Camchong, Jazmin; Stenger, Victor Andrew; Fein, George
Background We previously reported that when long-term abstinent alcoholics (LTAA; with no drug comorbidity) are compared to controls, they show increased resting state synchrony (RSS) in the executive control network and reduced RSS in the appetitive drive network suggestive of compensatory mechanisms that may facilitate abstinence. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether long-term abstinent alcoholics with comorbid stimulants dependence (LTAAS) show similar RSS mechanisms. Methods Resting-state functional MRI data were collected on 36 LTAAS (20 females, age: 47.85 ± 7.30), 23 LTAA (8 females, age: M = 47.91 ± 6.76), and 23 non-substance abusing controls (NSAC; 8 females, age: M = 47.99 ± 6.70). Using seed-based measures, we examined RSS with the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC). Results Results showed commonalities in LTAA and LTAAS RSS (similar enhanced executive control RSS and left insula RSS) as well as differences (no attenuation of appetitive drive RSS in LTAAS and no enhancement of RSS in right insula in LTAA). Conclusions We believe these differences are adaptive mechanisms that support abstinence. These findings suggest common as well as specific targets for treatment in chronic alcoholics with vs without comorbid stimulant dependence. PMID:23639390
Fein, George; Camchong, Jazmin; Cardenas, Valerie A; Stenger, Andy
Alcoholism is characterized by a lack of control over an impulsive and compulsive drive toward excessive alcohol consumption despite significant negative consequences; our previous work demonstrated that successful abstinence is characterized by decreased resting-state synchrony (RSS) as measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), within appetitive drive networks and increased RSS in emotion regulation and inhibitory executive control networks. Our hypothesis is that LTAA (Long-Term Abstinent Alcoholics) with a current major depressive disorder (MDD) drank primarily to deal with the negative affect associated with their MDD and not because of a heightened externalizing diathesis (including heightened appetitive drive), and consequently, in achieving and maintaining abstinence, such individuals would not exhibit the RSS adaptations characteristic of pure alcoholics. We studied 69 NSAC (Non Substance Abusing Controls) and 40 LTAA (8 with current MDD, 32 without a current MDD) using resting-state fMRI and seed based connectivity analyses. In the inhibitory executive control network (nucleus accumbens vs. left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex), LTAA with a current MDD showed increased synchrony compared to NSAC. In the emotion regulation executive control network (subgenual anterior cingulate cortex vs. right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex), LTAA with current MDD did not show increased RSS. In the appetitive drive networks (nucleus accumbens vs, aspects of the caudate nucleus and thalamus), LTAA with a current MDD did not show a reduction of RSS compared to NSAC, but LTAA without a current MDD did. These results suggest different pathways to their alcohol dependence in LTAA with vs. without a current MDD, and different patterns of brain activity in long-term abstinence, suggesting different treatment needs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fein, George; Camchong, Jazmin; Cardenas, Valerie A.; Stenger, Andy
Alcoholism is characterized by a lack of control over an impulsive and compulsive drive toward excessive alcohol consumption despite significant negative consequences; our previous work demonstrated that successful abstinence is characterized by decreased resting-state synchrony (RSS) as measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), within appetitive drive networks and increased RSS in emotion regulation and inhibitory executive control networks. Our hypothesis is that LTAA (Long-Term Abstinent Alcoholics) with a current major depressive disorder (MDD) drank primarily to deal with the negative affect associated with their MDD and not because of a heightened externalizing diathesis (including heightened appetitive drive), and consequently, in achieving and maintaining abstinence, such individuals would not exhibit the RSS adaptations characteristic of pure alcoholics. We studied 69 NSAC (Non Substance Abusing Controls) and 40 LTAA (8 with current MDD, 32 without a current MDD) using resting-state fMRI and seed based connectivity analyses. In the inhibitory executive control network (nucleus accumbens vs. left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex), LTAA with a current MDD showed increased synchrony compared to NSAC. In the emotion regulation executive control network (subgenual anterior cingulate cortex vs. right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex), LTAA with current MDD did not show increased RSS. In the appetitive drive networks (nucleus accumbens vs, aspects of the caudate nucleus and thalamus), LTAA with a current MDD did not show a reduction of RSS compared to NSAC, but LTAA without a current MDD did. These results suggest different pathways to their alcohol dependence in LTAA with vs. without a current MDD, and different patterns of brain activity in long-term abstinence, suggesting different treatment needs. PMID:28262184
Camchong, Jazmin; Stenger, Victor Andrew; Fein, George
BACKGROUND We previously reported that when compared to controls, long-term abstinent alcoholics (LTAA) have increased resting state synchrony (RSS) of the inhibitory control network and reduced synchrony of the appetitive drive network, and hypothesized that these levels of synchrony are adaptive, and support the behavioral changes required to maintain abstinence. In the current study, we investigate whether these RSS patterns can be identified in short-term abstinent alcoholics. METHODS Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 27 short-term abstinent alcoholics (STAA), 23 LTAA and 23 non-substance abusing controls (NSAC). We examined baseline RSS using seed-based measures. RESULTS We found ordered RSS effects from NSAC to STAA and then to LTAA within both the appetitive drive and executive control networks: increasing RSS of the executive control network, and decreasing RSS of the reward processing network. Finally, we found significant correlations between strength of RSS in these networks and (a) cognitive flexibility and (b) current antisocial behavior. DISCUSSION Findings are consistent with an adaptive progression of RSS from short- to long-term abstinence so that, compared to normal controls, the synchrony (a) within the reward network progressively decreases and (b) within the executive control network progressively increases. PMID:23421812
Camchong, Jazmin; Stenger, Andy; Fein, George
BACKGROUND Alcohol dependence (ALC) is a disorder with an impulsive and compulsive “drive” towards alcohol consumption and an inability to inhibit alcohol consumption. Neuroimaging studies suggest that these behavioral components correspond to an increased involvement of regions that mediate appetitive drive and reduced involvement of regions that mediate executive control within top-down networks. Little is known, however, about whether these characteristics are present after long periods of abstinence. METHODS Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected to examine resting state synchrony (RSS) differences between 23 long-term abstinent alcoholics (LTAA; 8 females, age: M=48.46, SD=7.10), and 23 non-substance abusing controls (NSAC; 8 females, age: M=47.99, SD=6.70). Using seed-based measures, we examined resting-state synchrony with the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). All participants were assessed with the intra/extradimensional set shift task outside of the scanner to explore the relationship between RSS and cognitive flexibility. RESULTS Compared to NSAC, LTAA showed (a) decreased synchrony of limbic reward regions (e.g., caudate and thalamus) with both the ACC seed and the NAcc seed and (b) increased synchrony of executive control regions (e.g., DLPFC) with both the NAcc seed and the subgenual ACC seed. RSS differences were significantly correlated with task performance. CONCLUSIONS The results are consistent with an interpretation of an ongoing compensatory mechanism in long-term abstinent alcoholics evident during rest, in which decision making networks show reduced synchrony with appetitive drive regions and increased synchrony with inhibitory control regions. In addition, RSS differences were associated with cognitive flexibility. These resting state findings indicate an adaptive mechanism present in long-term abstinence that may facilitate the behavioral control required for to
Andrew, Colin; Fein, George
Studies have suggested that non-phase-locked event-related oscillations (ERO) in target stimulus processing might provide biomarkers of alcoholism. This study investigates the discriminatory power of non-phase-locked oscillations in a group of long-term abstinent alcoholics (LTAAs) and non-alcoholic controls (NACs). EEGs were recorded from 48 LTAAs and 48 age and gender comparable NACs during rest with eyes open (EO) and during the performance of a three-condition visual target detection task. The data were analyzed to extract resting power, ERP amplitude and non-phase-locked ERO power measures. Data were analyzed using MANCOVA to determine the discriminatory power of induced theta ERO vs. resting theta power vs. P300 ERP measures in differentiating the LTAA and NAC groups. Both groups showed significantly more theta power in the pre-stimulus reference period of the task vs. the resting EO condition. The resting theta power did not discriminate the groups, while the LTAAs showed significantly less pre-stimulus theta power vs. the NACs. The LTAAs showed a significantly larger theta event-related synchronization (ERS) to the target stimulus vs. the NACs, even after accounting for pre-stimulus theta power levels. ERS to non-target stimuli showed smaller induced oscillations vs. target stimuli with no group differences. Alcohol use variables, a family history of alcohol problems, and the duration of alcohol abstinence were not associated with any theta power measures. While reference theta power in the task and induced theta oscillations to target stimuli both discriminate LTAAs and NACs, induced theta oscillations better discriminate the groups. Induced theta power measures are also more powerful and independent group discriminators than the P3b amplitude. Induced frontal theta oscillations promise to provide biomarkers of alcoholism that complement the well-established P300 ERP discriminators.
Winter, Torsten; Karvonen, Sakari; Rose, Richard J.
We analyzed prevalence and stability of attitudes endorsing sexual abstinence ideals from late adolescence into early adulthood and studied associations of these attitudes with religiosity and alcohol abstinence in a sexually liberal Nordic society. Our population-based sample of Finnish twins permitted comparisons of co-twins concordant for religiosity but discordant for drinking to evaluate the association of sexual abstinence ideals with alcohol abstinence, controlling for household environment. From age 17 to 24, endorsement of sexual abstinence as a romantic ideal declined from 25% to 15%. Religiosity and alcohol abstinence correlated, both separately and together, with endorsing sexual abstinence. Abstinence ideals were associated with literal belief in fundamental tenets of the Bible. The association of sexual abstinence ideals with alcohol abstinence was confirmed in within-family comparisons of co-twins discordant for drinking but concordant for religiosity. Alcohol-abstinent twins were significantly more likely than their non-alcohol-abstinent twin siblings to endorse sexual abstinence ideals; that result suggests the association of sexual abstinence ideals with abstaining from alcohol is not explained by unmeasured confounds in familial background and structure. Our longitudinal results and analyses of discordant twins suggest that attitudes toward sexual abstinence ideals are embedded within other conservative attitudes and behaviors. PMID:23301620
Hillmer, Ansel T; Kloczynski, Tracy; Sandiego, Christine M; Pittman, Brian; Anderson, Jon M; Labaree, David; Gao, Hong; Huang, Yiyun; Deluliis, Giuseppe; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Carson, Richard E; Cosgrove, Kelly P
Alcohol dependence and tobacco smoking are highly comorbid, and treating both conditions simultaneously is controversial. Previously, we showed that tobacco smoking interferes with GABAA receptor neuroadaptations during alcohol withdrawal in humans, while this effect did not occur with continued nicotine use during alcohol abstinence in nonhuman primates. Here, we extend our previous work by measuring GABAA receptor availability with positron emission tomography (PET) during drug abstinence in nonhuman primates exposed to alcohol alone, nicotine and alcohol together, and alcohol abstinence with continued nicotine exposure. Twenty-four adolescent male rhesus macaques orally self-administered alcohol and nicotine, available separately in water and saccharin, over 20 weeks. The groups included alcohol alone (n = 8); nicotine and alcohol with simultaneous abstinence (n = 8); nicotine and alcohol with alcohol abstinence while nicotine was still available (n = 8); and a pilot group of animals consuming nicotine alone (n = 6). Animals were imaged with [(11)C]flumazenil PET to measure binding potential (BPND), an index of GABAA receptor availability. Imaging occurred at baseline (drug-naíve), and following alcohol and/or nicotine cessation at 1 day, 8 days, and 12 weeks of abstinence. Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine the time course of [(11)C]flumazenil BPND during alcohol abstinence across groups. Animals consumed 3.95 ± 1.22 g/kg/d alcohol and 55.4 ± 35.1 mg/kg/d nicotine. No significant group effects were observed in [(11)C]flumazenil BPND during alcohol abstinence; however, a main effect of time was detected. Post hoc analyses indicated that all groups abstaining from alcohol exhibited significantly increased GABAA receptor availability at 1 day and 8 days (but not 12 weeks) of abstinence relative to baseline, while no changes in [(11)C]flumazenil BPND during nicotine abstinence alone were observed. These data indicate that neither nicotine nor
Reed, R J; Grant, I; Rourke, S B
It is generally believed that many non-Korsakoff alcoholics have subtle defects in memory. To determine whether such defects vary as a function of length of abstinence (LOA), we performed extensive memory testing with: (1) recently detoxified (n = 31; LOA-29 days); (2) intermediate-term abstinent (n = 28; LOA = 1.9 years); (3) long-term abstinent (n = 32; LOA-7.0 years) alcoholics; and (4) nonalcoholic controls (n = 37). All subjects were matched on age and education. Alcoholics were matched on years of alcoholic drinking. Memory measures were divided into the following domains: verbal learning, verbal recall, visual learning, visual recall, and paired associate learning. A series of MANOVAs were conducted that revealed a significant relationship between visual learning and length of abstinence, and a significant interaction between age and length of abstinence on visual recall. Long-term abstinent subjects were not significantly different from controls on any test. We conclude that memory disturbance demonstrable among recently detoxified alcoholics in the early weeks of their abstinence is not evident in demographically matched long-term abstinent alcoholics with similar drinking histories.
Schmidt, Thomas P; Pennington, David L; Durazzo, Timothy C; Meyerhoff, Dieter J
Static postural instability is common in alcohol-dependent individuals (ALC). Chronic alcohol consumption has deleterious effects on the neural and perceptual systems subserving postural stability. However, little is known about the effects of chronic cigarette smoking on postural stability and its changes during abstinence from alcohol. A modified Fregly ataxia battery was administered to a total of 115 smoking (sALC) and nonsmoking ALC (nsALC) and to 71 smoking (sCON) and nonsmoking light/nondrinking controls (nsCON). Subgroups of abstinent ALC were assessed at 3 time points (TPs; approximately 1, 5, 34 weeks of abstinence from alcohol); a subset of nsCON was retested at 40 weeks. We tested whether cigarette smoking affects postural stability in CON and in ALC during extended abstinence from alcohol, and we used linear mixed effects modeling to measure change across TPs within ALC. Chronic smoking was associated with reduced performance on the Sharpened Romberg eyes-closed task in abstinent ALC at all 3 TPs and in CON. The test performance of nsALC increased significantly between 1 and 32 weeks of abstinence, whereas the corresponding increases for sALC between 1 and 35 weeks were nonsignificant. With long-term abstinence from alcohol, nsALC recovered into the range of nsCON and sALC recovered into the range of sCON. Static postural stability decreased with age and correlated with smoking variables but not with drinking measures. Chronic smoking was associated with reduced static postural stability with eyes closed and with lower increases of postural stability during abstinence from alcohol. Smoking cessation in alcohol dependence treatment may facilitate recovery from static postural instability during abstinence. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Schmidt, Thomas Paul; Pennington, David Louis; Durazzo, Timothy Craig; Meyerhoff, Dieter Johannes
Background Static postural instability is common in alcohol dependent individuals (ALC). Chronic alcohol consumption has deleterious effects on the neural and perceptual systems subserving postural stability. However, little is known about the effects of chronic cigarette smoking on postural stability and its changes during abstinence from alcohol. Methods A modified Fregly ataxia battery was administered to a total of 115 smoking (sALC) and non-smoking ALC (nsALC) and to 74 smoking (sCON) and non-smoking light/non-drinking controls (nsCON). Subgroups of abstinent ALC were assessed at 3 time points (approximately 1 week, 5 weeks, 34 weeks of abstinence from alcohol); a subset of nsCON was re-tested at 40 weeks. We tested if cigarette smoking affects postural stability in CON and in ALC during extended abstinence from alcohol, and we used linear mixed effects modeling to measure change across time points within ALC. Results Chronic smoking was associated with reduced performance on the Sharpened Romberg eyes-closed task in abstinent ALC at all three time points and in CON. The test performance of nsALC increased significantly between 1 and 32 weeks of abstinence, whereas the corresponding increases for sALC between 1 and 35 weeks was non-significant. With long-term abstinence from alcohol, nsALC recovered into the range of nsCON and sALC recovered into the range of sCON. Static postural stability decreased with age and correlated with smoking variables but not with drinking measures. Conclusions Chronic smoking was associated with reduced static postural stability with eyes closed and with lower increases of postural stability during abstinence from alcohol. Smoking cessation in alcohol dependence treatment may facilitate recovery from static postural instability during abstinence. PMID:24721012
Munsterman, I D; Groefsema, M M; Weijers, G; Klein, W M; Swinkels, D W; Drenth, J P H; Schellekens, A F A; Tjwa, E T T L
In this study in healthy moderate alcohol consumers, we observe that one month of alcohol abstinence results in decreased gamma-glutamyl transferase levels, which return to baseline levels after resumption of alcohol consumption.
... Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Abstinence KidsHealth / For Teens / Abstinence Print en español La abstinencia sexual What Is It? Abstinence is not having sex. A person who decides to practice abstinence has ...
de Visser, Richard O; Robinson, Emily; Bond, Rod
Research suggests that temporary abstinence from alcohol may convey physiological benefits and enhance well-being. The aim of this study was to address a lack of information about: (a) correlates of successful completion of a planned period of abstinence, and (b) how success or failure in planned abstinence affects subsequent alcohol consumption. 857 British adults (249 men, 608 women) participating in the "Dry January" alcohol abstinence challenge completed a baseline questionnaire, a 1-month follow-up questionnaire, and a 6-month follow-up questionnaire. Key variables assessed at baseline included measures of alcohol consumption and drink refusal self-efficacy (DRSE). In bivariate analysis, success during Dry January was predicted by measures of more moderate alcohol consumption and greater social DRSE at baseline. Multivariate analyses revealed that success during Dry January was best predicted by a lower frequency of drunkenness in the month prior to Dry January. Structural equation modeling revealed that participation in Dry January was related to reductions in alcohol consumption and increases in DRSE among all respondents at 6-month follow-up, regardless of success, but indicated that these changes were more likely among people who successfully completed the challenge. The findings suggest that participation in abstinence challenges such as Dry January may be associated with changes toward healthier drinking and greater DRSE, and is unlikely to result in undesirable "rebound effects": very few people reported increased alcohol consumption following a period of voluntary abstinence. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Peters, Erica N; Hughes, John R
Drug abuse treatment programs typically recommend complete abstinence because of a fear that clients who stop use of one drug will substitute another. A within-subjects study investigated whether consumption of alcohol and other substances changes during marijuana abstinence. Twenty-eight daily marijuana users who were not trying to stop or reduce their marijuana consumption completed an 8-day baseline period in which they used marijuana and other drugs as usual, a 13-day marijuana abstinence period, and a 7-day return-to-baseline period. Participants provided self-report of substance use daily and submitted urine samples twice weekly to verify marijuana abstinence. A diagnosis of past alcohol abuse or dependence significantly moderated the alcohol increase from baseline to marijuana abstinence (p<0.01), such that individuals with this diagnosis significantly increased alcohol use (52% increase) but those without this history did not (3% increase). Increases in marijuana withdrawal discomfort scores and alcohol craving scores from baseline to marijuana abstinence significantly and positively correlated with increases in alcohol use. Increases in cigarettes, caffeine, and non-marijuana illicit drugs did not occur. This study provides empirical validation of drug substitution in a subgroup of daily marijuana users, but results need to be replicated in individuals who seek treatment for marijuana problems. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bartsch, Andreas J; Homola, György; Biller, Armin; Smith, Stephen M; Weijers, Heinz-Gerd; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Jenkinson, Mark; De Stefano, Nicola; Solymosi, László; Bendszus, Martin
Chronic alcohol abuse results in morphological, metabolic, and functional brain damage which may, to some extent, be reversible with early effects upon abstinence. Although morphometric, spectroscopic, and neuropsychological indicators of cerebral regeneration have been described previously, the overall amount and spatial preference of early brain recovery attained by abstinence and its associations with other indicators of regeneration are not well established. We investigated global and local brain volume changes in a longitudinal two-timepoint study with T1-weighted MRI at admission and after short-term (6-7 weeks) sobriety follow-up in 15 uncomplicated, recently detoxified alcoholics. Volumetric brain gain was related to metabolic and neuropsychological recovery. On admission and after short-term abstinence, structural image evaluation using normalization of atrophy (SIENA), its voxelwise statistical extension to multiple subjects, proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS), and neuropsychological tests were applied. Upon short-term sobriety, 1H-MRS levels of cerebellar choline and frontomesial N-acetylaspartate (NAA) were significantly augmented. Automatically detected global brain volume gain amounted to nearly two per cent on average and was spatially significant around the superior vermis, perimesencephalic, periventricular and frontal brain edges. It correlated positively with the percentages of cerebellar and frontomesial choline increase, as detected by 1H-MRS. Moreover, frontomesial NAA gains were associated with improved performance on the d2-test of attention. In 10 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects, no significant brain volume or metabolite changes were observed. Although cerebral osmotic regulations may occur initially upon sobriety, significant increases of cerebellar choline and frontomesial NAA levels detected at stable brain water integrals and creatine concentrations, serum electrolytes and red blood cell indices in our patient sample
Krentzman, Amy R
Gratitude is a central component of addiction recovery for many, yet it has received scant attention in addiction research. In a sample of 67 individuals entering abstinence-based alcohol-use-disorder treatment, this study employed gratitude and abstinence variables from sequential assessments (baseline, 6months, 12months) to model theorized causal relationships: gratitude would increase pre-post treatment and gratitude after treatment would predict greater percent days abstinent 6months later. Neither hypothesis was supported. This unexpected result led to the theory that gratitude for sobriety was the construct of interest; therefore, the association between gratitude and future abstinence would be positive among those already abstinent. Thus, post-treatment abstinence was tested as a moderator of the effect of gratitude on future abstinence: this effect was statistically significant. For those who were abstinent after treatment, the relationship between gratitude and future abstinence was positive; for those drinking most frequently after treatment, the relationship between gratitude and future abstinence was negative. In this preliminary study, dispositional tendency to affirm that there is much to be thankful for appeared to perpetuate the status quo-frequent drinkers with high gratitude were drinking frequently 6months later; abstinent individuals with high gratitude were abstinent 6months later. Gratitude exercises might be contraindicated for clients who are drinking frequently and have abstinence as their treatment goal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Miller, N S
The mortality rate from alcoholism and related comorbidities is high. Studies show multiple causes of premature death from alcoholism. Several studies showed that abstinence had a positive effective on the overall survival of alcoholics. Alcoholics who abstained from alcohol, particularly continuously, showed reduced mortality rates and increased years of longevity than alcoholics who relapsed to alcohol consumption. The sources of the findings tend to be derived from treatment populations, in which abstinence is expected to occur in higher rates than in the general population.
Leggio, L.; Ferrulli, A.; Zambon, A.; Caputo, F.; Kenna, G.A.; Swift, R.M.; Addolorato, G.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD), either alone or in combination, count for more than two thirds of all liver diseases in the Western world. There is no safe level of drinking in HCV-infected patients and the most effective goal for these patients is total abstinence. Baclofen, a GABAB receptor agonist, represents a promising pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence (AD). Previously, we performed a randomized clinical trial (RCT), which demonstrated the safety and efficacy of baclofen in patients affected by AD and cirrhosis. The goal of this post-hoc analysis was to explore baclofen's effect in a subgroup of alcohol-dependent HCV-infected cirrhotic patients. Any patient with HCV infection was selected for this analysis. Among the 84 subjects randomized in the main trial, 24 alcohol-dependent cirrhotic patients had a HCV infection; 12 received baclofen 10mg t.i.d. and 12 received placebo for 12-weeks. With respect to the placebo group (3/12, 25.0%), a significantly higher number of patients who achieved and maintained total alcohol abstinence was found in the baclofen group (10/12, 83.3%; p=0.0123). Furthermore, in the baclofen group, compared to placebo, there was a significantly higher increase in albumin values from baseline (p=0.0132) and a trend toward a significant reduction in INR levels from baseline (p=0.0716). In conclusion, baclofen was safe and significantly more effective than placebo in promoting alcohol abstinence, and improving some LFTs (i.e. albumin, INR) in alcohol-dependent HCV-infected cirrhotic patients. Baclofen may represent a clinically relevant alcohol pharmacotherapy for these patients. PMID:22244707
Daig, Isolde; Mahlberg, Richard; Schroeder, Franziska; Gudlowski, Yehonala; Wrase, Jana; Wertenauer, Florian; Bschor, Tom; Esser, Guenter; Heinz, Andreas; Kienast, Thorsten
Alcohol-dependent patients in early abstinence show an impairment of cognitive functions which can be seen in poor implementation of newly learned skills for avoiding relapse. Executive dysfunction may persist during abstinence in alcohol-dependent persons, thus mitigating long-term abstinence. This study assessed visual memory function and choice of organizational strategies in alcoholics, as these are major factors necessary to implement ongoing behavior changes which are required for maintaining abstinence. We investigated 25 severely alcohol-dependent male patients between days 7 to 10 of abstinence, immediately after clinical withdrawal symptoms have ceased, compared to 15 healthy age, sex, and education matched controls. Pharmacological therapy had been terminated at least four half-lifes before inclusion into the study. Visual perceptual learning and organizational strategies were assessed with the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (R-OCF). There were no group differences in copying or recalling the figure, but time differences occurred. Alcoholics and healthy controls performed worse in recalling than in copying. But, alcoholics used less effective organizational strategies. There was a deficit in choice of organizational strategy in newly abstinent and unmedicated alcohol-dependent patients. Due to the imperfect organizational strategies, alcoholics might need auxiliary therapeutic care to strengthen their cognitive ability.
Stevenson, Jennie R; Schroeder, Jason P; Nixon, Kimberly; Besheer, Joyce; Crews, Fulton T; Hodge, Clyde W
Alcoholism and depression show high degrees of comorbidity. Clinical evidence also indicates that depression that emerges during abstinence from chronic alcohol use has a greater negative impact on relapse than pre-existing depression. Although no single neurobiological mechanism can account for the behavioral pathologies associated with these devastating disorders, converging evidence suggests that aspects of both alcoholism and depression are linked to reductions in hippocampal neurogenesis. Here, we report results from a novel preclinical behavioral model showing that abstinence from voluntary alcohol drinking leads to the emergence of depression-like behavior and reductions in neurogenesis. C57BL/6J mice were allowed to self-administer ethanol (10% v/v) vs H2O in the home cage for 28 days. Alcohol was then removed for 1 or 14 days, and mice were tested in the forced swim test to measure depression-like behavior. After 14 days, but not 1 day of abstinence from alcohol drinking, mice showed a significant increase in depression-like behavior. The significant increase in depression-like behavior during abstinence was associated with a reduction in proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and doublecortin (DCX) immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus indicating that both the number of proliferating neural progenitor cells (NPC) and immature neurons were reduced, respectively. The number of NPCs that were labeled with bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdU) at the beginning of alcohol exposure was not altered indicating that survival of NPCs is not linked to abstinence-induced depression. Chronic treatment (14 days) with the antidepressant desipramine during abstinence prevented both the emergence of depression-like behavior and the reduction in hippocampal neurogenesis indicating that abstinence-induced depression is associated with structural plasticity in the hippocampus. Overall, the results of this study support the conclusion that profound functional (ie
Heilig, M.; Egli, M.; Crabbe, J.C.; Becker, H.C.
The role of withdrawal-related phenomena in development and maintenance of alcohol addiction remains under debate. A “self-medication” framework postulates that emotional changes are induced by a history of alcohol use, persist into abstinence, and are a major factor in maintaining alcoholism. This view initially focused on negative emotional states during early withdrawal: these are pronounced, occur in the vast majority of alcohol dependent patients, and are characterized by depressed mood and elevated anxiety. This concept lost popularity with the realization that, in most patients, these symptoms abate over 3 – 6 weeks of abstinence, while relapse risk persists long beyond this period. More recently, animal data have established that a prolonged history of alcohol dependence induces more subtle neuroadaptations. These confer altered emotional processing that persists long into protracted abstinence. The resulting behavioral phenotype is characterized by excessive voluntary alcohol intake and increased behavioral sensitivity to stress. Emerging human data support the clinical relevance of negative emotionality for protracted abstinence and relapse. These developments prompt a series of research questions: 1) Are processes observed during acute withdrawal, while transient in nature, mechanistically related to those that remain during protracted abstinence? 2) Is susceptibility to negative emotionality in acute withdrawal in part due to heritable factors, similar to what animal models have indicated for susceptibility to physical aspects of withdrawal? 3) To what extent is susceptibility to negative affect that persists into protracted abstinence heritable? PMID:20148778
Becker, Jérôme A J; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Le Merrer, Julie
Unified theories of addiction are challenged by differing drug-seeking behaviors and neurobiological adaptations across drug classes, particularly for narcotics and psychostimulants. We previously showed that protracted abstinence to opiates leads to despair behavior and social withdrawal in mice, and we identified a transcriptional signature in the extended amygdala that was also present in animals abstinent from nicotine, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and alcohol. Here we examined whether protracted abstinence to these four drugs would also share common behavioral features, and eventually differ from abstinence to the prototypic psychostimulant cocaine. We found similar reduced social recognition, increased motor stereotypies and increased anxiety with relevant c-fos response alterations in morphine, nicotine, THC and alcohol abstinent mice. Protracted abstinence to cocaine, however, led to strikingly distinct, mostly opposing adaptations at all levels, including behavioral responses, neuronal activation and gene expression. Together, these data further document the existence of common hallmarks for protracted abstinence to opiates, nicotine, THC and alcohol that develop within motivation/emotion brain circuits. In our model, however, these do not apply to cocaine, supporting the notion of unique mechanisms in psychostimulant abuse. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Dunphy, Peter Hughes
The Remaining Off Alcohol and Drugs Program (ROAD) was developed to teach newly abstinent chemical misusing clients how to remain alcohol and drug free. It provides its participants with a repertoire of knowledge, skills and behaviors that they can use in dealing with the most common problems caused by discontinuing chemical use and which can be…
Rollnick, S; Heather, N
This paper explores the relevance of self-efficacy theory (Bandura, 1977b) to the process of abstinence treatment and the phenomenon of relapse. By distinguishing between the particular efficacy and outcome expectations created in treatment it is possible to clarify some of the problems encountered between clinicians and alcoholics. Bandura's theory also explains why some treatment methods might be more effective than others. Analysis of relapse suggests that while some of the expectations created in treatment might serve to promote abstinence, others might unwittingly precipitate relapse. The understanding of abstinence treatment could be enhanced by the testing of hypotheses which emerge from this analysis.
Probst, Charlotte; Manthey, Jakob; Rehm, Jürgen
The level of alcohol consumption and related burden in a country are strongly impacted by the prevalence of abstinence from alcohol use. The objective of this study was to characterize the association of lifetime abstinence from alcohol use with economic wealth (as measured in the gross domestic product [GDP]) and Muslim religion on a country level. An ecological study was performed using aggregate data of 183 countries for the year 2010. Lifetime abstinence among men and women was predicted using fractional response regression models with the natural logarithm of GDP-PPP (purchasing power parity) and the proportion of Muslim population as predictors. The models were further adjusted by the country's median age and World Health Organization region. Precision of prediction was investigated. Descriptive analyses showed a strong negative association between GDP-PPP and lifetime abstinence in countries without a Muslim majority and a GDP-PPP up to 20,000 international dollars. Regression models confirmed the negative association with GDP-PPP and showed a strong positive association between lifetime abstinence and the proportion of Muslim population. Stratified sensitivity analyses showed that in countries without a Muslim majority only GDP-PPP showed a statistically significant association whereas in Muslim majority countries only the proportion of Muslims was associated with the prevalence of lifetime abstinence. Particularly in countries with a lower GDP and without Muslim majority the prevalence of lifetime abstinence from alcohol use is strongly negatively associated with GDP-PPP. Future research should analyze the accordance in trends of GDP and lifetime abstinence over time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Grimaldi, Elizabeth M; Ladd, Benjamin O; Anderson, Kristen G
Drinking, abstinence, and academic motives have been previously linked with alcohol consumption in high school and college students; however, little research has examined the impact of such sources of motivations concurrently. Drawing from self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2000), the current study tested the hypothesis that alcohol-related and academic motives would be associated with one another along internal vs. external focused dimensions. We also examined the relative influence of these motives on alcohol consumption. College students (N=226) completed self-report measures assessing drinking motives, abstinence motives, academic motives, and alcohol-related outcomes. Findings suggest that drinking motives are related to abstinence motives but not academic motives. Both forms of alcohol-related motives were related to alcohol use and consequences; no associations between academic motives and alcohol variables were observed. The lack of associations among academic motives, alcohol-related motives, and alcohol variables departs from previous findings suggesting that academic motives impact alcohol use. The current findings indicate a greater understanding of the interplay of motivational sets related to salient issues for youth, such as academics, is needed in order to expand intervention models for alcohol use in such populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Padilla, Mayra L.; Sullivan, Edith V.; Mayer, Benjamin Z.; Turlington, Sharon R.; Hoffman, Lindsay R.; Wagstaff, Amanda E.; Pfefferbaum, Adolf
Rationale Chronic alcoholism is associated with mild to moderate cognitive impairment. Under certain conditions, impairment can be ameliorated by invoking compensatory processes. Objective To identify electrophysiological mechanisms of such compensation that would be required to resolve response conflict. Methods 14 abstinent alcoholic men and 14 similarly aged control men performed a variation of the Eriksen flanker task during an electroencephalography (EEG) recording to examine whether alcoholics could achieve and maintain control-level performance and whether EEG markers could identify evidence for the action of compensatory processes in the alcoholics. Monitoring processes engaged following a response were indexed by the correct related negativity (CRN) and error related negativity (ERN), two medial–frontal negative event-related potentials. Results The alcoholics were able to perform at control levels on accuracy and reaction time (RT). Alcoholics generated larger ERN amplitudes following incorrect responses and larger CRNs following correct responses than controls. Both groups showed evidence of post-error slowing. Larger CRN amplitudes in the alcoholics were related to longer RTs. Also observed in the alcoholics was an association between smaller CRN amplitudes and length of sobriety, suggesting a normalization of monitoring activity with extended abstinence. Conclusions To the extent that greater amplitude of these electrophysiological markers of performance monitoring indexes greater resource allocation and performance compensation, the larger amplitudes observed in the alcoholic than control group support the view that elevated performance monitoring enables abstinent alcoholics to overcome response conflict, as was evident in their control-level performance. PMID:20941595
Tomie, Arthur; Azogu, Idu; Yu, Lei
The present experiment evaluated the effects of naltrexone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, on post-abstinence alcohol drinking in C57BL/6NCRL and DBA/2J male mice. Home cage 2-bottle (alcohol vs. water) free-choice procedures were employed. During the pre-abstinence period, alcohol intake was much lower for the DBA/2J mice relative to the C57BL/6NCRL mice, and this strain difference was observed for groups receiving either 3% or 10% alcohol concentrations. The four-day abstinence period effectively reduced alcohol intakes (i.e., a negative alcohol deprivation effect, negative ADE) in both groups of DBA/2J mice, but had no effect on alcohol intakes in either group of C57BL/6NCRL mice. Both groups trained with 3% alcohol received the second four-day abstinence period, where the effects of acute administration of either naltrexone or saline on post-abstinence alcohol drinking were assessed. Naltrexone was more effective in reducing post-abstinence drinking of 3% alcohol in the DBA/2J mice than in the C57BL/6NCRL mice. In the DBA/2J mice, naltrexone further reduced, relative to saline-injected controls, the low levels of post-abstinence alcohol intake. Thus, the low baseline levels of alcohol drinking in DBA/2J mice were further diminished by the four-day abstinence period (negative ADE), and this suppressed post-abstinence level of alcohol drinking was still further reduced by acute administration of naltrexone. The results indicate that naltrexone is effective in reducing further the low levels of alcohol drinking induced by the negative ADE. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hirth, Natalie; Meinhardt, Marcus W.; Noori, Hamid R.; Salgado, Humberto; Torres-Ramirez, Oswaldo; Uhrig, Stefanie; Broccoli, Laura; Vengeliene, Valentina; Roßmanith, Martin; Perreau-Lenz, Stéphanie; Köhr, Georg; Sommer, Wolfgang H.; Spanagel, Rainer; Hansson, Anita C.
A major hypothesis in addiction research is that alcohol induces neuroadaptations in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system and that these neuroadaptations represent a key neurochemical event in compulsive drug use and relapse. Whether these neuroadaptations lead to a hypo- or hyperdopaminergic state during abstinence is a long-standing, unresolved debate among addiction researchers. The answer is of critical importance for understanding the neurobiological mechanism of addictive behavior. Here we set out to study systematically the neuroadaptive changes in the DA system during the addiction cycle in alcohol-dependent patients and rats. In postmortem brain samples from human alcoholics we found a strong down-regulation of the D1 receptor- and DA transporter (DAT)-binding sites, but D2-like receptor binding was unaffected. To gain insight into the time course of these neuroadaptations, we compared the human data with that from alcohol-dependent rats at several time points during abstinence. We found a dynamic regulation of D1 and DAT during 3 wk of abstinence. After the third week the rat data mirrored our human data. This time point was characterized by elevated extracellular DA levels, lack of synaptic response to D1 stimulation, and augmented motor activity. Further functional evidence is given by a genetic rat model for hyperdopaminergia that resembles a phenocopy of alcohol-dependent rats during protracted abstinence. In summary, we provide a new dynamic model of abstinence-related changes in the striatal DA system; in this model a hyperdopaminergic state during protracted abstinence is associated with vulnerability for relapse. PMID:26903621
O’Rourke, Kyu Y.; Touchette, Jillienne C.; Hartell, Elizabeth C.; Bade, Elizabeth J.; Lee, Anna M.
Alcohol and nicotine are often used together, and there is a high rate of co-occurrence between alcohol and nicotine addiction. Most animal models studying alcohol and nicotine interactions have utilized passive drug administration, which may not be relevant to human co-addiction. In addition, the interactions between alcohol and nicotine in female animals have been understudied, as most studies have used male animals. To address these issues, we developed models of alcohol and nicotine co-consumption in male and female mice that utilized voluntary, oral consumption of unsweetened alcohol, nicotine and water. We first examined drug consumption and preference in single-drug, sequential alcohol and nicotine consumption tests in male and female C57BL/6 and DBA/2J mice. We then tested chronic continuous and intermittent access alcohol and nicotine co-consumption procedures. We found that male and female C57BL/6 mice readily co-consumed unsweetened alcohol and nicotine. In our continuous co-consumption procedures, we found that varying the available nicotine concentration during an alcohol abstinence period affected compensatory nicotine consumption during alcohol abstinence, and affected rebound alcohol consumption when alcohol was re-introduced. Consumption of alcohol and nicotine in an intermittent co-consumption procedure produced higher alcohol consumption levels, but not nicotine consumption levels, compared with the continuous co-consumption procedures. Finally, we found that intermittent alcohol and nicotine co-consumption resulted in physical dependence. Our data show that these voluntary co-consumption procedures can be easily performed in mice and can be used to study behavioral interactions between alcohol and nicotine consumption, which may better model human alcohol and nicotine co-addiction. PMID:27342124
Nandrino, Jean-Louis; El Haj, Mohamad; Torre, Julie; Naye, Delphine; Douchet, Helyette; Danel, Thierry; Cottençin, Oliver
Autobiographical memory (AM) enables the storage and retrieval of life experiences that allow individuals to build their sense of identity. Several AM impairments have been described in patients with alcohol abuse disorders without assessing whether such deficits can be recovered. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify whether the semantic (SAM) and episodic (EAM) dimensions of AM are affected in individuals with alcohol dependence after short-term abstinence (STA) or long-term abstinence (LTA). A second aim of this study was to examine the factors that could disrupt the efficiency of semantic and episodic AM (the impact of depression severity, cognitive functions, recent or early traumatic events, and drinking history variables). After clinical and cognitive evaluations (alcohol consumption, depression, anxiety, IQ, memory performance), AM was assessed with the Autobiographical Memory Interview in patients with recent (between 4 and 6 weeks) and longer (at least 6 months) abstinence. Participants were asked to retrieve the number and nature of traumatic or painful life experiences in recent or early life periods (using the Childhood Traumatic Events Scale). The 2 abstinent groups had lower global EAM and SAM scores than the control group. These scores were comparable for both abstinent groups. For childhood events, no significant differences were observed in SAM for both groups compared with control participants. For early adulthood and recent events, both STA and LTA groups had lower scores on both SAM and EAM. Moreover, there was a negative correlation between the length of substance consumption and SAM scores. This study highlighted a specific AM disorder in both episodic and semantic dimensions. These deficits remained after 6 months of abstinence. This AM impairment may be explained by compromised encoding and consolidation of memories during bouts of drinking. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Sutera, Flavia Maria; De Caro, Viviana; Cannizzaro, Carla; Giannola, Libero Italo; Lavanco, Gianluca; Plescia, Fulvio
The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system plays a key role in drug reinforcement and is involved in the development of alcohol addiction. Manipulation of the DAergic system represents a promising strategy to control drug-seeking behavior. Previous studies on 2-amino-N-[2-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-ethyl]-3-phenyl-propionamide (DA-Phen) showed in vivo effects as a DA-ergic modulator. This study was aimed at investigate DA-Phen effects on operant behavior for alcohol seeking behavior, during reinstatement following subsequent periods of alcohol deprivation. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were tested in an operant paradigm of self-administration; behavioral reactivity and anxiety like-behavior during acute abstinence were evaluated. A characterization of DA-Phen CNS targeting by its quantification in the brain was also carried out. Our findings showed that DA-Phen administration was able to reduce relapse in alcohol drinking by 50% and reversed the alterations in behavioral reactivity and emotionality observed during acute abstinence. In conclusion, DA-Phen can reduce reinstatement of alcohol drinking in an operant-drinking paradigm following deprivation periods and reverse abstinence-induced behavioral phenotype. DA-Phen activity seems to be mediated by the modulation of the DAergic transmission. However further studies are needed to characterize DA-Phen pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and its potential therapeutic profile in alcohol addiction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Noël, Xavier; Billieux, Joël; Van der Linden, Martial; Dan, Bernard; Hanak, Catherine; de Bournonville, Stéphanie; Baurain, Céline; Verbanck, Paul
Cognitive impairment has been associated with higher risk of alcoholism and relapse. Recent theoretical refinements have separated inhibition of dominant response and inhibition of proactive interference. We assessed the latter using a directed-forgetting procedure in 38 recently detoxified individuals with alcoholism and in 26 controls. On this task, memory performance of letter trigrams was compared when presented alone, followed by a second trigram to be recalled, then a second trigram to be forgotten (directed-forgetting condition). Individuals with alcoholism recalled more letters to be forgotten and performed worse than controls in the directed-forgetting condition, which significantly correlated with the duration of alcoholism.
Holzhauer, Cathryn Glanton; Epstein, Elizabeth E; Cohn, Amy M; McCrady, Barbara S; Graff, Fiona S; Cook, Sharon
Although many providers recommend alcohol abstinence as an initial step in the treatment of alcohol use disorders (AUD), there is a scarcity of research on specific behavioral strategies to achieve this step. The current study examined efficacy of a unique abstinence planning intervention for alcohol in a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) outpatient protocol. 128 women enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of CBT for AUD at a university-based clinic comprised the sample. Session 1 manual-guided interventions included an abstinence planning discussion in which each woman chose a specific plan for achieving initial abstinence in collaboration with her therapist. Drinking data were collected via participant logs during the 16week within-treatment period and via Timeline Follow-Back interview at 12month follow-up. For 32.8% (n=42) of women who stopped drinking during the pre-treatment assessment period, their abstinence plan was to maintain abstinence (MA). 18.0% (n=23) of women chose a "cold turkey" approach (CT, abrupt cessation without medical assistance), and 46.1% (n=59) chose a "winding down" approach (WD, systematic reduction of drinking toward a specified quit date). Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) analyses showed that type of abstinence plan chosen was differentially associated with percent days drinking (PDD) in later treatment (weeks 7-16) (p<0.01) and during 12month follow-up (p<0.01). Women in the WD group had the highest PDD for both time frames and women in the CT group drank more frequently during later treatment compared to those in the MA group. The association between plan and PDD during follow-up was moderated by early treatment PDD (weeks 1-7; p<0.01), such that women in the MA and WD groups had lower follow-up PDD if they were able to decrease their drinking during early treatment. Women who were maintaining abstinence at treatment entry or had planned to stop using alcohol abruptly (i.e., "cold turkey") after starting treatment had
Brumback, Ty; Squeglia, Lindsay M; Jacobus, Joanna; Pulido, Carmen; Tapert, Susan F; Brown, Sandra A
Heavy drinking during adolescence is associated with increased reactivity to alcohol related stimuli and to differential neural development. Alcohol cue reactivity has been widely studied among adults with alcohol use disorders, but little is known about the neural substrates of cue reactivity in adolescent drinkers. The current study aimed to identify changes in blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal during a cue reactivity task pre- and post-monitored abstinence from alcohol. Demographically matched adolescents (16.0-18.9 years, 54% female) with histories of heavy episodic drinking (HD; n=22) and light or non-drinking control teens (CON; n=16) were recruited to participate in a month-long study. All participants completed a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scan with an alcohol cue reactivity task and substance use assessments at baseline and after 28 days of monitored abstinence from alcohol and drugs (i.e., urine toxicology testing every 48-72 h). Repeated-measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) examined main effects of group, time, and group×time interactions on BOLD signal response in regions of interest defined by functional differences at baseline. The HD group exhibited greater (p<.01) BOLD activation than CON to alcohol cues relative to neutral cues in all regions of interest (ROIs; bilateral striatum/globus pallidus, left anterior cingulate, bilateral cerebellum, and parahippocampal gyrus extending to the thalamus/substantia nigra) across time points. Group×time effects showed that HD exhibited greater BOLD activation to alcohol cues than CON at baseline in left anterior cingulate cortex and in the right cerebellar region, but these decreased to non-significance after one month of monitored abstinence. In all ROIs examined, HD exhibited greater BOLD response than CON to alcohol relative to neutral beverage picture cues at baseline, indicating heightened cue reactivity to alcohol cues in heavy drinking adolescents prior to the onset of any
Wade, Jeannette; Peralta, Robert L
Previous research has demonstrated that White college students are more likely to drink alcohol at a greater frequency and quantity compared to their African American counterparts. Examining race-related factors that structure alcohol use among college students remains an important area of research. In this study, we specifically examine perceived discrimination and its association with both heavy episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol abstinence among college students. Items that measured perceived racial discrimination in alcohol use contexts and demographic characteristics were used as independent and control variables. African American students were more likely to abstain from alcohol and less likely to engage in HED compared to their White counterparts. Results also suggest that students who believe their drinking will solicit race-based police bias have lower odds of engaging in HED and greater odds of alcohol abstention. We conclude that unsolicited policing, experienced by African Americans generally, and White Americans on campuses, explains effect sizes.
Mosher Ruiz, Susan; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Kemppainen, Maaria I; Valmas, Mary M; Sawyer, Kayle S
Men and women differ in personality characteristics and may be motivated to use alcohol for different reasons. The goals of the present study were to characterize personality and drinking motives by gender and alcoholism status in adults, and to determine how alcoholism history and gender are related to the associations between personality traits and drinking motivation. Personality characteristics were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, which includes Extraversion, Neuroticism, Psychoticism and Lie (Social Conforming) scales. To evaluate drinking motivation, we asked abstinent long-term alcoholic men and women, and demographically similar nonalcoholic participants to complete the Drinking Motives Questionnaire, which includes Conformity, Coping, Social and Enhancement scales. Patterns of personality scale scores and drinking motives differed by alcoholism status, with alcoholics showing higher psychopathology and stronger motives for drinking compared with controls. Divergent gender-specific relationships between personality and drinking motives also were identified, which differed for alcoholics and controls. Alcoholic and control men and women differed with respect to the associations between personality traits and motives for drinking. A better understanding of how different personality traits affect drinking motivations for alcoholic men and women can inform individualized relapse prevention strategies. Men and women differed in their personality traits and their motivations for drinking, and these relationships differed for abstinent alcoholic and control groups. Additionally, alcoholics scored higher on Neuroticism and Psychoticism personality traits, and had lower Enhancement and Social Conformity drinking motives than nonalcoholic controls. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Yeh, Mei-Yu; Che, Hui-Lian; Wu, Shu-Mei
Most people being treated for alcoholism are unable to successfully quit drinking within their treatment programs. In few cases do we know the full picture of how abstinence is achieved in Taiwan. We tracked processes of abstinence in alcohol-dependency disorders, based on study evidence and results. This research explores the process of recovery from the viewpoint of the alcohol-dependent. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two different settings, using purpose sampling, during 2003-2004. The data were analyzed using content analysis. Participants were 32 adults, purposefully selected from an Alcoholics Anonymous group and a psychiatric hospital in North Taiwan. We found that the abstinence process is an ongoing process, in which the alcohol-dependent free themselves of addiction progressively. This process never ends or resolves in complete recovery. We have identified three stages in the struggle against alcoholism: the Indulgence, Ambivalence and Attempt (IAA) cycle, in which the sufferer is trapped in a cycle of attempting to give up and failing; the Turning Point, in which a Personal Nadir is reached, and the Ongoing Process of abstinence, in which a constant effort is made to remain sober through willpower and with the help of support groups. We also discuss Influencing Factors that can derail abstinence attempts, pushing the sufferer back into the IAA cycle. This study provides important points of reference for alcohol and drug service workers and community healthcare professionals in Taiwan, casting light on the abstinence process and providing a basis for intervention or rehabilitation services.
de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Willoughby, Adrian R; Baker, Fiona C; Sugarbaker, David S; Colrain, Ian M
Chronic alcoholism is associated with the development of cardiac and peripheral autonomic nervous system (ANS) pathology. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which recovery in ANS function could be demonstrated over the first 4 months of abstinence. Fifteen alcoholics (7 women) were studied on three occasions: within a month of detoxification, at approximately 2 months post-detox, and at 4 months post-detox. Thirteen control subjects (6 women) were also studied on three occasions with inter-study intervals matching those of the alcoholics. Six alcoholics relapsed, 48.7 ± 27.9 days following the initial PSG session. ANS function was assessed in the first part of stable non-rapid eye movement sleep. Frequency-domain power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) produced variables including: heart rate (HR), total power (TP; an index representing total HR variability), High Frequency power (HFa; an index reflecting cardiac vagal modulation), HF proportion of total power (HFprop sympathovagal balance), and HF peak frequency (HFpf; an index reflecting respiration rate). Overall, high total and high frequency variability and low sympathovagal balance and myocardial contractility are considered as desired conditions to promote cardiovascular health. At initial assessment, alcoholics had a higher HR (p < 0.001) and respiratory rate (p < 0.01), and lower vagal activity (HFa; p < 0.01) than controls. Alcoholics showed evidence of recovery in HR (p = 0.039) and HFa (p = 0.031) with 4 months of abstinence. Alcoholics with higher TP at the initial visit showed a greater improvement in TP from the initial to the 4 month follow-up session (r = 0.75, p < 0.05). Alcoholics showed substantial recovery in HR and vagal modulation of HRV with 4 months of abstinence, with evidence that the extent of recovery in HRV may be partially determined by the extent of alcohol dependence-related insult to the cardiac ANS system. These data support other studies
Marchant, Nathan J; Rabei, Rana; Kaganovsky, Konstantin; Caprioli, Daniele; Bossert, Jennifer M; Bonci, Antonello; Shaham, Yavin
In human alcoholics, abstinence is often self-imposed, despite alcohol availability, because of the negative consequences of excessive use. During abstinence, relapse is often triggered by exposure to contexts associated with alcohol use. We recently developed a rat model that captures some features of this human condition: exposure to the alcohol self-administration environment (context A), after punishment-imposed suppression of alcohol self-administration in a different environment (context B), provoked renewal of alcohol seeking in alcohol-preferring P rats. The mechanisms underlying context-induced renewal of alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence are unknown. Here, we studied the role of the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and its forebrain projections in this effect. We first determined the effect of context-induced renewal of alcohol seeking on Fos (a neuronal activity marker) expression in LH. We next determined the effect of LH reversible inactivation by GABAA + GABAB receptor agonists (muscimol + baclofen) on this effect. Finally, we determined neuronal activation in brain areas projecting to LH during context-induced renewal tests by measuring double labeling of the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit B (CTb; injected in LH) with Fos. Context-induced renewal of alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence was associated with increased Fos expression in LH. Additionally, renewal was blocked by muscimol + baclofen injections into LH. Finally, double-labeling analysis of CTb + Fos showed that context-induced renewal of alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence was associated with selective activation of accumbens shell neurons projecting to LH. The results demonstrate an important role of LH in renewal of alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence and suggest a role of accumbens shell projections to LH in this form of relapse. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/347447-11$15.00/0.
Rabei, Rana; Kaganovsky, Konstantin; Caprioli, Daniele; Bossert, Jennifer M.; Bonci, Antonello
In human alcoholics, abstinence is often self-imposed, despite alcohol availability, because of the negative consequences of excessive use. During abstinence, relapse is often triggered by exposure to contexts associated with alcohol use. We recently developed a rat model that captures some features of this human condition: exposure to the alcohol self-administration environment (context A), after punishment-imposed suppression of alcohol self-administration in a different environment (context B), provoked renewal of alcohol seeking in alcohol-preferring P rats. The mechanisms underlying context-induced renewal of alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence are unknown. Here, we studied the role of the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and its forebrain projections in this effect. We first determined the effect of context-induced renewal of alcohol seeking on Fos (a neuronal activity marker) expression in LH. We next determined the effect of LH reversible inactivation by GABAA + GABAB receptor agonists (muscimol + baclofen) on this effect. Finally, we determined neuronal activation in brain areas projecting to LH during context-induced renewal tests by measuring double labeling of the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit B (CTb; injected in LH) with Fos. Context-induced renewal of alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence was associated with increased Fos expression in LH. Additionally, renewal was blocked by muscimol + baclofen injections into LH. Finally, double-labeling analysis of CTb + Fos showed that context-induced renewal of alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence was associated with selective activation of accumbens shell neurons projecting to LH. The results demonstrate an important role of LH in renewal of alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence and suggest a role of accumbens shell projections to LH in this form of relapse. PMID:24872550
Khan, Anam; Tansel, Aylin; White, Donna L.; Kayani, Waleed Tallat; Bano, Shah; Lindsay, Jan; El-Serag, Hashem B.; Kanwal, Fasiha
Background & Aims We conducted a systematic review of efficacy of psychosocial interventions in inducing or maintaining alcohol abstinence in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD). Methods We performed structured keyword searches in PubMed, PsychINFO, and MEDLINE for original research articles, published from January 1983 through November 2014, that evaluated the use of psychosocial interventions to induce or maintain alcohol abstinence in patients with CLD and AUD. Results We identified 13 eligible studies, comprising 1945 patients; 5 were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Delivered therapies included motivational enhancement therapy (MET), cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), motivational interviewing (MI), supportive therapy and psychoeducation either alone or in combination in the intervention group and general health education or treatment as usual in the control group. All studies of induction of abstinence (4 RCTs and 6 observational studies) reported an increase in abstinence among participants in the intervention and control groups. Only an integrated therapy that combined CBT and MET with comprehensive medical care, delivered over 2 years, produced a significant increase in abstinence (74% increase in intervention group versus 48% increase in control group; P=.02), reported in 1 RCT. All studies of maintenance of abstinence (1 RCT and 2 observational studies) observed recidivism in the intervention and control groups. Only an integrated therapy that combined medical care with CBT produced a significantly smaller rate of recidivism (32.7% in integrated CBT group versus 75% decrease in control group, P=.03), reported from 1 observational study. However, data were not collected for more than 2 y on outcomes of patients with CLD and AUD. Conclusion In a systematic analysis of studies of interventions to induce or maintain alcohol abstinence in patients with CLD and AUD, integrated combination psychotherapy with CBT
Ahveninen, J; Jääskeläinen, I P; Pekkonen, E; Hallberg, A; Hietanen, M; Näätänen, R; Schröger, E; Sillanaukee, P
Chronic alcoholism is accompanied by "frontal" neuropsychological deficits that include an inability to maintain focus of attention. This might be associated with pronounced involuntary attention shifting to task-irrelevant stimulus changes and, thereafter, an impaired reorienting to the relevant task. The neural abnormalities that underlie such deficits in alcoholics were explored with event-related potential (ERP) components that disclosed different phases of detection and orienting to stimulus changes. Twenty consecutive abstinent male alcoholics (DSM-IV) and 20 age-matched male controls (healthy social drinkers) were instructed to discriminate equiprobable 100 and 200 msec tones in a reaction-time task (RT) and to ignore occasional, either slight (7%) or wide (70%), frequency changes (hypothesized to increase RT) during an ERP measurement. In the alcoholics, we found pronounced distractibility, evidenced by a RT lag (p < 0.01) caused by deviants, that correlated (Spearman p = 0.5) with a significantly enhanced (p < 0.01) amplitude of mismatch negativity (MMN) to deviants. Significantly increased RT lag for trials subsequent to deviants (slight p < 0.001, wide p < 0.05) in the alcoholics suggested impaired reorienting to the relevant task. The MMN enhancement also predicted poorer hit rates in the alcoholics (Spearman p = 0.6-0.7). Both the MMN enhancement and pronounced distractibility correlated (Spearman p = 0.4) with an early onset of alcoholism. Attentional deficits in the abstinent alcoholics were indicated by the increased distractibility by irrelevant sound changes. The MMN enhancement suggested that this reflects impaired neural inhibition of involuntary attention shifting, being most pronounced in early-onset alcoholics.
Hallgren, Kevin A; McCrady, Barbara S; Epstein, Elizabeth E
Drinking urges during treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are common, can cause distress and predict relapse. Clients may have little awareness of how their drinking urges might be expected to change during AUD treatment in general and in response to initiating abstinence. The aim of the present study was to test whether drinking urges change on a daily level during treatment and after initiating abstinence. Secondary data analysis was performed using daily drinking urge ratings from two randomized clinical trials. Women (n = 98) and men (n = 79) with AUDs in separate clinical trials of out-patient AUD-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy. Daily dichotomous indicators of any drinking urges or acute escalations in urges (i.e. at least two more urges compared with the previous day) were examined using generalized linear mixed growth-curve modeling. Participants who initiated abstinence reported reductions in urges immediately thereafter (log odds ratios: women B = -0.701, P < 0.001; men B = -0.628, P = 0.018), followed by additional, gradual reductions over time (women B = -0.118, P < 0.001; men B = -0.141, P < 0.001). Participants who entered treatment abstaining from alcohol also reported significant reductions in urges over time (women B = -0.147, P < 0.001; men B = -0.142, P < 0.001). Participants who drank throughout treatment had smaller (women B = -0.042, P = 0.012) or no reductions in urges (men B = 0.015, P = 0.545). There was no evidence that urges increased systematically in response to initiating abstinence. Drinking urges during out-patient behavioral treatment for alcohol use disorders may be maintained in part by alcohol consumption. Initiating abstinence is associated with reductions in drinking urges immediately and then more gradually over time. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Holtyn, August F; Kaminski, Barbara J; Weerts, Elise M
Baclofen, a GABA B receptor agonist, is under investigation as a pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder. Treatment with a pharmacotherapeutic can be initiated during alcohol abstinence or active drinking, which may influence treatment outcomes. This study examined whether baclofen treatment initiated and maintained during alcohol abstinence would reduce alcohol seeking and self-administration upon return to alcohol access, and whether effects differed from treatment initiated and maintained during ongoing alcohol access. Naltrexone was tested under similar conditions for comparison. Five baboons self-administered alcohol under a three-component chained schedule of reinforcement that modeled periods of anticipation (Component 1), seeking (Component 2), and consumption (Component 3). Alcohol was only available in Component 3. In Experiment 1, baclofen (0.1-1.8mg/kg) or naltrexone (1.0-5.6mg/kg) was administered daily beginning on the first day of a 5-day abstinence period and treatment was continued for 5days of alcohol access. In Experiment 2, selected doses of both drugs were administered during ongoing alcohol access. When treatment was initiated during alcohol abstinence, baclofen and naltrexone did not significantly reduce total alcohol intake (g/kg) or alcohol seeking. In comparison, when treatment was initiated during ongoing alcohol access, both baclofen (1.8mg/kg) and naltrexone (3.2 and 5.6mg/kg) significantly reduced total alcohol intake (g/kg). Naltrexone (5.6mg/kg), but not baclofen, significantly reduced alcohol seeking. Initiation of baclofen treatment (or other alcohol use disorder treatments) during abstinence or active drinking may be an important factor in influencing efficacy and appropriate dose selection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Welcome, Mo; Pereverzev, Va
Glycemic allostasis is the process by which blood glucose stabilization is achieved through the balancing of glucose consumption rate and release into the blood stream under a variety of stressors. This paper reviews findings on the dynamics of glycemic levels during mental activities on fasting in non-alcohol users and alcohol users with different periods of abstinence. Referred articles for this review were searched in the databases of PubMed, Scopus, DOAJ and AJOL. The search was conducted in 2013 between January 20 and July 31. The following keywords were used in the search: alcohol action on glycemia OR brain glucose OR cognitive functions; dynamics of glycemia, dynamics of glycemia during mental activities; dynamics of glycemia on fasting; dynamics of glycemia in non-alcohol users OR alcohol users; glycemic regulation during sobriety. Analysis of the selected articles showed that glycemic allostasis during mental activities on fasting is poorly regulated in alcohol users even after a long duration of sobriety (1-4 weeks after alcohol consumption), compared to non-alcohol users. The major contributor to the maintenance of euglycemia during mental activities after the night's rest (during continuing fast) is gluconeogenesis.
Welcome, MO; Pereverzev, VA
Glycemic allostasis is the process by which blood glucose stabilization is achieved through the balancing of glucose consumption rate and release into the blood stream under a variety of stressors. This paper reviews findings on the dynamics of glycemic levels during mental activities on fasting in non-alcohol users and alcohol users with different periods of abstinence. Referred articles for this review were searched in the databases of PubMed, Scopus, DOAJ and AJOL. The search was conducted in 2013 between January 20 and July 31. The following keywords were used in the search: alcohol action on glycemia OR brain glucose OR cognitive functions; dynamics of glycemia, dynamics of glycemia during mental activities; dynamics of glycemia on fasting; dynamics of glycemia in non-alcohol users OR alcohol users; glycemic regulation during sobriety. Analysis of the selected articles showed that glycemic allostasis during mental activities on fasting is poorly regulated in alcohol users even after a long duration of sobriety (1-4 weeks after alcohol consumption), compared to non-alcohol users. The major contributor to the maintenance of euglycemia during mental activities after the night's rest (during continuing fast) is gluconeogenesis. PMID:25364589
Staroverov, A T; Zhukov, O B; Raĭgorodskiĭ, Iu M
Fifty-four abstinent alcohol-dependent patients have been studied. Twenty-nine patients (a main group) received, along with basic therapy, a physiotherapeutic treatment (transcranial dynamic magnetic therapy) and 25 patients (a control group) received only basic therapy. The comparison of the efficacy of treatment in patients of the main and control groups revealed the benefits of transcranial dynamic magnetic therapy in CNS function, performance on memory and attention tests, state of autonomic nervous system and psychoemotional state of patients (the reduction of anxiety and depression).
