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  1. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Rita; And Others

    The document offers practical and motivating techniques for studying Japan. Dedicated to promoting global awareness, separate sections discuss Japan's geography, history, culture, education, government, economics, energy, transportation, and communication. Each section presents a topical overview; suggested classroom activities; and easily…

  2. Japan.

    PubMed

    1987-02-01

    Japan is composed of 4 main islands and more than 3900 smaller islands and has 317.7 persons/square kilometer. This makes it one of the most densely populated nations in the world. Religion is an important force in the life of the Japanese and most consider themselves Buddhists. Schooling is free through junior high but 90% of Japanese students complete high school. In fact, Japan enjoys one of the highest literacy rates in the world. There are over 178 newspapers and 3500 magazines published in Japan and the number of new book titles issued each year is greater than that in the US. Since WW1, Japan expanded its influence in Asia and its holdings in the Pacific. However, as a direct result of WW2, Japan lost all of its overseas possessions and was able to retain only its own islands. Since 1952, Japan has been ruled by conservative governments which cooperate closely with the West. Great economic growth has come since the post-treaty period. Japan as a constitutional monarchy operates within the framework of a constitution which became effective in May 1947. Executive power is vested in a cabinet which includes the prime minister and the ministers of state. Japan is one of the most politically stable of the postwar democracies and the Liberal Democratic Party is representative of Japanese moderate conservatism. The economy of Japan is strong and growing. With few resources, there is only 19% of Japanese land suitable for cultivation. Its exports earn only about 19% of the country's gross national product. More than 59 million workers comprise Japan's labor force, 40% of whom are women. Japan and the US are strongly linked trading partners and after Canada, Japan is the largest trading partner of the US. Foreign policy since 1952 has fostered close cooperation with the West and Japan is vitally interested in good relations with its neighbors. Relations with the Soviet Union are not close although Japan is attempting to improve the situation. US policy is based on

  3. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Savannah C.

    Materials for a secondary level, interdisciplinary social studies course on Japan are divided into introductory information, 14 classroom units, and study and evaluation materials. Introductory material includes lists of objectives and skills, an outline of Japanese history, and an explanation of Japan's name and flag. The units cover the…

  4. MEDLI Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation of MEDLI, the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrument, which contains multiple sophisticated temperature sensors to measure atmospheric conditions and performance o...

  5. Living MedsCheck

    PubMed Central

    Sanghera, Niki; Rahmaan, Israa; Roy, Meghna; Tritt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To share the experiences of graduating students as they learn to deliver a new medication review service in community pharmacies in Ontario, Canada. Practice description: Four graduating pharmacy students volunteered in different community pharmacies to learn how to navigate a new provincial program called MedsCheck, which pays pharmacists to do medication reviews. Each student selected his or her own practice site, including 2 independent community pharmacies, a grocery store chain pharmacy and a hospital outpatient pharmacy. Practice innovation: To help the students learn to deliver the new MedsCheck services, a faculty mentor met with them on a weekly basis. To reflect on doing MedsChecks in the “real world” and to elicit feedback from the online community, each student blogged about his or her experiences. Results: All 4 students felt that peer mentoring improved their ability to deliver MedsCheck services. They also identified a number of barriers to delivering the MedsChecks and helped each other try to overcome the barriers. Conclusion: MedsCheck is a new service in Ontario and is not easily implemented in the current pharmacy model of practice. Peer mentoring is a helpful way to share successes and overcome barriers to delivery. Can Pharm J 2013;146:33-38. PMID:23795167

  6. MED COMMITTEE STRUCTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is beneficial to share good Diversity-related practices with other NHEERL Divisions. Sharing of this information will help MED showcase the many activities that are in place for Diversity that we are using to help us become a level 4 organization.

  7. Functional Studies of the Yeast Med5, Med15 and Med16 Mediator Tail Subunits

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Miriam; Uvell, Hanna; Sandström, Jenny; Rydén, Patrik; Selth, Luke A.; Björklund, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The yeast Mediator complex can be divided into three modules, designated Head, Middle and Tail. Tail comprises the Med2, Med3, Med5, Med15 and Med16 protein subunits, which are all encoded by genes that are individually non-essential for viability. In cells lacking Med16, Tail is displaced from Head and Middle. However, inactivation of MED5/MED15 and MED15/MED16 are synthetically lethal, indicating that Tail performs essential functions as a separate complex even when it is not bound to Middle and Head. We have used the N-Degron method to create temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants in the Mediator tail subunits Med5, Med15 and Med16 to study the immediate effects on global gene expression when each subunit is individually inactivated, and when Med5/15 or Med15/16 are inactivated together. We identify 25 genes in each double mutant that show a significant change in expression when compared to the corresponding single mutants and to the wild type strain. Importantly, 13 of the 25 identified genes are common for both double mutants. We also find that all strains in which MED15 is inactivated show down-regulation of genes that have been identified as targets for the Ace2 transcriptional activator protein, which is important for progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Supporting this observation, we demonstrate that loss of Med15 leads to a G1 arrest phenotype. Collectively, these findings provide insight into the function of the Mediator Tail module. PMID:23991176

  8. Japan Smoke

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Smoke Plume from Industrial Fires in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan     View larger image ... northeastern Japan at 2:46 p.m. local time on March 11, 2011, and its subsequent tsunami, several oil refineries and industrial ...

  9. MSL Launches With MEDLI Sensors

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA engineers Michelle Munk and David Way explain the MEDLI -- Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Entry, Descent and Landing Instrumentation -- package on the MSL aeroshell that will measure the heatin...

  10. Update Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoopes, Aaron

    This book is a guide intended for persons planning on relocating to Japan. Following a chapter on background information, 13 additional chapters lead the reader step-by-step through the relocation process. These chapters include: before leaving, on arrival, language, culture, doing business in Japan, household pointers and everyday life, schools…

  11. Overview of the MEDLI Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazarik, Michael J.; Hwang, Helen; Little, Alan; Cheatwood, Neil; Wright, Michael; Herath, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI) Project's objectives are to measure aerothermal environments, sub-surface heatshield material response, vehicle orientation, and atmospheric density for the atmospheric entry and descent phases of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry vehicle. The flight science objectives of MEDLI directly address the largest uncertainties in the ability to design and validate a robust Mars entry system, including aerothermal, aerodynamic and atmosphere models, and thermal protection system (TPS) design. The instrumentation suite will be installed in the heatshield of the MSL entry vehicle. The acquired data will support future Mars entry and aerocapture missions by providing measured atmospheric data to validate Mars atmosphere models and clarify the design margins for future Mars missions. MEDLI thermocouple and recession sensor data will significantly improve the understanding of aeroheating and TPS performance uncertainties for future missions. MEDLI pressure data will permit more accurate trajectory reconstruction, as well as separation of aerodynamic and atmospheric uncertainties in the hypersonic and supersonic regimes. This paper provides an overview of the project including the instrumentation design, system architecture, and expected measurement response.

  12. Overview of the MEDLI Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazarik, Michael J.; Little, Alan; Cheatwood, F. Neil; Wright, Michael J.; Herath, Jeff A.; Martinez, Edward R.; Munk, Michelle; Novak, Frank J.; Wright, Henry S.

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI) Project s objectives are to measure aerothermal environments, sub-surface heatshield material response, vehicle orientation, and atmospheric density for the atmospheric entry and descent phases of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry vehicle. The flight science objectives of MEDLI directly address the largest uncertainties in the ability to design and validate a robust Mars entry system, including aerothermal, aerodynamic and atmosphere models, and thermal protection system (TPS) design. The instrumentation suite will be installed in the heatshield of the MSL entry vehicle. The acquired data will support future Mars entry and aerocapture missions by providing measured atmospheric data to validate Mars atmosphere models and clarify the design margins for future Mars missions. MEDLI thermocouple and recession sensor data will significantly improve the understanding of aeroheating and TPS performance uncertainties for future missions. MEDLI pressure data will permit more accurate trajectory reconstruction, as well as separation of aerodynamic and atmospheric uncertainties in the hypersonic and supersonic regimes. This paper provides an overview of the project including the instrumentation design, system architecture, and expected measurement response.

  13. Japan: Tsunami

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... tsunami triggered by the March 11, 2011, magnitude 8.9 earthquake centered off Japan's northeastern coast about 130 kilometers (82 ... inland from the eastern shoreline is visible in the post-earthquake image. The white sand beaches visible in the pre-earthquake view are ...

  14. Mini-Med School Planning Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health, Office of Science Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Mini-Med Schools are public education programs now offered by more than 70 medical schools, universities, research institutions, and hospitals across the nation. There are even Mini-Med Schools in Ireland, Malta, and Canada! The program is typically a lecture series that meets once a week and provides "mini-med students" information on some of the…

  15. MED-SUV Data policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangianantoni, Agata; Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    MED-SUV proposes the development and implementation of a digital infrastructure for data access and for volcanic risk management aimed at applying the rationale of Supersites GEO initiative to Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius and Mt. Etna. It's fully recognized the clear need of an open data policy in order to ensure that data will be properly and in an ethical manner managed and can be used and accessed from its community. In MED-SUV there is a multitude of different partners with varying scientific, technical, legal and economical interests and therefore data and data products produced will be wide-ranging so it's necessary to set principles and legal arrangements. Within Europe several Directives and Regulations have brought into force which provide the leading guidelines in terms of the principle of openness to knowledge and access to scientific information. So in creating a suite policy the EC Supersites (MarSite and FutureVolc, under the EPOS umbrella) projects need to strength their efforts in defining a common data management strategy. In this presentation we will show the leading principles of the data policy, as for instance Open Access, flexibility of approach in order to harmonize the different methods of data distribution among its partners, Creative Commons licensing, data preservation and unique identification through Persistent Identifiers.

  16. Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The southern half of the island of Okinawa, Japan (26.5N, 128.0E) can be seen in this nearly cloud free view. Okinawa is part of the Ryuku Islands which extend from Taiwan northeastward to Kyushu, southernmost of the Japanese Home Islands. The large military base at Kadena, with large runways, is visible near the center of the scene. Kadena is one of several emergency landing sites around the world for the space shuttle.

  17. The MUN Med Gateway Project

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Pauline; Brunger, Fern

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Problem addressed Access to a continuum of care from a family physician is an essential component of health and well-being; however, refugees have particular barriers in accessing medical care. Objective of program To provide access to family physicians and continuity of care for newly arrived refugees; to provide opportunities for medical students to practise cross-cultural health care; and to mentor medical students in advocacy for underserved populations. Program description The MUN Med Gateway Project, based at Memorial University of Newfoundland in St John’s, is a medical student initiative that partners with the local refugee settlement agency to provide health care for new refugees to the province. Medical students conduct in-depth medical histories, with provision of some basic physical screening, while working through an interpreter with supervision by a family doctor and settlement public health nurse. Each patient or family is matched with a family physician. Conclusion The project’s adaptation of student-run clinics, which connects refugees with the existing mainstream medical system, has been an overwhelming success, making it a model for community action as an educational strategy. PMID:25821872

  18. Redefining the MED13L syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Adegbola, Abidemi; Musante, Luciana; Callewaert, Bert; Maciel, Patricia; Hu, Hao; Isidor, Bertrand; Picker-Minh, Sylvie; Le Caignec, Cedric; Delle Chiaie, Barbara; Vanakker, Olivier; Menten, Björn; Dheedene, Annelies; Bockaert, Nele; Roelens, Filip; Decaestecker, Karin; Silva, João; Soares, Gabriela; Lopes, Fátima; Najmabadi, Hossein; Kahrizi, Kimia; Cox, Gerald F; Angus, Steven P; Staropoli, John F; Fischer, Ute; Suckow, Vanessa; Bartsch, Oliver; Chess, Andrew; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Wienker, Thomas F; Hübner, Christoph; Kaindl, Angela M; Kalscheuer, Vera M

    2015-01-01

    Congenital cardiac and neurodevelopmental deficits have been recently linked to the mediator complex subunit 13-like protein MED13L, a subunit of the CDK8-associated mediator complex that functions in transcriptional regulation through DNA-binding transcription factors and RNA polymerase II. Heterozygous MED13L variants cause transposition of the great arteries and intellectual disability (ID). Here, we report eight patients with predominantly novel MED13L variants who lack such complex congenital heart malformations. Rather, they depict a syndromic form of ID characterized by facial dysmorphism, ID, speech impairment, motor developmental delay with muscular hypotonia and behavioral difficulties. We thereby define a novel syndrome and significantly broaden the clinical spectrum associated with MED13L variants. A prominent feature of the MED13L neurocognitive presentation is profound language impairment, often in combination with articulatory deficits. PMID:25758992

  19. Redefining the MED13L syndrome.

    PubMed

    Adegbola, Abidemi; Musante, Luciana; Callewaert, Bert; Maciel, Patricia; Hu, Hao; Isidor, Bertrand; Picker-Minh, Sylvie; Le Caignec, Cedric; Delle Chiaie, Barbara; Vanakker, Olivier; Menten, Björn; Dheedene, Annelies; Bockaert, Nele; Roelens, Filip; Decaestecker, Karin; Silva, João; Soares, Gabriela; Lopes, Fátima; Najmabadi, Hossein; Kahrizi, Kimia; Cox, Gerald F; Angus, Steven P; Staropoli, John F; Fischer, Ute; Suckow, Vanessa; Bartsch, Oliver; Chess, Andrew; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Wienker, Thomas F; Hübner, Christoph; Kaindl, Angela M; Kalscheuer, Vera M

    2015-10-01

    Congenital cardiac and neurodevelopmental deficits have been recently linked to the mediator complex subunit 13-like protein MED13L, a subunit of the CDK8-associated mediator complex that functions in transcriptional regulation through DNA-binding transcription factors and RNA polymerase II. Heterozygous MED13L variants cause transposition of the great arteries and intellectual disability (ID). Here, we report eight patients with predominantly novel MED13L variants who lack such complex congenital heart malformations. Rather, they depict a syndromic form of ID characterized by facial dysmorphism, ID, speech impairment, motor developmental delay with muscular hypotonia and behavioral difficulties. We thereby define a novel syndrome and significantly broaden the clinical spectrum associated with MED13L variants. A prominent feature of the MED13L neurocognitive presentation is profound language impairment, often in combination with articulatory deficits.

  20. MED12 mutation in patients with hysteromyoma

    PubMed Central

    YE, JUN; WANG, HUA; CHEN, YA-BAO; YUAN, DONG-LAN; ZHANG, LI-XIN; LIU, LIN

    2015-01-01

    Mediator Complex Subunit 12 (MED12) is a subunit of the mediator complex, which is believed to regulate global, as well as gene-specific, transcription. It has been reported that MED12 is mutated at high frequency in hysteromyoma. Recent studies have also shown that MED12 presents with different mutation frequencies in hysteromyoma patients of different populations. However, there are few studies with regard to the MED12 gene mutation in hysteromyoma patients in the Chinese Han population. In the present study, the MED12 mutations of 171 patients with hysteromyoma were analyzed; the results showed that 93 patients exhibited different MED12 mutations, including 131G→T, 131G→A, 130G→A, 146C→T, 130G→A, 130G→C, 128A→C, 130G→T, 127Ins27, 118_132Del15, 117_134Del18, 131_148Del18 and 141_165Del15. The mutation frequency was similar to that found in individuals of African descent or individuals of other non-Caucasian ethnicities, and lower than that in the Finnish or North American populations. Further analysis of 141 patients whose hysteromyoma was measured showed that the mutation frequency of MED12 in patients with large hysteromyomas was significantly lower than that in those with small hysteromyomas. These results suggested that MED12 mutation was important in the development of hysteromyomas in the Chinese Han population and that the size of the hysteromyoma may negatively correlate with the mutation frequency of MED12. This study supplemented current information on MED12 mutations in different races and may aid in developing personalized diagnoses for patients with hysteromyoma in the future. PMID:26137144

  1. Japan: Tradition and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellington, Lucien

    This textbook is designed to increase students' awareness of Japan. The study of Japan is worthwhile because Japan currently is and likely will continue to be one of the world's most important countries. U.S. knowledge of Japan is still quite limited compared to the level of understanding most Japanese exhibit about the United States. It is hoped…

  2. [CanMEDS 2015: better doctors?].

    PubMed

    Borleffs, J C C; Mourits, M J E; Scheele, F

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the CanMEDS model, which forms the basis for competency-based learning in both undergraduate and postgraduate training, has been renewed by the introduction of CanMEDS 2015. The most prominent change is the emphasis on leadership skills, which is also reflected by the name change for the role of 'manager' to 'leader'. The addition of milestones provides clearly defined targets for learning and assessment, which facilitates the monitoring of the progression in competence. Furthermore, CanMEDS 2015 strongly focusses on the overall coherence of the separate competencies. CanMEDS, designed as a model that helps to train young doctors to become good doctors, also helps us - the trainers - to become better doctors ourselves. PMID:27438391

  3. MEDLI Will Aid in Understanding of Mars

    NASA Video Gallery

    The MEDLI instrument package, contained in the heat shield of the Mars Science Laboratory, will help scientists and engineers improve their computer models and simulations, and provide data to help...

  4. PubMedAlertMe--standalone Windows-based PubMed SDI software application.

    PubMed

    Ma'ayan, Avi

    2008-05-01

    PubMedAlertMe is a Windows-based software system for automatically receiving e-mail alert messages about recent publications listed on PubMed. The e-mail messages contain links to newly available abstracts listed on PubMed describing publications that were selectively returned from a specified list of queries. Links are also provided to directly export citations to EndNote, and links are provided to directly forward articles to colleagues. The program is standalone. Thus, it does not require a remote mail server or user registration. PubMedAlertMe is free software, and can be downloaded from: http://amp.pharm.mssm.edu/PubMedAlertMe/PubMedAlertMe_setup.zip.

  5. PubMed Assistant: a biologist-friendly interface for enhanced PubMed search.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jing; Hughes, Laron M; Berleant, Daniel; Fulmer, Andy W; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

    2006-02-01

    MEDLINE is one of the most important bibliographical information sources for biologists and medical workers. Its PubMed interface supports Boolean queries, which are potentially expressive and exact. However, PubMed is also designed to support simplicity of use at the expense of query expressiveness and exactness. Many PubMed users have never tried explicit Boolean queries. We developed a Java program, PubMed Assistant, to make literature access easier in several ways. PubMed Assistant provides an interface that efficiently displays information about the citations and includes useful functions such as keyword highlighting, export to citation managers, clickable links to Google Scholar and others that are lacking in PubMed.

  6. The MED-SUV Multidisciplinary Interoperability Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzetti, Paolo; D'Auria, Luca; Reitano, Danilo; Papeschi, Fabrizio; Roncella, Roberto; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Nativi, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    In accordance with the international Supersite initiative concept, the MED-SUV (MEDiterranean SUpersite Volcanoes) European project (http://med-suv.eu/) aims to enable long-term monitoring experiment in two relevant geologically active regions of Europe prone to natural hazards: Mt. Vesuvio/Campi Flegrei and Mt. Etna. This objective requires the integration of existing components, such as monitoring systems and data bases and novel sensors for the measurements of volcanic parameters. Moreover, MED-SUV is also a direct contribution to the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) as one the volcano Supersites recognized by the Group on Earth Observation (GEO). To achieve its goal, MED-SUV set up an advanced e-infrastructure allowing the discovery of and access to heterogeneous data for multidisciplinary applications, and the integration with external systems like GEOSS. The MED-SUV overall infrastructure is conceived as a three layer architecture with the lower layer (Data level) including the identified relevant data sources, the mid-tier (Supersite level) including components for mediation and harmonization , and the upper tier (Global level) composed of the systems that MED-SUV must serve, such as GEOSS and possibly other global/community systems. The Data level is mostly composed of existing data sources, such as space agencies satellite data archives, the UNAVCO system, the INGV-Rome data service. They share data according to different specifications for metadata, data and service interfaces, and cannot be changed. Thus, the only relevant MED-SUV activity at this level was the creation of a MED-SUV local repository based on Web Accessible Folder (WAF) technology, deployed in the INGV site in Catania, and hosting in-situ data and products collected and generated during the project. The Supersite level is at the core of the MED-SUV architecture, since it must mediate between the disparate data sources in the layer below, and provide a harmonized view to

  7. Japan: Shikoku Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-24

    ... deploying instruments aboard several ships, aircraft, and island stations in the waters surrounding Japan and Korea. They characterized ... These MISR images, centered just north of Shikoku Island in southwest Japan, were acquired on April 13, 2001 during Terra orbit ...

  8. Human melioidosis reported by ProMED

    PubMed Central

    Nasner-Posso, Katherinn Melissa; Cruz-Calderón, Stefania; Montúfar-Andrade, Franco E.; Dance, David A.B.; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective There are limited sources describing the global burden of emerging diseases. A review of human melioidosis reported by ProMED was performed and the reliability of the data retrieved assessed in comparison to published reports. The effectiveness of ProMED was evaluated as a source of epidemiological data by focusing on melioidosis. Methods Using the keyword ‘melioidosis’ in the ProMED search engine, all of the information from the reports and collected data was reviewed using a structured form, including the year, country, gender, occupation, number of infected individuals, and number of fatal cases. Results One hundred and twenty-four entries reported between January 1995 and October 2014 were identified. A total of 4630 cases were reported, with death reported in 505 cases, suggesting a misleadingly low overall case fatality rate (CFR) of 11%. Of 20 cases for which the gender was reported, 12 (60%) were male. Most of the cases were reported from Australia, Thailand, Singapore, Vietnam, and Malaysia, with sporadic reports from other countries. Conclusions Internet-based reporting systems such as ProMED are useful to gather information and synthesize knowledge on emerging infections. Although certain areas need to be improved, ProMED provided good information about melioidosis. PMID:25975651

  9. Get Oriented: Study Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parramore, Barbara M.

    1981-01-01

    Recommends that students in social studies classes be exposed to a study of Japan because of the wide array of contrasts possible between Japan and the United States. Information is presented on Japan's modernization, global status, language, decision-making processes, and ancient traditions. (DB)

  10. Academic Libraries in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki

    2008-01-01

    Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and…

  11. BALANCE AND PIPETTE CALIBRATION AT MED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Yearly, every MED analytical balance and automatic pipette inventoried is certified as working or it is repaired to working condition. - - - The QA office maintains three sets of standard weights that can be used by the staff to verify balance operation routinely after the yearly...

  12. MED-SUV Data Life Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangianantoni, Agata; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Spampinato, Letizia; Tulino, Sabrina

    2015-04-01

    The MED-SUV project aims to implement a digital e-infrastructure for data access in order to promote the monitoring and study of key volcanic regions prone to volcanic hazards, and thus improve hazard assessment, according to the rationale of Supersite GEO initiative to Vesuvius- Campi Flegrei and Mt Etna, currently identified as Permanent Supersites. The present study focuses on the life cycle of MED-SUV data generated in the first period of the project and highlights the managing approach, as well as the crucial steps to be implemented for ensuring that data will be properly and ethically managed and can be used and accessed from both MED-SUV and the external community. The process is conceived outlining how research data being handled as the project progresses, describing what data are collected, processed or generated and how these data are going to be shared and made available through Open Access. Data cycle begins with their generation and ends with the deposit in the digital infrastructure, its key series of stages through which MED-SUV data passes are Collection, Data citation, Categorization of data, Approval procedure, Registration of datasets, Application of licensing models, and PID assignment. This involves a combination of procedures and practices taking into account the scientific core mission and the priorities of the project as well as the potential legal issues related to the management and protection of the Intellectual Property. We believe that the implementation of this process constitutes a significant encouragement in MED-SUV data sharing and as a consequence a better understanding on the volcanic processes, hazard assessment and a better integration with other Supersites projects.

  13. The use of PubMed/Medline in psychiatry. 3: Searching PubMed.

    PubMed

    Theander, Sten S

    2006-01-01

    This paper is the third in a series of three, intended as a tutorial in the use of PubMed/Medline for an inexperienced user. The papers have the following contents: I--a description of NLM, Medline, PubMed and the system of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), which form the basis for the indexing of scientific articles, books and other items at NLM. II--A description and a tutorial of the PubMed search window. III--The present article deals mainly with the searching for references in PubMed. Ways of restricting and concentrating the search are presented, and exercises are proposed. A reader may also find guidance for a search for medical books in the NLM Catalog, and in the use of tools like Related Articles, Bookshelf, and Index. With eating disorders as an example, more information is presented on the use of MeSH terms.

  14. MED-SUV final strategic issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spampinato, Letizia; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Sangianantoni, Agata

    2016-04-01

    Aside the scientific, technical and financial aspects managed by the "Project Management" Work Package (WP1), the great challenge and more time consuming task of this WP has surely been the definition and application of some strategic guidelines crucial to trace the project right path to its final success and for the project outcome sustainability after month 36. In particular, given that one of the main objectives of MED-SUV is that to be compliant with the GEO initiative, particularly concerning the data sharing, great efforts have been made by WP1 at first to define the MED-SUV Data Policy Guidelines, and currently to make it suitable for the EU Supersites. At present, WP1 is also dealing with the exploitation of the achieved foreground among the project's participant and to define a Memorandum of Understanding to sustain the monitoring systems and e-infrastructure developed in the project framework. Whilst the Data Policy guidelines document was implemented in the first year of MED-SUV, WP1 is now focused on the last deliverable 'Strategic and Legal deliverables', which includes the remaining issues. To the aim, WP1 has strategically separated the Exploitation of Foreground document preparation from the Memorandum of Understanding definition. The Exploitation of Foreground process has regarded the identification of Foreground, the exploitable results, the purpose of such Foreground, the collection of information from either the scientific community of MED-SUV or industrial participants; to this aim WP1 circulated an ad hoc questionnaire to put together information on (the) every kind of MED-SUV outcome, on their owners, on the kind of ownership (single/joint), on the outcome exploitation, and on proposals for its sustainability. While the first information will allow us to prepare the final Exploitation Agreement among the project's participant, the information on the exploitation of the outcome and likely sustainability proposals will contribute to the

  15. Nagoya, Ise Bay, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    This view of Nagoya, Ise Bay and nearby Kyoto, on the main island of Honshu, Japan (35.0N, 137.0E) combines in a single photo both the political, cultural and educational centers of early Japan as well as one of the main educational and business centers of modern Japan. Besides being a business, cultural and educational center, Nagoya is near the geographic center of the Japanese home islands.

  16. Neither maternal nor zygotic med-1/med-2 genes play a major role in specifying the Caenorhabditis elegans endoderm.

    PubMed

    Captan, Vasile V; Goszczynski, Barbara; McGhee, James D

    2007-02-01

    The med-1 and med-2 genes encode small, highly similar proteins related to GATA-type transcription factors and have been proposed as necessary for specification of both the mesoderm and the endoderm of Caenorhabditis elegans. However, we have previously presented evidence that neither maternal nor zygotic expression of the med-1/2 genes is necessary to specify the C. elegans endoderm. Contradicting our conclusions, a recent report presented evidence, based on presumed transgene-induced cosuppression, that the med-1/2 genes do indeed show an endoderm-specifying maternal effect. In this article, we reinvestigate med-2(-); med-1(-) embryos using a med-2- specific null allele instead of the chromosomal deficiences used previously and confirm our previous results: the large majority (approximately 84%) of med-2(-); med-1(-) embryos express gut granules. We also reinvestigate the possibility of a maternal med-1/2 effect by direct injection of med dsRNA into sensitized (med-deficient) hermaphrodites using the standard protocol known to be effective in ablating maternal transcripts, but again find no evidence for any significant maternal med-1/2 effect. We do, however, show that expression of gut granules in med-1/2-deficient embryos is exquisitely sensitive to RNAi against the vacuolar ATPase-encoding unc-32 gene [present on the same multicopy med-1(+)-containing transgenic balancer used in support of the maternal med-1/2 effect]. We thus suggest that the experimental evidence for a maternal med-1/2 effect should be reexamined and may instead reflect cosuppression caused by multiple transgenic unc-32 sequences, not med sequences.

  17. Further confirmation of the MED13L haploinsufficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    van Haelst, Mieke M; Monroe, Glen R; Duran, Karen; van Binsbergen, Ellen; Breur, Johannes M; Giltay, Jacques C; van Haaften, Gijs

    2015-01-01

    MED13L haploinsufficiency syndrome has been described in two patients and is characterized by moderate intellectual disability (ID), conotruncal heart defects, facial abnormalities and hypotonia. Missense mutations in MED13L are linked to transposition of the great arteries and non-syndromal intellectual disability. Here we describe two novel patients with de novo MED13L aberrations. The first patient has a de novo mutation in the splice acceptor site of exon 5 of MED13L. cDNA analysis showed this mutation results in an in-frame deletion, removing 15 amino acids in middle of the conserved MED13L N-terminal domain. The second patient carries a de novo deletion of exons 6-20 of MED13L. Both patients show features of the MED13L haploinsufficiency syndrome, except for the heart defects, thus further confirming the existence of the MED13L haploinsufficiency syndrome.

  18. LactMed: New NLM Database on Drugs and Lactation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Research News From NIH LactMed: New NLM Database on Drugs and Lactation Past Issues / Summer 2006 ... Javascript on. Photo: Comstock LactMed, a free online database with information on drugs and lactation, is one ...

  19. Journey to Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfrey, Lorraine

    1978-01-01

    Create a variety of activities related to the country you are studying--Japan, for example--and arrange them by such subjects as art, games, creative writing, maps, dress and greetings. These activities can be tied in with classroom learning centers or stations. Here students make passports, learn about traditional styles of dress in Japan, learn…

  20. Teaching English in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitao, Kenji, Ed.; And Others

    English language instruction, which is considered very important in Japan, is offered in 90 percent of all secondary schools and is studied by almost all students, even though it is an elective subject. English is considered a cultural and commercial link with the western world and has been taught in Japan since the mid-nineteenth century. Most…

  1. A Cultural Experience: Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Robert W.; And Others

    This activities unit for teaching about Japan is designed for use with elementary students. The activities reflect the growing importance of Japan in today's world, and the belief that the social studies curriculum should reflect principles of global education. The unit is intended to explore seven major goals included in the social studies…

  2. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  3. PubMedMiner: Mining and Visualizing MeSH-based Associations in PubMed

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yucan; Sarkar, Indra Neil; Chen, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    The exponential growth of biomedical literature provides the opportunity to develop approaches for facilitating the identification of possible relationships between biomedical concepts. Indexing by Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) represent high-quality summaries of much of this literature that can be used to support hypothesis generation and knowledge discovery tasks using techniques such as association rule mining. Based on a survey of literature mining tools, a tool implemented using Ruby and R – PubMedMiner – was developed in this study for mining and visualizing MeSH-based associations for a set of MEDLINE articles. To demonstrate PubMedMiner’s functionality, a case study was conducted that focused on identifying and comparing comorbidities for asthma in children and adults. Relative to the tools surveyed, the initial results suggest that PubMedMiner provides complementary functionality for summarizing and comparing topics as well as identifying potentially new knowledge. PMID:25954472

  4. Pub-Med-dot-com, here we come!

    PubMed

    Pulst, Stefan M

    2016-08-01

    As of April 8, 2016, articles in Neurology® Genetics can be searched using PubMed. Launched in 1996, PubMed is a search engine that accesses citations and abstracts of more than 26 million articles. Its primary sources include the MEDLINE database, which was started in the 1960s, and biomedical and life sciences journal articles that date back to 1946. In addition, PubMed accesses other sources, for example, citations to those life sciences journals that submit full-text articles to PubMed Central (PMC). PubMed Central was launched in 2000 as a free archive of biomedical and life science journals. PMID:27583303

  5. COSMO-SkyMed and GIS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milillo, Pietro; Sole, Aurelia; Serio, Carmine

    2013-04-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing have become key technology tools for the collection, storage and analysis of spatially referenced data. Industries that utilise these spatial technologies include agriculture, forestry, mining, market research as well as the environmental analysis . Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a coherent active sensor operating in the microwave band which exploits relative motion between antenna and target in order to obtain a finer spatial resolution in the flight direction exploiting the Doppler effect. SAR have wide applications in Remote Sensing such as cartography, surface deformation detection, forest cover mapping, urban planning, disasters monitoring , surveillance etc… The utilization of satellite remote sensing and GIS technology for this applications has proven to be a powerful and effective tool for environmental monitoring. Remote sensing techniques are often less costly and time-consuming for large geographic areas compared to conventional methods, moreover GIS technology provides a flexible environment for, analyzing and displaying digital data from various sources necessary for classification, change detection and database development. The aim of this work si to illustrate the potential of COSMO-SkyMed data and SAR applications in a GIS environment, in particular a demostration of the operational use of COSMO-SkyMed SAR data and GIS in real cases will be provided for what concern DEM validation, river basin estimation, flood mapping and landslide monitoring.

  6. Microelectronics in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulton, William R.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this JTEC study is to evaluate Japan's electronic manufacturing and packaging capabilities within the context of global economic competition. To carry out this study, the JTEC panel evaluated the framework of the Japanese consumer electronics industry and various technological and organizational factors that are likely to determine who will win and lose in the marketplace. This study begins with a brief overview of the electronics industry, especially as it operates in Japan today. Succeeding chapters examine the electronics infrastructure in Japan and take an in-depth look at the central issues of product development in order to identify those parameters that will determine future directions for electronic packaging technologies.

  7. Groundwater contamination in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tase, Norio

    1992-07-01

    Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed.

  8. GPM Arrives in Japan

    NASA Video Gallery

    An international satellite that will set a new standard for global precipitation measurements from space has completed a 7,300-mile journey from the United States to Japan, where it now will underg...

  9. Prison psychiatry in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakuta, T

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses and provides statistics, on a comparative basis, of crime trends in Japan with special reference to mentally disordered offenders. It also highlights some of the problems experienced by prison psychiatrists.

  10. COSMO-SkyMed Second Generation planner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covello, Fabio; Scopa, Tiziana; Serva, Stefano; Caltagirone, Francesco; De Luca, Giuseppe Francesco; Pacaccio, Alessandro; Profili, Mario

    2014-10-01

    COSMO-SkyMed Second Generation (CSG) system has been conceived, according to Italian Space Agency (ASI) and Italian Ministry of Defence (It-MoD) requirements, at the twofold objective of ensuring operational continuity to the current constellation (COSMO-SkyMed - CSK), while improving functionality and performances. It is an "end-to-end" Italian Earth Observation Dual-Use (Civilian and Defence) Space System with Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) operating in X-Band. CSG mission planning purpose is to fully employ the system resources, shared between partners with very different needs, producing a mission plan that satisfies the higher priority requests and optimizes the overall plan with the remaining requests according to the users programming rights consumption. CSG Mission Planning tool provides new performances in terms of adaptability and flexibility of the planning and scheduling algorithms conceived to select and synchronize data acquisition and downloading activities. CSG planning and scheduling problem is characterized by a large size of research space and a particular structure of technical and managerial constraints that has led to the implementation of innovative design of the planning algorithms based on both priority criteria and saturation of system resources. This approach envisages two scheduling strategies: the rank-based and the optimization-based. The former strategy is firstly applied to the most important request categories, with an associated rank value or priority level; the latter is subsequently applied to the unranked or lower priority requests. This is an iterative dynamic process of finding optimal solutions able to better answer the demanding requirements coming from the needs of heterogeneous users.

  11. Space robotics in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittaker, William; Lowrie, James W.; Mccain, Harry; Bejczy, Antal; Sheridan, Tom; Kanade, Takeo; Allen, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Japan has been one of the most successful countries in the world in the realm of terrestrial robot applications. The panel found that Japan has in place a broad base of robotics research and development, ranging from components to working systems for manufacturing, construction, and human service industries. From this base, Japan looks to the use of robotics in space applications and has funded work in space robotics since the mid-1980's. The Japanese are focusing on a clear image of what they hope to achieve through three objectives for the 1990's: developing long-reach manipulation for tending experiments on Space Station Freedom, capturing satellites using a free-flying manipulator, and surveying part of the moon with a mobile robot. This focus and a sound robotics infrastructure is enabling the young Japanese space program to develop relevant systems for extraterrestrial robotics applications.

  12. Cultural Astronomy in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renshaw, Steven L.

    While Japan is known more for its contributions to modern astronomy than its archaeoastronomical sites, there is still much about the culture's heritage that is of interest in the study of cultural astronomy. This case study provides an overview of historical considerations necessary to understand the place of astronomy in Japanese society as well as methodological considerations that highlight traditional approaches that have at times been a barrier to interdisciplinary research. Some specific areas of study in the cultural astronomy of Japan are discussed including examples of contemporary research based on interdisciplinary approaches. Japan provides a fascinating background for scholars who are willing to go beyond their curiosity for sites of alignment and approach the culture with a desire to place astronomical iconography in social context.

  13. Mars 2020 Entry, Descent and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Deepak; Wright, Henry; White, Todd; Schoenenberger, Mark; Santos, Jose; Karlgaard, Chris; Kuhl, Chris; Oishi, TOmo; Trombetta, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    This paper will introduce Mars Entry Descent and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI2) on NASA's Mars2020 mission. Mars2020 is a flagship NASA mission with science and technology objectives to help answer questions about possibility of life on Mars as well as to demonstrate technologies for future human expedition. Mars2020 is scheduled for launch in 2020. MEDLI2 is a suite of instruments embedded in the heatshield and backshell thermal protection systems of Mars2020 entry vehicle. The objectives of MEDLI2 are to gather critical aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics and TPS performance data during EDL phase of the mission. MEDLI2 builds up the success of MEDLI flight instrumentation on Mars Science Laboratory mission in 2012. MEDLI instrumentation suite measured surface pressure and TPS temperature on the heatshield during MSL entry into Mars. MEDLI data has since been used for unprecedented reconstruction of aerodynamic drag, vehicle attitude, in-situ atmospheric density, aerothermal heating, transition to turbulence, in-depth TPS performance and TPS ablation. [1,2] In addition to validating predictive models, MEDLI data has highlighted extra margin available in the MSL forebody TPS, which can potentially be used to reduce vehicle parasitic mass. MEDLI2 expands the scope of instrumentation by focusing on quantities of interest not addressed in MEDLI suite. The type the sensors are expanded and their layout on the TPS modified to meet these new objectives. The paper will provide key motivation and governing requirements that drive the choice and the implementation of the new sensor suite. The implementation considerations of sensor selection, qualification, and demonstration of minimal risk to the host mission will be described. The additional challenges associated with mechanical accommodation, electrical impact, data storage and retrieval for MEDLI2 system, which extends sensors to backshell will also be described.

  14. The internationalization of Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Kuroki, T.E.

    1989-01-01

    There are growing tensions and frictions between the U.S. and Japan. Among them are science and technology issues that relate to the development of superconductor technology, as well as economic, trade and agricultural issues. The structure of this friction is very complex. There are many interconnected issues that cannot be resolved one by one. This article focuses on the relationship between the U.S. and Japan. Some of the complexities behind the issues are discussed by defining different notions of internationalization and by presenting the positive and negative aspects of the Japanese approach that affects the future cooperation and competition between our nations in the area of superconductivity.

  15. 47 CFR 95.628 - MedRadio transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false MedRadio transmitters. 95.628 Section 95.628 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Technical Regulations Technical Standards § 95.628 MedRadio transmitters. (a) Frequency...

  16. Bosnian and Herzegovinian medical scientists in PubMed database.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2013-01-01

    In this paper it is shortly presented PubMed as one of the most important on-line databases of the scientific biomedical literature. Also, the author has analyzed the most cited authors, professors of the medical faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina, from the published papers in the biomedical journals abstracted and indexed in PubMed. PMID:24341067

  17. Bosnian and Herzegovinian medical scientists in PubMed database.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2013-01-01

    In this paper it is shortly presented PubMed as one of the most important on-line databases of the scientific biomedical literature. Also, the author has analyzed the most cited authors, professors of the medical faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina, from the published papers in the biomedical journals abstracted and indexed in PubMed.

  18. 47 CFR 95.628 - MedRadio transmitters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false MedRadio transmitters. 95.628 Section 95.628 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Technical Regulations Technical Standards § 95.628 MedRadio transmitters. (a) Frequency...

  19. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol,...

  20. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol,...

  1. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol,...

  2. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol,...

  3. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  4. Photovoltaics in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, K.

    1985-01-01

    Report surveys status of research and development on photovoltaics in Japan. Report based on literature searches, private communications, and visits by author to Japanese facilities. Included in survey are Sunshine Project, national program to develop energy sources; industrial development at private firms; and work at academic institutions.

  5. Film Resources on Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. Audio-Visual Education Center.

    Sixteen millimeter motion pictures dealing with Japan are listed alphabetically by title and annotated. Length of film, whether color or black and white, and name of producer or distributor is given for each, and a subject index is provided. Films produced before 1960, "sponsored" films, and 35 mm filmstrips are listed without annotations. A list…

  6. [Films: China and Japan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumport, Roberta H.

    The history of filmmaking in China and Japan and film usage in teaching are considered in this document. Pointing out how films describe historical context and culture, the document also describes various techniques of film making. Films in China were heavily influenced by western models and have tended to be tools of the power structure, as…

  7. Political Corruption in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Steven R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of political corruption and its place in Japanese culture and society. Discusses recent scandals and efforts at political reform. These efforts are moving Japan from a "boss-patronage" system to a "civic-culture." Includes a table of post-war Japanese prime ministers and corruption scandals. (MJP)

  8. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-02-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  9. [[Interregional marriage in Japan

    PubMed

    Suzuki, T

    1990-07-01

    Patterns in interregional marriage in Japan are examined by prefecture. Data are from the 1977, 1982, and 1987 National Fertility Surveys and are presented for distance between marriage site and birthplace, including the effects of arranged marriage and wife's labor force participation; prior living arrangements; and educational status of the couple. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  10. The Graying of Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Linda G.

    1989-01-01

    Japan's rapidly aging population has become a top policy issue, especially as the increasing costs of pensions and medical care are debated. With the highest life expectancy on earth, the Japanese potentially face long periods of retirement, as well as the possibility of long periods of disability. Although family support of the elderly is thought…

  11. Japan's Landscape in Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchetti, Bethany

    1993-01-01

    Presents an interdisciplinary approach combining geography and children's literature to teach about Japanese culture. Describes classroom activities that link the Five Fundamental Themes of Geography to literature and art. Includes 11 figures, 9 summaries of children's books about Japan, and a 15-item annotated bibliography. (CFR)

  12. Nuclear Power in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, John W.

    1983-01-01

    Energy consumption in Japan has grown at a faster rate than in any other major industrial country. To maintain continued prosperity, the government has embarked on a crash program for nuclear power. Current progress and issues/reactions to the plan are discussed. (JN)

  13. Advanced composites in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diefendorf, R. Judd; Hillig, William G.; Grisaffe, Salvatore J.; Pipes, R. Byron; Perepezko, John H.; Sheehan, James E.

    1994-01-01

    The JTEC Panel on Advanced Composites surveyed the status and future directions of Japanese high-performance ceramic and carbon fibers and their composites in metal, intermetallic, ceramic, and carbon matrices. Because of a strong carbon and fiber industry, Japan is the leader in carbon fiber technology. Japan has initiated an oxidation-resistant carbon/carbon composite program. With its outstanding technical base in carbon technology, Japan should be able to match present technology in the U.S. and introduce lower-cost manufacturing methods. However, the panel did not see any innovative approaches to oxidation protection. Ceramic and especially intermetallic matrix composites were not yet receiving much attention at the time of the panel's visit. There was a high level of monolithic ceramic research and development activity. High temperature monolithic intermetallic research was just starting, but notable products in titanium aluminides had already appeared. Matrixless ceramic composites was one novel approach noted. Technologies for high temperature composites fabrication existed, but large numbers of panels or parts had not been produced. The Japanese have selected aerospace as an important future industry. Because materials are an enabling technology for a strong aerospace industry, Japan initiated an ambitious long-term program to develop high temperature composites. Although just starting, its progress should be closely monitored in the U.S.

  14. Language Testing in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James Dean, Ed.; Yamashita, Sayoko Okada, Ed.

    Papers on second language testing in Japan include: "Differences Between Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests" (James Dean Brown); "Criterion-Referenced Test Construction and Evaluation" (Dale T. Griffe); "Behavioral Learning Objectives as an Evaluation Tool" (Judith A. Johnson); "Developing Norm- Referenced Tests for Program-Level…

  15. "Hands on" Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borries, Richard

    Cultural learning kits designed by Evansville, Indiana teachers, supervisors, and community advisory groups were compiled to provide information about Japan to community organizations and students. This document provides a key to the contents of the kits. The kits contain teaching materials and information about food, school materials, language…

  16. Human mediator subunit MED15 promotes transcriptional activation.

    PubMed

    Nakatsubo, Takuya; Nishitani, Saori; Kikuchi, Yuko; Iida, Satoshi; Yamada, Kana; Tanaka, Aki; Ohkuma, Yoshiaki

    2014-10-01

    In eukaryotes, the Mediator complex is an essential transcriptional cofactor of RNA polymerase II (Pol II). In humans, it contains up to 30 subunits and consists of four modules: head, middle, tail, and CDK/Cyclin. One of the subunits, MED15, is located in the tail module, and was initially identified as Gal11 in budding yeast, where it plays an essential role in the transcriptional regulation of galactose metabolism with the potent transcriptional activator Gal4. For this reason, we investigated the function of the human MED15 subunit (hMED15) in transcriptional activation. First, we measured the effect of hMED15 knockdown on cell growth in HeLa cells. The growth rate was greatly reduced. By immunostaining, we observed the colocalization of hMED15 with the general transcription factors TFIIE and TFIIH in the nucleus. We measured the effects of siRNA-mediated knockdown of hMED15 on transcriptional activation using two different transcriptional activators, VP16 and SREBP1a. Treatment with siRNAs reduced transcriptional activation, and this reduction could be rescued by overexpression of HA/Flag-tagged, wild-type hMED15. To investigate hMED15 localization, we treated human MCF-7 cells with the MDM2 inhibitor Nutlin-3, thus inducing p21 transcription. We found that hMED15 localized to both the p53 binding site and the p21 promoter region, along with TFIIE and TFIIH. These results indicate that hMED15 promotes transcriptional activation.

  17. Globalization and Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohkura, Kentaro; Shibata, Masako

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the authors contend that globalization in Japan is the gradual process in which Japan's positioning of "self" within international relations, which had formerly been dominated by the West, has changed. Accordingly, Japan's relationships with the West and the rest of the world, for example, Asia, have also been reviewed and modified.…

  18. The Arabidopsis mediator complex subunits MED16, MED14, and MED2 regulate mediator and RNA polymerase II recruitment to CBF-responsive cold-regulated genes.

    PubMed

    Hemsley, Piers A; Hurst, Charlotte H; Kaliyadasa, Ewon; Lamb, Rebecca; Knight, Marc R; De Cothi, Elizabeth A; Steele, John F; Knight, Heather

    2014-01-01

    The Mediator16 (MED16; formerly termed SENSITIVE TO FREEZING6 [SFR6]) subunit of the plant Mediator transcriptional coactivator complex regulates cold-responsive gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana, acting downstream of the C-repeat binding factor (CBF) transcription factors to recruit the core Mediator complex to cold-regulated genes. Here, we use loss-of-function mutants to show that RNA polymerase II recruitment to CBF-responsive cold-regulated genes requires MED16, MED2, and MED14 subunits. Transcription of genes known to be regulated via CBFs binding to the C-repeat motif/drought-responsive element promoter motif requires all three Mediator subunits, as does cold acclimation-induced freezing tolerance. In addition, these three subunits are required for low temperature-induced expression of some other, but not all, cold-responsive genes, including genes that are not known targets of CBFs. Genes inducible by darkness also required MED16 but required a different combination of Mediator subunits for their expression than the genes induced by cold. Together, our data illustrate that plants control transcription of specific genes through the action of subsets of Mediator subunits; the specific combination defined by the nature of the stimulus but also by the identity of the gene induced.

  19. UVAL-MED a universal visual associative language for medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Preiss, B.; Echavé, V.; Preiss, S. F.; Kaltenbach, M.

    1994-01-01

    We describe UVAL-MED, a Universal visual associative language for medicine, and propose its use in combination with diagnostic reasoning and decision support systems. When fully developed, our system will automatically translate SNOMED terms to UVAL-MED terms. Grammar and syntax for UVAL-MED are defined and its features as a language-independent tool are discussed. The perceived advantages of our graphical language for rapid integration of knowledge and the assessment of developing situations could thus facilitate decision making. PMID:7949931

  20. Scientific ballooning in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Fumiyoshi

    Activities in scientific ballooning in Japan during 1998-1999 are reported. The total number of scientific balloons flown in Japan in 1998 and 1999 was sixteen, eight flights in each year. The scientific objectives were observations of high energy cosmic electrons, air samplings at various altitudes, monitoring of atmospheric ozone density, Galactic infrared observations, and test flights of new type balloons. Balloon expeditions were conducted in Antarctica by the National Institute of Polar Research, in Russia, in Canada and in India in collaboration with foreign countries' institutes to investigate cosmic rays, Galactic infrared radiation, and Earth's atmosphere. There were three flights in Antarctica, four flights in Russia, three flights in Canada and two flights in India. Four test balloons were flown for balloon technology, which included pumpkin-type super-pressure balloon and a balloon made with ultra-thin polyethylene film of 3.4 μm thickness.

  1. DPAL activities in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Masamori; Wani, Fumio

    2015-02-01

    Activities on diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) in Japan is reviewed. We have started alkali laser works in 2011, and currently, we are the only players in Japan. Our interests are application oriented, and it is not only defense but also industrial. DPAL is a good candidate as a source of remote laser machining, thanks to its scalability and extremely good beam quality. We are studying on scientific and engineering problems of Cs DPAL with a small-scale apparatus. A commercial diode laser with volume Bragg grating outcoupler is used to pump the gain cell longitudinally. A 6.5 W continuous-wave output with optical to optical efficiency of 56% (based on the absorbed power) has been achieved. Numerical simulation codes are developed to understand the physics of DPAL and to help future developments.

  2. Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The city of Sapporo on the northernmost of the Japanese Home Island of Hokkaido (43.5N, 141.5E), host to the 1986 Winter Olympic Games is situated along the margin of a large valley which extends across the island from the Sea of Japan to the Pacific Ocean. The Valley is largely cultivated (the lighter green of the cultivated land distinguishes it from the gray urban development of Sapporo), but much of the island remains heavily forested.

  3. Terrorism in Japan.

    PubMed

    Asai, Yasufumi; Arnold, Jeffrey L

    2003-01-01

    Although the 1995 Tokyo subway sarin attack probably was the most widely reported terrorist event in Japan to date (5,500 injured, 12 dead), the country has suffered numerous other large terrorism-related events in recent decades, including bombings of the headquarters of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries in Tokyo in 1974 (207 injured, 8 dead), the Hokkaido Prefectural Government office building in Sapporo in 1976 (80 injured, 2 dead), and the Yosakoi-Soran Festival in Sapporo in 2000 (10 injured, none dead). Japan also has experienced two other mass-casualty terrorist events involving chemical releases, including the 1994 Matsumoto sarin attack (600 injured, 7 dead) and the 1998 Wakayama arsenic incident (67 injured, 4 dead). Until 1995, emergency management in Japan focused on planning and preparedness at the local level for the frequent disasters caused by natural events. Since that time, substantial progress has been made in advancing emergency planning and preparedness for terrorism-related events, including the designation of disaster centers in each prefecture, the implementation of several education and training programs for nuclear, biological, and chemical terrorism, and the establishment of a national Anti terrorism Office within the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare.

  4. [Abortion in Japan].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, Y; Hayase, T

    1993-01-01

    In Japan, the artificial abortion is a penal offence; only in the presence of certain conditions it is authorized under the provision of the Eugenic Protection Law which was promulgated in 1948. According to the law, the artificial abortion is restricted to the period, in which the fetus is not viable outside of the uterus. This period is prescribed by notification from the Ministry of Public Welfare; up to now it has been shortened twice (1976, 1991). Due to the introduction of economic reasons in the list of conditions and the simplification of the procedure the artificial abortion in Japan was virtually liberalized. Prosecution for illegal abortion is very rare in recent years. The number of reported artificial abortions decreases; in the about last 30 years it reduced by half. However, the increase in the number of abortions in women younger than 20 years of age is a problem. The abortion in teenagers is late compared with that in other age groups. Although the number of neonaticides does not seem to increase, the increase in the number of abortions in teenagers remains a serious problem in Japan. PMID:8352642

  5. Are Some Blood Pressure Meds Linked to Depression, Bipolar Risk?

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_161421.html Are Some Blood Pressure Meds Linked to Depression, Bipolar Risk? Researchers add ... TUESDAY, Oct. 11, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Some blood pressure drugs may boost the risk that patients will ...

