Science.gov

Sample records for abstinent adolescent marijuana

  1. Functional MRI of inhibitory processing in abstinent adolescent marijuana users.

    PubMed

    Tapert, Susan F; Schweinsburg, Alecia D; Drummond, Sean P A; Paulus, Martin P; Brown, Sandra A; Yang, Tony T; Frank, Lawrence R

    2007-10-01

    Marijuana intoxication appears to impair response inhibition, but it is unclear if impaired inhibition and associated brain abnormalities persist after prolonged abstinence among adolescent users. We hypothesized that brain activation during a go/no-go task would show persistent abnormalities in adolescent marijuana users after 28 days of abstinence. Adolescents with (n = 16) and without (n = 17) histories of marijuana use were compared on blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response to a go/no-go task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) after 28 days of monitored abstinence. Participants had no neurological problems or Axis I diagnoses other than cannabis abuse/dependence. Marijuana users did not differ from non-users on task performance but showed more BOLD response than non-users during inhibition trials in right dorsolateral prefrontal, bilateral medial frontal, bilateral inferior and superior parietal lobules, and right occipital gyri, as well as during "go" trials in right prefrontal, insular, and parietal cortices (p < 0.05, clusters > 943 microl). Differences remained significant even after controlling for lifetime and recent alcohol use. Adolescent marijuana users relative to non-users showed increased brain processing effort during an inhibition task in the presence of similar task performance, even after 28 days of abstinence. Thus, increased brain processing effort to achieve inhibition may predate the onset of regular use or result from it. Future investigations will need to determine whether increased brain processing effort is associated with risk to use.

  2. Abnormal cerebellar morphometry in abstinent adolescent marijuana users

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Nagel, Bonnie J.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2010-01-01

    Background Functional neuroimaging data from adults have, in general, found frontocerebellar dysfunction associated with acute and chronic marijuana (MJ) use (Loeber & Yurgelun-Todd, 1999). One structural neuroimaging study found reduced cerebellar vermis volume in young adult MJ users with a history of heavy polysubstance use (Aasly et al., 1993). The goal of this study was to characterize cerebellar volume in adolescent chronic MJ users following one month of monitored abstinence. Method Participants were MJ users (n=16) and controls (n=16) aged 16-18 years. Extensive exclusionary criteria included history of psychiatric or neurologic disorders. Drug use history, neuropsychological data, and structural brain scans were collected after 28 days of monitored abstinence. Trained research staff defined cerebellar volumes (including three cerebellar vermis lobes and both cerebellar hemispheres) on high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Results Adolescent MJ users demonstrated significantly larger inferior posterior (lobules VIII-X) vermis volume (p<.009) than controls, above and beyond effects of lifetime alcohol and other drug use, gender, and intracranial volume. Larger vermis volumes were associated with poorer executive functioning (p’s<.05). Conclusions Following one month of abstinence, adolescent MJ users had significantly larger posterior cerebellar vermis volumes than non-using controls. These greater volumes are suggested to be pathological based on linkage to poorer executive functioning. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine typical cerebellar development during adolescence and the influence of marijuana use. PMID:20413277

  3. Adolescents' Thoughts about Abstinence Curb the Return of Marijuana Use during and after Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kevin M.; Chung, Tammy; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    Despite evidence showing that readiness to change substance use predicts reductions in substance use among treated adolescents, there is little research on changes in thoughts about abstinence and marijuana use during and after treatment. The current study tested whether time-varying changes in adolescents' motivation to abstain and perceived…

  4. Spatial Working Memory Performance and fMRI Activation Interactions in Abstinent Adolescent Marijuana Users

    PubMed Central

    Padula, Claudia B.; Schweinsburg, Alecia D.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested neural disruption and reorganization in adult marijuana users. However, it remains unclear whether these effects persist in adolescents after 28 days of abstinence and, if they do, what Performance × Brain Response interactions occur. Adolescent marijuana users (n = 17) and controls (n = 17) aged 16–18 years were recruited from local schools. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected after 28 days’ monitored abstinence as participants performed a spatial working memory task. Marijuana users show Performance × Brain Response interactions in the bilateral temporal lobes, left anterior cingulate, left parahippocampal gyrus, and right thalamus (clusters ≥ 1358 μl; p <.05), although groups do not differ on behavioral measures of task performance. Marijuana users show differences in brain response to a spatial working memory task despite adequate performance, suggesting a different approach to the task via altered neural pathways. PMID:18072830

  5. Daily marijuana users with past alcohol problems increase alcohol consumption during marijuana abstinence.

    PubMed

    Peters, Erica N; Hughes, John R

    2010-01-15

    Drug abuse treatment programs typically recommend complete abstinence because of a fear that clients who stop use of one drug will substitute another. A within-subjects study investigated whether consumption of alcohol and other substances changes during marijuana abstinence. Twenty-eight daily marijuana users who were not trying to stop or reduce their marijuana consumption completed an 8-day baseline period in which they used marijuana and other drugs as usual, a 13-day marijuana abstinence period, and a 7-day return-to-baseline period. Participants provided self-report of substance use daily and submitted urine samples twice weekly to verify marijuana abstinence. A diagnosis of past alcohol abuse or dependence significantly moderated the alcohol increase from baseline to marijuana abstinence (p<0.01), such that individuals with this diagnosis significantly increased alcohol use (52% increase) but those without this history did not (3% increase). Increases in marijuana withdrawal discomfort scores and alcohol craving scores from baseline to marijuana abstinence significantly and positively correlated with increases in alcohol use. Increases in cigarettes, caffeine, and non-marijuana illicit drugs did not occur. This study provides empirical validation of drug substitution in a subgroup of daily marijuana users, but results need to be replicated in individuals who seek treatment for marijuana problems. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Marijuana abstinence effects in marijuana smokers maintained in their home environment.

    PubMed

    Budney, A J; Hughes, J R; Moore, B A; Novy, P L

    2001-10-01

    Although withdrawal symptoms are commonly reported by persons seeking treatment for marijuana dependence, the validity and clinical significance of a marijuana withdrawal syndrome has not been established. This controlled outpatient study examined the reliability and specificity of the abstinence effects that occur when daily marijuana users abruptly stop smoking marijuana. Twelve daily marijuana smokers were assessed on 16 consecutive days during which they smoked marijuana as usual (days 1-5), abstained from smoking marijuana (days 6-8), returned to smoking marijuana (days 9-13), and again abstained from smoking marijuana (days 14-16). An overall measure of withdrawal discomfort increased significantly during the abstinence phases and returned to baseline when marijuana smoking resumed. Craving for marijuana, decreased appetite, sleep difficulty, and weight loss reliably changed across the smoking and abstinence phases. Aggression, anger, irritability, restlessness, and strange dreams increased significantly during one abstinence phase, but not the other. Collateral observers confirmed participant reports of these symptoms. This study validated several specific effects of marijuana abstinence in heavy marijuana users, and showed they were reliable and clinically significant. These withdrawal effects appear similar in type and magnitude to those observed in studies of nicotine withdrawal.

  7. Adolescents’ thoughts about abstinence curb the return of marijuana use during and after treatment

    PubMed Central

    King, Kevin M.; Chung, Tammy; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    Despite some evidence showing that readiness to change substance use predicts reductions in substance use among treated adolescents, there is little research on month-to-month changes in adolescents’ thoughts about abstinence and marijuana use during and after substance use treatment. The current study provides a test of the “snares” hypothesis, which posits that time-varying changes in adolescents’ motivation to abstain and perceived difficulty to abstain from marijuana use hinder, or snare, the return of regular marijuana use during and after treatment. Monthly data on thoughts about abstinence, marijuana use, and treatment utilization were collected over 6-month follow-up from 142 adolescents recruited from intensive outpatient treatment for substance use. Results provided some support for the snares hypothesis in that higher motivation to abstain (but not perceived difficulty) predicted fewer days of marijuana use, over and above both the adolescent’s average trajectory of marijuana use, the initial severity of their marijuana involvement, and the effects of treatment utilization. Moreover, this association was bi-directional, such that past-month marijuana use influenced both motivation to abstain and perceived difficulty to abstain. Study findings highlight the importance of abstinence-related cognitions as a key target of intervention during and after addictions treatment, and underscore the importance of considering recovery from substance use disorders as a dynamic process of change over time. PMID:19485595

  8. Marijuana motivations across adolescence: impacts on use and consequences.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kristen G; Sitney, Miranda; White, Helene R

    2015-02-01

    Background. Motivational models for marijuana use have focused on reasons to use marijuana, but rarely consider motives to abstain. We examined how both adolescent marijuana abstinence motives and use motives contribute to marijuana use and problems at the end of emerging adulthood. Methods. 434 community recruited youth who had not initiated marijuana use at baseline were followed from adolescence (at ages 12, 15, and 18 years) into emerging adulthood (age 25 years). Motives to abstain and to use marijuana, marijuana consumption, and marijuana-related problems were assessed across time. Results. Endorsing more motives to abstain from marijuana across adolescence predicted less marijuana use in emerging adulthood and fewer marijuana-related problems when controlling for past motives to abstain and marijuana-related behavior. Positive reinforcement use motives related to increased marijuana consumption and problems, and negative reinforcement motives predicted problems when controlling for past marijuana use motives and behaviors. Expansion motives during adolescence related to lower marijuana use in emerging adulthood. When considered together, motives to abstain buffered the effect of negative reinforcement motives on outcomes at age 25 for youth endorsing a greater number of abstinence motives. Conclusions/ Implications. Given these findings, inclusion of both motives to use and abstain is warranted within comprehensive models of marijuana use decision making and may provide important markers for prevention and intervention specialists.

  9. EEG deficits in chronic marijuana abusers during monitored abstinence: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Herning, Ronald I; Better, Warren; Tate, Kimberly; Cadet, Jean L

    2003-05-01

    Cognitive, cerebrovascular, and psychiatric impairments have been documented with chronic marijuana users. To better understand the nature and duration of these neurocognitive changes in marijuana abusers, we recorded the resting EEG of 29 abstinent chronic marijuana abusers and 21 control subjects. The marijuana abusers were tested twice: the first evaluation occurred within 72 hours of admission to the inpatient research unit; the second evaluation occurred after 28 to 30 days of monitored abstinence. A three-minute period of EEG was recorded during resting eyes-closed conditions from eight electrodes (F(3), C(3), P(3), O(1), F(4), C(4), P(4), and O(2)). The artifacted EEG was converted to six frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha(1), alpha(2), beta(1), and beta(2)) using a fast Fourier transform. During early abstinence, absolute power was significantly lower (p < 0.05) for the marijuana abusers than for the control subjects for the theta and alpha(1) bands. These reductions in theta and alpha(1) power persisted for 28 days of monitored abstinence. These EEG changes, together with cerebral blood flow deficits, might underlie the cognitive alterations observed in marijuana abusers. Additional research is needed to determine how long these deficits persist during abstinence and if treatment with neuroprotective agents may reverse them.

  10. Momentary factors during marijuana use as predictors of lapse during attempted abstinence in young adults.

    PubMed

    Shrier, Lydia A; Sarda, Vishnudas; Jonestrask, Cassandra; Harris, Sion Kim

    2018-08-01

    Young adults using marijuana heavily often try multiple times to quit on their own. We sought to identify momentary experiences during marijuana use that could aid in predicting lapse when young adults subsequently attempt abstinence. Young adults (N=34) age 18-25 using marijuana ≥5days/week and planning to quit completed a survey of sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, marijuana expectancies, use motives, perceived social support, and confidence to abstain. They completed ecological momentary assessment (EMA) smartphone reports several times/day for two weeks prior to, then during two weeks of attempted abstinence. Use period EMA reports assessed affect, craving, accessibility, situational permissibility, use, and motivation to abstain. Baseline survey and EMA data were examined in relation to subsequent lapse during attempted abstinence. Nearly 3 in 4 participants (73.5%) reported lapsing during attempted abstinence from marijuana. On bivariate analyses, lower baseline dependence severity score, negative effect expectancies, perceived family support, and confidence to abstain were each associated with lapse. Of the use period EMA variables, greater percent of days with marijuana use, reports of easy accessibility, and reports of situational permissibility were each associated with lapse. Modeled together, negative effect expectancies, perceived family support, confidence to abstain, and situational permissibility during use were highly accurate in predicting lapse during attempted abstinence. Momentary factors may add to conventionally-surveyed characteristics to enhance prediction of lapse during attempted abstinence among young adults with heavy marijuana use. Momentary assessment prior to a quit attempt may thus enable more effective personalized approaches to preventing lapse. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Association of State Recreational Marijuana Laws With Adolescent Marijuana Use

    PubMed Central

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Wall, Melanie; Feng, Tianshu; Keyes, Katherine M.; Sarvet, Aaron; Schulenberg, John; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Galea, Sandro; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Historical shifts are occurring in marijuana policy. The effect of legalizing marijuana for recreational use on rates of adolescent marijuana use is a topic of considerable debate. OBJECTIVE To examine the association between the legalization of recreational marijuana use in Washington and Colorado in 2012 and the subsequent perceived harmfulness and use of marijuana by adolescents. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We used data of 253 902 students in eighth, 10th, and 12th grades from 2010 to 2015 from Monitoring the Future, a national, annual, cross-sectional survey of students in secondary schools in the contiguous United States. Difference-indifference estimates compared changes in perceived harmfulness of marijuana use and in past-month marijuana use in Washington and Colorado prior to recreational marijuana legalization (2010–2012) with post legalization (2013–2015) vs the contemporaneous trends in other states that did not legalize recreational marijuana use in this period. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Perceived harmfulness of marijuana use (great or moderate risk to health from smoking marijuana occasionally) and marijuana use (past 30 days). RESULTS Of the 253 902 participants, 120 590 of 245 065(49.2%) were male, and the mean (SD) age was 15.6 (1.7) years. In Washington, perceived harmfulness declined 14.2%and 16.1% among eighth and 10th graders, respectively, while marijuana use increased 2.0% and 4.1% from 2010–2012 to 2013–2015. In contrast, among states that did not legalize recreational marijuana use, perceived harmfulness decreased by 4.9% and 7.2%among eighth and 10th graders, respectively, and marijuana use decreased by 1.3%and 0.9%over the same period. Difference-in-difference estimates comparing Washington vs states that did not legalize recreational drug use indicated that these differences were significant for perceived harmfulness (eighth graders:%[SD], −9.3 [3.5]; P = .01; 10th graders:%[SD], −9.0 [3.8]; P = .02) and

  12. Association of State Recreational Marijuana Laws With Adolescent Marijuana Use.

    PubMed

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Wall, Melanie; Feng, Tianshu; Keyes, Katherine M; Sarvet, Aaron; Schulenberg, John; O'Malley, Patrick M; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Galea, Sandro; Hasin, Deborah S

    2017-02-01

    Historical shifts are occurring in marijuana policy. The effect of legalizing marijuana for recreational use on rates of adolescent marijuana use is a topic of considerable debate. To examine the association between the legalization of recreational marijuana use in Washington and Colorado in 2012 and the subsequent perceived harmfulness and use of marijuana by adolescents. We used data of 253 902 students in eighth, 10th, and 12th grades from 2010 to 2015 from Monitoring the Future, a national, annual, cross-sectional survey of students in secondary schools in the contiguous United States. Difference-in-difference estimates compared changes in perceived harmfulness of marijuana use and in past-month marijuana use in Washington and Colorado prior to recreational marijuana legalization (2010-2012) with postlegalization (2013-2015) vs the contemporaneous trends in other states that did not legalize recreational marijuana use in this period. Perceived harmfulness of marijuana use (great or moderate risk to health from smoking marijuana occasionally) and marijuana use (past 30 days). Of the 253 902 participants, 120 590 of 245 065(49.2%) were male, and the mean (SD) age was 15.6 (1.7) years. In Washington, perceived harmfulness declined 14.2% and 16.1% among eighth and 10th graders, respectively, while marijuana use increased 2.0% and 4.1% from 2010-2012 to 2013-2015. In contrast, among states that did not legalize recreational marijuana use, perceived harmfulness decreased by 4.9% and 7.2% among eighth and 10th graders, respectively, and marijuana use decreased by 1.3% and 0.9% over the same period. Difference-in-difference estimates comparing Washington vs states that did not legalize recreational drug use indicated that these differences were significant for perceived harmfulness (eighth graders: % [SD], -9.3 [3.5]; P = .01; 10th graders: % [SD], -9.0 [3.8]; P = .02) and marijuana use (eighth graders: % [SD], 5.0 [1.9]; P = .03; 10th graders

  13. Marijuana.

    PubMed

    Ammerman, Seth

    2014-04-01

    Marijuana use in pediatric populations remains an ongoing concern, and marijuana use by adolescents had known medical, psychological, and cognitive side effects. Marijuana alters brain development and has detrimental effects on brain structure and function in ways that are incompletely understood at this point in time. Furthermore, marijuana smoke contains tar and other harmful chemicals, so marijuana cannot be recommended by physicians. At this time, no studies suggest a benefit of marijuana use by children and adolescents. In the context of limited but clear evidence showing harm or potential harm from marijuana use by adolescents, any recommendations for medical marijuana use by adolescents are based on research studies with adults and on anecdotal evidence. Criminal prosecution for marijuana possession adversely affects hundreds of thousands of youth yearly in the United States, particularly minority youth. Current evidence does not support a focus on punishment for youth who use marijuana. Rather, drug education and treatment programs should be encouraged to better help youth who are experimenting with or are dependent on marijuana. Decriminalization of recreational use of marijuana by adults has not led to an increase in youth use rates of recreational marijuana. Thus, decriminalization may be a reasonable alternative to outright criminalization, as long as it is coupled with drug education and treatment programs. The effect of outright legalization of adult recreational use of marijuana on youth use is unknown.

  14. Time-varying associations between confidence and motivation to abstain from marijuana during treatment among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Tammy; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An important goal of addictions treatment is to develop a positive association between high levels of confidence and motivation to abstain from substance use. This study modeled the time-varying association between confidence and motivation to abstain from marijuana use among youth in treatment, and the time-varying effect of pre-treatment covariates (marijuana abstinence goal and perceived peer marijuana use) on motivation to abstain. Method 150 adolescents (75% male, 83% White) in community-based intensive outpatient treatment in Pennsylvania completed a pre-treatment assessment of abstinence goal, perceived peer marijuana use, and motivation and confidence to abstain from marijuana. Ratings of motivation and confidence to abstain also were collected after each session. A Time-Varying Effect Model (TVEM) was used to characterize changes in the association between confidence and motivation to abstain (lagged), and included covariates representing pre-treatment abstinence goal and perceived peer marijuana use. Results Confidence and motivation to abstain from marijuana generally increased during treatment. The association between confidence and motivation strengthened across sessions 1-4, and was maintained through later sessions. Pre-treatment abstinence goal had an early time-limited effect (through session 6) on motivation to abstain. Pre-treatment perception of peer marijuana use had a significant effect on motivation to abstain only at session 2. Conclusions Early treatment sessions represent a critical period during which the association between confidence and motivation to abstain generally increased. The time-limited effects of pre-treatment characteristics suggest the importance of early sessions in addressing abstinence goal and peer substance use that may impact motivation to abstain from marijuana. PMID:26894550

  15. Time-varying associations between confidence and motivation to abstain from marijuana during treatment among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chung, Tammy; Maisto, Stephen A

    2016-06-01

    An important goal of addictions treatment is to develop a positive association between high levels of confidence and motivation to abstain from substance use. This study modeled the time-varying association between confidence and motivation to abstain from marijuana use among youth in treatment, and the time-varying effect of pre-treatment covariates (marijuana abstinence goal and perceived peer marijuana use) on motivation to abstain. 150 adolescents (75% male, 83% White) in community-based intensive outpatient treatment in Pennsylvania completed a pre-treatment assessment of abstinence goal, perceived peer marijuana use, and motivation and confidence to abstain from marijuana. Ratings of motivation and confidence to abstain also were collected after each session. A time-varying effect model (TVEM) was used to characterize changes in the association between confidence and motivation to abstain (lagged), and included covariates representing pre-treatment abstinence goal and perceived peer marijuana use. Confidence and motivation to abstain from marijuana generally increased during treatment. The association between confidence and motivation strengthened across sessions 1-4, and was maintained through later sessions. Pre-treatment abstinence goal had an early time-limited effect (through session 6) on motivation to abstain. Pre-treatment perception of peer marijuana use had a significant effect on motivation to abstain only at session 2. Early treatment sessions represent a critical period during which the association between confidence and motivation to abstain generally increased. The time-limited effects of pre-treatment characteristics suggest the importance of early sessions in addressing abstinence goal and peer substance use that may impact motivation to abstain from marijuana. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The availability of medical marijuana dispensary and adolescent marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yuyan

    2016-10-01

    To examine the association between medical marijuana dispensary (MMD) availability and adolescent marijuana use. The study sample was comprised of 8th, 10th, and 12th graders (N=14,953) from 141 schools in the 2014 Monitoring the Future study, who resided in the 18 states that had legalized medical marijuana as of January 1, 2014. Multilevel logistic regressions with random effects were conducted to quantify the cross-sectional associations of the availability of MMD within 5- and 25-mile buffers from the centroid of school zip codes with self-reported recent use (past-year) and current use (past-month) of marijuana, controlling for individual characteristics and school, zip code, and state contextual factors. In the combined sample, the availability of MMD was not associated with recent or current use of marijuana. Subsample analyses suggested that the availability within a 5-mile buffer was associated with a higher likelihood of recent use in 8th graders (OR=1.93, 95% CI=1.11-3.33) and the availability within a 5- to 25-mile buffer was associated with a higher likelihood of recent use in 10th graders (OR=1.33, 95% CI=1.00-1.77). The availability of MMD was not associated with recent use in 12th graders or current use in any grades. The availability of MMD was not associated with current use of marijuana among adolescents. There was some evidence suggesting that the availability of MMD within short to medium traveling distance may be associated with a higher level of recent use in middle schoolers who are also at a high risk of experimenting with marijuana. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Contingency Management Intervention for Adolescent Marijuana Abuse and Conduct Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamon, Jody; Budney, Alan; Stanger, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To describe an innovative treatment for adolescent marijuana abuse and provide initial information about its feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy. Method: Provided an intervention composed of (1) a clinic-administered, abstinence-based incentive program; (2) parent-directed contingency management targeting substance use…

  18. Marijuana use and service utilization among adolescents 7 years post substance use treatment.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Cynthia I; Sterling, Stacy; Chi, Felicia W; Kline-Simon, Andrea H

    2016-11-01

    In an environment of increasingly liberal attitudes towards marijuana use and legalization, little is known about long-term trajectories of marijuana use among clinical samples of adolescents, and how these trajectories relate to health services utilization over time. Latent growth curve analysis was used to identify distinct trajectories of marijuana use in a clinical sample of adolescents (N=391) over 7 years post substance use treatment in an integrated health system. We examined psychiatric problems and polysubstance use associated with the identified trajectory groups using general linear models. Nonlinear mixed-effects logistic regressions were used to examine associations between health services use and the trajectory groups. We identified three marijuana use trajectory groups: (1) Abstinent (n=117); (2) Low/Stable use (n=174); and (3) Increasing use (n=100). Average externalizing and anxiety/depression scores were significantly lower over time for the Abstinent group compared to the Increasing and Low/Stable groups. The Low Stable and the Increasing group had fewer psychiatric visits over time (p<0.05) and the Low/Stable group used more substance use treatment services over time compared with the Abstinent group (p<0.001). Treated adolescents showed distinct marijuana use patterns, one of which indicated a group of adolescents at risk of increased use over time. These individuals have greater psychiatric and polysubstance use over time, but may not be accessing needed services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Adolescent Marijuana Use and Perceived Ease of Access Before and After Recreational Marijuana Implementation in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Harpin, Scott B; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Ma, Ming; James, Katherine A; Levinson, Arnold H

    2018-02-23

    As of January 1, 2017, eight states have approved laws for recreational marijuana use. While the social impacts of these changes remain under debate, the influence on adolescent marijuana use is a key policy and health issue across the U.S. To examine changes in adolescent marijuana-use behaviors in the first year after recreational marijuana implementation in Colorado, and to analyze the effect of retail marijuana store proximity on youth use and perceptions. Secondary analysis of Healthy Kids Colorado Survey data from 40 schools surveyed before and after recreational marijuana sales were implemented (2013 student n = 12,240; 2014 student n = 11,931). Self-reported marijuana use, ease of access, and perceived harms were compared between years and by proximity of recreational marijuana stores to surveyed schools. Adolescent marijuana use behaviors, wrongness of use, and perceptions of risk of harm were unchanged from baseline to one-year follow-up. Perceived ease of access to marijuana increased (from 46% to 52%). Proximity of recreational marijuana stores was not significantly associated with perceived ease of access to marijuana. Conclusions/Importance: In the first study of adolescent marijuana use and perceptions after state retail implementation of recreational marijuana, there was little change in adolescent marijuana use but a significant change in perception of ease of access. Public health workers and policymakers should continue to monitor these changes as essential for evaluating the impact of liberalization of marijuana policies.

  20. Concurrent and Sustained Cumulative Effects of Adolescent Marijuana Use on Subclinical Psychotic Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bechtold, Jordan; Hipwell, Alison; Lewis, David A; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin

    2016-08-01

    Adolescents who regularly use marijuana may be at heightened risk of developing subclinical and clinical psychotic symptoms. However, this association could be explained by reverse causation or other factors. To address these limitations, the current study examined whether adolescents who engage in regular marijuana use exhibit a systematic increase in subclinical psychotic symptoms that persists during periods of sustained abstinence. The sample comprised 1,009 boys who were recruited in 1st and 7th grades. Self-reported frequency of marijuana use, subclinical psychotic symptoms, and several time-varying confounds (e.g., other substance use, internalizing/externalizing problems) were recorded annually from age 13 to 18. Fixed-effects (within-individual change) models examined whether adolescents exhibited an increase in their subclinical psychotic symptoms as a function of their recent and/or cumulative history of regular marijuana use and whether these effects were sustained following abstinence. Models controlled for all time-stable factors (default) and several time-varying covariates as potential confounds. For each year adolescent boys engaged in regular marijuana use, their expected level of subsequent subclinical psychotic symptoms rose by 21% and their expected odds of experiencing subsequent subclinical paranoia or hallucinations rose by 133% and 92%, respectively. The effect of prior regular marijuana use on subsequent subclinical psychotic symptoms persisted even when adolescents stopped using marijuana for a year. These effects were after controlling for all time-stable and several time-varying confounds. No support was found for reverse causation. These results suggest that regular marijuana use may significantly increase the risk that an adolescent will experience persistent subclinical psychotic symptoms.

  1. Medical marijuana use among adolescents in substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Sakai, Joseph T; Thurstone, Christian; Corley, Robin; Hopfer, Christian

    2012-07-01

    To assess the prevalence and frequency of medical marijuana diversion and use among adolescents in substance abuse treatment and to identify factors related to their medical marijuana use. This study calculated the prevalence and frequency of diverted medical marijuana use among adolescents (n = 164), ages 14-18 years (mean age = 16.09, SD = 1.12), in substance abuse treatment in the Denver metropolitan area. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were completed to determine factors related to adolescents' use of medical marijuana. Approximately 74% of the adolescents had used someone else's medical marijuana, and they reported using diverted medical marijuana a median of 50 times. After adjusting for gender and race/ethnicity, adolescents who used medical marijuana had an earlier age of regular marijuana use, more marijuana abuse and dependence symptoms, and more conduct disorder symptoms compared with those who did not use medical marijuana. Medical marijuana use among adolescent patients in substance abuse treatment is very common, implying substantial diversion from registered users. These results support the need for policy changes that protect against diversion of medical marijuana and reduce adolescent access to diverted medical marijuana. Future studies should examine patterns of medical marijuana diversion and use in general population adolescents. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The risks for late adolescence of early adolescent marijuana use.

    PubMed Central

    Brook, J S; Balka, E B; Whiteman, M

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the relation of early adolescent marijuana use to late adolescent problem behaviors, drug-related attitudes, drug problems, and sibling and peer problem behavior. METHODS: African American (n = 627) and Puerto Rican (n = 555) youths completed questionnaires in their classrooms initially and were individually interviewed 5 years later. Logistic regression analysis estimated increases in the risk of behaviors or attitudes in late adolescence associated with more frequent marijuana use in early adolescence. RESULTS: Early adolescent marijuana use increased the risk in late adolescence of not graduating from high school; delinquency; having multiple sexual partners; not always using condoms; perceiving drugs as not harmful; having problems with cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana; and having more friends who exhibit deviant behavior. These relations were maintained with controls for age, sex, ethnicity, and, when available, earlier psychosocial measures. CONCLUSIONS: Early adolescent marijuana use is related to later adolescent problems that limit the acquisition of skills necessary for employment and heighten the risks of contracting HIV and abusing legal and illegal substances. Hence, assessments of and treatments for adolescent marijuana use need to be incorporated in clinical practice. PMID:10511838

  3. Contextual risks linking parents’ adolescent marijuana use to offspring onset

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, David C. R.; Tiberio, Stacey S.; Capaldi, Deborah M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We studied the extent to which parent marijuana use in adolescence is associated with marijuana use onset in offspring through contextual family and peer risks. Method Fathers assessed (n = 93) since childhood, their 146 offspring (n = 83 girls), and offspring's mothers (n = 85) participated in a longitudinal study. Using discrete-time survival analysis, fathers’ (prospectively measured) and mothers’ (retrospective) adolescent marijuana use was used to predict offspring marijuana use onset through age 19 years. Parental monitoring, child exposure to marijuana use, peer deviance, peer marijuana use, and perceptions of parent disapproval of child use were measured before or concurrent with onset. Results Parents’ adolescent marijuana use was significantly associated with less monitoring, offspring alcohol use, the peer behaviors, exposure to adult marijuana use, and perceptions of less parent disapproval. Male gender and the two peer behaviors were positively associated with children's marijuana use onset, controlling for their alcohol use. Parents’ adolescent marijuana use had a significant indirect effect on child onset through children's deviant peer affiliations and a composite contextual risk score. Conclusions Parents’ histories of marijuana use may contribute indirectly to children's marijuana use onset through their influence on the social environments children encounter; specifically, those characterized by more liberal use norms, exposure to marijuana use and deviant and marijuana-using peers, and less adult supervision. Given that alcohol use onset was controlled, findings suggest that the contextual factors identified here confer unique risk for child marijuana use onset. PMID:26166667

  4. Marijuana Use and Achievement of Abstinence from Alcohol and Other Drugs among People with Substance Dependence: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Mojarrad, Mohammadali; Samet, Jeffrey H; Cheng, Debbie M.; Winter, Michael R.; Saitz, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background Many with alcohol and other drug dependence have concurrent marijuana use, yet it is not clear how to address it during addiction treatment. This is partially due to the lack of clarity about whether marijuana use impacts one’s ability to achieve abstinence from the target of addiction treatment. We examined the association between marijuana use and abstinence from other substances among individuals with substance dependence. Methods A secondary analysis of the Addiction Health Evaluation And Disease management study, a randomized trial testing the effectiveness of chronic disease management. Individuals met criteria for drug or alcohol dependence and reported recent drug (i.e. opioid or stimulant) or heavy alcohol use. Recruitment occurred at an inpatient detoxification unit, and all participants were referred to primary medical care. The association between marijuana use and later abstinence from drug and heavy alcohol use was assessed using longitudinal multivariable models. Results Of 563 study participants, 98% completed at least one follow-up assessment and 535 (95%) had at least one pair of consecutive assessments and were included. In adjusted analyses, marijuana use was associated with a 27% reduction in the odds of abstinence from drug and heavy alcohol use (adjusted odds ratio 0.73 [95% CI, 0.56–0.97], P=0.03). Conclusions Marijuana use among individuals with alcohol or other drug dependence is associated with a lower odds of achieving abstinence from drug and heavy alcohol use. These findings add evidence that suggests concomitant marijuana use among patients with addiction to other drugs merits attention from clinicians. PMID:24986785

  5. Medical Marijuana Use among Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Sakai, Joseph T.; Thurstone, Christian; Corley, Robin; Hopfer, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence and frequency of medical marijuana diversion and use among adolescents in substance abuse treatment and to identify factors related to their medical marijuana use. Method: This study calculated the prevalence and frequency of diverted medical marijuana use among adolescents (n = 164), ages 14-18 years (mean age…

  6. Abstinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Abstinence KidsHealth / For Teens / Abstinence Print en español La abstinencia sexual What Is It? Abstinence is not having sex. A person who decides to practice abstinence has ...

  7. Exposure to Advertisements and Marijuana Use Among US Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Introduction This study examined whether exposure to marijuana advertisements was associated with current marijuana use and frequency of use among US adolescents in grades 8, 10, and 12. Methods Weighted estimates of exposure to marijuana advertisements and marijuana use from the 2014 and 2015 Monitoring the Future studies were investigated. Factors associated with the prevalence and frequency of marijuana use were analyzed by using logistic regression and linear regression models, respectively. Results Of all respondents (n = 12,988), 13.8% reported marijuana use in the past 30 days. Exposure to marijuana advertisements was prevalent among adolescents, with 52.8% reporting exposure from internet advertisements, 32.1% from television advertisements, 24.1% from magazine or newspaper advertisements, 19.7% from radio advertisements, 19.0% from advertisements on storefronts, and 16.6% from billboards. In the multivariable analysis, current use of marijuana among adolescents was associated with exposure to marijuana advertisements on storefronts (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.4, P < .001), magazines or newspapers (adjusted OR = 1.6, P < .001), billboards (adjusted OR = 1.4, P = .002), internet (adjusted OR = 1.8, P < .001), television (adjusted OR = 1.4, P < .001) and radio (adjusted OR = 1.7, P < .001). Exposure to marijuana advertisements from the internet was associated with increased use of marijuana (β = 0.3, P = .04). Conclusion Exposure to marijuana advertisements was associated with higher odds of current marijuana use among adolescents. Regulations that limit marijuana advertisements to adolescents and educational campaigns on harmfulness of illicit marijuana use are needed. PMID:29191259

  8. Exposure to Advertisements and Marijuana Use Among US Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hongying

    2017-11-30

    This study examined whether exposure to marijuana advertisements was associated with current marijuana use and frequency of use among US adolescents in grades 8, 10, and 12. Weighted estimates of exposure to marijuana advertisements and marijuana use from the 2014 and 2015 Monitoring the Future studies were investigated. Factors associated with the prevalence and frequency of marijuana use were analyzed by using logistic regression and linear regression models, respectively. Of all respondents (n = 12,988), 13.8% reported marijuana use in the past 30 days. Exposure to marijuana advertisements was prevalent among adolescents, with 52.8% reporting exposure from internet advertisements, 32.1% from television advertisements, 24.1% from magazine or newspaper advertisements, 19.7% from radio advertisements, 19.0% from advertisements on storefronts, and 16.6% from billboards. In the multivariable analysis, current use of marijuana among adolescents was associated with exposure to marijuana advertisements on storefronts (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.4, P < .001), magazines or newspapers (adjusted OR = 1.6, P < .001), billboards (adjusted OR = 1.4, P = .002), internet (adjusted OR = 1.8, P < .001), television (adjusted OR = 1.4, P < .001) and radio (adjusted OR = 1.7, P < .001). Exposure to marijuana advertisements from the internet was associated with increased use of marijuana (β = 0.3, P = .04). Exposure to marijuana advertisements was associated with higher odds of current marijuana use among adolescents. Regulations that limit marijuana advertisements to adolescents and educational campaigns on harmfulness of illicit marijuana use are needed.

  9. Initiation into Adolescent Marijuana Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Judith S.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the relationship of three domains (personality/attitudinal orientations, peer relationships, and family socialization factors) with initiation into adolescent marihuana use. (Author/DB)

  10. Unfazed or Dazed and Confused: Does Early Adolescent Marijuana Use Cause Sustained Impairments in Attention and Academic Functioning?

    PubMed Central

    Pardini, Dustin; White, Helene; Xiong, Shuangyan; Bechtold, Jordan; Chung, Tammy; Loeber, Rolf; Hipwell, Alison

    2015-01-01

    There is some suggestion that heavy marijuana use during early adolescence (prior to age 17) may cause significant impairments in attention and academic functioning that remain following sustained periods of abstinence. However, no longitudinal studies have examined whether both male and female adolescents who engage in low (less than once a month) to moderate (at least once a monthly) marijuana use experience increased problems with attention and academic performance, and whether these problems remain following sustained abstinence. The current study used within-individual change models to control for all potential pre-existing and time-stable confounds when examining this potential causal association in two gender-specific longitudinal samples assessed annually from ages 11 to 16 (Pittsburgh Youth Study N=479; Pittsburgh Girls Study N=2296). Analyses also controlled for the potential influence of several pertinent time-varying factors (e.g., other substance use, peer delinquency). Prior to controlling for time-varying confounds, analyses indicated that adolescents tended to experience an increase in parent-reported attention and academic problems, relative to their pre-onset levels, during years when they used marijuana. After controlling for several time-varying confounds, only the association between marijuana use and attention problems in the sample of girls remained statistically significant. There was no evidence indicating that adolescents who used marijuana experienced lingering attention and academic problems, relative to their pre-onset levels, after abstaining from use for at least a year. These results suggest that adolescents who engage in low to moderate marijuana use experience an increase in observable attention and academic problems, but these problems appear to be minimal and are eliminated following sustained abstinence. PMID:25862212

  11. Unfazed or Dazed and Confused: Does Early Adolescent Marijuana Use Cause Sustained Impairments in Attention and Academic Functioning?

    PubMed

    Pardini, Dustin; White, Helene R; Xiong, Shuangyan; Bechtold, Jordan; Chung, Tammy; Loeber, Rolf; Hipwell, Alison

    2015-10-01

    There is some suggestion that heavy marijuana use during early adolescence (prior to age 17) may cause significant impairments in attention and academic functioning that remain despite sustained periods of abstinence. However, no longitudinal studies have examined whether both male and female adolescents who engage in low (less than once a month) to moderate (at least once a monthly) marijuana use experience increased problems with attention and academic performance, and whether these problems remain following sustained abstinence. The current study used within-individual change models to control for all potential pre-existing and time-stable confounds when examining this potential causal association in two gender-specific longitudinal samples assessed annually from ages 11 to 16 (Pittsburgh Youth Study N = 479; Pittsburgh Girls Study N = 2296). Analyses also controlled for the potential influence of several pertinent time-varying factors (e.g., other substance use, peer delinquency). Prior to controlling for time-varying confounds, analyses indicated that adolescents tended to experience an increase in parent-reported attention and academic problems, relative to their pre-onset levels, during years when they used marijuana. After controlling for several time-varying confounds, only the association between marijuana use and attention problems in the sample of girls remained statistically significant. There was no evidence indicating that adolescents who used marijuana experienced lingering attention and academic problems, relative to their pre-onset levels, after abstaining from use for at least a year. These results suggest that adolescents who engage in low to moderate marijuana use experience an increase in observable attention and academic problems, but these problems appear to be minimal and are eliminated following sustained abstinence.

  12. Medical marijuana legalization and cigarette and marijuana co-use in adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Julie B; Ramo, Danielle E; Lisha, Nadra E; Cataldo, Janine K

    2016-09-01

    Medical marijuana legalization is associated with a higher prevalence of marijuana use which may affect cigarette use and nicotine dependence in co-users. In the present study, we examined relationships between statewide legalization of medical marijuana and prevalence of cigarette and marijuana co-use and nicotine dependence in co-using adolescents and adults. Data were analyzed from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. We compared cigarette and marijuana co-use in the past 30days across age categories (12-64 years) by statewide medical marijuana legalization. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds of having nicotine dependence among current cigarette smokers who also reported past 30-day marijuana use and "ever but not current" marijuana use (vs. "never" use) adjusting for covariates including statewide legalization of medical marijuana. Overall, 5.1% of the sample reported past 30-day cigarette and marijuana co-use and a higher proportion of co-users resided in states where medical marijuana was legal compared to illegal (5.8% vs. 4.8%; p=0.0011). Co-use was associated with greater odds of having nicotine dependence compared to cigarette-only use across age categories. Odds were highest and up to 3-times higher in adolescents aged 12-17 years (OR=3.54; 95%CI: 1.81-6.92) and adults aged 50-64 years (OR=3.08; CI: 1.45-6.55). Marijuana policy could inadvertently affect cigarette and marijuana co-use and pose challenges to tobacco cessation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Share Print Home » Drugs of Abuse » Marijuana Marijuana Email Facebook Twitter Brief Description Marijuana refers to ... drugs-abuse/marijuana. . press ctrl+c to copy Marijuana and Cannabinoids: A Neuroscience Research Summit March 22- ...

  14. Use of Marijuana Edibles by Adolescents in California

    PubMed Central

    Friese, Bettina; Slater, Michael D.; Battle, Robynn S.

    2017-01-01

    We explored how adolescent marijuana edible users differ in regards to marijuana use and related beliefs from marijuana users who do not use edibles. We analyzed California Healthy Kids Survey data collected in one Northern California school district with a racially and ethnically diverse student population. Survey respondents were youth in grades 9 – 12. Overall, 33% of respondents reported having used marijuana in their lifetime, and 50% of lifetime marijuana users reported using marijuana in the past 30 days. Seventy-two percent of lifetime marijuana users and 82% of past month marijuana users reported having used edibles in their lifetime. Comparing marijuana users who have never used edibles to those users who have, we found that edible users reported using marijuana more frequently in their lifetime. Edible users were also more likely to have used marijuana in the past 30 days, more frequently in the past 30 days, more likely on school property and more frequently on school property. Edible users and non-users differed in their perceptions of risk; edible users were less likely to agree that edible use is very risky. Edible users also reported a younger age of first marijuana use and more attempts to stop using marijuana than non-edible users. Multi-level regression analyses indicate that prevalence of edible use among marijuana users was related to perceived risk of edible use. Perceived risk of edible use among marijuana users was higher among marijuana users who do not use edibles, females, and those youth who perceive school rules to be clear. The findings indicate that prevalence of edible use is high among marijuana users, especially frequent users. PMID:28470448

  15. Implications of marijuana legalization for adolescent substance use.

    PubMed

    Hopfer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana that is legally available for adults has multiple implications for adolescent substance use. One potential effect that legalization may have is an increase in adolescent use to due increased availability, greater social acceptance, and possibly lower prices. Legalization may also facilitate the introduction of new formulations of marijuana (edible, vaporized) and with potentially higher potencies. It is unknown what adolescent consumption patterns will be if marijuana is widely available and marketed in different forms, or what effects different patterns of adolescent use will have on cognition, the development of marijuana use disorders, school performance, and the development of psychotic illnesses. Also unclear is whether adolescent users will be experiencing higher levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) compared with previous generations of users due to higher potencies. Although previous studies of the effects of adolescent marijuana use provide some guidance for current policy and public health recommendations, many new studies will be needed that answer questions in the context of use within a legal adult environment. Claims that marijuana has medicinal benefits create additional challenges for adolescent prevention efforts, as they contrast with messages of its harmfulness. Prevention and treatment approaches will need to address perceptions of the safety of marijuana, claims of its medicinal use, and consider family-wide effects as older siblings and parents may increasingly openly consume and advocate for marijuana use. Guidance for primary care physicians will be needed regarded screening and counseling. Widespread legalization and acceptance of marijuana implies that as law enforcement approaches for marijuana control decline, public health, medical, and scientific efforts to understand and reduce negative consequences of adolescent marijuana use need to be substantially increased to levels commensurate with those efforts for tobacco and alcohol.

  16. Understanding Sexual Abstinence in Urban Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Carey, Michael P.; Côté-Arsenault, Denise; Seibold-Simpson, Susan; Robinson, Kerry Anne

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To gain insight into the context of sexual abstinence and identify potential determinants of abstinence in this population. Design Four focus groups. Participants and Setting Twenty-four, predominantly African American (88%) girls aged 14 to 19 years were recruited from urban health centers and youth development programs in Rochester, New York, between September and December 2006. Data Analysis Content analysis was used to analyze the four verbatim transcripts. Using analytic induction, groups were compared and contrasted at the micro (within-group) and macro (between-group) levels to identify themes. Results Four themes were identified that provided insight into how and why these girls remain abstinent despite being in sexually active social climates. They focused on the following: self-respect (I'm worth it), impact of mothers (Mama says … think before you let it go), influence of boys and other peers (Boys will be boys), and potential negative consequences of sex (Hold on, there's a catch). Conclusions Developing interventions to maintain abstinence, delay onset of sexual activity, and promote protected first and subsequent sexual contact in abstinent girls are key to decreasing future sexual risk. These findings suggest opportunities to develop HIV prevention strategies tailored to the needs of abstinent girls. PMID:18336442

  17. State Estimates of Adolescent Marijuana Use and Perceptions of Risk of Harm from Marijuana Use: 2013 and 2014

    MedlinePlus

    ... aged 12 to 17 across the nation used marijuana in the past month. Adolescent marijuana use ranged from 4.98 percent in Alabama ...  adolescents nationwide perceived great risk in smoking marijuana once a month (i.e., monthly use), ranging ...

  18. Psychosocial correlates of adolescent marijuana use: variations by status of marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Tilda; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Luk, Jeremy W

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the associations between psychosocial factors and status of marijuana use: former experimentation, current occasional, and current frequent use. Data were collected from a nationally-representative sample of U.S. tenth-graders who participated in the 2005/6 Health Behavior in School-aged Children Study (n=1465). Multinomial regressions, run separately by gender, examined the association of risk and protective factors from the individual (life satisfaction; academic achievement; aggression, bullying) and contextual (mothers and fathers' knowledge of adolescents' activities, school climate) domains with status of marijuana use (former experimentation, current occasional use, current frequent use). Former experimental and current marijuana uses were negatively associated with protective factors such as academic achievement, mothers' and fathers' knowledge of adolescents' activities, and life satisfaction, but not with positive school climate. Former experimental and current marijuana uses were positively associated with aggression and bullying perpetration. Most associations varied by gender and status of marijuana use. In adjusted analyses, aggression emerged as the sole risk factor and fathers' knowledge as the sole protective factor associated with most statuses of marijuana use, across gender. Fathers may be particularly important in preventing adolescent marijuana use, and interventions promoting fathers' knowledge of adolescents' activities are warranted. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. The Early Adolescent's Personality and His Style of Marijuana Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Brian F.; And Others

    Students in four metropolitan high schools participated in a survey of marijuana use. It was found that the personality traits of these early adolescents were related to the "style" of their marijuana usage, i.e., to the social conditions under which they tended to use the drug. Further, a given personality trait's relationship to the style of…

  20. Smoking abstinence and reinstatement effects in adolescent cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Colby, Suzanne M; Leventhal, Adam M; Brazil, Linda; Lewis-Esquerre, Johanna; Stein, L A R; Rohsenow, Damaris J; Monti, Peter M; Niaura, Raymond S

    2010-01-01

    The study objectives were to examine smoking abstinence and reinstatement effects on subjective experience and cognitive performance among adolescent smokers. Adolescents (aged 14-17 years, 60 daily smokers and 32 nonsmokers) participated. Participants completed baseline assessments (Session 1) and returned to the laboratory 1-3 days later to repeat assessments (Session 2); half of the smokers were randomly assigned to 15-17 hr tobacco abstinence preceding Session 2. During Session 2, abstaining smokers reported significantly greater increases in withdrawal symptoms, smoking urges, and negative affect compared with smokers who did not abstain and compared with nonsmokers. Smoking reinstatement reversed abstinence effects, returning to baseline levels for smoking urges and negative affect. Abstaining smokers showed significantly enhanced cognitive performance on two of six tasks (two-letter search compared with nonabstaining smokers; serial reaction time compared with nonsmokers); smoking reinstatement resulted in significant decrements on these two tasks relative to nonabstaining smokers. Effects of smoking abstinence and reinstatement on self-report measures are consistent with earlier research with adolescent as well as adult smokers and may help to elucidate the motivational underpinnings of smoking maintenance among adolescent smokers. Effects found on cognitive performance were contrary to hypotheses; further research is needed to understand better the role of cognitive performance effects in smoking maintenance among adolescents.

  1. Smoking abstinence and reinstatement effects in adolescent cigarette smokers

    PubMed Central

    Leventhal, Adam M.; Brazil, Linda; Lewis-Esquerre, Johanna; Stein, L. A. R.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Monti, Peter M.; Niaura, Raymond S.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The study objectives were to examine smoking abstinence and reinstatement effects on subjective experience and cognitive performance among adolescent smokers. Methods Adolescents (aged 14–17 years, 60 daily smokers and 32 nonsmokers) participated. Participants completed baseline assessments (Session 1) and returned to the laboratory 1–3 days later to repeat assessments (Session 2); half of the smokers were randomly assigned to 15–17 hr tobacco abstinence preceding Session 2. Results During Session 2, abstaining smokers reported significantly greater increases in withdrawal symptoms, smoking urges, and negative affect compared with smokers who did not abstain and compared with nonsmokers. Smoking reinstatement reversed abstinence effects, returning to baseline levels for smoking urges and negative affect. Abstaining smokers showed significantly enhanced cognitive performance on two of six tasks (two-letter search compared with nonabstaining smokers; serial reaction time compared with nonsmokers); smoking reinstatement resulted in significant decrements on these two tasks relative to nonabstaining smokers. Discussion Effects of smoking abstinence and reinstatement on self-report measures are consistent with earlier research with adolescent as well as adult smokers and may help to elucidate the motivational underpinnings of smoking maintenance among adolescent smokers. Effects found on cognitive performance were contrary to hypotheses; further research is needed to understand better the role of cognitive performance effects in smoking maintenance among adolescents. PMID:19933776

  2. Examination of the Divergence in Trends for Adolescent Marijuana Use and Marijuana-specific Risk Factors in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Charles B.; Guttmannova, Katarina; Cambron, Christopher; Rhew, Isaac C.; Oesterle, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose As marijuana laws have become more permissive, survey data on adolescents in the United States have shown an increase in marijuana-specific risk factors, particularly in the proportion of youth who do not perceive marijuana use as harmful. Prevalence of marijuana use among youth, however, has changed little. Using representative data from Washington State, which has legalized medical and nonmedical marijuana for adults, we examined two competing hypotheses to account for this divergence in population trends. Methods Data were from 2000 – 2014 biennial Washington State surveys of 10th-grade students. First, we assessed whether associations between marijuana use and marijuana-specific risk factors have weakened over time. Second, we examined whether decreases in alcohol and cigarette use can account for the lack of expected increase in marijuana use prevalence. Results Despite stability in marijuana use prevalence, there were increases in marijuana-specific risk factors of low perceived harm, youth favorable attitudes about use, and perceived community attitudes favorable to use. Associations between marijuana use and marijuana-use predictors varied little across time; if anything, the positive association between low perceived harm and marijuana use grew stronger. Decreases in prevalence of alcohol and cigarette use largely accounted for stability in marijuana use during a period when marijuana risk factors increased. Conclusions Decreases in other types of substance use or in the underlying, common risk for substance use may have mitigated effects of increases in marijuana-specific risk factors. PMID:27318426

  3. The effect of marijuana scenes in anti-marijuana public service announcements on adolescents' evaluation of ad effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yahui; Cappella, Joseph N; Fishbein, Martin

    2009-09-01

    This study explored the possible negative impact of a specific ad feature-marijuana scenes-on adolescents' perceptions of ad effectiveness. A secondary data analysis was conducted on adolescents' evaluations of 60 anti-marijuana public service announcements that were a part of national and state anti-drug campaigns directed at adolescents. The major finding of the study was that marijuana scenes in anti-marijuana public service announcements negatively affected ad liking and thought valence toward the ads among adolescents who were at higher levels of risk for marijuana use. This negative impact was not reversed in the presence of strong anti-marijuana arguments. The results may be used to partially explain the lack of effectiveness of the anti-drug media campaign. It may also help researchers design more effective anti-marijuana ads by isolating adverse elements in the ads that may elicit boomerang effects in the target population.

  4. The Effect of Medical Marijuana Laws on Marijuana-Related Attitude and Perception Among US Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hefei; Hockenberry, Jason M; Druss, Benjamin G

    2018-05-16

    Marijuana liberalization policies are gaining momentum in the USA, coupled with limited federal interference and growing dispensary industry. This evolving regulatory landscape underscores the importance of understanding the attitudinal/perceptual pathways from marijuana policy to marijuana use behavior, especially for adolescents and young adults. Our study uses the restricted-access National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) 2004-2012 data and a difference-in-differences design to compare the pre-policy, post-policy changes in marijuana-related attitude/perception between adolescents and young adults from ten states that implemented medical marijuana laws during the study period and those from the remaining states. We examined four attitudinal/perception pathways that may play a role in adolescent and young adult marijuana use behavior, including (1) perceived availability of marijuana, (2) perceived acceptance of marijuana use, (3) perceived wrongfulness of recreational marijuana use, and (4) perceived harmfulness of marijuana use. We found that state implementation of medical marijuana laws between 2004 and 2012 was associated with a 4.72% point increase (95% CI 0.15, 9.28) in the probability that young adults perceived no/low health risk related to marijuana use. Medical marijuana law implementation is also associated with a 0.37% point decrease (95% CI - 0.72, - 0.03) in the probability that adolescents perceived parental acceptance of marijuana use. As more states permit medical marijuana use, marijuana-related attitude/perception need to be closely monitored, especially perceived harmfulness. The physical and psychological effects of marijuana use should be carefully investigated and clearly conveyed to the public.

  5. Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    Marijuana is a green, brown, or gray mix of dried, crumbled parts from the marijuana plant. It can be rolled up and smoked ... in food or inhale it using a vaporizer. Marijuana can cause problems with memory, learning, and behavior. ...

  6. Media Exposure and Marijuana and Alcohol Use Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    PRIMACK, BRIAN A.; KRAEMER, KEVIN L.; FINE, MICHAEL J.; DALTON, MADELINE A.

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to determine which media exposures are most strongly associated with marijuana and alcohol use among adolescents. In 2004, we surveyed 1,211 students at a large high school in suburban Pittsburgh regarding substance use, exposure to entertainment media, and covariates. Of the respondents, 52% were female, 8% were non-White, 27% reported smoking marijuana, and 60% reported using alcohol. They reported average exposure to 8.6 hr of media daily. In adjusted models, exposure to music was independently associated with marijuana use, but exposure to movies was independently associated with alcohol use. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for further research are discussed. PMID:19306219

  7. Media exposure and marijuana and alcohol use among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Primack, Brian A; Kraemer, Kevin L; Fine, Michael J; Dalton, Madeline A

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to determine which media exposures are most strongly associated with marijuana and alcohol use among adolescents. In 2004, we surveyed 1,211 students at a large high school in suburban Pittsburgh regarding substance use, exposure to entertainment media, and covariates. Of the respondents, 52% were female, 8% were non-White, 27% reported smoking marijuana, and 60% reported using alcohol. They reported average exposure to 8.6 hr of media daily. In adjusted models, exposure to music was independently associated with marijuana use, but exposure to movies was independently associated with alcohol use. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  8. Learning Not to Drink: Adolescents and Abstinence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stumphauzer, Jerome S.

    1983-01-01

    Surveyed 100 nondrinking adolescents utilizing a behavior analysis questionnaire designed to assess influences on learning not to drink. Results suggest that parents who did not drink had a strong influence. Effective modes of self-control were also discovered; teenagers revealed assertiveness skills in saying "no" to peer pressures. (Author/JAC)

  9. WHEN ONSET MEETS DESISTANCE: COGNITIVE TRANSFORMATION AND ADOLESCENT MARIJUANA EXPERIMENTATION.

    PubMed

    Kreager, Derek A; Ragan, Daniel T; Nguyen, Holly; Staff, Jeremy

    2016-06-01

    Desistance scholars primarily focus on changing social roles, cognitive transformations, and shifting identities to understand the cessation of serious crime and illicit drug use in adulthood. In the current study, we move the spotlight away from adulthood and toward adolescence, the developmental stage when the prevalence of offending and substance use peak and desistance from most of these behaviors begins. Our primary hypothesis is that changes in perceived psychic rewards surrounding initial forays into marijuana use strongly predict adolescents' decisions to cease or persist that behavior. In addition, based on social learning expectations, we hypothesize that peer perceptions and behaviors provide mechanisms for perceptual change. We test these hypotheses using longitudinal data of marijuana use, perceptions, and peer networks from the PROmoting School-community-university Partnerships to Enhance Resilience (PROSPER) study. We estimate hazard models of marijuana initiation and within-person models of perceptual updating for youth from grades 6 to 12 ( n =6,154). We find that changes in marijuana's perceived psychic rewards surrounding initiation differentiated experimenters from persisters. Experimenters had significantly lower updated perceptions of marijuana as a fun behavior compared to persisters and these perceptions dropped after the initiation wave. In contrast, persisters updated their perceptions in upward directions and maintained more positive perceptions over time. Inconsistent with social learning expectations, initiators' updated perceptions of marijuana as a fun activity were not explained by peer-reported behaviors or attitudes.

  10. Adolescent cortical thickness pre- and post marijuana and alcohol initiation.

    PubMed

    Jacobus, Joanna; Castro, Norma; Squeglia, Lindsay M; Meloy, M J; Brumback, Ty; Huestis, Marilyn A; Tapert, Susan F

    Cortical thickness abnormalities have been identified in youth using both alcohol and marijuana. However, limited studies have followed individuals pre- and post initiation of alcohol and marijuana use to help identify to what extent discrepancies in structural brain integrity are pre-existing or substance-related. Adolescents (N=69) were followed from ages 13 (pre-initiation of substance use, baseline) to ages 19 (post-initiation, follow-up). Three subgroups were identified, participants that initiated alcohol use (ALC, n=23, >20 alcohol use episodes), those that initiated both alcohol and marijuana use (ALC+MJ, n=23, >50 marijuana use episodes) and individuals that did not initiate either substance regularly by follow-up (CON, n=23, <3 alcohol use episodes, no marijuana use episodes). All adolescents underwent neurocognitive testing, neuroimaging, and substance use and mental health interviews. Significant group by time interactions and main effects on cortical thickness estimates were identified for 18 cortical regions spanning the left and right hemisphere (ps<0.05). The vast majority of findings suggest a more substantial decrease, or within-subjects effect, in cortical thickness by follow-up for individuals who have not initiated regular substance use or alcohol use only by age 19; modest between-group differences were identified at baseline in several cortical regions (ALC and CON>ALC+MJ). Minimal neurocognitive differences were observed in this sample. Findings suggest pre-existing neural differences prior to marijuana use may contribute to initiation of use and observed neural outcomes. Marijuana use may also interfere with thinning trajectories that contribute to morphological differences in young adulthood that are often observed in cross-sectional studies of heavy marijuana users. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Adolescent Cortical Thickness Pre- and Post Marijuana and Alcohol Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Jacobus, Joanna; Castro, Norma; Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Meloy, M.J.; Brumback, Ty; Huestis, Marilyn; Tapert, Susan F.