Background Most people being treated for alcoholism are unable to successfully quit drinking within their treatment programs. In few cases do we know the full picture of how abstinence is achieved in Taiwan. We tracked processes of abstinence in alcohol-dependency disorders, based on study evidence and results. This research explores the process of recovery from the viewpoint of the alcohol-dependent. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two different settings, using purpose sampling, during 2003-2004. The data were analyzed using content analysis. Participants were 32 adults, purposefully selected from an Alcoholics Anonymous group and a psychiatric hospital in North Taiwan. Results We found that the abstinence process is an ongoing process, in which the alcohol-dependent free themselves of addiction progressively. This process never ends or resolves in complete recovery. We have identified three stages in the struggle against alcoholism: the Indulgence, Ambivalence and Attempt (IAA) cycle, in which the sufferer is trapped in a cycle of attempting to give up and failing; the Turning Point, in which a Personal Nadir is reached, and the Ongoing Process of abstinence, in which a constant effort is made to remain sober through willpower and with the help of support groups. We also discuss Influencing Factors that can derail abstinence attempts, pushing the sufferer back into the IAA cycle. Conclusion This study provides important points of reference for alcohol and drug service workers and community healthcare professionals in Taiwan, casting light on the abstinence process and providing a basis for intervention or rehabilitation services. PMID:19930698
Fox, Helen C; Milivojevic, Verica; Angarita, Gustavo A; Stowe, Raymond; Sinha, Rajita
Background Peripheral immune system cytokines may play an integral role in underlying sensitized stress response and alcohol craving during early withdrawal. To date, the nature of these immune changes during early abstinence have not been examined. Methods Thirty-nine early abstinent, treatment-seeking alcohol dependent individuals and 46 socially drinking controls were exposed to three guided imageries: stress, alcohol cue and neutral. These were presented randomly across consecutive days. Plasma measures of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-10 (IL-10), were collected at baseline, immediately after imagery and at various recovery time-points. Ratings of alcohol craving, negative mood and anxiety were also obtained at the same time-points. Results The alcohol group demonstrated decreased basal IL-10 compared with controls particularly following exposure to alcohol cue. They also showed a dampened TNFα and TNFR1 response to stress and cue, respectively, and a generalized suppression of IL-6. In the alcohol group, these immune system adaptations occurred alongside significant elevations in anxiety, negative mood and alcohol craving. Conclusions Findings demonstrate that broad immuno-suppression is still observed in alcohol dependent individuals after three weeks of abstinence and may be linked to motivation for alcohol. PMID:28675117
McDonell, Michael G.; Howell, Donelle N,; McPherson, Sterling; Cameron, Jennifer M.; Srebnik, Debra; Roll, John M.; Ries, Richard K.
This study assessed the effects of a contingency management (CM) intervention for alcohol consumption in 10 alcohol-dependent participants. An ABCA design was used. Vouchers were provided contingent on results of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) urine tests (an alcohol biomarker with a 2-day detection period) and alcohol breath tests during the C phase.…
Garcia-Marchena, Nuria; Pavon, Francisco J; Pastor, Antoni; Araos, Pedro; Pedraz, Maria; Romero-Sanchiz, Pablo; Calado, Montserrat; Suarez, Juan; Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Orio, Laura; Boronat, Anna; Torrens, Marta; Rubio, Gabriel; de la Torre, Rafael; Rodriguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Serrano, Antonia
Acylethanolamides are a family of endogenous lipid mediators that are involved in physiological and behavioral processes associated with addiction. Recently, oleoylethanolamide (OEA) has been reported to reduce alcohol intake and relapse in rodents but the contribution of OEA and other acylethanolamides in alcohol addiction in humans is unknown. The present study is aimed to characterize the plasma acylethanolamides in alcohol dependence. Seventy-nine abstinent alcohol-dependent subjects (27 women) recruited from outpatient treatment programs and age-/sex-/body mass-matched healthy volunteers (28 women) were clinically assessed with the diagnostic interview PRISM according to the DSM-IV-TR after blood extraction for quantification of acylethanolamide concentrations in the plasma. Our results indicate that all acylethanolamides were significantly increased in alcohol-dependent patients compared with control subjects (p < 0.001). A logistic model based on these acylethanolamides was developed to distinguish alcohol-dependent patients from controls and included OEA, arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA) and docosatetraenoylethanolamide (DEA), providing a high discriminatory power according to area under the curve [AUC = 0.92 (95%CI: 0.87-0.96), p < 0.001]. Additionally, we found a significant effect of the duration of alcohol abstinence on the concentrations of OEA, AEA and DEA using a regression model (p < 0.05, p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively), which was confirmed by a negative correlation (rho = -0.31, -0.40 and -0.44, respectively). However, acylethanolamides were not influenced by the addiction alcohol severity, duration of problematic alcohol use or diagnosis of psychiatric comorbidity. Our results support the preclinical studies and suggest that OEA, AEA and DEA are altered in alcohol-dependence during abstinence and that might act as potential markers for predicting length of alcohol abstinence. © 2016 Society for the Study of
Mojarrad, Mohammadali; Samet, Jeffrey H; Cheng, Debbie M.; Winter, Michael R.; Saitz, Richard
Background Many with alcohol and other drug dependence have concurrent marijuana use, yet it is not clear how to address it during addiction treatment. This is partially due to the lack of clarity about whether marijuana use impacts one’s ability to achieve abstinence from the target of addiction treatment. We examined the association between marijuana use and abstinence from other substances among individuals with substance dependence. Methods A secondary analysis of the Addiction Health Evaluation And Disease management study, a randomized trial testing the effectiveness of chronic disease management. Individuals met criteria for drug or alcohol dependence and reported recent drug (i.e. opioid or stimulant) or heavy alcohol use. Recruitment occurred at an inpatient detoxification unit, and all participants were referred to primary medical care. The association between marijuana use and later abstinence from drug and heavy alcohol use was assessed using longitudinal multivariable models. Results Of 563 study participants, 98% completed at least one follow-up assessment and 535 (95%) had at least one pair of consecutive assessments and were included. In adjusted analyses, marijuana use was associated with a 27% reduction in the odds of abstinence from drug and heavy alcohol use (adjusted odds ratio 0.73 [95% CI, 0.56–0.97], P=0.03). Conclusions Marijuana use among individuals with alcohol or other drug dependence is associated with a lower odds of achieving abstinence from drug and heavy alcohol use. These findings add evidence that suggests concomitant marijuana use among patients with addiction to other drugs merits attention from clinicians. PMID:24986785
Campbell, Erin J.; Whitaker, Leslie R.; Harvey, Brandon K.; Kaganovsky, Konstantin; Adhikary, Sweta; Hope, Bruce T.; Heins, Robert C.; Prisinzano, Thomas E.; Vardy, Eyal; Bonci, Antonello; Bossert, Jennifer M.
In many human alcoholics, abstinence is self-imposed because of the negative consequences of excessive alcohol use, and relapse is often triggered by exposure to environmental contexts associated with prior alcohol drinking. We recently developed a rat model of this human condition in which we train alcohol-preferring P rats to self-administer alcohol in one context (A), punish the alcohol-reinforced responding in a different context (B), and then test for relapse to alcohol seeking in Contexts A and B without alcohol or shock. Here, we studied the role of projections to nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell from ventral subiculum (vSub), basolateral amygdala, paraventricular thalamus, and ventral medial prefrontal cortex in context-induced relapse after punishment-imposed abstinence. First, we measured double-labeling of the neuronal activity marker Fos with the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit B (injected in NAc shell) and demonstrated that context-induced relapse is associated with selective activation of the vSub→NAc shell projection. Next, we reversibly inactivated the vSub with GABA receptor agonists (muscimol+baclofen) before the context-induced relapse tests and provided evidence for a causal role of vSub in this relapse. Finally, we used a dual-virus approach to restrict expression of the inhibitory κ opioid-receptor based DREADD (KORD) in vSub→NAc shell projection neurons. We found that systemic injections of the KORD agonist salvinorin B, which selectively inhibits KORD-expressing neurons, decreased context-induced relapse to alcohol seeking. Our results demonstrate a critical role of vSub in context-induced relapse after punishment-imposed abstinence and further suggest a role of the vSub→NAc projection in this relapse. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In many human alcoholics, abstinence is self-imposed because of the negative consequences of excessive use, and relapse is often triggered by exposure to environmental contexts associated with prior alcohol
Marchant, Nathan J; Campbell, Erin J; Whitaker, Leslie R; Harvey, Brandon K; Kaganovsky, Konstantin; Adhikary, Sweta; Hope, Bruce T; Heins, Robert C; Prisinzano, Thomas E; Vardy, Eyal; Bonci, Antonello; Bossert, Jennifer M; Shaham, Yavin
In many human alcoholics, abstinence is self-imposed because of the negative consequences of excessive alcohol use, and relapse is often triggered by exposure to environmental contexts associated with prior alcohol drinking. We recently developed a rat model of this human condition in which we train alcohol-preferring P rats to self-administer alcohol in one context (A), punish the alcohol-reinforced responding in a different context (B), and then test for relapse to alcohol seeking in Contexts A and B without alcohol or shock. Here, we studied the role of projections to nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell from ventral subiculum (vSub), basolateral amygdala, paraventricular thalamus, and ventral medial prefrontal cortex in context-induced relapse after punishment-imposed abstinence. First, we measured double-labeling of the neuronal activity marker Fos with the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit B (injected in NAc shell) and demonstrated that context-induced relapse is associated with selective activation of the vSub→NAc shell projection. Next, we reversibly inactivated the vSub with GABA receptor agonists (muscimol+baclofen) before the context-induced relapse tests and provided evidence for a causal role of vSub in this relapse. Finally, we used a dual-virus approach to restrict expression of the inhibitory κ opioid-receptor based DREADD (KORD) in vSub→NAc shell projection neurons. We found that systemic injections of the KORD agonist salvinorin B, which selectively inhibits KORD-expressing neurons, decreased context-induced relapse to alcohol seeking. Our results demonstrate a critical role of vSub in context-induced relapse after punishment-imposed abstinence and further suggest a role of the vSub→NAc projection in this relapse. In many human alcoholics, abstinence is self-imposed because of the negative consequences of excessive use, and relapse is often triggered by exposure to environmental contexts associated with prior alcohol use. Until recently, an
D’Sa, Carrol; Dileone, Ralph J.; Anderson, George M.; Sinha, Rajita
Although the effects of alcohol on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been extensively studied in rodents, BDNF levels have rarely been measured in abstinent, alcohol-dependent (AD) individuals. Interpretation of reported group comparisons of serum BDNF levels is difficult due to limited information regarding analytical variance, biological variability, and the relative contribution of platelet and plasma pools to serum BDNF. Analytical variance (intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation) of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was characterized. Within- and between-subject variability, and group differences in serum and plasma BDNF, was assessed on three separate days in 16, 4-week abstinent AD individuals (7M/9F) and 16 social drinkers (SDs; 8M/8F). Significantly higher mean (±sd) serum BDNF levels were observed for the AD group compared to the SD (p = 0.003). No significant difference in mean baseline plasma BDNF levels was observed between AD and SD groups. The low analytical variance, high day-to-day within-individual stability and the high degree of individuality demonstrates the potential clinical utility of measuring serum BDNF levels. The low correlations that we observed between plasma and serum levels are congruent with their representing separate pools of BDNF. The observation of higher basal serum BDNF in the AD group without a concomitant elevation in plasma BDNF levels indicates that the elevated serum BDNF in AD patients is not due to greater BDNF exposure. Further research is warranted to fully elucidate mechanisms underlying this alteration and determine the utility of serum BDNF as a predictor or surrogate marker of chronic alcohol abuse. PMID:22364688
Dunlop, William L; Tracy, Jessica L
The narration of drinking experiences plays a central role in many alcohol rehabilitation programmes, yet few researchers have considered whether alcoholics' stories about such experiences relate to their psychological adjustment. Here we examine the extent to which drinking stories of abstinent alcoholics reflect autobiographical reasoning processes denoting self-change and self-stability, and whether these processes are associated with adjustment. Participants who revealed a positive self-change in their narratives about drinking demonstrated higher levels of self-esteem, authentic pride, and mental health compared to those who did not. In contrast, those who implied a sense of self-stability in their narratives demonstrated higher levels of hubristic pride and aggression, and poorer mental health. These results suggest that narrating positive self-change in the wake of substance abuse may underlie psychological adjustment, whereas establishing self-stability in these experiences may impede adjustment. More broadly, these findings underscore the importance of recognising the multi-dimensional nature of autobiographical reasoning.
Rychlik, R; Siedentop, H; Pfeil, T; Daniel, D
An open prospective cohort study was performed in Germany in order to evaluate the costs of treating alcohol dependence under real-world conditions. Eight hundred and fourteen recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients were provided with psychosocial rehabilitation support. In addition, 540 alcohol-dependent patients treated with adjuvant acamprosate therapy were compared with 274 patients without pharmacotherapy. Real costs were assessed over a period of one year. Of the patients who were treated with acamprosate, 33.6% remained abstinent compared to only 21.1% in the standard cohort. The mean total costs per patient treated with acamprosate were EUR 1,631.49 per year. In the standard cohort, total costs were EUR 2,068.83. This difference is highly significant (p = 0.012). Direct costs amounted to 76.9% of the total costs, with a 27% difference between the cohorts (p < 0.001). There was no difference in indirect costs between the two groups (p = 0.324). This real-cost study confirms the favourable cost-effectiveness of acamprosate previously suggested by pharmaco-economic modelling studies. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel
Turton, Samuel; Myers, James Fm; Mick, Inge; Colasanti, Alessandro; Venkataraman, Ashwin; Durant, Claire; Waldman, Adam; Brailsford, Alan; Parkin, Mark C; Dawe, Gemma; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Gunn, Roger N; Lightman, Stafford L; Nutt, David J; Lingford-Hughes, Anne
Addiction has been proposed as a 'reward deficient' state, which is compensated for with substance use. There is growing evidence of dysregulation in the opioid system, which plays a key role in reward, underpinning addiction. Low levels of endogenous opioids are implicated in vulnerability for developing alcohol dependence (AD) and high mu-opioid receptor (MOR) availability in early abstinence is associated with greater craving. This high MOR availability is proposed to be the target of opioid antagonist medication to prevent relapse. However, changes in endogenous opioid tone in AD are poorly characterised and are important to understand as opioid antagonists do not help everyone with AD. We used [ 11 C]carfentanil, a selective MOR agonist positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand, to investigate endogenous opioid tone in AD for the first time. We recruited 13 abstinent male AD and 15 control participants who underwent two [ 11 C]carfentanil PET scans, one before and one 3 h following a 0.5 mg/kg oral dose of dexamphetamine to measure baseline MOR availability and endogenous opioid release. We found significantly blunted dexamphetamine-induced opioid release in 5 out of 10 regions-of-interest including insula, frontal lobe and putamen in AD compared with controls, but no significantly higher MOR availability AD participants compared with HC in any region. This study is comparable to our previous results of blunted dexamphetamine-induced opioid release in gambling disorder, suggesting that this dysregulation in opioid tone is common to both behavioural and substance addictions.
Claisse, Caroline; Lewkowicz, Daniel; Cottencin, Olivier; Nandrino, Jean-Louis
The aim of the study was to compare emotional information processing in patients with severe alcohol use disorder in short-term abstinence (<1 month) and long-term abstinence (at least 6 months to 9 years) with control participants. We studied the variation in pupil diameter during the presentation of pictures of human interactions associated with positive, negative or neutral valences. Overall, the results of the short-term abstinent group revealed greater pupil dilation regardless of the valence of the pictures while the pupillary response of long-term abstainers did not differ from the control group. More specifically, according to each valence, the pupil response to neutral pictures was greater for both patient groups than for controls. For the long-term abstainers, a negative correlation was found between the length of abstinence and the pupillary response to emotional stimuli. In long-term abstainers group, the high activation by neutral stimuli suggests however some difficulties in the processing of nonemotional stimuli, considered emotional ones and may constitute a potential relapse factor or the maintenance of addiction. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Ritz, Ludivine; Segobin, Shailendra; Le Berre, Anne Pascale; Lannuzel, Coralie; Boudehent, Céline; Vabret, François; Eustache, Francis; Pitel, Anne Lise; Beaunieux, Hélène
Procedural learning allows for the acquisition of new behavioral skills. Previous studies have shown that chronic alcoholism is characterized by impaired cognitive procedural learning and brain abnormalities affecting regions that are involved in the automation of new cognitive procedures in healthy individuals. The goal of the present study was to investigate the brain structural substrates of cognitive procedural learning in alcoholic patients (ALs) early in abstinence. Thirty-one ALs and 31 control participants (NCs) performed the Tower of Toronto task (4 daily learning sessions, each comprising 10 trials) to assess cognitive procedural learning. We also assessed episodic and working memory, executive functions, and visuospatial abilities. ALs underwent 1.5T structural magnetic resonance imaging. The initial cognitive phase was longer in the AL group than in the NC group, whereas the autonomous phase was shorter. In ALs, the longer cognitive phase was predicted by poorer planning and visuospatial working memory abilities, and by smaller gray matter (GM) volumes in the angular gyrus and caudate nucleus. ALs' planning abilities correlated with smaller GM volume in the angular gyrus. Cognitive procedural learning was impaired in ALs, with a delayed transition from the cognitive to the autonomous phase. This slowdown in the automation of the cognitive procedure was related to lower planning abilities, which may have hampered the initial generation of the procedure to be learned. In agreement with this neuropsychological finding, a persistent relationship was found between learning performance and the GM volumes of the angular gyrus and caudate nucleus, which are usually regarded as markers of planning and initial learning of the cognitive procedure. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Marchant, Nathan J; Kaganovsky, Konstantin
In humans, places or contexts previously associated with alcohol use often provoke relapse during abstinence. This phenomenon is modeled in laboratory animals using the ABA renewal procedure, in which extinction training in context (B) suppresses alcohol seeking, and renewal of this seeking occurs when the animal returns to the original training context (A). However, extinction training does not adequately capture the motivation for abstinence in human alcoholics who typically self-initiate abstinence in response to the negative consequences of excessive use. We recently developed a procedure to study renewal in laboratory rats after abstinence imposed by negative consequences (footshock punishment). The mechanisms of renewal of punished alcohol seeking are largely unknown. Here, we used the D1-family receptor antagonist SCH 23390 to examine the role of nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell and core dopamine in renewal of alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence. We trained alcohol-preferring "P rats" to self-administer 20% alcohol in Context A and subsequently suppressed alcohol taking via response-contingent footshock punishment in Context B. We tested the effects of systemic, NAc shell, or NAc core injections of SCH 23390 on renewal of alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence. We found that both systemic and NAc shell and core injections of SCH 23390 decreased renewal of punished alcohol seeking. Our results demonstrate a critical role of NAc dopamine in renewal of alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence. We discuss these results in reference to the brain mechanisms of renewal of alcohol seeking after extinction versus punishment. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Rosman, A S; Waraich, A; Baraona, E; Lieber, C S
Much of alcohol's toxicity is due to its product, acetaldehyde. The role of acetaldehyde derived from endogenous sources was assessed in alcoholic patients administered disulfiram, an inhibitor of aldehyde dehydrogenase. The first part of the study included 23 subjects without biochemical or clinical evidence of chronic liver disease who were abstinent for 2 weeks; 11 patients were started on disulfiram (250 mg/day), whereas the other 12 were not given disulfiram and served as controls. The second part of the study included 13 alcoholic patients with clinical or pathological evidence of cirrhosis who also were administered disulfiram for 2 weeks. Plasma and red blood cell (RBC) acetaldehyde as well as serum transaminases were measured at baseline and after 1 and 2 weeks of treatment. In the disulfiram-treated group of alcoholics without known cirrhosis, RBC acetaldehyde levels increased from the pretreatment value of 2.98+/-0.18 microM to 4.14+/-0.33 microM after 1 week and to 4.14+/-0.26 microM after 2 weeks of treatment (p < 0.001). Compared with the pretreatment values (2.07+/-0.24 microM), plasma acetaldehyde levels also increased after 1 week (3.18+/-0.32 microM) and 2 weeks (3.15+/-0.26 microM) of disulfiram treatment (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in sequential levels measured in either plasma or RBC acetaldehyde levels in patients who were not administered disulfiram. In the group of cirrhotic patients, the mean baseline RBC acetaldehyde value (3.60+/-0.22 microM) was significantly higher than in noncirrhotics. Disulfiram therapy increased the RBC acetaldehyde after 1 week (4.63+/-0.27 microM, p < 0.001) and 2 weeks of treatment (4.06+/-0.28 microM, p < 0.05). Compared with baseline values, plasma acetaldehyde levels were significantly higher after 1 week but not after 2 weeks of disulfiram. There were no significant differences among serum transaminases in alcoholics administered disulfiram, although three cirrhotic patients did have
Background Given the widespread use of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and other similar groups in the US and the increasing membership of women, the present paper compares women to men on their meeting attendance and AA-prescribed behaviors, factors associated with that AA participation, and tests how these relate to women’s and men’s abstinence across time. Methods All consecutive new admissions (age ≥ 18) from county-wide public and private alcohol and drug treatment programs representing the larger population of treatment seekers were approached to be in the study at treatment entry. Those consenting at baseline (n = 926) were sought for follow-up interviews 1, 3, 5 and 7 years later. Generalized linear models were used to test whether various help-seeking factors associated with AA participation differentially by gender and, controlling for AA and other confounders, whether women differ from men on abstinence. Results At each follow-up interview, women and men attended AA at similar rates and similarly practiced specific AA-behaviors, and they were alike on most factors associated with AA participation and abstention across time including abstinence goal, drink volume, negative consequences, prior treatment, and encouragement to reduce drinking. Relative to men, women with higher ASI drug severity were less likely to participate in AA. Though higher AA participation was a predictor of abstinence for both genders, males were less likely to be abstinent across time. Men were also more likely to reduce their AA participation across time. Conclusion These findings add to an emerging literature on how women compare to men on factors related to AA participation and subsequent drinking outcomes across time. Findings have clinical implications for service providers referring clients to such groups. PMID:21689121
Rentscher, Kelly E; Soriano, Emily C; Rohrbaugh, Michael J; Shoham, Varda; Mehl, Matthias R
Communal coping-a process in which romantic partners view a problem as ours rather than yours or mine, and take collaborative action to address it -has emerged as an important predictor of health and treatment outcomes. In a study of partners' pronoun use prior to and during couple-focused alcohol interventions, we examined first-person plural (we-talk) and singular (I-talk) pronouns as linguistic markers of communal coping and behavioral predictors of treatment outcome. Thirty-three couples in which one partner abused alcohol were selected from a randomized control trial (N = 63) of couple-focused Cognitive-Behavioral or Family Systems Therapy if they had unambiguously successful or unsuccessful treatment outcomes (i.e., patient maintained abstinence for 30 days prior to treatment termination or had more than one heavy drinking day in the same period). Pronoun measures for each partner were obtained via computerized text analysis from transcripts of partners' speech, derived from a videotaped pretreatment interaction task and three subsequent therapy sessions. Spouse we-talk during the intervention (accounting for pretreatment we-talk), as an index of communal orientation, uniquely predicted successful treatment outcomes. In contrast, both patient and spouse I-talk during the intervention (accounting for pretreatment I-talk), as a marker of individualistic orientation, uniquely predicted unsuccessful outcomes, especially when distinguishing active and passive (I vs. me/my) pronoun forms. Results strengthen evidence for the prognostic significance of spouse behavior for patient health outcomes and for communal coping (indexed via pronoun use) as a potential mechanism of change in couple-focused interventions for health problems. © 2015 Family Process Institute.
Melón, Laverne C.; Wray, Kevin N.; Moore, Eileen M.; Boehm, Stephen L.
Binge drinking during adolescence may perturb the maturing neuroenvironment and increase susceptibility of developing an alcohol use disorder later in life. In the present series of experiments, we utilized a modified version of the drinking in the dark-multiple scheduled access (DID-MSA) procedure to study how heavy binge drinking during adolescence alters responsivity to ethanol later in adulthood. Adult and adolescent C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) males and females were given access to a 20% ethanol solution for 3 hourly periods, each separated by 2 h of free water access. B6 adults and adolescents consumed 2 to 3.5 g/kg ethanol an hour and displayed significant intoxication and binge-like blood ethanol concentrations. There was an interaction of sex and age, however, driven by high intakes in adult B6 females, who peaked at 11.01 g/kg. Adolescents of both sexes and adult males never consumed more than 9.3 g/kg. D2 mice consumed negligible amounts of alcohol and showed no evidence of intoxication. B6 mice were abstinent for one month and were retested on the balance beam 10 min following 1.75 g/kg ethanol challenge (20%v/v; i.p). They were also tested for changes in home cage locomotion immediately following the 1.75 g/kg dose (for 10 min prior to balance beam). Although there was no effect of age of exposure, all mice with a binge drinking history demonstrated a significantly dampened ataxic response to an ethanol challenge. Female mice that binge drank during adulthood showed a significantly augmented locomotor response to ethanol when compared to their water drinking controls. This alteration was not noted for males or for females that binge drank during adolescence. These results highlight the importance of biological sex, and its interaction with age, in the development of behavioral adaptation following binge drinking. PMID:23333154
Ritz, Ludivine; Segobin, Shailendra; Le Berre, Anne Pascale; Lannuzel, Coralie; Boudehent, Céline; Vabret, François; Eustache, Francis; Pitel, Anne Lise; Beaunieux, Hélène
Background Procedural learning allows for the acquisition of new behavioral skills. Previous studies have shown that chronic alcoholism is characterized by impaired cognitive procedural learning and brain abnormalities affecting regions that are involved in the automation of new cognitive procedures in healthy individuals. The goal of the present study was to investigate the brain structural substrates of cognitive procedural learning in alcoholic patients (ALs) early in abstinence. Methods Thirty-one ALs and 31 control participants (NCs) performed the Tower of Toronto task (4 daily learning sessions, each comprising 10 trials) to assess cognitive procedural learning. We also assessed episodic and working memory, executive functions, and visuospatial abilities. ALs underwent 1.5T structural magnetic resonance imaging. Results The initial cognitive phase was longer in the AL group than in the NC group, whereas the autonomous phase was shorter. In ALs, the longer cognitive phase was predicted by poorer planning and visuospatial working memory abilities, and by smaller gray matter (GM) volumes in the angular gyrus and caudate nucleus. ALs’ planning abilities correlated with smaller GM volume in the angular gyrus. Conclusions Cognitive procedural learning was impaired in ALs, with a delayed transition from the cognitive to the autonomous phase. This slowdown in the automation of the cognitive procedure was related to lower planning abilities, which may have hampered the initial generation of the procedure to be learned. In agreement with this neuropsychological finding, a persistent relationship was found between learning performance and the GM volumes of the angular gyrus and caudate nucleus, which are usually regarded as markers of planning and initial learning of the cognitive procedure. PMID:25156613
Holleran, Katherine M; Wilson, Hadley H; Fetterly, Tracy L; Bluett, Rebecca J; Centanni, Samuel W; Gilfarb, Rachel A; Rocco, Lauren E R; Patel, Sachin; Winder, Danny G
Although alcoholism and depression are highly comorbid, treatment options that take this into account are lacking, and mouse models of alcohol (ethanol (EtOH)) intake-induced depressive-like behavior have not been well established. Recent studies utilizing contingent EtOH administration through prolonged two-bottle choice access have demonstrated depression-like behavior following EtOH abstinence in singly housed female C57BL/6J mice. In the present study, we found that depression-like behavior in the forced swim test (FST) is revealed only after a protracted (2 weeks), but not acute (24 h), abstinence period. No effect on anxiety-like behavior in the EPM was observed. Further, we found that, once established, the affective disturbance is long-lasting, as we observed significantly enhanced latencies to approach food even 35 days after ethanol withdrawal in the novelty-suppressed feeding test (NSFT). We were able to reverse affective disturbances measured in the NSFT following EtOH abstinence utilizing the N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist and antidepressant ketamine but not memantine, another NMDAR antagonist. Pretreatment with the monoacylglycerol (MAG) lipase inhibitor JZL-184 also reduced affective disturbances in the NSFT in ethanol withdrawn mice, and this effect was prevented by co-administration of the CB1 inverse agonist rimonabant. Endocannabinoid levels were decreased within the BLA during abstinence compared with during drinking. Finally, we demonstrate that the depressive behaviors observed do not require a sucrose fade and that this drinking paradigm may favor the development of habit-like EtOH consumption. These data could set the stage for developing novel treatment approaches for alcohol-withdrawal-induced mood and anxiety disorders.
Martínez-Hernández, Nieves; Ricarte, Jorge
Using a self-defining memory task, this work studies the exact moment in which abstinent alcoholics perceived themselves as addicted. Phenomenological variables involved in the memory were obtained asking participants to evaluate their cognitions, perceptions and emotions associated with that self-defining memory. The sample consisted of 12 female and 31 male ex-alcoholics, with abstinence ranging from 6 months to 23 years. Mean age was 52.91 years. Our findings showed that awareness of the alcoholic self emerges in the context of uncontrolled consumption or an ultimatum from family members. This type of memory had a positive valence for most of the participants, regardless of the memory perspective (actor versus spectator). Those who remembered from an actor perspective, perceived the event as providing higher growth and personal learning. These results show the importance of exploring situations of uncontrolled consumption and family dynamics in the self-recognition of alcohol dependence. In addition, reinforcing an actor perspective compared to a spectator perspective might results in higher levels of personal enrichment, which may help maintain a patient's long-term recovery. These results support the use of autobiographical memory techniques to enhance awareness of the addicted self, and suggest the need to include these interventions in rehabilitation programmes.
O'Tousa, David S; Grahame, Nicholas J
Negative outcomes of alcoholism are progressively more severe as the duration of problem of alcohol use increases. Additionally, alcoholics demonstrate tendencies to neglect negative consequences associated with drinking and/or to choose to drink in the immediate presence of warning factors against drinking. The recently derived crossed high-alcohol-preferring (cHAP) mice, which volitionally drink to heavier intoxication (as assessed by blood ethanol [EtOH] concentration) than other alcohol-preferring populations, as well as spontaneously escalating their intake, may be a candidate to explore mechanisms underlying long-term excessive drinking. Here, we hypothesized that an extended drinking history would reduce the ability of 2 manipulations (forced abstinence [FA] and conditioned taste aversion [CTA]) to attenuate drinking. Experiment 1 examined differences between groups drinking for either 14 or 35 days, half of each subjected to 7 days of FA and half not, to characterize the potential changes in postabstinence drinking resulting from an extended drinking history. Experiment 2 used a CTA procedure to assess stimulus specificity of the ability of an aversive flavorant to decrease alcohol consumption. Experiment 3 used this taste aversion procedure to assess differences among groups drinking for 1, 14, or 35 days in their propensity to overcome this aversion when the flavorant was mixed with either EtOH or water. Experiment 1 demonstrated that although FA decreased alcohol consumption in mice with a 14-day drinking history, it failed to do so in mice drinking alcohol for 35 days. Experiment 2 showed that the addition of a flavorant only suppressed alcohol drinking if an aversion to the flavorant was previously established. Experiment 3 demonstrated that an extended drinking history expedited extinction of suppressed alcohol intake caused by a conditioned aversive flavor. These data show that a history of long-term drinking in cHAP mice attenuates the efficacy
Cannon, Dale S.; And Others
Assessed degree of alcohol aversion in 60 alcoholics who received emetic alcohol-aversion therapy. Results revealed changes in response to alcoholic, but not to nonalcoholic, flavors, including decreased consumption in taste tests, more negative flavor ratings, overt behavioral indicants of aversion and increased tachycardiac response. (Author/NB)
Khan, Anam; Tansel, Aylin; White, Donna L; Kayani, Waleed Tallat; Bano, Shah; Lindsay, Jan; El-Serag, Hashem B; Kanwal, Fasiha
We conducted a systematic review of efficacy of psychosocial interventions in inducing or maintaining alcohol abstinence in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD). We performed structured keyword searches in PubMed, PsychINFO, and MEDLINE for original research articles that were published from January 1983 through November 2014 that evaluated the use of psychosocial interventions to induce or maintain alcohol abstinence in patients with CLD and AUD. We identified 13 eligible studies that comprised 1945 patients; 5 were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Delivered therapies included motivational enhancement therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), motivational interviewing, supportive therapy, and psychoeducation either alone or in combination in the intervention group and general health education or treatment as usual in the control group. All studies of induction of abstinence (4 RCTs and 6 observational studies) reported an increase in abstinence among participants in the intervention and control groups. Only an integrated therapy that combined CBT and motivational enhancement therapy with comprehensive medical care, delivered during a period of 2 years, produced a significant increase in abstinence (74% increase in intervention group vs 48% increase in control group, P = .02), which was reported in 1 RCT. All studies of maintenance of abstinence (1 RCT and 2 observational studies) observed recidivism in the intervention and control groups. Only an integrated therapy that combined medical care with CBT produced a significantly smaller rate of recidivism (32.7% in integrated CBT group vs 75% in control group, P = .03), which was reported from 1 observational study. However, data were not collected for more than 2 years on outcomes of patients with CLD and AUD. In a systematic analysis of studies of interventions to induce or maintain alcohol abstinence in patients with CLD and AUD, integrated combination psychotherapy with
Farook, Justin M; Morrell, Dennis J; Lewis, Ben; Littleton, John M; Barron, Susan
Topiramate has emerged as one of the promising drugs for the treatment of alcoholism and alcohol addiction. Recent studies have shown that topiramate reduces harmful drinking and initiates abstinence in humans, but little is known as to why this drug is effective. In the present study, we examined the effects of topiramate in reducing convulsions during alcohol withdrawal using a procedure called the handling-induced convulsion (HIC) test in male Swiss-Webster mice. In addition, we examined the ability of topiramate to reduce alcohol conditioned and anxiety related behaviours during conditioned abstinence using the elevated plus maze (EPM) test. HICs were examined 10 h after the 3rd daily alcohol (2.5 g/kg; 20% w/v)+4 methylpyrazole (4MP) (9 mg/kg) intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection with topiramate (0, 10 or 20 mg/kg ip) administered 30 min before testing. In the EPM, alcohol (1.75 g/kg; 20%, i.p.) or saline was administered daily for 9 days and subjects were immediately placed on the maze. Anxiety related behaviours included the amount of time spent and number of entries in the open or closed arms and grooming bouts, and conditioned behaviours including the stretched-attend posture were examined 24 h after the last day of alcohol injection. Topiramate (10 and 20 mg/kg) significantly reduced HIC scores (P<0.05) compared to the alcohol/saline group. In the EPM, topiramate (20 mg/kg) reduced the stretched-attend postures (P<0.001) compared to the alcohol/saline group. These findings suggest that topiramate reduces HICs during alcohol withdrawal and alcohol-conditioned behaviours during conditioned abstinence in Swiss-Webster mice.
Mayhugh, Rhiannon E; Rejeski, W Jack; Petrie, Meredith R; Laurienti, Paul J; Gauvin, Lise
Stress is a known factor related to alcohol use. However, how the relationship between alcohol craving and stress varies across the day is not fully understood. As craving is a consistent predictor of alcohol use disorder (AUD), understanding stress and craving patterns across the day in routine, non-dependent, moderate-heavy alcohol consumers may help in understanding those who may be vulnerable to transitioning into AUD. Moderate-heavy drinkers were recruited from the local community (n = 32) and assessed for fluctuations in craving and stress intensity across the day via Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) during 3 consecutive days of imposed alcohol abstinence (abstained trial) and their normal drinking routine (normal trial). A multilevel modeling statistical approach assessed differences in diurnal craving and stress patterns with the Alcohol Craving Experience Questionnaire (ACE) examined as a moderator. Immediately following alcohol consumption on normal trials, EMA craving levels were significantly reduced compared to pre-drinking levels. Moreover, the post-drinking craving levels were lower than on abstained trials. Higher ACE scores were associated with significantly higher EMA craving across the day and higher peaks at midday. Higher ACE scores were also associated with greater EMA stress across the day. Drinking relieved stress relative to abstained trials, but not in individuals with higher ACE scores. Higher stress was associated with greater EMA craving, which was stronger among those with higher ACE scores. These findings suggest that ACE scores are important to understanding patterns of stress and craving experienced across the day in routine, non-dependent, moderate-heavy drinkers and may provide new insights for vulnerability to transitioning into AUD.
Kerr, William C; Lui, Camillia K; Williams, Edwina; Ye, Yu; Greenfield, Thomas K; Lown, E Anne
The choice and definition of a comparison group in alcohol-related health studies remains a prominent issue in alcohol epidemiology due to potential biases in the risk estimates. The most commonly used comparison group has been current abstainers; however, this includes former drinkers who may have quit drinking due to health problems. Lifetime abstention could be the best option, but measurement issues, selection biases due to health and other risk factors, and small numbers in populations are important concerns. This study examines characteristics of lifetime abstention and occasional drinking that are relevant for alcohol-related health studies. This study used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort of 14 to 21 year olds followed through 2012 (n = 7,515). Definitions of abstinence and occasional drinking were constructed based on multiple measurements. Descriptive analyses were used to compare the definitions, and in further analysis, lifetime abstainers (n = 718) and lifetime minimal drinkers (n = 1,027) were compared with drinkers across demographics and early-life characteristics (i.e., religion, poverty, parental education, and family alcohol problems) in logistic regression models. Using a strict measurement of zero drinks from adolescence to the 50s, only 1.7% of the sample was defined as lifetime abstainer compared to a broader definition allowing a total of 1 drink over the lifetime that included 9.5% and to lifetime minimal drinking (a total of 3 drinks or less a month), which accounted for 13.7%. Factors significantly associated with lifetime abstention and lifetime minimal drinking included religion, poverty, having no family alcohol problems, Hispanic ethnicity, foreign-born, and female gender. Importantly, work-related health limitations in early life were significantly associated, but not childhood physical and mental health problems. Alcohol-related health studies should utilize lifetime classifications of drinkers
Röjdmark, S; Brismar, K
IGF-I stimulates protein synthesis, lowers blood glucose, and affects cell differentiation. The main production site of IGF-I is the liver. One of its binding proteins, IGFBP-1, is also produced by the liver. It is well known that ethanol affects the function of the human liver. Long-term alcohol abuse may therefore not only cause considerable IGF-I and IGFBP-1 production changes, but also changes in IGF-I bioavailability, which at least in part is determined by the IGF-I/IGFBP-1 ratio. Not much is known about how the bioavailability of IGF-I is changed in alcohol abusers. Therefore, the objective of this investigation was to study that matter, and to elucidate how abstinence affects IGF-I bioavailability in man. Three study groups were formed: group N including normal non-addicted subjects, group E ethanol abusers without gross liver insufficiency, and group C alcohol abusers with liver cirrhosis and ascites. Serum concentrations of insulin, GH, IGF-1, and IGFBP-1 were determined in the morning in all participants, and the IGF-I/IGFBP-1 ratios were calculated. These values were compared in the three study groups. In group E comparison was also made between values recorded in the ethanol intoxicated and in the detoxicated states. Patients in group C had low IGF-I levels, high IGFBP-1 levels, and low IGF-I bioavailability as reflected by the IGF-I/IGFBP-1 ratios, which were several-fold reduced compared with subjects in group N (0.6+/-0.2 vs 10.2+/-2.3; p<0.001). Patients in group E had also a low IGF-I/IGFBP-1 ratio in the acute ethanol intoxicated state, which increased after detoxication (from 1.5+/-0.4 to 5.6+/-1.2; p<0.01). It is concluded that alcohol abuse lowers the hepatic production of IGF-I and increases the production of IGFBP-1. This results in a reduced IGF-I bioavailability. However, in patients with not yet clinically apparent liver damage the IGF-I bioavailability increases if the alcohol abuse is stopped. These findings could reflect an important
Noyes, Emily T; Levine, Jacob A; Schlauch, Robert C; Crane, Cory A; Connors, Gerard J; Maisto, Stephen A; Dearing, Ronda L
With the growing recognition that, for some, significant changes in drinking occur before the first treatment session (i.e., pretreatment change), researchers have called for the careful assessment of when change occurs and its potential impact on mechanism of behavior change (MOBC) research. Using a commonly hypothesized MOBC variable, alcohol abstinence self-efficacy, the primary aim of this study was to examine the effect of pretreatment change on the study of MOBCs. Sixty-three individuals diagnosed with alcohol dependence were recruited to participate in a 12-week cognitive-behavioral treatment. Participants completed weekly assessments of self-efficacy and drinking behaviors. Multilevel time-lagged regression models indicated that pretreatment change significantly moderated the effect of self-efficacy on the number of drinking days, such that among those higher on pretreatment change, higher self-efficacy ratings predicted lower rates of drinking days in the week until the next treatment session. In contrast, pretreatment change did not moderate the effect of self-efficacy on the rate of heavy drinking days. Results from the current study add to a small but growing body of research highlighting the importance of pretreatment change when studying MOBCs. Further, these results provide important insights into the conditions in which self-efficacy may play an important role in treatment outcomes.
Witbrodt, Jane; Ye, Yu; Bond, Jason; Chi, Felicia; Weisner, Constance; Mertens, Jennifer
This study explored causal relationships between post-treatment 12-step attendance and abstinence at multiple data waves and examined indirect paths leading from treatment initiation to abstinence 9-years later. Adults (N = 1945) seeking help for alcohol or drug use disorders from integrated healthcare organization outpatient treatment programs were followed at 1-, 5-, 7- and 9-years. Path modeling with cross-lagged partial regression coefficients was used to test causal relationships. Cross-lagged paths indicated greater 12-step attendance during years 1 and 5 and were casually related to past-30-day abstinence at years 5 and 7 respectfully, suggesting 12-step attendance leads to abstinence (but not vice versa) well into the post-treatment period. Some gender differences were found in these relationships. Three significant time-lagged, indirect paths emerged linking treatment duration to year-9 abstinence. Conclusions are discussed in the context of other studies using longitudinal designs. For outpatient clients, results reinforce the value of lengthier treatment duration and 12-step attendance in year 1. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ceccanti, Mauro; Coriale, Giovanna; Hamilton, Derek A; Carito, Valentina; Coccurello, Roberto; Scalese, Bruna; Ciafrè, Stefania; Codazzo, Claudia; Messina, Marisa Patrizia; Chaldakov, George N; Fiore, Marco
The present study was aimed at examining spatial learning and memory, in 33 men and 12 women with alcohol use disorder (AUD) undergoing ethanol detoxification, by using a virtual Morris task. As controls, we recruited 29 men and 10 women among episodic drinkers without a history of alcohol addiction or alcohol-related diseases. Elevated latency to the first movement in all trials was observed only in AUD persons; furthermore, control women had longer latencies compared with control men. Increased time spent to reach the hidden platform in the learning phase was found for women of both groups compared with men, in particular during trial 3. As predicted, AUD persons (more evident in men) spent less time in the target quadrant during the probe trial; however, AUD women had longer latencies to reach the platform in the visible condition during trials 6 and 7 that resulted in a greater distance moved. As for the probe trial, men of both groups showed increased virtual locomotion compared with the women of both groups. The present investigation confirms and extends previous studies showing (i) different gender responses in spatial learning tasks, (ii) some alterations due to alcohol addiction in virtual spatial learning, and (iii) differences between AUD men and AUD women in spatial-behaviour-related paradigms.
Heffner, Jaimee L; Mingione, Carolyn; Blom, Thomas J; Anthenelli, Robert M
The goal of this study was to compare lifetime cigarette smoking, severity of nicotine dependence, and subjective effects of short-term tobacco abstinence in abstinent alcohol dependent (AD) and control smokers. AD (n=119) and control (n=55) ever-smokers were compared on tobacco use history and nicotine dependence. Negative affect and craving to smoke were examined in a subsample of currently smoking AD (N=34) and control (N=19) participants during a 6-h period of tobacco abstinence using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and the Questionnaire on Smoking Urges-Brief (QSU-B). Although AD smokers did not differ from controls on heaviness of smoking, they were more likely to meet lifetime criteria for nicotine dependence. AD smokers also reported more withdrawal symptoms and were more likely to endorse withdrawal-related depressed mood during past smoking reduction or abstinence periods. During short-term abstinence, AD smokers were more likely to report high craving to smoke for negative affect relief within the first 150 min of tobacco abstinence, but did not differ from controls on overall craving to smoke or withdrawal-related negative affect on the POMS. Results support previous findings that AD smokers have a greater prevalence of nicotine dependence and more severe nicotine withdrawal, with a greater propensity toward withdrawal-related depressed mood. These results, along with our novel finding that greater craving to smoke in abstaining smokers with AD is specific to negative affect-related craving, suggest that negative reinforcement may be a particularly salient factor in the maintenance of tobacco use among individuals with AD. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yawalkar, Rutuja; Changotra, Harish; Gupta, Girdhari Lal
Evidences have indicated a high degree of comorbidity of alcoholism and depression. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has shown its clinical efficiency in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders and is identified as a multi-target acting drug. The ability of NAC to prevent alcohol abstinence-induced depression-like effects and underlying mechanism(s) have not been adequately addressed. This study was aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of NAC in the alcohol abstinence-induced depression developed following long-term voluntary alcohol intake. For evaluation of the effects of NAC, Sprague-Dawley rats were enabled to voluntary drinking of 4.5%, 7.5% and 9% v/v alcohol for fifteen days. NAC (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (5 mg/kg) were injected intraperitoneally for three consecutive days during the alcohol abstinence period on the days 16, 17, 18. The behavioral studies were conducted employing forced swim test (FST), and tail suspension test (TST) on day 18 to determine the effects of N-acetylcysteine and fluoxetine in the ethanol withdrawal induced-depression. Blood alcohol concentration, alcohol biomarkers like SGPT, SGOT, ALP, GGT, and MCV were estimated by using commercially available kits. Serotonin concentrations were measured in the plasma, hippocampus and pre-frontal cortex using the rat ELISA kit. The expression of GRIN1, GRIN2A, GRIN2B genes for the N-methyl d-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) subunits in the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex were also examined by reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results revealed that alcohol abstinence group depicted increased immobility time in FST and TST. Further, NAC exerted significant protective effect at the doses 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, but 25 mg/kg showed insignificant protection against alcohol abstinence-induced depression. The increased level of biochemical parameters following ethanol abstinence were also reversed by NAC at the dose of 100 mg/kg. The
Achieving Drug and Alcohol Abstinence Among Recently Incarcerated Homeless Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Dialectical Behavioral Therapy-Case Management With a Health Promotion Program.
Nyamathi, Adeline M; Shin, Sanghyuk S; Smeltzer, Jolene; Salem, Benissa E; Yadav, Kartik; Ekstrand, Maria L; Turner, Susan F; Faucette, Mark
Homeless female ex-offenders (homeless female offenders) exiting jail and prison are at a critical juncture during reentry and transitioning into the community setting. The purpose of the study was to compare the effect of a dialectical behavioral therapy-case management (DBT-CM) program with a health promotion (HP) program on achieving drug and alcohol abstinence among female parolees/probationers residing in the community. We conducted a multicenter parallel randomized controlled trial with 130 female parolees/probationers (aged 19-64 years) residing in the community randomly assigned to either DBT-CM (n = 65) or HP (n = 65). The trial was conducted in four community-based partner sites in Los Angeles and Pomona, California, from February 2015 to November 2016. Treatment assignment was carried out using a computer-based urn randomization program. The primary outcome was drug and alcohol use abstinence at 6-month follow up. Analysis was based on data from 116 participants with complete outcome data. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that the DBT-CM program remained an independent positive predictor of decrease in drug use among the DBT-CM participants at 6 months (p = .01) as compared with the HP program participants. Being non-White (p < .05) and having higher depressive symptom scores (p < .05) were associated with lower odds of drug use abstinence (i.e., increased the odds of drug use) at 6 months. DBT-CM increased drug and alcohol abstinence at 6-month follow-up, compared to an HP program.
Lee, Ellie; Sutton, Robbie M; Hartley, Bonny L
In this article, we follow the approach taken by Riesch and Spiegalhalter in "Careless pork costs lives': Risk stories from science to press release to media' published in this journal, and offer an assessment of one example of a 'risk story'. Using content and thematic qualitative analysis, we consider how the findings of an article 'Fetal Alcohol Exposure and IQ at Age 8: Evidence from a Population-Based Birth-Cohort Study' were framed in the article itself, the associated press release, and the subsequent extensive media coverage. We contextualise this consideration of a risk story by discussing a body of work that critically engages with the development and global proliferation of efforts to advocate for alcohol abstinence to pregnant (and pre-pregnant) women. This work considers the 'democratisation' of risk, a term used to draw attention to the expansion of the definition of the problem of drinking in pregnancy to include any drinking and all women. We show here how this risk story contributed a new dimension to the democratisation of risk through claims that were made about uncertainty and certainty. A central argument we make concerns the contribution of the researchers themselves (not just lobby groups or journalists) to this outcome. We conclude that the democratisation of risk was advanced in this case not simply through journalists exaggerating and misrepresenting research findings, but that communication to the press and the initial interpretation of findings played their part. We suggest that this risk story raises concerns about the accuracy of reporting of research findings, and about the communication of unwarrantedly worrying messages to pregnant women about drinking alcohol.
Xu, R; Duan, S R; Zhao, J W; Wang, C Y
Chronic ethanol consumption can produce learning and memory deficits. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptors affect the pathogenesis of alcoholism. In this study, we examined the expression of BDNF, tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) and p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) in the hippocampus of a dog model of chronic alcoholism and abstinence. Twenty domestic dogs (9-10 months old, 15-20 kg; 10 males and 10 females) were obtained from Harbin Medical University. A stable alcoholism model was established through ad libitum feeding, and anti-alcohol drug treatment (Zhong Yao Jie Jiu Ling, the main ingredient was the stems of watermelon; developed in our laboratory), at low- and high-doses, was carried out. The Zhong Yao Jie Jiu Ling was effective for the alcoholism in dogs. The morphology of hippocampal neurons was evaluated using hematoxylin-eosin staining. The number and morphological features of BDNF, TrkB and p75NTR-positive neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG), and the CA1, CA3 and CA4 regions of the hippocampus were observed using immunohistochemistry. One-way ANOVA was used to determine differences in BDNF, TrkB and p75NTR expression. BDNF, TrkB and p75NTR-positive cells were mainly localized in the granular cell layer of the DG and in the pyramidal cell layer of the CA1, CA3 and CA4 regions (DG>CA1>CA3>CA4). Expression levels of both BDNF and TrkB were decreased in chronic alcoholism, and increased after abstinence. The CA4 region appeared to show the greatest differences. Changes in p75NTR expression were the opposite of those of BDNF and TrkB, with the greatest differences observed in the DG and CA4 regions.
Luz, P L da; Coimbra, S; Favarato, D; Albuquerque, C; Mochiduky, R I; Rochitte, C E; Hojaij, E; Gonsalves, C R L; Laurindo, F R
Observational studies suggest there are clinical benefits to moderate red wine (RW) consumption. However, the effects on coronary vasculature and overall lifestyle are unclear. We investigated whether a lifestyle of regular long-term RW consumption is associated with changes in coronary plaque burden, calcium score, carotid intima/media thickness, endothelial function, and metabolic variables, compared with alcohol abstinence. Healthy volunteers were evaluated by coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) as well as carotid and brachial artery ultrasound. Nutritional status, psychological status, and metabolic variables were assessed. The study included 101 drinkers [aged 58.9 ± 7.3 years (means ± SD)], from wine brotherhoods, and 104 abstainers, from Anglican, Evangelical and Catholic churches both in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. No significant differences in demographics were noted. Lesion prevalence per patient assessed by coronary CTA and classified as absent (0), 1-25, 26-49, and ≥ 50% stenosis was similar between groups. When analyzed by individual arteries, i.e., left anterior descending, circumflex, and right coronary, prevalence was also not different. On the other hand, calcium scores were higher among drinkers than abstainers (144.4 ± 362.2 vs 122.0 ± 370.3; P<0.01). However, drinkers reported less history of diabetes and exercised more. RW drinkers consumed 2127.9 ± 387.7 kcal/day while abstainers consumed 1836.0 ± 305.0 (P<0.0001). HDL cholesterol was significantly higher among drinkers compared to abstainers (46.9 ± 10.9 vs 39.5 ± 9.0 mg/dL; P<0.001), while fasting plasma glucose was lower (97.6 ± 18.2 vs 118.4 ± 29.6 mg/dL; P<0.02). Liver enzymes were normal in both groups. In conclusion, long-term wine drinkers displayed a similar plaque burden but greater calcium score than abstainers, despite a more atherogenic diet, and the mechanisms for the increased calcium scores in the former remain speculative.
da Luz, P.L.; Coimbra, S.; Favarato, D.; Albuquerque, C.; Mochiduky, R.I.; Rochitte, C.E.; Hojaij, E.; Gonsalves, C.R.L.; Laurindo, F.R.
Observational studies suggest there are clinical benefits to moderate red wine (RW) consumption. However, the effects on coronary vasculature and overall lifestyle are unclear. We investigated whether a lifestyle of regular long-term RW consumption is associated with changes in coronary plaque burden, calcium score, carotid intima/media thickness, endothelial function, and metabolic variables, compared with alcohol abstinence. Healthy volunteers were evaluated by coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) as well as carotid and brachial artery ultrasound. Nutritional status, psychological status, and metabolic variables were assessed. The study included 101 drinkers [aged 58.9±7.3 years (means±SD)], from wine brotherhoods, and 104 abstainers, from Anglican, Evangelical and Catholic churches both in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. No significant differences in demographics were noted. Lesion prevalence per patient assessed by coronary CTA and classified as absent (0), 1-25, 26-49, and ≥50% stenosis was similar between groups. When analyzed by individual arteries, i.e., left anterior descending, circumflex, and right coronary, prevalence was also not different. On the other hand, calcium scores were higher among drinkers than abstainers (144.4±362.2 vs 122.0±370.3; P<0.01). However, drinkers reported less history of diabetes and exercised more. RW drinkers consumed 2127.9±387.7 kcal/day while abstainers consumed 1836.0±305.0 (P<0.0001). HDL cholesterol was significantly higher among drinkers compared to abstainers (46.9±10.9 vs 39.5±9.0 mg/dL; P<0.001), while fasting plasma glucose was lower (97.6±18.2 vs 118.4±29.6 mg/dL; P<0.02). Liver enzymes were normal in both groups. In conclusion, long-term wine drinkers displayed a similar plaque burden but greater calcium score than abstainers, despite a more atherogenic diet, and the mechanisms for the increased calcium scores in the former remain speculative. PMID:25003545
Mulhauser, Kyler; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Ruppert, Phillip; Benware, Jeffrey
Neuropsychological deficits are common in individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and impact daily functioning and AUD treatment outcomes. Longitudinal studies demonstrate that extended abstinence improves neuropsychological functioning. The effects of short-term abstinence are less clear. This study examined changes in neuropsychological functioning after acute detoxification over a 10-day period at the beginning of residential AUD treatment. Notably, this study evaluated cognitive functioning according to diagnostic classifications for neurocognitive disorder according to DSM-5. Using a within-subjects design, neuropsychological functioning of participants (N = 28) undergoing a 14-day residential AUD treatment program was assessed at two time points over 10 days (i.e., treatment entry, prior to treatment discharge). Tests of immediate memory, visuospatial abilities, attention, language abilities, delayed memory, and executive functioning were administered. After completing acute detoxification, almost all participants (93%) were clinically impaired in at least one of the five cognitive domains at residential treatment entry, with one third of the sample impaired on ≥3 domains. Ten days later, 71% remained clinically impaired in at least one of five cognitive domains, with 29% of the sample impaired on ≥3 domains. Significant improvement over the 10-day period was observed for immediate memory, visuospatial abilities, and overall cognitive functioning. Clinical significance of these changes is also reported. Conclusions/Importance: The results from this study help to characterize cognitive functioning in terms of neurocognitive impairment. A brief period of abstinence begins to ameliorate neuropsychological deficits, but many individuals remain cognitively impaired throughout treatment. Implications for treatment are discussed.
The American College of Pediatricians strongly endorses abstinence-until-marriage sex education and recommends adoption by all school systems in lieu of "comprehensive sex education." This position is based on "the public health principle of primary prevention-risk avoidance in lieu of risk reduction," upholding the "human right to the highest attainable standard of health" (Freedman 1995).
Alcohol Drinking; Alcohol Intoxication; Alcohol Poison; Alcohol-Related Disorders; Alcohol Impairment; Alcohol Withdrawal; Alcohol Abstinence; Alcohol; Harmful Use; Sex Behavior; Sexual Aggression; Sexual Harassment; Relation, Interpersonal
The American College of Pediatricians strongly endorses abstinence-until-marriage sex education and recommends adoption by all school systems in lieu of “comprehensive sex education.” This position is based on “the public health principle of primary prevention—risk avoidance in lieu of risk reduction,” upholding the “human right to the highest attainable standard of health” (Freedman 1995). PMID:25473134
Jones, B T; McMahon, J
Within social learning theory, positive alcohol expectancies represent motivation to drink and negative expectancies, motivation to restrain. It is also recognized that a subjective evaluation of expectancies ought to moderate their impact, although the evidence for this in social drinkers is problematic. This paper addresses the speculation that the moderating effect will be more evident in clinical populations. This study shows that (i) both expectancy and value reliably, independently and equally predict clients' abstinence survivorship following discharge from a treatment programme (and that this is almost entirely confined to the negative rather than positive terms). When (ii) expectancy evaluations are processed against expectancy through multiplicative composites (i.e. expectancy x value), their predictive power is only equivalent to either expectancy or value on its own. However (iii) when the multiplicative composite is assessed following the statistical guidelines advocated by Evans (1991) (i.e. within the same model as its constituents, expectancy and value) the increase in outcome variance explained by its inclusion is negligible and casts doubt upon its use in alcohol research. This does not appear to apply to value, however, and its possible role in treatment is discussed.
Schneider, Karl A.; And Others
This paper describes the results of the Eagleville Reading Academy and Satellite Program, a demonstration project funded by the U.S. Office of Education. Eagleville is a private, nonprofit hospital devoted to treatment, research, education and training for alcoholism and drug addiction. The therapeutic community setting includes individual and…
Loeber, Sabine; Duka, Theodora; Welzel Márquez, Helga; Nakovics, Helmut; Heinz, Andreas; Mann, Karl; Flor, Herta
Several authors suggest that withdrawal from alcohol could cause neurotoxic lesions in the frontal lobe and thereby affect cognitive function. In line with this, previous studies have demonstrated greater cognitive impairment of alcohol-dependent patients with two or more previous detoxifications (Hi-detox) compared with patients with less than two detoxifications (Lo-detox). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether repeated withdrawal from alcohol affects recovery of cognitive function and is related to relapse. Forty-eight alcohol-dependent patients (Hi-detox: n = 31, Lo-detox: n = 17) and 36 healthy controls underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological test-battery. Patients were tested after completion of detoxification (T1) and 3 (T2, n = 35) and 6 (T3, n = 28) months after discharge. Healthy controls were tested at T1 (n = 36) and T2 (n = 16). Drinking behaviour was assessed at all times. Patients performed significantly worse than controls at T1 as well as T2 with regard to attention/executive function. Recovery of attention/executive function was observed within the second 3 months after discharge, but the Hi-detox group performed worse than the Lo-detox group. No association with relapse was observed. This study provides first evidence, that repeated withdrawal from alcohol might be associated with reduced brain plasticity as indicated by a delay of recovery from impairment of attention/executive function. However, little evidence was found for a direct influence of cognitive impairment on treatment success.
Dom, G; D'haene, P; Hulstijn, W; Sabbe, B
To test the hypothesis that early-onset alcoholics (EOAs) can be differentiated from late-onset alcoholics (LOAs) by more severe substance-related problems and higher levels of impulsivity and aggression. A cross-sectional patient survey with a community comparison group. The European Addiction Severity Index was used to assess substance-related problems and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Dutch version of the Zuckermann Sensation Seeking Scale and the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory were used to assess impulsive and aggressive traits. Impulsive decision making was assessed using a delay discounting task (DDT) with hypothetical monetary rewards. Participants were EOAs (n = 42) and LOAs (n = 46) recruited from an addiction treatment centre and an unmatched, non-substance-abusing comparison group (n = 54). Findings The EOAs had higher levels of impulsive decision making than both the LOAs and the comparison group. The EOAs had higher scores than the LOAs on measures of impulsiveness, aggressiveness and the severity of substance-related problems. This study provides evidence that EOAs are more impulsive and aggressive than LOAs. Further identification of alcoholism subtypes based on dimensions of impulsivity should be considered in the light of their relationship with pharmacological and behavioural treatment interventions.
Radovanović, Mirjana; Rus-Makovec, Maja
Using the modified Theory of Planned Behaviour (mTPB), different indicators of therapeutic success were studied to understand pro-abstinence behavioural orientation during an 18-year after-care period following a 3-month intensive alcoholism treatment. The indicators were: perceived needs satisfaction (NS), normative differential (ND), perceived alcohol utility (UT), beliefs about treatment programme benefits (BE) and behavioural intentions (BI). The sample of 167 patients who consecutively started an intensive alcoholism treatment programme has been followed-up for 18 years, using standardised ailed instruments at the end of the treatment, and in the years 4-5, 9 and 18 of follow-up. The last data collection was completed by 32 subjects in 2010. The analysis followed the standard explore-analyse-explore approach. After the initial descriptive exploration of data, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) in SPSS statistical package was set to explore between-groups and within-groups differences over time. At the between-group level, BI remained stable at the same level as at the end of the treatment programme, whereas BE and UT robustly changed over time and levelled off after 10 years of follow-up. NS and ND show a trend of pro-abstinent orientation and level off after 10 years of follow-up, although the trend is not significant. The same results were confirmed by the within-subject level. Studied constructs stabilised after ten years of follow-up, apart from BI. The latter suggests that BI level needed for completion of an intensive treatment programme suffices for the maintenance of abstinence when accompanied by the change in perception of alcohol usefulness.
Bramness, Jørgen G; Mann, Karl; Wurst, Friedrich M
Acamprosate, disulfiram (DIS), naltrexone and nalmefene can be used in treating alcohol use disorders. The drugs are, however, underutilized. In this survey of marketing status and perceived efficacy, member societies of the European federation for addiction societies were asked to report on the status of these drugs in their country. Results were obtained from 20 European countries showing that the drugs were registered in most countries. The drugs were mentioned in guidelines in approximately half and were partially or fully reimbursed in half to two-thirds countries. DIS was perceived as the most efficacious drug. These results are discussed. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Rodgers, Caryn R. R.; Nichols, Tracy R.; Botvin, Gilbert J.
