased during cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment in critical brain regions, and that this alteration can be prevented by treatment with direct-acting dopamine agonists such as bromocriptine.

  1. The link between postnatal abstinence and extramarital sex in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Ali, M M; Cleland, J G

    2001-09-01

    Whether the link, found in Benin, between postnatal abstinence and husbands' extramarital contacts can be generalized to other West African countries is assessed in this study. Data from the 1994 Demographic and Health Survey, Côte d'Ivoire, obtained from monogamous husbands concerning their extramarital sexual behavior in the two months preceding the survey were linked to data reported by wives concerning postnatal abstinence over the same time period. Logistic regression was applied to assess the link between these two factors, net of the effects of possible confounders. A significant effect of postnatal abstinence on the probability that the husband reported at least one extramarital partner was found. Unprotected extramarital sex was two times more common among men who observed conjugal abstinence than it was among other men. Other predictors of extramarital sex were urban-rural residence, region, education, and whether or not husband and wife had the same religious affiliation. Because condom use is low in this population, the protective effect of marital abstinence is offset by an increased probability that husbands will seek extramarital partners during the postpartum period. The results confirm the earlier findings for Benin and can likely be generalized to most of West Africa.

  2. Amount of earnings during prize contingency management treatment is associated with posttreatment abstinence outcomes.

    PubMed

    Petry, Nancy M; Roll, John M

    2011-12-01

    Contingency management (CM) treatments that provide patients with the opportunity to earn chances of winning prizes of varying magnitudes are becoming increasingly popular. In the CM literature, magnitude of reinforcement is linked with effect sizes, such that CM treatments that provide larger magnitude reinforcement are more efficacious than those that provide lower magnitude reinforcement. With prize CM, even when magnitudes of overall expected prize earnings are constant, some patients win more prizes than others. Thus, patients who win larger overall amounts of prizes during treatment may have better outcomes than those who win fewer prizes. This study evaluated the impact of overall amounts of prizes won on long-term abstinence outcomes. The dollar amount of prizes won during prize CM treatments was determined from 78 cocaine-abusing methadone-maintenance patients who were randomized to prize CM treatments in three clinical trials. Abstinence three months following the end of the CM intervention was the primary dependent variable. The dollar amount of prizes won during CM treatment was a significant predictor of submission of cocaine-negative urine samples and self-reports of cocaine abstinence at the follow-up evaluation, even after controlling for other variables associated with long-term abstinence, such as pretreatment urinalysis results and longest duration of abstinence achieved during treatment. These results suggest that magnitudes of earnings during prize CM may impact outcomes and call for further experimentation of parameters related to the efficacy of prize CM.

  3. A Multistudy Analysis of the Effects of Early Cocaine Abstinence on Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Matuskey, D; Pittman, B; Forselius, E; Malison, RT; Morgan, PT

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe the sleep patterns of early cocaine abstinence in chronic users by polysomnographic and subjective measures. Methods 28 cocaine-dependent participants (ages 24-55) underwent polysomnographic sleep (PSG) recording on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd weeks of abstinence on a research dedicated inpatient facility. Objective measures of total sleep time, total REM time, slow wave sleep, sleep efficiency and a subjective measure (sleep quality) along with demographic data were collected from three different long term research studies over a five year period. Data were reanalyzed to allow greater statistical power for comparisons. Results Progressive weeks of abstinence had main effects on all assessed PSG sleep measures showing decreased total sleep time, REM sleep, stage 1 and 2 sleep, and sleep efficiency; increases in sleep onset and REM latencies and a slight increase in slow-wave sleep time were also present. Total sleep time and slow wave sleep were negatively associated with years of cocaine use. Total sleep time was positively associated with the amount of current ethanol use. Sex differences were found with females having more total REM time and an increase at a near significance level in slow wave sleep. Subjective measures were reported as improving with increasing abstinence over the same time period. Conclusions Chronic cocaine users show a general deterioration in objective sleep measures over a three-week period despite an increase in subjective overall sleep quality providing further evidence for “occult insomnia” during early cocaine abstinence. PMID:21144676

  4. Amount of earnings during prize contingency management treatment is associated with post-treatment abstinence outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Petry, Nancy M.; Roll, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) treatments that provide patients with the opportunity to earn chances of winning prizes of varying magnitudes are becoming increasingly popular. In the CM literature, magnitude of reinforcement is linked with effect sizes, such that CM treatments that provide larger magnitude reinforcement are more efficacious than those that provide lower magnitude reinforcement. With prize CM, even when magnitudes of overall expected prize earnings are constant, some patients win more prizes than others. Thus, patients who win larger overall amounts of prizes during treatment may have better outcomes than those who win fewer prizes. This study evaluated the impact of overall amounts of prizes won on long-term abstinence outcomes. The dollar amount of prizes won during prize CM treatments was determined from 78 cocaine abusing methadone maintenance patients who were randomized to prize CM treatments in three clinical trials. Abstinence three months following the end of the CM intervention was the primary dependent variable. The dollar amount of prizes won during CM treatment was a significant predictor of submission of cocaine-negative urine samples and self reports of cocaine abstinence at the follow-up evaluation, even after controlling for other variables associated with long-term abstinence such as pre-treatment urinalysis results and longest duration of abstinence achieved during treatment. These results suggest that magnitudes of earnings during prize CM may impact outcomes and call for further experimentation of parameters related to the efficacy of prize CM. PMID:21707189

  5. The ODD protocol: A review and first update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimm, Volker; Berger, Uta; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Polhill, J. Gary; Giske, Jarl; Railsback, Steve F.

    2010-01-01

    The 'ODD' (Overview, Design concepts, and Details) protocol was published in 2006 to standardize the published descriptions of individual-based and agent-based models (ABMs). The primary objectives of ODD are to make model descriptions more understandable and complete, thereby making ABMs less subject to criticism for being irreproducible. We have systematically evaluated existing uses of the ODD protocol and identified, as expected, parts of ODD needing improvement and clarification. Accordingly, we revise the definition of ODD to clarify aspects of the original version and thereby facilitate future standardization of ABM descriptions. We discuss frequently raised critiques in ODD but also two emerging, and unanticipated, benefits: ODD improves the rigorous formulation of models and helps make the theoretical foundations of large models more visible. Although the protocol was designed for ABMs, it can help with documenting any large, complex model, alleviating some general objections against such models.

  6. Even-odd effects in Z and N distributions of fragments emitted at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, I.; Lanzalone, G.; Agodi, C.; Amorini, F.; Anzalone, A.; Han, J.; Maiolino, C.; Auditore, L.; Loria, D.; Trifiro, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Berceanu, I.; Cardella, G.; De Filippo, E.; Pagano, A.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S.; Cavallaro, S.; Porto, F.; Rizzo, F.

    2011-08-15

    Even-odd effects in Z and N distributions of light fragments emitted at forward angles in nuclear collisions {sup 40}Ca + {sup 40}Ca, {sup 40}Ca + {sup 48}Ca, and {sup 48}Ca + {sup 48}Ca at 25 MeV/nucleon and identified in charge and mass with the Chimera multidetector have been analyzed. The amplitude of even-odd staggering effects seems to be related to the neutron to proton ratio N/Z of the entrance channels. A qualitative explanation of this effect, taking into account the deexcitation phase of primary excited fragments, is discussed.

  7. Beating the odds--surviving extreme hyperkalemia.

    PubMed

    Muck, Philip M; Letterer, Sebastian; Lindner, Ulrich; Lehnert, Hendrik; Haas, Christian Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Severe hyperkalemia (>7 mmol/L) is a medical emergency because of possible fatal arrhythmias. We here report the case of a 58-year-old woman surviving extreme hyperkalemia (>10 mmol/L). The patient with a history of congestive heart failure, a DDD pacemaker and mild chronic renal insufficiency was admitted with progressive weakness and sudden onset of hypotension and bradycardia in the absence of any pacemaker action. Laboratory tests revealed an extreme serum potassium level of 10.1 mmol/L, with a slightly elevated serum creatinine of 149 μmol/L. Treatment with norepinephrine, sodium bicarbonate, and insulin improved both the hemodynamic situation and the serum potassium with subsequent regaining pacemaker actions even before additional hemodialysis normalized the potassium level. A thorough investigation demonstrated that several mechanisms contributed to the extreme potassium level: urinalysis and a low transtubular potassium gradient in the presence of metabolic acidosis with normal anion gap pointed to preexisting interstitial nephritis, with renal tubular acidosis type IV as the predisposing factor, whereas several drugs and acute impairment of renal function contributed to the dangerous situation. Despite the odds for fatal outcome, the patient recovered completely, and long-term management was initiated to prevent recurrent hyperkalemia.

  8. Odd frequency pairing of interacting Majorana fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhoushen; Woelfle, Peter; Balatsky, Alexandar

    Majorana fermions are rising as a promising key component in quantum computation. While the prevalent approach is to use a quadratic (i.e. non-interacting) Majorana Hamiltonian, when expressed in terms of Dirac fermions, generically the Hamiltonian involves interaction terms. Here we focus on the possible pair correlations in a simple model system. We study a model of Majorana fermions coupled to a boson mode and show that the anomalous correlator between different Majorana fermions, located at opposite ends of a topological wire, exhibits odd frequency behavior. It is stabilized when the coupling strength g is above a critical value gc. We use both, conventional diagrammatic theory and a functional integral approach, to derive the gap equation, the critical temperature, the gap function, the critical coupling, and a Ginzburg-Landau theory allowing to discuss a possible subleading admixture of even-frequency pairing. Work supported by USDOE DE-AC52-06NA25396 E304, Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, and ERC DM-321031.

  9. Isospin and deformation studies in the odd-odd N=Z nucleus {sup 54}Co

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, D.; Andersson, L.-L.; Ekman, J.; Erten, O.; Fahlander, C.; Johansson, E. K.; Andreoiu, C.; Bengtsson, R.; Ragnarsson, I.; Bentley, M. A.; Williams, S. J.; Carpenter, M. P.; Seweryniak, D.; Charity, R. J.; Reviol, W.; Sarantites, D. G.; Clark, R. M.; Fallon, P.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Svensson, C. E.

    2010-11-15

    High-spin states in the odd-odd N=Z nucleus {sup 54}Co have been investigated by the fusion-evaporation reaction {sup 28}Si({sup 32}S,1{alpha}1p1n){sup 54}Co. Gamma-ray information gathered with the Ge detector array Gammasphere was correlated with evaporated particles detected in the charged particle detector system Microball and a 1{pi} neutron detector array. A significantly extended excitation scheme of {sup 54}Co is presented, which includes a candidate for the isospin T=1, 6{sup +} state of the 1f{sub 7/2}{sup -2} multiplet. The results are compared to large-scale shell-model calculations in the fp shell. Effective interactions with and without isospin-breaking terms have been used to probe isospin symmetry and isospin mixing. A quest for deformed high-spin rotational cascades proved negative. This feature is discussed by means of cranking calculations.

  10. Meeting report for "OddPols" 2014: the odds invite an even.

    PubMed

    Roy-Engel, Astrid M

    2015-02-01

    The Ninth International Biennial Conference on RNA Polymerases I and III (the "OddPols") was held on June 19-21, 2014 at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA. Sponsored by New England Biolabs, the Cayman Chemical Company, the Rackham Graduate School and the University of Michigan Health System, and organized by David Engelke, Craig Pikaard, Lawrence Rothblum, Andrzej Wierzbicki and Astrid Engel. This year at the conference, the "odds" were increased by expanding the usual topics on the advances in RNA polymerases I and III research to include presentations on RNA polymerase IV and V. The keynote speaker, Craig Pikaard, opened the meeting with his presentation entitled "Five nuclear multisubunit RNA polymerases". The meeting drew attendees from fourteen countries that shared their research discoveries through oral and poster presentations. The talks were organized into 11 sessions covering seven distinct topics. Here we present some of the highlights from the meeting using summaries provided by the participants.

  11. The distributions of odd nitrogen and odd hydrogen in the natural and perturbed stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, R. G.; Alyea, F. N.; Cunnold, D. M.; Katz, A.

    1974-01-01

    In order to quantitatively illustrate the effects of quasi-horizontal transport of certain gases and of the reactions influencing their concentrations, a vertical-meridional pole-to-pole stratospheric model is presented which explicitly predicts concentrations of odd nitrogen and odd hydrogen compounds in the natural stratosphere and also in a perturbed stratosphere incorporating artificial injection of nitrogen oxides by an SST fleet. The northern hemisphere SST operations clearly have a very large local effect on the nitrogen oxide distribution and also have a significant effect on the southern hemisphere. The largest changes are seen at the point of injection of the nitrogen oxides. Results are in agreement with previous one-dimensional models.

  12. Structure of the yrast band in the odd-odd deformed nucleus {sup 156}Pm

    SciTech Connect

    Sood, P. C.; Sai, K. Vijay; Gowrishankar, R.; Sainath, M.

    2011-05-15

    The six-level sequence deduced for the odd-odd nucleus {sup 156}Pm in the high-spin studies following spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf is shown to constitute the K{sup {pi}=}4{sup +} yrast band having the two-quasiparticle configuration {l_brace}p:5/2[532]+ n:3/2[521]{r_brace}. Spin parities I{sup {pi}=}4{sup +} through 9{sup +} are assigned to the earlier suggested six levels. The location and the decay {gamma}'s of the 10{sup +} level of this band are indicated. It is also pointed out that there are no {gamma} rays common to these postfission high-spin spectra and those seen in the {sup 156}Nd {beta}-decay studies.

  13. Redistribution of reactive odd nitrogen in the lower arctic stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebler, G.; Fahey, D. W.; Kelly, K. K.; Montzka, D. D.; Carroll, M. A.; Tuck, A. F.; Heidt, L. E.; Pollock, W. H.; Gregory, G. L.; Vedder, J. F.

    1990-01-01

    In-situ measurements of total reactive odd nitrogen NO(y), were made from the NASA DC-8 aircraft in the lower arctic stratosphere during the 1989 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition. Throughout January and February, NO(y) mixing ratios were typically between 0.5 and 3 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) at altitudes between 10 and 12.5 km. During several flights late in the mission, events of unusually light NO(y) occurred with mixing ratios up to 12 ppbv at these altitudes. Simultaneous measurements of N2O, O3, and H2O during these events suggest that large changes in NO(y) are not expected. The elevated NO(y) values are interpreted as a vertical redistribution of NO(y) in the lower stratosphere resulting from gravitational sedimentation of aerosol particles containing HNO3. No evidence of the redistribution of H2O is noted, consistent with observations of denitrification without dehydration higher in the stratosphere.

  14. Photon scattering experiments on the quasistable, odd-odd mass nucleus Lu176

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, S.; Stedile, F.; Carroll, J. J.; Fransen, C.; Friessner, G.; Hollmann, N.; von Garrel, H.; Jolie, J.; Karg, O.; Käppeler, F.; Kneissl, U.; Kohstall, C.; von Neumann-Cosel, P.; Linnemann, A.; Mücher, D.; Pietralla, N.; Pitz, H. H.; Rusev, G.; Scheck, M.; Scholl, C.; Schwengner, R.; Werner, V.; Wisshak, K.

    2007-03-01

    The quasistable odd-odd-mass nucleus Lu176 is of special interest in nuclear structure physics and, above all, in nuclear astrophysics. Systematic photon scattering experiments have been performed at the bremsstrahlung facility of the 4.3-MV Stuttgart Dynamitron accelerator with bremsstrahlung end-point energies of 2.3 and 3.1 MeV to determine the low-energy dipole strength distribution in the s-only isotope Lu176. The main goal was to pin down possible intermediate states (IS) for the photoactivation of the short-lived 123-keV isomer, which is the key process determining the effective lifetime of Lu176 in a stellar photon bath and hence for the use of this isotope as a stellar chronometer. Using an enriched sample, 29 transitions ascribed to Lu176 were detected below 2.9-MeV excitation energy. The corresponding excitation strengths were determined. For the previously proposed lowest IS at 839 keV, an upper limit for the excitation strength corresponding to a lifetime of τ⩾ 1.5 ps can be given. Astrophysical consequences, also in view of new Stuttgart photoactivation experiments, are discussed. The fragmentation of the dipole strength is compared to those in neighboring even-even and odd-even nuclei.

  15. Olfactory bulbectomy increases reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking after a forced abstinence in rats.

    PubMed

    Babinska, Zuzana; Ruda-Kucerova, Jana; Amchova, Petra; Merhautova, Jana; Dusek, Ladislav; Sulcova, Alexandra

    2016-01-15

    Drug addiction is commonly associated with depression and comorbid patients also suffer from higher cravings and increased relapse rate. To address this issue preclinically we combined the olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) model of depression and intravenous methamphetamine self-administration procedure in rats to assess differences in relapse-like behavior. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into two groups; in one group the bilateral olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) was performed while the other group was sham operated. After recovery, intracardiac catheter was implanted. Intravenous self-administration procedure was conducted in operant boxes using nose-poke operandi (Coulbourn Instruments, Inc., USA) under fixed ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement. Methamphetamine was available at dose 0.08 mg/kg/infusion. After stable methamphetamine intake was maintained, a period of forced abstinence was initiated and rats were kept in their home-cages for 14 days. Finally, one reinstatement session was conducted in operant boxes with no drug delivery. In the reinstatement session the mean of 138.4 active nose-pokes was performed by the OBX group, while the sham group displayed 41 responses, i.e. 140 % and 48 % of basal nose-poking during maintenance phase in OBX and sham operated group respectively. OBX group also showed significantly more passive nose-pokes indicating hyperactive behavioral traits in bulbectomized rats. However, the % of active operandum preference was equal in both groups. Olfactory bulbectomy model significantly increased reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking behavior. This paradigm can be used to evaluate potential drugs that are able to suppress the drug-seeking behavior.

  16. Effectiveness of abstinence-based incentives: interaction with intake stimulant test results.

    PubMed

    Stitzer, Maxine L; Petry, Nancy; Peirce, Jessica; Kirby, Kimberly; Killeen, Therese; Roll, John; Hamilton, John; Stabile, Patricia Q; Sterling, Robert; Brown, Chanda; Kolodner, Ken; Li, Rui

    2007-10-01

    Intake urinalysis test result (drug positive vs. negative) has been previously identified as a strong predictor of drug abuse treatment outcome, but there is little information about how this prognostic factor may interact with the type of treatment delivered. The authors used data from a multisite study of abstinence incentives for stimulant abusers enrolled in outpatient counseling treatment (N. M. Petry, J. M. Peirce, et al., 2005) to examine this question. The first study urine was used to stratify participants into stimulant negative (n = 306) versus positive (n = 108) subgroups. Abstinence incentives significantly improved retention in those testing negative but not in those testing positive. Findings suggest that stimulant abusers presenting to treatment with a stimulant-negative urine benefit from abstinence incentives, but alternative treatment approaches are needed for those who test stimulant positive at intake.

  17. The human startle reflex and alcohol cue reactivity: effects of early versus late abstinence.

    PubMed

    Saladin, Michael E; Drobes, David J; Coffey, Scott F; Libet, Julian M

    2002-06-01

    This study investigated the human eyeblink startle reflex as a measure of alcohol cue reactivity. Alcohol-dependent participants early (n = 36) and late (n = 34) in abstinence received presentations of alcohol and water cues. Consistent with previous research, greater salivation and higher ratings of urge to drink occurred in response to the alcohol cues. Differential salivary and urge responding to alcohol versus water cues did not vary as a function of abstinence duration. Of special interest was the finding that startle response magnitudes were relatively elevated to alcohol cues, but only in individuals early in abstinence. Affective ratings of alcohol cues suggested that alcohol cues were perceived as aversive. Methodological and theoretical implications of the findings are discussed.

  18. Alcohol liver disease: A review of current therapeutic approaches to achieve long-term abstinence

    PubMed Central

    García, María Luisa Gutiérrez; Blasco-Algora, Sara; Fernández-Rodríguez, Conrado M

    2015-01-01

    Harmful alcohol drinking may lead to significant damage on any organ or system of the body. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the most prevalent cause of advanced liver disease in Europe. In ALD, only alcohol abstinence was associated with a better long-term survival. Therefore, current effective therapeutic strategy should be oriented towards achieving alcohol abstinence or a significant reduction in alcohol consumption. Screening all primary care patients to detect those cases with alcohol abuse has been proposed as population-wide preventive intervention in primary care. It has been suggested that in patients with mild alcohol use disorder the best approach is brief intervention in the primary care setting with the ultimate goal being abstinence, whereas patients with moderate-to-severe alcohol use disorder must be referred to specialized care where detoxification and medical treatment of alcohol dependence must be undertaken. PMID:26229395

  19. Effectiveness of abstinence-based incentives: interaction with intake stimulant test results.

    PubMed

    Stitzer, Maxine L; Petry, Nancy; Peirce, Jessica; Kirby, Kimberly; Killeen, Therese; Roll, John; Hamilton, John; Stabile, Patricia Q; Sterling, Robert; Brown, Chanda; Kolodner, Ken; Li, Rui

    2007-10-01

    Intake urinalysis test result (drug positive vs. negative) has been previously identified as a strong predictor of drug abuse treatment outcome, but there is little information about how this prognostic factor may interact with the type of treatment delivered. The authors used data from a multisite study of abstinence incentives for stimulant abusers enrolled in outpatient counseling treatment (N. M. Petry, J. M. Peirce, et al., 2005) to examine this question. The first study urine was used to stratify participants into stimulant negative (n = 306) versus positive (n = 108) subgroups. Abstinence incentives significantly improved retention in those testing negative but not in those testing positive. Findings suggest that stimulant abusers presenting to treatment with a stimulant-negative urine benefit from abstinence incentives, but alternative treatment approaches are needed for those who test stimulant positive at intake. PMID:17907862

  20. Psychological Symptoms are Associated with Both Abstinence and Risky Sex among Men with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Carol T.; Solomon, Sondra E.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Varni, Susan E.; Hodge, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual abstinence is often deemed the “safest behavior” in HIV prevention, but is sometimes associated with psychological symptoms (e.g., depression) just as sexually risky behavior is. This study explored whether sexual abstinence and risky sexual behavior among men with HIV are associated with similar constellations of psychological symptoms. Prior research has not addressed this issue because abstinent people often are not included in the sample, or when data are analyzed, researchers combine abstinent people with sexually active people who practice safer sex. Past research also neglects the co-morbidity of psychological symptoms. A latent class analysis of the psychological symptoms (assessed with the Symptom Check List 90-R; Derogatis, 1994) of 140 men with HIV, mostly from rural New England, revealed three latent classes; men who were asymptomatic on all symptom domains (28.8%), men who were symptomatic on all domains (34.1%), and men who were symptomatic on internalizing domains (37.1%), but were asymptomatic on the externalizing symptoms of hostility and paranoid ideation. Logistic regression showed that sexual behavior during the past 90 days of men in the all symptom class and the internalizing symptoms class was similar, with abstinence and risky sex predominating, and safer sex being relatively uncommon for both classes. The sexual behavior of men in the asymptomatic class differed, with safer sex being relatively more likely to occur compared to the symptomatic classes. These findings suggest that the psychological symptom profile of sexually abstinent people places them at risk for inconsistent condom use should they engage in sexual behavior. PMID:25614050

  1. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum levels in cocaine-dependent patients during early abstinence.

    PubMed

    Corominas-Roso, Margarida; Roncero, Carlos; Eiroa-Orosa, Francisco Jose; Gonzalvo, Begoña; Grau-Lopez, Lara; Ribases, Marta; Rodriguez-Cintas, Laia; Sánchez-Mora, Cristina; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep-Antoni; Casas, Miguel

    2013-09-01

    Preclinical studies indicate that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in neuroplastic changes underlying enduring cocaine-seeking following withdrawal. However, little is known about temporal changes in serum BDNF levels or the involvement of BDNF in craving and abstinence in early-abstinent cocaine-dependent patients. Twenty-three cocaine-dependent individuals (aged 33.65 ± 6.85 years) completed a two-week detoxification program at an inpatient facility. Two serum samples were collected for each patient at baseline and at the end of the protocol. Serum samples were also collected for 46 healthy controls (aged 35.52 ± 9.37 years). Demographic, consumption and clinical data were recorded for all patients. Significantly lower serum BDNF levels (p<.0001) were observed for cocaine-dependent patients at baseline compared to healthy controls. Serum BDNF levels increased significantly across 12 days of early abstinence (p=.030). Baseline BDNF levels correlated with craving (p=.034). Post-detoxification BDNF levels correlated with craving (p=.018), loss of control (p<.000), abstinence measures (p=0.031), depression (p=0.036), and anxiety (p=0.036). Post-detoxification BDNF levels also had predictive value for the loss of control measure of craving. Chronic cocaine use is associated with decreased serum BDNF. A progressive increase in serum BDNF levels during early abstinence correlates with cocaine craving and abstinence symptoms and may reflect increasing BDNF levels in different brain regions. These findings suggest that serum BDNF may be a biomarker for cocaine addiction. PMID:23021567

  2. Psychological symptoms are associated with both abstinence and risky sex among men with HIV.

    PubMed

    Miller, Carol T; Solomon, Sondra E; Bunn, Janice Y; Varni, Susan E; Hodge, James J

    2015-02-01

    Sexual abstinence is often deemed the "safest behavior" in HIV prevention, but is sometimes associated with psychological symptoms (e.g., depression) just as sexually risky behavior is. This study explored whether sexual abstinence and risky sexual behavior among men with HIV were associated with similar constellations of psychological symptoms. Prior research has not addressed this issue because abstinent people often are not included in the sample or, when data are analyzed, researchers combine abstinent people with sexually active people who practice safer sex. Past research also neglects the co-morbidity of psychological symptoms. A latent class analysis of the psychological symptoms (assessed with the Symptom Check List 90-R; Derogatis, 1994) of 140 men with HIV, mostly from rural New England, revealed three latent classes: men who were asymptomatic on all symptom domains (28.8 %), men who were symptomatic on all domains (34.1 %), and men who were symptomatic on internalizing domains (37.1 %), but were asymptomatic on the externalizing symptoms of hostility and paranoid ideation. Logistic regression showed that sexual behavior during the past 90 days of men in the all symptom class and the internalizing symptoms class was similar, with abstinence and risky sex predominating, and safer sex being relatively uncommon for both classes. The sexual behavior of men in the asymptomatic class differed, with safer sex being relatively more likely to occur compared to the symptomatic classes. These findings suggest that the psychological symptom profile of sexually abstinent people places them at risk for inconsistent condom use should they engage in sexual behavior.

  3. Convergent evidence from alcohol-dependent humans and rats for a hyperdopaminergic state in protracted abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Hirth, Natalie; Meinhardt, Marcus W.; Noori, Hamid R.; Salgado, Humberto; Torres-Ramirez, Oswaldo; Uhrig, Stefanie; Broccoli, Laura; Vengeliene, Valentina; Roßmanith, Martin; Perreau-Lenz, Stéphanie; Köhr, Georg; Sommer, Wolfgang H.; Spanagel, Rainer; Hansson, Anita C.

    2016-01-01

    A major hypothesis in addiction research is that alcohol induces neuroadaptations in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system and that these neuroadaptations represent a key neurochemical event in compulsive drug use and relapse. Whether these neuroadaptations lead to a hypo- or hyperdopaminergic state during abstinence is a long-standing, unresolved debate among addiction researchers. The answer is of critical importance for understanding the neurobiological mechanism of addictive behavior. Here we set out to study systematically the neuroadaptive changes in the DA system during the addiction cycle in alcohol-dependent patients and rats. In postmortem brain samples from human alcoholics we found a strong down-regulation of the D1 receptor- and DA transporter (DAT)-binding sites, but D2-like receptor binding was unaffected. To gain insight into the time course of these neuroadaptations, we compared the human data with that from alcohol-dependent rats at several time points during abstinence. We found a dynamic regulation of D1 and DAT during 3 wk of abstinence. After the third week the rat data mirrored our human data. This time point was characterized by elevated extracellular DA levels, lack of synaptic response to D1 stimulation, and augmented motor activity. Further functional evidence is given by a genetic rat model for hyperdopaminergia that resembles a phenocopy of alcohol-dependent rats during protracted abstinence. In summary, we provide a new dynamic model of abstinence-related changes in the striatal DA system; in this model a hyperdopaminergic state during protracted abstinence is associated with vulnerability for relapse. PMID:26903621

  4. Neural correlates of craving and impulsivity in abstinent former cocaine users: Towards biomarkers of relapse risk.

    PubMed

    Bell, Ryan P; Garavan, Hugh; Foxe, John J

    2014-10-01

    A significant hindrance to effective treatment of addiction is identifying those most likely to relapse. Cocaine addiction is characterized by deficits in inhibitory control and elevated reactivity to cocaine cues, both hypothesized to be integral to development of addiction and propensity to relapse. It follows that reduction of both impulsivity and cue-reactivity following abstinence is protective against relapse, and that persistence of these factors increases vulnerability. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined neural activation patterns in dorsal and ventral striatum in abstinent cocaine dependent (CD) individuals (N=20) and non-using controls (N=19) as they performed a cocaine craving task. We also examined activations in nodes of the response inhibition circuit (RIC) as they performed an inhibition task. At the between-groups level, no differences in RIC or striatal activation were seen in former users, in contrast to previous investigations in current users, suggesting large-scale functional recovery with abstinence. However, at the individual participant-level, abstinent CD individuals displayed an association between cocaine cue-related neural activations in the right ventral striatum and compulsive cocaine craving scores. Compulsive craving scores were also negatively correlated with duration of abstinence. Further, there was an association between motor impulsivity scores and inhibition-related activations in the right inferior frontal gyrus and pre-supplementary motor area in abstinent CD individuals. Thus, while former users as a group did not show deficits in inhibitory function or cocaine-cue reactivity, participant-level results pointed to activation patterns in a minority of these individuals that likely contributes to enduring relapse vulnerability. PMID:24951856

  5. Convergent evidence from alcohol-dependent humans and rats for a hyperdopaminergic state in protracted abstinence.

    PubMed

    Hirth, Natalie; Meinhardt, Marcus W; Noori, Hamid R; Salgado, Humberto; Torres-Ramirez, Oswaldo; Uhrig, Stefanie; Broccoli, Laura; Vengeliene, Valentina; Roßmanith, Martin; Perreau-Lenz, Stéphanie; Köhr, Georg; Sommer, Wolfgang H; Spanagel, Rainer; Hansson, Anita C

    2016-03-15

    A major hypothesis in addiction research is that alcohol induces neuroadaptations in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system and that these neuroadaptations represent a key neurochemical event in compulsive drug use and relapse. Whether these neuroadaptations lead to a hypo- or hyperdopaminergic state during abstinence is a long-standing, unresolved debate among addiction researchers. The answer is of critical importance for understanding the neurobiological mechanism of addictive behavior. Here we set out to study systematically the neuroadaptive changes in the DA system during the addiction cycle in alcohol-dependent patients and rats. In postmortem brain samples from human alcoholics we found a strong down-regulation of the D1 receptor- and DA transporter (DAT)-binding sites, but D2-like receptor binding was unaffected. To gain insight into the time course of these neuroadaptations, we compared the human data with that from alcohol-dependent rats at several time points during abstinence. We found a dynamic regulation of D1 and DAT during 3 wk of abstinence. After the third week the rat data mirrored our human data. This time point was characterized by elevated extracellular DA levels, lack of synaptic response to D1 stimulation, and augmented motor activity. Further functional evidence is given by a genetic rat model for hyperdopaminergia that resembles a phenocopy of alcohol-dependent rats during protracted abstinence. In summary, we provide a new dynamic model of abstinence-related changes in the striatal DA system; in this model a hyperdopaminergic state during protracted abstinence is associated with vulnerability for relapse.

  6. Large odd{endash}even effect in RbC{sup {minus}}{sub {ital n}} cluster size distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenbosch, R.; Will, D.I.

    1996-04-01

    RbC{sub {ital n}} cluster anions have been produced by Rb sputtering of graphite. The intensity ratio of clusters with an even number of carbon atoms to those with an odd number of carbons is much larger for RbC{sup {minus}}{sub {ital n}} clusters than for C{sup {minus}}{sub {ital n}} clusters. {ital Ab} {ital initio} quantum mechanical calculations suggest that this arises from RbC{sub {ital n}} electron affinities that are close to zero or negative for odd {ital n}, rather than from an enhanced odd{endash}even alternation in the affinities. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Three year continuous abstinence in a smoking cessation study using the nicotine transdermal patch.

    PubMed

    Richmond, R L; Kehoe, L; de Almeida Neto, A C

    1997-12-01

    A total of 305 subjects from Sydney were randomly allocated to receive either an active (24 hour transdermal nicotine patch over a 10 week course) or placebo nicotine patch. All subjects participated in a multicomponent cognitive-behavioural smoking cessation programme over five weeks in two-hour group sessions. The continuous abstinence rates at three years (validated by expired carbon monoxide) were 13.8% for the active group and 5.2% for placebo group (p = 0.011). The active nicotine patch with behavioural therapy achieved more than double the abstinence rates early in treatment compared with placebo and this difference was maintained throughout the three year follow up.

  8. Adult Discrimination against Children: The Case of Abstinence-Only Education in Twenty-First-Century USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greslé-Favier, Claire

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses abstinence-only education programmes and discourses within the frame of theories of adult discrimination against children. To begin with, a definition of abstinence-only programmes and of the political context in which they were created will be provided. These programmes will then be analysed through the lens of children's…

  9. Learning To Speak Out in an Abstinence Based Sex Education Group: Gender and Race Work in an Urban Magnet School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Lois

    This paper describes an abstinence-based sex education group for diverse girls in grades 7-12 in an urban magnet school. Data were gathered from a within-school program, My Bottom Line, which was designed to prevent or delay the onset of sexual activity, build self-esteem, and increase young women's self-sufficiency through an abstinence based,…

  10. Quantum Phase Transitions in Odd-Mass Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leviatan, A.; Petrellis, D.; Iachello, F.

    2013-03-01

    Quantum shape-phase transitions in odd-even nuclei are investigated in the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model. Classical and quantum analysis show that the presence of the odd fermion strongly influences the location and nature of the phase transition, especially near the critical point. Experimental evidence for the occurrence of spherical to axially-deformed transitions in odd-proton nuclei Pm, Eu and Tb (Z=61, 63, 65) is presented.

  11. Attendance rates in a workplace predict subsequent outcome of employment-based reinforcement of cocaine abstinence in methadone patients.

    PubMed

    Donlin, Wendy D; Knealing, Todd W; Needham, Mick; Wong, Conrad J; Silverman, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed whether attendance rates in a workplace predicted subsequent outcome of employment-based reinforcement of cocaine abstinence. Unemployed adults in Baltimore methadone programs who used cocaine (N=111) could work in a workplace for 4 hr every weekday and earn $10.00 per hour in vouchers for 26 weeks. During an induction period, participants provided urine samples but could work independent of their urinalysis results. After the induction period, participants had to provide urinalysis evidence of cocaine abstinence to work and maintain maximum pay. A multiple regression analysis showed that induction period attendance was independently associated with urinalysis evidence of cocaine abstinence under the employment-based abstinence reinforcement contingency. Induction period attendance may measure the reinforcing value of employment and could be used to guide the improvement of employment-based abstinence reinforcement.

  12. Coulomb excitation of the odd-odd isotopes 106, 108In

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekström, A.; Cederkäll, J.; Fahlander, C.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Engeland, T.; Blazhev, A.; Butler, P. A.; Davinson, T.; Eberth, J.; Finke, F.; Görgen, A.; Górska, M.; Hurst, A. M.; Ivanov, O.; Iwanicki, J.; Köster, U.; Marsh, B. A.; Mierzejewski, J.; Reiter, P.; Siem, S.; Sletten, G.; Stefanescu, I.; Tveten, G. M.; van de Walle, J.; Voulot, D.; Warr, N.; Weisshaar, D.; Wenander, F.; Zielińska, M.