  6. 1 in 4 Medicare Patients Uses Blood Pressure Meds Incorrectly

    MedlinePlus

    ... html 1 in 4 Medicare Patients Uses Blood Pressure Meds Incorrectly The lifesaving drugs 'only work if ... prescription drug enrollees aren't taking their blood pressure medication as directed, increasing their risk of heart ...

  7. Using PubMed effectively to access the orthopaedic literature.

    PubMed

    Clough, J F Myles; Hitchcock, Kristin; Nelson, David L

    2011-01-01

    PubMed is the free public Internet interface to the US National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE database of citations to medical scientific articles. Many orthopaedic surgeons use PubMed on a regular basis, but most orthopaedic surgeons have received little or no training in how to use PubMed effectively and express frustration with the experience. Typical problems encountered are data overload with very large numbers of returns to look through, failure to find a specific article, and a concern that a search has missed important papers. It is helpful to understand the system used to enter journal articles into the database and the classification of the common types of searches and to review suggestions for the best ways to use the PubMed interface and find sources for search teaching and assistance. PMID:21553803

  8. Application of the MEDLI Suite to Future Mars Entry Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munk, M. M.

    2012-06-01

    The heatshield instrument on MSL, called MEDLI, will measure the pressure and thermal environments during entry, descent and landing. To fulfill scientific and engineering objectives, all future entry vehicles should include similar instrumentation.

  9. More Evidence Tamoxifen, Other Meds Help Limit Breast Cancer's Spread

    MedlinePlus

    ... html More Evidence Tamoxifen, Other Meds Help Limit Breast Cancer's Spread 6-year study finds follow-up therapy ... class of drugs called aromatase inhibitors does cut breast cancer patients' risk of developing cancer in their other ...

  10. Standardised MedDRA queries: their role in signal detection.

    PubMed

    Mozzicato, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Standardised MedDRA (Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities) queries (SMQs) are a newly developed tool to assist in the retrieval of cases of interest from a MedDRA-coded database. SMQs contain terms related to signs, symptoms, diagnoses, syndromes, physical findings, laboratory and other physiological test data etc, that are associated with the medical condition of interest. They are being developed jointly by CIOMS and the MedDRA Maintenance and Support Services Organization (MSSO) and are provided as an integral part of a MedDRA subscription. During their development, SMQs undergo testing to assure that they are able to retrieve cases of interest within the defined scope of the SMQ. This paper describes the features of SMQs that allow for flexibility in their application, such as 'narrow' and 'broad' sub-searches, hierarchical grouping of sub-searches and search algorithms. In addition, as with MedDRA, users can request changes to SMQs. SMQs are maintained in synchrony with MedDRA versions by internal maintenance processes in the MSSO. The list of safety topics to be developed into SMQs is long and comprehensive. The CIOMS Working Group retains a list of topics to be developed and periodically reviews the list for priority and relevance. As of mid-2007, 37 SMQs are in production use and several more are under development. The potential uses of SMQs in safety analysis will be discussed including their role in signal detection and evaluation. PMID:17604415

  11. PubMed searches: overview and strategies for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Wesley T; Olin, Bernie R

    2013-04-01

    PubMed is a biomedical and life sciences database maintained by a division of the National Library of Medicine known as the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). It is a large resource with more than 5600 journals indexed and greater than 22 million total citations. Searches conducted in PubMed provide references that are more specific for the intended topic compared with other popular search engines. Effective PubMed searches allow the clinician to remain current on the latest clinical trials, systematic reviews, and practice guidelines. PubMed continues to evolve by allowing users to create a customized experience through the My NCBI portal, new arrangements and options in search filters, and supporting scholarly projects through exportation of citations to reference managing software. Prepackaged search options available in the Clinical Queries feature also allow users to efficiently search for clinical literature. PubMed also provides information regarding the source journals themselves through the Journals in NCBI Databases link. This article provides an overview of the PubMed database's structure and features as well as strategies for conducting an effective search. PMID:23442731

  12. Influenza virus vaccine live intranasal--MedImmune vaccines: CAIV-T, influenza vaccine live intranasal.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    extended through to June 2003. Aviron holds exclusive worldwide rights to the vaccine except for Japan, where Kaketsuken Pharmaceuticals (also known as Chemo-Sero-Therapeutic Research Institute) is the licensee. Aviron signed a development and licensing agreement with Sang-A in Korea, which was to manufacture and market FluMist in South Korea. However, in 2000, Aviron terminated all rights and licences to Sang-A relating to FluMist. Sang-A responded by filing a suit against Aviron in August 2000, for breach of contract and unfair and deceptive business practices. Aviron filed a counter claim denying the allegations in late Sept 2001. In 1999, Aviron entered into an agreement with Wyeth-Lederle Vaccines for worldwide collaboration in the marketing of FluMist. Under the $US400 million agreement, Aviron granted Wyeth-Lederle Vaccines exclusive worldwide rights to market FluMist. Wyeth-Lederle Vaccines and Aviron (now Med-Immune Vaccines) will co-promote FluMist in the US, while Wyeth-Lederle Vaccines will have the exclusive right to market the product ex-US. Wyeth will hold marketing rights for up to 11 years. The collaboration excludes Korea, Australia, New Zealand and certain South Pacific countries. The companies will collaborate on the regulatory, clinical and marketing programmes for FluMist and both will manufacture liquid FluMist. MedImmune Vaccines is to receive an average of 40% of revenues from FluMist; the percentage will be higher in the US and lower in other markets. Aviron received a $US15 million upfront payment upon initiation of the agreement. In December 2000, Aviron received a $US15.5 million milestone payment from American Home Products (now Wyeth) after the US FDA accepted the BLA for FluMist. MedImmune Vaccines will receive a $US20 million milestone payment upon US FDA approval. Aviron also received an additional $US20 million in milestone payments for expaory body recommendations. MedImmune Vaccines is entitled to receive a $US10 million payment for

  13. Influenza virus vaccine live intranasal--MedImmune vaccines: CAIV-T, influenza vaccine live intranasal.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    extended through to June 2003. Aviron holds exclusive worldwide rights to the vaccine except for Japan, where Kaketsuken Pharmaceuticals (also known as Chemo-Sero-Therapeutic Research Institute) is the licensee. Aviron signed a development and licensing agreement with Sang-A in Korea, which was to manufacture and market FluMist in South Korea. However, in 2000, Aviron terminated all rights and licences to Sang-A relating to FluMist. Sang-A responded by filing a suit against Aviron in August 2000, for breach of contract and unfair and deceptive business practices. Aviron filed a counter claim denying the allegations in late Sept 2001. In 1999, Aviron entered into an agreement with Wyeth-Lederle Vaccines for worldwide collaboration in the marketing of FluMist. Under the $US400 million agreement, Aviron granted Wyeth-Lederle Vaccines exclusive worldwide rights to market FluMist. Wyeth-Lederle Vaccines and Aviron (now Med-Immune Vaccines) will co-promote FluMist in the US, while Wyeth-Lederle Vaccines will have the exclusive right to market the product ex-US. Wyeth will hold marketing rights for up to 11 years. The collaboration excludes Korea, Australia, New Zealand and certain South Pacific countries. The companies will collaborate on the regulatory, clinical and marketing programmes for FluMist and both will manufacture liquid FluMist. MedImmune Vaccines is to receive an average of 40% of revenues from FluMist; the percentage will be higher in the US and lower in other markets. Aviron received a $US15 million upfront payment upon initiation of the agreement. In December 2000, Aviron received a $US15.5 million milestone payment from American Home Products (now Wyeth) after the US FDA accepted the BLA for FluMist. MedImmune Vaccines will receive a $US20 million milestone payment upon US FDA approval. Aviron also received an additional $US20 million in milestone payments for expaory body recommendations. MedImmune Vaccines is entitled to receive a $US10 million payment for

  14. Astrogeodetic geoid of Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganeko, Y.

    1976-01-01

    Three kinds of astrogeodetic geoid maps for Japan are presented: one referred to the global (18, 18) geoid of the 1973 Smithsonian Standard Earth (III) (SE III), referred to the best-fitting ellipsoid of SE III, and one referred to the reference ellipsoid of the Tokyo datum. Interpolations of the deflection of the vertical are carried out by a least squares estimation method. The geoid height differences obtained are compared with solutions of satellite-derived station positions. Good agreement is found in a comparison with Doppler tracking stations.

  15. Recent topics in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Y

    1996-08-01

    In Japan, the concern about ethical issues in preventive medicine, especially in epidemiological investigation, has been gradually increasing in recent years. In this paper I introduce the following four topics: 1. privacy protection and the computer, 2. informed consent and publication, 3. the attitudes toward ethics among epidemiologists, 4. the attitudes toward epidemiological investigation among examinees. In my opinion, Japanese epidemiologists should give more attention to general ethical principles (Respect for persons, Beneficence) and to the practical methods to apply them in their research works.

  16. Ijime in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Masayoshi; Okada, Kaori; Hamada, Shoko; Asaga, Reiko; Honjo, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the problem of ijime in Japan from a variety of perspectives, primarily through studies conducted in this country. The term ijime is not uniform in concept, open to different interpretations given the disparity in definitions among different circles, making precise assessment of the actual conditions difficult. Such being the case, what is needed is further study on the mechanisms and actual state of ijime accounting for the flow of the times, and compilation of research to enable the creation of ever more effective modes of prevention and intervention. PMID:22909914

  17. Med1 regulates meiotic progression during spermatogenesis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Huszar, Jessica M.; Jia, Yuzhi; Reddy, Janardan K.; Payne, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is a highly coordinated process. Signaling from nuclear hormone receptors, like those for retinoic acid, is important for normal spermatogenesis. However, the mechanisms regulating these signals are poorly understood. Mediator complex subunit 1 (MED1) is a transcriptional enhancer that directly modulates transcription from nuclear hormone receptors. MED1 is present in male germ cells throughout mammalian development, but its function during spermatogenesis is unknown. To determine its role, we generated mice lacking Med1 specifically in their germ cells beginning just before birth. Conditional Med1 knockout males are fertile, exhibiting normal testis weights and siring ordinary numbers of offspring. Retinoic acid-responsive gene products Stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (STRA8) and Synaptonemal complex protein 3 (SYCP3) are first detected in knockout spermatogonia at the expected time points during the first wave of spermatogenesis and persist with normal patterns of cellular distribution in adult knockout testes. Meiotic progression, however, is altered in the absence of Med1. At postnatal day 7 (P7), zygotene-stage knockout spermatocytes are already detected, unlike in control testes, with fewer pre-leptotene-stage cells and more leptotene spermatocytes observed in the knockouts. At P9, Med1 knockout spermatocytes prematurely enter pachynema. Once formed, greater numbers of knockout spermatocytes remain in pachynema relative to the other stages of meiosis throughout testis development and its maintenance in the adult. Meiotic exit is not inhibited. We conclude that MED1 regulates the temporal progression of primary spermatocytes through meiosis, with its absence resulting in abbreviated pre-leptotene, leptotene and zygotene stages, and a prolonged pachytene stage. PMID:25778538

  18. Strong Quake Strikes Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-03-01

    As Eos was about to go to press, a powerful earthquake with a preliminary estimated magnitude of 8.9 shook the northeast coast of Japan on 11 March at 05:46:23 UTC. It is the largest known earthquake along the Japan Trench subduction zone since 869 A.D. or earlier, Brian Atwater, geologist with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), told Eos. The quake's magnitude would place it fifth in terms of any earthquake magnitude worldwide since at least 1900, according to information from the USGS Earthquake Hazards Program. The amount of energy released in the quake—which occurred 130 kilometers east of Sendai, Honshu, at a depth of 24.4 kilometers—was equivalent to the energy from 30 earthquakes the size of the 1906 quake in San Francisco, Calif., according to David Applegate, USGS senior science advisor for earthquake and geologic hazards. He said the economic losses from the shaking are estimated to be in the tens of billions of dollars.

  19. Space plane program in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maita, Masataka

    The present paper will discuss perspectives on Japan's spaceplane research and development program. The topics will cover the current activities of Japan's spaceplane concept studies and related technology research program, which were primarily initiated by the National Aerospace Laboratory of the Science and Technology Agency, with an emphasis on the vehicle concept powered by a hypersonic airbreathing propulsion system.

  20. Studying Japan: The Cooperative Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilke, Eileen

    1990-01-01

    Designs an elementary level social studies unit with the focus on Japan. Provides sample units of cooperative learning group projects. Suggests integrating mathematics, language arts, economics, fine arts, and science. Lists resources for obtaining more information and materials about Japan. (NL)

  1. Higher Education Studies in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Motohisa

    2010-01-01

    The rapid development of higher education in the postwar period has given rise to various problems, and higher education studies in Japan have developed in response to them. What have been the major issues, and how did academic research respond to them, in postwar Japan? This article delineates an outline of higher education studies in general,…

  2. Teaching Elementary Students about Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, William P.

    This paper presents a study unit on Japan for elementary students which can be adapted for any level. Lessons include: (1) "Video Traveling Activities To Accompany Students on Their Journey to Japan"; (2) "Travel Brochure"; (3) "Discovering Culture by Using a Realia Kit"; (4) "Comparative Geography Using the Five Fundamental Themes of Geography";…

  3. China and Japan (Theme Issue).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, Henry, Ed.; Pyne, John, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This serial issue is devoted to the theme "China and Japan" and contains six articles that focus on educational, political, and cultural issues in the two Asian countries. In the first article, "China and Japan: A New Era in Relations with the United States," Henry Kiernan and John Pyne provide a brief overview of the history of United States'…

  4. MedAustron: The Austrian ion therapy facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedikt, Michael

    MedAustron is a synchrotron-based light-ion beam therapy center for cancer treatment as well as for clinical and non-clinical research in Wiener Neustadt, Austria. The center is designed for the treatment of up to 1200 patients per year and for non-clinical research in the areas of radiobiology and medical radiation physics, as well as in experimental physics. MedAustron is an interdisciplinary project, benefiting from close cooperation and knowledge transfer with medical, scientific and research institutes on the national and international level. Three medical irradiation rooms will allow quasi-permanent patient treatment during two shifts on working days. The remaining beam time will be used for non-clinical research applications in a dedicated fourth irradiation room. The expected start of operation of MedAustron is mid-2016...

  5. CyberMedVPS: visual programming for development of simulators.

    PubMed

    Morais, Aline M; Machado, Liliane S

    2011-01-01

    Computer applications based on Virtual Reality (VR) has been outstanding in training and teaching in the medical filed due to their ability to simulate realistic in which users can practice skills and decision making in different situations. But was realized in these frameworks a hard interaction of non-programmers users. Based on this problematic will be shown the CyberMedVPS, a graphical module which implement Visual Programming concepts to solve an interaction trouble. Frameworks to develop such simulators are available but their use demands knowledge of programming. Based on this problematic will be shown the CyberMedVPS, a graphical module for the CyberMed framework, which implements Visual Programming concepts to allow the development of simulators by non-programmers professionals of the medical field.

  6. [Buddhist mummies in Japan].

    PubMed

    Morimoto, I

    1993-08-01

    The mummy of priest Kochi (preserved at Saishoji Temple, Teradomari, Niigata Pref.) has become famous, since it appeared in the book "Snow Country Tales" written by Bokushi Suzuki in 1841 (Fig. 1). In a country of high humidity, such as Japan, the belief that mummification could not, and did not, exist would not be altogether unfounded, but rather more a matter of common sense. There are two dozen Buddhist mummies in this country. It was not known until 1961 that a reliable source of artificial mummification has existed in Japan. The Japanese Buddhist mummies, apart from those of the Fujiwara family, a powerful clan of northeast Japan in the 12th century, dated mostly from the 17th to the 19th century as given in Table 1. Three principal types of mummification described by Vreeland, Jr. and Cockburn (1980) could be identified in the Japanese Buddhist mummies: type I, natural mummification; type II, intentional natural; and type III, artificial. Matsumoto (1990) classified the mummies into four groups, based on their ideological backgrounds: group A, mummies of the priests having faith in the Amitabha (the Supreme Buddha presiding over the Pure Land in the West); group B, sokushin-butsu mummies of the priests belonging to the Shingon sect of Japanese Buddhism founded by Kukai (Kobo-daishi); group C, nyujo mummies of the priests having faith in the Maitreya (the Buddha presiding over the Pure Land in the North, or the Buddha of the future); and group D, other mummies. These mummies of groups A, B, C and D are respectively listed in Table 2. Previous papers have shown that the mummies of the groups A, C and D belonged to the mummification of type I (natural mummification) or type II (intentional natural), whereas those of only the group B were of type III (artificial). The mummies of groups A to D were given as follows. a) Mummies of group A. The four mummies of the Fujiwara family in the Amitabha faith (preserved at Chusonji Temple, Hiraizumi, Iwate Pref.), which

  7. On the geolocation accuracy of COSMO-SkyMed products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitti, Davide O.; Nutricato, Raffaele; Lorusso, Rino; Lombardi, Nunzia; Bovenga, Fabio; Bruno, Maria F.; Chiaradia, Maria T.; Milillo, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Accurate geolocation of SAR data is nowadays strongly required because of the increasing number of high resolution SAR sensors available as for instance from TerraSAR-X / TanDEM-X and COSMO-SkyMed space-borne missions. Both stripmap and spotlight acquisition modes provide from metric to sub metric spatial resolution which demands the ability to ensure a geolocation accuracy of the same order of magnitude. Geocoding quality depends on several factors and in particular on the knowledge of the actual values of the satellite position along the orbit, and the delay introduced by the additional path induced by changes in the refractivity index due to the presence of the atmosphere (the so called Atmospheric Path Delay or APD). No definitive results are reported yet in the scientific literature, concerning the best performances achievable by the COSMO-SkyMed constellation in terms of geolocation accuracy. Preliminary studies have shown that sub-pixel geolocation accuracies are hardly achievable with COSMO-SkyMed data. The present work aims at inspecting the origin of the geolocation error sources in COSMO-SkyMed Single-look Complex Slant (SCS) products, and to investigate possible strategies for their compensation or mitigation. Five different test sites have been selected in Italy and Argentina, where up to 30 corner reflectors are installed, pointing towards ascending or descending passes. Experimental results are presented and discussed.

  8. GRATEFUL MED-LOANSOME DOC outreach project in central Pennsylvania.

    PubMed Central

    Robishaw, S M; Roth, B G

    1994-01-01

    The Geisinger Medical Center Library implemented a GRATEFUL MED outreach project in rural north-central Pennsylvania directed at providing physicians access to current medical literature. A total of 1,327 physicians affiliated with twenty-three hospitals practice in a thirteen-county area the size of the state of New Jersey. Of these hospitals, only four have hospital libraries, which vary in size and in staff abilities to meet the information needs of their affiliated physicians. The outreach project encompassed two stages--demonstrations of GRATEFUL MED and LOANSOME DOC at county medical society or hospital meetings, and installation and training in individual offices. The eighteen-month project ended in March 1992. Statistics were collected for the number of GRATEFUL MED software packages loaded (sixty-two), the number of document delivery items supplied by Geisinger Medical Center Library to project participants (367), and the number of physicians attending introductory demonstrations or follow-up training programs (455 at sixty-eight sessions). By the end of the project, 147 (32%) of those who had attended a seminar had access to GRATEFUL MED. PMID:8004026

  9. Student employment opportunities within ORD, with an emphasis on MED

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a talk to undergraduate Juniors and Seniors in the UW-Madison School of Pharmacy's Pharm/Tox program about student employment opportunities w/in ORD such as SSC, ORISE, etc. wtih an emphasis on MED. I would classify as this as Outreach: how to navigate EPA websites to f...

  10. PubMed Central Canada: Beyond an Open Access Repository?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nariani, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) represents a partnership between the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), the National Research Council's Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (NRC-CISTI), and the National Library of Medicine of the US. The present study was done to gauge faculty awareness about the CIHR Policy on…

  11. How Complementary and Alternative Medicine Practitioners Use PubMed

    PubMed Central

    Quint-Rapoport, Mia

    2007-01-01

    Background PubMed is the largest bibliographic index in the life sciences. It is freely available online and is used by professionals and the public to learn more about medical research. While primarily intended to serve researchers, PubMed provides an array of tools and services that can help a wider readership in the location, comprehension, evaluation, and utilization of medical research. Objective This study sought to establish the potential contributions made by a range of PubMed tools and services to the use of the database by complementary and alternative medicine practitioners. Methods In this study, 10 chiropractors, 7 registered massage therapists, and a homeopath (N = 18), 11 with prior research training and 7 without, were taken through a 2-hour introductory session with PubMed. The 10 PubMed tools and services considered in this study can be divided into three functions: (1) information retrieval (Boolean Search, Limits, Related Articles, Author Links, MeSH), (2) information access (Publisher Link, LinkOut, Bookshelf ), and (3) information management (History, Send To, Email Alert). Participants were introduced to between six and 10 of these tools and services. The participants were asked to provide feedback on the value of each tool or service in terms of their information needs, which was ranked as positive, positive with emphasis, negative, or indifferent. Results The participants in this study expressed an interest in the three types of PubMed tools and services (information retrieval, access, and management), with less well-regarded tools including MeSH Database and Bookshelf. In terms of their comprehension of the research, the tools and services led the participants to reflect on their understanding as well as their critical reading and use of the research. There was universal support among the participants for greater access to complete articles, beyond the approximately 15% that are currently open access. The abstracts provided by PubMed were

  12. Teaching about Japan in the Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogan, John J.

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on ideas for teaching about Japan which elementary school classroom teachers can use to supplement a textbook unit on Japan. Suggestions are intended to allow for reflection by students on their own culture, as well as the culture of Japan. Topics are children's perceptions of Japan and the Japanese, developing a geographical perspective,…

  13. The Social Sciences in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanuki, Joji

    1975-01-01

    This article relates a brief historical background of social sciences in Japan, the institutional framework of social science education and research, and major issues and perspectives for the development of the social scinces. (ND)

  14. [Canine histoplasmosis in Japan].

    PubMed

    Sano, Ayako; Miyaji, Makoto

    2003-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum and is distributed a worldwide. Although the disease has been treated as an imported mycosis, some autochthonous human, 1 equine and 4 canine cases suggested that the disease is endemic. Histoplasmosis is classified depending on the variety of causative agent. Histoplasmosis farciminosi known as pseudofarcy, is manifested only in Perissodactyla where it invades lymph nodes and lymph ducts, and is recognized by isolation from horses. Historically, Japan was one of the endemic areas of pseudofarcy before World War II, and more than 20,000 cases were recorded in horses used by the military. Interestingly, Japanese canine histoplasmosis uniformly showed skin ulcers and granulomatous lesions on the skin without pulmonary or gastrointestinal involvement, both of which were very similar to pseudofarcy. It was diagnosed as histoplasmosis by the detection of internal transcribed spacer legions of rRNA gene of H. capsulatum from paraffin embedded tissue samples. Furthermore, the fungal isolate from the human case with no history of going abroad or immigrating was identified as H. capsulatum var. farciminosum by a gene sequence. These facts indicated that pseudofarcy is not only an infectious disease in horses, but also a zoonotic fungal infection. Japanese autochthonous canine histoplasmosis might be a heteroecism of pseudofarcy because of its likeness to the human case, the similarity of clinical manifestations and the historical background at this stage.

  15. Fusion Studies in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Yuichi

    2016-05-01

    A new strategic energy plan decided by the Japanese Cabinet in 2014 strongly supports the steady promotion of nuclear fusion development activities, including the ITER project and the Broader Approach activities from the long-term viewpoint. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in Japan formulated the Third Phase Basic Program so as to promote an experimental fusion reactor project. In 2005 AEC has reviewed this Program, and discussed on selection and concentration among many projects of fusion reactor development. In addition to the promotion of ITER project, advanced tokamak research by JT-60SA, helical plasma experiment by LHD, FIREX project in laser fusion research and fusion engineering by IFMIF were highly prioritized. Although the basic concept is quite different between tokamak, helical and laser fusion researches, there exist a lot of common features such as plasma physics on 3-D magnetic geometry, high power heat load on plasma facing component and so on. Therefore, a synergetic scenario on fusion reactor development among various plasma confinement concepts would be important.

  16. High definition systems in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkus, Richard J., Jr.; Cohen, Robert B.; Dayton, Birney D.; Messerschmitt, David G.; Schreiber, William F.; Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Shelton, Duane

    1991-01-01

    The successful implementation of a strategy to produce high-definition systems within the Japanese economy will favorably affect the fundamental competitiveness of Japan relative to the rest of the world. The development of an infrastructure necessary to support high-definition products and systems in that country involves major commitments of engineering resources, plants and equipment, educational programs and funding. The results of these efforts appear to affect virtually every aspect of the Japanese industrial complex. The results of assessments of the current progress of Japan toward the development of high-definition products and systems are presented. The assessments are based on the findings of a panel of U.S. experts made up of individuals from U.S. academia and industry, and derived from a study of the Japanese literature combined with visits to the primary relevant industrial laboratories and development agencies in Japan. Specific coverage includes an evaluation of progress in R&D for high-definition television (HDTV) displays that are evolving in Japan; high-definition standards and equipment development; Japanese intentions for the use of HDTV; economic evaluation of Japan's public policy initiatives in support of high-definition systems; management analysis of Japan's strategy of leverage with respect to high-definition products and systems.

  17. Mt. Fuji, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the movie

    The nearly perfectly conical profile of Fuji soars 3,776 meters (12,388 feet) above sea level on southern Honshu, near Tokyo. The highest mountain in Japan, Fuji is the country's most familiar symbol. The summit of this graceful, dormant volcano is broken by a crater 610 meters (2,000 feet) in diameter. The crater is ringed by eight jagged peaks. The five Fuji Lakes lie on the northern slopes of the mountain, all formed in the wake of lava flows. Mirrored in the still waters of Kawaguchi-ko, the most beautiful of the five lakes, is a reflection of Fuji. Part of Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, Fuji last erupted for a two-month period starting in November 1707, covering Tokyo, some 100 kilometers (60 miles) away, with a layer of ash. According to legend, Fuji arose from the plain during a single night in 286 BC. Geologically, the mountain is much older than this.

    Considered sacred by many, Fuji is surrounded by temples and shrines. Thousands of pilgrims climb the mountain each year as part of their religious practice, hoping to reach the summit by dawn to watch the sunrise. This animated fly-by was created by draping visible and near infrared image data over a digital topography model, created from ASTER's stereo bands. The spatial resolution of both the image and topography is 15 m. The image is centered at 35.3 degrees north latitude, 138.7 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  18. Quo Vadis, Japan. [Status of Japan's Nuclear Power Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    A pile of plutonium - 1.4 tonnes in all - was on board Japanese nuclear transport ship Akatsuki Maru when it left France on November 8, 1992 for Japan. Alongside it were Greenpeace's hostile and ever-vigilant boats and the great swells of public protest from around the world. Transports like this are likely to follow. But more to the tune of 30 to 40 tonnes of plutonium cargo is expected from the Japanese spent fuel that is separated at European reprocessing plants. Both Japanese utilities and governmental agencies have agreed that plutonium is to be fabricated into mixed oxide fuel (MOX) before being returned to Japan. But in the meantime, critics are accusing Japan of being one of the greatest threats to international safety. After the Akatsuki Maru spectacle, the Japanese civil nuclear program is awash in criticism and can not escape the watchful eye of the international community. Now, with Japan's parliamentary elections over and a review of its nuclear program just around the corner, the question is: Quo vadis, Japan

  19. Augmenting GRATEFUL MED with the UMLS Metathesaurus: an initial evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Jachna, J S; Powsner, S M; Miller, P L

    1993-01-01

    Clinicians in patient care settings must be able to locate relevant recent medical literature quickly. Computer literacy is increasing, but many clinicians remain ill at ease with search strategies for online bibliographic databases. As part of an ongoing project to simplify the translation of clinical questions into effective searches, a Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus tool was designed. The authors compared bibliographic searches by relatively inexperienced users employing only GRATEFUL MED to searches done using GRATEFUL MED augmented with this tool. The users were clinicians examining questions related to a test set of clinical cases. Their problems and successes were monitored; the results suggest that the addition of a thesaurus helps resolve some problems in citation retrieval that trouble the novice user. By helping the user understand indexing terms in context and by reducing typing errors, a thesaurus can help provide an intelligent solution to lexical mismatches in bibliographic retrieval. PMID:8428185

  20. Rural GRATEFUL MED outreach: project results, impact, and future needs.

    PubMed Central

    Dorsch, J L; Landwirth, T K

    1993-01-01

    The Library of the Health Sciences-Peoria (LHS-Peoria), located at a regional site of the University of Illinois College of Medicine, conducted an eighteen-month GRATEFUL MED outreach project funded by the National Library of Medicine. The project was designed to enhance information services for health professionals at eight underserved rural hospitals in west central Illinois. One hundred rural health professionals, mainly nonphysicians, received GRATEFUL MED training at these hospitals; LHS delivered more than 350 documents to the trainees. In this paper, investigators describe the project and its goals and discuss results and their evaluation, from both individual and institutional perspectives. Outcome is examined in the context of future outreach plans, both at LHS and elsewhere. PMID:8251973

  1. TeleMed: A distributed virtual patient record system

    SciTech Connect

    Forslund, D.W.; Phillips, R.L.; Kilman, D.G.; Cook, J.L.

    1996-06-01

    TeleMed is a distributed diagnosis and analysis system, which permits physicians who are not collocated to consult on the status of a patient. The patient`s record is dynamically constructed from data that may reside at several sites but which can be quickly assembled for viewing by pointing to the patient`s name. Then, a graphical patient record appears, through which consulting physicians can retrieve textual and radiographic data with a single mouse click. TeleMed uses modern distributed object technology and emerging telecollaboration tools. The authors describe in this paper some of the motivation for this change, what they mean by a virtual patient record, and some results of some early implementations of a virtual patient record.

  2. Mitigation of Volcanic Risk: The COSMO-SkyMed Contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacco, Patrizia; Daraio, Maria Girolamo; Battagliere, Maria Libera; Coletta, Alessandro

    2015-05-01

    The Italian Space Agency (ASI) promotes Earth Observation (EO) applications related to themes such as the prediction, monitoring, management and mitigation of natural and anthropogenic hazards. The approach generally followed is the development and demonstration of prototype services, using currently available data from space missions, in particular the COSMO-SkyMed (Constellation of Small Satellites for Mediterranean basin observation) mission, which represents the largest Italian investment in Space System for EO and thanks to which Italy plays a key role worldwide. Projects funded by ASI provide the convergence of various national industry expertise, research and institutional reference users. In this context a significant example is represented by the ASI Pilot Projects, recently concluded, dealing with various thematic, such as volcanoes. In this paper a special focus will be addressed to the volcanic risk management and the contribution provided in this field by COSMO-SkyMed satellite constellation during the last years. A comprehensive overview of the various national and international projects using COSMO-SkyMed data for the volcanic risk mitigation will be given, highlighting the Italian contribution provided worldwide in this operational framework.

  3. Mars 2020 Entry, Descent and Landing Instrumentation 2 (MEDLI2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Helen H.; Bose, Deepak; White, Todd R.; Wright, Henry S.; Schoenenberger, Mark; Kuhl, Christopher A.; Trombetta, Dominic; Santos, Jose A.; Oishi, Tomomi; Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Mahzari, Milad; Pennington, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Entry Descent and Landing Instrumentation 2 (MEDLI2) sensor suite will measure aerodynamic, aerothermodynamic, and TPS performance during the atmospheric entry, descent, and landing phases of the Mars 2020 mission. The key objectives are to reduce design margin and prediction uncertainties for the aerothermal environments and aerodynamic database. For MEDLI2, the sensors are installed on both the heatshield and backshell, and include 7 pressure transducers, 17 thermal plugs, and 3 heat flux sensors (including a radiometer). These sensors will expand the set of measurements collected by the highly successful MEDLI suite, collecting supersonic pressure measurements on the forebody, a pressure measurement on the aftbody, direct heat flux measurements on the aftbody, a radiative heating measurement on the aftbody, and multiple near-surface thermal measurements on the thermal protection system (TPS) materials on both the forebody and aftbody. To meet the science objectives, supersonic pressure transducers and heat flux sensors are currently being developed and their qualification and calibration plans are presented. Finally, the reconstruction targets for data accuracy are presented, along with the planned methodologies for achieving the targets.

  4. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, January 28, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-28

    ;Partial Contents: Japan: AIST`s Frontier Carbon Technology Research Project Under Way; Japan: Sumitomo Electric Develops Aluminum Nitride Substrate; Japan: NASDA To Develop Small, High Performance, Low Cost Satellite; Japan to Haive Rocket Launch Cost; Japan: Combined-Cycle Technology for Higher Thermal Efficiency Using Various Fuels; Japan: S&T Corporation Develops Carbon Thin Film Solar Cell; Japan: Atomic Energy Commission of Japan Suports Using ITER for Japan`s Experimental Reactor; Japan: NO New Nuclear Power Plant Construction in Sight; and Japan: Mitsubishi Electric Executive on Guided Missile Development.

  5. Psychotropic dose equivalence in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inada, Toshiya; Inagaki, Ataru

    2015-08-01

    Psychotropic dose equivalence is an important concept when estimating the approximate psychotropic doses patients receive, and deciding on the approximate titration dose when switching from one psychotropic agent to another. It is also useful from a research viewpoint when defining and extracting specific subgroups of subjects. Unification of various agents into a single standard agent facilitates easier analytical comparisons. On the basis of differences in psychopharmacological prescription features, those of available psychotropic agents and their approved doses, and racial differences between Japan and other countries, psychotropic dose equivalency tables designed specifically for Japanese patients have been widely used in Japan since 1998. Here we introduce dose equivalency tables for: (i) antipsychotics; (ii) antiparkinsonian agents; (iii) antidepressants; and (iv) anxiolytics, sedatives and hypnotics available in Japan. Equivalent doses for the therapeutic effects of individual psychotropic compounds were determined principally on the basis of randomized controlled trials conducted in Japan and consensus among dose equivalency tables reported previously by psychopharmacological experts. As these tables are intended to merely suggest approximate standard values, physicians should use them with discretion. Updated information of psychotropic dose equivalence in Japan is available at http://www.jsprs.org/en/equivalence.tables/. [Correction added on 8 July 2015, after first online publication: A link to the updated information has been added.].

  6. MedlinePlus FAQ: MedlinePlus and MEDLINE/PubMed

    MedlinePlus

    ... links to preformulated searches of the MEDLINE/PubMed database, allowing you to find references to latest health ... articles on your topic. MEDLINE/PubMed: Is a database of professional biomedical literature Is a Web-based, ...

  7. Mediator MED23 cooperates with RUNX2 to drive osteoblast differentiation and bone development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhen; Yao, Xiao; Yan, Guang; Xu, YiChi; Yan, Jun; Zou, Weiguo; Wang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    How lineage specifiers are regulated during development is an outstanding question, and the molecular regulation of osteogenic factor RUNX2 remains to be fully understood. Here we report that the Mediator subunit MED23 cooperates with RUNX2 to regulate osteoblast differentiation and bone development. Med23 deletion in mesenchymal stem cells or osteoblast precursors results in multiple bone defects similar to those observed in Runx2+/− mice. In vitro, Med23-deficient progenitor cells are refractory to osteoblast differentiation, and Med23 deficiency reduces Runx2-target gene activity without changing Runx2 expression. Mechanistically, MED23 binds to RUNX2 and modulates its transcriptional activity. Moreover, Med23 deficiency in osteoprogenitor cells exacerbates the skeletal abnormalities observed in Runx2+/− mice. Collectively, our results establish a genetic and physical interaction between RUNX2 and MED23, suggesting that MED23 constitutes a molecular node in the regulatory network of anabolic bone formation and related diseases. PMID:27033977

  8. Japan's national waste recovery plan

    SciTech Connect

    Baller, J.

    1982-08-01

    The national program in Japan for waste recovery is reviewed. Japan's particular needs (relatively small area, large population, virtually no native energy or raw material sources) are discussed and the urgency of the program is stressed. Specific programs are described as well as government, citizen, and industrial contributions. Initiated in the early 1960's, primarily from environmental factors, the program has expanded to produce energy, fertilizers, pulp, rubber, cements, and other products. Research activities are summarized with emphasis on the Stardust Project (a national demonstration project to show that municipal wastes can be separated into garbage, paper, and plastics and each group can be processed to produce materials or energy). Clean Japan Center, an incorporated foundation, has functions of public education, surveys, demonstration plants and waste collection activities. An integrated system to process both urban and rural wastes in Toyohashi City is described. (MJJ)

  9. Frequency of MED12 mutations in phyllodes tumors: Inverse correlation with histologic grade.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Nara; Bae, Go Eun; Kang, So Young; Choi, Mi Sun; Hwang, Hye Won; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Jeong Eon; Nam, Seok Jin; Gong, Gyungyub; Lee, Hee Jin; Bae, Young Kyung; Lee, Ahwon; Cho, Eun Yoon

    2016-06-01

    Phyllodes tumor (PT) is a rare breast biphasic tumor with a potential risk of recurrence and metastasis. In this study, the frequency of MED12 mutations in 176 PTs (49 benign, 49 borderline, and 78 malignant) was determined and the prognostic effect of these mutations in malignant type PT was evaluated. Analysis of MED12 mutations was performed by Sanger sequencing targeting the hotspot mutation region (exon 2) of MED12. Immunohistochemistry was also applied for evaluation of MED12 protein expression on tissue microarray blocks for 133 PTs including 50 benign, 50 borderline, and 33 malignant cases. A notable difference in the frequency of MED12 mutations was found according to histologic grade (71.4% of benign PTs, 51% of borderline PTs, 26.9% of malignant PTs; P < 0.001). MED12 protein expression was not correlated with MED12 mutation status. Patients with malignant PTs that harbored MED12 mutations demonstrated improved disease-free survival (DFS) compared with those without MED12 mutation (P = 0.07). MED12 mutation was a common molecular alteration in PT and the frequency of MED12 mutation decreased with increasing histologic grade. In malignant PT, MED12 exon 2 mutations showed improved DFS but without significance. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. 47 CFR 95.627 - MedRadio transmitters in the 401-406 MHz band.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false MedRadio transmitters in the 401-406 MHz band... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Technical Regulations Technical Standards § 95.627 MedRadio transmitters in the 401-406 MHz band. The following provisions apply only to MedRadio transmitters operating...

  11. Frequency of MED12 mutations in phyllodes tumors: Inverse correlation with histologic grade.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Nara; Bae, Go Eun; Kang, So Young; Choi, Mi Sun; Hwang, Hye Won; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Jeong Eon; Nam, Seok Jin; Gong, Gyungyub; Lee, Hee Jin; Bae, Young Kyung; Lee, Ahwon; Cho, Eun Yoon

    2016-06-01

    Phyllodes tumor (PT) is a rare breast biphasic tumor with a potential risk of recurrence and metastasis. In this study, the frequency of MED12 mutations in 176 PTs (49 benign, 49 borderline, and 78 malignant) was determined and the prognostic effect of these mutations in malignant type PT was evaluated. Analysis of MED12 mutations was performed by Sanger sequencing targeting the hotspot mutation region (exon 2) of MED12. Immunohistochemistry was also applied for evaluation of MED12 protein expression on tissue microarray blocks for 133 PTs including 50 benign, 50 borderline, and 33 malignant cases. A notable difference in the frequency of MED12 mutations was found according to histologic grade (71.4% of benign PTs, 51% of borderline PTs, 26.9% of malignant PTs; P < 0.001). MED12 protein expression was not correlated with MED12 mutation status. Patients with malignant PTs that harbored MED12 mutations demonstrated improved disease-free survival (DFS) compared with those without MED12 mutation (P = 0.07). MED12 mutation was a common molecular alteration in PT and the frequency of MED12 mutation decreased with increasing histologic grade. In malignant PT, MED12 exon 2 mutations showed improved DFS but without significance. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26856273

  12. 47 CFR 95.627 - MedRadio transmitters in the 401-406 MHz band.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false MedRadio transmitters in the 401-406 MHz band... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Technical Regulations Technical Standards § 95.627 MedRadio transmitters in the 401-406 MHz band. The following provisions apply only to MedRadio transmitters operating...

  13. Takotsubo Syndrome: Insights from Japan.

    PubMed

    Akashi, Yoshihiro J; Ishihara, Masaharu

    2016-10-01

    We report the history and new insights of takotsubo syndrome based on the achievements that Japanese researchers have contributed and summarize the evidence originally presented from Japan. Takotsubo syndrome is a newly described heart failure characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction. We should be aware of this entity as a syndrome, not actual cardiomyopathy. Japanese researchers focus on the experimental approaches for clinical diagnosis and treatment of takotsubo syndrome. As representatives from a country originally naming this syndrome takotsubo, a global registry for takotsubo syndrome including Japan should be established.

  14. The educational system in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    The rapid economic growth of Japan since World War II has resulted in Japan becoming a reference point for developing nations and the West. This remarkable growth results from a combination of factors, one of which has been unyielding attention to education in order to cultivate the human talent necessary to provide the productivity for economic growth. The Japanese education system emphasizes quality of instruction and rewards hard work. Some of the principles of the system are outlined together with a summary of the content of the curriculum, the quantity and quality of instruction, and the influence of culture and environment.

  15. Takotsubo Syndrome: Insights from Japan.

    PubMed

    Akashi, Yoshihiro J; Ishihara, Masaharu

    2016-10-01

    We report the history and new insights of takotsubo syndrome based on the achievements that Japanese researchers have contributed and summarize the evidence originally presented from Japan. Takotsubo syndrome is a newly described heart failure characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction. We should be aware of this entity as a syndrome, not actual cardiomyopathy. Japanese researchers focus on the experimental approaches for clinical diagnosis and treatment of takotsubo syndrome. As representatives from a country originally naming this syndrome takotsubo, a global registry for takotsubo syndrome including Japan should be established. PMID:27638028

  16. MED1: an intelligent computer program for thoracic pain diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Puppe, B; Puppe, F

    1985-06-01

    MED1 is a fully implemented, medical expert system providing assistance in the diagnosis of patients complaining of chest pain. Its reasoning strategy combines efficient mechanisms for hypothesis generation and hypothesis evaluation in a model simulalting the basic features of the hypothesize-and-test approach found to be applied by diagnosing physicians. The knowledge acquisition facility of the program is comfortable enough to allow the expert physician to alter the knowledge base without understanding the basic code (LISP) of the program. PMID:3892152

  17. Japan's Eco-School Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997, several ministries in Japan have collaborated on an eco-school programme, which applies to both newly constructed and renovated school buildings, in an effort to make its schools more environmentally friendly. The programme equips school buildings with ecological features such as photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors, other new…

  18. How Japan Supports Novice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    When U.S. educators first hear that Japanese teacher preparation programs require only four weeks of formal student teaching at the end of the credential program, they're appalled: How can this be? More surprising still, few new teachers in Japan (1.35 percent) leave the profession during their first year. So where are these beginning…

  19. Innovative shotcreting system in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Takashi

    1995-12-31

    Robotization of shotcreting has advanced remarkably in Japan in a short span of time for the purpose of avoiding exposure of human workers to adverse conditions. This paper provides an overview of various devices used in shotcreting and discusses the development of improved systems which ensure higher safety and larger productivity.

  20. [Marriage and divorce in Japan].

    PubMed

    Haderka, J

    1986-01-01

    Marriage patterns in Japan are analyzed using data from secondary sources. The author notes that although legislation affecting marriage and the family is derived from European models, traditional Japanese attitudes concerning the subservient role of women have a significant impact. The problems faced by women experiencing divorce are noted. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  1. Japan Studies Association Journal, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speaker, Richard B., Jr., Ed.; Kawada, Louise Myers, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This journal presents new perspectives and materials on Japan that are engaging, relatively jargon-free, and shaped so that their usefulness in a college classroom is readily apparent. The journal represents an example of the potential for genuine scholarship that lies within interdisciplinary studies. Articles are divided among three thematic…

  2. Japan and America: Culture Counts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooney, Barry D.

    1989-01-01

    Cultural distinctions in the approach to social relationships, access to information, personal motivation, and hierarchy make Japan an effective economic power. U.S. business can learn from the Japanese ways to create more information-based organizations, think in global terms, foster links between business and education, and develop internal…

  3. Direct Broadcasting Satellites in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, Jiro

    The development and use of broadcasting satellites in Japan are discussed in this paper. The paper describes the medium-scale experimental broadcasting satellite, YURI, launched by NASA in 1978, and reports that experiments with YURI in the areas of basic technologies in the broadcasting satellite system, experiments on satellite control…

  4. Resources for Teaching about Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    This book lists resources for materials and ideas for teaching about Japan. The resource listings are not intended to be encyclopedic and are not intended to be a comprehensive listing of every useful curriculum item. The attempt has been made to highlight especially those organizations that work with kindergarten through grade 12 teachers,…

  5. The Japan of Today, 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tokyo (Japan).

    Following an introduction which discusses the history and geography of Japan, this book focuses on topics related to this country's government, economy, social conditions, and cultural life. Topics related to government include: constitution and emperor; legislature; executive power; judiciary system; foreign relations; and defense. Topics related…

  6. Teaching and Learning in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohlen, Thomas P., Ed.; LeTendre, Gerald K., Ed.

    The essays gathered in this volume are united by the common goal of understanding teaching and learning in Japan as it actually occurs. The essays seek to answer questions about the actual conduct of learning in different settings and at different points in the life cycle. This volume explores the expectations and associations found in specific…

  7. AERIAL MEASURING SYSTEM IN JAPAN

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, Craig; Colton, David

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Agency’s Aerial Measuring System deployed personnel and equipment to partner with the U.S. Air Force in Japan to conduct multiple aerial radiological surveys. These were the first and most comprehensive sources of actionable information for U.S. interests in Japan and provided early confirmation to the government of Japan as to the extent of the release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Generation Station. Many challenges were overcome quickly during the first 48 hours; including installation and operation of Aerial Measuring System equipment on multiple U.S. Air Force Japan aircraft, flying over difficult terrain, and flying with talented pilots who were unfamiliar with the Aerial Measuring System flight patterns. These all combined to make for a dynamic and non-textbook situation. In addition, the data challenges of the multiple and on-going releases, and integration with the Japanese government to provide valid aerial radiological survey products that both military and civilian customers could use to make informed decisions, was extremely complicated. The Aerial Measuring System Fukushima response provided insight in addressing these challenges and gave way to an opportunity for the expansion of the Aerial Measuring System’s mission beyond the borders of the US.

  8. Superconducting magnet development in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Yasukochi, K.

    1983-05-01

    The present state of R and D works on the superconducting magnet and its applications in Japan are presented. On electrical rotating machines, 30 MVA superconducting synchronous rotary condenser (Mitsubishi and Fuji) and 50 MVA generator are under construction. Two ways of ship propulsion by superconducting magnets are developing. A superconducting magnetically levitated and linear motor propelled train ''MAGLEV'' was developed by the Japan National Railways (JNR). The superconducting magnet development for fusion is the most active field in Japan. The Cluster Test program has been demonstrated on a 10 T Nb/sub 3/Sn coil and the first coil of Large Coil Task in IEA collaboration has been constructed and the domestic test was completed in JAERI. These works are for the development of toroidal coils of the next generation tokamak machine. R and D works on superconducting ohmic heating coil are in progress in JAERI and ETL. The latter group has constructed 3.8 MJ pulsed coil. A high ramp rate of changing field in pulsed magnet, 200 T/s, has been tested successfully. High Energy Physics Laboratory (KEK) are conducting active works. The superconducting ..mu.. meson channel and ..pi.. meson channel have been constructed and are operating successfully. KEK has also a project of big accelerator named ''TRISTAN'', which is similar to ISABELLE project of BNL. Superconducting synchrotron magnets are developed for this project. The development of superconducting three thin wall solenoid has been started. One of them, CDF, is progressing under USA-Japan collaboration.

  9. Japan Studies Association Journal, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichel, Philip L., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This journal presents new perspectives and materials on Japan that are engaging, relatively jargon-free, and shaped so that their usefulness in a college classroom is readily apparent. The journal represents an example of the potential for genuine scholarship that lies within interdisciplinary studies. Articles grouped under the topic of "Minority…

  10. The US Occupation and Japan's New Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumano, Ruriko

    2007-01-01

    During the US Occupation of Japan (1945-1952), a victorious America attempted to reform Japanese education by replacing Japan's tradition system of values with one that promoted American democratic values. The United States had considered the source of Japan's militarism to lie in the selfless loyalty and love of country that many older Japanese…

  11. Recent meteor observing activities in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, M.

    2005-02-01

    The meteor train observation (METRO) campaign is described as an example of recent meteor observing activity in Japan. Other topics of meteor observing activities in Japan, including Ham-band radio meteor observation, the ``Japan Fireball Network'', the automatic video-capture software ``UFOCapture'', and the Astro-classroom programme are also briefly introduced.

  12. Teaching about Japan: Lessons and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernson, Mary Hammond, Ed.; Wojtan, Linda S., Ed.

    This document is a revised and updated version of two publications: "Modern Japan: An Idea Book for K-12 Teachers" and "Resources for Teaching About Japan." These lesson plans were developed by teachers who participated in a summer institute on Japan, sponsored by the East Asia Resource Center at the Jackson School of International Studies,…

  13. History Textbook Controversies in Japan. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masalski, Kathleen Woods

    Currently, there is a controversy in Japan about textbook treatments of Japanese military actions during World War II. This digest examines: (1) the importance of history textbooks in schools in Japan and the United States; (2) the context of history textbook controversies in Japan; (3) the current issues and contending positions in the Japanese…

  14. Some Aspects of Higher Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teichler, Ulrich

    1972-01-01

    Contemporary Japanese higher education is reviewed, taking into account German influences especially. Three main objectives of post-war reforms are discussed along with the entrance examination system in Japan. Available from: Japan Cultural Society, 101018, Shirokane-dai, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan. (LBH)

  15. Historical Characteristics of Adult Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyasaka, Kosaku

    In its modern sense, adult education in Japan began after the Meiji Restoration in 1868. Until 1945, adult education functioned as an agent to indoctrinate the nationalistic and military ideology. Since World War II, Japan has adopted the democratic social system and has become a capitalist society like the West. In Japan, social education is the…

  16. 75 FR 38119 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... from Japan (38 FR 33593). Following five-year reviews by the Department of Commerce (``Commerce'') and... imports of polychloroprene rubber from Japan (64 FR 47765, September 1, 1999). Following second five-year... antidumping duty finding on imports of polychloroprene rubber from Japan (70 FR 44893). The Commission is...

  17. Education and Youth Employment in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Hidetoshi

    The education/employment situation of young people in Japan is examined as part of a project to broaden perspectives on social, educational, and employment issues in contemporary societies. Youth problems in Japan stem from the incredibly rapid industrialization and social change that have taken place in Japan since World War II. In spite of this…

  18. Countries’ Biomedical Publications and Attraction Scores. A PubMed-based assessment

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qinyi; Boggio, Andrea; Ballabeni, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Studying publication volumes at the country level is key to understanding and improving a country’s research system. PubMed is a public search engine of publications in all life sciences areas. Here, we show how this search engine can be used to assess the outputs of life science-related research by country. We have measured the numbers of publications during different time periods based on the country of affiliation of the first authors. Moreover, we have designed scores, which we have named Attraction Scores, to appraise the relative focus either toward particular types of studies, such as clinical trials or reviews, or toward specific research areas, such as public health and pharmacogenomics, or toward specific topics, for instance embryonic stem cells; we have also investigated a possible use of these Attraction Scores in connection with regulatory policies. We have weighed the statistics against general indicators such as country populations and gross domestic products (GDP). During the 5-year period 2008-2012, the United States was the country with the highest number of publications and Denmark the one with the highest number of publications per capita. Among the 40 countries with the highest GDPs, Israel had the highest publications-to-GDP ratio. Among the 20 countries with the most publications, Japan had the highest Attraction Score for induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells and Italy the highest proportion of review publications. More than 50% of publications in English were from countries in which English is not the primary language. We show an assorted and extensive collection of rankings and charts that will inform scholars and policymakers in studying and improving the research systems both at the national and international level. PMID:26401263

  19. Countries' Biomedical Publications and Attraction Scores. A PubMed-based assessment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qinyi; Boggio, Andrea; Ballabeni, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Studying publication volumes at the country level is key to understanding and improving a country's research system. PubMed is a public search engine of publications in all life sciences areas. Here, we show how this search engine can be used to assess the outputs of life science-related research by country. We have measured the numbers of publications during different time periods based on the country of affiliation of the first authors. Moreover, we have designed scores, which we have named Attraction Scores, to appraise the relative focus either toward particular types of studies, such as clinical trials or reviews, or toward specific research areas, such as public health and pharmacogenomics, or toward specific topics, for instance embryonic stem cells; we have also investigated a possible use of these Attraction Scores in connection with regulatory policies. We have weighed the statistics against general indicators such as country populations and gross domestic products (GDP). During the 5-year period 2008-2012, the United States was the country with the highest number of publications and Denmark the one with the highest number of publications per capita. Among the 40 countries with the highest GDPs, Israel had the highest publications-to-GDP ratio. Among the 20 countries with the most publications, Japan had the highest Attraction Score for induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells and Italy the highest proportion of review publications. More than 50% of publications in English were from countries in which English is not the primary language. We show an assorted and extensive collection of rankings and charts that will inform scholars and policymakers in studying and improving the research systems both at the national and international level.