Increases in substance use prevalence among girls, as well as a lack of research conducted with urban girls of color, highlight the importance of understanding both predictors and outcomes of substance use abstinence (SUA) within this population. This study addresses gaps in SUA research through a longitudinal investigation conducted with urban…
Ott, Mary A; Santelli, John S
To review recent literature on medical accuracy, program effectiveness, and ethical concerns related to abstinence-only policies for adolescent sexuality education. The federal government invests over 175 million dollars annually in 'abstinence-only-until-marriage' programs. These programs are required to withhold information on contraception and condom use, except for information on failure rates. Abstinence-only curricula have been found to contain scientifically inaccurate information, distorting data on topics such as condom efficacy, and promote gender stereotypes. An independent evaluation of the federal program, several systematic reviews, and cohort data from population-based surveys find little evidence of efficacy and evidence of possible harm. In contrast, comprehensive sexuality education programs have been found to help teens delay initiation of intercourse and reduce sexual risk behaviors. Abstinence-only policies violate the human rights of adolescents because they withhold potentially life-saving information on HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Federal support of abstinence-only as an approach to adolescent sexuality education is of much concern due to medical inaccuracies, lack of effectiveness, and the withholding and distorting of health information.
Quantitative Electroencephalography Analysis (qEEG) of Neuro-Electro-Adaptive Therapy 12™ [NEAT12] Up-Regulates Cortical Potentials in an Alcoholic during Protracted Abstinence: Putative Anti-Craving Implications
Waite, Roger L; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; RBraverman, Eric; Barh, Debmalya; Blum, Kenneth
Introduction Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) is a noninvasive therapy that has been used for decades in the United States to treat anxiety, depression, and insomnia in the general population. The effectiveness of CES has been questioned by many and its use is considered controversial. In this study we are presenting data on one alcoholic patient using a newly engineered device we call Neuro-Electro-Adaptive Therapy 12™ [NEAT12]. This hybrid device utilizes TENS current characteristics yielding CES effects. This device has been found to primarily target the excitation of the Cingulate Gyrus region of the brain. Case presentation This is a 42 year old male who has been abstinent from alcohol for approximately two months. The data presented herein represents the pre to post qEEG differences of an alcoholic in protracted abstinence. This subject was evaluated both before and after using the NEAT-12 device. The pre to post comparisons suggest that the cortical potentials especially at the Cingulate Gyrus are up regulated after using the device. The absolute power changes obtained shows a decrease of more than 2 SD as noted in the delta wave spectrum. Also noted is an overall cortical increase in the alpha spectrum. The resting alert state of a neuro typical population is most prominently marked by a regulation of 7.5-11 Hz alpha throughout the cortex. The decreased in delta and theta suggests an up regulation of the prefrontal cortex and the anterior Cingulate Gyrus a site involved in substance use disorder (SUD). Conclusion A presence of dominant slow waves through the prefrontal cortex and the anterior Cingulate Gyrus is often associated with OCD, anxiety, impulsivity and cravings in addicted populations. It is conceivable that our initial finding of altered electrical activity of the brain using qEEG analysis suggests the NEAT-12 may induce a “normalization” of aberrant electrical activity of the cortical region of the brain known to occur during
Taverner, Bill; Montfort, Sue
Young people need to know that abstinence is a far more complex, difficult concept than it is often portrayed. Abstinence is a decision about sexual behaviors that a person may make throughout his or her life. It is a choice made at a specific time in a specific situation, for a specific period of time, whether one is in a partnered relationship…
Forray, Ariadna; Merry, Brian; Lin, Haiqun; Ruger, Jennifer Prah; Yonkers, Kimberly A.
Background Substance use decreases in pregnancy but little prospective data are available on the rates of abstinence and relapse for specific substances. This study compared rates of abstinence in pregnancy and relapse postpartum for nicotine cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine. Methods Data from 152 women drawn from a randomized controlled trial comparing psychological treatments for substance use in pregnancy were analyzed. Self-reports of substance use and urine for toxicology testing throughout pregnancy and 3-months, 12-months and 24-months post-delivery were collected. Multivariate Cox models were used to compare rates of abstinence and relapse across substances. Results In pregnancy, 83% of all women achieved abstinence to at least one substance. The mean (SE) days to abstinence was 145.81 (9.17), 132.01 (6.17), 151.52 (6.24), and 148.91 (7.68) for cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana and cocaine, respectively. Participants were more likely to achieve abstinence from alcohol (HR 7.24 (95% CI 4.47-11.72), marijuana (HR 4.06; 95% CI 1.87-6.22), and cocaine (HR 3.41; 95% CI 2.53-6.51), than cigarettes. Postpartum, 80% of women abstinent in the last month of pregnancy relapsed to at least one substance. The mean days to relapse was 109.67 (26.34), 127.73 (21.29), 138.35 (25.46), and 287.55 (95.85) for cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana and cocaine, respectively. Relapse to cocaine was only 34% (HR 0.34; 95% CI 0.15-0.77) that of cigarettes. Conclusions Pregnancy-related abstinence rates were high for all substances except cigarettes. Postpartum relapse was common, with cocaine using women being less likely to relapse after attaining abstinence compared to women using cigarettes, alcohol or marijuana. PMID:25772437
Rosenberg, Harold; Baylen, Chelsea; Murray, Shanna; Phillips, Kristina; Tisak, Marie S.; Versland, Amelia; Pristas, Erica
Aim: To assess college students' attributions for abstinence from alcohol and illicit drugs. Method: We recruited 125 undergraduates to rate the degree to which each of 41 listed reasons influenced their abstention from six specific substances (alcohol, MDMA/ecstasy, inhalants, cocaine, marijuana, and hallucinogens). Findings: Internal consistency…
Hall, S M
This paper presents a new model to explain the observed relationship between anxiety and substance abuse. Specifically, the concept of "abstinence phobias," common across psychoactive substances, is developed. The evidence needed to support this concept is outlined, and relevant data from studies of opiate, alcohol, and tobacco dependences are reviewed. Parallel data obtained from the treatment of obesity are discussed. It is concluded that the abstinence phobia merits further study; clinical implications are also considered.
Rosenbloom, Margaret J; Sassoon, Stephanie A; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V
Visuospatial construction ability as used in drawing complex figures is commonly impaired in chronic alcoholics, but memory for such information can be enhanced by use of a holistic drawing strategy during encoding. We administered the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCFT) to 41 alcoholic and 38 control men and women and assessed the contribution of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures of integrity of selected white matter tracts to ROCFT copy accuracy, copy strategy, and recall accuracy. Although alcoholics copied the figure less accurately than controls, a more holistic strategy at copy was associated with better recall in both groups. Greater radial diffusivity, reflecting compromised myelin integrity, in occipital forceps and external capsule was associated with poorer copy accuracy in both groups. Lower FA, reflecting compromised fiber microstructure in the inferior cingulate bundle, which links frontal and medial temporal episodic memory systems, was associated with piecemeal copy strategy and poorer immediate recall in the alcoholics. The correlations were generally modest and should be considered exploratory. To the extent that the inferior cingulate was relatively spared in alcoholics, it may have provided an alternative pathway to the compromised frontal system for successful copy strategy and, by extension, aided recall.
Ebbert, Jon O.; Glover, Elbert D.; Shinozaki, Eri; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Dale, Lowell C.
Objectives: To investigate predictors of tobacco abstinence among smokeless tobacco (ST) users. Methods: Logistic regression analyses assessed characteristics associated with tobacco abstinence among ST users receiving bupropion SR. Results: Older age was associated with increased tobacco abstinence in both placebo and bupropion SR groups at end…
Majer, John M.; Callahan, Sarah; Stevick, Kate; Jason, Leonard A.
Social influences (social support for alcohol/drug use and social support for abstinence) were examined in relation to abstinence self-efficacy among a sample of 250 justice involved persons exiting inpatient treatment for substance use disorders. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine social influences in relation to abstinence self-efficacy. Social influences were significantly related to abstinence self-efficacy when examined independently. However, only social support for alcohol/drug use was significant when both social influences were entered into the model. Findings suggest social support for alcohol/drug use compromises abstinence social support, particularly among justice involved persons who are early in their recovery from substance use disorders. PMID:27594810
Watts, Timothy; Wilson, Kelly L.; McNeill, Elisa B.; Rosen, Brittany L.; Moore, Nancy Daley; Smith, Matthew L.
Background: We examine personal characteristics, alcohol consumption, normative beliefs, household factors, and extracurricular engagement associated with intentions to have intercourse before marriage among abstinent students. Methods: Data were analyzed from 245 freshmen enrolled in a school-based abstinence-only-until-marriage program. Two…
Ebbert, Jon O.; Glover, Elbert; Shinozaki, Eri; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Dale, Lowell C.
Objectives To investigate predictors of tobacco abstinence among smokeless tobacco (ST) users. Methods Logistic regression analyses assessed characteristics associated with tobacco abstinence among ST users receiving bupropion SR. Results Older age was associated with increased tobacco abstinence in both placebo and bupropion SR groups at end of treatment and one year. Abstinence was lower at one year for subjects with a history of major depression. At end of treatment, a 2-way interaction was detected suggesting bupropion SR may be efficacious for subjects with other household tobacco users. Conclusions Younger ST users and those with a history of depression are less likely to quit ST use. PMID:18442352
Glassman, Tavis J.; Kruger, Jessica Sloan; Deakins, Bethany A.; Paprzycki, Peter; Blavos, Alexis A.; Hutzelman, Erin N.; Diehr, Aaron
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine which type of prevention message (abstinence, social norms, or responsible drinking) was most effective at reducing alcohol consumption. Participants: The subjects from this study included 194 college students from a public university. Methods: Researchers employed a quasi-experimental design,…
McKee, Laura G.; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.; Moos, Rudolf H.
Objective: This study employed a prospective design to examine the role of friend and partner relationship quality 1 year following substance use disorder treatment in the association between depressive symptoms at discharge from treatment and abstinence from substance use 2 years after treatment. Method: The sample consisted of 1,453 male veterans who used alcohol and at least one other substance in the 3 months before treatment admission, who completed treatment, and who were abstinent from substances during the 2 weeks before discharge. Results: Fewer depressive symptoms at treatment discharge predicted better relationship quality with friends and a partner at 1 -year follow-up, as well as abstinence from substance use at 2-year follow-up. Furthermore, friend and partner relationship quality at 1 year predicted abstinence from substance use at 2 years. Friend relationship quality at 1 year mediated part of the association between fewer depressive symptoms at treatment discharge and abstinence at 2-year follow-up. Conclusions: A stronger focus in treatment on reducing depressive symptoms and enhancing the quality of patients' relationships with their friends and partner may increase the likelihood of long-term abstinence. PMID:21138721
Tamersoy, Acar; De Choudhury, Munmun; Chau, Duen Horng
Social media has been established to bear signals relating to health and well-being states. In this paper, we investigate the potential of social media in characterizing and understanding abstinence from tobacco or alcohol use. While the link between behavior and addiction has been explored in psychology literature, the lack of longitudinal self-reported data on long-term abstinence has challenged addiction research. We leverage the activity spanning almost eight years on two prominent communities on Reddit: StopSmoking and StopDrinking. We use the self-reported "badge" information of nearly a thousand users as gold standard information on their abstinence status to characterize long-term abstinence. We build supervised learning based statistical models that use the linguistic features of the content shared by the users as well as the network structure of their social interactions. Our findings indicate that long-term abstinence from smoking or drinking (~one year) can be distinguished from short-term abstinence (~40 days) with 85% accuracy. We further show that language and interaction on social media offer powerful cues towards characterizing these addiction-related health outcomes. We discuss the implications of our findings in social media and health research, and in the role of social media as a platform for positive behavior change and therapy.
Serrani Azcurra, Daniel
Differences in pathological personality traits and disturbances in brain metabolites between non consumers, abstinent and non abstinent consumers were assessed. Participants (n=113) aged between 18-45 years with personality disorder (PD) were diagnosed with clinical interview and scales for depression, anxiety, impulsivity and dimensions of personality pathology. Brain metabolites were analyzed with magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Data were analyzed with ANOVA and multiple comparisons. Abstinent and non-abstinent differentiated from non-consumers in emotional deregulation, inhibition, and restricted expression; abstinent and non-abstinent differentiated from each other in self-aggression, dissocial behaviour, conduct disorder, stimulus seeking and intimacy problems. N-Acetyl Aspartate and creatine values were lower between non-abstinent in prefrontal, anterior cingulate cortex, cerebellar vermis and superior corona radiata. For abstinent, choline levels were greater in cerebellar vermis and n-acetyl aspartate were lower in dorso-lateral prefrontal and anterior cingulated cortex and insula. Regarding personality traits, insecure attachment, narcissism, lability, self-aggression and anxiety characterize consumers and abstinent, while suspiciousness, rejection and character hardness are found in consumers (non-abstinent and abstinent). Compulsive traits, unplanned body impulsiveness and lack of control in emotional regulation predominated in non-abstinent and participants with co-morbidities. Detachment and inhibition predominate in alcohol abuse disorder and narcissistic traits in substance abuse.
Fein, George; Cardenas, Valerie A.
Alcoholism is characterized by a lack of control over excessive alcohol consumption despite significant negative consequences. This impulsive and compulsive behavior may be related to functional abnormalities within networks of brain regions responsible for how we make decisions. The abnormalities may result in strengthened networks related to appetitive drive—or the need to fulfill desires—and simultaneously weakened networks that exercise control over behaviors. Studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in abstinent alcoholics suggest that abstinence is associated with changes in the tone of such networks, decreasing resting tone in appetitive drive networks, and increasing resting tone in inhibitory control networks to support continued abstinence. Identifying electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of resting tone in these networks initially identified using fMRI, and establishing in longitudinal studies that these abstinence-related changes in network tone are progressive would motivate treatment initiatives to facilitate these changes in network tone, thereby supporting successful ongoing abstinence. PMID:26259093
Acute intravenous synaptamine complex variant KB220™ "normalizes" neurological dysregulation in patients during protracted abstinence from alcohol and opiates as observed using quantitative electroencephalographic and genetic analysis for reward polymorphisms: part 1, pilot study with 2 case reports.
Miller, David K; Bowirrat, Abdalla; Manka, Matthew; Miller, Merlene; Stokes, Stanley; Manka, Debra; Allen, Cameron; Gant, Charles; Downs, B William; Smolen, Andrew; Stevens, Emily; Yeldandi, Swetha; Blum, Kenneth
It is well established that in both food- and drug-addicted individuals, there is dopamine resistance due to an association with the DRD2 gene A1 allele. Evidence is emerging whereby the potential of utilizing a natural, nonaddicting, safe, putative D2 agonist may find its place in recovery from reward deficiency syndrome (RDS) in patients addicted to psychoactive chemicals. Utilizing quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) as an imaging tool, we show the impact of Synaptamine Complex Variant KB220™ as a putative activator of the mesolimbic system. We demonstrate for the first time that its intravenous administration reduces or "normalizes" aberrant electrophysiological parameters of the reward circuitry site. For this pilot study, we report that the qEEGs of an alcoholic and a heroin abuser with existing abnormalities (ie, widespread theta and widespread alpha activity, respectively) during protracted abstinence are significantly normalized by the administration of 1 intravenous dose of Synaptamine Complex Variant KB220™. Both patients were genotyped for a number of neurotransmitter reward genes to determine to what extent they carry putative dopaminergic risk alleles that may predispose them for alcohol or heroin dependence, respectively. The genes tested included the dopamine transporter (DAT1, locus symbol SLC6A3), dopamine D4 receptor exon 3 VNTR (DRD4), DRD2 TaqIA (rs1800497), COMT val158 met SNP (rs4680), monoamine oxidase A upstream VNTR (MAOA-uVNTR), and serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5HTTLPR, locus symbol SLC6A4). We emphasize that these are case studies, and it would be unlikely for all individuals to carry all putative risk alleles. Based on previous research and our qEEG studies (parts 1 and 2 of this study), we cautiously suggest that long-term activation of dopaminergic receptors (ie, DRD2 receptors) will result in their proliferation and lead to enhanced "dopamine sensitivity" and an increased sense of happiness
... because that's how many accidents occur. What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...
Carter-Jessop, L; Franklin, L N; Heath, J W; Jimenez-Irizarry, G; Peace, M D
Teen sexual problems in the U.S. are reaching enormous proportions. Attempts to prevent common problems, pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases, are underway through the persistent efforts of community, health, academic and government organizations. Abstinence education is one of the current attempts. However, the lack of well defined theoretical frameworks and analyses of outcomes have limited progress in the study of abstinence education. This article describes a pilot program in abstinence-only education provided to six groups of young teens within an urban middle school. The framework for the program, cognitive social learning theory, is described and operationalized. Student pretest-posttest attitudes, open-ended written comments about the program and the researchers' anecdotes about behavioral changes in the students are the outcome measures. Positive attitudes about premarital abstinence increased for all six groups; for four of the six groups the increase was statistically significant.
Dastrup, Elizabeth; Lees, Monica N; Bechara, Antoine; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Rizzo, Matthew
Ecstasy (MDMA) use raises concerns because of its association with risky driving. We evaluated driving performance and risk taking in abstinent recreational MDMA users in a simulated car following task that required continuous attention and vigilance. Drivers were asked to follow two car lengths behind a lead vehicle (LV). Three sinusoids generated unpredictable LV velocity changes. Drivers could mitigate risk by following further behind the erratic LV. From vehicle trajectory data we performed a Fourier analysis to derive measures of coherence, gain, and delay. These measures and headway distance were compared between the different groups. All MDMA drivers met coherence criteria indicating cooperation in the car following task. They matched periodic changes in LV velocity similar to controls (abstinent THC users, abstinent alcohol users, and non-drug users), militating against worse vigilance. While all participants traveled approximately 55 mph (89 kph), the MDMA drivers followed 64 m closer to the LV and demonstrated 1.04 s shorter delays to LV velocity changes than other driver groups. The simulated car following task safely discriminated between driving behavior in abstinent MDMA users and controls. Abstinent MDMA users do not perform worse than controls, but may assume extra risk. The control theory framework used in this study revealed behaviors that might not otherwise be evident. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dastrup, Elizabeth; Lees, Monica; Bechara, Antoine; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Rizzo, Matthew
Ecstasy (MDMA) use raises concerns because of its association with risky driving. We evaluated driving performance and risk taking in abstinent recreational MDMA users in a simulated car following task that required continuous attention and vigilance. Drivers were asked to follow two car lengths behind a lead vehicle (LV). Three sinusoids generated unpredictable LV velocity changes. Drivers could mitigate risk by following further behind the erratic LV. From vehicle trajectory data we performed a Fourier analysis to derive measures of coherence, gain, and delay. These measures and headway distance were compared between the different groups. All MDMA drivers met coherence criteria indicating cooperation in the car following task. They matched periodic changes in LV velocity similar to controls (abstinent THC users, abstinent alcohol users, and non-drug users), militating against worse vigilance. While all participants traveled approximately 55mph (89kph), the MDMA drivers followed 64m closer to the LV and demonstrated 1.04s shorter delays to LV velocity changes than other driver groups. The simulated car following task safely discriminated between driving behavior in abstinent MDMA users and controls. Abstinent MDMA users do not perform worse than controls, but may assume extra risk. The control theory framework used in this study revealed behaviors that might not otherwise be evident. PMID:20380914
Cunningham, Colin; Stitzer, Maxine; Campbell, Aimee N C; Pavlicova, Martina; Hu, Mei-Chen; Nunes, Edward V
To examine prize-earning costs of contingency management (CM) incentives in relation to participants' pre-study enrollment drug use status (baseline (BL) positive vs. BL negative) and relate these to previously reported patterns of intervention effectiveness. Participants were 255 substance users entering outpatient treatment who received the therapeutic educational system (TES), in addition to usual care counseling. TES included a CM component such that participants could earn up to $600 in prizes on average over 12-weeks for providing drug negative urines and completing web-based cognitive behavior therapy modules. We examined distribution of prize draws and value of prizes earned for subgroups that were abstinent (BL negative; N=136) or not (BL positive; N=119) at study entry based on urine toxicology and breath alcohol screen. Distribution of draws earned (median=119 vs. 17; p<.0001) and prizes redeemed (median=54 vs. 9; p<.001) for drug abstinence differed significantly for BL negative compared to BL positive participants. BL negative earned on average twice as much in prizes as BL positive participants ($245 vs. $125). Median value of prizes earned was 5.4 times greater for BL negative compared to BL positive participants ($237 vs. $44; p<.001). Two-thirds of expenditures in an abstinence incentive program were paid to BL negative participants. These individuals had high rates of drug abstinence during treatment and did not show improved abstinence outcomes with TES versus usual care (Campbell et al., 2014). Effectiveness of the abstinence-focused CM intervention included in TES may be enhanced by tailoring delivery based on patients' drug use status at treatment entry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Camping Magazine, 1992
Discusses the problem of alcohol use and abuse by camp staff. Describes alcohol policies of two different camps. Camp Highlands allows responsible drinking but not intoxication. Camp Olympia requires total abstinence from alcohol. A policy that clearly expresses the camp's philosophy toward alcohol and spells out all expectations and results is…
Ivey, Miriam R.; And Others
The majority of depressive symptoms, prevalent among adults (without a history of a depressive disorder) entering alcohol treatment, usually abate within 2 to 3 weeks of abstinence without specific depression-focussed intervention, but some hospitalized alcoholics experience significant depressive symptoms despite sustained abstinence. Such…
Duffy, Joanne; Hall, Sharon M.
Administered the Eating Inventory and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) to smoking subjects assigned to cigarette abstinence or to continued smoking. Found abstinent smokers with high Disinhibition Scale scores overate more than did nonabstinent smokers or abstinent smokers with lower scores when participating in a subsequent ice cream tasting…
Tapert, Susan F; Schweinsburg, Alecia D; Drummond, Sean P A; Paulus, Martin P; Brown, Sandra A; Yang, Tony T; Frank, Lawrence R
Marijuana intoxication appears to impair response inhibition, but it is unclear if impaired inhibition and associated brain abnormalities persist after prolonged abstinence among adolescent users. We hypothesized that brain activation during a go/no-go task would show persistent abnormalities in adolescent marijuana users after 28 days of abstinence. Adolescents with (n = 16) and without (n = 17) histories of marijuana use were compared on blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response to a go/no-go task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) after 28 days of monitored abstinence. Participants had no neurological problems or Axis I diagnoses other than cannabis abuse/dependence. Marijuana users did not differ from non-users on task performance but showed more BOLD response than non-users during inhibition trials in right dorsolateral prefrontal, bilateral medial frontal, bilateral inferior and superior parietal lobules, and right occipital gyri, as well as during "go" trials in right prefrontal, insular, and parietal cortices (p < 0.05, clusters > 943 microl). Differences remained significant even after controlling for lifetime and recent alcohol use. Adolescent marijuana users relative to non-users showed increased brain processing effort during an inhibition task in the presence of similar task performance, even after 28 days of abstinence. Thus, increased brain processing effort to achieve inhibition may predate the onset of regular use or result from it. Future investigations will need to determine whether increased brain processing effort is associated with risk to use.
Alcohol is one of the most widely used addictive substances. It can be assumed that everybody encounters alcohol--ethanol in various forms and concentrations in the course of their lives. A global and social problem of our civilization is alcohol consumption which has a rising trend. Since 1989 the consumption of alcoholic beverages is rising and the mean annual consumption of concentrated ethanol per head is cea 10 litres. In ethanol abuse the organism is damaged not only by ethanol alone but in particular by substances formed during its metabolism. Its detailed knowledge is essential for the knowledge and investigations of the metabolic and toxic effect of ethanol on the organism. Ingested alcohol is in 90-98% eliminated from the organism by three known metabolic pathways: 1-alcohol dehydrogenase, 2-the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system and 3-catalase. Alcohol is a frequent important risk factor of serious "diseases of civilization" such as IHD, hypertension, osteoporosis, neoplastic diseases. Cirrhosis of the liver and chronic pancreatitis are the well known diseases associated with alcohol ingestion and also their most frequent cause. It is impossible to list all organs and diseases which develop as a result of alcohol consumption. It is important to realize that regular and "relatively" small amounts in the long run damage the organism and may be even fatal.
Almadana Pacheco, Virginia; Gómez-Bastero Fernández, Ana Paulina; Valido Morales, Agustín; Luque Crespo, Estefanía; Monserrat, Soledad; Montemayor Rubio, Teodoro
There is evidence of the relationship between mental illness and smoking and increased risk of depressive episodes after quitting smoking, even with specific treatments for abstinence. To assess the influence of a cessation program on the emotional state of patients by measuring levels of anxiety / depression and differences depending on the presence of psychiatric history. A prospective observational study of patients taking part in a combined program (pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral) for giving up smoking. Anxiety (A) and depression (D) were measured using the HADS questionnaire at baseline, first and third month of abstinence. Anxiety and depression showed significant and progressive improvement during treatment (A: baseline 9.2 ± 4.5, 5.9 ± 3.6 1 month, 3 months 4.5 ± 3.1, p.
Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)
... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria ... change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...
Dow, T E
Contemporary patterns of breastfeeding and postpartum abstinence among the Yoruba of Nigera are examined. Quite extensive periods of postpartum abstinence are still observed by most rural and poorer urban women to prolong breastfeeding and increase child survivorship. Differentials in duration of breastfeeding and abstinence relate to both socioeconomic factors and age, suggesting the likelihood of large future reductions. Implications for family planning prospects and policies are noted.
Rasberry, Catherine N.; Goodson, Patricia; Buhi, Eric R.; Pruitt, B. E.; Wilson, Kelly; Suther, Sandra
Authors examined self-efficacy to motivate abstinent behavior (among youth) in a sample of instructors teaching abstinence-only-until-marriage education in Texas (N = 104). Sixty-one percent of the sample had been trained/certified to teach abstinence education. Instructors (mostly female and White) were more confident motivating students to…
Santelli, John; Ott, Mary A; Lyon, Maureen; Rogers, Jennifer; Summers, Daniel; Schleifer, Rebecca
Abstinence from sexual intercourse is an important behavioral strategy for preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and pregnancy among adolescents. Many adolescents, including most younger adolescents, have not initiated sexual intercourse and many sexually experienced adolescents and young adults are abstinent for varying periods of time. There is broad support for abstinence as a necessary and appropriate part of sexuality education. Controversy arises when abstinence is provided to adolescents as a sole choice and where health information on other choices is restricted or misrepresented. Although abstinence is theoretically fully effective, in actual practice abstinence often fails to protect against pregnancy and STIs. Few Americans remain abstinent until marriage; many do not or cannot marry, and most initiate sexual intercourse and other sexual behaviors as adolescents. Although abstinence is a healthy behavioral option for teens, abstinence as a sole option for adolescents is scientifically and ethically problematic. A recent emphasis on abstinence-only programs and policies appears to be undermining more comprehensive sexuality education and other government-sponsored programs. We believe that abstinence-only education programs, as defined by federal funding requirements, are morally problematic, by withholding information and promoting questionable and inaccurate opinions. Abstinence-only programs threaten fundamental human rights to health, information, and life.
Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Nagel, Bonnie J.; Tapert, Susan F.
Background Functional neuroimaging data from adults have, in general, found frontocerebellar dysfunction associated with acute and chronic marijuana (MJ) use (Loeber & Yurgelun-Todd, 1999). One structural neuroimaging study found reduced cerebellar vermis volume in young adult MJ users with a history of heavy polysubstance use (Aasly et al., 1993). The goal of this study was to characterize cerebellar volume in adolescent chronic MJ users following one month of monitored abstinence. Method Participants were MJ users (n=16) and controls (n=16) aged 16-18 years. Extensive exclusionary criteria included history of psychiatric or neurologic disorders. Drug use history, neuropsychological data, and structural brain scans were collected after 28 days of monitored abstinence. Trained research staff defined cerebellar volumes (including three cerebellar vermis lobes and both cerebellar hemispheres) on high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Results Adolescent MJ users demonstrated significantly larger inferior posterior (lobules VIII-X) vermis volume (p<.009) than controls, above and beyond effects of lifetime alcohol and other drug use, gender, and intracranial volume. Larger vermis volumes were associated with poorer executive functioning (p’s<.05). Conclusions Following one month of abstinence, adolescent MJ users had significantly larger posterior cerebellar vermis volumes than non-using controls. These greater volumes are suggested to be pathological based on linkage to poorer executive functioning. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine typical cerebellar development during adolescence and the influence of marijuana use. PMID:20413277
Dijkstra, Boukje A G; De Jong, Cor A J; Bluschke, Sarah M; Krabbe, Paul F M; van der Staak, Cees P F
Naltrexone blocks the opioid receptors that modulate the release of dopamine in the brain reward system and therefore blocks the rewarding effects of heroin and alcohol. It is generally assumed that naltrexone leads to reduction of craving, but few studies have been performed to prove this. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of the administration of naltrexone on craving level after rapid opioid detoxification induced by naltrexone. A naturalistic study was carried out in which patients were followed during 10 months after rapid detoxification. Data about abstinence, relapse, and naltrexone use were collected by means of urine specimens. Craving was measured by the visual analogue scale craving, the Obsessive Compulsive Drug Use Scale, and the Desires for Drug Questionnaire. Results showed that patients who relapsed in opioid use experienced obviously more craving than abstinent people. Patients who took naltrexone did not experience significant less craving than those who did not. These results suggest that the use of opioids is associated with increased craving and that abstinence for opioids is associated with less craving, independent of the use of naltrexone. This is in contrast to the general opinion. Because of the naturalistic design of the study, no firm conclusions can be drawn, but the results grounded the needs of an experimental study.
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Laudet, Alexandre B.; Stanick, Virginia
Commitment to abstinence, a motivational construct, is a strong predictor of reductions in drug and alcohol use. Level of commitment to abstinence at treatment end predicts sustained abstinence, a requirement for recovery. This study sought to identify predictors of commitment to abstinence at treatment end to guide clinical practice and to inform the conceptualization of motivational constructs. Polysubstance users (N = 250) recruited at the start of outpatient treatment were re-interviewed at the end of services. Based on the extant literature, potential predictors were during treatment measures of substance use and related cognitions, psychological functioning, recovery supports, stress, quality of life satisfaction, and treatment experiences. In multivariate analyses, perceived harm of future drug use, abstinence self-efficacy, quality of life satisfaction, and number of network members in 12-step recovery contributed 26.6% of the variance explained in the dependent variable, a total of 49.6% when combined with the control variables (demographics and baseline level of the outcome). Gender subgroup analyses yielded largely similar results. Clinical implications of findings for maximizing commitment to abstinence when clients leave treatment are discussed as are future research directions. PMID:20185267
Meissner, W W
Concepts of neutrality and abstinence are discussed in terms of the variant opinions about them, pro and con, with particular reference to efforts to dispense with them based on the unavoidable role of the analyst's personal influence and subjectivity in the analytic process. Stereotypes of both neutrality and abstinence are examined, and the therapeutic alliance established as the most appropriate context within which to articulate the essential and constructive role of effective analytic neutrality and abstinence. The alliance is not possible without the persistent exercise of both neutrality and abstinence; conversely, other components of the alliance are intended to facilitate and preserve neutrality and abstinence on the part of both analyst and analysand. These elements are essential factors in effective analytic practice.
Johnson, K; Gerada, C; Greenough, A
Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is suffered by infants withdrawing from substances on which they have become physically dependent after in utero exposure. They may require prolonged treatment and spend weeks or even months in hospital. A wide range of drugs have been used to treat NAS. The efficacy of few, however, have been adequately investigated. Evidence suggests that opioids are the most appropriate, at least in infants exposed to diamorphine or methadone. In all "head to head" trials, diazepam has been shown to be ineffective. Morphine and methadone are currently the most commonly prescribed opioids to treat NAS, but randomised trials have not been undertaken to determine which is the more beneficial. Many infants with NAS have been exposed to multiple substances in utero. Further research is required into whether a single opiate or a multiple drug regimen is the best option for such patients.
Witbrodt, Jane; Mertens, Jennifer; Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Bond, Jason; Chi, Felicia; Weisner, Constance
This study grouped treatment-seeking individuals (n=1825) by common patterns of 12-step attendance using 5 waves of data (75% interviewed year-9) to isolate unique characteristics and use-related outcomes distinguishing each class profile. The high class reported the highest attendance and abstention. The descending class reported high baseline alcohol severity, long treatment episodes, and high initial attendance and abstinence; but by year-5 their attendance and abstinence dropped. The early-drop class, which started with high attendance and abstinence but with low problem severity, reported no attendance after year 1. The rising class, with fairly high alcohol and psychiatric severity throughout, reported initially low attendance, followed by increasing attendance paralleling their abstention. Last, the low and no classes, which reported low problem-severity and very low/no attendance, had the lowest abstention. Female gender and high alcohol severity predicted attendance all years. Consistent with a sustained benefit for 12-step exposure, abstinence patterns aligned much like attendance profiles. PMID:22206631
Polcin, Douglas L; Witbrodt, Jane; Korcha, Rachael; Gupta, Shalika; Mericle, Amy A
Although studies of co-occurring psychiatric disorders among methamphetamine (MA)-dependent persons have been conducted in treatment programs, none have examined them in service settings used to sustain long-term recovery, such as sober living houses (SLHs). Residents entering SLHs (N = 243) were interviewed within two weeks and at 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-up. Measures assessed psychiatric symptoms using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), past-year drug and alcohol dependence, and abstinence over six-month time periods. Overall, severity of psychiatric symptoms on the BSI was similar among MA-dependent and other dependent residents. Global psychiatric severity, depression, and somatization scales on the BSI predicted abstinence for both groups. However, phobic anxiety and hostility scales were associated with abstinence for MA-dependent residents but not for those dependent on other substances. The similarity of psychiatric symptoms among persons with and without MA dependence in SLHs is different from what studies have found in treatment programs. The association between psychiatric symptoms and abstinence for both groups suggests SLHs should consider provision of on- or off-site mental health services. Additional research is needed to understand why phobic anxiety and hostility are associated with abstinence among MA-dependent residents but not those dependent on other substances.
Polcin, Douglas; Witbrodt, Jane; Korcha, Rachael; Gupta, Shalika; Mericle, Amy A.
Background Although studies of co-occurring psychiatric disorders among methamphetamine (MA) dependent persons have been conducted in treatment programs, none have examined them in service settings used to sustain long-term recovery, such as sober living houses (SLHs). Methods Residents entering SLHs (N=243) were interviewed within two weeks and at 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-up. Measures assessed psychiatric symptoms using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), past year drug and alcohol dependence, and abstinence over 6-month time periods. Results Overall, severity of psychiatric symptoms on the BSI were similar among MA dependent and other dependent residents. Global psychiatric severity, depression and somatization scales on the BSI predicted abstinence for both groups. However, phobic anxiety and hostility scales were associated with abstinence for MA dependent residents but not for those dependent on other substances. Conclusion The similarity of psychiatric symptoms among persons with and without MA dependence in SLHs is different from what studies have found in treatment programs. The association between psychiatric symptoms and abstinence for both groups suggests SLHs should consider provision of on- or off-site mental health services. Additional research is needed to understand why phobic anxiety and hostility are associated with abstinence among MA dependent residents but not those dependent on other substances. PMID:27184803
Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Carey, Michael P.; Côté-Arsenault, Denise; Seibold-Simpson, Susan; Robinson, Kerry Anne
Objectives To gain insight into the context of sexual abstinence and identify potential determinants of abstinence in this population. Design Four focus groups. Participants and Setting Twenty-four, predominantly African American (88%) girls aged 14 to 19 years were recruited from urban health centers and youth development programs in Rochester, New York, between September and December 2006. Data Analysis Content analysis was used to analyze the four verbatim transcripts. Using analytic induction, groups were compared and contrasted at the micro (within-group) and macro (between-group) levels to identify themes. Results Four themes were identified that provided insight into how and why these girls remain abstinent despite being in sexually active social climates. They focused on the following: self-respect (I'm worth it), impact of mothers (Mama says … think before you let it go), influence of boys and other peers (Boys will be boys), and potential negative consequences of sex (Hold on, there's a catch). Conclusions Developing interventions to maintain abstinence, delay onset of sexual activity, and promote protected first and subsequent sexual contact in abstinent girls are key to decreasing future sexual risk. These findings suggest opportunities to develop HIV prevention strategies tailored to the needs of abstinent girls. PMID:18336442
Wilson, Kelly L.; Smith, Matthew Lee; Menn, Mindy
Background: The ways in which adolescents define and view sex, abstinence, and virginity impact the efforts of sexuality educators and sexual health professionals. This study examined terminology used by nonsexually active high school students to define abstinence and virginity and identified words students associate with these terms. Purposes…
Ilgen, Mark; McKellar, John; Tiet, Quyen
To better understand the relationship between abstinence self-efficacy and treatment outcomes in substance use disorder patients, experts in the field need more information about the levels of abstinence self-efficacy most predictive of treatment outcomes. Participants (N = 2,967) from 15 residential substance use disorder treatment programs were…
Jeffries, William L., IV; Dodge, Brian; Bandiera, Frank C.; Reece, Michael
In the United States, a debate exists as to whether abstinence-only or comprehensive sexuality education strategies are most beneficial for school-age youth. Despite abstinence being a fundamental component of comprehensive education, the two are often characterized as polar opposites. Few studies have examined overlaps between the approaches. The…
Somkuwar, Sucharita S; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Fannon, McKenzie J; Schmeichel, Brooke E; Nguyen, Tran Bao; Guevara, Jasmin; Sidhu, Harpreet; Contet, Candice; Zorrilla, Eric P; Mandyam, Chitra D
Alcohol dependence is linked to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Here, we investigated effects of repeated ethanol intoxication-withdrawal cycles (using chronic intermittent ethanol vapor inhalation; CIE) and abstinence from CIE on peak and nadir plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels. Irritability- and anxiety-like behaviors as well as glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) were assessed at various intervals (2h-28d) after cessation of CIE. Results show that peak CORT increased during CIE, transiently decreased during early abstinence (1-11d), and returned to pre-abstinence levels during protracted abstinence (17-27d). Acute withdrawal from CIE enhanced aggression- and anxiety-like behaviors. Early abstinence from CIE reduced anxiety-like behavior. mPFC-GR signaling (indexed by relative phosphorylation of GR at Ser211) was transiently decreased when measured at time points during early and protracted abstinence. Further, voluntary ethanol drinking in CIE (CIE-ED) and CIE-naïve (ED) rats, and effects of CIE-ED and ED on peak CORT levels and mPFC-GR were investigated during acute withdrawal (8h) and protracted abstinence (28d). CIE-ED and ED increased peak CORT during drinking. CIE-ED and ED decreased expression and signaling of mPFC-GR during acute withdrawal, an effect that was reversed by systemic mifepristone treatment. CIE-ED and ED demonstrate robust reinstatement of ethanol seeking during protracted abstinence and show increases in mPFC-GR expression. Collectively, the data demonstrate that acute withdrawal from CIE produces robust alterations in GR signaling, CORT and negative affect symptoms which could facilitate excessive drinking. The findings also show that CIE-ED and ED demonstrate enhanced relapse vulnerability triggered by ethanol cues and these changes are partially mediated by altered GR expression in the mPFC. Taken together, transition to alcohol dependence could be accompanied by alterations
Frimpong, Jemima A; Guerrero, Erick G; Kong, Yinfei; Kim, Tina
Abstinence at successful discharge in substance use disorder treatment is important to reducing relapse rates and increasing long-term recovery from substance use disorders. However, few studies have examined abstinence as an essential component of successful discharge. This study examined rates and correlates of reported abstinence (nonuse of drugs 30 days prior to successful discharge) among clients attending publicly funded treatment in Los Angeles County, California. Finding show that only 36% of clients who were successfully discharged reported abstinence. Black clients were less likely than non-Hispanic Whites to report abstinence at successful discharge. Clients in methadone treatment programs were less likely than outpatient clients to report abstinence, whereas clients referred to treatment through the legal system (Proposition 36) were more likely to report abstinence compared to self-referred clients. Findings underscore the importance of systematic assessment of abstinence in determining successful discharge and provide a basis for further examination of strategies to improve abstinence and reduce relapse.
Guerrero, Erick G.; Kong, Yinfei; Kim, Tina
Abstinence at successful discharge in substance use disorder treatment is important to reducing relapse rates and increasing long-term recovery from substance use disorders. However, few studies have examined abstinence as an essential component of successful discharge. This study examined rates and correlates of reported abstinence (nonuse of drugs 30 days prior to successful discharge) among clients attending publicly funded treatment in Los Angeles County, California. Finding show that only 36% of clients who were successfully discharged reported abstinence. Black clients were less likely than non-Hispanic Whites to report abstinence at successful discharge. Clients in methadone treatment programs were less likely than outpatient clients to report abstinence, whereas clients referred to treatment through the legal system (Proposition 36) were more likely to report abstinence compared to self-referred clients. Findings underscore the importance of systematic assessment of abstinence in determining successful discharge and provide a basis for further examination of strategies to improve abstinence and reduce relapse. PMID:26882909
Gong, Mei-Fang; Wen, Rui-Ting; Xu, Ying; Pan, Jian-Chun; Fei, Ning; Zhou, Yan-Meng; Xu, Jiang-Ping; Liang, Jian-Hui; Zhang, Han-Ting
Withdrawal symptoms stand as a core feature of alcohol dependence. Our previous results have shown that inhibition of phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) decreased ethanol seeking and drinking in alcohol-preferring rodents. However, little is known about whether PDE4 is involved in ethanol abstinence-related behavior. The objective of this study was to characterize the role of PDE4 in the development of anxiety- and depressive-like behavior induced by abstinence from ethanol exposure in different animal models. Using three rodent models of ethanol abstinence, we examined the effects of rolipram, a prototypical, selective PDE4 inhibitor, on (1) anxiety-like behavior induced by repeated ethanol abstinence in the elevated plus maze test in fawn-hooded (FH/Wjd) rats, (2) anxiety-like behavior in the open-field test and light-dark transition test following acute ethanol abstinence in C57BL/6J mice, and (3) anxiety- and depressive-like behavior induced by protracted ethanol abstinence in the elevated plus maze, forced-swim, and tail-suspension tests in C57BL/6J mice. Pretreatment with rolipram (0.1 or 0.2 mg/kg) significantly increased entries and time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze test in rats with repeated ethanol abstinence. Similarly, in mice with acute ethanol abstinence, administration of rolipram (0.25 or 0.5 mg/kg) dose-dependently increased the crossings in the central zone of the open-field test and duration and transitions on the light side of the light-dark transition test, suggesting anxiolytic-like effects of rolipram. Consistent with these, chronic treatment with rolipram (0.1, 0.3, or 1.0 mg/kg) increased entries in the open arms of the elevated plus maze test; it also reduced the increased duration of immobility in both the forced-swim and tail-suspension tests in mice after protracted ethanol abstinence, suggesting antidepressant-like effects of rolipram. These results provide the first demonstration for that PDE4 plays a role in modulating
Brigham, S L; Rekers, G A; Rosen, A C; Swihart, J J; Pfrimmer, G; Ferguson, L N
Three case studies demonstrated that social and monetary reinforcement for abstinence reduced the rate of excessive alcohol drinking in adolescents. The self-monitoring and extrinsic reinforcement procedures (ABA reversal design) resulted in complete abstinence in a 15-year-old boy with a 10-year history of excessive alcohol abuse and hospitalization for an alcohol-induced psychosis. In the cases of the 13-year-old and 15-year-old girls with extensive alcohol abuse histories, the behavioral interventions decreased the rate of alcohol consumption during treatment phases, but alcohol abuse increased markedly with the removal of the intervention procedures.
Bekman, Nicole M; Winward, Jennifer L; Lau, Lily L; Wagner, Chase C; Brown, Sandra A
While it is clear that affect is negatively impacted by heavy drinking in adulthood and that it improves with abstinence, little is known about effects of heavy drinking on mood during adolescence. This study examined negative mood states among 2 groups of 16- to 18-year-old high school students; youth with a history of recent heavy episodic drinking (HED; n = 39) and comparison youth with limited lifetime drinking experience (CON; n = 26). Affect was assessed at 3 time points during a 4- to 6-week period of monitored abstinence using the Hamilton Rating Scales for Anxiety and Depression; self-reports were obtained with the state portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and experience sampling of current affect was assessed via daily text messages sent at randomly determined times in the morning, afternoon, and evening. Youth with a recent history of HED reported more negative affect compared with nondrinking youth during early stages of abstinence (days since last HED at assessment 1: M = 6.46; SD = 5.06); however, differences in affect were not observed after 4 to 6 weeks of abstinence. Sex differences were evident, with HED girls reporting greater depression and anxiety than HED male peers. Although not significant, response patterns indicated that boys may experience faster resolution of negative emotional states than girls with sustained abstinence. Findings suggest that high-dose drinking is associated with elevated negative affect for adolescents and that negative mood states may take longer to resolve for girls than for boys following heavy drinking episodes. Future research clarifying naturally occurring changes in affective response during early and sustained abstinence is necessary for improving programs designed to promote adolescent decision-making and to reduce risk for relapse. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Wilson, Kelly L; Smith, Matthew Lee; Menn, Mindy
The ways in which adolescents define and view sex, abstinence, and virginity impact the efforts of sexuality educators and sexual health professionals. This study examined terminology used by nonsexually active high school students to define abstinence and virginity and identified words students associate with these terms. Purposes included (1) describing words/phrases associated with abstinence; (2) describing phrases for "being abstinent until marriage" and "being a virgin;" (3) assessing concordance between word dyads associated with abstinence; and (4) assessing concordance between phrases defining "abstinent until marriage" and "a virgin." In this study, 216 freshmen provided information about beliefs, behaviors, and perceptions. Pearson chi-square tests and Wilcoxon sign-rank tests assessed sex-based differences, definitions, and levels of concordance were conducted. Girls' friends took an abstinence pledge (p = .004) and their parents (p = .025) and best friends (p < .001) think they should abstain. Male counterparts reported being dissatisfied with current sex status (p = .002) and high acceptance of sex before marriage (p = .011). Boys were more likely to endorse "negative" words than girls. Professionals need to use relevant materials incorporating terminology that resonates with adolescents and programs that engage coherent participant discussions. © 2013, American School Health Association.
Korponay, Cole; Kosson, David S; Decety, Jean; Kiehl, Kent A; Koenigs, Michael
Human neuroimaging studies indicate that the loss of brain volume associated with substance abuse may be recovered during abstinence. Subcortical and prefrontal cortical regions involved in reward and decision-making are among the regions most consistently implicated in damage and recovery from substance abuse, but the relative capacities of these different brain regions to recover volume during abstinence remains unclear, and it is unknown whether recovery capacities depend on the substance that was abused. Voxel-based morphometry in a prison inmate sample ( n =107) of long-term abstinent former regular users (FRUs) and former light users (FLUs) of alcohol, cocaine, and/or cannabis. Cross-sectional indicators of volume recovery were operationalized as 1) positive correlation between abstinence duration and volume in FRUs and 2) absence of lower volume in FRUs compared to FLUs. In FRUs of alcohol, abstinence duration positively correlated with volume in subcortical regions (particularly the putamen and amygdala) but not prefrontal regions; lower prefrontal but not subcortical volume was observed in FRUs compared to FLUs. In FRUs of cocaine, abstinence duration positively correlated with volume in both subcortical regions (particularly the nucleus accumbens) and prefrontal regions; lower volume was not observed in either subcortical or prefrontal regions in FRUs. In FRUs of cannabis, abstinence duration positively correlated with subcortical but not prefrontal volume; lower prefrontal but not subcortical volume was observed in FRUs. Subcortical structures displayed indicators of volume recovery across FRUs of all three substances, whereas prefrontal regions displayed indicators of volume recovery only in FRUs of cocaine.
Crouch, Taylor Berens; DiClemente, Carlo C; Pitts, Steven C
This study evaluated whether alcohol abstinence self-efficacy at the end of alcohol treatment was moderated by utilization of behavioral processes of change (coping activities used during a behavior change attempt). It was hypothesized that self-efficacy would be differentially important in predicting posttreatment drinking outcomes depending on the level of behavioral processes, such that the relation between self-efficacy and outcomes would be stronger for individuals who reported low process use. Analyses were also estimated with end-of-treatment abstinence included as a covariate. Data were analyzed from alcohol-dependent individuals in both treatment arms of Project MATCH (Matching Alcoholism Treatments to Client Heterogeneity; N = 1,328), a large alcohol treatment study. Self-efficacy was moderated by behavioral process use in predicting drinking frequency 6 and 12 months posttreatment and drinking quantity 6 months posttreatment such that self-efficacy was more strongly related to posttreatment drinking when low levels of processes were reported than high levels, but interactions were attenuated when end-of-treatment abstinence was controlled for. Significant quadratic relations between end-of-treatment self-efficacy and 6- and 12-month posttreatment drinking quantity and frequency were found (p < .001, ƒ² = 0.02-0.03), such that self-efficacy most robustly predicted outcomes when high. These effects remained significant when end-of-treatment abstinence was included as a covariate. Findings highlight the complex nature of self-efficacy's relation with drinking outcomes. Although the interaction between self-efficacy and behavioral processes was attenuated when end-of-treatment abstinence was controlled for, the quadratic effect of self-efficacy on outcomes remained significant. The pattern of these effects did not support the idea of "overconfidence" as a negative indicator. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Wakeman, Sarah E; Metlay, Joshua P; Chang, Yuchiao; Herman, Grace E; Rigotti, Nancy A
Alcohol and drug use results in substantial morbidity, mortality, and cost. Individuals with alcohol and drug use disorders are overrepresented in general medical settings. Hospital-based interventions offer an opportunity to engage with a vulnerable population that may not otherwise seek treatment. To determine whether inpatient addiction consultation improves substance use outcomes 1 month after discharge. Prospective quasi-experimental evaluation comparing 30-day post-discharge outcomes between participants who were and were not seen by an addiction consult team during hospitalization at an urban academic hospital. Three hundred ninety-nine hospitalized adults who screened as high risk for having an alcohol or drug use disorder or who were clinically identified by the primary nurse as having a substance use disorder. Addiction consultation from a multidisciplinary specialty team offering pharmacotherapy initiation, motivational counseling, treatment planning, and direct linkage to ongoing addiction treatment. Addiction Severity Index (ASI) composite score for alcohol and drug use and self-reported abstinence at 30 days post-discharge. Secondary outcomes included 90-day substance use measures and self-reported hospital and ED utilization. Among 265 participants with 30-day follow-up, a greater reduction in the ASI composite score for drug or alcohol use was seen in the intervention group than in the control group (mean ASI-alcohol decreased by 0.24 vs. 0.08, p < 0.001; mean ASI-drug decreased by 0.05 vs. 0.02, p = 0.003.) There was also a greater increase in the number of days of abstinence in the intervention group versus the control group (+12.7 days vs. +5.6, p < 0.001). The differences in ASI-alcohol, ASI-drug, and days abstinent all remained statistically significant after controlling for age, gender, employment status, smoking status, and baseline addiction severity (p = 0.018, 0.018, and 0.02, respectively). In a sensitivity analysis, assuming
Ruderman, Audrey J.
According to the abstinence violation effect, highly controlled drinkers tend to overindulge following an initial slip. To investigate this relapse model, 47 male college students, ranging in age from 21 to 46, were assigned either to an unrestrained or a restrained drinker group according to their scores on the Restrained Drinking Scale. Subjects…
North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2011
As a result of House Bill 1229, introduced and passed during the 2011 North Dakota legislative session, every school district, both public and nonpublic, must expand health education to include abstinence education, if teaching sexuality education as part of the general health curriculum. This fact sheet provides guidance for districts in meeting…
Goodson, Patricia; Pruitt, B E; Suther, Sandy; Wilson, Kelly; Buhi, Eric
Authors examined the logic (or the implicit theory) underlying 16 abstinence-only-until-marriage programs in Texas (50% of all programs funded under the federal welfare reform legislation during 2001 and 2002). Defined as a set of propositions regarding the relationship between program activities and their intended outcomes, program staff's implicit theories were summarized and compared to (a) data from studies on adolescent sexual behavior, (b) a theory-based model of youth abstinent behavior, and (c) preliminary findings from the national evaluation of Title V programs. Authors interviewed 62 program directors and instructors and employed selected principles of grounded theory to analyze interview data. Findings indicated that abstinence education staff could clearly articulate the logic guiding program activity choices. Comparisons between interview data and a theory-based model of adolescent sexual behavior revealed striking similarities. Implications of these findings for conceptualizing and evaluating abstinence-only-until-marriage (or similar) programs are examined.
Gardner, Emily A.
This qualitative study explores the abstinence-only sex education experiences of a small group of young adults in the southeastern USA. Most participants felt that their abstinence-only sex education had mixed value and low overall impact in their lives. Perceptions about abstinence, virginity, and marriage varied significantly from those stressed…
Young, Michael; Penhollow, Tina
There has long been controversy in this country about the implementation of school-based sexuality education. In recent years, however, the controversy has centered on abstinence education. Critics of abstinence education programs seem to have three major concerns relative to abstinence education programming: (1) promotion of religion; (2)…
Galanter, Marc; Dermatis, Helen; Post, Stephen; Santucci, Courtney
Narcotics Anonymous (NA) is an abstinence-based fellowship with more than 58,000 groups worldwide. There has, however, been little research reported on its members. This study was designed to clarify the nature of the participants in NA who are primarily abstinent, long-term members. A protocol was implemented to survey members at 10 NA group meetings in three different states, through the cooperation of the NA World Service Office. A 51-item self-administered questionnaire, addressing key aspects of substance use and recovery, was anonymously completed by 396 respondents. Respondents were 71.5% male; the mean age was 38.1 years; 68.2% were White; and the principal drug problems comprised cocaine (28.5%), heroin (27.5%), other opiates (13.4%), methamphetamine (12.9%), alcohol (8.6%), marijuana (6.6%), and other stimulants (2.5%). Eighty-seven percent had prior treatment for a substance use disorder. On average respondents had first encountered NA at age 26.9, they had been abstinent an average of 5.7 years at the time they filled out the questionnaire, and 47.5% had served as sponsors. Ninety-four percent designated themselves as spiritual, and only 29.6% designated themselves as religious. NA offers support for long-term abstinence from diverse misuse of drugs among users of different backgrounds.
Froehlich, Janice C; Nicholson, Emily R; Dilley, Julian E; Filosa, Nick J; Rademacher, Logan C; Smith, Teal N
Most alcoholics experience periods of voluntary alcohol abstinence or imposed alcohol deprivation followed by a return to alcohol drinking. This study examined whether varenicline (VAR) reduces alcohol intake during a return to drinking after periods of alcohol deprivation in rats selectively bred for high alcohol drinking (the alcohol preferring or "P" rats). Alcohol-experienced P rats were given 24-hour access to food and water and scheduled access to alcohol (15% and 30% v/v) for 2 h/d. After 4 weeks, rats were deprived of alcohol for 2 weeks, followed by reaccess to alcohol for 2 weeks, and this pattern was repeated for a total of 3 cycles. Rats were fed either vehicle (VEH) or VAR, in doses of 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg BW, at 1 hour prior to onset of the daily alcohol reaccess period for the first 5 days of each of the 3 alcohol reaccess cycles. Low-dose VAR (0.5 mg/kg BW) reduced alcohol intake during the 5 days of drug treatment in alcohol reaccess cycles 1 and 2. Higher doses of VAR (1.0 mg/kg BW and 2.0 mg/kg BW) reduced alcohol intake during the 5 days of treatment in all 3 alcohol reaccess cycles. The decrease in alcohol intake disappeared with termination of VAR treatment in all alcohol reaccess cycles. The results demonstrate that VAR decreases alcohol intake during multiple cycles of alcohol reaccess following alcohol deprivation in rats and suggests that it may prevent a return to heavy alcohol drinking during a lapse from alcohol abstinence in humans with alcohol use disorder. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
BREESE, GEORGE R.; SINHA, RAJITA; HEILIG, MARKUS
Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing disorder. Major characteristics observed in alcoholics during an initial period of alcohol abstinence are altered physiological functions and a negative emotional state. Evidence suggests that a persistent, cumulative adaptation involving a kindling/allostasis-like process occurs during the course of repeated chronic alcohol exposures that is critical for the negative symptoms observed during alcohol withdrawal. Basic studies have provided evidence for specific neurotransmitters within identified brain sites being responsible for the negative emotion induced by the persistent cumulative adaptation following intermittent-alcohol exposures. After an extended period of abstinence, the cumulative alcohol adaptation increases susceptibility to stress- and alcohol cue-induced negative symptoms and alcohol seeking, both of which can facilitate excessive ingestion of alcohol. In the alcoholic, stressful imagery and alcohol cues alter physiological responses, enhance negative emotion, and induce craving. Brain fMRI imaging following stress and alcohol cues has documented neural changes in specific brain regions of alcoholics not observed in social drinkers. Such altered activity in brain of abstinent alcoholics to stress and alcohol cues is consistent with a continuing ethanol adaptation being responsible. Therapies in alcoholics found to block responses to stress and alcohol cues would presumably be potential treatments by which susceptibility for continued alcohol abuse can be reduced. By continuing to define the neurobiological basis of the sustained alcohol adaptation critical for the increased susceptibility of alcoholics to stress and alcohol cues that facilitate craving, a new era is expected to evolve in which the high rate of relapse in alcoholism is minimized. 250 PMID:20951730
Heffner, Jaimee L; Blom, Thomas J; Camerota, Elaine; Sansone, Linda E; Bodie, Linda; Smith, Joshua; Lin, Show; Drake, J Michael; Meyer, Corey; Anthenelli, Robert M
: Study goals were 2-fold: 1) to examine differences in demographic and clinical characteristics of smokers who fell into 3 diagnostic groups: alcohol abuse/dependence only (ALC), cocaine abuse/dependence only (COC), and mixed alcohol and cocaine abuse/dependence (ALC + COC); and 2) to determine the degree to which diagnostic grouping predicted short-term abstinence from smoking. : Retrospective chart reviews were conducted by using the treatment records of male veterans (N = 175) who participated in a voluntary smoking cessation program during their stay in residential substance dependence treatment. : The ALC group smoked more heavily, had higher levels of nicotine dependence, and reported more emotional problems than the other 2 groups. Short-term abstinence rates were high across the 3 groups (38%, 58%, and 57% for the ALC, COC, and ALC + COC groups, respectively). Lighter smoking at treatment entry, non-white race, and a diagnosis of cocaine abuse/dependence (with or without alcohol abuse/dependence) predicted short-term abstinence in the program. : Substance misusers motivated to quit smoking can initiate smoking abstinence at relatively high rates with the aid of combined pharmacotherapy and intensive group counseling. White subjects who smoke more heavily and have a diagnosis of alcohol abuse/dependence only have lower success rates for abstinence initiation.
Orwin, Rob; Ellis, Bruce
This study evaluates the effect of treatment components through a secondary analysis of data from the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study (NTIES). The study examines the relationship between treatment components, client-level factors, and treatment outcomes, and how these relationships vary by treatment modality. It seeks to understand…
Peirce, Jessica M; Petry, Nancy M; Stitzer, Maxine L; Blaine, Jack; Kellogg, Scott; Satterfield, Frank; Schwartz, Marion; Krasnansky, Joe; Pencer, Eileen; Silva-Vazquez, Lolita; Kirby, Kimberly C; Royer-Malvestuto, Charlotte; Roll, John M; Cohen, Allan; Copersino, Marc L; Kolodner, Ken; Li, Rui
Contingency management interventions that provide tangible incentives based on objective indicators of drug abstinence have improved treatment outcomes of substance abusers, but have not been widely implemented in community drug abuse treatment settings. To compare outcomes achieved when a lower-cost prize-based contingency management treatment is added to usual care in community methadone hydrochloride maintenance treatment settings. Random assignment to usual care with (n = 198) or without (n = 190) abstinence incentives during a 12-week trial. Six community-based methadone maintenance drug abuse treatment clinics in locations across the United States. Three hundred eighty-eight stimulant-abusing patients enrolled in methadone maintenance programs for at least 1 month and no more than 3 years. Participants submitting stimulant- and alcohol-negative samples earned draws for a chance to win prizes; the number of draws earned increased with continuous abstinence time. Total number of stimulant- and alcohol-negative samples provided, percentage of stimulant- and alcohol-negative samples provided, longest duration of abstinence, retention, and counseling attendance. Submission of stimulant- and alcohol-negative samples was twice as likely for incentive as for usual care group participants (odds ratio, 1.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.42-2.77). Achieving 4 or more, 8 or more, and 12 weeks of continuous abstinence was approximately 3, 9, and 11 times more likely, respectively, for incentive vs usual care participants. Groups did not differ on study retention or counseling attendance. The average cost of prizes was 120 dollars per participant. An abstinence incentive approach that paid 120 dollars in prizes per participant effectively increased stimulant abstinence in community-based methadone maintenance treatment clinics.
Davis, Jordan P.; Smith, Douglas C.; Morphew, Jason W.; Lei, Xinrong; Zhang, Saijun
Very little prospective research investigates how cannabis withdrawal is associated with treatment outcomes, and this work has not used the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) thresholds for cannabis withdrawal. The sample included 110 emerging adults entering outpatient substance use treatment who were heavy cannabis users with no other drug use and limited alcohol use. We used survival analyses to predict days to first use of cannabis and logistic regression to predict whether participants were abstinent and living in the community at 3 months. Those meeting criteria for cannabis withdrawal were more likely to return to use sooner than those not meeting criteria for cannabis withdrawal. However, the presence of cannabis withdrawal was not a significant predictor of 3-month abstinence. Emerging adults with DSM-5 cannabis withdrawal may have difficulty initiating abstinence in the days following their intake assessment, implying the need for strategies to mitigate their more rapid return to cannabis use. PMID:26877548
Mokwena, Kebogile; Morabe, Mamaponesa
Abstract Among strategies to prevent HIV, other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancies, are programs that promote sexual abstinence among adolescents. However, literature suggests that there may be differences in the understanding of abstinence across adolescents, and this study sought to explore the understanding of sexual abstinence among both male and female learners in a secondary school in a semi-rural area of North West Province, South Africa. Focus group discussions were used to collect data from learners who were in grades 8–10 at the time of the study. The findings are that the learners in this area understand sexual abstinence as the decision not to have sex, and this was associated with prevention of HIV, STIs and unwanted pregnancies, which ensures a better future. Barriers to sexual abstinence include peer pressure, myths and wrong perceptions about sex, influence of drugs and alcohol and the influence of television. Based on how it is delivered, school-based sex education was viewed as both an enabler and barrier to sexual abstinence. It is recommended that programs to promote sexual abstinence be strengthened and such programs be community-based. PMID:27315574
Mokwena, Kebogile; Morabe, Mamaponesa
Among strategies to prevent HIV, other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancies, are programs that promote sexual abstinence among adolescents. However, literature suggests that there may be differences in the understanding of abstinence across adolescents, and this study sought to explore the understanding of sexual abstinence among both male and female learners in a secondary school in a semi-rural area of North West Province, South Africa. Focus group discussions were used to collect data from learners who were in grades 8-10 at the time of the study. The findings are that the learners in this area understand sexual abstinence as the decision not to have sex, and this was associated with prevention of HIV, STIs and unwanted pregnancies, which ensures a better future. Barriers to sexual abstinence include peer pressure, myths and wrong perceptions about sex, influence of drugs and alcohol and the influence of television. Based on how it is delivered, school-based sex education was viewed as both an enabler and barrier to sexual abstinence. It is recommended that programs to promote sexual abstinence be strengthened and such programs be community-based.