    2010-06-01

    The low-lying states in the odd-odd and unstable isotopes 106, 108In have been Coulomb excited from the ground state and the first excited isomeric state at the REX-ISOLDE facility at CERN. With the additional data provided here the π g 9/2 -1 ⊗ ν d 5/2 and π g 9/2 -1 ⊗ ν g 7/2 multiplets have been re-analyzed and are modified compared to previous results. The observed γ -ray de-excitation patterns were interpreted within a shell model calculation based on a realistic effective interaction. The agreement between theory and experiment is satisfactory and the calculations reproduce the observed differences in the excitation pattern of the two isotopes. The calculations exclude a 6+ ground state in 106In . This is in agreement with the conclusions drawn using other techniques. Furthermore, based on the experimental results, it is also concluded that the ordering of the isomeric and ground state in 108In is inverted compared to the shell model prediction. Limits on B( E2) values have been extracted where possible. A previously unknown low-lying state at 367keV in 106In is also reported.

  13. Diabatic crossing of chiral "twins" in the odd-odd 106Ag nucleus: A theoretical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Sham S.

    2016-07-01

    A systematic study of both the observed positive-parity magnetic rotation band and the negative-parity Δ I =1 doublet bands in an odd-odd 106Ag nucleus is carried out. The negative-parity doublet bands depict some unusual features that have not been observed in any isotope in the mass A =100 region. For instance, (i) the moment of inertia of the partner band is quite different from that of the yrast band, and (ii) these bands cross each other at an angular momentum of I =14 ℏ . Also, the observed significantly large but constant B (M 1 ) transitions confirm that the strong M 1 transitions are being reinforced by the contributions from collective rotation. To explain these features, a collective model has been developed whose kinetic and potential energies are extracted from the tilted-axis cranking model. Instead of the triaxial parameter γ , a second-order phase transition is found to be responsible for the spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry. Analytical solution of the Schrödinger equation has generated a doublet nondegenerate eigenvalue spectrum. The ensuing model results based on the two-quasiparticle configuration π g9/2⊗ν h11/2 exhibit similarities with many observed features of the negative-parity doublet bands and hence confirm their chiral character. The cranking mass parameter in kinetic energy plays an important role in diabatic crossing between these emerged chiral twin bands.

  14. Spectroscopy of the odd-odd fp-shell nucleus {sup 52}Sc from secondary fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Gade, A.; Bazin, D.; Mueller, W.F.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Carpenter, M.P.; Zhu, S.; Brown, B.A.; Campbell, C.M.; Cook, J.M.; Dinca, D.-C.; Glasmacher, T.; Terry, J.R.; Deacon, A.N.; Freeman, S.J.; Kay, B.P.; Mantica, P.F.

    2006-03-15

    The odd-odd fp-shell nucleus {sup 52}Sc was investigated using in-beam {gamma}-ray spectroscopy following secondary fragmentation of a {sup 55}V and {sup 57}Cr cocktail beam. Aside from the known {gamma}-ray transition at 674(5) keV, a new decay at E{sub {gamma}}=212(3) keV was observed. It is attributed to the depopulation of a low-lying excited level. This new state is discussed in the framework of shell-model calculations with the GXPF1, GXPF1A, and KB3G effective interactions. These calculations are found to be fairly robust for the low-lying level scheme of {sup 52}Sc irrespective of the choice of the effective interaction. In addition, the frequency of spin values predicted by the shell model is successfully modeled by a spin distribution formulated in a statistical approach with an empirical, energy-independent spin-cutoff parameter.

  15. Differential Transitions between Cocaine Use and Abstinence for Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallop, Robert J.; Crits-Christoph, Paul; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Barber, Jacques P.; Frank, Arlene; Griffin, Margaret L.; Thase, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    The longitudinal course of cocaine dependence is characterized by alternating periods of abstinence and relapse. Although gender has emerged as an important predictor of relapse, previous studies have examined mean differences in use by gender. Focusing strictly on differences in averages between men and women does not address potential gender…

  16. The effects of fixed versus escalating reinforcement schedules on smoking abstinence.

    PubMed

    Romanowich, Paul; Lamb, R J

    2015-01-01

    Studies indicate that when abstinence is initiated, escalating reinforcement schedules maintain continuous abstinence longer than fixed reinforcement schedules. However, these studies were conducted for shorter durations than most clinical trials and also resulted in larger reinforcer value for escalating participants during the 1st week of the experiment. We tested whether escalating reinforcement schedules maintained abstinence longer than fixed reinforcement schedules in a 12-week clinical trial. Smokers (146) were randomized to an escalating reinforcement schedule, a fixed reinforcement schedule, or a control condition. Escalating reinforcement participants received $5.00 for their first breath carbon monoxide (CO) sample <3 ppm, with a $0.50 increase for each consecutive sample. Fixed reinforcement participants received $19.75 for each breath CO sample <3 ppm. Control participants received payments only for delivering a breath CO sample. Similar proportions of escalating and fixed reinforcement participants met the breath CO criterion at least once. Escalating reinforcement participants maintained criterion breath CO levels longer than fixed reinforcement and control participants. Similar to previous short-term studies, escalating reinforcement schedules maintained longer durations of abstinence than fixed reinforcement schedules during a clinical trial.

  17. Group-Based Randomized Trial of Contingencies for Health and Abstinence in HIV Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Alessi, Sheila M.; Lewis, Marilyn W.; Dieckhaus, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Contingency management (CM) treatments are usually applied individually for drug abstinence, but CM can also be targeted toward health behaviors and implemented in groups. This study evaluated effects of a group-based CM intervention that focused on reinforcing health behaviors. Method: HIV-positive patients with cocaine or opioid use…

  18. Making sense of abstinence: social representations in young Africans’ HIV-related narratives from six countries

    PubMed Central

    Winskell, Kate; Beres, Laura K.; Hill, Elizabeth; Mbakwem, Benjamin Chigozie; Obyerodhyambo, Oby

    2012-01-01

    Despite the prominence of abstinence promotion in HIV prevention for young Africans, there is little documentation concerning its reception and interpretation. With the purpose of informing programmatic practice, we examined how young Africans from six countries with contrasting HIV prevalence rates make sense of abstinence. ‘Scenarios from Africa’ scriptwriting contests invite young people to contribute ideas for short films about HIV. Using thematic narrative-based approaches, we analyzed a stratified random sample of 586 (~5%) of these narratives written in 2005 by young women and men aged 10–24 years from Senegal, Burkina Faso, South-East Nigeria, Kenya, Namibia and Swaziland. Abstinence was considerably more prominent as a theme in the samples from SE Nigeria, Kenya and Swaziland. It was articulated in relation to conservative Christian sexual morality and in opposition to condom use with particular intensity in SE Nigeria, with stigmatising implications for non-abstainers. However, cross-national commonalities were more striking than differences. Examples of non-stigmatising pro-abstinence messaging highlighted the appeal of discourses of romantic love and future plans across countries and demographic characteristics. The analysis yielded contextual understanding, youth-driven ideas, and recommendations to inform comprehensive HIV prevention efforts. PMID:21787256

  19. Adolescents' Thoughts about Abstinence Curb the Return of Marijuana Use during and after Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kevin M.; Chung, Tammy; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    Despite evidence showing that readiness to change substance use predicts reductions in substance use among treated adolescents, there is little research on changes in thoughts about abstinence and marijuana use during and after treatment. The current study tested whether time-varying changes in adolescents' motivation to abstain and perceived…

  20. Sex Can Wait: An Abstinence-Based Sexuality Curriculum for Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Core-Gebhart, Pennie; And Others

    This curriculum, directed primarily to students in grades seven and eight, is a five-week sexuality education program designed to promote sexual abstinence as the best decision young people can make for themselves. The guide is divided into three general areas of emphasis. These sections are divided into six units that focus the content of the…

  1. Sex Can Wait: An Abstinence-Based Sexuality Curriculum for Upper Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael; Young, Tamera

    This curriculum, directed primarily to students in grades five and six, is a 5-week sexuality education program designed to promote sexual abstinence as the best decision young people can make for themselves. The guide is divided into three general areas of emphasis: Knowing Myself, Reltating to Others, and Planning My Future. These sections are…

  2. Sex Can Wait: An Abstinence-Based Sexuality Curriculum for High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Core-Gebhart, Pennie; And Others

    This curriculum, directed primarily to students in grades nine and ten, is a 5-week sexuality education program designed to promote sexual abstinence as the best decision young people can make for themselves. The guide is divided into four general areas of emphasis. Section one, "Knowing Myself," helps students feel good about who they are as…

  3. Persistent variations in neuronal DNA methylation following cocaine self-administration and protracted abstinence in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qiongyi; Li, Xiang; Jupp, Bianca; Chesworth, Rose; Lawrence, Andrew J.; Bredy, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Continued vulnerability to relapse during abstinence is characteristic of cocaine addiction and suggests that drug-induced neuroadaptations persist during abstinence. However, the precise cellular and molecular attributes of these adaptations remain equivocal. One possibility is that cocaine self-administration leads to enduring changes in DNA methylation. To address this possibility, we isolated neurons from medial prefrontal cortex and performed high throughput DNA sequencing to examine changes in DNA methylation following cocaine self-administration. Twenty-nine genomic regions became persistently differentially methylated during cocaine self-administration, and an additional 28 regions became selectively differentially methylated during abstinence. Altered DNA methylation was associated with isoform-specific changes in the expression of co-localizing genes. These results provide the first neuron-specific, genome-wide profile of changes in DNA methylation induced by cocaine self-administration and protracted abstinence. Moreover, our findings suggest that altered DNA methylation facilitates long-term behavioral adaptation in a manner that extends beyond the perpetuation of altered transcriptional states. PMID:27213137

  4. Associations between University Students' Reported Reasons for Abstinence from Illicit Substances and Type of Drug

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Harold; Bonar, Erin E.; Pavlick, Michelle; Jones, Lance D.; Hoffmann, Erica; Murray, Shanna; Faigin, Carol Ann; Cabral, Kyle; Baylen, Chelsea

    2012-01-01

    We recruited 211 undergraduates to rate the degree to which each of 34 listed reasons for not taking drugs had influenced their abstinence from MDMA/ecstasy, cocaine, marijuana, and hallucinogens. Participants rated reasons such as personal and family medical histories, religion, and physiological consequences of drug use as having little or no…

  5. 77 FR 42768 - Leadership Meeting on Maternal, Fetal, and Infant Opioid Exposure and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY Leadership Meeting on Maternal, Fetal, and Infant Opioid Exposure and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome AGENCY: Office of National Drug Control Policy. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: An ONDCP...

  6. Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention Increases Abstinence Rates for Depressive-History Smokers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Tested hypothesis that cognitive-behavioral mood management intervention would be effective for smokers with history of major depressive disorder (MDD). Findings from 149 smokers, 31% of whom had history of MDD, revealed that history-positive subjects were more likely to be abstinent when treated with mood management; treatment condition…

  7. A Deposit Contract Method to Deliver Abstinence Reinforcement for Cigarette Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallery, Jesse; Meredith, Steven; Glenn, Irene M.

    2008-01-01

    Eight smokers were randomly assigned to a deposit contract ($50.00) or to a no-deposit group. Using a reversal design, participants could recoup their deposit (deposit group) or earn vouchers (no-deposit group) for smoking reductions and abstinence (breath carbon monoxide [CO] less than or equal to 4 parts per million) during treatment phases.…

  8. Voucher-Based Contingent Reinforcement of Smoking Abstinence among Methadone-Maintained Patients: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Kelly E.; Sigmon, Stacey C.; Thomas, Colleen S.; Heil, Sarah H.; Higgins, Stephen T.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a contingency management (CM) intervention to promote smoking cessation in methadone-maintained patients. Twenty participants, randomized into contingent (n = 10) or noncontingent (n = 10) experimental conditions, completed the 14-day study. Abstinence was determined using breath carbon monoxide and urine…

  9. An Evaluation of an Abstinence-Only Sex Education Curriculum: An 18-Month Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, George; Young, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The article examines the results from an 18-month follow-up evaluation of an abstinence education curriculum series. Participants were students from 15 school districts recruited to participate in the project. The intervention was the Sex Can Wait curriculum series, consisting of upper elementary, middle school, and high school components. The…

  10. Government Influence and Community Involvement on Abstinence-Only Programs in 1999 and 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gusrang, Jamie L.; Cheng, Simon

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we compare federal government influence on abstinence-only programs in 1999 and 2003 to better see how shifts in the federal government's sex education polices impacted other government and community actors. Using data from the Sex Education in America Surveys (SEAS), we find that changes in federal policy, particularly after the…

  11. Six month abstinence rule for liver transplantation in severe alcoholic liver disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Obed, Aiman; Stern, Steffen; Jarrad, Anwar; Lorf, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the second most common diagnosis among patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT). The recovery results of patients transplanted for ALD are often at least as good as those of patients transplanted for other diagnoses and better than those suffering from hepatitis C virus, cryptogenic cirrhosis, or hepatocellular carcinoma. In the case of medically non-responding patients with severe acute alcoholic hepatitis or acute-on chronic liver failure, the refusal of LT is often based on the lack of the required alcohol abstinence period of six months. The obligatory abidance of a period of abstinence as a transplant eligibility requirement for medically non-responding patients seems unfair and inhumane, since the majority of these patients will not survive the six-month abstinence period. Data from various studies have challenged the 6-mo rule, while excellent survival results of LT have been observed in selected patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis not responding to medical therapy. Patients with severe advanced ALD should have legal access to LT. The mere lack of pre-LT abstinence should not be an obstacle for being listed. PMID:25892898

  12. Involvement in a Drug Subculture and Abstinence Following Treatment Among Puerto Rican Narcotic Addicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snarr, Richard W.; Ball, John C.

    The study investigated the life career of a sample of native Puerto Rican narcotic addicts who were treated at the Lexington, Kentucky Public Health Service Hospital. Specifically, it deals with the relationship between the addicts' involvement in a drug subculture and their subsequent drug use and abstinence. The hypothesis presented states that…

  13. Evidence on the Effectiveness of Abstinence Education: An Update. No. 2372

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Christine C.; Rector, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Teen sexual activity is costly, not just for teens, but also for society. Teens who engage in sexual activity risk a host of negative outcomes including STD infection, emotional and psychological harm, and out-of-wedlock childbearing. Genuine abstinence education is therefore crucial to the physical and psycho-emotional well-being of the nation's…

  14. Effectiveness of Abstinence-Based Incentives: Interaction with Intake Stimulant Test Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stitzer, Maxine L.; Petry, Nancy; Peirce, Jessica; Kirby, Kimberly; Killeen, Therese; Roll, John; Hamilton, John; Stabile, Patricia Q.; Sterling, Robert; Brown, Chanda; Kolodner, Ken; Li, Rui

    2007-01-01

    Intake urinalysis test result (drug positive vs. negative) has been previously identified as a strong predictor of drug abuse treatment outcome, but there is little information about how this prognostic factor may interact with the type of treatment delivered. The authors used data from a multisite study of abstinence incentives for stimulant…

  15. Attributional Processes in Behavior Change and Maintenance: Smoking Cessation and Continued Abstinence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harackiewicz, Judith M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined the role of attributions in initial and long-term smoking behavior change. Manipulated the externality of treatment. Subjects receiving nicotine gum were superior to the intrinsic self-help group in initial cessation but were inferior in maintaining abstinence. Subjects in the intrinsic self-help group made fewer external attributions for…

  16. Impacts of Four Title V, Section 510 Abstinence Education Programs. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trenholm, Christopher; Devaney, Barbara; Fortson, Ken; Quay, Ken; Wheeler, Justin; Clark, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    Since fiscal year 1998, the Title V, Section 510 program has allocated $50 million annually in federal funding for programs that teach abstinence form sexual activity outside of marriage as the expected standard for school-age children. A new impact report from Mathematica's congressionally mandated multi-year evaluation of four abstinence…

  17. Experiences of Violence and Association with Decreased Drug Abstinence Among Women in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Elizabeth; Myers, Bronwyn; Novak, Scott P.; Browne, Felicia A.; Wechsberg, Wendee M.

    2015-01-01

    Drug abuse is a contributing factor in women’s HIV risk in low-income communities in Cape Town, South Africa. This study assessed whether experiencing violence is associated with reduced drug abstinence among adult women (n = 603) participating in a randomized field trial for an HIV prevention study in Cape Town. In relation to drug abstinence at 12-month follow-up, multivariable regression models were used to assess (1) baseline partner and non-partner victimization, and (2) victimization at 12-month follow-up among participants reporting baseline victimization. Baseline partner (AOR = 0.6; 95 % CI 0.4–0.9) and non-partner victimization (AOR = 0.6; 95 % CI 0.4–0.9) were associated with a reduced likelihood of drug abstinence at follow-up. Among participants who reported victimization at baseline, those no longer reporting victimization at follow-up did not differ significantly in drug abstinence compared with those who reported victimization at follow-up. The study findings highlight the lasting impact of victimization on women’s drug use outcomes, persisting regardless of whether violence was no longer reported at follow-up. Overall, the findings support the need for the primary prevention of violence to address the cycle of violence, drug use, and HIV among women in this setting. PMID:24934652

  18. Psychosocial stress enhances non-drug-related positive memory retrieval in male abstinent heroin addicts.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Yan; Shi, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Lu, Lin

    2010-11-12

    Stress exposure in addicted individuals is known to provoke drug craving, presumably through a memory-like process, but less is known about the effects of stress on non-drug-related affective memory retrieval per se in such individuals, which is likely to provide important insights into therapy for relapse. In present study, we explored the effect of stress on retrieval of neutral and emotionally valenced (positive and negative) words in abstinent heroin addicts. In present study, 28 male inpatient abstinent heroin addicts and 20 sex-, age-, education- and economic status-matched healthy control participants were assessed for 24h delayed recall of valenced and neutral word lists on two occasions 4 weeks apart-once in a nonstress control condition, once after exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test in a counterbalanced design. In addition, attention, working memory, blood pressure, heart rate and salivary cortisol were assessed. We found acute stress at the time of word list recall enhanced retrieval of positively valenced words, but no effect on negative and neutral word retrieval in abstinent heroin addicts was observed. No changes were detected for attention and working memory. The stressor induced a significant increase in salivary free cortisol, blood pressure and heart rate. Stress can enhance non-drug-related positive memory in abstinent heroin addicts. Our findings will provide richer information in understanding dysregulation of their emotional memory processing under stress and hopefully provide insight into designing improved treatments for drug addiction.

  19. Spinal cord thyrotropin releasing hormone receptors of morphine tolerant-dependent and abstinent rats

    SciTech Connect

    Rahmani, N.H.; Gulati, A.; Bhargava, H.N. )

    1990-07-01

    The effect of chronic administration of morphine and its withdrawal on the binding of 3H-(3-MeHis2)thyrotropin releasing hormone (3H-MeTRH) to membranes of the spinal cord of the rat was determined. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with either 6 placebo or 6 morphine pellets (each containing 75-mg morphine base) during a 7-day period. Two sets of animals were used. In one, the pellets were left intact at the time of sacrificing (tolerant-dependent) and in the other, the pellets were removed 16 hours prior to sacrificing (abstinent rats). In placebo-pellet-implanted rats, 3H-MeTRH bound to the spinal cord membranes at a single high affinity binding site with a Bmax of 21.3 +/- 1.6 fmol/mg protein, and an apparent dissociation constant Kd of 4.7 +/- 0.8 nM. In morphine tolerant-dependent or abstinent rats, the binding constants of 3H-MeTRH to spinal cord membranes were unaffected. Previous studies from this laboratory indicate that TRH can inhibit morphine tolerance-dependence and abstinence processes without modifying brain TRH receptors. Together with the present results, it appears that the inhibitory effect of TRH on morphine tolerance-dependence and abstinence is probably not mediated via central TRH receptors but may be due to its interaction with other neurotransmitter systems.

  20. Motivational interviewing group at inpatient detoxification, its influence in maintaining abstinence and treatment retention after discharge.

    PubMed

    Bachiller, Diana; Grau-López, Lara; Barral, Carmen; Daigre, Constanza; Alberich, Cristina; Rodríguez-Cintas, Laia; Valero, Sergi; Casas, Miquel; Roncero, Carlos

    2015-06-17

    The relapse rate after discharge from inpatient detoxification is high. The objective of this pilot study is to assess the sociodemographic, clinical and therapeutic factors associated with maintaining abstinence in patients who participated in a brief motivational interviewing group during admission for detoxification. A total of 46 patients, diagnosed substance dependent according to DSM -IV, and admitted to the Hospital Detoxification Unit, participated in a brief motivational interviewing group. Sociodemographic, clinical, motivation to change (University of Rhode Island Change Assessment, URICA) and satisfaction with the treatment group (Treatment Perceptions Questionnaire, CPT) data were collected. Abstinence and treatment retention two months after discharge were assessed by weekly telephone calls. A survival analysis was performed. Being male, having more cognitions of the maintenance stage of change at discharge, being satisfied with group therapy and therapist during hospitalization are associated with longer abstinence after discharge. The brief motivational interviewing group approach with patients admitted for detoxification is related to greater likelihood of maintaining abstinence and subsequent treatment retention.

  1. Teacher Perspectives on Abstinence and Safe Sex Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Dennis A.; DePalma, Renée

    2014-01-01

    The stakes are high for sex education in South Africa: it has been estimated that 8.7% of young people live with HIV. Within primarily US and UK contexts, there has been much debate over the relative merits of abstinence-only and comprehensive sexual education programmes. These perspectives have largely been presented as irreconcilable, but…

  2. Remaining Off Alcohol and Drugs: A Self-Management Skills Program for Abstinence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunphy, Peter Hughes

    The Remaining Off Alcohol and Drugs Program (ROAD) was developed to teach newly abstinent chemical misusing clients how to remain alcohol and drug free. It provides its participants with a repertoire of knowledge, skills and behaviors that they can use in dealing with the most common problems caused by discontinuing chemical use and which can be…

  3. Implementing and Evaluating a Rural Community-Based Sexual Abstinence Program: Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stauss, Kimberly; Boyas, Javier; Murphy-Erby, Yvette

    2012-01-01

    Informing both program evaluation and practice research, this paper describes lessons learned during the planning, implementation, and pilot phases of an abstinence education program based in a rural community in a southern state in the USA. Although a number of challenges can emerge in successfully implementing and evaluating such a program in a…

  4. Attacking the Personal Fable: Role-Play and Its Effect on Teen Attitudes toward Sexual Abstinence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltz, Eli; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examines role playing as a tool for changing teenagers' attitudes about sex behavior and the consequences of teen pregnancy. A sample of 267 ninth-grade students attending a high-risk urban school participated. Role playing and watching videos of friends' role playing significantly increased favorable attitudes toward abstinence in girls but not…

  5. Effects of Initial Abstinence and Programmed Lapses on the Relative Reinforcing Effects of Cigarette Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chivers, Laura L.; Higgins, Stephen T.; Heil, Sarah H.; Proskin, Rebecca W.; Thomas, Colleen S.

    2008-01-01

    Fifty-eight smokers received abstinence-contingent monetary payments for 1 (n = 15) or 14 (n = 43) days. Those who received contingent payments for 14 days also received 0, 1, or 8 experimenter-delivered cigarette puffs on 5 evenings. The relative reinforcing effects of smoking were assessed in a 3-hr session on the final study day, when…

  6. Motivational interviewing group at inpatient detoxification, its influence in maintaining abstinence and treatment retention after discharge.

    PubMed

    Bachiller, Diana; Grau-López, Lara; Barral, Carmen; Daigre, Constanza; Alberich, Cristina; Rodríguez-Cintas, Laia; Valero, Sergi; Casas, Miquel; Roncero, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The relapse rate after discharge from inpatient detoxification is high. The objective of this pilot study is to assess the sociodemographic, clinical and therapeutic factors associated with maintaining abstinence in patients who participated in a brief motivational interviewing group during admission for detoxification. A total of 46 patients, diagnosed substance dependent according to DSM -IV, and admitted to the Hospital Detoxification Unit, participated in a brief motivational interviewing group. Sociodemographic, clinical, motivation to change (University of Rhode Island Change Assessment, URICA) and satisfaction with the treatment group (Treatment Perceptions Questionnaire, CPT) data were collected. Abstinence and treatment retention two months after discharge were assessed by weekly telephone calls. A survival analysis was performed. Being male, having more cognitions of the maintenance stage of change at discharge, being satisfied with group therapy and therapist during hospitalization are associated with longer abstinence after discharge. The brief motivational interviewing group approach with patients admitted for detoxification is related to greater likelihood of maintaining abstinence and subsequent treatment retention. PMID:26132300

  7. The Effectiveness of Abstinence Education Programs in Reducing Sexual Activity among Youth. The Heritage Foundation Backgrounder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rector, Robert

    Teenage sexual activity is a major problem confronting the nation and has led to a rising incidence of sexually transmitted diseases, emotional and psychological injuries, and out-of-wedlock childbearing. Abstinence education programs for youth have proven effective in reducing early sexual activity. They can also provide the foundation for…

  8. Sexual Partners and Contraceptive Use: A 16-Year Prospective Study Predicting Abstinence and Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebenbruner, Jessica; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Egeland, Byron

    2007-01-01

    Antecedents and correlates of sexual behavior among 167 (46 female) adolescents were examined in this multi-informant longitudinal study. Data were collected at birth through middle adolescence. Data on number of sexual partners and contraception use at age 16 defined sexual abstinence (SAs, n = 73), high-risk sexual behavior (HRTs, n = 45) and…

  9. THE EFFECTS OF FIXED VERSUS ESCALATING REINFORCEMENT SCHEDULES ON SMOKING ABSTINENCE

    PubMed Central

    Romanowich, Paul; Lamb, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    Studies indicate that when abstinence is initiated, escalating reinforcement schedules maintain continuous abstinence longer than fixed reinforcement schedules. However, these studies were conducted for shorter durations than most clinical trials and also resulted in larger reinforcer value for escalating participants during the 1st week of the experiment. We tested whether escalating reinforcement schedules maintained abstinence longer than fixed reinforcement schedules in a 12-week clinical trial. Smokers (146) were randomized to an escalating reinforcement schedule, a fixed reinforcement schedule, or a control condition. Escalating reinforcement participants received $5.00 for their first breath carbon monoxide (CO) sample <3 ppm, with a $0.50 increase for each consecutive sample. Fixed reinforcement participants received $19.75 for each breath CO sample <3 ppm. Control participants received payments only for delivering a breath CO sample. Similar proportions of escalating and fixed reinforcement participants met the breath CO criterion at least once. Escalating reinforcement participants maintained criterion breath CO levels longer than fixed reinforcement and control participants. Similar to previous short-term studies, escalating reinforcement schedules maintained longer durations of abstinence than fixed reinforcement schedules during a clinical trial. PMID:25640764

  10. A Preliminary Evaluation of an Abstinence-Oriented Empowerment Program for Public School Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Eileen Mazur; Greco, Michele

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This article describes the process and outcomes of an abstinence-orientated empowerment program that was delivered to an adolescent multicultural population. Method: The study employed a time-limited pretest-posttest OXO design with an N of 130 drawn from youth in public schools from fifth grade to ninth grade. A paired-samples t test…

  11. Experiences of violence and association with decreased drug abstinence among women in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Reed, Elizabeth; Myers, Bronwyn; Novak, Scott P; Browne, Felicia A; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2015-01-01

    Drug abuse is a contributing factor in women's HIV risk in low-income communities in Cape Town, South Africa. This study assessed whether experiencing violence is associated with reduced drug abstinence among adult women (n = 603) participating in a randomized field trial for an HIV prevention study in Cape Town. In relation to drug abstinence at 12-month follow-up, multivariable regression models were used to assess (1) baseline partner and non-partner victimization, and (2) victimization at 12-month follow-up among participants reporting baseline victimization. Baseline partner (AOR = 0.6; 95 % CI 0.4-0.9) and non-partner victimization (AOR = 0.6; 95 % CI 0.4-0.9) were associated with a reduced likelihood of drug abstinence at follow-up. Among participants who reported victimization at baseline, those no longer reporting victimization at follow-up did not differ significantly in drug abstinence compared with those who reported victimization at follow-up. The study findings highlight the lasting impact of victimization on women's drug use outcomes, persisting regardless of whether violence was no longer reported at follow-up. Overall, the findings support the need for the primary prevention of violence to address the cycle of violence, drug use, and HIV among women in this setting.

  12. Asymptotically Unbiased Estimation of Exposure Odds Ratios in Complete Records Logistic Regression

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, Jonathan W.; Harel, Ofer; Carpenter, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Missing data are a commonly occurring threat to the validity and efficiency of epidemiologic studies. Perhaps the most common approach to handling missing data is to simply drop those records with 1 or more missing values, in so-called “complete records” or “complete case” analysis. In this paper, we bring together earlier-derived yet perhaps now somewhat neglected results which show that a logistic regression complete records analysis can provide asymptotically unbiased estimates of the association of an exposure of interest with an outcome, adjusted for a number of confounders, under a surprisingly wide range of missing-data assumptions. We give detailed guidance describing how the observed data can be used to judge the plausibility of these assumptions. The results mean that in large epidemiologic studies which are affected by missing data and analyzed by logistic regression, exposure associations may be estimated without bias in a number of settings where researchers might otherwise assume that bias would occur. PMID:26429998

  13. Asymptotically Unbiased Estimation of Exposure Odds Ratios in Complete Records Logistic Regression.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Jonathan W; Harel, Ofer; Carpenter, James R

    2015-10-15

    Missing data are a commonly occurring threat to the validity and efficiency of epidemiologic studies. Perhaps the most common approach to handling missing data is to simply drop those records with 1 or more missing values, in so-called "complete records" or "complete case" analysis. In this paper, we bring together earlier-derived yet perhaps now somewhat neglected results which show that a logistic regression complete records analysis can provide asymptotically unbiased estimates of the association of an exposure of interest with an outcome, adjusted for a number of confounders, under a surprisingly wide range of missing-data assumptions. We give detailed guidance describing how the observed data can be used to judge the plausibility of these assumptions. The results mean that in large epidemiologic studies which are affected by missing data and analyzed by logistic regression, exposure associations may be estimated without bias in a number of settings where researchers might otherwise assume that bias would occur. PMID:26429998

  14. Asymptotically Unbiased Estimation of Exposure Odds Ratios in Complete Records Logistic Regression.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Jonathan W; Harel, Ofer; Carpenter, James R

    2015-10-15

    Missing data are a commonly occurring threat to the validity and efficiency of epidemiologic studies. Perhaps the most common approach to handling missing data is to simply drop those records with 1 or more missing values, in so-called "complete records" or "complete case" analysis. In this paper, we bring together earlier-derived yet perhaps now somewhat neglected results which show that a logistic regression complete records analysis can provide asymptotically unbiased estimates of the association of an exposure of interest with an outcome, adjusted for a number of confounders, under a surprisingly wide range of missing-data assumptions. We give detailed guidance describing how the observed data can be used to judge the plausibility of these assumptions. The results mean that in large epidemiologic studies which are affected by missing data and analyzed by logistic regression, exposure associations may be estimated without bias in a number of settings where researchers might otherwise assume that bias would occur.

  15. Could Weight-Loss Surgery Boost Odds of Preemie Birth?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160596.html Could Weight-Loss Surgery Boost Odds of Preemie Birth? Monitoring is ... HealthDay News) -- Mothers-to-be who've had weight-loss surgery may have increased odds for premature delivery, ...

  16. Stress enhances retrieval of drug-related memories in abstinent heroin addicts.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Yan; Shi, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Epstein, David H; Zhang, Xiang-Yang; Liu, Yu; Kosten, Thomas R; Lu, Lin

    2010-02-01

    Stress is associated with relapse to drugs after abstinence, but the mechanisms for this association are unclear. One mechanism may be that stress enhances abstinent addicts' recall of memories of drugs as stress relievers. This study assessed the effects of stress on free recall and cued recall of 10 heroin-related and 10 neutral words learned 24 h earlier by 102 abstinent heroin addicts. These participants were randomly assigned to three experiments that also assessed attention and working memory. Experiment 1 used a psychosocial stressor (Trier social stress test (TSST)) before testing for recall of heroin-related words. Experiment 2 added administration of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol 1 h before the psychosocial stressor. Experiment 3 added administration of either cortisol with propranolol, cortisol alone, or propranolol alone 1 h before word recall to determine whether stress enhancement of heroin-related word recall required noradrenergic-glucocorticoid interactions. We found that free recall of heroin-related words in abstinent addicts was enhanced after stress or cortisol administration when compared with a non-stress condition or placebo, respectively, whereas these interventions had no effect on neutral word recall. beta-adrenergic blockade blocked the enhancing effect of stress or cortisol on free recall of heroin-related words. Neither stress nor cortisol affected cued recall, attention, or working memory. The potential of beta-adrenergic blockade to reduce or block stress-induced enhancement of drug-related memory retrieval may be relevant to preventing stress-induced relapse in abstinent heroin addicts. PMID:19890257

  17. Online Community Use Predicts Abstinence in Combined Internet/Phone Intervention for Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Papandonatos, George D.; Erar, Bahar; Stanton, Cassandra A.; Graham, Amanda L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the causal effects of online community use on 30-day point prevalence abstinence at 3 months among smokers randomized to combined Internet+Phone intervention for smoking cessation. Method Participants were N=399 adult smokers in the Internet+Phone arm of The iQUITT Study, a randomized trial of Internet and proactive telephone counseling for smoking cessation. All participants accessed a web-based smoking-cessation program with an established online community and received telephone counseling. Automated tracking metrics of passive (e.g., reading posts, viewing profiles) and active (e.g., writing posts, sending messages) community use were extracted at 3 months. Self-selected community use defines the groups of interest: None, Passive, and Both (passive+active). Inverse probability of treatment weighting corrected for baseline imbalances on demographic, smoking, and psychosocial variables. Propensity weights estimated via generalized boosted models were used to calculate Average Treatment Effects (ATE) and Average Treatment effects on the Treated (ATT). Results Patterns of community use were: None=145 (36.3%), Passive=82 (20.6%), and Both=172 (43.1%). ATE-weighted abstinence rates were: None=12.2% (95% CI=6.7–17.7); Passive=25.2% (95% CI=15.1–35.2); Both=35.5% (95% CI=28.1–42.9). ATT-weighted abstinence rates indicated even greater benefits of passive community use by non-users. Conclusions More than one third of participants who received telephone counseling and used the community both passively and actively achieved abstinence. Participation in an established online community as part of a combined Internet+phone intervention has the potential to promote short-term abstinence. Results also demonstrated that information and support that originate in the community can serve as a resource for all users. PMID:27100127

  18. Dysregulated responses to emotions among abstinent heroin users: correlation with childhood neglect and addiction severity.