  20. Ice Charting Services And Developments With COSMO-SkyMed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelucci, Maria; Karvonen, Juha; Eriksson, Patrick B.

    2013-12-01

    The use of satellites in ice detection and monitoring applications is a very efficient way to monitor wide sea areas and relevant ice conditions, independently from the day time and weather conditions. EO SAR(Synthetic Aperture RADAR) technology is more suitable with respect to optical sensors, as SAR provides information independently on the day time and weather and allows a more accurate ice classification into different classes. SAR data provide information on the ice coverage, the size of ice floes, the shape of ice floes and the edges of ice. The COSMO-SkyMed satellite constellation in particular contributes to support Ice Services' stakeholders, as it provides worldwide SAR data with an incomparable performance in terms of revisit time, image resolution, rapid coverage of huge areas and number of acquired scenes. It provides synoptic information during day and night and at all weather conditions. e-GEOS and FMI are partnering to exploit and develop COSMO-SkyMed capabilities (X-band), for operational Ice Charting services.

  1. Cohort profile: Greifswald approach to individualized medicine (GANI_MED)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Individualized Medicine aims at providing optimal treatment for an individual patient at a given time based on his specific genetic and molecular characteristics. This requires excellent clinical stratification of patients as well as the availability of genomic data and biomarkers as prerequisites for the development of novel diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies. The University Medicine Greifswald, Germany, has launched the “Greifswald Approach to Individualized Medicine” (GANI_MED) project to address major challenges of Individualized Medicine. Herein, we describe the implementation of the scientific and clinical infrastructure that allows future translation of findings relevant to Individualized Medicine into clinical practice. Methods/design Clinical patient cohorts (N > 5,000) with an emphasis on metabolic and cardiovascular diseases are being established following a standardized protocol for the assessment of medical history, laboratory biomarkers, and the collection of various biosamples for bio-banking purposes. A multi-omics based biomarker assessment including genome-wide genotyping, transcriptome, metabolome, and proteome analyses complements the multi-level approach of GANI_MED. Comparisons with the general background population as characterized by our Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) are performed. A central data management structure has been implemented to capture and integrate all relevant clinical data for research purposes. Ethical research projects on informed consent procedures, reporting of incidental findings, and economic evaluations were launched in parallel. PMID:24886498

  2. Mediator Subunit Med28 Is Essential for Mouse Peri-Implantation Development and Pluripotency

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Beauchamp, Roberta L.; Chang, Yuh-Shin; Gusella, James F.; Hochedlinger, Konrad; Ramesh, Vijaya

    2015-01-01

    The multi-subunit mammalian Mediator complex acts as an integrator of transcriptional regulation by RNA Polymerase II, and has emerged as a master coordinator of development and cell fate determination. We previously identified the Mediator subunit, MED28, as a cytosolic binding partner of merlin, the Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) tumor suppressor, and thus MED28 is distinct in having a cytosolic role as an NF2 interacting protein as well as a nuclear role as a Mediator complex subunit. Although limited in vitro studies have been performed on MED28, its in vivo function remains unknown. Employing a knockout mouse model, we describe for the first time the requirement for Med28 in the developing mouse embryo. Med28-deficiency causes peri-implantation lethality resulting from the loss of pluripotency of the inner cell mass accompanied by reduced expression of key pluripotency transcription factors Oct4 and Nanog. Further, overexpression of Med28 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts enhances the efficiency of their reprogramming to pluripotency. Cre-mediated inactivation of Med28 in induced pluripotent stem cells shows that Med28 is required for their survival. Intriguingly, heterozygous loss of Med28 results in differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells into extraembryonic trophectoderm and primitive endoderm lineages. Our findings document the essential role of Med28 in the developing embryo as well as in acquisition and maintenance of pluripotency during reprogramming. PMID:26445504

  3. Fruit harvesting robots in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kondo, N; Monta, M; Fujiura, T

    1996-01-01

    We have developed harvesting robots for tomato, petty-tomato, cucumber and grape in Japan. These robots mainly consist of manipulators, end-effectors, visual sensors and traveling devices. These mechanisms of the robot components were developed based on the physical properties of the work objects. The robots must work automatically by themselves in greenhouses or fields, since we are considering for one operator to tend several robots in the production system. The system is modeled after Japanese agriculture which is commonly seen to produce many kinds of crops in greenhouses and in many small fields intensively. Bioproduction in space is somewhat similar to the agricultural system in Japan, because few operators have to work in a small space. Employing robots for bioproduction in space is considered desirable in near future. The following is a description of the harvesting robots.

  4. Fruit harvesting robots in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, N.; Monta, M.; Fujiura, T.

    We have developed harvesting robots for tomato /1/, petty-tomato, cucumber /2/ and grape /3/ in Japan. These robots mainly consist of manipulators, end-effectors, visual sensors and traveling devices. These mechanisms of the robot components were developed based on the physical properties of the work objects. The robots must work automatically by themselves in greenhouses or fields, since we are considering for one operator to tend several robots in the production system. The system is modeled after Japanese agriculture which is commonly seen to produce many kinds of crops in greenhouses and in many small fields intensively. Bioproduction in space is somewhat similar to the agricultural system in Japan, because few operators have to work in a small space. Employing robots for bioproduction in space is considered desirable in near future. The following is a description of the harvesting robots.

  5. Acta stomatologica Croatica and PubMed Central

    PubMed Central

    Brkić, Hrvoje

    2016-01-01

    April 15 2016 marked the 50th anniversary of continuous publishing of the journal Acta stomatologica Croatica (ASCRO). The celebration was held in the great hall of the Croatian Medical Association, with numerous guests from the biomedical field. The history of the journal was presented by Goran Knežević (editor-in-chief 1996-2006) and Hrvoje Brkić (current editor-in-chief), who presented all the current information on the electronical editing and its current indexation. Only a few days later, the Editorial Office received the information that ASCRO has been included in PubMed Central since volume 48, an impulse for the members of the Editorial Board and the Editor-in-Chief to make ASCRO better and more cited

  6. Clandestine migrant workers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, T

    1992-01-01

    The author assesses the problem of illegal labor migration to Japan. "Labor policies, regulations, types of immigration violations, and the role of the recruitment industry are described. Most of the estimated 200,000 illegal workers are employed in small and medium sized enterprises, especially construction and manufacturing, which pay them wages well below the normal rate. A key issue is the infringement of human rights of these illegal workers, who lack the protection of labor laws and the social security system."

  7. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, December 3, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-03

    Contents (selected articles): Japan: Nissan To Use Nickel-Hydrogen Battery in EV; Japan: Takii To Commercialize Cauliflower-Broccoli Hybrid; Japan: Kawasaki Steel Improves Recovery of Metals from Furnace Residue; Japan: Japan`s NEC Corp. To Develop Cost-Effective Photodection Chip; Japan: Japanese Companies Establish Research Association to Develop 16-gigabit DRAMS; Japan: Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants, Actual Achievements; Japan: Future for Nuclear Fuel Recycle as a Result of Monju Accident; Japan: Superconducting Magnet System Using No Liquid Helium; Japan: Hitachi`s MULTI Network Security Technologies; Japan: Defense Bureau Chief Tokita Interviewed; Japan: DRC Executive on GSDF, High Technology; and Japan: Retired Admiral on Post-Cold War MSDF Strategy.

  8. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, December 10, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-10

    Contents (partial): Japan: Fabrication of Diamond Single Crystal Thin Film by Ion Beam Deposition; Japan: Hitachi Metal Develops New Semi Solid Metal Processing Technology; Japan: NTT Develops Fuel Cell System That Uses Both City Gas, LPG; Japan: Daihatsu Motor Completes Prototype EV; Japan: NIRIM Announces Success With Synthetic Bone Development; Japan: Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Plans Clinical Trials of Gene Therapy to Cerebral Tumor in Japan; Japan: MITI To Provide Aid for Residential Solar Power Generation Systems; Japan: MELCO To Provide Satellite Solar Cell Panel for SSL, USA; Japan: Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Leads Nuclear Research; Japan: Kobe Steel`s Superconducting Magnet Ready to Go Fast; Japan: MPT To Begin Validation Test for Electric Money Implementation; and Japan: Defense Agency to Send ASDF`s Pilots to Russia for Training.

  9. Novel de novo heterozygous loss-of-function variants in MED13L and further delineation of the MED13L haploinsufficiency syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cafiero, Concetta; Marangi, Giuseppe; Orteschi, Daniela; Ali, Marwan; Asaro, Alessia; Ponzi, Emanuela; Moncada, Alice; Ricciardi, Stefania; Murdolo, Marina; Mancano, Giorgia; Contaldo, Ilaria; Leuzzi, Vincenzo; Battaglia, Domenica; Mercuri, Eugenio; Slavotinek, Anne M; Zollino, Marcella

    2015-01-01

    MED13L haploinsufficiency has recently been described as responsible for syndromic intellectual disability. We planned a search for causative gene variants in seven subjects with intellectual disability and overlapping dysmorphic facial features such as bulbous nasal tip, short mouth and straight eyebrows. We found two de novo frameshift variants in MED13L, consisting in single-nucleotide deletion (c.3765delC) and duplication (c.607dupT). A de novo nonsense variant (c.4420A>T) in MED13L was detected in a further subject in the course of routine whole-exome sequencing. By analyzing the clinical data of our patients along with those recently described in the literature, we confirm that there is a common, recognizable phenotype associated with MED13L haploinsufficiency, which includes intellectual disability and a distinctive facial appearance. Congenital heart diseases are found in some subjects with various degree of severity. Our observation of cleft palate, ataxia, epilepsy and childhood leukemia observed in single cases broadens the known clinical spectrum. Haploinsufficiency for MED13L should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the 1p36 microdeletion syndrome, due to overlapping dysmorphic facial features in some patients. The introduction of massive parallel-sequencing techniques into clinical practice is expected to allow for detection of other causative point variants in MED13L. Analysis of genomic data in connection with deep clinical evaluation of patients could elucidate genetic heterogeneity of the MED13L haploinsufficiency phenotype. PMID:25712080

  10. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, May 7, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-07

    ;Partial Contents: Japan: FH1 Aerospace Division Executive on UAV R&D; JapaN: MHI Delivers First F-2 Flight Test Model; Nuclear Technologies; Japan: Nuclear Material Research in Cross-Over Research Project; Japan: MITI To Subsidize Development of Cryptography; Defense Industries; Japan: JADI Announces FY96 Major Events Schedule; Japan: Rollout Ceremony Held for First OH-X Flight Test Model; and Japan: KHI Weapons Designer OH-X Development.

  11. FBIS report. Science and technology: Japan, February 20, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-20

    ;Partial Contents: Energy (Japan: MHI Discovers Maritime Photo Plankton that Produces Ethanol from CO2, Japan: Tokyo Electric Power Co.`s PAFC Development); Telecommunications (Japan: Report on 1st Asian Telecommunications Industry Exchange, Japan: MPT Reports Test Evaluation Results for PHS); Defense Industries (Japan: Expert on Shipbuilding, Welding Technology, Japan: Komatsu R&D Chief on Dream of Ground Robots; Japan: Defense Simulator Series, Part 7: Torpedo Simulator).

  12. Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI): Complete Flight Data Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Bose, Deepak; Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Kuhl, Christopher A.; Santos, Jose A.; Wright, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry vehicle (EV) successfully entered the Mars atmosphere and landed the Curiosity rover safely on the surface of the planet in Gale crater on August 6, 2012. MSL carried the MSL Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Instrumentation (MEDLI). MEDLI delivered the first in-depth understanding of the Mars entry environments and the response of the entry vehicle to those environments. MEDLI was comprised of three major subsystems: the Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System (MEADS), the MEDLI Integrated Sensor Plugs (MISP), and the Sensor Support Electronics (SSE). Ultimately, the entire MEDLI sensor suite consisting of both MEADS and MISP provided measurements that were used for trajectory reconstruction and engineering validation of aerodynamic, atmospheric, and thermal protection system (TPS) models in addition to Earth-based systems testing procedures. This report contains in-depth hardware descriptions, performance evaluation, and data information of the three MEDLI subsystems.

  13. MED12 mutations occurring in benign and malignant mammalian smooth muscle tumors.

    PubMed

    Markowski, Dominique Nadine; Huhle, Sonja; Nimzyk, Rolf; Stenman, Göran; Löning, Thomas; Bullerdiek, Jörn

    2013-03-01

    Mutations of the mediator subcomplex 12 gene (MED12) recently have been described in a large group of uterine leiomyomas (UL) but only in a single malignant uterine smooth muscle tumor. To further address the occurrence of fibroid-type MED12 mutations in smooth muscle tumors, we have analyzed samples from 34 leiomyosarcomas (LMS), 21 UL, two extrauterine leiomyomas (EL), and 10 canine genital leiomyomas for the presence of MED12 mutations of the UL-type. Interestingly, besides UL MED12 mutations were found in one uterine LMS, one EL, and two canine vaginal leiomyomas. The results confirm the occurrence of fibroid-type MED12 mutations in malignant uterine smooth muscle tumors thus suggesting a rare but existing leiomyoma-LMS sequence. In addition, for the first time MED12 mutations are reported in smooth muscle tumors in a non-primate mammalian species. PMID:23225304

  14. The Mediator Subunit MED16 Transduces NRF2-Activating Signals into Antioxidant Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Sekine, Hiroki; Okazaki, Keito; Ota, Nao; Shima, Hiroki; Katoh, Yasutake; Suzuki, Norio; Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Ito, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The KEAP1-NRF2 system plays a central role in cytoprotection. NRF2 is stabilized in response to electrophiles and activates transcription of antioxidant genes. Although robust induction of NRF2 target genes confers resistance to oxidative insults, how NRF2 triggers transcriptional activation after binding to DNA has not been elucidated. To decipher the molecular mechanisms underlying NRF2-dependent transcriptional activation, we purified the NRF2 nuclear protein complex and identified the Mediator subunits as NRF2 cofactors. Among them, MED16 directly associated with NRF2. Disruption of Med16 significantly attenuated the electrophile-induced expression of NRF2 target genes but did not affect hypoxia-induced gene expression, suggesting a specific requirement for MED16 in NRF2-dependent transcription. Importantly, we found that 75% of NRF2-activated genes exhibited blunted inductions by electrophiles in Med16-deficient cells compared to wild-type cells, which strongly argues that MED16 is a major contributor supporting NRF2-dependent transcriptional activation. NRF2-dependent phosphorylation of the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain was absent in Med16-deficient cells, suggesting that MED16 serves as a conduit to transmit NRF2-activating signals to RNA polymerase II. MED16 indeed turned out to be essential for cytoprotection against oxidative insults. Thus, the KEAP1-NRF2-MED16 axis has emerged as a new regulatory pathway mediating the antioxidant response through the robust activation of NRF2 target genes. PMID:26572828

  15. Frontiers of neutron scattering in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Yuji

    1986-03-01

    Current neutron works representing frontiers of neutron scattering in Japan are surveyed. Only those works which either become possible with or have contributed significantly to new techniques and new instrumentations originated in Japan are selected because of the limited space and by the author's choice. Those works performed in the reactor centers (JAERI and KUR) in Japan, as well as in the two high flux reactor centers in the U.S. (BNL and ORNL), which are two coordinating institutions under the U.S.-Japan cooperative neutron scattering research program, and in Japan's spallation pulsed neutron facilities (KENS) are equally stressed for their contributions. Brief accounts of the new projects to renovate neutron sources and neutron facilities in Japan are also included.

  16. The Mediterranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) Project: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    The EC FP7 MEDiterranean SUpersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) EC-FP7 Project, which started on June 2013, aims to improve the capacity of the scientific institutions, end users and SME forming the project consortium to assess the volcanic hazards at Italian Supersites, i.e. Mt. Etna and Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius. The Project activities will focus on the optimisation and integration of ground and space monitoring systems, the breakthrough in understanding of volcanic processes, and on the increase of the effectiveness of the coordination between the scientific and end-user communities in the hazard management. The overall goal of the project is to apply the rationale of the Supersites GEO initiative to Mt. Etna and Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius, considered as cluster of Supersites. For the purpose MED-SUV will integrate long-term observations of ground-based multidisciplinary data available for these volcanoes, i.e. geophysical, geochemical, and volcanological datasets, with Earth Observation (EO) data. Merging of different parameters over a long period will provide better understanding of the volcanic processes. In particular, given the variety of styles and intensities of the volcanic activity observed at these volcanoes, and which make them sort of archetypes for 'closed conduit ' and 'open conduit' volcanic systems, the combination of different data will allow discrimination between peculiar volcano behaviours associated with pre-, syn- and post-eruptive phases. Indeed, recognition of specific volcano patterns will allow broadening of the spectrum of knowledge of geo-hazards, as well as better parameterisation and modelling of the eruptive phenomena and of the processes occurring in the volcano supply system; thus improving the capability of carrying out volcano surveillance activities. Important impacts on the European industrial sector, arising from a partnership integrating the scientific community and SMEs to implement together new observation/monitoring sensors/systems, are

  17. The Mediterranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) Project: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, G.

    2013-12-01

    The EC FP7 MEDiterranean SUpersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) EC-FP7 Project, which started on June 2013, aims to improve the capacity of the scientific institutions, end users and SME forming the project consortium to assess the volcanic hazards at Italian Supersites, i.e. Mt. Etna and Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius. The Project activities will focus on the optimisation and integration of ground and space monitoring systems, the breakthrough in understanding of volcanic processes, and on the increase of the effectiveness of the coordination between the scientific and end-user communities in the hazard management. The overall goal of the project is to apply the rationale of the Supersites GEO initiative to Mt. Etna and Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius, considered as cluster of Supersites. For the purpose MED-SUV will integrate long-term observations of ground-based multidisciplinary data available for these volcanoes, i.e. geophysical, geochemical, and volcanological datasets, with Earth Observation (EO) data. Merging of different parameters over a long period will provide better understanding of the volcanic processes. In particular, given the variety of styles and intensities of the volcanic activity observed at these volcanoes, and which make them sort of archetypes for 'closed conduit '; and ';open conduit' volcanic systems, the combination of different data will allow discrimination between peculiar volcano behaviours associated with pre-, syn- and post-eruptive phases. Indeed, recognition of specific volcano patterns will allow broadening of the spectrum of knowledge of geo-hazards, as well as better parameterisation and modelling of the eruptive phenomena and of the processes occurring in the volcano supply system; thus improving the capability of carrying out volcano surveillance activities. Important impacts on the European industrial sector, arising from a partnership integrating the scientific community and SMEs to implement together new observation/monitoring sensors

  18. Us-Japan cooperation on safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Beddingfield, David H; Menlove, Howard O; Hori, Masato; Kawakubo, Yoko; Mcclelland - Kerr, J

    2009-01-01

    There is a long history of collaborative safeguards development between the United States and Japan. Japan has built, and continues to expand, the largest civil nuclear fuel cycle under full-scope IAEA safeguards in world. This development has posed unique challenges to the international safeguards system. Safeguards developments made through the US-Japan cooperation to address these unique challenges have significantly impacted the technologies deployed for international safeguards applications around the world.

  19. TERENO-MED: Terrestrial Environmental Observatories in the Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, Elisabeth; Friesen, Jan; Kallioras, Andreas; Bogena, Heye; Devaraju, Anusuriya; Vereecken, Harry; Teutsch, Georg

    2013-04-01

    Centres and jointly operated with local partners across the Mediterranean region. In a number of Mediterranean mesoscale hydrological catchments TERENO-MED will investigate the long-term effects of global change on the quality and the dynamics of water resources in human-influenced environments under water scarcity. The Helmholtz Centres UFZ (overall coordinator) and FZJ have therefore initiated the set-up of a network of global change observatories in 5-10 Mediterranean river catchments. The TERENO-MED observatories will: - investigate societally relevant water problems in the context of 'typical' Mediterranean environments, - provide long-term and quality-controlled data available to the scientific community, - be operated and maintained through local research institutes and universities, - establish common monitoring platforms and foster synergies between research organizations, - provide solutions to pressing local and regional water problems by building partnerships between scientific partners and regional authorities.

  20. The Mediterranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) Project: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    In response to the EC call ENV.2012.6.4-2 (Long-term monitoring experiments in geologically active regions of Europe prone to natural hazards: the Supersite concept - FP7-ENV-2012-two-stage) a wide community of volcanological institutions proposed the project Mediterranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV), which is in the negotiation phase at the time of writing. The Consortium is composed by 18 European University and research institutes, four Small or Medium Enterprises (SME) and two non-European University and research institutes. MED-SUV will improve the consortium capacity of assessment of volcanic hazards in Supersites of Southern Italy by optimising and integrating existing and new observation/monitoring systems, by a breakthrough in understanding of volcanic processes and by increasing the effectiveness of the coordination between the scientific and end-user communities. More than 3 million of people are exposed to potential volcanic hazards in a large region in the Mediterranean Sea, where two among the largest European volcanic areas are located: Mt. Etna and Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius. This project will fully exploit the unique detailed long-term in-situ monitoring data sets available for these volcanoes and integrate with Earth Observation (EO) data, setting the basic tools for a significant step ahead in the discrimination of pre-, syn- and post-eruptive phases. The wide range of styles and intensities of volcanic phenomena observed on these volcanoes, which can be assumed as archetypes of 'closed conduit ' and 'open conduit' volcano, together with the long-term multidisciplinary data sets give an exceptional opportunity to improve the understanding of a very wide spectrum of geo-hazards, as well as implementing and testing a large variety of innovative models of ground deformation and motion. Important impacts on the European industrial sector are expected, arising from a partnership integrating the scientific community and SMEs to implement together new

  1. Fitness and health promotion in Japan.

    PubMed

    Wilson, B R; Wagner, D I

    1990-01-01

    Health promotion efforts in Japan are progressing much as they are in the United States. However, as Japan has different health problems and a different business culture, health promotion efforts in Japan differ from those in the United States. This paper will examine the major causes of death in Japan, prevalent lifestyle problems, cultural differences, types of health promotion programs which are offered, and program effectiveness. By making comparisons between two culturally different countries health promotion professionals will be able to understand their own programs better and develop new ideas for future programming efforts.

  2. Recent cryocooler progress in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Y.

    1985-05-01

    The progress of cryocoolers and related devices in Japan is reviewed. The Japanese National Railways has developed the light weight 4 K on-board refrigerators since 1977 as part of the MAGLEV train program. Superconducting and cryogenic fundamental technology was examined which included high performance cryocooler, magnetic refrigerator and superfluid refrigeration. Space cryogenics such as the cooling systems of IR-detectors was studied. Cryocooler for special applications such as cryopump, NMR-CT and JJ devices was investigated. Compact heat exchangers, high performance regenerators and reliable compressors are investigated as a critical component technology.

  3. Recent cryocooler progress in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsubara, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The progress of cryocoolers and related devices in Japan is reviewed. The Japanese National Railways has developed the light weight 4 K on-board refrigerators since 1977 as part of the MAGLEV train program. Superconducting and cryogenic fundamental technology was examined which included high performance cryocooler, magnetic refrigerator and superfluid refrigeration. Space cryogenics such as the cooling systems of IR-detectors was studied. Cryocooler for special applications such as cryopump, NMR-CT and JJ devices was investigated. Compact heat exchangers, high performance regenerators and reliable compressors are investigated as a critical component technology.

  4. Solid waste management in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Naito, S.

    1995-09-01

    On Friday 17 June 1994, as the invited speaker of the International Congress of IWM/ISWA at Torbay, UK the author presented a paper of {open_quotes}A framework for success: the role of legislation{close_quotes}. THis was to introduce the amendment of Waste Disposal Cleansing Law and the Basic Environment Law in 1991, but the combination of the two amended laws has enforced promoting and assisting the fulfillment of the responsibilities of corporations and citizens. In addition to such presentation, the author pointed out a new manner of solid waste management (SWM) in Japan.

  5. Gas hydrates over the Egyptian Med. Coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharaf El Din, Sayed; Nassar, Marawan

    2010-05-01

    Natural gas hydrates occur worldwide in different oceanic environments, especially in areas of onshore and offshore permafrost and in sediments on continental slops, PT conditions required to initiate the hydrate formation and to stabilize its structure are encountered along the continental slop of the nile delta. Hydocarbon gases in the Nile Delta are not geochemically homogeneous, originating from the decomposition of organic matter by biochemical and thermal processes. The structure of the hydrate determines the type of gas molecules contained. Although Gas hydrates exist over the Egyptian Med. Coastal waters, very little is known on its, origin, quality and quantity. Several studies had been done by several oil companies in the vicinity of the Egyptian territory. High concentration in thin, patchy zones just above the BSR may be, destabilized by Tectonic uplift or climate changes. The seismic profiles taken over the continental slope of the Nile Delta from Damietta to Rashid gave strong evidence of MH with very clear BSR. Geological and geochemical setting of Gas Hydrate Reservoir in front of the Egyptian Nile Delta need more investigations.

  6. A PubMed-Wide Associational Study of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sintchenko, Vitali; Anthony, Stephen; Phan, Xuan-Hieu; Lin, Frank; Coiera, Enrico W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Computational discovery is playing an ever-greater role in supporting the processes of knowledge synthesis. A significant proportion of the more than 18 million manuscripts indexed in the PubMed database describe infectious disease syndromes and various infectious agents. This study is the first attempt to integrate online repositories of text-based publications and microbial genome databases in order to explore the dynamics of relationships between pathogens and infectious diseases. Methodology/Principal Findings Herein we demonstrate how the knowledge space of infectious diseases can be computationally represented and quantified, and tracked over time. The knowledge space is explored by mapping of the infectious disease literature, looking at dynamics of literature deposition, zooming in from pathogen to genome level and searching for new associations. Syndromic signatures for different pathogens can be created to enable a new and clinically focussed reclassification of the microbial world. Examples of syndrome and pathogen networks illustrate how multilevel network representations of the relationships between infectious syndromes, pathogens and pathogen genomes can illuminate unexpected biological similarities in disease pathogenesis and epidemiology. Conclusions/Significance This new approach based on text and data mining can support the discovery of previously hidden associations between diseases and microbial pathogens, clinically relevant reclassification of pathogenic microorganisms and accelerate the translational research enterprise. PMID:20224767

  7. Exploitation of a large COSMO-SkyMed interferometric dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nutricato, Raffaele; Nitti, Davide O.; Bovenga, Fabio; Refice, Alberto; Chiaradia, Maria T.

    2014-10-01

    In this work we explored a dataset made by more than 100 images acquired by COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) constellation over the Port-au-Prince (Haiti) metropolitan and surrounding areas that were severely hit by the January 12th, 2010 earthquake. The images were acquired along ascending pass by all the four sensors of the constellation with a mean rate of 1 acquisition/week. This consistent CSK dataset was fully exploited by using the Persistent Scatterer Interferometry algorithm SPINUA with the aim of: i) providing a displacement map of the area; ii) assessing the use of CSK and PSI for ground elevation measurements; iii) exploring the CSK satellite orbital tube in terms of both precision and size. In particular, significant subsidence phenomena were detected affecting river deltas and coastal areas of the Port-au-Prince and Carrefour region, as well as very slow slope movements and local ground instabilities. Ground elevation was also measured on PS targets with resolution of 3m. The density of these measurable targets depends on the ground coverage, and reaches values higher than 4000 PS/km2 over urban areas, while it drops over vegetated areas or along slopes affected by layover and shadow. Heights values were compared with LIDAR data at 1m of resolution collected soon after the 2010 earthquake. Furthermore, by using geocoding procedures and the precise LIDAR data as reference, the orbital errors affecting CSK records were investigated. The results are in line with other recent studies.

  8. Integrating hydrodynamic models and COSMO-SkyMed derived products for flood damage assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuffra, Flavio; Boni, Giorgio; Pulvirenti, Luca; Pierdicca, Nazzareno; Rudari, Roberto; Fiorini, Mattia

    2015-04-01

    observe the temporal evolution of the event (e.g. the water receding). In this paper, the first outcomes of a study aiming at combining COSMO-SkyMed derived flood maps with hydrodynamic models are presented. The study is carried out within the framework of the EO-based CHange detection for Operational Flood Management (ECHO-FM) project, funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) as part of the research activities agreed in the cooperation between ASI and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The flood that hit the region of Shkodër, in Albania, on January 2010, is considered as test case. The work focuses on the utility of a dense temporal series of SAR data, such as that available through CSK for this case study, used in combination with a hydrodynamic model to monitor over a long time (in the order of 3 weeks) the natural drainage of the Shkodër floodplain. It is shown that by matching the outputs of the model to SAR observations, the hydrodynamic inconsistencies in CSK estimates can be corrected.

  9. On earthquake prediction in Japan.

    PubMed

    Uyeda, Seiya

    2013-01-01

    Japan's National Project for Earthquake Prediction has been conducted since 1965 without success. An earthquake prediction should be a short-term prediction based on observable physical phenomena or precursors. The main reason of no success is the failure to capture precursors. Most of the financial resources and manpower of the National Project have been devoted to strengthening the seismographs networks, which are not generally effective for detecting precursors since many of precursors are non-seismic. The precursor research has never been supported appropriately because the project has always been run by a group of seismologists who, in the present author's view, are mainly interested in securing funds for seismology - on pretense of prediction. After the 1995 Kobe disaster, the project decided to give up short-term prediction and this decision has been further fortified by the 2011 M9 Tohoku Mega-quake. On top of the National Project, there are other government projects, not formally but vaguely related to earthquake prediction, that consume many orders of magnitude more funds. They are also un-interested in short-term prediction. Financially, they are giants and the National Project is a dwarf. Thus, in Japan now, there is practically no support for short-term prediction research. Recently, however, substantial progress has been made in real short-term prediction by scientists of diverse disciplines. Some promising signs are also arising even from cooperation with private sectors. PMID:24213204

  10. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-05-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  11. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-08-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  12. Mediator MED23 regulates basal transcription in vivo via an interaction with P-TEFb.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Yao, Xiao; Huang, Yan; Hu, Xiangming; Liu, Runzhong; Hou, Dongming; Chen, Ruichuan; Wang, Gang

    2013-01-01

    The Mediator is a multi-subunit complex that transduces regulatory information from transcription regulators to the RNA polymerase II apparatus. Growing evidence suggests that Mediator plays roles in multiple stages of eukaryotic transcription, including elongation. However, the detailed mechanism by which Mediator regulates elongation remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that Mediator MED23 subunit controls a basal level of transcription by recruiting elongation factor P-TEFb, via an interaction with its CDK9 subunit. The mRNA level of Egr1, a MED23-controlled model gene, is reduced 4-5 fold in Med23 (-/-) ES cells under an unstimulated condition, but Med23-deficiency does not alter the occupancies of RNAP II, GTFs, Mediator complex, or activator ELK1 at the Egr1 promoter. Instead, Med23 depletion results in a significant decrease in P-TEFb and RNAP II (Ser2P) binding at the coding region, but no changes for several other elongation regulators, such as DSIF and NELF. ChIP-seq revealed that Med23-deficiency partially reduced the P-TEFb occupancy at a set of MED23-regulated gene promoters. Further, we demonstrate that MED23 interacts with CDK9 in vivo and in vitro. Collectively, these results provide the mechanistic insight into how Mediator promotes RNAP II into transcription elongation.

  13. How to improve your PubMed/MEDLINE searches: 1. background and basic searching.

    PubMed

    Fatehi, Farhad; Gray, Leonard C; Wootton, Richard

    2013-12-01

    PubMed provides free access via the Internet to more than 23 million records, of which over 19 million are from the MEDLINE database of journal articles. PubMed also provides access to other databases, such as the NCBI Bookshelf. To perform a basic search, you can simply enter the search terms or the concept that you are looking for in the search box. However, taking care to clarify your key concepts may save much time later on, because a non-specific search is likely to produce an overwhelming number of result hits. One way to make your search more specific is to specify which field you want to search using field tags. By default, the results of a search are sorted by the date added to PubMed and displayed in summary format with 20 result hits (records) on each page. In summary format, the title of the article, list of authors, source of information (e.g., journal name followed by date of publication, volume, issue, pages) and the unique PubMed record number called the PubMed identifier (PMID) are shown. Although information is stored about the articles, PubMed/MEDLINE does not store the full text of the papers themselves. However, PubMedCentral (PMC) stores more than 2.8 million articles (roughly 10% of the articles in PubMed) and provides access to them for free to the users. PMID:24197398

  14. Formalizing MedDRA to support semantic reasoning on adverse drug reaction terms.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, Cédric; Sadou, Éric; Souvignet, Julien; Jaulent, Marie-Christine; Declerck, Gunnar

    2014-06-01

    Although MedDRA has obvious advantages over previous terminologies for coding adverse drug reactions and discovering potential signals using data mining techniques, its terminological organization constrains users to search terms according to predefined categories. Adding formal definitions to MedDRA would allow retrieval of terms according to a case definition that may correspond to novel categories that are not currently available in the terminology. To achieve semantic reasoning with MedDRA, we have associated formal definitions to MedDRA terms in an OWL file named OntoADR that is the result of our first step for providing an "ontologized" version of MedDRA. MedDRA five-levels original hierarchy was converted into a subsumption tree and formal definitions of MedDRA terms were designed using several methods: mappings to SNOMED-CT, semi-automatic definition algorithms or a fully manual way. This article presents the main steps of OntoADR conception process, its structure and content, and discusses problems and limits raised by this attempt to "ontologize" MedDRA.

  15. 47 CFR 95.627 - MedRadio transmitters in the 401-406 MHz band.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the MedRadio programmer/control transmitter monitoring system antenna gain relative to an isotropic... level must be increased or decreased by an amount equal to the monitoring system antenna gain above or below the gain of an isotropic antenna, respectively. (4) If no signal in a MedRadio channel above...

  16. Performing Environmental Change: MED Theatre and the Changing Face of Community-Based Performance Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Kerrie

    2012-01-01

    This article examines a programme of work produced by community-based theatre company, Manaton and East Dartmoor (MED) Theatre, addressing issues of climate change as they impact on life in rural Devon, UK. After some discussion of MED Theatre's constitution as a community-based company and the group's long-term engagement with the place, history,…

  17. A Study of GRATEFUL MED Use in a Graduate Health Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Marcia Klinger

    A study of "Grateful Med," an interface to Medline, was conducted at California State University/Northridge to discover how efficiently students enrolled in graduate-level research methods classes in health sciences and communicative disorders could access Medline using Grateful Med, what the average costs would be, and how frequently students…

  18. Great East Japan Earthquake Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iijima, Y.; Minoura, K.; Hirano, S.; Yamada, T.

    2011-12-01

    The 11 March 2011, Mw 9.0 Great East Japan Earthquake, already among the most destructive earthquakes in modern history, emanated from a fault rupture that extended an estimated 500 km along the Pacific coast of Honshu. This earthquake is the fourth among five of the strongest temblors since AD 1900 and the largest in Japan since modern instrumental recordings began 130 years ago. The earthquake triggered a huge tsunami, which invaded the seaside areas of the Pacific coast of East Japan, causing devastating damages on the coast. Artificial structures were destroyed and planted forests were thoroughly eroded. Inrush of turbulent flows washed backshore areas and dunes. Coastal materials including beach sand were transported onto inland areas by going-up currents. Just after the occurrence of the tsunami, we started field investigation of measuring thickness and distribution of sediment layers by the tsunami and the inundation depth of water in Sendai plain. Ripple marks showing direction of sediment transport were the important object of observation. We used a soil auger for collecting sediments in the field, and sediment samples were submitted for analyzing grain size and interstitial water chemistry. Satellite images and aerial photographs are very useful for estimating the hydrogeological effects of tsunami inundation. We checked the correspondence of micro-topography, vegetation and sediment covering between before and after the tsunami. The most conspicuous phenomenon is the damage of pine forests planted in the purpose of preventing sand shifting. About ninety-five percent of vegetation coverage was lost during the period of rapid currents changed from first wave. The landward slopes of seawalls were mostly damaged and destroyed. Some aerial photographs leave detailed records of wave destruction just behind seawalls, which shows the occurrence of supercritical flows. The large-scale erosion of backshore behind seawalls is interpreted to have been caused by

  19. The inclusion of an online journal in PubMed central - a difficult path.

    PubMed

    Grech, Victor

    2016-01-01

    The indexing of a journal in a prominent database (such as PubMed) is an important imprimatur. Journals accepted for inclusion in PubMed Central (PMC) are automatically indexed in PubMed but must provide the entire contents of their publications as XML-tagged (Extensible Markup Language) data files compliant with PubMed's document type definition (DTD). This paper describes the various attempts that the journal Images in Paediatric Cardiology made in its efforts to convert the journal contents (including all of the extant backlog) to PMC-compliant XML for archiving and indexing in PubMed after the journal was accepted for inclusion by the database. PMID:27244254

  20. Ablation of Coactivator Med1 Switches the Cell Fate of Dental Epithelia to That Generating Hair

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thai; Sakai, Kiyoshi; He, Bing; Fong, Chak; Oda, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    Cell fates are determined by specific transcriptional programs. Here we provide evidence that the transcriptional coactivator, Mediator 1 (Med1), is essential for the cell fate determination of ectodermal epithelia. Conditional deletion of Med1 in vivo converted dental epithelia into epidermal epithelia, causing defects in enamel organ development while promoting hair formation in the incisors. We identified multiple processes by which hairs are generated in Med1 deficient incisors: 1) dental epithelial stem cells lacking Med 1 fail to commit to the dental lineage, 2) Sox2-expressing stem cells extend into the differentiation zone and remain multi-potent due to reduced Notch1 signaling, and 3) epidermal fate is induced by calcium as demonstrated in dental epithelial cell cultures. These results demonstrate that Med1 is a master regulator in adult stem cells to govern epithelial cell fate. PMID:24949995

  1. Using PubMed in radiology: Ten useful tips for radiologists

    PubMed Central

    Sriganesh, Vasumathi

    2011-01-01

    PubMed contains a bibliography of articles published in around 4800 journals. It combines MEDLINE and OLDMEDLINE (articles from 1960, going back till the 1940s). PubMed is updated on a daily basis; to include both published and ahead of print references. As a radiologist, one can use PubMed to track several journals, track topics, search for specific topics, verify incomplete or incorrect references, store one's own publications, and save selected references; one can also create filters depending on one's own search needs for some regular topics. This article provides some key background knowledge on searching PubMed and also describes some features that are often left unexplored. The PubMed site has undergone many changes in the last few years and this article will update users on the current features. PMID:22013289

  2. The Role of German in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sang, Juergen

    This historical overview of German studies in Japan, dating from the birth of modern Japan in the 1870's to the present time, includes commentary on the nature and scope of existing language programs. The importance of German idealism--reflected in the philosophy of Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and Marx--on Japanese culture is noted.…

  3. The State of Continuing Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masatoshi, Nagashima, Ed.; And Others

    This book contains the following articles about the state of continuing education and occupational training in Japan: "Funabashi City University of Sports Health" (Abe Nobuhiro); "Public Halls in Omiya City" (Kawamoto Koji); "Setagaya Senior Citizens College (Setagaya Rojin Daigaku)" (Sawamura Hiroshi); "Lifelong Sport in Japan: A Case Study of…

  4. Sharing a Common Future. Report from Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Makoto

    This document contains seven previously published papers examining trends in adult education in Japan. "Deepening Democracy" (1992) examines democracy and adult education for special needs groups (women, dropouts, disabled persons, ethnic minorities, and refugees). "Literacy Movement" (1990) traces literacy education in Japan from its beginnings…

  5. Japan's Winning Margins. Management, Training, and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorriman, John; Kenjo, Takashi

    This book explains the fundamental reasons for Japan's astonishing commercial success in relation to its Western competitors. Chapter 1 is an introduction. Chapter 2 discusses implications of Japanese history for education, training, and management. Chapter 3 looks at the first winning margin--education. It covers the following: Japan's long…

  6. Teaching about Japan in Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Helen W.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests that a good starting point for social studies curriculum units on Japan at the secondary school level is an analysis of the interrelationships between Japan and the United States. Information is presented on population figures, industrialization, standard of living indicators, consumer price indexes, and crude birth and death rates for…

  7. Political Literacy in Japan and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Ian; Mizuyama, Mitsuharu; Ikeno, Norio; Parmenter, Lynne; Mori, Chiho

    2013-01-01

    The authors discuss findings from the project "Political Literacy in Japan and England". They do so to follow up on work published in this journal in 2011. The now completed project involved two schools in England and three schools in Japan, and had the aim of exploring what teachers would do in each country when asked to use the same…

  8. Perspectives on Japan: A Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogan, John J., Ed.; Schneider, Donald O., Ed.

    Provided are some perspectives, ideas, and resources for teaching about Japan and the Japanese. A major objective is to provide an opportunity for K-12 students to study a culture that can be both compared and contrasted to their own. Following an introduction, which provides a rationale for teaching about Japan, there are three major parts.…

  9. Autochthonous dengue fever, Tokyo, Japan, 2014.

    PubMed

    Kutsuna, Satoshi; Kato, Yasuyuki; Moi, Meng Ling; Kotaki, Akira; Ota, Masayuki; Shinohara, Koh; Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Yamamoto, Kei; Fujiya, Yoshihiro; Mawatari, Momoko; Sato, Tastuya; Kunimatsu, Junwa; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Ohmagari, Norio

    2015-03-01

    After 70 years with no confirmed autochthonous cases of dengue fever in Japan, 19 cases were reported during August-September 2014. Dengue virus serotype 1 was detected in 18 patients. Phylogenetic analysis of the envelope protein genome sequence from 3 patients revealed 100% identity with the strain from the first patient (2014) in Japan.

  10. 75 FR 57980 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... interested parties did not participate in this sunset review * * *.'' (75 FR 51981). Accordingly, pursuant to... COMMISSION Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... whether revocation of the antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely...

  11. Japan: Language Policy and Planning in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Nanette

    2008-01-01

    This monograph discusses the language situation in Japan, with an emphasis on language planning and policy. Japan has long considered itself to be a monoethnic and therefore monolingual society, despite the existence of substantial old-comer ethnic minorities, and this--with the instrumental exception of English--has been reflected in its language…

  12. Linguistic Minorities and Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, John

    1997-01-01

    The ideology of a monolingual and monoracial Japan is being challenged by increasing language diversity in communities where Ainu, Ryukyuan, Chinese, English, Japanese Sign Language, Korean, and other languages are spoken. Government policies and school textbooks still resist the notion of a multilingual Japan. (SK)

  13. Towards a multidisciplinary e-infrastructure for the Mediterranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nativi, Stefano; Mathieu, Pierre Philippe; Cossu, Roberto; Santoto, Mattia; Martini, Marcello; Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    The MED-SUV European project (http://med-suv.eu/) aims to design and implement a multidisciplinary infrastructure for the volcanic risk management life-cycle in southern Italy. The MED-SUV infrastructure will rely upon the improvements of the understanding of geophysical processes underlying the volcanic systems of Vesuvius / Campi Flegrei and Mt. Etna. It will also achieve the integration of existing components, such as monitoring systems and data bases, novel sensors for the measurements of volcanic parameters, and tools for data analysis and process modelling. This effort will contribute to GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems - http://www.earthobservations.org/geoss.shtml) as one the volcano Supersite recognized by GEO (Group on Earth Observation) -see http://supersites.earthobservations.org/. To achieve its goals, MED-SUV needs an advanced e-infrastructure allowing: (a) heterogeneous data and processing systems to provide and share their resources, and (b) supersite Users to run their workflows and generate significant products. This presentation discusses the general interoperability approach and architecture characterizing the MED-SUV e-infrastructure. The MED-SUV e-infrastructure considered the concepts and solutions adopted by the GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI). The architecture requirements and system technologies builds on the experience done by relevant European projects in the framework of GEOSS and ESFRI (e.g. EuroGEOSS, GENESI, GEOWOW). MED-SUV e-infrastructure adopts three-tiers approach distinguishing among: (a) local and distributed Data/Information Providers; (b) the MED-SUV Brokering framework for harmonization and interoperability; (c) the MED-SUV e-collaboration environment for the generation and publication of advanced products. MED-SUV e-infrastructure development considers interoperability with the other two FP7 supersite projects: MARSITE and FUTUREVOLC, as well as EPOS.

  14. Retrieving Clinical Evidence: A Comparison of PubMed and Google Scholar for Quick Clinical Searches

    PubMed Central

    Bejaimal, Shayna AD; Sontrop, Jessica M; Iansavichus, Arthur V; Haynes, R Brian; Weir, Matthew A; Garg, Amit X

    2013-01-01

    Background Physicians frequently search PubMed for information to guide patient care. More recently, Google Scholar has gained popularity as another freely accessible bibliographic database. Objective To compare the performance of searches in PubMed and Google Scholar. Methods We surveyed nephrologists (kidney specialists) and provided each with a unique clinical question derived from 100 renal therapy systematic reviews. Each physician provided the search terms they would type into a bibliographic database to locate evidence to answer the clinical question. We executed each of these searches in PubMed and Google Scholar and compared results for the first 40 records retrieved (equivalent to 2 default search pages in PubMed). We evaluated the recall (proportion of relevant articles found) and precision (ratio of relevant to nonrelevant articles) of the searches performed in PubMed and Google Scholar. Primary studies included in the systematic reviews served as the reference standard for relevant articles. We further documented whether relevant articles were available as free full-texts. Results Compared with PubMed, the average search in Google Scholar retrieved twice as many relevant articles (PubMed: 11%; Google Scholar: 22%; P<.001). Precision was similar in both databases (PubMed: 6%; Google Scholar: 8%; P=.07). Google Scholar provided significantly greater access to free full-text publications (PubMed: 5%; Google Scholar: 14%; P<.001). Conclusions For quick clinical searches, Google Scholar returns twice as many relevant articles as PubMed and provides greater access to free full-text articles. PMID:23948488

  15. Connecting the Dots between PubMed Abstracts

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, M. Shahriar; Gresock, Joseph; Edmonds, Yvette; Helm, Richard; Potts, Malcolm; Ramakrishnan, Naren

    2012-01-01

    Background There are now a multitude of articles published in a diversity of journals providing information about genes, proteins, pathways, and diseases. Each article investigates subsets of a biological process, but to gain insight into the functioning of a system as a whole, we must integrate information from multiple publications. Particularly, unraveling relationships between extra-cellular inputs and downstream molecular response mechanisms requires integrating conclusions from diverse publications. Methodology We present an automated approach to biological knowledge discovery from PubMed abstracts, suitable for “connecting the dots” across the literature. We describe a storytelling algorithm that, given a start and end publication, typically with little or no overlap in content, identifies a chain of intermediate publications from one to the other, such that neighboring publications have significant content similarity. The quality of discovered stories is measured using local criteria such as the size of supporting neighborhoods for each link and the strength of individual links connecting publications, as well as global metrics of dispersion. To ensure that the story stays coherent as it meanders from one publication to another, we demonstrate the design of novel coherence and overlap filters for use as post-processing steps. Conclusions We demonstrate the application of our storytelling algorithm to three case studies: i) a many-one study exploring relationships between multiple cellular inputs and a molecule responsible for cell-fate decisions, ii) a many-many study exploring the relationships between multiple cytokines and multiple downstream transcription factors, and iii) a one-to-one study to showcase the ability to recover a cancer related association, viz. the Warburg effect, from past literature. The storytelling pipeline helps narrow down a scientist's focus from several hundreds of thousands of relevant documents to only around a hundred

  16. Penicillin and the reconstruction of Japan.

    PubMed

    Cozzoli, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores postwar American strategies regarding penicillin in Japan. Perceived as both an American gift and a symbol of reconstruction, penicillin played a singular role in Washington's postwar policies towards Europe and Japan. Washington encouraged US pharmaceutical companies to penetrate Europe but sought to protect intra-European trade. In Japan, however, importing penicillin from the US or establishing private American factories was forbidden. Jackson W. Foster implemented a smaller-scale, military-directed version of the US's wartime penicillin project. In this paper, it is argued that the MacArthur administration aimed to boost Japanese penicillin production and transfer American industrial culture to Japan. This was initially a major success. However, the Japanese pharmaceutical industry failed to break down barriers to market entry established by first movers and, consequently, was uncompetitive throughout the twentieth century. This paper regards the American penicillin project in Japan as a factor in the weakness of the postwar Japanese pharmaceutical industry. PMID:26054211

  17. Development of Mass-casualty Life Support-CBRNE (MCLS-CBRNE) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Anan, Hideaki; Otomo, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Homma, Masato; Koido, Yuichi; Morino, Kazuma; Oshiro, Kenichi; Harikae, Kiyokazu; Akasaka, Osamu

    2016-10-01

    This report outlines the need for the development of an advanced course in mass-casualty life support (MCLS) and introduces the course content. The current problems with education on disasters involving chemical agents, biological agents, radiation/nuclear attacks, or explosives (CBRNE) in Japan are presented. This newly developed "MCLS-CBRNE" program was created by a Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare (Tokyo, Japan) research group based on these circumstances. Modifications were then made after a trial course. Training opportunities for relevant organizations to learn how to act at a CBRNE disaster site currently are lacking. The developed course covers initial responses at a disaster site. This one-day training course comprises lectures, three tabletop simulations, and practical exercises in pre-decontamination triage and post-decontamination triage. With regard to field exercises conducted to date, related organizations have experienced difficulties in understanding each other and adapting their approaches. Tabletop simulations provide an opportunity for participants to learn how organizations working on-site, including fire, police, and medical personnel, act with differing goals and guiding principles. This course appears useful as a means for relevant organizations to understand the importance of developing common guidelines. The MCLS-CBRNE training is proposed to support CBRNE disaster control measures during future events. Anan H , Otomo Y , Kondo H , Homma M , Koido Y , Morino K , Oshiro K , Harikae K , Akasaka O . Development of mass-casualty life support-CBRNE (MCLS-CBRNE) in Japan. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(5):547-550.