Witkiewitz, Katie; Villarroel, Nadia Aracelliz
Clinical research has found a strong association between negative affect and returning to alcohol use after a period of abstinence. Yet little is known about the probability of a lapse given a particular level of negative affect or whether there is a reciprocal relationship between negative affect and alcohol use across time. The goal of the…
Phillips, Paulina K; Lucey, Michael R
Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) causes great morbidity and mortality in the United States and throughout the world. Advances in therapy have proven difficult. In part, this reflects challenges in diagnosis, including the distinction between AH and acute-on-chronic liver failure. Liver biopsy is the best method to clarify the cause in circumstances whereby conflicting clinical data confound the diagnosis. All treatment of AH begins with abstinence from alcohol. All patients with AH should be given sufficient nutrition. Prednisolone has become the principal agent for treating patients with severe AH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Silverman, Kenneth; Wong, Conrad J.; Needham, Mick; Diemer, Karly N.; Knealing, Todd; Crone-Todd, Darlene; Fingerhood, Michael; Nuzzo, Paul; Kolodner, Kenneth
High-magnitude and long-duration abstinence reinforcement can promote drug abstinence but can be difficult to finance. Employment may be a vehicle for arranging high-magnitude and long-duration abstinence reinforcement. This study determined if employment-based abstinence reinforcement could increase cocaine abstinence in adults who inject drugs…
NICU nurses have seen a dramatic increase in cases of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). The care needs of infants with NAS are highly demanding and can lead to feelings of frustration and emotional exhaustion among NICU nurses. Although studies have examined the experiences of nurses caring for NAS patients, none have specifically addressed the risk for compassion fatigue and burnout. Nurses need practical strategies to reduce their risk for compassion fatigue and burnout when caring for these patients. Improved education and implementation of self-care measures can help nurses more effectively manage stress and positively impact care of these infants and their families.
Colrain, Ian M; Nicholas, Christian L; Baker, Fiona C
Alcohol acts as a sedative that interacts with several neurotransmitter systems important in the regulation of sleep. Acute administration of large amounts of alcohol prior to sleep leads to decreased sleep-onset latency and changes in sleep architecture early in the night, when blood alcohol levels are high, with subsequent disrupted, poor-quality sleep later in the night. Alcohol abuse and dependence are associated with chronic sleep disturbance, lower slow-wave sleep, and more rapid-eye-movement sleep than normal, that last long into periods of abstinence and may play a role in relapse. This chapter outlines the evidence for acute and chronic alcohol effects on sleep architecture and sleep electroencephalogram, evidence for tolerance with repeated administration, and possible underlying neurochemical mechanisms for alcohol's effects on sleep. Also discussed are sex differences as well as effects of alcohol on sleep homeostasis and circadian regulation. Evidence for the role of sleep disruption as a risk factor for developing alcohol dependence is discussed in the context of research conducted in adolescents. The utility of sleep-evoked potentials in the assessment of the effects of alcoholism on sleep and the brain and in abstinence-mediated recovery is also outlined. The chapter concludes with a series of questions that need to be answered to determine the role of sleep and sleep disturbance in the development and maintenance of problem drinking and the potential beneficial effects of the treatment of sleep disorders for maintenance of abstinence in alcoholism. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hendricks, Peter S.; Wood, Sabrina B.; Baker, Majel R.; Delucchi, Kevin L.; Hall, Sharon M.
AIM To develop and validate a measure of smokers’ expectancies for the abstinence process upon quitting smoking: the Smoking Abstinence Questionnaire (SAQ). DESIGN Principal component analysis and other psychometric analyses of self-report data. SETTING San Francisco, California. PARTICIPANTS 507 adult smokers of at least 10 cigarettes per day diverse in gender, sexual orientation, and ethnoracial status. MEASUREMENTS The primary measure was a draft version of the SAQ. Additional measures assessed a variety of other smoking-related constructs. FINDINGS Principal component analyses revealed 10 factors of the SAQ: Withdrawal, Social Improvement/Nonsmoker Identity, Adverse Outcomes, Treatment Effectiveness, Common Reasons, Barriers to Treatment, Social Support, Optimistic Outcomes, Coffee Use, and Weight Gain. The SAQ factors demonstrated internal consistencies ranging from .62 to .85 and were associated with tobacco dependence, motivation to quit, abstinence self-efficacy, withdrawal symptoms, dietary restraint, shape and weight concern, and tobacco use expectancies. The SAQ predicted smoking-related constructs above and beyond tobacco use expectancies, suggesting that abstinence-related expectancies and tobacco use expectancies are distinct from one another. CONCLUSIONS A newly developed questionnaire, the SAQ, appears to reliably capture smokers’ expectancies for abstinence (Withdrawal, Social Improvement/Nonsmoker Identity, Adverse Outcomes, Common Reasons, Optimistic Outcomes, Coffee Use, and Weight Gain) and expectancies related to the success of a quit attempt (Treatment Effectiveness, Barriers to Treatment, and Social Support). It remains to be seen how far any of these expectancies predict attempts to quit, withdrawal, treatment utilization and response, and quitting success above and beyond existing measures. PMID:21205053
Digangi, Julia A; Jason, Leonard A; Mendoza, Leslie; Miller, Steve A; Contreras, Richard
Wisdom is theorized to be an important construct in recovery from substance abuse. In order to explore the role of wisdom in substance abuse recovery behaviors, the present study had two goals. First, it sought to examine the factor structure of a wisdom scale, the Foundational Value Scale (FVS) in a community sample of women in recovery from substance abuse. Second, the study examined how wisdom predicted the women's beliefs about their ability to abstain from future substance use. 116 women in recovery from substance abuse disorders were recruited from self-run recovery homes and a substance abuse recovery convention. Results from an exploratory factor analysis indicated that a modified version of the FVS has good internal consistency reliability and is composed of three wisdom-related dimensions. The three factors were then used to create a higher-order wisdom factor in a structural equation model (SEM) that was used to predict abstinence self-efficacy behaviors. Results from the SEM showed that the wisdom factor was predictive of greater abstinence self-efficacy behaviors. The FVS was found to be a reliable measure with women in recovery from substance abuse. In addition, wisdom predicted beliefs about self-efficacy such that those who reported higher levels of wisdom felt more confident in their abilities to abstain from alcohol. The results of this study indicate that wisdom is an important construct in the abstinence behaviors of women who are in recovery from substance abuse disorders.
Stea, Jonathan N; Hodgins, David C; Fung, Tak
The present study examined the nature and impact of participant goal selection (abstinence versus moderation) in brief motivational treatment for pathological gambling via secondary analyses from a randomized controlled trial. The results demonstrated that the pattern of goal selection over time could be characterized by both fluidity and stability, whereby almost half of participants switched their goal at least one time, over 25% of participants selected an unchanging goal of 'quit most problematic type of gambling', almost 20% selected an unchanging goal of 'quit all types of gambling', and approximately 10% selected an unchanging goal of 'gamble in a controlled manner.' The results also demonstrated that pretreatment goal selection was uniquely associated with three variables, whereby compared to participants who selected the goal to 'cut back on problem gambling', those who selected the goal to 'quit problem gambling' were more likely to have greater gambling problem severity, to have identified video lottery terminal play as problematic, and to have greater motivation to overcome their gambling problem. Finally, the results demonstrated that goal selection over time had an impact on the average number of days gambled over the course of treatment, whereby those with abstinence-based goals gambled significantly fewer days than those with moderation-based goals. Nevertheless, goal selection over time was not related to dollars gambled, dollars per day gambled, or perceived goal achievement. The findings do not support the contention that abstinence-based goals are more advantageous than moderation goals and are discussed in relation to the broader alcohol treatment literature.
Sailasuta, Napapon; Abulseoud, Osama; Harris, Kent C; Ross, Brian D
Persistent neurochemical abnormalities in frontal brain structures are believed to result from methamphetamine use. We developed a localized 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) assay on a conventional MR scanner, to quantify selectively glial metabolic flux rate in frontal brain of normal subjects and a cohort of recovering abstinent methamphetamine abusers. Steady-state bicarbonate concentrations were similar, between 11 and 15 mmol/L in mixed gray-white matter of frontal brain of normal volunteers and recovering methamphetamine-abusing subjects (P>0.1). However, glial 13C-bicarbonate production rate from [1-13C]acetate, equating with glial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle rate, was significantly reduced in frontal brain of abstinent methamphetamine-addicted women (methamphetamine 0.04 μmol/g per min (N=5) versus controls 0.11 μmol/g per min (N=5), P=0.001). This is equivalent to 36% of the normal glial TCA cycle rate. Severe reduction in glial TCA cycle rate that normally comprises 10% of total cerebral metabolic rate may impact operation of the neuronal glial glutamate cycle and result in accumulation of frontal brain glutamate, as observed in these recovering methamphetamine abusers. Although these are the first studies to define directly an abnormality in glial metabolism in human methamphetamine abuse, sequential studies using analogous 13C MRS methods may determine ‘cause and effect' between glial failure and neuronal injury. PMID:20040926
... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the ...
Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep
Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired
Elsheikh, Salah Elgaily
Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore the attitudes of abstainers from drug use that relate to the factors leading to long-term abstinence. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was carried out in Al-Amal Hospital to examine, which attitudes of abstainers related to long-term abstinence. A random survey was conducted on 62…
Haskins, Ron; Bevan, Carol Statuto
As part of its 1996 welfare reform bill, the U.S. Congress enacted a $50 million per year program to fund abstinence education. The welfare reform law addresses the problem of births to single adolescents by enforcing child support payments, giving states financial incentives to reduce nonmarital births, and creating the abstinence education…
Hamill, Shelley D.; Chepko, Stevie
When does abstinence end and sexual activity begin? In previous generations, the continuum of sexual activity was well-defined in the old baseball analogy. Teens, parents, and teachers knew what going to first, second, or third base involved. For the current generation of young people, sex and abstinence are not so well-defined. As parents and…
Rue, Lisa; Chandran, Raj; Pannu, Aman; Bruce, David; Singh, Rana; Traxler, Karen
Outcomes associated with an abstinence education intervention were evaluated using a single group design with a 12-month longitudinal follow-up. The intervention group of adolescents ages 12-14 years (N = 427) were enrolled in an 11.5-hour abstinence education intervention offered during the school day. Significant differences were found in the…
In this article, the author examines the controversial issue whether to teach sex education or sexual abstinence. Sex education has always been fraught with controversy. The discord in Westbrook, Maine, school district is noteworthy because of the vocal support for an abstinence-only curriculum approach to sex education that has reshaped the…
This interpretive study draws on interdisciplinary scholarship on affect and knowledge to ask: toward what feelings do abstinence-only and comprehensive sexuality education curricula direct us? A methodology that is attuned to double exposures is discussed, and one abstinence-only sexuality education curriculum and one comprehensive sexuality…
Kandall, S R; Doberczak, T M; Mauer, K R; Strashun, R H; Korts, D C
Paregoric and phenobarbital, administered randomly in 153 passively addicted neonates, initially appeared to control neonatal abstinence signs equally well. However, seven of the 62 phenobarbital-treated newborns had abstinence-associated seizures within the first month of life, while none of 49 paregoric-treated neonates had seizures. Forty-two neonates initially requiring no specific pharmacotherapy for abstinence signs were born to mothers taking less methadone hydrochloride just before delivery. Five of those 42 neonates, however, had seizures within the first 14 days of life. Seizure occurrence could not be predicted from analysis of early abstinence patterns. We consider paregoric to be the treatment of choice for the neonatal abstinence syndrome. Phenobarbital use should be monitored with serum drug levels and modification of recommended dosage regimens considered.
Stover, Megan W.; Davis, Jonathan M.
Opiate use in pregnancy has increased dramatically over the past decade and now represents a major public health problem. More women are using prescription opioids, illegal opioids, and opioid substitution therapy. These drugs are associated with numerous obstetrical complications including intrauterine growth restriction, placental abruption, preterm delivery, oligohydramnios, stillbirth, and maternal death. Neonatal complications are also significant, such as an increased risk of mortality as well as neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). NAS is a serious and highly variable condition characterized by central nervous system hyperirritability and autonomic nervous system dysfunction. The present review seeks to define current practices regarding the management of opiate dependence in pregnancy and care of the neonate with prenatal opiate exposure. Since genetic factors appear to be associated with the incidence and severity of NAS, opportunities for “personalized genomic medicine” and unique therapeutic interventions could be developed in the future. PMID:26452318
Background Young people are becoming increasingly exposed to the risk of HIV infection. According to the 2008 HIV/Syphilis sentinel survey in Nigeria, 3.3% of young people aged 15-19 years are infected. Primary prevention especially abstinence, remains one of the most realistic interventions for reducing further spread of the virus. However, the adoption of sexual abstinence as a prevention strategy among adolescents remains low and factors influencing its practice among urban young people in Nigeria are relatively unknown. The aim of the study was to document the sexual abstinence behaviour of in-school adolescents, the factors influencing or obstructing abstinence, and knowledge of HIV and AIDS in Ibadan, South-West Nigeria. Methods The study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey of students in Ibadan South-West Local Government Area. A total of 420 respondents (52% males and 48% females), selected through a multistage sampling technique, completed a semi-structured questionnaire. This was supplemented with eight focus group discussions (FGDs) which had an average of 9 respondents within the 10 and 19 years age group. The data from the FGDs were transcribed and summarized manually while the quantitative data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences to generate frequencies, cross tabulations of variables and logistic regression analysis. Results Twelve percent of the entire sample had ever had sex. Overall, knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention was high and most respondents favoured the promotion of abstinence as an HIV prevention strategy. A smaller proportion of male respondents (79%) abstained compared with the females (98%). Major predictors of sexual abstinence were being a female, not having a boyfriend or girl friend, not using alcohol and having a positive attitude towards abstinence (P < 0.05). Sexual abstinence was also significantly associated with perceived self efficacy to refuse sex and negative perception of peers
Watts, Timothy; Wilson, Kelly L; McNeill, Elisa B; Rosen, Brittany L; Moore, Nancy Daley; Smith, Matthew L
We examine personal characteristics, alcohol consumption, normative beliefs, household factors, and extracurricular engagement associated with intentions to have intercourse before marriage among abstinent students. Data were analyzed from 245 freshmen enrolled in a school-based abstinence-only-until-marriage program. Two binary logistic regression analyses identified factors associated with intentions to engage in intercourse before marriage and within the next year. Approximately 21% and 14% of participants reported intentions to have intercourse. Respondents participated in 2.2 (standard deviation [SD] = 1.2) extracurricular activities. Freshmen who were male, perceived their friends to approve of premarital sex, and consumed alcohol were more likely to report intentions to have intercourse. For every additional extracurricular activity in which freshmen participated, they were less likely to report intentions to have intercourse within the next year (odds ratio [OR] = 0.56). Factors such as extracurricular activities provide youth with opportunities to build supportive relationships, connect with peers and role models, and positively engage in schools and communities. Extracurricular activities typically already exist, have funding, and are generally well-supported. School-based strategies can increase teenagers' autonomy by providing a variety of activities to participate in and reduce unsupervised time. This, in turn, has the potential to decrease sexual risk taking behaviors. © 2016, American School Health Association.
Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron
Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Test a novel intervention to help sexually experienced girls increase abstinence behaviors and attitudes. A quasi-experimental repeated measures design using qualitative and quantitative data. Two alternative public schools. Thirty-three females whose mean age was 16 and who were 79% African American participated. Most (79%) had experienced a pregnancy. A 6 session, weekly, interactive intervention was delivered. Data were collected at baseline, last session, and at 5 and 7 month follow-ups. Measured outcomes related to abstinence included participants' reasons, behaviors, stages of change, and attitudes. The most common reason for abstinence was not wanting to have sex. At each postintervention data collection point, most participants (greater than or equal to 74%) reported that they had purposefully avoided sex. Duration of consecutive days of abstinence increased although only significantly at 5 month follow-up. Abstinence behaviors increased with the largest change from first to last session. Stage of change advanced from preparation to action by 7 month follow-up. Attitudes toward abstinence became more favorable. Effective sexual risk reduction interventions are critically needed to promote safety. Nurses may assist young women to decrease their sexual risks by teaching them to practice periodic abstinence.
Meredith, Steven E.; Dallery, Jesse
In contingency management (CM), monetary incentives are contingent on evidence of drug abstinence. Typically, incentives (e.g., “vouchers” exchangeable for goods or services) are contingent on individual performance. We programmed vouchers contingent on group performance to investigate whether these contingencies would promote brief abstinence from cigarette smoking. Thirty-two participants were divided into small teams (n = 3 per team). During three 5-day within-subject experimental conditions, participants submitted video recordings of breath carbon monoxide (CO) measures twice daily via Mōtiv8 Systems™, an Internet-based remote monitoring application. During the interdependent contingency condition, participants earned vouchers each time they and their teammates submitted breath CO samples indicative of abstinence (i.e., negative samples). During the independent contingency condition, participants earned vouchers each time they submitted negative samples, regardless of their teammates' performance. During the no vouchers condition, no monetary incentives were contingent on abstinence. In addition, half of the participants (n = 16) could communicate with their teammates through an online peer support forum. Although forum access did not appear to promote smoking abstinence, monetary incentives did promote brief abstinence. Significantly more negative samples were submitted when vouchers were contingent on individual performance (56%) or team performance (53%) relative to when no vouchers were available (35%; F = 6.9, p = 0.002). The results show that interdependent contingencies can promote brief abstinence from cigarette smoking. Moreover, the results suggest that these contingencies may help lower treatment costs and promote social support. PMID:23421358
Yates, W R; Labrecque, D R; Pfab, D
Alcoholic liver disease is considered an indication for liver transplantation when a candidate is felt to have a high likelihood of abstinence following transplantation. Historical variables such as duration of sobriety, duration and quantity of drinking, and treatment history are commonly used to estimate alcoholism prognosis, yet their reliability and validity in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis has received limited study. Fifty subjects (9 women and 41 men) with alcoholic cirrhosis underwent an alcoholism history interview. Each subject had a collateral source (usually a spouse) who was interviewed by a second interviewer blind to the subject's alcoholism history. The two histories were compared for duration of abstinence in months and estimated alcoholism relapse risk was calculated using the High-risk Alcoholism Relapse scale (HRAR). Duration of sobriety correlated highly between subject and collateral source (Spearman r= 0.96, P = 0.0001) as did HRAR total score (Spearman r = 0.72, P = 0.0001). Categorical assignments also showed high correlations with duration of sobriety (kappa = 0.97) and HRAR category (kappa = 0.63). When disagreements were present, collateral sources tended to underestimate severity of alcoholism. We conclude that patients with alcoholic liver disease provide a reliable history for alcoholism variables when compared with a collateral source, and that, when disagreements are present, subjects tend to report a more acute or severe alcohol problem. The results support the clinical use of patient history information in making decisions about medical interventions for alcoholic liver disease.
Byers, E Sandra; Henderson, Joel; Hobson, Kristina M
We asked 298 heterosexual Canadian university students about their definitions of the terms abstinence and having sex. For both terms, students were provided with a list of 17 sexual behaviors and indicated whether they would include each in their definition. The majority of both male and female students included activities that did not involve genital stimulation in their definition of sexual abstinence and did not include these activities in their definition of having sex. Conversely, most students did not include bidirectional sexual stimulation (penile-vaginal intercourse or penile-anal intercourse) in their definitions of sexual abstinence but did include them in their definitions of having sex. Students were quite mixed in whether activities involving unidirectional genital stimulation (e.g., oral sex, genital fondling) constituted abstinence, having sex, or neither abstinence nor having sex. However, they were more likely to see these behaviors as abstinent than as having sex. Students were more likely to rate a behavior as abstinence if orgasm did not occur. A canonical correlation analysis was used to examine the patterns of association between a number of predictors and inclusions of behaviors involving no genital stimulation, unidirectional stimulation, and bidirectional genital stimulation in abstinence definitions. The results indicated that male participants who were more involved with their religion and sexually conservative, less sexually experienced, and who had not received sexual health education at home were more likely to define bidirectional genital stimulation and less likely to define no genital stimulation and unidirectional sexual stimulation as sexual abstinence. The research and health promotion implications of these results are discussed.
Crews, Fulton T.; Nixon, Kim
Aims: This is a review of preclinical studies covering alcohol-induced brain neuronal death and loss of neurogenesis as well as abstinence-induced brain cell genesis, e.g. brain regeneration. Efforts are made to relate preclinical studies to human studies. Methods: The studies described are preclinical rat experiments using a 4-day binge ethanol treatment known to induce physical dependence to ethanol. Neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits following binge treatment mimic the mild degeneration and cognitive deficits found in humans. Various histological methods are used to follow brain regional degeneration and regeneration. Results: Alcohol-induced degeneration occurs due to neuronal death during alcohol intoxication. Neuronal death is related to increases in oxidative stress in brain that coincide with the induction of proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative enzymes that insult brain. Degeneration is associated with increased NF-κB proinflammatory transcription and decreased CREB transcription. Corticolimbic brain regions are most sensitive to binge-induced degeneration and induce relearning deficits. Drugs that block oxidative stress and NF-κB transcription or increase CREB transcription block binge-induced neurodegeneration, inhibition of neurogenesis and proinflammatory enzyme induction. Regeneration of brain occurs during abstinence following binge ethanol treatment. Bursts of proliferating cells occur across multiple brain regions, with many new microglia across brain after months of abstinence and many new neurons in neurogenic hippocampal dentate gyrus. Brain regeneration may be important to sustain abstinence in humans. Conclusions: Alcohol-induced neurodegeneration occurs primarily during intoxication and is related to increased oxidative stress and proinflammatory proteins that are neurotoxic. Abstinence after binge ethanol intoxication results in brain cell genesis that could contribute to the return of brain function and structure found in
Groh, David R.; Jason, Leonard A.; Davis, Margaret I.; Olson, Bradley D.; Ferrari, Joseph R.
Social support may be considered from several different dimensions. While general social support promotes well-being, specific social support is tied to particular functions, such as alcohol use. Not only may the form of social support vary, but also the source (ie, friends vs. family). This study investigated the impact of general and specific support for alcohol use from family versus friends on alcohol use among 897 U.S. residents of abstinent communal-living settings (Oxford Houses). Results indicated that general support from friends and length of stay in Oxford House significantly predicted less alcohol use. Implications for alcohol recovery are discussed. PMID:17364422
Dencker, Ditte; Molander, Anna; Thomsen, Morgane; Schlumberger, Chantal; Wortwein, Gitta; Weikop, Pia; Benveniste, Helene; Volkow, Nora D; Fink-Jensen, Anders
Alcohol use disorder is underdiagnosed and undertreated, and up to 50% of alcohol-abstinent patients diagnosed with alcohol dependence relapse within the first year of treatment. Current treatments for the maintenance of alcohol abstinence in patients with alcohol use disorder have limited efficacy, and there is an urgent need for novel treatment strategies. Decreased cerebral glucose metabolism and increased brain uptake of acetate were recently reported in heavy drinkers, relative to controls. Given the switch of metabolic fuel from glucose to acetate in the alcohol-dependent brain, we investigated the potential therapeutic benefit of a ketogenic diet in managing alcohol withdrawal symptoms during detoxification. Male Sprague Dawley rats fed either ketogenic or regular diet were administered ethanol or water orally, twice daily for 6 days while the diet conditions were maintained. Abstinence symptoms were rated 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours after the last alcohol administration. Maintenance on a ketogenic diet caused a significant decrease in the alcohol withdrawal symptoms' "rigidity" and "irritability." Our preclinical pilot study suggests that a ketogenic diet may be a novel approach for treating alcohol withdrawal symptoms in humans. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Rudy, David R.; Reeves, Edward B.
Drinking behavior, from abstinence to alcoholism, has been explored from a wide range of intellectual positions, academic disciplines, and ideological stances. The Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOAs) movement is probably the most rapidly expanding enterprise in the alcoholism arena. Social movement theory seeks to describe, explain, and…
Mccrady, Barbara S.; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; Cook, Sharon; Jensen, Noelle; Hildebrandt, Thomas
Although alcohol use disorders (AUDs) adversely affect women, research on efficacious treatments for women is limited. In this randomized efficacy trial of 102 heterosexual women with AUDs, the authors compared alcohol behavioral couple therapy (ABCT) and alcohol behavioral individual therapy (ABIT) on percentage of days abstinent (PDA) and…
Coates, Jason M; Gullo, Matthew J; Feeney, Gerald F X; Young, Ross McD; Dingle, Genevieve A; Connor, Jason P
Modification of elevated positive expectations of alcohol consumption (alcohol outcome expectancies; AOEs) is a key feature of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) approaches to Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs). Despite extensive research supporting the efficacy of CBT for AUD, few studies have examined AOE change. This study aimed to assess AOE change following completion of CBT for AUD and its association with drinking behaviour. One-hundred and seventy-five patients who completed a 12-week CBT program for AUD were administered the Drinking Expectancy Questionnaire (DEQ) at pre-treatment assessment and upon completion of treatment. Abstinence was achieved by 108 (61.7%) of completing patients. For patients who lapsed, the mean proportion of abstinent days was 93%. DEQ scales assessing expectations of positive alcohol effects on tension reduction, assertiveness, and cognitive enhancement were significantly lower post-treatment (p<0.001). Expectations of negative effects on mood were higher post-treatment (p<0.001). The largest AOE change occurred on the tension reduction scale. Greater percentage of abstinent days over treatment was associated with lower pre-and post-treatment tension reduction expectancy scores (p<0.05). Drinking during treatment was associated with smaller changes in expectations of negative effects of alcohol on mood (p<0.05). Individuals who completed CBT treatment for AUD showed significant AOE change. Tension reduction and affective change expectancies may be particularly important for abstinence and useful markers of lapse risk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
There are many assumptions made about the beliefs behind abstinence-only until marriage (AOUM) sex education, yet comparatively little research examining the views of abstinence education providers. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 21 abstinence grantees throughout New York State, I examine how individuals working in abstinence organizations…
Jones, Rachel K.; Biddlecom, Ann E.
There is scant research of adolescents' understanding of abstinence. We conducted interviews with a sample of 58 teens to find out their exposure to abstinence information from a range of sources. Most teens had received abstinence information or messages from school, family members, and friends. For many teens, information about abstinence, or…
Scott Tonigan, J; Pearson, Matthew R; Magill, Molly; Hagler, Kylee J
There is consensus that best clinical practice for dual diagnosis (DD) is integrated mental health and substance use treatment augmented with Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) attendance. This is the first quantitative review of the direction and magnitude of the association between AA attendance and alcohol abstinence for DD patients. A systematic literature search (1993-2017) identified 22 studies yielding 24 effect sizes that met our inclusion criteria (8,075 patients). Inverse-variance weighting of correlation coefficients (r) was used to aggregate sample-level findings and study aims were addressed using random and mixed effect models. Sensitivity and publication bias analyses were conducted to assess the likelihood of bias in the overall estimate of AA-related benefit. AA exposure and abstinence for DD patients were significantly and positively associated (r w =.249; 95% CI.203-.293; Tau=.097). There was also significant heterogeneity in the distribution of effect sizes, (Q(23)=90.714, p<.001), and high between-sample variance (I 2 =74.646). Subgroup analyses indicated that the magnitude of AA-related benefit did not differ between 6 (k=7) and 12 (k=12) month follow-up, (Q=.068, p<.794), type of treatment received (inpatient k=9; intensive outpatient, outpatient, community k=15; Q=2.057, p<.152), and whether a majority of patients in a sample had (k=11) or did not have (k=13) major depression (Q=.563, p<.453). Sensitivity analyses indicated that the overall meta-analytic estimate of AA benefit was not adversely or substantively impacted by pooling RCT and observational samples (Q=.763, p<.382), pooling count, binary, and ordinal-based AA (Q=.023, p<.879) and outcome data (Q=1.906, p<.167), and reversing direction of correlations extracted from studies (Q=.006, p<.937). No support was found for publication bias. Clinical referral of dual diagnosis (DD) patients to Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is common and, in many cases, DD patients who attend AA will report higher
Avila Escribano, J J; Pérez Madruga, A; Rodríguez Treceño, M
This survey analyzes the evolution of one sample of alcoholic patients two years after finishing treatment. Its target is to determine the percentage of patients that remain abstinent, their rate of retention, and what factors can have an influence on abstinence. In 1990, 72 alcoholic patients were treated in the Alcoholism Unit, who make up our study sample. The average age was 37.9 +/- 11.47 years old; 77.8% were diagnosed as being Alcohol-dependents and 22.2% as Alcohol-abusers; 19.4% dropped out the treatment early. In 1992 our sample of study was 53 patients (2 died and 17 refused to participate), of whom 77.7% were abstinent and 28.3% continued ingesting alcohol; the average abstinence was 22.92 +/- 8.73 months. An important finding of this study was that the diagnosis, sex, and treatment with aversives had not an influence on abstinence; however the percentage of abstinent patients in those who had attended Therapeutic Discussion Groups was significantly higher than in those who had not.
Whipple, Christopher R.; Jason, Leonard A.; Robinson, W. LaVome
To avoid recidivism, formerly-incarcerated individuals must successfully navigate barriers to re-entry, including finding adequate housing and avoiding substance use. This study examined the role that time in diverse housing situations affect abstinence self-efficacy in formerly-incarcerated individuals. Formerly-incarcerated individuals were surveyed about previous housing situations and abstinence self-efficacy after release from prison or inpatient substance use treatment. Models were estimated with both days spent in different housing situations in the past 180 and past 30 days. More time spent in recovery situations was associated with increased abstinence self-efficacy, while more time spent in precarious situations was associated with decreased abstinence self-efficacy. PMID:28603403
Oroszi, Gabor; Goldman, David
Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing/remitting disease that is frequently unrecognized and untreated, in part because of the partial efficacy of treatment. Only approximately one-third of patients remain abstinent and one-third have fully relapsed 1 year after withdrawal from alcohol, with treated patients doing substantially better than untreated . The partial effectiveness of strategies for prevention and treatment, and variation in clinical course and side effects, represent a challenge and an opportunity to better understand the neurobiology of addiction. The strong heritability of alcoholism suggests the existence of inherited functional variants of genes that alter the metabolism of alcohol and variants of other genes that alter the neurobiologies of reward, executive cognitive function, anxiety/dysphoria, and neuronal plasticity. Each of these neurobiologies has been identified as a critical domain in the addictions. Functional alleles that alter alcoholism-related intermediate phenotypes include common alcohol dehydrogenase 1B and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 variants that cause the aversive flushing reaction; catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met leading to differences in three aspects of neurobiology: executive cognitive function, stress/anxiety response, and opioid function; opioid receptor micro1 (OPRM1) Asn40Asp, which may serve as a gatekeeper molecule in the action of naltrexone, a drug used in alcoholism treatment; and HTTLPR, which alters serotonin transporter function and appears to affect stress response and anxiety/dysphoria, which are factors relevant to initial vulnerability, the process of addiction, and relapse.
Xu, Xiaomeng; Floyd, Anna H L; Westmaas, J Lee; Aron, Arthur
Helping smokers quit is important as smoking is the number one preventable cause of death in the U.S. Smoking activates the mesolimbic dopamine reward system which is also responsible for pleasure associated with other behaviors, including engaging in novel, exciting and/or challenging (i.e., self-expanding) events. We hypothesized that the reward activation achieved by experiencing self-expanding events can supplant the reinforcement normally provided by smoking and can thus facilitate quitting. We investigated this hypothesis among 74 current and 66 former smokers who reported the self-expanding events they experienced for the 2 months prior to their most successful or final, quit attempt, respectively. Former smokers, compared to current smokers, reported significantly more self-expanding events and that the events were more helpful to their quitting. For current smokers, there was a significant moderate-to-large positive correlation between number of self-expanding events and number of days subsequently abstained from smoking. The results support the proposition that experiencing self-expanding activities or events can be beneficial for smoking abstinence. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hodges, Sarah E; Pittman, Brian; Morgan, Peter T
During abstinence, chronic cocaine users experience an objective worsening of sleep that is perceived as qualitatively improving. This phenomenon has been termed "occult insomnia." The objective of this study was to determine whether chronic cocaine users experience positive sleep state misperception during abstinence. Forty-three cocaine-dependent persons were admitted to an inpatient research facility for 12 days and 11 nights to participate in a treatment study of modafinil. Polysomnographic sleep recordings were performed on study nights 3, 4, 10, and 11, when participants were on average 1 and 2 weeks abstinent from cocaine. Participants also completed sleep diary questionnaires every evening before bed and every morning upon awakening. Polysomnographic and sleep diary measurements of total sleep time, sleep latency, time awake after sleep onset, and time in bed after final awakening were compared. Chronic cocaine users accurately reported total sleep time after 1 week of abstinence but overreported total sleep time by an average of 40 min after 2 weeks of abstinence. Underestimating sleep latency and time spent awake after sleep onset were responsible for this difference. Positive sleep state misperception is revealed in chronic cocaine users after 2 weeks of abstinence and is consistent with the previously identified "occult insomnia" in this population. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail email@example.com.
Cochran, Gerald; Stitzer, Maxine; Nunes, Edward V; Hu, Mei-Chen; Campbell, Aimee
This study describes early treatment drug use status and associated clinical characteristics in a diverse sample of patients entering outpatient substance abuse psychosocial counseling treatment. The goal is to more fully characterize those entering treatment with and without active use of their primary drug in order to better understand associated treatment needs and resilience factors. We examined baseline data from a NIDA Clinical Trials Network (CTN) study (Web-delivery of Treatment for Substance Use) with an all-comers sample of patients (N = 494) entering 10 outpatient treatment centers. Patients were categorized according to self-identified primary drug of abuse (alcohol, cocaine/stimulants, opioids, marijuana) and by baseline drug use status (positive/negative) based on urine testing or self-reports of recent use (alcohol). Characteristics were examined by primary drug and early use status. Classified as drug-negative were 84%, 76%, 62%, and 33% of primary opioid, stimulant, alcohol, and marijuana users; respectively. Drug-positive versus -negative patients did not differ on demographics or rates of substance abuse/dependence diagnoses. However, those negative for active use had better physical and mental health profiles, were less likely to be using a secondary drug, and were more likely to be attending 12-step self-help meetings. Early treatment drug abstinence is common among substance users entering outpatient psychosocial counseling programs, regardless of primary abused drug. Abstinence (by negative UA) is associated with better health and mental health profiles, less secondary drug use, and more days of 12-step attendance. These data highlight differential treatment needs and resiliencies associated with early treatment drug use status. NCT01104805.
Carlson, Emily; Holtyn, August F; Fingerhood, Michael; Friedman-Wheeler, Dara; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S; Silverman, Kenneth
A clinical trial demonstrated that a therapeutic workplace could promote alcohol abstinence in homeless, alcohol-dependent adults. This secondary-data analysis examined rates of homelessness and their relation to the therapeutic workplace intervention and alcohol use during the trial. In the trial, homeless, alcohol-dependent adults could work in a therapeutic workplace for 6 months and were randomly assigned to Unpaid Training, Paid Training, or Contingent Paid Training groups. Unpaid Training participants were not paid for working. Paid Training participants were paid for working. Contingent Paid Training participants were paid for working if they provided alcohol-negative breath samples. Rates of homelessness during the study were calculated for each participant and the three groups were compared. Mixed-effects regression models were conducted to examine the relation between alcohol use (i.e., heavy drinking, drinks per drinking day, and days of alcohol abstinence) and homelessness. Unpaid Training, Paid Training, and Contingent Paid Training participants did not differ in the percentage of study days spent homeless (31%, 28%, 17%; respectively; F(2,94)=1.732, p=0.183). However, participants with more heavy drinking days (b=0.350, p<0.001), more drinks per drinking day (b=0.267, p<0.001), and fewer days of alcohol abstinence (b=-0.285, p<0.001) spent more time homeless. Reducing heavy drinking and alcohol use may help homeless, alcohol-dependent adults transition out of homelessness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gerra, Lidia M; Gerra, Gilberto; Mercolini, Laura; Manfredini, Matteo; Somaini, Lorenzo; Pieri, Chiara M; Antonioni, Maina; Protti, Michele; Ossola, Paolo; Marchesi, Carlo
A disruption of the oxytocin system seems to affect a variety of brain functions including emotions, mood and social behavior possibly underlying severe social deficits and susceptibility for substance use and mental health disorders. Early life adversity, such as insecure attachment in childhood, has been suggested to influence oxytocin tone contributing to a condition of neurobiological vulnerability. Aim of the present study was to investigate oxytocin serum levels in abstinent heroin addicted patients, in comparison with healthy controls, and the possible correlation with co-occurring psychiatric symptoms, aggressiveness and perception of parental neglect. Eighteen (18) abstinent patients, affected by heroin use disorders, and 18 control subjects, who never used drugs or abused alcohol, were included in the study and submitted to 1) collection of a blood sample for oxytocin assay, 2) Symptoms Check List 90 for psychiatric symptoms evaluation 3) Buss Durkee Hostility Inventory to measure aggressiveness 4) Child Experience of Care and Abuse-Questionnaire to retrospectively test the perception of parental neglect. Heroin exposure extent and heroin dosages were also recorded. Oxytocin serum levels were unexpectedly significantly higher among abstinent patients affected by heroin use disorders and positively correlated with psychiatric symptoms, aggressiveness and mother neglect scores. No correlation was evidenced between oxytocin and heroin exposure extent or dosages. Our findings appear to contradict the simplistic view of oxytocin as a pro-social hormone and confirm previous evidence concerning the peptide levels direct association with aggressive behavior and mood disorders. Considering a more complex mechanism, oxytocin would increase the sensitivity to social salience cues related to contextual or inter-individual factors, promoting pro-sociality in "safe" conditions and, in contrast, inducing more defensive and "anti-social" emotions and behaviors when the
Shriner, Richard L
The senior patient and/or the geriatrician are confronted with a confusing literature describing how patients interested in combating metabolic syndrome, diabesity (diabetes plus obesity) or simple obesity might best proceed. The present paper gives a brief outline of the basic disease processes that underlie metabolic pro-inflammation, including how one might go about devising the most potent and practical detoxification from such metabolic compromise. The role that dietary restriction plays in pro-inflammatory detoxification (detox), including how a modified fast (selective food abstinence) is incorporated into this process, is developed. The unique aspects of geriatric bariatric medicine are elucidated, including the concepts of sarcopenia and the obesity paradox. Important caveats involving the senior seeking weight loss are offered. By the end of the paper, the reader will have a greater appreciation for the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead for geriatric patients who wish to overcome food addiction and reverse pro-inflammatory states of ill-heath. This includes the toxic metabolic processes that create obesity complicated by type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) which collectively we call diabesity. In that regard, diabesity is often the central pathology that leads to the evolution of the metabolic syndrome. The paper also affords the reader a solid review of the neurometabolic processes that effectuate anorexigenic versus orexigenic inputs to obesity that drive food addiction. We argue that these processes lead to either weight gain or weight loss by a tripartite system involving metabolic, addictive and relational levels of organismal functioning. Recalibrating the way we negotiate these three levels of daily functioning often determines success or failure in terms of overcoming metabolic syndrome and food addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tiburcio, Nelson Jose
This article examines the impact of violence on individuals and communities pursuant to drug use and sales activities. It presents case study material from individuals that engaged in the opioid recovery process, and importantly, were able to desist from criminal activities, many of them potentially violent in nature. The article begins with a discussion of Victimology, within the contexts of drug use leading to violence or contributing in some way to the plight of the victim. It reflects on various self reported issues and concerns as expressed by four study participants. If one is to examine violence in its various forms, one needs to consider the victim. After all, violence and violent acts, in essence, require that there be a protagonist of some sort, but also a victim. All too often, the victim’s role in these activities is overlooked or given perfunctory consideration. In many cases, the players in these episodes sometimes don’t even realize they are also victims within a structural framework, that is, “they fall victim to the only opportunities at their disposal…” One of the study’s goals was to see how abstaining from drug use affected desistance and engagement in violent activities and the data suggest that indeed, the heroin crime connection also occurs in reverse. In this light, this article portrays a snapshot of some of the tools that enable ex-offenders re-entering various communities to experience successful prolonged abstinence, and avoid further involvement with the criminal justice system, as well as the danger and violence present within the drug dealing hierarchies. PMID:29743882
Chaarani, Bader; Spechler, Philip A; Ivanciu, Alexandra; Snowe, Mitchell; Nickerson, Joshua P; Higgins, Stephen T; Garavan, Hugh
Research on cigarette smokers suggests cognitive and behavioral impairments. However, much remains unclear how the functional neurobiology of smokers is influenced by nicotine state. Therefore, we sought to determine which state, be it acute nicotine abstinence or satiety, would yield the most robust differences compared to non-smokers when assessing neurobiological markers of nicotine dependence. Smokers(N=15) and sociodemographically matched non-smokers(N=15) were scanned twice using a repeated-measures design. Smokers were scanned after a 24-hour nicotine abstinence, and immediately after smoking their usual brand cigarette. The neuroimaging battery included a stop-signal task of response inhibition and pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF). Whole brain voxel-wise ANCOVAs were carried out on stop success and stop fail SST contrasts and CBF maps to assess differences among non-, abstinent and satiated smokers. Cluster-correction was performed using AFNI's 3dClustSim to achieve a significance of p<0.05. Smokers exhibited higher brain activation in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), a brain region known to be involved in inhibitory control, during successful response inhibitions relative to non-smokers. This effect was significantly higher during nicotine abstinence relative to satiety. Smokers also exhibited lower CBF in the bilateral IFG than non-smokers. These hypo-perfusions were not different between abstinence and satiety. These findings converge on alterations in smokers in prefrontal circuits known to be critical for inhibitory control. These effects are present, even when smokers are satiated, but the neural activity required to achieve performance equal to controls is increased when smokers are in acute abstinence. Our multi-modal neuroimaging study gives neurobiological insights into the cognitive demands of maintaining abstinence and suggest targets for assessing the efficacy of therapeutic interventions.
Aguirre, Claudia G; Madrid, Jillian; Leventhal, Adam M
Withdrawal-based theories of addiction hypothesize that motivation to reinstate drug use following acute abstinence is mediated by withdrawal symptoms. Experimental tests of this hypothesis in the tobacco literature are scant and may be subject to methodological limitations. This study utilized a robust within-subject laboratory experimental design to investigate the extent to which composite tobacco withdrawal symptomatology level and 3 unique withdrawal components (i.e., low positive affect, negative affect, and urge to smoke) mediated the effect of smoking abstinence on motivation to reinstate smoking. Smokers (≥10 cigarettes per day; N = 286) attended 2 counterbalanced sessions at which abstinence duration was differentially manipulated (1 hr vs. 17 hr). At both sessions, participants reported current withdrawal symptoms and subsequently completed a task in which they were monetarily rewarded proportional to the length of time they delayed initiating smoking, with shorter latency reflecting stronger motivation to reinstate smoking. Abstinence reduced latency to smoking initiation and positive affect and increased composite withdrawal symptom level, urge, and negative affect. Abstinence-induced reductions in latency to initiating smoking were mediated by each withdrawal component, with stronger effects operating through urge. Combined analyses suggested that urge, negative affect, and low positive affect operate through empirically unique mediational pathways. Secondary analyses suggested similar effects on smoking quantity, few differences among specific urge and affect subtypes, and that dependence amplifies some abstinence effects. This study provides the first experimental evidence that within-person variation in abstinence impacts motivation to reinstate drug use through withdrawal. Urge, negative affect, and low positive affect may reflect unique withdrawal-mediated mechanisms underlying tobacco addiction. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Ashare, Rebecca L; Kable, Joseph W
Nicotine withdrawal leads to impulsive decision-making, which reflects a preference for smaller, immediate rewards and often prompts a relapse to smoking. The mechanism by which nicotine withdrawal leads to impulsive decision-making is not well known. An essential dimension of decision-making is time perception. Impulsive decisions reflect intolerance of temporal delays and the perception that time is passing more slowly. Sex may be an important factor in impulsive decision-making and time perception, but no studies have investigated whether sex moderates the effects of nicotine withdrawal on impulsive decision-making and time perception. Thirty-three (12 female) adult smokers completed 2 laboratory sessions: following 24-hr abstinence and once smoking-as-usual (order counterbalanced, abstinence biochemically verified). Participants completed 2 time perception tasks, a decision-making task, and self-report measures of craving, withdrawal, and mood. During time reproduction, males overestimated time during abstinence compared to smoking, whereas there was no session effect for females. On the time discrimination task, smokers were less accurate during abstinence, and this effect tended to be stronger among females. In general, males had higher discounting rates compared with females, but there was no effect of abstinence. The current data suggest that the effect of abstinence on time perception may be stronger in males and that males generally exhibit steeper delay discounting rates. Time perception may be an important mechanism in smoking abstinence. Our future work will investigate the role of time perception in smoking relapse and whether this is moderated by sex. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Dugum, Mohannad; McCullough, Arthur
Alcohol is a leading cause of liver disease and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Several factors, including the amount and duration of alcohol consumption, affect the development and progression of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). ALD represents a spectrum of liver pathology ranging from fatty change to fibrosis to cirrhosis. Early diagnosis of ALD is important to encourage alcohol abstinence, minimize the progression of liver fibrosis, and manage cirrhosis-related complications including hepatocellular carcinoma. A number of questionnaires and laboratory tests are available to screen for alcohol intake. Liver biopsy remains the gold-standard diagnostic tool for ALD, but noninvasive accurate alternatives, including a number of biochemical tests as well as liver stiffness measurement, are increasingly being utilized in the evaluation of patients with suspected ALD. The management of ALD depends largely on complete abstinence from alcohol. Supportive care should focus on treating alcohol withdrawal and providing enteral nutrition while managing the complications of liver failure. Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a devastating acute form of ALD that requires early recognition and specialized tertiary medical care. Assessment of AH severity using defined scoring systems is important to allocate resources and initiate appropriate therapy. Corticosteroids or pentoxifylline are commonly used in treating AH but provide a limited survival benefit. Liver transplantation represents the ultimate therapy for patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, with most transplant centers mandating a 6 month period of abstinence from alcohol before listing. Early liver transplantation is also emerging as a therapeutic measure in specifically selected patients with severe AH. A number of novel targeted therapies for ALD are currently being evaluated in clinical trials.
Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Bond, Jason; Humphreys, Keith
This study tested the hypothesis that the relationship between Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) involvement and reduced substance use is partially explained (or 'mediated') by changes in social networks. This is a naturalistic longitudinal study of the course of alcohol problems. Study sites were the 10 largest public and private alcohol treatment programs in a northern California county. Three hundred and seventy-seven men and 277 women were recruited upon seeking treatment at study sites. At baseline and 1-year follow-up, we assessed alcohol consequences and dependence symptoms, consumption, social support for abstinence, pro-drinking social influences and AA involvement. In the structural equation model, AA involvement was a significant predictor of lower alcohol consumption and fewer related problems. The size of this effect decreased by 36% when network size and support for drinking were included as mediators. In logistic regression models predicting abstinence at follow-up, AA remained highly significant after including social network variables but was again reduced in magnitude. Thirty-day abstinence was predicted by AA involvement (OR=2.9), not having pro-drinking influences in one's network (OR=0.7) and having support for reducing consumption from people met in AA (versus no support; OR=3.4). In contrast, having support from non-AA members was not a significant predictor of abstinence. For alcohol-related outcomes other than abstinence, significant relationships were found for both AA-based and non-AA-based support. The type of social support specifically given by AA members, such as 24-hour availability, role modeling and experientially based advice for staying sober, may help to explain AA's mechanism of action. Results highlight the value of focusing on outcomes reflective of AA's goals (such as abstinence) when studying how AA works.
Petit, Géraldine; Luminet, Olivier; Maurage, François; Tecco, Juan; Lechantre, Stéphane; Ferauge, Marc; Gross, James J; de Timary, Philippe
The main aim of this study was to investigate, in alcohol-dependent (AD) patients, the use of the 5 emotion regulation strategies specified in Gross's (1998, Rev Gen Psychol, 2, 271) process model of emotion regulation with the use of a semi-structured interview allowing a detailed and high-quality assessment of emotion regulation strategies. A secondary aim was to examine the possible influence of protracted abstinence and detoxification on emotion dysregulation. Finally, the association between the level of craving and the types of regulation strategies was investigated. Forty-four treatment-seeking AD patients with varying time spent in rehabilitation, and 26 healthy controls were interviewed using a version of the Emotion Regulation Interview (Werner et al., 2011, J Psychopathol Behav Assess, 33, 346) adapted to alcohol dependence. Compared to controls, AD patients reported significantly greater use of response modulation and attentional deployment, but lesser use of cognitive change. Among patients, (1) rehabilitation duration was positively correlated with the use of cognitive change and (2) the use of response modulation was positively associated with the level of craving. These findings clarify the specific pattern of emotion dysregulation associated with alcohol dependence. They also suggest that (1) abstinence is associated with a shift toward more adaptive emotion regulation patterns and that (2) inefficient regulation strategies may lead to craving and the maintenance of alcohol use. If these findings are confirmed through longitudinal and mediation designs, they will have important clinical implications. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Voskoboinik, Aleksandr; Prabhu, Sandeep; Ling, Liang-Han; Kalman, Jonathan M; Kistler, Peter M
Alcohol is popular in Western culture, supported by a perception that modest intake is cardioprotective. However, excessive drinking has detrimental implications for cardiovascular disease. Atrial fibrillation (AF) following an alcohol binge or the "holiday heart syndrome" is well characterized. However, more modest levels of alcohol intake on a regular basis may also increase the risk of AF. The pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the relationship between alcohol and AF may include direct toxicity and alcohol's contribution to obesity, sleep-disordered breathing, and hypertension. We aim to provide a comprehensive review of the epidemiology and pathophysiology by which alcohol may be responsible for AF and determine whether alcohol abstinence is required for patients with AF. Copyright Â© 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hashimoto, Joel G; Gavin, David P; Wiren, Kristine M; Crabbe, John C; Guizzetti, Marina
Alcohol-use disorder (AUD) is a relapsing disorder associated with excessive ethanol consumption. Recent studies support the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in the development of AUD. Studies carried out so far have focused on a few specific epigenetic modifications. The goal of this project was to investigate gene expression changes of epigenetic regulators that mediate a broad array of chromatin modifications after chronic alcohol exposure, chronic alcohol exposure followed by 8 h withdrawal, and chronic alcohol exposure followed by 21 days of abstinence in Withdrawal-Resistant (WSR) and Withdrawal Seizure-Prone (WSP) selected mouse lines. We found that chronic vapor exposure to highly intoxicating levels of ethanol alters the expression of several chromatin remodeling genes measured by quantitative PCR array analyses. The identified effects were independent of selected lines, which, however, displayed baseline differences in epigenetic gene expression. We reported dysregulation in the expression of genes involved in histone acetylation, deacetylation, lysine and arginine methylation and ubiquitinationhylation during chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal, but not after 21 days of abstinence. Ethanol-induced changes are consistent with decreased histone acetylation and with decreased deposition of the permissive ubiquitination mark H2BK120ub, associated with reduced transcription. On the other hand, ethanol-induced changes in the expression of genes involved in histone lysine methylation are consistent with increased transcription. The net result of these modifications on gene expression is likely to depend on the combination of the specific histone tail modifications present at a given time on a given promoter. Since alcohol does not modulate gene expression unidirectionally, it is not surprising that alcohol does not unidirectionally alter chromatin structure toward a closed or open state, as suggested by the results of this study. Published by Elsevier
Hashimoto, Joel G.; Gavin, David P.; Wiren, Kristine M.; Crabbe, John C.; Guizzetti, Marina
Alcohol-use disorder (AUD) is a relapsing disorder associated with excessive ethanol consumption. Recent studies support the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in the development of AUD. Studies carried out so far have focused on a few specific epigenetic modifications. The goal of this project was to investigate gene expression changes of epigenetic regulators that mediate a broad array of chromatin modifications after chronic alcohol exposure, chronic alcohol exposure followed by 8 h withdrawal, and chronic alcohol exposure followed by 21 days of abstinence in Withdrawal-Resistant (WSR) and Withdrawal Seizure-Prone (WSP) selected mouse lines. We found that chronic vapor exposure to highly intoxicating levels of ethanol alters the expression of several chromatin remodeling genes measured by quantitative PCR array analyses. The identified effects were independent of selected lines, which, however, displayed baseline differences in epigenetic gene expression. We reported dysregulation in the expression of genes involved in histone acetylation, deacetylation, lysine and arginine methylation and ubiquitination, and in DNA methylation during chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal, but not after 21 days of abstinence. Ethanol-induced changes are consistent with decreased histone acetylation and with decreased deposition of the permissive ubiquitination mark H2BK120ub, associated with reduced transcription. On the other hand, ethanol-induced changes in the expression of genes involved in histone lysine methylation are consistent with increased transcription. The net result of these modifications on gene expression is likely to depend on the combination of the specific histone tail modifications present at a given time on a given promoter. Since alcohol does not modulate gene expression unidirectionally, it is not surprising that alcohol does not unidirectionally alter chromatin structure toward a closed or open state, as suggested by the results of this study. PMID
Zorick, Todd; Mandelkern, Mark A; Lee, Buyean; Wong, Ma-Li; Miotto, Karen; Shabazian, Jon; London, Edythe D
Methamphetamine (MA) use disorders are pervasive global social problems that produce large medical and public health burdens. Abnormalities in pituitary hormonal regulation have been observed in preclinical models of substance abuse and in human substance abusers. They have, however, not been studied before in MA-dependent human subjects. To determine if MA-dependent research volunteers differ from healthy control subjects in plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, or prolactin, or in pituitary dopamine D(2) receptor availability during early abstinence from MA. MA-dependent subjects (N = 31), who were not seeking treatment, resided on an inpatient ward for up to 5 weeks. Abstinence was confirmed by daily urine drug screening. Venous blood was sampled for plasma hormone levels, and positron emission tomography with [(18)F]fallypride was performed to determine dopamine D(2) receptor availability during the first week of abstinence. Venous blood was sampled again for hormone levels during the fourth week of abstinence. Matched healthy volunteers (N = 23) participated as a comparison group. MA-dependent and healthy comparison subjects did not differ in plasma ACTH or cortisol levels, but had an elevated plasma prolactin at both the first week and fourth week of abstinence. There was no group difference in pituitary dopamine D(2) receptor availability. MA-dependent individuals have abnormalities in prolactin regulation, which is not likely due to alterations in pituitary dopamine D(2) receptor availability. MA dependence is associated with elevated prolactin levels, which may contribute to medical comorbidity in afflicted individuals.
Simmat-Durand, L; Vellut, N; Lejeune, C; Jauffret-Roustide, M; Mougel, S; Michel, L; Planche, M
%) and more than half of the users (55%) had turned from drug addiction to alcoholism. The group concerning alcohol dependence includes the oldest participants, on average 49.7, and 55% of them were abstinent at the survey. Conversely, the group "with no alcohol dependence" had mainly turned to opiate treatments. Their histories in dependence and in various social statuses also showed a longer duration out of employment, in sickness or invalidity, or in prison, for the drug dependents as opposed to the "mainly" alcoholics. The population with dual substance abuse experienced twice as many adverse childhood events as the others (P<0.005): it was the case for 19.5% in "mainly alcohol" dependence compared to 38.4% in dual abuse. The recovery capital gave a mean score of 7.56±2.35 (median 7). A score below 6 was considered low. The score was significantly different according to the dependence groups: while 7.3% of "mainly alcohol" dependents had a score below 6, this was the case for 30.4% of the dual group (with alcohol and drugs), and 19% for the "mainly drug dependence" group. Controlling ages, sexes and groups of dependence in a logistic regression, the risk of having a recovery capital below six was more than four times higher for the dual dependents as opposed to the "mainly alcohol" dependents. Some people stay for decades in drug addiction centers switching from one dependence to another. Their alcohol drinking should be addressed earlier to prevent them from turning to drinking excessively in order to wean themselves from their drug addiction. Copyright © 2016 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Yeh, Mei-Yu; Che, Hui-Lian; Lee, Li-Wei; Horng, Fen-Fang
The purpose of this study was to explore the concepts and processes for successful abstinence from alcohol for Taiwanese Alcoholics Anonymous members. Attempting to identify the psychological and social influences upon alcohol consumption remission outside of alcoholism treatment could help professionals to engage in a broad array of community interventions in an informed fashion. Grounded theory method was utilized in this study. The study chose nine participants who had succeeded in abstinence, using theoretical sampling and conducted in-depth interviews by an open-ended questionnaire. The results of this study indicated that the core of the process during which alcoholic individuals succeeded in abstaining from further alcohol consumption was an empowerment process for the involved individual. Alcoholics felt that their family, interpersonal relationships, jobs and personal finances all had been at 'rock-bottom' level following a long period of alcohol dependence. This feeling caused the individual to experience an emotion of a loss of control and provoked the arousal of an alcoholic's inner consciousness levels, this then resulting in the generation of a driving force for abstinence from alcohol for these individuals. The expansion of an individual's internal awakening power helps the individual to obtain assistance and to resist the temptation of further alcohol consumption. Therefore, the power derived by individuals from the stages of repositioning, releasing, active sharing, resistance and assistance are the maintenance factors for an individual's empowerment process that help maintain the successful recovery from alcohol for the involved individual. A good comprehension of the recovery processes for alcoholics, we believe, will trigger clinical professionals to pay appropriate attention to the specific problems and needs of alcoholic individuals, to build an effective resource network for treatment and to help solve alcoholics' physical and psychosocial
Duncan, Alexandra; Melnick, Gerald; Ahmed, Rashid; Furr-Holden, C Debra
The current study examines differences in organizational characteristics and client posttreatment drug use abstinence in residential substance abuse treatment programs serving clients with high or low levels of legal coercion to participate in treatment. The findings show that low legal coercion programs have higher counselor caseloads (Z = 59, p < .05) than high coercion programs. Although the results showed that programs with a large proportion of African American clients (β = 14.26, p < .0001) and high legal coercion programs (β = 19.99, p < .05) predicted longer abstinence posttreatment, the final models suggest organizational factors are the key predictors of client posttreatment abstinence.
Holtyn, August F; Koffarnus, Mikhail N; DeFulio, Anthony; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O; Strain, Eric C; Schwartz, Robert P; Silverman, Kenneth
We examined the use of employment-based abstinence reinforcement in out-of-treatment injection drug users, in this secondary analysis of a previously reported trial. Participants (N = 33) could work in the therapeutic workplace, a model employment-based program for drug addiction, for 30 weeks and could earn approximately $10 per hr. During a 4-week induction, participants only had to work to earn pay. After induction, access to the workplace was contingent on enrollment in methadone treatment. After participants met the methadone contingency for 3 weeks, they had to provide opiate-negative urine samples to maintain maximum pay. After participants met those contingencies for 3 weeks, they had to provide opiate- and cocaine-negative urine samples to maintain maximum pay. The percentage of drug-negative urine samples remained stable until the abstinence reinforcement contingency for each drug was applied. The percentage of opiate- and cocaine-negative urine samples increased abruptly and significantly after the opiate- and cocaine-abstinence contingencies, respectively, were applied. These results demonstrate that the sequential administration of employment-based abstinence reinforcement can increase opiate and cocaine abstinence among out-of-treatment injection drug users. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
Holtyn, August F.; Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; DeFulio, Anthony; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O.; Strain, Eric C.; Schwartz, Robert P.; Silverman, Kenneth
We examined the use of employment-based abstinence reinforcement in out-of-treatment injection drug users, in this secondary analysis of a previously reported trial. Participants (N = 33) could work in the therapeutic workplace, a model employment-based program for drug addiction, for 30 weeks and could earn approximately $10 per hr. During a 4-week induction, participants only had to work to earn pay. After induction, access to the workplace was contingent on enrollment in methadone treatment. After participants met the methadone contingency for 3 weeks, they had to provide opiate-negative urine samples to maintain maximum pay. After participants met those contingencies for 3 weeks, they had to provide opiate- and cocaine-negative urine samples to maintain maximum pay. The percentage of drug-negative urine samples remained stable until the abstinence reinforcement contingency for each drug was applied. The percentage of opiate- and cocaine-negative urine samples increased abruptly and significantly after the opiate- and cocaine-abstinence contingencies, respectively, were applied. These results demonstrate that the sequential administration of employment-based abstinence reinforcement can increase opiate and cocaine abstinence among out-of-treatment injection drug users. PMID:25292399
O'Neill, Joseph; Tobias, Marc C; Hudkins, Matthew; London, Edythe D
The acute phase of abstinence from methamphetamine abuse is critical for rehabilitation success. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy has detected below-normal levels of glutamate+glutamine in anterior middle cingulate of chronic methamphetamine abusers during early abstinence, attributed to abstinence-induced downregulation of the glutamatergic systems in the brain. This study further explored this phenomenon. We measured glutamate+glutamine in additional cortical regions (midline posterior cingulate, midline precuneus, and bilateral inferior frontal cortex) putatively affected by methamphetamine. We examined the relationship between glutamate+glutamine in each region with duration of methamphetamine abuse as well as the depressive symptoms of early abstinence. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging was acquired at 1.5 T from a methamphetamine group of 44 adults who had chronically abused methamphetamine and a control group of 23 age-, sex-, and tobacco smoking-matched healthy volunteers. Participants in the methamphetamine group were studied as inpatients during the first week of abstinence from the drug and were not receiving treatment. In the methamphetamine group, small but significant (5-15%, P<.05) decrements (vs control) in glutamate+glutamine were observed in posterior cingulate, precuneus, and right inferior frontal cortex; glutamate+glutamine in posterior cingulate was negatively correlated (P<.05) with years of methamphetamine abuse. The Beck Depression Inventory score was negatively correlated (P<.005) with glutamate+glutamine in right inferior frontal cortex. Our findings support the idea that glutamatergic metabolism is downregulated in early abstinence in multiple cortical regions. The extent of downregulation may vary with length of abuse and may be associated with severity of depressive symptoms emergent in early recovery. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) disproportionately affect U.S. African American (AA) youth. In AA faith communities, cultural practices have contributed to increased STI rates because abstinence-only-until-marriage education programs do not teach the use of condoms or birth control for preventing STIs or pregnancy. Comprehensive sex education or abstinence-plus programs have been reported to increase STI knowledge and reduce risk-taking behaviors in adolescents and young adults. Evidence supports computerized education to increase STI knowledge and decrease risky sexual behaviors of AA churchgoing youth.