    PubMed

    Gerra, G; Somaini, L; Manfredini, M; Raggi, M A; Saracino, M A; Amore, M; Leonardi, C; Cortese, E; Donnini, C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the subjective responses of abstinent heroin users to both neutral and negative stimuli and the related hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal reactions to emotional experience in relationship to their perception of childhood adverse experiences. Thirty male abstinent heroin dependents were included in the study. Emotional responses and childhood neglect perception were measured utilizing the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Y-1 and the Child Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Neutral and unpleasant pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System and the Self-Assessment Manikin procedure have been used to determine ratings of pleasure and arousal. These ratings were compared with normative values obtained from healthy volunteers used as control. Blood samples were collected before and after the experimental sessions to determine both adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol plasma levels. Basal anxiety scores, cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels were higher in abstinent heroin users than in controls. Tests showed that anxiety scores did not change in controls after the vision of neutral slides, whilst they did in abstinent heroin addicts, increasing significantly; and increased less significantly after the unpleasant task, in comparison to controls. Abstinent heroin users showed significantly higher levels of parent antipathy and childhood emotional neglect perception than controls for both the father and the mother. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels did not significantly increase after unpleasant slide set viewing among addicted individuals, because of the significantly higher basal levels characterizing the addicted subjects in comparison with controls. Multiple regression correlation showed a significant relationship between childhood neglect perception, arousal reaction, impaired hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis response and addiction severity. Early adverse experiences

  19. Use of an Online Smoking Cessation Community Promotes Abstinence: Results of Propensity Score Weighting

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Amanda L.; Papandonatos, George D.; Erar, Bahar; Stanton, Cassandra A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the causal effects of use of an online smoking cessation community on 30-day point prevalence abstinence at 3 months. Methods Participants were N=492 adult current smokers in the enhanced Internet arm of The iQUITT Study, a randomized trial of Internet and telephone treatment for smoking cessation. All participants accessed a web-based smoking-cessation program that included a large, established online community. Automated tracking metrics of passive (e.g., reading forum posts, viewing member profiles) and active (e.g., writing forum posts, sending private messages) community use were extracted from the site at 3 months. Self-selected community use defines the groups of interest: “None”, “Passive”, and “Both” (passive+active). Inverse probability of treatment weighting corrected for baseline imbalances on demographic, smoking, psychosocial, and medical history variables. Propensity weights estimated via generalized boosted models were used to calculate Average Treatment Effects (ATE) and Average Treatment effects on the Treated (ATT). Results Patterns of community use were: None=198 (40.2%), Passive=110 (22.4%), and Both=184 (37.4%). ATE-weighted abstinence rates were: None=4.2% (95% CI=1.5–6.9); Passive=15.1% (95% CI=8.4–21.9); Both=20.4% (95% CI=13.9–26.8). ATT-weighted abstinence rates indicated even greater benefits of community use. Conclusions Community users were more likely to quit smoking at 3 months than nonusers. The estimated benefit from use of online community resources was even larger among subjects with high propensity to use them. No differences in abstinence emerged between passive and passive/active users. Results suggest that lurking in online communities confers specific abstinence benefits. Implications of these findings for online cessation communities are discussed. PMID:26651470

  20. Effect of Abstinence on Depression, Anxiety, and Quality of Life in Chronic Methamphetamine Users in a Therapeutic Community

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Maryam; Mokri, Azarakhsh; Khosravi, Aliakbar; Kabir, Kourosh

    2015-01-01

    Background: During withdrawal, patients experience different symptoms. These symptoms are associated with relapse. Understanding different outcomes of methamphetamine abstinence is useful for finding better treatments for dependence. Objectives: This study aimed to show the effects of abstinence on depression, anxiety, and quality of life in methamphetamine users. Patients and Methods: A prospective quasi-experimental (before and after study) method was used to show the effect of 3 weeks abstinence on depression, anxiety, and quality of life. A convenient sample of addicted people entered into the study and 34 people completed the study. Beck Depression Scale, Cattell Anxiety Inventory and Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) (for assessing quality of life), were used for outcome assessments. Results: The mean depression score after abstinence decreased significantly (P < 0.001). Both hidden and obvious anxiety and total anxiety had a high level at admission and after 3 weeks of abstinence, the mean level of anxiety did not change significantly (P < 0.096). However, the quality of life increased after 3 weeks of abstinence (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Depression and anxiety are prevalent in methamphetamine users. Short-term abstinence improves depression and quality of life but does not improve anxiety in methamphetamine abusers. During follow up of these patients, addressing depression and anxiety is important to achieve better results. PMID:26495258

  1. Low-lying excitations in the odd-odd nucleus154Eu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katajanheimo, R.; Jäderholm, R.; Siivola, A.; Julin, R.; Liukkonen, E.

    1988-03-01

    The doubly odd nucleus154Eu was produced during in-beam bombardments of a154Sm target with3He and deuteron beams at 27 and 10 MeV. The resulting gamma-rays were investigated using prompt and delayed gamma-gamma-coincidence equipment. The half-life of the isomeric 2+ level was determined as 2.2±0.1 μs. The partial level scheme, including numerous previously unidentified excitations, can be divided into two separate groups of levels. The results provide evidence for the existence of a very regular ground band and two rather regular K=3 level structures, whose configurations are closely related to it. In addition, several rotational sequences built on the band heads with other K values have been deduced. Our interpretation of the level scheme disagrees with the previous conclusion that the N=91 nucleus154Eu might have a stable deformation only in its ground state configuration.

  2. Effects of naltrexone on post-abstinence alcohol drinking in C57BL/6NCRL and DBA/2J mice.

    PubMed

    Tomie, Arthur; Azogu, Idu; Yu, Lei

    2013-07-01

    The present experiment evaluated the effects of naltrexone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, on post-abstinence alcohol drinking in C57BL/6NCRL and DBA/2J male mice. Home cage 2-bottle (alcohol vs. water) free-choice procedures were employed. During the pre-abstinence period, alcohol intake was much lower for the DBA/2J mice relative to the C57BL/6NCRL mice, and this strain difference was observed for groups receiving either 3% or 10% alcohol concentrations. The four-day abstinence period effectively reduced alcohol intakes (i.e., a negative alcohol deprivation effect, negative ADE) in both groups of DBA/2J mice, but had no effect on alcohol intakes in either group of C57BL/6NCRL mice. Both groups trained with 3% alcohol received the second four-day abstinence period, where the effects of acute administration of either naltrexone or saline on post-abstinence alcohol drinking were assessed. Naltrexone was more effective in reducing post-abstinence drinking of 3% alcohol in the DBA/2J mice than in the C57BL/6NCRL mice. In the DBA/2J mice, naltrexone further reduced, relative to saline-injected controls, the low levels of post-abstinence alcohol intake. Thus, the low baseline levels of alcohol drinking in DBA/2J mice were further diminished by the four-day abstinence period (negative ADE), and this suppressed post-abstinence level of alcohol drinking was still further reduced by acute administration of naltrexone. The results indicate that naltrexone is effective in reducing further the low levels of alcohol drinking induced by the negative ADE.

  3. Nuclear spin of odd-odd α emitters based on the behavior of α -particle preformation probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, M.; Adel, A.; Botros, M. M.

    2016-05-01

    The preformation probabilities of an α cluster inside radioactive parent nuclei for both odd-even and odd-odd nuclei are investigated. The calculations cover the isotopic chains from Ir to Ac in the mass regions 166 ≤A ≤215 and 77 ≤Z ≤89 . The calculations are employed in the framework of the density-dependent cluster model. A realistic density-dependent nucleon-nucleon (N N ) interaction with a finite-range exchange part is used to calculate the microscopic α -nucleus potential in the well-established double-folding model. The main effect of antisymmetrization under exchange of nucleons between the α and daughter nuclei has been included in the folding model through the finite-range exchange part of the N N interaction. The calculated potential is then implemented to find both the assault frequency and the penetration probability of the α particle by means of the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation in combination with the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition. The correlation of the α -particle preformation probability and the neutron and proton level sequences of the parent nucleus as obtained in our previous work is extended to odd-even and odd-odd nuclei to determine the nuclear spin and parities. Two spin coupling rules are used, namely, strong and weak rules to determine the nuclear spin for odd-odd isotopes. This work can be a useful reference for theoretical calculation of undetermined nuclear spin of odd-odd nuclei in the future.

  4. The Effects of Lithium Carbonate Supplemented with Nitrazepam on Sleep Disturbance during Cannabis Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Allsop, David J.; Bartlett, Delwyn J.; Johnston, Jennifer; Helliwell, David; Winstock, Adam; McGregor, Iain S.; Lintzeris, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep disturbance is a hallmark feature of cannabis withdrawal. In this study we explored the effects of lithium treatment supplemented with nitrazepam on objective and subjective measures of sleep quality during inpatient cannabis withdrawal. Methods: Treatment-seeking cannabis-dependent adults (n = 38) were admitted for 8 days to an inpatient withdrawal unit and randomized to either oral lithium (500 mg) or placebo, twice daily in a double-blind RCT. Restricted nitrazepam (10 mg) was available on demand (in response to poor sleep) on any 3 of the 7 nights. Dependent outcome measures for analysis included repeated daily objective actigraphy and subjective sleep measures throughout the 8 day detox, subjective cannabis withdrawal ratings, and detoxification completion rates. Results: Based on actigraphy, lithium resulted in less fragmented sleep compared to placebo (p = 0.04), but no other objective measures were improved by lithium. Of the subjective measures, only nightmares were suppressed by lithium (p = 0.04). Lithium did not have a significant impact on the use of nitrazepam. Sleep bout length (p < 0.0001), sleep efficiency (p < 0.0001), and sleep fragmentation (p = 0.05) were improved on nights in which nitrazepam was used. In contrast, only night sweats improved with nitrazepam from the subjective measures (p = 0.04). A Cox regression with daily repeated measures of sleep efficiency averaged across all people in the study a predictor suggests that a one-unit increase in sleep efficiency (the ratio of total sleep time to the total time in bed expressed as a percentage) resulted in a 14.6% increase in retention in treatment (p = 0.008, Exp(B) = 0.854, 95% CI = 0.759–0.960). None of the other sleep measures, nor use of lithium or nitrazepam were significantly associated with retention in treatment. Conclusions: Lithium seems to have only limited efficacy on sleep disturbance in cannabis withdrawal. However the nitrazepam improved several

  5. Properties of the {pi}i{sub 13/2}x{nu}i{sub 13/2} band in odd-odd {sup 184}Au

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.H.; Fang, Y.D.; Wang, H.L.; Zhou, X.H.; Guo, W.T.; Liu, M.L.; Guo, Y.X.; Lei, X.G.; De Angelis, G.; Marginean, N.; Gadea, A.; Napoli, D.R.; Axiotis, M.; Rusu, C.; Martinez, T.; Oshima, M.; Toh, Y.

    2004-11-01

    High-spin level structure in {sup 184}Au has been reinvestigated using the multidetector array of GASP via the {sup 159}Tb({sup 29}Si,4n{gamma}){sup 184}Au reaction at a beam energy of 140 MeV. The ground-state band and the excited {pi}i{sub 13/2}x{nu}i{sub 13/2} 2-qp band have been extended up to lower and higher spin states. An upbend has been observed in the excited band at ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){omega}{approx}0.25 MeV and is interpreted as resulting from a pair of {pi}h{sub 9/2} alignment. This low-frequency ({pi}h{sub 9/2}){sup 2} alignment is supported by the measured B(M1)/B(E2) ratios and alignment properties in neighboring odd-A nuclei. The linking transitions between the two bands and to the ground state have been established leading to a firm spin-and-parity assignment for the {pi}i{sub 13/2}x{nu}i{sub 13/2} band in {sup 184}Au. This result provides strong evidence for the low-spin signature inversion in the {pi}i{sub 13/2}x{nu}i{sub 13/2} bands of odd-odd nuclei in the A{approx}180 mass region.

  6. Preschool enrollment is associated with lower odds of childhood obesity among WIC participants in LA County.

    PubMed

    Koleilat, Maria; Harrison, Gail G; Whaley, Shannon; McGregor, Samar; Jenks, Eloise; Afifi, Abdelmonem

    2012-04-01

    The prevalence of obesity among children in the United States has increased rapidly during the past few decades. Research into social and behavioral determinants of obesity could lead to innovative strategies for prevention. The objective of the present study was to examine the association between childhood obesity and preschool enrollment and number of hours in child care among low-income preschool-aged children who were participants in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC). We conducted a case-control study including 556 3- to 4-year-old children who were either obese (BMI > 95th percentile of reference standard) or normal-weight (BMI 25-75th percentile). The population was largely (96%) Hispanic, an ethnic group that has one of the highest rates of overweight and obesity in adults and children in the US. In multiple logistic regression analysis, controlling for a variety of psychosocial and cognitive home environment variables, key demographics and maternal variables, the odds ratio of being obese was 0.61 for children who attended preschool more than 4 days a week (95% CI: 0.41-0.90). Watching television or videos for an hour or more on a typical day (odds ratio 1.71 (95% CI 1.07-2.75)), and higher maternal BMI (odds ratio 1.08 (95% CI 1.05-1.11)) were independently related to odds of obesity. The impact of preschool attendance and TV viewing are potentially instructive in terms of preventive interventions for children at this age.

  7. Superdeformation studies in the odd-odd nucleus {sup 192}Tl

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, S.; Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F.

    1995-08-01

    The study of yrast and near-yrast structures of odd-odd nuclei to high spins is somewhat limited due to the complexity of the spectra resulting from the many proton-neutron couplings near the Fermi surface. In superdeformed nuclei, the number of available protons and neutrons near the Fermi surface is somewhat limited due to the presence of large-shell gaps which stabilize the nuclear shape. A relatively small number of available neutron and proton configurations can lead to fragmentation of the SD intensity into a number of different bands. Two good examples of this phenomenon were found in {sup 192}Tl and {sup 194}Tl where the presence of six superdeformed bands were reported in both nuclei. We reexamined {sup 192}Tl at Gammasphere using the {sup 160}Gd({sup 37}Cl,5n) reaction at 178 MeV to populate states in the superdeformed well of this nucleus. While our previous study on {sup 192}Tl at ATLAS was very successful, a number of questions remained which formed the basis of our objectives in this experiment: obtain better {gamma}-ray energies for the known transitions and identify higher spin members in each band; determine how the bands feed the known yrast states in {sup 192}Tl as well as determine the complete spectrum in coincidence with the SD bands; look for M1 transitions connecting proposed signature partners; and attempt to identify other excitations in the superdeformed well. Analysis is underway and four of the six bands were confirmed. The reasons that two of the reported bands were not observed in this latest work is still under investigation. As of this time, no other superdeformed bands were identified in the data. Two of the confirmed SD bands have a constant moment of inertia and show indications of cross-talk between each other. This observation is not unexpected since the calculated M1 rates for the proposed configuration of the band, {pi}{sub 13/2} x {upsilon}j{sub 15/2}, indicate that M1 transitions linking the two SD bands should be observed.

  8. New description of the doublet bands in doubly odd nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ganev, H. G.; Georgieva, A. I.; Brant, S.; Ventura, A.

    2009-04-15

    The experimentally observed {delta}I=1 doublet bands in some odd-odd nuclei are analyzed within the orthosymplectic extension of the interacting vector boson model (IVBM). A new, purely collective interpretation of these bands is given on the basis of the obtained boson-fermion dynamical symmetry of the model. It is illustrated by its application to three odd-odd nuclei from the A{approx}130 region, namely {sup 126}Pr, {sup 134}Pr, and {sup 132}La. The theoretical predictions for the energy levels of the doublet bands as well as E2 and M1 transition probabilities between the states of the yrast band in the last two nuclei are compared with experiment and the results of other theoretical approaches. The obtained results reveal the applicability of the orthosymplectic extension of the IVBM.

  9. Veterans' Painkiller Abuse Can Raise Odds for Heroin Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Veterans' Painkiller Abuse Can Raise Odds for Heroin Use 3 of 4 who tried the illicit ... narcotic painkillers may be at high risk for heroin use, a new study cautions. The research included ...

  10. Characterization of isomers in the neutron-rich odd-odd nucleus {sup 156}Pm

    SciTech Connect

    Sood, P. C.; Gowrishankar, R; Sai, K. Vijay; Sainath, M.

    2011-02-15

    Critical examination of the experimental data from {sup 156}Nd and {sup 156}Pm {beta} decays and the observed location of relevant neutron and proton orbitals in the neighboring odd-A isotones and isotopes, taken together with the low-lying two-quasiparticle (2qp) structures expected in {sup 156}Pm from the rotor-particle model, lead to the conclusion that a consistent description of all the available data is achieved with the I{sup {pi}}=4{sup +} spin-parity assignment to the 26.7s {sup 156}Pm ground state (g.s.) and assignment of I{sup {pi}}=1{sup +} to its 150.3-keV isomer with the 2qp configuration 4{sub g.s.}{sup +}{l_brace}p{sub o}:5/2[532{up_arrow}]{+-}n{sub o}:3/2[521{up_arrow}]{r_brace}1{sub 150}{sup +}. In the process, a two-neutron configuration is also suggested for the 1509-keV 4{sup +} level in the daughter nucleus {sup 156}Sm. The present analysis reiterates the important question of whether the {beta}-decay log ft value, by itself, can be employed to deduce the relative parity of the {beta}-connected states.

  11. A preliminary investigation of abstinence and controlled gambling as self-selected goals of treatment for female pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Nicki; Smith, David; Thomas, Trang

    2009-06-01

    The current study aimed to provide a preliminary evaluation of the differential efficacy of a cognitive-behavioural treatment program for female pathological gamblers delivered with the goals of abstinence or controlled gambling. The findings were based on the comparison of pathological gamblers selecting abstinence and pathological gamblers selecting controlled gambling on measures of gambling behaviour and psychological functioning. The findings revealed that pathological gamblers selecting controlled gambling displayed comparable levels of improvement to those displayed by gamblers selecting abstinence. Using a treatment completer approach, 89% of the gamblers selecting abstinence compared with 82% selecting controlled gambling no longer satisfied the diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling by the completion of the 6-month follow-up period. Although further scientific demonstration is required, the findings of this study provide preliminary support for the practice of offering controlled gambling as an alternative goal in the treatment of pathological gambling.

  12. The odd-number sequence: squares and sums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyendekkers, J. V.; Shannon, A. G.

    2015-11-01

    Direct study of various characteristics of integers and their interactions is readily accessible to undergraduate students. Integers obviously fall in different classes of modular rings and thus have features unique to that class which can result in a variety of formations, particularly with sums of squares. The sum of the first n odd numbers is itself the square of n within the odd number sequence, from which testing for primality within the Fibonacci sequence is investigated in this note.

  13. I want to hold your hand: abstinence curricula, bioethics, and the silencing of desire.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, Abby

    2013-06-01

    The abstinence approach to sex education remains influential despite its demonstrated ineffectiveness. One bill forbids the "promotion" of "gateway sexual activity," while requiring outright condemnation of "non-abstinence," defined so loosely as to plausibly include handholding. Bioethics seldom (if ever) contributes to sex-ed debates, yet exploring the pivotal role of medical discourse reveals the need for bioethical intervention. Sex-ed debates revolve around a theory of human flourishing based on heteronormative temporality, a developmental teleology ensuring the transmission of various supposed social goods through heterosexual marriage (Halberstam, 2005). Heteronormative temporality also constitutes a moralized discourse in which the values of health and presumed certainties of medicine serve to justify conservative religious dictates that otherwise would appear controversial as the basis for public policy. Overall, this analysis explores how moralized medical discourses compound existing injustices, while suggesting bioethics' potential contributions to moral and political analysis of sex-ed policies. PMID:23468394

  14. The Knowledge Gap Versus the Belief Gap and Abstinence-Only Sex Education.

    PubMed

    Hindman, Douglas Blanks; Yan, Changmin

    2015-08-01

    The knowledge gap hypothesis predicts widening disparities in knowledge of heavily publicized public affairs issues among socioeconomic status groups. The belief gap hypothesis extends the knowledge gap hypothesis to account for knowledge and beliefs about politically contested issues based on empirically verifiable information. This analysis of 3 national surveys shows belief gaps developed between liberals and conservatives regarding abstinence-only sex education; socioeconomic status-based knowledge gaps did not widen. The findings partially support both belief gap and knowledge gap hypotheses. In addition, the unique contributions of exposure to Fox News, CNN, and MSNBC in this process were investigated. Only exposure to Fox News was linked to beliefs about abstinence-only sex education directly and indirectly through the cultivation of conservative ideology. PMID:25950234

  15. The Knowledge Gap Versus the Belief Gap and Abstinence-Only Sex Education.

    PubMed

    Hindman, Douglas Blanks; Yan, Changmin

    2015-08-01

    The knowledge gap hypothesis predicts widening disparities in knowledge of heavily publicized public affairs issues among socioeconomic status groups. The belief gap hypothesis extends the knowledge gap hypothesis to account for knowledge and beliefs about politically contested issues based on empirically verifiable information. This analysis of 3 national surveys shows belief gaps developed between liberals and conservatives regarding abstinence-only sex education; socioeconomic status-based knowledge gaps did not widen. The findings partially support both belief gap and knowledge gap hypotheses. In addition, the unique contributions of exposure to Fox News, CNN, and MSNBC in this process were investigated. Only exposure to Fox News was linked to beliefs about abstinence-only sex education directly and indirectly through the cultivation of conservative ideology.

  16. From Abstinence to Relapse: A Preliminary Qualitative Study of Drug Users in a Compulsory Drug Rehabilitation Center in Changsha, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mei; Mamy, Jules; Gao, Pengcheng; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Relapse among abstinent drug users is normal. Several factors are related to relapse, but it remains unclear what individuals’ actual life circumstances are during periods of abstinence, and how these circumstances facilitate or prevent relapse. Objective To illuminate drug users’ experiences during abstinence periods and explore the real-life catalysts and inhibitors contributing to drug use relapse. Method Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 drug users recruited from a compulsory isolated drug rehabilitation center in Changsha. The interviews were guided by open-ended questions on individuals’ experiences in drug use initiation, getting addicted, treatment history, social environment, abstinence, and relapse. Participants were also encouraged to share their own stories. Interviews were digitally recorded and fully transcribed. The data of 18 participants who reported abstinence experiences before admission were included in the analyses. The data were analyzed using a thematic analysis with inductive hand coding to derive themes. Results Most drug users were able to successfully abstain from drugs. During abstinence, their lives were congested with challenges, such as adverse socioeconomic conditions, poor family/social support, interpersonal conflicts, and stigma and discrimination, all of which kept them excluded from mainstream society. Furthermore, the police’s system of ID card registration, which identifies individuals as drug users, worsened already grave situations. Relapse triggers reported by the participants focused mainly on negative feelings, interpersonal conflicts, and stressful events. Craving was experienced but not perceived as a relapse trigger by most participants. Conclusions This study of in-depth interview with drug users found evidence of situations and environments they live during abstinence appear rather disadvantaged, making it extremely difficult for them to remain abstinent. Comprehensive programs

  17. Effects of smoking abstinence on impulsive behavior among smokers high and low in ADHD-like symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Hawk, Larry W.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Impulsivity, a multifaceted construct that includes inhibitory control and heightened preference for immediate reward, is central to models of drug use and abuse. Within a self-medication framework, abstinence from smoking may lead to an increase in impulsive behavior and the likelihood of relapse, particularly among persons with disorders (e.g., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD) and personality traits (e.g., impulsivity) linked to impulsive behavior. Objectives This study aimed to examine the effects of smoking abstinence on multiple measures of impulsivity among a non-clinical sample of adult smokers selected for high and low levels of ADHD symptoms. Methods In a within-subjects design, participants selected for high or low levels of self-reported ADHD symptoms (N=56) completed sessions following overnight abstinence and when smoking as usual (order counterbalanced). Measures of impulsive behavior included response inhibition (i.e., stop signal task), interference control (i.e., attentional modification of prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle), and impulsive choice (i.e., hypothetical delay discounting). Results As hypothesized, abstinence decreased response inhibition and PPI. Although ADHD symptoms moderated abstinence effects on impulsive choice and response inhibition, the pattern was opposite to our predictions: the low-ADHD group responded more impulsively when abstinent, whereas the high-ADHD group was relatively unaffected by abstinence. Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of utilizing multiple laboratory measures to examine a multifactorial construct such as impulsive behavior and raise questions about how best to assess symptoms of ADHD and impulsivity among non-abstinent smokers. PMID:21559802

  18. Neural substrates of faulty decision-making in abstinent marijuana users.

    PubMed

    Bolla, Karen I; Eldreth, Dana A; Matochik, John A; Cadet, Jean L

    2005-06-01

    Persistent dose-related cognitive decrements have been reported in 28-day abstinent heavy marijuana (MJ) users. However, the neural substrates of these decrements in cognitive performance are not known. This study aimed to determine if 25-day abstinent MJ users show persistent dose-related alterations in performance and brain activity using PET H(2)(15)O during the Iowa Gambling Task-IGT (a decision-making task). Eleven heavy MJ users and 11 non-drug users participated. The MJ group resided in an inpatient research unit at the NIH/NIDA-IRP for 25 days prior to testing to ensure abstinence. A dose-related association was found between increased MJ use and lower IGT performance and alterations in brain activity. The MJ group showed greater activation in the left cerebellum and less activation in the right lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) than the Control group. When the MJ group was divided into Moderate (8-35 joints/week) and Heavy users (53-84 joints/week), the Heavy MJ group showed less activation in the left medial OFC and greater activation in the left cerebellum than the Moderate group. However, brain activity and task performance were similar between the Moderate MJ users and the Control group, suggesting a "threshold effect". These preliminary findings indicate that very heavy users of MJ have persistent decision-making deficits and alterations in brain activity. Specifically, the Heavy MJ users may focus on only the immediate reinforcing aspects of a situation (i.e., getting high) while ignoring the negative consequences. Thus, faulty decision-making could make an individual more prone to addictive behavior and more resistant to treatment. Finally, it is unclear if these neurologic findings will become progressively worse with continued heavy MJ use or if they will resolve with abstinence from MJ use.

  19. Investigation of the neuroanatomical substrates of reward seeking following protracted abstinence in mice

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Heather B; Brown, Robyn M; Short, Jennifer L; Lawrence, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Persistent vulnerability to relapse represents a major challenge in the treatment of drug addiction. The brain circuitry that underlies relapse-like behaviour can be investigated using animal models of drug seeking. As yet there have been no comprehensive brain mapping studies that have specifically examined the neuroanatomical substrates of cue-induced opiate seeking following abstinence in a mouse operant paradigm. The aim of this study was to compare the brain regions involved in sucrose vs. morphine seeking following protracted abstinence in mice. Male CD1 mice were trained to respond for either sucrose (10% w/v) or intravenous morphine (0.1 mg kg−1 per infusion) in an operant paradigm in the presence of a discrete cue. Once stable responding was established, mice were subjected to abstinence in their home cages for 3 weeks and then perfused for tissue collection, or returned to the operant chambers to assess cue-induced reward seeking before being perfused for tissue collection. Brain tissue was processed for Fos immunohistochemistry and Fos expression was quantified in a range of brain nuclei. We identified unique patterns of neuronal activation for sucrose and morphine seeking mice as well as some overlap. Structures activated in both ‘relapse’ groups included the anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens shell, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, substantia nigra pars compacta, ventral tegmental area, hippocampus, periaqueductal grey, locus coeruleus and lateral habenula. Structures that were more activated in morphine seeking mice included the nucleus accumbens core, basolateral amygdala, substantia nigra pars reticulata, and the central nucleus of the amygdala. The dorsal raphe was the only structure examined that was specifically activated in sucrose seeking mice. Overall our findings support a cortico-striatal limbic circuit driving opiate seeking, and we have identified some additional circuitry potentially relevant to

  20. Protracted alcohol abstinence induces analgesia in rats: Possible relationships with BDNF and interleukin-10.

    PubMed

    Schunck, Rebeca Vargas Antunes; Torres, Iraci L S; Laste, Gabriela; de Souza, Andressa; Macedo, Isabel Cristina; Valle, Marina Tuerlinckx Costa; Salomón, Janaína L O; Moreira, Sonia; Kuo, Jonnsin; Arbo, Marcelo Dutra; Dallegrave, Eliane; Leal, Mirna Bainy

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to ethanol alters the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in central regions such as, the hippocampus, cortex and striatum. Moreover, chronic alcohol intake is known to induce selective neuronal damage associated with an increase in the inflammatory cascade, resulting in neuronal apoptosis and neurodegeneration. In the present study, we investigated the nociceptive response after 24h of protracted alcohol abstinence. Rats were submitted to a model of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and the nociceptive response was assessed by the tail-flick and the hot plate tests. In addition, we evaluated BDNF and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the cerebral prefrontal cortex, brainstem and hippocampus of rats after protracted alcohol abstinence. Male adult Wistar rats were divided into three groups: non-treated group (control group), treated with water (water group), and alcohol (alcohol group). The water and alcohol administrations were done by oral gavage and were performed over three periods of five days of treatment with two intervals of two days between them. Alcohol (20%w/v) was given at 4g/kg of body weight. There was a significant effect of treatment in the tail-flick and hot plate latencies with greater latencies in alcohol-treated rats after 10days of abstinence. There was a significant increase in the prefrontal cortex BDNF levels in the alcohol group in relation to the water group, after 11days of alcohol abstinence. In addition, alcohol withdrawal induced a significant increase in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and brainstem IL-10 levels compared with control group. Thus, the present study demonstrates that protracted alcohol withdrawal produced an analgesic effect indexed via increased nociceptive threshold. We suggest that these effects could be related to the increased levels of BDNF and IL-10 observed in the central nervous system.

  1. [Treatment of alcoholic liver diseases. Abstinence, nutritional support, drug therapy, liver transplantation].

    PubMed

    Pár, A

    2000-04-16

    The review summarizes clinically established treatment forms of alcoholic liver disease in four main chapters: abstinence, nutritional supportation, drug therapy and liver transplantation are discussed. Drug therapy is described according to the three types of alcoholic hepatopathies (fatty liver, hepatitis and cirrhosis). Early diagnosis and treatment depending on the severity and stage of alcoholic liver disease are of importance for the attempts to retard progression and improve prognosis. PMID:10817009

  2. Redundant prepuce increases the odds of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu-Yang; Xu, Dong-Liang; Zhao, Fu-Jun; Han, Bang-Min; Shao, Yi; Zhao, Wei; Xia, Shu-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Some published evidence has revealed that the dendritic cells can interact with pathogens that exist in the inner foreskin. This information provides a new vision that pathogens could play a role through the redundant prepuce; numerous studies have failed to find pathogens in prostates of patients who had chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). However, no studies have reported an association between foreskin length and CP/CPPS. Hence, we conducted a retrospective case-control study of clinical data from 322 CP/CPPS patients (case group) and 341 nonCP/CPPS patients (control group). Demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and foreskin lengths were collected and analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was adopted to calculate the odds of foreskin length for CP/CPPS. According to the multivariate logistic regression results, when the foreskin length covered up more than half of the glans penis, the odds for CP/CPPS were higher with an increased foreskin (odds ratio (OR): 1.66, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-2.66). In comparison, when the glans penis was completely covered by the foreskin, the OR value increased to 1.86 (95% CI, 1.2-2.88). The study results showed an association between foreskin length and the odds of CP/CPPS. When the foreskin length covered up more than half of the glans penis, there were greater odds for CP/CPPS. This possible mechanism might result from interaction between pathogens and DCs in the inner foreskin, consequently activating T-cells to mediate allergic inflammation in the prostate and producing the autoimmunizations causing CP/CPPS.

  3. Increased error-related thalamic activity during early compared to late cocaine abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chiang-shan R.; Luo, Xi; Sinha, Rajita; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Malison, Robert T.; Ding, Yu-Shin; Zhang, Sheng; Ide, Jaime S.

    2010-01-01

    Altered cognitive control is implicated in the shaping of cocaine dependence. One of the key component processes of cognitive control is error monitoring. Our previous imaging work highlighted greater activity in distinct cortical and subcortical regions including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), thalamus and insula when participants committed an error during the stop signal task (Li et al., 2008b). Importantly, dACC, thalamic and insular activity has been associated with drug craving. One hypothesis is that the intense interoceptive activity during craving prevents these cerebral structures from adequately registering error and/or monitoring performance. Alternatively, the dACC, thalamus and insula show abnormally heightened responses to performance errors, suggesting that excessive responses to salient stimuli such as drug cues could precipitate craving. The two hypotheses would each predict decreased and increased activity during stop error (SE) as compared to stop success (SS) trials in the SST. Here we showed that cocaine dependent patients (PCD) experienced greater subjective feeling of loss of control and cocaine craving during early (average of day 6) compared to late (average of day 18) abstinence. Furthermore, compared to PCD during late abstinence, PCD scanned during early abstinence showed increased thalamic as well as insular but not dACC responses to errors (SE>SS). These findings support the hypothesis that heightened thalamic reactivity to salient stimuli co-occur with cocaine craving and loss of self control. PMID:20163923

  4. Effects of DA-Phen, a dopamine-aminoacidic conjugate, on alcohol intake and forced abstinence.

    PubMed

    Sutera, Flavia Maria; De Caro, Viviana; Cannizzaro, Carla; Giannola, Libero Italo; Lavanco, Gianluca; Plescia, Fulvio

    2016-09-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system plays a key role in drug reinforcement and is involved in the development of alcohol addiction. Manipulation of the DAergic system represents a promising strategy to control drug-seeking behavior. Previous studies on 2-amino-N-[2-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-ethyl]-3-phenyl-propionamide (DA-Phen) showed in vivo effects as a DA-ergic modulator. This study was aimed at investigate DA-Phen effects on operant behavior for alcohol seeking behavior, during reinstatement following subsequent periods of alcohol deprivation. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were tested in an operant paradigm of self-administration; behavioral reactivity and anxiety like-behavior during acute abstinence were evaluated. A characterization of DA-Phen CNS targeting by its quantification in the brain was also carried out. Our findings showed that DA-Phen administration was able to reduce relapse in alcohol drinking by 50% and reversed the alterations in behavioral reactivity and emotionality observed during acute abstinence. In conclusion, DA-Phen can reduce reinstatement of alcohol drinking in an operant-drinking paradigm following deprivation periods and reverse abstinence-induced behavioral phenotype. DA-Phen activity seems to be mediated by the modulation of the DAergic transmission. However further studies are needed to characterize DA-Phen pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and its potential therapeutic profile in alcohol addiction. PMID:27155501

  5. Abstinence versus Moderation Goals in Brief Motivational Treatment for Pathological Gambling.

    PubMed

    Stea, Jonathan N; Hodgins, David C; Fung, Tak

    2015-09-01

    The present study examined the nature and impact of participant goal selection (abstinence versus moderation) in brief motivational treatment for pathological gambling via secondary analyses from a randomized controlled trial. The results demonstrated that the pattern of goal selection over time could be characterized by both fluidity and stability, whereby almost half of participants switched their goal at least one time, over 25% of participants selected an unchanging goal of 'quit most problematic type of gambling', almost 20% selected an unchanging goal of 'quit all types of gambling', and approximately 10% selected an unchanging goal of 'gamble in a controlled manner.' The results also demonstrated that pretreatment goal selection was uniquely associated with three variables, whereby compared to participants who selected the goal to 'cut back on problem gambling', those who selected the goal to 'quit problem gambling' were more likely to have greater gambling problem severity, to have identified video lottery terminal play as problematic, and to have greater motivation to overcome their gambling problem. Finally, the results demonstrated that goal selection over time had an impact on the average number of days gambled over the course of treatment, whereby those with abstinence-based goals gambled significantly fewer days than those with moderation-based goals. Nevertheless, goal selection over time was not related to dollars gambled, dollars per day gambled, or perceived goal achievement. The findings do not support the contention that abstinence-based goals are more advantageous than moderation goals and are discussed in relation to the broader alcohol treatment literature.

  6. Cognitive and psychological correlates of smoking abstinence, and predictors of successful cessation.

    PubMed

    Powell, J H; Pickering, A D; Dawkins, L; West, R; Powell, J F

    2004-09-01

    The neural circuitry implicated in addictive drug use, which appears to be down-regulated in early abstinence, corresponds closely with brain reward pathways. A literature review suggests that responses to incentive stimuli and the ability to inhibit reflexive responses, both of which have been associated with normal functioning in these pathways, might be weakened during acute abstinence from chronic drug use. In an ongoing study, 82 smokers, abstinent overnight before two separate testing occasions, have been assessed after administration of nicotine and placebo lozenges (order of sessions counterbalanced). Nicotine administration is associated with a significant reduction in anhedonia, a near-significant increase in response to financial incentive, enhanced ability to inhibit reflexive eye movements, and increased attentional bias to words with appetitive significance. Fifty-nine participants then initiated a quit attempt and 19 reported relapsing within 7 days. Comparing their performance in the two prequit lozenge assessment sessions, relapsers showed a stronger effect of nicotine on enhancing their ability to inhibit reflexive eye movements and a near-significant trend towards greater nicotine-induced increases in attentional bias toward appetitive words.

  7. Correlates of sexual abstinence and sexual activity of low-income African American adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Childs, Gwendolyn; Moneyham, Linda; Felton, Gwen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this predictive correlational study was to examine antecedent (knowledge of HIV and spirituality) and psychosocial (attitude toward abstinence, attitude toward condom use, sexual self-efficacy, and perceived parental attitudes toward premarital sex) factors derived from the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior as correlates and predictors of both sexual abstinence and sexual activity. Additionally, this study identified the sexual practices (vaginal-penile, oral, and/or anal sex) in which African American adolescent females were most likely to engage. A sample of 94 African American adolescent females from low-income housing communities completed questionnaires. Major results included the following: (a) a high rate of sexual abstinence was reported, (b) age was the only significant predictor of condom use, and (c) sexual self-efficacy was not a significant predictor of engaging in sexual activity. The study results contribute to the development of HIV risk reduction programs and extend health care providers' knowledge of sexual counseling for adolescents.