    2016-01-01

    Cortical thickness abnormalities have been identified in youth using both alcohol and marijuana. However, limited studies have followed individuals pre- and post initiation of alcohol and marijuana use to help identify to what extent discrepancies in structural brain integrity are pre-existing or substance-related. Adolescents (N=69) were followed from ages 13 (pre-initiation of substance use, baseline) to ages 19 (post-initiation, follow-up). Three subgroups were identified, participants that initiated alcohol use (ALC, n=23, >20 alcohol use episodes), those that initiated both alcohol and marijuana use (ALC+MJ, n=23, >50 marijuana use episodes) and individuals that did not initiate either substance regularly by follow-up (CON, n=23, <3 alcohol use episodes, no marijuana use episodes). All adolescents underwent neurocognitive testing, neuroimaging, and substance use and mental health interviews. Significant group by time interactions and main effects on cortical thickness estimates were identified for 18 cortical regions spanning the left and right hemisphere (ps<.05). The vast majority of findings suggest a more substantial decrease, or within-subjects effect, in cortical thickness by follow-up for individuals who have not initiated regular substance use or alcohol use only by age 19; modest between-group differences were identified at baseline in several cortical regions (ALC and CON>ALC+MJ). Minimal neurocognitive differences were observed in this sample. Findings suggest pre-existing neural differences prior to marijuana use may contribute to initiation of use and observed neural outcomes. Marijuana use may also interfere with thinning trajectories that contribute to morphological differences in young adulthood that are often observed in cross-sectional studies of heavy marijuana users. PMID:27687470

  12. Characteristics of Marijuana Acquisition among a National Sample of Adolescent Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Keith A.; Merianos, Ashley L.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Because marijuana is becoming more accessible and perceived norms of use are becoming increasingly more favorable, research is needed to understand characteristics of marijuana acquisition among adolescents. Purpose: The study purpose was to examine whether sources and locations where adolescent users obtain and use marijuana differed…

  13. Parent and Peer Pathways Linking Childhood Experiences of Abuse with Marijuana Use in Adolescence and Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Russo, M. Jean; Chmelka, Mary B.; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The social developmental processes by which child maltreatment increases risk for marijuana use are understudied. This study examined hypothesized parent and peer pathways linking preschool abuse and sexual abuse with adolescent and adult marijuana use. Methods Analyses used data from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study. Measures included child abuse (physical abuse, emotional abuse, domestic violence, and neglect) in preschool, sexual abuse up to age 18, adolescent (average age = 18 years) parental attachment and peer marijuana approval/use, as well as adolescent and adult (average age = 36 years) marijuana use. Results Confirming elevated risk due to child maltreatment, path analysis showed that sexual abuse was positively related to adolescent marijuana use, whereas preschool abuse was positively related to adult marijuana use. In support of mediation, it was found that both forms of maltreatment were negatively related to parental attachment, which was negatively related, in turn, to having peers who use and approve of marijuana use. Peer marijuana approval/use was a strong positive predictor of adolescent marijuana use, which was a strong positive predictor, in turn, of adult marijuana use. Conclusions Results support social developmental theories that hypothesize a sequence of events leading from child maltreatment experiences to lower levels of parental attachment and, in turn, higher levels of involvement with pro-marijuana peers and, ultimately, to both adolescent and adult marijuana use. This sequence of events suggests developmentally-timed intervention activities designed to prevent maltreatment as well as the initiation and progression of marijuana use among vulnerable individuals. PMID:27889563

  14. Parent and peer pathways linking childhood experiences of abuse with marijuana use in adolescence and adulthood.

    PubMed

    Alex Mason, W; Jean Russo, M; Chmelka, Mary B; Herrenkohl, Roy C; Herrenkohl, Todd I

    2017-03-01

    The social developmental processes by which child maltreatment increases risk for marijuana use are understudied. This study examined hypothesized parent and peer pathways linking preschool abuse and sexual abuse with adolescent and adult marijuana use. Analyses used data from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study. Measures included child abuse (physical abuse, emotional abuse, domestic violence, and neglect) in preschool, sexual abuse up to age 18, adolescent (average age=18years) parental attachment and peer marijuana approval/use, as well as adolescent and adult (average age=36years) marijuana use. Confirming elevated risk due to child maltreatment, path analysis showed that sexual abuse was positively related to adolescent marijuana use, whereas preschool abuse was positively related to adult marijuana use. In support of mediation, it was found that both forms of maltreatment were negatively related to parental attachment, which was negatively related, in turn, to having peers who use and approve of marijuana use. Peer marijuana approval/use was a strong positive predictor of adolescent marijuana use, which was a strong positive predictor, in turn, of adult marijuana use. Results support social developmental theories that hypothesize a sequence of events leading from child maltreatment experiences to lower levels of parental attachment and, in turn, higher levels of involvement with pro-marijuana peers and, ultimately, to both adolescent and adult marijuana use. This sequence of events suggests developmentally-timed intervention activities designed to prevent maltreatment as well as the initiation and progression of marijuana use among vulnerable individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Perceptions of social norms and exposure to pro-marijuana messages are associated with adolescent marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Roditis, Maria L; Delucchi, Kevin; Chang, Audrey; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie

    2016-12-01

    Despite consistent declines in rates of cigarette use among adolescents in the last five years, rates of marijuana use have remained constant, with marijuana being the most widely used illegal drug among adolescents. More work is needed to understand how social norms, perceived risks and benefits, and social media messaging impact use of marijuana. This study compared perceptions and social norms related to marijuana, blunts and cigarettes. Additionally, we assessed how perceptions related to social norms, risks and benefits, and exposure to pro- versus anti-marijuana messaging is related to use. Participants were 786 adolescents from Southern and Northern California (36.7% male, 63.21% females; mean age=16.1years; SD=1.6). Participants came from diverse ethnic backgrounds, with 207 (26.61%) White, 171 (21.98%) Asian/Pacific Islander, 232 (29.82%) Hispanic, and 168 (21.59%) other. Results indicated that marijuana and blunts were consistently perceived as more socially acceptable and less risky than cigarettes (p<0.01). Participants who reported that their friends used marijuana had a 27% greater odds of using marijuana themselves. Further, seeing messages about the good things or benefits of marijuana use was associated with a 6% greater odds of use [OR 1.06 (CI 1.00, 1.12)]. This study's findings offer a number of important public health implications, particularly as states move towards legalization of marijuana for recreational use. As this occurs, states need to take adolescents' perceptions of risks, benefits, social norms, and peer influences into account as they implement strategies to reduce youth use of marijuana and blunts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Planting the seed for marijuana use: Changes in exposure to medical marijuana advertising and subsequent adolescent marijuana use, cognitions, and consequences over seven years.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Rodriguez, Anthony; Tucker, Joan S; Pedersen, Eric R; Shih, Regina A

    2018-05-10

    Marijuana use during adolescence is associated with neurocognitive deficits and poorer functioning across several domains. It is likely that more states will pass both medical and recreational marijuana legalization laws in the coming elections; therefore, we must begin to look more closely at the longitudinal effects of medical marijuana (MM) advertising on marijuana use among adolescents so that we can better understand effects that this advertising may have on their subsequent marijuana use and related outcomes. We followed two cohorts of 7th and 8th graders (mean age 13) recruited from school districts in Southern California from 2010 until 2017 (mean age 19) to examine effects of MM advertising on adolescents' marijuana use, cognitions, and consequences over seven years. Latent growth models examined trajectories of self-reported exposure to medical marijuana ads in the past three months and trajectories of use, cognitions, and consequences. Higher average exposure to MM advertising was associated with higher average use, intentions to use, positive expectancies, and negative consequences. Similarly, higher rates of change in MM advertising exposure were associated with higher rates of change in use, intentions, expectancies, and consequences over seven years. Results suggest that exposure to MM advertising may not only play a significant role in shaping attitudes about marijuana, but may also contribute to increased marijuana use and related negative consequences throughout adolescence. This highlights the importance of considering regulations for marijuana advertising, similar to regulations in place for the promotion of tobacco and alcohol in the U.S. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Perceptions of Social Norms and Exposure to Pro-Marijuana Messages Are Associated with Adolescent Marijuana Use

    PubMed Central

    Roditis, Maria L.; Delucchi, Kevin; Chang, Audrey; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    Despite consistent declines in rates of cigarette use among adolescents in the last five years, rates of marijuana use have remained constant, with marijuana being the most widely used illegal drug among adolescents. More work is needed to understand how social norms, perceived risks and benefits, and social media messaging impact use of marijuana. This study compared perceptions and social norms related to marijuana, blunts and cigarettes. Additionally, we assessed how perceptions related to social norms, risks and benefits, and exposure to pro- versus anti-marijuana messaging is related to use. Participants were 786 adolescents from Southern and Northern California (36.7% male, 63.3% females; mean age = 16.1 years; SD = 1.6). Participants came from diverse ethnic backgrounds, with 207 (26.61%) White, 171 (21.98%) Asian/Pacific Islander, 232 (29.82%) Hispanic, and 168 (21.59%) other. Results indicated that marijuana and blunts were consistently perceived as more socially acceptable and less risky than cigarettes (p<0.01). Participants who reported that their friends used marijuana had a 27% greater odds of using marijuana themselves. Further, seeing messages about the good things or benefits of marijuana use was associated with a 6% greater odds of use [OR 1.06 (CI 1.00, 1.12)]. This study's findings offer a number of important public health implications, particularly as states move towards legalization of marijuana for recreational use. As this occurs, states need to take adolescents’ perceptions of risks, benefits, social norms, and peer influences into account as they implement strategies to reduce youth use of marijuana and blunts. PMID:27746339

  18. fMRI response to spatial working memory in adolescents with comorbid marijuana and alcohol use disorders☆

    PubMed Central

    Schweinsburg, Alecia D.; Schweinsburg, Brian C.; Cheung, Erick H.; Brown, Gregory G.; Brown, Sandra A.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol and marijuana use are prevalent in adolescence, yet the neural impact of concomitant use remains unclear. We previously demonstrated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) response to spatial working memory (SWM) among teens with alcohol use disorders (AUD) compared to controls, and predicted that adolescents with marijuana and alcohol use disorders would show additional abnormalities. Participants were three groups of 15−17-year-olds: 19 non-abusing controls, 15 AUD teens with limited exposure to drugs, and 15 teens with comorbid marijuana and alcohol use disorders (MAUD) and minimal other drug experience. After >2 days’ abstinence, participants performed a SWM task during fMRI acquisition. fMRI brain response patterns differed between groups, despite similar performance on the task. MAUD youths showed less activation in inferior frontal and temporal regions than controls, and more response in other prefrontal regions. Compared to AUD teens, MAUD youths also showed less inferior frontal and temporal activation, but more medial frontal response. Overall, MAUD youths showed different brain response abnormalities than teens with AUD alone, despite relatively short histories of substance involvement. This pattern could suggest compensation for marijuana-related attention and working memory deficits. However, relatively recent use and premorbid features may influence results, and should be examined in future studies. PMID:16002029

  19. WHEN ONSET MEETS DESISTANCE: COGNITIVE TRANSFORMATION AND ADOLESCENT MARIJUANA EXPERIMENTATION*

    PubMed Central

    Kreager, Derek A.; Ragan, Daniel T.; Nguyen, Holly; Staff, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Desistance scholars primarily focus on changing social roles, cognitive transformations, and shifting identities to understand the cessation of serious crime and illicit drug use in adulthood. In the current study, we move the spotlight away from adulthood and toward adolescence, the developmental stage when the prevalence of offending and substance use peak and desistance from most of these behaviors begins. Our primary hypothesis is that changes in perceived psychic rewards surrounding initial forays into marijuana use strongly predict adolescents’ decisions to cease or persist that behavior. In addition, based on social learning expectations, we hypothesize that peer perceptions and behaviors provide mechanisms for perceptual change. Methods We test these hypotheses using longitudinal data of marijuana use, perceptions, and peer networks from the PROmoting School-community-university Partnerships to Enhance Resilience (PROSPER) study. We estimate hazard models of marijuana initiation and within-person models of perceptual updating for youth from grades 6 to 12 (n=6,154). Results We find that changes in marijuana’s perceived psychic rewards surrounding initiation differentiated experimenters from persisters. Experimenters had significantly lower updated perceptions of marijuana as a fun behavior compared to persisters and these perceptions dropped after the initiation wave. In contrast, persisters updated their perceptions in upward directions and maintained more positive perceptions over time. Inconsistent with social learning expectations, initiators’ updated perceptions of marijuana as a fun activity were not explained by peer-reported behaviors or attitudes. PMID:27478762

  20. Parenting Practices as Moderators of the Relationship between Peers and Adolescent Marijuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorius, Cassandra J.; Bahr, Stephen J.; Hoffmann, John P.; Harmon, Elizabeth Lovelady

    2004-01-01

    Using data from a probability sample of 4,987 adolescents, we examine the degree to which closeness to mother, closeness to father, parental support, and parental monitoring buffer the relationship between peer drug use and adolescent marijuana use. The relationship between peer drug use and adolescent marijuana use was attenuated by both…

  1. Understanding Rates of Marijuana Use and Consequences Among Adolescents in a Changing Legal Landscape.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Tucker, Joan S; Pedersen, Eric R; Shih, Regina A

    2017-01-01

    There is not one answer to address whether marijuana use has increased, decreased, or stayed the same given changes in state legalization of medical and non-medical marijuana in the USA. Evidence suggests some health benefits for medical marijuana; however, initiation of marijuana use is a risk factor for developing problem cannabis use. Though use rates have remained stable over recent years, about one in three 10th graders report marijuana use, most adolescents do not view the drug as harmful, and over 650,000 youth aged 12 to 17 struggle with cannabis use disorder. Although the health benefits of medical marijuana are becoming better understood, more research is needed. Intervention and prevention programs must better address effects of marijuana, acknowledging that while there may be some benefits medically, marijuana use can affect functioning during adolescence when the brain is still developing.

  2. Mixed-amphetamine salts increase abstinence from marijuana in patients with co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and cocaine dependence.

    PubMed

    Notzon, Daniel P; Mariani, John J; Pavlicova, Martina; Glass, Andrew; Mahony, Amy L; Brooks, Daniel J; Grabowski, John; Levin, Frances R

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of ADHD is greater in substance use disorders than the general population, and ADHD and substance use disorders share neurobiological features such as dysregulation of reward circuitry. We tested the hypothesis that stimulants would decrease marijuana use in a randomized controlled trial of extended release mixed amphetamine salts (MAS-XR) for treatment of co-occurring ADHD and cocaine use disorders. Marijuana users were defined as participants reporting use in the 30 days before study initiation, collected with timeline follow-back. The original 14-week trial utilized a 3-arm randomized design, comparing placebo, MAS-XR 60 mg, and MAS-XR 80 mg. For this analysis, both MAS-XR groups were combined, leaving n = 20 in the placebo group and n = 37 in the MAS-XR group. The primary outcome was proportion of subjects reporting any marijuana use per study week. Comparisons between groups were made using a logistic mixed effects model incorporating multiple predictors and modeling time-by-treatment interactions. There were no significant baseline differences in marijuana use frequency and quantity. There was a significant decrease in the proportion of participants using marijuana over time in the MAS-XR group, but no difference in the proportion of marijuana-use days over time. Treatment of ADHD and comorbid cocaine use disorders with MAS-XR is associated with increased weekly abstinence from marijuana but not with a decrease in the proportion of marijuana using days per week. Stimulant treatment of ADHD and cocaine use disorders may diminish co-occurring cannabis use. (Am J Addict 2016;25:666-672). © 2016 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  3. Mixed-Amphetamine Salts Increase Abstinence From Marijuana in Patients With Co-Occurring Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Cocaine Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Notzon, Daniel P.; Mariani, John J.; Pavlicova, Martina; Glass, Andrew; Mahony, Amy L.; Brooks, Daniel J.; Grabowski, John; Levin, Frances R.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives The prevalence of ADHD is greater in substance use disorders than the general population, and ADHD and substance use disorders share neurobiological features such as dysregulation of reward circuitry. We tested the hypothesis that stimulants would decrease marijuana use in a randomized controlled trial of extended release mixed amphetamine salts (MAS-XR) for treatment of co-occurring ADHD and cocaine use disorders. Methods Marijuana users were defined as participants reporting use in the 30 days before study initiation, collected with timeline follow-back. The original 14-week trial utilized a 3-arm randomized design, comparing placebo, MAS-XR 60 mg, and MAS-XR 80 mg. For this analysis, both MAS-XR groups were combined, leaving n = 20 in the placebo group and n = 37 in the MAS-XR group. The primary outcome was proportion of subjects reporting any marijuana use per study week. Comparisons between groups were made using a logistic mixed effects model incorporating multiple predictors and modeling time-by-treatment interactions. Results There were no significant baseline differences in marijuana use frequency and quantity. There was a significant decrease in the proportion of participants using marijuana over time in the MAS-XR group, but no difference in the proportion of marijuana-use days over time. Discussion and Conclusions Treatment of ADHD and comorbid cocaine use disorders with MAS-XR is associated with increased weekly abstinence from marijuana but not with a decrease in the proportion of marijuana using days per week. Scientific Significance Stimulant treatment of ADHD and cocaine use disorders may diminish co-occurring cannabis use. PMID:28051838

  4. Abstinence-based programs for prevention of adolescent pregnancies. A review.

    PubMed

    Thomas, M H

    2000-01-01

    This article assesses the abstinence-based programs developed by family life educators and the factors associated with positive results through a review of abstinence promotion programs of the federal government. In 1996, Section 510 was added to Title V of the Social Security Act allocating US$50 million annually from 1998-2000 to fund abstinence education programs, while in 1997, a National Strategy to Prevent Teen Pregnancy was launched by the Office of Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention to provide teen pregnancy programs to at least 25% of the communities. Presented in this paper is a discussion of the Abstinence Only programs, which focus on the prevention of pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease among adolescents, and the Abstinence Plus programs, which emphasize other prevention methods as well as abstinence. Evaluation of Abstinence Only programs include Success Express, Project Taking Charge, Sex Respect, Teen Aid, Values and Choices and Facts and Feelings. Moreover, programs such as Reducing the Risk, Postponing Sexual Involvement, Project Education Now, and Babies Later were evaluated under the Abstinence Plus programs. Several programs evaluated have shown to have a positive effect on attitudes among adolescents, but are not proven to have a significant effect on sexual behavior. In conclusion, this article encourages exploration of new approaches to address teen pregnancy and the increasing incidence of sexually transmitted diseases among adolescents, while the federal government must utilize the implementation of existing programs with positive effects.

  5. Family and parenting characteristics associated with marijuana use by Chilean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bares, Cristina B; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Andrade, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Objective Family involvement and several characteristics of parenting have been suggested to be protective factors for adolescent substance use. Some parenting behaviors may have stronger relationships with adolescent behavior while others may have associations with undesirable behavior among youth. Although it is generally acknowledged that families play an important role in the lives of Chilean adolescents, scant research exists on how different family and parenting factors may be associated with marijuana use and related problems in this population which has one of the highest rates of drug use in Latin America. Methods Using logistic regression and negative binomial regression, we examined whether a large number of family and parenting variables were associated with the possibility of Chilean adolescents ever using marijuana, and with marijuana-related problems. Analyses controlled for a number of demographic and peer-related variables. Results Controlling for other parenting and family variables, adolescent reports of parental marijuana use showed a significant and positive association with adolescent marijuana use. The multivariate models also revealed that harsh parenting by fathers was the only family variable associated with the number of marijuana-related problems youth experienced. Conclusion Of all the family and parenting variables studied, perceptions of parental use of marijuana and harsh parenting by fathers were predictors for marijuana use, and the experience of marijuana-related problems. Prevention interventions need to continue emphasizing the critical socializing role that parental behavior plays in their children’s development and potential use of marijuana. PMID:21660209

  6. Marijuana Use, Recent Marijuana Initiation, and Progression to Marijuana Use Disorder Among Young Male and Female Adolescents Aged 12–14 Living in US Households

    PubMed Central

    Forman-Hoffman, Valerie L; Glasheen, Cristie; Batts, Kathryn R

    2017-01-01

    Marijuana initiation during adolescence, and early adolescence in particular, is associated with adverse health consequences. Our study used 2005–2014 data from the annual, cross-sectional National Survey on Drug Use and Health to study the prevalence and correlates of marijuana initiation, use, and marijuana use disorder (MUD; abuse or dependence) among 12- to 14-year olds living in civilian US households (n = 84 954). Examined correlates included age, sex, race/ethnicity, poverty status, metropolitan status, year of survey, depression, tobacco use, alcohol use, and fighting at school. Sex differences in the correlates of lifetime use and past year marijuana initiation were tested via interaction. Lifetime prevalence of marijuana use was 5.5%; 3.2% reported past year initiation. About 1 in 6 (16.8%) past year initiates progressed to MUD within 12 months of first use. Although men had higher prevalence of lifetime use than women, past year initiation did not differ by sex. On examining the sex*race/ethnicity interaction effects, findings determined that non-Hispanic black and Hispanic men had higher prevalence estimates of ever using marijuana and incidence of past year initiation as compared with non-Hispanic white men; these race/ethnicity differences were not found among women. Identifying correlates of initiation and progression to MUD among young adolescents is critical to improve prevention and treatment program targets. PMID:28615948

  7. The Impact of Marijuana Legalization on Adolescent Use, Consequences, and Perceived Risk.

    PubMed

    Estoup, Ashley C; Moise-Campbell, Claudine; Varma, Malini; Stewart, David G

    2016-12-05

    Currently, only four states have legalized recreational marijuana use for adults over 21 years of age. Therefore, little is known about the influence that legalization will have on adolescent marijuana use. This study examines how marijuana legalization has impacted the frequency and consequences of adolescent use in a sample of participants in a school-based, substance use intervention. We hypothesized that adolescents enrolled in the intervention in years after marijuana legalization would present with more problematic use compared to those enrolled prior, and that changes in the perceived risk of marijuana would be a mechanism of problematic use. Participants were 262 students enrolled in a school-based substance use intervention in 2010 to 2015. The Customary Drinking and Drug Use Record, Alcohol and Drug Use Consequences Questionnaire, and a decisional balance matrix were used to assess marijuana frequency, negative consequences, and perceived risk of use. A mediation model was used to test the degree to which marijuana legalization may lead to increased frequency and consequences of use through perceived risk. Findings indicated a significantly positive correlation between marijuana-related consequences and perceived risk post legalization. Despite relatively equal use between both groups, adolescents in the legalization group experienced higher levels of perceived risk and increased negative consequences. Due to the rising legalization status of marijuana in the United States, it is imperative that psychoeducation is provided to adults and adolescents about the consequences of underage marijuana use.

  8. Residential Mobility, Transience, Depression, and Marijuana Use Initiation Among Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Glasheen, Cristie; Forman-Hoffman, Valerie L; Williams, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Marijuana use initiation is associated with numerous health and behavioral consequences, particularly among young adolescents. Finding easily identifiable risk markers for marijuana initiation is an important step for targeting primary and secondary prevention efforts. This study used data from the 2010–2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health to evaluate the association between residential mobility (no mobility, low mobility, high mobility [ie, transience]), and major depressive episode(s) (MDE) on marijuana initiation among adolescents (12–17) and young adults (18–20). Age-stratified logistic regression models indicated that among 12- to 13-year-old adolescents, mobility in the past 5 years and past year MDE have a multiplicative effect on the odds of past year marijuana initiation. Among adolescents aged 14 to 15 years, both mobility and MDE were independently associated with marijuana initiation, but there was no interaction. Among older adolescents (aged 16–17 years), only transience (⩾3 moves in the past 5 years) was associated with marijuana use initiation, and although MDE was significantly associated with marijuana initiation, there was no interaction with mobility. Among young adults, mobility was not associated with marijuana initiation. Residential mobility among young adolescents is an easily identifiable risk marker that may serve as an indicator for physical and mental health professionals, school personnel, and parents to use in targeting both depression and marijuana prevention efforts. PMID:28607541

  9. Motivational Enhancement Therapy for Adolescent Marijuana Users: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Denise D.; Roffman, Roger A.; Stephens, Robert S.; Wakana, Kim; Berghuis, James

    2006-01-01

    This study's aims were (a) to investigate the feasibility of a school-based motivational enhancement therapy (MET) intervention in voluntarily attracting adolescents who smoke marijuana regularly but who are not seeking formal treatment and (b) to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention in reducing marijuana use. Ninety-seven adolescents who had…

  10. The Effects of Family Structure on African American Adolescents' Marijuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandara, Jelani; Rogers, Sheba Y.; Zinbarg, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between family structure and marijuana use throughout adolescence was assessed among 1,069 African Americans from the NLSY. A model was also tested suggesting that the effects of family structure on marijuana use would be mediated by poverty, neighborhood quality, and adolescents' self-control. As most prior studies have found,…

  11. Characteristics of Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Marijuana Use: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Dubowitz, Howard; Thompson, Richard; Arria, Amelia M.; English, Diana; Metzger, Richard; Kotch, Jonathan B.

    2015-01-01

    There has been increasing acceptance of marijuana use in the US in recent years, and rates among adolescents have risen. At the same time, marijuana use during adolescence has been linked to an array of health and social problems. Maltreated children are at risk for marijuana use, but the relationships among characteristics of maltreatment and marijuana use are unclear. In this paper we examine how the type and the extent of maltreatment are related to the level of adolescent marijuana use. Data analyses were conducted on a subsample of maltreated adolescents (n = 702) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) project. Approximately half the sample had used marijuana, and maltreatment was associated with its use. Multivariate regression models showed that being male, extensive maltreatment, and peer marijuana use were associated with Heavy Use of marijuana. These findings suggest the importance of comprehensively assessing children’s maltreatment experiences and their peers’ drug use to help prevent or address possible marijuana use in these high-risk adolescents. PMID:26715532

  12. Characteristics of Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Marijuana Use: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Dubowitz, Howard; Thompson, Richard; Arria, Amelia M; English, Diana; Metzger, Richard; Kotch, Jonathan B

    2016-02-01

    There has been increasing acceptance of marijuana use in the United States in recent years, and rates among adolescents have risen. At the same time, marijuana use during adolescence has been linked to an array of health and social problems. Maltreated children are at risk for marijuana use, but the relationships among characteristics of maltreatment and marijuana use are unclear. In this article, we examine how the type and the extent of maltreatment are related to the level of adolescent marijuana use. Data analyses were conducted on a subsample of maltreated adolescents (n = 702) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect project. Approximately half the sample had used marijuana, and maltreatment was associated with its use. Multivariate regression models showed that being male, extensive maltreatment, and peer marijuana use were associated with heavy use of marijuana. These findings suggest the importance of comprehensively assessing children's maltreatment experiences and their peers' drug use to help prevent or address possible marijuana use in these high-risk adolescents. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Medical marijuana laws and adolescent use of marijuana and other substances: Alcohol, cigarettes, prescription drugs, and other illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Sarvet, Aaron L; Wall, Melanie; Feng, Tianshu; Keyes, Katherine M; Galea, Sandro; Hasin, Deborah S

    2018-02-01

    Historical shifts have taken place in the last twenty years in marijuana policy. The impact of medical marijuana laws (MML) on use of substances other than marijuana is not well understood. We examined the relationship between state MML and use of marijuana, cigarettes, illicit drugs, nonmedical use of prescription opioids, amphetamines, and tranquilizers, as well as binge drinking. Pre-post MML difference-in-difference analyses were performed on a nationally representative sample of adolescents in 48 contiguous U.S. states. Participants were 1,179,372U.S. 8th, 10th, and 12th graders in the national Monitoring the Future annual surveys conducted in 1991-2015. Measurements were any self-reported past-30-day use of marijuana, cigarettes, non-medical use of opioids, amphetamines and tranquilizers, other illicit substances, and any past-two-week binge drinking (5+ drinks per occasion). Among 8th graders, the prevalence of marijuana, binge drinking, cigarette use, non-medical use of opioids, amphetamines and tranquilizers, and any non-marijuana illicit drug use decreased after MML enactment (0.2-2.4% decrease; p-values:<0.0001-0.0293). Among 10th graders, the prevalence of substance use did not change after MML enactment (p-values: 0.177-0.938). Among 12th graders, non-medical prescription opioid and cigarette use increased after MML enactment (0.9-2.7% increase; p-values: <0.0001-0.0026). MML enactment is associated with decreases in marijuana and other drugs in early adolescence in those states. Mechanisms that explain the increase in non-medical prescription opioid and cigarette use among 12th graders following MML enactment deserve further study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Medical marijuana laws and adolescent marijuana use in the United States: a systematic review and meta‐analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sarvet, Aaron L.; Wall, Melanie M.; Fink, David S.; Greene, Emily; Le, Aline; Boustead, Anne E.; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Keyes, Katherine M.; Cerdá, Magdalena; Galea, Sandro

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Aims To conduct a systematic review and meta‐analysis of studies in order to estimate the effect of US medical marijuana laws (MMLs) on past‐month marijuana use prevalence among adolescents. Methods A total of 2999 papers from 17 literature sources were screened systematically. Eleven studies, developed from four ongoing large national surveys, were meta‐analyzed. Estimates of MML effects on any past‐month marijuana use prevalence from included studies were obtained from comparisons of pre–post MML changes in MML states to changes in non‐MML states over comparable time‐periods. These estimates were standardized and entered into a meta‐analysis model with fixed‐effects for each study. Heterogeneity among the study estimates by national data survey was tested with an omnibus F‐test. Estimates of effects on additional marijuana outcomes, of MML provisions (e.g. dispensaries) and among demographic subgroups were abstracted and summarized. Key methodological and modeling characteristics were also described. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta‐Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. Results None of the 11 studies found significant estimates of pre–post MML changes compared with contemporaneous changes in non‐MML states for marijuana use prevalence among adolescents. The meta‐analysis yielded a non‐significant pooled estimate (standardized mean difference) of −0.003 (95% confidence interval = −0.012, +0.007). Four studies compared MML with non‐MML states on pre‐MML differences and all found higher rates of past‐month marijuana use in MML states pre‐MML passage. Additional tests of specific MML provisions, of MML effects on additional marijuana outcomes and among subgroups generally yielded non‐significant results, although limited heterogeneity may warrant further study. Conclusions Synthesis of the current evidence does not support the hypothesis that US medical marijuana laws (MMLs) until

  15. Impulsivity, Attention, Memory, and Decision-Making among Adolescent Marijuana Users

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Donald M.; Mathias, Charles W.; Dawes, Michael A.; Furr, R. Michael; Charles, Nora E.; Liguori, Anthony; Shannon, Erin E.; Acheson, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Marijuana is a popular drug of abuse among adolescents, and they may be uniquely vulnerable to resulting cognitive and behavioral impairments. Previous studies have found impairments among adolescent marijuana users. However, the majority of this research has examined measures individually rather than multiple domains in a single cohesive analysis. This study used a logistic regression model that combines performance on a range of tasks to identify which measures were most altered among adolescent marijuana users. Objectives The purpose of this research was to determine unique associations between adolescent marijuana user and performances on multiple cognitive and behavioral domains (attention, memory, decision-making, and impulsivity) in 14- to 17-year-olds while simultaneously controlling for performances across the measures to determine which measures most strongly distinguish marijuana users from non-users. Methods Marijuana-using adolescents (n=45) and controls (n=48) were tested. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to test for: (a) differences between marijuana users and non-users on each measure, (b) associations between marijuana use and each measure after controlling for the other measures, and (c) the degree to which (a) and (b) together elucidated differences among marijuana users and non-users. Results Of all the cognitive and behavioral domains tested, impaired short-term recall memory and consequence sensitivity impulsivity were associated with marijuana use after controlling for performances across all measures. Conclusions This study extends previous findings by identifying cognitive and behavioral impairments most strongly associated with adolescent marijuana users. These specific deficits are potential targets of intervention for this at-risk population. PMID:23138434

  16. Impulsivity, attention, memory, and decision-making among adolescent marijuana users.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Donald M; Mathias, Charles W; Dawes, Michael A; Furr, R Michael; Charles, Nora E; Liguori, Anthony; Shannon, Erin E; Acheson, Ashley

    2013-03-01

    Marijuana is a popular drug of abuse among adolescents, and they may be uniquely vulnerable to resulting cognitive and behavioral impairments. Previous studies have found impairments among adolescent marijuana users. However, the majority of this research has examined measures individually rather than multiple domains in a single cohesive analysis. This study used a logistic regression model that combines performance on a range of tasks to identify which measures were most altered among adolescent marijuana users. The purpose of this research was to determine unique associations between adolescent marijuana use and performances on multiple cognitive and behavioral domains (attention, memory, decision-making, and impulsivity) in 14- to 17-year-olds while simultaneously controlling for performances across the measures to determine which measures most strongly distinguish marijuana users from nonusers. Marijuana-using adolescents (n = 45) and controls (n = 48) were tested. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to test for: (1) differences between marijuana users and nonusers on each measure, (2) associations between marijuana use and each measure after controlling for the other measures, and (3) the degree to which (1) and (2) together elucidated differences among marijuana users and nonusers. Of all the cognitive and behavioral domains tested, impaired short-term recall memory and consequence sensitivity impulsivity were associated with marijuana use after controlling for performances across all measures. This study extends previous findings by identifying cognitive and behavioral impairments most strongly associated with adolescent marijuana users. These specific deficits are potential targets of intervention for this at-risk population.

  17. "Girls Are Retarded When They're Stoned." Marijuana and the Construction of Gender Roles among Adolescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Jessica; Weber, Timothy R.; Albanez, Ricardo

    1999-01-01

    Uses data from 122 male and 110 female focus-group participants to study why adolescent females use less marijuana than adolescent males, focusing on normative boundaries that restrict females in access to and use of marijuana. Results suggest the limiting effects of traditional gender roles on marijuana use. (SLD)

  18. Testing the Effects of Peer Socialization versus Selection on Alcohol and Marijuana Use among Treated Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Sara J.; Curry, John F.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relative influence of peer socialization and selection on alcohol and marijuana use among 106 adolescents who received a brief intervention. Adolescents were recruited between 2003 and 2007 and followed for 12 months as part of a SAMHSA-funded study. Cross-lagged panel models using four assessment points examined the longitudinal relationship between adolescent substance use and peer substance involvement separately for alcohol and marijuana. Consistent with community studies, there was evidence of both peer socialization and peer selection for alcohol use, and only evidence of peer selection for marijuana use. Implications for research and intervention are discussed. PMID:23965039

  19. Do adolescent Ecstasy users have different attitudes towards drugs when compared to Marijuana users?

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Silvia S.; Storr, Carla L.; Alexandre, Pierre K.; Chilcoat, Howard D.

    2008-01-01

    Background Perceived risk and attitudes about the consequences of drug use, perceptions of others expectations and self-efficacy influence the intent to try drugs and continue drug use once use has started. We examine associations between adolescents’ attitudes and beliefs towards ecstasy use; because most ecstasy users have a history of marijuana use, we estimate the association for three groups of adolescents: non-marijuana/ecstasy users, marijuana users (used marijuana at least once but never used ecstasy) and ecstasy users (used ecstasy at least once). Methods Data from 5,049 adolescents aged 12–18 years old who had complete weighted data information in Round 2 of the Restricted Use Files (RUF) of the National Survey of Parents and Youth (NSPY). Data were analyzed using jackknife weighted multinomial logistic regression models. Results Adolescent marijuana and ecstasy users were more likely to approve of marijuana and ecstasy use as compared to non-drug using youth. Adolescent marijuana and ecstasy users were more likely to have close friends who approved of ecstasy as compared to non-drug using youth. The magnitudes of these two associations were stronger for ecstasy use than for marijuana use in the final adjusted model. Our final adjusted model shows that approval of marijuana and ecstasy use was more strongly associated with marijuana and ecstasy use in adolescence than perceived risk in using both drugs. Conclusion Information about the risks and consequences of ecstasy use need to be presented to adolescents in order to attempt to reduce adolescents’ approval of ecstasy use as well as ecstasy experimentation. PMID:18068314

  20. Adult Social Behavioral Effects of Heavy Adolescent Marijuana Use among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kerry M.; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of heavy adolescent marijuana use on employment, marriage, and family formation and tested both dropping out of high school and adult marijuana use as potential mediators of these associations among a community sample of African Americans followed longitudinally from age 6 to age 32-33. They used propensity …

  1. Beyond Invulnerability: The Importance of Benefits in Adolescents' Decisions To Drink Alcohol and Smoke Marijuana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Julie H.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Millstein, Susan G.

    This study examines the influence of perceived risks as well as the understudied role of benefits on alcohol and marijuana use among adolescents and adults. Ninth grade students and young adults were asked about the perceived risks and benefits of alcohol and marijuana use. Analyses showed a consistent pattern: perceived benefits were more…

  2. An exploratory examination of marijuana use, problem-gambling severity, and health correlates among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    HAMMOND, CHRISTOPHER J.; PILVER, COREY E.; RUGLE, LOREEN; STEINBERG, MARVIN A.; MAYES, LINDA C.; MALISON, ROBERT T.; KRISHNAN-SARIN, SUCHITRA; HOFF, RANI A.; POTENZA, MARC N.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Gambling is common in adolescents and at-risk and problem/pathological gambling (ARPG) is associated with adverse measures of health and functioning in this population. Although ARPG commonly co-occurs with marijuana use, little is known how marijuana use influences the relationship between problem-gambling severity and health- and gambling-related measures. Methods: Survey data from 2,252 Connecticut high school students were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression analyses. Results: ARPG was found more frequently in adolescents with lifetime marijuana use than in adolescents denying marijuana use. Marijuana use was associated with more severe and a higher frequency of gambling-related behaviors and different motivations for gambling. Multiple health/functioning impairments were differentially associated with problem-gambling severity amongst adolescents with and without marijuana use. Significant marijuana-use-by-problem-gambling-severity-group interactions were observed for low-average grades (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = [0.20, 0.77]), cigarette smoking (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = [0.17, 0.83]), current alcohol use (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = [0.14, 0.91]), and gambling with friends (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = [0.28, 0.77]). In all cases, weaker associations between problem-gambling severity and health/functioning correlates were observed in the marijuana-use group as compared to the marijuana-non-use group. Conclusions: Some academic, substance use, and social factors related to problem-gambling severity may be partially accounted for by a relationship with marijuana use. Identifying specific factors that underlie the relationships between specific attitudes and behaviors with gambling problems and marijuana use may help improve intervention strategies. PMID:25215219

  3. Marijuana commercialization and adolescent substance treatment outcomes in Colorado.

    PubMed

    LeNoue, Sean R; Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Min, Sung-Joon; Thurstone, Christian

    2017-12-01

    In Colorado, marijuana was legalized for medical use in 2000, commercialized in 2009, and approved for recreational purposes in 2012. Little is known about the association between recent policy changes and adolescent substance treatment outcomes measured by urine drug screens (UDS). This study addressed this research gap. Participants were youth (N = 523) aged 11-19 years who were enrolled in an outpatient motivational interviewing (MI)/cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) plus contingency management (CM) in Denver, Colorado from October 2007 to June 2014. The measures included UDS collected during weekly treatment sessions and sent to a commercial laboratory for quantitative analysis of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/Creatinine (Cr). Linear regression models and logistic regression models using a Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) approach for repeated measures were completed to answer the study aims. Males, but not females, had a marginally significant increasing trend over time in monthly average THC/Cr (β = 1.99, p = 0.046). There was a significant increasing trend over time (per 30 days) in the odds of having a negative UDS within 6 sessions (OR = 1.02, 95%CI = 1.003-1.04, p = 0.006). Based on these data, substance treatment outcomes from MI and CBT are mixed, but overall treatment appears to remain effective in a state with legalized marijuana. (Am J Addict 2017;26:802-806). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  4. Perceived Access and Parental Monitoring as Moderators of Impulsivity and Marijuana Use Among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Haas, Amie L; Zamboanga, Byron L; Bersamin, Melina; Hyke, Travis

    2018-04-01

    The social and political climate regarding marijuana use has been changing in the US over the past decade. Research suggests that many adolescents report relatively easy access to marijuana and perceptions that recreational use involves minimal harm despite a growing body of research implicating the deleterious effects of use on cognitive and psychological development. Not surprisingly, prevalence rates have been rising in recent years, making it important to identify risk and protective factors associated with adolescent marijuana use. We tested a 3-way interaction model designed to (a) examine the relationship between behavioral impulsivity and marijuana use in adolescents, and (b) evaluate the roles of perceived access and parental monitoring as moderators of this relationship. High school students (N = 498, M age  = 15.7, 53% female, 77% White) completed an anonymous self-report assessment examining substance use, perceived access, and psychosocial factors related to substance use (i.e., behavioral impulsivity and parental monitoring). Results indicated that higher levels of impulsivity, greater access, and reduced parental monitoring were related to marijuana use. Significant moderating effects were found for perceived access and parental monitoring, such that use was greater for adolescents who perceived that marijuana was easier to acquire and for those with lower levels of parental monitoring. Among individuals with greater levels of impulsivity, parental monitoring reduced the impact of perceived access. Overall, results highlight risk and protective factors related to adolescent marijuana use and indicate that parental monitoring can be an effective means for reducing consumption.

  5. Brain activation to negative stimuli mediates a relationship between adolescent marijuana use and later emotional functioning.

    PubMed

    Heitzeg, Mary M; Cope, Lora M; Martz, Meghan E; Hardee, Jillian E; Zucker, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    This work investigated the impact of heavy marijuana use during adolescence on emotional functioning, as well as the brain functional mediators of this effect. Participants (n=40) were recruited from the Michigan Longitudinal Study (MLS). Data on marijuana use were collected prospectively beginning in childhood as part of the MLS. Participants were classified as heavy marijuana users (n=20) or controls with minimal marijuana use. Two facets of emotional functioning-negative emotionality and resiliency (a self-regulatory mechanism)-were assessed as part of the MLS at three time points: mean age 13.4, mean age 19.6, and mean age 23.1. Functional neuroimaging data during an emotion-arousal word task were collected at mean age 20.2. Negative emotionality decreased and resiliency increased across the three time points in controls but not heavy marijuana users. Compared with controls, heavy marijuana users had less activation to negative words in temporal, prefrontal, and occipital cortices, insula, and amygdala. Activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to negative words mediated an association between marijuana group and later negative emotionality. Activation of the cuneus/lingual gyrus mediated an association between marijuana group and later resiliency. Results support growing evidence that heavy marijuana use during adolescence affects later emotional outcomes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Historical change in the link between adolescent deviance proneness and marijuana use, 1979-2004.

    PubMed

    Little, Michelle; Weaver, Scott R; King, Kevin M; Liu, Freda; Chassin, Laurie

    2008-03-01

    We examined historical change in the association between adolescent deviance proneness and marijuana use using 26 years (from 1979 through 2004) of national 12th grade data from the Monitoring the Future (MTF) study. "Deviance proneness" was measured using a latent factor model of behavioral and personality characteristics that underlie both substance use and antisocial disorders. Marijuana use was measured both in terms of annual frequency of use and degree of involvement with marijuana. Separate within-gender structural equation models were used to determine whether links between deviance proneness and marijuana use were consistently significant and invariant in magnitude across 13 two-year historical cohorts. Overall results affirmed the established association between adolescent deviance proneness and both the frequency of marijuana use as well as regular use. Among male youth, the size of the association between deviance proneness and marijuana use was significantly smaller at the cohort of lowest population prevalence (1991/92) compared to cohorts marking peaks in marijuana use prevalence, thus suggesting a "softening" historical trend. By contrast, the prediction of female marijuana use from deviance proneness was not consistently related to historical shifts in population prevalence of marijuana use. Study findings point to the utility of risk-focused prevention programming that targets early precursors of both antisocial and substance use disorders.

  7. Historical Change in the Link between Adolescent Deviance Proneness and Marijuana Use, 1979–2004

    PubMed Central

    Little, Michelle; Weaver, Scott R.; King, Kevin M.; Liu, Freda; Chassin, Laurie

    2009-01-01

    We examined historical change in the association between adolescent deviance proneness and marijuana use using 26 years (from 1979 through 2004) of national 12th grade data from the Monitoring the Future (MTF) study. “Deviance proneness” was measured using a latent factor model of behavioral and personality characteristics that underlie both substance use and antisocial disorders. Marijuana use outcomes were measured in terms of youths’ annual frequency of use, and youths’ degree of involvement with marijuana. Separate within-gender structural equation models were used to determine whether links between deviance proneness and marijuana use were consistently significant and invariant in magnitude across 13 2-year historical cohorts. Overall results affirmed the established association between adolescent deviance proneness and both the frequency of marijuana use as well as regular use. Among male youth, the size of the association between deviance proneness and marijuana use was significantly smaller at the cohort of lowest population prevalence (1991/92) compared to cohorts marking peaks in marijuana use prevalence, thus suggesting a “softening” historical trend. By contrast, the prediction of female marijuana use from deviance proneness was not consistently related to historical shifts in population prevalence of marijuana use. Study findings point to the utility of risk-focused prevention programming that targets early precursors of both antisocial and substance use disorders. PMID:18317927

  8. Past 15-year trends in adolescent marijuana use: Differences by race/ethnicity and sex.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Renee M; Fairman, Brian; Gilreath, Tamika; Xuan, Ziming; Rothman, Emily F; Parnham, Taylor; Furr-Holden, C Debra M

    2015-10-01

    The potential for increases in adolescent marijuana use is an important concern given recent changes in marijuana policy. The purpose of this study was to estimate trends in marijuana use from 1999 to 2013 among a national sample of US high school students. We examine changes over time by race/ethnicity and sex. Data are from the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), which involves biennial, school-based surveys that generate nationally representative data about 9th-12th grade students in the United States. Students self-reported sex, race/ethnicity, and marijuana use (i.e., lifetime use, past 30-day use, any use before age 13). We generated national estimates of the prevalence of marijuana use for the time period, and also tested for linear and quadratic trends (n=115,379). The prevalence of lifetime marijuana use decreased modestly from 1999 to 2009 (44% to 37%), and has increased slightly since 2009 (41%). Other marijuana use variables (e.g., past 30-day use) followed a similar pattern over time. The prevalence of past 30-day use from 1999 to 2013 for all groups and both sexes was 22.5%, and it was lowest among Asians and highest among American Indian/Alaska Natives. Although boys have historically had a higher prevalence of marijuana use, results indicate that male-female differences in marijuana use decreased over time. Despite considerable changes in state marijuana policies over the past 15 years, marijuana use among high school students has largely declined. Continued surveillance is needed to assess the impact of policy changes on adolescent marijuana use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Past 15-Year Trends in Adolescent Marijuana Use: Differences by Race/Ethnicity and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Renee M.; Fairman, Brian; Gilreath, Tamika; Xuan, Ziming; Rothman, Emily F.; Parnham, Taylor; Furr-Holden, C. Debra M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The potential for increases in adolescent marijuana use is an important concern given recent changes in marijuana policy. The purpose of this study was to estimate trends in marijuana use from 1999-2013 among a national sample of US high school students. We examine changes over time by race/ethnicity and sex. Methods Data are from the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), which involves biennial, school-based surveys that generate nationally-representative data about 9th-12th grade students in the United States. Students self-reported sex, race/ethnicity, and marijuana use (i.e., lifetime use, current use, any use before age 13). We generated national estimates of the prevalence of marijuana use for the time period, and also tested for linear and quadratic trends (n=115,379). Results The prevalence of lifetime marijuana use decreased modestly from 1999 to 2009 (44% to 37%), and has increased slightly since 2009 (41%). Other marijuana use variables (e.g., past 30-day use) followed a similar pattern over time. The prevalence of past 30-day use from 1999-2013 for all groups and both sexes was 22.5%, and it was lowest among Asians and highest among American Indian/Alaska Natives. Although boys have historically had a higher prevalence of marijuana use, results indicate that male-female differences in marijuana use decreased over time. Conclusion Despite considerable changes in state marijuana policies over the past 15 years, marijuana use among high school students has largely declined. Continued surveillance is needed to assess the impact of policy changes on adolescent marijuana use. PMID:26361714

  10. Comparison of comprehensive and abstinence-only sexuality education in young African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Lindsay M; Sly, Kaye F; Girard, Jeffrey M

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of sexual behavior and condom use in African American adolescents, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of comprehensive sexuality and abstinence-only education to reduce adolescent sexual behavior and increase condom use. Participants included 450 adolescents aged 12-14 years in the southern United States. Regression analyses showed favorable attitudes toward sexual behavior and social norms significantly predicted recent sexual behavior, and favorable attitudes toward condoms significantly predicted condom usage. Self-efficacy was not found to be predictive of adolescents' sexual behavior or condom use. There were no significant differences in recent sexual behavior based on type of sexuality education. Adolescents who received abstinence-only education had reduced favorable attitudes toward condom use, and were more likely to have unprotected sex than the comparison group. Findings suggest that adolescents who receive abstinence-only education are at greater risk of engaging in unprotected sex. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prenatal, perinatal, and adolescent exposure to marijuana: Relationships with aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Barthelemy, Olivier J; Richardson, Mark A; Cabral, Howard J; Frank, Deborah A

    This manuscript reviews research exploring the relationship between prenatal, perinatal, and adolescent exposure to marijuana and aggressive behavior, including physical aggression. Areas of inquiry include animal research, as well as human research, on prenatal exposure and on marijuana use during adolescence. Potential psychosocial and psychopharmacological mechanisms are identified, as well as relevant confounds. The prenatal marijuana exposure literature provides minimal support for a direct relationship with aggressive behavior in childhood. The adolescent use literature suggests a marginal (at best) association between acute intoxication and aggressive behavior, and an association between chronic use and aggressive behavior heavily influenced by demographic variables, rather than direct, psychopharmacological mechanisms. Cannabis withdrawal symptoms also may include aggression and anger, but there is little evidence to suggest that these effects are large or specific to withdrawal from marijuana compared to other substances. This review will offer recommendations for clinical care and public policy, as well as important questions for future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The application of minority stress theory to marijuana use among sexual minority adolescents.

    PubMed

    Goldbach, Jeremy T; Schrager, Sheree M; Dunlap, Shannon L; Holloway, Ian W

    2015-02-01

    Previous research indicates that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adolescents are at increased risk for substance use, including heightened rates of marijuana use. Minority stress theory suggests that difficult social situations create a state of chronic stress that leads to poor health outcomes for LGB adults; however, the applicability of this model has not been well explored in relation to substance use among LGB adolescents. The current study is a secondary analysis of the OutProud survey, conducted in 2000. The original study used purposive sampling to collect data from 1,911 LGB adolescents (age 12-17) across the United States, and represents the largest known study to explore experiences specific to identifying as LGB, such as homophobia and gay-related victimization. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to explore the feasibility of applying a minority stress framework to understand marijuana use in this population. The final structural model for marijuana use in the LGB adolescent sample displayed excellent fit and modest explanatory power for marijuana use. Two of the five factors, community connectedness and internalized homophobia, were significantly (p < .05) associated with marijuana use. Findings suggest that minority stress theory may be appropriately applied to marijuana use in this population; however, better measurement of minority stress concepts for LGB adolescents is needed.

  13. Understanding Motivations for Abstinence among Adolescent Young Women: Insights into Effective Sexual Risk Reduction Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Long-Middleton, Ellen R.; Burke, Pamela J.; Lawrence, Cheryl A. Cahill; Blanchard, Lauren B.; Amudala, Naomi H.; Rankin, Sally H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections pose a significant threat to the health and wellbeing of adolescent young women. Abstinence when practiced provides the most effective means in preventing these problems, yet the perspective of abstinent young women is not well understood. The purpose of the investigation was to characterize female adolescents’ motivations for abstinence. Method As part of a larger, cross-sectional quantitative study investigating predictors of HIV risk reduction behaviors, qualitative responses from study participants who never had intercourse were analyzed in a consensus-based process using content analysis and frequency counts. An urban primary care site in a tertiary care center served as the setting, with adolescent young women ages 15–19 years included in the sample. Results Five broad topic categories emerged from the data that characterized motivations for abstinence in this sample: 1) Personal Readiness, 2) Fear, 3) Beliefs and Values, 4) Partner Worthiness and 5) Lack of Opportunity. Discussion A better understanding of the motivations for abstinence may serve to guide the development of interventions to delay intercourse. PMID:22525893

  14. The impact of adolescent binge drinking and sustained abstinence on affective state.

    PubMed

    Bekman, Nicole M; Winward, Jennifer L; Lau, Lily L; Wagner, Chase C; Brown, Sandra A

    2013-08-01

    While it is clear that affect is negatively impacted by heavy drinking in adulthood and that it improves with abstinence, little is known about effects of heavy drinking on mood during adolescence. This study examined negative mood states among 2 groups of 16- to 18-year-old high school students; youth with a history of recent heavy episodic drinking (HED; n = 39) and comparison youth with limited lifetime drinking experience (CON; n = 26). Affect was assessed at 3 time points during a 4- to 6-week period of monitored abstinence using the Hamilton Rating Scales for Anxiety and Depression; self-reports were obtained with the state portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and experience sampling of current affect was assessed via daily text messages sent at randomly determined times in the morning, afternoon, and evening. Youth with a recent history of HED reported more negative affect compared with nondrinking youth during early stages of abstinence (days since last HED at assessment 1: M = 6.46; SD = 5.06); however, differences in affect were not observed after 4 to 6 weeks of abstinence. Sex differences were evident, with HED girls reporting greater depression and anxiety than HED male peers. Although not significant, response patterns indicated that boys may experience faster resolution of negative emotional states than girls with sustained abstinence. Findings suggest that high-dose drinking is associated with elevated negative affect for adolescents and that negative mood states may take longer to resolve for girls than for boys following heavy drinking episodes. Future research clarifying naturally occurring changes in affective response during early and sustained abstinence is necessary for improving programs designed to promote adolescent decision-making and to reduce risk for relapse. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  15. Factors influencing abstinence, anticipation, and delay of sex among adolescent boys in high-sexually transmitted infection prevalence communities.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Teresa; Auerswald, Colette L; Ott, Mary A

    2014-05-01

    Abstinence is a core pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention strategy. We explore the attitudinal, behavioral, and family contexts relating to abstinence and the decision to delay sex among adolescent boys. Adolescent boys ages 14-17 years were recruited from community sites using a venue-based sampling method. All eligible boys at venues were invited to participate in an electronic survey. Question items included sexual behaviors, attitudes related to sex, relationships, masculine values, and family contextual items. We enrolled 667 participants, mean age 15.7 years, of diverse ethnicity. A total of 252 were abstinent (38%). Abstinent participants were younger and less likely to report non-coital behaviors, and reported lower conventional masculine values. Among abstinent participants, 62% planned to delay sex, whereas 38% anticipated sex in the next year. Participants with lower conventional masculine values and more religious or moral motivations for abstinence were more likely to plan to delay sex. Abstinence among boys is common, even in high-STI risk communities. For these boys, abstinence appears to be a complex behavioral decision influenced by demographic, behavioral, attitudinal, and contextual factors such as age, race, non-coital sexual behaviors, and masculine values. Understanding the attitudes and contexts of abstinence, including plans to delay sex, can inform the development of public health programs for early fatherhood and STI prevention. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Outcomes Associated with Adolescent Marijuana and Alcohol Use Among Urban Young Adults: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Green, Kerry M.; Musci, Rashelle J.; Johnson, Renee M.; Matson, Pamela A.; Reboussin, Beth A.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study identifies and compares outcomes in young adulthood associated with longitudinal patterns of alcohol and marijuana use during adolescence among urban youth. Method Data come from a cohort of 678 urban, predominantly Black children followed from ages 6–25 (1993–2012). Analyses are based on the 608 children who participated over time (53.6% male). Longitudinal patterning of alcohol and marijuana use were based on annual frequency reports from grades 8–12 and estimated through latent profile analysis. Results We identified four classes of alcohol and marijuana use including Non-Use (47%), Moderate Alcohol Use (28%), Moderate Alcohol/Increasing Marijuana Use (12%) and High Dual Use (13%). A marijuana only class was not identified. Analyses show negative outcomes in adulthood associated with all three adolescent substance use classes. Compared to the non-use class, all use classes had statistically significantly higher rates of substance dependence. Those in the ‘High Dual Use’ class had the lowest rate of high school graduation. Comparing classes with similar alcohol but different marijuana patterns, the ‘Moderate Alcohol/Increasing Marijuana Use’ class had a statistically significant increased risk of having a criminal justice record and developing substance use dependence in adulthood. Conclusion Among urban youth, heterogeneous patterns of alcohol and marijuana use across adolescence are evident, and these patterns are associated with distinct outcomes in adulthood. These findings suggest a need for targeted education and intervention efforts to address the needs of youth using both marijuana and alcohol, as well as the importance of universal early preventive intervention efforts. PMID:26517712

  17. Associations between childhood ADHD, gender, and adolescent alcohol and marijuana involvement: A causally informative design.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Irene J; Saunders, Gretchen R B; Malone, Stephen M; Keyes, Margaret A; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2018-03-01

    We report whether the etiology underlying associations of childhood ADHD with adolescent alcohol and marijuana involvement is consistent with causal relationships or shared predispositions, and whether it differs by gender. In three population-based twin samples (N = 3762; 64% monozygotic), including one oversampling females with ADHD, regressions were conducted with childhood inattentive or hyperactive-impulsive symptoms predicting alcohol and marijuana outcomes by age 17. To determine whether ADHD effects were consistent with causality, twin difference analyses divided effects into those shared between twins in the pair and those differing within pairs. Adolescents with more severe childhood ADHD were more likely to initiate alcohol and marijuana use earlier, escalate to frequent or heavy use, and develop symptoms. While risks were similar across genders, females with more hyperactivity-impulsivity had higher alcohol consumption and progressed further toward daily marijuana use than did males. Monozygotic twins with more severe ADHD than their co-twins did not differ significantly on alcohol or marijuana outcomes, however, suggesting a non-causal relationship. When co-occurring use of other substances and conduct/oppositional defiant disorders were considered, hyperactivity-impulsivity remained significantly associated with both substances, as did inattention with marijuana, but not alcohol. Childhood ADHD predicts when alcohol and marijuana use are initiated and how quickly use escalates. Shared familial environment and genetics, rather than causal influences, primarily account for these associations. Stronger relationships between hyperactivity-impulsivity and heavy drinking/frequent marijuana use among adolescent females than males, as well as the greater salience of inattention for marijuana, merit further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cortical thickness in adolescent marijuana and alcohol users: A three-year prospective study from adolescence to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Jacobus, Joanna; Squeglia, Lindsay M; Meruelo, Alejandro D; Castro, Norma; Brumback, Ty; Giedd, Jay N; Tapert, Susan F

    2015-12-01

    Studies suggest marijuana impacts gray and white matter neural tissue development, however few prospective studies have determined the relationship between cortical thickness and cannabis use spanning adolescence to young adulthood. This study aimed to understand how heavy marijuana use influences cortical thickness trajectories across adolescence. Subjects were adolescents with heavy marijuana use and concomitant alcohol use (MJ+ALC, n=30) and controls (CON, n=38) with limited substance use histories. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging and comprehensive substance use assessment at three independent time points. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to look at main effects of group, time, and Group × Time interactions on cortical thickness. MJ+ALC showed thicker cortical estimates across the brain (23 regions), particularly in frontal and parietal lobes (ps<.05). More cumulative marijuana use was associated with increased thickness estimates by 3-year follow-up (ps<.05). Heavy marijuana use during adolescence and into young adulthood may be associated with altered neural tissue development and interference with neuromaturation that can have neurobehavioral consequences. Continued follow-up of adolescent marijuana users will help understand ongoing neural changes that are associated with development of problematic use into adulthood, as well as potential for neural recovery with cessation of use. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Messages About Abstinence, Delaying Sexual Debut and Sexual Decision-Making in Conversations Between Mothers and Young Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ramchandani, Kanika; Morrison, Penelope; Gold, Melanie A; Akers, Aletha Y

    2018-04-01

    Little is known about the information shared during family discussions about sexuality. From a public health perspective, abstinence is one of the most important sexuality topics parents can talk about with adolescents. We sought to characterize the messages mothers communicate to young adolescents regarding abstinence. Content analysis of dyadic discussions that occurred between June 2011-December 2012 between mothers and their 10- to 14-year-old adolescent sons and daughters. Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and a grounded theory approach to content analysis performed. Urban city in Western Pennsylvania. Twenty-one dyads; 15 mother-daughter dyads and 6 mother-son dyads. None. None. Four key themes emerged reflecting the high priority mothers placed on abstinence, delaying their adolescent's sexual debut, and nurturing sexual decision-making skills. Theme 1 focused on ensuring that adolescents understand what abstinence means. In defining abstinence, only 1 mother explained what sex is. The 3 remaining themes emphasized sexual decision-making and emphasized when it is acceptable to stop being abstinent (theme 2), why abstinence is important (theme 3), and mothers' desire to engage in ongoing discussions, particularly when an adolescent was considering becoming sexually active (theme 4). Messages did not vary according to mothers' age or according to adolescent age, gender, or race. Mothers convey complex information about abstinence and sexual decision-making to young, non-sexually active adolescents. Message tailoring on the basis of the adolescents' age or sex was not observed. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychiatric Syndromes in Adolescents with Marijuana Abuse and Dependency in Outpatient Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Guy; Panichelli-Mindel, Susan M.; Shera, David; Dennis, Mike; Tims, Frank; Ungemack, Jane

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current study to assist in understanding the prevalence and clinical correlates of psychiatric distress in adolescents seeking outpatient services for marijuana abuse or dependency. Methods: In a multi-site randomized clinical trial, 600 adolescents and their parents were assessed at intake using the Global Appraisals…

  1. Young Adults' Perceptions of an Adolescent's Use of Marijuana and Alcohol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabors, Laura A.; Brubaker, Michael D.; Hoffman, Sarah; Shipley, Halley; Pangallo, Jordan; Strong, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent substance use is a serious problem often invoking negative reactions. The current study extends the literature in this area. A total of 425 college students read one of five vignettes, each of which described an adolescent who used marijuana, hard liquor, or drank an occasional beer (control) and who had received or not received…

  2. A prospective study of marijuana use change and cessation among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Michael S; Tucker, Joan S; de la Haye, Kayla; Green, Harold D; Kennedy, David P

    2014-11-01

    With marijuana use increasing among American adolescents, better understanding of the factors associated with decreasing use and quitting can help inform cessation efforts. This study evaluates a range of neighborhood, family, peer network, and individual factors as predictors of marijuana use, change, and non-use over one year, and cessation over six years. Data come from adolescents in Waves I and II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N=458, one-year sample), or Waves I and III (N=358, six-year sample), and reported using marijuana at least four times in the past month at Wave I. Eighteen percent of adolescents stopped using marijuana after six years. Results suggest neighborhood context affects overall use level, whereas neighborhood context and friends were critical to cessation vs. continuation of use. Decrease in use were more likely among adolescents in disadvantaged or less cohesive neighborhoods, or who moved between waves. Non-use after one year was more likely among adolescents who did not move, had fewer marijuana-using friends, and did not exclusively have outside-of-school friends. Cessation at six years was more likely among adolescents in less disadvantaged and more cohesive neighborhoods, and for those with within-school friends. Results highlight the importance of both objective and subjective neighborhood characteristics, as well as peer networks, on adolescent marijuana use. Factors associated with decreases in use appear distinct from those that predict quitting, suggesting that continuation vs. cessation is linked to peers as well as neighborhood context. Relocated and isolated individuals may face challenges with cessation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Does adolescent alcohol and marijuana use predict suppressed growth in psychosocial maturity among male juvenile offenders?

    PubMed

    Chassin, Laurie; Dmitrieva, Julia; Modecki, Kathryn; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Piquero, Alex R; Knight, George P; Losoya, Sandra H

    2010-03-01

    Multiple theories suggest mechanisms by which the use of alcohol and drugs during adolescence could dampen growth in psychosocial maturity. However, scant empirical evidence exists to support this proposition. The current study tested whether alcohol and marijuana use predicted suppressed growth in psychosocial maturity among a sample of male serious juvenile offenders (n = 1,170) who were followed from ages 15 to 21 years. Alcohol and marijuana use prospectively predicted lower maturity 6 months later. Moreover, boys with the greatest increases in marijuana use showed the smallest increases in psychosocial maturity. Finally, heterogeneity in the form of age-related alcohol and marijuana trajectories was related to growth in maturity, such that only boys who decreased their alcohol and marijuana use significantly increased in psychosocial maturity. Taken together, these findings suggest that patterns of elevated alcohol and marijuana use in adolescence may suppress age-typical growth in psychosocial maturity from adolescence to young adulthood, but that effects are not necessarily permanent, because decreasing use is associated with increases in maturity.

  4. Antecedents and outcomes of marijuana use initiation during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Ellickson, Phyllis L; Tucker, Joan S; Klein, David J; Saner, Hilary

    2004-11-01

    This study identified similarities and differences in risk factors for marijuana use initiation from grades 7 to 8, grades 8 to 9, and grades 9 to 10, and examined differences between earlier initiates, later initiates, and nonusers on various problem behaviors at grade 10. Longitudinal data were used to examine predictors and outcomes associated with marijuana initiation from grade 7 (N = 1,955) to grade 10 (N = 909). Participants completed yearly surveys to assess problem behaviors, social influences, and marijuana-related attitudes and behavior. Earlier initiates were more likely than later initiates to exhibit problem-related marijuana use, hard drug use, polydrug use, poor grades, and low academic intentions at grade 10. Across ages, initiation was predicted by smoking, frequency of marijuana offers, and poor grades. Results provided some evidence for a shift from familial to peer influence on marijuana initiation with increasing age. Marijuana-related beliefs were relatively weak predictors of initiation at all ages after controlling for pro-marijuana social influences and engagement in other types of substance use and delinquent behavior. Results emphasize the importance of early intervention and identify a wide range of potentially modifiable risk factors that may be targeted.

  5. Adolescent Toluene Inhalation in Rats Affects White Matter Maturation with the Potential for Recovery Following Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Gary; Kolbe, Scott; Gavrilescu, Maria; Wright, David; Lubman, Dan Ian; Lawrence, Andrew John

    2012-01-01

    Inhalant misuse is common during adolescence, with ongoing chronic misuse associated with neurobiological and cognitive abnormalities. While human imaging studies consistently report white matter abnormalities among long-term inhalant users, longitudinal studies have been lacking with limited data available regarding the progressive nature of such abnormalities, including the potential for recovery following periods of sustained abstinence. We exposed adolescent male Wistar rats (postnatal day 27) to chronic intermittent inhaled toluene (3,000 ppm) for 1 hour/day, 3 times/week for 8 weeks to model abuse patterns observed in adolescent and young adult human users. This dosing regimen resulted in a significant retardation in weight gain during the exposure period (p<0.05). In parallel, we performed longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (T2-weighted) and diffusion tensor imaging prior to exposure, and after 4 and 8 weeks, to examine the integrity of white matter tracts, including the anterior commissure and corpus callosum. We also conducted imaging after 8 weeks of abstinence to assess for potential recovery. Chronic intermittent toluene exposure during adolescence and early adulthood resulted in white matter abnormalities, including a decrease in axial (p<0.05) and radial (p<0.05) diffusivity. These abnormalities appeared region-specific, occurring in the anterior commissure but not the corpus callosum and were not present until after at least 4 weeks of exposure. Toluene-induced effects on both body weight and white matter parameters recovered following abstinence. Behaviourally, we observed a progressive decrease in rearing activity following toluene exposure but no difference in motor function, suggesting cognitive function may be more sensitive to the effects of toluene. Furthermore, deficits in rearing were present by 4 weeks suggesting that toluene may affect behaviour prior to detectable white matter abnormalities. Consequently, exposure to inhalants that

  6. Adolescent toluene inhalation in rats affects white matter maturation with the potential for recovery following abstinence.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Jhodie Rubina; Dick, Alec Lindsay Ward; Egan, Gary; Kolbe, Scott; Gavrilescu, Maria; Wright, David; Lubman, Dan Ian; Lawrence, Andrew John

    2012-01-01

    Inhalant misuse is common during adolescence, with ongoing chronic misuse associated with neurobiological and cognitive abnormalities. While human imaging studies consistently report white matter abnormalities among long-term inhalant users, longitudinal studies have been lacking with limited data available regarding the progressive nature of such abnormalities, including the potential for recovery following periods of sustained abstinence. We exposed adolescent male Wistar rats (postnatal day 27) to chronic intermittent inhaled toluene (3,000 ppm) for 1 hour/day, 3 times/week for 8 weeks to model abuse patterns observed in adolescent and young adult human users. This dosing regimen resulted in a significant retardation in weight gain during the exposure period (p<0.05). In parallel, we performed longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (T₂-weighted) and diffusion tensor imaging prior to exposure, and after 4 and 8 weeks, to examine the integrity of white matter tracts, including the anterior commissure and corpus callosum. We also conducted imaging after 8 weeks of abstinence to assess for potential recovery. Chronic intermittent toluene exposure during adolescence and early adulthood resulted in white matter abnormalities, including a decrease in axial (p<0.05) and radial (p<0.05) diffusivity. These abnormalities appeared region-specific, occurring in the anterior commissure but not the corpus callosum and were not present until after at least 4 weeks of exposure. Toluene-induced effects on both body weight and white matter parameters recovered following abstinence. Behaviourally, we observed a progressive decrease in rearing activity following toluene exposure but no difference in motor function, suggesting cognitive function may be more sensitive to the effects of toluene. Furthermore, deficits in rearing were present by 4 weeks suggesting that toluene may affect behaviour prior to detectable white matter abnormalities. Consequently, exposure to inhalants that

  7. Adolescents' Beliefs about Marijuana Use: A Comparison of Regular Users, Past Users and Never/Occasional Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plancherel, Bernard; Bolognini, Monique; Stephan, Philippe; Laget, Jacques; Chinet, Leonie; Bernard, Mathieu; Halfon, Olivier

    2005-01-01

    A questionnaire investigating adolescents' opinions and experiences regarding marijuana use was administered to 163 adolescents and young adults (96 boys and 67 girls) aged 13 to 20 (mean age = 16.8, s.d. = 1.5). Items referred to marijuana and other substances' dangerousness, representations regarding the positive and negative consequences of…

  8. The effects of purchasing alcohol and marijuana among adolescents at-risk for future substance use.

    PubMed

    Osilla, Karen Chan; Pedersen, Eric R; Ewing, Brett A; Miles, Jeremy N V; Ramchand, Rajeev; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2014-09-18

    Among high-risk youth, those who may be at increased risk for adverse alcohol and other drug (AOD) use outcomes may benefit from targeted prevention efforts; how youth acquire AOD may provide an objective means of identifying youth at elevated risk. We assessed how youth acquired alcohol and marijuana (purchasing vs. other means), demographics, AOD behaviors/consequences, and environment among adolescents referred to a diversion program called Teen Court (N = 180) at two time points (prior to the program and 180 days from baseline). Participants were predominantly White and Hispanic/Latino(a). In cross-sectional analyses among alcohol and marijuana users, purchasing marijuana was associated with more frequent marijuana use and consequences, time spent around teens who use marijuana, higher likelihood of substance use disorders, and lower resistance self-efficacy compared to non-purchasers. Teens who purchased both alcohol and marijuana experienced similar outcomes to those who purchased only marijuana, and also reported more frequent and higher quantity of drinking, greater alcohol-related consequences, time spent around teens who use other drugs, and prescription drug misuse. Longitudinally, purchasing alcohol and marijuana at baseline was associated with more frequent and higher quantity of drinking compared to non-purchasers at follow-up. Marijuana only purchasers had a greater likelihood of substance use disorders at follow-up compared to non-purchasers. In an era where drinking is commonplace and attitudes towards marijuana use are becoming more tolerant, it is essential to evaluate how accessibility to AOD and subsequent purchasing behaviors affect youth consumption and intervene accordingly to prevent future consequences.