Clarke, Jennifer G; Stein, L A R; Martin, Rosemarie A; Martin, Stephen A; Parker, Donna; Lopes, Cheryl E; McGovern, Arthur R; Simon, Rachel; Roberts, Mary; Friedman, Peter; Bock, Beth
Millions of Americans are forced to quit smoking as they enter tobacco-free prisons and jails, but most return to smoking within days of release. Interventions are needed to sustain tobacco abstinence after release from incarceration. To evaluate the extent to which the WISE intervention (Working Inside for Smoking Elimination), based on motivational interviewing (MI) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), decreases relapse to smoking after release from a smoke-free prison. Participants were recruited approximately 8 weeks prior to their release from a smoke-free prison and randomized to 6 weekly sessions of either education videos (control) or the WISE intervention. A tobacco-free prison in the United States. A total of 262 inmates (35% female). Continued smoking abstinence was defined as 7-day point-prevalence abstinence validated by urine cotinine measurement. At the 3-week follow-up, 25% of participants in the WISE intervention (31 of 122) and 7% of the control participants (9 of 125) continued to be tobacco abstinent (odds ratio [OR], 4.4; 95% CI, 2.0-9.7). In addition to the intervention, Hispanic ethnicity, a plan to remain abstinent, and being incarcerated for more than 6 months were all associated with increased likelihood of remaining abstinent. In the logistic regression analysis, participants randomized to the WISE intervention were 6.6 times more likely to remain tobacco abstinent at the 3-week follow up than those randomized to the control condition (95% CI, 2.5-17.0). Nonsmokers at the 3-week follow-up had an additional follow-up 3 months after release, and overall 12% of the participants in the WISE intervention (14 of 122) and 2% of the control participants (3 of 125) were tobacco free at 3 months, as confirmed by urine cotinine measurement (OR, 5.3; 95% CI, 1.4-23.8). Forced tobacco abstinence alone during incarceration has little impact on postrelease smoking status. A behavioral intervention provided prior to release greatly improves cotinine
Fichter, M M; Glynn, S M; Weyerer, S; Liberman, R P; Frick, U
Family-based predictors of relapse were examined in 100 alcoholics who participated in a 12-week treatment program with 6-month and 18-month followups. "Expressed Emotion" (EE), or attitudes of relatives toward the alcoholic as measured by the Camberwell Family Interview, scales measuring rejection of the alcoholic by relatives, and self-reports of partner interaction were evaluated as possible predictors of abstinence. During therapy, partnership interactions showed a transient deterioration with increased temporary friction. Based on conservative criteria, the abstinence rate was 40% at 6-month followup and 30% at 18-month followup. An association with the relapse at followup could be obtained for the Patient Rejection Scale (PRS) and, using empirically derived classification rules, for the main three variables of the Camberwell Family Interview (CFI) conducted on admission: "Critical Comments," "Emotional Overinvolvement," and "Warmth." A low number of Critical Comments and a high score in Warmth were associated with a lower risk of relapse; however, contrary to expectations, Emotional Overinvolvement of the significant other was associated with more abstinence. In addition, the number of Critical Comments made by relatives about the alcoholic, a major component of high EE as measured by the CFI, had a statistically significant impact on the "survival function" of abstinence, and thus contributed to the prediction of the course of alcoholism in the expected direction.
Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Jelski, Wojciech; Zalewska, Anna; Szulc, Agata; Szmitkowski, Maciej; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz
Increasing attention to the importance of saliva testing is not surprising because smoking and alcohol drinking act synergistically on oral tissues, and their metabolite levels, e.g., acetaldehyde, are much higher in saliva than in blood. The activity of salivary alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) comes from oral microbiota, mucosa, and salivary glands. The purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of ADH in the oral health pathology of smoking (AS) and non-smoking (ANS) alcohol-dependent males. The results indicated that the AS group had a more significant and longer duration (until the 30th day of alcohol abstinence) decrease in ADH activity and output than the ANS group (until the 15th day of alcohol abstinence) compared to controls (social drinkers; C). The decreased salivary flow (SF) in alcoholics was observed longer in the ANS group (until the 30th day of alcohol abstinence), whereas in the AS group SF normalized at the 15th day, probably due to the irritating effect of tobacco smoke on the oral mucosa. Because saliva was centrifuged to remove cells and debris (including microbial cells), the detected salivary ADH activity was derived from salivary glands and/or oral mucosa. A more profound and longer decrease in ADH activity/output in smoking than non-smoking alcoholics was likely due to the damaged salivary glands and/or oral mucosa, caused by the synergistic effect of alcohol drinking and smoking. The lower values of salivary ADH in smoking than non-smoking alcoholics might also be partly due to the reversed/inhibited ADH reaction by high levels of accumulated acetaldehyde. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Those who view the right to a religiously neutral, empirically-based public education as fundamental have been able to do little more than watch in terror as abstinence-only sex education, which excludes information on either safe sex or birth control, has come to prevail in United States (US) schools. Among causes for concern are abstinence…
Weed, Stan E.; Ericksen, Irene H.; Lewis, Allen; Grant, Gale E.; Wibberly, Kathy H.
Objectives: To evaluate the impact of an abstinence education program on sexual intercourse initiation and on possible cognitive mediators of sexual initiation for virgin seventh graders in suburban Virginia. Methods: Measures of sexual behavior and 6 mediating variables were compared at 3 time periods for program participants and a matched…
Colby, Suzanne M; Leventhal, Adam M; Brazil, Linda; Lewis-Esquerre, Johanna; Stein, L A R; Rohsenow, Damaris J; Monti, Peter M; Niaura, Raymond S
The study objectives were to examine smoking abstinence and reinstatement effects on subjective experience and cognitive performance among adolescent smokers. Adolescents (aged 14-17 years, 60 daily smokers and 32 nonsmokers) participated. Participants completed baseline assessments (Session 1) and returned to the laboratory 1-3 days later to repeat assessments (Session 2); half of the smokers were randomly assigned to 15-17 hr tobacco abstinence preceding Session 2. During Session 2, abstaining smokers reported significantly greater increases in withdrawal symptoms, smoking urges, and negative affect compared with smokers who did not abstain and compared with nonsmokers. Smoking reinstatement reversed abstinence effects, returning to baseline levels for smoking urges and negative affect. Abstaining smokers showed significantly enhanced cognitive performance on two of six tasks (two-letter search compared with nonabstaining smokers; serial reaction time compared with nonsmokers); smoking reinstatement resulted in significant decrements on these two tasks relative to nonabstaining smokers. Effects of smoking abstinence and reinstatement on self-report measures are consistent with earlier research with adolescent as well as adult smokers and may help to elucidate the motivational underpinnings of smoking maintenance among adolescent smokers. Effects found on cognitive performance were contrary to hypotheses; further research is needed to understand better the role of cognitive performance effects in smoking maintenance among adolescents.
Greenwald, Mark K.
A positive reinforcement contingency increased opioid abstinence during outpatient dose tapering (4, 2, then 0 mg/day during Weeks 1 through 3) in non-treatment-seeking heroin-dependent volunteers who had been maintained on buprenorphine (8 mg/day) during an inpatient research protocol. The control group (n = 12) received $4.00 for completing…
McClure, Erin A.; Saladin, Michael E.; Baker, Nathaniel L.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Gray, Kevin M.
Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e. smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated, but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad-libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4 weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers. PMID:24018226
McClure, Erin A; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Carpenter, Matthew J; Gray, Kevin M
Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e., smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Leventhal, Adam M.; Brazil, Linda; Lewis-Esquerre, Johanna; Stein, L. A. R.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Monti, Peter M.; Niaura, Raymond S.
Introduction The study objectives were to examine smoking abstinence and reinstatement effects on subjective experience and cognitive performance among adolescent smokers. Methods Adolescents (aged 14–17 years, 60 daily smokers and 32 nonsmokers) participated. Participants completed baseline assessments (Session 1) and returned to the laboratory 1–3 days later to repeat assessments (Session 2); half of the smokers were randomly assigned to 15–17 hr tobacco abstinence preceding Session 2. Results During Session 2, abstaining smokers reported significantly greater increases in withdrawal symptoms, smoking urges, and negative affect compared with smokers who did not abstain and compared with nonsmokers. Smoking reinstatement reversed abstinence effects, returning to baseline levels for smoking urges and negative affect. Abstaining smokers showed significantly enhanced cognitive performance on two of six tasks (two-letter search compared with nonabstaining smokers; serial reaction time compared with nonsmokers); smoking reinstatement resulted in significant decrements on these two tasks relative to nonabstaining smokers. Discussion Effects of smoking abstinence and reinstatement on self-report measures are consistent with earlier research with adolescent as well as adult smokers and may help to elucidate the motivational underpinnings of smoking maintenance among adolescent smokers. Effects found on cognitive performance were contrary to hypotheses; further research is needed to understand better the role of cognitive performance effects in smoking maintenance among adolescents. PMID:19933776
Goodson, Patricia; Edmundson, Elizabeth
Presents the results of a content evaluation of the abstinence-based sexuality education curriculum, "Sex Respect," focusing on the curriculum's message and presentation. Results indicate Sex Respect omits basic content and includes misinformation, especially in the areas of human sexual response and reproductive health, and needs revision.…
Testino, Gianni; Burra, Patrizia; Bonino, Ferruccio; Piani, Francesco; Sumberaz, Alessandro; Peressutti, Roberto; Giannelli Castiglione, Andrea; Patussi, Valentino; Fanucchi, Tiziana; Ancarani, Ornella; De Cerce, Giovanna; Iannini, Anna Teresa; Greco, Giovanni; Mosti, Antonio; Durante, Marilena; Babocci, Paola; Quartini, Mariano; Mioni, Davide; Aricò, Sarino; Baselice, Aniello; Leone, Silvia; Lozer, Fabiola; Scafato, Emanuele; Borro, Paolo
Alcoholic liver disease encompasses a broad spectrum of diseases ranging from steatosis steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis to hepatocellular carcinoma. Forty-four per cent of all deaths from cirrhosis are attributed to alcohol. Alcoholic liver disease is the second most common diagnosis among patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT). The vast majority of transplant programmes (85%) require 6 mo of abstinence prior to transplantation; commonly referred to as the “6-mo rule”. Both in the case of progressive end-stage liver disease (ESLD) and in the case of severe acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH), not responding to medical therapy, there is a lack of evidence to support a 6-mo sobriety period. It is necessary to identify other risk factors that could be associated with the resumption of alcohol drinking. The “Group of Italian Regions” suggests that: in a case of ESLD with model for end-stage liver disease < 19 a 6-mo abstinence period is required; in a case of ESLD, a 3-mo sober period before LT may be more ideal than a 6-mo period, in selected patients; and in a case of severe AAH, not responding to medical therapies (up to 70% of patients die within 6 mo), LT is mandatory, even without achieving abstinence. The multidisciplinary transplant team must include an addiction specialist/hepato-alcohologist. Patients have to participate in self-help groups. PMID:25356027
Heppner, Whitney L.; Ji, Lingyun; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Castro, Yessenia; Correa-Fernandez, Virmarie; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Li, Yisheng; Dolan-Mullen, Patricia; Velasquez, Mary M.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Greisinger, Anthony; Wetter, David W.
Objective Motivation plays an important role in a variety of behaviors, including smoking cessation, and is integral to theory and treatment of smoking. For many women, pregnancy offers a motivational shift that helps them stop smoking and maintain abstinence during pregnancy. However, women's motivation to maintain smoking abstinence postpartum is not well-understood and may play a role in high postpartum relapse rates. The current study utilized multiple measures of prepartum motivation to maintain smoking abstinence to predict postpartum smoking abstinence. Design As part of a randomized clinical trial on postpartum smoking relapse prevention, pregnant women who quit smoking during pregnancy reported their motivation to continue smoking abstinence at a prepartum baseline session. Continued smoking abstinence was assessed at 8 and 26 weeks postpartum. Main Outcome Measure Biochemically verified continuous abstinence from smoking. Results Direct relationships among multiple measures of motivation were significant, and ranged in strength from weak to moderate. All motivation measures individually predicted continuous smoking abstinence, after controlling for treatment group, demographics, and pre-quit tobacco use. When tested simultaneously, a global motivation measure and parenthood motives for quitting remained significant predictors of abstinence. Backward selection modeling procedures resulted in a reduced model of prepartum predictors of postpartum abstinence including global motivation, parenthood motives, and stage of change. Conclusion Global motivation for smoking abstinence and parenthood motives for quitting are particularly important motivational constructs for pregnant women's continued smoking abstinence. PMID:21859215
This article reports on a study conducted by Mathematica Policy Research Inc. of students in four abstinence programs, as well as peers from the same communities who did not participate in the abstinence programs. A federally mandated report said that students who participated in sexual-abstinence education programs partially funded by the federal…
Andresen-Streichert, Hilke; Müller, Alexander; Glahn, Alexander; Skopp, Gisela; Sterneck, Martina
Biomarkers of alcohol consumption are important not only in forensic contexts, e.g., in child custody proceedings or as documentation of alcohol abstinence after temporary confiscation of a driver's license. They are increasingly being used in clinical medicine as well for verification of abstinence or to rule out the harmful use of alcohol. This review is based on pertinent publications that were retrieved by a selective literature search in PubMed concerning the direct and indirect alcohol markers discussed here, as well as on the authors' experience in laboratory analysis and clinical medicine. Alongside the direct demonstration of ethanol, the available markers of alcohol consumption include the classic indirect markers carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) as well as direct alcohol markers such as ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) in serum and urine and EtG and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) in hair. Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) is a promising parameter that com - plements the existing spectrum of tests with high specificity (48-89%) and sensi - tivity (88-100%). In routine clinical practice, the demonstration of positive alcohol markers often leads patients to admit previously denied alcohol use. This makes it possible to motivate the patient to undergo treatment for alcoholism. The available alcohol biomarkers vary in sensitivity and specificity with respect to the time period over which they indicate alcohol use and the minimum extent of alcohol use that they can detect. The appropriate marker or combination of markers should be chosen in each case according to the particular question that is to be answered by laboratory analysis.
Nowakowska-Domagała, Katarzyna; Jabłkowska-Górecka, Karolina; Mokros, Łukasz; Koprowicz, Jacek; Pietras, Tadeusz
The aim of the study was to assess differences in verbal fluency, working memory and executive functions in two subgroups of alcohol-dependent patients, those undergoing short-term abstinence (STA) and those undergoing long-term abstinence (LTA), and to compare the level of cognitive functions in patients after long-term abstinence with healthy subjects. The study group consisted of 106 alcohol-dependent patients (53 immediately after drinking at least 3 days and 53 after at least one-year abstinence). The control group comprised 53 subjects, whose age, sex and education levels matched those of the patients in the experimental group. The dependence intensity was assessed using SADD and MAST scales. The neuropsychological assessment was based on the FAS Test, Stroop Test and TMT A&B Test. The results obtained for alcohol-dependent patients revealed significant disturbances of cognitive functions. Such results indicate the presence of severe frontal cerebral cortex dysfunctions. Frontal cortex dysfunctions affecting the verbal fluency and working memory subsystems and the executive functions also persisted during long-term abstinence periods. No significant correlations between the duration of dependence, quantity of alcohol consumed and efficiency of the working memory and executive functions were observed in alcohol-dependent subjects after short-term or long-term abstinence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maisel, Natalya C.; Blodgett, Janet C.; Wilbourne, Paula L.; Humphreys, Keith; Finney, John W.
Aims Although debates over the efficacy of oral naltrexone and acamprosate in treating alcohol use disorders tend to focus on their global efficacy relative to placebo or their efficacy relative to each other, the underlying reality may be more nuanced. This meta-analysis examined when naltrexone and acamprosate are most helpful by testing: (1) the relative efficacy of each medication given its presumed mechanism of action (reducing heavy drinking versus fostering abstinence) and (2) whether different ways of implementing each medication (required abstinence before treatment, detoxification before treatment, goal of treatment, length of treatment, dosage) moderate its effects. Methods A systematic literature search identified 64 randomized, placebo-controlled, English-language clinical trials completed between 1970 and 2009 focused on acamprosate or naltrexone. Results Acamprosate had a significantly larger effect size than naltrexone on the maintenance of abstinence, and naltrexone had a larger effect size than acamprosate on the reduction of heavy drinking and craving. For naltrexone, requiring abstinence before the trial was associated with larger effect sizes for abstinence maintenance and reduced heavy drinking compared to placebo. For acamprosate, detoxification before medication administration was associated with better abstinence outcomes compared to placebo. Conclusions In treatment for alcohol use disorders, acamprosate has been found to be slightly more efficacious in promoting abstinence and naltrexone slightly more efficacious in reducing heavy drinking and craving. Detoxification before treatment or a longer period of required abstinence before treatment is associated with larger medication effects for acamprosate and naltrexone, respectively. PMID:23075288
Cook, Jessica W.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Berg, Kristin M.; Baker, Timothy B.
Objective: Alcohol consumption is associated with smoking cessation failure in both community and clinical research. However, little is known about the relation between alcohol consumption and smoking cessation milestones (i.e., achieving initial abstinence, avoiding lapses and relapse). Our objective in this research was to examine the relations…
Gulliver, Suzy Bird; Longabaugh, Richard; Davidson, Dena; Swift, Robert
Estimates of the prevalence of alcohol dependence among Americans approach 14% (Read, Kahler, & Stevenson, 2001). Alcohol dependence was once considered among the most recalcitrant of problem behaviors, with only 20% to 30% attaining sustained abstinence (Hunt Barnett & Branch 1971). Although current definitions of treatment success now consider…
Cannon, Dale S.; Baker, Timothy B.
Follow-up data are presented for 6- and 12-months on male alcoholics (N=20) who received either a multifaceted inpatient alcoholism treatment program alone (controls) or emetic or shock aversion therapy in addition to that program. Both emetic and control subjects compiled more days of abstinence than shock subjects. (Author)
McCann, Una D; Kuwabara, Hiroto; Kumar, Anil; Palermo, Michael; Abbey, Rubyna; Brasic, James; Ye, Weiguo; Alexander, Mohab; Dannals, Robert F; Wong, Dean F; Ricaurte, George A
Studies in abstinent methamphetamine (METH) users have demonstrated reductions in brain dopamine transporter (DAT) binding potential (BP), as well as cognitive and motor deficits, but it is not yet clear whether cognitive deficits and brain DAT reductions fully reverse with sustained abstinence, or whether behavioral deficits in METH users are related to dopamine (DA) deficits. This study was conducted to further investigate potential persistent psychomotor deficits secondary to METH abuse, and their relationship to brain DAT availability, as measured using quantitative PET methods with [(11)C]WIN 35428. Twenty-two abstinent METH users and 17 healthy non-METH using controls underwent psychometric testing to test the hypothesis that METH users would demonstrate selective deficits in neuropsychiatric domains known to involve DA neurons (e.g., working memory, executive function, motor function). A subset of subjects also underwent PET scanning with [(11)C]WIN 35428. METH users were found to have modest deficits in short-term memory, executive function, and manual dexterity. Exploratory correlational analyses revealed that deficits in memory, but not those in executive or motor function, were associated with decreases in striatal DAT BP. These results suggest a possible relationship between DAT BP and memory deficits in abstinent METH users, and lend support to the notion that METH produces lasting effects on central DA neurons in humans. As METH can also produce toxic effects on serotonin (5-HT) neurons, further study is needed to address the potential role of brain 5-HT depletion in cognitive deficits in abstinent METH users. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Bakhireva, Ludmila N; Cano, Sandra; Rayburn, William F; Savich, Renate D; Leeman, Lawrence; Anton, Raymond F; Savage, Daniel D
Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT) is a well-established and highly specific biomarker for sustained heavy consumption of alcohol. However, in pregnant women, the specificity of this biomarker might be affected by advanced gestational age, even after accounting for increased transferrin concentrations in pregnancy. The goal of this prospective study was to assess the variability in %CDT during pregnancy among alcohol-abstaining patients. Patients were recruited during one of the first prenatal care visits and followed-up to term. Abstinence was confirmed by maternal self-report and by alcohol biomarkers. Biomarkers assessed in the mother included serum gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, urine ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate, and whole blood phosphatidylethanol (PEth). In addition, PEth was measured in a dry blood spot card obtained from a newborn. For %CDT analysis, serum samples were collected at baseline and at term and analyzed by an internationally validated high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometric detection method. At recruitment (mean gestational age 22.6 ± 7.3 weeks), the mean %CDT concentration was 1.49 ± 0.30%, while at term, it increased to 1.67 ± 0.28% (P = 0.001). Using a conventional cutoff concentration %CDT >1.7%, 22.9 and 45.7% of the sample would be classified as 'positive' for this biomarker at recruitment and at term, respectively (P = 0.011 ). These results suggest that a conventional cutoff of 1.7% might be too low for pregnant women and would generate false-positive results. We propose that %CDT >2.0% be used as a cutoff concentration indicative of alcohol exposure in pregnant women. The sensitivity of %CDT at this cutoff for heavy drinking during pregnancy needs to be assessed further.
This study examined differences in the sense of coherence, anxiety, depression, hostility, behavior, and meaning in life among Israeli prisoners recovering from drug and alcohol addiction over various time periods (6-24 months), and without therapeutic intervention (natural recovery). Ninety-eight abstinent prisoners were divided into two groups:…
Silverman, Kenneth; Wong, Conrad J; Needham, Mick; Diemer, Karly N; Knealing, Todd; Crone-Todd, Darlene; Fingerhood, Michael; Nuzzo, Paul; Kolodner, Kenneth
High-magnitude and long-duration abstinence reinforcement can promote drug abstinence but can be difficult to finance. Employment may be a vehicle for arranging high-magnitude and long-duration abstinence reinforcement. This study determined if employment-based abstinence reinforcement could increase cocaine abstinence in adults who inject drugs and use cocaine during methadone treatment. Participants could work 4 hr every weekday in a workplace where they could earn about $10.00 per hour in vouchers; they were required to provide routine urine samples. Participants who attended the workplace and provided cocaine-positive urine samples during the initial 4 weeks were invited to work 26 weeks and were randomly assigned to an abstinence-and-work (n = 28) or work-only (n = 28) group. Abstinence-and-work participants had to provide urine samples showing cocaine abstinence to work and maintain maximum pay. Work-only participants could work independent of their urinalysis results. Abstinence-and-work participants provided more (p = .004; OR = 5.80, 95% CI = 2.03-16.56) cocaine-negative urine samples (29%) than did work-only participants (10%). Employment-based abstinence reinforcement can increase cocaine abstinence.
Silverman, Kenneth; Wong, Conrad J; Needham, Mick; Diemer, Karly N; Knealing, Todd; Crone-Todd, Darlene; Fingerhood, Michael; Nuzzo, Paul; Kolodner, Kenneth
High-magnitude and long-duration abstinence reinforcement can promote drug abstinence but can be difficult to finance. Employment may be a vehicle for arranging high-magnitude and long-duration abstinence reinforcement. This study determined if employment-based abstinence reinforcement could increase cocaine abstinence in adults who inject drugs and use cocaine during methadone treatment. Participants could work 4 hr every weekday in a workplace where they could earn about $10.00 per hour in vouchers; they were required to provide routine urine samples. Participants who attended the workplace and provided cocaine-positive urine samples during the initial 4 weeks were invited to work 26 weeks and were randomly assigned to an abstinence-and-work (n = 28) or work-only (n = 28) group. Abstinence-and-work participants had to provide urine samples showing cocaine abstinence to work and maintain maximum pay. Work-only participants could work independent of their urinalysis results. Abstinence-and-work participants provided more (p = .004; OR = 5.80, 95% CI = 2.03–16.56) cocaine-negative urine samples (29%) than did work-only participants (10%). Employment-based abstinence reinforcement can increase cocaine abstinence. PMID:17970256
al’Absi, Mustafa; Hooker, Stephanie; Fujiwara, Koji; Kiefer, Falk; von der Goltz, Christoph; Cragin, Tiffany; Wittmers, Lorentz E.
The adipocyte hormone leptin regulates satiety and energy expenditure. Recent evidence suggests that leptin is associated with increased craving for alcohol and with shorter length of abstinence during alcohol treatment. This study examined leptin’s associations with craving for cigarettes and smoking relapse among smokers interested in cessation. Participants (32 smokers; 14 women) attended a laboratory session 24 h following their designated quit day where circulating leptin levels and craving for smoking were assessed. Other measures of withdrawal symptoms, affect, physical symptoms, as well as neuroendocrine and cardiovascular measures were collected before and after performing two stress tasks (public speaking and cognitive tasks). High circulating leptin levels were associated with increased craving, withdrawal symptoms, negative affect, physical symptoms, and reduced positive affect. Circulating leptin levels were not related to cardiovascular and neuroendocrine measures, responses to acute stressors, or to smoking relapse. These results indicate that circulating leptin is a promising biological marker of craving for smoking and warrant further investigation of the links between appetite regulation and nicotine dependence. PMID:20951159
Suwannachom, Natiprada; Thananchai, Thiwaphorn; Junkuy, Anongphan; O'Brien, Timothy E; Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk
Researchers in the field of hair analysis have known for at least two decades that test results for many chemical compounds remain positive for a considerable period of time after subjects have reported cessation of use. These findings were generally based on small sample populations or individual case studies. Within the last decade, hair analyses of larger populations have investigated the phenomenon of residual positives in abstinent individuals in order to determine the period of time required for various compounds to present negative hair test results at internationally accepted cutoff levels. Such data has primarily been used to establish guidelines for retesting former abusers of illicit drugs in order to evaluate claims of abstinence. To date, research has focused on cocaine and opiates. The present study is the first to examine the duration of detection of methamphetamine (MA) and its metabolite amphetamine (AP) in the hair of chronic MA users who recently ceased their consumption of the drug. The study population (n=63) consisted of inpatients at a hospital drug rehabilitation program in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Drug taking behavior was collected by personal interview at the time of enrollment. Subjects provided hair samples at approximately monthly intervals for MA and AP analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry at 0.2ng/mg cutoff levels. The correlation of baseline MA and AP concentrations in hair at the beginning of abstinence with corresponding duration of detection indicated great individual variability for the rate of clearance of MA and AP from hair. In regard to duration of detection, the majority of chronic MA users remained MA positive for up to about 90 days of reported abstinence, but by 120 days, the detection rate had fallen to about 16%. All subjects tested negative for MA after 153 days of abstinence. For AP, the limit of the duration of detection was reached at 106 days. With the adoption of a margin of safety to compensate for
Heyes, Cathy M.; Schofield, Toni; Gribble, Robert; Day, Carolyn A.; Haber, Paul S.
Background Liver transplantation (LT) is the optimum treatment for patients with end-stage alcoholic liver disease (ALD). However, despite a recognized risk of relapse to harmful drinking, ALD transplant patients are reluctant to use speciality alcohol treatment to support their abstinence, even when offered within the LT context. This study aimed to understand and identify factors contributing to alcohol treatment reluctance by ALD patients undergoing transplantation. Methods We conducted an in-depth qualitative study of ALD transplant patients. Minimally structured face-to-face interviews explored participants' alcohol-related experiences and their reasons for not using alcohol treatment during the course of their transplantation. Thematic analysis was used to analyze and interpret interview data to understand treatment reluctance based on participants' experiences. Results Five major themes were identified among 3 subgroups of patients (pretransplant and posttransplant abstainers and posttransplant relapsers): (i) the “contract” of mandatory abstinence, (ii) the “gap in the program” involving the lack of candour between patient and staff about alcohol-related matters and the lack of addiction services, (iii) a preference by participants to self-manage their alcohol use disorder, (iv) social support as a facilitator of abstinence and the risk of relapse when social support is diminished, and (v) the fear of stigmatization. Each of these factors were dynamically interrelated and differed slightly for each subgroup. Conclusions The LT services may benefit from the inclusion of integrated specialist addiction services in their model of care. Such an approach may enhance the acceptability of alcohol treatment and reduce the risk of relapse among ALD transplant participants, especially for those whose social supports have diminished. PMID:27795986
Cui, Changhai; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth R; Koob, George F; Sinha, Rajita; Thakkar, Mahesh; Matochik, John; Crews, Fulton T; Chandler, L Judson; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Becker, Howard C; Lovinger, David; Everitt, Barry J; Egli, Mark; Mandyam, Chitra D; Fein, George; Potenza, Marc N; Harris, R Adron; Grant, Kathleen A; Roberto, Marisa; Meyerhoff, Dieter J; Sullivan, Edith V
This article highlights the research presentations at the satellite symposium on "Brain Pathways to Recovery from Alcohol Dependence" held at the 2013 Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting. The purpose of this symposium was to provide an up to date overview of research efforts focusing on understanding brain mechanisms that contribute to recovery from alcohol dependence. A panel of scientists from the alcohol and addiction research field presented their insights and perspectives on brain mechanisms that may underlie both recovery and lack of recovery from alcohol dependence. The four sessions of the symposium encompassed multilevel studies exploring mechanisms underlying relapse and craving associated with sustained alcohol abstinence, cognitive function deficit and recovery, and translational studies on preventing relapse and promoting recovery. Gaps in our knowledge and research opportunities were also discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Cui, Changhai; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth; Koob, George F.; Sinha, Rajita; Thakkar, Mahesh; Matochik, John; Crews, Fulton T.; Chandler, L. Judson; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Becker, Howard C.; Lovinger, David; Everitt, Barry; Egli, Mark; Mandyam, Chitra; Fein, George; Potenza, Marc N.; Harris, R. Adron; Grant, Kathleen A.; Roberto, Marisa; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Sullivan, Edith V.
This article highlights the research presentations at the satellite symposium on “Brain Pathways to Recovery from Alcohol Dependence” held at the 2013 Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting. The purpose of this symposium was to provide an up to date overview of research efforts focusing on understanding brain mechanisms that contribute to recovery from alcohol dependence. A panel of scientists from the alcohol and addiction research field presented their insights and perspectives on brain mechanisms that may underlie both recovery and lack of recovery from alcohol dependence. The four sessions of the symposium encompassed multilevel studies exploring mechanisms underlying relapse and craving associated with sustained alcohol abstinence, cognitive function deficit and recovery, and translational studies on preventing relapse and promoting recovery. Gaps in our knowledge and research opportunities were also discussed. PMID:26074423
Rabin, Rachel A; Dermody, Sarah S; George, Tony P
Tobacco and cannabis are highly co-morbid in the general population and in patients with schizophrenia. Given the putative causal mechanisms facilitating co-use, it is important to determine how cannabis cessation may influence concurrent tobacco use. Using a 28-day cannabis abstinence paradigm, we prospectively examined changes in tobacco consumption in patients with schizophrenia and controls with cannabis dependence and daily cigarette use. Cannabis dependent patients with schizophrenia (n = 19) and controls (n = 20) completed the study with abstinence rates of 42% and 55%, respectively. Participants completed measures of substance use, withdrawal, and clinical symptoms weekly. Urine samples were collected twice weekly to biochemically verify abstinence. Patients reported a greater increase in cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) on Day 7 relative to baseline (2.97 cigarette increase for abstinent subgroup, p < .01) compared to controls (.06 cigarette increase for abstinent subgroup, p = .95). Initially, greater reductions in cannabis use related to greater increases in CPD relative to baseline in the patient subsample (simple slope = -2.31, p = .05), but by Day 28, CPD returned to baseline levels independent of cannabis use. CPD changes were unrelated to cannabis withdrawal. Results were similar for changes in caffeine consumption, but not for alcohol. Findings suggest transient tobacco substitution for cannabis in patients with schizophrenia. This provides further support for a strong association between cannabis and tobacco in schizophrenia. Future studies should focus on targeting underlying mechanisms that promote co-use to better address potential changes in concurrent substance use during treatment interventions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pelloux, Yann; Hoots, Jennifer K; Cifani, Carlo; Adhikary, Sweta; Martin, Jennifer; Minier-Toribio, Angelica; Bossert, Jennifer M; Shaham, Yavin
We recently developed a rat model of context-induced relapse to alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence to mimic relapse after self-imposed abstinence due to adverse consequences of drug use. Here, we determined the model's generality to cocaine and have begun to explore brain mechanisms of context-induced relapse to cocaine seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence, using the activity marker Fos. In exp. 1, we trained rats to self-administer cocaine (0.75 mg/kg/infusion, 6 hours/day, 12 days) in context A. Next, we transferred them to context B where for the paired group, but not unpaired group, 50 percent of cocaine-reinforced lever presses caused aversive footshock. We then tested the rats for cocaine seeking under extinction conditions in contexts A and B. We also retested them for relapse after retraining in context A and repunishment in context B. In exp. 2, we used Fos immunoreactivity to determine relapse-associated neuronal activation in brain regions of rats exposed to context A, context B or neither context. Results showed the selective shock-induced suppression of cocaine self-administration and context-induced relapse after punishment-imposed abstinence in rats exposed to paired, but not unpaired, footshock. Additionally, context-induced relapse was associated with selective activation of dorsal and ventral medial prefrontal cortex, anterior insula, dorsal striatum, basolateral amygdala, paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, lateral habenula, substantia nigra, ventral subiculum, and dorsal raphe, but not nucleus accumbens, central amygdala, lateral hypothalamus, ventral tegmental area and other brain regions. Together, context-induced relapse after punishment-imposed abstinence generalizes to rats with a history of cocaine self-administration and is associated with selective activation of cortical and subcortical regions. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Paik, Anthony; Sanchagrin, Kenneth J.; Heimer, Karen
Approximately 12% of girls and young women in the United States pledge abstinence. Yet most break their pledges, engaging in first intercourse before marriage. The extant literature reports few differences between pledge breakers and nonpledgers in sexually transmitted infections and nonmarital pregnancies. The present research maintains that previous studies may have obscured important differences in exposure risk and hypothesizes that female pledge breakers who have higher exposure risk are more likely to experience human papillomavirus (HPV) and nonmarital pregnancies. To test this hypothesis, this study uses the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, logistic regression, and event history modeling. The results show that, after accounting for differences in exposure risk, pledge breakers have higher risk of HPV and nonmarital pregnancy. As a set, the results are consistent with the argument that pledgers use condoms and contraceptives less consistently and highlight unintended consequences of abstinence promotion. PMID:27019521
Warner, David O
Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke produces profound changes in physiology that may alter responses to perioperative interventions and contribute to perioperative morbidity. Because of smoke-free policies in healthcare facilities, all smokers undergoing surgery are abstinent from cigarettes for at least some period of time so that all are in various stages of recovery from the effects of smoke. Understanding this recovery process will help perioperative physicians better treat these patients. This review examines current knowledge regarding how both short-term (duration ranging from hours to weeks) and long-term smoking cessation affects selected physiology and pathophysiology of particular relevance to perioperative outcomes and how these changes affect perioperative risk. It will also consider current evidence regarding how nicotine replacement therapy, a valuable adjunct to help patients maintain abstinence, may affect perioperative physiology.
Gelsi, Eve; Vanbiervliet, Geoffroy; Chérikh, Faredj; Mariné-Barjoan, Eugénia; Truchi, Régine; Arab, Kamel; Delmont, Jean-Marie; Tran, Albert
A cohort of patient hospitalized for alcohol detoxification between January 2004 and January 2005 were followed prospectively to search for factors predictive factors of sustained abstinence. One hundred and fifteen patients (79 males, 36 females, median age 45.9+/-10.7 years), were hospitalized for alcohol detoxification. Demographic, social, and medical data including daily alcohol intake and co-addictions were noted at inclusion and six months later. Patients who did not attend their six-month visit were contacted by phone. Among the 115 included patients, six month follow-up data could be collected for 73. Abstinence rate was 54.8%. Factors predictive of unsuccessful cessation were homelessness (P=0.004), duration of alcohol consumption (P=0.004), smoking (P=0.02), drug substitution (P=0.04) and multiple addictions (P=0.04). At multivariate analysis, multiple addictions was the only independent factor predictive of unsuccessful detoxification. Naltrexone or acamprosate treatments were not associated with a better rate of alcohol detoxification. Patient follow-up is problematic due to the large number of dropouts among alcoholics. Early screening in search for factors predictive of unsuccessful detoxification (long duration of alcohol consumption, multiple addiction) would be helpful in elaborating appropriate pluridisciplinary management.
Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Kirkley, Shalene M.; Gansler, David A.; Couture, Ashley
Background Evidence suggests that alcoholics exhibit particular deficits in brain systems involving the prefrontal cortex, but few studies have directly compared patients with and without Korsakoff’s syndrome on measures of prefrontal integrity. Methods Neuropsychological tasks sensitive to dysfunction of frontal brain systems were administered, along with standard tests of memory, intelligence, and visuospatial abilities, to 50 healthy, abstinent, nonamnesic alcoholics, 6 patients with alcohol-induced persisting amnestic disorder (Korsakoff’s syndrome), 6 brain-damaged controls with right hemisphere lesions, and 82 healthy nonalcoholic controls. Results Korsakoff patients were impaired on tests of memory, fluency, cognitive flexibility, and perseveration. Non-Korsakoff alcoholics showed some frontal system deficits as well, but these were mild. Cognitive deficits in non-Korsakoff alcoholics were related to age, duration of abstinence (less than 5 years), duration of abuse (more than 20 years), and amount of alcohol intake. Conclusions Abnormalities of frontal system functioning are most apparent in alcoholics with Korsakoff’s syndrome. In non-Korsakoff alcoholics, factors contributing to cognitive performance are age, duration of abstinence, duration of alcoholism, and amount of alcohol consumed. PMID:15100620
Flavel, Stanley C; White, Jason M; Todd, Gabrielle
To investigate movement speed and rhythmicity in abstinent cannabis users, we hypothesized that abstinent cannabis users exhibit decreased maximal finger tapping frequency and increased variability of tapping compared with non-drug users. The study involved 10 healthy adult cannabis users and 10 age-matched and gender-matched controls with no history of illicit drug use. Subjects underwent a series of screening tests prior to participation. Subjects were then asked to tap a strain gauge as fast as possible with the index finger of their dominant hand (duration 5 s). The average intertap interval did not significantly differ between groups, but the coefficient of variation of the intertap interval was significantly greater in the cannabis group than in controls (p=0.011). The cannabis group also exhibited a slow tapping frequency at the beginning of the task. Rhythmicity of finger tapping is abnormal in individuals with a history of cannabis use. The abnormality appears to be long lasting and adds to the list of functional changes present in abstinent cannabis users. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Shill, Merton A
Recent contributions to the psychoanalytic literature propose new ways of understanding analytic neutrality, anonymity, abstinence, and self-disclosure. They advocate elective self-disclosure by the analyst as an antidote to the allegedly game-playing quality of transference and resistance analysis. The analytic relationship, they assert, becomes unreal when attempts are made to observe the principles of neutrality and abstinence. Both are seen as ill-conceived because of the irreducible subjectivity and unwarranted authority of the analyst. These relational and interactional views are criticized because (1) they ignore the fact that transference and resistance analysis have from Freud onward been accepted as minimal criteria qualifying a clinical process as psychoanalytic; (2) elective self-disclosure carries metapsychological implications dismissing not only Freud's theory of motivation but motivation as a basic feature of human personality; (3) they do not recognize interpersonal relations as mental events and so do not consider the ego's ability to create intrapsychic representations of object relations; (4) elective self-disclosures within the empathic parameters of the analytic situation are themselves unreal compared to the reality of the patient's experience with other objects. Abstinence and neutrality as ideals facilitate maintenance of an internal holding environment or container for the analyst's countertransference.
Malin, D H; Lake, J R; Schopen, C K; Kirk, J W; Sailer, E E; Lawless, B A; Upchurch, T P; Shenoi, M; Rajan, N
A rodent model of nicotine dependence has been developed based on continuous subcutaneous (s.c.) infusion of nicotine tartrate. Nicotine abstinence syndrome was precipitated by s.c. injection of the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine, which freely crosses the blood-brain barrier. In contrast, the nicotinic antagonist hexamethonium crosses the blood-brain barrier very poorly. This study determined whether central or peripheral administration of hexamethonium could precipitate nicotine abstinence. In the first experiment, 26 nicotine-dependent rats were injected s.c. with 0.5, 5 or 10 mg/kg hexamethonium dichloride or saline alone and observed for 20 min. Few abstinence signs were observed in any group; there was no significant drug effect. In the second experiment, 18 rats were cannulated in the third ventricle and rendered nicotine dependent. One week later, rats were injected through the cannula with 12 or 18 ng hexamethonium or saline alone and observed for 20 min. Both dose groups differed significantly from the saline-injected group, and there was a significant positive linear trend of signs as a function of dose. The high dose had no significant effect in 14 nondependent rats. We conclude that hexamethonium is much more potent by the central route, and there is a major central nervous system component in nicotine dependence.
Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon Family Groups www.al-anon.org National Institute on Alcohol ...
Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...
Sinha, Rajita; Fox, Helen C; Hong, Kwangik A; Bergquist, Keri; Bhagwagar, Zubin; Siedlarz, Kristen M
Chronic alcohol abuse is associated with changes in stress and reward pathways that could alter vulnerability to emotional stress and alcohol craving. This study examines whether chronic alcohol abuse is associated with altered stress and alcohol craving responses. Treatment-engaged, 28-day abstinent alcohol-dependent individuals (ADs; 6F/22M), and social drinkers (SDs; 10F/18M) were exposed to a brief guided imagery of a personalized stressful, alcohol-related and neutral-relaxing situation, one imagery condition per session, presented in random order across 3 days. Alcohol craving, anxiety and emotion ratings, behavioral distress responses, heart rate, blood pressure, and salivary cortisol measures were assessed. Alcohol patients showed significantly elevated basal heart rate and salivary cortisol levels. Stress and alcohol cue exposure each produced a significantly enhanced and persistent craving state in alcohol patients that was marked by increased anxiety, negative emotion, systolic blood pressure responses, and, in the case of alcohol cue, behavioral distress responses, as compared to SDs. Blunted stress-induced cortisol responses were observed in the AD compared to the SD group. These data are the first to document that stress and cue exposure induce a persistent negative emotion-related alcohol craving state in abstinent alcoholics accompanied by dysregulated HPA and physiological arousal responses. As laboratory models of stress and negative mood-induced alcohol craving are predictive of relapse outcomes, one implication of the current data is that treatments targeting decreases in stress and alcohol cue-induced craving and regulation of stress responses could be of benefit in improving alcohol relapse outcomes.
Freeman, WM; Patel, KM; Brucklacher, RM; Lull, ME; Erwin, M; Morgan, D; Roberts, DCS; Vrana, KE
Cocaine-responsive gene expression changes have been described after either no drug abstinence or short periods of abstinence. Little data exist on the persistence of these changes after long-term abstinence. Previously, we reported that after discrete-trial, cocaine self-administration and 10 days of forced abstinence, incubation of cocaine reinforcement was observable by a progressive ratio schedule. The present study used rat discrete-trial cocaine self-administration and long-term forced abstinence to examine: extinction responding, mRNA abundance of known cocaine-responsive genes, and chromatin remodeling. At 30 and 100 days of abstinence, extinction responding increased compared to 3-day abstinent rats. Decreases in both medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) c-fos, Nr4a1, Arc, and EGR1 mRNA were observed, and in most cases persisted, for 100 days of abstinence. The signaling peptides CART and NPY transiently increased in the mPFC, but returned to baseline levels following 10 days of abstinence. To investigate a potential regulatory mechanism for these persistent mRNA changes, levels of histone H3 acetylation at promoters for genes with altered mRNA expression were examined. In the mPFC, histone H3 acetylation decreased after 1 and 10 days of abstinence at the promoter for EGR1. H3 acetylation increased for NPY after 1 day of abstinence and returned to control levels by 10 days of abstinence. Behaviorally, these results demonstrate incubation after discrete-trial cocaine self-administration and prolonged forced abstinence. This incubation is accompanied by changes in gene expression that persist long after cessation of drug administration and may be regulated by chromatin remodeling. PMID:17851536
Milby, Jesse B; Conti, Kimberly; Wallace, Dennis; Mennemeyer, Stephen; Mrug, Sylvie; Schumacher, Joseph E
We examined comorbid disorders' prevalence, their impact on abstinence, and the impact of depressive symptoms on abstinence and of abstinence on depressive symptoms. A randomized controlled trial's data on outcomes from treating cocaine dependence were used. It compared abstinence-contingent housing and work to contingency management plus behavioral day treatment. Regardless of original trial arm assignment, groups of participants with no additional Axis I disorders (n = 87) and 1 or more additional Axis I disorders (n = 113) were compared for abstinence. Changes in depression symptoms, measured by the Beck Depression Inventory, were analyzed as a function of 4 cohorts of increased consecutive weeks abstinent. An autoregressive cross-lagged path model examined reciprocal relationships between depression and abstinence. Most prevalent additional disorders were depressive disorders, followed by anxiety disorders. Additional disorders did not significantly affect abstinence. Cohorts with more abstinence were linearly related to lower depression symptoms. The cross-lagged model showed that longer abstinence predicted decreases in depressive symptoms at 6 months. However, depressive symptoms did not predict changes in abstinence. Our study adds to others that have found an effective treatment targeted at specific problems such as substance abuse, social anxiety disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder that may have the side benefit of reducing depression. Additionally, we find that depression does not interfere with effective substance abuse treatment for cocaine dependency. This may be the 1st formal analysis comparing the ability of cocaine abstinence to predict future depressive symptoms versus depressive symptoms to predict future cocaine abstinence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Fermentation Syndrome in the Psychiatric Evaluation of Patients with Suspected Alcohol Use Disorder Sb. GRANT NUMBER Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Adobe Professional 7. 0 Introduction Gut Fermentation Syndrome, also known as auto- brewery syndrome, is a phenomenon not well...patient stated abstinence from alcohol use and that Gut Fermentation Syndrome was the cause of continually elevated blood alcohol levels. We will
Klimas, Jan; Tobin, Helen; Field, Catherine-Anne; O'Gorman, Clodagh S M; Glynn, Liam G; Keenan, Eamon; Saunders, Jean; Bury, Gerard; Dunne, Colum; Cullen, Walter
participants), (3) group or individual motivational interviewing (MI) versus hepatitis health promotion (one study; 256 participants) and (4) brief motivational intervention (BMI) versus assessment-only (one study; 187 participants). Differences between studies precluded any data pooling. Findings are described for each trial individually.Comparison 1: low-quality evidence; no significant difference for any of the outcomes considered Alcohol abstinence as maximum number of weeks of consecutive alcohol abstinence during treatment: mean difference (MD) 0.40 (95% confidence interval (CI) -1.14 to 1.94); illicit drug abstinence as maximum number of weeks of consecutive abstinence from cocaine during treatment: MD 0.80 (95% CI -0.70 to 2.30); alcohol abstinence as number achieving three or more weeks of consecutive alcohol abstinence during treatment: risk ratio (RR) 1.96 (95% CI 0.43 to 8.94); illicit drug abstinence as number achieving three or more weeks of consecutive abstinence from cocaine during treatment: RR 1.10 (95% CI 0.42 to 2.88); alcohol abstinence during follow-up year: RR 2.38 (95% CI 0.10 to 55.06); illicit drug abstinence as abstinence from cocaine during follow-up year: RR 0.39 (95% CI 0.04 to 3.98), moderate-quality evidence.Comparison 2: low-quality evidence, no significant difference for all the outcomes considered Alcohol use as AUDIT scores at three months: MD 0.80 (95% -1.80 to 3.40); alcohol use as AUDIT scores at nine months: MD 2.30 (95% CI -0.58 to 5.18); alcohol use as number of drinks per week at three months: MD 0.70 (95% CI -3.85 to 5.25); alcohol use as number of drinks per week at nine months: MD -0.30 (95% CI -4.79 to 4.19); alcohol use as decreased alcohol use at three months: RR 1.13 (95% CI 0.67 to 1.93); alcohol use as decreased alcohol use at nine months: RR 1.34 (95% CI 0.69 to 2.58), moderate-quality evidence.Comparison 3 (group and individual MI), low-quality evidence: no significant difference for all outcomes Group MI: number of
Fung, Phoenix; Pyrsopoulos, Nikolaos
Severe alcoholic hepatitis is implicated as a costly, worldwide public health issue with high morbidity and mortality. The one-month survival for severe alcoholic hepatitis is low with mortality rates high as 30%-50%. Abstinence from alcohol is the recommended first-line treatment. Although corticosteroids remain as the current evidence based option for selected patients with discriminant function > 32, improvement of short-term survival rate may be the only benefit. Identification of individuals with risk factors for the development of severe alcoholic hepatitis may provide insight to the diverse clinical spectrum and prognosis of the disease. The understanding of the complex pathophysiologic processes of alcoholic hepatitis is the key to elucidating new therapeutic treatments. Newer research describes the use of gut microbiota modification, immune modulation, stimulation of liver regeneration, caspase inhibitors, farnesoid X receptors, and the extracorporeal liver assist device to aid in hepatocellular recovery. Liver transplantation can be considered as the last medical option for patients failing conventional medical interventions. Although the preliminary data is promising in patients with low risk of recividism, controversy remains due to organ scarcity. This review article comprehensively summarizes the epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, and prognostic indicators of severe alcoholic hepatitis with a focus on the current and emerging therapeutics. PMID:28515843
Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Viel, Guido; Montisci, Massimo; Terranova, Claudio; Favretto, Donata; Ferrara, Santo Davide
In both clinical and forensic settings, hair analysis for ethyl glucuronide (HEtG) has been increasingly employed for diagnosing chronic excessive drinking and, more recently, for monitoring abstinence. This paper aims at meta-analysing published data on HEtG concentrations in teetotallers, social drinkers and heavy drinkers in order to evaluate the use of this marker in hair for identifying chronic excessive drinking and for monitoring abstinence. In May 2012, a systematic multi-database search retrieved 366 records related to HEtG and further screened for relevant publications in the field. Fifteen (4.1 %) records matched the selection criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The mean and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) of HEtG concentrations in social drinkers (mean 7.5 pg/mg; 95 % CI 4.7-10.2 pg/mg; p < 0.001), heavy drinkers (mean 142.7 pg/mg; 95 % CI 99.9-185.5 pg/mg; p < 0.001) and deceased subjects with a known history of chronic excessive drinking (mean 586.1 pg/mg; 95 % CI 177.2-995.0 pg/mg; p < 0.01) were calculated. The ranges of mean values and 95 % confidence intervals for single studies involving teetotallers/social or social/heavy drinkers showed a partial overlap with a down-trespassing of both the 7 and 30 pg/mg thresholds for social and heavy drinkers, respectively. Although larger and well-designed population studies are required to draw any definitive conclusion, our data show that the cut-off of 30 pg/mg limits the false-negative effect in differentiating heavy from social drinkers, whereas the recently proposed 7 pg/mg cut-off value might only be used for suspecting an active alcohol use, and not for proving complete abstinence.
Krentzman, Amy R.; Robinson, Elizabeth A. R.; Perron, Brian E.; Cranford, James A.
This study identifies factors associated with Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) membership in a sample of 81 persons who have achieved at least one year of total abstinence from drugs and alcohol. Forty-four were AA members, 37 were not. Logistic regression was used to test the cross-sectional associations of baseline demographic, substance-related, spiritual and religious, and personality variables with AA membership. Significant variables from the bivariate analyses were included in a multivariate model controlling for previous AA involvement. Having more positive views of God and more negative consequences of drinking were significantly associated with AA membership. This information can be used by clinicians to identify clients for whom AA might be a good fit, and can help others overcome obstacles to AA or explore alternative forms of abstinence support. PMID:21615004
Stickel, Anna; Rohdemann, Maren; Landes, Tom; Engel, Katharina; Banas, Roman; Heinz, Andreas; Müller, Christian A
Previous studies have reported changes in nutrition-related behaviors in alcohol-dependent patients after alcohol detoxification, but prospective studies assessing the effects of these changes on maintaining abstinence are lacking. To assess changes in craving and consumption of chocolate and other sweets over time up to six months after outpatient alcohol detoxification treatment and to detect differences in abstinent versus nonabstinent patients. One hundred and fifty alcohol-dependent patients were included in this prospective observational study. Participants completed self-report questionnaires on nutrition-related behaviors and craving before detoxification treatment (baseline, t1), one week (t2), one month (t3), and six months later (t4). Significant changes in craving for and consumption of chocolate as well as in craving for other sweets were observed over time. Increases were most prominent within the first month. Patients who remained abstinent until t3 consumed three times more chocolate than nonabstainers. One quarter of the patients switched from being rare (t1) to frequent (t3) chocolate eaters, and 84% of these remained abstinent until t3. No significant correlations were found between craving for alcohol and craving for or consumption of chocolate or other sweets. In the first month after outpatient alcohol detoxification treatment, significant changes in nutrition-related behaviors were observed. These changes were not associated with alcohol craving. For a subgroup, increasing the frequency of chocolate consumption might be a temporary protective factor with respect to alcohol relapse.
Kawaguchi, Yoshikuni; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Kaneko, Junichi; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Tamura, Sumihito; Aoki, Taku; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro
Although alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is regarded as a common indication for liver transplantation (LT), debatable issues exist on the requirement for preceding alcoholic abstinence, appropriate indication criteria, predictive factors for alcoholic recidivism, and outcomes following living-donor LT. In most institutions, an abstinence period of six months before LT has been adopted as a mandatory selection criterion. Data indicating that pre-transplant abstinence is an associated predictive factor for alcoholic recidivism supports the reasoning behind this. However, conclusive evidence about the benefit of adopting an abstinence period is yet to be established. On the other hand, a limited number of reports available on living-donor LT experiences for ALD patients suggest that organ donations from relatives have no suppressive effect on alcoholic recidivism. Prevention of alcoholic recidivism has proved to be the most important treatment after LT based on the resultant inferior long-term outcome of patients. Further evaluations are still needed to establish strategies before and after LT for ALD.
Berlakovich, Gabriela A
Transplantation for the treatment of alcoholic cirrhosis is more controversially discussed than it is for any other indication. The crucial aspect in this setting is abstinence before and after liver transplantation. We established pre-transplant selection criteria for potential transplant candidates. Provided that the underlying disease can be treated, there is no reason to withhold liver transplantation in a patient suffering from alcoholic cirrhosis. Evaluation of the patient by a multidisciplinary team, including an addiction specialist, is considered to be the gold standard. However, several centers demand a specified period of abstinence - usually 6 mo- irrespective of the specialist's assessment. The 6-mo rule is viewed critically because liver transplantation was found to clearly benefit selected patients with acute alcoholic hepatitis; the benefit was similar to that achieved for other acute indications. However, the discussion may well be an academic one because the waiting time for liver transplantation exceeds six months at the majority of centers. The actual challenge in liver transplantation for alcoholic cirrhosis may well be the need for lifelong post-transplant follow-up rather than the patient's pre-transplant evaluation. A small number of recipients experience a relapse of alcoholism; these patients are at risk for organ damage and graft-related death. Post-transplant surveillance protocols should demonstrate alcohol relapse at an early stage, thus permitting the initiation of adequate treatment. Patients with alcoholic cirrhosis are at high risk of developing head and neck, esophageal, or lung cancer. The higher risk of malignancies should be considered in the routine assessment of patients suffering from alcoholic cirrhosis. Tumor surveillance protocols for liver transplant recipients, currently being developed, should become a part of standard care; these will improve survival by permitting diagnosis at an early stage. In conclusion, the key
Luczak, Susan E; Prescott, Carol A; Dalais, Cyril; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A
The purpose of this study was to examine religious factors associated with alcohol involvement in Mauritius. The three main religions on the island, Hinduism, Catholicism, and Islam, promote different views of the appropriate use of alcohol. Based on reference group theory, we hypothesized that both the content of a religion's alcohol norms and an individual's religious commitment would relate to alcohol use behavior. Participants were from the Joint Child Health Project, a longitudinal study that has followed a birth cohort of 1.795 individuals since 1972 when they were 3 years old. All available participants (67%; 55% male) were assessed in mid-adulthood on religious variables, lifetime drinking, and lifetime alcohol use disorders. Across religions, individuals who viewed their religion as promoting abstinence were less likely to be drinkers. Religious commitment was associated with reduced probability of drinking only in those who viewed their religion as promoting abstinence. Among drinkers, abstention norms and religious commitment were not associated with lower likelihood of alcohol use disorders. In Catholics who viewed their religion as promoting abstinence and still were drinkers, high religious commitment was associated with increased risk for alcohol use disorders. Predictions based on reference group theory were largely supported, with religious norms and commitment differentially related to alcohol use and problems both across religions and among individuals within religions. Findings highlight the importance of examining multiple aspects of religion to better understand the relationship of religion with alcohol behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Luczak, Susan E.; Prescott, Carol A.; Dalais, Cyril; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.
Background The purpose of this study was to examine religious factors associated with alcohol involvement in Mauritius. The three main religions on the island, Hinduism, Catholicism, and Islam, promote different views of the appropriate use of alcohol. Based on reference group theory, we hypothesized that both the content of a religion’s alcohol norms and an individual’s religious commitment would relate to alcohol use behavior. Methods Participants were from the Joint Child Health Project, a longitudinal study that has followed a birth cohort of 1,795 individuals since 1972 when they were 3 years old. All available participants (67%; 55% male) were assessed in mid-adulthood on religious variables, lifetime drinking, and lifetime alcohol use disorders. Results Across religions, individuals who viewed their religion as promoting abstinence were less likely to be drinkers. Religious commitment was associated with reduced probability of drinking only in those who viewed their religion as promoting abstinence. Among drinkers, abstention norms and religious commitment were not associated with lower likelihood of alcohol use disorders. In Catholics who viewed their religion as promoting abstinence and still were drinkers, high religious commitment was associated with increased risk for alcohol use disorders. Conclusions Predictions based on reference group theory were largely supported, with religious norms and commitment differentially related to alcohol use and problems both across religions and among individuals within religions. Findings highlight the importance of examining multiple aspects of religion to better understand the relationship of religion with alcohol behaviors. PMID:24332801
Donnelly, J; Goldfarb, E S; Ferraro, H; Eadie, C; Duncan, D F
The association between sexual abstinence and use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana was examined in data from questionnaires completed by 874 students in Grades 6 through 8 at six urban schools. These students participated in a program that implemented and evaluated an educational program on abstinence sexuality. It focused on raising self-esteem, improving communication skills, and learning to set life goals. The evaluation instrument contained items assessing sexuality and attitudes toward behaviors related to drug use. Use of each drug (alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana) was significantly (p < .00001) and positively associated with self-report of having experienced sexual intercourse and expectation of having intercourse during the next year.
Cooney, Judith L; Cooper, Sharon; Grant, Christoffer; Sevarino, Kevin; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Gutierrez, Ian A; Cooney, Ned L
This randomized clinical trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy of contingency management (CM) for smoking cessation for smokers with alcohol abuse or dependence delivered concurrently with intensive outpatient alcohol treatment. The study also explored the indirect effects of CM smoking treatment and smoking cessation on alcohol and drug use outcomes. Alcohol abuse/dependent smokers were randomized to cognitive behavioral therapy plus nicotine replacement therapy plus contingency management (CBT+NRT+CM) or to cognitive behavior therapy plus nicotine replacement therapy (CBT+NRT) delivered concurrent with a three-week intensive outpatient alcohol treatment program. Participants in the CBT+NRT+CM condition were significantly more likely to be cigarette abstinent at the end of treatment (χ 2 (1)=8.48, p=.004) with approximately double the carbon monoxide confirmed quit rate (60%) compared with the CBT+NRT condition (29%). At the one-month and six-month time-points there were nonsignificant differences in smoking abstinence outcomes by condition. Smoking treatment condition did not directly affect alcohol abstinence outcomes, but we observed an indirect effect of smoking treatment on alcohol and drug abstinence at one-month follow-up that was mediated by smoking cessation at the end of treatment. Adding CM to an evidence-based smoking cessation treatment that included medication and behavioral counseling doubled the quit rate at the end of treatment. This finding provides strong evidence for the efficacy of CM for helping alcohol dependent smokers reach the milestone of initial smoking abstinence. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Miglin, Rickie; Kable, Joseph W; Bowers, Maureen E; Ashare, Rebecca L
Impulsive decision making is associated with smoking behavior and reflects preferences for smaller, immediate rewards and intolerance of temporal delays. Nicotine withdrawal may alter impulsive decision making and time perception. However, little is known about whether withdrawal-related changes in decision making and time perception predict smoking relapse. Forty-five smokers (14 female) completed two laboratory sessions, one following 24-hour abstinence and one smoking-as-usual (order counterbalanced; biochemically verified abstinence). During each visit, participants completed measures of time perception, decision making (ie, discount rates), craving, and withdrawal. Following the second laboratory session, subjects underwent a well-validated model of short-term abstinence (quit week) with small monetary incentives for each day of biochemically confirmed abstinence. Smokers significantly overestimated time during abstinence, compared to smoking-as-usual (p = .021), but there were no abstinence effects on discount rates (p = .6). During the quit week, subjects were abstinent for 3.5 days (SD = 2.15) and smoked a total of 12.9 cigarettes (SD = 15.8). Importantly, higher discount rates (ie, preferences for immediate rewards) during abstinence (abstinence minus smoking difference score) predicted greater number of days abstinent (p = .01) and fewer cigarettes smoked during the quit week (p = .02). Withdrawal-related change in time reproduction did not predict relapse (p = .2). These data suggest that individuals who have a greater preference for immediate rewards during abstinence (vs. smoking-as-usual) may be more successful at maintaining short-term abstinence when provided with frequent (eg, daily) versus less frequent incentive schedules (eg, 1 month). Abstinence-induced changes in decision making may be important for identifying smokers who may benefit from interventions that incentivize abstinence such as contingency management (CM). The present results
Wilson, Kelly L; Wiley, David C
Given the growing scientific evidence against abstinence-only-until-marriage education, health educators are supporting an evidence-based approach to teaching sexuality education. However, there is still an abundance of federal support and funding streams allocated to sustain abstinence-only programs. This study assessed indicators that influence the adoption of abstinence-only-until-marriage education as well as school teachers' likelihood of adopting such programs. Predictors included relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, and observability and were assessed with a self-administered, validated questionnaire. Additional questions were asked related to demographics, professional history, and abstinence-only-until-marriage education policies and funding. The relationships were tested with multiple regression analysis. A trend became apparent in which most teachers would allow a state- or federally funded program to be offered and presented in their schools, but most did not know if their school received funding to support abstinence-only-until-marriage education. Attendance at religious services, complexity of abstinence-only-until-marriage programs, and abstinence-only-until-marriage curriculum emerged as important predictors of the likelihood to adopt abstinence education. Trends in political agendas, policy development, and state and federal funding have supported abstinence-only-until-marriage education programs. In order to ensure an understanding about the inclusion of sexuality education in the classroom, insight into the teacher's role in the integration of sexuality education in the classroom is important.