  8. Recovery from cannabis use disorders: Abstinence versus moderation and treatment-assisted recovery versus natural recovery.

    PubMed

    Stea, Jonathan N; Yakovenko, Igor; Hodgins, David C

    2015-09-01

    The present study of recovery from cannabis use disorders was undertaken with 2 primary objectives that address gaps in the literature. The first objective was to provide an exploratory portrait of the recovery process from cannabis use disorders, comparing individuals who recovered naturally with those who were involved in treatment. The second objective was to explore systematically the similarities and differences between abstinence and moderation recoveries. Adults who have recovered from a cannabis use disorder were recruited in the community (N = 119). The abstinence and treatment-assisted participants exhibited higher levels of lifetime cannabis problem severity than the moderation and natural recovery participants, respectively. As well, cognitive factors were identified as the most useful strategies for recovery (e.g., thinking about benefits and negative consequences of cannabis), followed by behavioral factors (e.g., avoidance of triggers for use and high-risk situations). Findings lend further support to the effectiveness of cognitive, motivational, and behavioral strategies as helpful actions and maintenance factors involved in the recovery process. The findings also generally support the idea that cannabis use disorders lie on a continuum of problem severity, with moderation and natural recoveries more likely to occur at the lower end of the continuum and abstinence and treatment-assisted recoveries more likely to occur at the upper end.

  9. Recovery from cannabis use disorders: Abstinence versus moderation and treatment-assisted recovery versus natural recovery.

    PubMed

    Stea, Jonathan N; Yakovenko, Igor; Hodgins, David C

    2015-09-01

    The present study of recovery from cannabis use disorders was undertaken with 2 primary objectives that address gaps in the literature. The first objective was to provide an exploratory portrait of the recovery process from cannabis use disorders, comparing individuals who recovered naturally with those who were involved in treatment. The second objective was to explore systematically the similarities and differences between abstinence and moderation recoveries. Adults who have recovered from a cannabis use disorder were recruited in the community (N = 119). The abstinence and treatment-assisted participants exhibited higher levels of lifetime cannabis problem severity than the moderation and natural recovery participants, respectively. As well, cognitive factors were identified as the most useful strategies for recovery (e.g., thinking about benefits and negative consequences of cannabis), followed by behavioral factors (e.g., avoidance of triggers for use and high-risk situations). Findings lend further support to the effectiveness of cognitive, motivational, and behavioral strategies as helpful actions and maintenance factors involved in the recovery process. The findings also generally support the idea that cannabis use disorders lie on a continuum of problem severity, with moderation and natural recoveries more likely to occur at the lower end of the continuum and abstinence and treatment-assisted recoveries more likely to occur at the upper end. PMID:26168224

  10. Relations among affect, abstinence motivation and confidence, and daily smoking lapse risk.

    PubMed

    Minami, Haruka; Yeh, Vivian M; Bold, Krysten W; Chapman, Gretchen B; McCarthy, Danielle E

    2014-06-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that changes in momentary affect, abstinence motivation, and confidence would predict lapse risk over the next 12-24 hr using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) data from smokers attempting to quit smoking. One hundred and three adult, daily, treatment-seeking smokers recorded their momentary affect, motivation to quit, abstinence confidence, and smoking behaviors in near real time with multiple EMA reports per day using electronic diaries postquit. Multilevel models indicated that initial levels of negative affect were associated with smoking, even after controlling for earlier smoking status, and that short-term increases in negative affect predicted lapses up to 12, but not 24, hr later. Positive affect had significant effects on subsequent abstinence confidence, but not motivation to quit. High levels of motivation appeared to reduce increases in lapse risk that occur over hours although momentary changes in confidence did not predict lapse risk over 12 hr. Negative affect had short-lived effects on lapse risk, whereas higher levels of motivation protected against the risk of lapsing that accumulates over hours. An increase in positive affect was associated with greater confidence to quit, but such changes in confidence did not reduce short-term lapse risk, contrary to expectations. Relations observed among affect, cognitions, and lapse seem to depend critically on the timing of assessments.

  11. Relations among Affect, Abstinence Motivation and Confidence, and Daily Smoking Lapse Risk

    PubMed Central

    Minami, Haruka; Yeh, Vivian M.; Bold, Krysten W.; Chapman, Gretchen B.; McCarthy, Danielle E.

    2016-01-01

    Aims This study tested the hypothesis that changes in momentary affect, abstinence motivation, and confidence would predict lapse risk over the next 12–24 hours using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) data from smokers attempting to quit smoking. Method 103 adult, daily, treatment-seeking smokers recorded their momentary affect, motivation to quit, abstinence confidence, and smoking behaviors in near real time with multiple EMA reports per day using electronic diaries post-quit. Results Multilevel models indicated that initial levels of negative affect were associated with smoking, even after controlling for earlier smoking status, and that short-term increases in negative affect predicted lapses up to 12, but not 24, hours later. Positive affect had significant effects on subsequent abstinence confidence, but not motivation to quit. High levels of motivation appeared to reduce increases in lapse risk that occur over hours while momentary changes in confidence did not predict lapse risk over 12 hours. Conclusion Negative affect had short-lived effects on lapse risk, whereas higher levels of motivation protected against the risk of lapsing that accumulates over hours. An increase in positive affect was associated with greater confidence to quit, but such changes in confidence did not reduce short-term lapse risk, contrary to expectations. Relations observed among affect, cognitions, and lapse seem to depend critically on the timing of assessments. PMID:24955665

  12. Effects of DA-Phen, a dopamine-aminoacidic conjugate, on alcohol intake and forced abstinence.

    PubMed

    Sutera, Flavia Maria; De Caro, Viviana; Cannizzaro, Carla; Giannola, Libero Italo; Lavanco, Gianluca; Plescia, Fulvio

    2016-09-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system plays a key role in drug reinforcement and is involved in the development of alcohol addiction. Manipulation of the DAergic system represents a promising strategy to control drug-seeking behavior. Previous studies on 2-amino-N-[2-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-ethyl]-3-phenyl-propionamide (DA-Phen) showed in vivo effects as a DA-ergic modulator. This study was aimed at investigate DA-Phen effects on operant behavior for alcohol seeking behavior, during reinstatement following subsequent periods of alcohol deprivation. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were tested in an operant paradigm of self-administration; behavioral reactivity and anxiety like-behavior during acute abstinence were evaluated. A characterization of DA-Phen CNS targeting by its quantification in the brain was also carried out. Our findings showed that DA-Phen administration was able to reduce relapse in alcohol drinking by 50% and reversed the alterations in behavioral reactivity and emotionality observed during acute abstinence. In conclusion, DA-Phen can reduce reinstatement of alcohol drinking in an operant-drinking paradigm following deprivation periods and reverse abstinence-induced behavioral phenotype. DA-Phen activity seems to be mediated by the modulation of the DAergic transmission. However further studies are needed to characterize DA-Phen pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and its potential therapeutic profile in alcohol addiction.

  13. Cognitive and psychological correlates of smoking abstinence, and predictors of successful cessation.

    PubMed

    Powell, J H; Pickering, A D; Dawkins, L; West, R; Powell, J F

    2004-09-01

    The neural circuitry implicated in addictive drug use, which appears to be down-regulated in early abstinence, corresponds closely with brain reward pathways. A literature review suggests that responses to incentive stimuli and the ability to inhibit reflexive responses, both of which have been associated with normal functioning in these pathways, might be weakened during acute abstinence from chronic drug use. In an ongoing study, 82 smokers, abstinent overnight before two separate testing occasions, have been assessed after administration of nicotine and placebo lozenges (order of sessions counterbalanced). Nicotine administration is associated with a significant reduction in anhedonia, a near-significant increase in response to financial incentive, enhanced ability to inhibit reflexive eye movements, and increased attentional bias to words with appetitive significance. Fifty-nine participants then initiated a quit attempt and 19 reported relapsing within 7 days. Comparing their performance in the two prequit lozenge assessment sessions, relapsers showed a stronger effect of nicotine on enhancing their ability to inhibit reflexive eye movements and a near-significant trend towards greater nicotine-induced increases in attentional bias toward appetitive words. PMID:15345273

  14. Abnormal resting-state functional connectivity of the nucleus accumbens in multi-year abstinent heroin addicts.

    PubMed

    Zou, Feng; Wu, Xinhuai; Zhai, Tianye; Lei, Yu; Shao, Yongcong; Jin, Xiao; Tan, Shuwen; Wu, Bing; Wang, Lubin; Yang, Zheng

    2015-11-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies suggest that abnormal brain functional connectivity may be the neural underpinning of addiction to illicit drugs and of relapse after successful cessation therapy. Aberrant brain networks have been demonstrated in addicted patients and in newly abstinent addicts. However, it is not known whether abnormal brain connectivity patterns persist after prolonged abstinence. In this cross-sectional study, whole-brain resting-state functional magnetic resonance images (8 min) were collected from 30 heroin-addicted individuals after a long period of abstinence (more than 3 years) and from 30 healthy controls. We first examined the group differences in the resting-state functional connectivity of the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a brain region implicated in relapse-related processes, including craving and reactivity to stress following acute and protracted withdrawal from heroin. We then examined the relation between the duration of abstinence and the altered NAc functional connectivity in the heroin group. We found that, compared with controls, heroin-dependent participants exhibited significantly greater functional connectivity between the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the NAc and weaker functional connectivity between the NAc and the left putamen, left precuneus, and supplementary motor area. However, with longer abstinence time, the strength of NAc functional connectivity with the left putamen increased. These results indicate that dysfunction of the NAc functional network is still present in long-term-abstinent heroin-dependent individuals. PMID:26280556

  15. Animal models of drug relapse and craving: From drug priming-induced reinstatement to incubation of craving after voluntary abstinence.

    PubMed

    Venniro, Marco; Caprioli, Daniele; Shaham, Yavin

    2016-01-01

    High rates of relapse to drug use during abstinence is a defining feature of drug addiction. In abstinent drug users, drug relapse is often precipitated by acute exposure to the self-administered drug, drug-associated cues, stress, as well as by short-term and protracted withdrawal symptoms. In this review, we discuss different animal models that have been used to study behavioral and neuropharmacological mechanisms of these relapse-related phenomena. In the first part, we discuss relapse models in which abstinence is achieved through extinction training, including the established reinstatement model, as well as the reacquisition and resurgence models. In the second part, we discuss recent animal models in which drug relapse is assessed after either forced abstinence (e.g., the incubation of drug craving model) or voluntary (self-imposed) abstinence achieved either by introducing adverse consequences to ongoing drug self-administration (e.g., punishment) or by an alternative nondrug reward using a discrete choice (drug vs. palatable food) procedure. We conclude by briefly discussing the potential implications of the recent developments of animal models of drug relapse after voluntary abstinence to the development of medications for relapse prevention.

  16. Changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) during abstinence could be associated with relapse in cocaine-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Corominas-Roso, Margarida; Roncero, Carlos; Daigre, Constanza; Grau-Lopez, Lara; Ros-Cucurull, Elena; Rodríguez-Cintas, Laia; Sanchez-Mora, Cristina; Lopez, Maria Victoria; Ribases, Marta; Casas, Miguel

    2015-02-28

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in cocaine craving in humans and drug seeking in rodents. Based on this, the aim of this study was to explore the possible role of serum BDNF in cocaine relapse in abstinent addicts. Forty cocaine dependent subjects (DSM-IV criteria) were included in an inpatient 2 weeks abstinence program. Organic and psychiatric co-morbidities were excluded. Two serum samples were collected for each subject at baseline and at after 14 abstinence days. After discharge, all cocaine addicts underwent a 22 weeks follow-up, after which they were classified into early relapsers (ER) (resumed during the first 14 days after discharge,) or late relapsers (LR) (resumed beyond 14 days after discharge). The only clinical differences between groups were the number of consumption days during the last month before detoxification. Serum BDNF levels increased significantly across the 12 days of abstinence in the LR group (p=0.02), whereas in the ER group BDNF remained unchanged. In the ER group, the change of serum BDNF during abstinence negatively correlated with the improvement in depressive symptoms (p=0.02). These results suggest that BDNF has a role in relapse to cocaine consumption in abstinent addicts, although the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain to be clarified. PMID:25592977

  17. Prolonged sexual abstinence after childbirth: gendered norms and perceived family health risks. Focus group discussions in a Tanzanian suburb

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prolonged sexual abstinence after childbirth is a socio-cultural practice with health implications, and is described in several African countries, including Tanzania. This study explored discourses on prolonged postpartum sexual abstinence in relation to family health after childbirth in low-income suburbs of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Data for the discourse analysis were collected through focus group discussions with first-time mothers and fathers and their support people in Ilala, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Results In this setting, prolonged sexual abstinence intended at promoting child health was the dominant discourse in the period after childbirth. Sexual relations after childbirth involved the control of sexuality for ensuring family health and avoiding the social implications of non-adherence to sexual abstinence norms. Both abstinence and control were emphasised more with regard to women than to men. Although the traditional discourse on prolonged sexual abstinence for protecting child health was reproduced in Ilala, some modern aspects such as the use of condoms and other contraceptives prevailed in the discussion. Conclusion Discourses on sexuality after childbirth are instrumental in reproducing gender-power inequalities, with women being subjected to more restrictions and control than men are. Thus, interventions that create openness in discussing sexual relations and health-related matters after childbirth and mitigate gendered norms suppressing women and perpetuating harmful behaviours are needed. The involvement of males in the interventions would benefit men, women, and children through improving the gender relations that promote family health. PMID:23316932

  18. Animal models of drug relapse and craving: From drug priming-induced reinstatement to incubation of craving after voluntary abstinence.

    PubMed

    Venniro, Marco; Caprioli, Daniele; Shaham, Yavin

    2016-01-01

    High rates of relapse to drug use during abstinence is a defining feature of drug addiction. In abstinent drug users, drug relapse is often precipitated by acute exposure to the self-administered drug, drug-associated cues, stress, as well as by short-term and protracted withdrawal symptoms. In this review, we discuss different animal models that have been used to study behavioral and neuropharmacological mechanisms of these relapse-related phenomena. In the first part, we discuss relapse models in which abstinence is achieved through extinction training, including the established reinstatement model, as well as the reacquisition and resurgence models. In the second part, we discuss recent animal models in which drug relapse is assessed after either forced abstinence (e.g., the incubation of drug craving model) or voluntary (self-imposed) abstinence achieved either by introducing adverse consequences to ongoing drug self-administration (e.g., punishment) or by an alternative nondrug reward using a discrete choice (drug vs. palatable food) procedure. We conclude by briefly discussing the potential implications of the recent developments of animal models of drug relapse after voluntary abstinence to the development of medications for relapse prevention. PMID:26822352

  19. Longitudinal Mapping of Gyral and Sulcal Patterns of Cortical Thickness and Brain Volume Regain during Early Alcohol Abstinence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Ying; Demirakca, Traute; van Eijk, Julia; Frischknecht, Ulrich; Ruf, Matthias; Ucar, Serhat; Hermann, Derik; Mann, Karl; Kiefer, Falk; Ende, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    We explored brain volume recovery in terms of cortical thickness (CTh; gyral, sulcal pattern) and surface area (SA), as well as subcortical volume recovery in the first 2 weeks of abstinence in 49 alcohol-dependent patients (ADPs). A widespread reduction of CTh in ADPs at day 1 of abstinence compared to healthy controls, with more pronounced differences in sulci relative to gyri was found. After 2 weeks of abstinence, partial recovery to varying degrees of CTh loss in ADPs was observed for several regions. The longitudinal CTh changes were greater in sulci than in gyri of affected regions. No longitudinal change in SAs and subcortical volumes was found. Alterations of CTh contribute to brain volume loss in alcoholism and recovery during early abstinence. Sulci seem to be more vulnerable to excessive alcohol consumption and to drive abstinence-induced volume recovery. During the initial 2 weeks of abstinence no subcortical volume regain was observed. Either the time span was too short or the lower subcortical volume could represent a predisposing trait marker. PMID:26343988

  20. Changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) during abstinence could be associated with relapse in cocaine-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Corominas-Roso, Margarida; Roncero, Carlos; Daigre, Constanza; Grau-Lopez, Lara; Ros-Cucurull, Elena; Rodríguez-Cintas, Laia; Sanchez-Mora, Cristina; Lopez, Maria Victoria; Ribases, Marta; Casas, Miguel

    2015-02-28

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in cocaine craving in humans and drug seeking in rodents. Based on this, the aim of this study was to explore the possible role of serum BDNF in cocaine relapse in abstinent addicts. Forty cocaine dependent subjects (DSM-IV criteria) were included in an inpatient 2 weeks abstinence program. Organic and psychiatric co-morbidities were excluded. Two serum samples were collected for each subject at baseline and at after 14 abstinence days. After discharge, all cocaine addicts underwent a 22 weeks follow-up, after which they were classified into early relapsers (ER) (resumed during the first 14 days after discharge,) or late relapsers (LR) (resumed beyond 14 days after discharge). The only clinical differences between groups were the number of consumption days during the last month before detoxification. Serum BDNF levels increased significantly across the 12 days of abstinence in the LR group (p=0.02), whereas in the ER group BDNF remained unchanged. In the ER group, the change of serum BDNF during abstinence negatively correlated with the improvement in depressive symptoms (p=0.02). These results suggest that BDNF has a role in relapse to cocaine consumption in abstinent addicts, although the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain to be clarified.

  1. Distinct mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptor mechanisms underlie low sociability and depressive-like behaviors during heroin abstinence.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Pierre-Eric; Ayranci, Gulebru; Chu-Sin-Chung, Paul; Matifas, Audrey; Koebel, Pascale; Filliol, Dominique; Befort, Katia; Ouagazzal, Abdel-Mouttalib; Kieffer, Brigitte L

    2014-10-01

    Addiction is a chronic disorder involving recurring intoxication, withdrawal, and craving episodes. Escaping this vicious cycle requires maintenance of abstinence for extended periods of time and is a true challenge for addicted individuals. The emergence of depressive symptoms, including social withdrawal, is considered a main cause for relapse, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we establish a mouse model of protracted abstinence to heroin, a major abused opiate, where both emotional and working memory deficits unfold. We show that delta and kappa opioid receptor (DOR and KOR, respectively) knockout mice develop either stronger or reduced emotional disruption during heroin abstinence, establishing DOR and KOR activities as protective and vulnerability factors, respectively, that regulate the severity of abstinence. Further, we found that chronic treatment with the antidepressant drug fluoxetine prevents emergence of low sociability, with no impact on the working memory deficit, implicating serotonergic mechanisms predominantly in emotional aspects of abstinence symptoms. Finally, targeting the main serotonergic brain structure, we show that gene knockout of mu opioid receptors (MORs) in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) before heroin exposure abolishes the development of social withdrawal. This is the first result demonstrating that intermittent chronic MOR activation at the level of DRN represents an essential mechanism contributing to low sociability during protracted heroin abstinence. Altogether, our findings reveal crucial and distinct roles for all three opioid receptors in the development of emotional alterations that follow a history of heroin exposure and open the way towards understanding opioid system-mediated serotonin homeostasis in heroin abuse. PMID:24874714

  2. Distinct Mu, Delta, and Kappa Opioid Receptor Mechanisms Underlie Low Sociability and Depressive-Like Behaviors During Heroin Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Pierre-Eric; Ayranci, Gulebru; Chu-Sin-Chung, Paul; Matifas, Audrey; Koebel, Pascale; Filliol, Dominique; Befort, Katia; Ouagazzal, Abdel-Mouttalib; Kieffer, Brigitte L

    2014-01-01

    Addiction is a chronic disorder involving recurring intoxication, withdrawal, and craving episodes. Escaping this vicious cycle requires maintenance of abstinence for extended periods of time and is a true challenge for addicted individuals. The emergence of depressive symptoms, including social withdrawal, is considered a main cause for relapse, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we establish a mouse model of protracted abstinence to heroin, a major abused opiate, where both emotional and working memory deficits unfold. We show that delta and kappa opioid receptor (DOR and KOR, respectively) knockout mice develop either stronger or reduced emotional disruption during heroin abstinence, establishing DOR and KOR activities as protective and vulnerability factors, respectively, that regulate the severity of abstinence. Further, we found that chronic treatment with the antidepressant drug fluoxetine prevents emergence of low sociability, with no impact on the working memory deficit, implicating serotonergic mechanisms predominantly in emotional aspects of abstinence symptoms. Finally, targeting the main serotonergic brain structure, we show that gene knockout of mu opioid receptors (MORs) in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) before heroin exposure abolishes the development of social withdrawal. This is the first result demonstrating that intermittent chronic MOR activation at the level of DRN represents an essential mechanism contributing to low sociability during protracted heroin abstinence. Altogether, our findings reveal crucial and distinct roles for all three opioid receptors in the development of emotional alterations that follow a history of heroin exposure and open the way towards understanding opioid system-mediated serotonin homeostasis in heroin abuse. PMID:24874714

  3. Executive functions in preschoolers with ADHD, ODD, and comorbid ADHD-ODD: Evidence from ecological and performance-based measures.

    PubMed

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser

    2015-09-01

    Executive functioning in 3-year-old preschoolers with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD), comorbid ADHD+ODD, and children without any of these conditions (control group) was examined. A community sample including 622 children was diagnosed using a diagnostic interview following DSM-IV criteria, and assessed using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Preschool version (BRIEF-P) and the Kiddie-Conners' Continuous Performance Test. The children diagnosed with ADHD showed the poorest executive function (EF) profile in comparison with controls, and were closely followed up in this respect by the comorbid ADHD+ODD children. The ADHD and comorbid groups presented similar executive difficulties. The ODD group obtained mean scores statistically equal to those of controls in EF. These findings suggest that, in preschoolers, executive functioning deficits assessed with a performance-based measure or with behavioural descriptions are specific to children with ADHD, in comparison with those with ODD. This study contributes knowledge about EFs in two prevalent and comorbid disorders in preschool children, ADHD and ODD, knowledge that can help our understanding of specific deficits and the design of specific early intervention initiatives.

  4. Odds of fault and factors for out-of-state drivers in crashes in four states of the USA.

    PubMed

    Harootunian, Kristine; Lee, Brian H Y; Aultman-Hall, Lisa

    2014-11-01

    Drivers outside their country of residence are at a safety disadvantage when compared to native counterparts. This research aimed to (1) investigate if out-of-state drivers in the United States experienced the same vulnerabilities as foreign drivers, and (2) examine the relations of out-of-state crashes to various human and environmental factors. Crash data from Florida, Maine, Minnesota, and Nevada was analyzed to model fault using logistic regressions. Univariate regressions showed that out-of-state drivers had increased odds of fault, ranging from 17% to 92%, for a single-vehicle crash compared to in-state drivers in all states except Florida, where there was no difference between groups. Odds were elevated for out-of-state drivers in two-vehicle crashes by 3% to 19% in all states except Florida and Minnesota, where, again, there was no difference between groups. Human and environmental factors such as age, sex, driving conditions, and seasons were examined with multivariate regressions for in- and out-of-state groups separately, and their odds ratios were compared. For single-vehicle crashes age, sex, road grade, surface condition, light conditions, and day of week were factors that increased at least one of the two groups' odds of fault in all states. Sex, surface condition, and light conditions increased the odds of fault for at least one of the groups in two-vehicle crashes in all four states. Factors that consistently increased odds of fault for both single- and two-vehicle crashes were males, non-vehicle owners, curves, and inclement weather. Although there were several factors in each state that increased odds of fault for out-of-state drivers, no factors consistently increased odds of fault for out-of-state drivers across all four states.

  5. Engineering Escherichia coli for odd straight medium chain free fatty acid production.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui; San, Ka-Yiu

    2014-10-01

    Microbial biosynthesis of free fatty acids (FFAs) can be achieved by introducing an acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene into Escherichia coli. The engineered E. coli usually produced even chain FFAs. In this study, propionyl-CoA synthetase (prpE) from Salmonella enterica was overexpressed in two efficient even chain FFAs producers, ML103 (pXZM12) carrying the acyl-ACP thioesterase gene from Umbellularia californica and ML103 (pXZ18) carrying the acyl-ACP thioesterase gene from Ricinus communis combined with supplement of extracellular propionate. With these metabolically engineered E. coli, the odd straight chain FFAs, undecanoic acid (C11:0), tridecanoic acid (C13:0), and pentadecanoic acid (C15:0) were produced from glucose and propionate. The highest total odd straight chain FFAs produced by ML103 (pXZM12, pBAD-prpE) reached 276 mg/l with a ratio of 23.43 % of the total FFAs. In ML103 (pXZ18, pBAD-prpE), the highest total odd straight chain FFAs accumulated to 297 mg/l, and the ratio reached 17.68 % of the total FFAs. Due to the different substrate specificity of the acyl-ACP thioesterases, the major odd straight chain FFA components of ML103 (pXZM12, pBAD-prpE) were undecanoic acid and tridecanoic acid, while the ML103 (pXZ18, pBAD-prpE) preferred pentadecanoic acid. PMID:25030454

  6. Excited states of deformable odd {sup 157,159}Tb nuclei: Nonconservation of the angular momentum of external nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Sharipov, Sh.; Ermamatov, M. J.

    2009-01-15

    The previously developed rotationally single-particle and vibrational model of the triaxial deformable odd nuclei is extended to the case where the total angular momentum of an external nucleon is not conserved. The calculated ratios of the excitation energies of the {sup 157,159}Tb nuclei are compared with the existing experimental data. The ratios of E2-transition probabilities and those of quadrupole moments of the above nuclei are calculated using parameters determined from the spectra of these nuclei.

  7. Cerebral white matter recovery in abstinent alcoholics—a multimodality magnetic resonance study

    PubMed Central

    Durazzo, Timothy C.; Mon, Anderson; Yeh, Ping-Hong; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.

    2010-01-01

    Most previous neuroimaging studies of alcohol-induced brain injury and recovery thereof during abstinence from alcohol used a single imaging modality. They have demonstrated widespread microstructural, macrostructural or metabolite abnormalities that were partially reversible with abstinence, with the cigarette smoking potentially modulating these processes. The goals of this study were to evaluate white matter injury and recovery thereof, simultaneously with diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy in the same cohort; and to evaluate the relationships between outcome measures of similar regions. We scanned 16 non-smoking and 20 smoking alcohol-dependent individuals at 1 week of abstinence from alcohol and 22 non-smoking light drinkers using a 1.5 T magnetic resonance scanner. Ten non-smoking alcohol-dependent individuals and 11 smoking alcohol-dependent individuals were re-scanned at 1 month of abstinence. All regional diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopic outcome measures were calculated over comparable volumes of frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital white matter. At 1 week of abstinence and relative to non-smoking light drinkers, non-smoking alcohol-dependent individuals had higher mean diffusivity in frontal, temporal and parietal white matter (all P < 0.008), whereas smoking alcohol-dependent individuals had elevated mean diffusivity only in frontal white matter (P = 0.03). Smoking alcohol-dependent individuals demonstrated lower concentrations of N-acetyl-aspartate (a marker of neuronal viability) in frontal white matter (P = 0.03), whereas non-smoking alcohol-dependent individuals had lower N-acetyl-aspartate in parietal white matter (P = 0.05). These abnormalities were not accompanied by detectable white matter atrophy. However, the patterns of white matter recovery were different between non-smoking alcohol-dependent individuals and smoking alcohol-dependent individuals. In non

  8. Multicomponent fluids of hard hyperspheres in odd dimensions.

    PubMed

    Rohrmann, René D; Santos, Andrés

    2011-01-01

    Mixtures of hard hyperspheres in odd-space dimensionalities are studied with an analytical approximation method. This technique is based on the so-called rational function approximation and provides a procedure for evaluating equations of state, structure factors, radial distribution functions, and direct correlation functions of additive mixtures of hard hyperspheres with any number of components and in arbitrary odd-dimension space. The method gives the exact solution of the Ornstein-Zernike equation coupled with the Percus-Yevick closure, thus, extending the solution for hard-sphere mixtures [J. L. Lebowitz, Phys. Rev. 133, A895 (1964)] to arbitrary odd dimensions. Explicit evaluations for binary mixtures in five dimensions are performed. The results are compared with computer simulations, and a good agreement is found.

  9. Brief intermittent cocaine self-administration and abstinence sensitizes cocaine effects on the dopamine transporter and increases drug seeking.

    PubMed

    Calipari, Erin S; Siciliano, Cody A; Zimmer, Benjamin A; Jones, Sara R

    2015-02-01

    Although traditional sensitization paradigms, which result in an augmentation of cocaine-induced locomotor behavior and dopamine (DA) overflow following repeated experimenter-delivered cocaine injections, are often used as a model to study drug addiction, similar effects have been difficult to demonstrate following cocaine self-administration. We have recently shown that intermittent access (IntA) to cocaine can result in increased cocaine potency at the DA transporter (DAT); however, traditional sensitization paradigms often show enhanced effects following withdrawal/abstinence periods. Therefore, we determined a time course of IntA-induced sensitization by examining the effects of 1 or 3 days of IntA, as well as a 7-day abstinence period on DA function, cocaine potency, and reinforcement. Here we show that cocaine potency is increased following as little as 3 days of IntA and further augmented following an abstinence period. In addition, IntA plus abstinence produced greater evoked DA release in the presence of cocaine as compared with all other groups, demonstrating that following abstinence, both cocaine's ability to increase DA release and inhibit uptake at the DAT, two separate mechanisms for increasing DA levels, are enhanced. Finally, we found that IntA-induced sensitization of the DA system resulted in an increased reinforcing efficacy of cocaine, an effect that was augmented after the 7-day abstinence period. These results suggest that sensitization of the DA system may have an important role in the early stages of drug abuse and may drive the increased drug seeking and taking that characterize the transition to uncontrolled drug use. Human data suggest that intermittency, sensitization, and periods of abstinence have an integral role in the process of addiction, highlighting the importance of utilizing pre-clinical models that integrate these phenomena, and suggesting that IntA paradigms may serve as novel models of human addiction. PMID:25212486

  10. Brief Intermittent Cocaine Self-Administration and Abstinence Sensitizes Cocaine Effects on the Dopamine Transporter and Increases Drug Seeking

    PubMed Central

    Calipari, Erin S; Siciliano, Cody A; Zimmer, Benjamin A; Jones, Sara R

    2015-01-01

    Although traditional sensitization paradigms, which result in an augmentation of cocaine-induced locomotor behavior and dopamine (DA) overflow following repeated experimenter-delivered cocaine injections, are often used as a model to study drug addiction, similar effects have been difficult to demonstrate following cocaine self-administration. We have recently shown that intermittent access (IntA) to cocaine can result in increased cocaine potency at the DA transporter (DAT); however, traditional sensitization paradigms often show enhanced effects following withdrawal/abstinence periods. Therefore, we determined a time course of IntA-induced sensitization by examining the effects of 1 or 3 days of IntA, as well as a 7-day abstinence period on DA function, cocaine potency, and reinforcement. Here we show that cocaine potency is increased following as little as 3 days of IntA and further augmented following an abstinence period. In addition, IntA plus abstinence produced greater evoked DA release in the presence of cocaine as compared with all other groups, demonstrating that following abstinence, both cocaine's ability to increase DA release and inhibit uptake at the DAT, two separate mechanisms for increasing DA levels, are enhanced. Finally, we found that IntA-induced sensitization of the DA system resulted in an increased reinforcing efficacy of cocaine, an effect that was augmented after the 7-day abstinence period. These results suggest that sensitization of the DA system may have an important role in the early stages of drug abuse and may drive the increased drug seeking and taking that characterize the transition to uncontrolled drug use. Human data suggest that intermittency, sensitization, and periods of abstinence have an integral role in the process of addiction, highlighting the importance of utilizing pre-clinical models that integrate these phenomena, and suggesting that IntA paradigms may serve as novel models of human addiction. PMID:25212486

  11. Dissociated effects of anticipating smoking versus monetary reward in the caudate as a function of smoking abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Sweitzer, Maggie M.; Geier, Charles F.; Joel, Danielle L.; McGurrin, Patrick; Denlinger, Rachel; Forbes, Erika; Donny, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Theories of addiction suggest that chronic smoking may be associated with both hypersensitivity to smoking and related cues and hyposensitivity to alternative reinforcers. However, neural responses to smoking and non-smoking rewards are rarely evaluated within the same paradigm, leaving the extent to which both processes operate simultaneously uncertain. Furthermore, behavioral evidence and theoretical models suggests that dysregulated reward processing may be more pronounced during deprivation from nicotine, but neuroimaging evidence on the effects of deprivation on reward processing is limited. The current study examined the impact of deprivation from smoking on neural processing of both smoking and monetary rewards. Methods Thirty-eight daily smokers participated in two separate fMRI scans, one after smoking without restriction and one following 24 hours of abstinence. A rewarded guessing task was conducted during each scan to evaluate striatal BOLD response during anticipation of both smoking and monetary rewards. Results A significant reward type X abstinence interaction was observed in the bilateral caudate and medial prefrontal cortex during reward anticipation. BOLD response to anticipation of smoking reward was significantly higher, and anticipation of monetary rewards significantly lower, during abstinence compared with non-abstinence. Furthermore, attenuation of monetary reward-related activation during abstinence was significantly correlated with abstinence-induced increases in craving and withdrawal. Conclusions These results provide the first direct evidence of dissociated effects of smoking versus monetary rewards as a function of abstinence. The findings suggest an important neural pathway that may underlie the choice to smoke in lieu of alternate reinforcement during a quit attempt. PMID:24342923

  12. Nicotine content and abstinence state have different effects on subjective ratings of positive versus negative reinforcement from smoking.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Kimberly P; Bracken, Bethany K; Maclean, Robert R; Ryan, Elizabeth T; Lukas, Scott E; Frederick, Blaise Deb

    2013-02-01

    Despite the well-known adverse health consequences of smoking, approximately 20% of US adults smoke tobacco cigarettes. Much of the research on smoking reinforcement and the maintenance of tobacco smoking behavior has focused on nicotine; however, a number of other non-nicotine factors are likely to influence the reinforcing effects of smoked tobacco. A growing number of studies suggest that non-nicotine factors, through many pairings with nicotine, are partially responsible for the reinforcing effect of smoking. Additionally, both clinical studies and preclinical advances in our understanding of nicotinic receptor regulation suggest that abstinence from smoking may influence smoking reinforcement. These experiments were conducted for 2 reasons: to validate a MRI-compatible cigarette smoking device; and to simultaneously investigate the impact of nicotine, smoking-associated conditioned reinforcers, and smoking abstinence state on subjective ratings of smoking reinforcement. Participants smoked nicotine and placebo cigarettes through an fMRI compatible device in an overnight-abstinent state or in a nonabstinent state, after having smoked a cigarette 25minutes prior. Outcome measures were within-subject changes in physiology and subjective ratings of craving and drug effect during the smoking of nicotine or placebo cigarettes on different days in both abstinence states. Cigarette type (nicotine vs. placebo) had a significant effect on positive subjective ratings of smoking reinforcement ("High", "Like Drug", "Feel Drug"; nicotine>placebo). In contrast, abstinence state was found to have significant effects on both positive and negative ratings of smoking reinforcement ("Crave", "Anxiety", "Irritability"; abstinence>nonabstinence). Interaction effects between abstinence and nicotine provide clues about the importance of neuroadaptive mechanisms operating in dependence, as well as the impact of conditioned reinforcement on subjective ratings of smoking-induced high.