  9. Trends in Perceived Access to Marijuana Among Adolescents in the United States: 2002-2015.

    PubMed

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Oh, Sehun; Goings, Trenette Clark; Vaughn, Michael G

    2017-09-01

    There is concern that changes in marijuana-related policy and public opinion may lead to increased access to marijuana among young people in the United States. However, little research has been conducted on changes in youth's perceptions of marijuana access, and studies have yet to systematically examine trends in perceived access across key sociodemographic and externalizing behavioral subgroups. Using population-based data collected between 2002 and 2015 as part of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, we examined trends in perceived marijuana access among non-Hispanic White, African American, and Hispanic adolescents (ages 12-17, n = 221,412). Following the trend analysis method outlined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we conducted logistic regression analyses to test for secular trends. Between 2002 and 2015, we observed a 27% overall reduction in the relative proportion of adolescents ages 12-17-and a 42% reduction among those ages 12-14-reporting that it would be "very easy" to obtain marijuana. This pattern was uniformly observed among youth in all sociodemographic subgroups (i.e., across age, gender, race/ethnicity, household income) and among youth reporting involvement/no involvement in most measures of substance use (alcohol, marijuana) and delinquency (handgun carrying, attacks). However, perceived very easy access remained stable among youth reporting tobacco use and criminal justice system involvement. Despite the legalization of recreational and medical marijuana in some states, our findings suggest that, with the notable exception of adolescent tobacco users and juvenile offenders, perceptions that marijuana would be very easy to obtain are on the decline among American youth.

  10. The influence of electronic cigarette age purchasing restrictions on adolescent tobacco and marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Pesko, Michael F; Hughes, Jenna M; Faisal, Fatima S

    2016-06-01

    In the United States, many states have established minimum legal purchase ages for electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) to ban adolescent purchases, but these policies may also affect other related substance use. We explore whether ENDS are substitutes or complements for cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, and marijuana among adolescents by using variation in state-level implementation of ENDS age purchasing restrictions. We linked data on ENDS age purchasing restrictions to state- and year-specific rates of adolescent tobacco and marijuana use in 2007-2013 from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. This data provides a nationally representative sample of adolescents who attend public and private schools. We performed a fixed effect regression analysis exploring the influence of ENDS age purchasing restrictions on outcomes of tobacco use and marijuana use, controlling for state and year fixed characteristics, age-race cohorts, cigarette excise taxes, and cigarette indoor use restrictions. For cigarette use, we separate our results into cigarette use frequency. We found causal evidence that ENDS age purchasing restrictions increased adolescent regular cigarette use by 0.8 percentage points. ENDS age purchasing restrictions were not associated with cigar use, smokeless tobacco use, or marijuana use. We document a concerning trend of cigarette smoking among adolescents increasing when ENDS become more difficult to purchase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nigerian secondary school adolescents' perspective on abstinence-only sexual education as an effective tool for promotion of sexual health.

    PubMed

    Inyang, Mfrekemfon P; Inyang, Obonganyie P

    2013-01-01

    The success of any type of sexual education programme depends on the knowledge and preparedness for practice by adolescents. A recent study has found that an 'abstinence-only' sexual education programme is effective in reducing sexual activity among adolescents. Knowledge of abstinence-only sexual education and preparedness for practice as an effective tool for promotion of sexual health among Nigerian secondary school adolescents was studied. An analytic descriptive survey design was used for the study. The research population comprised of all public secondary schools in three southern geopolitical zones of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 2020 senior secondary school (SS1-SS3) students as sample for the study. A partially self-designed and partially adapted questionnaire from an 'abstinence-only versus comprehensive sex education' debate, from debatepedia (http://wiki.idebate.org/), entitled 'Questionnaire on Nigerian Secondary School Adolescents' Perspective on Abstinence-Only Sexual Education (QNSSAPAOSE)' was used in eliciting information from respondents. Hypotheses were formulated and tested. Frequency counts, percentage and Pearson Product Moment Correlation were used in analysing data. A greater proportion of secondary school adolescents in this study lacked knowledge of sexual education. About 80% of the respondents could not define sexual education. The general perspective on abstinence-only sexual education was negative, as revealed by the larger number of respondents who demonstrated unwillingness to practice abstinence-only sexual education. Specifically, of those who responded in favour of abstinence-only sexual education, the youngest group of adolescents (11-13 years) and the male respondents were more likely to accept this type of education than the other groups. Poor knowledge of sexual education could be responsible for unwillingness to practice abstinence-only sexual education. Sexual

  12. Adolescent heavy drinkers' amplified brain responses to alcohol cues decrease over one month of abstinence.

    PubMed

    Brumback, Ty; Squeglia, Lindsay M; Jacobus, Joanna; Pulido, Carmen; Tapert, Susan F; Brown, Sandra A

    2015-07-01

    Heavy drinking during adolescence is associated with increased reactivity to alcohol related stimuli and to differential neural development. Alcohol cue reactivity has been widely studied among adults with alcohol use disorders, but little is known about the neural substrates of cue reactivity in adolescent drinkers. The current study aimed to identify changes in blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal during a cue reactivity task pre- and post-monitored abstinence from alcohol. Demographically matched adolescents (16.0-18.9 years, 54% female) with histories of heavy episodic drinking (HD; n=22) and light or non-drinking control teens (CON; n=16) were recruited to participate in a month-long study. All participants completed a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scan with an alcohol cue reactivity task and substance use assessments at baseline and after 28 days of monitored abstinence from alcohol and drugs (i.e., urine toxicology testing every 48-72 h). Repeated-measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) examined main effects of group, time, and group×time interactions on BOLD signal response in regions of interest defined by functional differences at baseline. The HD group exhibited greater (p<.01) BOLD activation than CON to alcohol cues relative to neutral cues in all regions of interest (ROIs; bilateral striatum/globus pallidus, left anterior cingulate, bilateral cerebellum, and parahippocampal gyrus extending to the thalamus/substantia nigra) across time points. Group×time effects showed that HD exhibited greater BOLD activation to alcohol cues than CON at baseline in left anterior cingulate cortex and in the right cerebellar region, but these decreased to non-significance after one month of monitored abstinence. In all ROIs examined, HD exhibited greater BOLD response than CON to alcohol relative to neutral beverage picture cues at baseline, indicating heightened cue reactivity to alcohol cues in heavy drinking adolescents prior to the onset of any

  13. Effectiveness of Motivational Incentives for Adolescent Marijuana Users in a School-Based Intervention.

    PubMed

    Stewart, David G; Felleman, Benjamin I; Arger, Christopher A

    2015-11-01

    This study examined whether adolescents receiving Motivational Interviewing (MI) intervention have different outcomes compared to those receiving Motivational Incentives (Motivational Interviewing combined with Contingency Management; MI+CM). A total of 136 adolescents (from a parent study of 220 adolescents) with problematic substance use were recruited from 8 high schools in Washington State, where they completed either 8-weeks of MI or MI+CM. Frequency of marijuana use was assessed at baseline, at the end-of-treatment, and at 16-week follow-up. A balanced and matched sample was created using propensity scores, then analyzed using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM). Multilevel regression analyses revealed that adolescents who received MI+CM exhibited a greater reduction in use across time (p<.05). Reductions at the end-of-treatment were greater for the MI+CM condition (Cohen's d=-.82) compared to MI alone (Cohen's d=-.33), but did not differ at 16-week follow-up. Adolescents receiving MI+CM showed significantly fewer negative consequences of marijuana use at the end-of-treatment (t1, 124=2.26, p<.05), higher use of coping strategies (t1, 124=3.01, p<.01), and increased likelihood to attend additional treatment for substance use (χ2 1, 124=4.12 p<.05), though hypothesized improvements in motivation and school attendance were not found. Use of coping strategies at the end-of-treatment had a significant indirect effect on the relationship between the intervention condition and marijuana use at the end-of-treatment (F3, 121=10.20, R2=.20, p<.01). These results suggest that the inclusion of contingencies into adolescent marijuana treatment decreases the end-of-treatment frequency of marijuana use and related consequences while increasing the use of coping strategies and the pursuit of additional treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Where and when adolescents use tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana: comparisons by age, gender, and race.

    PubMed

    Goncy, Elizabeth A; Mrug, Sylvie

    2013-03-01

    This study examined the location and time of adolescent use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. Age, gender, and racial differences in location and time of use were studied for each substance. Using cross-sectional data collected through the schoolwide Pride Survey, 20,055 students between the ages of 10 and 19 years (53.6% female, 55.1% Black, 44.9% White) in one metropolitan area reported on their frequency of cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use, as well as the location and time of use of each substance. Chi-square tests compared the rates, locations, and times for each substance across boys and girls; Black and White students; and early, middle, and late adolescents. Older adolescents reported higher rates of substance use at friends' homes, at school, and in cars and lower rates of alcohol use at home compared with younger youth. Males were more likely to report alcohol and marijuana use at school and on weeknights and alcohol use in cars, whereas females were more likely to report alcohol and marijuana use on the weekends. No gender differences emerged for times and locations of cigarette use. Compared with Black youth, White adolescents were more likely to use all substances at friends' homes and on weekends; to smoke cigarettes at school, in the car, and on weeknights; and to use alcohol at home. Black adolescents were more likely to report using alcohol at home, at school, in cars, during and after school, and on weeknights and were more likely to report using marijuana at school. The location and time of adolescent substance use vary substantially by age, gender, and race. These differences may help tailor substance use prevention and intervention programs to specific subgroups of youth to improve program effectiveness.

  15. Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents: Associations with White Matter Volume and Marijuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Nagel, Bonnie J.; Park, Ann; McQueeny, Tim; Tapert, Susan F.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Depressed mood has been associated with decreased white matter and reduced hippocampal volumes. However, the relationship between brain structure and mood may be unique among adolescents who use marijuana heavily. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between white matter and hippocampal volumes and depressive symptoms…

  16. Effects of Youth Assets on Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, Marijuana Use, and Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Michael S.; Kitts, Cathy; Lewis, Sandy; Goodrow, Bruce; Scherzer, Gary D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alcohol, tobacco, marijuana use, and sexual behaviors are consistently reported by high school students in the United States and can contribute to reduced quality of life. Empirical research finds that many assets may act as a protective factor for adolescent risk behaviors. As such, the purpose of this study was to examine the…

  17. Washington State recreational marijuana legalization: parent and adolescent perceptions, knowledge, and discussions in a sample of low-income families.

    PubMed

    Mason, W A; Hanson, Koren; Fleming, Charles B; Ringle, Jay L; Haggerty, Kevin P

    2015-04-01

    In November 2012, Washington State and Colorado became the first states in the United States to legalize recreational marijuana use for adults, and Uruguay became the first country to allow the cultivation, distribution, possession, and use of marijuana. One possible consequence of these changes is increased adolescent marijuana use. Parents may mitigate this adverse consequence; however, whether parents and adolescents have accurate knowledge about the laws and are discussing marijuana use in light of the law changes is unknown. We examine perceptions, knowledge, and parent-child discussions about Washington State's recreational marijuana law in a sample of low-income families. Participants were a subset of families (n = 115) in an ongoing study that originally recruited parents and adolescents from middle schools in Tacoma, Washington. In summer 2013, when students were entering the 11(th) grade, students and their parents were asked questions about the recreational marijuana law. Participants perceived that their marijuana-related attitudes and behaviors changed little as a result of the law, and displayed uncertainty about what is legal and illegal. Most parents reported discussing the new law with their children but only occasionally, and conversations emphasized household rules, particularly among parent lifetime marijuana users compared to non-users. Conclusions/Importance: Results suggest that there should be a public health campaign focused on families that provides clear information about the recreational marijuana laws.

  18. Relationships Between Marijuana Dependence and Condom Use Intentions and Behavior Among Justice-Involved Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell Hooper, Ann E.; Thayer, Rachel E.; Magnan, Renee E.; Bryan, Angela D.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the relationships among marijuana dependence, a theoretical model of condom use intentions, and subsequent condom use behavior in justice-involved adolescents. Participants completed baseline measures of prior sexual and substance use behavior. Of the original 720 participants, 649 (90.13 %) completed follow-up measures 6 months later. There were high levels of marijuana use (58.7 % met criteria for dependence) and risky sexual behavior among participants. Baseline model constructs were associated with condom use intentions, and intentions were a significant predictor of condom use at follow-up. Marijuana dependence did not significantly influence the relationships between model constructs, nor did it moderate the relationship of model constructs with subsequent condom use. Findings suggest that the theoretical model of condom use intentions is equally valid regardless of marijuana dependence status, suggesting that interventions to reduce sexual risk behavior among both marijuana dependent and non-dependent justice-involved adolescents can be appropriately based on the model. PMID:23370834

  19. Risky Sex in High-Risk Adolescents: Associations with Alcohol Use, Marijuana Use, and Co-Occurring Use.

    PubMed

    Gillman, Arielle S; Yeater, Elizabeth A; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W; Kong, Alberta S; Bryan, Angela D

    2018-04-01

    Risky sexual behavior and substance use appear to be interconnected behaviors among adolescents, but data are scarce regarding the extent to which sexual risk behavior is associated with high levels of marijuana and alcohol use, both separately and in combination. 301 adolescents were recruited from a short-term detention facility, and substance use and risky sexual behavior were assessed. We found that adolescents who frequently used marijuana, but not alcohol, reported significantly less risky sex as well as greater intentions to use condoms than either adolescents who frequently used alcohol, but not marijuana, or adolescents who frequently used both substances. Substance use status as a predictor of future risky sexual behavior followed a similar pattern. When designing interventions to reduce substance use in the context of risky sex, it might be especially effective to target efforts toward reducing harm associated with alcohol use, either alone or in combination with marijuana use.

  20. Drug-Intake Methods and Social Identity: The Use of Marijuana in Blunts among Southeast Asian Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soller, Brian; Lee, Juliet P.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines why Southeast Asian American adolescents and emerging adults in two urban settings prefer to use "blunts," or hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana, over other methods of drug intake. Rationales for preferring blunts were both instrumental and social. Blunts allowed users to more easily share marijuana, the preferred drug…

  1. Pathways from parental knowledge and warmth to adolescent marijuana use: an extension to the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Lac, Andrew; Alvaro, Eusebio M; Crano, William D; Siegel, Jason T

    2009-03-01

    Despite research indicating that effective parenting plays an important protective role in adolescent risk behaviors, few studies have applied theory to examine this link with marijuana use, especially with national data. In the current study (N = 2,141), we hypothesized that parental knowledge (of adolescent activities and whereabouts) and parental warmth are antecedents of adolescents' marijuana beliefs-attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control-as posited by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; Ajzen 1991). These three types of beliefs were hypothesized to predict marijuana intention, which in turn was hypothesized to predict marijuana consumption. Results of confirmatory factor analyses corroborated the psychometric properties of the two-factor parenting structure as well as the five-factor structure of the TPB. Further, the proposed integrative predictive framework, estimated with a latent structural equation model, was largely supported. Parental knowledge inversely predicted pro-marijuana attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control; parental warmth inversely predicted pro-marijuana attitudes and subjective norms, ps < .001. Marijuana intention (p < .001), but not perceived behavioral control, predicted marijuana use 1 year later. In households with high parental knowledge, parental warmth also was perceived to be high (r = .54, p < .001). Owing to the analysis of nationally representative data, results are generalizable to the United States population of adolescents 12-18 years of age.

  2. Developmental pathways from child maltreatment to adolescent marijuana dependence: Examining moderation by FKBP5

    PubMed Central

    Handley, Elizabeth D.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the prospective association between child maltreatment and the development of substance use disorder (SUD) in adolescence with the aim of investigating pathways underlying this relation, as well as genetic moderation of these developmental mechanisms. Specifically, we tested whether youth who experienced maltreatment prior to age 8 were at risk for the development of marijuana dependence in adolescence by way of a childhood externalizing pathway and a childhood internalizing pathway. Moreover, we tested whether variation in FKBP5 CATT haplotype moderated these pathways. The participants were 326 children (n=179 maltreated; n=147 nonmaltreated) assessed across two waves of data collection (childhood: ages 7–9 and adolescence: ages 15–18). Results indicated that higher levels of child externalizing symptoms significantly mediated the effect of child maltreatment on adolescent marijuana dependence symptoms for individuals with 1–2 copies of the FKBP5 CATT haplotype only. We did not find support for an internalizing pathway from child maltreatment to adolescent marijuana dependence, nor did we find evidence of moderation of the internalizing pathway by FKBP5 haplotype variation. Findings extend previous research by demonstrating that whether a maltreated child will traverse an externalizing pathway toward SUD in adolescence is dependent on FKBP5 genetic variation. PMID:26535939

  3. Adolescent Marijuana Use Intentions: Using Theory to Plan an Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayeed, Sarah; Fishbein, Martin; Hornik, Robert; Cappella, Joseph; Kirkland Ahern, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses an integrated model of behavior change to predict intentions to use marijuana occasionally and regularly in a US-based national sample of male and female 12 to 18 year olds (n = 600). The model combines key constructs from the theory of reasoned action and social cognitive theory. The survey was conducted on laptop computers, and…

  4. Marijuana: A Review of Medical Research with Implications for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Robert; Popkin, Nancy

    1980-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that marijuana is more harmful than had previously been suspected. A review of research in the following areas is presented: tolerance and persistence, reproductive system, respiratory system, immune system, central nervous system, genetic and chromosomal effects, and behavioral effects. (Author)

  5. Up in Smoke: Neighborhood Contexts of Marijuana Use from Adolescence Through Young Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Warner, Tara D

    2016-01-01

    The current understanding of the neighborhood contexts wherein adolescent substance use emerges remains limited by conflicting findings regarding geographic variation in, and neighborhood effects on, both the prevalence of and risk factors for such use. Using four waves of longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health [n = 18,697 (51% female, 54% White, 24% Black, 16 % Hispanic, 7% Asian, 2% American Indian/Other)], latent class analysis, and growth curve modeling, this study identified distinct neighborhood types--patterned by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic class, and geography--and explored how trajectories of adolescent and young adult marijuana use differed across neighborhood types. The results demonstrated complexity in neighborhood contexts, illustrating variation in trajectories of marijuana use across neighborhood types heretofore unobserved in neighborhoods research, and largely unexplained by key individual, family, and peer risk and protective factors. This approach highlights how social structural forces intersect and anchor trajectories of youth substance-using risk behavior

  6. Authoritative parenting and sensation seeking as predictors of adolescent cigarette and marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Michael T; Helme, Donald W

    2006-01-01

    Adolescents with high sensation-seeking tendencies often seek out thrill seeking experiences to satisfy their need for stimulation and sensation. In many cases, sensation-seeking adolescents fulfill their need for stimulation and sensation by using illicit substances. However, not all high sensation seekers use drugs, although the factors that prevent or buffer sensation seeking remain unexplored. This study fills this gap in extant research by examining the role of authoritative parenting as a protective factor that prevents or buffers cigarette and marijuana use by adolescents with high sensation-seeking tendencies. Data from 1461 adolescents attending 6th through 8th grades in central Colorado were gathered during a semester-long classroom-based intervention to prevent the onset or further use of cigarettes. Results indicate that authoritative parenting moderated the effect of sensation seeking on adolescent marijuana attitudes, intentions, and peer influence but not behaviors. Further, authoritative parenting was a stronger influence than sensation seeking on cigarette-related outcomes with just the opposite effect observed for marijuana-related outcomes.

  7. Preliminary investigation of a videogame prototype for cigarette and marijuana prevention in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Lindsay R; Hieftje, Kimberly D; Pendergrass, Tyra M; Sawyer, Benjamin G; Fiellin, Lynn E

    2018-02-09

    Videogames are becoming increasingly popular to deliver health interventions; however, their role in the primary prevention of cigarette and marijuana use has not yet been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to conduct a preliminary test of the efficacy of a role-playing videogame prototype, smokeSCREEN, aimed at developing knowledge and behavioral skills associated with primary prevention of cigarette and marijuana use. The authors also explored participants' gameplay experience. This study employed a 1-group pretest-posttest design with 25 adolescent boys and girls aged 11 to 14 years (M age = 11.56, SD = 0.77) who had never tried cigarettes or marijuana. Participants played four 1-hour gameplay sessions over a 2-week period. Assessments of knowledge, self-efficacy, attitudes, perceived norms, and intentions related to cigarette and marijuana prevention were collected at baseline and 2-week and 12-week follow-ups. Ratings of gameplay experience were collected after the 2 weeks of gameplay. One-way repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were conducted. Findings are (1) improvements in knowledge for both cigarette (Wilks' λ = 0.62, F(2, 23) = 7.21, P = .004) and marijuana (Wilks' λ = 0.67, F(2, 23) = 5.75, P = .009) use from pre- to post-gameplay that were characterized by large effects; and (2) nonsignificant trends in the expected direction emerged for changes in self-efficacy and perceived norms related to both cigarettes and marijuana that were characterized by medium-large effects. Overall, the players provided positive reports of their experience with the smokeSCREEN videogame prototype. These findings provide preliminary evidence that a videogame has the potential to influence key cognitive and motivational variables and can be an engaging means to deliver a cigarette and marijuana prevention intervention.

  8. Marijuana Use by Adolescents and Young Adults with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Hoffenberg, Edward J; McWilliams, Shannon K; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K; Murphy, Brittany V; Lagueux, Megan; Robbins, Kristen; Hoffenberg, Analice S; de Zoeten, Edwin; Hopfer, Christian J

    2018-04-16

    To evaluate marijuana use by adolescents and young adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This descriptive cross-sectional study of patients seen between December 2015 through June 2017 at Children's Hospital Colorado for IBD enrolled patients 13-23 years of age, independent of marijuana use status. Information obtained consisted of chart review, electronic and interview self-report, and serum cannabinoid levels. Marijuana ever-users were compared with never-users for clinical characteristics and perceptions of risk with use; users provided information on routes, patterns, motivations, and perceived benefits and problems with use. Of 99 participants, ever-use was endorsed by 32% (32 of 99) and daily or almost daily use by 9% (9 of 99). Older age was the only characteristic related to endorsing marijuana use. Twenty-nine ever-users completed all questionnaires. After adjusting for age, users were 10.7 times more likely to perceive low risk of harm with regular use (P < .001). At least 1 medical reason for use was endorsed by 57% (17 of 30), most commonly for relief of physical pain (53%, 16 of 30) (2 did not complete all questionnaires). Problems from use were identified by 37% (11 of 30), most commonly craving/strong urge to use. Most common route of use was smoking (83%) followed by edibles (50%), dabbing (40%), and vaping (30%). Marijuana use by adolescents and young adults with IBD is common and perceived as beneficial. Guidelines for screening, testing, and counseling of marijuana use should be developed for patients with IBD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Adolescents' attitudes toward antimarijuana ads, usage intentions, and actual marijuana usage.

    PubMed

    Alvaro, Eusebio M; Crano, William D; Siegel, Jason T; Hohman, Zachary; Johnson, Ian; Nakawaki, Brandon

    2013-12-01

    The association of adolescents' appraisals of the antimarijuana TV ads used in the National Youth Antidrug Media Campaign with future marijuana use was investigated. The 12- to 18-year-old respondents (N = 2,993) were first classified as users, resolute nonusers, or vulnerable nonusers (Crano, Siegel, Alvaro, Lac, & Hemovich, 2008). Usage status and the covariates of gender, age, and attitudes toward marijuana were used to predict attitudes toward the ads (Aad) in the first phase of a multilevel linear analysis. All covariates were significantly associated with Aad, as was usage status: Resolute nonusers evaluated the ads significantly more positively than vulnerable nonusers and users (all ps < .001), who did not differ. In the second phase, the covariates along with Aad and respondents' usage status predicted intentions and actual usage 1 year after initial measurement. The lagged analysis disclosed negative associations between Aad and usage intentions and between Aad and actual marijuana use (both ps < .05); however, this association held only for users (p < .01), not vulnerable or resolute nonusers. Users who reported more positive attitudes toward the ads were less likely to report intention to use marijuana and to continue marijuana use at 1-year follow-up. These findings may inform designers of persuasion-based prevention campaigns, guiding preimplementation efforts in the design of ads that targeted groups find appealing and thus, influential. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Adolescents' Perceptions of Risks and Benefits of Conventional Cigarettes, E-cigarettes, and Marijuana: A Qualitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Roditis, Maria L; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie

    2015-08-01

    Although rates of adolescent cigarette use have remained constant or decreased, rates of marijuana and e-cigarette use are rising. Knowledge and perceptions of risks and benefits of tobacco products impact adolescents' decisions to use these products. However, little is known regarding adolescents' knowledge and perceptions of risks of e-cigarettes and marijuana nor how these perceptions are formed. This study uses qualitative techniques to assess and compare adolescents' perceptions of the risks and benefits of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and marijuana. Twenty-four adolescents (nine females and 15 males) from Northern California participated in six small-group discussions. Adolescents were asked what good or bad things might happen from using these products. To assess how perceptions and knowledge of risks and benefits were formed, participants were asked where and from whom they had learned about these products. Adolescents described negative consequences of cigarette use but were much less sure regarding risks of marijuana and e-cigarette use. Conversely, they described few benefits of cigarettes but described a number of benefits of e-cigarette and marijuana use. Adolescents described learning about these products from the media, from family and friends, and from the school environment. Adolescents have learned from multiple sources about risks of using cigarettes, but they receive much less and often incorrect information regarding marijuana and e-cigarettes, likely resulting in their positive and often ambivalent perceptions of marijuana and e-cigarettes. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Examining the influence of adolescent marijuana use on adult intelligence: Further evidence in the causation versus spuriousness debate.

    PubMed

    Boccio, Cashen M; Beaver, Kevin M

    2017-08-01

    There is conflicting evidence regarding the association between adolescent marijuana use and adult intelligence, with some studies suggesting adolescent marijuana use can lead to declines in intelligence. The purpose of this study is to shed additional light on the potential link between marijuana use and changes in intelligence. We employed change scores and ordinary least squares (OLS) analysis to test for associations between marijuana use and changes in intelligence scores from adolescence (ages 12-21) to adulthood (ages 18-26) using data drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. The findings revealed that while a binary measure of marijuana use (ever/never) maintains a statistically significant association with changes in intelligence scores, the effect sizes are relatively small (β=0.043-0.051). Additionally, our findings did not reveal a significant association between cumulative marijuana use and changes in intelligence scores. Taken together, the results suggest that while the binary measure of marijuana use (ever/never) has a statistically significant association with changes in intelligence scores, the binary measure accounts for at most a 1-2 point change in intelligence scores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Marijuana-induced mania in a healthy adolescent: a case report.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Joseph W; Griffeth, Benjamin; Sharma, Taral

    2011-01-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used illegal substance by adolescents in the United States. According to a 2009 survey conducted by Monitoring the Future, there were about 11.8% of 8th graders, 26.7% of 10th graders and 32.8% of 12th graders who had abused marijuana at least once in the year (Johnston L.D., Bachman J.G., O'Malley P.M., Schulenberg J.E. Monitoring the Future: A Continuing Study of American Youth (12th-Grade Survey), 2009 [Computer file]. ICPSR28401-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2010-10-27. doi:10.3886/ICPSR28401). A retrospective review of published literature disclosed case reports of marijuana-induced mania in adult patients with no prior psychiatric history (Bonnet U., Chang D.I., Wiltfang J., Scherbaum N., Weber R. A case of cannabis-induced mania. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr. 2010 Apr; 78(4):223-5. Epub 2010 Feb3; Henquet C., Krabbendam L., de Graaf R., ten Have M., van Os J. Cannabis use and expression of mania in the general population. J Affect Disord. 2006 Oct;95(1-3):103-10. Epub 2006 Jun 21). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to document that marijuana induced manic symptoms in an adolescent with no known prior psychiatric history. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An Examination of Social Anxiety in Marijuana and Cigarette Use Motives among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Cloutier, Renee; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Mischel, Emily R

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana and nicotine are two of the most widely used substances among adolescents in the United States. Symptoms of social anxiety (SA) typically emerge during early adolescence, and elevated levels are associated with increased substance-related problems despite inconsistent links to frequency of use. Substance use motives, and in particular coping motives, have been found to play an important role in understanding the heightened risk for use problems among those with elevated SA. Importantly, work to date has been conducted almost exclusively with adult samples; thus the current study examined whether similar patterns would emerge among adolescents. The current project included 56 community-recruited adolescents (ages 12–17 years; 41% girls) with a positive history of lifetime marijuana and cigarette use. Consistent with the adult literature, SA was not positively associated with frequency of use across either substance. Further, SA was positively associated with conformity use motives and unrelated to social or enhancement motives for both substances. Unexpectedly, SA was unrelated to coping use motives for either marijuana or cigarettes. These preliminary data highlight the need for future research designed to forward developmentally sensitive models of substance use behaviors and etiology. PMID:26886713

  14. Adult work commitment, financial stability, and social environment as related to trajectories of marijuana use beginning in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Brook, Judith S; Lee, Jung Yeon; Finch, Stephen J; Seltzer, Nathan; Brook, David W

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine trajectories of marijuana use among African Americans and Puerto Ricans from adolescence to adulthood, with attention paid to work commitment, financial stability, drug use, and violence. Participants (N = 816) completed in-class questionnaires as students in the East Harlem area of New York City at the first wave and provided follow-up data at 4 additional points in time (mean ages = 14, 19, 24, 29, and 32 years). Among 816 participants, there were 60% females, 52% African American, and 48% Puerto Ricans. The chronic marijuana user trajectory group compared with the none or low, increasing, and/or moderate marijuana user trajectory group was associated with negative aspects of work commitment, financial stability, and the social environment. The chronic marijuana user group was similar to the increasing marijuana user group on work commitment and financial stability. These results suggest that treating marijuana use in late adolescence may reduce difficulty in the assumption of adult roles. Because chronic marijuana users experienced the most adverse effects in each of the domains, they require more intense clinical intervention than moderate marijuana users.

  15. Group motivational interviewing for adolescents: Change talk and alcohol and marijuana outcomes

    PubMed Central

    D’Amico, Elizabeth J.; Houck, Jon M.; Hunter, Sarah B.; Miles, Jeremy N.V.; Osilla, Karen Chan; Ewing, Brett A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Little is known about what may distinguish effective and ineffective group interventions. Group motivational interviewing (MI) is a promising intervention for adolescent alcohol and other drug (AOD) use; however, the mechanisms of change for group MI are unknown. One potential mechanism is change talk, which is client speech arguing for change. The present study describes the group process in adolescent group MI and effects of group-level change talk on individual alcohol and marijuana outcomes. Method We analyzed 129 group session audio recordings from a randomized clinical trial of adolescent group MI. Sequential coding was performed using the Motivational Interviewing Skill Code (MISC) and the CASAA Application for Coding Treatment Interactions (CACTI) software application. Outcomes included past-month intentions, frequency, and consequences of alcohol and marijuana use, motivation to change, and positive expectancies. Results Sequential analysis indicated that facilitator open-ended questions and reflections of change talk (CT) increased group CT. Group CT was then followed by more CT. Multilevel models accounting for rolling group enrollment revealed group CT was associated with decreased alcohol intentions, alcohol use and heavy drinking three months later; group sustain talk was associated with decreased motivation to change, increased intentions to use marijuana, and increased positive alcohol and marijuana expectancies. Conclusions Facilitator speech and peer responses each had effects on change and sustain talk in the group setting, which was then associated with individual changes. Selective reflection of CT in adolescent group MI is suggested as a strategy to manage group dynamics and increase behavioral change. PMID:25365779

  16. Maltreated and comparison adolescents' recollections of lifetime residences: Relationship to delinquency and marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Schneiderman, Janet U; Kennedy, Andrea K; Negriff, Sonya; Jones, Jennifer; Trickett, Penelope K

    2016-12-01

    Both childhood maltreatment and frequent childhood residence changes are associated with poor behavioral outcomes including drug use and delinquency. It is not clear whether a higher number of residences results in poorer outcomes for maltreated adolescents compared to adolescents living in the same community but without child welfare-documented maltreatment. Our study of child welfare-affiliated maltreated youth (n=216) and comparison youth (n=128) from the same community (age M = 18.21, SD = 1.42) examined: 1. whether child/caregiver characteristics and maltreatment status were associated with lifetime number of residences and 2. whether child/caregiver characteristics, residences, and maltreatment status were associated with delinquency and marijuana use. The outcomes of this study, number of residences, delinquency, and marijuana use, were all skewed, and consequently negative binomial regressions were used. Maltreatment status, ever living with a non-parent caregiver, and being older are associated with more residence changes during childhood. More residences and male sex are associated with person offense delinquency and marijuana use. In lower income neighborhoods, such as where the adolescents in this study lived, residence changes are not unusual, but in this study maltreated youth moved more often than youth from the same community. It is important to help caregivers who live in disadvantaged neighborhoods, especially families with child welfare involvement, understand the behavioral consequences of residence changes and provide support for stable long-term housing.

  17. Abstinence-What?: A Critical Look at the Language of Educational Approaches to Adolescent Sexual Risk Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beshers, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-six years ago, Ronald Reagan signed the Adolescent Family Life Act, and the abstinence education movement began its rapid ascendancy to political dominance, a process marked by increasingly generous federal funding, which reached a peak of $176 million in FY 2006. Throughout this period, a debate ensued over the appropriate approach to…

  18. Interaction of the TaqIA polymorphism and poor parental socialization on changes in adolescent marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Vaske, Jamie

    2013-02-01

    The current study uses data from the genetic subsample from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) in waves I and II (ages of 11-19 and 12-20 respectively) to investigate the interaction of the TaqIA polymorphism and poor parental socialization on changes in adolescent marijuana use. Results reveal that TaqIA interacts with poor parental rule setting, but not quality of mother-child communication, to influence changes in marijuana use. Adolescents who are homozygous for the A1 and whose parents allow the youth to set their own curfew experience significant increases in marijuana use during adolescence. In contrast, youths with the A1/A1 genotype whose parents do not allow the adolescent to set their own curfew experience significant decreases in the frequency of marijuana use. These results suggest that direct parental social control may effectively suppress the genetic risk of the A1/A1 genotype on marijuana use in adolescence. The study's limitations are noted.

  19. Gender Differences in the Associations Among Marijuana Use, Cigarette Use, and Symptoms of Depression During Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Natania A.; Langenecker, Scott A.; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction As prevalence of marijuana use increases, it is important that we better understand how factors like gender, cigarette use, and depression are related to marijuana use during adolescence and young adulthood. We examined longitudinal relationships among these variables in adolescents moving into young adulthood who were studied longitudinally for six years. Methods 1,263 individuals were included in the study. Participants were oversampled for ever-smoking a cigarette at baseline, when they were 15-16 years old. Frequency of cigarette smoking and marijuana use, as well as depression symptoms were assessed at baseline, 6, 15-, 24-, 60- and 72- months. Results Cigarette use frequency and depression symptoms were associated with frequency of marijuana use (p-values <.001), particularly in adolescence, but there were important gender differences in these relationships. Specifically, symptoms of depression were related to marijuana use frequency among males (p<.001), but not females (p=.62). In addition, frequency of marijuana use was associated with increased cigarette use frequency, especially among males who had higher symptoms of depression (p<.001). However, this effect was not seen among females. Exploratory analyses suggested relationships between frequency of use and depression are specific to marijuana, not cigarettes. Conclusions Marijuana use is strongly related to depression symptoms and cigarette use frequency in males, indicating that in males these detrimental factors converge, whereas in females they do not. Gender differences in the factors related to marijuana use may mean that there are different risks for and consequences from use and have implications for prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:26036667

  20. Alcohol, marijuana, and perceptions of influence on social and sexual behavior among African American adolescent female detainees.

    PubMed

    du Plessis, Lindsay Danielle; Holliday, Rhonda Conerly; Robillard, Alyssa G; Braithwaite, Ronald L

    2009-07-01

    Juvenile detainees comprise a population that engages in high-risk behavior. This study examined sexual risk and substance use behavior and the perceptions of African American female adolescent detainees (N = 765) regarding the influence of alcohol and marijuana use on their social and sexual behaviors. Overall, 58% and 64% reported alcohol and marijuana use, respectively. Alcohol's perceived influence on sexual behavior (p < .001) was significantly different between those who drank and those who did not; marijuana's influence on social (p < .01) and sexual (p < .001) behavior was significantly different between those who used marijuana and those who did not. There is a need for further study of the influence of substance use on social and sexual behavior among African American female adolescent detainees.

  1. Twitter chatter about marijuana.

    PubMed

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa; Fisher, Sherri L; Salyer, Patricia; Grucza, Richard A; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2015-02-01

    We sought to examine the sentiment and themes of marijuana-related chatter on Twitter sent by influential Twitter users and to describe the demographics of these Twitter users. We assessed the sentiment and themes of a random sample (n = 7,000) of influential marijuana-related tweets (sent from February 5, 20114, to March 5, 2014). Demographics of the users tweeting about marijuana were inferred using a social media analytics company (Demographics Pro for Twitter). Most marijuana-related tweets reflected a positive sentiment toward marijuana use, with pro-marijuana tweets outnumbering anti-marijuana tweets by a factor of greater than 15. The most common theme of pro-marijuana tweets included the Tweeter stating that he/she wants/plans to use marijuana, followed by tweeting about frequent/heavy/or regular marijuana use, and that marijuana has health benefits and/or should be legalized. Tweeters of marijuana-related content were younger and a greater proportion was African-American compared with the Twitter average. Marijuana Twitter chatter sent by influential Twitter users tends to be pro-marijuana and popular among African-Americans and youth/young adults. Marijuana-related harms may afflict some individuals; therefore, our findings should be used to inform online and offline prevention efforts that work to target individuals who are most at risk for harms associated with marijuana use. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Adolescent pregnancy prevention: An abstinence-centered randomized controlled intervention in a Chilean public high school.

    PubMed

    Cabezón, Carlos; Vigil, Pilar; Rojas, Iván; Leiva, M Eugenia; Riquelme, Rosa; Aranda, Waldo; García, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of an abstinence-centered sex education program in adolescent pregnancy prevention, the TeenSTAR Program was applied in a high school in Santiago, Chile. A total of 1259 girls from a Santiago high school were divided into three cohorts depending on the year they started high school: the 1996 cohort of 425 students, which received no intervention; the 1997 cohort, in which 210 students received an intervention and 213 (control group) did not; and the 1998 cohort, in which 328 students received an intervention and 83 (control group) did not. Students were randomly assigned to control and intervention groups in these cohorts, before starting with the program. We conducted a prospective, randomized study using the application of the TeenSTAR sex education program during the first year of high school to the intervention groups in the 1997 and 1998 cohorts. All cohorts were followed up for 4 years; pregnancy rates were recorded and subsequently contrasted in the intervention and control groups. Pregnancy rates were measured and Risk Ratio with 95% confidence interval were calculated for intervention and control groups in each cohort. Pregnancy rates for the intervention and control groups in the 1997 cohort were 3.3% and 18.9%, respectively (RR: 0.176, CI: 0.076-0.408). Pregnancy rates for the intervention and control groups in the 1998 cohort were 4.4% and 22.6%, respectively (RR 0.195, CI: 0.099-0.384). The abstinence-centered TeenSTAR sex education intervention was effective in the prevention of unintended adolescent pregnancy.

  3. Neuropsychological performance in adolescent marijuana users with co-occurring alcohol use: A three-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Jacobus, Joanna; Squeglia, Lindsay M; Infante, M Alejandra; Castro, Norma; Brumback, Ty; Meruelo, Alejandro D; Tapert, Susan F

    2015-11-01

    The effect of adolescent marijuana use on brain development remains unclear despite relaxing legal restrictions, decreased perceived harm, and increasing use rates among youth. The aim of this 3-year prospective study was to evaluate the long-term neurocognitive effects of adolescent marijuana use. Adolescent marijuana users with concomitant alcohol use (MJ + ALC, n = 49) and control teens with limited substance use histories (CON, n = 59) were given neuropsychological and substance use assessments at project baseline, when they were ages 16-19. They were then reassessed 18 and 36 months later. Changes in neuropsychological measures were evaluated with repeated measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for lifetime alcohol use, and examined the effects of group, time, and group by time interactions on cognitive functioning. MJ + ALC users performed significantly worse than controls, across time points, in the domains of complex attention, memory, processing speed, and visuospatial functioning (ps <.05). Earlier age of marijuana use onset was associated with poorer processing speed and executive functioning by the 3-year follow-up (ps ≤.02). Frequent marijuana use throughout adolescence and into young adulthood appeared linked to worsened cognitive performance. Earlier age of onset appears to be associated with poorer neurocognitive outcomes that emerge by young adulthood, providing further support for the notion that the brain may be uniquely sensitive to frequent marijuana exposure during the adolescent phase of neurodevelopment. Continued follow-up of adolescent marijuana users will determine the extent of neural recovery that may occur if use abates. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Growth from birth to early adolescence in offspring prenatally exposed to cigarettes and marijuana.

    PubMed

    Fried, P A; Watkinson, B; Gray, R

    1999-01-01

    Weight, height, and head circumference were examined in children from birth to early adolescence for whom prenatal exposure to marijuana and cigarettes had been ascertained. The subjects were from a low-risk, predominantly middle-class sample participating in an ongoing longitudinal study. The negative association between growth measures at birth and prenatal cigarette exposure was overcome, sooner in males than females, within the first few years, and by the age of six, the children of heavy smokers were heavier than control subjects. Pre and postnatal environmental tobacco smoke did not have a negative effect upon the growth parameters; however, the choice of bottle-feeding or shorter duration of breast-feeding by women who smoked during pregnancy appeared to play an important positive role in the catch-up observed among the infants of smokers. Prenatal exposure to marijuana was not significantly related to any growth measures at birth, although a smaller head circumference observed at all ages reached statistical significance among the early adolescents born to the heavy marijuana users.

  5. Legalization of recreational marijuana and community sales policy in Oregon: Impact on adolescent willingness and intent to use, parent use, and adolescent use.

    PubMed

    Rusby, Julie C; Westling, Erika; Crowley, Ryann; Light, John M

    2018-02-01

    Studies investigating the impact of medical marijuana legalization have found no significant changes in adolescent use. In one of the few studies focused on recreational marijuana, we investigated how recreational marijuana legalization and community sales policy influenced factors that likely impact youth use (youth willingness and intent to use, parent use) as well as youth use. Legalization of recreational marijuana in Oregon coincided with our study on adolescent substance use. Cohort 1 transitioned from 8th to 9th grade prior to legalization and Cohort 2 made this transition during legalization (N = 444; 53% female). Communities were allowed to opt out of sales. Multivariate linear regression models estimated the impact of legalization and community sales policy on changes in attitudes and parent use (2 time points 1 year apart). Zero-inflated Poisson growth curve models estimated the effects on initial levels and rate of change from 8th through 9th grade (4 time points). In communities opting out of sales, the prior-to-legalization cohort was less likely to increase their willingness and intent to use marijuana, and the legalization cohort was more likely to increase intent to use. For youth who used marijuana, legalization was associated with increased use, and those in communities opting out of sales had greater growth in marijuana use. Community policy appears to impact youth attitudes toward, and use of, marijuana. Results suggest that legalization of recreational marijuana did not increase marijuana use for youth who did not use marijuana but did increase use in youth who were already using. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Mediation and moderation of an efficacious theory-based abstinence-only intervention for African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingwen; Jemmott, John B; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet

    2015-12-01

    This secondary data analysis sought to determine what mediated reductions in self-reported sexual initiation over the 24-month postintervention period in early adolescents who received "Promoting Health among Teens," a theory-based, abstinence-only intervention (Jemmott, Jemmott, & Fong, 2010). African American Grade 6 and 7 students at inner-city public middle schools were randomized to 1 of 5 interventions grounded in social-cognitive theory and the theory of reasoned action: 8-hr abstinence-only targeting reduced sexual intercourse; 8-hr safer-sex-only targeting increased condom use; 8-hr and 12-hr comprehensive interventions targeting sexual intercourse and condom use; 8-hr control intervention targeting physical activity and diet. Primary outcome was self-report of vaginal intercourse by 24 months postintervention. Potential mediators, assessed immediately postintervention, were theory-of-reasoned-action variables, including behavioral beliefs about positive consequences of abstinence and negative consequences of sex, intention to have sex, normative beliefs about sex, and HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) knowledge. We tested single and serial mediation models using the product-of-coefficients approach. Of 509 students reporting never having vaginal intercourse at baseline (324 girls and 185 boys; mean age = 11.8 years, SD = 0.8), 500 or 98.2% were included in serial mediation analyses. Consistent with the theory of reasoned action, the abstinence-only intervention increased positive behavioral beliefs about abstinence, which reduced intention to have sex, which in turn reduced sexual initiation. Negative behavioral beliefs about sex, normative beliefs about sex, and HIV/STI knowledge were not mediators. Abstinence-only interventions should stress the gains to be realized from abstinence rather than the deleterious consequences of sexual involvement. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Mediation and Moderation of an Efficacious Theory-Based Abstinence-Only Intervention for African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingwen; Jemmott, John B.; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet

    2018-01-01

    Objective This secondary data analysis sought to determine what mediated reductions in self-reported sexual initiation over the 24-month post-intervention period in early adolescents who received “Promoting Health among Teens,” a theory-based, abstinence-only intervention (Jemmott, Jemmott, & Fong, 2010). Methods African American grade 6 and 7 students at inner-city public middle schools were randomized to one of five interventions grounded in social cognitive theory and the theory of reasoned action: 8-hour abstinence-only targeting reduced sexual intercourse; 8-hour safer-sex-only targeting increased condom use; 8-hour and 12-hour comprehensive interventions targeting sexual intercourse and condom use; 8-hour control intervention targeting physical activity and diet. Primary outcome was self-report of vaginal intercourse by 24 months post-intervention. Potential mediators, assessed immediately post-intervention, were theory-of-reasoned-action variables, including behavioral beliefs about positive consequences of abstinence and negative consequences of sex, intention to have sex, normative beliefs about sex, and HIV/STI knowledge. We tested single and serial mediation models using the product-of-coefficients approach. Results Of 509 students reporting never having vaginal intercourse at baseline (324 girls and 185 boys; mean age = 11.8 years; SD = 0.8), 500 or 98.2% were included in serial mediation analyses. Consistent with the theory of reasoned action, the abstinence-only intervention increased positive behavioral beliefs about abstinence, which reduced intention to have sex, which in turn reduced sexual initiation. Negative behavioral beliefs about sex, normative beliefs about sex, and HIV/STI knowledge were not mediators. Conclusions Abstinence-only interventions should stress the gains to be realized from abstinence rather than the deleterious consequences of sexual involvement. PMID:26214076

  8. Altered cerebral blood flow and neurocognitive correlates in adolescent cannabis users

    PubMed Central

    Jacobus, Joanna; Goldenberg, Diane; Wierenga, Christina E.; Tolentino, Neil J.; Liu, Thomas T.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale The effects of adolescent marijuana use on the developing brain remain unclear, despite its prevalence. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a noninvasive imaging technique that characterizes neurovascular status and cerebral blood flow (CBF), potentially revealing contributors to neuropathological alterations. No studies to date have looked at CBF in adolescent marijuana users. Objectives This study examined CBF in adolescent marijuana users and matched healthy controls at baseline and after 4 weeks of monitored abstinence. Methods Heavy adolescent marijuana users (n=23, >200 lifetime marijuana use days) and demographically matched controls (n=23) with limited substance exposure underwent an ASL brain scan at an initial session and after 4 weeks of sequential urine toxicology to confirm abstinence. Results Marijuana users showed reduced CBF in four cortical regions including the left superior and middle temporal gyri, left insula, left and right medial frontal gyrus, and left supramarginal gyrus at baseline; users showed increased CBF in the right precuneus at baseline, as compared to controls (corrected p values<0.05). No between group differences were found at follow-up. Conclusions Marijuana use may influence CBF in otherwise healthy adolescents acutely; however, group differences were not observed after several weeks of abstinence. Neurovascular alterations may contribute to or underlie changes in brain activation, neuropsychological performance, and mood observed in young cannabis users with less than a month of abstinence. PMID:22395430

  9. Exposure to the Above the Influence antidrug advertisements and adolescent marijuana use in the United States, 2006-2008.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Christopher S; Pechmann, Cornelia

    2011-05-01

    We examined the relationship between exposure to the Above the Influence antidrug campaign in 210 US media markets and adolescent marijuana and alcohol use from 2006 to 2008. We analyzed monthly advertising exposure (targeted rating points) data from the Office of National Drug Control Policy and drug use data from the Monitoring the Future study. We estimated multivariate logistic regression models of marijuana use for students in grades 8, 10, and 12, with controls for individual, family, and media market characteristics and year and regional fixed effects. For eighth-grade adolescent girls, greater exposure to antidrug advertisements was associated with lower rates of past-month marijuana use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.52, 0.87) and lower rates of lifetime marijuana use (AOR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.62, 0.93), but not alcohol use (AOR = 1.00; 95% CI = 0.84, 1.19). Associations were not significant for adolescent boys or for students in grades 10 and 12. Antidrug advertising may be an effective way to dissuade eighth-grade adolescent girls from initiating marijuana use.

  10. Exposure to the Above the Influence Antidrug Advertisements and Adolescent Marijuana Use in the United States, 2006–2008

    PubMed Central

    Pechmann, Cornelia

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between exposure to the Above the Influence antidrug campaign in 210 US media markets and adolescent marijuana and alcohol use from 2006 to 2008. Methods. We analyzed monthly advertising exposure (targeted rating points) data from the Office of National Drug Control Policy and drug use data from the Monitoring the Future study. We estimated multivariate logistic regression models of marijuana use for students in grades 8, 10, and 12, with controls for individual, family, and media market characteristics and year and regional fixed effects. Results. For eighth-grade adolescent girls, greater exposure to antidrug advertisements was associated with lower rates of past-month marijuana use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.52, 0.87) and lower rates of lifetime marijuana use (AOR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.62, 0.93), but not alcohol use (AOR = 1.00; 95% CI = 0.84, 1.19). Associations were not significant for adolescent boys or for students in grades 10 and 12. Conclusions. Antidrug advertising may be an effective way to dissuade eighth-grade adolescent girls from initiating marijuana use. PMID:21421952

  11. Assessing the Role of Context on the Relationship Between Adolescent Marijuana Use and Property Crimes in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vilalta, Carlos Javier; Allmang, Skye

    2017-01-28

    A limited amount of research has been conducted on the association between marijuana use and adolescent crime in developing countries such as Mexico, where crime rates are high and marijuana use is increasing. To examine the association between the frequency of marijuana use and the likelihood of committing of a property crime, and to identify contextual factors explaining individual differences in the likelihood of committing a property crime. The contribution of marijuana use to property crimes was examined based on two nationwide probabilistic surveys of public high school students, using a multilevel mixed effects logistic regression model. Marijuana use significantly increased the odds of committing a property crime. Differences between schools were observed in the random effects of marijuana use, suggesting that the likelihood of committing a property crime was differentially affected by contextual factors. In addition, students who were victims of bullying by peers and who had parents that abused alcohol had higher odds of committing a property crime. Perceived disorder in students' schools and neighborhoods also increased students' odds of reporting that they had committed a property crime. The importance of the effect of school context on the relationship between marijuana use and the commission of a property crime among Mexican public high school students seemed to increase over time. However, these results may also be due to changes in sampling designs over time.

  12. Adolescents' Reported Reasons for Alcohol and Marijuana Use as Predictors of Substance Use and Problems in Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Megan E.; Schulenberg, John E.; O'malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine how reasons for substance use at age 18 relate to alcohol and marijuana use at ages 18 and 35 and to symptoms of alcohol use disorder and marijuana use disorder at age 35. Method: Bivariate correlation and multivariate regression analyses were conducted to examine the prediction of substance use and misuse by social/recreational, coping with negative affect, compulsive, and drug effect reasons for alcohol and marijuana use. Control variables included gender, race/ethnicity, parent education, and previous substance use (for age 35 outcomes). Results: Social/recreational, coping, and drug effect reasons for drinking predicted symptoms of alcohol use disorder 17 years later. Reasons for marijuana use were generally associated only with concurrent marijuana use; an exception was that drug effect reasons predicted marijuana use disorder at age 35. Conclusions: The long-term longitudinal predictive power of reasons for alcohol use (and, to a lesser extent, for marijuana use) suggests that adolescents' self-reported reasons, in particular those involving regulating emotions and experiences, may be early risk factors for continued use and misuse of substances into adulthood. PMID:21138717

  13. The effect of tobacco and marijuana use on dental health status in Nevada adolescents: a trend analysis.

    PubMed

    Ditmyer, Marcia; Demopoulos, Christina; McClain, Mildred; Dounis, Georgia; Mobley, Connie

    2013-05-01

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death worldwide. If current trends persist, tobacco will kill more than 8 million people worldwide by 2030 and 1 billion by the end of the century. The purpose of this study was to determine trends in tobacco/marijuana use in Nevada adolescents and their effect on dental health status. Relative comparative data were compared with nationally reported data. Retrospective data in this cohort study was from an ongoing statewide, school-based, dental health screening initiative that was conducted across 8 years (2002-2010) in public/private middle/high schools in Nevada. A total of 66,941 dental health screenings of adolescents between ages 13-18 were conducted. Self-reported data were collected on tobacco/marijuana use. Descriptive statistics and trends were reported. Means (SE) were computed for caries prevalence and severity. Effect size was reported on dental caries and use of tobacco/marijuana. Overall, percentage prevalence of tobacco use was approximately the same as the national average; however, there were significantly higher rates of marijuana use (12.0% vs. 3.3%). Prevalence and severity of dental caries was significantly higher in those who used tobacco/marijuana than those who did not across all variables and across all 8 years controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, where they lived, and exposure to secondhand smoke. Tobacco use negatively affected dental health status with marijuana having the largest negative effect. The findings from this study identified the need for tobacco/marijuana prevention services targeting adolescents residing in the geographic areas most at risk. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. School-Level Correlates of Adolescent Tobacco, Alcohol and Marijuana Use

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Danielle; Mrug, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Background School-level characteristics are related to students’ substance use, but little research systematically examined multiple school characteristics in relation to different types of substance use across grade levels. Objectives This study examines multiple school-level characteristics as correlates of students’ tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and combined substance use across three grade levels. Methods Students (N = 23,615) from 42 urban and suburban middle schools and 24 high schools in the U.S. reported on their tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use. Students’ mean age was 14 years; 47% were male, 53% African American and 41% Caucasian. School-level data included poverty, racial composition, academic achievement, student-teacher ratio, absenteeism, and school size. Multilevel logistic and Poisson regressions tested associations between school-level predictors and adolescent substance use in middle school, early high school and late high school. Results School-level poverty, more ethnic minority students, low achievement, and higher absenteeism were related to alcohol, marijuana and combined substance use, particularly at lower grade levels. By contrast, cigarette smoking was more prevalent in more affluent high schools with more White students. After adjusting for other school characteristics, absenteeism emerged as the most consistent predictor of student substance use. Conclusions/Importance Interventions addressing absenteeism and truancy in middle and high schools may help prevent student substance use. Schools serving poor, urban, and mostly minority students may benefit from interventions targeting alcohol and marijuana use, whereas interventions focusing on tobacco use prevention may be more relevant for schools serving more affluent and predominantly White students. PMID:26584423

  15. Semen says: assessing the accuracy of adolescents' self-reported sexual abstinence using a semen Y-chromosome biomarker.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Janet E; Zenilman, Jonathan M; Rose, Eve; Wingood, Gina M; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2017-03-01

    Researchers often assess condom use only among participants who report recent sexual behaviour, excluding participants who report no recent vaginal sex or who did not answer questions about their sexual behaviour, but self-reported sexual behaviour may be inaccurate. This study uses a semen Y-chromosome biomarker to assess semen exposure among participants who reported sexual abstinence or did not report their sexual behaviour. This prospective cohort study uses data from 715 sexually active African-American female adolescents in Atlanta, surveyed at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Participants completed a 40 min interview and were tested for semen Y-chromosome with PCR from a self-administered vaginal swab. We predicted Y-chromosome test results from self-reported sexual behaviour using within-subject panel regression. Among the participants who reported abstinence from vaginal sex in the past 14 days, 9.4% tested positive for semen Y-chromosome. Among item non-respondents, 6.3% tested positive for semen Y-chromosome. Women who reported abstinence and engaged in item non-response regarding their sexual behaviour had respectively 62% and 78% lower odds of testing positive for Y-chromosome (OR 0.38 (0.21 to 0.67), OR 0.22 (0.12 to 0.40)), controlling for smoking, survey wave and non-coital sexual behaviours reported during abstinence. Adolescents who report sexual abstinence under-report semen exposure. Research should validate self-reported sexual behaviour with biomarkers. Adolescents who engage in item non-response regarding vaginal sex test positive for semen Y-chromosome at similar rates, which supports the practice of grouping non-respondents with adolescents reporting abstinence in statistical analysis. NCT00633906. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Marijuana Neurobiology and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Elkashef, Ahmed; Vocci, Frank; Huestis, Marilyn; Haney, Margaret; Budney, Alan; Gruber, Amanda; el-Guebaly, Nady

    2008-01-01

    Marijuana is the number one illicit drug of abuse worldwide and a major public health problem, especially in the younger population. The objective of this article is to update and review the state of the science and treatments available for marijuana dependence based on a pre-meeting workshop that was presented at ISAM 2006. At the workshop, several papers were presented addressing the neurobiology and pharmacology of marijuana and treatment approaches, both psychotherapy and medications, for marijuana withdrawal. Medicolegal and ethical issues concerning marijuana medical use were also discussed. Concise summaries of these presentations are incorporated in this article, which is meant to be an updated review of the state of the science. Major advances have been made in understanding the underpinning of marijuana dependence and the role of the CNS cannabinoid system, which is a major area for targeting medications to treat marijuana withdrawal and dependence, as well as other addictions. Behavioral therapies are efficacious for facilitating abstinence from marijuana. Nefazadone, Marinol, and buspirone are showing early positive signals for efficacy in ameliorating marijuana withdrawal symptoms. Effective psychotherapeutic approaches are available and promising medications studies need to be confirmed in outpatient trials. The next few years looking promising for translational research efforts to make treatment widely accessible to patients with marijuana dependence. PMID:19042204

  17. Long-term effects of adolescent marijuana use prevention on adult mental health services utilization: the midwestern prevention project.

    PubMed

    Riggs, Nathaniel R; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    Evaluated were effects of a drug abuse(1) prevention program, previously shown to prevent marijuana use in adolescence, on adulthood mental health service use. Analyses were conducted on 961 6th (41%) and 7th (59%) grade participants randomly assigned to intervention or control groups at baseline in 1984. These participants were followed-up through 2003 representing 15 waves of data collection. Eighty-five percent of participants were Caucasian and 56% were female. The hypothesis was that direct program effects on early adulthood mental health service use would be mediated by program effects on high school marijuana use trajectories. Structural equation models, imputing for missing data, demonstrated that MPP (Midwestern Prevention Project) program effects on mental health were mediated by the marijuana use growth curve intercept. Findings support the role of early adolescent drug use prevention programs in impacting later mental health problems. The study's limitations are noted.

  18. Treatment of Adolescent Marijuana Abuse: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Presentation 1: Structure of the Cannabis Youth Treatment Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titus, Janet C.; Dennis, Michael L.; Diamond, Guy; Godley, Susan H.; Babor, Thomas; Donaldson, Jean; Herrell, James; Tims, Frank; Webb, Charles

    The Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) study is a multi-site randomized field experiment examining five outpatient treatment protocols for adolescents who abuse or are dependent on marijuana. The purpose of the CYT project is twofold: (a) to test the relative clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of five promising interventions targeted at…

  19. Risk and Protective Factors for Alcohol and Marijuana Use among African-American Rural and Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Trenette T.; Nguyen, Anh B.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine individual, family, peer, and community risk and protective factors associated with past-30-days alcohol and marijuana use among African-American adolescents living in rural and urban communities. This study used data collected from 907 tenth- and twelfth-grade African-American students who completed the…

  20. Binge drinking and marijuana use among menthol and non-menthol adolescent smokers: findings from the youth smoking survey.

    PubMed

    Azagba, Sunday; Sharaf, Mesbah F

    2014-03-01

    Research has shown that smoking menthol cigarettes induces smoking initiation and hinders cessation efforts especially among youth. The objective of this paper is to examine the association between menthol cigarette smoking and substance use among adolescent students in Canada. A nationally representative cross-sectional sample of 4466 Canadian students in grades 7 to 12 from the 2010-2011 Youth Smoking Survey is analyzed. A bivariate probit model is used jointly to examine the association of menthol smoking status with binge drinking and marijuana use. 32% of the current smokers in grades 7 to 12 smoke mentholated cigarettes, 73% are binge drinkers and 79% use marijuana. Results of the bivariate probit regression analysis, controlling for other covariates, show statistically significant differences in the likelihood of binge drinking and marijuana use between menthol and non-menthol smokers. Menthol cigarette smokers are 6% (ME=0.06, 95% CI=0.03-0.09) more likely to binge drink and 7% (ME=0.07, 95% CI=0.05-0.10) more likely to use marijuana. Smoking menthol cigarettes is associated with a higher likelihood of binge drinking and marijuana use among Canadian adolescents. Banning menthol in cigarettes may be beneficial to public health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Developmental pathways from child maltreatment to adolescent marijuana dependence: Examining moderation by FK506 binding protein 5 gene (FKBP5).