Birath, J Brandon; Briones, Marisa; Amaya, Stephanie; Shoptaw, Steven; Swanson, Aimee-Noelle; Tsuang, John; Furst, Benjamin; Heinzerling, Keith; Obermeit, Lisa; Maes, Lauryn; McKay, Charles; Wright, Matthew J
Inattention is a deficit related to instilling abstinence from methamphetamine (MA) dependence. This study aimed to determine whether ibudilast (IB; 50mg bid) improves attentional abilities compared to placebo during early abstinence from MA dependence. Attention was assessed in 11 MA-dependent non-treatment seeking participants in a phase IB safety-interaction trial. The Conners' Continuous Performance Test-II (CPT-II), a measure of sustained attention and response inhibition, was administered at baseline and on day 22, 48h post a MA challenge under placebo (P; n=6) or IB 50mg bid (n=5). Group differences were compared using Mann-Whitney U Tests. Groups were similar at baseline in premorbid intellectual functioning, attention deficit hyperactivity symptom scores, impulsivity ratings, and education level, but differed in age. Demographically corrected T-scores for CPT-II performances were utilized. Although no group differences in sustained attention existed at baseline, at follow-up, the IB group (Mdn=44.4) showed reduced variability in response times compared with the P group (Mdn=69.9), U=0.00, z=-2.74, p=.006, r=.83. The IB group (Mdn=45.8) also gave fewer perseverative responses than the P group (Mdn=67.0), U=2.00, z=-2.50, p=.01, r=.75. No other significant differences were observed. Findings suggest that IB may have a protective effect on sustained attention during early abstinence from MA dependence. This may guide thinking about mechanism of action should IB demonstrate efficacy as a treatment for MA dependence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sekine, Yoshimoto; Ouchi, Yasuomi; Takei, Nori; Yoshikawa, Etsuji; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Futatsubashi, Masami; Okada, Hiroyuki; Minabe, Yoshio; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Iwata, Yasuhide; Tsuchiya, Kenji J; Tsukada, Hideo; Iyo, Masaomi; Mori, Norio
In animals, methamphetamine is known to have a neurotoxic effect on serotonin neurons, which have been implicated in the regulation of mood, anxiety, and aggression. It remains unknown whether methamphetamine damages serotonin neurons in humans. To investigate the status of brain serotonin neurons and their possible relationship with clinical characteristics in currently abstinent methamphetamine abusers. Case-control analysis. A hospital research center. Twelve currently abstinent former methamphetamine abusers (5 women and 7 men) and 12 age-, sex-, and education-matched control subjects recruited from the community. The brain regional density of the serotonin transporter, a structural component of serotonin neurons, was estimated using positron emission tomography and trans-1,2,3,5,6,10-beta-hexahydro-6-[4-(methylthio)phenyl]pyrrolo-[2,1-a]isoquinoline ([(11)C](+)McN-5652). Estimates were derived from region-of-interest and statistical parametric mapping methods, followed by within-case analysis using the measures of clinical variables. The duration of methamphetamine use, the magnitude of aggression and depressive symptoms, and changes in serotonin transporter density represented by the [(11)C](+)McN-5652 distribution volume. Methamphetamine abusers showed increased levels of aggression compared with controls. Region-of-interest and statistical parametric mapping analyses revealed that the serotonin transporter density in global brain regions (eg, the midbrain, thalamus, caudate, putamen, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum) was significantly lower in methamphetamine abusers than in control subjects, and this reduction was significantly inversely correlated with the duration of methamphetamine use. Furthermore, statistical parametric mapping analyses indicated that the density in the orbitofrontal, temporal, and anterior cingulate areas was closely associated with the magnitude of aggression in methamphetamine abusers. Protracted abuse of methamphetamine may reduce
Clark, Uraina S.; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Shagrin, Barbara; Pencina, Michael
This study sought to differentiate alcoholism-related changes in judgments of emotional stimuli from those of other populations in which such changes have been documented. Two sets of visual stimuli, one containing words and the other containing drawings of faces (representing a range of emotional content), were presented to abstinent alcoholic adults with and without Korsakoff’s syndrome, as well as to a healthy control group and four groups of patients with other neurobehavioral disorders: Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Participants rated the stimuli according to emotional valence and intensity of emotion. Results implicated bi-hemispheric frontal and subcortical involvement in the abnormalities of emotion identification associated with alcoholism, and they also support the notion of age-related vulnerabilities in conjunction with alcoholism. PMID:17484598
Martin, S D; Yeragani, V K; Lodhi, R; Galloway, M P
Six patients were evaluated over a 21-day period during inpatient recovery from chronic repeated cocaine use. Serial evaluations of Hamilton depression rating, cocaine craving, plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA), and plasma 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol (pMHPG) concentrations were determined. There was a distinct increase in cocaine craving between 1 and 2 weeks after the last cocaine use. Levels of pHVA also increased at the time of heightened craving. The data provide preliminary evidence to suggest that changes in cocaine craving during abstinence are positively correlated with changes in dopamine turnover.
Peng, Jennifer L; Patel, Milan Prakash; McGee, Breann; Liang, Tiebing; Chandler, Kristina; Tayarachakul, Sucharat; O’Connor, Sean; Liangpunsakul, Suthat
Excessive alcohol use not only causes alcoholic liver disease (ALD) but also increases the risk of liver-related mortality in patients who already have other chronic liver diseases. Screening for alcohol misuse or alcohol use disorder (AUD) among patients with underlying liver disease is essential. This clinical review covers what is known about ALD, the impact of alcohol in patients with underlying liver diseases, current management of alcohol misuse and AUD, and the management of alcohol misuse and AUD specifically in patients with liver diseases. Several treatment options for alcohol misuse and AUD exist such as psychosocial intervention and behavioral and pharmacological therapies. The strategies used in the treatment of alcohol misuse and AUD are still applicable in those who consume alcohol and have underlying liver disease. However, certain medications still need to be carefully used due to potentially worsening already compromised liver function. Screening of ongoing alcohol use in subjects with liver disease is important, and prompt intervention is needed to prevent the associated morbidity and mortality from the detrimental effects of continued alcohol use on underlying liver disease. Considering alcoholism is a complex disease, probably a multidisciplinary approach combining psychotherapy and comprehensive medical care will be the most effective. Future research could focus on identifying additional treatment options for addressing the psychotherapy component since the self-determination and will to quit drinking alcohol can play such a crucial role in promoting abstinence. PMID:27940551
McHale, Sue; Hunt, Nigel
Few cognitive tasks are adequately sensitive to show the small decrements in performance in abstinent chronic cannabis users. In this series of three experiments we set out to demonstrate a variety of tasks that are sufficiently sensitive to show differences in visual memory, verbal memory, everyday memory and executive function between controls and cannabis users. A series of three studies explored cognitive function deficits in cannabis users (phonemic verbal fluency, visual recognition and immediate and delayed recall, and prospective memory) in short-term abstinent cannabis users. Participants were selected using snowball sampling, with cannabis users being compared to a standard control group and a tobacco-use control group. The cannabis users, compared to both control groups, had deficits on verbal fluency, visual recognition, delayed visual recall, and short- and long-interval prospective memory. There were no differences for immediate visual recall. These findings suggest that cannabis use leads to impaired executive function. Further research needs to explore the longer term impact of cannabis use. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Baldwin, Jeffrey N
To develop and implement an elective pharmacy course that included a guided abstinence experience to illustrate addiction recovery principles. A 1-credit elective course to illustrate addiction recovery principles was developed and implemented. The course required students to give up a habit for 6 weeks that was causing them problems, meet weekly to discuss addiction recovery processes, and relate their experiences in a journal. Course grades were determined by class participation, submitted worksheets, and submission of the journal and a paper concerning their role as a pharmacist in dealing with those with addictions and in recovery. Pre- and posttests consisting of addiction case scenarios were used to assess students' application of course material. Graded course elements, pretesting and posttesting, and student course evaluations indicated that course objectives were met. Over the past 15 years, student enrollment has grown from approximately 10% of pharmacy classes to approximately 50% (average 31 students). A guided abstinence experience was an effective tool for teaching pharmacy students the concepts of addiction and recovery.
Jones, Hendrée E; Fielder, Andrea
Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) occurs following prenatal opioid exposure. It is characterized by signs and symptoms indicating central nervous system hyperirritability and autonomic nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and respiratory system dysfunction. This article: (1) briefly reviews NAS history, including initial identification, assessment, and treatment efforts; (2) summarizes the current status of and current issues surrounding recent NAS assessment and treatment, and (3) details future directions in NAS conceptualization, measurement, and treatment. Mortality rate estimates in neonates treated for NAS exceeded 33%, and surpassed 90% for un-treated infants during the late-1800s until the mid-1900s. The focus of both assessment and treatment over the past 50years is predominantly due to two forces. First, methadone pharmacotherapy for "heroin addiction" led to women in methadone maintenance programs who were, or became pregnant. The second was defining NAS and developing a measure of neonatal withdrawal, the Neonatal Abstinence Scoring System (NASS). Various NAS treatment protocols were based on the NASS as well as other NAS measures. Future research must focus on psychometrically sound screening and assessment measures of neonatal opioid withdrawal for premature, term and older infants, measuring and treating possible withdrawal from non-opioids, particularly benzodiazepines, integrated non-pharmacological treatment of NAS, weight-based versus symptom-based treatment of NAS, and second-line treatment for NAS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ho, Shuk Ching; Chung, Joanne Wai Yee
The aim of this study was to examine whether caffeine abstinence in the evening could improve the sleep quality of those who habitually consume coffee. A double-blind control group design (caffeine and caffeine-free groups). A university. A convenience sampling of 10 students (mean age 21.4 years). It was a 14-day experiment. For the first 7 days, all participants consumed caffeinated coffee. In the following 7 days, subjects consumed caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee according to their assigned group. Sleep-wake parameters, self-reported sleep quality and level of refreshment. There were no significant differences (p>.05) among the data of the two groups identified. No significant changes (p>.05) were found in the sleep quality of either group during the study. This study confirms that caffeine abstinence in the evening might not be helpful in sleep promotion. It highlights the need to implement evidence-based practice in health promotion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mills, Llewellyn; Boakes, Robert A; Colagiuri, Ben
Expectancies have been shown to play a role in the withdrawal syndrome of many drugs of addiction; however, no studies have examined the effects of expectancies across a broad range of caffeine withdrawal symptoms, including craving. The purpose of the current study was to use caffeine as a model to test the effect of expectancy on withdrawal symptoms, specifically whether the belief that one has ingested caffeine is sufficient to reduce caffeine withdrawal symptoms and cravings in abstinent coffee drinkers. We had 24-h abstinent regular coffee drinkers complete the Caffeine Withdrawal Symptom Questionnaire (CWSQ) before and after receiving decaffeinated coffee. One-half of the participants were led to believe the coffee was regular caffeinated coffee (the 'Told Caffeine' condition) and one-half were told that it was decaffeinated (the 'Told Decaf' condition). Participants in the Told Caffeine condition reported a significantly greater reduction in the factors of cravings, fatigue, lack of alertness and flu-like feelings of the CWSQ, than those in the Told Decaf condition. Our results indicated that the belief that one has consumed caffeine can affect caffeine withdrawal symptoms, especially cravings, even when no caffeine was consumed. © The Author(s) 2016.
Erol, Almila; Akyalcin Kirdok, Asusinem; Zorlu, Nabi; Polat, Serap; Mete, Levent
Empathy can be defined as the ability to understand the other's thoughts and feelings. It contains both cognitive and emotional components. The aim of this study was to investigate the empathy ability of patients with alcohol dependency in association with cognitive and emotional functions, after acute detoxification and during long-term abstinence. Thirty-three alcohol dependent inpatients that completed a detoxification process and stayed abstinent throughout the study, and 33 healthy comparison subjects that matched the patients for age, gender, and education level were included in the study. All the participants were administered the Facial Emotion Identification Test (FEIT), Facial Emotion Discrimination Test (FEDT), Trail Making Test (TMT), Digit Span Test (DST), Auditory Consonant Trigram Test (ACT), and Empathy Quotient Scale (EQS). All the tests were repeated after 3 months of abstinence. At the first evaluation conducted after detoxification, patients performed significantly worse than healthy comparisons in almost all tests. At the second evaluation, which was conducted after 3 months of abstinence, the patients improved significantly in all measures, and no significant differences were detected between the patient and comparison groups. There were significant correlations between the test scores and EQS score. Alcohol dependency has deleterious effects on empathy ability, and cognitive and emotional functions. Those impairments can improve with abstinence. Empathy ability has strong relationships with cognitive and emotional functions.
Hallgren, Kevin A; McCrady, Barbara S
Couple-based treatments for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) produce higher rates of abstinence than individual-based treatments and posit that active involvement of both identified patients (IPs) and significant others (SOs) is partly responsible for these improvements. Separate research on couples' communication has suggested that pronoun usage can indicate a communal approach to coping with health-related problems. The present study tested whether communal coping, indicated by use of more first-person plural pronouns ("we" language), fewer second-person pronouns ("you" language), and fewer first-person singular pronouns ("I" language), predicted improvements in abstinence in couple-based AUD treatment. Pronoun use was measured in first- and mid-treatment sessions for 188 heterosexual couples in four clinical trials of alcohol behavioral couple therapy (ABCT). Percentages of days abstinent were assessed during treatment and over a 6-month follow-up period. Greater IP and SO "we" language during both sessions was correlated with greater improvement in abstinent days during treatment. Greater SO "we" language during first- and mid-treatment sessions was correlated with greater improvement in abstinence at follow-up. Greater use of IP and SO "you" and "I" language had mixed correlations with abstinence, typically being unrelated to or predicting less improvement in abstinence. When all pronoun variables were entered into regression models, only greater IP "we" langue and lower IP "you" language predicted improvements in abstinence during treatment, and only SO "we" language predicted improvements during follow-up. Most pronoun categories had little or no association with baseline relationship distress. Results suggest that communal coping predicts better abstinence outcomes in couple-based AUD treatment. © 2015 Family Process Institute.
Farook, Justin M.; Krazem, Ali; Littleton, John M.; Barron, Susan
In the present study, we examined the effects of acamprosate for its ability to reduce handling induced convulsions (HICs) during alcohol withdrawal. Diazepam was used as a positive control. Swiss Webster male mice received three daily IP injections of alcohol (2.5 g/kg) or alcohol (2.5 g/kg) + methylpyrazole (4-MP) (9 mg/kg). (4-MP, being an alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor slows down the breakdown of alcohol. 4-MP in combination with alcohol exhibits a dramatic increase in blood alcohol level compared to alcohol alone). Ten hours following the last alcohol injection, the mice were picked up by the tail and examined for their seizure susceptibility (HICs). Diazepam, a benzodiazepine known to reduce seizures during alcohol withdrawal, significantly reduced these HICs at doses of 0.25, 0.5 and 1mg/kg (p’s < 0.001). Acamprosate, an anti-relapse compound used clinically in newly abstinent alcoholics, also reduced these HICs at doses of 100, 200 and 300mg/kg (p’s < 0.05). This study supports the use of acamprosate during periods of alcohol withdrawal as well as during abstinence. PMID:18577392
Lettéron, P; Duchatelle, V; Berson, A; Fromenty, B; Fisch, C; Degott, C; Benhamou, J P; Pessayre, D
Ethane exhalation was measured in 42 control subjects, 52 patients with various non-alcoholic liver diseases, and 89 alcohol abusers who had been admitted to hospital for alcohol withdrawal and assessment of liver disease (six with normal liver tests, 10 with steatosis with or without fibrosis, six with alcoholic hepatitis, 29 with cirrhosis, 34 with both cirrhosis and alcoholic hepatitis, and four with both cirrhosis and a hepatocellular carcinoma). Ethane exhalation was similar in control subjects and in patients with non-alcoholic liver diseases, but was five times higher in alcohol abusers. Ethane exhalation in alcohol abusers was significantly, but very weakly, correlated with the daily ethanol intake before hospital admission, and the histological score for steatosis, but not with the inflammation or alcoholic hepatitis scores. Ethane exhalation was inversely correlated with the duration of abstinence before the test. In nine alcoholic patients, the exhalation of ethane was measured repeatedly, and showed slow improvement during abstinence. Ethane exhalation was significantly but weakly correlated with the Pugh's score in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. It is concluded that the mean ethane exhalation is increased in alcohol abusers. One of the possible mechanisms may be the presence of oxidizable fat in the liver. The weak correlation with the Pugh's score is consistent with the contribution of many other factors in the progression to severe liver disease. PMID:8472992
Background Abstinence and responsible drinking are not typically associated with youth drinking culture. Amongst Pacific youth in New Zealand there are high numbers, compared to the general New Zealand population, who choose not to consume alcohol. The Pacific youth population is made up of several ethnic groups; their ethno-cultural values are largely Polynesian and heavily influenced by the socio-economic realities of living in New Zealand. This paper explores factors that support abstinence or responsible drinking amongst Pacific youth living in Auckland. Methods A qualitative study comprised of a series of ethnically-, age-, and gender-matched semi-structured focus group discussions with 69 Pacific youth, aged 15-25 years from a university and selected high-schools. Participants were purposively sampled. Results Key cultural factors that contributed to whether Pacific youth participants were abstinent or responsible drinkers were: significant experiences within Pacific family environments (e.g. young person directly links their decision about alcohol consumption to a positive or negative role model); awareness of the belief that their actions as children of Pacific parents affects the reputation and standing of their Pacific family and community (e.g. church); awareness of traditional Pacific values of respect, reciprocity and cultural taboos (e.g. male–female socialising); commitment to no-alcohol teachings of church or religious faith; having peer support and experiences that force them to consider negative effects of excessive alcohol consumption; and personal awareness that being part of an (excessive) drinking culture may seriously affect health or impede career aspirations. Conclusions The narratives offered by Pacific young people highlighted three key communities of influence: family (immediate and extended, but especially siblings), peers and church. Young people negotiated through these communities of influence their decisions whether to drink
Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Hanson, Tressa
Contingency management (CM) treatments enhance drug abstinence. This study evaluated whether CM also improves quality of life and if these effects are mediated by abstinence. Across 3 independent trials, cocaine abusers in intensive outpatient treatment (n = 387) were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of standard treatment as usual or standard…
Ghitza, Udi E.; Epstein, David H.; Schmittner, John; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Lin, Jia-Ling; Preston, Kenzie L.
To examine the effect of reinforcer density in prize-based abstinence reinforcement, heroin/cocaine users (N = 116) in methadone maintenance (100 mg/day) were randomly assigned to a noncontingent control group (NonC) or to 1 of 3 groups that earned prize draws for abstinence: manual drawing with standard prize density (MS) or computerized drawing…
Budney, Alan J.; Moore, Brent A.; Rocha, Heath L.; Higgins, Stephen T.
Ninety cannabis-dependent adults seeking treatment were randomly assigned to receive cognitive-behavioral therapy, abstinence-based voucher incentives, or their combination. Treatment duration was 14 weeks, and outcomes were assessed for 12 months post treatment. Findings suggest that (a) abstinence-based vouchers were effective for engendering…
Yoo, Seunghyun; Johnson, Carolyn C.; Rice, Janet; Manuel, Powlin
Abstinence-only programs for preventing teen pregnancy are the only options in some states but are the programs of choice in others. Effectiveness data, however, are lacking. The SOS Adolescent Family Life Program (SOS), an abstinence-only teen pregnancy prevention program, was implemented in south central Louisiana. Peer mentoring with an…
Clark, Lauren; Stitzlein, Sarah M.
Given the lack of citizen or medical support for abstinence-only education, we ask how abstinence-education maintains such a stronghold in America and other Western democracies' public policy and consciousness. Our response has three parts. In the first, we outline the disproportionately negative health outcomes of sex education experienced by…
Wilson, Kelly L.; Goodson, Patricia; Pruitt, B.E.; Buhi, Eric; Davis-Gunnels, Emily
The authors reviewed the content, methods, and overall quality of 21 curricula used in abstinence-only-until-marriage programs. Only materials designed for use in middle school grades (fifth to eighth) or with middle school-aged audiences (9-13 years of age), which presented the abstinence message in at least 40% of their content, were included. A…
Hoefer, Sharon E.; Hoefer, Richard
"Abstinence-only" sex education, which is still widely used across the United States, does not prepare students to engage in healthy adult relationships. Prior research evidence indicates that abstinence-only education is less effective at preventing pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) than comprehensive sex education.…
Thomas, M H
This article assesses the abstinence-based programs developed by family life educators and the factors associated with positive results through a review of abstinence promotion programs of the federal government. In 1996, Section 510 was added to Title V of the Social Security Act allocating US$50 million annually from 1998-2000 to fund abstinence education programs, while in 1997, a National Strategy to Prevent Teen Pregnancy was launched by the Office of Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention to provide teen pregnancy programs to at least 25% of the communities. Presented in this paper is a discussion of the Abstinence Only programs, which focus on the prevention of pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease among adolescents, and the Abstinence Plus programs, which emphasize other prevention methods as well as abstinence. Evaluation of Abstinence Only programs include Success Express, Project Taking Charge, Sex Respect, Teen Aid, Values and Choices and Facts and Feelings. Moreover, programs such as Reducing the Risk, Postponing Sexual Involvement, Project Education Now, and Babies Later were evaluated under the Abstinence Plus programs. Several programs evaluated have shown to have a positive effect on attitudes among adolescents, but are not proven to have a significant effect on sexual behavior. In conclusion, this article encourages exploration of new approaches to address teen pregnancy and the increasing incidence of sexually transmitted diseases among adolescents, while the federal government must utilize the implementation of existing programs with positive effects.
Wilson, Kelly L.; Wiley, David C.
Background: Given the growing scientific evidence against abstinence-only-until-marriage education, health educators are supporting an evidence-based approach to teaching sexuality education. However, there is still an abundance of federal support and funding streams allocated to sustain abstinence-only programs. This study assessed indicators…
Bradley, Erin L P; Sales, Jessica M; Murray, Colleen C; DiClemente, Ralph J
Sexually active African American females are at increased risk for acquiring HIV or STIs. However, some reduce their risk by abstaining from sex for various periods of time following initiation, a practice known as secondary abstinence. Although this may be a valuable mechanism for reducing HIV or STI rates in this population, little is known about those interested in secondary abstinence. Baseline data were obtained from a sample of African American adolescent females, ages 14-20 years, prior to participation in an HIV-risk reduction intervention trial (N = 701). Differences in individual-level and interpersonal-level factors, as well as sociodemographic variables were examined between participants who reported strong interest in secondary abstinence and those who did not. 144 (20.5%) participants reported strong interest in secondary abstinence. Young women with strong interest in abstinence had higher odds of reporting a history of STIs and feeling negative emotions following sex because of their religious beliefs. They also had higher odds of believing their partner may be interested in abstaining and being less invested in their relationship with their main partner. Additionally, adolescents reported less interpersonal stress and more social support. African American females who are interested in practicing secondary abstinence and those who are not differ in their sexual health education needs. Findings from this study characterizing young women interested in secondary abstinence can help researchers provide more targeted health education by identifying those who may be more responsive to abstinence-promoting messages.
Ashley, George; Ramirez, Octavio; Cort, Malcolm
The purpose of this study was to identify Black Seventh-Day Adventist (SDA) college students' attitudes toward the concept of sexual abstinence. Attitude toward abstinence was operationalized as a dichotomy of acceptance or rejection of the concept as a way to order sexual behavior. The study utilized a convenience sample ("N" =…
Hans, Jason D.; Kimberly, Claire
Ambiguous definitions concerning which behaviors constitute sex, abstinence, and virginity may lead to arbitrary interpretations of meaning or miscommunication, which could be particularly problematic in health care, educational, and research contexts. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare definitions of sex, abstinence, and…
Pittman, Vicki; Gahungu, Athanase
The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in effectiveness between comprehensive sexuality abstinence-based education and abstinence-only education. A survey was developed and distributed to over 140 individuals via a variety of sources such as: (1) the researcher's e-mail lists; (2) a group of City Core/City Year volunteers; (3) a…
Lee, Chia-Kuei; Corte, Colleen; Stein, Karen F.; Park, Chang G.; Finnegan, Lorna; McCreary, Linda L.
Possible selves, cognitions about the self that reflect hopes, fears, and expectations for the future, are reliable predictors of health risk behaviors but have not been explored as predictors of adolescents’ alcohol use. In a secondary analysis of data from 137 adolescents, we examined the influence of possible selves assessed in eighth grade on alcohol consumption (yes/no and level of use) in ninth grade. Having a most important feared possible self related to academics in eighth grade predicted alcohol abstinence in ninth grade. Among those who reported alcohol use, having many hoped-for possible selves and a most important hoped-for possible self related to academics in eighth grade predicted lower level of alcohol consumption in ninth grade. Interventions that foster the personal relevance and importance of academics and lead to the development of hoped-for possible selves may reduce adolescents’ alcohol consumption. PMID:25545451
Lee, Chia-Kuei; Corte, Colleen; Stein, Karen F; Park, Chang G; Finnegan, Lorna; McCreary, Linda L
Possible selves, cognitions about the self that reflect hopes, fears, and expectations for the future, are reliable predictors of health risk behaviors but have not been explored as predictors of adolescents' alcohol use. In a secondary analysis of data from 137 adolescents, we examined the influence of possible selves assessed in eighth grade on alcohol consumption (yes/no and level of use) in ninth grade. Having a most important feared possible self related to academics in eighth grade predicted alcohol abstinence in ninth grade. Among those who reported alcohol use, having many hoped-for possible selves and a most important hoped-for possible self related to academics in eighth grade predicted lower level of alcohol consumption in ninth grade. Interventions that foster the personal relevance and importance of academics and lead to the development of hoped-for possible selves may reduce adolescents' alcohol consumption. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Narendran, Rajesh; Mason, Neale Scott; Paris, Jennifer; Himes, Michael L; Douaihy, Antoine B; Frankle, W Gordon
Basic studies have demonstrated that optimal levels of prefrontal cortical dopamine are critical to various executive functions such as working memory, attention, inhibitory control, and risk/reward decisions, all of which are impaired in addictive disorders such as alcoholism. Based on this and imaging studies of alcoholism that have demonstrated less dopamine in the striatum, the authors hypothesized decreased dopamine transmission in the prefrontal cortex in persons with alcohol dependence. To test this hypothesis, amphetamine and [11C]FLB 457 positron emission tomography were used to measure cortical dopamine transmission in 21 recently abstinent persons with alcohol dependence and 21 matched healthy comparison subjects. [11C]FLB 457 binding potential, specific compared to nondisplaceable uptake (BPND), was measured in subjects with kinetic analysis using the arterial input function both before and after 0.5 mg kg-1 of d-amphetamine. Amphetamine-induced displacement of [11C]FLB 457 binding potential (ΔBPND) was significantly smaller in the cortical regions in the alcohol-dependent group compared with the healthy comparison group. Cortical regions that demonstrated lower dopamine transmission in the alcohol-dependent group included the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, orbital frontal cortex, temporal cortex, and medial temporal lobe. The results of this study, for the first time, unambiguously demonstrate decreased dopamine transmission in the cortex in alcoholism. Further research is necessary to understand the clinical relevance of decreased cortical dopamine as to whether it is related to impaired executive function, relapse, and outcome in alcoholism.
Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Valmas, Mary M; Sawyer, Kayle S; Ruiz, Susan Mosher; Luhar, Riya B; Gravitz, Zoe R
Long-term chronic alcoholism is associated with disparate and widespread residual consequences for brain functioning and behavior, and alcoholics suffer a variety of cognitive deficiencies and emotional abnormalities. Alcoholism has heterogeneous origins and outcomes, depending upon factors such as family history, age, gender, and mental or physical health. Consequently, the neuropsychologic profiles associated with alcoholism are not uniform among individuals. Moreover, within and across research studies, variability among subjects is substantial and contributes to characteristics associated with differential treatment outcomes after detoxification. In order to refine our understanding of alcoholism-related impaired, spared, and recovered abilities, we focus on five specific functional domains: (1) memory; (2) executive functions; (3) emotion and psychosocial skills; (4) visuospatial cognition; and (5) psychomotor abilities. Although the entire brain might be vulnerable in uncomplicated alcoholism, the brain systems that are considered to be most at risk are the frontocerebellar and mesocorticolimbic circuitries. Over time, with abstinence from alcohol, the brain appears to become reorganized to provide compensation for structural and behavioral deficits. By relying on a combination of clinical and scientific approaches, future research will help to refine the compensatory roles of healthy brain systems, the degree to which abstinence and treatment facilitate the reversal of brain atrophy and dysfunction, and the importance of individual differences to outcome. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Augeraud, Emmanuel; Puertolas, Christian; Rouchon, Dominique
The medical care lavished on terminal and on alcoholic patients leads us to observe an analogy between these two life paths. This raises a question: do links exist between these two conditions? We will present Mr. B's record with alcohol. Analysing alcohol withdrawal allows us to show that during withdrawal, after having experienced similar stages to those described by Kübler-Ross, the alcoholic patient is in a grieving process. When abstinent, Mr. B faces two possibilities: either the grief is incomplete and the drive towards alcohol leads him to die to life; or he remains abstinent, with the help sometimes of what we call 'support dyads'. All this presupposes that the initial stages of dying to alcohol, followed by a psychic work of dis-fusion, have been brought to a successful conclusion. Links do exist between these two life paths, in the sense that these stages enable them to face the major trauma of their lives, e.g. alcoholism and serious illness.
Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Valmas, Mary M.; Sawyer, Kayle S.; Ruiz, Susan Mosher; Luhar, Riya B.; Gravitz, Zoe R.
Long-term chronic alcoholism is associated with disparate and widespread residual consequences for brain functioning and behavior, and alcoholics suffer a variety of cognitive deficiencies and emotional abnormalities. Alcoholism has heterogeneous origins and outcomes, depending upon factors such as family history, age, gender, and mental or physical health. Consequently, the neuropsychological profiles associated with alcoholism are not uniform among individuals. Moreover, within and across research studies, variability among participants is substantial and contributes to characteristics associated with differential treatment outcomes after detoxification. In order to refine our understanding of alcoholism-related impaired, spared, and recovered abilities, we focus on five specific functional domains: (1) memory, (2) executive functions, (3) emotion and psychosocial skills, (4) visuospatial cognition, and (5) psychomotor abilities. The brain systems that are most vulnerable to alcoholism are the frontocerebellar and mesocorticolimbic circuitries. Over time, with abstinence from alcohol, the brain appears to become reorganized to provide compensation for structural and behavioral deficits. By relying on a combination of clinical and scientific approaches, future research will help to refine the compensatory roles of healthy brain systems, the degree to which abstinence and treatment facilitate the reversal of brain atrophy and dysfunction, and the importance of individual differences to outcome. PMID:25307576
Umhau, John C; Schwandt, Melanie L; Usala, Julie; Geyer, Christopher; Singley, Erick; George, David T; Heilig, Markus
Modulation of alcohol craving induced by challenge stimuli may predict the efficacy of new pharmacotherapies for alcoholism. We evaluated two pharmacological challenges, the α2-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine, which reinstates alcohol seeking in rats, and the serotonergic compound meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), previously reported to increase alcohol craving in alcoholics. To assess the predictive validity of this approach, the approved alcoholism medication acamprosate was evaluated for its ability to modulate challenge-induced cravings. A total of 35 treatment seeking alcohol dependent inpatients in early abstinence were randomized to placebo or acamprosate (2997 mg daily). Following two weeks of medication, subjects underwent three challenge sessions with yohimbine, mCPP or saline infusion under double blind conditions, carried out in counterbalanced order, and separated by at least 5 days. Ratings of cravings and anxiety, as well as biochemical measures were obtained. In all, 25 subjects completed all three sessions and were included in the analysis. Cravings were modestly, but significantly higher following both yohimbine and mCPP challenge compared with saline infusion. The mCPP, but not yohimbine significantly increased anxiety ratings. Both challenges produced robust ACTH, cortisol and prolactin responses. There was a significant correlation between craving and the degree of alcoholism severity. Acamprosate administration did not influence craving. Both yohimbine and mCPP challenges lead to elevated alcohol craving in a clinical population of alcoholics, and these cravings correlate with alcoholism severity. Under the experimental conditions used, alcohol cravings induced by these two stimuli are not sensitive to acamprosate at clinically used doses. PMID:21289601
Wang, Guibin; Shi, Jie; Chen, Na; Xu, Lingzhi; Li, Jiali; Li, Peng; Sun, Yan; Lu, Lin
The majority of drug abusers are incapable of sustaining abstinence over any length of time. Accumulating evidence has linked intense and involuntary craving, Impulsive decision-making and mood disturbances to risk for relapse. However, little is known about temporal changes of these neuropsychological functions in methamphetamine (METH)-dependent individuals. To investigate the effect of length of abstinence on decision-making, craving (baseline and cue-induced), and emotional state in METH-addicted individuals. In this cross-sectional study, 183 adult METH-dependent patients at an addiction rehabilitation center who were abstinent for 6 days (n = 37), 14 days (n = 33), 1 month (n = 31), 3 months (n = 30), 6 months (n = 26), or 1 year (n = 30) and 39 healthy subjects were administered the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to assess decision-making performance. Depression, anxiety, and impulsivity were also examined. One hundred thirty-nine METH abusers who were abstinent for the aforementioned times then underwent a cue session, and subjective and physiological measures were assessed. METH dependent individuals who were abstinent for longer periods of time exhibited better decision-making than those who were abstinent for shorter periods of time. And self-reported emotional symptoms improved with abstinence. METH abusers' ratings of craving decreased with the duration of abstinence, while cue-induced craving increased until 3 months of abstinence and decreased at 6 months and 1 year of abstinence. We present time-dependent alterations in decision-making, emotional state, and the incubation of cue-induced craving in METH-dependent individuals, which might have significant clinical implications for the prevention of relapse.
Etcheverry, Paul E.; Waters, Andrew J.; Lam, Cho; Correa-Fernandez, Virmarie; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.
Objective To examine whether initial orienting (IO) and inability to disengage attention (ITD) from negative affective stimuli moderate the association of negative affect with smoking abstinence during a quit attempt. Methods Data were from a longitudinal cohort study of smoking cessation (N=424). A negative affect modified Stroop was administered one week before and on quit day to measure IO and ITD. Ecological Momentary Assessments were used to create negative affect intercepts and linear slopes for the week before quitting and on quit day. Quit day and long-term abstinence measures were collected. Results Continuation ratio (CR) logit model analyses found significant interactions of pre-quit negative affect slope with pre-quit ITD [OR = .738(.57, .96), p= .02] and quit day negative affect intercept with quit day ITD [OR = .62(.41, 950), p= .03] predicting abstinence. The interaction of pre-quit negative affect intercept and pre-quit IO predicting quit day abstinence was significant [OR = 1.42(1.06, 1.90), p= .02], as was the interaction of quit day negative affect slope and quit day IO predicting long-term abstinence [OR = 1.45(1.02, 2.08), p= .04]. Conclusions The hypothesis that the association of negative affect with smoking abstinence would be moderated by ITD was generally supported. Among individuals with high ITD, negative affect was inversely related to abstinence, but unrelated to abstinence among individuals with lower levels of ITD. Unexpectedly, among individuals with low IO negative affect was inversely related to abstinence, but unrelated to abstinence among individuals with higher levels of ITD. PMID:27505211
Etcheverry, Paul E; Waters, Andrew J; Lam, Cho; Correa-Fernandez, Virmarie; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W
To examine whether initial orienting (IO) and inability to disengage (ITD) attention from negative affective stimuli moderate the association of negative affect with smoking abstinence during a quit attempt. Data were from a longitudinal cohort study of smoking cessation (N = 424). A negative affect modified Stroop task was administered 1 week before and on quit day to measure IO and ITD. Ecological Momentary Assessments were used to create negative affect intercepts and linear slopes for the week before quitting and on quit day. Quit day and long-term abstinence measures were collected. Continuation ratio logit model analyses found significant interactions for prequit negative affect slope with prequit ITD, odds ratio (OR) = 0.738 (0.57, 0.96), p = .02, and for quit day negative affect intercept with quit day ITD, OR = 0.62 (0.41, 950), p = .03, predicting abstinence. The Prequit Negative Affect Intercept × Prequit IO interaction predicting quit day abstinence was significant, OR = 1.42 (1.06, 1.90), p = .02, as was the Quit Day Negative Affect Slope × Quit Day IO interaction predicting long-term abstinence, OR = 1.45 (1.02, 2.08), p = .04. The hypothesis that the association of negative affect with smoking abstinence would be moderated by ITD was generally supported. Among individuals with high ITD, negative affect was inversely related to abstinence, but unrelated to abstinence among individuals with lower levels of ITD. Unexpectedly, among individuals with low IO, negative affect was inversely related to abstinence, but unrelated to abstinence among individuals with higher levels of ITD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Venniro, Marco; Zhang, Michelle; Shaham, Yavin; Caprioli, Daniele
We recently introduced an animal model of incubation of methamphetamine craving after choice-based voluntary abstinence in male rats. Here we studied the generality of this phenomenon to (1) female rats, and (2) male and female rats with a history of heroin self-administration. We first trained rats to self-administer palatable food pellets for 6 days (6 h per day) for either methamphetamine (0.1 mg/kg/infusion) or heroin (0.1 mg/kg/infusion) for 12 days (6 h/day). We then assessed relapse to drug seeking under extinction conditions after 1 and 21 abstinence days. Between tests, the rats underwent either voluntary abstinence (achieved via a discrete choice procedure between drug and palatable food; 20 trials/day) or home-cage forced abstinence. We found no sex differences in methamphetamine self-administration or in the strong preference for the palatable food over methamphetamine during the choice-based voluntary abstinence. In both sexes, methamphetamine seeking in the relapse tests was higher after 21 days of either voluntary or forced abstinence than after 1 day (incubation of methamphetamine craving). We also found no sex differences in heroin self-administration or the strong preference for the palatable food over heroin during the choice-based voluntary abstinence. However, male and female rats with a history of heroin self-administration showed incubation of heroin craving after forced but not voluntary abstinence. Our results show that incubation of methamphetamine craving after voluntary abstinence generalizes to female rats. Unexpectedly, prolonged voluntary abstinence prevented the emergence of incubation of heroin craving in both sexes.
Cassidy, Rachel N; Jackson, Kristina M; Rohsenow, Damaris J; Tidey, Jennifer W; Tevyaw, Tracy O' L; Barnett, Nancy P; Monti, Peter M; Miller, Mollie E; Colby, Suzanne M
Contingency management (CM) is effective for promoting smoking abstinence; however, moderators and mediators of CM treatment efficacy in young adult populations are under-explored. We leveraged fine-grained data from a large randomized controlled trial: 1) to determine whether early attainment of sustained abstinence mediated the effect of treatment on abstinence; 2) to test whether heavy drinking moderated the effect of treatment on abstinence; and 3) to test a serial mediation model of the effects of drinking during early treatment on sustained smoking abstinence. College student smokers (N=110) were randomized to receive either CM treatment or noncontingent reinforcement (NR) over a 21-day treatment period. All participants received $5 for providing twice-daily breath carbon monoxide (CO) samples. In CM, additional money was provided for samples that indicated smoking reduction (Initial Phase; first 7days), and for samples ≤5ppm (Abstinence Phase; following 14days). CM treatment led to greater sustained abstinence relative to NR. Longer sustained abstinence in the Initial Phase partially mediated the effect of treatment on sustained abstinence in the Abstinence Phase. Heavier pretreatment drinkers had shorter periods of sustained abstinence in the Abstinence Phase; this effect was greater in CM. A serial mediation model determined that increased drinking during the Initial Phase led to decreased sustained abstinence, which then led to decreased sustained abstinence in the Abstinence Phase. These data provide a greater understanding of how heavy drinking and early sustained abstinence may affect success during treatment in young adults undergoing contingency management treatment for smoking. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Leggio, Lorenzo; Ferrulli, Anna; Cardone, Silvia; Nesci, Antonio; Miceli, Antonio; Malandrino, Noemi; Capristo, Esmeralda; Canestrelli, Benedetta; Monteleone, Palmiero; Kenna, George A; Swift, Robert M; Addolorato, Giovanni
Animal studies suggest that the gut-brain peptide ghrelin plays an important role in the neurobiology of alcohol dependence (AD). Human studies show an effect of alcohol on ghrelin levels and a correlation between ghrelin levels and alcohol craving in alcoholics. This investigation consisted of two studies. Study 1 was a 12-week study with alcohol-dependent subjects, where plasma ghrelin determinations were assessed four times (T0-T3) and related to alcohol intake and craving [Penn Alcohol Craving Score (PACS) and Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS)]. Serum growth hormone levels and assessment of the nutritional/metabolic status were also performed. Study 2 was a pilot case-control study to assess ghrelin gene polymorphisms (Arg51Gln and Leu72Met) in alcohol-dependent individuals. Study 1 showed no significant differences in ghrelin levels in the whole sample, while there was a statistical difference for ghrelin between non-abstinent and abstinent subjects. Baseline ghrelin levels were significantly and positively correlated with the PACS score at T1 and with all craving scores both at T2 and T3 (PACS, OCDS, obsessive and compulsive OCDS subscores). In Study 2, although there was a higher frequency of the Leu72Met ghrelin gene polymorphism in alcohol-dependent individuals, the distribution between healthy controls and alcohol dependent individuals was not statistically significant. This investigation suggests that ghrelin is potentially able to affect alcohol-seeking behaviors, such as alcohol drinking and craving, representing a new potential neuropharmacological target for AD. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Leggio, Lorenzo; Ferrulli, Anna; Cardone, Silvia; Nesci, Antonio; Miceli, Antonio; Malandrino, Noemi; Capristo, Esmeralda; Canestrelli, Benedetta; Monteleone, Palmiero; Kenna, George A.; Swift, Robert M.; Addolorato, Giovanni
Animal studies suggest that the gut-brain peptide ghrelin plays an important role in the neurobiology of alcohol dependence (AD). Human studies show an effect of alcohol on ghrelin levels and a correlation between ghrelin levels and alcohol craving in alcoholics. This investigation consisted of two studies. Study 1 was a 12-week study with alcohol-dependent subjects, where plasma ghrelin determinations were assessed four times (T0-T3) and related to alcohol intake and craving [Penn Alcohol Craving Score (PACS) and Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS)]. Serum growth hormone (GH) levels and assessment of the nutritional/metabolic status were also performed. Study 2 was a pilot case-control study to assess ghrelin gene polymorphisms (Arg51Gln and Leu72Met) in alcohol-dependent individuals. Study 1 showed no significant differences in ghrelin levels in the whole sample, while there was a statistical difference for ghrelin between non-abstinent and abstinent subjects. Baseline ghrelin levels were significantly and positively correlated with the PACS score at T1 and with all craving scores both at T2 and T3 (PACS, OCDS, obsessive and compulsive OCDS subscores). In Study 2, although there was a higher frequency of the Leu72Met ghrelin gene polymorphism in alcohol-dependent individuals, the distribution between healthy controls and alcohol dependent individuals was not statistically significant. This investigation suggests that ghrelin is potentially able to affect alcohol-seeking behaviors, such as alcohol drinking and craving, representing a new potential neuropharmacological target for AD. PMID:21392177
Soravia, Leila M; Schläfli, Katrin; Stutz, Sonja; Rösner, Susanne; Moggi, Franz
There is evidence that drinking during residential treatment is related to various factors, such as patients' general control beliefs and self-efficacy, as well as to external control of alcohol use by program's staff and situations where there is temptation to drink. As alcohol use during treatment has been shown to be associated with the resumption of alcohol use after discharge from residential treatment, we aimed to investigate how these variables are related to alcohol use during abstinence-oriented residential treatment programs for alcohol use disorders (AUD). In total, 509 patients who entered 1 of 2 residential abstinence-oriented treatment programs for AUD were included in the study. After detoxification, patients completed a standardized diagnostic procedure including interviews and questionnaires. Drinking was assessed by patients' self-report of at least 1 standard drink or by positive breathalyzer testing. The 2 residential programs were categorized as high or low control according to the average number of tests per patient. Regression analysis revealed a significant interaction effect between internal and external control suggesting that patients with high internal locus of control and high frequency of control by staff demonstrated the least alcohol use during treatment (16.7%) while patients with low internal locus of control in programs with low external control were more likely to use alcohol during treatment (45.9%). No effects were found for self-efficacy and temptation. As alcohol use during treatment is most likely associated with poor treatment outcomes, external control may improve treatment outcomes and particularly support patients with low internal locus of control, who show the highest risk for alcohol use during treatment. High external control may complement high internal control to improve alcohol use prevention while in treatment. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research published by Wiley
Silverman, Kenneth; Robles, Elias; Mudric, Timothy; Bigelow, George E.; Stitzer, Maxine L.
This study determined whether long-term abstinence reinforcement could maintain cocaine abstinence throughout a yearlong period. Patients who injected drugs and used cocaine during methadone treatment (n = 78) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 abstinence-reinforcement groups or to a usual care control group. Participants in the 2…
Romero-Ayuso, Dulce; Mayoral-Gontán, Yolanda; Triviño-Juárez, José-Matías
Cocaine is now responsible for the second-highest number of cessation intervention requests. In this study we analyze the different skills of emotional intelligence in cocaine- dependent patients maintaining abstinence. The Mayer- Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) and the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) were administered to 50 subjects (25 individuals with no history of drug use and 25 individuals in treatment at the Addictive Behaviors Unit in a state of withdrawal at the time of evaluation). The results showed differences between these groups in overall emotional intelligence quotient, strategic emotional intelligence, understanding emotions and emotional management. Cocaine-addicted participants showed difficulties in analyzing complex emotions and regulating their emotional response, aspects that can interfere with interactions in daily life.
Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt
Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)
Li, Xin-juan; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Chun-yang; Li, Shuang; Du, Ai-lin; Zhang, Li-bin; Zhang, Rui-ling
To observe the effects of polydatin on learning and memory and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) kinase activity in the hippocampus of rats with chronic alcoholism. Forty rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group, chronic alcoholism group, low and high polydatin group. The rat chronic alcoholism model was established by ethanol 3.0 g/(kg · d) (intragastric administration). The abstinence scoring was used to evaluate the rats withdrawal symptoms; cognitive function was measured by Morris water maze experiment; Cdk5 protein expression in the hippocampus was detected by immunofluorescence; Cdk5 kinase activity in the hippocampus was detected by liquid scintillation counting method. The abstinence score, escape latency, Cdk5 kinase activity in chronic alcoholism group rats were significantly higher than those of control group (P < 0.05). The abstinence score, escape latency in high polydatin group rats were significantly lower than those of chronic alcoholism group (P < 0.05); Cdk5 kinase activity in high and low polydatin group rats was significantly lower than that of chronic alcoholism group( P < 0.05); immunofluorescence showed that the Cdk5 positive cells of chronic alcoholism group were significantly increased compared with control group (P < 0.05), and the Cdk5 positive cells of polydatin groups were significantly decreased compared with chronic alcoholism group ( P < 0.05). Polydatin-reduced the chronic alcoholism damage may interrelate with regulation of Cdk5 kinase activity.
Perez, Erika; Quijano-Cardé, Natalia; De Biasi, Mariella
Alcohol and nicotine are among the top causes of preventable death in the United States. Unfortunately, people who are dependent on alcohol are more likely to smoke than individuals in the general population. Similarly, smokers are more likely to abuse alcohol. Alcohol and nicotine codependence affects health in many ways and leads to poorer treatment outcomes in subjects who want to quit. This study examined the interaction of alcohol and nicotine during withdrawal and compared abstinence symptoms during withdrawal from one of the two drugs only vs both. Our results indicate that simultaneous withdrawal from alcohol and nicotine produces physical symptoms that are more severe and last longer than those experienced during withdrawal from one of the two drugs alone. In animals experiencing withdrawal after chronic ethanol treatment, acute nicotine exposure was sufficient to prevent abstinence symptoms. Similarly, symptoms were prevented when alcohol was injected acutely in mice undergoing nicotine withdrawal. These experiments provide evidence for the involvement of the nicotinic cholinergic system in alcohol withdrawal. Furthermore, the outcomes of intracranial microinfusions of mecamylamine, a nonselective nicotinic receptor antagonist, highlight a major role for the nicotinic receptors expressed in medial habenula and interpeduncular nucleus during withdrawal. Overall, the data support the notion that modulating the nicotinic cholinergic system might help to maintain long-term abstinence from alcohol.
Barnett, Nancy P.; Tidey, Jennifer; Murphy, James G.; Swift, Robert; Colby, Suzanne M.
Background Contingency management (CM) has not been thoroughly evaluated as a treatment for alcohol abuse or dependence, in part because verification of alcohol use reduction requires frequent in-person breath tests. Transdermal alcohol sensors detect alcohol regularly throughout the day, providing remote monitoring and allowing for rapid reinforcement of reductions in use. Methods The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of CM for reduction in alcohol use, using a transdermal alcohol sensor to provide a continuous measure of alcohol use. Participants were 13 heavy drinking adults who wore the Secure Continuous Remote Alcohol Monitoring (SCRAM) bracelet for three weeks and provided reports of alcohol and drug use using daily web-based surveys. In Week 1, participants were asked to drink as usual; in Weeks 2 and 3, they were reinforced on an escalating schedule with values ranging from $5-$17 per day on days when alcohol use was not reported or detected by the SCRAM. Results Self-reports of percent days abstinent and drinks per week, and transdermal measures of average and peak transdermal alcohol concentration and area under the curve declined significantly in Weeks 2-3. A nonsignificant but large effect size for reduction in days of tobacco use also was found. An adjustment to the SCRAM criteria for detecting alcohol use provided an accurate but less conservative method for use with non-mandated clients. Conclusion Results support the efficacy of CM for alcohol use reductions and the feasibility of using transdermal monitoring of alcohol use for clinical purposes. PMID:21665385
Barnett, Nancy P; Tidey, Jennifer; Murphy, James G; Swift, Robert; Colby, Suzanne M
Contingency management (CM) has not been thoroughly evaluated as a treatment for alcohol abuse or dependence, in part because verification of alcohol use reduction requires frequent in-person breath tests. Transdermal alcohol sensors detect alcohol regularly throughout the day, providing remote monitoring and allowing for rapid reinforcement of reductions in use. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of CM for reduction in alcohol use, using a transdermal alcohol sensor to provide a continuous measure of alcohol use. Participants were 13 heavy drinking adults who wore the Secure Continuous Remote Alcohol Monitoring (SCRAM) bracelet for three weeks and provided reports of alcohol and drug use using daily web-based surveys. In Week 1, participants were asked to drink as usual; in Weeks 2 and 3, they were reinforced on an escalating schedule with values ranging from $5 to $17 per day on days when alcohol use was not reported or detected by the SCRAM. Self-reports of percent days abstinent and drinks per week, and transdermal measures of average and peak transdermal alcohol concentration and area under the curve declined significantly in Weeks 2-3. A nonsignificant but large effect size for reduction in days of tobacco use also was found. An adjustment to the SCRAM criteria for detecting alcohol use provided an accurate but less conservative method for use with non-mandated clients. Results support the efficacy of CM for alcohol use reductions and the feasibility of using transdermal monitoring of alcohol use for clinical purposes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cosgrove, Kelly P.; McKay, Reese; Esterlis, Irina; Kloczynski, Tracy; Perkins, Evgenia; Bois, Frederic; Pittman, Brian; Lancaster, Jack; Glahn, David C.; O’Malley, Stephanie; Carson, Richard E.; Krystal, John H.
Understanding the effects of tobacco smoking on neuroadaptations in GABAA receptor levels over alcohol withdrawal will provide critical insights for the treatment of comorbid alcohol and nicotine dependence. We conducted parallel studies in human subjects and nonhuman primates to investigate the differential effects of tobacco smoking and nicotine on changes in GABAA receptor availability during acute and prolonged alcohol withdrawal. We report that alcohol withdrawal with or without concurrent tobacco smoking/nicotine consumption resulted in significant and robust elevations in GABAA receptor levels over the first week of withdrawal. Over prolonged withdrawal, GABAA receptors returned to control levels in alcohol-dependent nonsmokers, but alcohol-dependent smokers had significant and sustained elevations in GABAA receptors that were associated with craving for alcohol and cigarettes. In nonhuman primates, GABAA receptor levels normalized by 1 mo of abstinence in both groups—that is, those that consumed alcohol alone or the combination of alcohol and nicotine. These data suggest that constituents in tobacco smoke other than nicotine block the recovery of GABAA receptor systems during sustained alcohol abstinence, contributing to alcohol relapse and the perpetuation of smoking. PMID:25453062
Slutske, Wendy S; Piasecki, Thomas M; Blaszczynski, Alex; Martin, Nicholas G
To examine the role of abstinence from gambling versus controlled gambling in recovery from pathological gambling (PG) in a community-based survey. Individuals with a life-time history of PG identified in a community-based survey were divided into three groups based on their current levels of PG symptoms. These three groups were compared to each other on their past-year gambling involvement. National general population twin survey conducted in Australia. Overall, there were 4764 participants in the community-based survey (mean age 37.7 years, 57.2% women). Among these were 104 participants with a life-time history of PG; of the 104 with a life-time diagnosis of PG, 28 had a past-year diagnosis of PG, 32 had past-year problem gambling and 44 had no symptoms of PG in the past year ('recovery'). The measure of PG was based on the NODS (NORC DSM-IV Screen for Gambling Problems). Past-year participation in 11 different gambling activities was assessed, as well as the following composite indicators: any gambling, gambling versatility, the number of days and hours spent gambling and the proportion of household income spent on gambling. Ninety per cent of those in the recovery group participated in some form of gambling in the past year. In this general population survey, nearly all the PG recoveries were achieved in the absence of abstinence. Controlled gambling appears to be a popular road to recovery in the community. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Bailey, Denise Nagle; Wolf, Zane Robinson
Middle school and adolescent populations demonstrate high rates of unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections, with young people in inner cities in the United States especially vulnerable. Teen births remain high, and youth are affected physically, mentally, socially, and economically. The Sex After Marriage primary prevention program, a federally funded, community-based abstinence education (CBAE) initiative, was implemented for 3 years in Philadelphia neighborhoods with vulnerable youth 12 to 18 years of age, supporting adults, healthcare professionals, and the general public. The three-tiered program offered a middle school curriculum, Sex Can Wait, at 16 different sites. The CBAE program delivered by the university's nursing center attempted to support vulnerable youths' decisions to postpone sexual activity by matching the interests of young people through an established curriculum, by holding workshops for supporting adults, and by creating a multimedia approach to supplement abstinence education initiatives including public service announcements and a website. Youth and college ambassadors and community colleagues were trained in the curriculum with a focus on healthy lifestyles. Youth and parents in experimental and control groups completed self-report surveys before and after program implementation. The project achieved most of its objectives on program evaluation. Youth (n = 1,428) 12 to 18 years of age received services, with most completing ≥75% of the program. Parents (n = 338) and other participating adults (n = 486) also received education or services. The need for risk reduction programs persists for youth in light of pregnancy, birth, and sexually transmitted disease statistics. Bailey Wolf. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sigmon, Stacey C; Miller, Mollie E; Meyer, Andrew C; Saulsgiver, Kathryn; Badger, Gary J; Heil, Sarah H; Higgins, Stephen T
Prior studies by our group demonstrated the efficacy of a brief but intensive behavioral intervention for producing initial smoking abstinence among opioid-dependent patients. In the present study, our aim was to promote longer-duration abstinence in this population. Following an initial 2-week incentive intervention for smoking abstinence, we examined whether a 10-week maintenance arm involving continuation of contingent reinforcement will produce greater smoking abstinence than a similar duration of noncontingent reinforcement. Randomized, 12-week, parallel-group study. Out-patient research clinic in Burlington, Vermont, USA. Opioid-maintained smokers (n = 88) who provided breath carbon monoxide and urinary cotinine specimens and received contingent reinforcement for smoking abstinence during weeks 1-2 (phase 1), with 63 randomized on day 14 to an extended contingent (EC; n = 31) or extended noncontingent (EN; n = 32) experimental condition for weeks 3-12 (phase 2). The EC condition consisted of voucher values that escalated across consecutive negative samples until they reached $30, after which they remained at $30 per negative sample. A positive or a missing sample resulted in no vouchers for that day and reset the value of the next negative same to $9. Two consecutive negatives returned the schedule to the pre-reset value. The EN control condition consisted of vouchers delivered for providing scheduled samples, but independent of smoking status. The primary outcome was percentage of biochemically abstinent samples during phase 2. Secondary measures included abstinence status at final study visit, complete abstinence, participants' longest duration of continuous abstinence, cotinine and carbon monoxide (CO) levels and self-reported cigarettes per day. EC participants achieved greater smoking abstinence during phase 2 than EN participants [46.7 versus 23.5% negative samples, respectively; odds ratio (OR) = 2.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.16-7.65, χ(2
Collins, Susan E; Jones, Connor B; Hoffmann, Gail; Nelson, Lonnie A; Hawes, Starlyn M; Grazioli, Véronique S; Mackelprang, Jessica L; Holttum, Jessica; Kaese, Greta; Lenert, James; Herndon, Patrick; Clifasefi, Seema L
Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are more prevalent among homeless individuals than in the general population, and homeless individuals are disproportionately affected by alcohol-related morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, abstinence-based approaches are neither desirable to nor highly effective for most members of this population. Recent research has indicated that homeless people aspire to clinically significant recovery goals beyond alcohol abstinence, including alcohol harm reduction and quality-of-life improvement. However, no research has documented this population's preferred pathways toward self-defined recovery. Considering principles of patient-centred care, a richer understanding of this population's desired pathways to recovery may help providers better engage and support them. Participants (N=50) had lived experience of homelessness and AUDs and participated in semi-structured interviews regarding histories of homelessness, alcohol use, and abstinence-based treatment as well as suggestions for improving alcohol treatment. Conventional content analysis was used to ascertain participants' perceptions of abstinence-based treatment and mutual-help modalities, while it additionally revealed alternative pathways to recovery. Most participants reported involvement in abstinence-based modalities for reasons other than the goal of achieving long-term abstinence from alcohol (e.g., having shelter in winter months, "taking a break" from alcohol use, being among "like-minded people"). In contrast, most participants preferred alternative pathways to recovery, including fulfilling basic needs (e.g., obtaining housing), using harm reduction approaches (e.g., switching from higher to lower alcohol content beverages), engaging in meaningful activities (e.g., art, outings, spiritual/cultural activities), and making positive social connections. Most people with the lived experience of homelessness and AUDs we interviewed were uninterested in abstinence-based modalities
Collins, Susan E.; Jones, Connor B.; Hoffmann, Gail; Nelson, Lonnie A.; Hawes, Starlyn M.; Grazioli, Véronique S.; Mackelprang, Jessica L.; Holttum, Jessica; Kaese, Greta; Lenert, James; Herndon, Patrick; Clifasefi, Seema L.
Background Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are more prevalent among homeless individuals than in the general population, and homeless individuals are disproportionately affected by alcohol-related morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, abstinence-based approaches are neither desirable to nor highly effective for most members of this population. Recent research has indicated that homeless people aspire to clinically significant recovery goals beyond alcohol abstinence, including alcohol harm reduction and quality-of-life improvement. However, no research has documented this population’s preferred pathways toward self-defined recovery. Considering principles of patient-centred care, a richer understanding of this population’s desired pathways to recovery may help providers better engage and support them. Methods Participants (N = 50) had lived experience of homelessness and AUDs and participated in semi-structured interviews regarding histories of homelessness, alcohol use, and abstinence-based treatment as well as suggestions for improving alcohol treatment. Conventional content analysis was used to ascertain participants’ perceptions of abstinence-based treatment and mutual-help modalities, while it additionally revealed alternative pathways to recovery. Results Most participants reported involvement in abstinence-based modalities for reasons other than the goal of achieving long-term abstinence from alcohol (e.g., having shelter in winter months, “taking a break” from alcohol use, being among “like-minded people”). In contrast, most participants preferred alternative pathways to recovery, including fulfilling basic needs (e.g., obtaining housing), using harm reduction approaches (e.g., switching from higher to lower alcohol content beverages), engaging in meaningful activities (e.g., art, outings, spiritual/cultural activities), and making positive social connections. Conclusions Most people with the lived experience of homelessness and AUDs we
Bernardin, Florent; Maheut-Bosser, Anne; Paille, François
Chronic excessive alcohol consumption induces multiple brain damages. Secondary cognitive disorders include executive functions, episodic memory and visuospatial capacities. The severity of these alcohol induced disorders may vary between sub-clinical manifestations (that may, nevertheless, interfere with medical management) and more important ones like Korsakoff syndrome or dementia. The latter are usually irreversible but many of these manifestations are potentially reversible with persistent abstinence. It therefore appears of particular importance to clearly define neuropsychological management in order to identify and evaluate the type and severity of alcohol-related cognitive disorders. The patients may then be offered rehabilitation for these cognitive impairments. This is the first step of a complete addiction program based especially on cognitive behavioral therapies.
Mensinger, Janell Lynn; Lynch, Kevin G.; Tenhave, Thomas R.; McKay, James R.
A previous randomized trial with 224 alcohol and/or cocaine addicts who had completed an initial phase of treatment indicated that 12 weeks of telephone-based continuing care yielded higher abstinence rates over 24 months than did group counseling continuing care. The current study examined mediators of this treatment effect. Results suggested…
Foy, David W.; And Others
Assessed unique treatment effects of training controlled drinking skills in a chronic alcoholic population of veterans (N=62). Results of a six-month posttreatment follow-up revealed that subjects in the drinking skills condition had significantly fewer abstinent days and more abusive drinking days than subjects in the untrained condition. (LLL)
Avila, P; Marcos, M; Avila, J J; Laso, F J
The problem of high rates of patient drop-out in alcohol treatment programs is frequently reported in the literature. Our aim was to investigate if internal medicine referral could improve abstinence and retention rates in a cohort of alcoholic patients. A retrospective observational study was conducted comparing 200 alcoholic patients attending a psychiatric unit (group 1) with 100 patients attending both this unit and an internal medicine unit (group 2). We collected sociodemographic and clinical variables and analysed differences regarding abstinence and retention rates by means of univariate and multivariate analysis. At 3 and 12 months follow-up, group 2 patients had higher retention and abstinence rates than group 1 patients. Multivariate analysis including potential confounding variables showed that independent predictors of one-year retention were internal medicine referral and being married. Independent predictors of one-year abstinence were being married, age > 44 years and receipt of drug treatment. The higher retention rate found among patients referred to Internal Medicine specialists, a result that has not been previously reported to the best of our knowledge, emphasizes the importance of a multidisciplinary team approach in the treatment of alcoholism.
de Guglielmo, Giordano; Crawford, Elena; Kim, Sarah; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Hope, Bruce T; Brennan, Molly; Cole, Maury; Koob, George F; George, Olivier
Abstinence from alcohol is associated with the recruitment of neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) in nondependent rats that binge drink alcohol and in alcohol-dependent rats. However, whether the recruitment of this neuronal ensemble in the CeA is causally related to excessive alcohol drinking or if it represents a consequence of excessive drinking remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the recruitment of a neuronal ensemble in the CeA during abstinence is required for excessive alcohol drinking in nondependent rats that binge drink alcohol and in alcohol-dependent rats. We found that inactivation of the CeA neuronal ensemble during abstinence significantly decreased alcohol drinking in both groups. In nondependent rats, the decrease in alcohol intake was transient and returned to normal the day after the injection. In dependent rats, inactivation of the neuronal ensemble with Daun02 produced a long-term decrease in alcohol drinking. Moreover, we observed a significant reduction of somatic withdrawal signs in dependent animals that were injected with Daun02 in the CeA. These results indicate that the recruitment of a neuronal ensemble in the CeA during abstinence from alcohol is causally related to excessive alcohol drinking in alcohol-dependent rats, whereas a similar neuronal ensemble only partially contributed to alcohol-binge-like drinking in nondependent rats. These results identify a critical neurobiological mechanism that may be required for the transition to alcohol dependence, suggesting that focusing on the neuronal ensemble in the CeA may lead to a better understanding of the etiology of alcohol use disorders and improve medication development. Alcohol dependence recruits neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Here, we found that inactivation of a specific dependence-induced neuronal ensemble in the CeA reversed excessive alcohol drinking and somatic signs of alcohol dependence in rats. These results identify a
Castro, Felipe González; Coe, Kathryn
An integrative mixed-methods analysis examined traditional beliefs as associated with beliefs about self-care during pregnancy and with alcohol abstinence among young adult women from two rural U.S.–Mexico border communities. Quantitative (measured scale) variables and qualitative thematic variables generated from open-ended responses served as within-time predictors of these health-related outcomes. A weaker belief that life is better in big cities was associated with stronger self-care beliefs during pregnancy. Also, a weaker belief that small towns offer tranquil environments was associated with total abstinence from alcohol. Regarding the Hispanic Paradox, these results suggest that a critical appreciation of cultural traditions can be protective, as this avoids stereotypical or idyllic views of urban or rural lifeways, and promotes self-protective beliefs and behaviors. PMID:17967095
Herbeck, Diane M.; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Christou, Dayna; Lovinger, Katherine
To better understand methamphetamine (MA) use patterns and the process of recovery, qualitative interviews were conducted with adult MA users (n=20), comparing a sample that received substance abuse treatment with those who had not received treatment. Respondents provided detailed information on why and how they changed from use to abstinence, and factors they considered to be barriers to abstinence. Audio recordings and transcripts were reviewed for common themes. Participants reported a range of mild/moderate to intensely destructive problems, including loss of important relationships and profound changes to who they felt they were at their core, e.g., “I didn’t realize how dark and mean I was... I was like a different person.” Initial abstinence was often facilitated by multiple external forces (e.g., drug testing, child custody issues, prison, relocation), but sustained abstinence was attributed to shifts in thinking and salient realizations about using. The treatment group reported using more and different resources to maintain their abstinence than the no treatment group. Findings indicate individualized interventions and multiple, simultaneous approaches and resources were essential in reaching stable abstinence. Understanding long-term users’ experiences with MA use, addiction and abstinence can inform strategies for engaging and sustaining MA users in treatment and recovery. PMID:25052880
Herbeck, Diane M; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Christou, Dayna; Lovinger, Katherine
To better understand methamphetamine (MA) use patterns and the process of recovery, qualitative interviews were conducted with adult MA users (n = 20), comparing a sample that received substance abuse treatment with those who had not received treatment. Respondents provided detailed information on why and how they changed from use to abstinence and factors they considered to be barriers to abstinence. Audio recordings and transcripts were reviewed for common themes. Participants reported a range of mild/moderate to intensely destructive problems, including loss of important relationships and profound changes to who they felt they were at their core; e.g., "I didn't realize how dark and mean I was … I was like a different person." Initial abstinence was often facilitated by multiple external forces (e.g., drug testing, child custody issues, prison, relocation), but sustained abstinence was attributed to shifts in thinking and salient realizations about using. The treatment group reported using more and different resources to maintain their abstinence than the no-treatment group. Findings indicate individualized interventions and multiple, simultaneous approaches and resources were essential in reaching stable abstinence. Understanding long-term users' experiences with MA use, addiction, and abstinence can inform strategies for engaging and sustaining MA users in treatment and recovery.