  18. Type 1 diabetes in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, E; Matsuura, N; Eguchi, K

    2006-05-01

    Type 1 diabetes is a multifactorial disease which results from a T-cell-mediated autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic beta cells in genetically predisposed individuals. The risk for individuals of developing type 1 diabetes varies remarkably according to country of residence and race. Japan has one of the lowest incidence rates of type 1 diabetes in the world, and recognises at least three subtypes of the condition: acute-onset ('classical'), slow-onset, and fulminant type 1 diabetes. The incidence rate of type 1 diabetes in children aged 0-14 years in Japan increased over the period from 1973-1992, but remained constant over the last decade, averaging 2.37 cases per 100,000 persons per year; the incidence does not appear to have increased in older age groups. Although there are few reports regarding the incidence and prevalence of type 1 diabetes in adult-onset patients, it appears that the prevalence of type 1 diabetes in adults is more than twice that in childhood-onset patients and that two-thirds of them have a slow-onset form of type 1 diabetes. Differences and similarities in the association of MHC and non-MHC genes with type 1 diabetes are observed in Japan and in countries with Caucasoid populations. Highly susceptible class II HLA haplotypes identified in patients of Caucasoid origin are rarely seen in Japanese patients, whereas protective haplotypes are universal. Non-MHC genes associated with susceptibility to type 1 diabetes in both Japanese and Caucasoid patients include polymorphisms in the insulin gene, the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) gene, the interleukin-18 (IL18) gene and the major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A (MICA) gene. Fulminant type 1 diabetes is a unique subtype of type 1 diabetes that accounts for about 20% of acute-onset type 1 diabetes, and is seen mainly in adults. The challenge for the future is to investigate the underlying pathogenesis of beta cell destruction, including the genetic or

  19. History of neurophysiology in Japan.

    PubMed

    Oomura, Y

    1991-01-01

    The progress of the neurophysiological research in Japan during the past 45 years is related. Modern Japanese neurophysiology started immediately after the end of World War 2. The introduction of microelectrode techniques contributed greatly to most fields of Japanese neurophysiology. These techniques were used to study most neurophysiological phenomena: sensory physiology including vision, audition, chemical sensitivity, and other modalities; learning and memory. These techniques plus lesions, transplants, and behavioral physiology were used to study circadian rhythm, posture and motor control, and sex. These and other techniques were used to study neural plasticity, immunity, membrane excitability, pain and other psychophysiological functions. The disciplines advanced quickly into multidiscipline approaches into not only electrophysiological, but biophysical, biochemical and immunological research fields. From the past research results our neurophysiologists can be expected to advance rapidly toward further development in the future of Japanese neurophysiology.

  20. [Pediatric neurotransmitter disease in Japan].

    PubMed

    Shintaku, Haruo

    2012-09-01

    Pediatric neurotransmitter disease (PND) encompasses a range of rare genetic disorders that affect the metabolism of neurotransmitters in children. While these neurological disorders are often studied independently of each other, they all manifest central nervous system symptoms and require proper diagnosis and intervention at early stages. Since clinical symptoms of PND can be nonspecific, the conditions are often under-diagnosed, leaving patients without a chance to receive effective treatment. Envisioning PND as a whole, a comprehensive research effort is underway for a better understanding of pathophysiology and epidemiology in Japan, and toward the establishment of diagnostic criteria. The early diagnosis and development of new effective therapies are of urgent importance for these rare disorders that are not covered by newborn mass screening. For rarer forms of PND, at the same time, it is important to encourage recognition and understanding of the disease concept among healthcare professionals.

  1. The Beveridge Report and Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Yoneyuki

    2014-01-01

    After World War II, Japanese health insurance systems rejected the idea of a flat-rate premium contribution, a central concept in the Beveridge Report. Allegedly, outside of Great Britain, no other country was more influenced by this Report than Japan. However, the postwar Japanese health insurance systems adopted flat-rate benefits and earnings-related contributions, a clear rejection of the flat-rate premium contributions for flat-rate benefits advocated in the Report. This is not just a simple difference from the premium contributions method, it throws up fundamental questions concerning the essence of social insurance, and ultimately, the power of the State and the relationship between the State and the individual. This article aims to analyze the reasons for this rejection. PMID:24405200

  2. SURVIVAL OF CENTENARIANS IN JAPAN.

    PubMed

    Murotani, Kenta; Zhou, Bin; Kaneda, Hideaki; Nakatani, Eiji; Kojima, Shinsuke; Nagai, Yoji; Fukushima, Masanori

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the study was to explore the survival trends of centenarians in Japan. A cohort of centenarians born between 1881 and 1900 was analysed based on national census data, and the average life expectancy at 100 years of age, risk of death and maximum age were estimated. An analysis of covariance and a Cox regression analysis were performed to explore the factors associated with life expectancy and risk of death. The death rates in centenarians tended to decrease with birth year, and the average life expectancy from the age of 100 slightly increased at a rate of 0.013 years (95% CI: 0.007-0.019) by birth year in men and 0.026 in women. Women had a longer life expectancy than men, with a difference of 0.174 years (95% CI: 0.071-0.277) at birth year 1881 and increasing by 0.013 years per year thereafter. The risk of death in both sexes decreased significantly by birth year over the course of the period analysed, and the risk of death in men was 1.16 (95% CI: 1.14-1.19) times that of women. In women, death rates at every age significantly decreased with birth year over the course of the period analysed until age 104. However, this trend did not hold true for ages 105 and older. The average life expectancy of centenarians at the age of 100 in Japan increased by birth year in the 1881-1900 birth cohort. In addition, Japanese centenarians had the lowest death rates among several countries.

  3. Forest medicine research in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yoshifumi; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong

    2014-01-01

    There has been growing attention on the effects of forest on physiological relaxation and immune recovery, particularly in forest medicine research, from a perspective of preventive medicine. Japan is a world leader in the accumulation of scientific data on forest medicine research. In this review, we summarize the research that has been conducted in this area since 1992. We conducted field experiment, involving 420 subjects at 35 different forests throughout Japan. After sitting in natural surroundings, these subjects showed decrease in the following physiological parameters compared with those in an urban control group: 12.4% decrease in the cortisol level, 7.0% decrease in sympathetic nervous activity, 1.4% decrease in systolic blood pressure, and 5.8% decrease in heart rate. This demonstrates that stressful states can be relieved by forest therapy. In addition, it should be noted that parasympathetic nervous activity was enhanced by 55.0%, indicating a relaxed state. The results of walking experiments provided similar results. Li et al. demonstrated that immune function was enhanced by forest therapy in middle-aged employees who volunteered to participate in these experiments. Natural killer cell activity, an indicator of immune function, was enhanced by 56% on the second day and returned to normal levels. A significant increase of 23% was maintained for 1 month even after returning to urban life, clearly illustrating the preventive benefits of forest therapy. In an indoor room experiment, we conducted tests with the following: 1) olfactory stimulation using wood smell, 2) tactile stimulation using wood, and 3) auditory stimulation using forest sounds. These indoor stimulations also decreased the blood pressure and pulse rate, and induced a physiological relaxation effect. We anticipate that forest medicine will play an increasingly important role in preventive medicine in the future. PMID:24858508

  4. Forest medicine research in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yoshifumi; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong

    2014-01-01

    There has been growing attention on the effects of forest on physiological relaxation and immune recovery, particularly in forest medicine research, from a perspective of preventive medicine. Japan is a world leader in the accumulation of scientific data on forest medicine research. In this review, we summarize the research that has been conducted in this area since 1992. We conducted field experiment, involving 420 subjects at 35 different forests throughout Japan. After sitting in natural surroundings, these subjects showed decrease in the following physiological parameters compared with those in an urban control group: 12.4% decrease in the cortisol level, 7.0% decrease in sympathetic nervous activity, 1.4% decrease in systolic blood pressure, and 5.8% decrease in heart rate. This demonstrates that stressful states can be relieved by forest therapy. In addition, it should be noted that parasympathetic nervous activity was enhanced by 55.0%, indicating a relaxed state. The results of walking experiments provided similar results. Li et al. demonstrated that immune function was enhanced by forest therapy in middle-aged employees who volunteered to participate in these experiments. Natural killer cell activity, an indicator of immune function, was enhanced by 56% on the second day and returned to normal levels. A significant increase of 23% was maintained for 1 month even after returning to urban life, clearly illustrating the preventive benefits of forest therapy. In an indoor room experiment, we conducted tests with the following: 1) olfactory stimulation using wood smell, 2) tactile stimulation using wood, and 3) auditory stimulation using forest sounds. These indoor stimulations also decreased the blood pressure and pulse rate, and induced a physiological relaxation effect. We anticipate that forest medicine will play an increasingly important role in preventive medicine in the future.

  5. Development of cancer cooperative groups in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Haruhiko

    2010-09-01

    Investigator-initiated clinical trials are essential for improving the standard of care for cancer patients, because pharmaceutical companies do not conduct trials that evaluate combination chemotherapy using drugs from different companies, surgery, radiotherapy or multimodal treatments. Government-sponsored cooperative groups have played a vital role in developing cancer therapeutics since the 1950s in the USA; however, the establishment of these groups in Japan did not take place until 30 years later. Methodological standards for multicenter cancer clinical trials were established in the 1980s by the National Cancer Institute and cooperative groups. The Japan Clinical Oncology Group, one of the largest cooperative groups in the country, was instituted in 1990. Its data center and operations office, formed during the 1990s, applied the standard methods of US cooperative groups. At present, the Japan Clinical Oncology Group consists of 14 subgroups, a Data Center, an Operations Office, nine standing committees and an Executive Committee represented by the Japan Clinical Oncology Group Chair. Quality control and quality assurance at the Japan Clinical Oncology Group, including regular central monitoring, statistical methods, interim analyses, adverse event reporting and site visit audit, have complied with international standards. Other cooperative groups have also been established in Japan since the 1980s; however, nobody figures out all of them. A project involving the restructuring of US cooperative groups has been ongoing since 2005. Learning from the success of this project will permit further progress of the cancer clinical trials enterprise in Japan.

  6. Electronic manufacturing and packaging in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael J.; Boulton, William R. (Editor); Kukowski, John A.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Pecht, Michael; Peeples, John W.; Tummala, Rao R.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the status of electronic manufacturing and packaging technology in Japan in comparison to that in the United States, and its impact on competition in electronic manufacturing in general. In addition to electronic manufacturing technologies, the report covers technology and manufacturing infrastructure, electronics manufacturing and assembly, quality assurance and reliability in the Japanese electronics industry, and successful product realization strategies. The panel found that Japan leads the United States in almost every electronics packaging technology. Japan clearly has achieved a strategic advantage in electronics production and process technologies. Panel members believe that Japanese competitors could be leading U.S. firms by as much as a decade in some electronics process technologies. Japan has established this marked competitive advantage in electronics as a consequence of developing low-cost, high-volume consumer products. Japan's infrastructure, and the remarkable cohesiveness of vision and purpose in government and industry, are key factors in the success of Japan's electronics industry. Although Japan will continue to dominate consumer electronics in the foreseeable future, opportunities exist for the United States and other industrial countries to capture an increasingly large part of the market. The JTEC panel has identified no insurmountable barriers that would prevent the United States from regaining a significant share of the consumer electronics market; in fact, there is ample evidence that the United States needs to aggressively pursue high-volume, low-cost electronic assembly, because it is a critical path leading to high-performance electronic systems.

  7. Explaining unusual winter lightning in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindo, Takatoshi; Ishii, Masaru; Williams, Earle

    2011-11-01

    Third International Symposium on Winter Lightning; Sapporo, Japan, 15-16 June 2011 Japan's meteorological setting in winter is unusual: It is an island in a relatively warm sea frequently overswept by colder air from Siberia. This sets up appreciable atmospheric instability in the fringe of the land adjacent to the Sea of Japan. Heavy snowstorms overlap the edge of the island and produce extraordinarily energetic lightning flashes that initiate from points on the ground (known as ground-to-cloud (GC) strokes) and wreak havoc on power lines and, more recently, wind turbines. These troublesome and costly conditions set the stage for the third in a series of conferences on winter lightning.

  8. Human mediator MED17 subunit plays essential roles in gene regulation by associating with the transcription and DNA repair machineries.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Yuko; Umemura, Hiroyasu; Nishitani, Saori; Iida, Satoshi; Fukasawa, Rikiya; Hayashi, Hiroto; Hirose, Yutaka; Tanaka, Aki; Sugasawa, Kaoru; Ohkuma, Yoshiaki

    2015-03-01

    In eukaryotes, holo-Mediator consists of four modules: head, middle, tail, and CDK/Cyclin. The head module performs an essential function involved in regulation of RNA polymerase II (Pol II). We studied the human head module subunit MED17 (hMED17). Recent structural studies showed that yeast MED17 may function as a hinge connecting the neck and movable jaw regions of the head module to the fixed jaw region. Luciferase assays in hMED17-knockdown cells showed that hMED17 supports transcriptional activation, and pulldown assays showed that hMED17 interacted with Pol II and the general transcription factors TFIIB, TBP, TFIIE, and TFIIH. In addition, hMED17 bound to a DNA helicase subunit of TFIIH, XPB, which is essential for both transcription and nucleotide excision repair (NER). Because hMED17 associates with p53 upon UV-C irradiation, we treated human MCF-7 cells with either UV-C or the MDM2 inhibitor Nutlin-3. Both treatments resulted in accumulation of p53 in the nucleus, but hMED17 remained concentrated in the nucleus in response to UV-C. hMED17 colocalized with the NER factors XPB and XPG following UV-C irradiation, and XPG and XPB bound to hMED17 in vitro. These findings suggest that hMED17 may play essential roles in switching between transcription and NER.

  9. Teaching Primary School Children about Japan through Art. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Patricia Berg

    There are a variety reasons for teaching about Japan. Many students in the United States are of Japanese heritage; Japan is the second largest trading partner of the United States; and some healing still needs to occur between the United States and Japan because of the damage and pain of World War II. Further, the Unites States and Japan share the…

  10. Contemporary Japan: A Teaching Workbook. Third Edition Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Roberta, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to supplement and enliven standard textbook presentations of Japan, this workbook, through student exercises, seeks to answer some of the most common questions U.S. students have about Japan and its people. Classes exploring only one aspect of Japan as well as those seeking an integrated picture of Japan's traditional culture and…

  11. EPA MED-DULUTH'S ECOTOX AND ECO-SSL WEB APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ECOTOX (ECOTOXicology Database) system developed by the USEPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), Mid-Continent Ecology Division in Duluth, MN (MED-Duluth), provides a web browser search interface for locating aquatic and terrestrial toxic...

  12. Mass screenings at mass participation events: MedFest at Special Olympics.

    PubMed

    Seidenberg, Peter H; Eggers, Jason L

    2015-01-01

    MedFest events offer preparticipation physical evaluations to Special Olympics athletes. This free service can occur as free-standing events or can take place during Special Olympics Games. The goals of MedFest are to screen for conditions that are potentially life threatening or disabling or may predispose the athlete to injury or illness. The medication, cardiac, and neurologic histories are essential components of the evaluation. The majority of athletes screened during a MedFest event will be cleared for sports participation, but many will require some type of referral for further care. It is important for the organizers of the MedFest to have prearranged protocols to ensure that the athletes efficiently receive the required evaluations. PMID:25968849

  13. Mass screenings at mass participation events: MedFest at Special Olympics.

    PubMed

    Seidenberg, Peter H; Eggers, Jason L

    2015-01-01

    MedFest events offer preparticipation physical evaluations to Special Olympics athletes. This free service can occur as free-standing events or can take place during Special Olympics Games. The goals of MedFest are to screen for conditions that are potentially life threatening or disabling or may predispose the athlete to injury or illness. The medication, cardiac, and neurologic histories are essential components of the evaluation. The majority of athletes screened during a MedFest event will be cleared for sports participation, but many will require some type of referral for further care. It is important for the organizers of the MedFest to have prearranged protocols to ensure that the athletes efficiently receive the required evaluations.

  14. The terrestrial bioluminescent animals of Japan.

    PubMed

    Oba, Yuichi; Branham, Marc A; Fukatsu, Takema

    2011-11-01

    Light production by organisms, or bioluminescence, has fascinated not only scientists but also ordinary people all over the world, and it has been especially so in Japan. Here we review the biological information available to date for all luminous terrestrial animals known from Japan, particularly focusing on their diversity and systematics, their biology and ecology in Japan, and putative function and biochemistry of their luminescence. In total 58 luminous terrestrial animals have been described from Japan, which consist of 50 fireflies (Coleoptera: Lampyridae), one glowworm beetle (Coleoptera: Phengodidae), two fungus gnats (Diptera: Keroplatidae), one springtail (Collembola), one millipede (Diplopoda), one centipede (Chilopoda) and two earthworms (Oligochaeta). For all except some firefly species, the DNA "barcode" sequences of a cytochrome oxidase subunit I region are provided. We also introduce how intricately the seasonal appearance and glimmering of luminous insects, in particular those of fireflies, have been interwoven into the culture, art, literature and mentality of Japanese people. PMID:22035300

  15. Suicide among foreign residents of Japan.

    PubMed

    Lester, David; Saito, Yukio; Ben Park, B C

    2011-02-01

    The suicide rate of Koreans living in Japan is twice as high as that of Koreans in South Korea. Reasons for this high suicide rate are discussed, including effects of economic crises and discrimination.

  16. US--Japan energy policy consultations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    These papers, from the US--Japan Energy Policy Consultations Meeting in Hawaii, deal with topics relating to: energy outlook; electric utilities; nuclear energy; coal and petroleum based energies; and new energy source development. (JF)

  17. History of Nuclear Fusion Research in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Harukazu; Matsuoka, Keisuke; Kimura, Kazue; Namba, Chusei; Matsuda, Shinzaburo

    In the late 1950s just after the atomic energy research was opened worldwide, there was a lively discussion among scientists on the strategy of nuclear fusion research in Japan. Finally, decision was made that fusion research should be started from the basic, namely, research on plasma physics and from cultivation of human resources at universities under the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture (MOE). However, an endorsement was given that construction of an experimental device for fusion research would be approved sooner or later. Studies on toroidal plasma confinement started at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) under the Science and Technology Agency (STA) in the mid-1960s. Dualistic fusion research framework in Japan was established. This structure has lasted until now. Fusion research activities over the last 50 years are described by the use of a flowchart, which is convenient to glance the historical development of fusion research in Japan.

  18. Transfer of environmentally sound technologies from Japan to China

    SciTech Connect

    Asuka-Zhang, S.

    1999-09-01

    This article discusses the transfer of environmentally sound technology from Japan to developing countries, particularly China. The focus is on the main Japanese organizations involved in environmentally sound technology transfer, including government agencies, non-governmental organizations, and Japanese industry. The article also describes the main activities involved in Japan`s technology transfer efforts, such as grants, loan, information exchange, and demonstration projects, with specific examples of Japan`s technology transfer work in China. Finally, the paper analyzes the successes and challenges of various technology transfer mechanism and provides insight on the direction of Japan`s future environmentally sound technology transfer projects and programs in developing countries.

  19. [Japan Trauma Data Bank (JTDB) managed by Japan Trauma Care and Research (JTCR)].

    PubMed

    Yokota, Junichiro

    2016-02-01

    Japan Trauma Care and Research (JTCR) was founded for operating the trauma care education and research in 2005. Japan Advanced Trauma Evaluation and Care (JATEC) is an educational program of trauma care established by The Japanese Association for The Surgery of Trauma (JAST) and the Japanese Association of Acute Medicine (JAAM), managed by JTCR. The Japan Trauma Data Bank (JTDB) is the only database organization of Japan trauma registry that was also established by JAST and JAAM, and managed by JTCR. Registry data that is collected from the JTDB is compiled annually and disseminated in the forms of hospital benchmark reports, data quality reports, and research data sets.

  20. PubMedPortable: A Framework for Supporting the Development of Text Mining Applications

    PubMed Central

    Döring, Kersten; Grüning, Björn A.; Telukunta, Kiran K.; Thomas, Philippe; Günther, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Information extraction from biomedical literature is continuously growing in scope and importance. Many tools exist that perform named entity recognition, e.g. of proteins, chemical compounds, and diseases. Furthermore, several approaches deal with the extraction of relations between identified entities. The BioCreative community supports these developments with yearly open challenges, which led to a standardised XML text annotation format called BioC. PubMed provides access to the largest open biomedical literature repository, but there is no unified way of connecting its data to natural language processing tools. Therefore, an appropriate data environment is needed as a basis to combine different software solutions and to develop customised text mining applications. PubMedPortable builds a relational database and a full text index on PubMed citations. It can be applied either to the complete PubMed data set or an arbitrary subset of downloaded PubMed XML files. The software provides the infrastructure to combine stand-alone applications by exporting different data formats, e.g. BioC. The presented workflows show how to use PubMedPortable to retrieve, store, and analyse a disease-specific data set. The provided use cases are well documented in the PubMedPortable wiki. The open-source software library is small, easy to use, and scalable to the user’s system requirements. It is freely available for Linux on the web at https://github.com/KerstenDoering/PubMedPortable and for other operating systems as a virtual container. The approach was tested extensively and applied successfully in several projects. PMID:27706202

  1. [[Demographic characteristics of "business bachelors" in Japan

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, C

    1987-01-01

    The demographic characteristics of those obliged to live away from their families because of the distance between their normal homes and places of work or education in Japan are described. Data are from a variety of official and other sources. The author notes that such persons are generally male. Factors affecting the growth of this phenomenon in Japan are the concept of lifetime employment with the same company and the popularity of sending children away to school.

  2. Using Parse's humanbecoming theory in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Junko; Katsuno, Towako; Takahashi, Teruko

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the authors discuss the use of Parse's humanbecoming theory in Japan. Elements of the theory are used in the nursing approach to an 88 year-old Japanese man who had complications following surgery. Process recordings of the dialogues between the patient, the patient's wife, and the nurse were made and considered in light of the three methodologies of Parse's theory; illuminating meaning, synchronizing rhythms, and mobilizing transcendence. The theory is seen as useful in Japan. PMID:22228531

  3. Cord blood transplantation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Naoyuki

    2016-05-01

    Cord blood transplantation (CBT) has increasingly been used in Japan and the annual number of CBT now exceeds 1,200. The cumulative number of CBT reached 12,853 in 2015, accounting for almost 1/3 of total CBT performed worldwide. It is true that smaller body size and lower costs, as compared to western countries, have been advantages for Japanese people in using CB as graft alternative. In addition, several novel findings regarding serious issues following CBT have been obtained, which further enhanced the use of CB. First, several mechanisms of engraftment failure following CBT other than cell dose have been reported, such as the presence of donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies or the development of hemophagocytic syndrome. Second, unique profiles of infectious complications following CBT have been reported, such as higher incidences of early bacterial infections and HHV-6 encephalitis, as compared to those following bone marrow (BM)/peripheral blood (PB) transplants. Third, the incidence of disease relapse was comparable to those following BM/PB transplants. Novel pre-transplant conditioning regimens using intravenous busulfan have been investigated with promising results being obtained to date. A recent analysis of Japanese transplant registry data revealed similar survival following CBT to HLA-matched unrelated BM/PB transplants. PMID:27263776

  4. On Earthquake Prediction in Japan

    PubMed Central

    UYEDA, Seiya

    2013-01-01

    Japan’s National Project for Earthquake Prediction has been conducted since 1965 without success. An earthquake prediction should be a short-term prediction based on observable physical phenomena or precursors. The main reason of no success is the failure to capture precursors. Most of the financial resources and manpower of the National Project have been devoted to strengthening the seismographs networks, which are not generally effective for detecting precursors since many of precursors are non-seismic. The precursor research has never been supported appropriately because the project has always been run by a group of seismologists who, in the present author’s view, are mainly interested in securing funds for seismology — on pretense of prediction. After the 1995 Kobe disaster, the project decided to give up short-term prediction and this decision has been further fortified by the 2011 M9 Tohoku Mega-quake. On top of the National Project, there are other government projects, not formally but vaguely related to earthquake prediction, that consume many orders of magnitude more funds. They are also un-interested in short-term prediction. Financially, they are giants and the National Project is a dwarf. Thus, in Japan now, there is practically no support for short-term prediction research. Recently, however, substantial progress has been made in real short-term prediction by scientists of diverse disciplines. Some promising signs are also arising even from cooperation with private sectors. PMID:24213204

  5. Public pension reform in Japan.

    PubMed

    Liu, L

    2000-01-01

    The March 2000 pension reform in Japan focused on the long-term financial sustainability of the country's two-tiered public pension system. The government opted for incremental changes in order to maintain pension solvency through 2060. Those changes could reduce future pension funding liability by an estimated one-third. Further, the decision to avoid structural reforms of its pension programs was based on fiscal considerations. Expanding general revenue funding for the first tier from the current share of one-third to cover the entire cost would require increases in the consumption tax that proved to be politically unacceptable. Fully privatizing the second, earnings-related tier would entail transition costs too great to bear at a time of rising budget deficits. In addition, the Japanese public generally supported the sharing of financial burden for public pension programs through a combination of benefit cuts, a raise in the pensionable age, and contribution rate increases. If current cost projections prove to be inaccurate, future pension reviews (scheduled every 5 years) will give the government further opportunity to fine-tune program changes.

  6. Diagnostics in Japan's microgravity experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kadota, Toshikazu

    1995-01-01

    The achievement of the combustion research under microgravity depends substantially on the availability of diagnostic systems. The non-intrusive diagnostic systems are potentially applicable for providing the accurate, realistic and detailed information on momentum, mass and energy transport, complex gas phase chemistry, and phase change in the combustion field under microgravity. The non-intrusive nature of optical instruments is essential to the measurement of combustion process under microgravity which is very nervous to any perturbation. However, the implementation of the non-intrusive combustion diagnostic systems under microgravity is accompanied by several constraints. Usually, a very limited space is only available for constructing a highly sophisticated system which is so sensitive that it is easily affected by the magnitude of the gravitational force, vibration and heterogeneous field of temperature and density of the environments. The system should be properly adjusted prior to the experiment. Generally, it is quite difficult to tune the instruments during measurements. The programmed sequence of operation should also be provided. Extensive effort has been toward the development of non-intrusive diagnostic systems available for the combustion experiments under microgravity. This paper aims to describe the current art and the future strategy on the non-intrusive diagnostic systems potentially applicable to the combustion experiments under microgravity in Japan.

  7. The Arabidopsis Mediator CDK8 module genes CCT (MED12) and GCT (MED13) are global regulators of developmental phase transitions

    PubMed Central

    Gillmor, C. Stewart; Silva-Ortega, Claudia O.; Willmann, Matthew R.; Buendía-Monreal, Manuel; Poethig, R. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Temporal coordination of developmental programs is necessary for normal ontogeny, but the mechanism by which this is accomplished is still poorly understood. We have previously shown that two components of the Mediator CDK8 module encoded by CENTER CITY (CCT; Arabidopsis MED12) and GRAND CENTRAL (GCT; Arabidopsis MED13) are required for timing of pattern formation during embryogenesis. A morphological, molecular and genomic analysis of the post-embryonic phenotype of gct and cct mutants demonstrated that these genes also promote at least three subsequent developmental transitions: germination, vegetative phase change, and flowering. Genetic and molecular analyses indicate that GCT and CCT operate in parallel to gibberellic acid, a phytohormone known to regulate these same three transitions. We demonstrate that the delay in vegetative phase change in gct and cct is largely due to overexpression of miR156, and that the delay in flowering is due in part to upregulation of FLC. Thus, GCT and CCT coordinate vegetative and floral transitions by repressing the repressors miR156 and FLC. Our results suggest that MED12 and MED13 act as global regulators of developmental timing by fine-tuning the expression of temporal regulatory genes. PMID:25377553

  8. MED GATA factors promote robust development of the C. elegans endoderm

    PubMed Central

    Maduro, Morris F.; Broitman-Maduro, Gina; Choi, Hailey; Carranza, Francisco; Wu, Allison Chia-Yi; Rifkin, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    The MED-1,2 GATA factors contribute to specification of E, the progenitor of the C. elegans endoderm, through the genes end-1 and end-3, and in parallel with the maternal factors SKN-1, POP-1 and PAL-1. END-1,3 activate elt-2 and elt-7 to initiate a program of intestinal development, which is maintained by positive autoregulation. Here, we advance the understanding of MED-1,2 in E specification. We find that expression of end-1 and end-3 is greatly reduced in med-1,2(−) embryos. We generated strains in which MED sites have been mutated in end-1 and end-3. Without MED input, gut specification relies primarily on POP-1 and PAL-1. 25% of embryos fail to make intestine, while those that do display abnormal numbers of gut cells due to a delayed and stochastic acquisition of intestine fate. Surviving adults exhibit phenotypes consistent with a primary defect in the intestine. Our results establish that MED-1,2 provide robustness to endoderm specification through end-1 and end-3, and reveal that gut differentiation may be more directly linked to specification than previously appreciated. The results argue against an “all-or-none” description of cell specification, and suggest that activation of tissue-specific master regulators, even when expression of these is maintained by positive autoregulation, does not guarantee proper function of differentiated cells. PMID:25959238

  9. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Entry, Descent And Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI): Hardware Performance and Data Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, Alan; Bose, Deepak; Karlgaard, Chris; Munk, Michelle; Kuhl, Chris; Schoenenberger, Mark; Antill, Chuck; Verhappen, Ron; Kutty, Prasad; White, Todd

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Entry, Descent and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI) hardware was a first-of-its-kind sensor system that gathered temperature and pressure readings on the MSL heatshield during Mars entry on August 6, 2012. MEDLI began as challenging instrumentation problem, and has been a model of collaboration across multiple NASA organizations. After the culmination of almost 6 years of effort, the sensors performed extremely well, collecting data from before atmospheric interface through parachute deploy. This paper will summarize the history of the MEDLI project and hardware development, including key lessons learned that can apply to future instrumentation efforts. MEDLI returned an unprecedented amount of high-quality engineering data from a Mars entry vehicle. We will present the performance of the 3 sensor types: pressure, temperature, and isotherm tracking, as well as the performance of the custom-built sensor support electronics. A key component throughout the MEDLI project has been the ground testing and analysis effort required to understand the returned flight data. Although data analysis is ongoing through 2013, this paper will reveal some of the early findings on the aerothermodynamic environment that MSL encountered at Mars, the response of the heatshield material to that heating environment, and the aerodynamic performance of the entry vehicle. The MEDLI data results promise to challenge our engineering assumptions and revolutionize the way we account for margins in entry vehicle design.

  10. MED23-associated refractory epilepsy successfully treated with the ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Lionel, Anath C; Monfared, Nasim; Scherer, Stephen W; Marshall, Christian R; Mercimek-Mahmutoglu, Saadet

    2016-09-01

    We report a new patient with refractory epilepsy associated with a novel pathogenic homozygous MED23 variant. This 7.5-year-old boy from consanguineous parents had infantile onset global developmental delay and refractory epilepsy. He was treated with the ketogenic diet at 2.5 years of age and became seizure free on the first day. He had microcephaly and truncal hypotonia. His brain MRI showed delayed myelination and thin corpus callosum. He was enrolled in a whole exome sequencing research study, which identified a novel, homozygous, likely pathogenic (c.1937A>G; p.Gln646Arg) variant in MED23. MED23 is a regulator of energy homeostasis and glucose production. Liver-specific Med23-knockout mice showed reduced liver gluconeogenesis and lower blood glucose levels compared to control mice. This is the first patient with documented refractory epilepsy caused by a novel homozygous pathogenic variant in MED23 expanding the phenotypic spectrum. Identification of the underlying genetic defect in MED23 sheds light on the possible mechanism of complete response to the ketogenic diet in this child. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27311965

  11. Software-Enabled Distributed Network Governance: The PopMedNet Experience

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Melanie; Erickson, Kyle; Wyner, Zachary; Malenfant, Jessica; Rosen, Rob; Brown, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The expanded availability of electronic health information has led to increased interest in distributed health data research networks. Distributed Research Network Model: The distributed research network model leaves data with and under the control of the data holder. Data holders, network coordinating centers, and researchers have distinct needs and challenges within this model. Software Enabled Governance: PopMedNet: The concerns of network stakeholders are addressed in the design and governance models of the PopMedNet software platform. PopMedNet features include distributed querying, customizable workflows, and auditing and search capabilities. Its flexible role-based access control system enables the enforcement of varying governance policies. Selected Case Studies: Four case studies describe how PopMedNet is used to enforce network governance models. Issues and Challenges: Trust is an essential component of a distributed research network and must be built before data partners may be willing to participate further. The complexity of the PopMedNet system must be managed as networks grow and new data, analytic methods, and querying approaches are developed. Conclusions: The PopMedNet software platform supports a variety of network structures, governance models, and research activities through customizable features designed to meet the needs of network stakeholders. PMID:27141522

  12. Progress in infant health in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hokama, Tomiko; Binns, Colin

    2012-07-01

    The infant mortality rate (IMR) and neonatal mortality rate (NMR) defined as the number of infant and newborn deaths per 1000 live births, respectively, are widely accepted as population indicators of the level of perinatal and postnatal health. Since the end of World War II, Japan has made substantial progress in reducing its IMR and NMR. This resulted from improving living standards and the provision of universal maternal and child health care (MCH) services. Okinawa, the island prefecture that is the furthest from mainland Japan, had the third highest IMR and the highest low-birth-weight rate (LBW) among all prefectures when its statistics were integrated into Japan in 1973. Even though the LBW rate in Okinawa has remained higher than the all-Japan average, Okinawa has shown a considerable improvement in IMR and NMR. The aim is to review the trends in IMR, NMR, and LBW in Japan and Okinawa and to discuss sociodemographic trends, economics, and the provision of health care services. The IMR and NMR in Okinawa decreased during that time from 14.8 to 2.4 and from 7.5 to 0.8, respectively. The LBW rate decreased until the mid-1980s, but since then it has increased to 11.5 (Okinawa) and 9.6 (Japan) in 2009. Okinawa's public health and primary health care model for infants has been very successful and may be applicable to child health in island nations of the Asia-Pacific region.

  13. Historical changes in diabetes therapy in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, K; Akanuma, Y

    1994-10-01

    The origins of many aspects of ancient Japanese culture lie in knowledge brought from China, and medicine was no exception. Subsequently, however, in the middle of the 16th century, Portuguese missionaries introduced Western medicine to Japan along with Christianity. They were followed by the Dutch in the 17th century, who introduced Western culture while carrying on commerce at their Dejima outpost in Nagasaki. This was called the Dutch school in Japan, and although there was thus contact with Western culture and the Japanese eagerly studied Western medicine, it was not until after the establishment of the Meiji Reform government in the middle of the 19th century that there was aggressive incorporation and acceptance of modern Western medicine in Japan. The University of Tokyo was the first university in Japan. Preserved in the library of the Third Department of Internal Medicine are old records of hospitalized cases in Japan, and those documents form the basis of this review of the history of the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Japan.

  14. Universal varicella vaccine immunization in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Kawamura, Yoshiki; Ohashi, Masahiro

    2016-04-01

    In 1974, Japanese scientists developed a live attenuated varicella vaccine based on the Oka strain. The efficacy of the vaccine for the prevention of varicella has been primarily demonstrated in studies conducted in the United States following the adoption of universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in 1996. Although the vaccine was developed by Japanese scientists, until recently, the vaccine has been administered on a voluntary basis in Japan resulting in a vaccine coverage rate of approximately 40%. Therefore, Japan initiated universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in November 2014. Given the transition from voluntary to universal immunization in Japan, it will also be important to monitor the epidemiology of varicella and herpes zoster. The efficacy and safety of co-administration of the varicella vaccine and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine have been demonstrated in many countries; however, there was no data from Japan. In order to adopt the practice of universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in Japan, data demonstrating the efficacy and safety of co-administration of varicella vaccine and measles and rubella (MR) vaccine were required. Additionally, we needed to elucidate the appropriate time interval between the first and second administrations of the vaccine. It is also important to differentiate between wild type and Oka vaccine type strains in herpes zoster patient with past history of varicella vaccine. Thus, there are many factors to consider regarding the adoption of universal immunization in Japan to control varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections.

  15. [History of pandemic influenza in Japan].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Keizo

    2010-09-01

    In Japan, influenza like epidemics were described many times since Heian era. However, Spanish flu as the modern medicine invaded Japan in 1918, thus almost infected 390,000 patients died with associated pneumonia. After the discovery of influenza virus in 1933, Japan experienced pandemic influenza--Asian flu(H2N2) in 1957. After about 10 years, Hong Kong flu (H3N2) came to Japan at 1968. However, we had many reliable antibiotics but had not any antiviral drug at the early time. After year 2000, we fortunately obtained reliable three antiviral drugs such as amantadine, oseltamivir and zanamivir. Moreover, very useful rapid test kits for influenza A and B viruses were developed and used in Japan. 2009 H1N1 influenza epidemic occured in Japan after the great epidemic in Mexico and North America but elderly patient was few. With together, host conditions regarding with high risk are changing. Lessons from past several pandemic influenza are those that many issues for changing high risk conditions, viral genetic changes, developing antiviral agents, developing new useful vaccins and determinating bacterial secondary pathogens are important.

  16. Monitoring Obesity Trends in Health Japan 21.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of non-communicable diseases is more important than ever especially for the elderly to live a healthy life in the super-aged society of Japan. In 2000, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan started Health Japan 21 as goal-oriented health promotion plan like Healthy People in the US and the Health of the Nation in the UK. Its second term started in 2013 with the aim of prolonging healthy life expectancy and reducing health inequalities. Improvement in both individuals' lifestyle and their social environment will help achieve the goal of the 2nd Health Japan 21. The National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS) is conducted every year to monitor the health and nutritional situation of the Japanese using a representative population. The NHNS data are useful for target setting and evaluation of the 2nd Health Japan 21, and the NHNS has shown an increasing trend of overweight (BMI≥25) only for male adults in the most recent 10 y. In contrast, the dietary intake survey of the NHNS shows a decreasing trend of total energy intake both in male and female adults aged 69 y old or younger, and the trend for physical activity is not well known. Thus, we need further investigations on the causes of the obesity trend in Japan.

  17. Ocean Science Communication in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, H.

    2011-12-01

    Ocean literacy and education panel (OLEP) of the Oceanographic Society of Japan (JOS) has been established in 2003 for sharing the ocean literacy with the public and promoting the ocean science education in school and college. Its activities include publishing reference books and electronic teaching materials for primary school teachers and students, conducting surveys on the people's consciousness on the ocean, and supporting the events such as 'Ocean Science Cafe' for the public, oceanographer's talks in class room and sea side, and seminars on board of research vessel for high-school teachers and students. Its activities are announced to the public in its website and through Twitter. The records are available to the public in the websites. Some JOS members including me are telling the public the basic knowledge of ocean science, additional explanations to scientific topics in mass media, their thoughts on the ocean, the science, and STEM education, and their daily life such as travels, meetings and cruises through their own private websites, blogs, and accounts in Twitter and Facebook. In this presentation, as a coordinator of the 'Ocean Science Cafe', I will indicate how well it has worked as a good method for promoting mutual communication between non-professional citizens and oceanographers, and changed a scientist to a better citizen. Also, as an ocean science blogger, I will mention a good effect of the mutual communication with the public from my experience. It is concluded that the science communication by new media should not be one-way but really two-way to understand well what people wish to know and have difficulties to understand, and where they stop learning.

  18. History Teaching--Japan and the Russian Federation (Tokyo, Japan, October 25-27, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    The Tokyo (Japan) October 2000 meeting of experts on History Teaching in Japan and the Russian Federation was organized by the International Society for Educational Information (ISEI) and the Council of Europe. This was the second meeting, following the initial 1999 St. Petersburg (Russia) meeting conducted to increase mutual understanding in the…

  19. Rapid Estimation of TPH Reduction in Oil-Contaminated Soils Using the MED Method

    SciTech Connect

    Edenborn, H.M.; Zenone, V.A.

    2007-09-01

    Oil-contaminated soil and sludge generated during federal well plugging activities in northwestern Pennsylvania are currently remediated on small landfarm sites in lieu of more expensive landfill disposal. Bioremediation success at these sites in the past has been gauged by the decrease in total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations to less than 10,000 mg/kg measured using EPA Method 418.1. We tested the “molarity of ethanol droplet” (MED) water repellency test as a rapid indicator of TPH concentration in soil at one landfarm near Bradford, PA. MED was estimated by determining the minimum ethanol concentration (0 – 6 M) required to penetrate air-dried and sieved soil samples within 10 sec. TPH in soil was analyzed by rapid fluorometric analysis of methanol soil extracts, which correlated well with EPA Method 1664. Uncontaminated landfarm site soil amended with increasing concentrations of waste oil sludge showed a high correlation between MED and TPH. MED values exceeded the upper limit of 6 M as TPH estimates exceed ca. 25,000 mg/kg. MED and TPH at the land farm were sampled monthly during summer months over two years in a grid pattern that allowed spatial comparisons of site remediation effectiveness. MED and TPH decreased at a constant rate over time and remained highly correlated. Inexpensive alternatives to reagent-grade ethanol gave comparable results. The simple MED approach served as an inexpensive alternative to the routine laboratory analysis of TPH during the monitoring of oily waste bioremediation at this landfarm site.

  20. Cenozoic rift tectonics of the Japan Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, K.

    1988-08-01

    The Japan Sea is one of the back-arc basins in trench-arc systems bordering the western Pacific. Recent paleomagnetic works suggest the Japan Sea opened during early to middle Miocene. Radiometric and microfossil ages of the Cenozoic onland sequences in the Japanese Islands elucidate the rift tectonics of the Japan Sea. The rifting history is summarized as follows: nonmarine volcanic formations of prerift stage before 50 Ma, rift-onset unconformity at 40 Ma, nonmarine volcanic formations of synrift stage 20-33 Ma, breakup unconformity 19 Ma showing the opening of the Japan Sea, marine volcanic and sedimentary formations of synrift stage 14.5-18 Ma, beginning of regional subsidence 14.5 Ma corresponding to the end of the Japan Sea opening, marine sedimentary formations of postdrift stage after 14.5 Ma. Rifting is not limited to the synrift stage but is continued to the syndrift stage. Rifting led to a horst-and-graben structure. Thus, the Cenozoic onland sequences in the Japanese Islands are suited for a study of rift tectonics because the sequences were subaerially exposed by the late Miocene-Holocene island-arc tectonics. Rift tectonics cannot be studied as easily in most Atlantic-type passive margins.

  1. Origins of molecular biology in Japan.

    PubMed

    Obayashi, M

    1986-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the origins of molecular biology in Japan. Japanese molecular biology does not have a long history since it started only after World War II. Especially, molecular genetics which uses "bacteriophage" had hardly been studied before the war and only a few scientists were interested in it immediately after the war. This is one of the origins of molecular biology in Japan. But there are other origins, one of which is the group formed by biologists, biochemists and physicists interested in nucleic acids. This group also started just after the war. Still another origin is the group of enzymologists. Enzymology was one of the main subjects of biochemistry from before the war. In Japan, biochemistry developed in conjunction with the medical and agricultural sciences from the pre-war era. These played an important role in introducing molecular biology from Europe and the United States after the war. A historical study of the development of molecular biology in Japan, comparing it with the history of molecular biology in Europe and the United States, should contribute to the elucidation of the features of the history of molecular biology in Japan.

  2. COSMO-SkyMed an existing opportunity for observing the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    F. Covello; Battazza, F.; Coletta, A.; Lopinto, E.; Fiorentino, C.; Pietranera, L.; Valentini, G.; Zoffoli, S.

    2010-04-01

    COnstellation of small Satellites for Mediterranean basin Observation (COSMO-SkyMed) is the largest Italian investment in Space Systems for Earth Observation, commissioned and funded by Italian Space Agency (ASI) and Italian Ministry of Defence (MoD). COSMO-SkyMed is a Dual-Use (Civilian and Defence) end-to-end Earth Observation System aimed at establishing a global service supplying provision of data, products and services compliant with well-established international standards and relevant to a wide range of applications, such as Risk Management, Scientific and Commercial Applications and Defence Applications. The system consists of a constellation of four LEO mid-sized satellites, each equipped with a multi-mode high-resolution SAR operating at X-band. Three out of four COSMO-SkyMed satellites have been successfully launched the 8th of June, the 9th of December 2007 and the 25th of October 2008 respectively, while the remaining satellite will be deployed within 2010. COSMO-SkyMed 1 and 2 completed their commissioning phase to test, verify and qualify the overall system and from the 1st of August 2008 both satellites are in the operational phase. The third satellite is still performing its commissioning and it is expected to enter in operation in the second half of 2009. The results of the commissioning phase of COSMO-SkyMed 1 and 2 are presented together with the Scientific Mission Exploitation strategy (i.e. Announcement of Opportunity, Background Mission).

  3. C-Med 100, a hot water extract of Uncaria tomentosa, prolongs lymphocyte survival in vivo.

    PubMed

    Akesson, Ch; Pero, R W; Ivars, F

    2003-01-01

    Water extracts of the bark of Uncaria tomentosa, a vine indigenous to South America, has been used for generations as an "immuno modulator". To understand the basis of this immuno modulatory effect we fed mice in their drinking water with C-Med 100, which is a commercially available water extract from Uncaria tomentosa. We found a dose-dependent increase in spleen cell numbers in the supplemented mice, but the proportions of B cells, T cells, NK cells, granulocytes, and memory lymphocytes were normal. However, there were no detectable changes of the lymphoid architecture of the spleen even after long-term treatment. Further, when C-Med 100 treatment was interrupted the cellularity returned to normal level within four weeks. The increased number of lymphocytes was most likely not due to increased production because C-Med 100 did not have any significant effect on precursor cells nor on the accumulation of recent thymic emigrants in the spleen. We conclude that accumulation is most likely due to prolonged cell survival, because adoptive transfer experiments demonstrated that C-Med 100 treatment significantly prolonged lymphocyte survival in peripheral lymphoid organs, without increasing their proliferation rate. Since the accumulation was reversible and without detectable pathological effects, these results suggest the use of C-Med 100 as a potential agent for clinically accelerating the recovery of patients from leukopenia.

  4. The MedCLIVAR program and the climate of the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lionello, P.; Gacic, M.; Gomis, G.; Garcia-Herrera, R.; Giorgi, F.; Planton, S.; Trigo, R.; Theocharis, A.; Tsimplis, M. N.; Ulbrich, U.; Xoplaki, E.

    2012-04-01

    MedCLIVAR has become an independent platform for scientific discussion, the exchange of information and the coordination of activities across scientific groups around the Mediterranean. The scientific objects of the programme include past climate variability, connections between the Mediterranean and global climate, the Mediterranean Sea circulation and sea level, feedbacks on the global climate system, and the regional responses to greenhouse gas, air pollution, and aerosols. A strength of the MedCLIVAR programme is the development of a multidisciplinary vision of the evolution of Mediterranean climate, which includes atmospheric, marine and terrestrial components at multiple time scales, covering the range from paleo-reconstructions to future climate scenarios. MedCLIVAR has promoted scientific dissemination with many publication and by producing two books, which review the climate-related knowledge of the Mediterranean basin, one published at the beginning of the project and the second just recently finalized. Over these years, MedCLIVAR (www.medclivar.eu) has held 6 workshops and 2 schools, assigned 31 young scientist exchange grants and 7 senior scientist short visits, sponsored or co-sponsored 11 scientific meetings and organized annual sessions during the European Geophysical Union general assembly. A systematic archive of observations and model data simulations on the Mediterranean Climate, in order to both share data across the scientific community and ensure the data availability for 10 years, is presently being organized at the WDCC (http://cera-www.dkrz.de/CERA/MedCLIVAR.html)

  5. MET network in PubMed: a text-mined network visualization and curation system

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hong-Jie; Su, Chu-Hsien; Lai, Po-Ting; Huang, Ming-Siang; Jonnagaddala, Jitendra; Rose Jue, Toni; Rao, Shruti; Chou, Hui-Jou; Milacic, Marija; Singh, Onkar; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Hsu, Wen-Lian

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is the dissemination of a cancer/tumor from one organ to another, and it is the most dangerous stage during cancer progression, causing more than 90% of cancer deaths. Improving the understanding of the complicated cellular mechanisms underlying metastasis requires investigations of the signaling pathways. To this end, we developed a METastasis (MET) network visualization and curation tool to assist metastasis researchers retrieve network information of interest while browsing through the large volume of studies in PubMed. MET can recognize relations among genes, cancers, tissues and organs of metastasis mentioned in the literature through text-mining techniques, and then produce a visualization of all mined relations in a metastasis network. To facilitate the curation process, MET is developed as a browser extension that allows curators to review and edit concepts and relations related to metastasis directly in PubMed. PubMed users can also view the metastatic networks integrated from the large collection of research papers directly through MET. For the BioCreative 2015 interactive track (IAT), a curation task was proposed to curate metastatic networks among PubMed abstracts. Six curators participated in the proposed task and a post-IAT task, curating 963 unique metastatic relations from 174 PubMed abstracts using MET. Database URL: http://btm.tmu.edu.tw/metastasisway PMID:27242035

  6. Chemical discrimination between dC and 5MedC via their hydroxylamine adducts

    PubMed Central

    Münzel, Martin; Lercher, Lukas; Müller, Markus; Carell, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The presence of the methylated nucleobase 5MedC in CpG islands is a key factor that determines gene silencing. False methylation patterns are responsible for deteriorated cellular development and are a hallmark of many cancers. Today genes can be sequenced for the content of 5MedC only with the help of the bisulfite reagent, which is based exclusively on chemical reactivity differences established by the additional methyl group. Despite intensive optimization of the bisulfite protocol, the method still has specificity problems. Most importantly ∼95% of the DNA analyte is degraded during the analysis procedure. We discovered that the reagent O-allylhydroxylamine is able to discriminate between dC and 5MedC. The reagent, in contrast to bisulfite, does not exploit reactivity differences but gives directly different reaction products. The reagent forms a stable mutagenic adduct with dC, which can exist in two states (E versus Z). In case of dC the allylhydroxylamine adduct switches into the E-isomeric form, which generates dC to dT transition mutations that can easily be detected by established methods. Significantly, the 5MedC-adduct adopts exclusively the Z-isomeric form, which causes the polymerase to stop. O-allylhydroxylamine does allow differentiation between dC and 5MedC with high accuracy, leading towards a novel and mild chemistry for methylation analysis. PMID:20813757

  7. PosMed: Ranking genes and bioresources based on Semantic Web Association Study.

    PubMed

    Makita, Yuko; Kobayashi, Norio; Yoshida, Yuko; Doi, Koji; Mochizuki, Yoshiki; Nishikata, Koro; Matsushima, Akihiro; Takahashi, Satoshi; Ishii, Manabu; Takatsuki, Terue; Bhatia, Rinki; Khadbaatar, Zolzaya; Watabe, Hajime; Masuya, Hiroshi; Toyoda, Tetsuro

    2013-07-01

    Positional MEDLINE (PosMed; http://biolod.org/PosMed) is a powerful Semantic Web Association Study engine that ranks biomedical resources such as genes, metabolites, diseases and drugs, based on the statistical significance of associations between user-specified phenotypic keywords and resources connected directly or inferentially through a Semantic Web of biological databases such as MEDLINE, OMIM, pathways, co-expressions, molecular interactions and ontology terms. Since 2005, PosMed has long been used for in silico positional cloning studies to infer candidate disease-responsible genes existing within chromosomal intervals. PosMed is redesigned as a workbench to discover possible functional interpretations for numerous genetic variants found from exome sequencing of human disease samples. We also show that the association search engine enhances the value of mouse bioresources because most knockout mouse resources have no phenotypic annotation, but can be associated inferentially to phenotypes via genes and biomedical documents. For this purpose, we established text-mining rules to the biomedical documents by careful human curation work, and created a huge amount of correct linking between genes and documents. PosMed associates any phenotypic keyword to mouse resources with 20 public databases and four original data sets as of May 2013.