  13. Employment-based abstinence reinforcement following inpatient detoxification in HIV-positive opioid and/or cocaine-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Kelly E; Fingerhood, Michael; Wong, Conrad J; Svikis, Dace S; Nuzzo, Paul; Silverman, Kenneth

    2014-02-01

    Employment-based reinforcement interventions have been used to promote abstinence from drugs among chronically unemployed injection drug users. The current study used an employment-based reinforcement intervention to promote opioid and cocaine abstinence among opioid and/or cocaine-dependent, HIV-positive participants who had recently completed a brief inpatient detoxification. Participants (n = 46) were randomly assigned to an abstinence and work group that was required to provide negative urine samples in order to enter the workplace and to earn incentives for work (n = 16), a work-only group that was permitted to enter the workplace and to earn incentives independent of drug use (n = 15), and a no-voucher control group that did not receive any incentives for working (n = 15) over a 26-week period. The primary outcome was urinalysis-confirmed opioid, cocaine, and combined opioid/cocaine abstinence. Participants were 78% male and 89% African American. Results showed no significant between-groups differences in urinalysis-verified drug abstinence or HIV risk behaviors during the 6-month intervention. The work-only group had significantly greater workplace attendance, and worked more minutes per day when compared to the no-voucher group. Several features of the study design, including the lack of an induction period, setting the threshold for entering the workplace too high by requiring immediate abstinence from several drugs, and increasing the risk of relapse by providing a brief detoxification that was not supported by any continued pharmacological intervention, likely prevented the workplace from becoming established as a reinforcer that could be used to promote drug abstinence. However, increases in workplace attendance have important implications for adult training programs. PMID:24490712

  14. Employment-based abstinence reinforcement following inpatient detoxification in HIV-positive opioid and/or cocaine-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Kelly E; Fingerhood, Michael; Wong, Conrad J; Svikis, Dace S; Nuzzo, Paul; Silverman, Kenneth

    2014-02-01

    Employment-based reinforcement interventions have been used to promote abstinence from drugs among chronically unemployed injection drug users. The current study used an employment-based reinforcement intervention to promote opioid and cocaine abstinence among opioid and/or cocaine-dependent, HIV-positive participants who had recently completed a brief inpatient detoxification. Participants (n = 46) were randomly assigned to an abstinence and work group that was required to provide negative urine samples in order to enter the workplace and to earn incentives for work (n = 16), a work-only group that was permitted to enter the workplace and to earn incentives independent of drug use (n = 15), and a no-voucher control group that did not receive any incentives for working (n = 15) over a 26-week period. The primary outcome was urinalysis-confirmed opioid, cocaine, and combined opioid/cocaine abstinence. Participants were 78% male and 89% African American. Results showed no significant between-groups differences in urinalysis-verified drug abstinence or HIV risk behaviors during the 6-month intervention. The work-only group had significantly greater workplace attendance, and worked more minutes per day when compared to the no-voucher group. Several features of the study design, including the lack of an induction period, setting the threshold for entering the workplace too high by requiring immediate abstinence from several drugs, and increasing the risk of relapse by providing a brief detoxification that was not supported by any continued pharmacological intervention, likely prevented the workplace from becoming established as a reinforcer that could be used to promote drug abstinence. However, increases in workplace attendance have important implications for adult training programs.

  15. Nicotine content and abstinence state have different effects on subjective ratings of positive versus negative reinforcement from smoking.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Kimberly P; Bracken, Bethany K; Maclean, Robert R; Ryan, Elizabeth T; Lukas, Scott E; Frederick, Blaise Deb

    2013-02-01

    Despite the well-known adverse health consequences of smoking, approximately 20% of US adults smoke tobacco cigarettes. Much of the research on smoking reinforcement and the maintenance of tobacco smoking behavior has focused on nicotine; however, a number of other non-nicotine factors are likely to influence the reinforcing effects of smoked tobacco. A growing number of studies suggest that non-nicotine factors, through many pairings with nicotine, are partially responsible for the reinforcing effect of smoking. Additionally, both clinical studies and preclinical advances in our understanding of nicotinic receptor regulation suggest that abstinence from smoking may influence smoking reinforcement. These experiments were conducted for 2 reasons: to validate a MRI-compatible cigarette smoking device; and to simultaneously investigate the impact of nicotine, smoking-associated conditioned reinforcers, and smoking abstinence state on subjective ratings of smoking reinforcement. Participants smoked nicotine and placebo cigarettes through an fMRI compatible device in an overnight-abstinent state or in a nonabstinent state, after having smoked a cigarette 25minutes prior. Outcome measures were within-subject changes in physiology and subjective ratings of craving and drug effect during the smoking of nicotine or placebo cigarettes on different days in both abstinence states. Cigarette type (nicotine vs. placebo) had a significant effect on positive subjective ratings of smoking reinforcement ("High", "Like Drug", "Feel Drug"; nicotine>placebo). In contrast, abstinence state was found to have significant effects on both positive and negative ratings of smoking reinforcement ("Crave", "Anxiety", "Irritability"; abstinence>nonabstinence). Interaction effects between abstinence and nicotine provide clues about the importance of neuroadaptive mechanisms operating in dependence, as well as the impact of conditioned reinforcement on subjective ratings of smoking-induced high

  16. Effects of abstinence from chronic cocaine self-administration on nonhuman primate dorsal and ventral noradrenergic bundle terminal field structures.

    PubMed

    Smith, Hilary R; Beveridge, Thomas J R; Nader, Michael A; Porrino, Linda J

    2016-06-01

    Repeated exposure to cocaine is known to dysregulate the norepinephrine system, and norepinephrine has also been implicated as having a role in abstinence and withdrawal. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of exposure to cocaine self-administration and subsequent abstinence on regulatory elements of the norepinephrine system in the nonhuman primate brain. Rhesus monkeys self-administered cocaine (0.3 mg/kg/injection, 30 reinforcers/session) under a fixed-interval 3-min schedule of reinforcement for 100 sessions. Animals in the abstinence group then underwent a 30-day period during which no operant responding was conducted, followed by a final session of operant responding. Control animals underwent identical schedules of food reinforcement and abstinence. This duration of cocaine self-administration has been shown previously to increase levels of norepinephrine transporters (NET) in the ventral noradrenergic bundle terminal fields. In contrast, in the current study, abstinence from chronic cocaine self-administration resulted in elevated levels of [(3)H]nisoxetine binding to the NET primarily in dorsal noradrenergic bundle terminal field structures. As compared to food reinforcement, chronic cocaine self-administration resulted in decreased binding of [(3)H]RX821002 to α2-adrenoceptors primarily in limbic-related structures innervated by both dorsal and ventral bundles, as well as elevated binding in the striatum. However, following abstinence from responding for cocaine binding to α2-adrenoceptors was not different than in control animals. These data demonstrate the dynamic nature of the regulation of norepinephrine during cocaine use and abstinence, and provide further evidence that the norepinephrine system should not be overlooked in the search for effective pharmacotherapies for cocaine dependence. PMID:26013302

  17. Effect of time-odd fields on odd-even mass differences of semi-magic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kun; Zhou, XianRong; Cui, JiWei; Sagawa, H.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of time-odd fields of Skyrme interaction on neutron odd-even mass differences is studied in the framework of axially deformed Skyrme Hartree-Fock (DSHF)+BCS model. To this end, we take into account both the time-even and time-odd fields to calculate the one-neutron and two-neutron separation energies and pairing gaps of semi-magic Ca, Ni, and Sn isotopic chains. In the calculations, a surface-type pairing interaction (IS pairing) and an isospin dependent contact pairing interaction (IS+IV pairing) are adopted on top of Skyrme interactions SLy4, SLy6 and SkM*, respectively. We find that the time-odd fields have in general small effects on pairing gaps, but achieve better agreement with experimental data using SLy4 and Sly6 interactions, respectively. It is also shown that the calculations with IS+IV pairing reproduce the one-neutron separation energies of Sn isotopes better than those with the IS pairing interaction when the contributions of the time-odd fields are included.

  18. Effect of core polarization on magnetic dipole moments in deformed odd-mass nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonneau, L.; Minkov, N.; Duc, Dao Duy; Quentin, P.; Bartel, J.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic properties of deformed odd-mass nuclei are studied within a nonrelativistic mean-field-plus-pairing approach, namely the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-BCS approach with self-consistent blocking. For an odd number of nucleons these approaches lead to the breaking of the time-reversal invariance. The deviation from the Schmidt values of the isoscalar magnetic dipole moment is known to result from a subtle balance between core-polarization effects and meson-exchange current effects. However, the former are usually calculated in the random phase approximation without time-reversal symmetry breaking at the mean-field level. In this work we show that if one takes into account this symmetry breaking already in the mean-field solution, the correction from core polarization yields a significant contribution to the empirical quenching of the spin gyromagnetic ratios as compared to the free values in deformed odd-mass nuclei. Moreover, we calculate magnetic dipole moments in the Bohr and Mottelson unified-model description with self-consistent blocked mean-field intrinsic states. The obtained results in the A ˜100 and A ˜180 mass regions as well as for three actinide nuclei compare favorably with experimental data.

  19. Time-resolved dynamics of odd and even harmonic emission from oriented asymmetric molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bing; Yu, Shujuan; Chen, Yanjun; Jiang, Xiangqian; Sun, Xiudong

    2015-11-01

    We study the time-resolved dynamics of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from oriented asymmetric molecules in intense laser fields theoretically. Previous studies have shown that the odd-even HHG spectra of asymmetric molecules don't show the striking two-center-interference-induced minimum, as the symmetric molecules do, due to the symmetry breaking. Surprisingly, with considering only the short-trajectory contribution, an apparent groove with small amplitudes is observed in the HHG time-frequency distribution, which implies that the harmonic emission is strongly suppressed in a specific time-frequency region. The position of this groove is sensitive to the molecular parameters and the orientation. Our analyses on this origin of the groove reveal different time-frequency properties of odd versus even signals, where the interplay of intramolecular interference and the permanent-dipole effect plays an important role. We show that the even-odd ratio often used in high-harmonic spectroscopy can be influenced significantly by the interference effect.

  20. The Antarctic ozone minimum - Relationship to odd nitrogen, odd chlorine, the final warming, and the 11-year solar cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, L. B.; Natarajan, M.

    1986-01-01

    Photochemical calculations along 'diabatic trajectories' in the meridional phase are used to search for the cause of the dramatic springtime minimum in Antarctic column ozone. The results indicate that the minimum is principally due to catalytic destruction of ozone by high levels of total odd nitrogen. Calculations suggest that these levels of odd nitrogen are transported within the polar vortex and during the polar night from the middle to upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere to the lower stratosphere. The possibility that these levels are related to the 11-year solar cycle and are increased by enhanced formation in the thermosphere and mesosphere during solar maximum conditions is discussed.

  1. Smoking abstinence-related expectancies among American Indians, African Americans, and women: potential mechanisms of tobacco-related disparities.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Peter S; Westmaas, J Lee; Ta Park, Van M; Thorne, Christopher B; Wood, Sabrina B; Baker, Majel R; Lawler, R Marsh; Webb Hooper, Monica; Delucchi, Kevin L; Hall, Sharon M

    2014-03-01

    Research has documented tobacco-related health disparities by race and gender. Prior research, however, has not examined expectancies about the smoking cessation process (i.e., abstinence-related expectancies) as potential contributors to tobacco-related disparities in special populations. This cross-sectional study compared abstinence-related expectancies between American Indian (n = 87), African American (n = 151), and White (n = 185) smokers, and between women (n = 231) and men (n = 270) smokers. Abstinence-related expectancies also were examined as mediators of race and gender relationships with motivation to quit and abstinence self efficacy. Results indicated that American Indians and African Americans were less likely than Whites to expect withdrawal effects, and more likely to expect that quitting would be unproblematic. African Americans also were less likely than Whites to expect smoking cessation interventions to be effective. Compared with men, women were more likely to expect withdrawal effects and weight gain. These expectancy differences mediated race and gender relationships with motivation to quit and abstinence self-efficacy. Findings emphasize potential mechanisms underlying tobacco-related health disparities among American Indians, African Americans, and women and suggest a number of specific approaches for targeting tobacco dependence interventions to these populations. PMID:23528192

  2. Addiction: From Context-Induced Hedonia to Appetite, Based on Transition of Micro-behaviors in Morphine Abstinent Tree Shrews

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Ying; Shen, Fang; Gu, Tingting; Sui, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is viewed as a maladaptive memory induced by contextual cues even in the abstinent state. However, the variations of hedonia and appetite induced by the context during the abstinence have been neglected. To distinguish the representative behaviors between hedonia and appetite, micro-behaviors in abstinent animal such as psycho-activity and drug seeking behaviors were observed in morphine conditioned place preference (CPP). To confirm the different effects of reward between drug and natural reward, a palatable food CPP paradigm was compared in current work. After a 10-day training in CPP with morphine or food, the preference was tested on day 1, 14, 28, and the changes of micro-behaviors were analyzed further. Our data showed that tree shrews treated with morphine performed more jumps on day 1 and more visits to saline paired side on day 28, which indicated a featured behavioral transition from psycho-activity to seeking behavior during drug abstinence. Meanwhile, food-conditioned animals only displayed obvious seeking behaviors in the three tests. The results suggest that the variations of micro-behaviors could imply such a transition from hedonic response to appetitive behaviors during morphine abstinence, which provided a potential behavioral basis for further neural mechanism studies. PMID:27375516

  3. Differences in the acceptability of non-abstinence goals by type of drug among American substance abuse clinicians.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Harold; Davis, Alan K

    2014-02-01

    To assess whether acceptability of non-abstinence outcome goals varied depending on the specific drug a client consumes (alcohol, cannabis, amphetamine, heroin, cocaine, MDMA/ecstasy, polydrug), severity of diagnosis (DSM-IV Abuse vs. Dependence), and finality of outcome goal (intermediate vs. final), we recruited 432 clinicians to complete a web-based questionnaire. More respondents rated non-abstinence acceptable as an intermediate goal for clients diagnosed with alcohol abuse (44%) or cannabis abuse (43%) than for clients diagnosed as abusing the other listed drugs (23 to 31%). Similarly, larger proportions of respondents rated non-abstinence as acceptable as a final goal for clients diagnosed with alcohol abuse (30%) or cannabis abuse (24%) than for clients diagnosed as abusing the other drugs (11 to 13%). Only 9 to 13% of respondents rated non-abstinence as an acceptable final goal for clients diagnosed with dependence, but 20% to 30% rated non-abstinence as acceptable as an intermediate goal for clients diagnosed as dependent. PMID:23953169

  4. Band structure of doubly-odd nuclei around mass 130

    SciTech Connect

    Higashiyama, Koji; Yoshinaga, Naotaka

    2011-05-06

    Nuclear structure of the doublet bands in the doubly-odd nuclei with mass A{approx}130 is studied in terms of a pair-truncated shell model. The model reproduces quite well the energy levels of the doublet bands and the electromagnetic transitions. The analysis of the electromagnetic transitions reveals new band structure of the doublet bands.

  5. Are the Odds Against the Origin of Life Too Great?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Statistics are offered to "prove" odds against the origin of life. Presents a summary analysis of all known examples to be used to check these claims whenever they are brought up in conversations, debates, books, or articles. Addresses scientific work misused by anti-evolutionists and the pseudoscientific assertions of the anti-evolutionists…

  6. Quantum description of T-odd correlations in ternary fission

    SciTech Connect

    Bunakov, V. E.; Kadmensky, S. G.

    2008-07-15

    A quantum version of a unified description of two T-odd effects recently observed in the ternary fission of nuclei that is induced by polarized neutrons is considered. These effects are explained by the effect of the Coriolis interaction of the rotating fissile system on the angular distributions of light charged particles in the interior and exterior regions of the nucleus.

  7. Against the Odds: Disadvantaged Students Who Succeed in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report explores the factors and conditions that could help more students succeed at school despite challenging socio-economic backgrounds. It does this by studying resilient students and what sets them apart from their less successful peers. Understanding how educational systems can support disadvantaged students and help them "beat the odds"…

  8. A Study of Odd- and Even-Number Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    Japanese prefer odd numbers, whereas Westerners emphasize even numbers, an observation that is clear from the distribution of number-related words in Japanese and English dictionaries. In this article, the author explains why these two cultures differ by surveying the history of numbers, including yin-yang thought from ancient China, ancient Greek…

  9. CP-odd phase correlations and electric dipole moments

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, Keith A.; Pospelov, Maxim; Ritz, Adam; Santoso, Yudi

    2005-10-01

    We revisit the constraints imposed by electric dipole moments (EDMs) of nucleons and heavy atoms on new CP-violating sources within supersymmetric theories. We point out that certain two-loop renormalization group corrections induce significant mixing between the basis-invariant CP-odd phases. In the framework of the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model, the CP-odd invariant related to the soft trilinear A-phase at the grand unified theory (GUT) scale, {theta}{sub A}, induces nontrivial and distinct CP-odd phases for the three gaugino masses at the weak scale. The latter give one-loop contributions to EDMs enhanced by tan{beta}, and can provide the dominant contribution to the electron EDM induced by {theta}{sub A}. We perform a detailed analysis of the EDM constraints within the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model, exhibiting the reach, in terms of sparticle spectra, which may be obtained assuming generic phases, as well as the limits on the CP-odd phases for some specific parameter points where detailed phenomenological studies are available. We also illustrate how this reach will expand with results from the next generation of experiments which are currently in development.

  10. Entrance-channel effects in odd-Z tranactinide compound nucleus reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.L.; Gregorich, K.E.; Dragojevic, I.; Dullmann, Ch.E.; Eichler, R.; Folden III, C.M.; Garcia, M.A.; Gates, J.M.; Stavsetra, L.; Sudowe, R.; Nitsche, H.

    2007-09-01

    Swiatecki, Siwek-Wilczynska, and Wilczynski's 'Fusion By Diffusion' description [1] of transactinide (TAN) compound nucleus (CN) formation utilizes a three-step model. The first step is the 'sticking', or capture, which can be calculated relatively accurately. The second step is the probability for the formation of a CN by 'diffusion' analogous to that of Brownian motion. Lastly, there exists the probability of the CN 'surviving' deexcitation by neutron emission, which competes with fission and other de-excitation modes. This model predicts and reproduces cross sections typically within a factor of two. Producing the same CN with different projectile-target pairs is a very sensitive way to test entrance channel effects on heavy element production cross sections. If the same CN is produced at or near the same excitation energy the survival portion of the theory is nearly identical for the two reactions. This method can be used as a critical test of the novel 'diffusion' portion of the model. The reactions producing odd-Z TAN CN such as Db, Bh, Mt, and Rg (Z = 105, 107, 109, and 111, respectively) were first studied using even-Z projectiles on {sup 209}Bi targets (as opposed to odd-Z projectiles on {sup 208}Pb targets) because lower effective fissility [2] was expected to lead to larger cross sections. Many odd-Z projectile reactions producing odd-Z CN had not been studied in-depth until very recently. We have completed studies of these reaction pairs with the 88-Inch Cyclotron and the Berkeley Gas-Filled Separator (BGS) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), see Figure 1. Cross section ratios for several pairs of reactions will be presented and compared with theory.

  11. Allopregnanolone association with psychophysiological and cognitive functions during acute smoking abstinence in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Allen, Alicia M; al'Absi, Mustafa; Lando, Harry; Allen, Sharon S

    2015-02-01

    Nicotine response may predict susceptibility to smoking relapse. Allopregnanolone, a neuroactive steroid metabolized from progesterone, has been shown to be associated with several symptoms of nicotine response. We sought to explore the association between allopregnanolone and response to nicotine during acute smoking abstinence in premenopausal women. Participants completed 2 nicotine-response laboratory sessions, 1 in their follicular (low allopregnanolone) and 1 in their luteal (high allopregnanolone) menstrual phase, on the fourth day of biochemically confirmed smoking abstinence. During the laboratory sessions, participants self-administered a nicotine nasal spray and completed a timed series of cardiovascular, cognitive, and subjective assessments of response to nicotine. The relationships of allopregnanolone with baseline values and change scores of outcome measures were assessed using covariance pattern modeling. Study participants (N = 77) had a mean age of 29.9 (SD = 6.8) years and smoked an average of 12.2 (SD = 4.9) cigarettes per day. Allopregnanolone concentration measured before nicotine administration was positively associated with systolic (β = 0.85, p = .04) and diastolic blood pressure (β = 1.19, p < .001) and self-report of physical symptoms (β = 0.58, p < .001), dizziness (β = 0.88, p < .01), jitteriness (β = 0.90, p = .04), and pleasantness (β = 2.05, p = .04). Allopregnanolone also had significant positive associations with change in cognition following nicotine nasal spray administration, specifically discriminability as a measure of attention (β = 1.15, p = .05) and response bias as a measure of impulsivity (β = 0.13, p = .02). These data suggest that allopregnanolone may be related to cardiovascular and subjective physical state during acute smoking abstinence, as well as cognitive response to nicotine. PMID:25643026

  12. Effects of abstinence and family history for alcoholism on platelet adenylyl cyclase activity.

    PubMed

    Menninger, J A; Barón, A E; Tabakoff, B

    1998-12-01

    Platelet adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity was measured in 32 alcohol-dependent subjects and 27 control subjects who were categorized as either family history-positive (FHP) or family history-negative (FHN) for alcoholism. The interview and blood sample collections were performed shortly after cessation of heavy drinking in the alcoholic group, and repeat blood samples were obtained at the end of the first and second weeks of monitored abstinence. Control subjects received the same interview and provided blood samples at the time of the interview. When subjects were not segregated for FHP or FHN status, there were no statistically significant differences in basal, cesium fluoride (CsF)-, or forskolin-stimulated mean AC activities between the controls and the alcoholics, at study entry or with 1 or 2 weeks of abstinence. On the other hand, over the 2-week course of sobriety from heavy drinking, the CsF-stimulated AC activity of FHP alcohol-dependent subjects decreased significantly (p = 0.03). FHP alcohol-dependent subjects after 2 weeks of sobriety had significantly lower mean CsF-stimulated AC activity than FHN controls (p = 0.04), whereas the FHN alcoholic subjects' CsF-stimulated AC activity did not differ significantly from FHN controls at this point in time. When all subjects were pooled and then categorized as either FHP or FHN, there was a significant difference in mean CsF-stimulated AC activity (p = 0.02) between the FHP and FHN subject groups. Genetic factors and abstinence appear to have roles in determining low platelet AC activity in alcoholic and nonalcoholic subjects. CsF-stimulated platelet AC activity, in particular, appears to act as a trait marker for a genetic vulnerability to developing alcoholism, but recent heavy drinking in male alcoholics is a factor that can mask differences between FHP and FHN subjects.

  13. Allopregnanolone Association with Psychophysiological and Cognitive Functions during Acute Smoking Abstinence in Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Alicia M.; al’Absi, Mustafa; Lando, Harry; Allen, Sharon S.

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine response may predict susceptibility to smoking relapse. Allopregnanolone, a neuroactive steroid metabolized from progesterone, has been shown to be associated with several symptoms of nicotine response. We sought to explore the association between allopregnanolone and response to nicotine during acute smoking abstinence in premenopausal women. Participants completed 2 nicotine response laboratory sessions, 1 in their follicular (low allopregnanolone) and 1 in their luteal (high allopregnanolone) menstrual phase, on the fourth day of biochemically confirmed smoking abstinence. During the laboratory sessions, participants self-administered a nicotine nasal spray and completed a timed series of cardiovascular, cognitive, and subjective assessments of response to nicotine. The relationships of allopregnanolone with baseline values and change scores of outcome measures were assessed via covariance pattern modeling. Study participants (n = 77) had a mean age of 29.9 (SD = 6.8) years and smoked 12.2 (4.9) cigarettes per day. Allopregnanolone concentration measured before nicotine administration was positively associated with systolic (β = 0.85, p = .04) and diastolic blood pressure (β = 1.19, p < .001); and self-report of physical symptoms (β = 0.58, p < .001), dizziness (β = 0.88, p < .01), jitteriness (β = 0.90, p = .04), and pleasantness (β = 2.05, p = .04). Allopregnanolone also had significant positive associations with change in cognition following nicotine nasal spray administration, specifically discriminability as a measure of attention (β = 1.15, p = .05) and response bias as a measure of impulsivity (β = 0.13, p = .02). These data suggest that allopregnanolone may be related to cardiovascular and subjective physical state during acute smoking abstinence, as well as cognitive response to nicotine. PMID:25643026

  14. Dance Clubbing on MDMA and during Abstinence from Ecstasy/MDMA: Prospective Neuroendocrine and Psychobiological Changes

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, A.C.; Lock, J.; Conner, A.C.; Kissling, C.; Thome, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims The present study is the first to prospectively compare a group of recreational Ecstasy users when dance clubbing on 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and when clubbing during abstinence from Ecstasy/MDMA. Methods Twelve normal healthy volunteers (mean age = 23.2 years) were assessed at a Saturday night dance club under self-administered MDMA. On the other weekend they went to the same dance club without taking MDMA (order counterbalanced). Both conditions involved 5 test sessions conducted at similar times: pre-drug baseline, 1 h post-drug clubbing, 2.5 h post-drug clubbing, and 2 and 4 days later. The assessments included body and ambient temperature, physical activity (pedometer), as well as self-ratings for mood state, physical activity, thermal comfort and thirst. Saliva samples were analyzed for MDMA, cortisol and testosterone. Results The cortisol levels increased significantly by 800% when dance clubbing on MDMA, while testosterone increased significantly by 75%; neither neuroendocrine measure was altered during abstinence. Saliva analyses confirmed the presence of MDMA when dancing on Ecstasy and its absence when dancing off Ecstasy. The pedometer values and self-rated levels of dancing were similar at both weekends. Hot and cold flushes and feeling hot increased significantly under MDMA. The mean body temperature did not change significantly, although there was a borderline trend for increased values after MDMA. Feelings of happiness and excitement increased under MDMA, although they were not significantly greater than when clubbing during abstinence. Conclusions Neurohormonal release may be an important part of the acute MDMA experience. The large cortisol increase provides further data on the bioenergetic stress model of recreational Ecstasy/MDMA. PMID:18654086

  15. MISH publishes new framework for fear-based, abstinence-only education.

    PubMed

    Mayer, R

    1997-01-01

    The US Medical Institute for Sexual Health (MISH) "National Guidelines for Sexuality and Character Education" is a fear-based, abstinence-only framework for sexuality education. This document is virtually identical in format, conceptual framework, and typeface to that produced by the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States (SIECUS) and adopts SIECUS language in many sections. SIECUS agrees with approximately 60% of the MISH messages and finds it noteworthy that the MISH guidelines provide a blueprint for sex education from elementary school through high school. However, MISH and SIECUS follow very different approaches to sex education. SIECUS seeks to help young people acquire the necessary information to safeguard their sexual health and make proper decisions, while the single goal of MISH is to promote abstinence until marriage (avoiding sexual intercourse and any activity involving genital contact or stimulation). MISH promotes this view with fear-based messages, uses only negative terms to describe adolescent sexual relations, and provides scant and misleading information about contraception (including the assertion that adolescent use of birth control is often ineffective). The MISH curriculum also promotes the anti-abortion viewpoint that life begins at conception. While acknowledging the changing composition of the US family, MISH promotes a view of the nuclear family as the "best" type of family in which to rear children. MISH skirts the issue of sexual orientation and avoids giving information about ways to seek treatment for sexually transmitted diseases or prenatal care. MISH guidelines make unsubstantiated statements about the value of abstinence, provide almost no information about how to adapt their framework to various communities, discuss contraceptives and condoms only in terms of failures, and suggest that all adolescent sexual relations have negative consequences. PMID:12319710

  16. Sperm Chromatin Immaturity Observed in Short Abstinence Ejaculates Affects DNA Integrity and Longevity In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Salian, Sujith Raj; Kumar, Dayanidhi; Singh, Vikram Jeet; D’Souza, Fiona; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Kamath, Asha; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background The influence of ejaculatory abstinence (EA) on semen parameters and subsequent reproductive outcome is still debatable; hence understanding the impact of EA on sperm structural and functional integrity may provide a valuable information on predicting successful clinical outcome. Objective To understand the influence of EA on sperm chromatin maturity, integrity, longevity and global methylation status. Methods This experimental prospective study included 76 ejaculates from 19 healthy volunteers who provided ejaculates after observing 1, 3, 5 and 7 days of abstinence. Sperm chromatin maturity, DNA integrity and global methylation status were assessed in the neat ejaculate. Sperm motility, DNA integrity and longevity were assessed in the processed fraction of the fresh and frozen-thawed ejaculates to determine their association with the length of EA. Results Spermatozoa from 1 day ejaculatory abstinence (EA-1) displayed significantly higher level of sperm chromatin immaturity in comparison to EA-3 (P < 0.05) and EA-5 (P < 0.01) whereas; the number of 5-methyl cytosine immunostained spermatozoa did not vary significantly across groups. On the other hand, in vitro incubation of processed ejaculate from EA-1 resulted in approximately 20 and 40 fold increase in the DNA fragmented spermatozoa at the end of 6 and 24h respectively (P < 0.01–0.001). Conclusion Use of short-term EA for therapeutic fertilization would be a clinically valuable strategy to improve the DNA quality. However, use of such spermatozoa after prolonged incubation in vitro should be avoided as it can carry a substantial risk of transmitting DNA fragmentation to the oocytes. PMID:27043437

  17. Reinforcing value of smoking relative to physical activity and the effects of physical activity on smoking abstinence symptoms among young adults

    PubMed Central

    Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Strasser, Andrew A.; Ashare, Rebecca; Wileyto, E. Paul

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate whether individual differences in the reinforcing value of smoking relative to physical activity (RRVS) moderated the effects of physical activity on smoking abstinence symptoms in young adult smokers. The repeated measures within-subjects design included daily smokers (n=79) 18–26 years old. RRVS was measured with a validated behavioral choice task. On two subsequent visits, participants completed self-report measures of craving, withdrawal, mood, and affective valence before and after they engaged in passive sitting or a bout of physical activity. RRVS did not moderate any effects of physical activity (p’s > .05). Physical activity compared to passive sitting predicted decreased withdrawal symptoms (β=−5.23, CI= −6.93, −3.52; p<0.001), negative mood (β=−2.92, CI= −4.13, −1.72; p<0.001), and urge to smoke (β=−7.13, CI= −9.39, −4.86; p<0.001). Also, physical activity compared to passive sitting predicted increased positive affect (β=3.08, CI= 1.87, 4.28; p<0.001) and pleasurable feelings (β=1.07, CI= 0.58, 1.55; p<0.001), and greater time to first cigarette during the ad-libitum smoking period (β=211.76, CI= 32.54, 390.98; p=0.02). RRVS predicted higher levels of pleasurable feelings (β=0.22, CI= 0.01 – 0.43, p=0.045), increased odds of smoking versus remaining abstinent during the ad-libitum smoking period (β=0.04, CI= 0.01, 0.08; p=0.02), and reduced time to first cigarette (β=−163.00, CI = −323.50, −2.49; p=0.047). Regardless of the RRVS, physical activity produces effects that may aid smoking cessation in young adult smokers. However, young adult smokers who have a higher RRVS will be less likely to choose to engage physical activity, especially when smoking is an alternative. PMID:26348158

  18. Reinforcing value of smoking relative to physical activity and the effects of physical activity on smoking abstinence symptoms among young adults.

    PubMed

    Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Strasser, Andrew A; Ashare, Rebecca; Wileyto, E Paul

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate whether individual differences in the reinforcing value of smoking relative to physical activity (RRVS) moderated the effects of physical activity on smoking abstinence symptoms in young adult smokers. The repeated-measures within-subjects design included daily smokers (N = 79) 18-26 years old. RRVS was measured with a validated behavioral choice task. On 2 subsequent visits, participants completed self-report measures of craving, withdrawal, mood, and affective valence before and after they engaged in passive sitting or a bout of physical activity. RRVS did not moderate any effects of physical activity (ps > .05). Physical activity compared with passive sitting predicted decreased withdrawal symptoms, β = -5.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) [-6.93, -3.52] (p < .001), negative mood, β = -2.92, 95% CI [-4.13, -1.72] (p < .001), and urge to smoke. β = -7.13, 95% CI [-9.39, -4.86] (p < .001). Also, physical activity compared with passive sitting predicted increased positive affect, β = 3.08, 95% CI [1.87, 4.28] (p < .001) and pleasurable feelings, β = 1.07, 95% CI [0.58, 1.55] (p < .001), and greater time to first cigarette during the ad libitum smoking period, β = 211.76, 95% CI [32.54, 390.98] (p = .02). RRVS predicted higher levels of pleasurable feelings, β = 0.22, 95% CI [0.01, 0.43] (p = .045), increased odds of smoking versus remaining abstinent during the ad libitum smoking period, β = 0.04, 95% CI [0.01, 0.08] (p = .02), and reduced time to first cigarette, β = -163.00, 95% CI [-323.50, -2.49] (p = .047). Regardless of the RRVS, physical activity produced effects that may aid smoking cessation in young adult smokers. However, young adult smokers who have a higher RRVS will be less likely to choose to engage physical activity, especially when smoking is an alternative.

  19. Voucher-based reinforcement for alcohol abstinence using the ethyl-glucuronide alcohol biomarker.

    PubMed

    McDonell, Michael G; Howell, Donelle N; McPherson, Sterling; Cameron, Jennifer M; Srebnik, Debra; Roll, John M; Ries, Richard K

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of a contingency management (CM) intervention for alcohol consumption in 10 alcohol-dependent participants. An ABCA design was used. Vouchers were provided contingent on results of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) urine tests (an alcohol biomarker with a 2-day detection period) and alcohol breath tests during the C phase. The percentage of negative urines was 35% during the first baseline phase, 69% during the C phase, and 20% during the return-to-baseline phase. Results suggest that EtG urine tests may be a feasible method to deliver CM to promote alcohol abstinence.