Majer, John M; Glantsman, Olya; Palmer, John S; Jason, Leonard A
Abstinence self-efficacy, or the confidence in ones' beliefs in one's ability to effectively engage in behaviors to maintain substance use abstinence, is a crucial recovery resource. However, little research has been conducted on what predicts increases in this recovery resource. Understanding predictors of abstinence self-efficacy could help social service practitioners in creating effective treatment plans/interventions while extending what is presently known in this small body of research. Predictors of abstinence self-efficacy were analyzed among a sample of ex-offenders (224 men and 46 women) who were completing inpatient treatment for substance use disorders. Hierarchical linear regression was conducted to examine changes in participants' abstinence self-efficacy in relation to factors directly related (HIV-risk drug use behaviors, substance use, 12-step meeting attendance) and indirectly related (HIV-risk sexual behaviors, incarceration histories) to substance use. HIV-risk sexual behaviors and substance use predicted significant decreases in abstinence self-efficacy whereas 12-step meeting attendance predicted significant increases. However, incarceration histories and HIV-risk drug use behaviors were not significant predictors of abstinence self-efficacy. Findings suggest HIV-risk sexual behavior should be considered when assessing relapse prevention for persons with substance use disorders, and that researchers should examine behaviors that are not directly related to substance use when investigating recovery resources.
Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Wick, Jo A; Nazir, Niaman; Cupertino, A Paula; Mussulman, Laura M; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Ellerbeck, Edward F
Standard smoking cessation treatment studies have been limited to 6- to 12-month follow-up, and examination of predictors of abstinence has been restricted to this timeframe. The KanQuit study enrolled 750 rural smokers across all stages of readiness to stop smoking and provided pharmacotherapy management and/or disease management, including motivational interviewing (MI) counseling every 6 months over 2 years. This paper examines differences in predictors of abstinence following initial (6-month) and extended (24-month) intervention. Baseline variables were analyzed as potential predictors of self-reported smoking abstinence at Month 6 and at Month 24. Chi-square tests, 2-sample t tests, and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of abstinence among 592 participants who completed assessment at baseline and Months 6 and 24. Controlling for treatment group, the final regression models showed that male gender and lower baseline cigarettes per day predicted abstinence at both 6 and 24 months. While remaining significant, the relative advantage of being male decreased over time. Global motivation to stop smoking, controlled motivation, and self-efficacy predicted abstinence at 6 months but did not predict abstinence at Month 24. In contrast, stage of change was strongly predictive of 24-month smoking status. While the importance of some predictors of successful smoking cessation appeared to diminish over time, initial lack of interest in cessation and number of cigarettes per day strongly predicted continued smoking following a 2-year program.
Williams, Geoffrey C.; Niemiec, Christopher P.; Patrick, Heather; Ryan, Richard M.; Deci, Edward L.
Background The Public Health Service (PHS) Guideline for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence (1) recommends supporting autonomy and perceived competence to facilitate tobacco abstinence. Purpose To evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive tobacco-dependence intervention based on self-determination theory (SDT) and intended to support autonomy and perceived competence in facilitating long-term tobacco abstinence. Methods One thousand and six adult smokers were recruited into a randomized cessation-induction trial. Community care participants received cessation pamphlets and information on local treatment programs. Intervention participants received the same materials and were asked to meet four times with counselors over six months to discuss their health in a manner intended to support autonomy and perceived competence. The primary outcome was 24-month prolonged abstinence from tobacco. The secondary outcome was 7-day point prevalence tobacco abstinence at 24 months post-intervention. Results Smokers in the intervention were more likely to attain both tobacco abstinence outcomes and these effects were partially mediated by change in both autonomous self-regulation and perceived competence from baseline to six months. Structural equation modeling confirmed the SDT model of health-behavior change in facilitating long-term tobacco abstinence. Conclusions An intervention based on SDT and consistent with the PHS Guideline, which was intended to support autonomy and perceived competence, facilitated long-term tobacco abstinence. PMID:19373517
Williams, Geoffrey C; Niemiec, Christopher P; Patrick, Heather; Ryan, Richard M; Deci, Edward L
The Public Health Service (PHS) Guideline for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence (Fiore et al. 2000) recommends supporting autonomy and perceived competence to facilitate tobacco abstinence. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive tobacco-dependence intervention based on self-determination theory (SDT) and intended to support autonomy and perceived competence in facilitating long-term tobacco abstinence. One thousand and six adult smokers were recruited into a randomized cessation-induction trial. Community care participants received cessation pamphlets and information on local treatment programs. Intervention participants received the same materials and were asked to meet four times with counselors over 6 months to discuss their health in a manner intended to support autonomy and perceived competence. The primary outcome was 24-month prolonged abstinence from tobacco. The secondary outcome was 7-day point prevalence tobacco abstinence at 24 months postintervention. Smokers in the intervention were more likely to attain both tobacco abstinence outcomes and these effects were partially mediated by change in both autonomous self-regulation and perceived competence from baseline to 6 months. Structural equation modeling confirmed the SDT model of health-behavior change in facilitating long-term tobacco abstinence. An intervention based on SDT and consistent with the PHS Guideline, which was intended to support autonomy and perceived competence, facilitated long-term tobacco abstinence.
Ayad, Bashir M; Van der Horst, Gerhard; S Du Plessis, Stefan
Variation in the ejaculatory abstinence period suggested by different guidance bodies have resulted in a growing concern among researchers and clinicians over what the precise period of ejaculatory abstinence ought to be for an optimal semen sample. Several studies have thus been undertaken to examine the association between the length of sexual abstinence and semen characteristics. Not all studies, however, have arrived at the same conclusions. This study aims to review all existing literature published during the past few decades pertaining to the influence of ejaculatory abstinence on semen quality. For the purpose of this systematic review, all data related to sexual abstinence duration and seminal parameters were re-analysed to homogenize the current data. Thorough PubMed, MEDLINE and Google Scholar, a literature search was conducted using the keywords “sexual abstinence”, “ejaculatory abstinence”, “semen”, “spermatozoa”, “semen analysis”, “sperm parameters”, “motility”, “reactive oxygen species (ROS)” and “DNA fragmentation”. After carefully reviewing all the literature, 30 relevant papers, both written in English and published between January 1979 and December 2016, were included in this review. The weight of the evidence suggests that the decline in semen volume and sperm concentration with shorter abstinence periods is accompanied by a substantial improvement in sperm motility characteristics, especially progressive motility and velocity. Nevertheless, available data are insufficient to support definitive conclusions regarding the influence of the ejaculatory abstinence period on advanced semen parameters (ROS, DNA fragmentation and seminal plasma antioxidant capacity) and pregnancy rates. In conclusion, taking all data into account, shortening of the abstinence period may be beneficial to sperm quality. Furthermore, we recommend that the current guidelines regarding the prescribed abstinence period should be revisited
Pang, Raina D; Leventhal, Adam M
Heightened negative affect during acute tobacco abstinence in women relative to men could be an important factor underlying sex differences in smoking motivation. However, little controlled experimental work addresses this hypothesis. The current study investigated sex differences in withdrawal-related negative affect, time to start smoking on a lab analogue smoking lapse task, and the interrelation between sex, withdrawal-related negative affect, and smoking lapse behavior. Following a baseline session, current smokers (women: n = 68, men: n = 131) attended two counterbalanced lab sessions (16 hours smoking abstinence and ad libitum smoking) during which they completed self-report measures of mood and withdrawal symptoms followed by a laboratory analogue smoking lapse task. In this task participants are monetarily rewarded for delaying smoking. Performance on this task serves as an analogue model of smoking lapse behavior by measuring smoker's capability to resist temptation to smoke under conditions where abstinence is advantageous. Females showed greater abstinence induced increases in composite negative affect as well as several particular negative affect states (i.e., POMS Anger, Anxiety, Depression, and Confusion, ps < .05) but no differences in abstinence induced changes in other forms of affect or craving. Females also exhibited marginally greater abstinence induced decreases in their willingness to delay smoking for money (p = .10), which was mediated by abstinence induced increases in anger (p < .05). These results suggest that differential sensitivity to abstinence induced negative affect, particularly anger, could underlie sex specific smoking patterns. Negative affect during tobacco abstinence may be an important factor for understanding and treating nicotine addiction in women. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved
Charlet, Katrin; Rosenthal, Annika; Lohoff, Falk W; Heinz, Andreas; Beck, Anne
Resilience and recovery are of increasing importance in the field of alcohol dependence (AD). This paper describes how imaging studies in man can be used to assess the neurobiological correlates of resilience and, if longitudinal, of disease trajectories, progression rates and markers for recovery to inform treatment and prevention options. Original articles on recovery and resilience in alcohol addiction and its neurobiological correlates were identified from 'PubMed' and have been analyzed and condensed within a systematic literature review. Findings deriving from (f)MRI and PET studies have identified links between increased resilience and less task-elicited neural activation within the basal ganglia, and benefits of heightened neural prefrontal cortex (PFC) engagement regarding resilience in a broader sense, namely resilience against relapse in early abstinence of AD. Furthermore, findings consistently propose at least partial recovery of brain glucose metabolism and executive and general cognitive functioning, as well as structural plasticity effects throughout the brain of alcohol-dependent patients during the course of short, medium and long-term abstinence, even when patients only lowered their alcohol consumption to a moderate level. Additionally, specific factors were found that appear to influence these observed brain recovery processes in AD, e.g. genotype-dependent neuronal (re)growth, gender-specific neural recovery effects, critical interfering effects of psychiatric comorbidities, additional smoking or marijuana influences, or adolescent alcohol abuse. Neuroimaging research has uncovered neurobiological markers that appear to be linked to resilience and improved recovery capacities that are furthermore influenced by various factors such as gender or genetics. Consequently, future system-oriented approaches may help to establish a broad neuroscience-based research framework for alcohol dependence. This article is protected by copyright. All rights
Petit, Géraldine; Luminet, Olivier; Cordovil de Sousa Uva, Mariana; Monhonval, Pauline; Leclercq, Sophie; Spilliaert, Quentin; Zammit, François; Maurage, Pierre; de Timary, Philippe
Alcohol craving is a major cause of relapse in alcohol-dependent (AD) patients. It is closely related to the high depression and anxiety symptoms that are frequently observed at the early stages of abstinence, and these comorbid symptoms might thus constitute a relapse factor when they persist after detoxification. As these negative affects are known to evolve during the detoxification process, the aim of this study was to investigate the course of the relation between affects and craving during detoxification, with a particular attention given to gender in light of the known differences in affects between AD men and women. AD patients (n = 256) undergoing a detoxification program were evaluated for positive (PA) and negative affectivity (NA), depression and anxiety symptoms, and craving, twice within a 3-week interval (on the first [T1] and the eighteenth day [T2] of abstinence). Detoxification course was associated with improvements regarding NA, depression and anxiety symptoms, and craving. Moreover, these negative affects were related to craving intensity. However, for men, the relation was only present at the beginning of detoxification, while, for women, it persisted at the end of detoxification as did high levels of depression. Furthermore, only with women was the level of craving at T2 proportional to negative affects reported at T1, and depression symptoms experienced at T1 were reliable predictors of craving at T2. Given the importance of craving in relapse, special care should be given to improve depressive symptoms in AD women to promote long-term abstinence. Also, the remaining portion of AD women who still exhibit substantial symptoms of anxiety and depression at the end of detoxification could benefit from an integrated treatment simultaneously tackling mood and alcohol-dependence disorders. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Martin, Rosemarie A.; MacKinnon, Selene M.; Johnson, Jennifer E.; Myers, Mark G.; Cook, Travis A. R.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.
Background The role of cognitive appraisal of the threat of alcohol relapse has received little attention. A previous instrument, the Relapse Situation Appraisal Questionnaire (RSAQ), was developed to assess cocaine users’ primary appraisal of the threat of situations posing a high risk for cocaine relapse. The purpose of the present study was to modify the RSAQ in order to measure primary appraisal in situations involving a high risk for alcohol relapse. Methods The development and psychometric properties of this instrument, the Alcohol Relapse Situation Appraisal Questionnaire (A-RSAQ), were examined with two samples of abstinent adults with alcohol abuse or dependence. Factor structure and validity were examined in Study 1 (N=104). Confirmation of the factor structure and predictive validity were assessed in Study 2 (N=161). Results Results demonstrated construct, discriminant and predictive validity and reliability of the A-RSAQ. Discussion Results support the important role of primary appraisal of degree of risk in alcohol relapse situations. PMID:21237586
Zywiak, William H.; Edwards, Steven M.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Swift, Robert M.; Kenna, George A.
Rationale There is presently no approved single treatment for dual alcohol and nicotine dependencies. Objective This pilot study investigated baclofen effects in alcoholic smokers. Methods This was a preliminary double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical study with 30 alcoholic smokers randomized to baclofen at 80 mg/day or placebo. A subgroup (n=18) participated in an alcohol cue-reactivity experiment. Results Baclofen, compared with placebo, significantly decreased the percent days of abstinence from alcohol-tobacco co-use (p=0.004). Alcohol dependence severity moderated baclofen effects, with the higher severity group having the greater baclofen response (p<0.001). Although the percent days of alcohol-tobacco co-use declined in both groups, this decline was greater after placebo than baclofen (p<0.001). Secondary analyses on alcohol or tobacco use alone suggested that the increase in percent days of co-abstinence was driven by the medication differences on heavy drinking days and on percent days smoking. In the cue-reactivity substudy, baclofen slightly decreased alcohol urge (p=0.058) and significantly reduced salivation (p=0.001), but these effects were not related to cue type. Conclusions This study provides preliminary evidence suggesting a possible role of baclofen in the treatment of alcoholic smokers. However, the mixed results and the small sample require larger confirmatory studies. PMID:24973894
Chopra, Kanwaljit; Tiwari, Vinod
Chronic alcohol consumption produces painful peripheral neuropathy for which there is no reliable successful therapy, mainly due to lack of understanding of its pathobiology. Alcoholic neuropathy involves coasting caused by damage to nerves that results from long term excessive drinking of alcohol and is characterized by spontaneous burning pain, hyperalgesia and allodynia. The mechanism behind alcoholic neuropathy is not well understood, but several explanations have been proposed. These include activation of spinal cord microglia after chronic alcohol consumption, oxidative stress leading to free radical damage to nerves, activation of mGlu5 receptors in the spinal cord and activation of the sympathoadrenal and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Nutritional deficiency (especially thiamine deficiency) and/or the direct toxic effect of alcohol or both have also been implicated in alcohol-induced neuropathic pain. Treatment is directed towards halting further damage to the peripheral nerves and restoring their normal functioning. This can be achieved by alcohol abstinence and a nutritionally balanced diet supplemented by all B vitamins. However, in the setting of ongoing alcohol use, vitamin supplementation alone has not been convincingly shown to be sufficient for improvement in most patients. The present review is focused around the multiple pathways involved in the development of peripheral neuropathy associated with chronic alcohol intake and the different therapeutic agents which may find a place in the therapeutic armamentarium for both prevention and management of alcoholic neuropathy. PMID:21988193
Although very many individuals drink alcohol at safe levels, a significant proportion escalates their consumption with addiction as the end result. Alcoholism is a common, moderately heritable, psychiatric disorder that is accompanied by considerable morbidity and mortality. Variation in clinical presentation suggests inter-individual variation in mechanisms of vulnerability including genetic risk factors. The development of addiction is likely to involve numerous functional genetic variants of small effects. The first part of this review will focus on genetic factors underlying inter-individual variability in response to alcohol consumption, including variants in alcohol metabolizing genes that produce an aversive response (the flushing syndrome) and variants that predict the level of subjective and physiological response to alcohol. The second part of this review will report on genetic variants that identify subgroups of alcoholics who are more likely to respond to pharmacotherapy to reduce levels of drinking or maintain abstinence. Genetic analyses of the level of response to alcohol, particularly of the functional OPRM1 A118G polymorphism and 5′ and 3′ functional polymorphisms in SLC6A4, are beginning to provide insights into the etiology of alcoholism and also genotype-stratified subgroup responses to naltrexone and SSRIs / ondansetron respectively. Because of large inter-ethnic variation in allele frequencies, the relevance of these functional polymorphisms will vary between ethnic groups. However there are relatively few published studies in this field, particularly with large sample sizes in pharmacogenetic studies, therefore it is premature to draw any conclusions at this stage. PMID:24220019
Hammond, Christopher J; Niciu, Mark J; Drew, Shannon; Arias, Albert J
Alcoholic patients suffer from harmful allostatic neuroplastic changes in the brain causing an acute withdrawal syndrome upon cessation of drinking followed by a protracted abstinence syndrome and an increased risk of relapse to heavy drinking. Benzodiazepines have long been the treatment of choice for detoxifying patients and managing alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). Non-benzodiazepine anticonvulsants (NBACs) are increasingly being used both for alcohol withdrawal management and for ongoing outpatient treatment of alcohol dependence, with the goal of either abstinence or harm reduction. This expert narrative review summarizes the scientific basis and clinical evidence supporting the use of NBACs in treating AWS and for reducing harmful drinking patterns. There is less evidence in support of NBAC therapy for AWS, with few placebo-controlled trials. Carbamazepine and gabapentin appear to be the most promising adjunctive treatments for AWS, and they may be useful as monotherapy in select cases, especially in outpatient settings and for the treatment of mild-to-moderate low-risk patients with the AWS. The body of evidence supporting the use of the NBACs for reducing harmful drinking in the outpatient setting is stronger. Topiramate appears to have a robust effect on reducing harmful drinking in alcoholics. Gabapentin is a potentially efficacious treatment for reducing the risk of relapse to harmful drinking patterns in outpatient management of alcoholism. Gabapentin's ease of use, rapid titration, good tolerability, and efficacy in both the withdrawal and chronic phases of treatment make it particularly appealing. In summary, several NBACs appear to be beneficial in treating AWS and alcohol use disorders.
Hammond, Christopher J.; Niciu, Mark J.; Drew, Shannon; Arias, Albert J.
Alcoholic patients suffer from harmful allostatic neuroplastic changes in the brain causing an acute withdrawal syndrome upon cessation of drinking followed by a protracted abstinence syndrome and an increased risk of relapse to heavy drinking. Benzodiazepines have long been the treatment of choice for detoxifying patients and managing alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). Non-benzodiazepine anticonvulsants (NBACs) are increasingly being used both for alcohol withdrawal management and for ongoing outpatient treatment of alcohol dependence, with the goal of either abstinence or harm reduction. This expert narrative review summarizes the scientific basis and clinical evidence supporting the use of NBACs in treating AWS and for reducing harmful drinking patterns. There is less evidence in support of NBAC therapy for AWS, with few placebo-controlled trials. Carbamazepine and gabapentin appear to be the most promising adjunctive treatments for AWS, and they may be useful as monotherapy in select cases, especially in outpatient settings and for the treatment of mild-to-moderate low-risk patients with the AWS. The body of evidence supporting the use of the NBACs for reducing harmful drinking in the outpatient setting is stronger. Topiramate appears to have a robust effect on reducing harmful drinking in alcoholics. Gabapentin is a potentially efficacious treatment for reducing the risk of relapse to harmful drinking patterns in outpatient management of alcoholism. Gabapentin's ease of use, rapid titration, good tolerability, and efficacy in both the withdrawal and chronic phases of treatment make it particularly appealing. In summary, several NBACs appear to be beneficial in treating AWS and alcohol use disorders. PMID:25895020
Kaskutas, Lee Ann
Research on the effectiveness of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is controversial and is subject to widely divergent interpretations. The goal of this paper is to provide a focused review of the literature on AA effectiveness that will allow readers to judge the evidence for AA effectiveness themselves. The review organizes the research on AA effectiveness according to six criterion required for establishing causation: (1) magnitude of effect; (2) dose response effect; (3) consistent effect; (4) temporally accurate effects; (5) specific effects; (6) plausibility. The evidence for criteria 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 is very strong: Rates of abstinence are about twice as high among those who attend AA (criteria 1, magnitude); higher levels of attendance are related to higher rates of abstinence (criteria 2, dose-response); these relationships are found for different samples and follow-up periods (criteria 3, consistency); prior AA attendance is predictive of subsequent abstinence (criteria 4, temporal); and mechanisms of action predicted by theories of behavior change are present in AA (criteria 6, plausibility). However, rigorous experimental evidence establishing the specificity of an effect for AA or Twelve Step Facilitation/TSF (criteria 5) is mixed, with 2 trials finding a positive effect for AA, 1 trial finding a negative effect for AA, and 1 trial finding a null effect. Studies addressing specificity using statistical approaches have had two contradictory findings, and two that reported significant effects for AA after adjusting for potential confounders such as motivation to change. PMID:19340677
Greenfield, Brenna L; Venner, Kamilla L; Kelly, John F; Slaymaker, Valerie; Bryan, Angela D
A large proportion of emerging adults treated for substance use disorder (SUD) present with symptoms of negative affect and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, little is known regarding how these comorbidities influence important mechanisms of treatment response, such as increases in abstinence self-efficacy (ASE). This study tested the degree to which MDD and/or depressive symptoms interacted with during-treatment changes in ASE and examined these variables' relation to outcome at 3 months' posttreatment. Participants (N = 302; 74% male) completed measures at intake, midtreatment, end-of-treatment, and at 3-month follow-up. ASE was measured with the Alcohol and Drug Use Self-Efficacy (ADUSE) scale; depressive symptoms were assessed with the Brief Symptom Inventory 18 (BSI 18) Depression scale; and current MDD diagnoses were deduced from the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). Random coefficient regression analyses focused on during-treatment changes in ASE, with BSI 18 scores and MDD diagnosis included as moderators. At intake, individuals with MDD or high levels of depressive symptoms had significantly lower ASE, particularly in negative affect situations. No evidence for moderation was found: ASE significantly increased during treatment regardless of MDD status. There was a main effect of BSI 18 Depression scores: those with lower BSI 18 scores had lower ASE scores at each time point. MDD and BSI 18 Depression did not predict 3-month outcome, but similar to previous findings ASE did predict abstinence status at 3 months. Treatment-seeking emerging adults with MDD merit particular clinical attention because of their lower reported self-efficacy throughout treatment.
Greenfield, Brenna L.; Venner, Kamilla L.; Kelly, John F.; Slaymaker, Valerie; Bryan, Angela D.
A large proportion of emerging adults treated for substance use disorder (SUD) present with symptoms of negative affect and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, little is known regarding how these comorbidities influence important mechanisms of treatment response, such as increases in abstinence self-efficacy (ASE). This study tested the degree to which MDD and/or depressive symptoms interacted with during-treatment changes in ASE and examined these variables' relation to outcome at 3-months post-treatment. Participants (N = 302; 74% male) completed measures at intake, mid-treatment, end-of-treatment, and at 3-month follow-up. ASE was measured with the Alcohol and Drug Use Self-Efficacy (ADUSE) scale; depressive symptoms were assessed with the Brief Symptom Inventory 18 (BSI 18) Depression scale; and current MDD diagnoses were deduced from the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV. Random coefficient regression analyses focused on during-treatment changes in ASE, with BSI 18 scores and MDD diagnosis included as moderators. At intake, individuals with MDD or high levels of depressive symptoms had significantly lower ASE, particularly in negative affect situations. No evidence for moderation was found: ASE significantly increased during treatment regardless of MDD status. There was a main effect of BSI 18 Depression scores: those with lower BSI 18 scores had lower ASE scores at each time point. MDD and BSI 18 Depression did not predict three-month outcome, but similar to previous findings ASE did predict abstinence status at three months. Treatment-seeking emerging adults with MDD merit particular clinical attention because of their lower reported self-efficacy throughout treatment. PMID:22288980
Won, Sung-Doo; Kim, Im-Yel
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) has been conceptualized as a chronic self-regulation failure. The aim of this study was to examine the most probable pathways related to self-regulation among patients with AUD. In this study, a hypothetical model was proposed that focused on the relationship between risk factors (extrinsic life goals, emotion dysregulation) and protective factors (intrinsic life goals, self-control, and abstinence self-efficacy). Male patients with AUD (N = 188) were recruited from alcohol centers of four psychiatric hospitals between March 2015 and September 2015. All participants completed psychological assessments, including the Future Oriented Goals Scale (FOGS), the Alcohol Abstinence Self-Efficacy Scale (AASE), the Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS), and the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) as well as sociodemographic characteristics. The final model was found to be a good fit to data. In testing indirect effects, it was shown that intrinsic life goals via emotion dysregulation, self-control, and alcohol abstinence self-efficacy decreased alcohol self-regulation failure. On the other hand, extrinsic life goals via these factors increased alcohol self-regulation failure. Conclusions/Importance: These results suggest that intrinsic goals might indirectly be the important and protective factors for AUD. Moreover, the findings implicate that self-regulation through goal setting may be necessary to alleviate symptoms and improve function among patients with AUD.
Jovanovic, Mirjana; Antunovic, Marko
Alcohol continues to occupy a leading position in Europe as a popular substance of abuse. According to WHO sources together with cigarette smoking and obesity, alcohol is a major cause of preventable diseases. Harmful use of alcohol is one of the main factors contributing to premature deaths and disability and has a major impact on public health. The consequences of alcohol use on human health are enormous. Additionally, alcohol use can have harmful effects that do not directly affect person who consumes alcohol (e.g., fetal alcohol syndrome violations that are related to alcohol use, etc.). It is well known that the harmful effects and consequences of alcohol use (e.g., acute and chronic illness, injuries in fights, at the workplace, in traffic, violent behavior, and death) create a great burden for the economic development of society. Persons who have been diagnosed with alcoholism and currently drinking have a less chance to achieve a life insurance cover. On the contrary, recovering alcoholic with a significant abstinent period can get a good life insurance quote. The abstinence of a year or 2 is usually enough for a person to get an average price of life insurance. Furthermore, new consequent relapses could also be considered as potential aggravating factor to accomplish this kind of financial benefits. So far, the research (and interventions) focused on the effects on the population level, such as the increase in taxes, advertising bans, and the implementation of laws that prevent the use of alcohol in traffic. However, it seems that the problem may be viewed at the individual level. The models of the treatment should be designed according to the needs of the individual. These models should incorporate not only the reduction of alcohol intake but also the path to abstinence. The plan should take into account the different (individual) needs for treatment, with regard to the degree of alcohol dependence and health status and also include the needs of the
Müller, Christian A; Geisel, Olga; Pelz, Patricia; Higl, Verena; Krüger, Josephine; Stickel, Anna; Beck, Anne; Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter; Hellweg, Rainer; Heinz, Andreas
Previous randomized, placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of the selective γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-B receptor agonist baclofen in the treatment of alcohol dependence have reported divergent results, possibly related to the low to medium dosages of baclofen used in these studies (30-80mg/d). Based on preclinical observations of a dose-dependent effect and positive case reports in alcohol-dependent patients, the present RCT aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of individually titrated high-dose baclofen for the treatment of alcohol dependence. Out of 93 alcohol-dependent patients initially screened, 56 were randomly assigned to a double-blind treatment with individually titrated baclofen or placebo using dosages of 30-270mg/d. The multiple primary outcome measures were (1) total abstinence and (2) cumulative abstinence duration during a 12-week high-dose phase. More patients of the baclofen group maintained total abstinence during the high-dose phase than those receiving placebo (15/22, 68.2% vs. 5/21, 23.8%, p=0.014). Cumulative abstinence duration was significantly higher in patients given baclofen compared to patients of the placebo group (mean 67.8 (SD 30) vs. 51.8 (SD 29.6) days, p=0.047). No drug-related serious adverse events were observed during the trial. Individually titrated high-dose baclofen effectively supported alcohol-dependent patients in maintaining alcohol abstinence and showed a high tolerability, even in the event of relapse. These results provide further evidence for the potential of baclofen, thereby possibly extending the current pharmacological treatment options in alcohol dependence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.
Kechagias, Stergios; Dernroth, Dženeta Nezirević; Blomgren, Anders; Hansson, Therese; Isaksson, Anders; Walther, Lisa; Kronstrand, Robert; Kågedal, Bertil; Nystrom, Fredrik H
It is generally agreed that traditional alcohol biomarkers lack in sensitivity to detect hazardous alcohol consumption. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the ability of phosphatidylethanol (PEth) and traditional alcohol markers to detect moderate alcohol consumption and to distinguish between moderate alcohol consumption and abstinence. Forty-four subjects, 32 females and 12 males, were included in the study. They were randomized to alcohol abstention or to alcohol consumption. Female participants consumed 150 ml of red wine (equivalent to 16 g of alcohol) per 24 h and the male participants double the amount. The study lasted for 3 months. Blood samples were drawn at the start and at the end of the study period. Blood samples were analysed for PEth, carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). ROC curves for the various biochemical markers were plotted in order to assess their ability to discriminate between abstention and moderate daily consumption of alcohol. PEth and CDT were the only markers with AUROCs significantly higher than 0.5, and PEth was detected in all participants randomized to alcohol consumption. PEth was the only marker that could detect moderate intake and the present results also indicate that PEth probably can distinguish moderate alcohol consumption from abstinence. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Alcoholism is a chronic illness marked by dependence on alcohol consumption that interferes with physical or mental health, and social, family or job responsibilities. This addiction can lead to liver, circulatory and neurological problems. Pregnant women who ...
Tidey, Jennifer W.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Kaplan, Gary B.; Swift, Robert M.; Adolfo, Amy B.
The mechanisms underlying the low smoking cessation rates among smokers with schizophrenia (SS) are unknown. In this laboratory study, we compared the responses of 21 SS and 21 non-psychiatric controls (CS) to manipulations of 5-hour smoking abstinence, transdermal nicotine replacement (0, 21 and 42 mg), and in vivo smoking cues. Results indicate that SS were more sensitive than CS to the effects of acute abstinence on CO boost, but not more sensitive to the effects of abstinence on urge levels or withdrawal symptoms. SS and CS did not differ in urge response to in vivo smoking cues, but SS were less consistent in their reactions. These findings suggest that heightened sensitivity to the effects of abstinence on smoke intake may partially account for the low cessation rates experienced by SS, but other potential mechanisms should be explored using behavioral laboratory models. PMID:18584468
Muto, Takeo; Sunami, Takashi; Cho, Sachiko; Miyashita, Aya; Tsurumaru, Aiko; Yuzuriha, Takefumi
It's almost 50 years since medical treatment for alcoholism began to be practiced in Japan in 1960s. Since then, treatment goal for alcohol use disorders has always been absolute abstinence, and only severe cases have been treated. Recently, many people are concerned about lifestyle-related diseases, suicides, depression, and drunken-driving accidents. Reduction in alcohol consumption of heavy drinkers began to draw attention, and brief motivational intervention study was launched at last in 2007 in Japan. In 2009 we set up alcohol clinic in a general hospital in order that the alcoholics may get easier access to their treatments. The basic roles of our alcohol satellite clinicare as follows: 1. Assessment and diagnosis of patient's alcohol-related problem are our primary role. 2. Referral to a specialized hospital is offered in case special treatments for alcohol dependence are needed. 3. Our standard treatment is a brief intervention, not exceeding 3 sessions, to enhance the patients' self-efficacy. 4. Our treatment goal is not limited to total abstinence. Moderation of drinking can also be a goal. We examined the treatment outcome to verify these roles and meanings. Of all the patients visited this hospital from 2009 to 2011, 77 patients were diagnosed as alcohol dependent. Out of those 77 patients, 21 patients set up a moderation of drinking as their temporal treatment goal and 10 achieved good outcome at the inquiry point of 8 to 41 (average: 22) months after intervention. This result suggests that moderation can be a practical treatment goal in some alcoholics.
Leventhal, Adam M.
Introduction: Socioeconomic status (SES) indicators are robustly associated with smoking behaviors. Yet, the psychological mechanisms underlying relations are unclear. This study merged the socioecological construct of SES with laboratory psychological science to investigate how income, education, and employment status predicted the reward value of smoking following tobacco abstinence among a diverse sample of adult daily smokers. We hypothesized that participants with lower SES (i.e., less education, lower income, and unemployed) would experience greater abstinence-induced enhancement of the reward value of smoking. Methods: Adult smokers (N = 240; 68.7% male; 51.7% Black, 33.8% White, 7.1% Latino, and 7.5% other) attended 2 laboratory sessions (1 nonabstinent and 1 following 16-hr tobacco abstinence) involving behavioral assessment of (a) latency to smoking when delaying smoking was monetarily rewarded and (b) purchasing individual cigarettes. Generalized estimating equations were used to test the interaction between each SES variable (education, income, and employment) and abstinence state to illustrate whether participants with certain SES characteristics were more sensitive to the abstinence-induced enhancement of the relative reward value of smoking. Results: Participants who never attended college (vs. college attendees) exhibited greater abstinence-induced enhancement of the reward value of smoking, which was indicated by reduced willingness to delay smoking for money (ps = .03). Income and employment status did not moderate abstinence effects. Conclusions: Less-educated smokers were particularly motivated to smoke during acute abstinence. Observed educational disparities in smoking behaviors and smoking cessation might reflect a biased valuation of immediate drug-related (over less immediate alternative) rewards. Future research should explore potential mediators of this association. PMID:24935756
Reitzel, Lorraine R; Leventhal, Adam M
Socioeconomic status (SES) indicators are robustly associated with smoking behaviors. Yet, the psychological mechanisms underlying relations are unclear. This study merged the socioecological construct of SES with laboratory psychological science to investigate how income, education, and employment status predicted the reward value of smoking following tobacco abstinence among a diverse sample of adult daily smokers. We hypothesized that participants with lower SES (i.e., less education, lower income, and unemployed) would experience greater abstinence-induced enhancement of the reward value of smoking. Adult smokers (N = 240; 68.7% male; 51.7% Black, 33.8% White, 7.1% Latino, and 7.5% other) attended 2 laboratory sessions (1 nonabstinent and 1 following 16-hr tobacco abstinence) involving behavioral assessment of (a) latency to smoking when delaying smoking was monetarily rewarded and (b) purchasing individual cigarettes. Generalized estimating equations were used to test the interaction between each SES variable (education, income, and employment) and abstinence state to illustrate whether participants with certain SES characteristics were more sensitive to the abstinence-induced enhancement of the relative reward value of smoking. Participants who never attended college (vs. college attendees) exhibited greater abstinence-induced enhancement of the reward value of smoking, which was indicated by reduced willingness to delay smoking for money (ps = .03). Income and employment status did not moderate abstinence effects. Less-educated smokers were particularly motivated to smoke during acute abstinence. Observed educational disparities in smoking behaviors and smoking cessation might reflect a biased valuation of immediate drug-related (over less immediate alternative) rewards. Future research should explore potential mediators of this association. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Chused, J F
In recent years a number of analytic concepts have been subject to scrutiny, with the value of interpretations, the usefulness of abstinence, the possibility of neutrality, all questioned. One reason for the skepticism about interpretations, in particular, is that before a patient can use an interpretation for psychic change, his perceptual frame must change, a process that is rarely initiated by the verbal content of an interpretation alone. Instead, alterations in perception usually require experiences which are discordant with expectations. In this paper the author demonstrates how the nonverbal elements of an intervention, the action communications, provide informative experiences, creating the dissonance between expectation and eventuality which makes psychic change possible. Case vignettes are presented to illustrate this point as well as to support the idea that when nonverbal experiences contribute to lasting change within a patient, the therapeutic benefit does not accrue primarily from the gratification provided by the experience, but from how the experience informs the patient about his mode of thinking, perceiving, and reacting.
Kraft, Walter K.; Stover, Megan W.; Davis, Jonathan M.
Opioid use in pregnancy has increased dramatically over the past decade. Since prenatal opioid use is associated with numerous obstetrical and neonatal complications, this now has become a major public health problem. In particular, in utero opioid exposure can result in neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) which is a serious condition characterized by central nervous system hyperirritability and autonomic nervous system dysfunction. The present review seeks to define current practices regarding the approach to the pregnant mother and neonate with prenatal opiate exposure. Although the cornerstone of prenatal management of opioid dependence is opioid maintenance therapy, the ideal agent has yet to be definitively established. Pharmacologic management of NAS is also highly variable and may include an opioid, barbiturate, and/or α-agonist. Genetic factors appear to be associated with the incidence and severity of NAS. Establishing pharmacogenetic risk factors for the development of NAS has the potential for creating opportunities for “personalized genomic medicine” and novel, individualized therapeutic interventions. PMID:26791055
DeVito, Elise E; Herman, Aryeh I; Konkus, Noah S; Zhang, Huiping; Sofuoglu, Mehmet
No pharmacotherapies are approved for the treatment of cocaine use disorders (CUD). Behavioral treatments for CUD are efficacious for some individuals, but recovery rates from CUD remain low. Cognitive impairments in CUD have been linked with poorer clinical outcomes. Cognitive enhancing pharmacotherapies have been proposed as promising treatments for CUD. Atomoxetine, a norepinephrine transporter inhibitor, shows potential as a treatment for CUD based on its efficacy as a cognitive enhancer in other clinical populations and impact on addictive processes in preclinical and human laboratory studies. In this randomized, double-blind, crossover study, abstinent individuals with CUD (N=39) received placebo, 40 and 80mg atomoxetine, over three sessions. Measures of attention, response inhibition and working memory; subjective medication effects and mood; and cardiovascular effects were collected. Analyses assessed acute, dose-dependent effects of atomoxetine. In addition, preliminary analyses investigating the modulation of atomoxetine dose effects by sex were performed. Atomoxetine increased heart rate and blood pressure, was rated as having positive and negative subjective drug effects, and had only modest effects on mood and cognitive enhancement. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Fals-Stewart, William
We received 38 controlled studies of marital and family therapy (MFT) in alcoholism treatment. We conclude that, when the alcoholic is unwilling to seek help, MFT is effective in helping the family cope better and motivating alcoholics to enter treatment. Specifically, (a) Al-Anon facilitation and referral help family members cope better; (b)…
Tonigan, J Scott; Miller, W R; Schermer, Carol
In spite of the strong emphasis in AA on spiritual beliefs and practices, findings are mixed about the importance of such beliefs in predicting AA affiliation. This study of the Project MATCH outpatient (N = 952) and aftercare (N = 774) samples tested three hypotheses about the role of client God belief and subsequent AA attendance and benefit, taking into account that some individuals may, in fact, deny the existence of a God. Longitudinal analyses were conducted (N = 1,526) investigating client God beliefs, AA attendance, patterns of AA attendance and alcohol use. Assessments were conducted at intake and in 3-month intervals using the Form 90, Religious Behaviors and Background, and the Alcoholics Anonymous Inventory. 12-Step treatment was significantly more likely to promote pre-post shifts in client God beliefs, and atheist and agnostic clients attended AA significantly less often throughout follow-up relative to clients self-labeled as spiritual and religious. AA attendance, however, was significantly associated with increased abstinence and reductions in drinking intensity regardless of God belief. Finally, no differences in percent days abstinence and drinking intensity were found between atheist and agnostic versus spiritual and religious clients, but clients unsure about their God belief reported significantly higher drinking frequency relative to the other groups. God belief appears to be relatively unimportant in deriving AA-related benefit, but atheist and agnostic clients are less likely to initiate and sustain AA attendance relative to spiritual and religious clients. This apparent reticence to affiliate with AA ought to be clinically recognized when encouraging AA participation.
Li, Xingxing; Li, Shuangyan; Zheng, Wenhui; Pan, Jian; Huang, Kunyu; Chen, Rong; Pan, Tonghe; Liao, Guorong; Chen, Zhongming; Zhou, Dongsheng; Shen, Wenwen; Zhou, Wenhua; Liu, Yu
The current study was designed to investigate the effect of abstinence in combination with environmental enrichment (EE) on cardiac and renal toxicity induced by 2 weeks of ketamine self-administration (SA) in rodents. In Experiment 1, one group of rats underwent ketamine SA for 14 days. In Experiment 2, the animals completed 2 weeks of ketamine SA followed by 2 and 4 weeks of abstinence. In Experiment 3, animals underwent 14 days of ketamine SA and 4 weeks of abstinence in which isolated environment (IE) and EE was introduced. The corresponding control groups were included for each experiment. Two weeks of ketamine SA caused significant increases in organ weight, Apoptosis Stimulating Fragment/Kidney Injury Molecule-1, and apoptotic level of heart and kidney. The extended length of withdrawal from ketamine SA partially reduced toxicity on the heart and kidney. Finally, introduction of EE during the period of abstinence greatly promoted the effect of abstinence on ketamine-induced cardiac and renal toxicity. The interactive effect of EE and abstinence was promising to promote the recovery of cardiac and renal toxicity of ketamine. PMID:26112338
Almeida, Priscila P; de Araujo Filho, Gerardo M; Malta, Stella M; Laranjeira, Ronaldo R; Marques, Ana Cecilia R P; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Lacerda, Acioly L T
Crack-cocaine addiction is an important public health problem worldwide. Although there is not a consensus, preliminary evidence has suggested that cognitive impairments in patients with crack-cocaine dependence persist during abstinence, affecting different neuropsychological domains. However, few studies have prospectively evaluated those deficits in different phases of abstinence. The main aim of present study was to examine neuropsychological performance of patients with crack-cocaine dependence during early abstinence and after four weeks, comparing with matched controls. Thirty-five males with crack-cocaine dependence, aged 18 to 50years, who met DSM-IV criteria for cocaine dependence and a control group of 33 healthy men were enrolled. They were assessed through Block Design, Digit Span and Vocabulary of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III), the Rey Auditory Learning Test (RAVLT) and the Verbal Fluency (FAS) between 3 and 10days (mean of 6.1±2.0days) and after 4weeks of abstinence. Compared to controls, the crack-cocaine dependent group exhibited deficits in cognitive performance affecting attention, verbal memory and learning tasks in early withdrawal. Most of the cognitive deficits persisted after four weeks of abstinence. Present results observed that the group of patients with crack-cocaine dependence presented persistent deficits affecting memory and attention even after four weeks of abstinence, confirming previous studies that had disclosed such cognitive impairments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Meredith, Steven E.; Grabinski, Michael J.; Dallery, Jesse
Background In contingency management (CM) interventions, monetary consequences are contingent on evidence of drug abstinence. Typically, these consequences are contingent on individual performance. Consequences contingent on group performance may promote social support (e.g., praise). Methods Thus, to combine social support with the monetary incentives of CM, we integrated independent and interdependent group contingencies of reinforcement into an Internet-based intervention to promote smoking abstinence. Breath carbon monoxide (CO) measures were compared between treatment conditions and a baseline control condition. Thirteen participants were divided into 5 groups or “teams” (n = 2–3 per team). Each participant submitted video recordings of CO measurement twice daily via the Internet. Teammates could monitor each other’s progress and communicate with one another through an online peer support forum. During a 4-day tapering condition, vouchers exchangeable for goods were contingent on gradual reductions in breath CO. During a 10-day abstinence induction condition, vouchers were contingent on abstinence (CO ≤4 ppm). In both treatment conditions, concurrent independent and interdependent group contingencies were arranged (i.e., a mixed contingency arrangement). Results Less than 1% of CO samples submitted during baseline were ≤4 ppm, compared to 57% submitted during abstinence induction. Sixty-five percent of participants’ comments on the online peer support forum were rated as positive by independent observers. Participants rated the intervention favorably on a treatment acceptability questionnaire. Conclusion The results suggest that the intervention is feasible and acceptable for promoting abstinence from cigarette smoking. PMID:21414733
Pani, Pier Paolo; Trogu, Emanuela; Pacini, Matteo; Maremmani, Icro
Alcohol dependence is a major public health problem that is characterised by recidivism and a host of medical and psychosocial complications. Besides psychosocial interventions, different pharmacological interventions have been or currently are under investigation through Cochrane systematic reviews. The primary aim of the review is to assess the benefits/risks of anticonvulsants for the treatment of alcohol dependence. We searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Trials Register (October 2013), PubMed (1966 to October 2013), EMBASE (1974 to October 2013) and CINAHL (1982 to October 2013). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing anticonvulsants alone or in association with other drugs and/or psychosocial interventions versus placebo, no treatment and other pharmacological or psychosocial interventions. We used standard methodological procedures as expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. A total of 25 studies were included in the review (2641 participants). Most participants were male, with an average age of 44 years. Anticonvulsants were compared with placebo (17 studies), other medications (seven studies) and no medication (two studies). The mean duration of the trials was 17 weeks (range four to 52 weeks). The studies took place in the USA, Europe, South America, India and Thailand. Variation was reported in the characteristics of the studies, including their design and the rating instruments used. For many key outcomes, the risk of bias associated with unclear or unconcealed allocation and lack of blinding affected the quality of the evidence.Anticonvulsants versus placebo: For dropouts (16 studies, 1675 participants, risk ratio (RR) 0.94, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 0.74 to 1.19, moderate-quality evidence) and continuous abstinence (eight studies, 634 participants, RR 1.21, 95% Cl 95% 0.97 to 1.52, moderate-quality evidence), results showed no evidence of differences. Moderate-quality evidence suggested that
Habib, Cherine; Santoro, Joseph; Kremer, Peter; Toumbourou, John; Leslie, Eva; Williams, Joanne
To examine the importance of family management, family structure and father-adolescent relationships on early adolescent alcohol use. Cross-sectional data was collected across 30 randomly selected Australian communities stratified to represent a range of socio-economic and regional variation. Data were collected during school time from adolescents attending a broad range of schools. The sample consisted of a combined 8256 students (aged 10-14 years). Students completed a web-based survey as part of the Healthy Neighbourhoods project. Family management-which included practices such as parental monitoring and family rules about alcohol use-had the strongest and most consistent relationship with alcohol use in early adolescence. Adolescents reporting higher family management were less likely to have drunk alcohol in their life-time, less likely to drink alcohol in the preceding 30 days and less likely to have had an alcohol binge. Adolescents reporting emotionally close relationships with their fathers were less likely to have drunk alcohol in their life-time and less likely to have had an alcohol binge in the preceding fortnight. Findings indicate that family management practices may contribute to alcohol abstinence in adolescents. Furthermore, emotionally close father-adolescent relationships may also foster abstinence; however, fathers' drinking behaviours need to be considered. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Stuyt, Elizabeth B
Although the prevalence of tobacco use in those in substance abuse treatment is known to be quite high, most treatment programs do not address tobacco. The purpose of this study was to determine substance abuse recovery rates a year after treatment in a fully integrated, 90-day inpatient, dual diagnosis treatment program where patients are required to quit tobacco use in addition to drug and alcohol use for the duration of their 3 month stay. Tobacco is treated in the same way as other drugs and alcohol. One hundred fifty-four patients enrolled in a yearlong follow-up after treatment study consisting of monthly phone contact to assess recovery from substance abuse. One hundred forty (n=140) patients completed the year follow-up. At the time of entry into the program 120 (86%) were using tobacco daily. At the end of the year this decreased to 102 (73%). Patients who were using tobacco were more likely to relapse to other drugs or alcohol (p = .01). Patients who actively attempted to abstain from tobacco after treatment were significantly more likely to remain continuously abstinent throughout the year (p = .03). This study demonstrates that tobacco use is correlated with relapse and addressing tobacco in treatment as seriously as and in the same fashion as other drugs, improves outcomes. When provided with a tobacco free treatment environment for 90 days, patients with substance abuse and mental illness can and do make the decision to quit tobacco and stay quit, aiding their ability to remain sober. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Guzzo-Merello, Gonzalo; Cobo-Marcos, Marta; Gallego-Delgado, Maria; Garcia-Pavia, Pablo
Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM. PMID:25228956
Townshend, J M; Duka, T
Previous research has shown an attentional bias toward drug-related stimuli in heavy social drinkers. Attentional orientation to drug-related cues may lead to increased craving and preoccupation with the drug and impaired ability to focus attention on nondrug-related activities, resulting in renewed drug taking or relapse from drug abstinence. The aim of this study was to investigate whether alcohol-dependent inpatients would differ in their selective attention toward alcohol-related stimuli in comparison with a group of social drinking controls. Thirty-five alcohol-dependent inpatients were compared with a group of 39 social drinking controls matched for age, sex, and verbal IQ. Attentional bias was assessed using alcohol-related pictures in a dot probe detection task. Questionnaires were used to examine outcome expectancies after alcohol consumption, anxiety, mood, and craving. The alcoholic inpatients showed a bias away from the alcohol-related stimuli, scored higher on alcohol outcome expectancies, and on anxiety measures (both state and trait). They also presented with more negative mood compared with the control group. Craving was higher in the alcoholic group for the factor "loss of control over drinking." Alcoholic inpatients undergoing treatment based on the 12-step treatment of Alcoholics Anonymous (Minnesota model), which includes counseling, and intensive group, individual, and family psychotherapy, show an avoidance for drug-related stimuli and a perception of loss of control over drinking. We suggest that their increased perception of loss of control over drinking produces the avoidance from the drug-related stimuli.
Limsanon, Thatsanee; Kalayasiri, Rasmon
Cigarette craving usually occurs in conjunction with unpleasant feelings, including stress, as part of a withdrawal syndrome. Progressive muscle relaxation (PMR), a behavioral technique used to reduce stress by concentrating on achieving muscle relaxation, may reduce levels of cigarette craving and other substance-related negative feelings and withdrawal symptoms. Demographic and cigarette use data were collected from 32 experienced smokers at the King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand using the Semi-Structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism. Participants were asked to refrain from smoking for at least 3 hours before the visit (acute abstinence) and were randomly allocated to a 1-session PMR group (n =16) or a control activity group (e.g., reading newspaper, n =16). The intervention group was instructed to practice PMR individually in a quiet, private, air-conditioned room for about 20minutes. Craving, other substance-related feelings, and autonomic nervous responses (e.g., blood pressure and pulse rate) were assessed immediately before and after the 1-session intervention. There were no differences in demographics, cigarette use/dependence, and baseline craving characteristics between the PMR and control groups. However, the control group had higher levels of high and paranoia feeling, and pulse rate than the PMR group at baseline. After practicing PMR, but not after a control activity, smokers undergoing acute abstinence had significantly lower levels of cigarette craving, withdrawal symptoms, and systolic blood pressure than at baseline. After controlling for baseline differences, abstaining smokers using PMR had lower levels of cigarette craving, withdrawal symptoms, and systolic blood pressure than smokers who undertook a control activity. PMR significantly reduces cigarette craving, withdrawal symptoms, and blood pressure in smokers undergoing acute abstinence. PMR may be used as an adjunct to cigarette dependency treatments
Bauer, L O; Gross, J B; Meyer, R E; Greenblatt, D J
The aim of the present investigation was to examine benzodiazepine sensitivity in abstinent alcoholics. For this purpose, two escalating doses of the benzodiazepine midazolam were i.v. administered to nine alcohol-dependent patients after 2-3 weeks of abstinence and 12 healthy, non-alcoholic volunteers. A variety of dependent measures were examined, including the power spectrum of the resting electroencephalogram (EEG) and evoked EEG responses, saccadic eye movements, self-reported sedation, and vigilance task performance. Analyses revealed a significant association between plasma midazolam levels and changes in EEG beta power, pattern shift visual evoked potential amplitude, heart rate, and saccade amplitude and velocity. The patient and control groups differed significantly in the onset latencies of their saccadic eye movements, and marginally in EEG beta power, both before and after midazolam. However, no differences were detected between the groups in the dose of midazolam required to produce sedation or in midazolam's neurophysiological effects.
Chau, Kim T; Nguyen, Jacqueline; Miladinovic, Branko; Lilly, Carol M; Ashmeade, Terri L; Balakrishnan, Maya
An increasing number of infants are diagnosed with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). The study's primary objectives were to describe an academic medical center's level IV neonatal ICU's (NICU's) comprehensive outpatient NAS management effort, measure guideline compliance, and assess its safety. Secondary objectives were to describe the duration and cumulative methadone exposure, and to improve parent and provider knowledge of NAS. The study included 22 infants having a gestational age of 35-41 weeks, diagnosed with NAS, and discharged for outpatient methadone management. Discharges spanned 10 months and included 3 improvement periods. The outpatient program includes comprehensive discharge planning, a focused electronic health record (EHR) template, management guidelines, and parent and provider education. Providers complied with using the outpatient management guideline and EHR template, and assessed weight, NAS symptoms, and methadone dose during appointments. Two infants required NAS-related hospital readmission in the study period. From improvement period 1 to period 3 there was no difference in total outpatient days on methadone (58, 53, 74 days, respectively) or cumulative methadone dose (2.7, 2.6, 3.1mg/kg, respectively). A downward trend pattern in cumulative methadone exposure was noted in improvement period 2. Pre- and postimplementation surveys revealed that after implementation, parents had better understanding of NAS before delivery (71% vs. 100%, p = 0.009), while providers had increased comfort with outpatient management (24% vs. 67%, p < 0.001) and educating parents (48% vs. 82%, p = 0.001). This preliminary study suggests that outpatient NAS management can be safe when a comprehensive management program is implemented and can result in provider compliance with the program. Copyright 2016 The Joint Commission.
Murphy-Oikonen, Jodie; McQueen, Karen
AimThe purpose of this systematic review was to assess the literature regarding the effectiveness and safety of outpatient pharmacologic weaning for infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). NAS is a multi-system disorder observed in infants experiencing withdrawal from opioid exposure in utero. Infants requiring pharmacologic treatment to manage withdrawal, traditionally receive treatment as a hospital inpatient resulting in lengthy hospitalization periods. However, there is evidence to suggest that some healthcare institutions are continuing outpatient pharmacologic weaning for select infants in a home environment. As there is no standard of care to guide outpatient weaning, assessment of the safety and effectiveness of this approach is warranted. A systematic review of outpatient weaning for infants with NAS was conducted using the electronic databases PubMed, Nursing and Allied Health, CINAHL, Evidence-Based Medicine, Web of Science, Medline, and PsychINFO. Studies were eligible for inclusion in the review if they fulfilled the following criteria: (1) reported original data on outcomes related to the effectiveness or safety of outpatient weaning for infants with NAS, (2) infants were discharged from hospital primarily receiving opioid pharmacologic treatment for NAS, (3) the method included quantitative designs that included an inpatient comparison group, and (4) articles were published in English in a peer-reviewed journal.FindingsThe search identified 154 studies, of which 18 provided information related to NAS and outpatient weaning. After reviewing the remaining full-text studies, six studies met all inclusion and exclusion criteria. All studies identified that outpatient weaning for select infants was associated with shorter hospitalization compared with infants weaned in-hospital only and may be potentially effective in reducing associated healthcare costs. However, duration of pharmacologic treatment was longer in the outpatient weaning groups in
Charles, M Katherine; Cooper, William O; Jansson, Lauren M; Dudley, Judith; Slaughter, James C; Patrick, Stephen W
Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a postnatal opioid withdrawal syndrome. Factors associated with development of the syndrome are poorly understood; however, infant sex may influence the risk of NAS. Our objective was to determine if infant sex was associated with the development or severity of the syndrome in a large population-based cohort. This retrospective cohort study used vital statistics and prescription, outpatient, and inpatient administrative data for mothers and infants enrolled in the Tennessee Medicaid program between 2009 and 2011. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between male sex and diagnosis of NAS, accounting for potential demographic and clinical confounders. NAS severity, as evidenced by hospital length of stay, was modeled by using negative binomial regression. Of 102 695 infants, 927 infants were diagnosed with NAS (484 male subjects and 443 female subjects). Adjustments were made for the following: maternal age, race, and education; maternal hepatitis C infection, anxiety, or depression; in utero exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and cigarettes; infant birth weight, small for gestational age, and year; and the interaction between opioid type and opioid amount. Male infants were more likely than female infants to be diagnosed with NAS (adjusted odds ratio, 1.18 [95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.33]) and NAS requiring treatment (adjusted odds ratio, 1.24 [95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.47]). However, there was no sex-based difference in severity for those diagnosed with NAS. Treatment of NAS should be tailored to an infant's individual risk for the syndrome. Clinicians should be mindful that male sex is an important risk factor in the diagnosis of NAS. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Bouton, Mark E; Schepers, Scott T
In resurgence, an extinguished instrumental behavior (R1) recovers when a behavior that has replaced it (R2) is also extinguished. The phenomenon may be relevant to understanding relapse that can occur after the termination of "contingency management" treatments, in which an unwanted behavior (e.g., substance abuse) is reduced by reinforcing an alternative behavior. When reinforcement is discontinued, the unwanted behavior might resurge. However, unlike most resurgence experiments, contingency management treatments also introduce a negative contingency, in which reinforcers are not delivered unless the client has abstained from the unwanted behavior. In two experiments with rats, we therefore examined the effects of adding a negative "abstinence" contingency to the resurgence design. During response elimination, R2 was not reinforced unless R1 had not been emitted for a minimum period of time (45, 90, or 135 s). In both experiments, adding such a contingency to simple R1 extinction reduced, but did not eliminate, resurgence. In Experiment 2, we found the same effect in a yoked group that could earn reinforcers for R2 at the same points in time as the negative-contingency group, but without the requirement to abstain from R1. Thus, the negative contingency per se did not contribute to the reduction in resurgence. These results suggest that the contingency reduced resurgence by making reinforcers more difficult to earn and more widely spaced in time. This could have allowed the animal to learn that R1 was extinguished in the "context" of infrequent reinforcement-a context more like that of resurgence testing. The results are thus consistent with a contextual (renewal) account of resurgence. The method might provide a better model of relapse after termination of a contingency management treatment.
Zwierzyńska, Ewa; Andrzejczak, Dariusz; Pietrzak, Bogusława
New antiepileptic drugs have been investigated for their potential role in the treatment of alcohol dependence. One of these drugs is retigabine and this study examines the effect of retigabine co-administered with ethanol on the development of alcohol dependence and the course of acute withdrawal syndrome. A pharmaco-EEG method was used to examine this impact in selected brain structures of rabbits (midbrain reticular formation, hippocampus and frontal cortex). Retigabine was administered p.o. at a dose of 5mg/kg/day with ethanol ad libitum for 6 weeks and then alone for 2 weeks during an abstinence period. Changes in bioelectric activity, which demonstrated the inhibitory effect of alcohol on the brain structures, were already visible after 2 weeks of ethanol administration. In the abstinence period, changes were of a different nature and significant neuronal hyperactivity was observed, particularly in the midbrain reticular formation and the hippocampus. This findings reveal that retigabine decreased ethanol-induced changes during both alcohol administration and abstinence periods. In particular, the modulatory effect of retigabine on the hippocampus may be a significant element of its mechanism of action in alcohol dependence therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
This paper discusses several models for treating chemical dependency in individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing. It begins by describing the 12-step model, a comprehensive, multi-disciplinary approach to the treatment of addiction which is abstinence oriented and based on the principles of Alcoholics Anonymous. This model includes group…
Mason, Barbara J; Quello, Susan; Goodell, Vivian; Shadan, Farhad; Kyle, Mark; Begovic, Adnan
Approved medications for alcohol dependence are prescribed for less than 9% of US alcoholics. To determine if gabapentin, a widely prescribed generic calcium channel/γ-aminobutyric acid-modulating medication, increases rates of sustained abstinence and no heavy drinking and decreases alcohol-related insomnia, dysphoria, and craving, in a dose-dependent manner. A 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized dose-ranging trial of 150 men and women older than 18 years with current alcohol dependence, conducted from 2004 through 2010 at a single-site, outpatient clinical research facility adjoining a general medical hospital. Oral gabapentin (dosages of 0 [placebo], 900 mg, or 1800 mg/d) and concomitant manual-guided counseling. Rates of complete abstinence and no heavy drinking (coprimary) and changes in mood, sleep, and craving (secondary) over the 12-week study. RESULTS Gabapentin significantly improved the rates of abstinence and no heavy drinking. The abstinence rate was 4.1% (95% CI, 1.1%-13.7%) in the placebo group, 11.1% (95% CI, 5.2%-22.2%) in the 900-mg group, and 17.0% (95% CI, 8.9%-30.1%) in the 1800-mg group (P = .04 for linear dose effect; number needed to treat [NNT] = 8 for 1800 mg). The no heavy drinking rate was 22.5% (95% CI, 13.6%-37.2%) in the placebo group, 29.6% (95% CI, 19.1%-42.8%) in the 900-mg group, and 44.7% (95% CI, 31.4%-58.8%) in the 1800-mg group (P = .02 for linear dose effect; NNT = 5 for 1800 mg). Similar linear dose effects were obtained with measures of mood (F2 = 7.37; P = .001), sleep (F2 = 136; P < .001), and craving (F2 = 3.56; P = .03). There were no serious drug-related adverse events, and terminations owing to adverse events (9 of 150 participants), time in the study (mean [SD], 9.1 [3.8] weeks), and rate of study completion (85 of 150 participants) did not differ among groups. Gabapentin (particularly the 1800-mg dosage) was effective in treating alcohol dependence and relapse-related symptoms of insomnia
Bujarski, Spencer; Roche, Daniel J O; Sheets, Erin S; Krull, Jennifer L; Guzman, Iris; Ray, Lara A
Despite the critical role of withdrawal, craving, and positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) in smoking relapse, relatively little is known about the temporal and predictive relationship between these constructs within the first day of abstinence. This pilot study aims to characterize dynamic changes in withdrawal, craving, and affect over the course of early abstinence using ecological momentary assessment. Beginning immediately after smoking, moderate and heavy smoking participants (n = 15 per group) responded to hourly surveys assessing craving, withdrawal, NA, and PA. Univariate and multivariate multilevel random coefficient modeling was used to describe the progression of craving, withdrawal/NA, and PA and to test correlations between these constructs at the subject level over the course of early abstinence. Heavy smokers reported greater craving from 1-4 hr of abstinence and greater withdrawal/NA after 3 or more hours as compared with moderate smokers. Level of withdrawal/NA was strongly positively associated with craving, and PA was negatively correlated with craving; however, the temporal dynamics of these correlations differed substantially. The association between withdrawal/NA and craving decreased over early abstinence, whereas the reverse was observed for PA. These findings can inform experimental studies of nicotine abstinence as well as their clinical applications to smoking cessation efforts. In particular, these results help to elucidate the role of PA in nicotine abstinence by demonstrating its independent association with nicotine craving over and above withdrawal/NA. If supported by future studies, these findings can refine experimental methods and clinical approaches for smoking cessation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Lerman, Caryn; Gu, Hong; Loughead, James; Ruparel, Kosha; Yang, Yihong; Stein, Elliot A.