  8. MET network in PubMed: a text-mined network visualization and curation system.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hong-Jie; Su, Chu-Hsien; Lai, Po-Ting; Huang, Ming-Siang; Jonnagaddala, Jitendra; Rose Jue, Toni; Rao, Shruti; Chou, Hui-Jou; Milacic, Marija; Singh, Onkar; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Hsu, Wen-Lian

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is the dissemination of a cancer/tumor from one organ to another, and it is the most dangerous stage during cancer progression, causing more than 90% of cancer deaths. Improving the understanding of the complicated cellular mechanisms underlying metastasis requires investigations of the signaling pathways. To this end, we developed a METastasis (MET) network visualization and curation tool to assist metastasis researchers retrieve network information of interest while browsing through the large volume of studies in PubMed. MET can recognize relations among genes, cancers, tissues and organs of metastasis mentioned in the literature through text-mining techniques, and then produce a visualization of all mined relations in a metastasis network. To facilitate the curation process, MET is developed as a browser extension that allows curators to review and edit concepts and relations related to metastasis directly in PubMed. PubMed users can also view the metastatic networks integrated from the large collection of research papers directly through MET. For the BioCreative 2015 interactive track (IAT), a curation task was proposed to curate metastatic networks among PubMed abstracts. Six curators participated in the proposed task and a post-IAT task, curating 963 unique metastatic relations from 174 PubMed abstracts using MET.Database URL: http://btm.tmu.edu.tw/metastasisway. PMID:27242035

  9. MED13-dependent signaling from the heart confers leanness by enhancing metabolism in adipose tissue and liver

    PubMed Central

    Baskin, Kedryn K; Grueter, Chad E; Kusminski, Christine M; Holland, William L; Bookout, Angie L; Satapati, Santosh; Kong, Y Megan; Burgess, Shawn C; Malloy, Craig R; Scherer, Philipp E; Newgard, Christopher B; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N

    2014-01-01

    The heart requires a continuous supply of energy but has little capacity for energy storage and thus relies on exogenous metabolic sources. We previously showed that cardiac MED13 modulates systemic energy homeostasis in mice. Here, we sought to define the extra-cardiac tissue(s) that respond to cardiac MED13 signaling. We show that cardiac overexpression of MED13 in transgenic (MED13cTg) mice confers a lean phenotype that is associated with increased lipid uptake, beta-oxidation and mitochondrial content in white adipose tissue (WAT) and liver. Cardiac expression of MED13 decreases metabolic gene expression in the heart but enhances them in WAT. Although exhibiting increased energy expenditure in the fed state, MED13cTg mice metabolically adapt to fasting. Furthermore, MED13cTg hearts oxidize fuel that is readily available, rendering them more efficient in the fed state. Parabiosis experiments in which circulations of wild-type and MED13cTg mice are joined, reveal that circulating factor(s) in MED13cTg mice promote enhanced metabolism and leanness. These findings demonstrate that MED13 acts within the heart to promote systemic energy expenditure in extra-cardiac energy depots and point to an unexplored metabolic communication system between the heart and other tissues. See also: M Nakamura & J Sadoshima (December 2014) PMID:25422356

  10. Current trends in rehabilitation engineering in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohnabe, Hisaichi

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, the elderly generation comprised 20% of the Japanese population. This percentage will grow to approximately 30% in 2030, meaning that nearly one in three people in Japan will be 65 years of age or older. Japan is the first nation in the world to face this situation. This article uses the context of Japanese society to give an overview of the elderly and people with disabilities; the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health model; rehabilitation engineering-related policy; and education. In addition, we examine how governmental programs and Japanese law regarding technical aids may evolve by 2030. Partner robots, intelligent powered wheelchairs, nursing robots, and other technologies are introduced as examples of rehabilitation engineering and assistive technology. We also discuss the volunteer activities of the Rehabilitation Engineering Society of Japan (RESJA) in response to the Asian tsunami disaster and the achievements of a group of students from a Japanese senior high school of industry.

  11. Insights into software development in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvall, Lorraine M.

    1992-01-01

    The interdependence of the U.S.-Japanese economies makes it imperative that we in the United States understand how business and technology developments take place in Japan. We can gain insight into these developments in software engineering by studying the context in which Japanese software is developed, the practices that are used, the problems encountered, the setting surrounding these problems, and the resolution of these problems. Context includes the technological and sociological characteristics of the software development environment, the software processes applied, personnel involved in the development process, and the corporate and social culture surrounding the development. Presented in this paper is a summary of results of a study that addresses these issues. Data for this study was collected during a three month visit to Japan where the author interviewed 20 software managers representing nine companies involved in developing software in Japan. These data are compared to similar data from the United States in which 12 managers from five companies were interviewed.

  12. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Japan.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Takateru

    2002-03-01

    In Japan, the term chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has only recently come to be used as it is in Western countries, especially with respect to its classification as a tobacco-related disease. The disease, COPD, did not appear in Japanese government statistics until 1995. The main reason for the nearly 20-year lag behind the West in recognizing this disease was the small number of COPD cases caused by smoking. Cigarette consumption in Japan increased with the increase in personal income that accompanied rapid ecomomic growth from 1955 to 1974. Since approximately 1980, the number of deaths caused by COPD (emphysema) started increasing. Although cigarette consumption stopped increasing after 1995, COPD (emphysema) mortality is still increasing as a repercussion of the earlier increases of cigarette consumption. However, the number of COPD patients and the scale of medical expenditure for COPD in Japan is somewhat smaller than in Western countries.

  13. Patients' rights in Japan: progress and resistance.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, I

    1994-12-01

    The discussion of patients' rights in Japan began in 1968 when a surgeon was accused of violating a potential organ donor's right to life by arbitrarily employing brain-based criteria in the determination of his death. A proliferation of documents that articulate and endorse patients' rights occurred in the 1980s and early 1990s. The doctrine of informed consent, which has been a central aspect of the movement toward patients' rights, is increasingly recognized in Japan, although importance rarely has been attached to the element of the patient's "appreciation" of the information disclosed by the physician, much less to the "voluntariness" of the patient's decision. Nevertheless, recent court decisions indicate progress both in the acceptance and the understanding of the doctrine in Japan. PMID:10138752

  14. Patients' rights in Japan: progress and resistance.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, I

    1994-12-01

    The discussion of patients' rights in Japan began in 1968 when a surgeon was accused of violating a potential organ donor's right to life by arbitrarily employing brain-based criteria in the determination of his death. A proliferation of documents that articulate and endorse patients' rights occurred in the 1980s and early 1990s. The doctrine of informed consent, which has been a central aspect of the movement toward patients' rights, is increasingly recognized in Japan, although importance rarely has been attached to the element of the patient's "appreciation" of the information disclosed by the physician, much less to the "voluntariness" of the patient's decision. Nevertheless, recent court decisions indicate progress both in the acceptance and the understanding of the doctrine in Japan.

  15. Quinic acid is a biologically active component of the Uncaria tomentosa extract C-Med 100.

    PubMed

    Akesson, Christina; Lindgren, Hanna; Pero, Ronald W; Leanderson, Tomas; Ivars, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    We have previously reported that the C-Med 100 extract of the plant Uncaria tomentosa induces prolonged lymphocyte half life and hence increased spleen cell number in mice receiving the extract in their drinking water. Further, the extract induces cell proliferation arrest and inhibits activation of the transcriptional regulator nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) in vitro. We now report that mice exposed to quinic acid (QA), a component of this extract, had significantly increased number of spleen cells, thus recapitulating the in vivo biological effect of C-Med 100 exposure. Commercially supplied QA (H(+) form) did not, however, inhibit cell proliferation in vitro, while the ammonia-treated QA (QAA) was a potent inhibitor. Both QA and QAA inhibited NF-kappaB activity in exposed cells at similar concentrations. Thus, our present data identify QA as a candidate component for both in vivo and in vitro biological effects of the C-Med 100 extract.

  16. Lessons learned from building the iMED intelligent medical search engine.

    PubMed

    Luo, Gang

    2009-01-01

    Searching for medical information on the Web has become highly popular, but it remains a challenging task because searchers are often uncertain about their exact medical situations and unfamiliar with medical terminology. To address this challenge, we have built an intelligent medical Web search engine called iMed. iMed introduces and extends expert system technology into the search engine domain. It uses medical knowledge and an interactive questionnaire to help searchers form queries. This paper reports the lessons we learned from building the iMed system. We believe that many of these lessons can be applied to other medical search engines as well. We systematically discuss important issues in the new field consumer-centric intelligent medical search, including input interface, output interface, search system, medical knowledge base, help system, and testing.

  17. TeleMed: Wide-area, secure, collaborative object computing with Java and CORBA for healthcare

    SciTech Connect

    Forslund, D.W.; George, J.E.; Gavrilov, E.M.

    1998-12-31

    Distributed computing is becoming commonplace in a variety of industries with healthcare being a particularly important one for society. The authors describe the development and deployment of TeleMed in a few healthcare domains. TeleMed is a 100% Java distributed application build on CORBA and OMG standards enabling the collaboration on the treatment of chronically ill patients in a secure manner over the Internet. These standards enable other systems to work interoperably with TeleMed and provide transparent access to high performance distributed computing to the healthcare domain. The goal of wide scale integration of electronic medical records is a grand-challenge scale problem of global proportions with far-reaching social benefits.

  18. Recycling scheme for scrapped automobiles in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Masao; Nakajima, Akira; Taya, Sadao

    1995-12-31

    Over 5 million cars are scrapped yearly in Japan. After dismantling scrapped automobiles, they are put into a shredder for differential recovery of ferrous and nonferrous metals. The residue, which is called shredder dust, runs over 1.2 million tons per year. This paper reports a entire sequence of scrapping cars in Japan with the following sections: (1) production and scrapped car management, (2) material composition, (3) dismantling, (4) shredder plant, (5) differential recovery of metals including specific gravity and newly developed color separation.

  19. Tobacco control: recent movements in Japan.

    PubMed

    Asukai, Yumiko; Torii, Yoichi; Chikamoto, Yosuke

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco control in Japan has not kept pace with the rest of the global community in the past several decades. Although recent movements in Japan suggest that some changes will occur, most of the initiatives are still circumspect at best. The motivations driving most of these changes come from concern for morals about obeying the law and propriety of consideration for nonsmokers in public places, rather than for health. Moreover, the complicated relationship between the government and the tobacco industry, as well as between the two ministries that oversee the industry, may act as obstacles to any real comprehensive tobacco control. PMID:15675541

  20. Tobacco control: recent movements in Japan.

    PubMed

    Asukai, Yumiko; Torii, Yoichi; Chikamoto, Yosuke

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco control in Japan has not kept pace with the rest of the global community in the past several decades. Although recent movements in Japan suggest that some changes will occur, most of the initiatives are still circumspect at best. The motivations driving most of these changes come from concern for morals about obeying the law and propriety of consideration for nonsmokers in public places, rather than for health. Moreover, the complicated relationship between the government and the tobacco industry, as well as between the two ministries that oversee the industry, may act as obstacles to any real comprehensive tobacco control.

  1. Introductory Overview of Stone Heritages in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hirokazu; Oikawa, Teruki; Fujita, Masayo; Yokoyama, Shunji

    2013-04-01

    As one contribution to 'Global Heritage Stone Resources' (GHSR), some stone heritages in Japan, which are nominated in the interim list, are briefly introduced. The geology of Japanese Islands where are the one of the most active areas in the history of the Earth, is very complicated. Therefore Japanese Islands consist of various kinds of minerals and rocks. Some of them were used to make stone implements and accessories. Japanese people also used to the best possible advantage to built tombstone, gate, pavement ,and the basement and wall of the large building such as temples, shrines, castles and modern buildings. 1. Stone Heritages of Pre-historical age: In the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene, ancient Japanese used obsidian cooled rapidly from rhyolitic magma.to make small implements and accessories. For example, Shirataki, Hokkaido (north island) is the largest place producing obsidian in Japan where Paleolithic people made arrowhead, knives and so on. Another example, Jade yielded in Itoigawa City, Japan Sea coast of central Japan, was made in the metamorphic rock about five hundred million years ago. Itoigawa area is only one place where jade is abundantly produced in Japan. Ancient people had been already collected and processed to ornaments although it is very hard and traded in wide area more than several thousand years ago. 2. Stone Heritages of Historical age: 2.1 Archaeological remains: In the Kofun (old mound) period (250 to 538 AD), stone burial chambers were used for old mounds to preserve against the putrefaction and to protect from the theft. For example, Ishibutai Kofun ("ishi" means "stone" and "butai" means "stage") in Nara old capital city, southwest Japan, is the largest known megalithic structure made of granite in Japan. 2.2 Stone walls of some typical castles Stones used is because of not only the rich reserves of rocks but also restriction of transportation. Osaka (second biggest city) castle, are composed of Cretaceous granite

  2. Development of eMed: a comprehensive, modular curriculum-management system.

    PubMed

    Watson, Eilean G S; Moloney, Peter J; Toohey, Susan M; Hughes, Christopher S; Mobbs, Suzanne L; Leeper, James B; McNeil, H Patrick

    2007-04-01

    In 2001 the University of New South Wales Faculty of Medicine embarked on designing a curriculum-management system to support the development and delivery of its new, fully integrated, outcome-based, six-year undergraduate medicine program. The Web-enabled curriculum-management system it developed is known as eMed, and it comprises a suite of integrated tools used for managing graduate outcomes, content, activities, and assessment in the new program. The six main tools are a curriculum map, timetable, student portfolio, peer feedback tool, assessment tracking, and results tools. The eMed functions were determined by organizational and curricular needs, and a business management perspective guided its development. The eMed project was developed by a multidisciplinary team, and its successful development was achieved mostly by methodically identifying the scope of each tool and the business processes it supports. Evaluation results indicated a high level of user acceptance and approval. The eMed system is a simple yet effective educational technology system that allows users to evaluate and improve the curriculum in real time. As a second-generation curriculum-management system, eMed is much more than an educational administration system; it is a knowledge network system used by staff and students to transform data and information into knowledge and action. The integration of learning and assessment activities data in the one system gives a depth of curriculum information that is unusual and that allows for data-based decision making. Technologically, eMed helps to keep the medicine program up to date. Organizationally, it strengthens the school's data-driven decision-making process and knowledge network culture.

  3. Genomics of the Proteorhodopsin-Containing Marine Flavobacterium Dokdonia sp. Strain MED134▿†

    PubMed Central

    González, José M.; Pinhassi, Jarone; Fernández-Gómez, Beatriz; Coll-Lladó, Montserrat; González-Velázquez, Mónica; Puigbò, Pere; Jaenicke, Sebastian; Gómez-Consarnau, Laura; Fernàndez-Guerra, Antoni; Goesmann, Alexander; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Proteorhodopsin phototrophy is expected to have considerable impact on the ecology and biogeochemical roles of marine bacteria. However, the genetic features contributing to the success of proteorhodopsin-containing bacteria remain largely unknown. We investigated the genome of Dokdonia sp. strain MED134 (Bacteroidetes) for features potentially explaining its ability to grow better in light than darkness. MED134 has a relatively high number of peptidases, suggesting that amino acids are the main carbon and nitrogen sources. In addition, MED134 shares with other environmental genomes a reduction in gene copies at the expense of important ones, like membrane transporters, which might be compensated by the presence of the proteorhodopsin gene. The genome analyses suggest Dokdonia sp. MED134 is able to respond to light at least partly due to the presence of a strong flavobacterial consensus promoter sequence for the proteorhodopsin gene. Moreover, Dokdonia sp. MED134 has a complete set of anaplerotic enzymes likely to play a role in the adaptation of the carbon anabolism to the different sources of energy it can use, including light or various organic matter compounds. In addition to promoting growth, proteorhodopsin phototrophy could provide energy for the degradation of complex or recalcitrant organic matter, survival during periods of low nutrients, or uptake of amino acids and peptides at low concentrations. Our analysis suggests that the ability to harness light potentially makes MED134 less dependent on the amount and quality of organic matter or other nutrients. The genomic features reported here may well be among the keys to a successful photoheterotrophic lifestyle. PMID:22003006

  4. An objective structured clinical exam to measure intrinsic CanMEDS roles

    PubMed Central

    Kassam, Aliya; Cowan, Michèle; Donnon, Tyrone

    2016-01-01

    Background The CanMEDS roles provide a comprehensive framework to organize competency-based curricula; however, there is a challenge in finding feasible, valid, and reliable assessment methods to measure intrinsic roles such as Communicator and Collaborator. The objective structured clinical exam (OSCE) is more commonly used in postgraduate medical education for the assessment of clinical skills beyond medical expertise. Method We developed the CanMEDS In-Training Exam (CITE), a six-station OSCE designed to assess two different CanMEDS roles (one primary and one secondary) and general communication skills at each station. Correlation coefficients were computed for CanMEDS roles within and between stations, and for general communication, global rating, and total scores. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to investigate differences between year of residency, sex, and the type of residency program. Results In total, 63 residents participated in the CITE; 40 residents (63%) were from internal medicine programs, whereas the remaining 23 (37%) were pursuing other specialties. There was satisfactory internal consistency for all stations, and the total scores of the stations were strongly correlated with the global scores r=0.86, p<0.05. Noninternal medicine residents scored higher in terms of the Professional competency overall, whereas internal medicine residents scored significantly higher in the Collaborator competency overall. Discussion The OSCE checklists developed for the assessment of intrinsic CanMEDS roles were functional, but the specific items within stations required more uniformity to be used between stations. More generic types of checklists may also improve correlations across stations. Conclusion An OSCE measuring intrinsic competence is feasible; however, further development of our cases and checklists is needed. We provide a model of how to develop an OSCE to measure intrinsic CanMEDS roles that educators may adopt as residency programs move

  5. MedEdPORTAL: a report on oral health resources for health professions educators.

    PubMed

    Chickmagalur, Nithya S; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Sandmeyer, Sue; Valachovic, Richard W; Candler, Christopher S; Saleh, Michael; Cahill, Emily; Karimbux, Nadeem Y

    2013-09-01

    MedEdPORTAL is a unique web-based peer-reviewed publication venue for clinical health educators sponsored by the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC). The open exchange of educational resources promotes professional collaboration across health professions. In 2008, the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) collaborated with AAMC to allow dental educators to use the platform to publish dental curriculum resources. Oral health is integral to general health; hence, collaboration among health care professionals brings enormous value to patient-centered care. The aim of this study was to conduct a current survey of metrics and submission statistics of MedEdPORTAL resources. The data were collected using the MedEdPORTAL search engine and ADEA and AAMC staff. The data collected were categorized and reported in tables and charts. Results showed that at the time of this study there were over 2,000 medical and dental resources available to anyone worldwide. Oral health resources constituted approximately 30 percent of the total resources, which included cross-indexing with information relevant to both medical and dental audiences. There were several types of dental resources available; the most common were the ones focusing on critical thinking. The usage of MedEdPORTAL has been growing, with participation from over 190 countries and 10,000 educational institutions around the world. The findings of this report suggest that MedEdPORTAL is succeeding in its aim to foster global collaborative education, professional education, and educational scholarship. As such, MedEdPORTAL is providing a new forum for collaboration and opens venues for promising future work in professional education.

  6. Hemolytic performance of a MagLev disposable rotary blood pump (MedTech Dispo): effects of MagLev gap clearance and surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Hideo; Asama, Junichi; Hijikata, Wataru; Hara, Chikara; Shinshi, Tadahiko; Yasuda, Toshitaka; Ohuchi, Katsuhiro; Shimokohbe, Akira; Takatani, Setsuo

    2006-12-01

    Mechanical shaft seal bearing incorporated in the centrifugal blood pumps contributes to hemolysis and thrombus formation. In addition, the problem of durability and corrosion of mechanical shaft seal bearing has been recently reported from the safety point of view. To amend the shortcomings of the blood-immersed mechanical bearings, a magnetic levitated centrifugal rotary blood pump (MedTech Dispo Model 1; Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan) has been developed for extracorporeal disposable application. In this study, the hemolytic performance of the MedTech Dispo Model 1 centrifugal blood pump system was evaluated, with special focus on the narrow blood path clearance at the magnetic bearing between rotor and stator, and on the pump housing surface roughness. A pump flow of 5 L/min against the head pressure of 100 mm Hg for 4 h was included in the hemolytic test conditions. Anticoagulated fresh porcine blood was used as a working fluid. The clearance of blood path at the magnetic bearing was in the range of 100-250 micro m. Pump housing surface roughness was controlled to be around Ra = 0.1-1.5 micro m. The lowest hemolytic results were obtained at the clearance of 250 micro m and with the polished surface (Ra = 0.1 micro m) yielding the normalized index of hemolysis (NIH) of less than 0.001 g/100 L, which was 1/5 of the Biopump BP-80 (Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA, and 1/4 of the BPX-80. In spite of rough surface and narrow blood path, NIH levels were less than clinically acceptable level of 0.005 g/100 L. The noncontact, levitated impeller system is useful to improve pump performance in blood environment.

  7. CDAPubMed: a browser extension to retrieve EHR-based biomedical literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last few decades, the ever-increasing output of scientific publications has led to new challenges to keep up to date with the literature. In the biomedical area, this growth has introduced new requirements for professionals, e.g., physicians, who have to locate the exact papers that they need for their clinical and research work amongst a huge number of publications. Against this backdrop, novel information retrieval methods are even more necessary. While web search engines are widespread in many areas, facilitating access to all kinds of information, additional tools are required to automatically link information retrieved from these engines to specific biomedical applications. In the case of clinical environments, this also means considering aspects such as patient data security and confidentiality or structured contents, e.g., electronic health records (EHRs). In this scenario, we have developed a new tool to facilitate query building to retrieve scientific literature related to EHRs. Results We have developed CDAPubMed, an open-source web browser extension to integrate EHR features in biomedical literature retrieval approaches. Clinical users can use CDAPubMed to: (i) load patient clinical documents, i.e., EHRs based on the Health Level 7-Clinical Document Architecture Standard (HL7-CDA), (ii) identify relevant terms for scientific literature search in these documents, i.e., Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), automatically driven by the CDAPubMed configuration, which advanced users can optimize to adapt to each specific situation, and (iii) generate and launch literature search queries to a major search engine, i.e., PubMed, to retrieve citations related to the EHR under examination. Conclusions CDAPubMed is a platform-independent tool designed to facilitate literature searching using keywords contained in specific EHRs. CDAPubMed is visually integrated, as an extension of a widespread web browser, within the standard PubMed interface. It has

  8. Can We CanMEDS? Intangible Learning Through Tangible Simulation Case Development

    PubMed Central

    Alani, Sabrina; Black, Holly; Harty, Chris; Murphy, Justin; Williams, Kerry-Lynn

    2016-01-01

    The Royal College CanMEDS framework has become a guide for medical school curricula. This framework aims to improve patient care by identifying and explaining seven key roles that physicians must fulfill in order to deliver high-quality healthcare to their patients. While medical schools incorporate these roles in their teaching processes, students can also apply them outside the classroom. Here, we describe a unique model developed at Memorial University of Newfoundland’s Tuckamore Simulation Research Collaborative (TSRC), where students develop simulation cases with the guidance of expert mentors and apply the Royal College CanMEDS framework to writing clinical simulations. PMID:27555983

  9. Development of Mass-casualty Life Support-CBRNE (MCLS-CBRNE) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Anan, Hideaki; Otomo, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Homma, Masato; Koido, Yuichi; Morino, Kazuma; Oshiro, Kenichi; Harikae, Kiyokazu; Akasaka, Osamu

    2016-10-01

    This report outlines the need for the development of an advanced course in mass-casualty life support (MCLS) and introduces the course content. The current problems with education on disasters involving chemical agents, biological agents, radiation/nuclear attacks, or explosives (CBRNE) in Japan are presented. This newly developed "MCLS-CBRNE" program was created by a Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare (Tokyo, Japan) research group based on these circumstances. Modifications were then made after a trial course. Training opportunities for relevant organizations to learn how to act at a CBRNE disaster site currently are lacking. The developed course covers initial responses at a disaster site. This one-day training course comprises lectures, three tabletop simulations, and practical exercises in pre-decontamination triage and post-decontamination triage. With regard to field exercises conducted to date, related organizations have experienced difficulties in understanding each other and adapting their approaches. Tabletop simulations provide an opportunity for participants to learn how organizations working on-site, including fire, police, and medical personnel, act with differing goals and guiding principles. This course appears useful as a means for relevant organizations to understand the importance of developing common guidelines. The MCLS-CBRNE training is proposed to support CBRNE disaster control measures during future events. Anan H , Otomo Y , Kondo H , Homma M , Koido Y , Morino K , Oshiro K , Harikae K , Akasaka O . Development of mass-casualty life support-CBRNE (MCLS-CBRNE) in Japan. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(5):547-550. PMID:27531062

  10. Mediator subunit MED1 is a T3-dependent and T3-independent coactivator on the thyrotropin β gene promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, Keiji; Oda, Kasumi; Mizuta, Shumpei; Ishino, Ruri; Urahama, Norinaga; Hasegawa, Natsumi; Roeder, Robert G.; Ito, Mitsuhiro

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •MED1 is a bona fide T3-dependent coactivator on TSHB promoter. •Mice with LxxLL-mutant MED1 have attenuated TSHβ mRNA and thyroid hormone levels. •MED1 activates TSHB promoter T3-dependently in cultured cells. •T3-dependent MED1 action is enhanced when SRC1/SRC2 or HDAC2 is downregulated. •MED1 is also a T3-independent GATA2/Pit1 coactivator on TSHB promoter. -- Abstract: The MED1 subunit of the Mediator transcriptional coregulator complex is a nuclear receptor-specific coactivator. A negative feedback mechanism of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, or thyrotropin) expression in the thyrotroph in the presence of triiodothyronine (T3) is employed by liganded thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) on the TSHβ gene promoter, where conventional histone-modifying coactivators act as corepressors. We now provide evidence that MED1 is a ligand-dependent positive cofactor on this promoter. TSHβ gene transcription was attenuated in MED1 mutant mice in which the nuclear receptor-binding ability of MED1 was specifically disrupted. MED1 stimulated GATA2- and Pit1-mediated TSHβ gene promoter activity in a ligand-independent manner in cultured cells. MED1 also stimulated transcription from the TSHβ gene promoter in a T3-dependent manner. The transcription was further enhanced when the T3-dependent corepressors SRC1, SRC2, and HDAC2 were downregulated. Hence, MED1 is a T3-dependent and -independent coactivator on the TSHβ gene promoter.

  11. A Search Engine to Access PubMed Monolingual Subsets: Proof of Concept and Evaluation in French

    PubMed Central

    Schuers, Matthieu; Soualmia, Lina Fatima; Grosjean, Julien; Kerdelhué, Gaétan; Kergourlay, Ivan; Dahamna, Badisse; Darmoni, Stéfan Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Background PubMed contains numerous articles in languages other than English. However, existing solutions to access these articles in the language in which they were written remain unconvincing. Objective The aim of this study was to propose a practical search engine, called Multilingual PubMed, which will permit access to a PubMed subset in 1 language and to evaluate the precision and coverage for the French version (Multilingual PubMed-French). Methods To create this tool, translations of MeSH were enriched (eg, adding synonyms and translations in French) and integrated into a terminology portal. PubMed subsets in several European languages were also added to our database using a dedicated parser. The response time for the generic semantic search engine was evaluated for simple queries. BabelMeSH, Multilingual PubMed-French, and 3 different PubMed strategies were compared by searching for literature in French. Precision and coverage were measured for 20 randomly selected queries. The results were evaluated as relevant to title and abstract, the evaluator being blind to search strategy. Results More than 650,000 PubMed citations in French were integrated into the Multilingual PubMed-French information system. The response times were all below the threshold defined for usability (2 seconds). Two search strategies (Multilingual PubMed-French and 1 PubMed strategy) showed high precision (0.93 and 0.97, respectively), but coverage was 4 times higher for Multilingual PubMed-French. Conclusions It is now possible to freely access biomedical literature using a practical search tool in French. This tool will be of particular interest for health professionals and other end users who do not read or query sufficiently in English. The information system is theoretically well suited to expand the approach to other European languages, such as German, Spanish, Norwegian, and Portuguese. PMID:25448528

  12. Med13p prevents mitochondrial fission and programmed cell death in yeast through nuclear retention of cyclin C.

    PubMed

    Khakhina, Svetlana; Cooper, Katrina F; Strich, Randy

    2014-09-15

    The yeast cyclin C-Cdk8 kinase forms a complex with Med13p to repress the transcription of genes involved in the stress response and meiosis. In response to oxidative stress, cyclin C displays nuclear to cytoplasmic relocalization that triggers mitochondrial fission and promotes programmed cell death. In this report, we demonstrate that Med13p mediates cyclin C nuclear retention in unstressed cells. Deleting MED13 allows aberrant cytoplasmic cyclin C localization and extensive mitochondrial fragmentation. Loss of Med13p function resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction and hypersensitivity to oxidative stress-induced programmed cell death that were dependent on cyclin C. The regulatory system controlling cyclin C-Med13p interaction is complex. First, a previous study found that cyclin C phosphorylation by the stress-activated MAP kinase Slt2p is required for nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation. This study found that cyclin C-Med13p association is impaired when the Slt2p target residue is substituted with a phosphomimetic amino acid. The second step involves Med13p destruction mediated by the 26S proteasome and cyclin C-Cdk8p kinase activity. In conclusion, Med13p maintains mitochondrial structure, function, and normal oxidative stress sensitivity through cyclin C nuclear retention. Releasing cyclin C from the nucleus involves both its phosphorylation by Slt2p coupled with Med13p destruction.

  13. ERK and AKT signaling drive MED1 overexpression in prostate cancer in association with elevated proliferation and tumorigenicity.

    PubMed

    Jin, Feng; Irshad, Shazia; Yu, Wei; Belakavadi, Madesh; Chekmareva, Marina; Ittmann, Michael M; Abate-Shen, Cory; Fondell, Joseph D

    2013-07-01

    MED1 is a key coactivator of the androgen receptor (AR) and other signal-activated transcription factors. Whereas MED1 is overexpressed in prostate cancer cell lines and is thought to coactivate distinct target genes involved in cell-cycle progression and castration-resistant growth, the underlying mechanisms by which MED1 becomes overexpressed and its oncogenic role in clinical prostate cancer have remained unclear. Here, we report that MED1 is overexpressed in the epithelium of clinically localized human prostate cancer patients, which correlated with elevated cellular proliferation. In a Nkx3.1:Pten mutant mouse model of prostate cancer that recapitulates the human disease, MED1 protein levels were markedly elevated in the epithelium of both invasive and castration-resistant adenocarcinoma prostate tissues. Mechanistic evidence showed that hyperactivated ERK and/or AKT signaling pathways promoted MED1 overexpression in prostate cancer cells. Notably, ectopic MED1 overexpression in prostate cancer xenografts significantly promoted tumor growth in nude mice. Furthermore, MED1 expression in prostate cancer cells promoted the expression of a number of novel genes involved in inflammation, cell proliferation, and survival. Together, these findings suggest that elevated MED1 is a critical molecular event associated with prostate oncogenesis.

  14. Japan's Teachers Earn Tenure on Day One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Ruth; Asanuma, Shigeru; Mori, Hisayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Teachers in Japan earn tenure on their first day of employment--not after two years of experience based on evaluations of teaching performance or student test scores. This is almost too good to be true. If tenure is so easy to attain, how do the Japanese make sure their teachers, especially novice teachers hired with little teaching experience,…

  15. Stepping into Elementary Schools in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Sherry L.; Labbo, Linda D.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the 1997 Keizai Koho Center Fellowship study tour of Japan in which a group of American, Australian, Canadian, and English educators visited two Japanese elementary schools. Compares the structure, classroom activities, and curriculum of each elementary school in detail and reflects upon the future trends in Japanese education. (CMK)

  16. Ideas for Teaching about Japan in Preschools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lokon, Elizabeth

    This curriculum unit consists of a series of lesson plans focused on Japan for preschool students ages 3 to 5 years. The unit has five themes: (1) geography; (2) language; (3) people and clothing; (4) customs; and (5) food. Each theme has from four to eight activity lessons which address different developmental domains, including language, social…

  17. The chemical disaster response system in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Tetsu; Ninomiya, Norifumi; Ohta, Muneo

    2003-01-01

    During the last decade, Japan has experienced the largest burden of chemical terrorism-related events in the world, including the: (1) 1994 Matsumoto sarin attack; (2) 1995 Tokyo subway sarin attack; (3) 1998 Wakayama arsenic incident; (4) 1998 Niigata sodium-azide incident; and (5) 1998 Nagano cyanide incident. Two other intentional cyanide releases in Tokyo subway and railway station restrooms were thwarted in 1995. These events spurred Japan to improve the following components of its chemical disaster-response system: (1) scene demarcation; (2) emergency medical care; (3) mass decontamination; (4) personal protective equipment; (5) chemical detection; (6) information-sharing and coordination; and (7) education and training. Further advances occurred as result of potential chemical terrorist threats to the 2000 Kyushu-Okinawa G8 Summit, which Japan hosted. Today, Japan has an integrated system of chemical disaster response that involves local fire and police services, local emergency medical services (EMS), local hospitals, Japanese Self-Defense Forces, and the Japanese Poison Information Center. PMID:15141857

  18. Child Development and Childcare in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anme, Tokie; Segal, Uma A.

    2010-01-01

    With increasing numbers of women joining the workforce, there is a need for quality childcare. This project, conducted in Japan and using a large number of participants, sought to standardize an evaluation scale to measure the development of children. The development of children under six years of age (N = 22,819) who are enrolled in childcare…

  19. Basic Skills in Asian Studies: Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, James

    This publication contains 20 learning activities for developing basic skills while teaching about Japan at the secondary level. The activities are self-contained and each consists of a short description, followed by a five-item true or false test and five open-ended questions for student practice. The learning activities are followed by a…

  20. Living in Japan. Intercultural Exchange Series. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkinson, Annie

    The guide provides a brief introduction to the culture and language of Japan, and is designed for visitors, students, and business travelers. It offers practical information on various aspects of daily living, including: money; banks; food; restaurants; hotels; tipping; postal and telecommunications services; transportation; shopping; health and…

  1. Cohabitation and Family Formation in Japan

    PubMed Central

    RAYMO, JAMES M.; IWASAWA, MIHO; BUMPASS, LARRY

    2009-01-01

    This article documents the prevalence, duration, and marital outcomes of cohabiting unions in Japan. It then examines the correlates of cohabitation experiences and also describes differences in the family-formation trajectories of women who have and have not cohabited. Cohabitation has increased rapidly among recent cohorts of women, and cohabiting unions in Japan tend to be relatively short in duration and are almost as likely to dissolve as to result in marriage. Life table analyses demonstrate that the cumulative probabilities of marriage and parenthood within marriage are roughly similar for women who did and those who did not cohabit. The most notable difference is in the pathways to family formation, with women who cohabited more likely both to marry subsequent to pregnancy and to delay childbearing within marriage. Taken as a whole, these results suggest that cohabiting unions in Japan are best viewed as an emerging prelude to marriage rather than as an alternative to marriage or singlehood. We conclude with speculation about the likelihood of further increases in cohabitation in Japan and the potential implications for marriage and fertility. PMID:20084829

  2. Free Resources for Teaching About Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    This publication describes free print and audiovisual materials for teaching about Japan in elementary and secondary schools. The booklet was written to enable teachers to take advantage of the many free materials that are currently available. The first section cites sources of free materials in the United States. Names and addresses of groups…

  3. [Historical research on cinchona cultivation in Japan].

    PubMed

    Nagumo, Seiji

    2011-01-01

    Cinchona is one of the most important medicinal plants as it contains quinine, a potent medicine for malaria. In this review, I reveal the history of cinchona introduction and cultivation in Japan. Cinchona was first introduced to Japan in 1876 from Java based on the proposal submitted by Takeaki Enomoto to the Meiji government. However, the cultivation attempt ended in failure. Later in 1922, Hoshi Pharmaceutical Co. succeeded for the first time in cultivating cinchona in Taiwan, which was then under Japanese colonial rule, and in manufacturing quinine from the cinchona tree in 1934. This was a historic feat in Japan, completing an entire process from cinchona cultivation to quinine manufacture all within the confines of the country. To commemorate this undertaking, the company dedicated a cinchona log harvested for the first time to the Imperial court. It was revealed that a log of unknown origin, which had been left untouched for years at Hoshi University, was the cinchona log from the time of commemoration. Yasusada Tashiro (1856-1928), who has made a great contribution to cinchona cultivation in Japan for over 50 years, led Hoshi Pharmaceutical Co. to success in cultivation.

  4. With a Little Help from Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, John

    2009-01-01

    Over the last year, the author's students have become very interested in popular culture from Korea and Japan. In particular, the class liked the films of Hayao Miyazaki, an Oscar-winning director who is considered one of the foremost anime filmmakers. In this article, the author came to an idea while he and the first-grade class were discussing…

  5. Kiyo Journals and Scholarly Communication in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamada, Hitoshi

    2007-01-01

    Kiyo are journals published by Japanese academic institutions. As a scholarly communication medium, they have inherent problems such as limited accessibility and lack of quality control. Despite these problems, they have evolved to comprise the majority of academic journals published in the humanities and social sciences in Japan because they fit…

  6. Teaching about Japan. ERIC Digest No. 38.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    This is an age of ascendency of the Pacific Rim area, especially the Asian sector. Recent decades have seen unprecedented economic growth throughout this area. By examining Japan, the region's pre-eminent nation and harbinger of future developments, the larger topic of the Pacific Rim can be explored. It is particularly important to teach about…

  7. The chemical disaster response system in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Tetsu; Ninomiya, Norifumi; Ohta, Muneo

    2003-01-01

    During the last decade, Japan has experienced the largest burden of chemical terrorism-related events in the world, including the: (1) 1994 Matsumoto sarin attack; (2) 1995 Tokyo subway sarin attack; (3) 1998 Wakayama arsenic incident; (4) 1998 Niigata sodium-azide incident; and (5) 1998 Nagano cyanide incident. Two other intentional cyanide releases in Tokyo subway and railway station restrooms were thwarted in 1995. These events spurred Japan to improve the following components of its chemical disaster-response system: (1) scene demarcation; (2) emergency medical care; (3) mass decontamination; (4) personal protective equipment; (5) chemical detection; (6) information-sharing and coordination; and (7) education and training. Further advances occurred as result of potential chemical terrorist threats to the 2000 Kyushu-Okinawa G8 Summit, which Japan hosted. Today, Japan has an integrated system of chemical disaster response that involves local fire and police services, local emergency medical services (EMS), local hospitals, Japanese Self-Defense Forces, and the Japanese Poison Information Center.

  8. Recent Developments in Japan's Lifelong Learning Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makino, Atsushi

    In the wake of economic and social change in Japan, several lifelong learning initiatives have been implemented. Structural changes such as internationalization, the coming of the information age, and the maturation of Japanese society caused the formerly homogeneous society to become more flexible, paving the way for lifelong learning. Additional…

  9. OUTLINE OF VOCATIONAL TRAINING IN JAPAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Perth.

    JAPAN HAD AN ESTIMATED POPULATION OF 97,000,000 IN 1964. BECAUSE LESS THAN 40 PERCENT OF THE LAND IS ARABLE AND MINERAL WEALTH IS SMALL, IMPORTING FOODSTUFFS AND RAW MATERIALS IS NECESSARY. LARGE-SCALE CAPITALIZED FIRMS AND SMALL HANDICRAFT WORKSHOPS PRODUCE CONSUMER GOODS. THE NATION'S ECONOMY IS BASED UPON FOREIGN TRADE. THE FIRST 9 YEARS OF…

  10. Current Educational Technology Research Trends in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Minoru; Ueno, Maomi

    2009-01-01

    To examine trends in educational practice research, this article conducted a survey and analysis of factors affecting the review of research papers in the field of the educational technology in Japan. Two factors, namely, practical orientation and theoretical orientation, were extracted from 63 survey responses, and scores from members of a…

  11. Teaching English in Japan: A Professional Journey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bay, Dale

    This collection of columns on teaching English as a Second Language in Japan appeared on the English education page of a Japanese English-language newspaper over a period of almost 4 years. Article topics include these: principles of second language learning; differences between language skills; standards of usage; avoiding stereotypes; school…

  12. Parental Educational Investments and Aspirations in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kristen Schultz

    2010-01-01

    Previous models of parental educational investments focus on the composition of the sibship (number, gender, ordering, and spacing) and on the social and institutional context in which investment decisions are made. Social-institutional models predict that parents in Japan are likely to underinvest in girls because of their transient status in the…

  13. Teacher Cognition in Corrective Feedback in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Reiko

    2011-01-01

    Based on qualitative data, the current study explored how the knowledge and beliefs of two EFL professionals shaped their corrective feedback practices. The two teachers teaching in Japan had in common two main agendas that they kept in mind as they provided or opted not to provide corrective feedback. They aimed to teach the language and to…

  14. Japan Sets the Pace in Educational Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiene, Drew

    1983-01-01

    The Ministry of Education and the Japanese Broadcasting Corporation (NHK) public television network are responsible for the instructional broadcasting that has penetrated Japan's classrooms at all levels. Implications for American television include stronger federal support for public television and the possible development of a national…

  15. Globalization and Educational Reform in Contemporary Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Jie; Zhang, Sheng Ping

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the notions of globalization as embodied in Japanese educational reforms. Modern institutional discourses of educational reform in Japan have shifted over time and all of these reform movements have been constructed by particular social and historical trajectories. Generally speaking, it has been taken for granted that the…

  16. English Textbooks in Japan and Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuasa, Katsura

    2010-01-01

    English education in Japan and Korea are similar in some respects. Although both countries are not completely but mostly monolingual societies, where citizens do not need English in their daily life, they have begun to realize the importance of English as a tool for international communication, and as a result their English education is becoming…

  17. Promotion of School Children's Invention in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakamoto, Takashi

    1989-01-01

    In the late 1980s an American newspaper reported that by one measure--the number of patents cited by successive inventors--Japan overtook the United States in the number of inventions produced during the 1970s. The reasons for this are not clear, but educational efforts promoting creative behaviors in school children are probably essential and…

  18. Child Welfare Services in Japan: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sudia, Cecelia

    1988-01-01

    Presents an overview of the child (and family) welfare services in Japan which include health and fitness facilities, a children's allowance program, maternal and child health services, day care, facilities and services for children with special needs, and single parent family allowances. (BB)

  19. Family Psychology and Family Therapy in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kameguchi, Kenji; Murphy-Shigematsu, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the development of family psychology and family therapy in Japan, tracing the origins of these movements, explaining how these fields were activated by the problem of school refusal, and describing an approach to family therapy that has been developed to work with families confronting this problem, as well as preventive programs of family…

  20. Core Discussion Networks in Japan and America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boase, Jeffrey; Ikeda, Ken'ichi

    2012-01-01

    Arguments regarding the high prevalence of interpersonal collectivism in Japan typically hinge on the assumption that Japanese communication networks are more enduring, frequently contacted, and dominated by kin and work ties than networks in Western countries. However, this assumption has not been examined using nationally representative data.…

  1. Transition from School to Work in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genda, Yuji; Kurosawa, Masako

    Using retrospective data of young people's work experience in Japan, a study found that initial labor market conditions (i.e., when workers first enter the labor market after permanently leaving school) have a significant lasting impact on the employment experiences of workers in their teens and twenties. An increase in the unemployment rate at…

  2. Career Counseling in Japan: Today and in the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatsuno, Ryoji

    2002-01-01

    The number of young people who postpone their career decision is increasing in Japan, as is the high unemployment rate. This article examines some problems in Japan's career counseling, compared with career counseling in the U.S., and discusses which course Japan's career counseling should take to cope with dramatic social changes. (GCP)

  3. What American Students Want to Know about Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullard, Betty; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Presents and discusses five sample topics out of 25 covered in the booklet entitled "What I Want to Know about Japan." The booklet was published by the Japan Information Center in New York in response to a survey of Japan-related knowledge of seventh grade students throughout the United States. Questions focus on houses, teenagers, marriage,…

  4. What is nuclear power in Japan?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Toshikazu

    2011-03-01

    The aggressive use of such non-fossil energy as the atomic energy with high power density and energy production efficiency is an indispensable choice aiming at the low-carbon society. There is a trial calculation that the carbon dioxide emission of 40000 ton can be suppressed by nuclear power generation by one ton of uranium. The basis of nuclear research after the Second World War in Japan was established by the researchers learnt in Argonne National Laboratory. In 2010, NPPs under operation are 54 units and the total electric generating power is 48.85GW. The amount of nuclear power generation per person of the people is 0.38kW in Japan, and it is near 0.34kW of the United States. However, the TMI accident and the Chernobyl disaster should have greatly stagnated the nuclear industry of Japan although it is not more serious than the United States. A lot of Japanese unconsciously associate a nuclear accident with the atomic bomb. According to the investigation which Science and Technology Agency carried out to the specialist in 1999, ``What will be the field where talent should be emphatically sent in the future?'' the rank of nuclear technology was the lowest in 32 fields. The influence of the nuclear industry stagnation was remarkable in the education. The subject related to the atomic energy of a university existed 19 in 1985 that was the previous year of the Chernobyl disaster decreased to 7 in 2003. In such a situation, we have to rely on the atomic energy because Japan depends for 96% of energy resources on import. The development of the fuel reprocessing and the fast breeder reactor has been continued in spite of a heavy failure. That is the only means left behind for Japan to be released from both fossil fuel and carbon dioxide.

  5. A Hybrid Tsunami Risk Model for Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haseemkunju, A. V.; Smith, D. F.; Khater, M.; Khemici, O.; Betov, B.; Scott, J.

    2014-12-01

    Around the margins of the Pacific Ocean, denser oceanic plates slipping under continental plates cause subduction earthquakes generating large tsunami waves. The subducting Pacific and Philippine Sea plates create damaging interplate earthquakes followed by huge tsunami waves. It was a rupture of the Japan Trench subduction zone (JTSZ) and the resultant M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake that caused the unprecedented tsunami along the Pacific coast of Japan on March 11, 2011. EQECAT's Japan Earthquake model is a fully probabilistic model which includes a seismo-tectonic model describing the geometries, magnitudes, and frequencies of all potential earthquake events; a ground motion model; and a tsunami model. Within the much larger set of all modeled earthquake events, fault rupture parameters for about 24000 stochastic and 25 historical tsunamigenic earthquake events are defined to simulate tsunami footprints using the numerical tsunami model COMCOT. A hybrid approach using COMCOT simulated tsunami waves is used to generate inundation footprints, including the impact of tides and flood defenses. Modeled tsunami waves of major historical events are validated against observed data. Modeled tsunami flood depths on 30 m grids together with tsunami vulnerability and financial models are then used to estimate insured loss in Japan from the 2011 tsunami. The primary direct report of damage from the 2011 tsunami is in terms of the number of buildings damaged by municipality in the tsunami affected area. Modeled loss in Japan from the 2011 tsunami is proportional to the number of buildings damaged. A 1000-year return period map of tsunami waves shows high hazard along the west coast of southern Honshu, on the Pacific coast of Shikoku, and on the east coast of Kyushu, primarily associated with major earthquake events on the Nankai Trough subduction zone (NTSZ). The highest tsunami hazard of more than 20m is seen on the Sanriku coast in northern Honshu, associated with the JTSZ.

  6. Finding translational science publications in MEDLINE/PubMed with translational science filters.

    PubMed

    Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang

    2011-12-01

    Translational Science Search (TSS; http://tscience.nlm.nih.gov) is a web application for finding MEDLINE/PubMed journal articles that are regarded by their authors as novel, promising, or may have potential clinical application. A set of "translational" filters and related terms was created by reviewing journal articles published in clinical and translational science (TS) journals. Through E-Utilities, a user's query and TS filters are submitted to PubMed, and then, the retrieved PubMed citations are matched with a database of MeSH terms (for disease conditions) and RxNorm (for interventions) to locate the search term, translational filters found, and associated interventions in the title and abstract. An algorithm ranks the interventions and conditions, and then highlights them in the results page for quick reading and evaluation. Using previously searched terms and standard formulas, the precision and recall of TSS were 0.99 and 0.47, compared to 0.58 and 1.0 for PubMed Entrez, respectively.

  7. MED12 exon 2 mutations in phyllodes tumors of the breast.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Satoi; Maeda, Ichiro; Fukuda, Takayo; Wu, Wenwen; Hayami, Ryosuke; Kojima, Yasuyuki; Tsugawa, Ko-Ichiro; Ohta, Tomohiko

    2015-07-01

    Exon 2 of MED12, a subunit of the transcriptional mediator complex, has been frequently mutated in uterine leiomyomas and breast fibroadenomas; however, it has been rarely mutated in other tumors. Although the mutations were also found in uterine leiomyosarcomas, the frequency was significantly lower than in uterine leiomyomas. Here, we examined the MED12 mutation in phyllodes tumors, another biphasic tumor with epithelial and stromal components related to breast fibroadenomas. Mutations in MED12 exon 2 were analyzed in nine fibroadenomas and eleven phyllodes tumors via Sanger sequencing. A panel of cancer- and sarcoma-related genes was also analyzed using Ion Torrent next-generation sequencing. Six mutations in fibroadenomas, including those previously reported (6/9, 67%), and five mutations in phyllodes tumors (5/11, 45%) were observed. Three mutations in the phyllodes tumors were missense mutations at Gly44, which is common in uterine leiomyomas and breast fibroadenomas. In addition, two deletion mutations (in-frame c.133_144del12 and loss of splice acceptor c.100-68_137del106) were observed in the phyllodes tumors. No other recurrent mutation was observed with next-generation sequencing. Frequent mutations in MED12 exon 2 in the phyllodes tumors suggest that it may share genetic etiology with uterine leiomyoma, a subgroup of uterine leiomyosarcomas and breast fibroadenoma.

  8. Multi-lingual search engine to access PubMed monolingual subsets: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Darmoni, Stéfan J; Soualmia, Lina F; Griffon, Nicolas; Grosjean, Julien; Kerdelhué, Gaétan; Kergourlay, Ivan; Dahamna, Badisse

    2013-01-01

    PubMed contains many articles in languages other than English but it is difficult to find them using the English version of the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Thesaurus. The aim of this work is to propose a tool allowing access to a PubMed subset in one language, and to evaluate its performance. Translations of MeSH were enriched and gathered in the information system. PubMed subsets in main European languages were also added in our database, using a dedicated parser. The CISMeF generic semantic search engine was evaluated on the response time for simple queries. MeSH descriptors are currently available in 11 languages in the information system. All the 654,000 PubMed citations in French were integrated into CISMeF database. None of the response times exceed the threshold defined for usability (2 seconds). It is now possible to freely access biomedical literature in French using a tool in French; health professionals and lay people with a low English language may find it useful. It will be expended to several European languages: German, Spanish, Norwegian and Portuguese.

  9. Comparison of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar: strengths and weaknesses.

    PubMed

    Falagas, Matthew E; Pitsouni, Eleni I; Malietzis, George A; Pappas, Georgios

    2008-02-01

    The evolution of the electronic age has led to the development of numerous medical databases on the World Wide Web, offering search facilities on a particular subject and the ability to perform citation analysis. We compared the content coverage and practical utility of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. The official Web pages of the databases were used to extract information on the range of journals covered, search facilities and restrictions, and update frequency. We used the example of a keyword search to evaluate the usefulness of these databases in biomedical information retrieval and a specific published article to evaluate their utility in performing citation analysis. All databases were practical in use and offered numerous search facilities. PubMed and Google Scholar are accessed for free. The keyword search with PubMed offers optimal update frequency and includes online early articles; other databases can rate articles by number of citations, as an index of importance. For citation analysis, Scopus offers about 20% more coverage than Web of Science, whereas Google Scholar offers results of inconsistent accuracy. PubMed remains an optimal tool in biomedical electronic research. Scopus covers a wider journal range, of help both in keyword searching and citation analysis, but it is currently limited to recent articles (published after 1995) compared with Web of Science. Google Scholar, as for the Web in general, can help in the retrieval of even the most obscure information but its use is marred by inadequate, less often updated, citation information.

  10. The Reliability of Encounter Cards to Assess the CanMEDs Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherbino, Jonathan; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan; Worster, Andrew; Norman, Geoffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of a computer-based encounter card (EC) to assess medical students during an emergency medicine rotation. From April 2011 to March 2012, multiple physicians assessed an entire medical school class during their emergency medicine rotation using the CanMEDS framework. At the end of an…

  11. Somatic MED12 mutations are associated with poor prognosis markers in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Heikkinen, Tuomas; Ruppert, Amy S.; Senter, Leigha; Hoag, Kevin W.; Dufva, Olli; Kontro, Mika; Rassenti, Laura; Hertlein, Erin; Kipps, Thomas J.; Porkka, Kimmo; Byrd, John C.; de la Chapelle, Albert; Vahteristo, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in adults. We performed systematic database search and identified highly specific MED12 mutations in CLL patients. To study this further, we collected three independent sample series comprising over 700 CLL samples and screened MED12 exons 1 and 2 by direct sequencing. Mutations were identified at significant frequency in all three series with a combined mutation frequency of 5.2% (37/709). Positive mutation status was found to be associated with unmutated IGHV and ZAP70 expression, which are well-known poor prognosis markers in CLL. Our results recognize CLL as the first extrauterine cancer type where 5′ terminus of MED12 is mutated at significant frequency. Functional analyses have shown that these mutations lead to dissociation of Cyclin C-CDK8/19 from the core Mediator and to the loss of Mediator-associated CDK kinase activity. Additional studies on the role of MED12 mutation status as a putative prognostic factor as well as mutations' exact tumorigenic mechanism in CLL are warranted. PMID:25595892

  12. A MED13-dependent skeletal muscle gene program controls systemic glucose homeostasis and hepatic metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Amoasii, Leonela; Holland, William; Sanchez-Ortiz, Efrain; Baskin, Kedryn K.; Pearson, Mackenzie; Burgess, Shawn C.; Nelson, Benjamin R.; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N.