    PubMed

    Handley, Elizabeth D; Rogosch, Fred A; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-11-01

    The current study examined the prospective association between child maltreatment and the development of substance use disorder in adolescence with the aim of investigating pathways underlying this relation, as well as genetic moderation of these developmental mechanisms. Specifically, we tested whether youth who experienced maltreatment prior to age 8 were at risk for the development of marijuana dependence in adolescence by way of a childhood externalizing pathway and a childhood internalizing pathway. Moreover, we tested whether variation in FK506 binding protein 5 gene (FKBP5) CATT haplotype moderated these pathways. The participants were 326 children (n =179 maltreated; n = 147 nonmaltreated) assessed across two waves of data collection (childhood: ages 7-9 and adolescence: ages 15-18). Results indicated that higher levels of child externalizing symptoms significantly mediated the effect of child maltreatment on adolescent marijuana dependence symptoms for individuals with one or two copies of the FKBP5 CATT haplotype only. We did not find support for an internalizing pathway from child maltreatment to adolescent marijuana dependence, nor did we find evidence of moderation of the internalizing pathway by FKBP5 haplotype variation. Findings extend previous research by demonstrating that whether a maltreated child will traverse an externalizing pathway toward substance use disorder in adolescence is dependent on FKBP5 genetic variation.

  2. Motivational Interviewing for Incarcerated Adolescents: Effects of Depressive Symptoms on Reducing Alcohol and Marijuana Use After Release*

    PubMed Central

    Stein, L. A. R.; Lebeau, Rebecca; Colby, Suzanne M.; Barnett, Nancy P.; Golembeske, Charles; Monti, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Motivational interviewing to reduce alcohol and marijuana use among incarcerated adolescents was evaluated. Method: Adolescents (N = 162, 84% male; M = 17.10 years old) were randomly assigned to receive motivational interviewing or relaxation training, with follow-up assessment 3 months after release. Results: Compared with those who received relaxation training, adolescents who received motivational interviewing had lower rates of alcohol and marijuana use at follow-up, with some evidence for moderating effects of depression. At low levels of depression, adolescents who received motivational interviewing had lower rates of use. Adolescents who received relaxation training and who had high levels of depressive symptoms early in incarceration showed less use at follow-up than those low in depressive symptoms who received relaxation training. Conclusions: This brief motivational interviewing intervention during incarceration reduces alcohol and marijuana use after release. In addition, depressive symptoms early in incarceration should be considered in treating these adolescents, but more work is needed to extend follow-up period and account for the impact of depression on outcomes. PMID:21513687

  3. Abstinence-Only-Until-Marriage Policies and Programs: An Updated Position Paper of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine.

    PubMed

    2017-09-01

    Abstinence from sexual intercourse can be a healthy choice for adolescents, particularly if an adolescent is not ready to engage in sex. However, government programs exclusively promoting abstinence-only-until-marriage (AOUM) are problematic from scientific and ethical viewpoints. Most young people initiate sexual intercourse as adolescents or young adults, and given a rising age at first marriage around the globe, increasingly fewer adolescents wait until marriage to initiate sex. While theoretically fully protective, abstinence intentions often fail, as abstinence is not maintained. AOUM programs are not effective in delaying initiation of sexual intercourse or changing other behaviors. Conversely, many comprehensive sexuality education programs successfully delay initiation of sexual intercourse and reduce sexual risk behaviors. AOUM programs inherently provide incomplete information and are often neglectful to sexually active adolescents; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning adolescents; pregnant and parenting adolescents; and survivors of sexual assault. Promotion of AOUM policies by the U.S. government has undermined sexuality education in the United States and in U.S. foreign aid programs to prevent HIV infection. In many U.S. communities, AOUM programs have replaced more comprehensive approaches to sexuality education. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Better learning in schools to improve attitudes toward abstinence and intentions for safer sex among adolescents in urban Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Rachana Manandhar; Otsuka, Keiko; Poudel, Krishna C; Yasuoka, Junko; Lamichhane, Medin; Jimba, Masamine

    2013-03-20

    School-based sex education is an effective medium to convey health information and skills about preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancies among adolescents. However, research on school-based sex education is limited in many developing countries, including Nepal. This study thus had two main objectives: (1) to assess students' evaluation of school-based sex education, and (2) to examine the associations between students' evaluations of school-based sex education and their (a) attitudes toward abstinence and (b) intentions for safer sex. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 634 students from six schools in the Kathmandu Valley during May-June 2010. We used a self-administered questionnaire to assess students' evaluations of school-based sex education, attitudes toward abstinence, and intentions for safer sex. The data were then analyzed using multiple linear regression models. Regarding "information on HIV and sexual health", many students perceived that they received the least amount of information on HIV counseling and testing centers (mean 2.29, SD 1.00) through their schools. In terms of "support and involvement of teachers and parents" in sex education, parents' participation ranked as the lowest (mean 1.81, SD 1.01). Audiotapes were reported as the least used among the listed "teaching aids for sexual health education" (mean 1.54, SD 0.82). In multivariate analysis, receiving more "information on HIV and sexual health" was positively associated with more positive "attitudes toward abstinence" (β = 0.11, p = <0.018) and greater "intentions for safer sex" (β = 0.17, p = <0.001) among students. Similarly, increased "support and involvement from teachers and parents" was also positively associated with more positive "attitudes toward abstinence" (β = 0.16, p = <0.001) and greater "intentions for safer sex" (β = 0.15, p = <0.002). Our results suggest that students' needs and expectations

  5. Abstinence and abstinence-only education.

    PubMed

    Ott, Mary A; Santelli, John S

    2007-10-01

    To review recent literature on medical accuracy, program effectiveness, and ethical concerns related to abstinence-only policies for adolescent sexuality education. The federal government invests over 175 million dollars annually in 'abstinence-only-until-marriage' programs. These programs are required to withhold information on contraception and condom use, except for information on failure rates. Abstinence-only curricula have been found to contain scientifically inaccurate information, distorting data on topics such as condom efficacy, and promote gender stereotypes. An independent evaluation of the federal program, several systematic reviews, and cohort data from population-based surveys find little evidence of efficacy and evidence of possible harm. In contrast, comprehensive sexuality education programs have been found to help teens delay initiation of intercourse and reduce sexual risk behaviors. Abstinence-only policies violate the human rights of adolescents because they withhold potentially life-saving information on HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Federal support of abstinence-only as an approach to adolescent sexuality education is of much concern due to medical inaccuracies, lack of effectiveness, and the withholding and distorting of health information.

  6. Marijuana intoxication

    MedlinePlus

    Cannabis intoxication; Intoxication - marijuana (cannabis); Pot; Mary Jane; Weed; Grass; Cannabis ... The intoxicating effects of marijuana include relaxation, ... to fast and predictable signs and symptoms. Eating marijuana ...

  7. Trajectories of Marijuana Use from Adolescence to Adulthood as Predictors of Unemployment Status in the Early Forties

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, Judith S.; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Brook, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To study the degree to which individuals in different trajectories of marijuana use are similar or different in terms of unemployment status at mean age 43. Methods We gathered longitudinal data on a prospective cohort taken from a community sample (N = 548). Forty nine percent of the original participants were females. Over 90% of the participants were white. The participants were followed from adolescence to early midlife. The mean ages of participants at the follow-up interviews were 14.1, 16.3, 22.3, 27.0, 31.9, 36.6, and 43.0, respectively. We used the growth mixture modeling (GMM) approach to identify the trajectories of marijuana use over a 29 year period. Results Five trajectories of marijuana use were identified: chronic users/decreasers (8.3%), quitters (18.6%), increasing users (7.3%), chronic occasional users (25.6%), and nonusers/experimenters (40.2%). Compared with nonusers/experimenters, chronic users/decreasers had a significantly higher likelihood of unemployment at mean age 43 (Adjusted Odds Ratio =3.51, 95% Confidence Interval = 1.13 – 10.91), even after controlling for the covariates. Conclusions and Scientific Significance The results of the associations between the distinct trajectories of marijuana use and unemployment in early midlife indicate that it is important to develop intervention programs targeting chronic marijuana use as well as unemployment in individuals at this stage of development. Results from this study should encourage clinicians, teachers, and parents to assess and treat chronic marijuana use in adolescents. PMID:26991779

  8. Adolescent Self-Reported Behaviors and Their Association with Marijuana Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenblatt, Janet C.

    The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) has shown that the rate of marijuana use among youth has more than doubled since 1992. Similar trends are noted across all subgroups studied. At the same time, the percentage of teens perceiving a "great risk" from smoking marijuana has declined. Negative effects of marijuana use are…

  9. Changing perspectives on marijuana use during early adolescence and young adulthood: Evidence from a panel of cross-sectional surveys.

    PubMed

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Vaughn, Michael G; Perron, Brian E; Gonzalez, Jennifer M Reingle; Goings, Trenette Clark

    2016-12-01

    Prior research has often overlooked potential cohort differences in marijuana views and use across adolescence and young adulthood. To begin to address this gap, we conduct an exploratory examination of marijuana views and use among American youth using a panel of cross-sectional surveys. Findings are based on repeated, cross-sectional data collected annually from adolescents (ages 12-17; n=230,452) and young adults (ages 18-21; n=120,588) surveyed as part of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health between 2002 and 2014. For each of the birth years between 1986 and 1996, we combined a series of nationally representative cross-sections to provide multi-year data strings designed to approximate nationally representative cohorts. Compared to youth born in the mid-to-late 1980s, youth born in the mid-1990s reported significantly higher levels of marijuana disapproval during the early adolescent years (Age 14: 1988=64.7%, 1994=70.4%) but lower levels of disapproval during the young adult years (Age 19: 1988=32.0%, 1994=25.0%; Age 20: 1988=27.9%, 1994=19.7%). Moreover, the prevalence of marijuana use among youth born in 1994 was significantly lower-compared to youth born in 1988-at age 14 (1988: 11.39%, 1994: 8.19%) and significantly higher at age 18 (1988: 29.67%, 1994: 34.83%). This pattern held even when adjusting for potential confounding by demographic changes in the population across the study period. We see evidence of changes in the perceptions of marijuana use among youth born during the late twentieth century. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bullying Victimization, Binge Drinking, and Marijuana Use among Adolescents: Results from the 2013 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    PubMed

    Priesman, Emily; Newman, Rameika; Ford, Jason A

    2018-01-01

    The current research examines the association between bullying victimization, binge drinking, and marijuana use among adolescents. We seek to determine if this association varies based on the type of bullying experienced, traditional or cyberbullying. We used data from the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative sample of high school students in the United States. The dependent variables were binge drinking and marijuana use. Our key independent variable, bullying victimization, included both traditional and cyberbullying. We estimated logistic regression models, by gender, to examine the association between bullying victimization and substance use. About 25% of the sample reported bullying victimization, including 10.39% for only traditional, 5.47% for only cyber, and 9.26% for both. Traditional bullying was not significantly associated with binge drinking, but was negatively related to marijuana use. Being the victim of cyberbullying and both types of bullying was significantly associated with binge drinking and marijuana use. We also found important gender differences. The current research adds to a growing list of studies that suggests that cyberbullying is associated with more adverse outcomes than traditional bullying. Bullying prevention and intervention efforts should focus on reducing cyberbullying and providing adolescents with the skills needed to effectively deal with cyberbullying.

  11. Problematic Substance Use in Urban Adolescents: Role of Intrauterine Exposures to Cocaine and Marijuana and Post-Natal Environment

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Deborah A.; Kuranz, Seth; Appugliese, Danielle; Cabral, Howard; Chen, Clara; Crooks, Denise; Heeren, Timothy; Liebschutz, Jane; Richardson, Mark; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Background Linkages between intrauterine exposures to cocaine and marijuana and adolescents’ problematic substance use have not been fully delineated. Methods Prospective longitudinal study with assessors unaware of intrauterine exposure history followed 157 urban participants from birth until late adolescence. Level of intrauterine exposures was identified by mother's report and infant’s meconium. Problematic substance use, identified by the Voice Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (V-DISC) or the Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI) and urine assay, was a composite encompassing DSM-IV indication of tolerance, abuse, and dependence on alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco and any use of cocaine, glue, or opiates. Results Twenty percent (32/157) of the sample experienced problematic substance use by age 18 years, of whom the majority (22/157) acknowledged abuse, tolerance or dependence on marijuana with or without other substances. Structural equation models examining direct and indirect pathways linking a Cox survival model for early substance initiation to a logistic regression models found effects of post-natal factors including childhood exposure to violence and household substance use, early youth substance initiation, and ongoing youth violence exposure contributing to adolescent problematic substance use. Conclusion We did not identify direct relationships between intrauterine cocaine or marijuana exposure and problematic substance use, but did find potentially modifiable post-natal risk factors also noted to be associated with problematic substance use in the general population including earlier substance initiation, exposure to violence and to household substance use. PMID:24999059

  12. Decreased frontal N-acetylaspartate levels in adolescents concurrently using both methamphetamine and marijuana.

    PubMed

    Sung, Young-Hoon; Carey, Paul D; Stein, Dan J; Ferrett, Helen L; Spottiswoode, Bruce S; Renshaw, Perry F; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A

    2013-06-01

    The potential neurochemical toxicity associated with methamphetamine (MA) or marijuana (MJ) use on the developing adolescent brain is unclear, particularly with regard to individuals with concomitant use of MA and MJ (MA+MJ). In this study, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was utilized to measure in vivo brain N-acetylaspartate plus N-acetylaspartyl glutamate (tNAA, an indicator of intact neuronal integrity) levels. Three adolescent groups from Cape Town, South Africa completed MRS scans as well as clinical measures including a drug use history. Subjects included (1) nine MA (age=15.7±1.37), (2) eight MA+MJ (age=16.2±1.16) using adolescents and (3) ten healthy controls (age=16.8±0.62). Single voxel spectra were acquired from midfrontal gray matter using a point-resolved spectroscopy sequence (PRESS). The MRS data were post-processed in the fully automated approach for quantitation of metabolite ratios to phosphocreatine plus creatine (PCr+Cr). A significant reduction in frontal tNAA/PCr+Cr ratios was seen in the MA+MJ group compared to the healthy controls (p=0.01, by 7.2%) and to the MA group (p=0.04, by 6.9%). Significant relationships were also observed between decreased tNAA/PCr+Cr ratios and drug use history of MA or MJ (total cumulative lifetime dose, age of onset, and duration of MA and MJ exposure) only in the MA+MJ group (all p<0.05). These findings suggest that in adolescents, concomitant heavy MA+MJ use may contribute to altered brain metabolites in frontal gray matter. The significant associations between the abnormal tNAA/PCr+Cr ratios and the drug use history suggest that MA+MJ abuse may induce neurotoxicity in a dose-responsive manner in adolescent brain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Association of State-Mandated Abstinence-only Sexuality Education with Rates of Adolescent HIV Infection and Teenage Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Elliot, L M; Booth, M M; Patterson, G; Althoff, M; Bush, C K; Dery, M A

    2017-01-01

    Abstinence-only sexuality education (AOSE); is required in the public school systems of many states, raising public health concerns and perpetuating health disparities through school systems. This study aimed to determine the correlations between state-mandated AOSE and the rates of adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy. Using publicly available data on all 50 United States' laws and policies on AOSE, states were ranked according to their level of abstinence emphasis on sexuality education (Level 0 - Level 3);. We calculated the relative proportion of Black students in public schools and the proportion of families below the federal poverty line then ranked them by state. We compared the states' ranks to the incidence of adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy in those states to identify associations between variables. The majority of states (~44 percent ); have legally mandated AOSE policies (Level 3); and adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy rates were highest in these Level 3 states. There were significant, positive correlations between HIV incidence rates of 13-19 year olds, HIV rates of 20-24 year olds, teen pregnancy rates, and AOSE level, with the proportion of the population that lives below the federal poverty level, and whether they attended schools that had a greater than 50 percent of an African American population. These data show a clear association between state sexuality education policies and adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy rates not previously demonstrated. Our data further show that states that have higher proportions of at-risk populations, with higher adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy rates, are more likely to also have restrictive AOSE policies. These populations may be more likely to attend public schools where AOSE is taught, increasing their risk for HIV and teen pregnancy. The World Health Organization considers fact-based Comprehensive Sexuality Education a human right, and the authors believe it is past time to end harmful, discriminatory sexuality

  14. Medical marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000899.htm Medical marijuana To use the sharing features on this page, ... have legalized marijuana for medical use. How Does Medical Marijuana Work? Medical marijuana may be: Smoked Vaporized Eaten ...

  15. Perceptions about sexual abstinence and knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention among in-school adolescents in a western Nigerian city

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Young people are becoming increasingly exposed to the risk of HIV infection. According to the 2008 HIV/Syphilis sentinel survey in Nigeria, 3.3% of young people aged 15-19 years are infected. Primary prevention especially abstinence, remains one of the most realistic interventions for reducing further spread of the virus. However, the adoption of sexual abstinence as a prevention strategy among adolescents remains low and factors influencing its practice among urban young people in Nigeria are relatively unknown. The aim of the study was to document the sexual abstinence behaviour of in-school adolescents, the factors influencing or obstructing abstinence, and knowledge of HIV and AIDS in Ibadan, South-West Nigeria. Methods The study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey of students in Ibadan South-West Local Government Area. A total of 420 respondents (52% males and 48% females), selected through a multistage sampling technique, completed a semi-structured questionnaire. This was supplemented with eight focus group discussions (FGDs) which had an average of 9 respondents within the 10 and 19 years age group. The data from the FGDs were transcribed and summarized manually while the quantitative data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences to generate frequencies, cross tabulations of variables and logistic regression analysis. Results Twelve percent of the entire sample had ever had sex. Overall, knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention was high and most respondents favoured the promotion of abstinence as an HIV prevention strategy. A smaller proportion of male respondents (79%) abstained compared with the females (98%). Major predictors of sexual abstinence were being a female, not having a boyfriend or girl friend, not using alcohol and having a positive attitude towards abstinence (P < 0.05). Sexual abstinence was also significantly associated with perceived self efficacy to refuse sex and negative perception of peers

  16. Modifiable Risk Factors for Marijuana Use Among Adolescents in a Youth Development Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-08

    including: demographics, drug knowledge, cigarette smoking , alcohol use, access to marijuana and alcohol, disapproval of substance use, friends’ substance...strongest association with marijuana use was “ever smoked cigarettes ,” or lifetime cigarette use (OR = 30.17). After Modifiable Risk Factors for...most strongly associated with lifetime marijuana use (OR = 19.69) (Table 1). This result indicates that having ever smoked cigarettes greatly

  17. Low Pretreatment Impulsivity and High Medication Adherence Increase the Odds of Abstinence in a Trial of N-Acetylcysteine in Adolescents with Cannabis Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bentzley, Jessica P.; Tomko, Rachel L.; Gray, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Background In light of recent progress toward pharmacologic interventions to treat adolescent cannabis use disorder, it is important to consider which adolescent characteristics may be associated with a favorable response to treatment. This study presents secondary analyses from a parent randomized controlled trial of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in adolescents with cannabis use disorder. We hypothesized high pretreatment impulsivity and medication non-adherence would be associated with reduced abstinence rates. Methods Participants were treatment-seeking adolescents (N = 115) who met criteria for cannabis use disorder and were assessed for pretreatment impulsivity. They received 1200 mg NAC or placebo orally twice daily for 8 weeks. An intent-to-treat analysis using a repeated-measures logistic regression model was used to relate pretreatment impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale) and treatment group to abstinence rates, measured by urine cannabinoid tests. To explore mechanisms by which NAC may reduce cannabis use, relationships between impulsivity, adherence, and abstinence were assessed in a second statistical model using data from participants with recorded adherence and urine cannabinoid test results (n = 54). Results In the intent-to-treat analysis, low pretreatment impulsivity, NAC treatment, and negative baseline urine cannabinoid test results independently increased the odds of having negative urine cannabinoid tests during treatment (OR = 2.1, 2.3, 5.3 respectively). In the sample of participants with adherence data (n = 54), adherence tripled the odds of abstinence. Notably, the effect of adherence on abstinence was only observed in the NAC treatment group. Lastly, although the highly impulsive participants had reduced rates of abstinence, highly impulsive individuals adherent to NAC treatment had increased abstinence rates compared to non-adherent individuals. Conclusion Low impulsivity, NAC treatment, medication adherence, and baseline negative

  18. Cigarette smoke exposure during adolescence enhances sensitivity to the rewarding effects of nicotine in adulthood, even after a long period of abstinence.

    PubMed

    de la Peña, June Bryan; Ahsan, Hafiz Muhammad; Tampus, Reinholdgher; Botanas, Chrislean Jun; dela Peña, Irene Joy; Kim, Hee Jin; Sohn, Aeree; dela Peña, Ike; Shin, Chan Young; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2015-12-01

    Adolescence is a period of enhanced vulnerability to the motivational properties of tobacco/cigarette smoking. Several studies have suggested that smoking initiation during this period will more likely lead to long-lasting cigarette or nicotine addiction. In the present study, we investigated the influences of adolescent cigarette smoke or nicotine exposure on the rewarding effects of nicotine, particularly whether these influences persist even after a long period of abstinence. Towards this, adolescent and adult Sprague-Dawley rats were repeatedly exposed to cigarette smoke or nicotine, for 14 days, and then were subjected to a 1-month abstinence period. Thereafter, the rewarding effects of nicotine were evaluated through the conditioned place preference (CPP) and self-administration (SA) tests. Even after a 1-month abstinence period, rats pre-exposed to either nicotine or cigarette smoke demonstrated enhanced CPP for the higher dose (0.6 mg/kg) of nicotine. Notably, cigarette smoke-preexposed adolescent rats, now adults, showed CPP for both 0.2 and 0.6 mg/kg dose of nicotine. Moreover, only these rats (pre-exposed to cigarette smoke during adolescence) showed significant acquisition and maintenance of nicotine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion) SA. These results suggest that cigarette smoke exposure during adolescence enhances sensitivity to the rewarding effects of nicotine in adulthood, even after a long period of abstinence. This may be a factor in the high rates of nicotine addiction and dependence observed in smokers who started during adolescence. More importantly, our findings highlight the enduring consequences of adolescent-onset cigarette smoking and the need to protect this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Parental Restriction of Movie Viewing Prospectively Predicts Adolescent Alcohol and Marijuana Initiation: Implications for Media Literacy Programs.

    PubMed

    Cox, Melissa J; Gabrielli, Joy; Janssen, Tim; Jackson, Kristina M

    2018-05-02

    Youth are heavy consumers of media, and exposure to mature media content is associated with initiation and progression of substance use. Parental restriction of such content has been shown to be an effective mechanism to reduce negative consequences attributed to exposure to mature media content. This study assessed the influence of parental restriction of movie watching across Motion Picture Association of America rating categories on subsequent alcohol and marijuana initiation at 1- and 2-year follow-up. Using data from a longitudinal study of adolescent substance use (N = 1023), we used logistic regression analyses to determine the odds of alcohol and marijuana initiation across movie rating categories, within R-rated restriction categories in particular, and based on changes in parental restriction of movies over time. All analyses controlled for important parental, personality, and behavioral correlates of adolescent substance use. Results suggest that restriction of R-rated movies is protective of both alcohol and marijuana initiation. Important differences among parental restriction of R-rated movie categories emerged such that being allowed to watch them with adult supervision was protective of substance use, while those who reported watching R-rated films despite parental restrictions were at heightened risk for alcohol initiation. Changes in parental movie restrictions were not predictive of substance use initiation over the subsequent year. Implications of these findings for media literacy program prevention strategies are discussed.

  20. The Moderating Effect of Marijuana Use on the Relationship between Delinquent Behavior and HIV Risk among Adolescents in Foster Care

    PubMed Central

    Auslander, Wendy F.; Thompson, Ronald G.; Gerke, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents in foster care experience mental health and substance use problems that place them at risk for HIV, yet the exact nature of the relationship remains unclear. This study examined the co-occurring influences of mental health problems and substance use on HIV risk and determined whether substance use moderated the effect of mental health problems on HIV risk behaviors among adolescents in foster care. Regression analyses of cross-sectional data collected through structured interviews with 334 adolescents, aged 15–18 years, determined which mental health problems and substances increased HIV risk behaviors. Adolescents with delinquency and anxiety/depression engaged in significantly more HIV risk behaviors than their counterparts, controlling for race, gender, and type of childhood abuse. Further, any marijuana use significantly moderated the effects of delinquent behaviors on HIV risk, differentially increasing HIV risk among those who engaged in delinquent behaviors. PMID:25214818

  1. Use of Marijuana and Blunts among Adolescents: 2005. The NSDUH Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report focuses on past month marijuana and blunt use among youths aged 12 to 17.7 Data are presented by demographic and academic characteristics. All findings are based on data from the 2005 NSDUH. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) includes questions on the use of marijuana and blunts. Respondents who reported lifetime use of…

  2. Trajectories of marijuana use from adolescence to adulthood predicting unemployment in the mid 30s.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Yeon; Brook, Judith S; Finch, Stephen J; Brook, David W

    2015-08-01

    Unemployment (5.5% as of 2015) is a serious social and economic problem in our society. Since marijuana use is an important factor related to unemployment, identifying the trajectory of the use of marijuana may aid intervention programs and research on unemployment. Six hundred seventy-four participants (53% African-Americans, 47% Puerto Ricans) were surveyed (60% females) from ages 14 to 36. The first data collection was held when the participants were students attending schools in the East Harlem area of New York City. We found that the chronic marijuana use (OR = 4.07, p < .001; AOR = 2.58, p < .05) and the late marijuana quitter (OR = 2.91, p < .05) trajectory groups were associated with an increased likelihood of unemployment compared with the no marijuana use trajectory group. The results suggest that those who use marijuana chronically are at greater risk for being unemployed. Consequently, these individuals should have access to and participate in marijuana cessation treatment programs in order to reduce their risk of unemployment. Unemployment intervention programs should also consider focusing on the cessation of the use of marijuana to decrease the likelihood of later unemployment. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  3. Abstinence and abstinence-only education: a review of U.S. policies and programs.

    PubMed

    Santelli, John; Ott, Mary A; Lyon, Maureen; Rogers, Jennifer; Summers, Daniel; Schleifer, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    Abstinence from sexual intercourse is an important behavioral strategy for preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and pregnancy among adolescents. Many adolescents, including most younger adolescents, have not initiated sexual intercourse and many sexually experienced adolescents and young adults are abstinent for varying periods of time. There is broad support for abstinence as a necessary and appropriate part of sexuality education. Controversy arises when abstinence is provided to adolescents as a sole choice and where health information on other choices is restricted or misrepresented. Although abstinence is theoretically fully effective, in actual practice abstinence often fails to protect against pregnancy and STIs. Few Americans remain abstinent until marriage; many do not or cannot marry, and most initiate sexual intercourse and other sexual behaviors as adolescents. Although abstinence is a healthy behavioral option for teens, abstinence as a sole option for adolescents is scientifically and ethically problematic. A recent emphasis on abstinence-only programs and policies appears to be undermining more comprehensive sexuality education and other government-sponsored programs. We believe that abstinence-only education programs, as defined by federal funding requirements, are morally problematic, by withholding information and promoting questionable and inaccurate opinions. Abstinence-only programs threaten fundamental human rights to health, information, and life.

  4. Better learning in schools to improve attitudes toward abstinence and intentions for safer sex among adolescents in urban Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background School-based sex education is an effective medium to convey health information and skills about preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancies among adolescents. However, research on school-based sex education is limited in many developing countries, including Nepal. This study thus had two main objectives: (1) to assess students’ evaluation of school-based sex education, and (2) to examine the associations between students’ evaluations of school-based sex education and their (a) attitudes toward abstinence and (b) intentions for safer sex. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among 634 students from six schools in the Kathmandu Valley during May–June 2010. We used a self-administered questionnaire to assess students’ evaluations of school-based sex education, attitudes toward abstinence, and intentions for safer sex. The data were then analyzed using multiple linear regression models. Results Regarding “information on HIV and sexual health”, many students perceived that they received the least amount of information on HIV counseling and testing centers (mean 2.29, SD 1.00) through their schools. In terms of “support and involvement of teachers and parents” in sex education, parents’ participation ranked as the lowest (mean 1.81, SD 1.01). Audiotapes were reported as the least used among the listed “teaching aids for sexual health education” (mean 1.54, SD 0.82). In multivariate analysis, receiving more “information on HIV and sexual health” was positively associated with more positive “attitudes toward abstinence” (β = 0.11, p = <0.018) and greater “intentions for safer sex” (β = 0.17, p = <0.001) among students. Similarly, increased “support and involvement from teachers and parents” was also positively associated with more positive “attitudes toward abstinence” (β = 0.16, p = <0.001) and greater “intentions for safer sex” (β = 0.15, p

  5. Developmental trajectories of marijuana use from adolescence to adulthood: relationship with using weapons including guns.

    PubMed

    Brook, Judith S; Lee, Jung Yeon; Finch, Stephen J; Brook, David W

    2014-01-01

    This is the first study to assess the associations between the trajectories of marijuana use and other predictors of violent behavior with the use of guns or other weapons as well as stealing without the use of weapons among inner-city African Americans and Puerto Ricans (N = 838). Logistic regression analyses examined whether the longitudinal trajectories of marijuana use compared with the trajectory of no/low marijuana use predicted violent behavior. A higher Bayesian posterior probability (BPP) for the increasing marijuana use trajectory group (AOR = 3.37, P < .001), the moderate use of marijuana trajectory group (AOR = 1.98, P < .01), and the quitter trajectory group (AOR = 1.70, P < .05) was associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in violence (i.e., shooting or hitting someone with a weapon) compared with the BPP of the no use of marijuana trajectory group. Our results address a number of important public health and clinical issues. Public health funds might be spent on prevention programs focused on decreasing the use of marijuana, increasing educational retention, and decreasing contact with deviant associates. Understanding the psychosocial conditions related to the use of weapons is critical for individuals involved in the criminal justice system, physicians, and other health care providers in managing individuals who engage in violent behavior. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Developmental Trajectories of Marijuana Use from Adolescence to Adulthood: Relationship with Using Weapons including Guns

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Finch, Stephen J.; Brook, David W.

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study to assess the associations between the trajectories of marijuana use and other predictors of violent behavior with the use of guns or other weapons as well as stealing without the use of weapons among inner-city African Americans and Puerto Ricans (N=838). Logistic regression analyses examined whether the longitudinal trajectories of marijuana use compared with the trajectory of no/low marijuana use predicted violent behavior. A higher Bayesian posterior probability (BPP) for the increasing marijuana use trajectory group (AOR=3.37, p<.001), the moderate use of marijuana trajectory group (AOR=1.98, p<.01), and the quitter trajectory group (AOR=1.70, p<.05) predicted an increased likelihood of engaging in violence (i.e., shooting or hitting someone with a weapon) compared with the BPP of the no use of marijuana trajectory group. Our results address a number of important public health and clinical issues. Public health funds might be spent on prevention programs focused on decreasing the use of marijuana, increasing educational retention, and decreasing contact with deviant associates. Understanding the psychosocial conditions related to the use of weapons is critical for individuals involved in the criminal justice system, physicians, and other health care providers in managing individuals who engage in violent behavior. PMID:24338741

  7. [Effects of TeenSTAR, an abstinence only sexual education program, on adolescent sexual behavior].

    PubMed

    Vigil, Pilar; Riquelme, Rosa; Rivadeneira, Rosario; Aranda, Waldo

    2005-10-01

    Urgent measures are required to stop the increase in the frequency of pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases among teenagers. A means of facing this problem is promoting sexual abstinence among youngsters. There are studies that confirm the efficacy of this approach. To show the results of the application of a holistic sexuality program (TeenSTAR) among Chilean teenagers. Students attending basic or high school were divided into a control or study group. The control group (342 students) received the usual education on sexuality given by their schools and the study group (398 students) participated in twelve TeenSTAR sessions lasting 1.5 hours each, given by a trained professor. Assessment of achievements was made using an anonymous questionnaire answered at the start and end of the program. The rates of sexual initiation among control and study groups were 15 and 6.5%, respectively. Among sexually active students, 20% of those in the study group and 9% of those in the control group discontinued sexual activity. A higher proportion of students in the TeenSTAR program retarded their sexual initiation or discontinued sexual activity and found more reasons to maintain sexual abstinence than control students.

  8. Eveningness and later sleep timing are associated with greater risk for alcohol and marijuana use in adolescence: Initial findings from the NCANDA study

    PubMed Central

    Hasler, Brant P.; Franzen, Peter L.; de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Prouty, Devin; Brown, Sandra A.; Tapert, Susan F.; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Pohl, Kilian M.; Sullivan, Edith V.; De Bellis, Michael D.; Nagel, Bonnie J.; Baker, Fiona C.; Colrain, Ian M.; Clark, Duncan B.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Abundant cross-sectional evidence links eveningness (a preference for later sleep-wake timing) and increased alcohol and drug use among adolescents and young adults. However, longitudinal studies are needed to examine whether eveningness is a risk factor for subsequent alcohol and drug use, particularly during adolescence, which is marked by parallel peaks in eveningness and risk for the onset of alcohol use disorders. The present study examined whether eveningness and other sleep characteristics were associated with concurrent or subsequent substance involvement in a longitudinal study of adolescents. METHODS Participants were 729 adolescents (368 females; age 12–21 years) in the National Consortium on Adolescent Neurodevelopment and Alcohol [NCANDA] study. Associations between the sleep variables (circadian preference, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, sleep timing, and sleep duration) and three categorical substance variables (at-risk alcohol use, alcohol bingeing, and past year marijuana use (y/n)) were examined using ordinal and logistic regression with baseline age, sex, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and psychiatric problems as covariates. RESULTS At baseline, greater eveningness was associated with greater at-risk alcohol use, greater bingeing, and past-year use of marijuana. Later weekday and weekend bedtimes, but not weekday or weekend sleep duration, showed similar associations across the three substance outcomes at baseline. Greater baseline eveningness was also prospectively associated with greater bingeing and past-year use of marijuana at the 1-year follow-up, after covarying for baseline bingeing and marijuana use. Later baseline weekday and weekend bedtimes, and shorter baseline weekday sleep duration, were similarly associated with greater bingeing and past-year use of marijuana at the 1-year follow-up after covarying for baseline values. CONCLUSIONS Findings suggest that eveningness and sleep timing may be under

  9. Marijuana smoking among school-aged adolescents in the Brčko District of Bosnia and Herzegovina: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Domić, Anto; Tahirović, Husref; Čižek Sajko, Mojca; Đulabić, Borislav

    2017-05-01

    The aim was to determine the prevalence of marijuana smoking among school-aged adolescents in the Brčko District of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with particular regard to their gender, age and residence, and the frequency of marijuana smoking in the past thirty days in relation to their peers in the rest of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Croatia and the Republic of Serbia. This research, designed as a cross-sectional study and based on the ESPAD (European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs) questionnaire, adjusted to this research, encompassed 4,188 adolescents from elementary and secondary schools. The data were collected by means of questionnaires tailored to each respondent. A significantly lower number of adolescents smoke marijuana in comparison to those who do not smoke, but male adolescents smoke more often than female adolescents (p<0.001), as well as urban youth in comparison to rural youth (p=0.04). Every fourth adolescent, regardless of gender, who smoked marijuana, used it before the age of thirteen (p<0.001), male adolescents more often than females (p=0.002). In the previous thirty days a higher percentage of all the respondents from the Brčko District had smoked marijuana than those from the Republika Srpska and the RS (p<0.001), and there is no difference between them and their peers from the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the RC (p=0.382 and p=0.608). Smoking marijuana in the Brčko District is a major public health problem. Male adolescents smoke marijuana more often than female adolescents, and urban youth more in comparison to rural youth. In the previous thirty days adolescents from the Brčko District smoked more often than their peers from the Republic of Serbia and the Republika Srpska, and with the same intensity but less frequently compared to adolescents from the Republic of Croatia and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Copyright © 2017 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  10. Gender-specific relationships between depressive symptoms, marijuana use, parental communication and risky sexual behavior in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Randi Melissa; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Laurie

    2013-08-01

    A large body of research has identified correlates of risky sexual behavior, with depressive symptoms and marijuana use among the most consistent psychosocial predictors of sexual risk. However, substantially less research has examined the relationship between these risk variables and adolescent risky sexual behavior over time as well as the interaction of these individual-level predictors with family-level variables such as parenting factors. Additionally, most studies have been restricted to one index of risky sexual behavior, have not taken into account the complex role of gender, and have not controlled for several of the factors that independently confer risk for risky sexual behavior. Therefore, the current study investigated the association between depressive symptoms and parameters of parenting on marijuana use, number of sexual partners and condom usage measured 9 months later for both boys and girls. Participants were 9th and 10th grade adolescents (N = 1,145; 57.7% female). We found that depressive symptoms may be a gender-specific risk factor for certain indices of risky sexual behavior. For boys only, marijuana use at Time 2 accounted for the variance in the relationship between depressive symptoms at Time 1 and number of partners at Time 2. Additionally, strictness of family rules at Time 1 was associated with the number of partners with whom girls engaged in sex at Time 2, but only among those with lower levels of depressive symptoms at Time 1. Results from the current investigation speak to the utility of examining the complex, gender-specific pathways to sexual risk in adolescents. Findings suggest that treatment of mental health and substance use problems may have important implications in rates of risky sexual behavior and, conceivably, controlling the high rates of serious individual and public health repercussions.

  11. Gender-Specific Relationships Between Depressive Symptoms, Marijuana Use, Parental Communication and Risky Sexual Behavior in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Randi Melissa; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    A large body of research has identified correlates of risky sexual behavior, with depressive symptoms and marijuana use among the most consistent psychosocial predictors of sexual risk. However, substantially less research has examined the relationship between these risk variables and adolescent risky sexual behavior over time as well as the interaction of these individual-level predictors with family-level variables such as parenting factors. Additionally, most studies have been restricted to one index of risky sexual behavior, have not taken into account the complex role of gender, and have not controlled for several of the factors that independently confer risk for risky sexual behavior. Therefore, the current study investigated the association between depressive symptoms and parameters of parenting on marijuana use, number of sexual partners and condom usage measured 9 months later for both boys and girls. Participants were 9th and 10th grade adolescents (N = 1,145; 57.7 % female). We found that depressive symptoms may be a gender-specific risk factor for certain indices of risky sexual behavior. For boys only, marijuana use at Time 2 accounted for the variance in the relationship between depressive symptoms at Time 1 and number of partners at Time 2. Additionally, strictness of family rules at Time 1 was associated with the number of partners with whom girls engaged in sex at Time 2, but only among those with lower levels of depressive symptoms at Time 1. Results from the current investigation speak to the utility of examining the complex, gender-specific pathways to sexual risk in adolescents. Findings suggest that treatment of mental health and substance use problems may have important implications in rates of risky sexual behavior and, conceivably, controlling the high rates of serious individual and public health repercussions. PMID:22927009

  12. Interest in marijuana treatment programs among teenage smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Sheer, Amy J; Gorelick, David A; Collins, Charles C; Schroeder, Jennifer R; Heishman, Stephen J; Leff, Michelle K; Moolchan, Eric T

    2009-12-01

    Little is known about adolescents' interest in marijuana treatment programs. This question was evaluated by telephone interview in a convenience sample of 575 adolescents responding to advertisements for tobacco research studies. Eighty-one percent of respondents endorsed the need for marijuana treatment programs for adolescents. These adolescents were younger and less likely to smoke tobacco, smoke marijuana, or use alcohol than those not endorsing such a need. Among the 192 marijuana smokers, the 58.8% who endorsed the need for marijuana treatment programs took their first puff of marijuana at a younger age than those who did not endorse the need. Those who were willing to participate in a marijuana treatment program were more likely African American and took their first marijuana puff at a younger age than those not interested in treatment. These findings suggest that most adolescent marijuana smokers endorse the need for and are willing to attend marijuana treatment programs.

  13. Developmental Trajectories of Marijuana Use among Men: Examining Linkages with Criminal Behavior and Psychopathic Features into the Mid-30s

    PubMed Central

    Pardini, Dustin; Bechtold, Jordan; Loeber, Rolf; White, Helene

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Examine whether young men who chronically use marijuana are at risk for engaging in drug-related and non-drug-related criminal offending and exhibiting psychopathic personality features in their mid-30s. Methods Patterns of marijuana use were delineated in a sample of predominately Black and White young men from adolescence to the mid-20s using latent class growth curve analysis. Self-report and official records of criminal offending and psychopathic personality features were assessed in the mid-30s. Analyses controlled for multiple factors indicative of a preexisting antisocial lifestyle and co-occurring use of other substances and tested for moderation by race. Results Four latent marijuana trajectory groups were identified: chronic high, adolescence-limited, late increasing, and low/nonusers. Relative to low/nonusers, chronic high and late increasing marijuana users exhibited more adult psychopathic features and were more likely to engage in drug-related offending during their mid-30s. Adolescence-limited users were similar to low/nonusers in terms of psychopathic features but were more likely to be arrested for drug-related crimes. No trajectory group differences were found for violence or theft, and the group differences were not moderated by race. Conclusions Young men who engage in chronic marijuana use from adolescence into their 20s are at increased risk for exhibiting psychopathic features, dealing drugs, and enduring drug-related legal problems in their mid-30s relative to men who remain abstinent or use infrequently. PMID:26568641

  14. Developmental progression to early adult binge drinking and marijuana use from worsening versus stable trajectories of adolescent ADHD and delinquency

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Andrea L.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Swanson, James M.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Harty, Seth C.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Abikoff, Howard B.; Hechtman, Lily; Stehli, Annamarie; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Wigal, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Aims To examine the association between developmental trajectories of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and delinquency through childhood and adolescence (ages 8-16) and subsequent binge drinking and marijuana use in early adulthood (age 21). Design Prospective naturalistic follow-up of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) previously enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Treatment-phase assessments occurred at 3, 9, and 14 months after randomization; follow-up assessments occurred at 24 months, 36 months, and 6, 8, and 12 years after randomization. Setting Secondary analysis of data from the Multimodal Treatment Study of ADHD (MTA), a multi-site RCT comparing the effects of careful medication management, intensive behavior therapy, their combination, and referral to usual community care. Participants 579 children with DSM-IV ADHD combined type, aged 7.0 and 9.9 years old at baseline (M=8.5, SD=.80). Measurements Ratings of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and delinquency were collected from multiple informants at baseline and through the 8-year follow-up. Self-reports of binge drinking and marijuana use were collected at the 12-year follow-up (M age 21). Findings Trajectories of worsening inattention symptoms and delinquency (and less apparent improvement in hyperactivity-impulsivity) were associated with higher rates of early adult binge drinking and marijuana use, compared with trajectories of stable or improving symptoms and delinquency (of 24 comparisons, 22 p-values <.05), even when symptom levels in stable trajectories were high. Conclusions Worsening inattention symptoms and delinquency during adolescence are associated with increased-levels of early adult substance use; this pattern may reflect a developmental course of vulnerability to elevated substance use in early adulthood. PMID:25664657

  15. Medical Marijuana.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Teri

    2016-01-01

    The use of medicinal marijuana is increasing. Marijuana has been shown to have therapeutic effects in certain patients, but further research is needed regarding the safety and efficacy of marijuana as a medical treatment for various conditions. A growing body of research validates the use of marijuana for a variety of healthcare problems, but there are many issues surrounding the use of this substance. This article discusses the use of medical marijuana and provides implications for home care clinicians.

  16. Sexual Stigma, Sexual Behaviors, and Abstinence Among Vietnamese Adolescents: Implications for Risk and Protective Behaviors for HIV, STIs, and Unwanted Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kaljee, Linda M.; Green, Mackenzie; Riel, Rosemary; Lerdboon, Porntip; Tho, Le Huu; Thoa, Le Thi Kim; Minh, Truong Tan

    2007-01-01

    As rates of HIV increase in Viet Nam, there is a need for data on social relations and sexual risk and protective behaviors among Vietnamese adolescents in a context of rapid social and economic changes. We report findings from our qualitative interviews with 159 Vietnamese adolescents living in Ha Noi, Nha Trang City and Ninh Hoa District and survey of 886 adolescents in these same three sites. In the qualitative interviews, youth report a strong adherence to ideals and values regarding abstinence outside of marriage. Youth reported low rates of engagement in vaginal, anal, and/or oral sex with a significant difference in reported behaviors between males (29/469, 6.2%) and females (7/416, 1.7%) [p=.000]. 15/32 (46.9%) sexually active youth reported “rarely” or “never” using condoms. Females had significantly higher scores for perceived sexual stigma than males [t=−10.22 (95% CI −3.72 to −2.52), p=.000] while males scored significantly lower than females on a scale of perceived self-efficacy for abstinence [t=5.31 (95% CI 0.27 to 0.59), p=.000]. The stigmatization of sexual relations outside of marriage particularly for young women reinforces abstinence, however these same values decrease adolescents’ abilities to obtain accurate information about sexuality and HIV/STIs, and engage in safer sex. PMID:17403496

  17. Associations between Sexual Abstinence Ideals, Religiosity, and Alcohol Abstinence: A Longitudinal Study of Finnish Twins

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Torsten; Karvonen, Sakari; Rose, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed prevalence and stability of attitudes endorsing sexual abstinence ideals from late adolescence into early adulthood and studied associations of these attitudes with religiosity and alcohol abstinence in a sexually liberal Nordic society. Our population-based sample of Finnish twins permitted comparisons of co-twins concordant for religiosity but discordant for drinking to evaluate the association of sexual abstinence ideals with alcohol abstinence, controlling for household environment. From age 17 to 24, endorsement of sexual abstinence as a romantic ideal declined from 25% to 15%. Religiosity and alcohol abstinence correlated, both separately and together, with endorsing sexual abstinence. Abstinence ideals were associated with literal belief in fundamental tenets of the Bible. The association of sexual abstinence ideals with alcohol abstinence was confirmed in within-family comparisons of co-twins discordant for drinking but concordant for religiosity. Alcohol-abstinent twins were significantly more likely than their non-alcohol-abstinent twin siblings to endorse sexual abstinence ideals; that result suggests the association of sexual abstinence ideals with abstaining from alcohol is not explained by unmeasured confounds in familial background and structure. Our longitudinal results and analyses of discordant twins suggest that attitudes toward sexual abstinence ideals are embedded within other conservative attitudes and behaviors. PMID:23301620

  18. Increased sexual abstinence among in-school adolescents as a result of school health education in Soroti district, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Shuey, D A; Babishangire, B B; Omiat, S; Bagarukayo, H

    1999-06-01

    A school health education programme in primary schools aimed at AIDS prevention in Soroti district of Uganda emphasized improved access to information, improved peer interaction and improved quality of performance of the existing school health education system. A cross-sectional sample of students, average age 14 years, in their final year of primary school was surveyed before and after 2 years of interventions. The percentage of students who stated they had been sexually active fell from 42.9% (123 of 287) to 11.1% (31 of 280) in the intervention group, while no significant change was recorded in a control group. The changes remained significant when segregated by gender or rural and urban location. Students in the intervention group tended to speak to peers and teachers more often about sexual matters. Increases in reasons given by students for abstaining from sex over the study period occurred in those reasons associated with a rational decision-making model rather than a punishment model. A primary school health education programme which emphasizes social interaction methods can be effective in increasing sexual abstinence among school-going adolescents in Uganda. The programme does not have to be expensive and can be implemented with staff present in most districts in the region.

  19. The role of early childhood ADHD and subsequent CD in the initiation and escalation of adolescent cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Margaret H; Pelham, William E; Molina, Brooke S G; Coxe, Stefany; Kipp, Heidi; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Meinzer, Michael; Ross, J Megan; Lahey, Benjamin B

    2014-05-01

    Adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at an increased risk for substance use but the pathways through which this risk emerges are insufficiently understood. Tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana outcomes were compared between adolescents diagnosed with ADHD in early childhood (N = 113) and demographically similar controls (N = 65). Participants were assessed from age 5 until age 18. A comprehensive history of adolescent substance use was compiled for each participant and growth in ADHD and conduct disorder (CD) were modeled as they related to substance use outcomes. Results indicated that when compared with controls, adolescents with ADHD were more likely to try cigarettes, initiate alcohol use at early ages, and smoke marijuana more frequently. Furthermore, adolescents with ADHD were 4 to 5 times more likely than controls to escalate to heavy cigarette and marijuana use after trying these substances once. Adolescents with ADHD who escalated to heavy use patterns were more likely to display early cigarette use and marked problems with family members, but displayed fewer peer problems. There was evidence of baseline effects (latent intercept, measured at age 5) for both ADHD and CD on substance use outcomes. Furthermore, growth in ADHD symptoms accounted for much of the growth in CD symptoms, and consequently, escalating CD symptoms in childhood (latent slope) were viewed as a mediator of the relationship between ADHD and cigarette and marijuana use. Maternal drinking in early childhood was the strongest predictor of early adolescent alcohol use. These findings are discussed with respect to the role of ADHD in the development of adolescent risk outcomes.

  20. The Role of Early Childhood ADHD and Subsequent CD in the Initiation and Escalation of Adolescent Cigarette, Alcohol, and Marijuana Use

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Coxe, Stefany; Kipp, Heidi; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Meinzer, Michael; Ross, J. Megan; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Adolescents with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at an increased risk for substance use but the pathways through which this risk emerges are insufficiently understood. Method Tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana outcomes were compared between adolescents diagnosed with ADHD in early childhood (N=113) and demographically similar controls (N=65). Participants were assessed from age 5 until age 18. A comprehensive history of adolescent substance use was compiled for each participant and growth in ADHD and Conduct Disorder (CD) were modeled as they related to substance use outcomes. Results Results indicated that when compared to controls, adolescents with ADHD were more likely to try cigarettes, initiate alcohol use at early ages, and smoke marijuana more frequently. Furthermore, adolescents with ADHD were four to five times more likely than controls to escalate to heavy cigarette and marijuana use after trying these substances once. Adolescents with ADHD who escalated to heavy use patterns were more likely to display early cigarette use and marked problems with family members, but displayed fewer peer problems. There was evidence of baseline effects (latent intercept, measured at age five) for both ADHD and CD on substance use outcomes. Furthermore, growth in ADHD symptoms accounted for much of the growth in CD symptoms, and consequently, escalating CD symptoms in childhood (latent slope) were viewed as a mediator of the relationship between ADHD and cigarette and marijuana use. Maternal drinking in early childhood was the strongest predictor of early adolescent alcohol use. Conclusions These findings are discussed with respect to the role of ADHD in the development of adolescent risk outcomes. PMID:24886010

  1. Trajectories of Marijuana Use from Adolescence into Adulthood: Environmental and Individual Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Marina; Hill, Karl G.; Nevell, Alyssa M.; Guttmannova, Katarina; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Abbott, Robert D.; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to identify trajectories of marijuana use in the Seattle Social Development Project (n = 808) sample from age 14 through 30, and to examine the extent to which individuals in these trajectories differed in their substance use problems, mental health, problem behavior, economic outcomes, and positive functioning at age 33. In…

  2. Abstinence education.

    PubMed

    Zeiler, Alean

    2014-11-01

    The American College of Pediatricians strongly endorses abstinence-until-marriage sex education and recommends adoption by all school systems in lieu of "comprehensive sex education." This position is based on "the public health principle of primary prevention-risk avoidance in lieu of risk reduction," upholding the "human right to the highest attainable standard of health" (Freedman 1995).

  3. Eveningness and Later Sleep Timing Are Associated with Greater Risk for Alcohol and Marijuana Use in Adolescence: Initial Findings from the National Consortium on Alcohol and Neurodevelopment in Adolescence Study.

    PubMed

    Hasler, Brant P; Franzen, Peter L; de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Prouty, Devin; Brown, Sandra A; Tapert, Susan F; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Pohl, Kilian M; Sullivan, Edith V; De Bellis, Michael D; Nagel, Bonnie J; Baker, Fiona C; Colrain, Ian M; Clark, Duncan B

    2017-06-01

    Abundant cross-sectional evidence links eveningness (a preference for later sleep-wake timing) and increased alcohol and drug use among adolescents and young adults. However, longitudinal studies are needed to examine whether eveningness is a risk factor for subsequent alcohol and drug use, particularly during adolescence, which is marked by parallel peaks in eveningness and risk for the onset of alcohol use disorders. This study examined whether eveningness and other sleep characteristics were associated with concurrent or subsequent substance involvement in a longitudinal study of adolescents. Participants were 729 adolescents (368 females; age 12 to 21 years) in the National Consortium on Alcohol and Neurodevelopment in Adolescence study. Associations between the sleep variables (circadian preference, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, sleep timing, and sleep duration) and 3 categorical substance variables (at-risk alcohol use, alcohol bingeing, and past-year marijuana use [y/n]) were examined using ordinal and logistic regression with baseline age, sex, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and psychiatric problems as covariates. At baseline, greater eveningness was associated with greater at-risk alcohol use, greater bingeing, and past-year use of marijuana. Later weekday and weekend bedtimes, but not weekday or weekend sleep duration, showed similar associations across the 3 substance outcomes at baseline. Greater baseline eveningness was also prospectively associated with greater bingeing and past-year use of marijuana at the 1-year follow-up, after covarying for baseline bingeing and marijuana use. Later baseline weekday and weekend bedtimes, and shorter baseline weekday sleep duration, were similarly associated with greater bingeing and past-year use of marijuana at the 1-year follow-up after covarying for baseline values. Findings suggest that eveningness and sleep timing may be under recognized risk factors and future areas of intervention for

  4. Perinatal Substance Use: A Prospective Evaluation of Abstinence and Relapse

    PubMed Central

    Forray, Ariadna; Merry, Brian; Lin, Haiqun; Ruger, Jennifer Prah; Yonkers, Kimberly A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Substance use decreases in pregnancy but little prospective data are available on the rates of abstinence and relapse for specific substances. This study compared rates of abstinence in pregnancy and relapse postpartum for nicotine cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine. Methods Data from 152 women drawn from a randomized controlled trial comparing psychological treatments for substance use in pregnancy were analyzed. Self-reports of substance use and urine for toxicology testing throughout pregnancy and 3-months, 12-months and 24-months post-delivery were collected. Multivariate Cox models were used to compare rates of abstinence and relapse across substances. Results In pregnancy, 83% of all women achieved abstinence to at least one substance. The mean (SE) days to abstinence was 145.81 (9.17), 132.01 (6.17), 151.52 (6.24), and 148.91 (7.68) for cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana and cocaine, respectively. Participants were more likely to achieve abstinence from alcohol (HR 7.24 (95% CI 4.47-11.72), marijuana (HR 4.06; 95% CI 1.87-6.22), and cocaine (HR 3.41; 95% CI 2.53-6.51), than cigarettes. Postpartum, 80% of women abstinent in the last month of pregnancy relapsed to at least one substance. The mean days to relapse was 109.67 (26.34), 127.73 (21.29), 138.35 (25.46), and 287.55 (95.85) for cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana and cocaine, respectively. Relapse to cocaine was only 34% (HR 0.34; 95% CI 0.15-0.77) that of cigarettes. Conclusions Pregnancy-related abstinence rates were high for all substances except cigarettes. Postpartum relapse was common, with cocaine using women being less likely to relapse after attaining abstinence compared to women using cigarettes, alcohol or marijuana. PMID:25772437

  5. The at-risk adolescent marijuana nonuser: expanding the standard distinction.

    PubMed

    Crano, William D; Siegel, Jason T; Alvaro, Eusebio M; Lac, Andrew; Hemovich, Vanessa

    2008-06-01

    This research expands the user/nonuser dichotomy commonly used in research on marijuana. By conceptualizing nonusers as homogeneous, vital nuances in susceptibility to risk and protective factors may be overlooked. Research operations tested the predictive validity of a brief measure that divided nonusers into resolute and vulnerable subcategories; determined whether variables that distinguished nonusers and users were more informative when a tripartite classification was used; and with an eye on future prevention, examined variables on which resolute nonusers were similar to vulnerable nonusers or users, and on which they differed from both. A nationally representative sample of respondents (N = 2,111; ages 12-16 years) from the National Survey of Parents and Youth was used in this secondary analysis. Panel data gathered yearly over four rounds included information on intentions and use of marijuana and other illicit substances, along with social, demographic, intrapersonal, and parental variables. The three groups differed significantly on associates' marijuana use, participants' approval of others' use, and cigarette and alcohol use. Resolute nonusers differed from vulnerable nonusers and users alike on religiosity, delinquency (self and friends'), refusal strength, sensation seeking, parental monitoring and warmth, and adult supervision. Results support the utility of distinguishing vulnerable from resolute nonusers, counsel against considering nonusers as a homogeneous group, and provide insight into variables that might prove useful in future prevention efforts.

  6. Abstinence education*

    PubMed Central

    Zeiler, Alean

    2014-01-01

    The American College of Pediatricians strongly endorses abstinence-until-marriage sex education and recommends adoption by all school systems in lieu of “comprehensive sex education.” This position is based on “the public health principle of primary prevention—risk avoidance in lieu of risk reduction,” upholding the “human right to the highest attainable standard of health” (Freedman 1995). PMID:25473134

  7. Being Blunt About Marijuana: Parent Communication About Marijuana with Their Emerging Adult Children

    PubMed Central

    Froidevaux, Nicole M.; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2016-01-01

    While research suggests that parents continue to influence students’ marijuana use after matriculation to college, there is limited data examining how parents communicate about marijuana use and what impact parent marijuana communication has on college student outcomes. The aim of the current study is to investigate the types of parent marijuana messages that college students receive and the relationship between parent communication and students’ marijuana attitudes and behaviors. Students (N = 506) completed a survey assessing marijuana approval, use, negative consequences, and parent communication. A factor analysis of parent communication items yielded three factors: risk communication, permissive communication, and marijuana use communication. Risk communication was the most common form of communication. In multivariate models, risk communication was associated with increased odds of a student remaining abstinent but not with frequency of marijuana use or negative consequences. Greater permissive communication was associated with more approving student attitudes, greater odds of non-abstinence, more frequent use in the past year, and more negative consequences. These findings highlight the need to consider the different types of messages parents deliver when designing interventions aimed at engaging parents in marijuana prevention efforts. PMID:27438296

  8. Tracking Adolescents With Global Positioning System-Enabled Cell Phones to Study Contextual Exposures and Alcohol and Marijuana Use: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Hilary F; Miller, Brenda A; Wiebe, Douglas J; Morrison, Christopher N; Remer, Lillian G; Wiehe, Sarah E

    2015-08-01

    Measuring activity spaces, places adolescents spend time, provides information about relations between contextual exposures and risk behaviors. We studied whether contextual exposures in adolescents' activity spaces differ from contextual risks present in residential contexts and examined relationships between contextual exposures in activity spaces and alcohol/marijuana use. Adolescents (N = 18) aged 16-17 years carried global positioning system (GPS)-enabled smartphones for 1 week, with locations tracked. Activity spaces were created by connecting global positioning system points sequentially and adding buffers. Contextual exposure data (e.g., alcohol outlets) were connected to routes. Adolescents completed texts regarding behaviors. Adolescent activity spaces intersected 24.3 census tracts and contained nine times more alcohol outlets than that of residential census tracts. Outlet exposure in activity spaces was related to drinking. Low-socioeconomic status exposure was related to marijuana use. Findings suggest substantial differences between activity spaces and residential contexts and suggest that activity spaces are relevant for adolescent risk behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Association between Early Conduct Problems and Early Marijuana Use in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falls, Benjamin J.; Wish, Eric D.; Garnier, Laura M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2011-01-01

    Early conduct problems have been linked to early marijuana use in adolescence. The present study examines this association in a sample of 1,076 college students that was divided into three groups: (1) early marijuana users (began marijuana use prior to age 15; N = 126), (2) late marijuana users (began marijuana use at or after age 15; N = 607),…

  10. Adolescent Marijuana Abusers and Their Families. Research Monograph Series, No. 40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendin, Herbert; And Others

    Substantial evidence is accumulating which emphasizes the significant role of the family for drug abusing adolescents. To investigate the influence of the family on adolescents (N=17) involved in heavy marihuana use, interviews with family members, case studies of each adolescent, and psychological evaluations were conducted to determine the…

  11. Dare to Delay? The Impacts of Adolescent Alcohol and Marijuana Use Onset on Cognition, Brain Structure, and Function

    PubMed Central

    Lisdahl, Krista M.; Gilbart, Erika R.; Wright, Natasha E.; Shollenbarger, Skyler

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the world, drug and alcohol use has a clear adolescent onset (Degenhardt et al., 2008). Alcohol continues to be the most popular drug among teens and emerging adults, with almost a third of 12th graders and 40% of college students reporting recent binge drinking (Johnston et al., 2009, 2010), and marijuana (MJ) is the second most popular drug in teens (Johnston et al., 2010). The initiation of drug use is consistent with an overall increase in risk-taking behaviors during adolescence that coincides with significant neurodevelopmental changes in both gray and white matter (Giedd et al., 1996a; Paus et al., 1999; Sowell et al., 1999, 2002, 2004; Gogtay et al., 2004; Barnea-Goraly et al., 2005; Lenroot and Giedd, 2006). Animal studies have suggested that compared to adults, adolescents may be particularly vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of drugs, especially alcohol and MJ (see Schneider and Koch, 2003; Barron et al., 2005; Monti et al., 2005; Cha et al., 2006; Rubino et al., 2009; Spear, 2010). In this review, we will provide a detailed overview of studies that examined the impact of early adolescent onset of alcohol and MJ use on neurocognition (e.g., Ehrenreich et al., 1999; Wilson et al., 2000; Tapert et al., 2002a; Hartley et al., 2004; Fried et al., 2005; Townshend and Duka, 2005; Medina et al., 2007a; McQueeny et al., 2009; Gruber et al., 2011, 2012; Hanson et al., 2011; Lisdahl and Price, 2012), with a special emphasis on recent prospective longitudinal studies (e.g., White et al., 2011; Hicks et al., 2012; Meier et al., 2012). Finally, we will explore potential clinical and public health implications of these findings. PMID:23847550

  12. Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... That People Abuse » Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts Listen Marijuana is a green, brown, or gray mix of dried, shredded leaves and flowers from the marijuana plant. Marijuana can be rolled up and smoked ...

  13. Paternal incarceration and trajectories of marijuana and other illegal drug use from adolescence into young adulthood: evidence from longitudinal panels of males and females in the United States.