IMPORTANCE Interactions of large-scale brain networks may underlie cognitive dysfunctions in psychiatric and addictive disorders. OBJECTIVES To test the hypothesis that the strength of coupling among 3 large-scale brain networks–salience, executive control, and default mode–will reflect the state of nicotine withdrawal (vs smoking satiety) and will predict abstinence-induced craving and cognitive deficits and to develop a resource allocation index (RAI) that reflects the combined strength of interactions among the 3 large-scale networks. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A within-subject functional magnetic resonance imaging study in an academic medical center compared resting-state functional connectivity coherence strength after 24 hours of abstinence and after smoking satiety. We examined the relationship of abstinence-induced changes in the RAI with alterations in subjective, behavioral, and neural functions. We included 37 healthy smoking volunteers, aged 19 to 61 years, for analyses. INTERVENTIONS Twenty-four hours of abstinence vs smoking satiety. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Inter-network connectivity strength (primary) and the relationship with subjective, behavioral, and neural measures of nicotine withdrawal during abstinence vs smoking satiety states (secondary). RESULTS The RAI was significantly lower in the abstinent compared with the smoking satiety states (left RAI, P = .002; right RAI, P = .04), suggesting weaker inhibition between the default mode and salience networks. Weaker inter-network connectivity (reduced RAI) predicted abstinence-induced cravings to smoke (r = −0.59; P = .007) and less suppression of default mode activity during performance of a subsequent working memory task (ventromedial prefrontal cortex, r = −0.66, P = .003; posterior cingulate cortex, r = −0.65, P = .001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Alterations in coupling of the salience and default mode networks and the inability to disengage from the default mode network may
Lerman, Caryn; Gu, Hong; Loughead, James; Ruparel, Kosha; Yang, Yihong; Stein, Elliot A
Interactions of large-scale brain networks may underlie cognitive dysfunctions in psychiatric and addictive disorders. To test the hypothesis that the strength of coupling among 3 large-scale brain networks--salience, executive control, and default mode--will reflect the state of nicotine withdrawal (vs smoking satiety) and will predict abstinence-induced craving and cognitive deficits and to develop a resource allocation index (RAI) that reflects the combined strength of interactions among the 3 large-scale networks. A within-subject functional magnetic resonance imaging study in an academic medical center compared resting-state functional connectivity coherence strength after 24 hours of abstinence and after smoking satiety. We examined the relationship of abstinence-induced changes in the RAI with alterations in subjective, behavioral, and neural functions. We included 37 healthy smoking volunteers, aged 19 to 61 years, for analyses. Twenty-four hours of abstinence vs smoking satiety. Inter-network connectivity strength (primary) and the relationship with subjective, behavioral, and neural measures of nicotine withdrawal during abstinence vs smoking satiety states (secondary). The RAI was significantly lower in the abstinent compared with the smoking satiety states (left RAI, P = .002; right RAI, P = .04), suggesting weaker inhibition between the default mode and salience networks. Weaker inter-network connectivity (reduced RAI) predicted abstinence-induced cravings to smoke (r = -0.59; P = .007) and less suppression of default mode activity during performance of a subsequent working memory task (ventromedial prefrontal cortex, r = -0.66, P = .003; posterior cingulate cortex, r = -0.65, P = .001). Alterations in coupling of the salience and default mode networks and the inability to disengage from the default mode network may be critical in cognitive/affective alterations that underlie nicotine dependence.
Rasmussen, Dennis D; Beckwith, Lauren E; Kincaid, Carrie L; Froehlich, Janice C
Background Evidence suggests that activation of the noradrenergic system may contribute to alcohol drinking in animals and humans. Our previous studies demonstrated that blocking α1-adrenergic receptors with the antagonist, prazosin, decreased alcohol drinking in rats under various conditions. Since noradrenergic activation is also regulated by β-adrenergic receptors, we now examine the effects of the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, propranolol, alone or in combination with prazosin, on alcohol drinking in rats selectively bred for high voluntary alcohol intake and alcohol preference (P line). Methods Two studies were conducted with male P rats. In study one, rats were allowed to become alcohol-dependent during 14 weeks of ad libitum access to food, water and 20% alcohol and the effect of propranolol (5–15 mg/kg, IP) and prazosin (1–2 mg/kg, IP) on alcohol intake during withdrawal were assessed. In study two, the effect of propranolol (5 mg/kg, IP) and prazosin (2 mg/kg, IP) on alcohol intake following prolonged imposed abstinence was assessed. Results Alcohol drinking following propranolol treatment was variable, but the combination of propranolol + prazosin consistently suppressed alcohol drinking during both alcohol withdrawal and following prolonged imposed abstinence, and the combination of these two drugs was more effective than was treatment with either drug alone. Conclusions Treatment with prazosin + propranolol, or a combination of other centrally active α1- and β-adrenergic receptor antagonists, may assist in preventing alcohol relapse in some individuals. PMID:24891220
García-Rodríguez, Olaya; Secades-Villa, Roberto; Flórez-Salamanca, Ludwing; Okuda, Mayumi; Liu, Shang-Min; Blanco, Carlos
Background The goal of this study was to estimate rates of relapse to smoking in the community and to identify predictors of relapse. Methods Data were drawn from the Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the probability of relapse at Wave 2 among individuals who were abstinent at Wave 1 given length of abstinence as well as the presence of several sociodemographic, psychopathologic and substance use-related variables at Wave 1. Results The risk for relapse among individuals who had been abstinent for 12 months or less at the baseline assessment was above 50%. Among individuals who had been abstinent for over a year, risk of relapse decreased hyperbolically as a function of time, and stabilized around 10% after 30 years of abstinence. Although several sociodemographic, psychopathologic and tobacco-related variables predicted relapse in univariate analyses, only younger age at cessation and shorter duration of abstinence independently predicted risk of relapse in multivariable analyses. Conclusions The first year after a quit attempt constitutes the period of highest risk for relapse. Although the risk for relapse decreases over time, it never fully disappears. Furthermore, younger age at smoking cessation also increases the risk for relapse. This information may help develop more targeted and effective relapse prevention programs. PMID:23570817
DeFulio, Anthony; Donlin, Wendy D; Wong, Conrad J; Silverman, Kenneth
Due to the chronic nature of cocaine dependence, long-term maintenance treatments may be required to sustain abstinence. Abstinence reinforcement is among the most effective means of initiating cocaine abstinence. Practical and effective means of maintaining abstinence reinforcement programs over time are needed. To determine whether employment-based abstinence reinforcement can be an effective long-term maintenance intervention for cocaine dependence. Participants (n = 128) were enrolled in a 6-month job skills training and abstinence initiation program. Participants who initiated abstinence, attended regularly and developed needed job skills during the first 6 months were hired as operators in a data entry business and assigned randomly to an employment-only (control, n = 24) or abstinence-contingent employment (n = 27) group. A non-profit data entry business. Participants Unemployed welfare recipients who used cocaine persistently while enrolled in methadone treatment in Baltimore. Abstinence-contingent employment participants received 1 year of employment-based contingency management, in which access to employment was contingent upon provision of drug-free urine samples under routine and then random drug testing. If a participant provided drug-positive urine or failed to provide a mandatory sample, then that participant received a temporary reduction in pay and could not work until urinalysis confirmed recent abstinence. Cocaine-negative urine samples at monthly assessments across 1 year of employment. During the 1 year of employment, abstinence-contingent employment participants provided significantly more cocaine-negative urine samples than employment-only participants [79.3% and 50.7%, respectively; P = 0.004, odds ratio (OR) = 3.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.60-8.69]. Conclusions Employment-based abstinence reinforcement that includes random drug testing is effective as a long-term maintenance intervention, and is among the most promising treatments
Lukas, Scott E; Lowen, Steven B; Lindsey, Kimberly P; Conn, Nina; Tartarini, Wendy; Rodolico, John; Mallya, Gopi; Palmer, Christopher; Penetar, David M
Oral naltrexone reduces heavy drinking, but is less consistent as an abstinence promoter, whereas once-monthly extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) also maintains abstinence. The present study sought to determine if alcohol cue reactivity is attenuated by XR-NTX. Twenty-eight detoxified alcohol-dependent adult male and female volunteers received a single i.m. injection of either XR-NTX or placebo under double-blind conditions. An fMRI/cue reactivity procedure was conducted immediately before and two weeks after injection. At baseline, alcohol-related visual and olfactory cues elicited significant increases in orbital and cingulate gyri, inferior frontal and middle frontal gyri. Subsequently, brain activation was significantly altered in XR-NTX-treated individuals. These affected brain regions are associated with the integration of emotion, cognition, reward, punishment, and learning/memory, suggesting that XR-NTX attenuates the salience of alcohol-related cues. Such an effect on brain function may interrupt the processes associated with "slips" and relapse, which may account for XR-NTX's ability to maintain abstinence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, Jang-Han; Kwon, Hyoseok; Choi, Joonho; Yang, Byung-Hwan
During abstinence from alcohol, craving is elicited by the cues and contexts previously associated with alcohol, which contribute to relapse. To prevent the craving and relapse experienced by alcoholics, cue-exposure therapy (CET) has been used to extinguish the association between alcohol and alcohol-related cues and contexts. This study applied CET, using a virtual reality (VR) system, to eight members of an Alcoholics Anonymous group for eight sessions. Cues and contexts most likely to elicit an urge to drink were selected through a preliminary survey in order to compose VR-CET scenarios: a glass, a bottle, food, and a bar were judged to be the most tempting for people in alcohol dependence and abstinence. Using these cues and contexts, a Japanese-style pub and a western bar were created. Each session was administered for 30 minutes by a psychiatrist and included an introduction, immersion, VR navigation, interviews about feelings, and self-report questionnaires about cravings. The eight sessions consisted of initial and closing sessions and person-, object-, and situation-focused sessions. As a result, a reduction in cue-elicited craving after VR-CET was reported. A mean score of 15.75 (SD = 10.91) on the Alcohol Urge Questionnaire in the first session decreased to 11.50 (SD = 5.76) in the final session. This study suggests that using virtual reality can enhance the effectiveness of CET.
Nosyk, Bohdan; Anglin, M. Douglas; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Lima, Viviane Dias; Hser, Yih-Ing
In accordance with the chronic disease model of opioid dependence, cessation is often observed as a longitudinal process rather than a discrete endpoint. We aimed to characterize and identify predictors of periods of heroin abstinence in the natural history of recovery from opioid dependence. Data were collected on participants from California who were enrolled in the Civil Addict Program from 1962 onward by use of a natural history interview. Multivariate regression using proportional hazards frailty models was applied to identify independent predictors and correlates of repeated abstinence episode durations. Among 471 heroin-dependent males, 387 (82.2%) reported 932 abstinence episodes, 60.3% of which lasted at least 1 year. Multivariate analysis revealed several important findings. First, demographic factors such as age and ethnicity did not explain variation in durations of abstinence episodes. However, employment and lower drug use severity predicted longer episodes. Second, abstinence durations were longer following sustained treatment versus incarceration. Third, individuals with multiple abstinence episodes remained abstinent for longer durations in successive episodes. Finally, abstinence episodes initiated >10 and ≤20 years after first use lasted longer than others. Public policy facilitating engagement of opioid-dependent individuals in maintenance-oriented drug treatment and employment is recommended to achieve and sustain opioid abstinence. PMID:23445901
Vuchinich, Rudy; Wallace, Dennis; Milby, Jesse B; Schumacher, Joseph E; Mennemeyer, Stephen; Kertesz, Stefan
Clinical trials with cocaine-dependent outpatients have found a strong relation between in-treatment and follow-up abstinence, and the strength of this relation is constant across treatment conditions with variable efficacy in generating abstinence. The authors conducted secondary analyses of data from 3 clinical trials to determine whether this relation generalizes to cocaine-dependent homeless persons. The 3 trials (total N = 543) were conducted in a community health care facility for homeless people. The 7 treatment arms across the 3 trials were combinations of day treatment, abstinence-contingent housing, and vocational training. Drug use was measured with urine toxicology testing. Consecutive weeks of abstinence during treatment were strongly related to abstinence at the 12-month follow-up, whether or not missing 12-month data were included in the analysis. The treatment arms differed in their efficacy in generating abstinence, but the relation between in-treatment and follow-up abstinence did not differ across treatment arms. These results replicate earlier reports of these relations and extend them to a population of homeless people. The lack of differences between treatment arms in the in-treatment-follow-up abstinence relation implies that that relation is independent of the treatment-specific intervention components that generate group differences in abstinence.
Cummings, Teresa; Auerswald, Colette L; Ott, Mary A
Abstinence is a core pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention strategy. We explore the attitudinal, behavioral, and family contexts relating to abstinence and the decision to delay sex among adolescent boys. Adolescent boys ages 14-17 years were recruited from community sites using a venue-based sampling method. All eligible boys at venues were invited to participate in an electronic survey. Question items included sexual behaviors, attitudes related to sex, relationships, masculine values, and family contextual items. We enrolled 667 participants, mean age 15.7 years, of diverse ethnicity. A total of 252 were abstinent (38%). Abstinent participants were younger and less likely to report non-coital behaviors, and reported lower conventional masculine values. Among abstinent participants, 62% planned to delay sex, whereas 38% anticipated sex in the next year. Participants with lower conventional masculine values and more religious or moral motivations for abstinence were more likely to plan to delay sex. Abstinence among boys is common, even in high-STI risk communities. For these boys, abstinence appears to be a complex behavioral decision influenced by demographic, behavioral, attitudinal, and contextual factors such as age, race, non-coital sexual behaviors, and masculine values. Understanding the attitudes and contexts of abstinence, including plans to delay sex, can inform the development of public health programs for early fatherhood and STI prevention. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Correlation of stable elevations in striatal mu-opioid receptor availability in detoxified alcoholic patients with alcohol craving: a positron emission tomography study using carbon 11-labeled carfentanil.
Heinz, Andreas; Reimold, Matthias; Wrase, Jana; Hermann, Derik; Croissant, Bernhard; Mundle, Götz; Dohmen, Bernhard M; Braus, Dieter F; Braus, Dieter H; Schumann, Gunter; Machulla, Hans-Jürgen; Bares, Roland; Mann, Karl
The pleasant effects of food and alcohol intake are partially mediated by mu-opiate receptors in the ventral striatum, a central area of the brain reward system. Blockade of mu-opiate receptors with naltrexone reduces the relapse risk among some but not all alcoholic individuals. To test the hypothesis that alcohol craving is pronounced among alcoholic individuals with a high availability of mu-opiate receptors in the brain reward system. Patients and comparison sample. The availability of central mu-opiate receptors was measured in vivo with positron emission tomography (PET) and the radioligand carbon 11-labeled carfentanil in the ventral striatum and compared with the severity of alcohol craving as assessed by the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS). Hospitalized care. Volunteer sample of 25 male alcohol-dependent inpatients assessed after detoxification of whom 12 underwent PET again 5 weeks later. Control group of 10 healthy men. After 1 to 3 weeks of abstinence, the availability of mu-opiate receptors in the ventral striatum, including the nucleus accumbens, was significantly elevated in alcoholic patients compared with healthy controls and remained elevated when 12 alcoholic patients had these levels measured 5 weeks later (P<.05 corrected for multiple testing). Higher availability of mu-opiate receptors in this brain area correlated significantly with the intensity of alcohol craving as assessed by the OCDS. Abstinent alcoholic patients displayed an increase in mu-opiate receptors in the ventral striatum, including the nucleus accumbens, which correlated with the severity of alcohol craving. These findings point to a neuronal correlate of alcohol urges.
Venniro, Marco; Zhang, Michelle; Bossert, Jennifer M.; Warren, Brandon L.; Hope, Bruce T.
We recently developed a rat model of incubation of methamphetamine craving after choice-based voluntary abstinence. Here, we studied the role of dorsolateral striatum (DLS) and dorsomedial striatum (DMS) in this incubation. We trained rats to self-administer palatable food pellets (6 d, 6 h/d) and methamphetamine (12 d, 6 h/d). We then assessed relapse to methamphetamine seeking under extinction conditions after 1 and 21 abstinence days. Between tests, the rats underwent voluntary abstinence (using a discrete choice procedure between methamphetamine and food; 20 trials/d) for 19 d. We used in situ hybridization to measure the colabeling of the activity marker Fos with Drd1 and Drd2 in DMS and DLS after the tests. Based on the in situ hybridization colabeling results, we tested the causal role of DMS D1 and D2 family receptors, and DMS neuronal ensembles in “incubated” methamphetamine seeking, using selective dopamine receptor antagonists (SCH39166 or raclopride) and the Daun02 chemogenetic inactivation procedure, respectively. Methamphetamine seeking was higher after 21 d of voluntary abstinence than after 1 d (incubation of methamphetamine craving). The incubated response was associated with increased Fos expression in DMS but not in DLS; Fos was colabeled with both Drd1 and Drd2. DMS injections of SCH39166 or raclopride selectively decreased methamphetamine seeking after 21 abstinence days. In Fos-lacZ transgenic rats, selective inactivation of relapse test-activated Fos neurons in DMS on abstinence day 18 decreased incubated methamphetamine seeking on day 21. Results demonstrate a role of DMS dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the incubation of methamphetamine craving after voluntary abstinence and that DMS neuronal ensembles mediate this incubation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In human addicts, abstinence is often self-imposed and relapse can be triggered by exposure to drug-associated cues that induce drug craving. We recently developed a rat model of incubation
Caprioli, Daniele; Venniro, Marco; Zhang, Michelle; Bossert, Jennifer M; Warren, Brandon L; Hope, Bruce T; Shaham, Yavin
We recently developed a rat model of incubation of methamphetamine craving after choice-based voluntary abstinence. Here, we studied the role of dorsolateral striatum (DLS) and dorsomedial striatum (DMS) in this incubation. We trained rats to self-administer palatable food pellets (6 d, 6 h/d) and methamphetamine (12 d, 6 h/d). We then assessed relapse to methamphetamine seeking under extinction conditions after 1 and 21 abstinence days. Between tests, the rats underwent voluntary abstinence (using a discrete choice procedure between methamphetamine and food; 20 trials/d) for 19 d. We used in situ hybridization to measure the colabeling of the activity marker Fos with Drd1 and Drd2 in DMS and DLS after the tests. Based on the in situ hybridization colabeling results, we tested the causal role of DMS D 1 and D 2 family receptors, and DMS neuronal ensembles in "incubated" methamphetamine seeking, using selective dopamine receptor antagonists (SCH39166 or raclopride) and the Daun02 chemogenetic inactivation procedure, respectively. Methamphetamine seeking was higher after 21 d of voluntary abstinence than after 1 d (incubation of methamphetamine craving). The incubated response was associated with increased Fos expression in DMS but not in DLS; Fos was colabeled with both Drd1 and Drd2 DMS injections of SCH39166 or raclopride selectively decreased methamphetamine seeking after 21 abstinence days. In Fos-lacZ transgenic rats, selective inactivation of relapse test-activated Fos neurons in DMS on abstinence day 18 decreased incubated methamphetamine seeking on day 21. Results demonstrate a role of DMS dopamine D 1 and D 2 receptors in the incubation of methamphetamine craving after voluntary abstinence and that DMS neuronal ensembles mediate this incubation. In human addicts, abstinence is often self-imposed and relapse can be triggered by exposure to drug-associated cues that induce drug craving. We recently developed a rat model of incubation of methamphetamine
Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism website. Alcohol use disorder. www.niaaa.nih.gov/ ...
Marques, Paul R
Widespread concern about illicit drugs as an aspect of workplace performance potentially diminishes attention on employee alcohol use. Alcohol is the dominant drug contributing to poor job performance; it also accounts for a third of the worldwide public health burden. Evidence from public roadways – a workplace for many – provides an example for work-related risk exposure and performance lapses. In most developed countries, alcohol is involved in 20-35% of fatal crashes; drugs other than alcohol are less prominently involved in fatalities. Alcohol biomarkers can improve detection by extending the timeframe for estimating problematic exposure levels and thereby provide better information for managers. But what levels and which markers are right for the workplace? In this report, an established high-sensitivity proxy for alcohol-driving risk proclivity is used: an average 8 months of failed blood alcohol concentration (BAC) breath tests from alcohol ignition interlock devices. Higher BAC test fail rates are known to presage higher rates of future impaired-driving convictions (DUI). Drivers in alcohol interlock programs log 5-7 daily BAC tests; in 12 months, this yields thousands of samples. Also, higher program entry levels of alcohol biomarkers predict a higher likelihood of failed interlock BAC tests during subsequent months. This report summarizes selected biomarkers’ potential for workplace screening. Markers include phosphatidylethanol (PEth), percent carbohydrate deficient transferrin (%CDT), gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT), gamma %CDT (γ%CDT), and ethylglucuronide (EtG) in hair. Clinical cutoff levels and median/mean levels of these markers in abstinent people, the general population, DUI drivers, and rehabilitation clinics are summarized for context. PMID:22311827
Osna, Natalia A.; Donohue, Terrence M.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.
Excessive alcohol consumption is a global healthcare problem. The liver sustains the greatest degree of tissue injury by heavy drinking because it is the primary site of ethanol metabolism. Chronic and excessive alcohol consumption produces a wide spectrum of hepatic lesions, the most characteristic of which are steatosis, hepatitis, and fibrosis/cirrhosis. Steatosis is the earliest response to heavy drinking and is characterized by the deposition of fat in hepatocytes. Steatosis can progress to steatohepatitis, which is a more severe, inflammatory type of liver injury. This stage of liver disease can lead to the development of fibrosis, during which there is excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. The fibrotic response begins with active pericellular fibrosis, which may progress to cirrhosis, characterized by excessive liver scarring, vascular alterations, and eventual liver failure. Among problem drinkers, about 35 percent develop advanced liver disease because a number of disease modifiers exacerbate, slow, or prevent alcoholic liver disease progression. There are still no FDA-approved pharmacological or nutritional therapies for treating patients with alcoholic liver disease. Cessation of drinking (i.e., abstinence) is an integral part of therapy. Liver transplantation remains the life-saving strategy for patients with end-stage alcoholic liver disease. PMID:28988570
King, Daniel L; Kaptsis, Dean; Delfabbro, Paul H; Gradisar, Michael
This pilot study tested the efficacy of a voluntary 84-hour abstinence protocol for modifying problematic Internet gaming cognitions and behaviors METHOD: Twenty-four adults from online gaming communities, including 9 individuals who screened positively for Internet gaming disorder (IGD), abstained from Internet games for 84 hours. Surveys were collected at baseline, at daily intervals during abstinence, and at 7-day and 28-day follow-up RESULTS: Brief voluntary abstinence was successful in reducing hours of gaming, maladaptive gaming cognitions, and IGD symptoms. Abstinence was highly acceptable to participants with total compliance and no study attrition. Clinically significant improvement in IGD symptoms occurred in 75% of the IGD group at 28-day follow-up. Reliable improvement in maladaptive gaming cognitions occurred in 63% of the IGD group, whose cognition score reduced by 50% and was comparable to the non-IGD group at 28-day follow-up CONCLUSIONS: Despite limitations of sample size, this study provides promising support for brief abstinence as a simple, practical, and cost-effective treatment technique for modifying unhelpful gaming cognitions and reducing Internet gaming problems. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Petry, Nancy M; Roll, John M
Contingency management (CM) treatments that provide patients with the opportunity to earn chances of winning prizes of varying magnitudes are becoming increasingly popular. In the CM literature, magnitude of reinforcement is linked with effect sizes, such that CM treatments that provide larger magnitude reinforcement are more efficacious than those that provide lower magnitude reinforcement. With prize CM, even when magnitudes of overall expected prize earnings are constant, some patients win more prizes than others. Thus, patients who win larger overall amounts of prizes during treatment may have better outcomes than those who win fewer prizes. This study evaluated the impact of overall amounts of prizes won on long-term abstinence outcomes. The dollar amount of prizes won during prize CM treatments was determined from 78 cocaine-abusing methadone-maintenance patients who were randomized to prize CM treatments in three clinical trials. Abstinence three months following the end of the CM intervention was the primary dependent variable. The dollar amount of prizes won during CM treatment was a significant predictor of submission of cocaine-negative urine samples and self-reports of cocaine abstinence at the follow-up evaluation, even after controlling for other variables associated with long-term abstinence, such as pretreatment urinalysis results and longest duration of abstinence achieved during treatment. These results suggest that magnitudes of earnings during prize CM may impact outcomes and call for further experimentation of parameters related to the efficacy of prize CM.
Budney, A J; Hughes, J R; Moore, B A; Novy, P L
Although withdrawal symptoms are commonly reported by persons seeking treatment for marijuana dependence, the validity and clinical significance of a marijuana withdrawal syndrome has not been established. This controlled outpatient study examined the reliability and specificity of the abstinence effects that occur when daily marijuana users abruptly stop smoking marijuana. Twelve daily marijuana smokers were assessed on 16 consecutive days during which they smoked marijuana as usual (days 1-5), abstained from smoking marijuana (days 6-8), returned to smoking marijuana (days 9-13), and again abstained from smoking marijuana (days 14-16). An overall measure of withdrawal discomfort increased significantly during the abstinence phases and returned to baseline when marijuana smoking resumed. Craving for marijuana, decreased appetite, sleep difficulty, and weight loss reliably changed across the smoking and abstinence phases. Aggression, anger, irritability, restlessness, and strange dreams increased significantly during one abstinence phase, but not the other. Collateral observers confirmed participant reports of these symptoms. This study validated several specific effects of marijuana abstinence in heavy marijuana users, and showed they were reliable and clinically significant. These withdrawal effects appear similar in type and magnitude to those observed in studies of nicotine withdrawal.
Herning, Ronald I; Better, Warren; Tate, Kimberly; Cadet, Jean L
Cognitive, cerebrovascular, and psychiatric impairments have been documented with chronic marijuana users. To better understand the nature and duration of these neurocognitive changes in marijuana abusers, we recorded the resting EEG of 29 abstinent chronic marijuana abusers and 21 control subjects. The marijuana abusers were tested twice: the first evaluation occurred within 72 hours of admission to the inpatient research unit; the second evaluation occurred after 28 to 30 days of monitored abstinence. A three-minute period of EEG was recorded during resting eyes-closed conditions from eight electrodes (F(3), C(3), P(3), O(1), F(4), C(4), P(4), and O(2)). The artifacted EEG was converted to six frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha(1), alpha(2), beta(1), and beta(2)) using a fast Fourier transform. During early abstinence, absolute power was significantly lower (p < 0.05) for the marijuana abusers than for the control subjects for the theta and alpha(1) bands. These reductions in theta and alpha(1) power persisted for 28 days of monitored abstinence. These EEG changes, together with cerebral blood flow deficits, might underlie the cognitive alterations observed in marijuana abusers. Additional research is needed to determine how long these deficits persist during abstinence and if treatment with neuroprotective agents may reverse them.
Businelle, Michael S.; Costello, Tracy J.; Castro, Yessenia; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Vidrine, Jennifer I.; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Velasquez, Mary M.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M.; Wetter, David W.
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to characterize the relationship between breast feeding and postpartum smoking abstinence among women who quit smoking due to pregnancy and who were participating in a randomized clinical trial of an intervention designed to prevent postpartum relapse. Methods: A total of 251 women were enrolled in the intervention between 30 and 33 weeks postpartum and were followed through 26 weeks postpartum. Participant characteristics were assessed at the prepartum baseline visit, any breast feeding was assessed at 8 weeks postpartum, and smoking abstinence was assessed at 8 and 26 weeks postpartum. Results: Although 79.1% of participants intended to breast feed, only 40.2% reported breast feeding at 8 weeks postpartum. Characteristics associated with breast feeding at 8 weeks postpartum included Caucasian race/ethnicity, greater education, higher household income, and being married/living with a significant other. Logistic regression analysis indicated that breast feeding at 8 weeks postpartum was significantly associated with smoking abstinence at 8 weeks postpartum, odds ratio (OR) = 7.27 (95% CI = 3.27, 16.13), p < .001. Breast feeding at 8 weeks postpartum was also associated with abstinence at 26 weeks postpartum after controlling for smoking status at 8 weeks postpartum, OR = 2.64 (95% CI = 1.14, 6.10), p = .02. Discussion: Encouraging breast feeding among women who quit smoking due to pregnancy may facilitate postpartum smoking abstinence while increasing adherence to current infant feeding guidelines. PMID:20713441
Williams, Geoffrey C; Patrick, Heather; Niemiec, Christopher P; Ryan, Richard M; Deci, Edward L; Lavigne, Holly McGregor
A previous randomized clinical trial based on self-determination theory (SDT) and consistent with the Public Health Service (PHS) Guideline for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence demonstrated that an intensive intervention could change autonomous self-regulation and perceived competence, which in part facilitated long-term tobacco abstinence. The current article describes a pragmatic comparative effectiveness trial of three SDT-based intensive tobacco-dependence interventions. Eligible participants are randomized to one of the three treatment conditions designed to facilitate long-term maintenance of tobacco abstinence, namely, Community Care (CC), which includes the 6 month SDT-based intervention previously shown to promote autonomous self-regulation, perceived competence, medication use, and tobacco abstinence; Extended Need Support (ENS), which extends the 6 month SDT-based intervention to 12 months and trains an important other to provide support for smokers' basic psychological needs; and Harm Reduction (HR), which provides extended need support and recommends medication use for participants who do not want to stop smoking completely within 30 days but who are willing to reduce their cigarette use by half. The primary outcome is 12 month prolonged abstinence from tobacco, which is assessed one year following termination of treatment (two years post-randomization). Secondary outcomes include 7- and 30 day point prevalence tobacco abstinence, number of days using smoking-cessation medication, change in autonomous self-regulation and perceived competence, and perceived need support from important others. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Long-Middleton, Ellen R.; Burke, Pamela J.; Lawrence, Cheryl A. Cahill; Blanchard, Lauren B.; Amudala, Naomi H.; Rankin, Sally H.
Introduction Pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections pose a significant threat to the health and wellbeing of adolescent young women. Abstinence when practiced provides the most effective means in preventing these problems, yet the perspective of abstinent young women is not well understood. The purpose of the investigation was to characterize female adolescents’ motivations for abstinence. Method As part of a larger, cross-sectional quantitative study investigating predictors of HIV risk reduction behaviors, qualitative responses from study participants who never had intercourse were analyzed in a consensus-based process using content analysis and frequency counts. An urban primary care site in a tertiary care center served as the setting, with adolescent young women ages 15–19 years included in the sample. Results Five broad topic categories emerged from the data that characterized motivations for abstinence in this sample: 1) Personal Readiness, 2) Fear, 3) Beliefs and Values, 4) Partner Worthiness and 5) Lack of Opportunity. Discussion A better understanding of the motivations for abstinence may serve to guide the development of interventions to delay intercourse. PMID:22525893
Hindocha, C; Freeman, T P; Grabski, M; Crudgington, H; Davies, A C; Stroud, J B; Das, R K; Lawn, W; Morgan, C J A; Curran, H V
Acute nicotine abstinence in cigarette smokers results in deficits in performance on specific cognitive processes, including working memory and impulsivity which are important in relapse. Cannabidiol (CBD), the non-intoxicating cannabinoid found in cannabis, has shown pro-cognitive effects and preliminary evidence has indicated it can reduce the number of cigarettes smoked in dependent smokers. However, the effects of CBD on cognition have never been tested during acute nicotine withdrawal. The present study therefore aimed to investigate if CBD can improve memory and reduce impulsivity during acute tobacco abstinence. Thirty, non-treatment seeking, dependent, cigarette smokers attended two laboratory-based sessions after overnight abstinence, in which they received either 800 mg oral CBD or placebo (PBO), in a randomised order. Abstinence was biologically verified. Participants were assessed on go/no-go, delay discounting, prose recall and N-back (0-back, 1-back, 2-back) tasks. The effects of CBD on delay discounting, prose recall and the N-back (correct responses, maintenance or manipulation) were null, confirmed by a Bayesian analysis, which found evidence for the null hypothesis. Contrary to our predictions, CBD increased commission errors on the go/no-go task. In conclusion, a single 800 mg dose of CBD does not improve verbal or spatial working memory, or impulsivity during tobacco abstinence.
Miguel, André Q. C.; Madruga, Clarice S.; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Yamauchi, Rodolfo; Simões, Viviane; da Silva, Claudio J.; McPherson, Sterling; Roll, John M.; Laranjeira, Ronaldo R.
BACKGROUND Crack cocaine dependence has become a severe public health problem in Brazil, and current psychosocial approaches to this problem have shown little or no effectiveness. Although contingency management is among the most effective behavioral treatments for substance use disorders, it has never been applied in the treatment of crack cocaine-dependent individuals in Brazil. AIMS To evaluate the efficacy of incorporating contingency management into standard outpatient treatment for crack cocaine dependence, as well as the impact that doing so has on treatment attendance, retention in treatment, maintenance of abstinence, and the frequency of substance use. METHODS We evaluated 65 treatment-seeking, crack cocaine-dependent individuals, randomized to receive 12 weeks of standard treatment plus contingency management (STCM; n = 33) or 12 weeks of standard treatment alone (STA; n = 32). Those in the STCM group received monetary incentives for being abstinent, earning up to US$235.50 if they remained abstinent throughout the entire treatment period. RESULTS The STCM group participants attended a mean of 19.5 (SD = 14.9) treatment sessions, compared with 3.7 (SD = 5.9) for the STA group participants (p < 0.01). Those in the STCM group were 3.8, 4.6, and 68.9 times more likely to be retained in treatment at weeks 4, 8, and 12 than were those in the STA group. The likelihood of detecting 4, 8, and 12 weeks of continuous abstinence was 17.7, 9.9, and 18.6 times higher in the STCM group than in the STA group (p < 0.05). Compared to the STA group, the STCM group submitted a significantly higher proportion of crack cocaine, THC, and alcohol negative samples (p < 0.001) when all expected samples were included in the denominator, but not when only submitted samples were considered. The average monthly cost/participant for incentives was $29.00. CONCLUSIONS Contingency management showed efficacy in a sample of Brazilian crack cocaine users. The intervention holds promise
Miguel, André Q C; Madruga, Clarice S; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Yamauchi, Rodolfo; Simões, Viviane; da Silva, Claudio J; McPherson, Sterling; Roll, John M; Laranjeira, Ronaldo R
Crack cocaine dependence has become a severe public health problem in Brazil, and current psychosocial approaches to this problem have shown little or no effectiveness. Although contingency management is among the most effective behavioral treatments for substance use disorders, it has never been applied in the treatment of crack cocaine-dependent individuals in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of incorporating contingency management into standard outpatient treatment for crack cocaine dependence, as well as the impact that doing so has on treatment attendance, retention in treatment, maintenance of abstinence, and the frequency of substance use. We evaluated 65 treatment-seeking, crack cocaine-dependent individuals, randomized to receive 12 weeks of standard treatment plus contingency management (STCM; n = 33) or 12 weeks of standard treatment alone (STA; n = 32). Those in the STCM group received monetary incentives for being abstinent, earning up to US$235.50 if they remained abstinent throughout the entire treatment period. The STCM group participants attended a mean of 19.5 (SD = 14.9) treatment sessions, compared with 3.7 (SD = 5.9) for the STA group participants (p < .01). Those in the STCM group were 3.8, 4.6, and 68.9 times more likely to be retained in treatment at weeks 4, 8, and 12 than were those in the STA group. The likelihood of detecting 4, 8, and 12 weeks of continuous abstinence was 17.7, 9.9, and 18.6 times higher in the STCM group than in the STA group (p < .05). Compared to the STA group, the STCM group submitted a significantly higher proportion of negative samples for crack cocaine, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, and alcohol (p < .001) when all expected samples were included in the denominator but not when only submitted samples were considered. The average monthly cost/participant for incentives was $29.00. Contingency management showed efficacy in a sample of Brazilian crack cocaine users. The intervention holds
McBride, W J; Li, T K
This review discusses efforts to develop rodent models for the study of neurobiological mechanisms underlying chronic alcohol drinking, alcoholism, and abnormal alcohol-seeking behavior. Selective breeding has produced stable lines of rats that reliably exhibit high and (for comparison purposes) low voluntary alcohol consumption. In addition, animal models of chronic ethanol self-administration have been developed in rodents, who do not have a genetic predisposition for high alcohol-seeking behavior, to explore environmental influences in ethanol drinking and the effects of physical dependence on alcohol self-administration. The selectively bred high-preference animals reliably self-administer ethanol by free-choice drinking and operantly respond for oral ethanol in amounts that produce pharmacologically meaningful blood alcohol concentrations (50 to 200 mg% and higher). In addition, the alcohol-preferring rats will self-administer ethanol by intragastric infusion. With chronic free-choice drinking, the high alcohol-preferring rats develop tolerance to the high-dose effects of ethanol and show signs of physical dependence after the withdrawal of alcohol. Compared with nonpreferring animals, the alcohol-preferring rats are less sensitive to the sedative-hypnotic effects of ethanol and develop tolerance more quickly to high-dose ethanol. Nonselected common stock rats can be trained to chronically self-administer ethanol following its initial presentation in a palatable sucrose or saccharin solution, and the gradual replacement of the sucrose or saccharin with ethanol (the sucrose/saccharin-fade technique). Moreover, rats that are trained in this manner and then made dependent by ethanol-vapor inhalation or liquid diet increase their ethanol self-administration during the withdrawal period. Both the selectively bred rats and common-stock rats demonstrate "relapse" and an alcohol deprivation effect following 2 or more weeks of abstinence. Systemic administration of
Le Berre, Anne-Pascale; Fama, Rosemary; Sullivan, Edith V
Alcoholism is a complex and dynamic disease, punctuated by periods of abstinence and relapse, and influenced by a multitude of vulnerability factors. Chronic excessive alcohol consumption is associated with cognitive deficits, ranging from mild to severe, in executive functions, memory, and metacognitive abilities, with associated impairment in emotional processes and social cognition. These deficits can compromise efforts in initiating and sustaining abstinence by hampering efficacy of clinical treatment and can obstruct efforts in enabling good decision making success in interpersonal/social interactions, and awareness of cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions. Despite evidence for differences in recovery levels of selective cognitive processes, certain deficits can persist even with prolonged sobriety. Herein is presented a review of alcohol-related cognitive impairments affecting component processes of executive functioning, memory, and the recently investigated cognitive domains of metamemory, social cognition, and emotional processing; also considered are trajectories of cognitive recovery with abstinence. Finally, in the spirit of critical review, limitations of current knowledge are noted and avenues for new research efforts are proposed that focus on (i) the interaction among emotion-cognition processes and identification of vulnerability factors contributing to the development of emotional and social processing deficits and (ii) the time line of cognitive recovery by tracking alcoholism's dynamic course of sobriety and relapse. Knowledge about the heterochronicity of cognitive recovery in alcoholism has the potential of indicating at which points during recovery intervention may be most beneficial. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Schumm, Jeremiah A.; O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Murphy, Christopher M.; Fals-Stewart, William
This study examined partner violence before and in the first and second year after behavioral couples therapy (BCT) for 103 married or cohabiting women seeking alcohol dependence treatment and their male partners, and used a demographically matched non-alcoholic comparison sample. The treatment sample received M = 16.7 BCT sessions over 5-6 months. Follow-up rates for the treatment sample at years 1 and 2 were 88% and 83%, respectively. In the year before BCT, 68% of female alcoholic patients had been violent toward their male partner, nearly five times the comparison sample rate of 15%. In the year after BCT, violence prevalence decreased significantly to 31% of the treatment sample. Women were classified as remitted after treatment if they demonstrated abstinence or minimal substance use and no serious consequences related to substance use. In year 1 following BCT, 45% were classified as remitted, and 49% were classified as remitted in year 2. Among remitted patients in the year after BCT, violence prevalence of 22% did not differ from the comparison sample and was significantly lower than the rate among relapsed patients (38%). Results for male-perpetrated violence and for the second year after BCT were similar to the first year. Results supported predictions that partner violence would decrease after BCT, and that clinically significant violence reductions to the level of a non-alcoholic comparison sample would occur for patients whose alcoholism was remitted after BCT. These findings replicate previous research among men with alcoholism. PMID:19968389
Lee, Nicole K; Pohlman, Sonja; Baker, Amanda; Ferris, Jason; Kay-Lambkin, Frances
Craving is frequently reported as a trigger for relapse by those trying to remain abstinent from psychoactive substances. Metacognitive beliefs about managing craving may play an important role in determining further cognition and behavior. They are, therefore, important to measure in treatment and may serve as target cognitions to be modified in support of behavioral change. As part of the assessment battery of a randomized controlled trial among 214 methamphetamine users, we included the Craving Beliefs Questionnaire (CBQ), a measure designed to assess an individual's perception of the potential negative impact of craving, at baseline. Changes in abstinence rates were significantly related to CBQ score, suggesting that craving beliefs are associated with changes in methamphetamine use. Further validation of the CBQ is warranted. Future clinical research among methamphetamine users could focus on directly manipulating craving beliefs through cognitive therapy to affect abstinence. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Baño Rodrigo, M D; Agujetas Rodríguez, M; López García, M L; Guillén Llera, J L
The objective of this study was to investigate the potential inductive effect of nevirapine (NVP) with methadone. Eight patients on the methadone maintenance programme with anti-retroviral therapy because of their infection with HIV, well maintained with methadone and without symptoms of abstinence were studied. All were included in a study of measurement of plasma levels of methadone. Anti-retroviral medication was changed, including NVP, and patients began with symptoms of abstinence 5 to 10 days later. Our results indicate an inductive effect of NVP on the methadone metabolism which caused symptoms of abstinence in all patients, which prompted an increase in the dose and plasma concentration of methadone was lost; patients continued with significantly low plasma levels (p < 0.01) after a therapy mean duration of 6.5 months, with no full recovery.
Several clinical tools have been developed to quantify the severity of withdrawal signs and symptoms exhibited by infants born to substance-using mothers. Scores from the systematic assessments are used to guide treatment of infants with moderate to severe clinical signs. This article provides an overview of published assessment tools developed for infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome. Nurses caring for infants at risk for neonatal abstinence syndrome should be knowledgeable about the tools used to evaluate these infants and guide their treatment. The ideal assessment tool should be published and include item definitions and a protocol for administering the tool. Nurses need education and training to achieve competency and interobserver reliability in the use of a selected tool. Tool-specific materials should be used to standardize training and improve accuracy in assessments. Competent and knowledgeable nurses play a critical role in improving outcomes for infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome.
Kotlińska, J; Langwiński, R
The action of opiate receptor agonists: (D-Ala2)-methionine enkephalinamide (D-MEA), morphine, heroin, etorphine, and antagonists: naloxone and diprenorphine on audiogenic seizures was tested during ethanol abstinence. The action of diazepam and clonidine was also tested Morphine (5 and 20 mg/kg), but not heroin and etorphine, given intraperitoneally inhibited the seizures, similarly as intraventricularly administered D-MEA did. However, morphine given by this route was ineffective. Diazepam and clonidine inhibited audiogenic seizures: the action of clonidine was counteracted by yohimbine, but not by prazosin. The results may be considered as supporting the hypothesis on the participation of opioid system in ethanol abstinence. However, the participation of gabergic and noradrenergic systems cannot be ruled out: these systems may possibly interact with the opioid system in evoking the symptoms of ethanol abstinence.
de Dios, Marcel A.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Stanton, Cassandra; Audet, Daniel A.; Stein, Michael
Light smoking is particularly prevalent among Latino smokers. Nicotine replacement (NRT) and varenicline are effective medications for smoking cessation for moderate-heavy smokers, but have not been tested in light smokers and thus there are no treatment guidelines for use with light smokers. This pilot trial tested the efficacy of NRT and varenicline in increasing smoking abstinence among Latino light smokers. A 3-group (NRT, varenicline, varenicline-placebo) randomized design was used and Latino light smokers (≤10 cpd) received 12 weeks of treatment which included a culturally-informed behavioral health session and ongoing medication management visits. At follow-up, there were no abstinent participants in the placebo and NRT groups. However, 30% of participants in the varenicline group were abstinent at the 3, 4, and 6 month follow-up. This study represents the only investigation that specifically targets Latino light smokers using these treatments and characterizing their treatment adherence. PMID:22377389
Schuster, Randi Melissa; Hanly, Ailish; Gilman, Jodi; Budney, Alan; Vandrey, Ryan; Evins, A. Eden
Background Rates of young adult cannabis use are rising, perceived harm is at its historical nadir, and most users do not want to quit. Most studies evaluating effects of cannabis use in young adults are cross-sectional, limiting causal inference. A method to reliably induce abstinence periods in cannabis users would allow assessment of the effects of abstinence and resumption of use on a variety of outcomes in a within subjects, repeated measure design. Methods We examined the efficacy and feasibility of a voucher-based contingency management procedure for incentivizing one month of continuous cannabis abstinence among young adults who reported at least weekly cannabis use, volunteered to participate in a laboratory study, and did not express desire to discontinue cannabis use long-term. Continuous cannabis abstinence was reinforced with an escalating incentive schedule, and self-report of abstinence was confirmed by frequent quantitative assays of urine cannabis metabolite (THCCOOH) concentration. New cannabis use during the abstinence period was determined using an established algorithm of change in creatinine-adjusted cannabis metabolite concentration between study visits. Results Thirty-eight young adults, aged 18–25, enrolled and 34 (89.5%) attained biochemically confirmed 30-day abstinence. Among those who attained abstinence, 93.9% resumed regular use within two-weeks of incentive discontinuation. Conclusion Findings support the feasibility and efficacy of contingency management to elicit short-term, continuous cannabis abstinence among young adult, non-treatment-seeking, regular cannabis users. Further work should test the effectiveness of this CM procedure for cannabis abstinence periods longer than one month, which may be required to evaluate some effects of abstinence. PMID:27590742
Schuster, Randi Melissa; Hanly, Ailish; Gilman, Jodi; Budney, Alan; Vandrey, Ryan; Evins, A Eden
Rates of young adult cannabis use are rising, perceived harm is at its historical nadir, and most users do not want to quit. Most studies evaluating effects of cannabis use in young adults are cross-sectional, limiting causal inference. A method to reliably induce abstinence periods in cannabis users would allow assessment of the effects of abstinence and resumption of use on a variety of outcomes in a within-subjects, repeated measures design. We examined the efficacy and feasibility of a voucher-based contingency management procedure for incentivizing one month of continuous cannabis abstinence among young adults who reported at least weekly cannabis use, volunteered to participate in a laboratory study, and did not express a desire to discontinue cannabis use long-term. Continuous cannabis abstinence was reinforced with an escalating incentive schedule, and self-report of abstinence was confirmed by frequent quantitative assays of urine cannabis metabolite (THCCOOH) concentration. New cannabis use during the abstinence period was determined using an established algorithm of change in creatinine-adjusted cannabis metabolite concentrations between study visits. Thirty-eight young adults, aged 18-25 years, enrolled and 34 (89.5%) attained biochemically confirmed 30-day abstinence. Among those who attained abstinence, 93.9% resumed regular use within two-weeks of incentive discontinuation. Findings support the feasibility and efficacy of contingency management to elicit short-term, continuous cannabis abstinence among young adult, non-treatment seeking, regular cannabis users. Further work should test the effectiveness of this contingency management procedure for cannabis abstinence in periods longer than one month, which may be required to evaluate some effects of abstinence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhao, Shuzhi; Li, Yangding; Li, Min; Wang, Ruonan; Bi, Yanzhi; Zhang, Yajuan; Lu, Xiaoqi; Yu, Dahua; Yang, Likun; Yuan, Kai
Studying the neural correlates of craving to smoke is of great importance to improve treatment outcomes in smoking addiction. According to previous studies, the critical roles of striatum and frontal brain regions had been revealed in addiction. However, few studies focused on the hub of brain regions in the 12 h abstinence induced craving in young smokers. Thirty-one young male smokers were enrolled in the present study. A within-subject experiment design was carried out to compare functional connectivity density between 12-h smoking abstinence and smoking satiety conditions during resting state in young adult smokers by using functional connectivity density mapping (FCDM). Then, the functional connectivity density changes during smoking abstinence versus satiety were further used to examine correlations with abstinence-induced changes in subjective craving. We found young adult smokers in abstinence state (vs satiety) had higher local functional connectivity density (lFCD) and global functional connectivity density (gFCD) in brain regions including striatal subregions (i.e., bilateral caudate and putamen), frontal regions (i.e., anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and orbital frontal cortex (OFC)) and bilateral insula. We also found higher lFCD during smoking abstinence (vs satiety) in bilateral thalamus. Additionally, the lFCD changes of the left ACC, bilateral caudate and right OFC were positively correlated with the changes in craving induced by abstinence (i.e., abstinence minus satiety) in young adult smokers. The present findings improve the understanding of the effects of acute smoking abstinence on the hubs of brain gray matter in the abstinence-induces craving and may contribute new insights into the neural mechanism of abstinence-induced craving in young smokers in smoking addiction.
Piñeiro, Bárbara; López-Durán, Ana; Del Río, Elena Fernández; Martínez, Úrsula; Brandon, Thomas H; Becoña, Elisardo
Although quitting motivation predicts smoking cessation, there have been inconsistent findings regarding motivation predicting long-term maintenance of abstinence. Moreover, most such research has been conducted in North America and the United Kingdom. The aim of this study was to examine motivation to quit as a predictor of smoking cessation and of abstinence maintenance in a Spanish sample. The sample comprised 286 Spanish smokers undergoing psychological treatment for smoking cessation. Motivation to quit was assessed pre-treatment and post-treatment with the Readiness to Quit Ladder. Abstinence post-treatment and at 6month follow-up was biochemically verified. Participants with higher levels of pre-treatment and post-treatment motivation were more likely to be abstinent at the end of the treatment (OR=1.36) and at 6month follow-up (OR=4.88). Among abstainers at the end of the treatment (61.9%), higher levels of motivation to quit post-treatment predicted maintaining abstinence at 6months (OR=2.83). Furthermore, participants who failed to quit smoking reported higher levels of motivation to quit post-treatment than they had pretreatment (p<.001). Motivation to quit smoking predicted short and long-term cessation, and also predicted long-term maintenance of abstinence. These results have implications for understanding motivational processes of smoking cessation in general, while extending research to Spanish smokers. They may also help in the design of cessation and relapse-prevention interventions. Specifically, the results suggest that motivational enhancement is important throughout the cessation and maintenance periods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brown, Jamie; Hajek, Peter; McRobbie, Hayden; Locker, Jo; Gillison, Fiona; McEwen, Andy; Beard, Emma; West, Robert
It is widely believed that nicotine withdrawal symptoms appear within a few hours of stopping smoking, but few data exist documenting their emergence in naturalistic settings. In several countries, nicotine replacement products are licensed for relief of withdrawal symptoms during temporary abstinence, but again, there are no data supporting this from naturalistic settings. To examine the emergence of cigarette craving and withdrawal symptoms during temporary abstinence in a naturalistic setting while using either nicotine or placebo gum. Double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study in which 132 dependent smokers abstained for 6 h with the assistance of either nicotine (2 mg, n = 42 or 4 mg, n = 24) or placebo (n = 66) gum while travelling on a non-smoking train. Outcome measures were ratings of craving and mood withdrawal symptoms prior to treatment and at regular intervals during abstinence. In a multivariate analysis of all symptoms, there was no interaction between treatment and time [F(21,110) = 1.28, p = 0.20, η²(p)= 0.20] nor an effect of treatment [F(7,124) = 0.45, p = 0.87, η²(p)= 0.03]. There was an effect of time [F(21,110) = 11.59, p < 0.001, η²(p)= 0.69) and univariate analyses revealed that the majority of symptoms increased linearly throughout the period of abstinence with detectable onsets typically between the first 60 and 180 min of abstinence. Smokers who temporarily abstain in naturalistic settings experience craving and withdrawal symptoms that emerge linearly over the first 6 h of abstinence. Changes in craving and several mood withdrawal symptoms can be detected within the first 3 h. Nicotine gum may not have an acute effect on the development of these symptoms.
Miller, Carol T.; Solomon, Sondra E.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Varni, Susan E.; Hodge, James J.
Sexual abstinence is often deemed the “safest behavior” in HIV prevention, but is sometimes associated with psychological symptoms (e.g., depression) just as sexually risky behavior is. This study explored whether sexual abstinence and risky sexual behavior among men with HIV are associated with similar constellations of psychological symptoms. Prior research has not addressed this issue because abstinent people often are not included in the sample, or when data are analyzed, researchers combine abstinent people with sexually active people who practice safer sex. Past research also neglects the co-morbidity of psychological symptoms. A latent class analysis of the psychological symptoms (assessed with the Symptom Check List 90-R; Derogatis, 1994) of 140 men with HIV, mostly from rural New England, revealed three latent classes; men who were asymptomatic on all symptom domains (28.8%), men who were symptomatic on all domains (34.1%), and men who were symptomatic on internalizing domains (37.1%), but were asymptomatic on the externalizing symptoms of hostility and paranoid ideation. Logistic regression showed that sexual behavior during the past 90 days of men in the all symptom class and the internalizing symptoms class was similar, with abstinence and risky sex predominating, and safer sex being relatively uncommon for both classes. The sexual behavior of men in the asymptomatic class differed, with safer sex being relatively more likely to occur compared to the symptomatic classes. These findings suggest that the psychological symptom profile of sexually abstinent people places them at risk for inconsistent condom use should they engage in sexual behavior. PMID:25614050
Inozemtseva, Olga; Pérez-Solís, Lina; Matute, Esmeralda; Juárez, Jorge
In substance abusers, deficits in executive functioning (EF) are relevant to understanding the behavioral regulation of substance consumption and the failure to remain abstinent. To determine the course of EF impairment, measured with traditional and ecological instruments, after 1 and 3 months of abstinence in patients with cocaine dependence. 26 cocaine-only-dependent in-patients (cocaine-dependent group, CDG) and 24 nondependent controls (control group, CG) recruited from a typical population were assessed using several EF tests and questionnaires [Stroop, verbal and graphic fluency, Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (WCST), Tower of London (TOL), and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A)] after three periods of abstinence: 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months. At 1 week (baseline), CDG underperformed CG on most EF measures (WCST categories completed; TOL-total number of moves, execution time, and rule violations; and various BRIEF-A subscales). At 1 month, CDG moderately improved its performance on several measures, meanwhile the improvement in the 12 patients who would eventually complete the 3-month abstinence proved particularly significant when compared to their baseline values. In the a posteriori comparison of the baseline values of noncompleters versus completers, scores for the former were lower on the EF tasks, but higher on the BRIEF-A. Both groups, showed significantly worse scores than CG on both instruments. Cocaine-dependent patients showed marked difficulties in the EF associated mainly with adaptive behavior to their environment. Cocaine-dependent patients with better EF at baseline improved significantly during abstinence and had better treatment adherence. Results suggest that executive improvement and treatment adherence in cocaine abusers in abstinence is related to intrinsic cognitive characteristics of patients.
Shrier, Lydia A; Sarda, Vishnudas; Jonestrask, Cassandra; Harris, Sion Kim
Young adults using marijuana heavily often try multiple times to quit on their own. We sought to identify momentary experiences during marijuana use that could aid in predicting lapse when young adults subsequently attempt abstinence. Young adults (N=34) age 18-25 using marijuana ≥5days/week and planning to quit completed a survey of sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, marijuana expectancies, use motives, perceived social support, and confidence to abstain. They completed ecological momentary assessment (EMA) smartphone reports several times/day for two weeks prior to, then during two weeks of attempted abstinence. Use period EMA reports assessed affect, craving, accessibility, situational permissibility, use, and motivation to abstain. Baseline survey and EMA data were examined in relation to subsequent lapse during attempted abstinence. Nearly 3 in 4 participants (73.5%) reported lapsing during attempted abstinence from marijuana. On bivariate analyses, lower baseline dependence severity score, negative effect expectancies, perceived family support, and confidence to abstain were each associated with lapse. Of the use period EMA variables, greater percent of days with marijuana use, reports of easy accessibility, and reports of situational permissibility were each associated with lapse. Modeled together, negative effect expectancies, perceived family support, confidence to abstain, and situational permissibility during use were highly accurate in predicting lapse during attempted abstinence. Momentary factors may add to conventionally-surveyed characteristics to enhance prediction of lapse during attempted abstinence among young adults with heavy marijuana use. Momentary assessment prior to a quit attempt may thus enable more effective personalized approaches to preventing lapse. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McCarthy, Danielle E; Ebssa, Lemma; Witkiewitz, Katie; Shiffman, Saul
Knowledge of smoking change processes may be enhanced by identifying pathways to stable abstinence. We sought to identify latent classes of smokers based on their day-to-day smoking status in the first weeks of a cessation attempt. We examined treatment effects on class membership and compared classes on baseline individual differences and 6-month abstinence rates. In this secondary analysis of a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial (N = 1,433) of 5 smoking cessation pharmacotherapies (nicotine patch, nicotine lozenge, bupropion SR, patch and lozenge, or bupropion SR and lozenge), we conducted repeated-measures latent class analysis of daily smoking status (any smoking vs. none) for the first 27 days of a quit attempt. Treatment and covariate relations with latent class membership were examined. Distal outcome analysis compared confirmed 6-month abstinence rates among the latent classes. A 5-class solution was selected. Three-quarters of smokers were in stable smoking or abstinent classes, but 25% were in classes with unstable abstinence probabilities over time. Active treatment (compared to placebo), and particularly the patch and lozenge combination, promoted early quitting. Latent classes differed in 6-month abstinence rates and on several baseline variables, including nicotine dependence, quitting history, self-efficacy, sleep disturbance, and minority status. Repeated-measures latent class analysis identified latent classes of smoking change patterns affected by treatment, related to known risk factors, and predictive of distal outcomes. Tracking behavior early in a change attempt may identify prognostic patterns of change and facilitate adaptive treatment planning. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Loza, Melissa; Vincent, Kathleen; Moench, Thomas; Stanberry, Lawrence R.; Rosenthal, Susan L.
Background Developing effective and safe microbicides requires study procedures (e.g. technology used, abstinence requirements, and product use) that are acceptable to participants. Methods Thirty women completed 4 study visits including pelvic examination, colposcopy, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and semi-structured, qualitative interviews. Additional requirements included abstinence (for approximately 16 days) and twice daily vaginal product use (for 5.5 days). Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using framework analysis. Themes addressing OCT experiences, acceptability of abstinence, and vaginal product use were examined. Results OCT was viewed favorably as an imaging technology. Some women reported feeling the fiber-optic probe “poking” them and over one-third spontaneously reported feeling pressure or pinching upon rotation of the speculum in connection with the OCT evaluation. Compliance with vaginal gel use was high, but for many women assigned to use a product containing nonoxynol-9 (versus placebo), the post-product use exam was more uncomfortable, relative to the initial exam or one week following product discontinuation. Nearly all women experienced product leakage; acceptability of leakage varied. Two women were not abstinent and several more found abstinence challenging. Some women involved their partner in decision making regarding trial enrollment. Strategies to remain abstinent included participating when the partner was away, avoiding early intimacy, and engaging in alternative sexual activities. Conclusions Qualitative interviews in early-phase studies provide insights and capture information that would be missed by behavioral inference alone. Understanding participant’s experiences is important in order to provide anticipatory guidance and plan future microbicide studies that facilitate adherence with trial requirements. PMID:22183842
Holtyn, August F; Knealing, Todd W; Jarvis, Brantley P; Subramaniam, Shrinidhi; Silverman, Kenneth
During contingency management interventions, reinforcement of cocaine abstinence is arranged by delivering an incentive when a urine sample tests cocaine-negative. The use of qualitative versus quantitative urinalysis testing may have important implications for effects on cocaine abstinence. Qualitative testing (i.e., testing that solely identifies whether a particular substance is present or absent) may not detect short-term cocaine abstinence because a single instance of cocaine use can result in cocaine-positive urine over many days. Quantitative testing (i.e., testing that identifies how much of a substance is present) may be more sensitive to short-term cocaine abstinence; however, the selection of a criterion for distinguishing new use versus carryover from previous use is an important consideration. The present study examined benzoylecgonine concentrations, the primary metabolite of cocaine, in urine samples collected three times per week for 30 weeks from 28 cocaine users who were exposed to a cocaine abstinence contingency. Of the positive urine samples (benzoylecgonine concentration >300 ng/ml), 29%, 21%, 14%, and 5% of the samples decreased in benzoylecgonine concentration by more than 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% per day, respectively. As the size of the decrease increased, the likelihood of that sample occurring during a period leading to a cocaine-negative urine sample (benzoylecgonine concentration ≤300 ng/ml) also increased. The number of days required to produce a cocaine-negative sample following a positive sample ranged from 1 to 10 days and was significantly correlated with the starting benzoylecgonine level ( r = 0.43, p < 0.001). The present analyses may aid in the development of procedures that allow for the precise reinforcement of recent cocaine abstinence during contingency management interventions.
Walitzer, Kimberly S.; Dermen, Kurt H.; Barrick, Christopher
AIM This study evaluated two strategies to facilitate involvement in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) – a 12-step-based directive approach and a motivational enhancement approach – during skills-focused individual treatment. DESIGN Randomized controlled trial with assessments at baseline, end of treatment, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after treatment. PARTICIPANTS, SETTING, and INTERVENTION 169 alcoholic outpatients (57 women) randomly assigned to one of three conditions: a directive approach to facil