    2016-01-01

    The Mediator complex governs gene expression by linking upstream signaling pathways with the basal transcriptional machinery. However, how individual Mediator subunits may function in different tissues remains to be investigated. Through skeletal muscle-specific deletion of the Mediator subunit MED13 in mice, we discovered a gene regulatory mechanism by which skeletal muscle modulates the response of the liver to a high-fat diet. Skeletal muscle-specific deletion of MED13 in mice conferred resistance to hepatic steatosis by activating a metabolic gene program that enhances muscle glucose uptake and storage as glycogen. The consequent insulin-sensitizing effect within skeletal muscle lowered systemic glucose and insulin levels independently of weight gain and adiposity and prevented hepatic lipid accumulation. MED13 suppressed the expression of genes involved in glucose uptake and metabolism in skeletal muscle by inhibiting the nuclear receptor NURR1 and the MEF2 transcription factor. These findings reveal a fundamental molecular mechanism for the governance of glucose metabolism and the control of hepatic lipid accumulation by skeletal muscle. Intriguingly, MED13 exerts opposing metabolic actions in skeletal muscle and the heart, highlighting the customized, tissue-specific functions of the Mediator complex. PMID:26883362

  13. Current Status of the Matson Evaluation of Drug Side Effects (MEDS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Cervantes, Paige E.

    2013-01-01

    The Matson Evaluation of Drug Side Effects (MEDS) is currently the best established and most researched measure of drug side effects in the intellectual disability (ID) literature. Initial research was conducted on its psychometric properties such as reliability and validity. More recent research studies have used the measure to determine the…

  14. Flower Power: The Armoured Expert in the CanMEDS Competency Framework?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Cynthia R.; Austin, Zubin; Hodges, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    Competency frameworks based on roles definitions are currently being used extensively in health professions education internationally. One of the most successful and widely used models is the CanMEDS Roles Framework. The medical literature has raised questions about both the theoretical underpinnings and the practical application of outcomes-based…

  15. What Supervisors Say in Their Feedback: Construction of CanMEDS Roles in Workplace Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renting, Nienke; Dornan, Tim; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Jaarsma, A. Debbie C.

    2016-01-01

    The CanMEDS framework has been widely adopted in residency education and feedback processes are guided by it. It is, however, only one of many influences on what is actually discussed in feedback. The sociohistorical culture of medicine and individual supervisors' contexts, experiences and beliefs are also influential. Our aim was to find how…

  16. A Quantitative Content Analysis of Mercer University MEd, EdS, and Doctoral Theses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Justus J.; Gaiek, Lura S.; White, Torian A.; Slappey, Lisa A.; Chastain, Andrea; Harris, Rose Prejean

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative content analysis of a body of research not only helps budding researchers understand the culture, language, and expectations of scholarship, it helps identify deficiencies and inform policy and practice. Because of these benefits, an analysis of a census of 980 Mercer University MEd, EdS, and doctoral theses was conducted. Each thesis…

  17. International plastic surgery missions: a framework for resident education using the CanMEDS competencies.

    PubMed

    White, Colin P; Lecours, Catherine; Bortoluzzi, Patricia; Caouette-Laberge, Louise; Ying, Yvonne

    2013-10-01

    Residency education has shifted over the past decade in an attempt to graduate well-rounded physicians. There is a recognition that a physician's abilities must extend beyond medical knowledge. The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada introduced the CanMEDS physician competency framework in 2005. The framework provides 7 areas of competencies that are aimed at providing improved patient care. These competencies are medical expert, communicator, collaborator, manager, health advocate, scholar, and professional. Teaching and evaluating many of these competencies is often challenging for residency training programs. We believe that international surgical missions provide a prime opportunity to teach and evaluate all CanMEDS' roles.Plastic surgery is a field with many different organizations involved in international surgery. Many plastic surgery training programs offer opportunities for residents to become involved in these international surgical missions. Through these trips, residents gain surgical experience, see a variety and volume of clinical cases, and have the opportunity to travel to a foreign country and experience different cultures. We believe that international plastic surgery surgical missions also provide an exceptional micro environment for the teaching of CanMEDS roles. Using examples from residents' personal experiences on international plastic surgery missions to China, Mali, and Cambodia, we describe the benefits of these missions in transferring the CanMEDS competencies to resident training.

  18. Impact of Curricular Reforms on Educational Philosophy Courses in M.Ed Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, K. Abdul; Remia, K. R.

    2014-01-01

    In the context of Vision of Teacher Education envisaged in National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education, this study probes "Do M.Ed programmes provide for the prerequisites of educational philosophy for teacher educators?" and "whether the syllabi following credit and non credit pattern vary in their coverage of content of…

  19. Effect of dinotefuran on Bemisia tabaci (MED whitefly) and Amblyseius swirskii, 2016

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bemisia tabaci is a polyphagous pest known to feed upon over 900 plant taxa, and is an effective vector of more than 100 plant damaging viruses. Among different biotypes of this cryptic species complex, MEAM1 and MED whitefly are the two most destructive members posing threats of several crops of ec...

  20. To Cure 'Pre-Med Syndrome,' Medical Schools Need to Change Their Criteria for Admission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, John

    1987-01-01

    College students aiming for medical school often fall victim to 'pre-med syndrome'; they become narrow, grade-conscious overachievers, who are less sociable and more interested in money and prestige than are most other students. Suggestions for alleviating the severity of the problem are provided. (MLW)

  1. Differences between Japan and the United States in dosages of drugs recently approved in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Kae; Narukawa, Mamoru; Kanazu, Yoshiko; Takeuchi, Masahiro

    2011-04-01

    The internationalization of clinical and regulatory guidelines and disease treatment and the globalization of the pharmaceutical industry have led drug development strategies in Japan to shift from bridging studies to multinational trials. However, the current standard for adequate dose-finding processes may sometimes complicate the timely participation of Japan in these multinational trials. The objective of this study is to investigate different factors that might influence dosage selection in Japan. Approved drug dosages in Japan and the United States during the period 2003-2008 were compared and assessed across different therapeutic areas and approval timings. Factors such as company type and daily dosage indication were demonstrated to have a statistically significant relationship with different dosages in Japan and the United States. Anticancer, antiviral, and enzyme drugs showed similar dosages in the 2 regions, whereas neurological drugs were observed to undergo more careful dosage-finding processes, resulting in the approval of generally lower doses in Japan. A broader analysis is needed for detailed assessment. The findings in this study serve as an initial review to identify important factors that should be considered before planning global drug development.

  2. A Conserved C-Terminal Domain of the Aspergillus fumigatus Developmental Regulator MedA Is Required for Nuclear Localization, Adhesion and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Al Abdallah, Qusai; Choe, Se-In; Campoli, Paolo; Baptista, Stefanie; Gravelat, Fabrice N.; Lee, Mark J.; Sheppard, Donald C.

    2012-01-01

    MedA is a developmental regulator that is conserved in the genome of most filamentous fungi. In the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus MedA regulates conidiogenesis, adherence to host cells, and pathogenicity. The mechanism by which MedA governs these phenotypes remains unknown. Although the nuclear import of MedA orthologues has been reported in other fungi, no nuclear localization signal, DNA-binding domain or other conserved motifs have been identified within MedA. In this work, we performed a deletion analysis of MedA and identified a novel domain within the C-terminal region of the protein, designated MedA346–557, that is necessary and sufficient for nuclear localization of MedA. We further demonstrate that MedA nuclear localization is required for the function of MedA. Surprisingly, expression of the minimal nuclear localization fragment MedA346–557 alone was sufficient to restore conidogenesis, biofilm formation and virulence to the medA mutant strain. Collectively these results suggest that MedA functions in the regulation of transcription, and that the MedA346–557 domain is both necessary and sufficient to mediate MedA function. PMID:23185496

  3. 78 FR 78338 - Japan-U.S. Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum Tokyo, Japan February 18-19...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... future work. Event Scenario On March 11, 2011, an earthquake and tsunami hit Japan and led to a series of... International Trade Administration Japan-U.S. Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum Tokyo, Japan February 18-19, 2014 AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce....

  4. Impact of PubMed search filters on the retrieval of evidence by physicians

    PubMed Central

    Shariff, Salimah Z.; Sontrop, Jessica M.; Haynes, R. Brian; Iansavichus, Arthur V.; McKibbon, K. Ann; Wilczynski, Nancy L.; Weir, Matthew A.; Speechley, Mark R.; Thind, Amardeep; Garg, Amit X.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Physicians face challenges when searching PubMed for research evidence, and they may miss relevant articles while retrieving too many nonrelevant articles. We investigated whether the use of search filters in PubMed improves searching by physicians. Methods: We asked a random sample of Canadian nephrologists to answer unique clinical questions derived from 100 systematic reviews of renal therapy. Physicians provided the search terms that they would type into PubMed to locate articles to answer these questions. We entered the physician-provided search terms into PubMed and applied two types of search filters alone or in combination: a methods-based filter designed to identify high-quality studies about treatment (clinical queries “therapy”) and a topic-based filter designed to identify studies with renal content. We evaluated the comprehensiveness (proportion of relevant articles found) and efficiency (ratio of relevant to nonrelevant articles) of the filtered and nonfiltered searches. Primary studies included in the systematic reviews served as the reference standard for relevant articles. Results: The average physician-provided search terms retrieved 46% of the relevant articles, while 6% of the retrieved articles were nonrelevant (the ratio of relevant to nonrelevant articles was 1:16). The use of both filters together produced a marked improvement in efficiency, resulting in a ratio of relevant to nonrelevant articles of 1:5 (16 percentage point improvement; 99% confidence interval 9% to 22%; p < 0.003) with no substantive change in comprehensiveness (44% of relevant articles found; p = 0.55). Interpretation: The use of PubMed search filters improves the efficiency of physician searches. Improved search performance may enhance the transfer of research into practice and improve patient care. PMID:22249990

  5. Recycling of used aluminum beverage cans in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Itou, Tatsuo

    1995-12-31

    Both sales volume of aluminum cans and the recycling rate are remarkably increasing in Japan. In 1993, recycled can volume was 11.78 billion cans (116,258 metric tons) and its recycling rate 57.8 percent. Mitsubishi Materials Corporation, the leading manufacturer of aluminum cans in Japan, and their affiliated companies are very deeply involved in recycling used beverage cans (U.B.C) and recycling them back to can stock. In this paper, the author presents the following: (1) recent trends of beverage can consumption in Japan; (2) trend of aluminum cans and recycling rate in Japan; and (3) future of the aluminum can business in Japan.

  6. [Medical pots of Yakushi Buddha in Japan].

    PubMed

    Okuda, Jun; Noro, Yukio; Ito, Shiro

    2005-01-01

    The origin of Yakushi buddha (Bhaisajyaguru in Sanscrit, buddha of healing) is not clearly known. It has been proposed the original statue of Yakushi buddha may have been conceived from Varna, a god in Brahminism, believed to be a god of justice who possessed medicines and prolonged life. It is believed that Yakushi buddha appeared in Japan when the buddhism was imported from Korea and China in VI century, Yakushi buddha was believed more profoundly in Japan, compared with Korea and China.The reasons are probably as follows: Yakushi buddha is buddha of healing, Emperor Temmu (672-685) built Yakushi-ji temple in Nara, Emperor Shomu (724-749) built Kokubun-ji temples at principal towns. The principal statues of buddha in these temples are Yakushi buddha. In Japan, there are 252 Yakushi Buddha statues in Buddhistical Temples, which are listed in Important Cultural Property including 14 National Treasures. Belief in Yakushi Buddha was especially prevalent from the 7th to the 13th centuries in Japan. The oldest wooden Yakushi Buddha statue is in the Horin-ji temple in Nara. Among the 252 Yakushi Buddha statues, 224 are in wood, 15 are in copper, 6 are in picture and etc. 212 (84,1%) have medicinal pots (or rarely, a bowl) on the palm of left hand. However, these medicinal containers are wooden blocks. Very recently, it was found that Yakushi Buddha statue in the Suho-Kokubun-ji temple (Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan) has a medicinal pot on the palm of the left hand in which an offering (220 g materials) was found. The date on the reverse side of lid places the offering at October 12, 1699. The offering is composed of five cereals (rice, barley, wheat, soybean, adzuki bean), five medicinal plants (Acori Graminei, Acori Calami, Radix Ginseng, Flos Caryophylli, Lignum Santali Albi), and five minerals (rock crystals, purple and blue glasse, CaCO3, particles, silver and golden foils). DNA analysis proved those three randomly selected seeds of rice all belongs to the template

  7. [Medical pots of Yakushi Buddha in Japan].

    PubMed

    Okuda, Jun; Noro, Yukio; Ito, Shiro

    2005-01-01

    The origin of Yakushi buddha (Bhaisajyaguru in Sanscrit, buddha of healing) is not clearly known. It has been proposed the original statue of Yakushi buddha may have been conceived from Varna, a god in Brahminism, believed to be a god of justice who possessed medicines and prolonged life. It is believed that Yakushi buddha appeared in Japan when the buddhism was imported from Korea and China in VI century, Yakushi buddha was believed more profoundly in Japan, compared with Korea and China.The reasons are probably as follows: Yakushi buddha is buddha of healing, Emperor Temmu (672-685) built Yakushi-ji temple in Nara, Emperor Shomu (724-749) built Kokubun-ji temples at principal towns. The principal statues of buddha in these temples are Yakushi buddha. In Japan, there are 252 Yakushi Buddha statues in Buddhistical Temples, which are listed in Important Cultural Property including 14 National Treasures. Belief in Yakushi Buddha was especially prevalent from the 7th to the 13th centuries in Japan. The oldest wooden Yakushi Buddha statue is in the Horin-ji temple in Nara. Among the 252 Yakushi Buddha statues, 224 are in wood, 15 are in copper, 6 are in picture and etc. 212 (84,1%) have medicinal pots (or rarely, a bowl) on the palm of left hand. However, these medicinal containers are wooden blocks. Very recently, it was found that Yakushi Buddha statue in the Suho-Kokubun-ji temple (Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan) has a medicinal pot on the palm of the left hand in which an offering (220 g materials) was found. The date on the reverse side of lid places the offering at October 12, 1699. The offering is composed of five cereals (rice, barley, wheat, soybean, adzuki bean), five medicinal plants (Acori Graminei, Acori Calami, Radix Ginseng, Flos Caryophylli, Lignum Santali Albi), and five minerals (rock crystals, purple and blue glasse, CaCO3, particles, silver and golden foils). DNA analysis proved those three randomly selected seeds of rice all belongs to the template

  8. Psychohistorical Hypotheses on Japan's History of Hostility Towards China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Rudmin, Floyd

    2016-01-01

    The accelerating tensions and military posturing between Japan and China have created a serious crisis with a danger of a catastrophic war. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the events of the current crisis, and to put it in the context of Japan's long history of hostility to China and repeated attempts at conquest. The historical record shows that Japan has attacked China at least seven times, even though China has never attacked Japan. The irrationality of Japan's behavior is demonstrated by the repetition of this hostile behavior despite the enormous human and economic costs that Japan has suffered because of it. The irrationality of Japan's militarism suggests that psychological explanations may be required to understand this phenomenon. Several hypotheses are proposed, including 1) projected paranoid aggression, 2) collective Zeigarnik compulsion, 3) perceived weakness exciting aggression, 4) national inferiority feelings, 5) cultural narcissism, and 6) Oedipal-like hatred of a parent culture.

  9. Psychohistorical Hypotheses on Japan's History of Hostility Towards China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Rudmin, Floyd

    2016-01-01

    The accelerating tensions and military posturing between Japan and China have created a serious crisis with a danger of a catastrophic war. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the events of the current crisis, and to put it in the context of Japan's long history of hostility to China and repeated attempts at conquest. The historical record shows that Japan has attacked China at least seven times, even though China has never attacked Japan. The irrationality of Japan's behavior is demonstrated by the repetition of this hostile behavior despite the enormous human and economic costs that Japan has suffered because of it. The irrationality of Japan's militarism suggests that psychological explanations may be required to understand this phenomenon. Several hypotheses are proposed, including 1) projected paranoid aggression, 2) collective Zeigarnik compulsion, 3) perceived weakness exciting aggression, 4) national inferiority feelings, 5) cultural narcissism, and 6) Oedipal-like hatred of a parent culture. PMID:27480012

  10. Rapid Damage Mapping for the 2015 M7.8 Gorkha Earthquake using Synthetic Aperture Radar Data from COSMO-SkyMed and ALOS-2 Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, S. H.; Hudnut, K. W.; Owen, S. E.; Webb, F.; Simons, M.; Macdonald, A.; Sacco, P.; Gurrola, E. M.; Manipon, G.; Liang, C.; Fielding, E. J.; Milillo, P.; Hua, H.; Coletta, A.

    2015-12-01

    The April 25, 2015 M7.8 Gorkha earthquake caused more than 8,000 fatalities and widespread building damage in central Nepal. Four days after the earthquake, the Italian Space Agency's (ASI's) COSMO-SkyMed Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite acquired data over Kathmandu area. Nine days after the earthquake, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA's) ALOS-2 SAR satellite covered larger area. Using these radar observations, we rapidly produced damage proxy maps derived from temporal changes in Interferometric SAR (InSAR) coherence. These maps were qualitatively validated through comparison with independent damage analyses by National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) and the UNITAR's (United Nations Institute for Training and Research's) Operational Satellite Applications Programme (UNOSAT), and based on our own visual inspection of DigitalGlobe's WorldView optical pre- vs. post-event imagery. Our maps were quickly released to responding agencies and the public, and used for damage assessment, determining inspection/imaging priorities, and reconnaissance fieldwork.

  11. Rapid damage mapping for the 2015 M7.8 Gorkha earthquake using synthetic aperture radar data from COSMO-SkyMed and ALOS-2 satellites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yun, Sang-Ho; Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Owen, Susan; Webb, Frank; Simons, Mark; Sacco, Patrizia; Gurrola, Eric; Manipon, Gerald; Liang, Cunren; Fielding, Eric; Milillo, Pietro; Hua, Hook; Coletta, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The 25 April 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake caused more than 8000 fatalities and widespread building damage in central Nepal. The Italian Space Agency’s COSMO–SkyMed Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite acquired data over Kathmandu area four days after the earthquake and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency’s Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 SAR satellite for larger area nine days after the mainshock. We used these radar observations and rapidly produced damage proxy maps (DPMs) derived from temporal changes in Interferometric SAR coherence. Our DPMs were qualitatively validated through comparison with independent damage analyses by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency and the United Nations Institute for Training and Research’s United Nations Operational Satellite Applications Programme, and based on our own visual inspection of DigitalGlobe’s WorldView optical pre- versus postevent imagery. Our maps were quickly released to responding agencies and the public, and used for damage assessment, determining inspection/imaging priorities, and reconnaissance fieldwork.

  12. History of public health crises in Japan.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Tomoaki; Ide, Hiroo; Yasunaga, Hideo

    2007-07-01

    In Japan, a number of serious public health crises involving environmental pollution, food-borne diseases, and health hazards due to pharmaceuticals (i.e., "Yakugai") have occurred in the past 50 years. Based on the literature, we summarize the initial investigations and the subsequent measures. Some common points emerge: (1) prolonged cause identification, (2) lack of countermeasures after the cause was identified, and (3) discrimination against victims and they contributed to spreading the damage. We identify lack of corporate ethics and ill-timed disclosure of information as the principal problems in Japan's crisis-management systems. Defects in information gathering were common to all of the cases, thus we suggest necessary corrective measures, such as the establishment of a new reporting system for health hazard-related information.

  13. Viewpoint of Science Council of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Syunsuke

    The Science Council of Japan (SCJ) is an academic body that represents Japanese 700,000 scientists. The activity of SCJ is changing rapidly, in which the science associated with society is increasingly important. In this context, the engineering education for ethics is treated at SCJ. The importance of engineering ethics was first recognized at the 5th division of 17th term (1999-2001) of SCJ, in which education for engineering ethics based on the analysis of ethical problems occurred in Japan is recommended and it asked the engineering societies to establish the code of ethics. Following this proposal, SCJ founded a committee to treat the problem at 18th and 19th terms. The committee proposed a procedure to prevent misconduct associated with scientific activities and the importance of education of science and engineering ethics especially for young students at tertiary education.

  14. Aspects of river ice hydrology in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Kenichi; Yamazaki, Makoto; Shen, Hung Tao

    2002-03-01

    Rivers in northern Japan are subjected to ice formation each winter. They are typically very steep with rapid changes in channel slope. As a result, ice covers are usually discontinuous with open water sections. Winter discharges in Japanese rivers are usually very small. Water temperature and ice production in these streams are very sensitive to the change in air temperature. The open water sections enable the formation of frazil and anchor ice during the winter. Owing to the relatively stable winter weather and heavy snow cover, premature break-up and ice jams rarely occur, even though the channel geometry of these rivers is favourable for their occurrence. In this paper, hydrometeorological factors related to ice-cover formation, frazil and anchor-ice development, and ice-jam formation, as well as measurements of the undercover discharge in rivers in northern Japan are discussed.

  15. History of public health crises in Japan.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Tomoaki; Ide, Hiroo; Yasunaga, Hideo

    2007-07-01

    In Japan, a number of serious public health crises involving environmental pollution, food-borne diseases, and health hazards due to pharmaceuticals (i.e., "Yakugai") have occurred in the past 50 years. Based on the literature, we summarize the initial investigations and the subsequent measures. Some common points emerge: (1) prolonged cause identification, (2) lack of countermeasures after the cause was identified, and (3) discrimination against victims and they contributed to spreading the damage. We identify lack of corporate ethics and ill-timed disclosure of information as the principal problems in Japan's crisis-management systems. Defects in information gathering were common to all of the cases, thus we suggest necessary corrective measures, such as the establishment of a new reporting system for health hazard-related information. PMID:17585323

  16. Fluvial geomorphology and paleohydrology in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguchi, Takashi; Saito, Kyoji; Kadomura, Hiroshi; Grossman, Michael

    2001-07-01

    An introduction to fluvial geomorphology and paleohydrology in Japan is provided for researchers who are unfamiliar with these topics. Studies by Japanese geomorphologists are reviewed including those published only in Japanese-language journals. Emphasis is placed upon the following aspects: (1) abundant sediment yields from steep watersheds subjected to frequent heavy rains despite heavily vegetated conditions, (2) extensive sedimentation in mountain piedmonts and coastal fluvial plains especially during the Holocene, (3) catastrophic hydro-geomorphological events associated with earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, and (4) the impacts of the increased heavy rainfall during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition on the post glacial development of hillslopes and alluvial fans. These geomorphological characteristics differ from those in continental regions, such as Europe and North America, indicating that research on Japanese fluvial systems can contribute a great deal to the understanding of the global variety of fluvial geomorphology. Recent work on paleohydrological reconstruction in Japan is also reviewed.

  17. Steatitis in egrets and herons from Japan.

    PubMed

    Neagari, Yasuko; Arii, Suzue; Udagawa, Mai; Onuma, Manabu; Odaya, Yoshiya; Kawasaki, Takeshi; Tenpaku, Makio; Hayama, Hisayo; Harada, Ken-ichi; Mizukami, Masaya; Murata, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    More than 70 egrets and herons were found sick or dead at an agricultural water reservoir in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan between September and October 2008. The birds showed weakness, lethargy, and inability to fly before death. Postmortem findings included large amounts of firm subcutaneous and cavitary fat comprised of necrotic adipose tissues with infiltrates of heterophils and macrophages. The birds were diagnosed with steatitis on the basis of the gross lesions and histopathology. Egrets with steatitis had low blood levels of vitamin E. High counts of cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa) were found in the reservoir concurrent with the outbreak of steatitis. No microcystin was detected in the reservoir water or the livers from the egrets. This is the first report of steatitis in wild birds in Japan.

  18. Culture and the environment in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murota, Yasuhiro

    1985-03-01

    This article discusses the environmental problems of Japan from a cultural point of view. The traditional Japanese view of nature differs from that of Western culture. During the 19th century, Japan introduced Western technology to modernize its industries as quickly as possible. Its transition into the modern industrial world was successful but resulted in serious problems. One of these was the rapid destruction of the natural environment; another, the feeling of homelessness that the Japanese people experienced in their newly Westernized surroundings. The Japanese people have now reached the point where they must reevaluate their traditional ideas about nature and their responses to technology. Their solutions to some of the problems that result from industrialization may be useful to Western countries as well.

  19. Current topics in clinical FES in Japan.

    PubMed

    Handa, Y

    1997-12-01

    This paper reviews recent topics of clinical application of functional electrical stimulation (FES) for the paralyzed extremities in Japan. Transcutaneous and percutaneous FES systems have been clinically used in Japan. Candidates of extremity FES arer mostly stroke and spinal cord injury patients. By using percutaneous FES system, all of the joints of the upper extremity including the shoulder have been controlled for activities of daily living in the hemiplegic patient. Simultaneous FES control of the hand and wrist and the bilateral hands have also been achieved in C5 and C6 quadriplegics, respectively. Hybrid FES systems using percutaneous and surface electrodes, where FES is used in combination with orthoses, have been applied to the paraplegics because they are highly practical for assisting their locomotive activities. Percutaneous FES have been also provided the amyotropic lateral sclerosis patients with standing up motion. A total implant FES system with 16 output channels is currently developing as a next generation FES system.

  20. The state of telepathology in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Sawai, Takashi; Uzuki, Miwa; Kamataki, Akihisa; Tofukuji, Ikuo

    2010-01-01

    Telepathology began in Japan in the early 1990s in response to advances in computing and telecommunications equipment development and a dearth of pathologists. Telepathology in Japan is most often used for rapid intraoperative pathological diagnosis using frozen section, followed by second opinions and consultation. Intraoperatively, telepathology is used to determine malignancy, metastasis of malignant tumors, and the extent of excision. Infrastructure and equipment has evolved from analog lines to digital lines like integrated services digital network (ISDN) and asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL), and recently to fiber optics. The use of communications satellites is also being considered. Image quality is being improved to Hi-Vision (HDTV), and from still images to real-time video. Digital microscopy has been introduced, and is used in education and consultation. PMID:20922030

  1. The state of telepathology in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sawai, Takashi; Uzuki, Miwa; Kamataki, Akihisa; Tofukuji, Ikuo

    2010-08-10

    Telepathology began in Japan in the early 1990s in response to advances in computing and telecommunications equipment development and a dearth of pathologists. Telepathology in Japan is most often used for rapid intraoperative pathological diagnosis using frozen section, followed by second opinions and consultation. Intraoperatively, telepathology is used to determine malignancy, metastasis of malignant tumors, and the extent of excision. Infrastructure and equipment has evolved from analog lines to digital lines like integrated services digital network (ISDN) and asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL), and recently to fiber optics. The use of communications satellites is also being considered. Image quality is being improved to Hi-Vision (HDTV), and from still images to real-time video. Digital microscopy has been introduced, and is used in education and consultation.

  2. JTEC panel on display technologies in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Glenn, William E.; Credelle, Thomas; Doane, J. William; Firester, Arthur H.; Thompson, Malcolm

    1992-01-01

    This report is one in a series of reports that describes research and development efforts in Japan in the area of display technologies. The following are included in this report: flat panel displays (technical findings, liquid crystal display development and production, large flat panel displays (FPD's), electroluminescent displays and plasma panels, infrastructure in Japan's FPD industry, market and projected sales, and new a-Si active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) factory); materials for flat panel displays (liquid crystal materials, and light-emissive display materials); manufacturing and infrastructure of active matrix liquid crystal displays (manufacturing logistics and equipment); passive matrix liquid crystal displays (LCD basics, twisted nematics LCD's, supertwisted nematic LCD's, ferroelectric LCD's, and a comparison of passive matrix LCD technology); active matrix technology (basic active matrix technology, investment environment, amorphous silicon, polysilicon, and commercial products and prototypes); and projection displays (comparison of Japanese and U.S. display research, and technical evaluation of work).

  3. Dissecting Japan's Dengue Outbreak in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Quam, Mikkel B.; Sessions, October; Kamaraj, Uma Sangumathi; Rocklöv, Joacim; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2016-01-01

    Despite Japan's temperate climate, a dengue outbreak occurred in Tokyo for the first time in over 70 years in 2014. We dissected this dengue outbreak based on phylogenetic analysis, travel interconnectivity, and environmental drivers for dengue epidemics. Comparing the available dengue virus 1 (DENV1) E gene sequence from this outbreak with 3,282 unique DENV1 sequences in National Center for Biotechnology Information suggested that the DENV might have been imported from China, Indonesia, Singapore, or Vietnam. With travelers arriving into Japan, Guangzhou (China) may have been the source of DENV introduction, given that Guangzhou also reported a large-scale dengue outbreak in 2014. Coinciding with the 2014 outbreak, Tokyo's climate conditions permitted the amplification of Aedes vectors and the annual peak of vectorial capacity. Given suitable vectors and climate conditions in addition to increasing interconnectivity with endemic areas of Asia, Tokyo's 2014 outbreak did not come as a surprise and may foretell more to come. PMID:26711518

  4. JTEC panel on display technologies in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Glenn, William E.; Credelle, Thomas; Doane, J. William; Firester, Arthur H.; Thompson, Malcolm

    1992-06-01

    This report is one in a series of reports that describes research and development efforts in Japan in the area of display technologies. The following are included in this report: flat panel displays (technical findings, liquid crystal display development and production, large flat panel displays (FPD's), electroluminescent displays and plasma panels, infrastructure in Japan's FPD industry, market and projected sales, and new a-Si active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) factory); materials for flat panel displays (liquid crystal materials, and light-emissive display materials); manufacturing and infrastructure of active matrix liquid crystal displays (manufacturing logistics and equipment); passive matrix liquid crystal displays (LCD basics, twisted nematics LCD's, supertwisted nematic LCD's, ferroelectric LCD's, and a comparison of passive matrix LCD technology); active matrix technology (basic active matrix technology, investment environment, amorphous silicon, polysilicon, and commercial products and prototypes); and projection displays (comparison of Japanese and U.S. display research, and technical evaluation of work).

  5. Current status of atopic dermatitis in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Takahito; Takeuchi, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic or chronically relapsing, severely pruritic, eczematous skin disease. AD is the second most frequently observed skin disease in dermatology clinics in Japan. Prevalence of childhood AD is 12-13% in mainland Japan; however, it is only half that (about 6%) in children from Ishigaki Island, Okinawa. Topical steroids and tacrolimus are the mainstay of treatment. However, the adverse effects and emotional fear of long-term use of topical steroids have induced a "topical steroid phobia" in patients throughout the world. Undertreatment can exacerbate facial/periocular lesions and lead to the development of atopic cataract and retinal detachment due to repeated scratching/rubbing/patting. Overcoming topical steroid phobia is a key issue for the successful treatment of AD through education, understanding and cooperation of patients and their guardians. PMID:22053299

  6. Dissecting Japan's Dengue Outbreak in 2014.

    PubMed

    Quam, Mikkel B; Sessions, October; Kamaraj, Uma Sangumathi; Rocklöv, Joacim; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2016-02-01

    Despite Japan's temperate climate, a dengue outbreak occurred in Tokyo for the first time in over 70 years in 2014. We dissected this dengue outbreak based on phylogenetic analysis, travel interconnectivity, and environmental drivers for dengue epidemics. Comparing the available dengue virus 1 (DENV1) E gene sequence from this outbreak with 3,282 unique DENV1 sequences in National Center for Biotechnology Information suggested that the DENV might have been imported from China, Indonesia, Singapore, or Vietnam. With travelers arriving into Japan, Guangzhou (China) may have been the source of DENV introduction, given that Guangzhou also reported a large-scale dengue outbreak in 2014. Coinciding with the 2014 outbreak, Tokyo's climate conditions permitted the amplification of Aedes vectors and the annual peak of vectorial capacity. Given suitable vectors and climate conditions in addition to increasing interconnectivity with endemic areas of Asia, Tokyo's 2014 outbreak did not come as a surprise and may foretell more to come.

  7. Recent trends in bagassosis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ueda, A; Aoyama, K; Ueda, T; Obama, K; Ueno, T; Hokama, S; Nomura, S

    1992-07-01

    The only workers presently exposed to bagasse dust in Japan are the employees of sugar refineries and lacquerware factories. A follow up study of six former cases of bagassosis from among the retired employees of a paper board factory, closed since 1973, showed that none of the subjects still had bagassosis. Examinations of 70 employees of a sugar refinery for allergic reactions also showed no case of bagassosis. Seven cases with suspicious shadows of bagassosis on chest radiographs and four cases with positive serum precipitin to stored bagasse were, however, found among those 70 subjects. The results show the disappearance of a past episode of bagassosis and the possibility of a new occurrence of bagassosis among the employees of sugar refineries and lacquerware factories in the near future in Japan.

  8. Association of blood pressure with all-cause mortality and stroke in Japanese hemodialysis patients: the Japan Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Pattern Study.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Masaaki; Karaboyas, Angelo; Akiba, Takashi; Akizawa, Tadao; Saito, Akira; Fukuhara, Shunichi; Combe, Christian; Robinson, Bruce M

    2014-07-01

    The association of low blood pressure (BP) with high mortality is a characteristic for hemodialysis patients. This analysis clarifies the association of BP with mortality and stroke in Japanese hemodialysis (HD) patients and examines the association separately for patients with and without antihypertensive medication (BP meds). We analyzed 9134 patients from Japan in phases 1-4 (1999-2011) of the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS), a prospective cohort study of in-center HD patients. The association of patient systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure with all-cause and cause-specific mortality was assessed using adjusted Cox regression. A U-shaped association between BP and all-cause mortality was observed, with lowest mortality for baseline SBP 140-159 mmHg and DBP 65-74 mmHg. Both SBP and DBP were positively and monotonically associated with stroke-related death: hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) was 1.24 (1.01-1.53) per 20 mmHg higher SBP and 1.23 (1.05-1.44) per 10 mmHg higher DBP. No evidence of interaction was found between SBP and use of BP meds regarding all-cause mortality (P for interaction = 0.97); the association between SBP and stroke-related death was slightly stronger among patients not on BP meds than patients on BP meds (P for interaction = 0.09). In Japanese HD patients, both low and high BP are associated with all-cause mortality. This analysis also documents a positive and monotonic association of BP with stroke-related deaths. Although our analysis indicates that the prescription of BP meds to hypertensive patients might protect against stroke-related death, additional study is warranted. PMID:24629041

  9. History of nuclear technology development in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, Kiyonobu

    2015-04-29

    Nuclear technology development in Japan has been carried out based on the Atomic Energy Basic Act brought into effect in 1955. The nuclear technology development is limited to peaceful purposes and made in a principle to assure their safety. Now, the technologies for research reactors radiation application and nuclear power plants are delivered to developing countries. First of all, safety measures of nuclear power plants (NPPs) will be enhanced based on lesson learned from TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident.

  10. Japan, Indonesia to investigate condom plant feasibility.

    PubMed

    1981-04-01

    The Japanese government has begun investigations on the possibility of constructing a condom manufacturing plant in Indonesia in response to a request by the Indonesian government. Indonesia, which hopes to reduce its birthrate as of 1971 by 1/2 by 1990, asked for Japanese assistance in building a condom plant based on the expectation that demand for this contraceptive method, although quite low at present, will increase rapidly in the near future with stepped-up motivation campaigns. As a 1st step in the investigation, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) sent a study team of family planning experts headed by Family Planning Federation of Japan Chairman Dr. Hidebumi Kubo and including JOICFP International Division Director MR. Tameyoshi Katagiri to Indonesia from March 15-24. During its visit, the JICA team held discussions with representatives of BKKBN (the National Family Planning Coordinating Board) including its Chairman and Minister of Health Dr. Suwardjono and reached agreement on the scope and schedule of work toward determining the feasibility of building and operating a condom plant in Indonesia. In defining the scope of work and the schedule, the JICA team and the BKKBN representatives decided on specific issues to be investigated in the feasibility study to be carried out by JICA and scheduled to be completed by the end of October of this year. To be included in the feasibility study are: estimation of future domestic demand for condoms, examination of the domestic supply of latex capacity, chemicals and packaging materials, and collection of information on infrastructure relating to water, energy, transportation, etc. Actual data collection for the study is expected to begin in late May or early June. Dr. Kubo and Mr. Katagiri, upon returning to Japan, reported great enthusiasm for the project in Indonesia and expressed the hope that the plant construction will be feasible so that the country's family planning program can be given a boost

  11. Widespread use of neuraminidase inhibitors in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Norio

    2011-10-01

    Almost all patients with an influenza-like illness in Japan are now tested with rapid diagnostic tests, and when positive, they are treated with a neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI). Japan may have had the lowest case fatality rate for symptomatic illness (<0.001%, 198/20.7 million) in the H1N1/09 pandemic because of the universal implementation of early treatment with NAI. A study of 1,000 children hospitalized because of a H1N1/09 infection revealed that NAIs, primarily oseltamivir, had been used to treat 984 (98.4%) of the 1,000 patients. In 88.9% of the patients, treatment with NAIs was initiated within 48 h after the onset of illness. In addition to oseltamivir and zanamivir, the newly approved inhalant drug, laninamivir, and the newly approved intravenous drug, peramivir, were used in Japan during the 2010-2011 season. Neuropsychiatric disorders that were suspected of being adverse reactions to oseltamivir became a cause of concern in 2007. The Health, Labour and Welfare Ministry issued an emergency instruction to suspend the use of oseltamivir to treat patients between the ages of 10 and 19 years. However, according to the Vital Statistics data, the widespread use of oseltamivir has not caused an increase in deaths as a result of accidental falls or intentional jumps from buildings. Although oseltamivir is widely used in Japan, no outbreaks have been caused by oseltamivir-resistant viruses, and no serious illness caused by oseltamivir-resistant viruses has ever been reported.

  12. Energy R and D in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    J.J. Dooley

    1999-08-09

    In 1997, the public and private sectors in Japan invested $90.3 billion in R and D. Japan is the second largest supporter of R and D after the United States. A very large percentage (79.4%) of all R and D in Japan is supported by the private sector. The prolonged economic recession that has plagued the Japanese economy for most of the 1990s has significantly reduced the scale of the Japanese R and D effort compared to what it would have been had the economy been more robust. The Japanese government has recently attempted to bring the economy out of this recession through the use of economic stimulus packages. These stimulus packages have contained significant new funding for R and D, although it is apparent that much of the funding is going to R and D programs and R and D construction projects with very near tern payoff and not to the support of longer term R and D. In 1998, the Japanese government devoted 13.7% of all public R and D funds to the support of energy R and D. The priority accorded to energy R and D in Japan is significantly higher than in any other industrialized nation. The Japanese energy R and D program, which was funded at $2.5 billion in 1997, is overwhelmingly focused on nuclear energy R and D. Nuclear energy R and D (fission and fusion) accounts for 75% of the total national energy R and D budget. The fission energy R and D effort has decreased nearly 24% since 1996 as the government attempts to refocus this program in the face of growing public opposition to the Japanese government's efforts to expand the nuclear power program. Energy efficiency R and D (8% of the total national energy R and D budget) and renewable energy R and D receive relatively modest support from the Japanese government.

  13. [The surgical subspecialty board in Japan].

    PubMed

    Furuse, Akira

    2003-11-01

    This article deals with a 7-year endeavor to reform the board certification system of surgical specialty and subspecialty, outlining of 29 meetings of the surgical subspecialty board in Japan. The surgical societies are responsible to constantly improve the quality of the surgical training programs and qualification systems so that the board certified surgeons are accepted and treated as true surgical specialists in this country.

  14. [Nuptiality and divorce in Japan: 1995].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, C; Kojima, K

    1997-01-01

    Trends in marriage and divorce in Japan in 1995 are analyzed using official data. Data are included on marriages by nationality of bride and groom, 1965-1995; marriages by marriage order of bride and groom, 1988-1995; marriages and marriage rates by age; first marriages and remarriages; total, first, and remarriage rates, 1980-1995; divorces by nationality of husband and wife, 1965-1995; and divorces and divorce rates by age.

  15. Foreign workers recruiting policies in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, T

    1996-01-01

    "This article presents the basic characteristics of the foreign workers recruiting policy in Japan, which consists [of] barring entry to unskilled workers, and confronts it with the actual tolerance for a large number of illegal unskilled workers. After a historical overview of the reasons for the current policy, the article examines elements which reveal that a seclusionist policy is based on mistaken assumptions and reviews policy options to deal with the issue of illegal migration."

  16. History of nuclear technology development in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Kiyonobu

    2015-04-01

    Nuclear technology development in Japan has been carried out based on the Atomic Energy Basic Act brought into effect in 1955. The nuclear technology development is limited to peaceful purposes and made in a principle to assure their safety. Now, the technologies for research reactors radiation application and nuclear power plants are delivered to developing countries. First of all, safety measures of nuclear power plants (NPPs) will be enhanced based on lesson learned from TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident.

  17. Expectations high in Japan for ICPD.

    PubMed

    1994-08-01

    The Japan Population Conference symposium to mark World Population Day was held in Tokyo on July 14, 1994, before the UN International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, Egypt. The majority of the over 300 members of the audience were women. The event concluded with a set of recommendations for the ICPD entitled the Tokyo Appeal. The symposium was organized by the Council on Population Education and JOICFP. Takeo Fukuda, former prime minister of Japan and president of JOICFP, delivered the opening address. He noted the significance of population, environment, and development, and commented that the ICPD will determine the plan of action for the next 20 years. A leadership role for Japan in efforts to solve population issues was strongly urged by Dr. Nafis Sadik, executive director, UNFPA. Japan can not only provide financial support, but can share its experiences in population and family planning (FP). Norio Hattori, of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, outlined the Global Issues Initiative (GII), explaining that the Japanese government has committed a total of US $3 billion over the next 7 years for population and AIDS. The health of women and children, primary health care, education programs for the illiterate, and the empowerment of women will benefit under the GII. The importance of an approach that balances the micro and macro views of population issues was stressed by Yoichi Okazaki, professor, Nihon University. Akiko Domoto, member of Parliament, hoped that the ICPD would focus on giving women more decision-making power. She hoped the concepts of reproductive rights and health would be broadened after the ICPD. Yoriko Meguro, professor, Sophia University, reminded the audience that the 4th World Conference on Women will be held in Beijing in 1995. The effectiveness of NGOs in population activities was emphasized by Akihiko Yoshida, professor, Sanno Junior College.

  18. The Mediator Complex MED15 Subunit Mediates Activation of Downstream Lipid-Related Genes by the WRINKLED1 Transcription Factor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Jung; Jang, In-Cheol; Chua, Nam-Hai

    2016-07-01

    The Mediator complex is known to be a master coordinator of transcription by RNA polymerase II, and this complex is recruited by transcription factors (TFs) to target promoters for gene activation or repression. The plant-specific TF WRINKLED1 (WRI1) activates glycolysis-related and fatty acid biosynthetic genes during embryogenesis. However, no Mediator subunit has yet been identified that mediates WRI1 transcriptional activity. Promoter-β-glucuronidase fusion experiments showed that MEDIATOR15 (MED15) is expressed in the same cells in the embryo as WRI1. We found that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) MED15 subunit of the Mediator complex interacts directly with WRI1 in the nucleus. Overexpression of MED15 or WRI1 increased transcript levels of WRI1 target genes involved in glycolysis and fatty acid biosynthesis; these genes were down-regulated in wild-type or WRI1-overexpressing plants by silencing of MED15 However, overexpression of MED15 in the wri1 mutant also increased transcript levels of WRI1 target genes, suggesting that MED15 also may act with other TFs to activate downstream lipid-related genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed the association of MED15 with six WRI1 target gene promoters. Additionally, silencing of MED15 resulted in reduced fatty acid content in seedlings and mature seeds, whereas MED15 overexpression increased fatty acid content in both developmental stages. Similar results were found in wri1 mutant and WRI1 overexpression lines. Together, our results indicate that the WRI1/MED15 complex transcriptionally regulates glycolysis-related and fatty acid biosynthetic genes during embryogenesis. PMID:27246098

  19. [Labor analgesia in the US and Japan].

    PubMed

    Morishima, Hisayo O

    2007-09-01

    Obstetric anesthesia has made significant progress over the last 50 years. It is one of the major subspecialties in anesthesia in US. Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology (SOAP) was founded in 1968. According to its SCORE project on the practice of obstetric anesthesia, 82.4% of all parturients received some form of anesthesia for cesarean section or labor analgesia. Epidural analgesia was the most common form of labor analgesia (65%), followed by CSEA. This high percentage of anesthesia care for parturients mandates the presence of obstetric anesthesiologists at labor and delivery suites in major hospitals in US. The Japanese Society of Obstetrics and Anesthesia, formerly "Mutsu-bunben Kenkyukai", now called "Bunben to Masui Kenkyukai", was founded in Japan at about the same time as SOAP. Despite its long history, obstetric anesthesia is yet to be a major subspecialty in Japan. It is encouraging, however, that the number of attendants in obstetric anesthesia sessions in JSA seems increasing. SOAP has played an important role in the education and progress of obstetric anesthesia in US. I hope that the joint symposium of SOAP, Bunben to Masui Kenkyukai, and JSA at 39th SOAP annual meeting will facilitate the progress of obstetric anesthesia in Japan.

  20. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan.

    PubMed

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering.

  1. Admixtures and fibers for shotcrete in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Tazawa, Yujiro

    1995-12-31

    In recent years in Japan the following additives are increasingly being used for Shotcreting in tunnels: Accelerator for shotcreting based on calcium aluminate; dust control agent; and fiber. While dry mix shotcrete was predominantly used in Japan, accelerator of shotcrete based on inorganic salts contributed a great deal to the performance of shotcrete. However this type of accelerator is not so effective to wet mix which has been taking the place of dry mix in recent years. For wet mix shotcrete, accelerator for shotcrete based on Amorphous calcium aluminate is found to be quite effective in gaining sufficient early strength without aggravating long term strength. Practical performance in various cases is reported. A dust control agent for shotcreting is often used to improve working conditions in tunnels. This agent is reported to reduce a great deal of the dust generated in shotcreting operations. A variety of dust control agents are now available, of which constituents are cellulose epoxy , acrylic epoxy, polyvinyl alcohol etc. Use of fibers in shotcrete is also becoming popular in Japan to increase strength and toughness of the concrete. Not only steel fibers but also glass fibers are widely used. Recently more variety of materials such as PVA fiber acrylic and aramid fibers have been tested and some of them are being put into practical use, giving similar properties to shotcrete with steel fibers.

  2. Mercury emission from crematories in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaoka, M.; Oshita, K.; Takeda, N.; Morisawa, S.

    2009-12-01

    Anthropogenic sources of mercury emissions have a significant impact on global pollution. Therefore, finding uncharacterised sources and assessing the emissions from these sources are important. However, limited data are available worldwide on mercury emissions from crematories. In Japan, 99.9% of dead bodies are cremated, which is the highest percentage in the world, and more than 1600 crematories are in operation. We thus focused on emissions from crematories in Japan. The number of targeted facilities was seven, and we used continuous emission monitoring to measure the mercury concentrations and investigate mercury behaviour. The total mercury concentrations in stack gases were a few μg/Nm3 (normal cubic meters). Considering the time profile of mercury and its species in cremations, the findings confirmed that the mercury in stack gas originated from dental amalgam. The amount of mercury emissions was calculated using the total concentration and gas flow rate. Furthermore, the annual amount of mercury emission from crematories in Japan was estimated by using the total number of corpses. The emission amount was considerably lower than that estimated in the UK. From statistical analyses on population demographics and measurements, future total emissions from crematories were also predicted. As a result, the amount of mercury emitted by crematories will likely increase by 2.6-fold from 2007 to 2037.

  3. Mercury emission from crematories in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaoka, M.; Oshita, K.; Takeda, N.; Morisawa, S.

    2010-04-01

    Anthropogenic sources of mercury emissions have a significant impact on global pollution. Therefore, finding uncharacterised sources and assessing the emissions from these sources are important. However, limited data are available worldwide on mercury emissions from crematories. In Japan, 99.9% of dead bodies are cremated, which is the highest percentage in the world, and more than 1600 crematories are in operation. We thus focused on emissions from crematories in Japan. The number of targeted facilities was seven, and we used continuous emission monitoring to measure the mercury concentrations and investigate mercury behaviour. The total mercury concentrations in stack gases were a few μg/Nm3 (normal cubic meters). Considering the time profile of mercury and its species in cremations, the findings confirmed that the mercury in stack gas originated from dental amalgam. The amount of mercury emissions was calculated using the total concentration and gas flow rate. Furthermore, the annual amount of mercury emission from crematories in Japan was estimated by using the total number of corpses. The emission amount was considerably lower than that estimated in the United Kingdom. From statistical analyses on population demographics and measurements, future total emissions from crematories were also predicted. As a result, the amount of mercury emitted by crematories will likely increase by 2.6-fold from 2007 to 2037.

  4. [The institutionalization of bacteriology in Japan].

    PubMed

    Yoko, Yokota

    2009-01-01

    Within the history of public health in Japan, Shibasaburo Kitasato is widely known for introducing bacteriology to Japan in the Meiji. This paper looks into the factors behind the success of the Institute of Infectious Diseases(IID), which Kitasato headed, focusing specifically on Kitasato's strategy, institutional rivalries in the medical world and early development in the field of bacteriology. Kitasato used IID to spread bacteriology through a bacteriology training course and the publication of a professional journal, both modeled on the German system, which Kitasato absorbed during his previous studies in Germany under Robert Koch, who was one of the founders of bacteriological science. At the time, doctors related to the university system and those related to sanitary administration competed for leadership in the medical world in Japan. The latter had pushed for IID to be established, and the outbreak of plague in 1899 gave them the opportunity to successfully lobby the Diet into passing legislation that enlarged enrollment in the bacteriology course and earmarked money specifically to IID. In the late 19th century, the application of knowledge from the nascent field of bacteriology led to major advances in the fight against infectious diseases, which led to rapid accumulation of knowledge about bacteria, in turn. Thus, Kitasato emphasized that bacteriology should be mission-oriented and based in sanitary administrations. Indeed, as sanitary administrations were on the frontline of the battle against infectious diseases and as IID laboratories were connected to the sanitary administrations, IID succeeded in dominating the field of bacteriology.

  5. The present status of hyperthermia in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, T

    1996-05-01

    The research on hyperthermia in Japan was started by the Hyperthermia Study Group in 1978. Six years later, in 1984, the Japanese Society of Hyperthermic Oncology (JSHO) was established. More and more research has been conducted since then. At present, 215 units of heating equipment are installed for use. Among these, 24% are microwave heating equipment, and 66% are radiofrequency (RF) capacitive heating equipment. A nation-wide survey has revealed that about 60% of hyperthermia therapy involves the treatment of deep-seated tumours by RF capacitive heating and RF intracavitary heating. The treatment of superficial tumours by microwave heating represents another 12.5%. Most of the clinical application in the United States and in Europe is microwave heating of superficial tumours. The different modalities of treatment were thermoradiotherapy in 57.5%, thermochemotherapy in 22.6% and thermochemoradiotherapy in 14.5% of the cases surveyed. Compared to other countries, Japan has the highest number of hyperthermia equipment installed, and the most doctors involved in hyperthermia therapy. The main reasons for the advanced state of hyperthermia research in Japan include the development of excellent heating equipment, high membership in JSHO, grant-in-aid by the Japanese government, and coverage by insurance for this form of therapy. Based on 33 papers selected from two books which the author had edited, the optimal protocol, effectiveness and indication for the use of hyperthermia has been established.

  6. Current affairs in earthquake prediction in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uyeda, Seiya

    2015-12-01

    As of mid-2014, the main organizations of the earthquake (EQ hereafter) prediction program, including the Seismological Society of Japan (SSJ), the MEXT Headquarters for EQ Research Promotion, hold the official position that they neither can nor want to make any short-term prediction. It is an extraordinary stance of responsible authorities when the nation, after the devastating 2011 M9 Tohoku EQ, most urgently needs whatever information that may exist on forthcoming EQs. Japan's national project for EQ prediction started in 1965, but it has made no success. The main reason for no success is the failure to capture precursors. After the 1995 Kobe disaster, the project decided to give up short-term prediction and this stance has been further fortified by the 2011 M9 Tohoku Mega-quake. This paper tries to explain how this situation came about and suggest that it may in fact be a legitimate one which should have come a long time ago. Actually, substantial positive changes are taking place now. Some promising signs are arising even from cooperation of researchers with private sectors and there is a move to establish an "EQ Prediction Society of Japan". From now on, maintaining the high scientific standards in EQ prediction will be of crucial importance.