  20. Predictors of sexual abstinence among Wolaita Sodo University Students, South Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is over 30 years since the first case of AIDS [Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome] was identified. Attention has been focused recently on the promotion of the “ABCs” of HIV prevention (being abstinent or delaying sex, remaining faithful to one sexual partner, and using condoms consistently during sexual intercourse). As programs that focus on ABCs to prevent heterosexual transmission HIV are rolled out, questions of how well university students who come from varied cultural contexts actually understand the terms and address challenges to adopt behaviors is unanswered. In Ethiopia, despite the mushrooming number of students in the higher learning institutions with the current figure being 210,000 students accommodated in 33 public and 72 private higher learning institutions, sexual and reproductive health services, are not delivered in an organized way. The objective of this study is to identify factors associated with Sexual abstinence among Wolaita Sodo University students to provide evidence for designing appropriate interventions. Methods A Cross-Sectional study was conducted among 750 undergraduate students selected from Wolaita Sodo University using a stratified simple random sampling technique during the academic year. Data were collected using structured self administered questionnaire, focus group discussion and in depth interview guides as tools for data collection. Ethical clearance was obtained from Jimma University and informed consent was obtained from the participants after explaining purpose of study. Statistical tests were employed wherever necessary at the significance level of 0.05. Results All of the participants had heard about HIV/AIDS of which 97.3% had good knowledge. Higher proportions of male students were sexually active than their counter parts. Students with better knowledge on HIV AIDS were 6.6 (95%CI=1.6, 12.9) times more likely to abstain from sexual intercourse than their counter parts. Conclusions Knowledge of

  1. Adolescent Heavy Drinkers’ Amplified Brain Responses to Alcohol Cues Decrease Over One Month of Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Brumback, Ty; Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Jacobus, Joanna; Pulido, Carmen; Tapert, Susan F.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Heavy drinking during adolescence is associated with increased reactivity to alcohol related stimuli and to differential neural development. Alcohol cue reactivity has been widely studied among adults with alcohol use disorders, but little is known about the neural substrates of cue reactivity in adolescent drinkers. The current study aimed to identify changes in blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal during a cue reactivity task pre- and post-monitored abstinence from alcohol. Method Demographically matched adolescents (16.0–18.9 years, 54% female) with histories of heavy episodic drinking (HD; n=22) and light or non-drinking control teens (CON; n=16) were recruited to participate in a month-long study. All participants completed a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scan with an alcohol cue reactivity task and substance use assessments at baseline and after 28 days of monitored abstinence from alcohol and drugs (i.e., urine toxicology testing every 48-72 hours). Repeated-measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) examined main effects of group, time, and group × time interactions on BOLD signal response in regions of interest defined by functional differences at baseline. Results The HD group exhibited greater (p<.01) BOLD activation than CON to alcohol cues relative to neutral cues in all regions of interest (ROIs; bilateral striatum/globus pallidus, left anterior cingulate, bilateral cerebellum, and parahippocampal gyrus extending to the thalamus/substantia nigra) across time points. Group × time effects showed that HD exhibited greater BOLD activation to alcohol cues than CON at baseline in left anterior cingulate cortex and in the right cerebellar region, but these decreased to non-significance after one month of monitored abstinence. Conclusions In all ROIs examined, HD exhibited greater BOLD response than CON to alcohol relative to neutral beverage picture cues at baseline, indicating heightened cue reactivity to alcohol cues in

  2. Orexin-A level elevation in recently abstinent male methamphetamine abusers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Yin; Kao, Chung-Feng; Chen, Po-Yu; Lin, Shih-Ku; Huang, Ming-Chyi

    2016-05-30

    Research has suggested that methamphetamine (METH) use influences orexin regulation. We examined the difference in orexin-A levels between METH abusers and healthy controls. Fasting serum orexin-A levels were measured in 35 participants who used METH in the preceding 3 weeks and 36 healthy controls. We found METH abusers had significantly higher orexin-A levels. No association was observed between orexin-A levels and METH use variables. Our results, consistent with prior preclinical evidence, showed that recent METH exposure is associated with increased orexin-A expression. Further investigation is required to determine whether orexin-A levels normalize after a longer term of abstinence. PMID:27137956

  3. Pharmacotherapy for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: Choosing the Right Opioid or No Opioid at All.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) from in utero opioid exposure has reached epidemic levels in the United States. Although nonpharmacologic therapies form the foundation of care, many neonates require pharmacotherapy. Morphine represents the most widely used first-line agent and effectively treats the symptoms of withdrawal. However, methadone or buprenorphine may facilitate earlier discharge. Although phenobarbital is traditionally used when opioids fail, clonidine may be a more appropriate adjunctive agent to minimize negative neurodevelopmental impact. Consideration of the available data allows hospitals to generate effective pharmacologic strategies to manage NAS while further research continues. PMID:27636696

  4. Biosynthesis of odd-chain fatty alcohols in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ying-Xiu; Xiao, Wen-Hai; Liu, Duo; Zhang, Jin-Lai; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2015-05-01

    Engineered microbes offer the opportunity to design and implement artificial molecular pathways for renewable production of tailored chemical commodities. Targeted biosynthesis of odd-chain fatty alcohols is very challenging in microbe, due to the specificity of fatty acids synthase for two-carbon unit elongation. Here, we developed a novel strategy to directly tailor carbon number in fatty aldehydes formation step by incorporating α-dioxygenase (αDOX) from Oryza sativa (rice) into Escherichia coli αDOX oxidizes Cn fatty acids (even-chain) to form Cn-1 fatty aldehydes (odd-chain). Through combining αDOX with fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein (-ACP) thioesterase (TE) and aldehyde reductase (AHR), the medium odd-chain fatty alcohols profile (C11, C13, C15) was firstly established in E. coli. Also, medium even-chain alkanes (C12, C14) were obtained by substitution of AHR to aldehyde decarbonylase (AD). The titer of odd-chain fatty alcohols was improved from 7.4mg/L to 101.5mg/L in tube cultivation by means of fine-tuning endogenous fatty acyl-ACP TE (TesA'), αDOX, AHRs and the genes involved in fatty acids metabolism pathway. Through high cell density fed-batch fermentation, a titer of 1.95g/L odd-chain fatty alcohols was achieved, which was the highest reported titer in E. coli. Our system has greatly expanded the current microbial fatty alcohols profile that provides a new brand solution for producing complex and desired molecules in microbes.

  5. Biosynthesis of odd-chain fatty alcohols in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ying-Xiu; Xiao, Wen-Hai; Liu, Duo; Zhang, Jin-Lai; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2015-05-01

    Engineered microbes offer the opportunity to design and implement artificial molecular pathways for renewable production of tailored chemical commodities. Targeted biosynthesis of odd-chain fatty alcohols is very challenging in microbe, due to the specificity of fatty acids synthase for two-carbon unit elongation. Here, we developed a novel strategy to directly tailor carbon number in fatty aldehydes formation step by incorporating α-dioxygenase (αDOX) from Oryza sativa (rice) into Escherichia coli αDOX oxidizes Cn fatty acids (even-chain) to form Cn-1 fatty aldehydes (odd-chain). Through combining αDOX with fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein (-ACP) thioesterase (TE) and aldehyde reductase (AHR), the medium odd-chain fatty alcohols profile (C11, C13, C15) was firstly established in E. coli. Also, medium even-chain alkanes (C12, C14) were obtained by substitution of AHR to aldehyde decarbonylase (AD). The titer of odd-chain fatty alcohols was improved from 7.4mg/L to 101.5mg/L in tube cultivation by means of fine-tuning endogenous fatty acyl-ACP TE (TesA'), αDOX, AHRs and the genes involved in fatty acids metabolism pathway. Through high cell density fed-batch fermentation, a titer of 1.95g/L odd-chain fatty alcohols was achieved, which was the highest reported titer in E. coli. Our system has greatly expanded the current microbial fatty alcohols profile that provides a new brand solution for producing complex and desired molecules in microbes. PMID:25773521

  6. Effect of the novel positive allosteric modulator of mGluR2 AZD8529 on incubation of methamphetamine craving after prolonged voluntary abstinence in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Caprioli, Daniele; Venniro, Marco; Zeric, Tamara; Li, Xuan; Adhikary, Sweta; Madangopal, Rajtarun; Marchant, Nathan J.; Lucantonio, Federica; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey; Bossert, Jennifer M.; Shaham, Yavin

    2015-01-01

    Background Cue-induced methamphetamine craving increases after prolonged forced (experimenter-imposed) abstinence from the drug (incubation of methamphetamine craving). Here, we determined whether this incubation phenomenon would occur under conditions that promote voluntary (self-imposed) abstinence. We also determined the effect of the novel mGluR2 positive allosteric modulator, AZD8529, on incubation of methamphetamine craving after forced or voluntary abstinence. Methods We trained rats to self-administer palatable food (6 sessions) and then to self-administer methamphetamine under two conditions: 12 sessions (9-hr/day) or 50 sessions (3-hr/day). We then assessed cue-induced methamphetamine seeking in extinctions test after 1 or 21 abstinence days. Between tests, the rats underwent either forced abstinence (no access to the food- or drug-paired levers) or voluntary abstinence for 19 days (achieved via a discrete choice procedure between methamphetamine and palatable food; 20 trials per day). We also determined the effect of subcutaneous injections of AZD8529 (20 and 40 mg/kg) on cue-induced methamphetamine seeking 1 or 21 days after forced or voluntary abstinence. Results Under both training and abstinence conditions, cue-induced methamphetamine seeking in the extinction tests was higher after 21 abstinence days than after 1 day (incubation of methamphetamine craving). AZD8529 decreased cue-induced methamphetamine seeking on day 21 but not day 1 of forced or voluntary abstinence. Conclusions We introduce a novel animal model to study incubation of drug craving and cue-induced drug seeking after prolonged voluntary abstinence, mimicking the human condition of relapse after successful contingency management treatment. Our data suggest that PAMs of mGluR2 should be considered for relapse prevention. PMID:25861699

  7. When is an odd number not odd? Influence of task rule on the MARC effect for numeric classification.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yang Seok; Proctor, Robert W

    2007-09-01

    When classifying numbers as odd or even with left-right keypresses, performance is better with the mapping even-right/odd-left than with the opposite mapping. This linguistic markedness association of response codes (MARC) effect has been attributed to compatibility between the linguistic markedness of stimulus and response codes. In 2 experiments participants made keypresses to the Arabic numerals or number words 3, 4, 8, and 9 using the odd-even parity rule or a multiple-of-3 rule, which yield the same keypress response for each stimulus. For both stimulus modes, the MARC effect was obtained with the odd-even rule, but tended to reverse with the multiple-of-3 rule. The reversal was complete for the right response, but task rule had little influence on the left response. The results are consistent with the view that the MARC effect and its reversal are caused by correspondence of the stimulus code designated as positive by the task rule with the positive-polarity right response code.

  8. Executive Functioning in Children: A Comparison of Hospitalised ODD and ODD/ADHD Children and Normal Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Snoek, Heddeke; Matthys, Walter; Swaab-Barneveld, Hanna; Van Engeland, Herman

    2004-01-01

    Background: Deficits in executive functioning are supposed to have a predisposing influence on impulsive or aggressive behaviour. We tested the hypothesis that oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) children with or without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have problems in executive functioning. Method: Seventy-seven 7- to 12-year-old…

  9. A reinforcement-based therapeutic workplace for the treatment of drug abuse: six-month abstinence outcomes.

    PubMed

    Silverman, K; Svikis, D; Robles, E; Stitzer, M L; Bigelow, G E

    2001-02-01

    This study evaluated a novel drug abuse treatment, the Therapeutic Workplace. In this treatment, patients are paid to perform jobs or to participate in job training. Salary is linked to abstinence by requiring patients to provide drug-free urine samples to gain access to the workplace. Pregnant and postpartum drug abuse patients (N = 40) were randomly assigned to a Therapeutic Workplace or usual care control group. Therapeutic Workplace participants were invited to work 3 hr every weekday for 6 months and could earn up to $4,030 in vouchers for abstinence, workplace attendance, and performance. On average, 45% of participants attended the workplace per day. Relative to controls, the Therapeutic Workplace nearly doubled patients' abstinence from opiates and cocaine (33% vs. 59% of thrice-weekly urine samples drug negative, respectively, p < .05). The Therapeutic Workplace can effectively treat heroin and cocaine abuse in pregnant and postpartum women. PMID:11519628

  10. A reinforcement-based therapeutic workplace for the treatment of drug abuse: six-month abstinence outcomes.

    PubMed

    Silverman, K; Svikis, D; Robles, E; Stitzer, M L; Bigelow, G E

    2001-02-01

    This study evaluated a novel drug abuse treatment, the Therapeutic Workplace. In this treatment, patients are paid to perform jobs or to participate in job training. Salary is linked to abstinence by requiring patients to provide drug-free urine samples to gain access to the workplace. Pregnant and postpartum drug abuse patients (N = 40) were randomly assigned to a Therapeutic Workplace or usual care control group. Therapeutic Workplace participants were invited to work 3 hr every weekday for 6 months and could earn up to $4,030 in vouchers for abstinence, workplace attendance, and performance. On average, 45% of participants attended the workplace per day. Relative to controls, the Therapeutic Workplace nearly doubled patients' abstinence from opiates and cocaine (33% vs. 59% of thrice-weekly urine samples drug negative, respectively, p < .05). The Therapeutic Workplace can effectively treat heroin and cocaine abuse in pregnant and postpartum women.

  11. Maternal dietary patterns during early pregnancy and the odds of childhood germ cell tumors: A Children's Oncology Group study.

    PubMed

    Musselman, Jessica R B; Jurek, Anne M; Johnson, Kimberly J; Linabery, Amy M; Robison, Leslie L; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Ross, Julie A

    2011-02-01

    Maternal diet during pregnancy may be associated with cancer in offspring. Intake of individual foods, as well as dietary patterns, can be used when examining these relations. Here, the authors examined associations between maternal dietary intake patterns and pediatric germ cell tumors (GCTs) using principal components analysis and logistic regression. Mothers of 222 GCT cases aged less than 15 years who were diagnosed at a Children's Oncology Group institution between 1993 and 2001 and those of 336 frequency-matched controls completed a self-administered food frequency questionnaire of diet during early pregnancy. Four dietary patterns were identified: "Western," "fruits and vegetables," "protein," and "healthful." With adjustment for birth weight, parity, and vitamin use, the fruits and vegetables pattern was significantly associated with a lower odds for GCTs (odds ratio (OR) = 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69, 0.99; 2 sided). Upon stratification, the fruits and vegetables pattern was significantly associated with a lower odds in males (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.47, 0.92) but not females (OR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.72, 1.14). A quantitative assessment of assumed nondifferential reporting error indicated no notable deviations from unadjusted odds ratio estimates. Results of this exploratory analysis suggest that maternal prenatal dietary patterns could be considered in future studies of GCTs in offspring. PMID:21098631

  12. An ongoing process: A qualitative study of how the alcohol-dependent free themselves of addiction through progressive abstinence

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Most people being treated for alcoholism are unable to successfully quit drinking within their treatment programs. In few cases do we know the full picture of how abstinence is achieved in Taiwan. We tracked processes of abstinence in alcohol-dependency disorders, based on study evidence and results. This research explores the process of recovery from the viewpoint of the alcohol-dependent. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two different settings, using purpose sampling, during 2003-2004. The data were analyzed using content analysis. Participants were 32 adults, purposefully selected from an Alcoholics Anonymous group and a psychiatric hospital in North Taiwan. Results We found that the abstinence process is an ongoing process, in which the alcohol-dependent free themselves of addiction progressively. This process never ends or resolves in complete recovery. We have identified three stages in the struggle against alcoholism: the Indulgence, Ambivalence and Attempt (IAA) cycle, in which the sufferer is trapped in a cycle of attempting to give up and failing; the Turning Point, in which a Personal Nadir is reached, and the Ongoing Process of abstinence, in which a constant effort is made to remain sober through willpower and with the help of support groups. We also discuss Influencing Factors that can derail abstinence attempts, pushing the sufferer back into the IAA cycle. Conclusion This study provides important points of reference for alcohol and drug service workers and community healthcare professionals in Taiwan, casting light on the abstinence process and providing a basis for intervention or rehabilitation services. PMID:19930698

  13. A critical role of lateral hypothalamus in context-induced relapse to alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Nathan J; Rabei, Rana; Kaganovsky, Konstantin; Caprioli, Daniele; Bossert, Jennifer M; Bonci, Antonello; Shaham, Yavin

    2014-05-28

    In human alcoholics, abstinence is often self-imposed, despite alcohol availability, because of the negative consequences of excessive use. During abstinence, relapse is often triggered by exposure to contexts associated with alcohol use. We recently developed a rat model that captures some features of this human condition: exposure to the alcohol self-administration environment (context A), after punishment-imposed suppression of alcohol self-administration in a different environment (context B), provoked renewal of alcohol seeking in alcohol-preferring P rats. The mechanisms underlying context-induced renewal of alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence are unknown. Here, we studied the role of the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and its forebrain projections in this effect. We first determined the effect of context-induced renewal of alcohol seeking on Fos (a neuronal activity marker) expression in LH. We next determined the effect of LH reversible inactivation by GABAA + GABAB receptor agonists (muscimol + baclofen) on this effect. Finally, we determined neuronal activation in brain areas projecting to LH during context-induced renewal tests by measuring double labeling of the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit B (CTb; injected in LH) with Fos. Context-induced renewal of alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence was associated with increased Fos expression in LH. Additionally, renewal was blocked by muscimol + baclofen injections into LH. Finally, double-labeling analysis of CTb + Fos showed that context-induced renewal of alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence was associated with selective activation of accumbens shell neurons projecting to LH. The results demonstrate an important role of LH in renewal of alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence and suggest a role of accumbens shell projections to LH in this form of relapse.

  14. Effects of smoking abstinence on reaction time variability in smokers with and without ADHD: An ex-Gaussian analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kollins, Scott H.; McClernon, F. Joseph; Epstein, Jeff N.

    2009-01-01

    Smoking abstinence differentially affects cognitive functioning in smokers with ADHD, compared to non-ADHD smokers. Alternative approaches for analyzing reaction time data from these tasks may further elucidate important group differences. Adults smoking ≥15 cigarettes with (n = 12) or without (n = 14) a diagnosis of ADHD completed a continuous performance task (CPT) during two sessions under two separate laboratory conditions—a ‘Satiated’ condition wherein participants smoked up to and during the session; and an ‘Abstinent’ condition, in which participants were abstinent overnight and during the session. Reaction time (RT) distributions from the CPT were modeled to fit an ex-Gaussian distribution. The indicator of central tendency for RT from the normal component of the RT distribution (mu) showed a main effect of Group (ADHDabstinent). RT standard deviation for the normal component of the distribution (sigma) showed no effects. The ex-Gaussian parameter tau, which describes the mean and standard deviation of the non-normalcomponent of thedistribution, showedsignificant effects of session (Abstinent > Satiated), Group × Session interaction (ADHD increased significantly under Abstinent condition compared to Control), and a trend toward a main effect of Group (ADHD > Control). Alternative approaches to analyzing RT data provide a more detailed description of the effects of smoking abstinence in ADHD and non-ADHD smokers and results differ from analyses using more traditional approaches. These findings have implications for understanding the neuropsychopharmacology of nicotine and nicotine withdrawal. PMID:19041198

  15. Buprenorphine medication versus voucher contingencies in promoting abstinence from opioids and cocaine.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Mohit P; Landes, Reid D; Gatchalian, Kirstin M; Jackson, Lisa C; Buchhalter, August R; Stitzer, Maxine L; Marsch, Lisa A; Bickel, Warren K

    2009-08-01

    During a 12-week intervention, opioid dependent participants (N = 120) maintained on thrice-a-week (M, W, F) buprenorphine plus therapist and computer-based counseling were randomized to receive: (a) medication contingencies (MC = thrice weekly dosing schedule vs. daily attendance and single-day 50% dose reduction imposed upon submission of an opioid and/or cocaine positive urine sample); (b) voucher contingency (VC = escalating schedule for opioid and/or cocaine negative samples with reset for drug-positive samples); or (c) standard care (SC), with no programmed consequences for urinalysis results. VC resulted in better 12-week retention (85%) compared to MC (58%; p = 0.009), but neither differed from SC (76% retained). After adjusting for baseline differences in employment, and compared to SC, the MC group achieved 1.5 more continuous weeks of combined opioid/cocaine abstinence (p = 0.030), while the VC group had 2 more total weeks of abstinence (p = 0.048). Drug use results suggest that both the interventions were efficacious, with effects primarily in opioid rather than cocaine test results. Findings should be interpreted in light of the greater attrition associated with medication-based contingencies versus the greater monetary costs of voucher-based contingencies.

  16. Metabolic Abnormalities in Lobar and Subcortical Brain Regions of Abstinent Polysubstance Users: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Abé, Christoph; Mon, Anderson; Hoefer, Michael E.; Durazzo, Timothy C.; Pennington, David L.; Schmidt, Thomas P.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the study was to explore neurometabolic and associated cognitive characteristics of patients with polysubstance use (PSU) in comparison with patients with predominant alcohol use using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Methods: Brain metabolite concentrations were examined in lobar and subcortical brain regions of three age-matched groups: 1-month-abstinent alcohol-dependent PSU, 1-month-abstinent individuals dependent on alcohol alone (ALC) and light drinking controls (CON). Neuropsychological testing assessed cognitive function. Results: While CON and ALC had similar metabolite levels, persistent metabolic abnormalities (primarily higher myo-inositol) were present in temporal gray matter, cerebellar vermis and lenticular nuclei of PSU. Moreover, lower cortical gray matter concentration of the neuronal marker N-acetylaspartate within PSU correlated with higher cocaine (but not alcohol) use quantities and with a reduced cognitive processing speed. Conclusions: These metabolite group differences reflect cellular/astroglial injury and/or dysfunction in alcohol-dependent PSU. Associations of other metabolite concentrations with neurocognitive performance suggest their functional relevance. The metabolic alterations in PSU may represent polydrug abuse biomarkers and/or potential targets for pharmacological and behavioral PSU-specific treatment. PMID:23797281

  17. Methamphetamine use parameters do not predict neuropsychological impairment in currently abstinent dependent adults.

    PubMed

    Cherner, Mariana; Suarez, Paola; Casey, Corinna; Deiss, Robert; Letendre, Scott; Marcotte, Thomas; Vaida, Florin; Atkinson, J Hampton; Grant, Igor; Heaton, Robert K

    2010-01-15

    Methamphetamine (meth) abuse is increasingly of public health concern and has been associated with neurocognitive dysfunction. Some previous studies have been hampered by background differences between meth users and comparison subjects, as well as unknown HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) status, which can also affect brain functioning. We compared the neurocognitive functioning of 54 meth dependent (METH+) study participants who had been abstinent for an average of 129 days, to that of 46 demographically comparable control subjects (METH-) with similar level of education and reading ability. All participants were free of HIV and HCV infection. The METH+ group exhibited higher rates of neuropsychological impairment in most areas tested. Among meth users, neuropsychologically normal (n=32) and impaired (n=22) subjects did not differ with respect to self-reported age at first use, total years of use, route of consumption, or length of abstinence. Those with motor impairment had significantly greater meth use in the past year, but impairment in cognitive domains was unrelated to meth exposure. The apparent lack of correspondence between substance use parameters and cognitive impairment suggests the need for further study of individual differences in vulnerability to the neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine.

  18. Frontostriatal Circuit Dynamics Correlate with Cocaine Cue-Evoked Behavioral Arousal during Early Abstinence.

    PubMed

    Smith, Wesley C; Rosenberg, Matthew H; Claar, Leslie D; Chang, Victoria; Shah, Sagar N; Walwyn, Wendy M; Evans, Christopher J; Masmanidis, Sotiris C

    2016-01-01

    It is thought that frontostriatal circuits play an important role in mediating conditioned behavioral responses to environmental stimuli that were previously encountered during drug administration. However, the neural correlates of conditioned responses to drug-associated cues are not well understood at the level of large populations of simultaneously recorded neurons, or at the level of local field potential (LFP) synchrony in the frontostriatal network. Here we introduce a behavioral assay of conditioned arousal to cocaine cues involving pupillometry in awake head-restrained mice. After just 24 h of drug abstinence, brief exposures to olfactory stimuli previously paired with cocaine injections led to a transient dilation of the pupil, which was greater than the dilation effect to neutral cues. In contrast, there was no cue-selective change in locomotion, as measured by the rotation of a circular treadmill. The behavioral assay was combined with simultaneous recordings from dozens of electrophysiologically identified units in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and ventral striatum (VS). We found significant relationships between cocaine cue-evoked pupil dilation and the proportion of inhibited principal cells in the mPFC and VS. Additionally, LFP coherence analysis revealed a significant correlation between pupillary response and synchrony in the 25-45 Hz frequency band. Together, these results show that pupil dilation is sensitive to drug-associated cues during acute stages of abstinence, and that individual animal differences in this behavioral arousal response can be explained by two complementary measures of frontostriatal network activity. PMID:27390774

  19. Experiences of food abstinence in patients with type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Buchmann, Maike; Wermeling, Matthias; Lucius-Hoene, Gabriele; Himmel, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Objective People with type 2 diabetes often report pressure to abstain from many of life's pleasures. We tried to reconstruct these patients’ sense of pressure to better understand how people with diabetes make sense of, and integrate, these feelings into their life. Design, setting and participants A secondary analysis of narrative interviews with 14 patients with type 2 diabetes who are part of a website project. Main outcome measures Grounded theory-based analysis of narrative interviews, consisting of open, axial and selective coding. Results People with type 2 diabetes felt obliged to give up many pleasures and live a life of abstinence. They perceived a pressure to display a modest culinary lifestyle via improved laboratory test results and weight. Their verbal efforts to reassure and distance themselves from excessiveness indicate a high moral pressure. With regard to the question of how to abstain, food and behaviour were classified into healthy and unhealthy. Personal rules sometimes led to surprising experiences of freedom. Conclusions People with diabetes have internalised that their behaviour is a barrier to successful treatment. They experience an intensive pressure to show abstinence and feel misjudged when their efforts have no visible effect. Taking into account this moral pressure, and listening to patients’ personal efforts and strategies to establish healthy behaviours, might help to build a trusting relationship with healthcare providers. PMID:26739724

  20. Emotion differentiation and intensity during acute tobacco abstinence: A comparison of heavy and light smokers

    PubMed Central

    Sheets, Erin S.; Bujarski, Spencer; Leventhal, Adam M.; Ray, Lara A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to recognize and label discrete emotions, termed emotion differentiation, is particularly pertinent to overall emotion regulation abilities. Patterns of deficient emotion differentiation have been associated with mood and anxiety disorders but have yet to be examined in relation to nicotine dependence. This study employed ecological momentary assessment to examine smokers’ subjective experience of discrete emotions during 24-h of forced tobacco abstinence. Thirty daily smokers rated their emotions up to 23 times over the 24-hour period, and smoking abstinence was biologically verified. From these data, we computed individual difference measures of emotion differentiation, overall emotion intensity, and emotional variability. As hypothesized, heavy smokers reported poorer negative emotion differentiation than light smokers (d = 0.55), along with more intense negative emotion (d = 0.97) and greater negative emotion variability (d = 0.97). No differences were observed in positive emotion differentiation. Across the sample, poorer negative emotion differentiation was associated with greater endorsement of psychological motives to smoke, including negative and positive reinforcement motives, while positive emotion differentiation was not. PMID:25885662

  1. Initial Abstinence Status and Contingency Management Treatment Outcomes: Does Race Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, LaTrice; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Limited research has evaluated African American substance users’ response to evidence-based treatments. This study examined the efficacy of contingency management (CM) in African American and White cocaine users. Method A secondary analysis evaluated effects of race, treatment condition, and baseline cocaine urine sample results on treatment outcomes of African American (n = 444) and White (n = 403) cocaine abusers participating in one of six randomized clinical trials comparing CM to standard care. Results African American and White patients who initiated treatment with a cocaine-negative urine sample remained in treatment for similar durations and submitted a comparable proportion of negative samples during treatment regardless of treatment type; CM was efficacious in both races in terms of engendering longer durations of abstinence in patients who began treatment abstinent. Whites who began treatment with a cocaine positive sample remained in treatment longer and submitted a higher proportion of negative samples when assigned to CM than standard care. African Americans who initiated treatment with a cocaine positive sample, however, did not remain in treatment longer with CM compared with standard care, and gains in terms of drug use outcomes were muted in nature relative to Whites. This interaction effect persisted through the 9-month follow-up period. Conclusions CM is not equally effective in reducing drug use among all subgroups, specifically African American patients who are using cocaine upon treatment entry. Future research on improving treatment outcomes in this population is needed. PMID:25798729

  2. Sleep abnormalities during abstinence in alcohol-dependent patients. Aetiology and management.

    PubMed

    Landolt, H P; Gillin, J C

    2001-01-01

    Virtually every type of sleep problem occurs in alcohol-dependent patients. Typically, these individuals take a longer time to fall asleep and show decreased sleep efficiency, shorter sleep duration and reduced amounts of slow wave sleep when compared with healthy controls. Their sleep patterns are fragmented, and the typical time course of electroencephalogram (EEG) delta wave activity is severely disrupted. The amount of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep may be reduced or increased. Sleep changes can persist during months or years of abstinence, and recent studies indicate that certain alterations in sleep architecture, as well as subjective sleep complaints, predict relapse to alcoholism. The mechanisms of action of short and long term alcohol administration on sleep are incompletely understood. They may arise from an interaction with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT), adenosine or other neurotransmitter systems. While only a few pharmacological and nonpharmacological strategies to improve or normalise disturbed sleep in individuals who have recovered from alcoholism have been studied, the use of benzodiazepines, other hypnosedatives or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors is not recommended. Therapies include sleep hygiene, bright light therapy, meditation, relaxation methods, and other nonpharmacological approaches. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between sleep, sleep abnormalities and alcoholism, and to establish new approaches to improve sleep in alcohol-dependent patients and to prevent withdrawal reactions that affect sleep during abstinence.

  3. Frontostriatal Circuit Dynamics Correlate with Cocaine Cue-Evoked Behavioral Arousal during Early Abstinence123

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sagar N.; Evans, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    It is thought that frontostriatal circuits play an important role in mediating conditioned behavioral responses to environmental stimuli that were previously encountered during drug administration. However, the neural correlates of conditioned responses to drug-associated cues are not well understood at the level of large populations of simultaneously recorded neurons, or at the level of local field potential (LFP) synchrony in the frontostriatal network. Here we introduce a behavioral assay of conditioned arousal to cocaine cues involving pupillometry in awake head-restrained mice. After just 24 h of drug abstinence, brief exposures to olfactory stimuli previously paired with cocaine injections led to a transient dilation of the pupil, which was greater than the dilation effect to neutral cues. In contrast, there was no cue-selective change in locomotion, as measured by the rotation of a circular treadmill. The behavioral assay was combined with simultaneous recordings from dozens of electrophysiologically identified units in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and ventral striatum (VS). We found significant relationships between cocaine cue-evoked pupil dilation and the proportion of inhibited principal cells in the mPFC and VS. Additionally, LFP coherence analysis revealed a significant correlation between pupillary response and synchrony in the 25–45 Hz frequency band. Together, these results show that pupil dilation is sensitive to drug-associated cues during acute stages of abstinence, and that individual animal differences in this behavioral arousal response can be explained by two complementary measures of frontostriatal network activity. PMID:27390774

  4. Neurocognitive deficits, craving, and abstinence among alcohol-dependent individuals following detoxification.

    PubMed

    Naim-Feil, Jodie; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Bradshaw, John L; Lubman, Dan I; Sheppard, Dianne

    2014-02-01

    Alcohol dependence, a chronic relapsing disorder, is characterized by an impaired ability to regulate compulsive urges to consume alcohol. Very few empirical studies have examined the presence of these executive deficits, how they relate to craving, and the enduring nature of these deficits during abstinence. As such, the current study aimed to characterize these cognitive deficits within a sample of 24 alcohol-dependent participants post-detoxification and 23 non-alcohol-dependent participants. Participants were administered the Sustained Attention to Response Task to measure response inhibition and sustained attention and the Random Number Generation Task to examine executive deficits. Correlations between cognitive performance and clinical measures of alcohol dependence were examined. As predicted, the alcohol-dependent group exhibited poorer performance across the domains of response inhibition, executive function, and attentional control. Cognitive performance was related to clinical measures of craving and years of alcohol consumption, whereas the duration of abstinence was not associated with improved cognitive performance. These findings highlight the need for therapeutic strategies to target these enduring neurocognitive deficits in improving the treatment of alcohol dependence. PMID:24334264

  5. Neonatal abstinence syndrome: evaluating the effectiveness of an evidence-based multidisciplinary care approach.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Carla; King, Terry; Smith, Sheri; Buchheit, John; Cook, Kyle; Edds, Jill; Mefford, Linda

    2014-01-01

    An evidence-based, multidisciplinary neonatal abstinence syndrome protocol was developed using a stepwise continuous quality improvement (CQI) approach with the goal of standardizing care procedures for these infants. A retrospective secondary data analysis was performed to evaluate the differential effects of each step of the CQI project on 4 key clinical outcome measures: length of stay (total and post-opioid wean), weaning time from opioids, and use of adjunct medications. Data were analyzed from 386 newborn infants with a diagnosis of neonatal abstinence syndrome undergoing treatment in a level III neonatal intensive care unit. After implementation of a pharmacologic weaning protocol as a foundational first step of the CQI project, the weaning time from opioids remained stable throughout each of the subsequent CQI steps (P = .905). The overall total neonatal intensive care unit length of stay was reduced by 10.35 days (P = .002), and the length of neonatal intensive care unit stay after completing wean from opioids was reduced by 2.79 days (P < .001). Use of adjunct medications also decreased from 30.1% of infants at the initiation of the CQI project to 24.5% at the completion of the project (P = .020). These findings indicate that this multidisciplinary treatment approach led to an overall improved efficiency of both opioid weaning and symptom management for these infants.

  6. Guanfacine enhances inhibitory control and attentional shifting in early abstinent cocaine-dependent individuals

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Helen; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Sinha, Rajita

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Attenuation of adrenergic drive and cognitive enhancement, via stimulation of alpha2 pre- and post-synaptic receptors, may selectively enhance executive performance in early abstinent cocaine-dependent individuals. As these cognitive processes underpin important treatment-related behaviors, the alpha2 agonist, guanfacine HCl, may represent an effective pharmaco-therapeutic intervention. Methods Twenty-five early abstinent cocaine-dependent individuals were administered a battery of neurocognitive tasks on entry into treatment (baseline) and again following 3 weeks of either placebo or guanfacine treatment (up to 3 mg). Tasks included: Stop Signal, Stroop, 3-Dimentional Intra-dimensional/Extra-dimensional (IDED) task, Spatial Working Memory (SWM), Paired Associates Learning (PAL), Verbal Fluency and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). Results Compared with placebo, the guanfacine group demonstrated attenuated anxiety and negative affect as well as improved performance on selective executive tests. This included fewer directional errors on the stop signal task, fewer errors on the extra-dimensional shift component of the IDED task and better attentional switching during verbal fluency. Guanfacine did not improve strategic working memory or peripheral memory. Conclusion Guanfacine improves selective cognitive processes which may underlie salient treatment-related regulatory behaviors. Alpha2 agonists may therefore represent important agents for cocaine dependence. PMID:25567555

  7. Emotion differentiation and intensity during acute tobacco abstinence: A comparison of heavy and light smokers.

    PubMed

    Sheets, Erin S; Bujarski, Spencer; Leventhal, Adam M; Ray, Lara A

    2015-08-01

    The ability to recognize and label discrete emotions, termed emotion differentiation, is particularly pertinent to overall emotion regulation abilities. Patterns of deficient emotion differentiation have been associated with mood and anxiety disorders but have yet to be examined in relation to nicotine dependence. This study employed ecological momentary assessment to examine smokers' subjective experience of discrete emotions during 24-h of forced tobacco abstinence. Thirty daily smokers rated their emotions up to 23 times over the 24-hour period, and smoking abstinence was biologically verified. From these data, we computed individual difference measures of emotion differentiation, overall emotion intensity, and emotional variability. As hypothesized, heavy smokers reported poorer negative emotion differentiation than light smokers (d=0.55), along with more intense negative emotion (d=0.97) and greater negative emotion variability (d=0.97). No differences were observed in positive emotion differentiation. Across the sample, poorer negative emotion differentiation was associated with greater endorsement of psychological motives to smoke, including negative and positive reinforcement motives, while positive emotion differentiation was not. PMID:25885662

  8. Emotion differentiation and intensity during acute tobacco abstinence: A comparison of heavy and light smokers.

    PubMed

    Sheets, Erin S; Bujarski, Spencer; Leventhal, Adam M; Ray, Lara A

    2015-08-01

    The ability to recognize and label discrete emotions, termed emotion differentiation, is particularly pertinent to overall emotion regulation abilities. Patterns of deficient emotion differentiation have been associated with mood and anxiety disorders but have yet to be examined in relation to nicotine dependence. This study employed ecological momentary assessment to examine smokers' subjective experience of discrete emotions during 24-h of forced tobacco abstinence. Thirty daily smokers rated their emotions up to 23 times over the 24-hour period, and smoking abstinence was biologically verified. From these data, we computed individual difference measures of emotion differentiation, overall emotion intensity, and emotional variability. As hypothesized, heavy smokers reported poorer negative emotion differentiation than light smokers (d=0.55), along with more intense negative emotion (d=0.97) and greater negative emotion variability (d=0.97). No differences were observed in positive emotion differentiation. Across the sample, poorer negative emotion differentiation was associated with greater endorsement of psychological motives to smoke, including negative and positive reinforcement motives, while positive emotion differentiation was not.

  9. Maternal Experiences of Their Unborn Child's Spiritual Care: Patterns of Abstinence in Iran.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Tooba; Ziaei, Saeideh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Mohammadi, Eesa; Hall, Jenny

    2015-06-01

    Preparing for pregnancy and childbirth has significant association with spirituality. Review of the literature shows that the spirituality of the "unborn child" has not yet attracted much critical attention. This study was conducted with the aim of exploration of maternal behaviors associated with the spiritual health of the unborn child. A qualitative approach was used to investigate the research question. Twenty-seven in-depth unstructured interviews were conducted with 22 Iranian mothers in Tehran city (Iran) who were pregnant or had experienced pregnancy in 2012-2013. Data analysis was carried out using a conventional content analysis approach. "Refusing to eat forbidden food," "Overcoming mental adversity," "Regulating one's social interactions," "Preventing the effects of harmful environments on the senses," "Avoidance of using insulting and abusive language," "Keeping one's mind and spirit free from evil traits," and "Refraining from damaging behaviors" were important experiences that the mothers used for "Holistic Abstinence." The results provide new information about the subjective experiences of Iranian women on the patterns of abstinence for the midwives, research community, policy makers, and planners of maternal and child health care services in order to contribute to holistic, culturally, and religiously competent prenatal care for Muslim pregnant women throughout the world.