    PubMed

    Roettger, Michael E; Swisher, Raymond R; Kuhl, Danielle C; Chavez, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    One-eighth of young adults in the United States report that their biological father has ever been incarcerated (FEI). This study is the first to examine associations between FEI and trajectories of substance use during the transition from adolescence into young adulthood for the US population. Using multi-level modeling techniques, trajectories of marijuana and other illegal drug use are examined, with FEI as the primary independent variable. Data are from the first three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a nationally representative sample of US adolescents beginning in 1995. Panels of 7157 males and 7997 females followed from adolescence (7th-12th grades) into early adulthood (ages 18-27 years). Dependent variables included an ordinal measure of marijuana frequency of use in last thirty days, and a dichotomous measure for whether respondent had any use in the last thirty days of illegal drugs such crystal meth, cocaine, heroin, hallucinogens, PCP, LSD, speed, and ecstasy. Among males and females, respectively, FEI is associated with an increased frequency of marijuana use, and increased odds of any other illegal drug use. Interactions between FEI and age further reveal that FEI is associated with an accentuated trajectory (i.e. a steeper slope) of marijuana use, and an elevated risk (i.e. higher mean level) of other illegal drug use. Analysis provides some of the first evidence that paternal incarceration is significantly associated with drug use among U.S. males and females, even after controlling for a number of family background, parental, and individual characteristics. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Enhancement of Behavioral Sensitization, Anxiety-Like Behavior, and Hippocampal and Frontal Cortical CREB Levels Following Cocaine Abstinence in Mice Exposed to Cocaine during Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Valzachi, Maria Cristina; Teodorov, Elizabeth; Marcourakis, Tania; Bailey, Alexis; Camarini, Rosana

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence has been linked to greater risk-taking and novelty-seeking behavior and a higher prevalence of drug abuse and risk of relapse. Decreases in cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB) and phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) have been reported after repeated cocaine administration in animal models. We compared the behavioral effects of cocaine and abstinence in adolescent and adult mice and investigated possible age-related differences in CREB and pCREB levels. Adolescent and adult male Swiss mice received one daily injection of saline or cocaine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) for 8 days. On day 9, the mice received a saline injection to evaluate possible environmental conditioning. After 9 days of withdrawal, the mice were tested in the elevated plus maze to evaluate anxiety-like behavior. Twelve days after the last saline/cocaine injection, the mice received a challenge injection of either cocaine or saline, and locomotor activity was assessed. One hour after the last injection, the brains were extracted, and CREB and pCREB levels were evaluated using Western blot in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus. The cocaine-pretreated mice during adolescence exhibited a greater magnitude of the expression of behavioral sensitization and greater cocaine withdrawal-induced anxiety-like behavior compared with the control group. Significant increases in CREB levels in the PFC and hippocampus and pCREB in the hippocampus were observed in cocaine-abstinent animals compared with the animals treated with cocaine in adulthood. Interestingly, significant negative correlations were observed between cocaine sensitization and CREB levels in both regions. These results suggest that the behavioral and neurochemical consequences of psychoactive substances in a still-developing nervous system can be more severe than in an already mature nervous system. PMID:24205196

  15. Developmental Patterns of Adolescent Marijuana and Alcohol Use and Their Joint Association with Sexual Risk Behavior and Outcomes in Young Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Green, Kerry M; Musci, Rashelle J; Matson, Pamela A; Johnson, Renee M; Reboussin, Beth A; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2017-02-01

    Urban populations disproportionately experience poor sexual outcomes, including high rates of teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. However, the contribution of substance use across adolescence to poor sexual outcomes in young adulthood has not been investigated in depth, despite offering opportunities for more targeted prevention. This study aimed to estimate joint trajectories of adolescent alcohol and marijuana use to determine if they relate differently to four sexual outcomes: multiple sexual partners, sex without a condom, teenage pregnancy, and contraction of a sexually transmitted infection in young adulthood (by age 25). Data came from a longitudinal study of urban youth followed from age 6 to age 25, with annual assessments during adolescence and young adulthood (n = 608). The sample showed high levels of sexual risk, with young adults on average having sex without a condom once in the past month, 28.5% having multiple sexual partners in the past month, one quarter having contracted a sexually transmitted infection, and over 60% of the women being pregnant as a teenager and 36% of the men having gotten a partner pregnant. Applying longitudinal latent profile analysis to estimate joint trajectories of alcohol and marijuana use from grades 8-12, we identified four classes representing high dual use, moderate alcohol use, moderate alcohol use with increasing marijuana use, and non-use. Class membership differently predicted all four outcomes investigated with high dual users having the highest level of teenage pregnancy and the increasing marijuana trajectory having the highest risk of engaging with multiple sexual partners in the past month. Results suggest implications for both sexual risk and substance use prevention for urban youth.

  16. Marijuana: A Realistic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chun, George

    1971-01-01

    Much of the current confusion concerning marijuana has been caused by a lack of definition of terms. Variations in drug effect that are related to the type and potency of cannabis preparation and route of administration need clarification. When domestic strength marijuana is smoked recreationally, the subjective effects include relaxation, mild euphoria and increased sensory awareness. The objective effects include tachycardia, reddening of the conjunctivae and a distorted sense of time. Undesirable effects such as panic reactions, amotivational behavior, and acute toxic psychosis occur infrequently and are reversible with proper therapy. Other effects which have been attributed to marijuana are unsubstantiated. The recent upsurge in use of marijuana involves persons of a different type than those who used it heretofore and has greatly increased the number of people familiar with the drug. The disparity between what many people know empirically and the information disseminated through official media has lessened the credibility of physicians with many of our younger citizens. When young people recognize misinformation about marijuana, they are no longer listening when the facts are presented about more dangerous drugs, and the abuse of these drugs must be our main concern. To be considered is the potential hazard to adolescent users who may concomitantly be exposed to a subculture of experimentation with stronger drugs at a time when the opinion of a peer group is a strong factor in their behavior. PMID:5551311

  17. Authoritative Parenting and Sensation Seeking as Predictors of Adolescent Cigarette and Marijuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Michael T.; Helme, Donald W.

    2006-01-01

    Adolescents with high sensation-seeking tendencies often seek out thrill seeking experiences to satisfy their need for stimulation and sensation. In many cases, sensation-seeking adolescents fulfill their need for stimulation and sensation by using illicit substances. However, not all high sensation seekers use drugs, although the factors that…

  18. Tobacco and marijuana use among adolescents and young adults: A systematic review of their co-use

    PubMed Central

    Ramo, Danielle E.; Liu, Howard; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco (TOB) and marijuana (MJ) are the most widely used drugs among adolescents and young adults. The literature on their co-use, however, has not been systematically reviewed. We identified 163 English language articles published from 1999-2009 examining TOB and MJ co-use, correlates or consequences of co-use, or interventions for prevention or cessation of couse with participants age 13-25 years. Most studies (n = 114, 70%) examined TOB and MJ couse, and 85% of relationships studied indicated a significant association. Fifty-nine studies (36%) examined correlates or consequences of co-use. Factors consistently associated with increased likelihood of co-use, defined as significant associations in at least four studies, were African-American ethnicity, mental and physical health characteristics (e.g., high-intensity pleasure temperament), and school characteristics (e.g., good grades). The only consistent consequence of co-use was exacerbation of mental health symptoms. Few studies examined prevention (n = 3) or cessation (n = 2) interventions for TOB and MJ co-use, and the findings were stronger for prevention efforts. A sufficient literature base has documented that TOB and MJ use are strongly related in young people, yet few consistent correlates and consequences of co-use have been identified to inform intervention targets. PMID:22245559

  19. Medical marijuana.

    PubMed Central

    Marmor, J B

    1998-01-01

    Although many clinical studies suggest the medical utility of marijuana for some conditions, the scientific evidence is weak. Many patients in California are self-medicating with marijuana, and physicians need data to assess the risks and benefits. The only reasonable solution to this problem is to encourage research on the medical effects of marijuana. The current regulatory system should be modified to remove barriers to clinical research with marijuana. The NIH panel has identified several conditions for which there may be therapeutic benefit from marijuana use and that merit further research. Marijuana should be held to the same evaluation standards of safety and efficacy as other drugs (a major flaw in Proposition 215) but should not have to be proved better than current medications for its use to be adopted. The therapeutic window for marijuana and THC between desired effect and unpleasant side effects is narrow and is a major reason for discontinuing use. Although the inhaled route of administration has the benefit of allowing patients to self-titrate the dose, the smoking of crude plant material is problematic. The NIH panel recommended that a high priority be given to the development of a controlled inhaled form of THC. The presence of a naturally occurring cannabinoid-receptor system in the brain suggests that research on selective analogues of THC may be useful to enhance its therapeutic effects and minimize adverse effects. PMID:9656007

  20. Medical marijuana.

    PubMed

    Marmor, J B

    1998-06-01

    Although many clinical studies suggest the medical utility of marijuana for some conditions, the scientific evidence is weak. Many patients in California are self-medicating with marijuana, and physicians need data to assess the risks and benefits. The only reasonable solution to this problem is to encourage research on the medical effects of marijuana. The current regulatory system should be modified to remove barriers to clinical research with marijuana. The NIH panel has identified several conditions for which there may be therapeutic benefit from marijuana use and that merit further research. Marijuana should be held to the same evaluation standards of safety and efficacy as other drugs (a major flaw in Proposition 215) but should not have to be proved better than current medications for its use to be adopted. The therapeutic window for marijuana and THC between desired effect and unpleasant side effects is narrow and is a major reason for discontinuing use. Although the inhaled route of administration has the benefit of allowing patients to self-titrate the dose, the smoking of crude plant material is problematic. The NIH panel recommended that a high priority be given to the development of a controlled inhaled form of THC. The presence of a naturally occurring cannabinoid-receptor system in the brain suggests that research on selective analogues of THC may be useful to enhance its therapeutic effects and minimize adverse effects.

  1. The impact of marijuana policies on youth: clinical, research, and legal update.

    PubMed

    Ammerman, Seth; Ryan, Sheryl; Adelman, William P

    2015-03-01

    This technical report updates the 2004 American Academy of Pediatrics technical report on the legalization of marijuana. Current epidemiology of marijuana use is presented, as are definitions and biology of marijuana compounds, side effects of marijuana use, and effects of use on adolescent brain development. Issues concerning medical marijuana specifically are also addressed. Concerning legalization of marijuana, 4 different approaches in the United States are discussed: legalization of marijuana solely for medical purposes, decriminalization of recreational use of marijuana, legalization of recreational use of marijuana, and criminal prosecution of recreational (and medical) use of marijuana. These approaches are compared, and the latest available data are presented to aid in forming public policy. The effects on youth of criminal penalties for marijuana use and possession are also addressed, as are the effects or potential effects of the other 3 policy approaches on adolescent marijuana use. Recommendations are included in the accompanying policy statement. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Abstinence-Related Word Associations and Definitions of Abstinence and Virginity among Missouri High School Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kelly L.; Smith, Matthew Lee; Menn, Mindy

    2013-01-01

    Background: The ways in which adolescents define and view sex, abstinence, and virginity impact the efforts of sexuality educators and sexual health professionals. This study examined terminology used by nonsexually active high school students to define abstinence and virginity and identified words students associate with these terms. Purposes…

  3. The effectiveness of group-based comprehensive risk-reduction and abstinence education interventions to prevent or reduce the risk of adolescent pregnancy, human immunodeficiency virus, and sexually transmitted infections: two systematic reviews for the Guide to Community Preventive Services.

    PubMed

    Chin, Helen B; Sipe, Theresa Ann; Elder, Randy; Mercer, Shawna L; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K; Jacob, Verughese; Wethington, Holly R; Kirby, Doug; Elliston, Donna B; Griffith, Matt; Chuke, Stella O; Briss, Susan C; Ericksen, Irene; Galbraith, Jennifer S; Herbst, Jeffrey H; Johnson, Robert L; Kraft, Joan M; Noar, Seth M; Romero, Lisa M; Santelli, John

    2012-03-01

    Adolescent pregnancy, HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are major public health problems in the U.S. Implementing group-based interventions that address the sexual behavior of adolescents may reduce the incidence of pregnancy, HIV, and other STIs in this group. Methods for conducting systematic reviews from the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of two strategies for group-based behavioral interventions for adolescents: (1) comprehensive risk reduction and (2) abstinence education on preventing pregnancy, HIV, and other STIs. Effectiveness of these interventions was determined by reductions in sexual risk behaviors, pregnancy, HIV, and other STIs and increases in protective sexual behaviors. The literature search identified 6579 citations for comprehensive risk reduction and abstinence education. Of these, 66 studies of comprehensive risk reduction and 23 studies of abstinence education assessed the effects of group-based interventions that address the sexual behavior of adolescents, and were included in the respective reviews. Meta-analyses were conducted for each strategy on the seven key outcomes identified by the coordination team-current sexual activity; frequency of sexual activity; number of sex partners; frequency of unprotected sexual activity; use of protection (condoms and/or hormonal contraception); pregnancy; and STIs. The results of these meta-analyses for comprehensive risk reduction showed favorable effects for all of the outcomes reviewed. For abstinence education, the meta-analysis showed a small number of studies, with inconsistent findings across studies that varied by study design and follow-up time, leading to considerable uncertainty around effect estimates. Based on these findings, group-based comprehensive risk reduction was found to be an effective strategy to reduce adolescent pregnancy, HIV, and STIs. No conclusions could be drawn on the

  4. Exposure to and Views of Information about Sexual Abstinence among Older Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rachel K.; Biddlecom, Ann E.

    2011-01-01

    There is scant research of adolescents' understanding of abstinence. We conducted interviews with a sample of 58 teens to find out their exposure to abstinence information from a range of sources. Most teens had received abstinence information or messages from school, family members, and friends. For many teens, information about abstinence, or…

  5. Markers of Marijuana Use Outcomes within Adolescent Substance Abuse Group Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Brett; Macgowan, Mark J.; Wagner, Eric F.; Amrhein, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Despite their popularity, little is known about what distinguishes effective from ineffective or even iatrogenic adolescent group interventions. Methods: Audio recordings and transcripts from 19, 8-10 session, school-based treatment groups comprised of 108, substance abusing 10- to 19-year olds were analyzed. "Group leader empathy" was…

  6. Assessing Adolescents' Anticipated Behavioral and Emotional Responses to Offers of Alcohol and Marijuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pristas, Erica V.; Rosenberg, Harold

    2010-01-01

    The Adolescent Responses to Alcohol and Drug Offers Scale (ARADOS) is a self-report questionnaire designed to assess a respondent's anticipated emotional reactions and intended use of cognitive-behavioral refusal skills in response to an offer of alcohol or other drug. A sample of 267 students enrolled in the 11th and 12th grades of four public…

  7. Weighing the Evidence: A Systematic Review on Long-Term Neurocognitive Effects of Cannabis Use in Abstinent Adolescents and Adults.

    PubMed

    Ganzer, Florian; Bröning, Sonja; Kraft, Stefanie; Sack, Peter-Michael; Thomasius, Rainer

    2016-06-01

    Findings on neurocognitive effects of sustained cannabis use are heterogeneous. Previous work has rarely taken time of abstinence into account. In this review, we focus on understanding sustained effects of cannabis, which begin when clinical symptoms of the drug have worn off after at least 14 days. We conducted a search between 2004 and 2015 and found 38 studies with such a prolonged abstinence phase. Study-design quality in terms of evidence-based medicine is similar among studies. Studies found some attention or concentration deficits in cannabis users (CU). There is evidence that chronic CU might experience sustained deficits in memory function. Findings are mixed regarding impairments in inhibition, impulsivity and decision making for CU, but there is a trend towards worse performance. Three out of four studies found evidence that motor function remains impaired even after a time of abstinence, while no impairments in visual spatial functioning can be concluded. Functional imaging demonstrates clear differences in activation patterns between CU and controls especially in hippocampal, prefrontal and cerebellar areas. Structural differences are found in cortical areas, especially the orbitofrontal region and the hippocampus. Twenty studies (57 %) reported data on outcome effects, leading to an overall effect size of r mean = .378 (CI 95 % = [.342; .453]). Heavy use is found to be more consistently associated with effects in diverse domains than early age of onset. Questions of causality-in view of scarce longitudinal studies, especially those targeting co-occurring psychiatric disorders-are discussed.

  8. Marijuana: Facts for Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS), Rockville, MD. Div. of Research.

    Using a question and answer format, this booklet is designed to inform teens about the dangers of marijuana usage. Inset facts about marijuana and teen perspectives compliment the following topics: (1) What is marijuana? (2) How is marijuana used? (3) How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? (4) How many teens smoke marijuana? (5) Why do…

  9. Marijuana Use at School and Achievement-Linked Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Kristin V.

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana remains one of the most frequently used drugs among adolescents and usage has increased in recent years. In addition to general use, many high school students use marijuana during the school day. The present study focused on achievement-linked correlates of in-school marijuana use by comparing non-users, general users, and school users…

  10. Attributions for Abstinence from Illicit Drugs by University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Harold; Baylen, Chelsea; Murray, Shanna; Phillips, Kristina; Tisak, Marie S.; Versland, Amelia; Pristas, Erica

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To assess college students' attributions for abstinence from alcohol and illicit drugs. Method: We recruited 125 undergraduates to rate the degree to which each of 41 listed reasons influenced their abstention from six specific substances (alcohol, MDMA/ecstasy, inhalants, cocaine, marijuana, and hallucinogens). Findings: Internal consistency…

  11. Universal school-based substance abuse prevention programs: Modeling targeted mediators and outcomes for adolescent cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Peggy C; Sloboda, Zili; Stephens, Richard C; Teasdale, Brent; Grey, Scott F; Hawthorne, Richard D; Williams, Joseph

    2009-06-01

    We examined the relationships among targeted constructs of social influences and competence enhancement prevention curricula and cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use outcomes in a diverse sample of high school students. We tested the causal relationships of normative beliefs, perceptions of harm, attitudes toward use of these substances and refusal, communication, and decision-making skills predicting the self-reported use of each substance. In addition, we modeled the meditation of these constructs through the intentions to use each substance and tested the moderating effects of the skills variables on the relationships between intentions to use and self-reported use of each of these substances. Logistic regression path models were constructed for each of the drug use outcomes. Models were run using the Mplus 5.0 statistical application using the complex sample function to control for the sampling design of students nested within schools; full information maximum likelihood estimates (FIML) were utilized to address missing data. Relationships among targeted constructs and outcomes differed for each of the drugs with communication skills having a potentially iatrogenic effect on alcohol use. Program targets were mediated through the intentions to use these substances. Finally, we found evidence of a moderating effect of decision-making skills on perceptions of harm and attitudes toward use, depending upon the outcome. Prevention curricula may need to target specific drugs. In addition to normative beliefs, perceptions of harm, and refusal and decision-making skills, programs should directly target constructs proximal to behavioral outcomes such as attitudes and intentions. Finally, more research on the effects of communication skills on adolescent substance use should be examined.

  12. Developmental progression to early adult binge drinking and marijuana use from worsening versus stable trajectories of adolescent attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and delinquency.

    PubMed

    Howard, Andrea L; Molina, Brooke S G; Swanson, James M; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Belendiuk, Katherine A; Harty, Seth C; Arnold, L Eugene; Abikoff, Howard B; Hechtman, Lily; Stehli, Annamarie; Greenhill, Laurence L; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Wigal, Timothy

    2015-05-01

    To examine the association between developmental trajectories of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity and delinquency through childhood and adolescence (ages 8-16 years) and subsequent binge drinking and marijuana use in early adulthood (age 21 years). Prospective naturalistic follow-up of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) previously enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Treatment-phase assessments occurred at 3, 9 and 14 months after randomization; follow-up assessments occurred at 24 months, 36 months, and 6, 8 and 12 years after randomization. Secondary analysis of data from the Multimodal Treatment Study of ADHD (MTA), a multi-site RCT comparing the effects of careful medication management, intensive behavior therapy, their combination, and referral to usual community care. A total of 579 children with DSM-IV ADHD combined type, aged 7.0 and 9.9 years at baseline (mean = 8.5, SD = 0.80). Ratings of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity and delinquency were collected from multiple informants at baseline and through the 8-year follow-up. Self-reports of binge drinking and marijuana use were collected at the 12-year follow-up (mean age 21 years). Trajectories of worsening inattention symptoms and delinquency (and less apparent improvement in hyperactivity-impulsivity) were associated with higher rates of early adult binge drinking and marijuana use, compared with trajectories of stable or improving symptoms and delinquency (of 24 comparisons, all P-values <0.05), even when symptom levels in stable trajectories were high. Worsening inattention symptoms and delinquency during adolescence are were associated with higher levels of early adult substance use; this pattern may reflect a developmental course of vulnerability to elevated substance use in early adulthood. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. A novel application in the study of client language: Alcohol and marijuana-related statements in substance-using adolescents during a simulation task.

    PubMed

    Ladd, Benjamin O; Garcia, Tracey A; Anderson, Kristen G

    2016-09-01

    The current study explored whether laboratory-based techniques can provide a strategy for studying client language as a mechanism of behavior change. Specifically, this study examined the potential of a simulation task to elicit healthy talk, or self-motivational statements in favor of healthy behavior, related to marijuana and alcohol use. Participants (N = 84) were adolescents reporting at least 10 lifetime substance use episodes recruited from various community settings in an urban Pacific Northwest setting. Participants completed the Adolescent Simulated Intoxication Digital Elicitation (A-SIDE), a validated paradigm for assessing substance use decision making in peer contexts. Participants responded to 4 types of offers in the A-SIDE: (a) marijuana, (b) food (marijuana control), (c) alcohol, and (d) soda (alcohol control). Using a validated coding scheme adapted for the current study, client language during a structured interview assessing participants' response to the simulated offers was evaluated. Associations between percent healthy talk (PHT, calculated by dividing the number of healthy statements by the sum of all substance-related statements) and cross-sectional outcomes of interest (previous substance use, substance use expectancies, and behavioral willingness) were explored. The frequency of substance-related statements differed in response to offer type; rate of PHT did not. PHT was associated with behavioral willingness to accept the offer. However, PHT was not associated with decontextualized measures of substance use. Associations between PHT and global expectancies were limited. Simulation methods may be useful in investigating the impact of context on self-talk and to systematically explore client language as a mechanism of change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Marijuana Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, James, Jr.; Lopata, Ann

    1979-01-01

    This review examines recent research on psychological effects of marijuana. The article contains material on potency, research problems, use patterns in the United States, and expectancy, as well as a review of research on acute effects, including psychosis, toxic delirium, acute anxiety, and brain damage. (Author)

  15. Becoming a medical marijuana user.

    PubMed

    Lankenau, Stephen E; Kioumarsi, Avat; Reed, Megan; McNeeley, Miles; Iverson, Ellen; Wong, Carolyn F

    2018-02-01

    Since marijuana became legal for medical use in California in 1996, reasons for medical use among medical marijuana patients (MMP) have become increasingly well described in qualitative studies. However, few studies have detailed how the use of marijuana for medical purposes fits into the broader career trajectories of either becoming a marijuana user or becoming a MMP, including the social influences on medical use. Young adult MMP (N=40) aged 18 to 26 years old were recruited in Los Angeles, CA in 2014-15 and administered a semi-structured interview that included questions focusing on marijuana use practices before and after becoming MMP. MMP were categorized into three trajectory groups: primarily medical users (n=30); primarily non-medical users (n=3); and medical users who transitioned to non-medical users (n=7). Most medical users discovered medicinal effects from marijuana in the context of non-medical use as adolescents prior to becoming MMP. Becoming a mature MMP followed interactions with dispensary staff or further self-exploration of medical uses and often involved a social process that helped confirm the legitimacy of medical use and identity as a medical user. In some cases, MMP transitioned back to non-medical users as health conditions improved or remained primarily non-medical users even after becoming MMP for reasons unrelated to health, e.g., protection against arrest. Becoming a medical marijuana user was an important career trajectory that was influenced by early discoveries of effective medicinal use, interaction with proponents of medical use at dispensaries, experiences with new kinds of medical use, and the demands of particular health condition requiring more or less treatment with marijuana. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Marijuana poisoning.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    The plant Cannabis sativa has been used for centuries for the effects of its psychoactive resins. The term "marijuana" typically refers to tobacco-like preparations of the leaves and flowers. The plant contains more than 400 chemicals but the cannabinoid δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the major psychoactive constituent. "Hashish" is the resin extracted from the tops of flowering plants and generally has a much higher THC concentration. Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States. Currently, several states have passed legislation to decriminalize possession of small amounts of marijuana for both medical and personal use and several other states have similar legislation under consideration. The most common form of marijuana use in humans is inhalation of the smoke of marijuana cigarettes, followed by ingestion. In animals, although secondhand smoke inhalation is possible, the most common source of exposure is through ingestion of the owner's marijuana supply. The minimum lethal oral dose for dogs for THC is more than 3 g/kg. Although the drug has a high margin of safety, deaths have been seen after ingestion of food products containing the more concentrated medical-grade THC butter. There are two specific cannabinoid receptors in humans and dogs, CB1 (primarily in central nervous system) and CB2 (peripheral tissues). In animals, following oral ingestion, clinical effects begin within 60 minutes. All of the neuropharmacologic mechanisms by which cannabinoids produce psychoactive effects have not been identified. However, CB1 activity is believed to be responsible for the majority of cannabinoid clinical effects. Highly lipid soluble, THC is distributed in fat, liver, brain, and renal tissue. Fifteen percent of THC is excreted into the urine and the rest is eliminated in the feces through biliary excretion. Clinical signs of canine intoxication include depression, hypersalivation, mydriasis, hypermetria, vomiting, urinary incontinence

  17. Combining In-School and Community-Based Media Efforts: Reducing Marijuana and Alcohol Uptake among Younger Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Michael D.; Kelly, Kathleen J.; Edwards, Ruth W.; Thurman, Pamela J.; Plested, Barbara A.; Keefe, Thomas J.; Lawrence, Frank R.; Henry, Kimberly L.

    2006-01-01

    This study tests the impact of an in-school mediated communication campaign based on social marketing principles, in combination with a participatory, community-based media effort, on marijuana, alcohol and tobacco uptake among middle-school students. Eight media treatment and eight control communities throughout the US were randomly assigned to…

  18. Substance use - marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    Substance abuse - marijuana; Drug abuse - marijuana; Drug use - marijuana; Cannabis; Grass; Hashish; Mary Jane; Pot; Weed ... several minutes. If you eat foods containing the drug as an ingredient, such as brownies, you may ...

  19. Marijuana: Facts for Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications » Marijuana: Facts for Teens » Letter to Teens Marijuana: Facts for Teens Email Facebook Twitter Letter to ... about 1 in 14 teens say they used marijuana in the past month. 1 So, if you ...

  20. DEA Multimedia Drug Library: Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... confidencial Press Room » Multi-Media Library » Image Gallery » Marijuana MARIJUANA To Save Images: First click on the thumbnail ... Save in directory and then click Save. Indoor Marijuana Grow Indoor Marijuana Grow Loose Marijuana Marinol 10mg ...

  1. Randomized Controlled Trial of Abstinence and Safer Sex Intervention for Adolescents in Singapore: 6-Month Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Mee Lian; Ng, Junice Y. S.; Chan, Roy K. W.; Chio, Martin T. W.; Lim, Raymond B. T.; Koh, David

    2017-01-01

    We assessed the efficacy of an individual-based behavioral intervention on sexually transmitted infections' (STI) risk-reduction behaviors in Singapore. A randomized controlled trial of a behavioral intervention compared to usual care was conducted on sexually active heterosexual adolescents aged 16-19 years attending the only public STI clinic.…

  2. Gateway to Curiosity: Medical Marijuana Ads and Intention and Use during Middle School

    PubMed Central

    D’Amico, Elizabeth J.; Miles, Jeremy N.V.; Tucker, Joan S.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several years, medical marijuana has received increased attention in the media, and marijuana use has increased across the United States. Studies suggest that as marijuana has become more accessible and adults have become more tolerant regarding marijuana use, adolescents perceive marijuana as more beneficial and are more likely to use if they are living in an environment that is more tolerant of marijuana use. One factor that may influence adolescents’ perceptions about marijuana and marijuana use is their exposure to advertising of this product. We surveyed 6th–8th grade youth in 2010 and 2011 in 16 middle schools in southern California (n= 8214; 50% male; 52% Hispanic; mean age = 13) and assessed exposure to advertising for medical marijuana, marijuana intentions and marijuana use. Cross-lagged regressions showed a reciprocal association of advertising exposure with marijuana use and intentions during middle school. Greater initial medical marijuana advertising exposure was significantly associated with a higher probability of marijuana use and stronger intentions to use one year later, and initial marijuana use and stronger intentions to use were associated with greater medical marijuana advertising exposure one year later. Prevention programs need to better explain medical marijuana to youth, providing information on the context for proper medical use of this drug and the potential harms from use during this developmental period. Furthermore, as this is a new frontier, it is important to consider regulating medical marijuana advertisements, as is currently done for alcohol and tobacco products. PMID:26030167

  3. Is abstinence education theory based? The underlying logic of abstinence education programs in Texas.

    PubMed

    Goodson, Patricia; Pruitt, B E; Suther, Sandy; Wilson, Kelly; Buhi, Eric

    2006-04-01

    Authors examined the logic (or the implicit theory) underlying 16 abstinence-only-until-marriage programs in Texas (50% of all programs funded under the federal welfare reform legislation during 2001 and 2002). Defined as a set of propositions regarding the relationship between program activities and their intended outcomes, program staff's implicit theories were summarized and compared to (a) data from studies on adolescent sexual behavior, (b) a theory-based model of youth abstinent behavior, and (c) preliminary findings from the national evaluation of Title V programs. Authors interviewed 62 program directors and instructors and employed selected principles of grounded theory to analyze interview data. Findings indicated that abstinence education staff could clearly articulate the logic guiding program activity choices. Comparisons between interview data and a theory-based model of adolescent sexual behavior revealed striking similarities. Implications of these findings for conceptualizing and evaluating abstinence-only-until-marriage (or similar) programs are examined.

  4. Interaction matters: quantifying conduct problem × depressive symptoms interaction and its association with adolescent alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in a national sample.

    PubMed

    Maslowsky, Julie; Schulenberg, John E

    2013-11-01

    Substance use is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among American adolescents. Conduct problems and depressive symptoms have each been found to be associated with adolescent substance use. Although they are highly comorbid, the role of the interaction of conduct problems and depressive symptoms in substance use is not clear. In national samples of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students from the Monitoring the Future study, latent moderated structural equation modeling was used to estimate the association of conduct problems, depressive symptoms, and their interaction to the use of alcohol (including binge drinking), cigarettes, and marijuana. Moderation by age and sex was tested. The interaction of conduct problems with depressive symptoms was a strong predictor of substance use, particularly among younger adolescents. With few exceptions, adolescents with high levels of both conduct problems and depressive symptoms used substances most frequently. Conduct problems were a strong positive predictor of substance use, and depressive symptoms were a weak positive predictor. Whereas conduct problems are often thought to be a primary predictor of substance use, this study revealed that depressive symptoms potentiate the relation of conduct problems to substance use. Therefore, substance use prevention efforts should target both depressive symptoms and conduct problems.

  5. Marijuana Use Among 10th Grade Students - Washington, 2014.

    PubMed

    Shah, Anar; Stahre, Mandy

    2016-12-30

    Some studies have suggested that long-term, regular use of marijuana starting in adolescence might impair brain development and lower intelligence quotient (1,2). Since 2012, purchase of recreational or retail marijuana has become legal for persons aged ≥21 years in the District of Columbia, Alaska, California, Colorado, Maine, Massachusetts, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington, raising concern about increased marijuana access by youths. The law taxing and regulating recreational or retail marijuana was approved by Washington voters in 2012 and the first retail licenses were issued in July 2014; medical marijuana use has been legal since 1998. To examine the prevalence, characteristics, and behaviors of current marijuana users among 10th grade students, the Washington State Department of Health analyzed data from the state's 2014 Healthy Youth Survey (HYS) regarding current marijuana use. In 2014, 18.1% of 10th grade students (usually aged 15-16 years) reported using marijuana during the preceding 30 days; of these students, 32% reported using it on ≥10 days. Among the marijuana users, 65% reported obtaining marijuana through their peer networks, which included friends, older siblings, or at a party. Identification of comprehensive and sustainable public health interventions are needed to prevent and reduce youth marijuana use. Establishment of state and jurisdiction surveillance of youth marijuana use could be useful to anticipate and monitor the effects of legalization and track trends in use before states consider legalizing recreational or retail marijuana.

  6. Abstinence-related word associations and definitions of abstinence and virginity among missouri high school freshmen.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kelly L; Smith, Matthew Lee; Menn, Mindy

    2013-11-01

    The ways in which adolescents define and view sex, abstinence, and virginity impact the efforts of sexuality educators and sexual health professionals. This study examined terminology used by nonsexually active high school students to define abstinence and virginity and identified words students associate with these terms. Purposes included (1) describing words/phrases associated with abstinence; (2) describing phrases for "being abstinent until marriage" and "being a virgin;" (3) assessing concordance between word dyads associated with abstinence; and (4) assessing concordance between phrases defining "abstinent until marriage" and "a virgin." In this study, 216 freshmen provided information about beliefs, behaviors, and perceptions. Pearson chi-square tests and Wilcoxon sign-rank tests assessed sex-based differences, definitions, and levels of concordance were conducted. Girls' friends took an abstinence pledge (p = .004) and their parents (p = .025) and best friends (p < .001) think they should abstain. Male counterparts reported being dissatisfied with current sex status (p = .002) and high acceptance of sex before marriage (p = .011). Boys were more likely to endorse "negative" words than girls. Professionals need to use relevant materials incorporating terminology that resonates with adolescents and programs that engage coherent participant discussions. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  7. Medical marijuana.

    PubMed

    1999-04-30

    The Florida Supreme Court heard oral arguments in April regarding a glaucoma patient's request for a medical exception to the State prohibition on use of marijuana. [Name removed] was convicted on possession and cultivation charges, and a trial judge refused to allow a medical necessity defense. A State appeals court subsequently overturned [name removed]'s conviction. The case focuses on whether the legislature intended to prohibit such a defense when it declared in 1993 that the substance had no medicinal benefits.

  8. Marijuana Primes, Marijuana Expectancies, and Arithmetic Efficiency*

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Joshua A.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; McCarthy, Denis M.; Friedman, Ronald S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Previous research has shown that primes associated with alcohol influence behavior consistent with specific alcohol expectancies. The present study examined whether exposure to marijuana-related primes and marijuana expectancies interact to produce similar effects. Specifically, the present study examined whether marijuana primes and marijuana expectancies regarding cognitive and behavioral impairment interact to influence performance on an arithmetic task. Method: Two independent samples (N = 260) of undergraduate students (both marijuana users and nonusers) first completed measures of marijuana-outcome expectancies associated with cognitive and behavioral impairment and with general negative effects (Sample 2). Later in the semester, participants were exposed to marijuana-related (or neutral) primes and then completed an arithmetic task. Results: Results from Sample 1 indicated that participants who were exposed to marijuana-themed magazine covers performed more poorly on the arithmetic task if they expected that marijuana would lead to cognitive and behavioral impairment. Results from Sample 2 indicated that, for marijuana users, cognitive and behavioral impairment expectancies, but not expectancies regarding general negative effects, similarly moderated arithmetic performance for participants exposed to marijuana-related words. Conclusions: Results support the hypothesis that the implicit activation of specific marijuana-outcome expectancies can influence cognitive processes. Implications for research on marijuana are discussed. PMID:19371490

  9. Implementing the Abstinence Education Provision of the Welfare Reform Legislation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Ron; Bevan, Carol Statuto

    As part of its 1996 welfare reform bill, the U.S. Congress enacted a $50 million per year program to fund abstinence education. The welfare reform law addresses the problem of births to single adolescents by enforcing child support payments, giving states financial incentives to reduce nonmarital births, and creating the abstinence education…

  10. Evaluation of an Abstinence Based Intervention for Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rue, Lisa; Chandran, Raj; Pannu, Aman; Bruce, David; Singh, Rana; Traxler, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Outcomes associated with an abstinence education intervention were evaluated using a single group design with a 12-month longitudinal follow-up. The intervention group of adolescents ages 12-14 years (N = 427) were enrolled in an 11.5-hour abstinence education intervention offered during the school day. Significant differences were found in the…

  11. State-Level Medical Marijuana Laws, Marijuana Use and Perceived Availability of Marijuana Among the General U.S. Population

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Silvia S.; Mauro, Christine M.; Santaella-Tenorio, Julian; Kim, June H.; Cerda, Magdalena; Keyes, Katherine M.; Hasin, Deborah S.; Galea, Sandro; Wall, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known on how perceived availability of marijuana is associated with medical marijuana laws. We examined the relationship between medical marijuana laws (MML) and the prevalence of past-month marijuana use, with perceived availability of marijuana. Methods Data were from respondents included in the National Survey of Drug Use and Health restricted use data portal 2004–2013. Multilevel logistic regression of individual- level data was used to test differences between MML and non-MML states and changes in prevalence of past-month marijuana use and perceived availability from before to after passage of MML among adolescents, young adults and older adults controlling for demographics. Results Among adults 26+, past-month prevalence of marijuana use increased from 5.87% to 7.15% after MML passage (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 1.24 [1.16–1.31]), but no change in prevalence of use was found for 12–17 or 18–25 year-olds. Perceived availability of marijuana increased after MML were enacted among those 26+ but not in younger groups. Among all age groups, prevalence of marijuana use and perception of it being easily available was higher in states that would eventually pass MML by 2013 compared to those that had not. Perceived availability was significantly associated with increased risk of past-month marijuana use in all age groups. Conclusion Evidence suggests perceived availability as a driver of change in use of marijuana due to MML. To date, this has only occurred in adults 26+ and different scenarios that could explain this change need to be further explored. PMID:27755989

  12. State-level medical marijuana laws, marijuana use and perceived availability of marijuana among the general U.S. population.

    PubMed

    Martins, Silvia S; Mauro, Christine M; Santaella-Tenorio, Julian; Kim, June H; Cerda, Magdalena; Keyes, Katherine M; Hasin, Deborah S; Galea, Sandro; Wall, Melanie

    2016-12-01

    Little is known on how perceived availability of marijuana is associated with medical marijuana laws. We examined the relationship between medical marijuana laws (MML) and the prevalence of past-month marijuana use, with perceived availability of marijuana. Data were from respondents included in the National Survey of Drug Use and Health restricted use data portal 2004-2013. Multilevel logistic regression of individual-level data was used to test differences between MML and non-MML states and changes in prevalence of past-month marijuana use and perceived availability from before to after passage of MML among adolescents, young adults and older adults controlling for demographics. Among adults 26+, past-month prevalence of marijuana use increased from 5.87% to 7.15% after MML passage (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 1.24 [1.16-1.31]), but no change in prevalence of use was found for 12-17 or 18-25 year-olds. Perceived availability of marijuana increased after MML was enacted among those 26+ but not in younger groups. Among all age groups, prevalence of marijuana use and perception of it being easily available was higher in states that would eventually pass MML by 2013 compared to those that had not. Perceived availability was significantly associated with increased risk of past-month marijuana use in all age groups. Evidence suggests perceived availability as a driver of change in use of marijuana due to MML. To date, this has only occurred in adults 26+ and different scenarios that could explain this change need to be further explored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Validity of Truant Youths' Marijuana Use and Its Impact on Alcohol Use and Sexual Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Winters, Ken C.; Ungaro, Rocío; Karas, Lora; Belenko, Steven; Wareham, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Few studies investigating the validity of marijuana use have used samples of truant youths. In the current study, self-reports of marijuana use are compared with urine test results for marijuana to identify marijuana underreporting among adolescents participating in a longitudinal brief intervention for drug-involved truant youths. It was…

  14. Combining in-school and community-based media efforts: reducing marijuana and alcohol uptake among younger adolescents.

    PubMed

    Slater, Michael D; Kelly, Kathleen J; Edwards, Ruth W; Thurman, Pamela J; Plested, Barbara A; Keefe, Thomas J; Lawrence, Frank R; Henry, Kimberly L

    2006-02-01

    This study tests the impact of an in-school mediated communication campaign based on social marketing principles, in combination with a participatory, community-based media effort, on marijuana, alcohol and tobacco uptake among middle-school students. Eight media treatment and eight control communities throughout the US were randomly assigned to condition. Within both media treatment and media control communities, one school received a research-based prevention curriculum and one school did not, resulting in a crossed, split-plot design. Four waves of longitudinal data were collected over 2 years in each school and were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models to account for clustering effects. Youth in intervention communities (N = 4,216) showed fewer users at final post-test for marijuana [odds ratio (OR) = 0.50, P = 0.019], alcohol (OR = 0.40, P = 0.009) and cigarettes (OR = 0.49, P = 0.039), one-tailed. Growth trajectory results were significant for marijuana (P = 0.040), marginal for alcohol (P = 0.051) and non-significant for cigarettes (P = 0.114). Results suggest that an appropriately designed in-school and community-based media effort can reduce youth substance uptake. Effectiveness does not depend on the presence of an in-school prevention curriculum.

  15. Parental Influences on Adolescent Marijuana Use and the Baby Boom Generation: Findings from the 1979-1996 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse. Analytic Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Denise B.; Griesler, Pamela C.; Lee, Gang; Davies, Mark; Schaffsan, Christine

    This report uses the 1979-1996 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse to investigate the role of parents, especially members of the baby boom generation, on the marijuana use of children. The association of marijuana use between parents and children, the differences among parental birth cohorts, and the determinants of child marijuana use are…

  16. Cue Reactivity in Young Marijuana Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Kevin M.; LaRowe, Steven D.; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To develop and evaluate the feasibility of a cue reactivity paradigm for young marijuana smokers. Method A laboratory procedure was developed involving neutral- and marijuana-related imagery, video, and in vivo cues. Fifteen adolescents and young adults with cannabis use disorders completed the procedure. Continuous Skin Conductance (SC) and Heart Rate (HR) were measured throughout the procedure. Participants completed questionnaires regarding marijuana craving before, during and after cue presentations. Results Higher levels of craving and SC were observed during marijuana cue presentations. Conclusions The procedure appears to elicit cue reactivity among adolescents and young adults with cannabis use disorders and should be further evaluated and refined with a larger sample. Implications for future studies are discussed. PMID:19071985

  17. Making Sense of Abstinence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taverner, Bill; Montfort, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Young people need to know that abstinence is a far more complex, difficult concept than it is often portrayed. Abstinence is a decision about sexual behaviors that a person may make throughout his or her life. It is a choice made at a specific time in a specific situation, for a specific period of time, whether one is in a partnered relationship…

  18. Can Marijuana Make It Better? Prospective Effects of Marijuana and Temperament on Risk for Anxiety and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Grunberg, Victoria A.; Cordova, Kismet A.; Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; Ito, Tiffany A.

    2015-01-01

    Increases in marijuana use in recent years highlight the importance of understanding how marijuana affects mental health. Of particular relevance is the effect of marijuana use on anxiety and depression given that marijuana use is highest among late adolescents/early adults, the same age range in which risk for anxiety and depression is the highest. Here we examine how marijuana use moderates the effects of temperament on level of anxiety and depression in a prospective design in which baseline marijuana use and temperament predict anxiety and depression one year later. We found that harm avoidance (HA) is associated with higher anxiety and depression a year later, but only among those low in marijuana use. Those higher in marijuana use show no relation between HA and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Marijuana use also moderated the effect of novelty seeking (NS), with symptoms of anxiety and depression increasing with NS only among those with high marijuana use. NS was unrelated to symptoms of anxiety and depression among those low in marijuana use. The temperament dimension of reward dependence was unrelated to anxiety and depression symptoms. Our results suggest that marijuana use does not have an invariant relationship with anxiety and depression, and that the effects of relatively stable temperament dimensions can be moderated by other contextual factors. PMID:26415059

  19. Can marijuana make it better? Prospective effects of marijuana and temperament on risk for anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Grunberg, Victoria A; Cordova, Kismet A; Bidwell, L Cinnamon; Ito, Tiffany A

    2015-09-01

    Increases in marijuana use in recent years highlight the importance of understanding how marijuana affects mental health. Of particular relevance is the effect of marijuana use on anxiety and depression given that marijuana use is highest among late adolescents/early adults, the same age range in which risk for anxiety and depression is the highest. Here we examine how marijuana use moderates the effects of temperament on level of anxiety and depression in a prospective design in which baseline marijuana use and temperament predict anxiety and depression 1 year later. We found that harm avoidance (HA) is associated with higher anxiety and depression a year later, but only among those low in marijuana use. Those higher in marijuana use show no relation between HA and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Marijuana use also moderated the effect of novelty seeking (NS), with symptoms of anxiety and depression increasing with NS only among those with high marijuana use. NS was unrelated to symptoms of anxiety and depression among those low in marijuana use. The temperament dimension of reward dependence was unrelated to anxiety and depression symptoms. Our results suggest that marijuana use does not have an invariant relationship with anxiety and depression, and that the effects of relatively stable temperament dimensions can be moderated by other contextual factors. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Medicinal and recreational marijuana: what are the risks?

    PubMed

    Van Gerpen, Shawn; Vik, Tamara; Soundy, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    With the recent legalization of recreational marijuana in Colorado, Washington, Alaska, the District of Columbia and legislation pending for both medical and recreational marijuana in several other states, it is important for the facts regarding its potential for serious mental health consequences to be known. Little has been said about the psychiatric risks of this substance, particularly in youth. Several studies have shown increased rates of depression, anxiety and schizophrenia among those who use marijuana on a regular basis. In addition, permanent loss of IQ and structural changes in the brain have been demonstrated with habitual use. Legalization of marijuana for recreational use can influence an adolescent's perception of this substance as "safe." In states that have legalized marijuana for medical purposes, there is the very real problem of "diversion." As many as 34 percent of 12th-graders who use marijuana in states with legalized marijuana had obtained it from a person who had received it through a prescription.

  1. Predictors of marijuana relapse in the human laboratory: robust impact of tobacco cigarette smoking status.

    PubMed

    Haney, Margaret; Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D; Glass, Andrew; Vosburg, Suzanne K; Comer, Sandra D; Foltin, Richard W

    2013-02-01

    Few marijuana smokers in treatment achieve sustained abstinence, yet factors contributing to high relapse rates are unknown. Study 1: data from five inpatient laboratory studies assessing marijuana intoxication, withdrawal, and relapse were combined to assess factors predicting the likelihood and severity of relapse. Daily, nontreatment-seeking marijuana smokers (n = 51; 10 ± 5 marijuana cigarettes/day) were enrolled. Study 2: to isolate the effects of cigarette smoking, marijuana intoxication, withdrawal, and relapse were assessed in daily marijuana and cigarette smokers (n = 15) under two within-subject, counter-balanced conditions: while smoking tobacco cigarettes as usual (SAU), and after at least 5 days without cigarettes (Quit). Study 1: 49% of participants relapsed the first day active marijuana became available. Tobacco cigarette smokers (75%), who were not abstaining from cigarettes, were far more likely to relapse than non-cigarette smokers (odds ratio: 19, p < .01). Individuals experiencing more positive subjective effects (i.e., feeling "high") after marijuana administration and those with more negative affect and sleep disruption during marijuana withdrawal were more likely to have severe relapse episodes (p < .05). Study 2: most participants (>87%) relapsed to marijuana whether in the SAU or Quit phase. Tobacco cigarette smoking did not significantly influence relapse, nor did it affect marijuana intoxication or most symptoms of withdrawal relative to tobacco cessation. Daily marijuana smokers who also smoke cigarettes have high rates of marijuana relapse, and cigarette smoking versus recent abstinence does not directly influence this association. These data indicate that current cigarette smoking is a clinically important marker for increased risk of marijuana relapse. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. How does state marijuana policy affect U.S. youth? Medical marijuana laws, marijuana use and perceived harmfulness: 1991–2014

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Wall, Melanie; Cerdá, Magdalena; Schulenberg, John; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Galea, Sandro; Feng, Tianshu; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To test, among US students: 1) whether perceived harmfulness of marijuana has changed over time, 2) whether perceived harmfulness of marijuana changed post-passage of state medical marijuana laws (MML) compared with pre-passage; 3) whether perceived harmfulness of marijuana mediates and/or modifies the relation between MML and marijuana use as a function of grade level. Design Cross-sectional nationally-representative surveys of U.S. students, conducted annually, 1991–2014, in the Monitoring The Future study. Setting Surveys conducted in schools in all coterminous states; 21 states passed MML between 1996–2014. Participants The sample included 1,134,734 adolescents in 8th, 10th, and 12th grades. Measures State passage of MML; perceived harmfulness of marijuana use (perceiving great or moderate risk to health from smoking marijuana occasionally versus slight or no risk); and marijuana use (prior 30 days). Data were analyzed using time-varying multi-level regression modeling. Findings Perceived harmfulness of marijuana significantly decreased since 1991 (from an estimated 84.0% in 1991 to 53.8% in 2014, p<0.01). Across time, perceived harmfulness was lower in states that passed MML (OR=0.86, 95% C.I. 0.75–0.97). In states with MML, perceived harmfulness of marijuana increased among 8th graders after MML passage (OR=1.21, 95% C.I. 1.08–1.36), while marijuana use decreased (OR=0.81, 95% C.I. 0.72–0.92). Results were null for other grades, and for all grades combined. Increases in perceived harmfulness among 8th graders after MML passage was associated with ~33% of the decrease in use. When adolescents were stratified by perceived harmfulness, use in 8th graders decreased to a greater extent among those who perceived marijuana as harmful. Conclusions While perceived harmfulness of marijuana use is decreasing nationally among adolescents, passage of medical marijuana laws is associated with increases in perceived harmfulness among young adolescents, and

  3. Marijuana: Facts for Teens. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This booklet provides teenagers with information concerning the use of marijuana. It is presented in a question/answer format. The following sixteen questions are briefly answered: What is marijuana? How is marijuana used? How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? How many teens smoke marijuana? Why do young people use marijuana? What…

  4. Marijuana Use in Suburban Schools among Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Kristin V.; Lopata, Christopher; Marable, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Although much research exists on adolescent marijuana use, few studies have examined marijuana use in school settings. Students experiencing academic and social difficulties at school, such as those receiving special education services, may be more at risk for school-related substance use. Nevertheless, virtually no research has examined this…

  5. Marijuana and lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Manish; Joshi, Anita; Bartter, Thaddeus

    2014-03-01

    Cannabis sativa (marijuana) is used throughout the world, and its use is increasing. In much of the world, marijuana is illicit. While inhalation of smoke generated by igniting dried components of the plant is the most common way marijuana is used, there is concern over potential adverse lung effects. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent studies that explore the impact upon the respiratory system of inhaling marijuana smoke. Smoking marijuana is associated with chronic bronchitis symptoms and large airway inflammation. Occasional use of marijuana with low cumulative use is not a risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The heavy use of marijuana alone may lead to airflow obstruction. The immuno-histopathologic and epidemiologic evidence in marijuana users suggests biological plausibility of marijuana smoking as a risk for the development of lung cancer; at present, it has been difficult to conclusively link marijuana smoking and cancer development. There is unequivocal evidence that habitual or regular marijuana smoking is not harmless. A caution against regular heavy marijuana usage is prudent. The medicinal use of marijuana is likely not harmful to lungs in low cumulative doses, but the dose limit needs to be defined. Recreational use is not the same as medicinal use and should be discouraged.

  6. Synthetic Pot: Not Your Grandfather's Marijuana.

    PubMed

    Ford, Benjamin M; Tai, Sherrica; Fantegrossi, William E; Prather, Paul L

    2017-03-01

    In the early 2000s in Europe and shortly thereafter in the USA, it was reported that 'legal' forms of marijuana were being sold under the name K2 and/or Spice. Active ingredients in K2/Spice products were determined to be synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs), producing psychotropic actions via CB 1 cannabinoid receptors, similar to those of Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC), the primary active constituent in marijuana. Often abused by adolescents and military personnel to elude detection in drug tests due to their lack of structural similarity to Δ 9 -THC, SCBs are falsely marketed as safe marijuana substitutes. Instead, SCBs are a highly structural diverse group of compounds, easily synthesized, which produce very dangerous adverse effects occurring by, as of yet, unknown mechanisms. Therefore, available evidence indicates that K2/Spice products are clearly not safe marijuana alternatives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Research Reports: Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... c to copy Marijuana and Cannabinoids: A Neuroscience Research Summit March 22-23, 2016 Meeting Summary Featured ... Parents Need to Know Marijuana: Facts for Teens ​Research Reports This series of reports simplifies the science ...

  8. Marijuana. Specialized Information Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.

    The document presents a collection of articles about marijuana. Article 1 reports on the results of a study by the National Academy of Sciences on the health effects of marijuana. A summary report of adverse health and behavioral consequences of cannabis (marijuana) use is provided in article 2. Article 3 presents the Surgeon General's warnings on…

  9. Gateway to curiosity: Medical marijuana ads and intention and use during middle school.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Miles, Jeremy N V; Tucker, Joan S

    2015-09-01

    Over the past several years, medical marijuana has received increased attention in the media, and marijuana use has increased across the United States. Studies suggest that as marijuana has become more accessible and adults have become more tolerant regarding marijuana use, adolescents perceive marijuana as more beneficial and are more likely to use if they are living in an environment that is more tolerant of marijuana use. One factor that may influence adolescents' perceptions about marijuana and marijuana use is their exposure to advertising of this product. We surveyed sixth- to eighth-grade youth in 2010 and 2011 in 16 middle schools in Southern California (n = 8,214; 50% male; 52% Hispanic; mean age = 13 years) and assessed exposure to advertising for medical marijuana, marijuana intentions, and marijuana use. Cross-lagged regressions showed a reciprocal association of advertising exposure with marijuana use and intentions during middle school. Greater initial medical marijuana advertising exposure was significantly associated with a higher probability of marijuana use and stronger intentions to use 1 year later, and initial marijuana use and stronger intentions to use were associated with greater medical marijuana advertising exposure 1 year later. Prevention programs need to better explain medical marijuana to youth, providing information on the context for proper medical use of this drug and the potential harms from use during this developmental period. Furthermore, as this is a new frontier, it is important to consider regulating medical marijuana advertisements, as is currently done for alcohol and tobacco products. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Use of Marijuana and Other Substances Among Pregnant and Parenting Women With Substance Use Disorders: Changes in Washington State After Marijuana Legalization.

    PubMed

    Grant, Therese M; Graham, J Christopher; Carlini, Beatriz H; Ernst, Cara C; Brown, Natalie Novick

    2018-01-01

    In 2012, possession of marijuana for nonmedical use was legalized in Washington State. This study examined how legalization affected alcohol and drug use in a sample of pregnant and parenting women with substance use disorders. Study participants from nine counties in Washington State (N = 1,359) were questioned about their substance use after completing a 3-year case management intervention program. The sample was divided into two cohorts based on whether participants had completed the program before or after legalization. Most study participants reported complete abstinence from alcohol and nonprescription drugs at program exit. Among those who were still using substances, women who completed the intervention after marijuana legalization were significantly more likely to report marijuana use at program exit compared with women who completed the intervention before marijuana legalization. Across both cohorts (pre- and post-legalization), we found a positive association of exit marijuana use with alcohol, illegal methadone, other opioids, amphetamines, and cocaine use; even when we controlled for historical period, the association with some of these substances with marijuana use remained evident. Independent of marijuana use, we saw increased use during the post-legalization period of alcohol, illicit methadone, and other opioids. Marijuana use at exit from the Parent-Child Assistance Program (PCAP) increased significantly after marijuana legalization in the state. Women who were not abstinent from marijuana at program exit were likely to report use of other substances as well. Our study design demonstrates an association but does not allow us to conclude that marijuana use leads to other substance use among this sample of women with a history of polysubstance use.

  11. Associations between University Students' Reported Reasons for Abstinence from Illicit Substances and Type of Drug

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Harold; Bonar, Erin E.; Pavlick, Michelle; Jones, Lance D.; Hoffmann, Erica; Murray, Shanna; Faigin, Carol Ann; Cabral, Kyle; Baylen, Chelsea

    2012-01-01

    We recruited 211 undergraduates to rate the degree to which each of 34 listed reasons for not taking drugs had influenced their abstinence from MDMA/ecstasy, cocaine, marijuana, and hallucinogens. Participants rated reasons such as personal and family medical histories, religion, and physiological consequences of drug use as having little or no…

  12. Alcohol and Cigarette Free: Examining Social Influences on Substance Use Abstinence among Black Non-Latina and Latina Urban Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Caryn R. R.; Nichols, Tracy R.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2011-01-01

    Increases in substance use prevalence among girls, as well as a lack of research conducted with urban girls of color, highlight the importance of understanding both predictors and outcomes of substance use abstinence (SUA) within this population. This study addresses gaps in SUA research through a longitudinal investigation conducted with urban…

  13. Nicotine and Nicotine Abstinence Do Not Interfere with GABAA Receptor Neuroadaptations During Alcohol Abstinence.

    PubMed

    Hillmer, Ansel T; Kloczynski, Tracy; Sandiego, Christine M; Pittman, Brian; Anderson, Jon M; Labaree, David; Gao, Hong; Huang, Yiyun; Deluliis, Giuseppe; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Carson, Richard E; Cosgrove, Kelly P

    2016-04-01

    Alcohol dependence and tobacco smoking are highly comorbid, and treating both conditions simultaneously is controversial. Previously, we showed that tobacco smoking interferes with GABAA receptor neuroadaptations during alcohol withdrawal in humans, while this effect did not occur with continued nicotine use during alcohol abstinence in nonhuman primates. Here, we extend our previous work by measuring GABAA receptor availability with positron emission tomography (PET) during drug abstinence in nonhuman primates exposed to alcohol alone, nicotine and alcohol together, and alcohol abstinence with continued nicotine exposure. Twenty-four adolescent male rhesus macaques orally self-administered alcohol and nicotine, available separately in water and saccharin, over 20 weeks. The groups included alcohol alone (n = 8); nicotine and alcohol with simultaneous abstinence (n = 8); nicotine and alcohol with alcohol abstinence while nicotine was still available (n = 8); and a pilot group of animals consuming nicotine alone (n = 6). Animals were imaged with [(11)C]flumazenil PET to measure binding potential (BPND), an index of GABAA receptor availability. Imaging occurred at baseline (drug-naíve), and following alcohol and/or nicotine cessation at 1 day, 8 days, and 12 weeks of abstinence. Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine the time course of [(11)C]flumazenil BPND during alcohol abstinence across groups. Animals consumed 3.95 ± 1.22 g/kg/d alcohol and 55.4 ± 35.1 mg/kg/d nicotine. No significant group effects were observed in [(11)C]flumazenil BPND during alcohol abstinence; however, a main effect of time was detected. Post hoc analyses indicated that all groups abstaining from alcohol exhibited significantly increased GABAA receptor availability at 1 day and 8 days (but not 12 weeks) of abstinence relative to baseline, while no changes in [(11)C]flumazenil BPND during nicotine abstinence alone were observed. These data indicate that neither nicotine nor

  14. Adolescent Abstinence and Unprotected Sex in CyberSenga, an Internet-Based HIV Prevention Program: Randomized Clinical Trial of Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Ybarra, Michele L.; Bull, Sheana S.; Prescott, Tonya L.; Korchmaros, Josephine D.; Bangsberg, David R.; Kiwanuka, Julius P.

    2013-01-01

    Context Cost-effective, scalable programs are urgently needed in countries deeply affected by HIV. Methods This parallel-group RCT was conducted in four secondary schools in Mbarara, Uganda. Participants were 12 years and older, reported past-year computer or Internet use, and provided informed caregiver permission and youth assent. The intervention, CyberSenga, was a five-hour online healthy sexuality program. Half of the intervention group was further randomized to receive a booster at four-months post-intervention. The control arm received ‘treatment as usual’ (i.e., school-delivered sexuality programming). The main outcome measures were: 1) condom use and 2) abstinence in the past three months at six-months' post-intervention. Secondary outcomes were: 1) condom use and 2) abstinence at three-month's post-intervention; and 6-month outcomes by booster exposure. Analyses were intention to treat. Results All 416 eligible youth were invited to participate, 88% (n = 366) of whom enrolled. Participants were randomized to the intervention (n = 183) or control (n = 183) arm; 91 intervention participants were further randomized to the booster. No statistically significant results were noted among the main outcomes. Among the secondary outcomes: At three-month follow-up, trends suggested that intervention participants (81%) were more likely to be abstinent than control participants (74%; p = 0.08), and this was particularly true among youth who were abstinent at baseline (88% vs. 77%; p = 0.02). At six-month follow-up, those in the booster group (80%) reported higher rates of abstinence than youth in the intervention, no booster (57%) and control (55%) groups (p = 0.15); they also reported lower rates of unprotected sex (5%) compared to youth in the intervention, no booster (24%) and control (21%) groups (p = 0.21) among youth sexually active at baseline. Conclusions The CyberSenga program may affect HIV preventive behavior among abstinent

  15. Predictors of Smokeless Tobacco Abstinence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbert, Jon O.; Glover, Elbert D.; Shinozaki, Eri; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Dale, Lowell C.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate predictors of tobacco abstinence among smokeless tobacco (ST) users. Methods: Logistic regression analyses assessed characteristics associated with tobacco abstinence among ST users receiving bupropion SR. Results: Older age was associated with increased tobacco abstinence in both placebo and bupropion SR groups at end…

  16. Young adults who smoke cigarettes and marijuana: Analysis of thoughts and behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Ramo, Danielle E.; Delucchi, Kevin L.; Liu, Howard; Hall, Sharon M.; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Smoking both cigarettes and marijuana is increasingly common among young adults, yet little is known about use patterns, motivations, or thoughts about abstinence. In a U.S. sample, this study explored young adults’ severity of cigarette and marijuana co-use, quit attempts, and thoughts about use. Methods Young adults age 18-to-25 who had smoked at least one cigarette in the past 30 days completed an anonymous online survey. Results Of 1987 completed surveys, 972 participants reported both past-month cigarette and marijuana use (68% male, 71% Caucasian, mean age 20.4 years [SD=2.0]). Frequency of use, temptations to use, measures of dependence, decisional balance, and past-year quit attempts were associated across the two substances (all p< .05), but not motivation to quit. Relative to marijuana, participants reported greater desire and a later stage of change for quitting cigarettes and were more likely to endorse a cigarette abstinence goal, yet they had lower expectancy of success with quitting cigarettes and with staying quit (all p<.001). Conclusions Cigarette and marijuana use, temptations to use, and pros/cons of using were related in this young adult sample. Differences in motivation and thoughts about abstinence, however, suggest that young adults may be more receptive to interventions for tobacco than marijuana use. Use patterns and cognitions for both substances should be considered in prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:24090626

  17. Marijuana: respiratory tract effects.

    PubMed

    Owen, Kelly P; Sutter, Mark E; Albertson, Timothy E

    2014-02-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used drug of abuse in the USA. It is commonly abused through inhalation and therefore has effects on the lung that are similar to tobacco smoke, including increased cough, sputum production, hyperinflation, and upper lobe emphysematous changes. However, at this time, it does not appear that marijuana smoke contributes to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Marijuana can have multiple physiologic effects such as tachycardia, peripheral vasodilatation, behavioral and emotional changes, and possible prolonged cognitive impairment. The carcinogenic effects of marijuana are unclear at this time. Studies are mixed on the ability of marijuana smoke to increase the risk for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and cervical cancer. Some studies show that marijuana is protective for development of malignancy. Marijuana smoke has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on the immune system. Components of cannabis are under investigation as treatment for autoimmune diseases and malignancy. As marijuana becomes legalized in many states for medical and recreational use, other forms of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) have been developed, such as food products and beverages. As most research on marijuana at this time has been on whole marijuana smoke, rather than THC, it is difficult to determine if the currently available data is applicable to these newer products.

  18. Youth marijuana use: state of the science for the practicing clinician.

    PubMed

    Hadland, Scott E; Harris, Sion K

    2014-08-01

    Despite widespread marijuana use among adolescents, accurate information on known health effects is poorly disseminated to clinicians and their patients. Amidst rapidly evolving drug policy in the United States and elsewhere, it is imperative that providers understand the short-term and long-term consequences of marijuana use. Research on regular marijuana use highlights a unique susceptibility of the developing adolescent brain to adverse neurocognitive and psychiatric outcomes. Although studies have not firmly established causality, onset of regular marijuana use in adolescence is associated with later decline in cognitive function, as well as with adult onset of psychosis and anxiety. Educational and employment outcomes may be poorer among regular marijuana-using adolescents. A number of other adverse respiratory, cardiovascular, endocrine and gastrointestinal associations with regular marijuana use have also been established. Good screening tools and promising brief intervention and behavioral treatment programs are available to clinicians, who are in a position to identify problematic marijuana use among adolescents. A common misperception among youth is that marijuana use is without harm. However, adolescent marijuana use may have measurable, durable, and potentially irreversible effects on later cognitive function and mental health.