  7. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering. PMID:27069387

  8. Advances in table grape breeding in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masahiko; Sato, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, few grape cultivars related to Vitis vinifera existed 200 years ago, on account of Japan's high rainfall. Many V. labruscana and vinifera cultivars were introduced to Japan in the 19th century. Labruscana was grown instead of vinifera, mainly because of severe disease problems and a high incidence of berry cracking. Grape breeding for table use started in the 20th century, with the goal of combining the berry quality of vinifera with the ease of cultivation of labruscana. By 1945, three strategies were used: 1) crossing among introduced diploid vinifera and vinifera-related cultivars of Japanese origin, 2) interspecific crossing in tetraploid cultivars, and 3) interspecific crossing in diploid cultivars, resulting in 'Neo Muscat', 'Kyoho', and 'Muscat Bailey A'. Later, tetraploid interspecific crossing over generations developed many 'Kyoho'-related cultivars, including 'Pione', many of which have large berries, intermediate flesh texture between the two species, a labruscan or neutral flavor, and moderate disease resistance. Interspecific diploid crossing over generations developed 'Shine Muscat' in 2006, with large berries, crispy flesh, a muscat flavor, no cracking, seedless fruit by gibberellin application, and moderate resistance to downy mildew and ripe rot. PMID:27069389

  9. Japan sets up program for biological research

    SciTech Connect

    Lepkowski, W.

    1988-05-16

    Japanese officials have put final touches on plans for a global biological research program, called the Human Frontier Science Program, that they hope will launch their country into a new era of international science. Japan will establish a nongovernmental secretariat for the program and will manage it through an international governing council. Almost all the funding in the countries involved- Japan, the U.S., Canada, and the European Community countries- will be provided by Japan, at least at first. In its present design, the program consists of two thrusts- one in the neurosciences with emphasis on brain function, the other on the chemistry and molecular biology of gene expression. The program in the first year would consist of 30 to 50 direct research grants to researchers working in teams, 100 to 200 postdoctoral fellowships, and 10 to 20 workshops. Young researchers would be favored for funding. The average annual grant size would total $500,000, and postdoctoral awards would average $50,000.

  10. Japan shows how to save the children.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, E

    1987-11-01

    In 1950, Japan's infant mortality rate was 60.1/1000 live births, its perinatal mortality rate was 46.6/1000 live births, and its maternal mortality rate 176.1/100,000 live births. In 1986, the infant mortality rate was 5.2, the perinatal mortality rate was 7.3/100,000 live births, and the maternal mortality rate was 11.7/100,000 live births. The infant mortality rate can be lowered further by reducing the incidence of hypoxia, asphyxia, and respiratory disorders through imoproved perinatal monitoring and a health care system. Factors which contribute to Japan's low infant mortality include 1) early prenatal care, 2) few unmarried mothers (In 1982, they were .9% of the total number of mothers.), 3) favorable age of mothers (Most are between ages 20 and 34.), 4) few adolescent mothers (In 1985, they constituted 1.3% of all mothers.), 5) competent medical attention (In 1985, 99.8% of all deliveries were in hospitals or private clinics.), 6) a week's stay in the hospital for the mother and child, and 7) use of the Maternal and Child Health handbook. The handbook is a detailed medical record of every child born in Japan, from the time it is conceived until it becomes 6 years old. 1st issued in 1942, the handbook has created a foundation for maternal and child health, stimulating and increasing pregnant women's awareness of the value of the health check-up.

  11. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan.

    PubMed

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering. PMID:27069387

  12. Survey of ceramic machining in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, B.P.; Blau, P.J.

    1993-07-01

    This report is a compilation of four subcontract reports provided by B. P. Bandyopadhyay who, while a visiting professor at Toyohashi University in Japan, conducted a survey of ceramic machining technology in that country from January 1 through December 31, 1992. Various aspects of machining technology were surveyed: types of parts being produced, types of ceramic materials being used, the nature of current ceramic machining research and development, and types of machine tools. The four separate reports compiled here were originally provided in a narrative, chronological form, and some of the information has been reorganized into topical areas for this compilation. This report is organized into three sections: The first describes ten ceramic machining research and development organizations and provides a reference list of their current technical publications; the second, two major trade shows; and the third, several other products and commercial developments noted during the course of Bandyopadhyay`s stay in Japan. An Appendix lists key individuals who are currently conducting ceramic machining research in Japan.

  13. The Environmental Kuznets Curve and Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Uemura, K.

    1995-12-31

    Theodore Panayotou found an interesting relationship between {open_quotes}the economic development and environmental (degradation): environmental degradation rises at first and then falls in the course of economic development.{close_quotes}. This relationship resembles the Simon Kuznets hypothesis that {open_quotes}in a course of economic development income disparities rise at first and then begin to fall. This inverted U-shape relationship between income in- equality and income per capita, . . . , came to be known as the Kuznets curve.{close_quotes} Panayotou therefore named his finding above as the Environmental Kuznets Curve ({open_quotes}EKC{close_quotes}). In fact, Panayotou and others tested the EKC against various developing and developed countries and confirmed such an inverse relationship between income growth and environmental degradation existed. Also Panayotou suggested that the critical level of income per capita at which the environmental degradation started to slow down was US$800- 5,500. In this short paper, without using sophisticated statistical techniques, I am going to test the EKC hypothesis against Japan and see if the EKC hypothesis applies to Japan and also if the US$ 800-5,500 per capita figure holds true with Japan.

  14. Towards the Realization of Geo-Referencing Infrastructure for Dynamic Japan (GRID-Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Hiromichi; Komaki, Kazuo

    2005-03-01

    The recent change of the geodetic reference system of Japan from the Tokyo Datum to the Japanese geodetic Datum 2000 (JGD2000) is an ongoing process to keep the system precise and up-to-date for the various demands of modern society. In the rapidly changing archipelago over tectonic plate converging zones and with the advent of an information society, future directions of the national geodetic reference system require special thought. A combination of GPS and information technology is now leading to the emergence of a Location Base Service (LBS) where positional information plays a key role to relate real space to cyberspace, opening up a geo-information society. Although the basic role of the geodetic reference system to control precise coodinates for surveying never change, a new role to support precise, real-time positioning should be developed. In addition, incessant crustal deformation in Japan should be properly handled by a semi-dynamic correction system for precise surveys with GPS. This paper presents a future design of the national geodetic reference system, introducing the concept of Geo-Referencing Infrastructure for Dynamic Japan (GRID-Japan). Through the partnership of local governments and the private sector, GSI will start the process of realizing the concept of GRID-Japan in the next ten years.

  15. Urologic cancer in Japan: role of Japan at the frontier of issues in Asia.

    PubMed

    Akaza, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of urological cancer in Japan can be summarized in the following points. (i) As the onset of this type of cancer is typically seen in elderly patients, it is becoming a major social issue in Japan that has already become an aging society. (ii) Many diverse treatment methods are available and a response is required that prioritizes quality of life. (iii) Although vigorous research and development efforts into new drugs are being carried out on a global level, resulting in beneficial medical agents becoming more readily available, unless concepts relating to cost vs. effectiveness are further developed and there is a real risk that medical systems and structures in their current form will become unsustainable. (iv) Although at the current point there are no original large-scale clinical trials being conducted in Asia, Japan has a wealth of experience of participating in many international joint clinical trials and it is therefore an urgent and pressing challenge to organize joint clinical trials in Asia and amass a body of knowledge that is unique to Asia. In view of this current situation and given Japan's position at the frontier of issues, it is important for Japan to take the initiative in Asia in cooperating with other Asian nations in efforts to resolve and overcome various challenges.

  16. The Japan Medical Association's disaster preparedness: lessons from the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Masami; Nagata, Takashi

    2013-10-01

    A complex disaster, the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, consisted of a large-scale earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear accident, resulting in more than 15 000 fatalities, injuries, and missing persons and damage over a 500-km area. The entire Japanese public was profoundly affected by "3/11." The risk of radiation exposure initially delayed the medical response, prolonging the recovery efforts. Japan's representative medical organization, the Japan Medical Association (JMA), began dispatching Japan Medical Association Teams (JMATs) to affected areas beginning March 15, 2011. About 1400 JMATs comprising nearly 5500 health workers were launched. The JMA coordinated JMAT operations and cooperated in conducting postmortem examination, transporting large quantities of medical supplies, and establishing a multiorganizational council to provide health assistance to disaster survivors. Importantly, these response efforts contributed to the complete recovery of the health care system in affected areas within 3 months, and by July 15, 2011, JMATs were withdrawn. Subsequently, JMATs II have been providing long-term continuing medical support to disaster-affected areas. However, Japan is at great risk for future natural disasters because of its Pacific Rim location. Also, its rapidly aging population, uneven distribution of and shortage of medical resources in regional communities, and an overburdened public health insurance system highlight the need for a highly prepared and effective disaster response system.

  17. Assessing Teaching Med-Nursing Physics Replacing Introductory Physics in Nursing College

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wen-Ruey; Lin, Y.; Chen, K.

    2006-12-01

    The introductory physics is taught by a physics teacher who integrated nursing technique with the text in the nursing format, in nursing language and demonstrating in class the operation of nursing instruments, with lecture support from a nursing teacher. This is teaching med-nursing physics. The null hypothesis is rejected under the alternative hypothesis that teaching med-nursing physics is superior than teaching traditional introductory physics in the nursing college of the study university, by a traditional trained physics teacher. The study design is a case group comparing with 6 groups of controls, who from 24and 5-year-discipline systems are taking or took the introductory physics. The superiority testing is relied on the accessment form that has 10 questions on the introductory physics, and 10 questions on nursing technique. The SAS procedure of GLM has been employed for the 1-way ANOVA on the 20 accessment questions, under scoring systems.

  18. Studying PubMed usages in the field for complex problem solving: Implications for tool design.

    PubMed

    Mirel, Barbara; Song, Jean; Tonks, Jennifer Steiner; Meng, Fan; Xuan, Weijian; Ameziane, Rafiqa

    2013-05-01

    Many recent studies on MEDLINE-based information seeking have shed light on scientists' behaviors and associated tool innovations that may improve efficiency and effectiveness. Few if any studies, however, examine scientists' problem-solving uses of PubMed in actual contexts of work and corresponding needs for better tool support. Addressing this gap, we conducted a field study of novice scientists (14 upper level undergraduate majors in molecular biology) as they engaged in a problem solving activity with PubMed in a laboratory setting. Findings reveal many common stages and patterns of information seeking across users as well as variations, especially variations in cognitive search styles. Based on findings, we suggest tool improvements that both confirm and qualify many results found in other recent studies. Our findings highlight the need to use results from context-rich studies to inform decisions in tool design about when to offer improved features to users. PMID:24376375

  19. Cochlear implantation with Pulsar Med El: a novel small incision technique.

    PubMed

    Cuda, D

    2009-04-01

    Although still widely implanted, Pulsar Med-El is rarely considered for small incision approach. Overall, 30 teen-age and adult patients were operated upon with a novel small incision (4-5 cm). Full insertion of the electrode array was achieved in all cases. No major intra-operative complications occurred. At follow-up, no flap-related complications and no migration of the receiver-stimulator were observed in the "device suture" (14 patients) or "no device suture" groups (16 patients). All patients are full-time users of the device. In conclusion, a small incision for the Pulsar Med-El cochlear implant is feasible, safe and reproducible. Ligature fixation of the device is not critical with this operation. Also with this device, in adult and teen-age patients, it is, therefore, possible to retain several typical advantages of small incision approaches.

  20. Studying PubMed usages in the field for complex problem solving: Implications for tool design

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jean; Tonks, Jennifer Steiner; Meng, Fan; Xuan, Weijian; Ameziane, Rafiqa

    2012-01-01

    Many recent studies on MEDLINE-based information seeking have shed light on scientists’ behaviors and associated tool innovations that may improve efficiency and effectiveness. Few if any studies, however, examine scientists’ problem-solving uses of PubMed in actual contexts of work and corresponding needs for better tool support. Addressing this gap, we conducted a field study of novice scientists (14 upper level undergraduate majors in molecular biology) as they engaged in a problem solving activity with PubMed in a laboratory setting. Findings reveal many common stages and patterns of information seeking across users as well as variations, especially variations in cognitive search styles. Based on findings, we suggest tool improvements that both confirm and qualify many results found in other recent studies. Our findings highlight the need to use results from context-rich studies to inform decisions in tool design about when to offer improved features to users. PMID:24376375

  1. Modeling Actions of PubMed Users with N-Gram Language Models*

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jimmy; Wilbur, W. John

    2008-01-01

    Transaction logs from online search engines are valuable for two reasons: First, they provide insight into human information-seeking behavior. Second, log data can be used to train user models, which can then be applied to improve retrieval systems. This article presents a study of logs from PubMed®, the public gateway to the MEDLINE® database of bibliographic records from the medical and biomedical primary literature. Unlike most previous studies on general Web search, our work examines user activities with a highly-specialized search engine. We encode user actions as string sequences and model these sequences using n-gram language models. The models are evaluated in terms of perplexity and in a sequence prediction task. They help us better understand how PubMed users search for information and provide an enabler for improving users’ search experience. PMID:19684883

  2. A bilateral integrative health-care knowledge service mechanism based on 'MedGrid'.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Jiang, Zuhua; Zhen, Lu; Su, Hai

    2008-04-01

    Current health-care organizations are encountering impression of paucity of medical knowledge. This paper classifies medical knowledge with new scopes. The discovery of health-care 'knowledge flow' initiates a bilateral integrative health-care knowledge service, and we make medical knowledge 'flow' around and gain comprehensive effectiveness through six operations (such as knowledge refreshing...). Seizing the active demand of Chinese health-care revolution, this paper presents 'MedGrid', which is a platform with medical ontology and knowledge contents service. Each level and detailed contents are described on MedGrid info-structure. Moreover, a new diagnosis and treatment mechanism are formed by technically connecting with electronic health-care records (EHRs). PMID:18325488

  3. Txt2MEDLINE: text-messaging access to MEDLINE/PubMed.

    PubMed

    Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang; Muin, Michael; Tolentino, Herman; Ackerman, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We developed a text messaging system for processing incoming Short Message Service (SMS) queries, retrieving medical journal citations from MEDLINE/PubMed and sending them back to the user in the text message format. A database of medical terminology abbreviations and acronyms was developed to reduce the size of text in journal citations and abstracts because of the 160-character per message limit of text messages. Queries may be sent as full-length terms or abbreviations. An algorithm transforms the citations into the SMS format. An abbreviated TBL (the bottom-line) summary instead of the full abstract is sent to the mobile device to shorten the resulting text. The system decreases citation size by 77.5+/-7.9%. Txt2MEDLINE provides physicians and healthcare personnel another rapid and convenient method for searching MEDLINE/PubMed through wireless mobile devices. It is accessible from any location worldwide where GSM wireless service is available. PMID:17238343

  4. MED-EL Cochlear Implants: State of the Art and a Glimpse Into the Future

    PubMed Central

    Hochmair, Ingeborg; Nopp, Peter; Jolly, Claude; Schmidt, Marcus; Schößer, Hansjörg; Garnham, Carolyn; Anderson, Ilona

    2006-01-01

    Cochlear implantation is an accepted treatment method for adults and children with severe to profound hearing loss. Confidence in technology has led to changes in individuals who can receive a cochlear implant and changes in expected benefit with a cochlear implant. This article describes the research and development activities at MED-EL, which make possible the implementation of new speech-coding strategies as well as the application of acoustic and electric stimulation via a combined speech processor in MED-EL devices. Research on benefits from bilateral cochlear implantation and electric-acoustic stimulation are also reviewed. Finally, the potential of drug delivery systems is considered as a way to improve cochlear implant outcomes, and results from preliminary evaluations of a hybrid cochlear implant system with drug delivery capabilities are reported. PMID:17172548

  5. MedTime: a temporal information extraction system for clinical narratives.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Kai; Chen, Hsinchun; Brown, Randall A

    2013-12-01

    Temporal information extraction from clinical narratives is of critical importance to many clinical applications. We participated in the EVENT/TIMEX3 track of the 2012 i2b2 clinical temporal relations challenge, and presented our temporal information extraction system, MedTime. MedTime comprises a cascade of rule-based and machine-learning pattern recognition procedures. It achieved a micro-averaged f-measure of 0.88 in both the recognitions of clinical events and temporal expressions. We proposed and evaluated three time normalization strategies to normalize relative time expressions in clinical texts. The accuracy was 0.68 in normalizing temporal expressions of dates, times, durations, and frequencies. This study demonstrates and evaluates the integration of rule-based and machine-learning-based approaches for high performance temporal information extraction from clinical narratives.

  6. MedDigital trends and tactics to lead into the future.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, D E; Toth, C L

    2001-01-01

    Physician executives need to harness appropriate digital technology by understanding key trends and implementing best tactics. Being and doing MedDigital means taking back control and improving care--and, at the same time, improving efficiencies and the bottom line. This article presents seven e-trends that are shaping health care: (1) Consumers and patients are pushing doctors to go digital; (2) from Web health information to MedDigital decision support; (3) beyond managed care to custom health; (4) wireless is the way of the new world; (5) Passive web portals yield to digital destinations; (6) e-commerce means lower transaction cost; and (7) develop e-health care ROI methodologies and track results. The authors provide myriad examples of new technology that will revolutionize health care and provide both physicians and consumers with valuable interactive tools to enhance health, treatment, and decision-making. PMID:11291217

  7. COSMO-SkyMed Spotlight interometry over rural areas: the Slumgullion landslide in Colorado, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milillo, Pietro; Fielding, Eric J.; Schulz, William H.; Delbridge, Brent; Burgmann, Roland

    2014-01-01

    In the last 7 years, spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data with resolution of better than a meter acquired by satellites in spotlight mode offered an unprecedented improvement in SAR interferometry (InSAR). Most attention has been focused on monitoring urban areas and man-made infrastructure exploiting geometric accuracy, stability, and phase fidelity of the spotlight mode. In this paper, we explore the potential application of the COSMO-SkyMed® Spotlight mode to rural areas where decorrelation is substantial and rapidly increases with time. We focus on the rapid repeat times of as short as one day possible with the COSMO-SkyMed® constellation. We further present a qualitative analysis of spotlight interferometry over the Slumgullion landslide in southwest Colorado, which moves at rates of more than 1 cm/day.

  8. Can GRACE detect winter snows in Japan?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heki, Kosuke

    2010-05-01

    Current spatial resolution of the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites is 300-400 km, and so its hydrological applications have been limited to continents and large islands. The Japanese Islands have width slightly smaller than this spatial resolution, but are known to show large amplitude seasonal changes in surface masses due mainly to winter snow. Such loads are responsible for seasonal crustal deformation observed with GEONET, a dense array of GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers in Japan (Heki, 2001). There is also a dense network of surface meteorological sensors for, e.g. snow depths, atmospheric pressures, etc. Heki (2004) showed that combined effects of surface loads, i.e. snow (predominant), atmosphere, soil moisture, dam impoundment, can explain seasonal crustal deformation observed by GPS to a large extent. The total weight of the winter snow in the Japanese Islands in its peak season may reach ~50 Gt. This is comparable to the annual loss of mountain glaciers in the Asian high mountains (Matsuo & Heki, 2010), and is above the detection level of GRACE. In this study, I use GRACE Level-2 Release-4 data from CSR, Univ. Texas, up to 2009 November, and evaluated seasonal changes in surface loads in and around the Japanese Islands. After applying a 350 km Gaussian filter and a de-striping filter, the peak-to-peak change of the water depth becomes ~4 cm in northern Japan. The maximum value is achieved in February-March. The region of large winter load spans from Hokkaido, Japan, to northeastern Honshu, which roughly coincides with the region of deep snow in Japan. Next I compiled snow depth data from surface meteorological observations, and converted them to loads using time-dependent snow density due to compaction. By applying the same spatial filter as the GRACE data, its spatial pattern becomes similar to the GRACE results. The present study suggests that GRACE is capable of detecting seasonal mass changes in an island arc not

  9. Teaching PubMed in cyberspace: the development of a self-learning package.

    PubMed

    King, Samuel; Kaplan, Richard; MacDonald, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the development of a series of online modules for learning the PubMed version of MEDLINE. Funded by a National Library of Medicine grant and targeted initially to physician assistants practicing in New Hampshire, the project is approved for CE credit nationally by the American Association of Physician Assistants. The development of the project is described, the tutorial modules are reviewed, and issues encountered with technology and human factors are discussed and evaluated. PMID:19042708

  10. TeleMedMail: free software to facilitate telemedicine in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Fraser, H S; Jazayeri, D; Bannach, L; Szolovits, P; McGrath, S J

    2001-01-01

    Telemedicine offers the potential to alleviate the severe shortage of medical specialists in developing countries. However lack of equipment and poor network connections usually rule out video-conferencing systems. This paper describes a software application to facilitate store-and-forward telemedicine by email of images from digital cameras. TeleMedMail is written in Java and allows structured text entry, image processing, image and data compression, and data encryption. The design, implementation, and initial evaluation are described.

  11. Medical informatics on the Internet: creating the sci.med. informatics newsgroup.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, A M; Sittig, D F

    1995-01-01

    A Usenet newsgroup, sci.med.informatics, has been created to serve as an international electronic forum for discussion of issues related to medical informatics. The creation process follows a set of administrative rules set out by the Usenet administration on the Internet and consists of five steps: 1) informal discussion, 2) request for formal discussion, 3) formal discussion, 4) voting, and 5) posting of results. The newsgroup can be accessed using any news reader via the Internet. PMID:7583645

  12. Clinical and neurocognitive characterization of a family with a novel MED12 gene frameshift mutation.

    PubMed

    Lesca, Gaetan; Moizard, Marie-Pierre; Bussy, Gerald; Boggio, Dominique; Hu, Hao; Haas, Stefan A; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Kalscheuer, Vera M; Des Portes, Vincent; Labalme, Audrey; Sanlaville, Damien; Edery, Patrick; Raynaud, Martine; Lespinasse, James

    2013-12-01

    FG syndrome, Lujan syndrome, and Ohdo syndrome, the Maat-Kievit-Brunner type, have been described as distinct syndromes with overlapping non-specific features and different missense mutations of the MED12 gene have been reported in all of them. We report a family including 10 males and 1 female affected with profound non-specific intellectual disability (ID) which was linked to a 30-cM region extending from Xp11.21 (ALAS2) to Xq22.3 (COL4A5). Parallel sequencing of all X-chromosome exons identified a frameshift mutation (c.5898dupC) of MED12. Mutated mRNA was not affected by non-sense mediated RNA decay and induced an additional abnormal isoform due to activation of cryptic splice-sites in exon 41. Dysmorphic features common to most affected males were long narrow face, high forehead, flat malar area, high nasal bridge, and short philtrum. Language was absent or very limited. Most patients had a friendly personality. Cognitive impairment, varying from borderline to profound ID was similarly observed in seven heterozygous females. There was no correlation between cognitive function and X-chromosome inactivation profiles in blood cells. The severe degree of ID in male patients, as well as variable cognitive impairment in heterozygous females suggests that the duplication observed in the present family may have a more severe effect on MED12 function than missense mutations. In a cognitively impaired male from this family, who also presented with tall stature and dysmorphism and did not have the MED12 mutation, a 600-kb duplication at 17p13.3 including the YWHAE gene, was found in a mosaic state.

  13. MedMon: securing medical devices through wireless monitoring and anomaly detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Raghunathan, Anand; Jha, Niraj K

    2013-12-01

    Rapid advances in personal healthcare systems based on implantable and wearable medical devices promise to greatly improve the quality of diagnosis and treatment for a range of medical conditions. However, the increasing programmability and wireless connectivity of medical devices also open up opportunities for malicious attackers. Unfortunately, implantable/wearable medical devices come with extreme size and power constraints, and unique usage models, making it infeasible to simply borrow conventional security solutions such as cryptography. We propose a general framework for securing medical devices based on wireless channel monitoring and anomaly detection. Our proposal is based on a medical security monitor (MedMon) that snoops on all the radio-frequency wireless communications to/from medical devices and uses multi-layered anomaly detection to identify potentially malicious transactions. Upon detection of a malicious transaction, MedMon takes appropriate response actions, which could range from passive (notifying the user) to active (jamming the packets so that they do not reach the medical device). A key benefit of MedMon is that it is applicable to existing medical devices that are in use by patients, with no hardware or software modifications to them. Consequently, it also leads to zero power overheads on these devices. We demonstrate the feasibility of our proposal by developing a prototype implementation for an insulin delivery system using off-the-shelf components (USRP software-defined radio). We evaluate its effectiveness under several attack scenarios. Our results show that MedMon can detect virtually all naive attacks and a large fraction of more sophisticated attacks, suggesting that it is an effective approach to enhancing the security of medical devices. PMID:24473551

  14. [Application analysis of adverse drug reaction terminology WHOART and MedDRA].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Xie, Yan-ming; Gai, Guo-zhong; Liao, Xing

    2015-12-01

    Drug safety has always been a global focus. Discovery and accurate information acquisition of adverse drug reaction have been the most crucial concern. Terminology of adverse drug reaction makes adverse reaction medical report meaningful, standardized and accurate. This paper discussed the domestic use of the terminology WHOART and MedDRA in terms of content, structure, and application situation. It also analysed the differences between the two terminologies and discusses the future trend of application in our country PMID:27245013

  15. "Med-X": a medical examiner surveillance model for bioterrorism and infectious disease mortality.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Kurt B; Lathrop, Sarah L; Nashelsky, Marcus B; Nine, Jeffrey S; Gallaher, Margaret M; Umland, Edith T; McLemore, Jerri L; Reichard, R Ross; Irvine, Rebecca A; McFeeley, Patricia J; Zumwalt, Ross E

    2007-05-01

    We created a model surveillance system (Med-X) designed to enable medical examiners and coroners to recognize fatal infections of public health importance and deaths due to bioterrorism. All individuals who died in New Mexico and fell under medical examiner jurisdiction between November 23, 2000, and November 22, 2002, were prospectively evaluated using sets of surveillance symptoms and autopsy-based pathologic syndromes. All infectious disease deaths were evaluated to identify the specific causative agent. Of 6104 jurisdictional cases, 250 (4.1%) met Med-X criteria, of which 141 (56.4%) had a target pathologic syndrome. Ultimately, 127 (51%) of the 250 cases were due to infections. The causative organism was identified for 103 (81%) of the infectious disease deaths, of which 60 (58.3%) were notifiable conditions in New Mexico. Flu-like symptoms, fever and respiratory symptoms, and encephalopathy or new-onset seizures had predictive values positive for fatal infections of 65%, 72%, and 50%, respectively, and are useful as autopsy performance criteria. Before the development of surveillance criteria, 37 (14.8%) of the cases ordinarily would not have been autopsied resulting in a 1% increase in autopsy workload. Med-X is an effective method of detecting infectious disease deaths among medical examiner cases. Uniform criteria for performing medical examiner autopsies and reporting cases to public health authorities enhance surveillance for notifiable infectious diseases and increase the likelihood of recognizing deaths related to bioterrorism.

  16. TeleMed: An example of a new system developed with object technology

    SciTech Connect

    Forslund, D.; Phillips, R.; Tomlinson, B.

    1996-12-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed a virtual patient record system called TeleMed which is based on a distributed national radiographic and patient record repository located throughout the country. Without leaving their offices, participating doctors can view clinical drug and radiographic data via a sophisticated multimedia interface. For example, a doctor can match a patient`s radiographic information with the data in the repository, review treatment history and success, and then determine the best treatment. Furthermore, the features of TeleMed that make it attractive to clinicians and diagnosticians make it valuable for teaching and presentation as well. Thus, a resident can use TeleMed for self-training in diagnostic techniques and a physician can use it to explain to a patient the course of their illness. In fact, the data can be viewed simultaneously by users at two or more distant locations for consultation with specialists in different fields. This capability is of enormous value to a wide spectrum of healthcare providers. It is made possible by the integration of multimedia information using commercial CORBA technology linking object-enabled databases with client interfaces using a three-tiered architecture.

  17. Precision and negative predictive value of links between ClinicalTrials.gov and PubMed.

    PubMed

    Huser, Vojtech; Cimino, James J

    2012-01-01

    One of the goals of translational science is to shorten the time from discovery to clinical use. Clinical trial registries were established to increase transparency in completed and ongoing clinical trials, and they support linking trials with resulting publications. We set out to investigate precision and negative predictive value (NPV) of links between ClinicalTrials.gov (CT.gov) and PubMed. CT.gov has been established to increase transparency in clinical trials and the link to PubMed is crucial for supporting a number of important functions, including ascertaining publication bias. We drew a random sample of trials downloaded from CT.gov and performed manual review of retrieved publications. We characterize two types of links between trials and publications (NCT-link originating from MEDLINE and PMID-link originating from CT.gov).The link precision is different based on type (NCT-link: 100%; PMID-link: 63% to 96%). In trials with no linked publication, we were able to find publications 44% of the time (NPV=56%) by searching PubMed. This low NPV shows that there are potentially numerous publications that should have been formally linked with the trials. Our results indicate that existing trial registry and publisher policies may not be fully enforced. We suggest some automated methods for improving link quality.

  18. PubMed and beyond: a survey of web tools for searching biomedical literature

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhiyong

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed the modern advances of high-throughput technology and rapid growth of research capacity in producing large-scale biological data, both of which were concomitant with an exponential growth of biomedical literature. This wealth of scholarly knowledge is of significant importance for researchers in making scientific discoveries and healthcare professionals in managing health-related matters. However, the acquisition of such information is becoming increasingly difficult due to its large volume and rapid growth. In response, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is continuously making changes to its PubMed Web service for improvement. Meanwhile, different entities have devoted themselves to developing Web tools for helping users quickly and efficiently search and retrieve relevant publications. These practices, together with maturity in the field of text mining, have led to an increase in the number and quality of various Web tools that provide comparable literature search service to PubMed. In this study, we review 28 such tools, highlight their respective innovations, compare them to the PubMed system and one another, and discuss directions for future development. Furthermore, we have built a website dedicated to tracking existing systems and future advances in the field of biomedical literature search. Taken together, our work serves information seekers in choosing tools for their needs and service providers and developers in keeping current in the field. Database URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Lu/search PMID:21245076

  19. The Relation between Iranian Medical Science Research in PubMed and Burden of Disease

    PubMed Central

    Foroughi, Zahra; Siamian, Hasan; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Davodi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Scientific productions have been accelerated in Iran in past decades but its association with health problems and disease burden is doubtful. The aim of this study is assessment of the relationship between scientific productions with disease burden in Iran in PubMed dataset during 2010 to 2014. Method: The study was performed with the library method. Data Gathered using Scientometrics indicators and direct observation. The current research includes all articles written by Iranian researchers during 2010 to 2014 which were published in PubMed–indexed journals. The search was performed using keywords included road accident, ischaemic heart diseases, major depression disorders and cerebral vascular diseases. Results: In total 910 articles had been published PubMed -indexed journals. Among them Substance-Related Disorders and Accidents, Traffic had the highest (263 records) and lowest (94 records) records respectively. There was not a direct correlation between Years of Life Lost, Years Lost due to Disability and mortality rate with scientific productions. Conclusions: our results showed Iranian scientific productions in PubMed data set are not related to disease burden however they are not related to high mortality diseases. PMID:27708491

  20. The study of MED12 gene mutations in uterine leiomyomas from Iranian patients.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Samaneh; Khorrami, Mandana; Amin-Beidokhti, Mona; Abbasi, Maryam; Kamalian, Zeeba; Irani, Shiva; Omrani, Mirdavood; Azmoodeh, Ozra; Mirfakhraie, Reza

    2016-02-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are the most common gynecologic benign tumors of the female genital tract that cause a variety of health problems including, abnormal menstrual bleeding, pelvic pain, placenta displacement, premature labor, and miscarriages. Recently, studies showed that recurrent somatic mutations in MED12 exon 2 are the major cause of uterine leiomyomas in different ethnic groups. In order to validate these results in Iranian population, we performed mutational analysis of exon 2 and the flanking intronic regions by using single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) and sequencing analyses in a series of 103 uterine leiomyomas samples. MED12 gene was mutated in 31.07 % of the uterine leiomyomas. Mutations were consisted of 20 missense (62.5 %) and 12 in-frame deletion (37.5 %) mutations and were not detected in normal myometrial tissue. Although this is the lowest mutation frequency reported so far, MED12 mutations are associated with fibroid pathogenesis in the studied population. Understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyoma will play an important role in designing new therapeutic strategies. PMID:26298726

  1. MedIEQ-Quality labelling of medical web content using multilingual information extraction.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Miquel Angel; Karkaletsis, Vangelis; Stamatakis, Kostas; Leis, Angela; Villarroel, Dagmar; Thomeczek, Christian; Labský, Martin; López-Ostenero, Fernando; Honkela, Timo

    2006-01-01

    Quality of Internet health information is essential because it has the potential to benefit or harm a large number of people and it is therefore essential to provide consumers with some tools to aid them in assessing the nature of the information they are accessing and how they should use it without jeopardizing their relationship with their doctor. Organizations around the world are working on establishing standards of quality in the accreditation of health-related web content. For the full success of these initiatives, they must be equipped with technologies that enable the automation of the rating process and allow the continuous monitoring of labelled web sites alerting the labelling agency. In this paper we describe the European project MedIEQ (Quality Labelling of Medical Web Content Using Multilingual Information Extraction) that integrates the efforts of relevant organizations on medical quality labelling, multilingual information retrieval and extraction and semantic resources, from six different European countries (Spain, Germany, Greece, Finland, Czech Republic and Switzerland). The main objectives of MedIEQ are: first, to develop a scheme for the quality labelling of medical web content and provide the tools supporting the creation, maintenance and access of labelling data according to this scheme and second, to specify a methodology for the content analysis of medical web sites according to the MedIEQ scheme and develop the tools that will implement it.

  2. MedEvi: Retrieving textual evidence of relations between biomedical concepts from Medline

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-jae; Pȩzik, Piotr; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

    2008-01-01

    Summary: Search engines running on MEDLINE abstracts have been widely used by biologists to find publications that are related to their research. The existing search engines such as PubMed, however, have limitations when applied for the task of seeking textual evidence of relations between given concepts. The limitations are mainly due to the problem that the search engines do not effectively deal with multi-term queries which may imply semantic relations between the terms. To address this problem, we present MedEvi, a novel search engine that imposes positional restriction on occurrences matching multi-term queries, based on the observation that terms with semantic relations which are explicitly stated in text are not found too far from each other. MedEvi further identifies additional keywords of biological and statistical significance from local context of matching occurrences in order to help users reformulate their queries for better results. Availability: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/tc-test/textmining/medevi/ Contact: kim@ebi.ac.uk PMID:18400773

  3. What supervisors say in their feedback: construction of CanMEDS roles in workplace settings.

    PubMed

    Renting, Nienke; Dornan, Tim; Gans, Rijk O B; Borleffs, Jan C C; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Jaarsma, A Debbie C

    2016-05-01

    The CanMEDS framework has been widely adopted in residency education and feedback processes are guided by it. It is, however, only one of many influences on what is actually discussed in feedback. The sociohistorical culture of medicine and individual supervisors' contexts, experiences and beliefs are also influential. Our aim was to find how CanMEDS roles are constructed in feedback in a postgraduate curriculum-in-action. We applied a set of discourse analytic tools to written feedback from 591 feedback forms from 7 hospitals, including 3150 feedback comments in which 126 supervisors provided feedback to 120 residents after observing their performance in authentic settings. The role of Collaborator was constructed in two different ways: a cooperative discourse of equality with other workers and patients; and a discourse, which gave residents positions of power-delegating, asserting and 'taking a firm stance'. Efficiency-being fast and to the point emerged as an important attribute of physicians. Patients were seldom part of the discourses and, when they were, they were constructed as objects of communication and collaboration rather than partners. Although some of the discourses are in line with what might be expected, others were in striking contrast to the spirit of CanMEDS. This study's findings suggest that it takes more than a competency framework, evaluation instruments, and supervisor training to change the culture of workplaces. The impact on residents of training in such demanding, efficiency-focused clinical environments is an important topic for future research.

  4. Silencing MED1 Sensitizes Breast Cancer Cells to Pure Anti-Estrogen Fulvestrant In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lijiang; Cui, Jiajun; Leonard, Marissa; Nephew, Kenneth; Li, Yongquan; Zhang, Xiaoting

    2013-01-01

    Pure anti-estrogen fulvestrant has been shown to be a promising ER antagonist for locally advanced and metastatic breast cancer. Unfortunately, a significant proportion of patients developed resistance to this type of endocrine therapy but the molecular mechanisms governing cellular responsiveness to this agent remain poorly understood. Here, we’ve reported that knockdown of estrogen receptor coactivator MED1 sensitized fulvestrant resistance breast cancer cells to fulvestrant treatment. We found that MED1 knockdown further promoted cell cycle arrest induced by fulvestrant. Using an orthotopic xenograft mouse model, we found that knockdown of MED1 significantly reduced tumor growth in mice. Importantly, knockdown of MED1 further potentiated tumor growth inhibition by fulvestrant. Mechanistic studies indicated that combination of fulvestrant treatment and MED1 knockdown is able to cooperatively inhibit the expression of ER target genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments further supported a role for MED1 in regulating the recruitment of RNA polymerase II and transcriptional corepressor HDAC1 on endogenous ER target gene promoter in the presence of fulvestrant. These results demonstrate a role for MED1 in mediating resistance to the pure anti-estrogen fulvestrant both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:23936234

  5. Prognosis: the “missing link” within the CanMEDS competency framework

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The concept of prognosis dates back to antiquity. Quantum advances in diagnostics and therapeutics have relegated this once highly valued core competency to an almost negligible role in modern medical practice. Medical curricula are devoid of teaching opportunities focused on prognosis. This void is driven by a corresponding relative dearth within physician competency frameworks. This study aims to assess the level of content related to prognosis within CanMEDS (Canadian Medical Education Directives for Specialists), a leading and prototypical physician competency framework. Methods A quantitative content analysis of CanMEDS competency framework was carried out to measure the extent of this deficiency. Foxit Reader 5.1 (Foxit Corporation), a keyword scanning software, was used to assess the CanMEDS 2005 framework documents of 29 physician specialties and 37 subspecialties across the seven physician roles (medical expert, communicator, collaborator, manager, health advocate, scholar, and professional). The keywords used in the search included prognosis, prognostic, prognosticate, and prognostication. Results Of the 29 specialties six (20.7%) contained at least one citation of the keyword “prognosis”, and one (3.4%) contained one citation of the keyword “prognostic”. Of the 37 subspecialties, sixteen (43.2%) contained at least one citation of the keyword “prognosis”, and three (8.1%) contained at least one citation of the keyword “prognostic”. The terms “prognosticate” and “prognostication” were completely absent from all CanMEDS 2005 documents. Overall, the combined citations for “prognosis” and “prognostic” were linked with the following competency roles: Medical Expert (80.3%), Scholar (11.5%), and Communicator (8.2%). Conclusions Given the fundamental and foundational importance of prognosis within medical practice, it is recommended that physicians develop appropriate attitudes, skills and knowledge related to the

  6. NEMO: Extraction and normalization of organization names from PubMed affiliation strings

    PubMed Central

    Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Topham, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Background. We are witnessing an exponential increase in biomedical research citations in PubMed. However, translating biomedical discoveries into practical treatments is estimated to take around 17 years, according to the 2000 Yearbook of Medical Informatics, and much information is lost during this transition. Pharmaceutical companies spend huge sums to identify opinion leaders and centers of excellence. Conventional methods such as literature search, survey, observation, self-identification, expert opinion, and sociometry not only need much human effort, but are also noncomprehensive. Such huge delays and costs can be reduced by “connecting those who produce the knowledge with those who apply it”. A humble step in this direction is large scale discovery of persons and organizations involved in specific areas of research. This can be achieved by automatically extracting and disambiguating author names and affiliation strings retrieved through Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms and other keywords associated with articles in PubMed. In this study, we propose NEMO (Normalization Engine for Matching Organizations), a system for extracting organization names from the affiliation strings provided in PubMed abstracts, building a thesaurus (list of synonyms) of organization names, and subsequently normalizing them to a canonical organization name using the thesaurus. Results: We used a parsing process that involves multi-layered rule matching with multiple dictionaries. The normalization process involves clustering based on weighted local sequence alignment metrics to address synonymy at word level, and local learning based on finding connected components to address synonymy. The graphical user interface and java client library of NEMO are available at http://lnxnemo.sourceforge.net . Conclusion: NEMO is developed to associate each biomedical paper and its authors with a unique organization name and the geopolitical location of that organization. This system

  7. Discovering biomedical semantic relations in PubMed queries for information retrieval and database curation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chung-Chi; Lu, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Identifying relevant papers from the literature is a common task in biocuration. Most current biomedical literature search systems primarily rely on matching user keywords. Semantic search, on the other hand, seeks to improve search accuracy by understanding the entities and contextual relations in user keywords. However, past research has mostly focused on semantically identifying biological entities (e.g. chemicals, diseases and genes) with little effort on discovering semantic relations. In this work, we aim to discover biomedical semantic relations in PubMed queries in an automated and unsupervised fashion. Specifically, we focus on extracting and understanding the contextual information (or context patterns) that is used by PubMed users to represent semantic relations between entities such as ‘CHEMICAL-1 compared to CHEMICAL-2.’ With the advances in automatic named entity recognition, we first tag entities in PubMed queries and then use tagged entities as knowledge to recognize pattern semantics. More specifically, we transform PubMed queries into context patterns involving participating entities, which are subsequently projected to latent topics via latent semantic analysis (LSA) to avoid the data sparseness and specificity issues. Finally, we mine semantically similar contextual patterns or semantic relations based on LSA topic distributions. Our two separate evaluation experiments of chemical-chemical (CC) and chemical–disease (CD) relations show that the proposed approach significantly outperforms a baseline method, which simply measures pattern semantics by similarity in participating entities. The highest performance achieved by our approach is nearly 0.9 and 0.85 respectively for the CC and CD task when compared against the ground truth in terms of normalized discounted cumulative gain (nDCG), a standard measure of ranking quality. These results suggest that our approach can effectively identify and return related semantic patterns in a ranked

  8. Discovering biomedical semantic relations in PubMed queries for information retrieval and database curation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chung-Chi; Lu, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Identifying relevant papers from the literature is a common task in biocuration. Most current biomedical literature search systems primarily rely on matching user keywords. Semantic search, on the other hand, seeks to improve search accuracy by understanding the entities and contextual relations in user keywords. However, past research has mostly focused on semantically identifying biological entities (e.g. chemicals, diseases and genes) with little effort on discovering semantic relations. In this work, we aim to discover biomedical semantic relations in PubMed queries in an automated and unsupervised fashion. Specifically, we focus on extracting and understanding the contextual information (or context patterns) that is used by PubMed users to represent semantic relations between entities such as 'CHEMICAL-1 compared to CHEMICAL-2' With the advances in automatic named entity recognition, we first tag entities in PubMed queries and then use tagged entities as knowledge to recognize pattern semantics. More specifically, we transform PubMed queries into context patterns involving participating entities, which are subsequently projected to latent topics via latent semantic analysis (LSA) to avoid the data sparseness and specificity issues. Finally, we mine semantically similar contextual patterns or semantic relations based on LSA topic distributions. Our two separate evaluation experiments of chemical-chemical (CC) and chemical-disease (CD) relations show that the proposed approach significantly outperforms a baseline method, which simply measures pattern semantics by similarity in participating entities. The highest performance achieved by our approach is nearly 0.9 and 0.85 respectively for the CC and CD task when compared against the ground truth in terms of normalized discounted cumulative gain (nDCG), a standard measure of ranking quality. These results suggest that our approach can effectively identify and return related semantic patterns in a ranked order

  9. Diversity of clinical isolates of Entamoeba histolytica in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Kobayashi, Seiki; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Haghighi, Ali

    2006-02-01

    In Japan, amebiasis is domestically transmitted by two major populations: male homosexuals and mentally handicapped persons, which is remarkably different from most other developed countries where Entamoeba dispar infection is predominantly observed. Here we briefly summarize epidemiology of amebiasis in Japan. We also review our current understanding of the diversity of Entamoeba histolytica clinical isolates in Japan, based on polymorphic genetic markers, clinical representations, and in vivo virulence, using an animal model.

  10. Presence of avian pneumovirus subtypes A and B in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mase, Masaji; Yamaguchi, Shigeo; Tsukamoto, Kenji; Imada, Tadao; Imai, Kunitoshi; Nakamura, Kikuyasu

    2003-01-01

    Four avian pneumovirus (APV) isolates from chickens clinically diagnosed with swollen head syndrome were genetically characterized as to the subtypes of the virus in Japan. The results of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions based on subtype-specific primers and direct sequence analysis of G genes indicated subtypes A and B but not C or D of APV were present in Japan. Several routes or sources are conceivable for APV to invade into Japan.

  11. A QUARTER CENTURY OF NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN JAPAN

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, S.

    2002-02-25

    This paper is entitled ''A QUARTER CENTURY OF NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN JAPAN''. Since the first statement on the strategy for radioactive waste management in Japan was made by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in 1976, a quarter century has passed, in which much experience has been accumulated both in technical and social domains. This paper looks back in this 25-year history of radioactive waste management in Japan by highlighting activities related to high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal.

  12. Cardiomyocyte-Specific Ablation of Med1 Subunit of the Mediator Complex Causes Lethal Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Mice.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yuzhi; Chang, Hsiang-Chun; Schipma, Matthew J; Liu, Jing; Shete, Varsha; Liu, Ning; Sato, Tatsuya; Thorp, Edward B; Barger, Philip M; Zhu, Yi-Jun; Viswakarma, Navin; Kanwar, Yashpal S; Ardehali, Hossein; Thimmapaya, Bayar; Reddy, Janardan K

    2016-01-01

    Mediator, an evolutionarily conserved multi-protein complex consisting of about 30 subunits, is a key component of the polymerase II mediated gene transcription. Germline deletion of the Mediator subunit 1 (Med1) of the Mediator in mice results in mid-gestational embryonic lethality with developmental impairment of multiple organs including heart. Here we show that cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of Med1 in mice (csMed1-/-) during late gestational and early postnatal development by intercrossing Med1fl/fl mice to α-MyHC-Cre transgenic mice results in lethality within 10 days after weaning due to dilated cardiomyopathy-related ventricular dilation and heart failure. The csMed1-/- mouse heart manifests mitochondrial damage, increased apoptosis and interstitial fibrosis. Global gene expression analysis revealed that loss of Med1 in heart down-regulates more than 200 genes including Acadm, Cacna1s, Atp2a2, Ryr2, Pde1c, Pln, PGC1α, and PGC1β that are critical for calcium signaling, cardiac muscle contraction, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor regulated energy metabolism. Many genes essential for oxidative phosphorylation and proper mitochondrial function such as genes coding for the succinate dehydrogenase subunits of the mitochondrial complex II are also down-regulated in csMed1-/- heart contributing to myocardial injury. Data also showed up-regulation of about 180 genes including Tgfb2, Ace, Atf3, Ctgf, Angpt14, Col9a2, Wisp2, Nppa, Nppb, and Actn1 that are linked to cardiac muscle contraction, cardiac hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis and myocardial injury. Furthermore, we demonstrate that cardiac specific deletion of Med1 in adult mice using tamoxifen-inducible Cre approach (TmcsMed1-/-), results in rapid development of cardiomyopathy and death within 4 weeks. We found that the key findings of the csMed1-/- studies described above are highly reproducible in TmcsMed1-/- mouse heart

  13. Cardiomyocyte-Specific Ablation of Med1 Subunit of the Mediator Complex Causes Lethal Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yuzhi; Chang, Hsiang-Chun; Schipma, Matthew J.; Liu, Jing; Shete, Varsha; Liu, Ning; Sato, Tatsuya; Thorp, Edward B.; Barger, Philip M.; Zhu, Yi-Jun; Viswakarma, Navin; Kanwar, Yashpal S.; Ardehali, Hossein; Thimmapaya, Bayar; Reddy, Janardan K.

    2016-01-01

    Mediator, an evolutionarily conserved multi-protein complex consisting of about 30 subunits, is a key component of the polymerase II mediated gene transcription. Germline deletion of the Mediator subunit 1 (Med1) of the Mediator in mice results in mid-gestational embryonic lethality with developmental impairment of multiple organs including heart. Here we show that cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of Med1 in mice (csMed1-/-) during late gestational and early postnatal development by intercrossing Med1fl/fl mice to α-MyHC-Cre transgenic mice results in lethality within 10 days after weaning due to dilated cardiomyopathy-related ventricular dilation and heart failure. The csMed1-/- mouse heart manifests mitochondrial damage, increased apoptosis and interstitial fibrosis. Global gene expression analysis revealed that loss of Med1 in heart down-regulates more than 200 genes including Acadm, Cacna1s, Atp2a2, Ryr2, Pde1c, Pln, PGC1α, and PGC1β that are critical for calcium signaling, cardiac muscle contraction, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor regulated energy metabolism. Many genes essential for oxidative phosphorylation and proper mitochondrial function such as genes coding for the succinate dehydrogenase subunits of the mitochondrial complex II are also down-regulated in csMed1-/- heart contributing to myocardial injury. Data also showed up-regulation of about 180 genes including Tgfb2, Ace, Atf3, Ctgf, Angpt14, Col9a2, Wisp2, Nppa, Nppb, and Actn1 that are linked to cardiac muscle contraction, cardiac hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis and myocardial injury. Furthermore, we demonstrate that cardiac specific deletion of Med1 in adult mice using tamoxifen-inducible Cre approach (TmcsMed1-/-), results in rapid development of cardiomyopathy and death within 4 weeks. We found that the key findings of the csMed1-/- studies described above are highly reproducible in TmcsMed1-/- mouse heart

  14. Robotics Technology In Japan And Its Impact On Workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Kazuhiko

    1984-08-01

    Japan's capabilities in robotics technology has developed with amazing speed. The nation has gone from an importer of robotics technology to the leading exporter in a little more than fifteen years. How did Japan manage to achieve such a feat? Are workers happy with this new technology? In order to answer these and other questions, the author spent several weeks in Japan in the summer of 1983 visiting many organizations and interviewing individuals. This paper summarizes the author's findings on the current status of Japan's robotization and its implications to workers.

  15. PIXE analysis of atmospheric aerosols collected over Hungary and Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katoh, T.; Amemiya, S.; Tsurita, Y.; Masuda, T.; Koltay, E.; Borbély-Kiss, I.

    1993-04-01

    The PIXE analysis of atmospheric samples collected over Hungary and Japan has been made to investigate characteristic features of the samples of Hungary and Japan, and to compare them. Samples were collected at Budapest, Debrecen, Szerencs, Pálháza in Hungary, and at Tokyo, Noma coast Aichi, Obara-mura Aichi (rural district), Mt. Rokko, in Japan. The PIXE analysis of the samples was made using a 2 MeV proton beam from a Van de Graaff accelerator at Nagoya University. Differences, specially in the concentration of lead, between samples collected in Hungary and Japan were observed.

  16. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    Following the comprehensive systematic review of domestic and overseas scientific evidence, the "Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese, 2005 (DRI-J)" was published in April, 2005. The DRIs-J were prepared for health individuals and groups and designed to present a reference for intake values of energy and 34 nutrients to maintain and promote health and to prevent lifestyle-related diseases and illness due to excessive consumption of either energy or nutrients. The DRI-J also includes a special chapter for basic knowledge of DRIs. The energy recommendation is provided as an estimated energy requirement (EER), while five indices were used for nutrients: Estimated average requirement (EAR), recommended dietary allowance (RDA), adequate intake (AI), tolerable upper intake level (UL), and tentative dietary goal for preventing lifestyle-related [chronic non-communicable] diseases (DG). Whilst the first four indices are same as the ones used in other countries, DG is unique index in Japan, which was set as a reference value for preventing non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular (including hypertension), major types of cancer and osteoporosis. This report (DRI-J) is the first dietary guidance in Japan, which applied evidence-based approach utilizing a systematic review process. Only a few articles from within Japan and other Asian countries could be used for its establishment. The project to establish the DRI-J revealed a severe lack of researchers and publications focused upon establishing DRIs for Japanese. Further review is therefore required in preparation for the next revision scheduled in 2010.