  10. Buprenorphine medication versus voucher contingencies in promoting abstinence from opioids and cocaine.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Mohit P; Landes, Reid D; Gatchalian, Kirstin M; Jackson, Lisa C; Buchhalter, August R; Stitzer, Maxine L; Marsch, Lisa A; Bickel, Warren K

    2009-08-01

    During a 12-week intervention, opioid dependent participants (N = 120) maintained on thrice-a-week (M, W, F) buprenorphine plus therapist and computer-based counseling were randomized to receive: (a) medication contingencies (MC = thrice weekly dosing schedule vs. daily attendance and single-day 50% dose reduction imposed upon submission of an opioid and/or cocaine positive urine sample); (b) voucher contingency (VC = escalating schedule for opioid and/or cocaine negative samples with reset for drug-positive samples); or (c) standard care (SC), with no programmed consequences for urinalysis results. VC resulted in better 12-week retention (85%) compared to MC (58%; p = 0.009), but neither differed from SC (76% retained). After adjusting for baseline differences in employment, and compared to SC, the MC group achieved 1.5 more continuous weeks of combined opioid/cocaine abstinence (p = 0.030), while the VC group had 2 more total weeks of abstinence (p = 0.048). Drug use results suggest that both the interventions were efficacious, with effects primarily in opioid rather than cocaine test results. Findings should be interpreted in light of the greater attrition associated with medication-based contingencies versus the greater monetary costs of voucher-based contingencies. PMID:19653788

  11. The predictive validity of the Drinking-Related Cognitions Scale in alcohol-dependent patients under abstinence-oriented treatment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cognitive factors associated with drinking behavior such as positive alcohol expectancies, self-efficacy, perception of impaired control over drinking and perception of drinking problems are considered to have a significant influence on treatment effects and outcome in alcohol-dependent patients. However, the development of a rating scale on lack of perception or denial of drinking problems and impaired control over drinking has not been substantial, even though these are important factors in patients under abstinence-oriented treatment as well as participants in self-help groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). The Drinking-Related Cognitions Scale (DRCS) is a new self-reported rating scale developed to briefly measure cognitive factors associated with drinking behavior in alcohol-dependent patients under abstinence-oriented treatment, including positive alcohol expectancies, abstinence self-efficacy, perception of impaired control over drinking, and perception of drinking problems. Here, we conducted a prospective cohort study to explore the predictive validity of DRCS. Methods Participants in this study were 175 middle-aged and elderly Japanese male patients who met the DSM-IV Diagnostic Criteria for Alcohol Dependence. DRCS scores were recorded before and after the inpatient abstinence-oriented treatment program, and treatment outcome was evaluated one year after discharge. Results Of the 175 participants, 30 were not available for follow-up; thus the number of subjects for analysis in this study was 145. When the total DRCS score and subscale scores were compared before and after inpatient treatment, a significant increase was seen for both scores. Both the total DRCS score and each subscale score were significantly related to total abstinence, percentage of abstinent days, and the first drinking occasion during the one-year post-treatment period. Therefore, good treatment outcome was significantly predicted by low positive alcohol expectancies

  12. "If I Could Really Say that and Get Away with It!" Accountability and Ambivalence in American Parents' Sexuality Lessons in the Age of Abstinence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Sinikka

    2010-01-01

    Based on in-depth interviews with 64 American parents of teenagers, I examine how parents navigate the complex landscape of abstinence, personal responsibility, and sexual well-being in their sexuality lessons to their children. Reflecting the dominance of the abstinence-only discourse, many parents expressed a sense of accountability to promote…

  13. Queer Youth Experiences with Abstinence-Only-until-Marriage Sexuality Education: "I Can't Get Married so where Does that Leave Me?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Christopher Micheal

    2009-01-01

    Abstinence-only-until-marriage sexuality education has received increasing attention vis-a-vis policy, funding, and research. Despite large sums of federal money to develop, implement, and to some extent, assess abstinence-only education, virtually no studies have looked to assess the experiences of such a curriculum for gay and bisexual male…

  14. Shape phase transitions in odd-A nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, C. E.; Arias, J. M.; Fortunato, L.; Vitturi, A.

    2008-11-11

    We investigate shape phase transitions in odd nuclei within the Interacting Boson Fermion Model. Special attention is given to the case of the transition from the vibrational behaviour to the stable axial deformation. The odd particle is assumed to be moving in the three single particle orbitals j = 1/2,3/2,5/2 with a boson-fermion Hamiltonian that leads to the occurrence of the SU{sup BF}(3) boson-fermion symmetry when the boson part approaches the SU(3) condition. Both energy spectra and electromagnetic transitions show characteristic patterns similar to those displayed by the even nuclei at the corresponding critical point. The role of the additional particle in characterizing the properties of the critical points in finite quantal systems is investigated by resorting to the formalism based on the intrinsic frame.

  15. Investigation of odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in atomic vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Yaqi; Wu, Zhenkun; Si, Jinhai; Yan, Lihe; Zhang, Yiqi; Yuan, Chenzhi; Sun, Jia; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2013-06-15

    We theoretically deduce the macroscopic symmetry constraints for arbitrary odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in homogeneous media including atomic vapors for the first time. After theoretically calculating the expressions using a semiclassical method, we demonstrate that the expressions for third- and fifth-order nonlinear susceptibilities for undressed and dressed four- and six-wave mixing (FWM and SWM) in atomic vapors satisfy the macroscopic symmetry constraints. We experimentally demonstrate consistence between the macroscopic symmetry constraints and the semiclassical expressions for atomic vapors by observing polarization control of FWM and SWM processes. The experimental results are in reasonable agreement with our theoretical calculations. -- Highlights: •The macroscopic symmetry constraints are deduced for homogeneous media including atomic vapors. •We demonstrate that odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities satisfy the constraints. •We experimentally demonstrate the deduction in part.

  16. Predator fitness increases with selectivity for odd prey.

    PubMed

    Rutz, Christian

    2012-05-01

    The fundamental currency of normative models of animal decision making is Darwinian fitness. In foraging ecology, empirical studies typically assess foraging strategies by recording energy intake rates rather than realized reproductive performance. This study provides a rare empirical link, in a vertebrate predator-prey system, between a predator's foraging behavior and direct measures of its reproductive fitness. Goshawks Accipiter gentilis selectively kill rare color variants of their principal prey, the feral pigeon Columba livia, presumably because targeting odd-looking birds in large uniform flocks helps them overcome confusion effects and enhances attack success. Reproductive performance of individual hawks increases significantly with their selectivity for odd-colored pigeons, even after controlling for confounding age effects. Older hawks exhibit more pronounced dietary preferences, suggesting that hunting performance improves with experience. Intriguingly, although negative frequency-dependent predation by hawks exerts strong selection against rare pigeon phenotypes, pigeon color polymorphism is maintained through negative assortative mating. PMID:22503502

  17. Mesospheric Odd Nitrogen Enhancements During Relativistic Electron Precipitation Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, A. C.; Smith, H. J. P.

    1999-01-01

    The behavior of mesospheric odd nitrogen species during and following relativistic and diffuse auroral precipitation events is simulated, Below 75 km nitric oxide is enhanced in proportion to the ion pair production function associated with the electron precipitation and the length of the event. Nitrogen dioxide and nitric acid are also enhanced. At 65 km the percentage of odd nitrogen for N is 0.1%, HNO3 is 1.6%, NO2 is 15%, and NO is 83.3%. Between 75 and 85 km NO is depleted during particle events due to the faster destruction of NO by N relative to the production of NO by N reacting with O2. Recovery of NO depends on transport from the lower thermosphere, where NO is produced in abundant amounts during particle events.

  18. Alternating parity structure in doubly odd /sup 218/Ac

    SciTech Connect

    Debray, M.E.; Davidson, M.; Kreiner, A.J.; Davidson, J.; Falcone, G.; Hojman, D.; Santos, D.

    1989-03-01

    States in doubly odd /sup 218/Ac have been studied using in-beam ..cap alpha..-, ..gamma..-, and e/sup -/-spectroscopy techniques mainly through the /sup 209/Bi(/sup 12/C,3n)= fusion-evaporation reaction. /sup 218/Ac shows a band structure, with interleaved states of alternating parities connected by enhanced B(E1) transitions, which is strikingly similar to the one in its isotone /sup 217/Ra.

  19. Chiral-odd TMDs in Drell-Yan processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhun

    2014-01-01

    We calculate the Boer-Mulders function of the pion by applying the MIT bag model, and compare the result with that from the spectator model. We then study the azimuthal asymmetries contributed by the chiral-odd transverse momentum distributions in pion-nucleon Drell-Yan process at COMPASS and in proton-proton Drell-Yan process at RHIC, J-PARC, E906 and NICA.

  20. Decline in Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Odds of Incident Sleep Complaints

    PubMed Central

    Dishman, Rodney K.; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Kline, Christopher E.; Youngstedt, Shawn D.; Blair, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine longitudinal change in cardiorespiratory fitness and odds of incident sleep problems. Methods A cohort of 7368 men and 1155 women, aged 20–85 years, from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. The cohort did not complain of sleep problems, depression, or anxiety at their first clinic visit. Cardiorespiratory fitness assessed at 4 clinic visits between 1971–2006, each separated by an average of 2–3 years, was used as a proxy measure of cumulative physical activity exposure. Sleep complaints were made to a physician during follow-up. Results Across visits, there were 784 incident cases of sleep complaints in men and 207 cases in women. After adjustment for age, time between visits, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, chronic medical conditions, complaints of depression or anxiety at each visit, and fitness at Visit 1, each minute decline in treadmill endurance (i.e., a decline in cardiorespiratory fitness of approximately one-half MET) between ages 51 to 56 increased the odds of incident sleep complaints by 1.7% (1.0–2.4%) in men and 1.3% (0.0–2.8%) in women. Odds were ~8% higher per minute decline in people with sleep complaints at 2 or 3 visits. Conclusion The results indicate that maintenance of cardiorespiratory fitness during middle-age, when decline in fitness typically accelerates and risk of sleep problems is elevated, helps protect against the onset of sleep complaints made to a physician. PMID:25207930

  1. Mitochondrial data support an odd-nosed colobine clade.

    PubMed

    Sterner, Kirstin N; Raaum, Ryan L; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Stewart, Caro-Beth; Disotell, Todd R

    2006-07-01

    To obtain a more complete understanding of the evolutionary history of the leaf-eating monkeys we have examined the mitochondrial genome sequence of two African and six Asian colobines. Although taxonomists have proposed grouping the "odd-nosed" colobines (proboscis monkey, douc langur, and the snub-nosed monkey) together, phylogenetic support for such a clade has not been tested using molecular data. Phylogenetic analyses using parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods support a monophyletic clade of odd-nosed colobines consisting of Nasalis, Pygathrix, and Rhinopithecus, with tentative support for Nasalis occupying a basal position within this clade. The African and Asian colobine lineages are inferred to have diverged by 10.8 million years ago (mya or Ma). Within the Asian colobines the odd-nosed clade began to diversify by 6.7 Ma. These results augment our understanding of colobine evolution, particularly the nature and timing of the colobine expansion into Asia. This phylogenetic information will aid those developing conservation strategies for these highly endangered, diverse, and unique primates. PMID:16500120

  2. Fluctuation theorems and entropy production with odd-parity variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyunggyu; Lee, Hyun Keun; Kwon, Chulan

    2013-03-01

    We show that the total entropy production in stochastic processes with odd-parity variables (under time reversal) is separated into three parts, only two of which satisfy the integral fluctuation theorems in general. One is the usual excess contribution, which can appear only transiently and is called non-adiabatic. Another one is attributed solely to the breakage of detailed balance. The last part not satisfying the fluctuation theorem comes from the steady-state distribution asymmetry for odd-parity variables, which is activated in a non-transient manner. The latter two parts combine together as the house-keeping (adiabatic) contribution, whose positivity is not guaranteed except when the excess contribution completely vanishes. Our finding reveals that the equilibrium requires the steady-state distribution symmetry for odd-parity variables independently, in addition to the usual detailed balance. This work was supported by Mid-career Researcher Program through NRF grant (No. 2010-0026627) funded by the MEST.

  3. Evidence for yrast positive-parity high-spin states in odd-odd {sup 72}As

    SciTech Connect

    Doering, J.; Tekyi-Mensah, O.J.; Tabor, S.L.; Doering, J.; Pantelica, D.; Petrovici, A.; Pantelica, D.; Petrovici, A.; Babu, B.R.; Hamilton, J.H.; Kormicki, J.; Lu, Q.H.; Ramayya, A.V.; Petrovici, A.

    1998-01-01

    The parities of high-spin bands in the odd-odd nucleus {sup 72}As have been established by measurements of the angular distributions and linear polarizations of the decay {gamma} rays via the {sup 62}Ni({sup 13}C,p2n) reaction at a beam energy of 48.5 MeV. In particular, the parity change determined between the 8{sup +} and 7{sup {minus}} states leads to positive parity for the yrast high-spin band. This band and the electromagnetic transition strengths within it are interpreted based on microscopic calculations using the VAMPIR model as arising from the intruder ({pi}g{sub 9/2}{circle_times}{nu}g{sub 9/2}) configuration. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. Solar Cycle Dependence Of Temperature, Odd-Oxygen, Odd-Hydrogen, And Airglow In The Mesopause Region Observed By SABER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynczak, M. G.; Hunt, L. A.; Mertens, C. J.; Marshall, T.; Russell, J. M.; Thompson, R. E.; Gordley, L. L.

    2013-12-01

    We present the first consistent, global set of temperature, pressure, odd-oxygen, odd-hydrogen and airglow measurements in the mesopause region spanning a complete solar cycle. The measurements are derived from the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on the NASA TIMED satellite. These data clearly indicate the influence of solar variability on the atmosphere structure and composition. In general, the values of most parameters decrease with decreasing solar activity. However, odd-hydrogen is observed to increase with decreasing solar activity. While the data indicate a direct relation between solar activity and atmospheric response, the role of dynamical variability in modulating the direct solar response has not yet been investigated, particularly on regional scales (e.g.,tropical, mid-latitude, or polar). We describe the SABER observations in detail and discuss how they can be used with general circulation models to assess the coupled role of dynamics and solar variability in determining the overall atmospheric response.

  5. Using incentives to encourage smoking abstinence among pregnant indigenous women? A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Glover, Marewa; Kira, Anette; Walker, Natalie; Bauld, Linda

    2015-06-01

    Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of many adverse health outcomes for both the mother and the unborn child (Morton et al. 2010). Indigenous people often have a higher smoking prevalence during pregnancy than non-Indigenous populations. In New Zealand (NZ), the smoking rates among Indigenous Māori women who are pregnant have reduced since 1991 (68 %) but still remains high in 2007 (34 %) (Morton et al. 2010). The success rate of most smoking cessation interventions for pregnant smokers is low at <6 % (Lumley et al. 2009). In other populations of pregnant women, financial incentives have been shown to increase the attractiveness of smoking cessation programs and increase the number of quit attempts. A feasibility study was undertaken to determine the likely effectiveness of an incentives-based cessation trial among pregnant Māori women that smoked. Pregnant smokers, aged 16 years and older, who self-identified as Māori, were 2-30 weeks pregnant, and currently smoked, were recruited through health practitioners, print media, and radio adverts in Auckland, NZ. Participants were randomised to (1) usual cessation support, including information about different cessation products and services, and access to nicotine replacement therapy (control), (2) usual cessation support plus a retail voucher to the value of NZ$25 for each 'abstinent from smoking' week for 8 weeks (voucher), or (3) usual cessation support plus product to the value of NZ$25 for each 'abstinent from smoking' week for 8 weeks (product). Outcomes measures included weekly self-reported and monthly biochemically verified smoking status, and acceptability. Of the 74 referred women, 50 declined involvement in the study and 24 consented and were randomised (eight control, eight voucher and eight to product). The mean age of participants was 25 years old (±2.25). Overall 21 % (n = 5) of the women were abstinent from smoking for at least 6 weeks of the eight, one from the control, six from the

  6. Using incentives to encourage smoking abstinence among pregnant indigenous women? A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Glover, Marewa; Kira, Anette; Walker, Natalie; Bauld, Linda

    2015-06-01

    Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of many adverse health outcomes for both the mother and the unborn child (Morton et al. 2010). Indigenous people often have a higher smoking prevalence during pregnancy than non-Indigenous populations. In New Zealand (NZ), the smoking rates among Indigenous Māori women who are pregnant have reduced since 1991 (68 %) but still remains high in 2007 (34 %) (Morton et al. 2010). The success rate of most smoking cessation interventions for pregnant smokers is low at <6 % (Lumley et al. 2009). In other populations of pregnant women, financial incentives have been shown to increase the attractiveness of smoking cessation programs and increase the number of quit attempts. A feasibility study was undertaken to determine the likely effectiveness of an incentives-based cessation trial among pregnant Māori women that smoked. Pregnant smokers, aged 16 years and older, who self-identified as Māori, were 2-30 weeks pregnant, and currently smoked, were recruited through health practitioners, print media, and radio adverts in Auckland, NZ. Participants were randomised to (1) usual cessation support, including information about different cessation products and services, and access to nicotine replacement therapy (control), (2) usual cessation support plus a retail voucher to the value of NZ$25 for each 'abstinent from smoking' week for 8 weeks (voucher), or (3) usual cessation support plus product to the value of NZ$25 for each 'abstinent from smoking' week for 8 weeks (product). Outcomes measures included weekly self-reported and monthly biochemically verified smoking status, and acceptability. Of the 74 referred women, 50 declined involvement in the study and 24 consented and were randomised (eight control, eight voucher and eight to product). The mean age of participants was 25 years old (±2.25). Overall 21 % (n = 5) of the women were abstinent from smoking for at least 6 weeks of the eight, one from the control, six from the

  7. Abstinence-What?: A Critical Look at the Language of Educational Approaches to Adolescent Sexual Risk Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beshers, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-six years ago, Ronald Reagan signed the Adolescent Family Life Act, and the abstinence education movement began its rapid ascendancy to political dominance, a process marked by increasingly generous federal funding, which reached a peak of $176 million in FY 2006. Throughout this period, a debate ensued over the appropriate approach to…

  8. Prefrontal cortical volume reduction associated with frontal cortex function deficit in 6-week abstinent crack-cocaine dependent men

    PubMed Central

    Fein, George; Di Sclafani, Victoria; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.

    2010-01-01

    Background This study examined regional cortical volumes in 6-week abstinent men dependent on crack-cocaine only (Cr) or on both crack-cocaine and alcohol (CrA). Our goal was to test the a priori hypothesis of prefrontal cortical volume reduction, along with associated impairments in frontal mediated functions, and to look for differences between the Cr and CrA groups. Methods Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and neuropsychological assessment were performed on 17 6-week abstinent Cr subjects, 29 six-week abstinent CrA subjects, and 20 normal controls. Cortical volume was quantified in the prefrontal, parietal, temporal and occipital regions. Results Cr and CrA subjects showed comparable reductions in prefrontal gray matter volume compared to controls; this reduction was negatively associated with performance impairments in the executive function domain. Conclusions Dependence on Cr (with or without concomitant alcohol dependence) was associated with reduced prefrontal cortical volume. Cr dependence with concomitant alcohol dependence was not associated with greater prefrontal volume reductions than Cr dependence alone. The existence of these findings at 6-week abstinence indicates that they are not a result of acute cocaine or alcohol exposure. The association of reduced prefrontal cortical volume with cognitive impairments in frontal cortex mediated abilities suggests that this reduced cerebral volume has functional consequences. PMID:12167554

  9. Attendance Rates in a Workplace Predict Subsequent Outcome of Employment-Based Reinforcement of Cocaine Abstinence in Methadone Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlin, Wendy D.; Knealing, Todd W.; Needham, Mick; Wong, Conrad J.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed whether attendance rates in a workplace predicted subsequent outcome of employment-based reinforcement of cocaine abstinence. Unemployed adults in Baltimore methadone programs who used cocaine (N = 111) could work in a workplace for 4 hr every weekday and earn $10.00 per hour in vouchers for 26 weeks. During an induction…

  10. A Randomized Trial Adapting Contingency Management Targets Based on Initial Abstinence Status of Cocaine-Dependent Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Barry, Danielle; Alessi, Sheila M.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Contingency management (CM) reduces drug use, but questions remain regarding optimal targets and magnitudes of reinforcement. We evaluated the efficacy of CM reinforcing attendance in patients who initiated treatment with cocaine-negative samples, and of higher magnitude abstinence-based CM in patients who began treatment positive.…

  11. Long-Term Abstinence Following Holotropic Breathwork as Adjunctive Treatment of Substance Use Disorders and Related Psychiatric Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewerton, Timothy D.; Eyerman, James E.; Cappetta, Pamela; Mithoefer, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Addictions remain challenging conditions despite various promising traditional approaches. Although complete, long-term abstinence may be ideal, its attainment remains elusive. Many recovering addicts and clinicians stress the importance of spiritual issues in recovery, and 12-step programs such as AA are well-known approaches that embrace this…

  12. An Eight-Year Perspective on the Relationship between the Duration of Abstinence and Other Aspects of Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Michael L.; Foss, Mark A.; Scott, Christy K.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from 1,162 people entering treatment and followed up (greater than 94%) for 8 years, this article examines the relationship between the duration of abstinence (1 month to 5 or more years) and other aspects of recovery (e.g., health, mental health, coping responses, legal involvement, vocational involvement, housing, peers, social and…

  13. Smoking Abstinence-Induced Changes in Resting State Functional Connectivity with Ventral Striatum Predict Lapse During a Quit Attempt.

    PubMed

    Sweitzer, Maggie M; Geier, Charles F; Addicott, Merideth A; Denlinger, Rachel; Raiff, Bethany R; Dallery, Jesse; McClernon, F Joseph; Donny, Eric C

    2016-09-01

    The ventral and dorsal striatum are critical substrates of reward processing and motivation and have been repeatedly linked to addictive disorders, including nicotine dependence. However, little is known about how functional connectivity between these and other brain regions is modulated by smoking withdrawal and may contribute to relapse vulnerability. In the present study, 37 smokers completed resting state fMRI scans during both satiated and 24-h abstinent conditions, prior to engaging in a 3-week quit attempt supported by contingency management. We examined the effects of abstinence condition and smoking outcome (lapse vs non-lapse) on whole-brain connectivity with ventral and dorsal striatum seed regions. Results indicated a significant condition by lapse outcome interaction for both right and left ventral striatum seeds. Robust abstinence-induced increases in connectivity with bilateral ventral striatum were observed across a network of regions implicated in addictive disorders, including insula, superior temporal gyrus, and anterior/mid-cingulate cortex among non-lapsers; the opposite pattern was observed for those who later lapsed. For dorsal striatum seeds, 24-h abstinence decreased connectivity across both groups with several regions, including medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, hippocampus, and supplemental motor area. These findings suggest that modulation of striatal connectivity with the cingulo-insular network during early withdrawal may be associated with smoking cessation outcomes. PMID:27091382

  14. Mother-Daughter Communication about Sexual Maturation, Abstinence and Unintended Pregnancy: Experiences from an Informal Settlement in Nairobi, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crichton, Joanna; Ibisomi, Latifat; Gyimah, Stephen Obeng

    2012-01-01

    Parental communication and support is associated with improved developmental, health and behavioral outcomes in adolescence. This study explores the quality of mother-daughter communication about sexual maturation, abstinence and unintended pregnancy in Korogocho, an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. We use data from 14 focus group…

  15. Changing Social Work Students' Attitudes toward Substance Abusers through the Use of an Abstinence Assignment: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaid, Wanda M.; Squires, Stuart P.

    2005-01-01

    Per se, increased knowledge about substance abuse has not been effective in altering social workers' negative attitudes towards substance abusers or their failure to recognize or address substance abuse problems among clients. In this paper, we describe an experiential abstinence assignment integrated with the content of an elective substance…

  16. Impacts of Abstinence Education on Teen Sexual Activity, Risk of Pregnancy, and Risk of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trenholm, Christopher; Devaney, Barbara; Fortson, Kenneth; Clark, Melissa; Bridgespan, Lisa Quay; Wheeler, Justin

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impacts of four abstinence-only education programs on adolescent sexual activity and risks of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Based on an experimental design, the impact analysis uses survey data collected in 2005 and early 2006 from more than 2,000 teens who had been randomly assigned to either a…

  17. Predictors of Abstinence: National Institute of Drug Abuse Multisite Buprenorphine/Naloxone Treatment Trial in Opioid-Dependent Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Geetha A.; Warden, Diane; Minhajuddin, Abu; Fishman, Marc J.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Adinoff, Bryon; Trivedi, Madhukar; Weiss, Roger; Potter, Jennifer; Poole, Sabrina A.; Woody, George E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine predictors of opioid abstinence in buprenorphine/naloxone (Bup/Nal)-assisted psychosocial treatment for opioid-dependent youth. Method: Secondary analyses were performed of data from 152 youth (15-21 years old) randomly assigned to 12 weeks of extended Bup/Nal therapy or up to 2 weeks of Bup/Nal detoxification with weekly…

  18. The Legacy of Abstinence-Only Discourses and the Place of Pleasure in US Discourses on Teenage Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresle-Favier, Claire

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the potential long-term legacy of abstinence-only discourses in the USA in order to consider the extent of the changes that might actually occur as a consequence of the 2009 presidential election. It first provides a brief overview of the history of discourses regarding youth sexuality and sex education over the past 30…

  19. Dangerous Omissions: Abstinence-Only-until-Marriage School-Based Sexuality Education and the Betrayal of LGBTQ Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elia, John P.; Eliason, Mickey J.

    2010-01-01

    To gain an understanding of how abstinence-only-until-marriage school-based sexuality education has been exclusionary, it is important to explore how heteronormativity has been endorsed, played out, and reproduced ever since school-based sexuality education has been offered in the United States. Such an exploration reveals glaring evidence that…

  20. The Impact of Middle School Principals on Adoption of Abstinence-Only-until-Marriage Programs in Their School's Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kelly; Pruitt, B. E.; Goodson, P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Diffusion of Innovations theory has been used to predict rates of adoption for a variety of programs. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess indicators that influence adoption of abstinence-only-until-marriage education as an innovation by middle school principals in Texas (N=433) as well as their likelihood of adopting such…

  1. Can intermittent theta burst stimulation as add-on to psychotherapy improve nicotine abstinence? Results from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dieler, Alica C; Dresler, Thomas; Joachim, Kathrin; Deckert, Jürgen; Herrmann, Martin J; Fallgatter, Andreas J

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is among the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Discontinuing smoking can increase life expectancy to the presmoking level. Unaided attempts are often ineffective, strengthening the necessity of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), nicotine replacement or pharmacotherapy. Still, relapse rates are high. Recently, a modulation of nicotine craving, which predicts relapse, through transcranial magnetic stimulation to the prefrontal cortex was shown. In a pilot study, we investigated whether 4 sessions of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) as add-on treatment to CBT reduces nicotine craving and improves long-term abstinence (at 3, 6 and 12 months). Smokers were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 38) or a sham group (n = 36). Although we did not find reduced craving, we could show higher abstinence rates in the treatment group at 3 months. At 6 and 12 months abstinence rates did not differ significantly. Results at 12 months, however, have to be interpreted cautiously due to significant differences in the dropout rates between the two groups at this time point. We provide first evidence for a beneficial effect of additional iTBS on intermediate nicotine abstinence; however, the low number of iTBS sessions might have prevented longer effects. More lasting effects might be achieved by iTBS maintenance sessions in analogy to the treatment of depression. PMID:24924851

  2. Type of Diabetes Mellitus and the Odds of Gleason Score 8 to 10 Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Josephine; Chen Minghui; Zhang Yuanye; Moran, Brian J.; Dosoretz, Daniel E.; Katin, Michael J.; Braccioforte, Michelle H.; Salenius, Sharon A.; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: It has been recently shown that diabetes mellitus (DM) is significantly associated with the likelihood of presenting with high-grade prostate cancer (PCa) or Gleason score (GS) 8 to 10; however, whether this association holds for both Type 1 and 2 DM is unknown. In this study we evaluated whether DM Type 1, 2, or both are associated with high-grade PCa after adjusting for known predictors of high-grade disease. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2010, a total of 15,330 men diagnosed with PCa and treated with radiation therapy were analyzed. A polychotomous logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate whether Type 1 or 2 DM was associated with odds of GS 7 or GS 8 to 10 compared with 6 or lower PCa, adjusting for African American race, age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, and digital rectal examination findings. Results: Men with Type 1 DM (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-3.27; p = 0.003) or Type 2 DM (AOR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.26-1.99; p < 0.001) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with GS 8 to 10 PCa compared with nondiabetic men. However this was not true for GS 7, for which these respective results were AOR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.93-1.82; p = 0.12 and AOR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.98-1.32; p = 0.10. Conclusion: Type 1 and 2 DM were associated with a higher odds of being diagnosed with Gleason score 8 to 10 but not 7 PCa. Pending validation, men who are diagnosed with Type I DM with GS 7 or lower should be considered for additional workup to rule out occult high-grade disease.

  3. Evaluating a community saturation model of abstinence education: an application of social marketing strategies.

    PubMed

    Tanner, John F; Anne Raymond, Mary; Ladd, Stacey D

    2009-01-01

    This study examines a community saturation program, a social marketing strategy, promoting abstinence education and evaluates the effects of this strategy on adolescents' attitudes and sexual behaviors. The study also examines components of the strategy to determine which program element was most influential. The Worth the Wait program was implemented in five counties in Texas beginning in 1999 for the first county and in 2000 and 2001 for the other four counties. A total of 2007 students in grades 7 through 12 were tracked and answered an end-of-the-year post-program survey after varying time periods of school program participation. Results indicate that a saturation program can be effective in reducing teen pregnancy. PMID:19197586

  4. Hope and Abstinence Self-Efficacy: Positive Predictors of Negative Affect in Substance Abuse Recovery.

    PubMed

    May, Emily M; Hunter, Bronwyn A; Ferrari, Joseph; Noel, Nicole; Jason, Leonard A

    2015-08-01

    Goal-oriented thinking, including hope and self-efficacy, might play a constructive and integral role in the substance abuse recovery process, although such an effect may differ by race. The current study investigated hope and self-efficacy, specifically abstinence self-efficacy, as predictors of negative affect (i.e. depression and anxiety) in a longitudinal sample of men and women in substance abuse recovery who lived in sober living homes. We found hope agency and self-efficacy were related but not identical constructs; hope agency and self-efficacy predicted depressive and anxiety symptoms for individuals in recovery, yet these relationships were moderated by race. Theoretical and clinical implications for promoting positive affect among individuals in substance abuse recovery are discussed.

  5. Abstinence Promotion Under PEPFAR: The Shifting Focus of HIV Prevention For Youth

    PubMed Central

    Santelli, John S.; Speizer, Ilene S.; Edelstein, Zoe R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstinence-until-marriage (AUM) – strongly supported by religious conservatives in the U.S. - became a key element of initial HIV prevention efforts under the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). AUM programs have demonstrated limited efficacy in changing behaviors, promoted medically inaccurate information, and withheld life-saving information about risk reduction. A focus on AUM also undermined national efforts in Africa to create integrated youth HIV prevention programs. PEPFAR prevention efforts after 2008 shifted to science-based programming, however vestiges of AUM remain. Primary prevention programs within PEPFAR are essential and nations must be able to design HIV prevention based on local needs and prevention science. PMID:23327516

  6. Hope and Abstinence Self-Efficacy: Positive Predictors of Negative Affect in Substance Abuse Recovery

    PubMed Central

    May, Emily M.; Hunter, Bronwyn A.; Ferrari, Joseph; Noel, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Goal-oriented thinking, including hope and self-efficacy, might play a constructive and integral role in the substance abuse recovery process, although such an effect may differ by race. The current study investigated hope and self-efficacy, specifically abstinence self-efficacy, as predictors of negative affect (i.e. depression and anxiety) in a longitudinal sample of men and women in substance abuse recovery who lived in sober living homes. We found hope agency and self-efficacy were related but not identical constructs; hope agency and self-efficacy predicted depressive and anxiety symptoms for individuals in recovery, yet these relationships were moderated by race. Theoretical and clinical implications for promoting positive affect among individuals in substance abuse recovery are discussed. PMID:25990539

  7. Neutron-proton pairing correlations in odd mass systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fellah, M. Allal, N. H.; Oudih, M. R.

    2015-03-30

    An expression of the ground-state which describes odd mass systems within the BCS approach in the isovector neutron-proton pairing case is proposed using the blocked level technique. The gap equations as well as the energy expression are then derived. It is shown that they exactly generalize the expressions obtained in the pairing between like-particles case. The various gap parameters and the energy are then numerically studied as a function of the pairing-strength within the schematic one-level model.

  8. Radiative lifetimes of odd-parity levels in Nb I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukund, Sheo; Bhattacharyya, Soumen; Yarlagadda, Suresh; Nakhate, S. G.

    2015-11-01

    Radiative lifetimes are reported for 37 odd-parity energy levels of neutral niobium (Nb I), out of which 33 have been measured for the first time. The levels belong to electronic configurations 4d35s5p and 4d45p between 18,790 and 35,730 cm-1. The time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy technique was employed. The Nb atoms were generated in a free-jet by laser vaporization of niobium metal. Lifetime values reported in this work fall in the range 12-340 ns and are accurate to ±10%.

  9. Dimension-5 C P -odd operators: QCD mixing and renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Gupta, Rajan; Mereghetti, Emanuele; Yoon, Boram

    2015-12-01

    We study the off-shell mixing and renormalization of flavor-diagonal dimension-five T - and P -odd operators involving quarks, gluons, and photons, including quark electric dipole and chromoelectric dipole operators. We present the renormalization matrix to one loop in the MS ¯ scheme. We also provide a definition of the quark chromoelectric dipole operator in a regularization-independent momentum-subtraction scheme suitable for nonperturbative lattice calculations and present the matching coefficients with the MS ¯ scheme to one loop in perturbation theory, using both the naïve dimensional regularization and 't Hooft-Veltman prescriptions for γ5.

  10. End-of-treatment abstinence self-efficacy, behavioral processes of change, and posttreatment drinking outcomes in Project MATCH.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Taylor Berens; DiClemente, Carlo C; Pitts, Steven C

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated whether alcohol abstinence self-efficacy at the end of alcohol treatment was moderated by utilization of behavioral processes of change (coping activities used during a behavior change attempt). It was hypothesized that self-efficacy would be differentially important in predicting posttreatment drinking outcomes depending on the level of behavioral processes, such that the relation between self-efficacy and outcomes would be stronger for individuals who reported low process use. Analyses were also estimated with end-of-treatment abstinence included as a covariate. Data were analyzed from alcohol-dependent individuals in both treatment arms of Project MATCH (Matching Alcoholism Treatments to Client Heterogeneity; N = 1,328), a large alcohol treatment study. Self-efficacy was moderated by behavioral process use in predicting drinking frequency 6 and 12 months posttreatment and drinking quantity 6 months posttreatment such that self-efficacy was more strongly related to posttreatment drinking when low levels of processes were reported than high levels, but interactions were attenuated when end-of-treatment abstinence was controlled for. Significant quadratic relations between end-of-treatment self-efficacy and 6- and 12-month posttreatment drinking quantity and frequency were found (p < .001, ƒ² = 0.02-0.03), such that self-efficacy most robustly predicted outcomes when high. These effects remained significant when end-of-treatment abstinence was included as a covariate. Findings highlight the complex nature of self-efficacy's relation with drinking outcomes. Although the interaction between self-efficacy and behavioral processes was attenuated when end-of-treatment abstinence was controlled for, the quadratic effect of self-efficacy on outcomes remained significant. The pattern of these effects did not support the idea of "overconfidence" as a negative indicator.

  11. Rat nucleus accumbens core astrocytes modulate reward and the motivation to self-administer ethanol after abstinence.