  19. Youth Marijuana Use: State of the Science for the Practicing Clinician

    PubMed Central

    Hadland, Scott E.; Harris, Sion K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Despite widespread marijuana use among adolescents, accurate information on known health effects is poorly disseminated to clinicians and their patients. Amidst rapidly evolving drug policy in the United States and elsewhere, it is imperative that providers understand the short- and long-term consequences of marijuana use. Recent findings Research on regular marijuana use highlights a unique susceptibility of the developing adolescent brain to adverse neurocognitive and psychiatric outcomes. Although studies have not firmly established causality, onset of regular marijuana use in adolescence is associated with later decline in cognitive function, as well as with adult onset of psychosis and anxiety. Educational and employment outcomes may be poorer among regular marijuana-using adolescents. A number of other adverse respiratory, cardiovascular, endocrine and gastrointestinal associations with regular marijuana use have also been established. Good screening tools and promising brief intervention and behavioral treatment programs are available to clinicians, who are in a position to identify problematic marijuana use among adolescents and refer for services. Summary A common misperception among youth is that marijuana use is without harm. However, adolescent marijuana use may have measurable, durable and potentially irreversible effects on later cognitive function and mental health. PMID:24914878

  20. Medical marijuana: legal considerations.

    PubMed

    Schouten, J T

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, Washington State passed a law, Initiative 692 (I-692), that gives individuals who are charged with possession of marijuana for medical purposes a possible affirmative defense. The law lets these individuals provide a note from their doctor or a copy of their medical records stating they have a condition that may benefit from the use of marijuana. I-692 does not legalize the medical use of marijuana and does not affect Federal law, which makes obtaining, possessing, and growing marijuana illegal. The Washington law limits the amount of marijuana a patient can possess to a 60-day supply and defines the conditions for which medical marijuana may be used. These conditions include HIV, cancer, multiple sclerosis, and epilepsy.

  1. The Teen Marijuana Check-Up: An In-School Protocol for Eliciting Voluntary Self-Assessment of Marijuana Use

    PubMed Central

    Swan, Megan; Schwartz, Sam; Berg, Belinda; Walker, Denise; Stephens, Robert; Roffman, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Given the prevalence of regular marijuana use among adolescents and associated risks for adverse consequences to functioning, effective interventions are needed that are tailored for this population. To date, most such counseling approaches have relied on non-voluntary participation by adolescent marijuana smokers and the outcomes have been only modestly successful. The Teen Marijuana Check-Up is a brief motivational enhancement intervention publicized as a non-pressured and confidential opportunity for the teen marijuana smoker to “take stock” of his/her use. The intervention is designed for in-school implementation and intended to elicit the teen's voluntary participation. This paper highlights the manner in which adolescents are recruited, key intervention elements, the nature of the counseling style utilized, and clinical challenges. The outcomes of two trials with this intervention are briefly discussed. PMID:19122796

  2. Marijuana and Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Tashkin, Donald P

    2018-05-17

    As marijuana smoking prevalence increases in the U.S. concern regarding its potential risks to lung health has also risen, given the general similarity in the smoke contents between marijuana and tobacco. Most studies have found a significant association between marijuana smoking and chronic bronchitis symptoms after adjustment for tobacco. While reports are mixed regarding associations between marijuana smoking and lung function, none has shown a relationship to decrements in forced expired volume in 1 sec (FEV1) and few have found a relationship to a decreased ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FVC), possibly related to an association between marijuana and an increased FVC. A few studies have found a modest reduction in specific airway conductance in relation to marijuana, probably reflecting endoscopic evidence of bronchial mucosal edema among habitual marijuana smokers. Diffusing capacity in marijuana smokers has been normal and two studies of thoracic high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) have not shown any association of marijuana smoking with emphysema. Although bronchial biopsies from habitual marijuana smokers have shown precancerous histopathological changes, a large cohort study and a pooled analysis of six well-designed case-control studies have not found evidence of a link between marijuana smoking and lung cancer. The immunosuppressive effects of delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol raise the possibility of an increased risk of pneumonia, but further studies are needed to evaluate this potential risk. Several cases series have demonstrated pneumothoraces/pneumomediastinum, as well as bullous lung disease, in marijuana smokers, but these associations require epidemiologic studies for firmer evidence of possible causality. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Marijuana and chocolate.

    PubMed

    James, J S

    1996-10-18

    Three substances in chocolate and cocoa powder may mimic cannabinoid by activating receptors or increasing anandamide levels. Anandamide is a lipid that binds to cannabinoid receptors and mimics the psychoactive effects of the drug. Chocolate is widely believed to enhance the effect of marijuana. A practical implication of this finding is that the amount of marijuana needed for medicinal purposes may be decreased by using it with chocolate, reducing both the risks and cost associated with marijuana.

  4. Marijuana Use in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Roth, Cheryl K; Satran, Lori A; Smith, Shauna M

    2015-01-01

    With the legalization of both medical and recreational use of marijuana in some U.S. states, nurses and other clinicians should be prepared to care for pregnant women who have used marijuana during pregnancy. This column describes the prevalence of cannabis use among women, the effect cannabis has on the body and the potential maternal, fetal and neonatal effects of marijuana use during pregnancy. © 2015 AWHONN.

  5. Marijuana - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facts about Marijuana - العربية (Arabic) PDF Karen Chemical Dependency Taskforce of Minnesota Burmese (myanma bhasa) Expand Section ... about Marijuana - myanma bhasa (Burmese) MP3 Karen Chemical Dependency Taskforce of Minnesota Dari (دری) Expand Section Facts ...

  6. Marijuana Neurobiology and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkashef, Ahmed; Vocci, Frank; Huestis, Marilyn; Haney, Margaret; Budney, Alan; Gruber, Amanda; el-Guebaly, Nady

    2008-01-01

    Marijuana is the number one illicit drug of abuse worldwide and a major public health problem, especially in the younger population. The objective of this article is to update and review the state of the science and treatments available for marijuana dependence based on a pre-meeting workshop that was presented at ISAM 2006. At the workshop,…

  7. Attitudes, perceptions, and use of marijuana in youth with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Brenton, J Nicholas; Schreiner, Teri; Karoscik, Krystle; Richter, Meg; Ferrante, Samantha; Waldman, Amy; Banwell, Brenda

    2018-02-01

    Studies have shown a negative impact on cognition and brain volume in marijuana-using adult multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and healthy adolescents. Given that onset of MS during childhood and adolescence negatively impacts brain growth and the normal maturation of neuronal networks, the addition of marijuana exposure in these youth may be even more harmful. Determine attitudes toward and prevalence of recreational marijuana use in MS youth. We surveyed 52 consecutive pediatric-onset MS patients from three pediatric MS centers in the United States. Participants answered a structured questionnaire to capture attitudes toward marijuana and personal use habits, if present. Nearly half reported use of marijuana, with the majority beginning to use in mid-to-late adolescence. The most popular reasons for using marijuana were relaxation (72%), improvement of medical problems (64%), and stress reduction (52%). Over half (64%) of marijuana users perceived it to have negative effects on memory and focus. Cost and access were not barriers to use, despite all respondents being less than age 21. Youth with MS endorse recreational marijuana as safe, and many use marijuana frequently despite appreciating a negative impact on memory. More detailed understanding of the long-term impact of marijuana use in youth with MS is needed.

  8. A Qualitative Evaluation of the Students of Service (SOS) Program for Sexual Abstinence in Louisiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Seunghyun; Johnson, Carolyn C.; Rice, Janet; Manuel, Powlin

    2004-01-01

    Abstinence-only programs for preventing teen pregnancy are the only options in some states but are the programs of choice in others. Effectiveness data, however, are lacking. The SOS Adolescent Family Life Program (SOS), an abstinence-only teen pregnancy prevention program, was implemented in south central Louisiana. Peer mentoring with an…

  9. Predictors of Smokeless Tobacco Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Ebbert, Jon O.; Glover, Elbert; Shinozaki, Eri; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Dale, Lowell C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To investigate predictors of tobacco abstinence among smokeless tobacco (ST) users. Methods Logistic regression analyses assessed characteristics associated with tobacco abstinence among ST users receiving bupropion SR. Results Older age was associated with increased tobacco abstinence in both placebo and bupropion SR groups at end of treatment and one year. Abstinence was lower at one year for subjects with a history of major depression. At end of treatment, a 2-way interaction was detected suggesting bupropion SR may be efficacious for subjects with other household tobacco users. Conclusions Younger ST users and those with a history of depression are less likely to quit ST use. PMID:18442352

  10. Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Marijuana Sections Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma? Why Eye ... Don't Recommend Marijuana for Glaucoma Infographic Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma? Leer en Español: La marihuana ...

  11. Does using marijuana increase the risk for developing schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Evins, A Eden; Green, Alan I; Kane, John M; Murray, Robin M

    2013-04-01

    As more US states and other countries consider legalizing marijuana, clinicians need to know the possible effects of this drug. Research has shown a connection between marijuana use and an increased risk for schizophrenia in young people who are vulnerable to developing psychosis. An international panel of experts addresses topics such as risk factors for schizophrenia, the potency and effects of cannabis use on adolescents, the effects of concurrent drug use with cannabis on schizophrenia risk, and current attitudes toward marijuana. © Copyright 2013 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  12. Medical Marijuana Legalization and Marijuana Use Among Youth in Oregon.

    PubMed

    Paschall, Mallie J; Grube, Joel W; Biglan, Anthony

    2017-06-01

    While the legalization of marijuana for medical and recreational use has raised concerns about potential influences on marijuana use and beliefs among youth, few empirical studies have addressed this issue. We examined the association between medical marijuana patients and licensed growers per 1000 population in 32 Oregon counties from 2006 to 2015, and marijuana use among youth over the same period. We obtained data on registered medical marijuana patients and licensed growers from the Oregon Medical Marijuana Program and we obtained data on youth marijuana use, perceived parental disapproval, and demographic characteristics from the Oregon Healthy Teens Survey. Across 32 Oregon counties, the mean rate of marijuana patients per 1000 population increased from 2.9 in 2006 to 18.3 in 2015, whereas the grower rate increased from 3.8 to 11.9. Results of multi-level analyses indicated significant positive associations between rates of marijuana patients and growers per 1000 population and the prevalence of past 30-day marijuana use, controlling for youth demographic characteristics. The marijuana patient and grower rates were also inversely associated with parental disapproval of marijuana use, which decreased from 2006 to 2015 and acted as a mediator. These findings suggest that a greater number of registered marijuana patients and growers per 1000 population in Oregon counties was associated with a higher prevalence of marijuana use among youth from 2006 to 2015, and that this relationship was partially attributable to perceived norms favorable towards marijuana use.

  13. The impact of marijuana policies on youth: clinical, research, and legal update.

    PubMed

    2015-03-01

    This policy statement is an update of the American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement "Legalization of Marijuana: Potential Impact on Youth," published in 2004. Pediatricians have special expertise in the care of children and adolescents and may be called on to advise legislators about the potential impact of changes in the legal status of marijuana on adolescents. Parents also may look to pediatricians for advice as they consider whether to support state-level initiatives that propose to legalize the use of marijuana for medical and nonmedical purposes or to decriminalize the possession of small amounts of marijuana. This policy statement provides the position of the American Academy of Pediatrics on the issue of marijuana legalization. The accompanying technical report reviews what is currently known about the relationships of marijuana use with health and the developing brain and the legal status of marijuana and adolescents' use of marijuana to better understand how change in legal status might influence the degree of marijuana use by adolescents in the future. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. The Effect of Marijuana Scenes in Anti-marijuana Public Service Announcements on Adolescents’ Evaluation of Ad Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yahui; Cappella, Joseph N.; Fishbein, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the possible negative impact of a specific ad feature—marijuana scenes—on adolescents’ perception of ad effectiveness. A secondary data analysis was conducted on adolescents’ evaluations of 60 anti-marijuana public service announcements (PSAs) that were a part of national and state anti-drug campaigns directed at adolescents. The major finding of the study was that marijuana scenes in anti-marijuana PSAs negatively affected ad liking and thought valence toward the ads among adolescents who are at higher levels of risk for marijuana use. This negative impact was not reversed in the presence of strong anti-marijuana arguments. The results may be used to partially explain the lack of effectiveness of the anti-drug media campaign. It may also help us design more effective anti-marijuana PSAs by isolating adverse elements in the ads that may elicit boomerang effects in the target population. Limitations of the study and future directions were discussed. PMID:19735026

  15. Peer influence on marijuana use in different types of friendships.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joan S; de la Haye, Kayla; Kennedy, David P; Green, Harold D; Pollard, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Although several social network studies have demonstrated peer influence effects on adolescent substance use, findings for marijuana use have been equivocal. This study examines whether structural features of friendships moderate friends' influence on adolescent marijuana use over time. Using 1-year longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this article examines whether three structural features of friendships moderate friends' influence on adolescent marijuana use: whether the friendship is reciprocated, the popularity of the nominated friend, and the popularity/status difference between the nominated friend and the adolescent. The sample consists of students in grade 10/11 at wave I, who were in grade 11/12 at wave II, from two large schools with complete grade-based friendship network data (N = 1,612). In one school, friends' influence on marijuana use was more likely to occur within mutual, reciprocated friendships compared with nonreciprocated relationships. In the other school, friends' influence was stronger when the friends were relatively popular within the school setting or much more popular than the adolescents themselves. Friends' influence on youth marijuana use may play out in different ways, depending on the school context. In one school, influence occurred predominantly within reciprocated relationships that are likely characterized by closeness and trust, whereas in the other school adopting friends' drug use behaviors appeared to be a strategy to attain social status. Further research is needed to better understand the conditions under which structural features of friendships moderate friends' influence on adolescent marijuana use. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  16. Marijuana use and mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Sidney, S; Beck, J E; Tekawa, I S; Quesenberry, C P; Friedman, G D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of marijuana use to mortality. METHODS: The study population comprised 65171 Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program enrollees, aged 15 through 49 years, who completed questionnaires about smoking habits, including marijuana use, between 1979 and 1985. Mortality follow-up was conducted through 1991. RESULTS: Compared with nonuse or experimentation (lifetime use six or fewer times), current marijuana use was not associated with a significantly increased risk of non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) mortality in men (relative risk [RR] = 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.89, 1.39) or of total mortality in women (RR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.80, 1.48). Current marijuana use was associated with increased risk of AIDS mortality in men (RR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.33, 2.73), an association that probably was not causal but most likely represented uncontrolled confounding by male homosexual behavior. This interpretation was supported by the lack of association of marijuana use with AIDS mortality in men from a Kaiser Permanente AIDS database. Relative risks for ever use of marijuana were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Marijuana use in a prepaid health care-based study cohort had little effect on non-AIDS mortality in men and on total mortality in women. PMID:9146436

  17. "The Alcohol Just Pissed Me Off": Views About How Alcohol and Marijuana Influence Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration, Results of a Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Emily Faith; Linden, Judith A.; Baughman, Allyson L.; Kaczmarsky, Courtney; Thompson, Malindi

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study was designed to examine the beliefs of youth users of alcohol and marijuana about the connections between their substance use and dating violence perpetration. Eighteen youth (ages 14-20 years old), who were primarily of Black or Hispanic race/ethnicity, participated in in-depth interviews about times when they had…

  18. Marijuana and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... marijuana in pregnancy have been reported in some studies. It is believed that these children might have more problems with attention, impulsive behavior, short term memory, academic performance and difficulty at ...

  19. Parent and Grandparent Marijuana Use and Child Substance Use and Norms

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hill, Karl G.; Guttmannova, Katarina; Epstein, Marina; Abbott, Robert D.; Steeger, Christine M.; Skinner, Martie L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Using prospective longitudinal data from 3 generations, this study seeks to test whether and how parent and grandparent marijuana use (current and prior) predicts an increased likelihood of child cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use. Methods Using multilevel modeling of prospective data spanning 3 generations (N = 306 families, children ages 6-22), this study tested associations between grandparent (G1) and parent (G2) marijuana use and child (G3) past-year cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use. Analyses tested whether G3 substance-related norms mediated these associations. Current G1 and G2 marijuana use was examined, as was G2 high school and early adult use and G1 marijuana use when G2 parents were in early adolescence. Controls included G2 age at G3 birth, G2 education and depression, and G3 gender. Results G2 current marijuana use predicted a higher likelihood of G3 alcohol and marijuana use, but was not related to the probability of G3 cigarette use. G3's perceptions of their parents' norms and G2 current marijuana use both contributed independently to the likelihood of G3 alcohol and marijuana use when included in the same model. G3 children's own norms and their perceptions of friends' norms mediated the link between G2 current marijuana use and G3 alcohol and marijuana use. Conclusions Results are discussed in light of the growing trend toward marijuana legalization. To the extent that parent marijuana use increases under legalization, we can expect more youth to use alcohol and marijuana and to have norms that favor substance use. PMID:27265424

  20. The Validity of Truant Youths’ Marijuana Use and Its Impact on Alcohol Use and Sexual Risk Taking

    PubMed Central

    Dembo, Richard; Robinson, Rhissa Briones; Barrett, Kimberly; Winters, Ken C.; Ungaro, Rocío; Karas, Lora; Belenko, Steven; Wareham, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Few studies investigating the validity of marijuana use have used samples of truant youth. In the current study, self-reports of marijuana use are compared with urine test results for marijuana to identify marijuana underreporting among adolescents participating in a longitudinal Brief Intervention for drug-involved truant youth. It was hypothesized that marijuana underreporting would be associated with alcohol underreporting and engaging in sexual risk behaviors. The results indicated marijuana underreporting was significantly associated with self-denial of alcohol use, but not associated with sexual risk behavior. Also, there was an age effect in marijuana use underreporting such that younger truant youth were more likely to underreport marijuana use, compared to older truant youth. Implications for policy and future research are discussed. PMID:26478691

  1. Marijuana as medicine?

    PubMed

    Grodeck, B

    1997-01-01

    Recent laws in California and Arizona allow doctors to legally recommend marijuana for the pain and discomfort associated with AIDS and other serious illnesses. Federal authorities continue to oppose this legislation, and promise to prosecute physicians who recommend or prescribe the drug. A 1990 survey of cancer specialists showed that 54 percent were in favor of the law, and 44 percent had already broken the law by recommending marijuana to their patients.

  2. Recreational marijuana use impacts white matter integrity and subcortical (but not cortical) morphometry.

    PubMed

    Orr, Joseph M; Paschall, Courtnie J; Banich, Marie T

    2016-01-01

    A recent shift in legal and social attitudes toward marijuana use has also spawned a surge of interest in understanding the effects of marijuana use on the brain. There is considerable evidence that an adolescent onset of marijuana use negatively impacts white matter coherence. On the other hand, a recent well-controlled study demonstrated no effects of marijuana use on the morphometry of subcortical or cortical structures when users and non-users were matched for alcohol use. Regardless, most studies have involved small, carefully selected samples, so the ability to generalize to larger populations is limited. In an attempt to address this issue, we examined the effects of marijuana use on white matter integrity and cortical and subcortical morphometry using data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) consortium. The HCP data consists of ultra-high resolution neuroimaging data from a large community sample, including 466 adults reporting recreational marijuana use. Rather than just contrasting two groups of individuals who vary significantly in marijuana usage as typifies prior studies, we leveraged the large sample size provided by the HCP data to examine parametric effects of recreational marijuana use. Our results indicate that the earlier the age of onset of marijuana use, the lower was white matter coherence. Age of onset also also affected the shape of the accumbens, while the number of lifetime uses impacted the shape of the amygdala and hippocampus. Marijuana use had no effect on cortical volumes. These findings suggest subtle but significant effects of recreational marijuana use on brain structure.

  3. Medical marijuana: California update.

    PubMed

    James, J S

    1996-08-23

    The Cannabis Buyers' Club in San Francisco remains closed after it was raided by the office of California Attorney General Dan Lungren. Many individuals with serious illnesses such as AIDS and cancer are without safe access to medical marijuana to relieve the symptoms of their diseases. The need for access to medicinal marijuana, the return of the confiscated confidential medical records held at the buyers' club, and the passage of California Proposition 215 in the November election, which allows for the legitimate use of marijuana for medical purposes are of immediate concern. Since the raid, the Cannabis Buyers' Club has denied charges that it sold marijuana to teenagers, saying the drug was sold to a teen's mother, an undercover narcotics officer. However, the club admitted to sales to non-medical individuals who used fraudulent documents in order to obtain the drug and acknowledges the need to tighten procedures. Individuals may be able to obtain marijuana at other buyers' clubs if they have documentation of a medical need. While literature on the medical use of marijuana is lacking, the Federal government continues to block any efforts toward medical research on this issue. A list of other cannabis buyers' clubs in California is included, as well as a list of organizations working for Proposition 215.

  4. Abstinence-Only Sex Education Fails African American Youth.

    PubMed

    Breunig, Michelle

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) disproportionately affect U.S. African American (AA) youth. In AA faith communities, cultural practices have contributed to increased STI rates because abstinence-only-until-marriage education programs do not teach the use of condoms or birth control for preventing STIs or pregnancy. Comprehensive sex education or abstinence-plus programs have been reported to increase STI knowledge and reduce risk-taking behaviors in adolescents and young adults. Evidence supports computerized education to increase STI knowledge and decrease risky sexual behaviors of AA churchgoing youth.

  5. Prevalence, correlates, and trends in tobacco use and cessation among current, former, and never adult marijuana users with a history of tobacco use, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Schauer, Gillian L; King, Brian A; McAfee, Timothy A

    2017-10-01

    Approximately 70% of current (past 30-day) adult marijuana users are current tobacco users, which may complicate tobacco cessation. We assessed prevalence and trends in tobacco cessation among adult ever tobacco users, by marijuana use status. Data came from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, a cross-sectional, nationally representative, household survey of U.S. civilians. Analyses included current, former, and never marijuana users aged≥18 reporting ever tobacco use (cigarette, cigar, chew/snuff). We computed weighted estimates (2013-2014) of current tobacco use, recent tobacco cessation (quit 30days to 12months), and sustained tobacco cessation (quit>12months) and adjusted trends in tobacco use and cessation (2005-2014) by marijuana use status. We also assessed the association between marijuana and tobacco use status. In 2013-2014, among current adult marijuana users reporting ever tobacco use, 69.1% were current tobacco users (vs. 38.5% of former marijuana users, p<0.0001, and 28.2% of never marijuana users, p<0.0001); 9.1% reported recent tobacco cessation (vs. 8.4% of former marijuana users, p<0.01, and 6.3% of never marijuana users, p<0.001), and 21.8% reported sustained tobacco cessation (vs. 53.1% of former marijuana users, p<0.01, and 65.5% of never marijuana users, p<0.0001). Between 2005 and 2014, current tobacco use declined and sustained tobacco cessation increased among all marijuana use groups. Current marijuana users who ever used tobacco had double the prevalence (vs. never-marijuana users) of current tobacco use, and significantly lower sustained abstinence. Interventions addressing tobacco cessation in the context of use of marijuana and other substances may be warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Neurocognition in College-Aged Daily Marijuana Users

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Mary P.; Collins, Paul F.; Luciana, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Background Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit substance in the United States. Use, particularly when it occurs early, has been associated with cognitive impairments in executive functioning, learning, and memory. Methods This study comprehensively measured cognitive ability as well as comorbid psychopathology and substance use history to determine the neurocognitive profile associated with young adult marijuana use. College-aged marijuana users who initiated use prior to age 17 (n=35) were compared to demographically-matched controls (n=35). Results Marijuana users were high functioning, demonstrating comparable IQs to controls and relatively better processing speed. Marijuana users demonstrated relative cognitive impairments in verbal memory, spatial working memory, spatial planning, and motivated decision-making. Comorbid use of alcohol, which was heavier in marijuana users, was unexpectedly found to be associated with better performance in some of these areas. Conclusions This study provides additional evidence of neurocognitive impairment in the context of adolescent and young adult marijuana use. Findings are discussed in relation to marijuana’s effects on intrinsic motivation and discrete aspects of cognition. PMID:24620756

  7. Synthetic Pot: Not Your Grandfather’s Marijuana

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Benjamin M.; Tai, Sherrica; Fantegrossi, William E.

    2017-01-01

    In the early 2000’s in Europe and shortly thereafter in the USA, it was reported that “legal” forms of marijuana were being sold under the name K2 and/or Spice. Active ingredients in K2/Spice products were determined to be synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs), producing psychotropic actions via CB1 cannabinoid receptors, similar to those of Δ9-THC, the primary active constituent in marijuana. Often abused by adolescents and military personnel to elude detection in drug tests due to their lack of structural similarity to Δ9-THC, SCBs are falsely marketed as safe marijuana substitutes. Instead, SCBs are a highly structural diverse group of compounds, easily synthesized, which produce very dangerous adverse effects occurring by, as of yet, unknown mechanisms. Therefore, available evidence indicates that K2/Spice products are clearly not safe marijuana alternatives. PMID:28162792

  8. Pediatric marijuana exposures in a medical marijuana state.

    PubMed

    Wang, George Sam; Roosevelt, Genie; Heard, Kennon

    2013-07-01

    An increasing number of states are decriminalizing the use of medical marijuana, and the effect on the pediatric population has not been evaluated. To compare the proportion of marijuana ingestions by young children who sought care at a children's hospital in Colorado before and after modification of drug enforcement laws in October 2009 regarding medical marijuana possession. Retrospective cohort study from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2011. Tertiary-care children's hospital emergency department in Colorado. A total of 1378 patients younger than 12 years evaluated for unintentional ingestions: 790 patients before September 30, 2009, and 588 patients after October 1, 2009. Marijuana ingestion. Marijuana exposure visits, marijuana source, symptoms, and patient disposition. The proportion of ingestion visits in patients younger than 12 years (age range, 8 months to 12 years)that were related to marijuana exposure increased after September 30, 2009, from 0 of 790 (0%; 95% CI, 0%-0.6%) to 14 of 588 (2.4%; 95% CI, 1.4%-4.0%) (P < .001). Nine patients had lethargy, 1 had ataxia, and 1 had respiratory insufficiency. Eight patients were admitted, 2 to the intensive care unit. Eight of the 14 cases involved medical marijuana, and 7 of these exposures were from food products. We found a new appearance of unintentional marijuana ingestions by young children after modification of drug enforcement laws for marijuana possession in Colorado. The consequences of unintentional marijuana exposure in children should be part of the ongoing debate on legalizing marijuana.

  9. Factors associated with early marijuana initiation in a criminal justice population.

    PubMed

    Savage, Rebekah J; King, Vinetra L; Clark, C Brendan; Cropsey, Karen L

    2017-01-01

    Initiation of marijuana during adolescence is associated with negative outcomes and is more common among those with criminal justice involvement. We sought to determine demographics, psychosocial factors, mental health factors, and criminal outcomes associated with earlier age at first marijuana use in a criminal justice population. Data from structured, in-person interviews of adults in a criminal corrections program were analyzed. Participants (689 men and women ages 19 and older) were recruited for a larger smoking cessation trial (2009-2013) as a volunteer sample by flyers at a community corrections site. 516 had smoked both nicotine and marijuana and were included in the analysis. We determined associations between self-reported age at first marijuana use and sex, race, income, educational attainment, history of abuse, family problems, psychiatric problems, criminal record, and age of nicotine and alcohol initiation. Of 516 participants, 68% were men, and 64.5% were Black. No participants were of Hispanic ethnicity. Average age of marijuana initiation was 15.1years (SD 3.7years). After linear regression, earlier age at marijuana initiation was associated with male sex and more criminal offenses (person/violent and court). Race and psychiatric problems were not associated with earlier marijuana initiation. Earlier adolescent marijuana initiation is associated with more criminal offenses in a criminal justice population. Men initiate marijuana earlier than women. Adolescents at high risk of justice involvement may benefit from delayed initiation of marijuana, specifically men. Additional studies should examine prevention strategies for adolescent marijuana use that target those at highest risk. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Examining interest in secondary abstinence among young African American females at risk for HIV or STIs.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Erin L P; Sales, Jessica M; Murray, Colleen C; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2012-12-01

    Sexually active African American females are at increased risk for acquiring HIV or STIs. However, some reduce their risk by abstaining from sex for various periods of time following initiation, a practice known as secondary abstinence. Although this may be a valuable mechanism for reducing HIV or STI rates in this population, little is known about those interested in secondary abstinence. Baseline data were obtained from a sample of African American adolescent females, ages 14-20 years, prior to participation in an HIV-risk reduction intervention trial (N = 701). Differences in individual-level and interpersonal-level factors, as well as sociodemographic variables were examined between participants who reported strong interest in secondary abstinence and those who did not. 144 (20.5%) participants reported strong interest in secondary abstinence. Young women with strong interest in abstinence had higher odds of reporting a history of STIs and feeling negative emotions following sex because of their religious beliefs. They also had higher odds of believing their partner may be interested in abstaining and being less invested in their relationship with their main partner. Additionally, adolescents reported less interpersonal stress and more social support. African American females who are interested in practicing secondary abstinence and those who are not differ in their sexual health education needs. Findings from this study characterizing young women interested in secondary abstinence can help researchers provide more targeted health education by identifying those who may be more responsive to abstinence-promoting messages.

  11. Marijuana and actual driving performance

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1993-11-01

    This report concerns the effects of marijuana smoking on actual driving performance. It presents the results of one pilot and three actual driving studies. The pilot study's major purpose was to establish the THC dose current marijuana users smoke to...

  12. Analysis of the medical use of marijuana and its societal implications.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H G

    1998-01-01

    To review the pharmacology, therapeutics, adverse effects, and societal implications of the medical use of marijuana. MEDLINE and manual searches of English-language marijuana literature, supplemented with interviews of scientists currently conducting cannabinoid research. Search terms included pain OR palliative care AND cannabis or ALL marijuana; cachexia OR appetite OR appetite stimulants; muscle spasticity OR spasm; immune system and cannabis; nausea and vomiting and cancer and cannabis. MEDLINE search terms: cannabis OR marijuana smoking OR marijuana abuse; all glaucoma; multiple sclerosis AND cannabis OR marijuana smoking OR marijuana abuse. Studies on pharmacology, risks, and medical potential of marijuana. Not applicable. The most prominent effects of marijuana are mediated by receptors in the brain. Acute intoxication is characterized by euphoria, loss of short-term memory, stimulation of the senses, and impaired linear thinking. Depersonalization and panic attacks are adverse effects. Increased heart rate and reddened conjunctivae are common physical effects. Chronic, high doses may cause subtle impairment of cognitive abilities that are appear to be long-term, but of unknown duration. Marijuana may be a risk factor for individuals with underlying mental illness. It causes dependence, but compared with cocaine, alcohol, heroin, and nicotine, marijuana has little addictive power and produces only mild withdrawal symptoms. Marijuana shows clinical promise for glaucoma, nausea and vomiting, analgesia, spasticity, multiple sclerosis, and AIDS wasting syndrome. As a recreational drug, marijuana poses dangers, particularly to social and emotional development during adolescence and young adulthood. As a medical drug, marijuana should be available for patients who do not adequately respond to currently available therapies.

  13. Abstinence education for urban youth.

    PubMed

    Carter-Jessop, L; Franklin, L N; Heath, J W; Jimenez-Irizarry, G; Peace, M D

    2000-08-01

    Teen sexual problems in the U.S. are reaching enormous proportions. Attempts to prevent common problems, pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases, are underway through the persistent efforts of community, health, academic and government organizations. Abstinence education is one of the current attempts. However, the lack of well defined theoretical frameworks and analyses of outcomes have limited progress in the study of abstinence education. This article describes a pilot program in abstinence-only education provided to six groups of young teens within an urban middle school. The framework for the program, cognitive social learning theory, is described and operationalized. Student pretest-posttest attitudes, open-ended written comments about the program and the researchers' anecdotes about behavioral changes in the students are the outcome measures. Positive attitudes about premarital abstinence increased for all six groups; for four of the six groups the increase was statistically significant.

  14. The clinical implications of legalizing marijuana: Are physician and non-physician providers prepared?

    PubMed

    Brooks, Elizabeth; Gundersen, Doris C; Flynn, Erin; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Bull, Sheana

    2017-09-01

    Passage of voter-driven marijuana reform laws signals a shift in public attitudes for marijuana use. For providers, legalization may necessitate practice modifications, particularly regarding patient-provider conversations about use and risk. We examined healthcare providers' knowledge of marijuana laws and health implications, professional practice behaviors, and attitudes about training. We surveyed 114 Colorado-based providers who care for children, adolescents, pregnant and breastfeeding women using a Venue-Day-Time survey methodology throughout Colorado. The survey captured providers' (e.g., physicians, nurses, medical assistants) knowledge of state marijuana laws, risk perceptions, counseling practices, and continued training needs. Providers were knowledgeable about marijuana laws, cautious supporting legalization, and perceived moderate to high risks, particularly for certain groups. About 50% of providers working with adolescents and pregnant or breastfeeding women assessed marijuana use "every" or "most" visits; 23% of those working with children reported such behavior. Conversations about specific risks varied between groups. Few providers felt completely knowledgeable about marijuana health risks and lacked confidence talking to patients about this issue. Providers frequently assess patients' marijuana use; however, they are uncomfortable and inconsistent talking to patients about specific marijuana health effects. Additional education is warranted, particularly as it relates to talking to patients about the danger of second hand smoke exposure, underage use, safe storage, and the over-consumption of edibles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Associations Between Parental and Grandparental Marijuana Use and Child Substance Use Norms in a Prospective, Three-Generation Study.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Jennifer A; Hill, Karl G; Guttmannova, Katarina; Epstein, Marina; Abbott, Robert D; Steeger, Christine M; Skinner, Martie L

    2016-09-01

    Using prospective longitudinal data from three generations, this study seeks to test whether and how parent and grandparent marijuana use (current and prior) predicts an increased likelihood of child cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use. Using multilevel modeling of prospective data spanning three generations (n = 306 families, children ages 6-22), this study tested associations between grandparent (G1) and parent (G2) marijuana use and child (G3) past-year cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use. Analyses tested whether G3 substance-related norms mediated these associations. Current G1 and G2 marijuana use was examined, as was G2 high school and early adult use and G1 marijuana use when G2 parents were in early adolescence. Controls included G2 age at G3 birth, G2 education and depression, and G3 gender. G2 current marijuana use predicted a higher likelihood of G3 alcohol and marijuana use but was not related to the probability of G3 cigarette use. G3's perceptions of their parents' norms and G2 current marijuana use both contributed independently to the likelihood of G3 alcohol and marijuana use when included in the same model. G3 children's own norms and their perceptions of friends' norms mediated the link between G2 current marijuana use and G3 alcohol and marijuana use. Results are discussed in light of the growing trend toward marijuana legalization. To the extent that parent marijuana use increases under legalization, we can expect more youth to use alcohol and marijuana and to have norms that favor substance use. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Marijuana Use on Brain Structure and Function: Neuroimaging Findings from a Neurodevelopmental Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Brumback, T.; Castro, N.; Jacobus, J.; Tapert, S.

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana, behind only tobacco and alcohol, is the most popular recreational drug in America with prevalence rates of use rising over the past decade. A wide range of research has highlighted neurocognitive deficits associated with marijuana use, particularly when initiated during childhood or adolescence. Neuroimaging, describing alterations to brain structure and function, has begun to provide a picture of possible mechanisms associated with the deleterious effects of marijuana use. This chapter provides a neurodevelopmental framework from which recent data on brain structural and functional abnormalities associated with marijuana use is reviewed. Based on the current data, we provide aims for future studies to more clearly delineate the effects of marijuana on the developing brain and to define underlying mechanisms of the potential long-term negative consequences of marijuana use. PMID:27503447

  17. Changes in undergraduates' marijuana, heavy alcohol and cigarette use following legalization of recreational marijuana use in Oregon.

    PubMed

    Kerr, David C R; Bae, Harold; Phibbs, Sandi; Kern, Adam C

    2017-11-01

    Recreational marijuana legalization (RML) went into effect in Oregon in July 2015. RML is expected to influence marijuana use by adolescents and young adults in particular, and by those with a propensity for substance use. We sought to quantify changes in rates of marijuana use among college students in Oregon from pre- to post-RML relative to college students in other states across the same time period. Repeated cross-sectional survey data from the 2012-16 administrations of the Healthy Minds Study. Seven 4-year universities in the United States. There were 10 924 undergraduate participants. One large public Oregon university participated in 2014 and 2016 (n = 588 and 1115, respectively); six universities in US states where recreational marijuana use was illegal participated both in 2016 and at least once between 2012 and 2015. Self-reported marijuana use in the past 30 days (yes/no) was regressed on time (pre/post 2015), exposure to RML (i.e. Oregon students in 2016) and covariates using mixed-effects logistic regression. Moderation of RML effects by recent heavy alcohol use was examined. Rates of marijuana use increased from pre- to post-2015 at six of the seven universities, a trend that was significant overall. Increases in rates of marijuana use were significantly greater in Oregon than in comparison institutions, but only among students reporting recent heavy alcohol use. Rates of Oregon college students' marijuana use increased (relative to that of students in other states) following recreational marijuana legislation in 2015, but only for those who reported recent heavy use of alcohol. Such alcohol misuse may be a proxy for vulnerabilities to substance use or lack of prohibitions (e.g. cultural) against it. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Marijuana: Current Concepts†

    PubMed Central

    Greydanus, Donald E.; Hawver, Elizabeth K.; Greydanus, Megan M.; Merrick, Joav

    2013-01-01

    Marijuana (cannabis) remains a controversial drug in the twenty-first century. This paper considers current research on use of Cannabis sativa and its constituents such as the cannabinoids. Topics reviewed include prevalence of cannabis (pot) use, other drugs consumed with pot, the endocannabinoid system, use of medicinal marijuana, medical adverse effects of cannabis, and psychiatric adverse effects of cannabis use. Treatment of cannabis withdrawal and dependence is difficult and remains mainly based on psychological therapy; current research on pharmacologic management of problems related to cannabis consumption is also considered. The potential role of specific cannabinoids for medical benefit will be revealed as the twenty-first century matures. However, potential dangerous adverse effects from smoking marijuana are well known and should be clearly taught to a public that is often confused by a media-driven, though false message and promise of benign pot consumption. PMID:24350211

  19. Factors associated with regular marijuana use among high school students: a long-term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Kenneth W; Botvin, Gilbert J; Scheier, Lawrence M; Nichols, Tracy R

    2002-01-01

    The present study investigated whether several behavioral and psychosocial factors measured during early adolescence predicted regular marijuana use 6 years later in a sample of high school students. As part of a school-based survey. 7th-grade students (N = 1,132) reported levels of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use, and were assessed on several domains of psychosocial functioning potentially relevant in the etiology of marijuana use. When students were followed-up in the 12th-grade, 14% smoked marijuana on a regular basis (once or more per month). Findings indicated that early cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and alcohol intoxication predicted later regular marijuana use. For boys, early marijuana use increased the odds for later regular marijuana use. Cigarette smoking by friends and siblings during early adolescence also increased the likelihood of later monthly marijuana use. The findings suggest that early prevention programs for adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and/or other drug use may have important preventive effects in terms of potentially more serious levels of marijuana involvement later in adolescence and early adulthood.

  20. Marijuana Use and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Franz, Christopher A; Frishman, William H

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is currently the most used illicit substance in the world. With the current trend of decriminalization and legalization of marijuana in the US, physicians in the US will encounter more patients using marijuana recreationally over a diverse range of ages and health states. Therefore, it is relevant to review marijuana's effects on human cardiovascular physiology and disease. Compared with placebo, marijuana cigarettes cause increases in heart rate, supine systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and forearm blood flow via increased sympathetic nervous system activity. These actions increase myocardial oxygen demand to a degree that they can decrease the time to exercise-induced angina in patients with a history of stable angina. In addition, marijuana has been associated with triggering myocardial infarctions (MIs) in young male patients. Smoking marijuana has been shown to increase the risk of MI onset by a factor of 4.8 for the 60 minutes after marijuana consumption, and to increase the annual risk of MI in the daily cannabis user from 1.5% to 3% per year. Human and animal models suggest that this effect may be due to coronary arterial vasospasm. However, longitudinal studies have indicated that marijuana use may not have a significant effect on long-term mortality. While further research is required to definitively determine the impact of marijuana on cardiovascular disease, it is reasonable to recommend against recreational marijuana use, especially in individuals with a history of coronary artery disorders.

  1. Effects of Adolescent Cannabinoid Self-Administration in Rats on Addiction-Related Behaviors and Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Kirschmann, Erin K; Pollock, Michael W; Nagarajan, Vidhya; Torregrossa, Mary M

    2017-04-01

    Use of marijuana (Cannabis sativa) often begins in adolescence, and heavy adolescent marijuana use is often associated with impaired cognitive function in adulthood. However, clinical reports of long-lasting cognitive deficits, particularly in subjects who discontinue use in adulthood, are mixed. Moreover, dissociating innate differences in cognitive function from cannabis-induced deficits is challenging. Therefore, the current study sought to develop a rodent model of adolescent cannabinoid self-administration (SA), using the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN), in order to assess measures of relapse/reinstatement of drug seeking and long-term effects on cognitive function assessed in a delay-match-to-sample working memory task and a spatial recognition task. Adolescent male rats readily self-administered WIN in 2-h or 6-h sessions/day, but did not demonstrate an escalation of intake with 6-h access. Rats exhibited significant cue-induced reinstatement of WIN seeking that increased with 21 days of abstinence (ie, 'incubation of craving'). Cognitive testing occurred in adulthood under drug-free conditions. Both 2-h and 6-h adolescent WIN SA groups exhibited significantly better working memory performance in adulthood relative to sucrose SA controls, and performance was associated with altered expression of proteins regulating GABAergic and glutamatergic signaling in the prefrontal cortex. Self-administered WIN did not produce either acute or chronic effects on short-term memory, but experimenter administration of WIN in adolescence, at doses previously reported in the literature, produced acute deficits in short-term memory that recovered with abstinence. Thus, SA of a rewarding cannabinoid in adolescence does not produce long-term cognitive dysfunction.

  2. Effects of Adolescent Cannabinoid Self-Administration in Rats on Addiction-Related Behaviors and Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Kirschmann, Erin K; Pollock, Michael W; Nagarajan, Vidhya; Torregrossa, Mary M

    2017-01-01

    Use of marijuana (Cannabis sativa) often begins in adolescence, and heavy adolescent marijuana use is often associated with impaired cognitive function in adulthood. However, clinical reports of long-lasting cognitive deficits, particularly in subjects who discontinue use in adulthood, are mixed. Moreover, dissociating innate differences in cognitive function from cannabis-induced deficits is challenging. Therefore, the current study sought to develop a rodent model of adolescent cannabinoid self-administration (SA), using the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN), in order to assess measures of relapse/reinstatement of drug seeking and long-term effects on cognitive function assessed in a delay-match-to-sample working memory task and a spatial recognition task. Adolescent male rats readily self-administered WIN in 2-h or 6-h sessions/day, but did not demonstrate an escalation of intake with 6-h access. Rats exhibited significant cue-induced reinstatement of WIN seeking that increased with 21 days of abstinence (ie, ‘incubation of craving’). Cognitive testing occurred in adulthood under drug-free conditions. Both 2-h and 6-h adolescent WIN SA groups exhibited significantly better working memory performance in adulthood relative to sucrose SA controls, and performance was associated with altered expression of proteins regulating GABAergic and glutamatergic signaling in the prefrontal cortex. Self-administered WIN did not produce either acute or chronic effects on short-term memory, but experimenter administration of WIN in adolescence, at doses previously reported in the literature, produced acute deficits in short-term memory that recovered with abstinence. Thus, SA of a rewarding cannabinoid in adolescence does not produce long-term cognitive dysfunction. PMID:27582345

  3. Divergent marijuana trajectories among men: Socioeconomic, relationship, and life satisfaction outcomes in the mid-30s

    PubMed Central

    White, Helene R.; Bechtold, Jordan; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin

    2016-01-01

    Background Given recent changes in marijuana policy in the United States, it is important to understand the long-term effects of marijuana use on adult functioning. We examined whether men who displayed different trajectories of marijuana use from adolescence through emerging adulthood (age ~15–26) differed in terms of socioeconomic, social, and life satisfaction outcomes in their mid-30s. Methods Data came from a longitudinal sample of men who were recruited in early adolescence (N = 506) and followed into adulthood. Four trajectory groups based on patterns of marijuana use from adolescence into emerging adulthood were compared on adult outcomes (age ~36) before and after controlling for co-occurring use of other substances and several pre-existing confounding factors in early adolescence. The potential moderating effect of race was also examined. Results Although there were initially group differences across all domains, once pre-existing confounds and co-occurring other substance use were included in the model, groups only differed in terms of partner and friend marijuana use. Chronic marijuana users reported the highest proportions of both. Frequent and persistent marijuana use was associated with lower socioeconomic status (SES) for Black men only. Conclusions After statistically accounting for confounding variables, chronic marijuana users were not at a heightened risk for maladjustment in adulthood except for lower SES among Black men. Chronic users were more likely to have friends and partners who also used marijuana. Future studies should take into account pre-existing differences when examining outcomes of marijuana use. PMID:26365837

  4. Parent-Child Communication and Marijuana Initiation: Evidence Using Discrete-Time Survival Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nonnemaker, James M.; Silber-Ashley, Olivia; Farrelly, Matthew C.; Dench, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This study supplements existing literature on the relationship between parent-child communication and adolescent drug use by exploring whether parental and/or adolescent recall of specific drug-related conversations differentially impact youth's likelihood of initiating marijuana use. Using discrete-time survival analysis, we estimated the hazard of marijuana initiation using a logit model to obtain an estimate of the relative risk of initiation. Our results suggest that parent-child communication about drug use is either not protective (no effect) or—in the case of youth reports of communication—potentially harmful (leading to increased likelihood of marijuana initiation). PMID:22958867

  5. Parent-child communication and marijuana initiation: evidence using discrete-time survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Nonnemaker, James M; Silber-Ashley, Olivia; Farrelly, Matthew C; Dench, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    This study supplements existing literature on the relationship between parent-child communication and adolescent drug use by exploring whether parental and/or adolescent recall of specific drug-related conversations differentially impact youth's likelihood of initiating marijuana use. Using discrete-time survival analysis, we estimated the hazard of marijuana initiation using a logit model to obtain an estimate of the relative risk of initiation. Our results suggest that parent-child communication about drug use is either not protective (no effect) or - in the case of youth reports of communication - potentially harmful (leading to increased likelihood of marijuana initiation). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Is Marijuana Medicine?

    MedlinePlus

    ... uses of THC, CBD, and other cannabinoids for medical treatment. Photo by ©iStock.com/ AlexRaths For instance, recent animal studies have shown that marijuana extracts may help kill certain cancer cells and reduce the size of others. Evidence ...

  7. Medical marijuana for cancer.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Joan L

    2015-03-01

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Marijuana has been used for centuries, and interest in its medicinal properties has been increasing in recent years. Investigations into these medicinal properties has led to the development of cannabinoid pharmaceuticals such as dronabinol, nabilone, and nabiximols. Dronabinol is best studied in the treatment of nausea secondary to cancer chemotherapy and anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for those indications. Nabilone has been best studied for the treatment of nausea secondary to cancer chemotherapy. There are also limited studies of these drugs for other conditions. Nabiximols is only available in the United States through clinical trials, but is used in Canada and the United Kingdom for the treatment of spasticity secondary to multiple sclerosis and pain. Studies of marijuana have concentrated on nausea, appetite, and pain. This article will review the literature regarding the medical use of marijuana and these cannabinoid pharmaceuticals (with emphasis on indications relevant to oncology), as well as available information regarding adverse effects of marijuana use. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  8. Marijuana: Modern Medical Chimaera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamarine, Roland J.

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana has been used medically since antiquity. In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in medical applications of various cannabis preparations. These drugs have been cited in the medical literature as potential secondary treatment agents for severe pain, muscle spasticity, anorexia, nausea, sleep disturbances, and numerous…

  9. The Academic Consequences of Marijuana Use during College

    PubMed Central

    Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Bugbee, Brittany A.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O’Grady, Kevin E.

    2015-01-01

    Although several studies have shown that marijuana use can adversely affect academic achievement among adolescents, less research has focused on its impact on post-secondary educational outcomes. This study utilized data from a large longitudinal cohort study of college students to test the direct and indirect effects of marijuana use on college GPA and time to graduation, with skipping class as a mediator of these outcomes. A structural equation model was evaluated taking into account a variety of baseline risk and protective factors (i.e., demographics, college engagement, psychological functioning, alcohol and other drug use) thought to contribute to college academic outcomes. The results showed a significant path from baseline marijuana use frequency to skipping more classes at baseline to lower first-semester GPA to longer time to graduation. Baseline measures of other drug use and alcohol quantity exhibited similar indirect effects on GPA and graduation time. Over time, the rate of change in marijuana use was negatively associated with rate of change in GPA, but did not account for any additional variance in graduation time. Percentage of classes skipped was negatively associated with GPA at baseline and over time. Thus, even accounting for demographics and other factors, marijuana use adversely affected college academic outcomes, both directly and indirectly through poorer class attendance. Results extend prior research by showing that marijuana use during college can be a barrier to academic achievement. Prevention and early intervention might be important components of a comprehensive strategy for promoting post-secondary academic achievement. PMID:26237288

  10. The Effectiveness of Gateway Communications in Anti-Marijuana Campaigns

    PubMed Central

    YZER, MARCO C.; CAPPELLA, JOSEPH N.; FISHBEIN, MARTIN; HORNIK, ROBERT; AHERN, R. KIRKLAND

    2014-01-01

    Successful anti-marijuana messages can be hypothesized to have two types of effects, namely persuasion effects, that is, a change in people’s beliefs about using marijuana, and priming effects, that is, a strengthened correlation between beliefs and associated variables such as attitude and intention. This study examined different sets of anti-drug advertisements for persuasion and priming effects. The ads targeted the belief that marijuana is a gateway to stronger drugs, a belief that is often endorsed by campaign planning officials and health educators. A sample of 418 middle and high school students was randomly assigned to a control video or one of three series of ads, two of which included the gateway message in either an explicit or implicit way. Results did not support the use of the gateway belief in anti-marijuana interventions. Whereas no clear persuasion or priming effects were found for any of the ad sequences, there is some possibility that an explicit gateway argument may actually boomerang. In comparison to the control condition, adolescents in the explicit gateway condition tended to agree less with the gateway message and displayed weaker correlations between anti-marijuana beliefs and their attitude toward marijuana use. The results suggest that the gateway message should not be used in anti-drug interventions. PMID:12746037

  11. Sexual Partners and Contraceptive Use: A 16-Year Prospective Study Predicting Abstinence and Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebenbruner, Jessica; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Egeland, Byron

    2007-01-01

    Antecedents and correlates of sexual behavior among 167 (46 female) adolescents were examined in this multi-informant longitudinal study. Data were collected at birth through middle adolescence. Data on number of sexual partners and contraception use at age 16 defined sexual abstinence (SAs, n = 73), high-risk sexual behavior (HRTs, n = 45) and…

  12. The association between regular marijuana use and adult mental health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Guttmannova, Katarina; Kosterman, Rick; White, Helene R; Bailey, Jennifer A; Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Epstein, Marina; Jones, Tiffany M; Hawkins, J David

    2017-10-01

    The present study is a prospective examination of the relationship between regular marijuana use from adolescence through young adulthood and mental health outcomes at age 33. Data came from a gender-balanced, ethnically diverse longitudinal panel of 808 participants from Seattle, Washington. Outcomes included symptom counts for six mental health disorders. Regular marijuana use was tracked during adolescence and young adulthood. Regression analyses controlled for demographics and early environment, behaviors, and individual risk factors. Nonusers of marijuana reported fewer symptoms of alcohol use disorder, nicotine dependence, and generalized anxiety disorder than any category of marijuana users. More persistent regular marijuana use in young adulthood was positively related to more symptoms of cannabis use disorder, alcohol use disorder, and nicotine dependence at age 33. Findings highlight the importance of avoiding regular marijuana use, especially chronic use in young adulthood. Comprehensive prevention and intervention efforts focusing on marijuana and other substance use might be particularly important in the context of recent legalization of recreational marijuana use in Washington and other U.S. states. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Maternal Patterns of Marijuana Use and Early Sexual Behavior in Offspring of Teenage Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmidt, Lidush; Cornelius, Marie D.

    2015-01-01

    Teenage mothers use marijuana more frequently than older mothers, and marijuana use may predict HIV risk behavior in offspring. Our goals were to (1) describe trajectories of marijuana use in teenage mothers and (2) determine if these trajectories were associated with early sexual behavior in their offspring. Pregnant adolescents (12–18 years) were recruited at a prenatal clinic and interviewed during pregnancy, at delivery, and during follow-up visits when offspring were 6, 10, 14 and 16 years old. At 16 years, 332 women (71 % Black, 29 % White) and their offspring were assessed. Mothers were asked about their marijuana use at each time point. Offspring reported on their sexual behavior at age 14. Trajectory analyses using growth mixture models revealed four maternal patterns of marijuana use: no use, only at the 6 year follow-up, quit by the 16 year follow-up, and used across most of the time points. The children of chronic users were more likely to have early sex. The maternal marijuana trajectory group variable remained a statistically significant predictor in multivariate models controlling for race, gender, socioeconomic status, child pubertal timing, child externalizing behavior problems, and child marijuana use. These findings suggest that a minority of teenage mothers continue to use marijuana over time. Chronic maternal marijuana use across a decade was associated with early sex in offspring (oral or vaginal sex by age 14). Early sexual behavior places these children at significantly higher risk of teenage pregnancy and HIV risk behaviors. PMID:24942139

  14. Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents Need to Know » A Letter to Parents Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know Email Facebook Twitter ... their children to review the scientific facts about marijuana: (1) Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know and ( ...

  15. Smoking Abstinence, Eating Style, and Food Intake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Joanne; Hall, Sharon M.

    1988-01-01

    Administered the Eating Inventory and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) to smoking subjects assigned to cigarette abstinence or to continued smoking. Found abstinent smokers with high Disinhibition Scale scores overate more than did nonabstinent smokers or abstinent smokers with lower scores when participating in a subsequent ice cream tasting…

  16. Prevalence of Marijuana-Related Traffic on Twitter, 2012–2013: A Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Leah; Rivara, Frederick P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study assessed marijuana-related content posted by adolescents on Twitter and examined content variation before and after the 2012 U.S. election legalizing recreational use in two states. For two 3-week periods occurring 6 months before and after the election, a 1% random sample was obtained of all tweets matching a set of marijuana-related queries. Original content was separated from reposted content (retweets), and foreign language tweets and those not related to marijuana were excluded. Using a structured codebook, tweet content was categorized (e.g., mention of personal marijuana use, parents' views, perceived effects.) Self-reported age was extracted from tweet metadata when available. Chi-square tests were used to assess differences in content by whether the user self-identified as an adolescent and to compare content pre- versus post-election. The full sample consisted of 71,901 tweets. After excluding nonrelevant tweets and separating original tweets from retweets, the analytic sample included 36,969 original tweets. A majority (65.6%) of original tweets by adolescents (n=1,928) reflected a positive attitude toward marijuana, and 42.9% indicated personal use. Of adolescents' tweets that mentioned parents, 36.0% of tweets indicated parental support for the adolescent's marijuana use. Tweets about personal marijuana use increased from 2012 to 2013, as did positive perceptions about the drug. Adolescents and others on Twitter are exposed to positive discussion normalizing use. Over the study period, Twitter was increasingly used to disclose marijuana use. PMID:26075917

  17. Prevalence of Marijuana-Related Traffic on Twitter, 2012-2013: A Content Analysis.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Leah; Rivara, Frederick P; Whitehill, Jennifer M

    2015-06-01

    This study assessed marijuana-related content posted by adolescents on Twitter and examined content variation before and after the 2012 U.S. election legalizing recreational use in two states. For two 3-week periods occurring 6 months before and after the election, a 1% random sample was obtained of all tweets matching a set of marijuana-related queries. Original content was separated from reposted content (retweets), and foreign language tweets and those not related to marijuana were excluded. Using a structured codebook, tweet content was categorized (e.g., mention of personal marijuana use, parents' views, perceived effects.) Self-reported age was extracted from tweet metadata when available. Chi-square tests were used to assess differences in content by whether the user self-identified as an adolescent and to compare content pre- versus post-election. The full sample consisted of 71,901 tweets. After excluding nonrelevant tweets and separating original tweets from retweets, the analytic sample included 36,969 original tweets. A majority (65.6%) of original tweets by adolescents (n=1,928) reflected a positive attitude toward marijuana, and 42.9% indicated personal use. Of adolescents' tweets that mentioned parents, 36.0% of tweets indicated parental support for the adolescent's marijuana use. Tweets about personal marijuana use increased from 2012 to 2013, as did positive perceptions about the drug. Adolescents and others on Twitter are exposed to positive discussion normalizing use. Over the study period, Twitter was increasingly used to disclose marijuana use.

  18. Older marijuana users' marijuana risk perceptions: associations with marijuana use patterns and marijuana and other substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Choi, Namkee G; DiNitto, Diana M; Marti, C Nathan

    2017-12-10

    Compared to their non-using age peers, older marijuana users are known to have lower marijuana risk perceptions. We examined associations of older marijuana users' risk perceptions with their marijuana use patterns and substance use disorders. Data are from 2013 to 2015 National Survey of Drug Use and Health (N = 24,057 respondents aged 50+ years). Bivariate logistic regression was used to compare risk perceptions among never users, former users, and past-year users aged 50+ years. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test associations between risk perception and marijuana use status and between risk perception and marijuana use patterns. Among the total sample, former (AOR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.27-0.32) and past-year (AOR = 0.05, 95% CI = 0.04-0.06) marijuana users had significantly lower odds of moderate/great risk perception (as opposed to no/slight risk perception) than never users. Among past-year users, odds of moderate/great risk perception were lower among those who used marijuana more frequently (AOR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.07-0.28 for 300+ days of use compared to 1-11 days of use) and who reported any medical marijuana use (AOR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.14-0.51). However, those who had marijuana use disorder were 3.5 times more likely to report moderate/great risk perception (AOR = 3.50, 95% CI = 1.62-7.58). Those who had a college education, had higher incomes, and resided in states with medical marijuana laws also had lower risk perceptions. Public health education on scientific evidence about marijuana's benefits and harms and age-appropriate treatment for older adults with substance use problems are needed. Research on risk perception formation using longitudinal data among older adults is also needed.

  19. Adolescents’ Perceptions of Risks and Benefits of Conventional Cigarettes, E-Cigarettes, and Marijuana: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Roditis, Maria L.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose While rates of adolescent cigarette use have remained constant, rates of marijuana and e-cigarette use are rising. Knowledge and perceptions of risks and benefits of tobacco products impacts adolescents’ decisions to use these products. However, little is known regarding adolescents’ knowledge and perceptions of risks of e-cigarettes and marijuana nor how these perceptions are formed. This study uses qualitative techniques to assess and compare adolescents’ perceptions of the risks and benefits of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and marijuana. Methods 24 adolescents (9 females and 15 males) from Northern California participated in 6 small-groups discussions. Adolescents were asked what good or bad things might happen from using these products. To assess how perceptions and knowledge of risks and benefits were formed, participants were asked where and from whom they had learned about these products. Results Adolescents described negative consequences of cigarette use, but were much less sure regarding risks of marijuana and e-cigarette use. Conversely, they described few benefits of cigarettes but described a number of benefits of e-cigarette and marijuana use. Adolescents described learning about these products from the media, from family and friends, and from the school environment. Conclusion Adolescents have learned from multiple sources about risks of using cigarettes, but they receive much less and often incorrect information regarding marijuana and e-cigarettes, likely resulting in their positive and often ambivalent perceptions of marijuana and e-cigarettes. PMID:26115908

  20. Smoking topography and abstinence in adult female smokers

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Erin A.; Saladin, Michael E.; Baker, Nathaniel L.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Gray, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e. smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated, but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad-libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4 weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers. PMID:24018226

  1. Smoking topography and abstinence in adult female smokers.

    PubMed

    McClure, Erin A; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Carpenter, Matthew J; Gray, Kevin M

    2013-12-01

    Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e., smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. New Perspectives on Marijuana and Youth: Abstainers Are Not Maladjusted, but Lone Users Face Difficulties. Research Highlights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RAND Corporation, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Many adolescents experiment with marijuana; the National Institute on Drug Abuse estimates that 46% of high school seniors have tried this drug at some time. Pushing boundaries is what young people do, and some researchers believe that trying marijuana is a normal part of growing up. RAND Corporation researchers have revisited Shedler and Block's…

  3. Marijuana-Related Posts on Instagram.

    PubMed

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Sowles, Shaina J; Bierut, Laura J

    2016-08-01

    Instagram is a highly visual social networking site whose audience continues to grow, especially among young adults. In the present study, we examine marijuana-related content on Instagram to better understand the varied types of marijuana-related social networking occurring on this popular social media platform. We collected 417,561 Instagram posts with marijuana-related hashtags from November 29 to December 12, 2014. We assessed content of a random sample (n = 5000) of these posts with marijuana-related hashtags. Approximately 2136 (43 %) were explicit about marijuana and further analyzed. Of the 2136 marijuana-related posts, images of marijuana were common (n = 1568). Among these 1568 marijuana images, traditional forms (i.e., buds/leaves) were the most common (63 %), followed by some novel forms of marijuana, including marijuana concentrates (20 %). Among the 568 posts that displayed marijuana being ingested, 20 % showed someone dabbing marijuana concentrates. Marijuana-related advertisements were also observed among the 2136 marijuana-related posts (9 %). Our findings signal the promotion of marijuana use in its traditional plant-based form; trendy and novel modes of marijuana ingestion were also endorsed. This content along with the explicit marketing of marijuana that we observed on Instagram have potential to influence social norms surrounding marijuana use.

  4. Marijuana-Related Posts on Instagram

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Melissa J.; Sowles, Shaina J.; Bierut, Laura J.

    2016-01-01

    Instagram is a highly visual social networking site whose audience continues to grow, especially among young adults. In the present study, we examine marijuana-related content on Instagram to better understand the varied types of marijuana-related social networking occurring on this popular social media platform. We collected 417,561 Instagram posts with marijuana-related hashtags from November 29 to December 12, 2014. We assessed content of a random sample (n = 5000) of these posts with marijuana-related hashtags. Approximately 2136 (43 %) were explicit about marijuana and further analyzed. Of the 2136 marijuana-related posts, images of marijuana were common (n = 1568). Among these 1568 marijuana images, traditional forms (i.e., buds/leaves) were the most common (63 %), followed by some novel forms of marijuana, including marijuana concentrates (20 %). Among the 568 posts that displayed marijuana being ingested, 20 % showed someone dabbing marijuana concentrates. Marijuana-related advertisements were also observed among the 2136 marijuana-related posts (9 %). Our findings signal the promotion of marijuana use in its traditional plant-based form; trendy and novel modes of marijuana ingestion were also endorsed. This content along with the explicit marketing of marijuana that we observed on Instagram have potential to influence social norms surrounding marijuana use. PMID:27262456

  5. A randomized trial of assertive continuing care and contingency management for adolescents with substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Godley, Mark D; Godley, Susan H; Dennis, Michael L; Funk, Rodney R; Passetti, Lora L; Petry, Nancy M

    2014-02-01

    Most adolescents relapse within 90 days of discharge from residential substance use treatment. We hypothesized that contingency management (CM), assertive continuing care (ACC), and their combination (CM + ACC) would each be more effective than usual continuing care (UCC). Following residential treatment, 337 adolescents were randomized to 4 continuing care conditions: UCC alone, CM, ACC, or CM + ACC. UCC was available across all conditions. Outcome measures over 12 months included percentage of days abstinent from alcohol, heavy alcohol, marijuana, and any alcohol or other drugs (AOD) using self-reports and toxicology testing and remission status at 12 months. CM had significantly higher rates of abstinence than UCC for heavy alcohol use, t(297) = 2.50, p < .01, d = 0.34; any alcohol use, t(297) = 2.58, p < .01, d = 0.36; or any AOD use, t(297) = 2.12, p = .01, d = 0.41; and had a higher rate in remission, odds ratio (OR) = 2.45, 90% confidence interval (CI) [1.18, 5.08], p = .02. ACC had significantly higher rates of abstinence than UCC from heavy alcohol use, t(297) = 2.66, p < .01, d = 0.31; any alcohol use, t(297) = 2.63, p < .01, d = 0.30; any marijuana use, t(297) = 1.95, p = .02, d = 0.28; or any AOD use, t(297) = 1.88, p = .02, d = 0.30; and had higher rates in remission, OR = 2.31, 90% CI [1.10, 4.85], p = .03. The ACC + CM condition was not significantly different from UCC on any outcomes. CM and ACC are promising continuing care approaches after residential treatment. Future research should seek to further improve their effectiveness. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. One-year prospective prediction of marijuana use cessation among youth at continuation high schools.