    PubMed

    Bull, Cecilia; Freitas, Kelen C C; Zou, Shiping; Poland, Ryan S; Syed, Wahab A; Urban, Daniel J; Minter, Sabrina C; Shelton, Keith L; Hauser, Kurt F; Negus, S Stevens; Knapp, Pamela E; Bowers, M Scott

    2014-11-01

    Our understanding of the active role that astrocytes play in modulating neuronal function and behavior is rapidly expanding, but little is known about the role that astrocytes may play in drug-seeking behavior for commonly abused substances. Given that the nucleus accumbens is critically involved in substance abuse and motivation, we sought to determine whether nucleus accumbens astrocytes influence the motivation to self-administer ethanol following abstinence. We found that the packing density of astrocytes that were expressing glial fibrillary acidic protein increased in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcore) during abstinence from EtOH self-administration. No change was observed in the nucleus accumbens shell. This increased NAcore astrocyte density positively correlated with the motivation for ethanol. Astrocytes can communicate with one another and influence neuronal activity through gap-junction hemichannels. Because of this, the effect of blocking gap-junction hemichannels on the motivation for ethanol was examined. The motivation to self-administer ethanol after 3 weeks abstinence was increased following microinjection of gap-junction hemichannel blockers into the NAcore at doses that block both neuronal and astrocytic channels. In contrast, no effect was observed following microinjection of doses that are not thought to block astrocytic channels or following microinjection of either dose into the nucleus accumbens shell. Additionally, the motivation for sucrose after 3 weeks abstinence was unaffected by NAcore gap-junction hemichannel blockers. Next, Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) were selectively expressed in NAcore astrocytes to test the effect of astrocyte stimulation. DREADD activation increased cytosolic calcium in primary astrocytes, facilitated responding for rewarding brain stimulation, and reduced the motivation for ethanol after 3 weeks abstinence. This is the first work to modulate drug-seeking behavior with

  12. Do women differ from men on Alcoholics Anonymous participation and abstinence? A multi-wave analysis of treatment seekers

    PubMed Central

    Delucchi, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Background Given the widespread use of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and other similar groups in the US and the increasing membership of women, the present paper compares women to men on their meeting attendance and AA-prescribed behaviors, factors associated with that AA participation, and tests how these relate to women’s and men’s abstinence across time. Methods All consecutive new admissions (age ≥ 18) from county-wide public and private alcohol and drug treatment programs representing the larger population of treatment seekers were approached to be in the study at treatment entry. Those consenting at baseline (n = 926) were sought for follow-up interviews 1, 3, 5 and 7 years later. Generalized linear models were used to test whether various help-seeking factors associated with AA participation differentially by gender and, controlling for AA and other confounders, whether women differ from men on abstinence. Results At each follow-up interview, women and men attended AA at similar rates and similarly practiced specific AA-behaviors, and they were alike on most factors associated with AA participation and abstention across time including abstinence goal, drink volume, negative consequences, prior treatment, and encouragement to reduce drinking. Relative to men, women with higher ASI drug severity were less likely to participate in AA. Though higher AA participation was a predictor of abstinence for both genders, males were less likely to be abstinent across time. Men were also more likely to reduce their AA participation across time. Conclusion These findings add to an emerging literature on how women compare to men on factors related to AA participation and subsequent drinking outcomes across time. Findings have clinical implications for service providers referring clients to such groups. PMID:21689121

  13. Ceftriaxone attenuates cocaine relapse after abstinence through modulation of nucleus accumbens AMPA subunit expression.

    PubMed

    LaCrosse, Amber L; Hill, Kristine; Knackstedt, Lori A

    2016-02-01

    Using the extinction-reinstatement model of cocaine relapse, we and others have demonstrated that the antibiotic ceftriaxone attenuates cue- and cocaine-primed reinstatement of cocaine-seeking. Reinstatement is contingent on the release of glutamate in the nucleus accumbens core (NAc) and manipulations that reduce glutamate efflux or block post-synaptic glutamate receptors attenuate reinstatement. We have demonstrated that the mechanism of action by which ceftriaxone attenuates reinstatement involves increased NAc GLT-1 expression and a reduction in NAc glutamate efflux during reinstatement. Here we investigated the effects of ceftriaxone (100 and 200 mg/kg) on context-primed relapse following abstinence without extinction training and examined the effects of ceftriaxone on GluA1, GluA2 and GLT-1 expression. We conducted microdialysis during relapse to determine if an increase in NAc glutamate accompanies relapse after abstinence and whether ceftriaxone blunts glutamate efflux. We found that both doses of ceftriaxone attenuated relapse. While relapse was accompanied by an increase in NAc glutamate, ceftriaxone (200 mg/kg) was unable to significantly reduce NAc glutamate efflux during relapse despite its ability to upregulate GLT-1. GluA1 was reduced in the NAc by both doses of ceftriaxone while GluA2 expression was unchanged, indicating that ceftriaxone altered AMPA subunit composition following cocaine. Finally, GLT-1 was not altered in the PFC by ceftriaxone. These results indicate that it is possible to attenuate context-primed relapse to cocaine-seeking through modification of post-synaptic receptor properties without attenuating glutamate efflux during relapse. Furthermore, increasing NAc GLT-1 protein expression is not sufficient to attenuate glutamate efflux. PMID:26706696

  14. Ceftriaxone attenuates cocaine relapse after abstinence through modulation of nucleus accumbens AMPA subunit expression.

    PubMed

    LaCrosse, Amber L; Hill, Kristine; Knackstedt, Lori A

    2016-02-01

    Using the extinction-reinstatement model of cocaine relapse, we and others have demonstrated that the antibiotic ceftriaxone attenuates cue- and cocaine-primed reinstatement of cocaine-seeking. Reinstatement is contingent on the release of glutamate in the nucleus accumbens core (NAc) and manipulations that reduce glutamate efflux or block post-synaptic glutamate receptors attenuate reinstatement. We have demonstrated that the mechanism of action by which ceftriaxone attenuates reinstatement involves increased NAc GLT-1 expression and a reduction in NAc glutamate efflux during reinstatement. Here we investigated the effects of ceftriaxone (100 and 200 mg/kg) on context-primed relapse following abstinence without extinction training and examined the effects of ceftriaxone on GluA1, GluA2 and GLT-1 expression. We conducted microdialysis during relapse to determine if an increase in NAc glutamate accompanies relapse after abstinence and whether ceftriaxone blunts glutamate efflux. We found that both doses of ceftriaxone attenuated relapse. While relapse was accompanied by an increase in NAc glutamate, ceftriaxone (200 mg/kg) was unable to significantly reduce NAc glutamate efflux during relapse despite its ability to upregulate GLT-1. GluA1 was reduced in the NAc by both doses of ceftriaxone while GluA2 expression was unchanged, indicating that ceftriaxone altered AMPA subunit composition following cocaine. Finally, GLT-1 was not altered in the PFC by ceftriaxone. These results indicate that it is possible to attenuate context-primed relapse to cocaine-seeking through modification of post-synaptic receptor properties without attenuating glutamate efflux during relapse. Furthermore, increasing NAc GLT-1 protein expression is not sufficient to attenuate glutamate efflux.

  15. Top-Down Network Effective Connectivity in Abstinent Substance Dependent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Regner, Michael F.; Saenz, Naomi; Maharajh, Keeran; Yamamoto, Dorothy J.; Mohl, Brianne; Wylie, Korey; Tregellas, Jason; Tanabe, Jody

    2016-01-01

    Objective We hypothesized that compared to healthy controls, long-term abstinent substance dependent individuals (SDI) will differ in their effective connectivity between large-scale brain networks and demonstrate increased directional information from executive control to interoception-, reward-, and habit-related networks. In addition, using graph theory to compare network efficiencies we predicted decreased small-worldness in SDI compared to controls. Methods 50 SDI and 50 controls of similar sex and age completed psychological surveys and resting state fMRI. fMRI results were analyzed using group independent component analysis; 14 networks-of-interest (NOI) were selected using template matching to a canonical set of resting state networks. The number, direction, and strength of connections between NOI were analyzed with Granger Causality. Within-group thresholds were p<0.005 using a bootstrap permutation. Between group thresholds were p<0.05, FDR-corrected for multiple comparisons. NOI were correlated with behavioral measures, and group-level graph theory measures were compared. Results Compared to controls, SDI showed significantly greater Granger causal connectivity from right executive control network (RECN) to dorsal default mode network (dDMN) and from dDMN to basal ganglia network (BGN). RECN was negatively correlated with impulsivity, behavioral approach, and negative affect; dDMN was positively correlated with impulsivity. Among the 14 NOI, SDI showed greater bidirectional connectivity; controls showed more unidirectional connectivity. SDI demonstrated greater global efficiency and lower local efficiency. Conclusions Increased effective connectivity in long-term abstinent drug users may reflect improved cognitive control over habit and reward processes. Higher global and lower local efficiency across all networks in SDI compared to controls may reflect connectivity changes associated with drug dependence or remission and requires future, longitudinal

  16. The odds of wrong-way crashes and resulting fatalities: A comprehensive analysis.

    PubMed

    Ponnaluri, Raj V

    2016-03-01

    The United States of America and other nations are grappling with the incidence of wrong-way driving (WWD). The issue is as important today (NTSB, 2012) as it was a half-century ago (Hulbert and Beers, 1966). In the absence of a comprehensive analysis, any effort to implement WWD countermeasures can be counterproductive. Hence, this effort began with the express intent to identify the factors that cause WWD crashes and fatalities. This work is sizeable in that it evaluated one million complete crash records from Florida. The methodology comprised (a) administering a survey on the perceptions about WWD; (b) developing binomial logistic models for computing the odds of WWD crashes, and of fatal crashes within the WWD space; (c) analyzing the contributing variables; and (d) comparing perceptions with crash analysis results. The study parameters included driver's age, gender, licensing state, physical defect, blood alcohol concentration, vehicle use, seatbelt compliance, day and time of crash, roadway lighting, facility type, weather conditions, road geometrics, and traffic volumes. Individual variable analysis of 23 parameters and the model development process included the determination of odds ratios and statistical tests for the predictive power and goodness-of-fit. The results of this work are generally consistent with expectation, yet surprising at times. This work concludes with decision-making inputs to the scientist, policy-maker and practitioner on the need for effectively engineering the roads, actively educating people about wrong-way driving, and strictly enforcing traffic laws, rules and regulations.

  17. Light Charged and CP-odd Higgses in MSSM-like Models

    SciTech Connect

    Dermisek, Radovan

    2008-11-23

    We study the Higgs sector of supersymmetric models containing two Higgs doublets with a light MSSM-like CP odd Higgs, m{sub A} < or approx. 10 GeV, and tan{beta} < or approx. 2.5. In this scenario all Higgses resulting from two Higgs doublets: light and heavy CP even Higgses, h and H, the CP odd Higgs, A, and the charged Higgs, H{sup {+-}}, could have been produced at LEP or the Tevatron, but would have escaped detection because they decay in modes that have not been searched for or the experiments are not sensitive to. Especially H{yields}ZA and H{sup {+-}}{yields}W{sup {+-}}*A with A{yields}cc-bar, {tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -} present an opportunity to discover some of the Higgses at LEP, the Tevatron and also at B factories. In addition, the 2.8{sigma} excess of the branching ratio W{yields}{tau}v with respect to the other leptons measured at LEP correlates well with the existence of the charged Higgs with properties typical for this scenario. Dominant {tau}- and c-rich decay products of all Higgses require modified strategies for their discovery at the LHC.

  18. Sexual abstinence: What is the understanding and views of secondary school learners in a semi-rural area of North West Province, South Africa?

    PubMed

    Mokwena, Kebogile; Morabe, Mamaponesa

    2016-12-01

    Among strategies to prevent HIV, other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancies, are programs that promote sexual abstinence among adolescents. However, literature suggests that there may be differences in the understanding of abstinence across adolescents, and this study sought to explore the understanding of sexual abstinence among both male and female learners in a secondary school in a semi-rural area of North West Province, South Africa. Focus group discussions were used to collect data from learners who were in grades 8-10 at the time of the study. The findings are that the learners in this area understand sexual abstinence as the decision not to have sex, and this was associated with prevention of HIV, STIs and unwanted pregnancies, which ensures a better future. Barriers to sexual abstinence include peer pressure, myths and wrong perceptions about sex, influence of drugs and alcohol and the influence of television. Based on how it is delivered, school-based sex education was viewed as both an enabler and barrier to sexual abstinence. It is recommended that programs to promote sexual abstinence be strengthened and such programs be community-based.

  19. Sexual abstinence: What is the understanding and views of secondary school learners in a semi-rural area of North West Province, South Africa?

    PubMed

    Mokwena, Kebogile; Morabe, Mamaponesa

    2016-12-01

    Among strategies to prevent HIV, other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancies, are programs that promote sexual abstinence among adolescents. However, literature suggests that there may be differences in the understanding of abstinence across adolescents, and this study sought to explore the understanding of sexual abstinence among both male and female learners in a secondary school in a semi-rural area of North West Province, South Africa. Focus group discussions were used to collect data from learners who were in grades 8-10 at the time of the study. The findings are that the learners in this area understand sexual abstinence as the decision not to have sex, and this was associated with prevention of HIV, STIs and unwanted pregnancies, which ensures a better future. Barriers to sexual abstinence include peer pressure, myths and wrong perceptions about sex, influence of drugs and alcohol and the influence of television. Based on how it is delivered, school-based sex education was viewed as both an enabler and barrier to sexual abstinence. It is recommended that programs to promote sexual abstinence be strengthened and such programs be community-based. PMID:27315574

  20. Structure of hard-hypersphere fluids in odd dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrmann, René D.; Santos, Andrés

    2007-11-01

    The structural properties of single component fluids of hard hyperspheres in odd space dimensionalities d are studied with an analytical approximation method that generalizes the rational function approximation earlier introduced in the study of hard-sphere fluids [S. B. Yuste and A. Santos, Phys. Rev. A 43, 5418 (1991)]. The theory makes use of the exact form of the radial distribution function to first order in density and extends it to finite density by assuming a rational form for a function defined in Laplace space, the coefficients being determined by simple physical requirements. Fourier transform in terms of reverse Bessel polynomials constitute the mathematical framework of this approximation, from which an analytical expression for the static structure factor is obtained. In its most elementary form, the method recovers the solution of the Percus-Yevick closure to the Ornstein-Zernike equation for hyperspheres at odd dimensions. The present formalism allows one to go beyond by yielding solutions with thermodynamic consistency between the virial and compressibility routes to any desired equation of state. Excellent agreement with available computer simulation data at d=5 and d=7 is obtained.

  1. Odd-even staggering in neutron drip line nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changizi, S. A.; Qi, Chong

    2016-07-01

    We have done systematic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations in coordinate space on the one-quasi-particle energies and binding energy odd-even staggering (OES) in semi-magic nuclei with the zero-range volume, mixed and surface pairing forces in order to explore the influence of their density dependence. The odd-N isotopes are calculated within the blocking scheme. The strengths for the pairing forces are determined in two schemes by fitting locally to reproduce pairing gap in 120Sn and globally to all available data on the OES of semi-magic nuclei with Z ≥ 8. In the former calculations, there is a noticeable difference between the neutron mean gaps in neutron-rich O, Ca, Ni and Sn isotopes calculated with the surface pairing and those with the mixed and volume pairing. The difference gets much smaller if the globally optimized pairing strengths are employed. The heavier Pb isotopes show the opposite trend. Moreover, large differences between the mean gap and the OES may be expected in both calculations when one goes towards the neutron drip line.

  2. Isomer ratio calculations using modeled discrete levels

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, M.A.; Gardner, D.G.; Hoff, R.W.

    1984-10-16

    Isomer ratio calculations were made for the reactions: /sup 175/Lu(n,..gamma..)/sup 176m,g/Lu, /sup 175/Lu(n,2n)/sup 174m,g/Lu, /sup 237/Np(n,2n)/sup 236m,g/Np, /sup 241/Am(n,..gamma..)/sup 242m,g/Am, and /sup 243/Am(n,..gamma..)/sup 244m,g/Am using modeled level structures in the deformed, odd-odd product nuclei. The hundreds of discrete levels and their gamma-ray branching ratios provided by the modeling are necessary to achieve agreement with experiment. Many rotational bands must be included in order to obtain a sufficiently representative selection of K quantum numbers. The levels of each band must be extended to appropriately high values of angular momentum.

  3. Sensitivity of calculated odd nitrogen distributions to the diabatic wind fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boughner, R. E.; Callis, L. B., Jr.; Natarajan, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper compares atmospheric total odd nitrogen and ozone computed with two different advective wind fields, one using climatological averages of ozone and temperature to obtain monthly averaged horizontal and vertical winds and the other using measurements from the LIMS instrument. Calculations using the former data show stronger poleward and downward motion in the winter season compared to those using the LIMS data. This leads to NO(y) mixing ratios in the lower stratosphere that are about 20 percent larger in the polar regions of both hemispheres and about 40 percent higher in the equatorial region for climatological transport fields compared to those derived from LIMS data. Consequently, the NO(y) distributions calculated with the LIMS advective field show worse agreement with the NO(y) values inferred from the LIMS measurements than similar results obtained with the climatological wind field.

  4. Mixed symmetry states and {beta} decays of odd-A Xe to I isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Khudair, Falih H.

    2009-07-15

    The energy spectra of the parent and daughter nuclei in the {beta} decays ({sup 121-127}Xe,{beta}{sup +121-127}I) are considered in the interacting boson fermion model (IBFM-2) with the g{sub 7/2},d{sub 5/2},d{sub 3/2},s{sub 1/2}, and h{sub 11/2} single-particle orbitals. Electromagnetic transition probabilities and branching ratios in odd {sup 121-127}I isotopes are investigated. Special attention is given to the occurrence of mixed symmetry states, and the F-spin structures of the wave functions are analyzed. The log{sub 10}ft values of the allowed {beta} decay transitions are calculated. It is found that the IBFM-2 results agree with the experimental data quite well.

  5. On strontium isotopic anomalies and odd-A p-process abundances. [in solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, D. D.

    1978-01-01

    Several aspects of the nucleosynthesis of Sr isotopes are considered in an attempt to shed light on the problem of the Sr isotopic anomalies discovered in an inclusion of the Allende meteorite. Decomposition of the Sr isotopes into average r-, s-, and p-process nucleosynthetic classes is performed. It is suggested that the Allende inclusion most likely has an excess of s-process Sr and that the initial Sr-87/Sr-86 isotopic ratio is probably slightly more primitive than basaltic achondrites. The results also show that Sn-115 is mostly due to the r-process and that odd-A yields are very small. It is concluded that if the Sr anomaly in the inclusion is an average s enhancement, it argues somewhat in favor of a model of gas/dust fractionation of s and r isotopes during accumulation of the inclusion parent in the protosolar cloud.

  6. Exposure to prescription opioid analgesics in utero and risk of neonatal abstinence syndrome: population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Huybrechts, Krista F; Hernandez-Diaz, Sonia; Mogun, Helen; Patorno, Elisabetta; Kaltenbach, Karol; Kerzner, Leslie S; Bateman, Brian T

    2015-01-01

    Objective To provide absolute and relative risk estimates of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) based on duration and timing of prescription opioid use during pregnancy in the presence or absence of additional NAS risk factors of history of opioid misuse or dependence, misuse of other substances, non-opioid psychotropic drug use, and smoking. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Medicaid data from 46 US states. Participants Pregnant women filling at least one prescription for an opioid analgesic at any time during pregnancy for whom opioid exposure characteristics including duration of therapy: short term (<30 days) or long term (≥30 days); timing of use: early use (only in the first two trimesters) or late use (extending into the third trimester); and cumulative dose (in morphine equivalent milligrams) were assessed. Main outcome measure Diagnosis of NAS in liveborn infants. Results 1705 cases of NAS were identified among 290 605 pregnant women filling opioid prescriptions, corresponding to an absolute risk of 5.9 per 1000 deliveries (95% confidence interval 5.6 to 6.2). Long term opioid use during pregnancy resulted in higher absolute risk of NAS per 1000 deliveries in the presence of additional risk factors of known opioid misuse (220.2 (200.8 to 241.0)), alcohol or other drug misuse (30.8 (26.1 to 36.0)), exposure to other psychotropic medications (13.1 (10.6 to 16.1)), and smoking (6.6 (4.3 to 9.6)) than in the absence of any of these risk factors (4.2 (3.3 to 5.4)). The corresponding risk estimates for short term use were 192.0 (175.8 to 209.3), 7.0 (6.0 to 8.2), 2.0 (1.5 to 2.6), 1.5 (1.0 to 2.0), and 0.7 (0.6 to 0.8) per 1000 deliveries, respectively. In propensity score matched analyses, long term prescription opioid use compared with short term use and late use compared with early use in pregnancy demonstrated greater risk of NAS (risk ratios 2.05 (95% confidence interval 1.81 to 2.33) and 1.24 (1.12 to 1.38), respectively). Conclusions Use of

  7. Near yrast states in doubly odd [sup 214]Fr

    SciTech Connect

    Debray, M.E.; Kreiner, A.J.; Kesque, J.M.; Ozafran, M.; Romo, A.; Somacal, H.; Vazquez, M.E. ); Davidson, J.; Davidson, M. ); Ahn, K.; Fossan, D.B.; Liang, Y.; Ma, R.; Paul, E.S.; Piel, W.F. Jr.; Xu, N. )

    1993-11-01

    High spin states of doubly odd [sup 214]Fr[sub 127] have been investigated using in-beam [gamma]-ray and conversion electron spectroscopy techniques through the [sup 206]Pb([sup 11]B, 3[ital n]) and [sup 208]Pb([sup 11]B, 5[ital n]) fusion-evaporation reactions. Completely new spectrocopic information has been obtained. The yrast level structure is established up to spin (19[sup +]) and some information on [gamma] transitions from higher-lying levels is also obtained. Two new isomers [ital T][sub 1/2]=174(20) ns and [ital T][sub 1/2]=11(2) ns were found. Configuration assignments for the low-lying levels are discussed. Information on residual proton-neutron interactions is extracted.

  8. The Euler current and relativistic parity odd transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golkar, Siavash; Roberts, Matthew M.; Son, Dam T.

    2015-04-01

    For a spacetime of odd dimensions endowed with a unit vector field, we introduce a new topological current that is identically conserved and whose charge is equal to the Euler character of the even dimensional spacelike foliations. The existence of this current allows us to introduce new Chern-Simons-type terms in the effective field theories describing relativistic quantum Hall states and (2 + 1) dimensional superfluids. Using effective field theory, we calculate various correlation functions and identify transport coefficients. In the quantum Hall case, this current provides the natural relativistic generalization of the Wen-Zee term, required to characterize the shift and Hall viscosity in quantum Hall systems. For the superfluid case this term is required to have nonzero Hall viscosity and to describe superfluids with non s-wave pairing.

  9. Dimension-5 CP -odd operators: QCD mixing and renormalization

    DOE PAGES

    Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Gupta, Rajan; Mereghetti, Emanuele; Yoon, Boram

    2015-12-23

    Here, we study the off-shell mixing and renormalization of flavor-diagonal dimension-five T- and P-odd operators involving quarks, gluons, and photons, including quark electric dipole and chromoelectric dipole operators. Furthermore, we present the renormalization matrix to one loop in themore » $$\\bar{MS}$$ scheme. We also provide a definition of the quark chromoelectric dipole operator in a regularization-independent momentum-subtraction scheme suitable for nonperturbative lattice calculations and present the matching coefficients with the $$\\bar{MS}$$ scheme to one loop in perturbation theory, using both the naïve dimensional regularization and ’t Hooft–Veltman prescriptions for γ5.« less

  10. Odd-frequency pairing of interacting Majorana fermions

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Zhoushen; Wolfle, P.; Balatsky, Alexander V.

    2015-09-14

    In this study, Majorana fermions are rising as a promising key component in quantum computation. Although the prevalent approach is to use a quadratic (i.e., noninteracting) Majorana Hamiltonian, when expressed in terms of Dirac fermions, generically the Hamiltonian involves interaction terms. Here we focus on the possible pair correlations in a simple model system. We study a model of Majorana fermions coupled to a boson mode and show that the anomalous correlator between different Majorana fermions, located at opposite ends of a topological wire, exhibits odd-frequency behavior. It is stabilized when the coupling strength g is above a critical valuemore » gc. We use both, conventional diagrammatic theory and a functional integral approach, to derive the gap equation, the critical temperature, the gap function, the critical coupling, and a Ginzburg-Landau theory that allows discussing a possible subleading admixture of even-frequency pairing.« less

  11. Odd-frequency pairing of interacting Majorana fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhoushen; Wolfle, P.; Balatsky, Alexander V.

    2015-09-14

    In this study, Majorana fermions are rising as a promising key component in quantum computation. Although the prevalent approach is to use a quadratic (i.e., noninteracting) Majorana Hamiltonian, when expressed in terms of Dirac fermions, generically the Hamiltonian involves interaction terms. Here we focus on the possible pair correlations in a simple model system. We study a model of Majorana fermions coupled to a boson mode and show that the anomalous correlator between different Majorana fermions, located at opposite ends of a topological wire, exhibits odd-frequency behavior. It is stabilized when the coupling strength g is above a critical value gc. We use both, conventional diagrammatic theory and a functional integral approach, to derive the gap equation, the critical temperature, the gap function, the critical coupling, and a Ginzburg-Landau theory that allows discussing a possible subleading admixture of even-frequency pairing.

  12. Torsion, parity-odd response, and anomalies in topological states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrikar, Onkar; Hughes, Taylor L.; Leigh, Robert G.

    2014-11-01

    We study the response of a class of topological systems to electromagnetic and gravitational sources, including torsion and curvature. By using the technology of anomaly polynomials, we derive the parity-odd response of a massive Dirac fermion in d =2 +1 and d =4 +1 , which provides a simple model for a topological insulator. We discuss the covariant anomalies of the corresponding edge states, from a Callan-Harvey anomaly inflow, as well as a Hamiltonian spectral flow point of view. We also discuss the applicability of our results to other systems such as Weyl semimetals. Finally, using dimensional reduction from d =4 +1 , we derive the effective action for a d =3 +1 time-reversal invariant topological insulator in the presence of torsion and curvature, and discuss its various physical consequences.

  13. Systematic study of the fragmentation of low-lying dipole strength in odd-A rare earth nuclei investigated in nuclear resonance fluorescence experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nord, A.; Schiller, A.; Eckert, T.; Beck, O.; Besserer, J.; von Brentano, P.; Fischer, R.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Jäger, D.; Kneissl, U.; Margraf, J.; Maser, H.; Pietralla, N.; Pitz, H. H.; Rittner, M.; Zilges, A.

    1996-11-01

    Nuclear resonance fluorescence experiments were performed on the rare earth nuclei 155Gd and 159Tb to study the fragmentation of the M1 scissors mode in odd deformed nuclei and to establish a kind of systematics. Using the bremsstrahlung photon beam of the Stuttgart Dynamitron (end point energy 4.1 MeV) and high resolution Ge-γ spectrometers detailed information was obtained on excitation energies, decay widths, transition probabilities, and branching ratios. The results are compared to those observed recently for the neighboring odd nuclei 161,163Dy and 157Gd. Whereas in the odd Dy isotopes the dipole strength is rather concentrated, both Gd isotopes show a strong fragmentation of the strength into about 25 (155Gd) and 90 transitions (157Gd) in the energy range 2-4 MeV. The nucleus 159Tb linking the odd Dy and Gd isotopes exhibits an intermediate strength fragmentation. In general the observed total strength in the odd nuclei is reduced by a factor of 2-3 as compared to their neighboring even-even isotopes. The different fragmentation behavior of the dipole strengths in the odd Dy and Gd isotopes is unexplained up to now.

  14. Pentadecanoic and Heptadecanoic Acids: Multifaceted Odd-Chain Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Pfeuffer, Maria; Jaudszus, Anke

    2016-07-01

    The odd-chain fatty acids (OCFAs) pentadecanoic acid (15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (17:0), which account for only a small proportion of total saturated fatty acids in milk fat and ruminant meat, are accepted biomarkers of dairy fat intake. However, they can also be synthesized endogenously, for example, from gut-derived propionic acid (3:0). A number of studies have shown an inverse association between OCFA concentrations in human plasma phospholipids or RBCs and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We propose a possible involvement in metabolic regulation from the assumption that there is a link between 15:0 and 17:0 and the metabolism of other short-chain, medium-chain, and longer-chain OCFAs. The OCFAs 15:0 and 17:0 can be elongated to very-long-chain FAs (VLCFAs) such as tricosanoic acid (23:0) and pentacosanoic acid (25:0) in glycosphingolipids, particularly found in brain tissue, or can be derived from these VLCFAs. Their chains can be shortened, yielding propionyl-coenzyme A (CoA). Propionyl-CoA, by succinyl-CoA, can replenish the citric acid cycle (CAC) with anaplerotic intermediates and, thus, improve mitochondrial energy metabolism. Mitochondrial function is compromised in a number of disorders and may be impaired with increasing age. Optimizing anaplerotic intermediate availability for the CAC may help to cope with demands in times of increased metabolic stress and with aging. OCFAs may serve as substrates for synthesis of both odd-numbered VLCFAs and propionyl-CoA or store away excess propionic acid. PMID:27422507

  15. An Overview of Modeling Middle Atmospheric Odd Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Odd nitrogen (N, NO, NO2, NO3, N2O5, HNO3, HO2NO2, ClONO2, and BrONO2) constituents are important components in the control of middle atmospheric ozone. Several processes lead to the production of odd nitrogen (NO(sub y)) in the middle atmosphere (stratosphere and mesosphere) including the oxidation of nitrous oxide (N2O), lightning, downflux from the thermosphere, and energetic charged particles (e.g., galactic cosmic rays, solar proton events, and energetic electron precipitation). The dominant production mechanism of NO(sub y) in the stratosphere is N2O oxidation, although other processes contribute. Mesospheric NO(sub y) is influenced by N2O oxidation, downflux from the thermosphere, and energetic charged particles. NO(sub y) is destroyed in the middle atmosphere primarily via two processes: 1) dissociation of NO to form N and O followed by N + NO yielding N2 + O to reform even nitrogen; and 2) transport to the troposphere where HNO3 can be rapidly scavenged in water droplets and rained out of the atmosphere. There are fairly significant differences among global models that predict NO(sub y). NO(sub y) has a fairly long lifetime in the stratosphere (months to years), thus disparate transport in the models probably contributes to many of these differences. Satellite and aircraft measurement provide modeling tests of the various components of NO(sub y). Although some recent reaction rate measurements have led to improvements in model/measurement agreement, significant differences do remain. This presentation will provide an overview of several proposed sources and sinks of NO(sub y) and their regions of importance. Multi-dimensional modeling results for NO(sub y) and its components with comparisons to observations will also be presented.

  16. Pentadecanoic and Heptadecanoic Acids: Multifaceted Odd-Chain Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Pfeuffer, Maria; Jaudszus, Anke

    2016-07-01

    The odd-chain fatty acids (OCFAs) pentadecanoic acid (15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (17:0), which account for only a small proportion of total saturated fatty acids in milk fat and ruminant meat, are accepted biomarkers of dairy fat intake. However, they can also be synthesized endogenously, for example, from gut-derived propionic acid (3:0). A number of studies have shown an inverse association between OCFA concentrations in human plasma phospholipids or RBCs and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We propose a possible involvement in metabolic regulation from the assumption that there is a link between 15:0 and 17:0 and the metabolism of other short-chain, medium-chain, and longer-chain OCFAs. The OCFAs 15:0 and 17:0 can be elongated to very-long-chain FAs (VLCFAs) such as tricosanoic acid (23:0) and pentacosanoic acid (25:0) in glycosphingolipids, particularly found in brain tissue, or can be derived from these VLCFAs. Their chains can be shortened, yielding propionyl-coenzyme A (CoA). Propionyl-CoA, by succinyl-CoA, can replenish the citric acid cycle (CAC) with anaplerotic intermediates and, thus, improve mitochondrial energy metabolism. Mitochondrial function is compromised in a number of disorders and may be impaired with increasing age. Optimizing anaplerotic intermediate availability for the CAC may help to cope with demands in times of increased metabolic stress and with aging. OCFAs may serve as substrates for synthesis of both odd-numbered VLCFAs and propionyl-CoA or store away excess propionic acid.

  17. A history of chronic morphine exposure during adolescence increases despair-like behaviour and strain-dependently promotes sociability in abstinent adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, PE; Reiss, D; Ouagazzal, AM; Kieffer, BL

    2013-01-01

    A crucial issue in treating opiate addiction, a chronic relapsing disorder, is to maintain a drug-free abstinent state. Prolonged abstinence associates with mood disorders, strongly contributing to relapse. In particular, substance use disorders occurring during adolescence predispose to depression later in adulthood. Using our established mouse model of opiate abstinence, we characterized emotional consequences into adulthood of morphine exposure during adolescence. Our results indicate that morphine treatment in adolescent mice has no effect on anxiety-like behaviours in adult mice, after abstinence. In contrast, morphine treatment during adolescence increases behavioural despair in adult mice. We also show that morphine exposure strain-dependently enhances sociability in adult mice. Additional research will be required to understand where and how morphine acts during brain maturation to affect emotional and social behaviours into adulthood. PMID:23295400

  18. Dopamine and 5-HT supersensitivity in nonorganic central pain and in morphine abstinence: fortuitous or renal analogy?

    PubMed

    Sicuteri, F; Anselmi, B; Del Bianco, P L

    1980-01-01

    Unexplained pain, such as central panalgesia, might be the most common clinical expression of a deficiency, central in nature, of the endorphin system. Acute natural opioid deficiency is comparable to morphine withdrawal in addicts characterized by vegetative, psychic disorder and the appearance of pain. An impressive supersensitivity (up to 1000 fold) to dopamine and 5-HT of the smooth muscle (hand dorsal vein: venotest) is detected both in central panalgesia sufferers and in addicts during spontaneous (withdrawal) or pharmacological (naloxone) abstinence. A 5-HT and dopamine supersensitivity, of less intensity, however, (10-30 fold), is found during migraine attacks: on these occasions, morphine-like factors in CSF appear reduced or undetectable, reinforcing the chemical analogy between morphine abstinence and migraine attacks. In the present study, evidence of opiate receptors in the human vein is also provided: 5-HT venospasms, inhibited by morphine, promptly emerge when naloxone is inoculated locally. PMID:7395606

  19. Dopamine and 5-HT supersensitivity in nonorganic central pain and in morphine abstinence: fortuitous or renal analogy?

    PubMed

    Sicuteri, F; Anselmi, B; Del Bianco, P L

    1980-01-01

    Unexplained pain, such as central panalgesia, might be the most common clinical expression of a deficiency, central in nature, of the endorphin system. Acute natural opioid deficiency is comparable to morphine withdrawal in addicts characterized by vegetative, psychic disorder and the appearance of pain. An impressive supersensitivity (up to 1000 fold) to dopamine and 5-HT of the smooth muscle (hand dorsal vein: venotest) is detected both in central panalgesia sufferers and in addicts during spontaneous (withdrawal) or pharmacological (naloxone) abstinence. A 5-HT and dopamine supersensitivity, of less intensity, however, (10-30 fold), is found during migraine attacks: on these occasions, morphine-like factors in CSF appear reduced or undetectable, reinforcing the chemical analogy between morphine abstinence and migraine attacks. In the present study, evidence of opiate receptors in the human vein is also provided: 5-HT venospasms, inhibited by morphine, promptly emerge when naloxone is inoculated locally.

  20. [The comparison of concentration of endogenous ethanol blood serum in alcoholics and in non-alcoholics at different stages of abstinence].

    PubMed

    Lukaszewicz, A; Markowski, T; Pawlak, D

    1997-01-01

    In this report the concentration of endogenous ethanol in blood serum in alcoholics at different stages of abstinence and in non-alcoholics was studied. 36 people--26 alcoholics and 10 non-alcoholics were examined and gas chromatography was used. It was revealed that the longer the period of abstinence in alcoholics, the lower the concentration of endogenous ethanol in blood serum. Moreover, the alcoholics showed a higher concentration of endogenous ethanol in blood serum as compared to non-alcoholics.