    PubMed

    Sussman, S; Dent, C W

    1999-01-01

    This article reports a large-scale study of the prediction of marijuana use cessation among adolescents who were regular users at baseline. Social, attitude, intrapersonal, violence-related, drug-use-related, and demographic baseline measures served as predictors of whether or not 566 current marijuana users reported having quit use 1 year later. Quitting was defined as having not used marijuana in the last 30 days and having no intention to use marijuana in the future (31% of the baseline users). Those who were slightly older, who reported receiving relatively less approval for using drugs, who held relatively unfavorable attitudes about the acceptability of drug use, and who reported relatively less victimization in the last year were relatively likely to quit. Implications of these results include the need to increase unacceptability of marijuana use to help increase efforts at self-initiated quitting.

  7. Marijuana Is Far From "Harmless."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPont, Robert L.

    1981-01-01

    Citing harmful physiological effects of marijuana, the author asserts that it is the single most serious new threat to our nation's health. He urges parents and school personnel to learn about marijuana and take a strong stand against it. (Condensed from "PTA Today," May 1981, p3-5.) (Author/SJL)

  8. Smoking Marijuana and the Lungs

    MedlinePlus

    ... O P Y PATIENT EDUCATION | INFORMATION SERIES Smoking Marijuana and the Lungs Marijuana, also known as cannabis (can-a-bis) is the second most commonly smoked substance after tobacco. Despite marijuana’s legalization in many states, it may be harmful ...

  9. Anxiety, depression and tobacco abstinence.

    PubMed

    Almadana Pacheco, Virginia; Gómez-Bastero Fernández, Ana Paulina; Valido Morales, Agustín; Luque Crespo, Estefanía; Monserrat, Soledad; Montemayor Rubio, Teodoro

    2017-09-29

    There is evidence of the relationship between mental illness and smoking and increased risk of depressive episodes after quitting smoking, even with specific treatments for abstinence. To assess the influence of a cessation program on the emotional state of patients by measuring levels of anxiety / depression and differences depending on the presence of psychiatric history. A prospective observational study of patients taking part in a combined program (pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral) for giving up smoking. Anxiety (A) and depression (D) were measured using the HADS questionnaire at baseline, first and third month of abstinence. Anxiety and depression showed significant and progressive improvement during treatment (A: baseline 9.2 ± 4.5, 5.9 ± 3.6 1 month, 3 months 4.5 ± 3.1, p.

  10. Demographic and socioenvironmental predictors of premorbid marijuana use among patients with first-episode psychosis.

    PubMed

    Pauselli, Luca; Birnbaum, Michael L; Vázquez Jaime, Beatriz Paulina; Paolini, Enrico; Kelley, Mary E; Broussard, Beth; Compton, Michael T

    2018-01-31

    We identified, in subjects with first-episode psychosis, demographic and socioenvironmental predictors of three variables pertaining to premorbid marijuana use: age at initiation of marijuana use, trajectories of marijuana use in the five years prior to onset of psychosis, and the cumulative "dose" of marijuana intake in that same premorbid period. We enrolled 247 first-episode psychosis patients and collected data on lifetime marijuana/alcohol/tobacco use, age at onset of psychosis, diverse socioenvironmental variables, premorbid adjustment, past traumatic experiences, perceived neighborhood-level social disorder, and cannabis use experiences. Bivariate tests were used to examine associations between the three premorbid marijuana use variables and hypothesized predictors. Regression models determined which variables remained independently significantly associated. Age at initiation of cigarette smoking was linked to earlier initiation, faster escalation, and higher cumulative dose of premorbid marijuana use. During childhood, poorer academic performance was predictive of an earlier age at initiation of marijuana use, while poorer sociability was related to more rapid escalation to daily use and a higher cumulative dose. As expected, experiencing euphoric effects was positively correlated with trajectories and cumulative dose, but having negative experiences was unrelated. Traumatic childhood/adolescent experiences were correlated with rapid escalation and amount of marijuana used, but not with age at initiation of marijuana use. These data expand the very limited literature on predictors of premorbid marijuana use in first-episode psychosis. Given its association with earlier age at onset of psychosis, and poorer outcomes among first-episode patients, prevention and treatment efforts should be further developed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Capturing Heterogeneity in Medical Marijuana Policies: A Taxonomy of Regulatory Regimes Across the United States.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Susan A; Spetz, Joanne; Lin, Jessica; Chan, Krista; Schmidt, Laura A

    2016-07-28

    There is considerable movement in the U.S. to legalize use of cannabis for medicinal purposes. Twenty-three U.S. states and the District of Columbia have laws that decriminalize use of marijuana for medicinal purposes. Most prior studies of state medical marijuana laws and their association with overall marijuana use, adolescent use, crime rates, and alcohol traffic fatalities have used a binary coding of whether the state had a medical marijuana law or not. Mixed results from these studies raise the question of whether this method for measuring policy characteristics is adequate. Our objective was to develop a validated taxonomy of medical marijuana laws that will allow researchers to measure variation in aspects of medical marijuana statutes as well as their overall restrictiveness. We used a modified Delphi technique using detailed and validated data about each state's medical marijuana law. Three senior researchers coded elements of the state laws in initiation of use, quantity allowed, regulations around distribution, and overall restrictiveness. We used 2013 data from the U.S. National Survey on Drug Use and Health to assess validity of the taxonomy. Results indicate substantial state-level variation in medical marijuana policies. Validation analysis supported the taxonomy's validity for all four dimensions with the largest effect sizes for the quantity allowed in the state's medical marijuana policy. This analysis demonstrates the potential importance of nondichotomous measurement of medical marijuana laws in studies of their impact. These findings may also be useful to states that are considering medical marijuana laws, to understand the potential impact of characteristics of those laws.

  12. Marijuana use/cessation expectancies and marijuana use in college students

    PubMed Central

    Brackenbury, Lauren M.; Ladd, Benjamin O.; Anderson, Kristen G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Research suggests that marijuana expectancies are associated with problematic marijuana use; however, these marijuana-related cognitions remain relatively understudied. Objective This study examined marijuana-related decision-making among college students by exploring the relationships among marijuana expectancies and marijuana use variables. Method College students (N = 357) endorsing lifetime marijuana use completed an online survey on marijuana use expectancies, marijuana cessation expectancies, marijuana use, and future marijuana use intentions. A simple regression framework was used to test the effect of each type of expectancies on marijuana outcome; a hierarchical regression framework tested the unique predictive validity when both types were entered into the same model. Results Both marijuana use expectancies and marijuana cessation expectancies independently predicted a number of marijuana use variables. Additionally, marijuana use expectancies and marijuana cessation expectancies contributed significant unique variance to the prediction of marijuana use. Conclusions It is important to consider both use expectancies and cessation expectancies, as these two domains of marijuana-related cognitions appear to act independently, rather than as opposite ends of the same construct. Longitudinal studies are needed to further examine how these factors interact to influence marijuana use and problems over time. PMID:26678375

  13. Broken Promises: Abstinence Pledging and Sexual and Reproductive Health

    PubMed Central

    Paik, Anthony; Sanchagrin, Kenneth J.; Heimer, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 12% of girls and young women in the United States pledge abstinence. Yet most break their pledges, engaging in first intercourse before marriage. The extant literature reports few differences between pledge breakers and nonpledgers in sexually transmitted infections and nonmarital pregnancies. The present research maintains that previous studies may have obscured important differences in exposure risk and hypothesizes that female pledge breakers who have higher exposure risk are more likely to experience human papillomavirus (HPV) and nonmarital pregnancies. To test this hypothesis, this study uses the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, logistic regression, and event history modeling. The results show that, after accounting for differences in exposure risk, pledge breakers have higher risk of HPV and nonmarital pregnancy. As a set, the results are consistent with the argument that pledgers use condoms and contraceptives less consistently and highlight unintended consequences of abstinence promotion. PMID:27019521

  14. Marijuana: Facts Parents Need To Know. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This booklet is designed to educate parents about marijuana so that they can communicate with their children in a way that will prevent drug abuse. The information is presented in a question/answer format. The following 25 questions are addressed: What is marijuana? What are the current slang terms for marijuana? How is marijuana used? How many…

  15. The Relationship Between Marijuana Use and Intimate Partner Violence in a Nationally Representative, Longitudinal Sample

    PubMed Central

    Reingle, Jennifer M.; Staras, Stephanie A. S.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Branchini, Jennifer; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is a significant public health problem, as these behaviors have been associated with a number of negative health outcomes including illicit drug use, physical injury, chronic pain, sexually transmitted diseases, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The current study examined the association between marijuana use and intimate partner violence using a longitudinal survey of adolescents and young adults ages 15 to 26 years. Data were obtained from 9,421 adolescents in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) Waves 1 through 4 (1995–2008). Marijuana use was measured in the past year at each wave and participants were categorized as “users” or “nonusers.” Partner violence was constructed using six items (three pertaining to victimization and three concerning perpetration) from Wave 4 (2007–2008). Using these six items, participants were categorized as “victims only,” “perpetrators only,” or “victims and perpetrators.” Survey multinomial regression was used to examine the relationship between marijuana use and intimate partner violence. Consistent use of marijuana during adolescence was most predictive of intimate partner violence (OR = 2.08, p < .001). Consistent marijuana use (OR = 1.85, p < .05) was related to an increased risk of intimate partner violence perpetration. Adolescent marijuana use, particularly consistent use throughout adolescence, is associated with perpetration or both perpetration of and victimization by intimate partner violence in early adulthood. These findings have implications for intimate partner violence prevention efforts, as marijuana use should be considered as a target of early intimate partner violence intervention and treatment programming. PMID:22080574

  16. Abstinence from drugs of abuse in community-based members of Narcotics Anonymous.

    PubMed

    Galanter, Marc; Dermatis, Helen; Post, Stephen; Santucci, Courtney

    2013-03-01

    Narcotics Anonymous (NA) is an abstinence-based fellowship with more than 58,000 groups worldwide. There has, however, been little research reported on its members. This study was designed to clarify the nature of the participants in NA who are primarily abstinent, long-term members. A protocol was implemented to survey members at 10 NA group meetings in three different states, through the cooperation of the NA World Service Office. A 51-item self-administered questionnaire, addressing key aspects of substance use and recovery, was anonymously completed by 396 respondents. Respondents were 71.5% male; the mean age was 38.1 years; 68.2% were White; and the principal drug problems comprised cocaine (28.5%), heroin (27.5%), other opiates (13.4%), methamphetamine (12.9%), alcohol (8.6%), marijuana (6.6%), and other stimulants (2.5%). Eighty-seven percent had prior treatment for a substance use disorder. On average respondents had first encountered NA at age 26.9, they had been abstinent an average of 5.7 years at the time they filled out the questionnaire, and 47.5% had served as sponsors. Ninety-four percent designated themselves as spiritual, and only 29.6% designated themselves as religious. NA offers support for long-term abstinence from diverse misuse of drugs among users of different backgrounds.

  17. Marijuana, receptors and immunomodulation.

    PubMed

    Friedman, H; Klein, T W; Newton, C; Daaka, Y

    1995-01-01

    THC, the major psychoactive component of marijuana, has been shown both in humans and experimental animals to have immunomodulatory properties. For example, marijuana smokers may show impaired immunological functions, including deficiency of blood leukocyte blastogenesis to mitogens. Detailed studies with mice have shown that animals given THC can show marked immunomodulation, including suppression of antibody formation, deficient cytokine production, etc. However, recent studies have also shown that lymphoid cells evince enhanced production or release or IL1, but suppression of IL2 and interferon production. Such lymphoid cells treated in vitro with THC also show suppressed blastogenesis to antigens and mitogens, suppressed NK activity, etc. In contrast, it has recently been shown that THC can enhance production or release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This includes release of these cytokines from macrophages, including augmented release of IL1, TNF alpha, and IL6 activity. Susceptibility of mice to infection with opportunistic organisms such as L. pneumophila has been found and this increased susceptibility can be modulated by THC. A toxic shock-like death to Legionella has been induced by THC treatment given one day before and one day after infection. Receptors to THC have been detected in the brain as well as in peripheral tissues, including lymphoid cells. Thus, immunomodulation induced by THC may be related to receptor effects as well as unrelated to such receptors. It is clear that THC and other cannabinoids are excellent tools for studying the mechanisms of immune modulation, especially altered susceptibility to microbial infection.

  18. Abstinence-only and comprehensive sex education and the initiation of sexual activity and teen pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Pamela K; Manhart, Lisa E; Lafferty, William E

    2008-04-01

    The role that sex education plays in the initiation of sexual activity and risk of teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease (STD) is controversial in the United States. Despite several systematic reviews, few epidemiologic evaluations of the effectiveness of these programs on a population level have been conducted. Among never-married heterosexual adolescents, aged 15-19 years, who participated in Cycle 6 (2002) of the National Survey of Family Growth and reported on formal sex education received before their first sexual intercourse (n = 1719), we compared the sexual health risks of adolescents who received abstinence-only and comprehensive sex education to those of adolescents who received no formal sex education. Weighted multivariate logistic regression generated population-based estimates. Adolescents who received comprehensive sex education were significantly less likely to report teen pregnancy (OR(adj) = .4, 95% CI = .22- .69, p = .001) than those who received no formal sex education, whereas there was no significant effect of abstinence-only education (OR(adj) = .7, 95% CI = .38-1.45, p = .38). Abstinence-only education did not reduce the likelihood of engaging in vaginal intercourse (OR(adj) = .8, 95% CI = .51-1.31, p = .40), but comprehensive sex education was marginally associated with a lower likelihood of reporting having engaged in vaginal intercourse (OR(adj) = .7, 95% CI = .49-1.02, p = .06). Neither abstinence-only nor comprehensive sex education significantly reduced the likelihood of reported STD diagnoses (OR(adj) = 1.7, 95% CI = .57-34.76, p = .36 and OR(adj) = 1.8, 95% CI = .67-5.00, p = .24 respectively). Teaching about contraception was not associated with increased risk of adolescent sexual activity or STD. Adolescents who received comprehensive sex education had a lower risk of pregnancy than adolescents who received abstinence-only or no sex education.

  19. Breastfeeding and abstinence among the Yoruba.

    PubMed

    Dow, T E

    1977-08-01

    Contemporary patterns of breastfeeding and postpartum abstinence among the Yoruba of Nigera are examined. Quite extensive periods of postpartum abstinence are still observed by most rural and poorer urban women to prolong breastfeeding and increase child survivorship. Differentials in duration of breastfeeding and abstinence relate to both socioeconomic factors and age, suggesting the likelihood of large future reductions. Implications for family planning prospects and policies are noted.

  20. Nigerian secondary school adolescents’ perspective on abstinence-only sexual education as an effective tool for promotion of sexual health

    PubMed Central

    Inyang, Mfrekemfon P; Inyang, Obonganyie P

    2013-01-01

    The success of any type of sexual education programme depends on the knowledge and preparedness for practice by adolescents. A recent study has found that an ‘abstinence-only’ sexual education programme is effective in reducing sexual activity among adolescents. Knowledge of abstinence-only sexual education and preparedness for practice as an effective tool for promotion of sexual health among Nigerian secondary school adolescents was studied. An analytic descriptive survey design was used for the study. The research population comprised of all public secondary schools in three southern geopolitical zones of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 2020 senior secondary school (SS1-SS3) students as sample for the study. A partially self-designed and partially adapted questionnaire from an 'abstinence-only versus comprehensive sex education' debate, from debatepedia (http://wiki.idebate.org/), entitled 'Questionnaire on Nigerian Secondary School Adolescents’ Perspective on Abstinence-Only Sexual Education (QNSSAPAOSE)' was used in eliciting information from respondents. Hypotheses were formulated and tested. Frequency counts, percentage and Pearson Product Moment Correlation were used in analysing data. A greater proportion of secondary school adolescents in this study lacked knowledge of sexual education. About 80% of the respondents could not define sexual education. The general perspective on abstinence-only sexual education was negative, as revealed by the larger number of respondents who demonstrated unwillingness to practice abstinence-only sexual education. Specifically, of those who responded in favour of abstinence-only sexual education, the youngest group of adolescents (11-13 years) and the male respondents were more likely to accept this type of education than the other groups. Poor knowledge of sexual education could be responsible for unwillingness to practice abstinence-only sexual education. Sexual

  1. Modulation of risk-taking in marijuana users by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC).

    PubMed

    Boggio, Paulo S; Zaghi, Soroush; Villani, Ana Beatriz; Fecteau, Shirley; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Fregni, Felipe

    2010-12-01

    Cognitive deficits that are reported in heavy marijuana users (attention, memory, affect perception, decision-making) appear to be completely reversible after a prolonged abstinence period of about 28 days. However, it remains unclear whether the reversibility of these cognitive deficits indicates that (1) chronic marijuana use is not associated with long-lasting changes in cortical networks or (2) that such changes occur but the brain adapts to and compensates for the drug-induced changes. Therefore, we examined whether chronic marijuana smokers would demonstrate a differential pattern of response in comparison to healthy volunteers on a decision-making paradigm (Risk Task) while undergoing sham or active transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Twenty-five chronic marijuana users who were abstinent for at least 24h were randomly assigned to receive left anodal/right cathodal tDCS of DLPFC (n=8), right anodal/left cathodal tDCS of DLPFC (n=9), or sham stimulation (n=8); results on Risk Task during sham/active tDCS were compared to healthy volunteers from a previously published dataset. Chronic marijuana users demonstrated more conservative (i.e. less risky) decision-making during sham stimulation. While right anodal stimulation of the DLPFC enhanced conservative decision-making in healthy volunteers, both right anodal and left anodal DLPFC stimulation increased the propensity for risk-taking in marijuana users. These findings reveal alterations in the decision-making neural networks among chronic marijuana users. Finally, we also assessed the effects of tDCS on marijuana craving and observed that right anodal/left cathodal tDCS of DLPFC is significantly associated with a diminished craving for marijuana. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Randomized controlled trial of motivational enhancement therapy with nontreatment-seeking adolescent cannabis users: a further test of the teen marijuana check-up.

    PubMed

    Walker, Denise D; Stephens, Robert; Roffman, Roger; Demarce, Josephine; Lozano, Brian; Towe, Sheri; Berg, Belinda

    2011-09-01

    Cannabis use adversely affects adolescents and interventions that are attractive to adolescents are needed. This trial compared the effects of a brief motivational intervention for cannabis use with a brief educational feedback control and a no-assessment control. Participants were randomized into one of three treatment conditions: Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET), Educational Feedback Control (EFC), or Delayed Feedback Control (DFC). Those who were assigned to MET and EFC were administered a computerized baseline assessment immediately following randomization and completed assessments at the 3- and 12-month follow-up periods. Participants in the DFC condition were not assessed until the 3-month follow-up. Following the completion of treatment sessions, all participants were offered up to four optional individual treatment sessions aimed at cessation of cannabis use. The research was conducted in high schools in Seattle, Washington. The participant s included 310 self-referred adolescents who smoked cannabis regularly. The main outcome measures included days of cannabis use, associated negative consequences, and engagement in additional treatment. At the 3-month follow-up, participants in both the MET and EFC conditions reported significantly fewer days of cannabis use and negative consequences compared to those in the DFC. The frequency of cannabis use was less in MET relative to EFC at 3 months, but it did not translate to differences in negative consequences. Reductions in use and problems were sustained at 12 months, but there were no differences between MET and EFC interventions. Engagement in additional treatment was minimal and did not differ by condition. Brief interventions can attract adolescent cannabis users and have positive impacts on them, but the mechanisms of the effects are yet to be identified. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Randomized Controlled Trial of Motivational Enhancement Therapy with Non-treatment Seeking Adolescent Cannabis Users: A Further Test of the Teen Marijuana Check-Up

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Denise D.; Stephens, Robert; Roffman, Roger; DeMarce, Josephine; Lozano, Brian; Towe, Sheri; Berg, Belinda

    2011-01-01

    Aims Cannabis use adversely affects adolescents and interventions that are attractive to adolescents are needed. This trial compared the effects of a brief motivational intervention for cannabis use with a brief educational feedback control and a no-assessment control. Design Participants were randomized into one of three treatment conditions: Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET), Educational Feedback Control (EFC) or Delayed Feedback Control (DFC). Those assigned to MET and EFC were administered a computerized baseline assessment immediately following randomization and completed assessments at the 3- and 12-month follow-up periods. Participants in the DFC condition were not assessed until the 3-month follow-up. Following the completion of treatment sessions, all participants were offered up to 4 optional individual treatment sessions aimed at cessation of cannabis use. Setting High schools in Seattle, WA, USA. Participants 310 self-referred adolescents who smoked cannabis regularly. Measurements Main outcome measures included days of cannabis use, associated negative consequences, and engagement in additional treatment. Findings At the 3-month follow-up, participants in both the MET and EFC conditions reported significantly fewer days of cannabis use and negative consequences compared to DFC. Frequency of cannabis use was less in MET relative to EFC at 3 months, but did not translate to differences in negative consequences. Reduction in use and problems were sustained at 12-months but there were no differences between MET and EFC interventions. Engagement in additional treatment was minimal and not different by condition. Conclusions Brief interventions can attract and have positive impacts on adolescent cannabis users, but the mechanisms of the effects are yet to be identified. PMID:21688877

  4. Loose regulation of medical marijuana programs associated with higher rates of adult marijuana use but not cannabis use disorder.

    PubMed

    Williams, Arthur Robin; Santaella-Tenorio, Julian; Mauro, Christine M; Levin, Frances R; Martins, Silvia S

    2017-11-01

    Most US states have passed medical marijuana laws (MMLs), with great variation in program regulation impacting enrollment rates. We aimed to compare changes in rates of marijuana use, heavy use and cannabis use disorder across age groups while accounting for whether states enacted medicalized (highly regulated) or non-medical mml programs. Difference-in-differences estimates with time-varying state-level MML coded by program type (medicalized versus non-medical). Multi-level linear regression models adjusted for state-level random effects and covariates as well as historical trends in use. Nation-wide cross-sectional survey data from the US National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) restricted use data portal aggregated at the state level. Participants comprised 2004-13 NSDUH respondents (n ~ 67 500/year); age groups 12-17, 18-25 and 26+ years. States had implemented eight medicalized and 15 non-medical MML programs. Primary outcome measures included (1) active (past-month) marijuana use; (2) heavy use (> 300 days/year); and (3) cannabis use disorder diagnosis, based on DSM-IV criteria. Covariates included program type, age group and state-level characteristics throughout the study period. Adults 26+ years of age living in states with non-medical MML programs increased past-month marijuana use 1.46% (from 4.13 to 6.59%, P = 0.01), skewing towards greater heavy marijuana by 2.36% (from 14.94 to 17.30, P = 0.09) after MMLs were enacted. However, no associated increase in the prevalence of cannabis use disorder was found during the study period. Our findings do not show increases in prevalence of marijuana use among adults in states with medicalized MML programs. Additionally, there were no increases in adolescent or young adult marijuana outcomes following MML passage, irrespective of program type. Non-medical marijuana laws enacted in US states are associated with increased marijuana use, but only among adults aged 26+ years. Researchers and

  5. Texas Abstinence Educators' Self-Efficacy to Motivate Youth Sexual Abstinence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasberry, Catherine N.; Goodson, Patricia; Buhi, Eric R.; Pruitt, B. E.; Wilson, Kelly; Suther, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Authors examined self-efficacy to motivate abstinent behavior (among youth) in a sample of instructors teaching abstinence-only-until-marriage education in Texas (N = 104). Sixty-one percent of the sample had been trained/certified to teach abstinence education. Instructors (mostly female and White) were more confident motivating students to…

  6. Do withdrawal-like symptoms mediate increased marijuana smoking in individuals treated with venlafaxine-XR?

    PubMed

    Kelly, Meredith A; Pavlicova, Martina; Glass, Andrew; Mariani, John J; Bisaga, Adam; Sullivan, Maria A; Nunes, Edward V; Levin, Frances R

    2014-11-01

    Cannabis-dependent participants with depressive disorder are less likely to achieve abstinence with venlafaxine-XR (VEN-XR) treatment. Individuals on VEN-XR reported more severe withdrawal, despite not reducing their smoking behavior. We hypothesized that withdrawal-like symptoms, likely medication side effects, led to continued marijuana smoking in this group. We conducted a secondary analysis using Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist (MWC) scores and urine THC to test whether severity of withdrawal-like symptoms mediates the relationship between VEN-XR treatment and continued marijuana smoking. We included 103 participants (VEN-XR=51, Placebo=52). Marijuana use was dichotomized into smoking (THC>100 ng/ml) and non-smoking (THC ≤ 100 ng/ml) weeks. MWC scores were obtained weekly. We used three models in a regression based mediation analysis. The estimated risk of smoking marijuana was greater for individuals on VEN-XR in weeks 7-9, even when controlling for MWC scores (week 7 Risk Difference (RD)=0.11, p=0.034; week 8 RD=0.20, p=0.014), and higher scores mediated this effect. In weeks 10 and 11, the estimated effect was stronger (week 10 RD=0.03, p=0.380; week 11 RD=0.07, p=0.504), and worse withdrawal-like symptoms more fully accounted for continued marijuana smoking in the VEN-XR group, according to the models. Individuals treated with VEN-XR had more severe withdrawal-like symptoms, which mediated their continued marijuana smoking. Noradrenergic agents, such as VEN-XR, may negatively impact treatment outcomes in cannabis-dependent patients attempting to reduce or stop their use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Do withdrawal-like symptoms mediate increased marijuana smoking in individuals treated with venlafaxine-XR?

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Meredith A.; Pavlicova, Martina; Glass, Andrew; Mariani, John J.; Bisaga, Adam; Sullivan, Maria A.; Nunes, Edward V.; Levin, Frances R.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims Cannabis-dependent participants with depressive disorder are less likely to achieve abstinence with venlafaxine-XR (VEN-XR) treatment. Individuals on VEN-XR reported more severe withdrawal, despite not reducing their smoking behavior. We hypothesized that withdrawal-like symptoms, likely medication side effects, led to continued marijuana smoking in this group. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis using Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist (MWC) scores and urine THC to test whether severity of withdrawal-like symptoms mediates the relationship between VEN-XR treatment and continued marijuana smoking. We included 103 participants (VEN-XR = 51, Placebo = 52). Marijuana use was dichotomized into smoking (THC > 100 ng/ml) and non-smoking (THC ≤ 100 ng/ml) weeks. MWC scores were obtained weekly. We used three models in a regression based mediation analysis. Results The estimated risk of smoking marijuana was greater for individuals on VEN-XR in weeks 7–9, even when controlling for MWC scores (week 7 Risk Difference (RD) = 0.11, p = 0.034; week 8 RD = 0.20, p = 0.014), and higher scores mediated this effect. In weeks 10 and 11, the estimated effect was stronger (week 10 RD = 0.03, p = 0.380; week 11 RD = 0.07, p = 0.504), and worse withdrawal-like symptoms more fully accounted for continued marijuana smoking in the VEN-XR group, according to the models. Conclusions Individuals treated with VEN-XR had more severe withdrawal-like symptoms, which mediated their continued marijuana smoking. Noradrenergic agents, such as VEN-XR, may negatively impact treatment outcomes in cannabis-dependent patients attempting to reduce or stop their use. PMID:25283697

  8. Testing Longitudinal Relationships Between Binge Drinking, Marijuana Use, and Depressive Symptoms and Moderation by Sex.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Andra L; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Herring, Amy H; Shanahan, Meghan; Ennett, Susan T; Hussey, Jon M; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2016-12-01

    Both substance use and depression are common in adolescence and often comorbid. Past research has produced conflicting results on whether there is a temporal relationship, and if so, in which direction it operates and how it may vary by sex. We examined the longitudinal associations between substance use frequency and depressive symptoms from adolescence into young adulthood and whether the associations were moderated by sex. With data from Waves I, III, and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 9,816), we used growth curve models to test if depressive symptoms predicted marijuana use or binge drinking frequency (Self-Medication Model) or if substance use frequency predicted depressive symptoms (Stress Model). Moderation by sex and age was tested for both potential pathways. Increases in adolescent depressive symptoms, compared to no symptoms, were associated with a steeper predicted increase in marijuana use frequency from adolescence to young adulthood. Increases in persistent binge drinking or marijuana use frequency had concurrent positive associations with depressive symptoms from adolescence to young adulthood, and these associations were significantly stronger for females compared to males. The results not only support the Self-Medication Model for marijuana use but also provide modest support for the Stress Model, that substance use is associated with depressive symptoms, especially for females. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Marijuana: modern medical chimaera.

    PubMed

    Lamarine, Roland J

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana has been used medically since antiquity. In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in medical applications of various cannabis preparations. These drugs have been cited in the medical literature as potential secondary treatment agents for severe pain, muscle spasticity, anorexia, nausea, sleep disturbances, and numerous other uses. This article reviews the research literature related to medical applications of various forms of cannabis. Benefits related to medical use of cannabinoids are examined and a number of potential risks associated with cannabis use, both medical and recreational, are considered. There is a clearly identified need for further research to isolate significant benefits from the medical application of cannabinoids and to establish dosage levels, appropriate delivery mechanisms and formulations, and to determine what role, if any, cannabinoids might play in legitimate medical applications. It is also imperative to determine if reported dangers pose a significant health risks to users.

  10. Marijuana Usage and Hypnotic Susceptibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzini, Louis R.; McDonald, Roy D.

    1973-01-01

    Anonymous self-reported drug usage data and hypnotic susceptibility scores were obtained from 282 college students. Frequent marijuana users (more than 10 times) showed greater susceptibility to hypnosis than nonusers. (Author)

  11. Befriending Risky Peers: Factors Driving Adolescents’ Selection of Friends with Similar Marijuana Use

    PubMed Central

    de la Haye, Kayla; Green, Harold D.; Pollard, Michael S.; Kennedy, David P.; Tucker, Joan S.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents often befriend peers who are similar to themselves on a range of demographic, behavioral, and social characteristics, including substance use. Similarities in lifetime history of marijuana use have even been found to predict adolescent friendships, and we examine whether this finding is explained by youth’s selection of friends who are similar on a range of more proximate, observable characteristics that are risk factors for marijuana use. Using two waves of individual and social network data from two high schools that participated in Add Health (N = 1,612; 52.7% male), we apply longitudinal models for social networks to test whether or not several observable risky attributes (psychological, behavioral, and social) predict adolescent friendship choices, and if these preferences explain friend’s similarities on lifetime marijuana use. Findings show that similarities on several risk factors predict friendship choices, however controlling for this, the preference to befriend peers with a similar history of marijuana use largely persists. The results highlight the range of social selection processes that lead to similarities in marijuana use among friends and larger peer groups, and that also give rise to friendship groups whose members share similar risk factors for substance use. Friends with high “collective risk” are likely to be important targets for preventing the onset and social diffusion of substance use in adolescents. PMID:25365913

  12. Health conditions and motivations for marijuana use among young adult medical marijuana patients and non-patient marijuana users.

    PubMed

    Lankenau, Stephen E; Ataiants, Janna; Mohanty, Salini; Schrager, Sheree; Iverson, Ellen; Wong, Carolyn F

    2018-02-01

    While marijuana has been legal for medical purposes in California since 1996, little is known about the health histories of young adult medical marijuana patients who are a significant proportion of medical marijuana patients. We examined whether young adult medical marijuana patients reported health conditions and motivations for use that were consistent with medical use of marijuana in California. Young adults (N = 366) aged 18 to 26 years were sampled in Los Angeles in 2014-2015 and segmented into medical marijuana 'patients' (n = 210), marijuana users with a current recommendation, and non-patient users or 'non-patients' (n = 156), marijuana users who never had a medical marijuana recommendation. Differences between patients and non-patients regarding self-reported health histories and past/current motivations for marijuana use were expressed as unadjusted risk ratios. Compared with non-patients, patients were significantly more likely to report a range of lifetime health problems, such as psychological, physical pain and gastrointestinal. In the past 90 days, patients were significantly more likely to report motivations for marijuana use than non-patients concerning sleep, anxiety, physical pain and focusing. Psychological and pain problems were the most common health conditions reported to receive a medical marijuana recommendation. Patients were significantly less likely than non-patients to report any privacy concerns about obtaining a medical marijuana recommendation. Patients were significantly more likely to report a range of health conditions and motivations associated with medical use than non-patients. A great majority of patients reported obtaining a medical marijuana recommendation for health problems in accordance with the California law. [Lankenau SE, Ataiants J,Mohanty S, Schrager S, Iverson E, Wong CF.Health conditions and motivations for marijuana use among young adultmedical marijuana patients and non-patient marijuana users. Drug

  13. Neutrality, abstinence, and the therapeutic alliance.

    PubMed

    Meissner, W W

    1998-01-01

    Concepts of neutrality and abstinence are discussed in terms of the variant opinions about them, pro and con, with particular reference to efforts to dispense with them based on the unavoidable role of the analyst's personal influence and subjectivity in the analytic process. Stereotypes of both neutrality and abstinence are examined, and the therapeutic alliance established as the most appropriate context within which to articulate the essential and constructive role of effective analytic neutrality and abstinence. The alliance is not possible without the persistent exercise of both neutrality and abstinence; conversely, other components of the alliance are intended to facilitate and preserve neutrality and abstinence on the part of both analyst and analysand. These elements are essential factors in effective analytic practice.

  14. Trends Among U.S. High School Seniors in Recent Marijuana Use and Associations With Other Substances: 1976-2013.

    PubMed

    Lanza, Stephanie T; Vasilenko, Sara A; Dziak, John J; Butera, Nicole M

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe historical trends in rates of recent substance use and associations between marijuana and other substances, among U.S. high school seniors by race and gender. Data from Monitoring the Future (1976-2013; N = 599,109) were used to estimate historical trends in alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking (HED), cigarette use, and marijuana use. We used time-varying effect models to flexibly estimate changes in associations of substance use behaviors. Past-month marijuana use rates peaked in the 1970s, declined through 1990, then rose again to reach levels of use of more than 20% for both black and white participants. Recent years show increasing disparities across groups such that males, and in particular black youth, are on a trajectory toward higher use. This rise in marijuana use is particularly concerning among black youth, with rates far exceeding those for cigarette use and HED. The association of marijuana use with both cigarette use and HED is particularly high in recent years among black adolescents. Substance use recently declined among high school seniors, except for marijuana use, particularly among black youth. The increasing association between marijuana and other substances among black adolescents suggests future amplification in critical health disparities. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Altered Neural Processing to Social Exclusion in Young Adult Marijuana Users

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Jodi M.; Curran, Max T.; Calderon, Vanessa; Schuster, Randi M.; Evins, A. Eden

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that peer groups are one of the most important predictors of adolescent and young adult marijuana use, and yet the neural correlates of social processing in marijuana users have not yet been studied. In the current study, marijuana-using young adults (n = 20) and non-using controls (n = 22) participated in a neuroimaging social exclusion task called Cyberball, a computerized ball-tossing game in which the participant is excluded from the game after a pre-determined number of ball tosses. Controls, but not marijuana users, demonstrated significant activation in the insula, a region associated with negative emotion, when being excluded from the game. Both groups demonstrated activation of the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC), a region associated with affective monitoring, during peer exclusion. Only the marijuana group showed a correlation between vACC activation and scores on a self-report measure of peer conformity. This study indicates that marijuana users show atypical neural processing of social exclusion, which may be either caused by, or the result of, regular marijuana use. PMID:26977454

  16. Predicting Self-Initiated Marijuana Use Cessation among Youth at Continuation High Schools.

    PubMed

    Little, Melissa A; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pokhrel, Pallav; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise Ann; Sussman, Steve

    2013-01-01

    The current article reports a large scale study of the prediction of marijuana use cessation among individuals attending alternative high schools who were regular users at baseline. Based on the Triadic Influence Theory, predictors of marijuana use cessation at 1-year follow-up were organized by type of influence (e.g., interpersonal, cultural and attitudinal, and intrapersonal) and level of influence (e.g., distal and ultimate). Among the 522 students who were past 30-day marijuana users at baseline, quitting was defined as having not used marijuana in the last 30 days at 1-year follow-up (43% of baseline users). To account for the level of influence we employed a theory-based analytic strategy, hierarchical regression. In the final multivariate model, lower level of baseline marijuana use and less of a likelihood to endorse pro-drug-use myths remained predictors of marijuana use cessation 1-year later. Implications of these findings include the need to develop cessation programs that reduce psychological dependence on marijuana use, and correct cognitive misperceptions about drug use in order to help adolescents make decisions that lead to health-promoting behaviors.

  17. Treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K; Gerada, C; Greenough, A

    2003-01-01

    Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is suffered by infants withdrawing from substances on which they have become physically dependent after in utero exposure. They may require prolonged treatment and spend weeks or even months in hospital. A wide range of drugs have been used to treat NAS. The efficacy of few, however, have been adequately investigated. Evidence suggests that opioids are the most appropriate, at least in infants exposed to diamorphine or methadone. In all "head to head" trials, diazepam has been shown to be ineffective. Morphine and methadone are currently the most commonly prescribed opioids to treat NAS, but randomised trials have not been undertaken to determine which is the more beneficial. Many infants with NAS have been exposed to multiple substances in utero. Further research is required into whether a single opiate or a multiple drug regimen is the best option for such patients.

  18. Marijuana Use and New Concerns about Medical Marijuana. E-Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    While alcohol remains the drug of choice among college students, marijuana ranks number two with 32 percent reporting using marijuana in 2008. That's a modest decline from 2001, when 36 percent of college students reported marijuana use. While levels of marijuana use by students are determined through a number of national and local surveys, no…

  19. Stigma among California's Medical Marijuana Patients.

    PubMed

    Satterlund, Travis D; Lee, Juliet P; Moore, Roland S

    2015-01-01

    The enactment of California's Proposition 215 stipulates that patients may use marijuana for medical reasons, provided that it is recommended by a physician. Yet, medical marijuana patients risk being stigmatized for this practice. This article examines the way in which medical marijuana patients perceive and process stigma, and how it affects their interactions and experiences with others. Eighteen semi-structured interviews of medical marijuana patients were carried out using a semi-structured interview guide. Most patients circumvented their own physicians in obtaining a recommendation to use medicinal marijuana, and also used a host of strategies in order to justify their medical marijuana use to family, friends, and colleagues in order to stave off potential stigma. The stigmatization of medical marijuana thus has a profound effect on how patients seek treatment, and whether they seek medical marijuana treatment at all.

  20. Stigma Among California's Medical Marijuana Patients

    PubMed Central

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2014-01-01

    The enactment of California's Proposition 215 stipulates that patients may use marijuana for medical reasons, provided that it is recommended by a physician. Yet, medical marijuana patients risk being stigmatized for this practice. This paper examines the way in which medical marijuana patients perceive and process stigma, and how it affects their interactions and experiences with others. Eighteen semi-structured interviews of medical marijuana patients were carried out using a semi-structured interview guide. Most patients circumvented their own physicians in obtaining a recommendation to use medicinal marijuana, and also used a host of strategies in order to justify their medical marijuana use to family, friends and colleagues in order to stave off potential stigma. The stigmatization of medical marijuana thus has a profound effect on how patients seek treatment, and whether they seek medical marijuana treatment at all. PMID:25715067

  1. Neuroprotective antioxidants from marijuana.

    PubMed

    Hampson, A J; Grimaldi, M; Lolic, M; Wink, D; Rosenthal, R; Axelrod, J

    2000-01-01

    Cannabidiol and other cannabinoids were examined as neuroprotectants in rat cortical neuron cultures exposed to toxic levels of the neurotransmitter, glutamate. The psychotropic cannabinoid receptor agonist delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol, (a non-psychoactive constituent of marijuana), both reduced NMDA, AMPA and kainate receptor mediated neurotoxicities. Neuroprotection was not affected by cannabinoid receptor antagonist, indicating a (cannabinoid) receptor-independent mechanism of action. Glutamate toxicity can be reduced by antioxidants. Using cyclic voltametry and a fenton reaction based system, it was demonstrated that Cannabidiol, THC and other cannabinoids are potent antioxidants. As evidence that cannabinoids can act as an antioxidants in neuronal cultures, cannabidiol was demonstrated to reduce hydroperoxide toxicity in neurons. In a head to head trial of the abilities of various antioxidants to prevent glutamate toxicity, cannabidiol was superior to both alpha-tocopherol and ascorbate in protective capacity. Recent preliminary studies in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia suggest that cannabidiol may be at least as effective in vivo as seen in these in vitro studies.

  2. Burden of arrhythmia in recreational marijuana users.

    PubMed

    Desai, Rupak; Patel, Upenkumar; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Sachdeva, Rajesh; Kumar, Gautam

    2018-08-01

    Marijuana or Cannabis is extensively used as a recreational substance globally. Case reports have reported cardiac arrhythmias immediately following recreational marijuana use. However, the burden of arrhythmias in hospitalized marijuana users have not been evaluated through prospective or cross-sectional studies. Therefore, we planned to measure temporal trends of the frequency of arrhythmias in hospitalized marijuana users using National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database in the United States. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sociopsychological Characteristics of Undergraduate Marijuana Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, William H.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Presents a study of 547 college students which found that: 1) It is possible to distinguish between undergraduate subjects who smoke marijuana and those who do not, 2) It is possible to draw a reasonable clear picture of the marijuana users' demographic characteristics, and 3) There is a positive relationship between the use of marijuana and the…

  4. Effects of Marijuana on Fetal Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Les Leanne

    1981-01-01

    Presents an historical perspective of the public view of marijuana and examines current empirical research concerning the consequences of marijuana use on the human fetus. Included are 1979 university survey results which explore respondents' knowledge about the effects of marijuana and the relationship this has to the mass media. (Author)

  5. Marijuana: Facts Parents Need To Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS), Rockville, MD. Div. of Research.

    Marijuana is the illegal drug most often used in the United States. In the early 1990s marijuana use doubled among 8th graders and significantly increased among 10th and 12th graders. Accompanying this pattern of use is a significant erosion in antidrug perceptions and knowledge among young people. While marijuana use among high school seniors…

  6. Marijuana: A Study of State Policies & Penalties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., Columbia, MD.

    This study is a comprehensive analysis of issues concerning marijuana that are of importance to state policy makers. It reviews the medical, legal, and historical dimensions of marijuana use and examines the range of policy approaches toward marijuana possession and use which state officials have considered. Attention is directed to the experience…

  7. Troubled times for Canada's medical marijuana program.

    PubMed

    Thaczuk, Derek

    2003-04-01

    Health Canada finally produces a good marijuana crop, but its medical marijuana program is in a state of upheaval as it faces internal dissent regarding a crucial aspect of its mandate, as well as fundamental challenges from the courts. Meanwhile, the Justice Minister said that the government will introduce legislation to decriminalize the possession of small amounts of marijuana.

  8. Medical marijuana: Legal and regulatory considerations.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Louise

    2015-10-16

    Nearly half of the United States has legalized medical marijuana. Advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) in six states can authorize patients for medical marijuana use. Knowledge of legal and regulatory aspects of medical marijuana laws will protect an APRN's license and the public.

  9. Marijuana use trajectories during college predict health outcomes nine years post-matriculation

    PubMed Central

    Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Bugbee, Brittany A.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O’Grady, Kevin E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have linked marijuana use with a variety of health outcomes among young adults. Information about marijuana’s long-term health effects is critically needed. Methods Data are from a ten-year study of 1,253 young adults originally recruited as first-year college students and assessed annually thereafter. Six trajectories of marijuana use during college (Non-Use, Low-Stable, Early-Decline, College-Peak, Late-Increase, Chronic) were previously derived using latent variable growth mixture modeling. Nine health outcomes assessed in Year 10 (modal age 27) were regressed on a group membership variable for the six group trajectories, holding constant demographics, baseline health status, and alcohol and tobacco trajectory group membership. Results Marijuana trajectory groups differed significantly on seven of the nine outcomes (functional impairment due to injury, illness, or emotional problems; psychological distress; subjective well-being; and mental and physical health service utilization; all ps<.001), but not on general health rating or body mass index. Non-Users fared better than the Late-Increase and Chronic groups on most physical and mental health outcomes. The declining groups (Early-Decline, College-Peak) fared better than the Chronic group on mental health outcomes. The Late-Increase group fared significantly worse than the stable groups (Non-Use, Low-Stable, Chronic) on both physical and mental health outcomes. Conclusions Even occasional or time-limited marijuana use might have adverse effects on physical and mental health, perhaps enduring after several years of moderation or abstinence. Reducing marijuana use frequency might mitigate such effects. Individuals who escalate their marijuana use in their early twenties might be at especially high risk for adverse outcomes. PMID:26778758

  10. Medical Marijuana in the Workplace

    PubMed Central

    Targino, Marcelo C.; Fanciullo, Gilbert J.; Martin, Douglas W.; Hartenbaum, Natalie P.; White, Jeremy M.; Franklin, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Although possession and use of marijuana is prohibited by federal law, legalization in four states (Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington) and allowance for palliation and therapy in 19 others may reposition the drug away from the fringes of society. This evolving legal environment, and growing scientific evidence of its effectiveness for select health conditions, requires assessment of the safety and appropriateness of marijuana within the American workforce. Although studies have suggested that marijuana may be used with reasonable safety in some controlled environments, there are potential consequences to its use that necessitate employer scrutiny and concern. Several drug characteristics must be considered, including Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC, or THC) concentration, route of administration, dose and frequency, and pharmacokinetics, as well as the risks inherent to particular workplace environments. PMID:25951421

  11. Marijuana practices and patterns of use among young adult medical marijuana patients and non-patient marijuana users.

    PubMed

    Lankenau, Stephen E; Fedorova, Ekaterina V; Reed, Megan; Schrager, Sheree M; Iverson, Ellen; Wong, Carolyn F

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about young adult medical marijuana patients (MMP) and their marijuana using patterns and practices, which includes frequency of use, sourcing of marijuana products, forms/modes of administration, and patterns of illicit/prescription drug misuse, compared to non-patient marijuana users (NPU). Young adults (N=366) aged 18-26 years old were sampled in Los Angeles in 2014-15 and segmented into NPU (n=156), marijuana users who never had a medical marijuana (MM) recommendation, and MMP (n=210), marijuana users with a current, verified MM recommendation. Differences regarding self-reported marijuana and other drug use during the past 90days are expressed as unadjusted risk ratios or differences in means. MMP reported significantly greater mean days of use (76.4 vs. 59.2, p<0.001) and mean dollars spent on marijuana products (564.5 vs. 266.9, p<0.001) than NPU. Approximately one-quarter (22.6%) of both MMP and NPU report selling marijuana obtained from a dispensary to someone else in the past 90days. MMP were more likely to report vaporization modalities for concentrates (URR=1.5, 95% C.I.=1.2, 2.0) and for marijuana (URR=1.5, 95% C.I.=1.1, 2.1) than NPU. Though not significant, trends toward lower misuse of prescription drugs in the past 90days were observed among MMP compared to NPU. MMP reported greater access to marijuana via dispensaries, more frequent and intensive use of marijuana, and greater use of non-combustible forms of marijuana compared to NPU. MMP reported less recent misuse of prescription drugs compared to NPU. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Pharmacologic Implications of Marijuana Use During Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    Marijuana is the most commonly used recreational drug in the United States, including among women of childbearing age and women who are pregnant. Changing legal statutes that allow for the use of medical marijuana and the decriminalization of marijuana for personal use reflect more permissive societal views on the use of this drug. Active compounds in marijuana cross the placenta rapidly and are excreted in breast milk. Results of studies of the effects of marijuana on a developing fetus and neonate are conflicting, but researchers have identified chronic marijuana exposure as a risk factor for preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age infants. This article reviews the pharmacology of marijuana and discusses implications for nurses who work with women of childbearing age. © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  13. Marijuana's acute effects on cognitive bias for affective and marijuana cues.

    PubMed

    Metrik, Jane; Aston, Elizabeth R; Kahler, Christopher W; Rohsenow, Damaris J; McGeary, John E; Knopik, Valerie S

    2015-10-01

    Marijuana produces acute increases in positive subjective effects and decreased reactivity to negative affective stimuli, though may also acutely induce anxiety. Implicit attentional and evaluative processes may explicate marijuana's ability to acutely increase positive and negative emotions. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7-3.0% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed attentional processing of rewarding and negative affective stimuli as well as marijuana-specific stimuli. On 2 separate days, regular marijuana users (N = 89) smoked placebo or active THC cigarette and completed subjective ratings of mood, intoxication, urge to smoke marijuana, and 2 experimental tasks: pleasantness rating (response latency and perceived pleasantness of affective and marijuana-related stimuli) and emotional Stroop (attentional bias to affective stimuli). On the pleasantness rating task, active marijuana increased response latency to negatively valenced and marijuana-related (vs. neutral) visual stimuli, beyond a general slowing of response. Active marijuana also increased pleasantness ratings of marijuana images, although to a lesser extent than placebo due to reduced marijuana urge after smoking. Overall, active marijuana did not acutely change processing of positive emotional stimuli. There was no evidence of attentional bias to affective word stimuli on the emotional Stroop task with the exception of attentional bias to positive word stimuli in the subgroup of marijuana users with cannabis dependence. Marijuana may increase allocation of attentional resources toward marijuana-specific and negatively valenced visual stimuli without altering processing of positively valenced stimuli. Marijuana-specific cues may be more attractive with higher levels of marijuana craving and less wanted with low craving levels. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Risk is still relevant: Time-varying associations between perceived risk and marijuana use among US 12th grade students from 1991 to 2016.

    PubMed

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; O'Malley, Patrick M; Patrick, Megan E; Miech, Richard A

    2017-11-01

    Perceived risk of harm has long been a key preventive factor for adolescent marijuana use. However, in recent years, perceived risk has decreased markedly and marijuana use has increased only slightly, leading to new questions about their association. This study investigates the magnitude and stability of the US adolescent marijuana risk/use association from 1991 to 2016, overall and by gender and race/ethnicity. Self-reported data on past 12-month marijuana use, perceived risk of regular marijuana use, gender, and race/ethnicity were obtained from 275,768 US 12th grade students participating in the nationally representative Monitoring the Future study. Time-varying effect modeling (TVEM) was used to examine the marijuana risk/use association over time. Both before and after controlling for gender and race/ethnicity, perceived risk was a strong protective factor against adolescent marijuana use. The magnitude of the great risk/use association strengthened for Hispanic students; remained generally stable over time for 12th graders overall, males, females, and White students; and weakened for Black students. The magnitude of the moderate risk/use association strengthened for 12th graders overall, males, females, White and Hispanic students, but did not continue to strengthen for Black students from 2005 onwards. In general, marijuana use prevalence decreased over time within all levels of perceived risk. Perceived risk remains a strong protective factor for adolescent marijuana use, and the protective association for moderate risk (vs. no/slight risk) is actually increasing over time. Results suggest that accurate and credible information on the risks associated with marijuana use should remain a key component of prevention efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Behavioral Aspects of Marijuana Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Patricia

    This paper examines the behavioral aspects of marijuana use. The focus of the study was to investigate the attitudes and practices toward drugs by users and non-users and the relationship of these attitudes and practices to selected psychosocial factors. A survey instrument in the form of an anonymous questionnaire was developed and administered…

  16. Marijuana and Children. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endsley, Patricia; Embrey, Mary Louise

    2014-01-01

    Registered professional school nurses (hereinafter referred to as school nurses) promote wellness and disease prevention to improve health outcomes for our nation's children. It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the marijuana plant remain under the United States Drug Enforcement Agency's (DEA) Schedule I…

  17. Prenatal marijuana exposure impacts executive functioning into young adulthood: An fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andra M; Mioduszewski, Ola; Hatchard, Taylor; Byron-Alhassan, Aziza; Fall, Carley; Fried, Peter A

    Understanding the potentially harmful long term consequences of prenatal marijuana exposure is important given the increase in number of pregnant women smoking marijuana to relieve morning sickness. Altered executive functioning is one area of research that has suggested negative consequences of prenatal marijuana exposure into adolescence. Investigating if these findings continue into young adulthood and exploring the neural basis of these effects was the purpose of this research. Thirty one young adults (ages 18-22years) from the longitudinal Ottawa Prenatal Prospective Study (OPPS) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during four tasks; 1) Visuospatial 2-Back, 2) Go/NoGo, 3) Letter 2-Back and 4) Counting Stroop task. Sixteen participants were prenatally exposed to marijuana while 15 had no prenatal marijuana exposure. Task performance was similar for both groups but blood flow was significantly different between the groups. This paper presents the results for all 4 tasks, highlighting the consistently increased left posterior brain activity in the prenatally exposed group compared with the control group. These alterations in neurophysiological functioning of young adults prenatally exposed to marijuana emphasizes the importance of education for women in child bearing years, as well as for policy makers and physicians interested in the welfare of both the pregnant women and their offspring's future success. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A-SIDE: Video Simulation of Teen Alcohol and Marijuana Use Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kristen G; Brackenbury, Lauren; Quackenbush, Mathias; Buras, Morgan; Brown, Sandra A; Price, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This investigation examined the concurrent validity of a new video simulation assessing adolescent alcohol and marijuana decision making in peer contexts (A-SIDE). Method: One hundred eleven youth (60% female; age 14–19 years; 80% White, 12.6% Latino; 24% recruited from treatment centers) completed the A-SIDE simulation, self-report measures of alcohol and marijuana use and disorder symptoms, and measures of alcohol (i.e., drinking motives and expectancies) and marijuana (i.e., expectancies) cognitions in the laboratory. Results: Study findings support concurrent associations between behavioral willingness to use alcohol and marijuana on the simulation and current use variables as well as on drinking motives and marijuana expectancies. Relations with use variables were found even when sample characteristics were controlled. Interestingly, willingness to accept nonalcoholic beverages (e.g., soda) and food offers in the simulation were inversely related to recent alcohol and marijuana use behavior. Conclusions: These findings are consistent with prior work using laboratory simulations with college students and provide preliminary validity evidence for this procedure. Future work is needed to examine the predictive utility of the A-SIDE with larger and more diverse samples of youth. PMID:25343652

  19. Impact of Perceived Risk and Friend Influence on Alcohol and Marijuana Use Among Students.

    PubMed

    Merianos, Ashley L; Rosen, Brittany L; Montgomery, LaTrice; Barry, Adam E; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2017-12-01

    We performed a secondary analysis of Adolescent Health Risk Behavior Survey data ( N = 937), examining associations between lifetime alcohol and marijuana use with intrapersonal (i.e., risk perceptions) and interpersonal (e.g., peer approval and behavior) factors. Multinomial and binary logistic regression analyses contend students reporting lifetime alcohol use-compared to students who had never used alcohol or marijuana-perceived lower alcohol risk ( p < .001), higher friend drinking approval ( p < .001), and greater friend drinking ( p = .003). Using both alcohol and marijuana in one's life was associated with being in public schools ( p = .010), higher grade levels ( p = .001), lower perceived alcohol ( p = .011) and marijuana use risk ( p = .003), higher friend approval of alcohol ( p < .001) and marijuana use ( p < .001), and believed more friends used alcohol ( p < .001). Compared to lifetime alcohol only, perceived friend academic performance decreased the risk of lifetime alcohol and marijuana use ( p = .043). Findings are beneficial to school nurses with students experiencing effects associated with substance use.

  20. Brief Intervention for Truant Youth Sexual Risk Behavior and Marijuana Use

    PubMed Central

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Ungaro, Rocio; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Karas, Lora M.; Gulledge, Laura; Wareham, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Substance use and sexual risk behaviors are common among adolescents. Although attention has focused primarily on alcohol use, less is known about the relationship between marijuana use and sexual risk behavior among high-risk youth. Since truant youth often experience problems in school, troubled family situations, and other psychosocial problems, they represent an important group of high-risk youth to study. Previous research suggests that truant youth are at considerable risk of continuing their troubled behavior in school and entering the juvenile justice system. It is also likely that truant youth are involved in marijuana use and sexual risk behavior at a higher rate, than the general youth population. Involving them in effective intervention services could reduce these risk behaviors. The current study presents interim findings from a NIDA-funded experimental, brief intervention (BI) study involving truant youths and their parents/guardians. Longitudinal data were analyzed to study: (1) the relationships between the youths’ marijuana use and engaging in sexual risk behavior over time, and (2) the effects of a substance use BI on their marijuana use and sexual risk behavior. Analyses examined a growth model for parallel processes in marijuana use and sexual risk behavior, and an assessment of the effect of the intervention on linear and quadratic trends, and on subgroups of youth differing in their sexual risk behavior and marijuana use. Implications of the results for future research and service delivery are considered. PMID:25400493

  1. Impact of HIV and a history of marijuana dependence on procedural learning among individuals with a history of substance dependence

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Raul; Schuster, Randi M.; Vassileva, Jasmin; Martin, Eileen M.

    2013-01-01

    Marijuana (MJ) use and HIV infection are both associated with neurocognitive deficits, yet there is little research to date examining their interactions, specifically how they pertain to procedural learning (PL). We examined a sample of 86 individuals with a history of dependence for multiple substances who underwent a comprehensive evaluation including measures of mental health, substance use history, and three measures of PL: the photoelectric Rotary Pursuit Task (RPT), the Star Mirror Tracing Task (SMT), and the Weather Prediction Task (WPT). We found that a positive HIV serostatus and a history of marijuana dependence were both independently associated with overall poorer performance on the SMT and RPT in this sample of individuals with a history of dependence for multiple substances. Rate of improvement across trial blocks did not differ as a function of HIV serostatus or history of marijuana dependence. Although we found no significant HIV × MJ interaction for any of the PL tasks, we did observe evidence of additive negative effects from HIV and a history of marijuana dependence on overall performance on the SMT and RPT, but not the WPT. The findings suggest that complex motor skills are adversely affected among abstinent polysubstance users with a history of marijuana dependence and that such deficits are compounded by HIV. PMID:21480022

  2. From Medical to Recreational Marijuana Sales: Marijuana Outlets and Crime in an Era of Changing Marijuana Legislation.

    PubMed

    Freisthler, Bridget; Gaidus, Andrew; Tam, Christina; Ponicki, William R; Gruenewald, Paul J

    2017-06-01

    A movement from medical to recreational marijuana use allows for a larger base of potential users who have easier access to marijuana, because they do not have to visit a physician before using marijuana. This study examines whether changes in the density of marijuana outlets were related to violent, property, and marijuana-specific crimes in Denver, CO during a time in which marijuana outlets began selling marijuana for recreational, and not just medical, use. We collected data on locations of crimes, marijuana outlets and covariates for 481 Census block groups over 34 months (N = 16,354 space-time units). A Bayesian Poisson space-time model assessed statistical relationships between independent measures and crime counts within "local" Census block groups. We examined spatial "lag" effects to assess whether crimes in Census block groups adjacent to locations of outlets were also affected. Independent of the effects of covariates, densities of marijuana outlets were unrelated to property and violent crimes in local areas. However, the density of marijuana outlets in spatially adjacent areas was positively related to property crime in spatially adjacent areas over time. Further, the density of marijuana outlets in local and spatially adjacent blocks groups was related to higher rates of marijuana-specific crime. This study suggests that the effects of the availability of marijuana outlets on crime do not necessarily occur within the specific areas within which these outlets are located, but may occur in adjacent areas. Thus studies assessing the effects of these outlets in local areas alone may risk underestimating their true effects.

  3. Impact of Perceived Risk and Friend Influence on Alcohol and Marijuana Use among Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merianos, Ashley L.; Rosen, Brittany L.; Montgomery, LaTrice; Barry, Adam E.; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2017-01-01

    We performed a secondary analysis of Adolescent Health Risk Behavior Survey data (N=937), examining associations between lifetime alcohol and marijuana use with intrapersonal (i.e., risk perceptions) and interpersonal (e.g., peer approval and behavior) factors. Multinomial and binary logistic regression analyses contend students reporting lifetime…

  4. Driving Privileges Facilitate Impaired Driving in Those Youths Who Use Alcohol or Marijuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Todd F.; Scott Olds, R.; Thombs, Dennis L.; Ding, Kele

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether possession of a driver's license increases the risk of impaired driving among adolescents who use alcohol or marijuana. An anonymous questionnaire was administered to secondary school students in northeast Ohio across multiple school districts. Logistic regression analyses revealed that after…

  5. Brief Intervention for Truant Youth Sexual Risk Behavior and Marijuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Ungaro, Rocio; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Karas, Lora M.; Gulledge, Laura; Wareham, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Substance use and sexual risk behaviors are common among adolescents, but research has focused attention on alcohol use. Much less is known about the relationship of marijuana use and sexual risk behavior among high-risk, especially truant, youths. We report interim findings from a NIDA-funded experimental, brief intervention (BI) study involving…

  6. Abstinence Self-Efficacy and Abstinence 1 Year After Substance Use Disorder Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilgen, Mark; McKellar, John; Tiet, Quyen

    2005-01-01

    To better understand the relationship between abstinence self-efficacy and treatment outcomes in substance use disorder patients, experts in the field need more information about the levels of abstinence self-efficacy most predictive of treatment outcomes. Participants (N = 2,967) from 15 residential substance use disorder treatment programs were…

  7. Beyond Abstinence-Only: Relationships between Abstinence Education and Comprehensive Topic Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffries, William L., IV; Dodge, Brian; Bandiera, Frank C.; Reece, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In the United States, a debate exists as to whether abstinence-only or comprehensive sexuality education strategies are most beneficial for school-age youth. Despite abstinence being a fundamental component of comprehensive education, the two are often characterized as polar opposites. Few studies have examined overlaps between the approaches. The…

  8. Effect of wheel-running during abstinence on subsequent nicotine-seeking in rats.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Victoria; Moore, Catherine F; Brunzell, Darlene H; Lynch, Wendy J

    2013-06-01

    Exercise appears to be a promising non-pharmacological treatment for nicotine addiction that may be useful for the vulnerable adolescent population. The aim of this study is to determine if wheel-running, an animal model of aerobic exercise, during an abstinence period would decrease subsequent nicotine-seeking in rats that had extended access to nicotine self-administration during adolescence. Male adolescent rats (n = 55) were trained to self-administer saline or nicotine infusions (5 or 10 μg/kg) under a fixed ratio 1 schedule with a maximum of 20 infusions/day beginning on postnatal day 30. After 5 days, access was extended to 23 h/day with unlimited infusions for a total of 10 days. After the last self-administration session, rats were moved to polycarbonate cages for a 10-day abstinence period where they either had access to a locked or unlocked running wheel for 2 h/day. Nicotine-seeking was examined following the 10th day of abstinence under a within-session extinction/cue-induced reinstatement paradigm. Intake was higher at the 10 μg/kg dose as compared to the 5 μg/kg dose; however, intake did not differ within doses prior to wheel assignment. Compared to saline controls, rats that self-administered nicotine at either dose showed a significant increase in drug-seeking during extinction, and consistent with our hypothesis, exercise during abstinence attenuated this effect. Nicotine led to modest but significant levels of cue-induced reinstatement; however, in this adolescent-onset model, levels were variable and not affected by exercise. Exercise may effectively reduce relapse vulnerability for adolescent-onset nicotine addiction.

  9. Effect of wheel-running during abstinence on subsequent nicotine-seeking in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Victoria; Moore, Catherine F; Brunzell, Darlene H; Lynch, Wendy J

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Exercise appears to be a promising non-pharmacological treatment for nicotine addiction that may be useful for the vulnerable adolescent population. Objectives To determine if wheel running, an animal model of aerobic exercise, during an abstinence period would decrease subsequent nicotine-seeking in rats that had extended access to nicotine self-administration during adolescence. Methods Male adolescent rats (n = 55) were trained to self-administer saline or nicotine infusions (5 or 10 μg/kg) under a fixed ratio 1 schedule with a maximum of 20 infusions/day beginning on postnatal day 30. After 5 days, access was extended to 23-hr/day with unlimited infusions for a total of 10 days. After the last self-administration session, rats were moved to polycarbonate cages for a 10-day abstinence period where they either had access to a locked or unlocked running wheel for 2-hr/day. Nicotine-seeking was examined following the 10th day of abstinence under a within-session extinction/cue-induced reinstatement paradigm. Results Intake was higher at the 10 μg/kg dose as compared to the 5 μg/kg dose; however, intake did not differ within doses prior to wheel assignment. Compared to saline controls, rats that self-administered nicotine at either dose showed a significant increase in drug-seeking during extinction, and consistent with our hypothesis, exercise during abstinence attenuated this effect. Nicotine led to modest, but significant levels of cue-induced reinstatement; however, in this adolescent-onset model, levels were variable and not affected by exercise. Conclusions Exercise may effectively reduce relapse vulnerability for adolescent-onset nicotine addiction. PMID:23371488

  10. Perceived friends' use as a risk factor for marijuana use across young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Megan E; Kloska, Deborah D; Vasilenko, Sara A; Lanza, Stephanie T

    2016-12-01

    Perceived social norms of substance use are commonly identified as a risk factor for use. How the strength of association between perceived friends' use and substance use may change across development has not yet been documented. The current analysis considers how the associations between perceived friends' marijuana use and participants' own use of any marijuana in the past year changes from ages 18 to 30 using longitudinal data from the United States national Monitoring the Future study from 1976 to 2014 (N = 30,794 people). Time-varying effect modeling (TVEM) was used to examine the associations between perceived friends' use of marijuana and participants' own annual marijuana use by age, as well as the extent to which these time-varying associations were moderated by sex, race/ethnicity, and parental education. Associations between perceived friends' use and own marijuana use increased with age. In addition, the association between perceived friends' use and own marijuana use significantly varied by demographic groups, such that it was significantly greater for men from ages 19 to 24 and from ages 27 to 30, compared with women; for Whites, compared with other race/ethnicities, across all ages; and for individuals whose parents attended college, compared with those whose parents had a high school education or less, across all ages. Results suggest that perceived friends' marijuana use becomes an even more important marker for increased marijuana use as people age through young adulthood. Therefore, the role of peers in substance use remains crucial beyond adolescence and should be incorporated into intervention strategies for young adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Perceived Friends’ Use as a Risk Factor for Marijuana Use Across Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Megan E.; Kloska, Deborah D.; Vasilenko, Sara A.; Lanza, Stephanie T.

    2016-01-01

    Perceived social norms of substance use are commonly identified as a risk factor for use. How the strength of association between perceived friends’ use and substance use may change across development has not yet been documented. The current analysis considers how the associations between perceived friends’ marijuana use and participants’ own any marijuana use in the past year changes from ages 18 to 30 using longitudinal data from the U.S. national Monitoring the Future study from 1976 to 2014 (N=30,794 people). Time-varying effect modeling (TVEM) was used to examine the associations between perceived friends’ use of marijuana and participants’ own annual marijuana use by age, as well as the extent to which these time-varying associations were moderated by sex, race/ethnicity, and parental education. Associations between perceived friends’ use and own marijuana use increased with age. In addition, the association between perceived friends’ use and own marijuana use significantly varied by demographic groups, such that it was significantly greater for men from ages 19 to 24 and from ages 27 to 30, compared to women; for whites, compared to other race/ethnicities, across all ages; and for individuals whose parents attended college, compared to those whose parents had a high school education or less, across all ages. Results suggest that perceived friends’ marijuana use becomes an even more important marker for increased marijuana use as people age through young adulthood. Therefore, the role of peers in substance use remains crucial beyond adolescence and should be incorporated into intervention strategies for young adults. PMID:27736148

  12. Abstinence at Successful Discharge in Publicly Funded Addiction Health Services.

    PubMed

    Frimpong, Jemima A; Guerrero, Erick G; Kong, Yinfei; Kim, Tina

    2016-10-01

    Abstinence at successful discharge in substance use disorder treatment is important to reducing relapse rates and increasing long-term recovery from substance use disorders. However, few studies have examined abstinence as an essential component of successful discharge. This study examined rates and correlates of reported abstinence (nonuse of drugs 30 days prior to successful discharge) among clients attending publicly funded treatment in Los Angeles County, California. Finding show that only 36% of clients who were successfully discharged reported abstinence. Black clients were less likely than non-Hispanic Whites to report abstinence at successful discharge. Clients in methadone treatment programs were less likely than outpatient clients to report abstinence, whereas clients referred to treatment through the legal system (Proposition 36) were more likely to report abstinence compared to self-referred clients. Findings underscore the importance of systematic assessment of abstinence in determining successful discharge and provide a basis for further examination of strategies to improve abstinence and reduce relapse.

  13. Abstinence at Successful Discharge in Publicly Funded Addiction Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Erick G.; Kong, Yinfei; Kim, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Abstinence at successful discharge in substance use disorder treatment is important to reducing relapse rates and increasing long-term recovery from substance use disorders. However, few studies have examined abstinence as an essential component of successful discharge. This study examined rates and correlates of reported abstinence (nonuse of drugs 30 days prior to successful discharge) among clients attending publicly funded treatment in Los Angeles County, California. Finding show that only 36% of clients who were successfully discharged reported abstinence. Black clients were less likely than non-Hispanic Whites to report abstinence at successful discharge. Clients in methadone treatment programs were less likely than outpatient clients to report abstinence, whereas clients referred to treatment through the legal system (Proposition 36) were more likely to report abstinence compared to self-referred clients. Findings underscore the importance of systematic assessment of abstinence in determining successful discharge and provide a basis for further examination of strategies to improve abstinence and reduce relapse. PMID:26882909

  14. Effects of the "Circle of Life" HIV-prevention program on marijuana use among American Indian middle school youths: a group randomized trial in a Northern Plains tribe.

    PubMed

    Asdigian, Nancy L; Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Keane, Ellen M; Mousseau, Alicia C; Kaufman, Carol E

    2018-01-01

    Early substance use threatens many American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities, as it is a risk factor for maladaptive use and adverse health outcomes. Marijuana is among the first substances used by AI/AN youth, and its use becomes widespread during adolescence. Interventions that delay or reduce marijuana use hold the promise of curbing substance disorders and other health risk disparities in AI/AN populations. We evaluated the effectiveness of the Circle of Life (COL) program in reducing marijuana use among young AI adolescents. COL is a culturally tailored, theory-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted disease (STD) intervention shown to delay sexual initiation among AI youths. We conducted secondary analyses of data from a school-based group randomized trial conducted between 2006 and 2007 in all 13 middle schools on a rural, Northern Plains reservation (N = 635, 47% female). We used discrete-time survival analysis (DTSA) to assess COL effectiveness on risk of marijuana initiation among AI youths and latent growth curve modeling (LGCM) to evaluate effects on frequency of marijuana use over time. DTSA models showed that the overall risk of marijuana initiation was 17.3% lower in the COL group compared to the control group. No intervention effect on frequency of marijuana use emerged in LGCM analyses. COL is a multifaceted, culturally tailored, skills-based program effective in preventing marijuana uptake among AI youth.

  15. Focus Groups of Parents and Teens Help Develop Messages to Prevent Early Marijuana Use in the Context of Legal Retail Sales.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Martie L; Haggerty, Kevin P; Casey-Goldstein, Mary; Thompson, Ronald W; Buddenberg, Laura; Mason, W Alex

    2017-02-23

    The changes in Washington State and Colorado marijuana laws call for the development of new brief family-focused adolescent marijuana use preventive interventions that are relevant for and tailored to the context of legalization for retail sale. To that end, focus groups with parents and teens were conducted to find out about their concerns and needs in the context of legalization. Six semi-structured focus groups (3 with parents, 3 with teens) were conducted in Washington State in 2013 related to consequences of teen marijuana use and messages that would be effective in helping to prevent teens from using marijuana in the context of legal adult use. A total of 33 teens and 35 parents participated. Three primary themes were common to these parents and teens: the negative consequences of marijuana use during adolescence on mental, physical, and social health; the need for more or better information; and the need for information/messages to come from trusted sources. The themes related to potential prevention messages include the use of fear; stories about real people; focusing on short-term consequences; and teens needing alternative activities (something better to do). The results suggest that parents and teens need information about the new retail marijuana legalization law. Teens are open to both information and guidance from parents as long as it is calm and respectful. Firsthand accounts of consequences of marijuana use from peers and adults, rather than threats from authority figures, could hold some promise for persuading teens to avoid marijuana use.

  16. Moderating effects of race in clinical trial participation and outcomes among marijuana-dependent young adults.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, LaTrice; Petry, Nancy M; Carroll, Kathleen M

    2012-12-01

    Few studies have examined clinical trial participation rates and treatment outcomes among underserved young adults who are dependent on marijuana, the most commonly abused illicit drug. The present study was a secondary analysis of a trial of court-referred marijuana-dependent young adults (ages 18-25) randomized to one of four treatment conditions: Motivational Enhancement Therapy/Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (MET/CBT), MET/CBT+Contingency Management (CM), Drug Counseling (DC) or DC+CM. African American (N=81) participants were compared to White (N=31) participants with respect to rates of participation in phases of treatment and substance use outcomes. In addition, the interaction of race and treatment condition was examined to ascertain if the interventions yielded different effects based on race. Among those who started treatment, African American young adults were significantly less likely to complete the treatment and posttreatment phases of the clinical trial than their White counterparts. Irrespective of treatment type, substance use outcomes (i.e., percentage of marijuana-negative specimens and longest duration of continuous abstinence) did not vary by race. However, there was a significant interaction effect between treatment type and race; African American young adults did not benefit differentially from any specific type of treatment, but CM was effective in reducing proportion of marijuana positive samples among White young adults. Findings suggest that clinical trial treatment and posttreatment completion rates vary by race in this population, as does response to specific treatment types. More treatment research focusing specifically on African American marijuana-dependent young adults is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mind Over Matter: The Brain's Response to Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... Brain's Response to Marijuana The Brain's Response to Marijuana Print Hi, my name is Sara Bellum. Welcome ... issue, we'll investigate the fascinating facts about marijuana. You may have heard it called pot, weed, ...

  18. Marijuana Smoking in Patients With Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Khwaja, Sara; Yacoub, Abraham; Cheema, Asima; Rihana, Nancy; Russo, Robin; Velez, Ana Paula; Nanjappa, Sowmya; Sandin, Ramon L; Bohra, Chandrashekar; Gajanan, Ganesh; Greene, John N

    2016-07-01

    Worldwide, marijuana (cannabis) is a widely used drug. The incidence of marijuana smoking is increasing and is second only to tobacco as the most widely smoked substance in the general population. It is also the second most commonly used recreational drug after alcohol. Some adverse effects of marijuana smoking have been documented; however, the number of studies on the pulmonary effects of marijuana in individuals with leukemia is limited. In our case series, we report on 2 men with acute myeloid leukemia with miliary nodular lung patterns on computed tomography of the chest due to heavy marijuana use. We also report on 2 patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia who had a history of smoking marijuana and then developed lung opacities consistent with mold infection.

  19. Marijuana alters the human cerebellar clock.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Daniel S; Block, Robert I; Turner, Beth M; Koeppel, Julie; Magnotta, Vincent A; Ponto, Laura Boles; Watkins, G Leonard; Hichwa, Richard D; Andreasen, Nancy C

    2003-06-11

    The effects of marijuana on brain perfusion and internal timing were assessed using [15O] water PET in occasional and chronic users. Twelve volunteers who smoked marijuana recreationally about once weekly, and 12 volunteers who smoked daily for a number of years performed a self-paced counting task during PET imaging, before and after smoking marijuana and placebo cigarettes. Smoking marijuana increased rCBF in the ventral forebrain and cerebellar cortex in both groups, but resulted in significantly less frontal lobe activation in chronic users. Counting rate increased after smoking marijuana in both groups, as did a behavioral measure of self-paced tapping, and both increases correlated with rCBF in the cerebellum. Smoking marijuana appears to accelerate a cerebellar clock altering self-paced behaviors.

  20. Semen says: Assessing the accuracy of adolescents’ self-reported sexual abstinence using a semen Y-chromosome biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Janet E.; Zenilman, Jonathan M.; Rose, Eve; Wingood, Gina M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Researchers often assess condom use only among participants who report recent sexual behaviour, excluding participants who report no recent vaginal sex or who did not answer questions about their sexual behaviour, but self-reported sexual behaviour may be inaccurate. This study uses a semen Y-chromosome biomarker to assess semen exposure among participants who reported sexual abstinence or did not report their sexual behaviour. Methods This prospective cohort study uses data from 715 sexually active African-American female adolescents in Atlanta, surveyed at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Participants completed a 40-minute interview and were tested for semen Y-chromosome with polymerase chain reaction from a self-administered vaginal swab. We predicted Y-chromosome test results from self-reported sexual behaviour using within-subject panel regression. Results Among participants who reported abstinence from vaginal sex in the past 14 days, 9.4% tested positive for semen Y-chromosome. Among item non-respondents, 6.3% tested positive for semen Y-chromosome. Women who reported abstinence and engaged in item non-response regarding their sexual behaviour had respectively 62% and 78% lower odds of testing positive for Y-chromosome (OR 0.38 (0.21, 0.67), OR 0.22 (0.12, 0.40)), controlling for smoking, survey wave, and non-coital sexual behaviours reported during abstinence. Conclusions Adolescents who report sexual abstinence under-report semen exposure. Research should validate self-reported sexual behaviour with biomarkers. Adolescents who engage in item non-response regarding vaginal sex test positive for semen Y-chromosome at similar rates, which supports the practice of grouping non-respondents with adolescents reporting abstinence in statistical analysis. PMID:27147615

  1. Sexual abstinence: What is the understanding and views of secondary school learners in a semi-rural area of North West Province, South Africa?

    PubMed Central

    Mokwena, Kebogile; Morabe, Mamaponesa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Among strategies to prevent HIV, other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancies, are programs that promote sexual abstinence among adolescents. However, literature suggests that there may be differences in the understanding of abstinence across adolescents, and this study sought to explore the understanding of sexual abstinence among both male and female learners in a secondary school in a semi-rural area of North West Province, South Africa. Focus group discussions were used to collect data from learners who were in grades 8–10 at the time of the study. The findings are that the learners in this area understand sexual abstinence as the decision not to have sex, and this was associated with prevention of HIV, STIs and unwanted pregnancies, which ensures a better future. Barriers to sexual abstinence include peer pressure, myths and wrong perceptions about sex, influence of drugs and alcohol and the influence of television. Based on how it is delivered, school-based sex education was viewed as both an enabler and barrier to sexual abstinence. It is recommended that programs to promote sexual abstinence be strengthened and such programs be community-based. PMID:27315574

  2. Sexual abstinence: What is the understanding and views of secondary school learners in a semi-rural area of North West Province, South Africa?

    PubMed

    Mokwena, Kebogile; Morabe, Mamaponesa

    2016-12-01

    Among strategies to prevent HIV, other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancies, are programs that promote sexual abstinence among adolescents. However, literature suggests that there may be differences in the understanding of abstinence across adolescents, and this study sought to explore the understanding of sexual abstinence among both male and female learners in a secondary school in a semi-rural area of North West Province, South Africa. Focus group discussions were used to collect data from learners who were in grades 8-10 at the time of the study. The findings are that the learners in this area understand sexual abstinence as the decision not to have sex, and this was associated with prevention of HIV, STIs and unwanted pregnancies, which ensures a better future. Barriers to sexual abstinence include peer pressure, myths and wrong perceptions about sex, influence of drugs and alcohol and the influence of television. Based on how it is delivered, school-based sex education was viewed as both an enabler and barrier to sexual abstinence. It is recommended that programs to promote sexual abstinence be strengthened and such programs be community-based.

  3. Mother-Daughter Communication about Sexual Maturation, Abstinence and Unintended Pregnancy: Experiences from an Informal Settlement in Nairobi, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crichton, Joanna; Ibisomi, Latifat; Gyimah, Stephen Obeng

    2012-01-01

    Parental communication and support is associated with improved developmental, health and behavioral outcomes in adolescence. This study explores the quality of mother-daughter communication about sexual maturation, abstinence and unintended pregnancy in Korogocho, an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. We use data from 14 focus group…

  4. Impacts of Abstinence Education on Teen Sexual Activity, Risk of Pregnancy, and Risk of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trenholm, Christopher; Devaney, Barbara; Fortson, Kenneth; Clark, Melissa; Bridgespan, Lisa Quay; Wheeler, Justin

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impacts of four abstinence-only education programs on adolescent sexual activity and risks of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Based on an experimental design, the impact analysis uses survey data collected in 2005 and early 2006 from more than 2,000 teens who had been randomly assigned to either a…

  5. Psychological absorption. Affect investment in marijuana intoxication.

    PubMed

    Fabian, W D; Fishkin, S M

    1991-01-01

    Absorption (a trait capacity for total attentional involvement) was reported to increase during episodes of marijuana intoxication. Several subsets of the absorption scale items specifically characterized marijuana intoxication, and groups of users and nonusers showed differential affective involvement with these experiences. Additionally, within the drug-using group, a positive correlation between frequency of marijuana use and affective ratings of these experiences was found. The findings support the hypothesis that a specific type of alteration in consciousness that enhances capacity for total attentional involvement (absorption) characterizes marijuana intoxication, and that this enhancement may act as a reinforcer, possibly influencing future use.

  6. Is medical marijuana legalisation possible in Poland?

    PubMed

    Rogowska-Szadkowska, Dorota; Strumiło, Julia; Chlabicz, Sławomir

    2018-03-01

    In some countries of the world it is legal to use plant-based marijuana for therapeutic purposes. When we had learned that 7,000 petitioners (including doctors) signed the petition to enable access to marijuana for patients in the Czech Republic, we decided to examine the knowledge about marijuana's medical properties among Polish medical students. Anonymous questionnaire study was conducted on a group of 181 of students of the last (sixth) year of medical school. It was demonstrated that students are not provided with sufficient information about therapeutic administration of plant-based marijuana during medical studies. The majority of interviewees mentioned only one indication for medical marijuana use. All students did not interchange medical conditions for which marijuana is used in 30 USA states or Canada. Marijuana smoking for medical purposes differs from recreational smoking, and its effect does not depend on occurrence of symptoms from the central nervous system. Few studies, that were carried out along with numerous previously unreported cases of patients, demonstrated that plant-derived marijuana had therapeutic effect on many diseases where conventional medicine was of no help. All doctors, including medical students, should receive more information about the therapeutic properties of marijuana. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2018.

  7. Periodontal and oral manifestations of marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Swati Y; Tatakis, Dimitris N; Tipton, David A

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana, prepared from the plant Cannabis sativa, is the most widely used illicit drug in the United States. Marijuana use has been associated with adverse psychosocial and health effects, including effects on oral tissues. Periodontal literature has limited references to the periodontal effects of cannabis use. In this report, we present two cases of marijuana-associated gingival enlargement and review the literature on oral complications of marijuana use. Two asymptomatic males, aged 23 and 42 years, presented independently for oral prophylaxis. Both had an unremarkable medical history and related a history of significant marijuana use of 2-16 years duration. Common findings following oral and periodontal examination were nicotinic stomatitis-like lesions, uvulitis and gingival enlargement. Marginal and papillary gingiva of the anterior dentition were the areas primarily affected by gingival enlargement, while some of these areas exhibited a nodular or "pebbly" appearance. Marijuana-associated gingival enlargement was diagnosed in the reported cases. A review of the literature revealed two other reports of marijuana-associated gingival enlargement, all in young adult males with chronic (2 or more years) cannabis use. These authors reported a resemblance to phenytoin-induced enlargement. Biochemical similarities between phenytoin and cannabis active compounds suggest possible common pathogenetic mechanisms. Uvulitis and nicotinic stomatitis appear to be the two most common of the several oral manifestations of marijuana use. Chronic marijuana use may result in gingival enlargement with clinical characteristics similar to phenytoin-induced enlargement.

  8. Caring for Young Children Exposed to Marijuana.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Natasha M; Shapiro, Susan E

    This article reviews the research report, Marijuana Exposure Among Children Younger Than Six Years in the United States (), and, using a case study approach, applies the findings to advanced practice registered nurses. B. extracted data from the National Poison Data System showing an increasing trend in marijuana exposure in children, especially in states where marijuana has been legalized for either medicinal use or recreational use. Advanced practice registered nurses need to be comfortable recognizing and managing marijuana intoxication in the pediatric population, as well as educating parents in providing safe environments for their children.

  9. Colorado family physicians' attitudes toward medical marijuana.

    PubMed

    Kondrad, Elin; Reid, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, the use of medical marijuana has expanded dramatically; it is now permitted in 16 states and the District of Columbia. Our study of family physicians in Colorado is the first to gather information about physician attitudes toward this evolving practice. We distributed an anonymous web-based electronic survey to the 1727 members of the Colorado Academy of Family Physicians' listserv. Items included individual and practice characteristics as well as experience with and attitudes toward medical marijuana. Five hundred twenty family physicians responded (30% response rate). Of these, 46% did not support physicians recommending medical marijuana; only 19% thought that physicians should recommend it. A minority thought that marijuana conferred significant benefits to physical (27%) and mental (15%) health. Most agreed that marijuana poses serious mental (64%) and physical (61%) health risks. Eighty-one percent agreed that physicians should have formal training before recommending medical marijuana, and 92% agreed that continuing medical education about medical marijuana should be available to family physicians. Despite a high prevalence of use in Colorado, most family physicians are not convinced of marijuana's health benefits and believe its use carries risks. Nearly all agreed on the need for further medical education about medical marijuana.

  10. Clinically relevant characteristics associated with early treatment drug use versus abstinence.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Gerald; Stitzer, Maxine; Nunes, Edward V; Hu, Mei-Chen; Campbell, Aimee

    2014-04-04

    This study describes early treatment drug use status and associated clinical characteristics in a diverse sample of patients entering outpatient substance abuse psychosocial counseling treatment. The goal is to more fully characterize those entering treatment with and without active use of their primary drug in order to better understand associated treatment needs and resilience factors. We examined baseline data from a NIDA Clinical Trials Network (CTN) study (Web-delivery of Treatment for Substance Use) with an all-comers sample of patients (N = 494) entering 10 outpatient treatment centers. Patients were categorized according to self-identified primary drug of abuse (alcohol, cocaine/stimulants, opioids, marijuana) and by baseline drug use status (positive/negative) based on urine testing or self-reports of recent use (alcohol). Characteristics were examined by primary drug and early use status. Classified as drug-negative were 84%, 76%, 62%, and 33% of primary opioid, stimulant, alcohol, and marijuana users; respectively. Drug-positive versus -negative patients did not differ on demographics or rates of substance abuse/dependence diagnoses. However, those negative for active use had better physical and mental health profiles, were less likely to be using a secondary drug, and were more likely to be attending 12-step self-help meetings. Early treatment drug abstinence is common among substance users entering outpatient psychosocial counseling programs, regardless of primary abused drug. Abstinence (by negative UA) is associated with better health and mental health profiles, less secondary drug use, and more days of 12-step attendance. These data highlight differential treatment needs and resiliencies associated with early treatment drug use status. NCT01104805.

  11. Perceptions of Peer Sexual Behavior: Do Adolescents Believe in a Sexual Double Standard?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael; Cardenas, Susan; Donnelly, Joseph; Kittleson, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the study was to (1) examine attitudes of adolescents toward peer models having sex or choosing abstinence, and (2) determine whether a "double standard" in perception existed concerning adolescent abstinence and sexual behavior. Methods: Adolescents (N = 173) completed questionnaires that included 1 of 6…

  12. [Adverse effects of marijuana in children: Could its knowledge limit the legalization of drugs in Mexico?

    PubMed

    Loredo Abdalá, Arturo; Casas Muñoz, Abigail; Monroy Llaguno, Daniela Alejandra

    A reflection on whether to expose, determine and clarify the effects of marijuana on pregnant adolescents and their fetus is a determining factor to consider more judiciously the tendency to legalize marijuana in Mexico. We emphasize alterations in the central nervous system, immune system and some genetic aspects of the fetus and its potential expressions at different stages of a child's life. Should pediatricians and parents allow, in addition to the difficulties that their patients and children face today, the risk that is the affordability of marijuana? That is the challenge to overcome. Copyright © 2014 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  13. A Test of the Abstinence Violation Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruderman, Audrey J.

    According to the abstinence violation effect, highly controlled drinkers tend to overindulge following an initial slip. To investigate this relapse model, 47 male college students, ranging in age from 21 to 46, were assigned either to an unrestrained or a restrained drinker group according to their scores on the Restrained Drinking Scale. Subjects…

  14. Health Education Curriculum Content--Abstinence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    As a result of House Bill 1229, introduced and passed during the 2011 North Dakota legislative session, every school district, both public and nonpublic, must expand health education to include abstinence education, if teaching sexuality education as part of the general health curriculum. This fact sheet provides guidance for districts in meeting…

  15. Psychometric evaluation of the Marijuana Reduction Strategies Self-Efficacy Scale with young recreational marijuana users.

    PubMed

    Davis, Alan K; Osborn, Lawrence A; Rosenberg, Harold; Cross, Nicole; Lauritsen, Kirstin J; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Bradbury, Stacey; Feuille, Margaret; Lackey, Jennifer H; Hawley, Anna; Leith, Jaclyn

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the cue-reactivity and several psychometric properties of a questionnaire designed to assess marijuana users' self-efficacy to employ 21 specific cognitive-behavioral strategies to reduce their marijuana use. Using a web-based recruitment and data-collection procedure, 513 regular marijuana users completed dependent measures following marijuana-related or control cue exposure. Although exposure to marijuana-related stimuli significantly increased reported craving, mean reduction-strategy self-efficacy scores did not differ as a function of cue exposure. Reliability analyses supported retaining all 21 items as a single scale. Reduction-strategy self-efficacy was positively associated with marijuana-refusal self-efficacy and with recent past use of reduction strategies, was negatively associated with quantity and frequency of marijuana use and marijuana-related problems, and was positively but weakly associated with general self-efficacy. The most frequently reported strategies that were employed reflected restricting marijuana use to once per day, not keeping a large stash available, turning down unwanted hits, and not obtaining more marijuana right away if one's supply runs out. These findings further support the reliability and validity of the questionnaire when administered to a diverse sample of regular marijuana users. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dronabinol and marijuana in HIV-positive marijuana smokers. Caloric intake, mood, and sleep.

    PubMed

    Haney, Margaret; Gunderson, Erik W; Rabkin, Judith; Hart, Carl L; Vosburg, Suzanne K; Comer, Sandra D; Foltin, Richard W

    2007-08-15

    Individuals with HIV constitute the largest group using cannabinoids for medicinal reasons; yet, no studies have directly compared the tolerability and efficacy of smoked marijuana and oral dronabinol maintenance in HIV-positive marijuana smokers. This placebo-controlled within-subjects study evaluated marijuana and dronabinol across a range of behaviors: eating topography, mood, cognitive performance, physiologic measures, and sleep. HIV-positive marijuana smokers (n = 10) completed 2 16-day inpatient phases. Each dronabinol (5 and 10 mg) and marijuana (2.0% and 3.9% Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC]) dose was administered 4 times daily for 4 days, but only 1 drug was active per day, thereby maintaining double-blind dosing. Four days of placebo washout separated each active cannabinoid condition. As compared with placebo, marijuana and dronabinol dose dependently increased daily caloric intake and body weight in HIV-positive marijuana smokers. All cannabinoid conditions produced significant intoxication, except for low-dose dronabinol (5 mg); the intoxication was rated positively (eg, "good drug effect") with little evidence of discomfort and no impairment of cognitive performance. Effects of marijuana and dronabinol were comparable, except that only marijuana (3.9% THC) improved ratings of sleep. These data suggest that for HIV-positive marijuana smokers, both dronabinol (at doses 8 times current recommendations) and marijuana were well tolerated and produced substantial and comparable increases in food intake.

  17. Abstinence-Only Sex Education: College Students' Evaluations and Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the abstinence-only sex education experiences of a small group of young adults in the southeastern USA. Most participants felt that their abstinence-only sex education had mixed value and low overall impact in their lives. Perceptions about abstinence, virginity, and marriage varied significantly from those stressed…

  18. The Impact of Abstinence Education: What Does the Research Say?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael; Penhollow, Tina

    2006-01-01

    There has long been controversy in this country about the implementation of school-based sexuality education. In recent years, however, the controversy has centered on abstinence education. Critics of abstinence education programs seem to have three major concerns relative to abstinence education programming: (1) promotion of religion; (2)…

  19. Marijuana smoking among secondary school students in Zaria, Nigeria: factors responsible and effects on academic performance.

    PubMed

    Shehu, A U; Idris, S H

    2008-12-01

    The use of Marijuana is on the increase worldwide especially among adolescents and youths. Marijuana smoking has gained a foothold in our environment because of peer group influence, accessibility and availability. Its medico-social effects could ruin the life and future of our youths. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and the factors that influence secondary school students in Zaria LGA to smoke and the effects on academic performance. A cross-sectional descriptive study was employed to generate data among secondary school students. A multi-stage sampling technique was used. Data was collected with the use of a structured, pre tested self-administered questionnaire. F2 test was used to test for significance of association between categorical variables. Of the 350 respondents, 262 (74.9%) were males, while 88 (25.1%) were females. The study shows that 33 of the students smoke marijuana giving a prevalence of 9.4%. There were more smokers in the age group 15-19 years (54.6%). Other factors that influence marijuana smoking include family background, peer pressure and attendance of social functions. There was better academic performance (51.1%) among non smokers as compared to smokers (27.2%), and this was found to be statistically significant (chi2 = 11.73, df = 5, P < .05) There was also statistically significant association between age and marijuana smoking (chi2 = 24, df = 2, P < .05). The prevalence of marijuana smoking is high. Age, family background, peer pressure and attendance of social function influence marijuana smoking. A comprehensive school health education program should be instituted to curtail this menace.

  20. Stress system changes associated with marijuana dependence may increase craving for alcohol and cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Helen C.; Tuit, Keri L.; Sinha, Rajita

    2013-01-01

    Objective To date, little research exists defining bio-behavioral adaptations associated with both marijuana abuse and risk of craving and relapse to other drugs of abuse during early abstinence. Method Fifty-nine treatment-seeking individuals dependent on alcohol and cocaine were recruited. Thirty of these individuals were also marijuana (MJ) dependent; 29 were not. Twenty-six socially drinking healthy controls were also recruited. All participants were exposed to three 5-min guided imagery conditions (stress, alcohol/cocaine cue and relaxing), presented randomly, one per day across three consecutive days. Measures of craving, anxiety, heart rate, blood pressure, plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone and cortisol were collected at baseline and subsequent recovery time points. Results The MJ-dependent group showed increased basal anxiety ratings and cardiovascular output alongside enhanced alcohol craving and cocaine craving, and dampened cardiovascular response to stress and cue. They also demonstrated elevated cue-induced anxiety and stress-induced cortisol and adrenocorticotrophic hormone levels, which were not observed in the non-MJ-dependent group or controls. Cue-related alcohol craving and anxiety were both predictive of a shorter number of days to marijuana relapse following discharge from inpatient treatment. Conclusions Findings provide some support for drug cross-sensitization in terms of motivational processes associated with stress-related and cue-related craving and relapse. PMID:23280514

  1. Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Gene Polymorphisms and Marijuana Misuse Interactions On White Matter and Cognitive Deficits in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Beng-Choon; Wassink, Thomas H.; Ziebell, Steven; Andreasen, Nancy C.

    2011-01-01

    Marijuana exposure during the critical period of adolescent brain maturation may disrupt neuro-modulatory influences of endocannabinoids and increase schizophrenia susceptibility. Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1/CNR1) is the principal brain receptor mediating marijuana effects. No study to-date has systematically investigated the impact of CNR1 on quantitative phenotypic features in schizophrenia and inter-relationships with marijuana misuse. We genotyped 235 schizophrenia patients using 12 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) that account for most of CB1 coding region genetic variability. Patients underwent a high-resolution anatomic brain magnetic resonance scan and cognitive assessment. Almost a quarter of the sample met DSM marijuana abuse (14%) or dependence (8%) criteria. Effects of CNR1 tSNPs and marijuana abuse/dependence on brain volumes and neurocognition were assessed using ANCOVA, including co-morbid alcohol/non-marijuana illicit drug misuse as covariates. Significant main effects of CNR1 tSNPs (rs7766029, rs12720071, and rs9450898) were found in white matter (WM) volumes. Patients with marijuana abuse/dependence had smaller fronto-temporal WM volumes than patients without heavy marijuana use. More interestingly, there were significant rs12720071 genotype-by-marijuana use interaction effects on WM volumes and neurocognitive impairment; suggestive of gene-environment interactions for conferring phenotypic abnormalities in schizophrenia. In this comprehensive evaluation of genetic variants distributed across the CB1 locus, CNR1 genetic polymorphisms were associated with WM brain volume variation among schizophrenia patients. Our findings suggest that heavy cannabis use in the context of specific CNR1 genotypes may contribute to greater WM volume deficits and cognitive impairment, which could in turn increase schizophrenia risk. PMID:21420833

  2. Medical marijuana policies and hospitalizations related to marijuana and opioid pain reliever.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yuyan

    2017-04-01

    Twenty-eight states in the U.S have legalized medical marijuana, yet its impacts on severe health consequences such as hospitalizations remain unknown. Meanwhile, the prevalence of opioid pain reliever (OPR) use and outcomes has increased dramatically. Recent studies suggested unintended impacts of legalizing medical marijuana on OPR, but the evidence is still limited. This study examined the associations between state medical marijuana policies and hospitalizations related to marijuana and OPR. State-level annual administrative records of hospital discharges during 1997-2014 were obtained from the State Inpatient Databases (SID). The outcome variables were rates of hospitalizations involving marijuana dependence or abuse, opioid dependence or abuse, and OPR overdose in 1000 discharges. Linear time-series regressions were used to assess the associations of implementing medical marijuana policies to hospitalizations, controlling for other marijuana- and OPR-related policies, socioeconomic factors, and state and year fixed effects. Hospitalizations related to marijuana and OPR increased sharply by 300% on average in all states. Medical marijuana legalization was associated with 23% (p=0.008) and 13% (p=0.025) reductions in hospitalizations related to opioid dependence or abuse and OPR overdose, respectively; lagged effects were observed after policy implementation. The operation of medical marijuana dispensaries had no independent impacts on OPR-related hospitalizations. Medical marijuana polices had no associations with marijuana-related hospitalizations. Medical marijuana policies were significantly associated with reduced OPR-related hospitalizations but had no associations with marijuana-related hospitalizations. Given the epidemic of problematic use of OPR, future investigation is needed to explore the causal pathways of these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Medical marijuana policies and hospitalizations related to marijuana and opioid pain reliever*

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yuyan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Twenty-eight states in the U.S. have legalized medical marijuana, yet its impacts on severe health consequences such as hospitalizations remain unknown. Meanwhile, the prevalence of opioid pain reliever (OPR) use and outcomes has increased dramatically. Recent studies suggested unintended impacts of legalizing medical marijuana on OPR, but the evidence is still limited. This study examined the associations between state medical marijuana policies and hospitalizations related to marijuana and OPR. Methods State-level annual administrative records of hospital discharges during 1997–2014 were obtained from the State Inpatient Databases (SID). The outcome variables were rates of hospitalizations involving marijuana dependence or abuse, opioid dependence or abuse, and OPR overdose in 1,000 discharges. Linear time-series regressions were used to assess the associations of implementing medical marijuana policies to hospitalizations, controlling for other marijuana- and OPR-related policies, socioeconomic factors, and state and year fixed effects. Results Hospitalizations related to marijuana and OPR increased sharply by 300% on average in all states. Medical marijuana legalization was associated with 23% (p=.008) and 13% (p=.025) reductions in hospitalizations related to opioid dependence or abuse and OPR overdose, respectively; lagged effects were observed after policy implementation. The operation of medical marijuana dispensaries had no independent impacts on OPR- related hospitalizations. Medical marijuana polices had no associations with marijuana-related hospitalizations. Conclusion Medical marijuana policies were significantly associated with reduced OPR-related hospitalizations but had no associations with marijuana-related hospitalizations. Given the epidemic of problematic use of OPR, future investigation is needed to explore the causal pathways of these findings. PMID:28259087

  4. Marijuana: The Real Story. It's Your Choice!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronck, David R.

    This informational book on marijuana is part of a series of three interactive books on tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana; three informational books containing parallel content; and three teacher guides designed to give students in grades five through eight practice in using the information and skills presented in the books. The goal of this book and…

  5. Marijuana Effects on Human Forgetting Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Scott D.; Cherek, Don R.; Lieving, Lori M.; Tcheremissine, Oleg V.

    2005-01-01

    It has long been known that acute marijuana administration impairs working memory (e.g., the discrimination of stimuli separated by a delay). The determination of which of the individual components of memory are altered by marijuana is an unresolved problem. Previous human studies did not use test protocols that allowed for the determination of…

  6. A Synthesis of Current Research On Marijuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brubaker, Timothy H.

    1973-01-01

    Since the isolation of the active component of marijuana (THC), studies have revealed various effects to the memory, specific physiological effects, and definite visual effects to individuals while under the influence of marijuana. The sociological aspects of the drug may stimulate an individual into the use of this drug. (Author)

  7. Personality Correlates of Undergraduate Marijuana Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Robert; And Others

    The objective of this study was to investigate the personological factors underlying marijuana use in the college population. Under anonymous conditions, 148 students at two universities completed the California Psychological Inventory and a biographical questionnaire concerning drug usage. Four conclusions were reached: (1) marijuana use at two…

  8. Marijuana Use among Students and Peers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Brenda S.; Griffin, Charles T.

    1978-01-01

    A casual path model based on Sutherland's theory was developed and applied to student marijuana use as a specific delinquent act. Two types of differential association were suggested to explain the genesis of marijuana use for the individual. The data tended to lend support to the causal path model. (Author/LPG)

  9. The Effects of Marijuana on Human Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Joseph H.

    Investigating the effects of marijuana on human psychological functioning, this study differs from previous research in two ways: 1) it is concerned with relatively complex cognitive processes; 2) it has a theoretical rationale. The general hypothesis of the study states that marijuana will impair its user's ability to form and use abstract…

  10. Facts on Marijuana. Clearinghouse Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brick, John

    Marijuana or Cannabis is a weed which grows in many different parts of the world. The plant may be altered into different forms to allow various forms of ingestion. Although marijuana's psychoactive properties have been known for almost 5,000 years, the plant first attracted public attention in the United States during the first half of this…

  11. Functions of Marijuana Use in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Julie K.; Accordino, Michael P.; Hewes, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis that specific functional factors of marijuana use would predict past 30-day marijuana use in 425 college students more precisely than demographic variables alone. This hypothesis was confirmed. Functional factors of personal/physical enhancement as well as activity enhancement were…

  12. Tips for Teens: The Truth about Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    Q & A Q. Isn’t smoking marijuana less dangerous than smoking cigarettes? A. No. It’s even worse. Five joints a day can be as harmful as 20 cigarettes a day. 10 Q. Can people become addicted to marijuana? A. Yes. Research confirms you can become hooked ...

  13. Medical marijuana: medical necessity versus political agenda.

    PubMed

    Clark, Peter A; Capuzzi, Kevin; Fick, Cameron

    2011-12-01

    Marijuana is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as an illegal Schedule I drug which has no accepted medical use. However, recent studies have shown that medical marijuana is effective in controlling chronic non-cancer pain, alleviating nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy, treating wasting syndrome associated with AIDS, and controlling muscle spasms due to multiple sclerosis. These studies state that the alleviating benefits of marijuana outweigh the negative effects of the drug, and recommend that marijuana be administered to patients who have failed to respond to other therapies. Despite supporting evidence, the DEA refuses to reclassify marijuana as a Schedule II drug, which would allow physicians to prescribe marijuana to suffering patients. The use of medical marijuana has continued to gain support among states, and is currently legal in 16 states and the District of Columbia. This is in stark contrast to the federal government's stance of zero-tolerance, which has led to a heated legal debate in the United States. After reviewing relevant scientific data and grounding the issue in ethical principles like beneficence and nonmaleficence, there is a strong argument for allowing physicians to prescribe marijuana. Patients have a right to all beneficial treatments and to deny them this right violates their basic human rights.

  14. Experiences of marijuana-vaporizer users.

    PubMed

    Malouff, John M; Rooke, Sally E; Copeland, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Using a marijuana vaporizer may have potential harm-reduction advantages on smoking marijuana, in that the user does not inhale smoke. Little research has been published on use of vaporizers. In the first study of individuals using a vaporizer on their own initiative, 96 adults anonymously answered questions about their experiences with a vaporizer and their use of marijuana with tobacco. Users identified 4 advantages to using a vaporizer over smoking marijuana: perceived health benefits, better taste, no smoke smell, and more effect from the same amount of marijuana. Users identified 2 disadvantages: inconvenience of setup and cleaning and the time it takes to get the device operating for each use. Only 2 individuals combined tobacco in the vaporizer mix, whereas 15 combined tobacco with marijuana when they smoked marijuana. Almost all participants intended to continue using a vaporizer. Vaporizers seem to have appeal to marijuana users, who perceive them as having harm-reduction and other benefits. Vaporizers are worthy of experimental research evaluating health-related effects of using them.

  15. Medical marijuana: Medical necessity versus political agenda

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Peter A.; Capuzzi, Kevin; Fick, Cameron

    2011-01-01

    Summary Marijuana is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as an illegal Schedule I drug which has no accepted medical use. However, recent studies have shown that medical marijuana is effective in controlling chronic non-cancer pain, alleviating nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy, treating wasting syndrome associated with AIDS, and controlling muscle spasms due to multiple sclerosis. These studies state that the alleviating benefits of marijuana outweigh the negative effects of the drug, and recommend that marijuana be administered to patients who have failed to respond to other therapies. Despite supporting evidence, the DEA refuses to reclassify marijuana as a Schedule II drug, which would allow physicians to prescribe marijuana to suffering patients. The use of medical marijuana has continued to gain support among states, and is currently legal in 16 states and the District of Columbia. This is in stark contrast to the federal government’s stance of zero-tolerance, which has led to a heated legal debate in the United States. After reviewing relevant scientific data and grounding the issue in ethical principles like beneficence and nonmaleficence, there is a strong argument for allowing physicians to prescribe marijuana. Patients have a right to all beneficial treatments and to deny them this right violates their basic human rights. PMID:22129912

  16. Rules regarding marijuana and its use in personal residences: findings from marijuana users and nonusers recruited through social media.

    PubMed

    Berg, Carla J; Buller, David B; Schauer, Gillian L; Windle, Michael; Stratton, Erin; Kegler, Michelle C

    2015-01-01

    Recent changes in policy and social norms related to marijuana use have increased its use and concern about how/where marijuana should be used. We aimed to characterize rules regarding marijuana and its use in homes. We recruited 1,567 US adults aged 18-34 years through Facebook advertisements to complete an online survey assessing marijuana use, social factors, perceptions of marijuana, and rules regarding marijuana and its use in the home, targeting tobacco and marijuana users to ensure the relevance of this topic. Overall, 648 (41.6%) were current marijuana users; 46.0% of participants reported that "marijuana of any type is not allowed in their home or on their property." Of those allowing marijuana on their property, 6.4% prohibited use of marijuana in their home. Of the remainder, 29.2% prohibited smoking marijuana, and 11.0% prohibited vaping, eating, or drinking marijuana. Correlates of more restrictive rules included younger age, being female, having marijuana, perceiving use to be less socially acceptable and more harmful, and being a nonuser (p's <.05). Attitudes and subjective norms regarding marijuana are correlates of allowing marijuana in residential settings. Future work should examine areas of risk regarding household marijuana rules.

  17. Toxicology observation: nystagmus after marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Kibby, Thomas; Halcomb, S Eliza

    2013-05-01

    Traditional teaching has held that horizontal-gaze nystagmus is a sign of intoxication by sedatives such as alcohol but not marijuana. This is a case report of an adult male who presents with 3 days of visual disturbance and dizziness following marijuana use. The exam was notable for gaze-evoked nystagmus and ataxia. Lab testing was normal except that urine drug screening was positive for marijuana only. Imaging included computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the head. Prior studies showing a negative association of nystagmus with marijuana are reviewed. This case is presented as a possible exception to the generalisation that marijuana is not associated with nystagmus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  18. Microaggressions and marijuana use among college students.

    PubMed

    Pro, George; Sahker, Ethan; Marzell, Miesha

    2017-03-09

    This study examines the association between exposure to microaggressions and marijuana use, using original survey data from a sample of racial/ethnic minority college students (n = 332) from a large Division I university in the United States. Nearly all of our sample (96%) reported at least one experience with microaggressions in the past 6 months, while 33% reported using marijuana regularly. We modeled regular use of marijuana using multiple logistic regression, with consideration of sex, age, race/ethnicity, and microaggression scale scores as covariates. Age, sex, the microinvalidations subscale score, and the full microaggression scale score were significantly associated with marijuana use in our full models (p < .01; p = .01; p = .02; p = .03, respectively). With each additional experience of microaggression, the odds of regular marijuana use increase. Academic communities may consider the primary prevention of discriminatory behavior when addressing student substance use.

  19. Marijuana use and car crash injury.

    PubMed

    Blows, Stephanie; Ivers, Rebecca Q; Connor, Jennie; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Woodward, Mark; Norton, Robyn

    2005-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between marijuana use prior to driving, habitual marijuana use and car crash injury. Population based case-control study in Auckland, New Zealand. Case vehicles were all cars involved in crashes in which at least one occupant was hospitalized or killed anywhere in the Auckland region, and control vehicles were a random sample of cars driving on Auckland roads. The drivers of 571 case and 588 control vehicles completed a structured interview. Self reported marijuana use in the 3 hours prior to the crash/survey and habitual marijuana use over the previous 12 months were recorded, along with a range of other variables potentially related to crash risk. The main outcome measure was hospitalization or death of a vehicle occupant due to car crash injury. Acute marijuana use was significantly associated with car crash injury, after controlling for the confounders age, gender, ethnicity, education level, passenger carriage, driving exposure and time of day (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.2-12.9). However, after adjustment for these confounders plus other risky driving at the time of the crash (blood alcohol concentration, seat-belt use, travelling speed and sleepiness score), the effect of acute marijuana intake was no longer significant (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.2-3.3). There was a strong significant association between habitual use and car crash injury after adjustment for all the above confounders plus acute use prior to driving (OR 9.5, 95% CI 2.8-32.3). This population-based case-control study indicates that habitual use of marijuana is strongly associated with car crash injury. The nature of the relationship between marijuana use and risk-taking is unclear and needs further research. The prevalence of marijuana use in this driving population was low, and acute use was associated with habitual marijuana use, suggesting that intervention strategies may be more effective if they are targeted towards high use groups.

  20. Shifting the Paradigm: Adolescent Cannabis Abuse and the Need for Early Intervention.

    PubMed

    Golick, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the increasing risks of use of marijuana and related products by adolescents. As THC content increases and methods such as "dabbing" increase frequency of use, risks of marijuana use as perceived by youth are decreasing. At a time when marijuana access is increasing nationally, a new marijuana landscape is forming in which both adolescents and treatment providers must adjust their perceptions of what was once thought of as a "harmless" drug. This article describes this new landscape, and what it may mean for adolescent drug treatment.

  1. Positive expectancies mediate the association between sensation seeking and marijuana outcomes in at-risk young adults: A test of the acquired preparedness model.

    PubMed

    Curry, Inga; Trim, Ryan S; Brown, Sandra A; Hopfer, Christian J; Stallings, Michael C; Wall, Tamara L

    2018-06-06

    The acquired preparedness model (APM) integrates personality trait research and psychosocial learning, which are theorized to ultimately increase risk for problematic substance use outcomes. The present study uses the APM to examine the potential mediational role of positive and negative expectancies on the relationship between impulsivity and two marijuana outcomes (ie, frequency of use and marijuana use disorder [MUD] symptom count) among an at-risk sample of young adults with history of antisocial behavior and substance use in adolescence and their siblings (n = 312). Results suggest a significant indirect effect of sensation seeking on recent marijuana use through positive marijuana expectancies. There also was a significant indirect effect of sensation seeking on past-year MUD symptoms through positive expectancies. No significant indirect effects through negative expectancies were found for either outcome. Our findings are consistent with the APM and suggest that higher sensation seeking is related to increased positive beliefs about marijuana outcomes, which is related to higher marijuana use and more MUD symptoms. These findings suggest that positive expectancies are an important risk factor for marijuana use and misuse, particularly for at-risk individuals with elevated rates of sensation seeking. Positive marijuana expectancies may be important to address in interventions for at-risk individuals. (Am J Addict 2018;XX:1-6). © 2018 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  2. Medical and recreational marijuana: commentary and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Samuel T

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen substantial shifts in cultural attitudes towards marijuana for medical and recreational use. Potential problems with the approval, production, dispensation, route of administration, and negative health effects of medical and recreational marijuana are reviewed. Medical marijuana should be subject to the same rigorous approval process as other medications prescribed by physicians. Legalizing recreational marijuana may have negative public health effects.

  3. Chronic Offenders: A Life-Course Analysis of Marijuana Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragan, Daniel T.; Beaver, Kevin M.

    2010-01-01

    Marijuana is the most widely used illegal drug, and the use of marijuana has been linked to a wide array of maladaptive outcomes. As a result, there is great interest in identifying the factors that are associated with the use of marijuana and with desistance from marijuana. The current study employed a life-course framework to examine the factors…

  4. Sex and Grade Level Differences in Marijuana Use among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hoffman, Ashlee R.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 54,361 students in seventh through twelfth grades completed a survey examining the impact of perceived harm of marijuana use, ease of access in obtaining marijuana, and perceived parent/peer disapproval of marijuana use on youth involvement in annual and recent marijuana use. Results indicated that 1 in 6 (16%) students used marijuana…

  5. "Anything above marijuana takes priority": Obstetric providers' attitudes and counseling strategies regarding perinatal marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Holland, Cynthia L; Nkumsah, Michelle Abena; Morrison, Penelope; Tarr, Jill A; Rubio, Doris; Rodriguez, Keri L; Kraemer, Kevin L; Day, Nancy; Arnold, Robert M; Chang, Judy C

    2016-09-01

    To describe obstetric provider attitudes, beliefs, approaches, concerns, and needs about addressing perinatal marijuana use with their pregnant patients. We conducted individual semi-structured interviews with obstetric providers and asked them to describe their thoughts and experiences about addressing perinatal marijuana use. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, coded and reviewed to identify themes. Fifty-one providers participated in semi-structured interviews. Providers admitted they were not familiar with identified risks of marijuana use during pregnancy, they perceived marijuana was not as dangerous as other illicit drugs, and they believed patients did not view marijuana as a drug. Most provider counseling strategies focused on marijuana's status as an illegal drug and the risk of child protective services being contacted if patients tested positive at time of delivery. When counseling about perinatal marijuana use, obstetric providers focus more on legal issues than on health risks. They describe needing more information regarding medical consequences of marijuana use during pregnancy. Provider training should include information about potential consequences of perinatal marijuana use and address ways to improve obstetric providers' counseling. Future studies should assess changes in providers' attitudes as more states consider the legalization of marijuana. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Community-based abstinence education project: program outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Denise Nagle; Wolf, Zane Robinson

    2015-01-01

    Middle school and adolescent populations demonstrate high rates of unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections, with young people in inner cities in the United States especially vulnerable. Teen births remain high, and youth are affected physically, mentally, socially, and economically. The Sex After Marriage primary prevention program, a federally funded, community-based abstinence education (CBAE) initiative, was implemented for 3 years in Philadelphia neighborhoods with vulnerable youth 12 to 18 years of age, supporting adults, healthcare professionals, and the general public. The three-tiered program offered a middle school curriculum, Sex Can Wait, at 16 different sites. The CBAE program delivered by the university's nursing center attempted to support vulnerable youths' decisions to postpone sexual activity by matching the interests of young people through an established curriculum, by holding workshops for supporting adults, and by creating a multimedia approach to supplement abstinence education initiatives including public service announcements and a website. Youth and college ambassadors and community colleagues were trained in the curriculum with a focus on healthy lifestyles. Youth and parents in experimental and control groups completed self-report surveys before and after program implementation. The project achieved most of its objectives on program evaluation. Youth (n = 1,428) 12 to 18 years of age received services, with most completing ≥75% of the program. Parents (n = 338) and other participating adults (n = 486) also received education or services. The need for risk reduction programs persists for youth in light of pregnancy, birth, and sexually transmitted disease statistics. Bailey Wolf. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The Challenges of Projecting the Public Health Impacts of Marijuana Legalization in Canada Comment on "Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts".

    PubMed

    Lake, Stephanie; Kerr, Thomas

    2016-09-10

    A recent editorial in this journal provides a summary of key economic, social, and public health considerations of the forthcoming legislation to legalize, regulate, and restrict access to marijuana in Canada. As our government plans to implement an evidence-based public health framework for marijuana legalization, we reflect and expand on recent discussions of the public health implications of marijuana legalization, and offer additional points of consideration. We select two commonly cited public concerns of marijuana legalization - adolescent usage and impaired driving - and discuss how the underdeveloped and equivocal body of scientific literature surrounding these issues limits the ability to predict the effects of legalization. Finally, we discuss the potential for some potential public health benefits of marijuana legalization - specifically the potential for marijuana to be used as a substitute to opioids and other risky substance use - that have to date not received adequate attention. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  8. Marijuana Use Among Patients With Glaucoma in a City With Legalized Medical Marijuana Use.

    PubMed

    Belyea, David A; Alhabshan, Rashed; Del Rio-Gonzalez, Ana Maria; Chadha, Nisha; Lamba, Tania; Golshani, Cyrus; Merchant, Kunal; Passi, Neena; Dan, Jacob A

    2016-03-01

    Previous research has shown several limitations associated with the use of marijuana as a treatment for glaucoma. However, little is known regarding patients' perceptions toward using marijuana for glaucoma and their intentions to use this therapeutic alternative. To identify factors among patients with glaucoma that could lead to intentions to use marijuana for treatment. This cross-sectional survey study of 204 patients with glaucoma or suspected to have glaucoma was conducted at an academic-based glaucoma clinic in Washington, DC, between February 1 and July 31, 2013. Patients completed a self-administered survey assessing demographics, perceived severity of glaucoma, prior knowledge about marijuana use in glaucoma, past marijuana use, perceptions toward marijuana use (legality, systemic adverse effects, safety and effectiveness, and false beliefs), satisfaction with current glaucoma management, relevance of treatment costs, and intentions to use marijuana for glaucoma. Medical records were reviewed for disease severity. Data analysis was conducted from September 1, 2013, to September 30, 2015. The main outcome was patients' intentions to use marijuana for glaucoma. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with patients' intentions to use marijuana for glaucoma. Of the 334 patients who were invited to participate in the study, 204 (61.1%) completed the survey. About half the participants were women (104 [51.0]%), and 82 (40.2%) were white. Regression analysis of 204 respondents indicated that perceptions of legality of marijuana use (β, 0.378; 95% CI, 0.205 to 0.444; P < .001), false beliefs regarding marijuana (β, 0.323; 95% CI, 0.236 to 0.504; P < .001), satisfaction with current glaucoma care (β, -0.222; 95% CI, -0.362 to -0.128; P < .001), and relevance of marijuana and glaucoma treatment costs (β, 0.127; 95% CI, 0.008 to 0.210; P = .04) were significantly associated with intentions to use marijuana for glaucoma

  9. Association Between Marijuana Use and Condom Use: A Meta-Analysis of Between-Subject Event-Based Studies.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Amy; Marzell, Miesha; Toepp, Angela J; Schweizer, Marin L

    2018-05-01

    With the current public health burden of sexually transmitted infections, it is important to identify factors affecting condom use. The association between marijuana use and condom use is especially important because of the increasing number of U.S. states legalizing marijuana; however, relevant research findings are mixed. The goal of this study was to perform a meta-analysis assessing the relationship between marijuana and condom use at instances of sexual intercourse. A systematic search of four databases was performed. Data were extracted and pooled estimates were calculated using random-effects models with inverse variance weighting. Heterogeneity was evaluated using the Cochran Q chi-square test. Eleven studies were included. There was a statistically significant relationship between marijuana and condom use in the overall pooled analysis (odds ratio [OR] = 0.71, 95% CI [0.56, 0.89]), and studies were homogeneous, I 2 = 12%, χ 2 (10) = 11.37, p = .33. Stratified analyses showed that although the pooled OR was not significant for adults (OR = 0.92, 95% CI [0.64, 1.33]), there was a significant relationship between condom use and marijuana use for adolescents (OR = 0.62, 95% CI [0.47, 0.82]). This meta-analysis found that the odds of condom use were lower for those who used marijuana around the time of intercourse than for those who did not, with this effect only significant for adolescents in a subgroup analysis. As the adolescent populations in this analysis were not representative of a general population of adolescents, future research should focus not only on those considered high risk.

  10. Political and medical views on medical marijuana and its future.

    PubMed

    Rubens, Muni

    2014-01-01

    The policies, laws, politics, public opinions, and scientific inferences of medical marijuana are rapidly changing as the debate on medical use of marijuana has always been political, rather than scientific. Federal law has barred the use of medical marijuana though 18 state governments and Washington, DC, support the medical use of marijuana. Unfortunately, not many studies exist on medical marijuana to back these laws and policies. The judiciary, on the other hand, has elicited a diverse response to medical marijuana through its rulings over several decades. Some rulings favored the federal government's opinion, and others supported the larger public view and many state governments with legalized medical marijuana. Public opinion on legalizing medical marijuana has always favored the use of medical marijuana. The movement of scientific knowledge of medical marijuana follows an erratic, discontinuous pathway. The future place of medical marijuana in U.S. society remains unknown. The three forces-scientific knowledge, social-political acceptance, and laws-play a role in the direction that medical marijuana takes in society. Overcoming political-social forces requires a concerted effort from the scientific community and political leaders. The results of scientific research must guide the decisions for laws and medical use of marijuana. This article aims to trace the political dilemma and contradictory views shared by federal and state governments and predict the future of medical marijuana by tracing the past history of medical marijuana with its bumpy pathway in the social-political arena.

  11. Medical marijuana: the state of the research.

    PubMed

    Mirken, B

    1996-10-18

    Recent raids on buyers' clubs in San Francisco have focused attention on medicinal uses of marijuana. The Clinton administration's policy is that there is no scientific evidence that smoked marijuana is useful in treating pain and nausea in AIDS and cancer patients. However, mainstream medical literature has supported the use of cannabis in managing symptoms of diseases such as glaucoma and multiple sclerosis. Well designed, controlled studies of marijuana are needed to determine the effective medical uses of the drug and break the political stalemate on this issue.

  12. States' implementation of the Section 510 abstinence education program, FY 1999.

    PubMed

    Sonfield, A; Gold, R B

    2001-01-01

    As part of its reworking of the nation's welfare system in 1996, Congress enacted a major new abstinence education initiative (Section 510 of Title V of the Social Security Act), projected to spend $87.5 million in federal, state and local funds per year for five years. The new program is designed to emphasize abstinence from sexual activity outside of marriage, at any age, rather than premarital abstinence for adolescents, which was typical of earlier efforts. The actual message and impact of the program, however, will depend on how it is implemented. Program coordinators in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico were surveyed concerning implementation of the Section 510 abstinence education program in FY 1999. The questionnaire asked about expenditures and activities performed, about policies established for a variety of specific situations and about how the term "sexual activity" is defined and what specific components of the federal definition of "abstinence education" are emphasized. Forty-five jurisdictions spent a total of $69 million through the Section 510 program in FY 1999. Of this total, $33 million was spent through public entities, $28 million was spent through private entities and $7million (in 22 jurisdictions) was spent through faith-based entities. Almost all jurisdictions reported funding school-related activities, with 38 reporting in-school instruction and presentations. Twenty-eight jurisdictions prohibited organizations from providing information about contraception (aside from failure rates), even at a client's request, while only six jurisdictions prohibited information about sexually transmitted diseases. Few reported having a policy or rendering guidance about providing services addressing sexual abuse, sexual orientation or existing pregnancy and parenthood. Only six respondents said they defined "sexual activity" for purposes of the program, and 16 reported focusing on specific portions of the federal definition of

  13. Understanding Race and Gender Differences in Delinquent Acts and Alcohol and Marijuana Use: A Developmental Analysis of Initiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Ayers, Charles D.; Bright, Charlotte L.; Abbott, Robert D.; Hawkins, J. David

    2007-01-01

    Guided by social development constructs, this article investigates race and gender differences in the initiation of various types of delinquent behavior and alcohol and marijuana use among African American and Caucasian adolescents in grades 7 through 12. In addition, this study examined the potential direct or indirect effects of parental…

  14. Pathways to Adult Marijuana and Cocaine Use: A Prospective Study of African Americans from Age 6 to 42

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fothergill, Kate E.; Ensminger, Margaret E.; Green, Kerry M.; Robertson, Judith A.; Juon, Hee Soon

    2009-01-01

    This study examines pathways to adult marijuana and cocaine use in a cohort of African Americans from Woodlawn, an inner city community in Chicago. Assessments were conducted in first grade (age 6), adolescence (age 16), early adulthood (age 32), and in mid-adulthood (age 42). The "social adaptation life course" framework guided the…

  15. Marijuana protective behavioral strategies as a moderator of the effects of risk/protective factors on marijuana-related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Adrian J; Anthenien, Amber M; Prince, Mark A; Pearson, Matthew R

    2017-06-01

    Given that both marijuana use and cannabis use disorder peak among college students, it is imperative to determine the factors that may reduce risk of problematic marijuana use and/or the development of cannabis use disorder. From a harm reduction perspective, the present study examined whether the use of marijuana protective behavioral strategies (PBS) buffers or amplifies the effects of several distinct risk and protective factors that have been shown to relate to marijuana-related outcomes (i.e., use frequency and consequences). Specifically, we examined marijuana-PBS use as a moderator of the effects of impulsivity-like traits, marijuana use motives, gender, and marijuana use frequency on marijuana-related outcomes in a large sample of college students (n=2093 past month marijuana users across 11 universities). In all models PBS use was robustly related with use frequency and consequences (i.e., strongly negatively associated with marijuana outcomes). Among interactions, we found: 1) unique significant interactions between specific impulsivity-like traits (i.e., premeditation, perseverance, and sensation seeking) and marijuana-PBS use in predicting marijuana consequences, 2) unique significant interactions between each marijuana use motive and marijuana-PBS use in predicting marijuana use frequency and 3) marijuana-PBS use buffered the risk associated with male gender in predicting both marijuana outcomes. Our results suggest that marijuana-PBS use can buffer risk factors and enhance protective factors among marijuana using college students. Future research is needed to understand context-specific factors and individual-level factors that may make marijuana-PBS use more effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. SOCIAL ANXIETY DISORDER AND MARIJUANA USE PROBLEMS: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF MARIJUANA EFFECT EXPECTANCIES

    PubMed Central

    Buckner, Julia D.; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) appear particularly vulnerable to marijuana-related problems. Yet, mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. Methods: This study examined the role of marijuana effect expectancies in the relation between SAD and marijuana problems among 107 marijuana users (43.0% female), 26.2% of whom met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders—Fourth Edition criteria for SAD. Anxiety and mood disorders were determined during clinical interviews using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule—IV-L (ADIS-IV). Results: Analyses (including sex, mari