  17. Knowledge-based systems in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigenbaum, Edward; Engelmore, Robert S.; Friedland, Peter E.; Johnson, Bruce B.; Nii, H. Penny; Schorr, Herbert; Shrobe, Howard

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes a study of the state-of-the-art in knowledge-based systems technology in Japan, organized by the Japanese Technology Evaluation Center (JTEC) under the sponsorship of the National Science Foundation and the Advanced Research Projects Agency. The panel visited 19 Japanese sites in March 1992. Based on these site visits plus other interactions with Japanese organizations, both before and after the site visits, the panel prepared a draft final report. JTEC sent the draft to the host organizations for their review. The final report was published in May 1993.

  18. The 1998 World Solar Rallye: Akita, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shacklock, Andy; Duke, Mike; Burgess, Nigel

    In early August 1998, 81 solar/electric vehicles participated in a three day endurance race in Japan. The objective was to complete as many laps of the 31 km circuit as possible. Some of the cars used state-of-the-art motors, batteries, chassis, solar cells and tyres to produce vehicles which could travel at speeds of 70-80 km/h on about 1 kW of input power. With only 20 kg of battery, some solar cars were travelling around 450 km a day. This paper tells the story of the race and the technological developments behind the successful vehicles.

  19. Countermeasures against chemical terrorism in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Tetsu; Seto, Yasuo; Fuse, Akira

    2013-04-10

    Japan has experienced numerous incidents of chemical disasters and terrorist attacks. Here we review the history of changes in countermeasures against such incidents. Since 2004, the Civil Protection Law, more formally known as the "Law Concerning the Measures for Protection of the People in Armed Attack Situations etc" was enacted to fully prepare the nation for chemical terrorism. According to this law, the Japanese government must carry out Civil Protection Exercises on an annual basis to gauge response. Problem areas that remain are chosen and addressed one by one until they are judged to be resolved in subsequent exercises.

  20. Skin cancer screening in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nagano, T; Ueda, M; Suzuki, T; Naruse, K; Nakamura, T; Taguchi, M; Araki, K; Nakagawa, K; Nagai, H; Hayashi, K; Watanabe, S; Ichihashi, M

    1999-04-01

    Depletion of the ozone layer has been observed on a global scale. Ozone depletion increases the amount of biologically harmful solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) that reaches the surface of the Earth, leading to an increased incidence of skin cancer. We previously reported the prevalence and incidence of actinic keratosis (AK) in Kasai City, which is located almost at the center of Japan. To evaluate the effects of different ambient annual UV doses on the prevalence and incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer and AK in Japan, we screened for skin cancer on Ie Island in Okinawa at the southern end of Japan, where the annual cumulative dose of UV is assumed to be the highest in Japan. The island had a population of 5562 in 1993. A prospective 4-year population-based study on the prevalence and incidence of cutaneous neoplasms was conducted by examining the sun-exposed skin of people over 40 years of age living on Ie Island. In 1993 1996, 86 cases of AK, nine of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and two of squamous cell carcinoma were identified. The annual prevalence of AK on Ie Island was 1159.4 in 1993, 572.8 in 1994, 1014.3 in 1995 and 988.9 per 100000 Japanese in 1996. These values were significantly higher than those in Kasai City. The annual age-adjusted odds ratios for AK of Ie Island to Kasai City were 2.79, 1.38, 2.45 and 2.39, respectively. The incidences of AK on Ie Island per 100,000 were 637.0 in 1995 and 625.5 in 1996, which were also significantly higher than those in Kasai City (223.6 in 1993 and 171.2 in 1994). The prevalence of BCC was 123.6 and the incidence was 26.1. Together with our previous reports, the present results show a possible inverse relationship between the prevalence and incidence of AK and latitude among Japanese people.

  1. Integrated solid waste management in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The Japanese, through a combination of public policy, private market conditions, a geographic necessity, practice integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management. The approach of MSW management in Japan is as follows: The basic concept of refuse treatment consists of recycling discharged refuse into usable resources, reusing such resources as much as possible, and then treating or disposing of the usable portion into a sanitary condition. Considering the difficulty of procuring land or seaside areas for such purpose as a refuse disposal site, it will be necessary to minimize the volume of refuse collected for treatment or disposal.

  2. Countermeasures against chemical terrorism in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Tetsu; Seto, Yasuo; Fuse, Akira

    2013-04-10

    Japan has experienced numerous incidents of chemical disasters and terrorist attacks. Here we review the history of changes in countermeasures against such incidents. Since 2004, the Civil Protection Law, more formally known as the "Law Concerning the Measures for Protection of the People in Armed Attack Situations etc" was enacted to fully prepare the nation for chemical terrorism. According to this law, the Japanese government must carry out Civil Protection Exercises on an annual basis to gauge response. Problem areas that remain are chosen and addressed one by one until they are judged to be resolved in subsequent exercises. PMID:23434376

  3. Seismology in Japan in 1939-1947

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kawasumi, Hirosi

    1950-01-01

    In the latter half of this period the seismology in Japan was so much affected by the war that retrogressions in the instrumental seismology became very remarkable. Much regretted three leading seismologists, professors Ishimoto, Sezawa, and Inamura died in this period. But the seismic activities in this well-known land of earthquakes were not less active than usual as will be seen in the annexed table of destructive earthquakes. Seismologists in this country are now endeavoring to restore its former prosperity in this bitter circumstance.

  4. Non-Commercial Audiovisual Instructional Materials in Japan. AVE in Japan No. 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takakuwa, Yasuo

    This report outlines the history of non-commercial and local production of audiovisual instructional materials in Japan since World War II, discusses current trends in instructional materials usage, and presents four case studies of materials production at the prefectural level. Topics addressed include: (1) materials production prior to the…

  5. Disaster relief activities of the Japan self-defense force following the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yasumasa

    2014-06-01

    Cooperation between civilian and military forces, including the Japan Self-Defense Force (JSDF), enabled wide-ranging disaster relief after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Nevertheless, many preventable fatalities occurred, particularly related to an inability to treat chronic disease, indicating the need to plan for the provision of long-term medical aid after natural disasters in stricken areas and evacuation shelters. To assist in this effort, this report (1) provides an overview of the consequences of the medical response to the Great East Japan Earthquake, the largest natural disaster ever to hit Japan, focusing on the role and actions of the JSDF; (2) discusses the lessons learned regarding the provision of medical aid and management by the JSDF after this disaster, looking at the special challenges of meeting the needs of a rapidly aging population in a disaster situation; and (3) provides recommendations for the development of strategies for the long-term medical aid and support after natural disasters, especially with regard to the demographics of the Japanese population.

  6. Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in Japan: Results from the World Mental Health Japan Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Norito; Tsuchiya, Masao; Umeda, Maki; Koenen, Karestan C.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to report the prevalence of trauma exposure and PTSD, conditional risk of PTSD associated with each trauma exposure in the community population in Japan. An interview survey was conducted of a random sample of adult residents in 11 communities of Japan. Among 4134 respondents (response rate, 55%), data from those who completed the part 2 interview (n = 1682) were analyzed with a weight for this subsample. Lifetime experiences of 27 trauma events and PTSD were assessed using the WHO-Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0. Sixty percent of the part 2 sample reported exposure to at least one lifetime traumatic event. Lifetime and 12-month PTSD prevalences were 1.3% and 0.7%, respectively. Percentage of all months lived with PTSD in the population was predominantly accounted for by physical/sexual assaults and having a child with serious illness, and unexpected death of loved one. Ten percent of respondents reported “private events”, for which respondents did not have to describe the content, which accounted for 19% of months with PTSD. The lower prevalence of PTSD in Japan seems attributable to lower conditional risks of PTSD following these events, as well as different distributions of the events. The greater impact of events that occurred to loved ones rather than to oneself and “private events” on PTSD in Japan warrants further research of cross-cultural assessment of trauma exposure and cultural heterogeneity in the trauma-PTSD relationship. PMID:24572682

  7. Lesson Plans for a Secondary Level Unit on Japan To Accompany "Contemporary Japan: A Teaching Workbook."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsunoda, Elizabeth P.; And Others

    These 30 lesson plans were designed to accompany "Contemporary Japan: A Teaching Workbook", a collection of class activities, primary source selections, student readings, and role-play exercises. The lesson plans are based primarily on materials in the workbook, although materials from other sources also are recommended. Some of the lesson titles…

  8. Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in Japan: results from the World Mental Health Japan Survey.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Norito; Tsuchiya, Masao; Umeda, Maki; Koenen, Karestan C; Kessler, Ronald C

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to report the prevalence of trauma exposure and PTSD, conditional risk of PTSD associated with each trauma exposure in the community population in Japan. An interview survey was conducted of a random sample of adult residents in 11 communities of Japan. Among 4134 respondents (response rate, 55%), data from those who completed the part 2 interview (n = 1682) were analyzed with a weight for this subsample. Lifetime experiences of 27 trauma events and PTSD were assessed using the WHO-Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0. Sixty percent of the part 2 sample reported exposure to at least one lifetime traumatic event. Lifetime and 12-month PTSD prevalences were 1.3% and 0.7%, respectively. Percentage of all months lived with PTSD in the population was predominantly accounted for by physical/sexual assaults and having a child with serious illness, and unexpected death of loved one. Ten percent of respondents reported "private events", for which respondents did not have to describe the content, which accounted for 19% of months with PTSD. The lower prevalence of PTSD in Japan seems attributable to lower conditional risks of PTSD following these events, as well as different distributions of the events. The greater impact of events that occurred to loved ones rather than to oneself and "private events" on PTSD in Japan warrants further research of cross-cultural assessment of trauma exposure and cultural heterogeneity in the trauma-PTSD relationship.

  9. Picturing Life in Japan. For Students in Grades Three through Five. Instructional Materials about Japan (IMAJ).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Sherry L.; Labbo, Linda D.

    This manual provides accurate, up-to-date information about contemporary life in Japan and provides opportunities for students to develop cross-cultural awareness. The content of the lessons includes concepts traditionally taught in elementary school social studies programs. Lessons provide multiple opportunities for students to develop a variety…

  10. PubMed vs. HighWire Press: a head-to-head comparison of two medical literature search engines.

    PubMed

    Vanhecke, Thomas E; Barnes, Michael A; Zimmerman, Janet; Shoichet, Sandor

    2007-09-01

    PubMed and HighWire Press are both useful medical literature search engines available for free to anyone on the internet. We measured retrieval accuracy, number of results generated, retrieval speed, features and search tools on HighWire Press and PubMed using the quick search features of each. We found that using HighWire Press resulted in a higher likelihood of retrieving the desired article and higher number of search results than the same search on PubMed. PubMed was faster than HighWire Press in delivering search results regardless of search settings. There are considerable differences in search features between these two search engines.

  11. Minimal erythema dose (MED) in normal canine skin by irradiation of narrow-band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB).

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Takako; Iwasaki, Toshiroh

    2013-01-31

    Narrow-band UVB (NB-UVB) is light over a very narrow band of wavelengths (around 311 nm) that is concentrated in the therapeutic range and minimally in the sunburn range. It has therefore become the phototherapy treatment of choice for skin diseases. The minimal erythema dose (MED) on canine skin for standardizing dosage schedules in NB-UVB treatment and histopathological analyses were performed in these dogs. In all 32 dogs tested, the MED ranged from 432 to 864 mJ/cm(2). There were no significant differences in MED among breeds, sex and age groups. Histopathology obtained from areas irradiated by MED showed only mild vascular dilatation. These findings might be valuable for the application of NB-UVB phototherapy to canine skin diseases.

  12. Advances in Japanese pear breeding in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is one of the most widely grown fruit trees in Japan, and it has been used throughout Japan's history. The commercial production of pears increased rapidly with the successive discoveries of the chance seedling cultivars 'Chojuro' and 'Nijisseiki' around 1890, and the development of new cultivars has continued since 1915. The late-maturing, leading cultivars 'Niitaka' and 'Shinko' were released during the initial breeding stage. Furthermore, systematic breeding by the Horticultural Research Station (currently, NARO Institute of Fruit Tree Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NIFTS)) began in 1935, which mainly aimed to improve fruit quality by focusing on flesh texture and black spot disease resistance. To date, 22 cultivars have been released, including 'Kosui', 'Hosui', and 'Akizuki', which are current leading cultivars from the breeding program. Four induced mutant cultivars induced by gamma irradiation, which exhibit some resistance to black spot disease, were released from the Institute of Radiation Breeding. Among these cultivars, 'Gold Nijisseiki' has become a leading cultivar. Moreover, 'Nansui' from the Nagano prefectural institute breeding program was released, and it has also become a leading cultivar. Current breeding objectives at NIFTS mainly combine superior fruit quality with traits related to labor and cost reduction, multiple disease resistance, or self-compatibility. Regarding future breeding, marker-assisted selection for each trait, QTL analyses, genome-wide association studies, and genomic selection analyses are currently in progress. PMID:27069390

  13. Siting Process for HLW Repository in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, S.; Kitayama, K.; Umeki, H.; Naito, M.

    2002-02-27

    In the year 2000, the geological disposal program for high-level radioactive waste in Japan moved from the phase of generic research and development (R&D) into the phase of implementation. Following legislation entitled the ''Specified Radioactive Waste Final Disposal Act'', the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) was established as the implementing organization. The assigned activities of NUMO include selection of the repository site, demonstration of disposal technology at the site, developing relevant licensing applications and construction, operation and closure of the repository. As the first milestone of siting process, NUMO announced to the public an overall procedure for selection of preliminary investigation areas for potential candidate sites on October 29, 2001. The procedure specifies that NUMO will solicit volunteer municipalities for preliminary investigation areas with publishing four documents as an information package. These documents are tentatively entitled ''Instructions for Application'', ''Siting Factors for the Preliminary Investigation Areas'', a ''Repository Concepts'' as well as an ''Site Investigation Community Outreach Scheme''.

  14. Smoking rates among schizophrenia patients in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, Yasuko; Nakao, Mutsuhiro; Takeuchi, Takeaki; Yano, Eiji

    2011-04-30

    According to the meta-analysis performed by de Leon and Diaz, the smoking rate was higher among schizophrenia patients than in the general population with the exception of the populations of Japan and Colombia. The purpose of this study was to reexamine the association between schizophrenia and smoking among Japanese schizophrenia patients using objective measures. The sample comprised 172 schizophrenia inpatients (mean age: 54years; 55% male). Participants were asked by a psychiatrist whether they currently smoked, and their answers were confirmed by the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence and a measurement of the carbon monoxide level in expired air. Data on 7496 Japanese people obtained from the national survey of health were used as the control group. Seventy schizophrenia patients (40.7%) were identified as smokers; the smoking rate was higher among men in their 50s (66.7%) and among women in their 40s (54.6%). The smoking rate was 24.2% in the control group, and multiple logistic regression analysis showed that this percentage was significantly higher in the schizophrenia than in the control group (odds ratio: 2.17), adjusting for sex and age. The association between smoking rate and schizophrenia is consistent across countries, including Japan.

  15. Current status of robotic surgery in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The da Vinci S surgical system (Intuitive Surgical) was approved as a medical device in 2009 by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Robotic surgery has since been used in gastrointestinal, thoracic, gynecological, and urological surgeries. In April 2012, robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) was first approved for insurance coverage. Since then, RALP has been increasingly used, with more than 3,000 RALP procedures performed by March 2013. By July 2014, 183 institutions in Japan had installed the da Vinci surgical system. Other types of robotic surgeries are not widespread because they are not covered by public health insurance. Clinical trials using robotic partial nephrectomy and robotic gastrectomy for renal and gastric cancers, respectively, have recently begun as advanced medical treatments to evaluate health insurance coverage. These procedures must be evaluated for efficacy and safety before being covered by public health insurance. Other types of robotic surgery are being evaluated in clinical studies. There are several challenges in robotic surgery, including accreditation, training, efficacy, and cost. The largest issue is the cost-benefit balance. In this review, the current situation and a prospective view of robotic surgery in Japan are discussed. PMID:25763120

  16. Japan's baby bust: an economic issue?

    PubMed

    1998-09-01

    This brief article articulates that the solution to the declining birthrate in Japan is to change the corporate culture and societal values and begin putting the family first. At the present rate of fertility decline, Japan could well have just over 67 million total population in another 100 years, which is 50% of the present total. In 1990, the Finance Minister tried to convince Japanese couples to have more babies by abandoning policies that led women to higher education. The implication is that women would then want to stay at home and have babies. The prosperity of the late 1980s and early 1990s did not encourage higher fertility. The likely reason for low fertility is the male-dominated, corporate culture where male workers leave home early in the morning and work till late at night. Wives are left to care for children and maintain a full-time job. The total fertility rate (TFR) was 3.65 in 1950 and 1.39 in 1998. Both Germany and Italy have lower fertility but higher rates of immigration. The decline in the TFR is responsible for many of the current economic policies. New taxes were introduced in 1997 to pay for social security of the aged, and then the economy stalled. Life expectancies continue to rise. The elderly are a larger proportion of total population than children aged under 15 years. Women marry late, and the divorce rate is high. PMID:12348885

  17. Rail safety and rail privatisation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Evans, Andrew W

    2010-07-01

    Over the period from 1980 to the present, the economic status of the main line railway systems in many developed countries has changed, by privatisation or economic deregulation or both. The principal aims of such changes have been to improve the economic performance of the railways, and not to change the safety performance. Nevertheless, it is recognised that changing the organisational structure of railways might affect safety. The empirical evidence of the effect of restructuring on safety is limited, both in railways and in other industries. This paper adds to the empirical evidence by analysing train accidents in Japan before and after the privatisation of the Japanese National Railways (JNR) in 1987. The paper finds that the JNR achieved downward trends in the mean number of train accidents per train-kilometre in the 16 years 1971-1986, and the paper takes the extrapolation of these favourable trends as the yardstick by which to judge the safety performance of the privatised railways. The paper finds that the privatised railway had fewer train accidents in total than this yardstick in 1987-2006. This finding applies whether or not the high-speed Shinkansen train operations are included. Thus there is no evidence that rail privatisation in Japan had an adverse effect on train accidents. The methods adopted and the results are similar to those previously found by the author for rail privatisation in Great Britain. PMID:20441845

  18. Advances in table grape breeding in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Masahiko; Sato, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, few grape cultivars related to Vitis vinifera existed 200 years ago, on account of Japan’s high rainfall. Many V. labruscana and vinifera cultivars were introduced to Japan in the 19th century. Labruscana was grown instead of vinifera, mainly because of severe disease problems and a high incidence of berry cracking. Grape breeding for table use started in the 20th century, with the goal of combining the berry quality of vinifera with the ease of cultivation of labruscana. By 1945, three strategies were used: 1) crossing among introduced diploid vinifera and vinifera-related cultivars of Japanese origin, 2) interspecific crossing in tetraploid cultivars, and 3) interspecific crossing in diploid cultivars, resulting in ‘Neo Muscat’, ‘Kyoho’, and ‘Muscat Bailey A’. Later, tetraploid interspecific crossing over generations developed many ‘Kyoho’-related cultivars, including ‘Pione’, many of which have large berries, intermediate flesh texture between the two species, a labruscan or neutral flavor, and moderate disease resistance. Interspecific diploid crossing over generations developed ‘Shine Muscat’ in 2006, with large berries, crispy flesh, a muscat flavor, no cracking, seedless fruit by gibberellin application, and moderate resistance to downy mildew and ripe rot. PMID:27069389

  19. Historical review of BCG vaccine in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Saburo; Yamamoto, Toshiko

    2007-11-01

    Bacillus Calmette and Guérin (BCG) was introduced to Japan in 1924 by Kiyoshi Shiga and has been propagated for research purposes ever since propagation is accomplished using a glycerin-bile-potato mixture in the same manner used by Calmette and Guérin. To prepare a stable and safe freeze-dried BCG vaccine, several joint research projects were organized in 1949. At the National Institute of Infectious Diseases (formerly the National Institute of Health), the 172nd passage of BCG from the first culture was freeze-dried in 1961 and was used as the origin of the Japanese BCG strain, Tokyo-172. The Tokyo-172 was registered as an International Reference Strain in 1965 by the World Health Organization. In 1967, a multiple puncture method for BCG vaccination using a plastic cylinder implanted with nine fine needles at one end was introduced to Japan; thereafter, percutaneous administration replaced intradermal injection. The efficacy and adverse reactions of BCG vaccines as well as recent knowledge on the genetic characterization of BCG is also discussed.

  20. Trend of motorcycle engine valves in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Kiriyama, M.; Sasakura, T.

    1997-12-31

    Production of motorcycles in Japan has greatly decreased after peaking in 1981. However, as a result of an increase in local production, mainly in Asian nations, the production of sets, often called Knock Down (KD) sets, has been increasing. These sets are a shipment of parts that are ready for assembly in the importing country. In this area, motorcycle manufacturers are trying to improve performance and decrease noise and pollution. This report will outline the trends in motorcycle engine valves and the changes that have occurred with respect to valve materials, valve design specifications, and valve manufacturing processes, as experienced by Nittan Valve Co., Ltd. over the past 15 years. Motorcycles are used in various ways. They are used for transportation, sport, leisure, and hobby. Therefore, the forms and specifications of their bodies and engines are quite varied. The production of motorcycles in Japan has sharply decreased from an era of peak production in 1981 and in recent years, has remained low at around 3 million motorcycles per year. As a result, each motorcycle manufacturer has been promoting the local production in each country, and the production of KD sets is rapidly increasing today. The motorcycle and parts manufacturers are working on employing new technologies for anti-pollution measures, improving performance, decreasing noise, and better safety measures. With this in mind, the technological trends of Japanese engine valves being manufactured by Nittan Valve Co., Ltd. will be reported.

  1. [Descriptive epidemiology of mushroom poisoning in Japan].

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Y; Yamaura, Y

    1992-02-01

    The Incidence of mushroom poisoning was surveyed statistically from 1959 to 1988 in Japan. The results are summarized as follows: 1. During the past three decades, the total number of incidents of mushroom poisoning was 2,096, which involved 10,924 patients and 72 deaths. The average number of incidents was 70 cases per year, involving 364 patients and 2.4 deaths, and the number of incidents decreased gradually every year. Mushroom poisoning usually happened most frequently in September and October. 2. Considering regional differences, the incidence of mushroom poisoning was more frequent in the northeastern part of Japan than in the southwestern part. The incidences of mushroom poisoning in the prefectures of Nagano, Hokkaido, Niigata, Iwate and Fukushima were relatively high. 3. Three species of mushrooms, L. japonicus, R. rhodopolius (R. sinuatus) and T. ustale caused the majority of all poisonings. 4. The rates of total patients and fatalities for each type of poisoning, which were classified according to the symptoms caused, were 90.3% and 10.7% in the type with cholera-like symptoms, 90.2% and 0.2% in that with gastro-intestinal irritation, and 74.1% and 0% in that with neurological symptoms, respectively. PMID:1556831

  2. Management of HBV infection in Japan.

    PubMed

    Minami, Masahito; Okanoue, Takeshi

    2007-07-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is usually transmitted from mother to infant, and genotype C is prevalent in Japan. Because of these features, guidelines for HBV treatment from other countries are not directly adaptable to Japanese patients. Age is an important factor in deciding the treatment strategy, because many vertically transmitted HBV carriers naturally show spontaneous remission by the age of 25-30 years. In addition, genotype C is considered more refractory to antiviral therapies than genotypes A and B. Considering these differences, we propose a treatment for HBV in Japanese patients. Although the guidelines indicate who to treat and when therapy should be started, it is unclear for how long patientsshould be treated. This situation arises because current lamivudine and interferon monotherapies are not potent at curing HBV infection. To develop a more efficient treatment, we performed a pilot study of lamivudine/interferon sequential therapy in Japan. The biochemical and virological responses were comparable or superior to lamivudine or interferon monotherapies, and this protocol can be a potent alternative because we can take advantage of both the mild side-effects of lamivudine and finite duration of interferon.

  3. Hybrid electric vehicles in Europe and Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Wyczalek, F.A.

    1996-12-31

    Beginning in 1990, the major automotive passenger vehicle manufacturers once again reexamined the battery powered electric vehicle (EV). This intensive effort to reduce the battery EV to commercial practice focused attention on the key issue of limited vehicle range, resulting from the low energy density and high mass characteristics of batteries, in comparison to liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Consequently, by 1995, vehicle manufacturers turned their attention to hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). This redirection of EV effort is highlighted by the focus on experimental hybrid EV displayed at the 1995 Frankfurt Motor Show and the Tokyo Motor Show in Japan. In Europe the 56th IAA in Frankfurt included twelve or more EV designed for personnel transportation, and among them, two featured hybrid-electric (HEV) systems: the Peugeot turboelectric HEV, and the Opel Ermscher Selectra HEV. In Japan, at the 31st Tokyo Motor Show, among the twenty or more EV on display, seven were hybrid HEV by: Daihatsu, Mitsubishi, Toyota: and, the Suburu, Suzuki, and the Kia KEV4 parallel type HEV. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the key features of these hybrid propulsion systems. Among the conclusions, two issues are evident: one, the focus is on series-type hybrid systems, with the exception of the parallel Suburu and Suzuki HEV, and, two, the major manufacturers are turning to the hybrid concept in their search for solutions to two key EV Issues: limited driving range; and, heating and air conditioning, associated with the low energy density characteristic of batteries.

  4. EBM-based Clinical Guidelines for Pancreatic Cancer (2013) issued by the Japan Pancreas Society: a synopsis.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Koji; Okusaka, Takuji; Shimizu, Kyoko; Furuse, Junji; Ito, Yoshinori; Hanada, Keiji; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2014-10-01

    Clinical practice guidelines for pancreatic cancer based on evidence-based medicine (2006) were published by the Japan Pancreas Society (Committee for revision of clinical guidelines for pancreatic cancer) in March 2009 in Japanese, revised to Clinical Practice Guidelines for Pancreatic Cancer based on evidence-based medicine (2009) in July 2009 in Japanese and further revised to Clinical Practice Guidelines for Pancreatic Cancer (2013) in October 2013 in Japanese. These guidelines were established according to evidence-based medicine. A total of 629 papers were collected from among 4612 reports concerning pancreatic cancer listed in PubMed and Igakuchuo Zasshi between May 2007 and January 2011. This new set of guidelines was written by members of the Committee for the Revision of Clinical Practice Guidelines for Pancreatic Cancer in the Japan Pancreas Society. The guidelines provide an algorithm for the diagnosis (Fig. 1) and treatment (Fig. 2) of pancreatic cancer and address six subjects (Diagnosis, Surgery, Adjuvant therapy, Radiation therapy, Chemotherapy and stent therapy), with 35 clinical questions and 57 recommendations.

  5. Exome Sequencing of Uterine Leiomyosarcomas Identifies Frequent Mutations in TP53, ATRX, and MED12

    PubMed Central

    Mäkinen, Netta; Aavikko, Mervi; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Taipale, Minna; Taipale, Jussi; Koivisto-Korander, Riitta; Bützow, Ralf; Vahteristo, Pia

    2016-01-01

    Uterine leiomyosarcomas (ULMSs) are aggressive smooth muscle tumors associated with poor clinical outcome. Despite previous cytogenetic and molecular studies, their molecular background has remained elusive. To examine somatic variation in ULMS, we performed exome sequencing on 19 tumors. Altogether, 43 genes were mutated in at least two ULMSs. Most frequently mutated genes included tumor protein P53 (TP53; 6/19; 33%), alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX; 5/19; 26%), and mediator complex subunit 12 (MED12; 4/19; 21%). Unlike ATRX mutations, both TP53 and MED12 alterations have repeatedly been associated with ULMSs. All the observed ATRX alterations were either nonsense or frameshift mutations. ATRX protein levels were reliably analyzed by immunohistochemistry in altogether 44 ULMSs, and the majority of tumors (23/44; 52%) showed clearly reduced expression. Loss of ATRX expression has been associated with alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT), and thus the telomere length was analyzed with telomere-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization. The ALT phenotype was confirmed in all ULMSs showing diminished ATRX expression. Exome data also revealed one nonsense mutation in death-domain associated protein (DAXX), another gene previously associated with ALT, and the tumor showed ALT positivity. In conclusion, exome sequencing revealed that TP53, ATRX, and MED12 are frequently mutated in ULMSs. ALT phenotype was commonly seen in tumors, indicating that ATR inhibitors, which were recently suggested as possible new drugs for ATRX-deficient tumors, could provide a potential novel therapeutic option for ULMS. PMID:26891131

  6. MedXViewer: an extensible web-enabled software package for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Looney, P. T.; Young, K. C.; Mackenzie, Alistair; Halling-Brown, Mark D.

    2014-03-01

    MedXViewer (Medical eXtensible Viewer) is an application designed to allow workstation-independent, PACS-less viewing and interaction with anonymised medical images (e.g. observer studies). The application was initially implemented for use in digital mammography and tomosynthesis but the flexible software design allows it to be easily extended to other imaging modalities. Regions of interest can be identified by a user and any associated information about a mark, an image or a study can be added. The questions and settings can be easily configured depending on the need of the research allowing both ROC and FROC studies to be performed. The extensible nature of the design allows for other functionality and hanging protocols to be available for each study. Panning, windowing, zooming and moving through slices are all available while modality-specific features can be easily enabled e.g. quadrant zooming in mammographic studies. MedXViewer can integrate with a web-based image database allowing results and images to be stored centrally. The software and images can be downloaded remotely from this centralised data-store. Alternatively, the software can run without a network connection where the images and results can be encrypted and stored locally on a machine or external drive. Due to the advanced workstation-style functionality, the simple deployment on heterogeneous systems over the internet without a requirement for administrative access and the ability to utilise a centralised database, MedXViewer has been used for running remote paper-less observer studies and is capable of providing a training infrastructure and co-ordinating remote collaborative viewing sessions (e.g. cancer reviews, interesting cases).

  7. Exome Sequencing of Uterine Leiomyosarcomas Identifies Frequent Mutations in TP53, ATRX, and MED12.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Netta; Aavikko, Mervi; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Taipale, Minna; Taipale, Jussi; Koivisto-Korander, Riitta; Bützow, Ralf; Vahteristo, Pia

    2016-02-01

    Uterine leiomyosarcomas (ULMSs) are aggressive smooth muscle tumors associated with poor clinical outcome. Despite previous cytogenetic and molecular studies, their molecular background has remained elusive. To examine somatic variation in ULMS, we performed exome sequencing on 19 tumors. Altogether, 43 genes were mutated in at least two ULMSs. Most frequently mutated genes included tumor protein P53 (TP53; 6/19; 33%), alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX; 5/19; 26%), and mediator complex subunit 12 (MED12; 4/19; 21%). Unlike ATRX mutations, both TP53 and MED12 alterations have repeatedly been associated with ULMSs. All the observed ATRX alterations were either nonsense or frameshift mutations. ATRX protein levels were reliably analyzed by immunohistochemistry in altogether 44 ULMSs, and the majority of tumors (23/44; 52%) showed clearly reduced expression. Loss of ATRX expression has been associated with alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT), and thus the telomere length was analyzed with telomere-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization. The ALT phenotype was confirmed in all ULMSs showing diminished ATRX expression. Exome data also revealed one nonsense mutation in death-domain associated protein (DAXX), another gene previously associated with ALT, and the tumor showed ALT positivity. In conclusion, exome sequencing revealed that TP53, ATRX, and MED12 are frequently mutated in ULMSs. ALT phenotype was commonly seen in tumors, indicating that ATR inhibitors, which were recently suggested as possible new drugs for ATRX-deficient tumors, could provide a potential novel therapeutic option for ULMS. PMID:26891131

  8. Characteristics of Retractions from Korean Medical Journals in the KoreaMed Database: A Bibliometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hye-Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Flawed or misleading articles may be retracted because of either honest scientific errors or scientific misconduct. This study explored the characteristics of retractions in medical journals published in Korea through the KoreaMed database. Methods We retrieved retraction articles indexed in the KoreaMed database from January 1990 to January 2016. Three authors each reviewed the details of the retractions including the reason for retraction, adherence to retraction guidelines, and appropriateness of retraction. Points of disagreement were reconciled by discussion among the three. Results Out of 217,839 articles in KoreaMed published from 1990 to January 2016, the publication type of 111 articles was retraction (0.051%). Of the 111 articles (addressing the retraction of 114 papers), 58.8% were issued by the authors, 17.5% were jointly issued (author, editor, and publisher), 15.8% came from editors, and 4.4% were dispatched by institutions; in 5.3% of the instances, the issuer was unstated. The reasons for retraction included duplicate publication (57.0%), plagiarism (8.8%), scientific error (4.4%), author dispute (3.5%), and other (5.3%); the reasons were unstated or unclear in 20.2%. The degree of adherence to COPE’s retraction guidelines varied (79.8%–100%), and some retractions were inappropriate by COPE standards. These were categorized as follows: retraction of the first published article in the case of duplicate publication (69.2%), authorship dispute (15.4%), errata (7.7%), and other (7.7%). Conclusion The major reason for retraction in Korean medical journals is duplicate publication. Some retractions resulted from overreaction by the editors. Therefore, editors of Korean medical journals should take careful note of the COPE retraction guidelines and should undergo training on appropriate retraction practices. PMID:27706245

  9. CRYPTIC PRECOCIOUS/MED12 is a Novel Flowering Regulator with Multiple Target Steps in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Imura, Yuri; Kobayashi, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Sumiko; Furutani, Masahiko; Tasaka, Masao; Abe, Mitsutomo; Araki, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    The proper timing of flowering is of crucial importance for reproductive success of plants. Regulation of flowering is orchestrated by inputs from both environmental and endogenous signals such as daylength, light quality, temperature and hormones, and key flowering regulators construct several parallel and interactive genetic pathways. This integrative regulatory network has been proposed to create robustness as well as plasticity of the regulation. Although knowledge of key genes and their regulation has been accumulated, there still remains much to learn about how they are organized into an integrative regulatory network. Here, we have analyzed the CRYPTIC PRECOCIOUS (CRP) gene for the Arabidopsis counterpart of the MED12 subunit of the Mediator. A novel dominant mutant, crp-1D, which causes up-regulation of SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1), FRUITFULL (FUL) and APETALA1 (AP1) expression in a FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-dependent manner, was identified in an enhancer screen of the early-flowering phenotype of 35S::FT. Genetic and molecular analysis of both crp-1D and crp loss-of-function alleles showed that MED12/CRP is required not only for proper regulation of SOC1, FUL and AP1, but also for up-regulation of FT, TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF) and FD, and down-regulation of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). These observations suggest that MED12/CRP is a novel flowering regulator with multiple regulatory target steps both upstream and downstream of the key flowering regulators including FT florigen. Our work, taken together with recent studies of other Mediator subunit genes, supports an emerging view that the Mediator plays multiple roles in the regulation of flowering. PMID:22247249

  10. SLIM: an alternative Web interface for MEDLINE/PubMed searches – a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Muin, Michael; Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang; Ackerman, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Background With the rapid growth of medical information and the pervasiveness of the Internet, online search and retrieval systems have become indispensable tools in medicine. The progress of Web technologies can provide expert searching capabilities to non-expert information seekers. The objective of the project is to create an alternative search interface for MEDLINE/PubMed searches using JavaScript slider bars. SLIM, or Slider Interface for MEDLINE/PubMed searches, was developed with PHP and JavaScript. Interactive slider bars in the search form controlled search parameters such as limits, filters and MeSH terminologies. Connections to PubMed were done using the Entrez Programming Utilities (E-Utilities). Custom scripts were created to mimic the automatic term mapping process of Entrez. Page generation times for both local and remote connections were recorded. Results Alpha testing by developers showed SLIM to be functionally stable. Page generation times to simulate loading times were recorded the first week of alpha and beta testing. Average page generation times for the index page, previews and searches were 2.94 milliseconds, 0.63 seconds and 3.84 seconds, respectively. Eighteen physicians from the US, Australia and the Philippines participated in the beta testing and provided feedback through an online survey. Most users found the search interface user-friendly and easy to use. Information on MeSH terms and the ability to instantly hide and display abstracts were identified as distinctive features. Conclusion SLIM can be an interactive time-saving tool for online medical literature research that improves user control and capability to instantly refine and refocus search strategies. With continued development and by integrating search limits, methodology filters, MeSH terms and levels of evidence, SLIM may be useful in the practice of evidence-based medicine. PMID:16321145

  11. Bibliometric analysis on retinoblastoma literatures in PubMed during 1929 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhi-Guang; Guo, Xue-Gang; Xu, Chang-Tai; Pan, Bo-Rong; Xu, Li-Xian

    2011-01-01

    AIM To determine the growth rule and tendency of retinoblastoma (Rb) literature, and to provide the basis for research of diagnosis, treatment and on Rb. METHODS Bibliometric analyses were carried out on Rb literatures which contain the descriptors of Rb in their titles or texts from 1929 to 2010 in PubMed database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Pubmed). The biomedical journals referring to Rb by using bibliometric indicators were calculated. The principal bibliometric indicators, i.e., Price's and Bradford's laws to the increase or distribution of scientific literature, the participation index of languages and the journals were applied. By means of manual coding, Rb documents were classified according to documents studied and to statistical analysis. RESULTS During 1929-2010, there were 16162 literatures in the PubMed database including the word Rb. According to the literature type, it includes Review (n=2026), Randomized Controlled Trial (n=7), Practice guideline (n=3), meta-analysis (n=4), letter (n=215), editorial (n=98), clinical trial (n=115) and others (n=13694). By the statistical analysis, its equation is near power index (y=3.0477x2.6088, R2=0.9666). From 1929 to 2010, Rb literatures in English were primarily dominant (90.71%) and the amount of the literature in Chinese ranked the fourth (1.37%). By searching PubMed, 1420(8.8%) literatures covered were from 41 of 48 ophthalmological, and 406 (2.5%) literatures from 44 of 86 pediatrics journals that correlated with retinoblastoma (SCI-indexed). The data showed that the literatures of Rb were gradually increasing year by year and were approximate near power index during 1929-2010, and the document publishes published mainly in ophthalmological journals, and in English (90.71%), and showing that the study on Rb is a popular subject in the last half century. CONCLUSION The literatures of Rb are gradually increasing, mainly English in ophthalmologic journals. PMID:22553624

  12. Expression of AtMed15 of Arabidopsis in yeast causes flocculation and increases ethanol production in yeast culture

    PubMed Central

    Dahiya, Pradeep; Bhat, Divya S.; Thakur, Jitendra K.

    2016-01-01

    Mediator, a multiprotein complex involved in transcription of class II genes, was first discovered in yeast and then characterized in many metazoans revealing a striking structural conservation of the complex. However, sequences of Mediator subunits are not well conserved raising a question on the functional conservation of these individual subunits. In this study, expression of Med15 of Arabidopsis (AtMed15) in gal11∆ yeast could not complement the function of ScGal11 in galactose metabolism and resistance against cycloheximide. Surprisingly, AtMed15 changed the morphology of the yeast cells. The cells adhered strongly on the surface of the agar media, and showed robust flocculation in the liquid media without affecting the growth. The AtMed15-induced adhesion and flocculation were observed in different carbon sources. Calcium-assisted cell wall-bound mannan-binding proteins were found to be involved in this flocculation, which was unaffected by wide fluctuation of pH or temperatures revealing its constitutive robust nature. Expression of few flocculation related Flo genes was up-regulated in these cells. Interestingly, there was significant increase in ethanol production by the yeast expressing AtMed15. Robust and constitutive flocculation and increased ethanol production by yeast cells harbouring AtMed15 indicate an opportunity of its important usage in biotechnology industries. PMID:27306498

  13. Differing Behavioural Responses of Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 and MED to Cabbage Damaged by Conspecifics and Heterospecifics

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Hailong; Zeng, Yang; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Xu, Baoyun; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a serious pest with an extensive host range. Previous research has shown that B. tabaci is a species complex with many cryptic species or biotypes and that the two most important species are MEAM1 (Middle East-Minor Asia 1) and MED (Mediterranean genetic group). MEAM1 and MED are known to differ in their preference for cabbage, Brassica oleracea, as a host plant, however, the mechanism underlying this preference is unknown. In the current study, a host choice experiment showed that MED prefers to settle and oviposit on undamaged cabbage plants rather than MED-damaged cabbage plants. However, MEAM1 prefers MED-damaged cabbage plants to undamaged plants and does not exhibit a significant preference for undamaged or MEAM1-damaged cabbage plants. On the basis of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, the following volatiles were released in larger quantities from Q-damaged cabbage plants than from undamaged plants: 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, benzenemethanol, (E)-2-decenol, benzaldehyde, nonanal, acetic acid geraniol ester, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, decane, and α-longipinene. Only one volatile, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, was released in greater quantities from MEAM1-damaged cabbage plants than from undamaged plants. Our results suggest that differences in herbivore-induced host volatile release may help explain the differences between the preference of B. tabaci MEAM1 and MED for cabbage as a host. PMID:27731417

  14. Characterization of ERM transactivation domain binding to the ACID/PTOV domain of the Mediator subunit MED25.

    PubMed

    Landrieu, Isabelle; Verger, Alexis; Baert, Jean-Luc; Rucktooa, Prakash; Cantrelle, François-Xavier; Dewitte, Frédérique; Ferreira, Elisabeth; Lens, Zoé; Villeret, Vincent; Monté, Didier

    2015-08-18

    The N-terminal acidic transactivation domain (TAD) of ERM/ETV5 (ERM38-68), a PEA3 group member of Ets-related transcription factors, directly interacts with the ACID/PTOV domain of the Mediator complex subunit MED25. Molecular details of this interaction were investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The TAD is disordered in solution but has a propensity to adopt local transient secondary structure. We show that it folds upon binding to MED25 and that the resulting ERM-MED25 complex displays characteristics of a fuzzy complex. Mutational analysis further reveals that two aromatic residues in the ERM TAD (F47 and W57) are involved in the binding to MED25 and participate in the ability of ERM TAD to activate transcription. Mutation of a key residue Q451 in the VP16 H1 binding pocket of MED25 affects the binding of ERM. Furthermore, competition experiments show that ERM and VP16 H1 share a common binding interface on MED25. NMR data confirms the occupancy of this binding pocket by ERM TAD. Based on these experimental data, a structural model of a functional interaction is proposed. This study provides mechanistic insights into the Mediator-transactivator interactions. PMID:26130716

  15. Characterization of ERM transactivation domain binding to the ACID/PTOV domain of the Mediator subunit MED25

    PubMed Central

    Landrieu, Isabelle; Verger, Alexis; Baert, Jean-Luc; Rucktooa, Prakash; Cantrelle, François-Xavier; Dewitte, Frédérique; Ferreira, Elisabeth; Lens, Zoé; Villeret, Vincent; Monté, Didier

    2015-01-01

    The N-terminal acidic transactivation domain (TAD) of ERM/ETV5 (ERM38–68), a PEA3 group member of Ets-related transcription factors, directly interacts with the ACID/PTOV domain of the Mediator complex subunit MED25. Molecular details of this interaction were investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The TAD is disordered in solution but has a propensity to adopt local transient secondary structure. We show that it folds upon binding to MED25 and that the resulting ERM–MED25 complex displays characteristics of a fuzzy complex. Mutational analysis further reveals that two aromatic residues in the ERM TAD (F47 and W57) are involved in the binding to MED25 and participate in the ability of ERM TAD to activate transcription. Mutation of a key residue Q451 in the VP16 H1 binding pocket of MED25 affects the binding of ERM. Furthermore, competition experiments show that ERM and VP16 H1 share a common binding interface on MED25. NMR data confirms the occupancy of this binding pocket by ERM TAD. Based on these experimental data, a structural model of a functional interaction is proposed. This study provides mechanistic insights into the Mediator–transactivator interactions. PMID:26130716

  16. U.S., Japan Approach New Era in Science and Technology Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepkowski, Wil

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the status of U.S.-Japan relations regarding science and technology. Describes Japan's science and technology structure. Outlines trends in cooperation and competition for the technology market between the U.S. and Japan. (CW)

  17. Internal and contextual cues to tone perception in Medʉmba.

    PubMed

    Franich, Kathryn H

    2016-07-01

    This study presents results of an identification experiment with speakers of Medʉmba, a Grassfields Bantu language, aimed at evaluating the relative effects of f0 and duration in cuing tonal contrasts, as well as the role of lexical vs non-speech pitch contexts in biasing tone perception. Results show that duration is a cue for tone perception, with the influence of duration strongest where target f0 values were lower. Lexical tone perception is also sensitive to the identity of a preceding lexical tone, but not to the presence of a preceding non-speech pure tone. PMID:27475198

  18. COSMO SkyMed Dual-Polarization Mode to Observe Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunziata, F.; Migliaccio, M.; Montuori, A.

    2011-03-01

    In this study the capabilities of dual-polarization Ping Pong mode X-band Italian Space Agency (ASI) COSMO-SkyMed © Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data are first exploited to observe the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.A multi-polarization analysis is undertaken to evaluate the spatial variability of the contrast, i.e. the ratio between the Normalized Radar Cross Section (NRCS) relevant to the slick-free and oil-covered sea surface, within the polluted area and both in the HH and VV channels. Experimental results show the effectiveness of CSK© PingPong SAR data to observe oil spills.

  19. Beyond PubMed: Searching the “Grey Literature” for Clinical Trial Results

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trial results have been traditionally communicated through the publication of scholarly reports and reviews in biomedical journals. However, this dissemination of information can be delayed or incomplete, making it difficult to appraise new treatments, or in the case of missing data, evaluate older interventions. Going beyond the routine search of PubMed, it is possible to discover additional information in the “grey literature.” Examples of the grey literature include clinical trial registries, patent databases, company and industrywide repositories, regulatory agency digital archives, abstracts of paper and poster presentations on meeting/congress websites, industry investor reports and press releases, and institutional and personal websites. PMID:25337445

  20. Crowdsourcing Diagnosis for Patients With Undiagnosed Illnesses: An Evaluation of CrowdMed

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Ashley N.D; Longhurst, Christopher A

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite visits to multiple physicians, many patients remain undiagnosed. A new online program, CrowdMed, aims to leverage the “wisdom of the crowd” by giving patients an opportunity to submit their cases and interact with case solvers to obtain diagnostic possibilities. Objective To describe CrowdMed and provide an independent assessment of its impact. Methods Patients submit their cases online to CrowdMed and case solvers sign up to help diagnose patients. Case solvers attempt to solve patients’ diagnostic dilemmas and often have an interactive online discussion with patients, including an exchange of additional diagnostic details. At the end, patients receive detailed reports containing diagnostic suggestions to discuss with their physicians and fill out surveys about their outcomes. We independently analyzed data collected from cases between May 2013 and April 2015 to determine patient and case solver characteristics and case outcomes. Results During the study period, 397 cases were completed. These patients previously visited a median of 5 physicians, incurred a median of US $10,000 in medical expenses, spent a median of 50 hours researching their illnesses online, and had symptoms for a median of 2.6 years. During this period, 357 active case solvers participated, of which 37.9% (132/348) were male and 58.3% (208/357) worked or studied in the medical industry. About half (50.9%, 202/397) of patients were likely to recommend CrowdMed to a friend, 59.6% (233/391) reported that the process gave insights that led them closer to the correct diagnoses, 57% (52/92) reported estimated decreases in medical expenses, and 38% (29/77) reported estimated improvement in school or work productivity. Conclusions Some patients with undiagnosed illnesses reported receiving helpful guidance from crowdsourcing their diagnoses during their difficult diagnostic journeys. However, further development and use of crowdsourcing methods to facilitate diagnosis requires

  1. Beyond PubMed: Searching the "Grey Literature" for Clinical Trial Results.

    PubMed

    Citrome, Leslie

    2014-07-01

    Clinical trial results have been traditionally communicated through the publication of scholarly reports and reviews in biomedical journals. However, this dissemination of information can be delayed or incomplete, making it difficult to appraise new treatments, or in the case of missing data, evaluate older interventions. Going beyond the routine search of PubMed, it is possible to discover additional information in the "grey literature." Examples of the grey literature include clinical trial registries, patent databases, company and industrywide repositories, regulatory agency digital archives, abstracts of paper and poster presentations on meeting/congress websites, industry investor reports and press releases, and institutional and personal websites.

  2. Do you Mini-Med School? Leveraging library resources to improve Internet consumer health information literacy.

    PubMed

    Van Moorsel, G

    2001-01-01

    Popular for engaging public interest in medical science while promoting health awareness, Mini-Med School (MMS) programs also afford important if largely unrealized opportunities to improve the health information literacy of attendees. With a growing population using the Internet to make health decisions, needed venues for improving Internet Consumer Health Information (CHI) literacy may be found in the MMS platform. Surveyed directors of MMS programs understand the need to include CHI, and successful programs at SUNY Stony Brook and elsewhere demonstrate the potential for collaboration with affiliated health sciences libraries to integrate CHI instruction into MMS curricula.

  3. [Google and PubMed for physicians: how to find information without getting lost].

    PubMed

    Muñoz Núñez, C F; Sendra Portero, F

    2013-06-01

    Searching on Internet looking for clinically relevant medical information, used as a clinical decision aid tool, for self-learning or for research, is currently a common practice in Radiology. This task has been strengthened by the technological environment where radiologists work with direct access to information sources from the Workstation. The aim of this paper is to review the basic features of information searching tools in order to understand their functions and to optimize medical information searching on Internet. Google, Google Scholar and PubMed are reviewed as models for that purpose.

  4. The Politics of Religion: Modernity, Nationhood and Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibata, Masako

    2008-01-01

    While religion in Japan is traditionally linked to nationhood and nation-building, the post-war period has seen Shinto consciously invoked to restore a sense of national identity through a focus on Japan's victimhood. In this context, there is a focus on the Yasukuni Shrine, dedicated to the war dead and an icon of contemporary Japanese cultural…

  5. Ethics Education for Professionals in Japan: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maruyama, Yasushi; Ueno, Tetsu

    2010-01-01

    Ethics education for professionals has become popular in Japan over the last two decades. Many professional schools now require students to take an applied ethics or professional ethics course. In contrast, very few courses of professional ethics for teaching exist or have been taught in Japan. In order to obtain suggestions for teacher education,…

  6. The Trouble with Foreign Teachers of English in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Paul H.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses teaching of English in Japan and problems that can result when U.S. teachers go to Japan to teach English, including negative attitudes of teachers, teachers' inability to adjust to new culture, teachers' lack of commitment to their profession, and insistence of some teachers to do everything their way in classroom. Considers issues of…

  7. Caught in the Middle East: Japan's diplomacy in transition

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshitsu, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Japan's increasing dependence on Persian Gulf oil has caused its U.S.-centered foreign policy to shift. Drawing on personal interviews with senior Japanese officials, the author discusses Japan's changing diplomacy in regard to such problems as the Iran-Iraq war, Soviet aggression, and the Palestinian struggle for autonomy.

  8. Japan Trail '83: American Art Education Odyssey to the Orient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, Stephen Mark

    1983-01-01

    Five American middle school students went to Japan for two weeks in 1983 as ambassadors for American art education. Art education in Japan is much more centralized than in America. In addition to school study, children are exposed to traditional arts like the tea ceremony, calligraphy, and ikebana. (CS)

  9. In Search of Mutual Understanding: A Classroom Approach to Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Social Studies Development Center.

    An activity book is designed to address problems and oversights in classroom coverage of Japan discovered by the Japan/United States Textbook Study Project. Activities which focus on Japanese religion, language, and geography address two important questions: what immediate application does the textbook study have for classroom teachers and how can…

  10. Japan in the Provincial Educational Curricula of Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul F.

    This paper presents findings of a study conducted to identify where and how Japan is taught in the Canadian social studies curriculum. Social studies guidelines were obtained from the various provincial ministries of education in Canada and carefully scrutinized for treatment of Japan in the social studies. Findings are presented through a series…

  11. A Historical Review of English in Japan (1600-1880).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ike, Minoru

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the early history of the English language in Japan, from its introduction in the early 17th century through the 20th century, focusing on the role of English in regard to education, nationalism, and modernization. Also discussed is the current status of English instruction in Japan. (16 references) (MDM)

  12. Japan in the Classroom: Elementary and Secondary Activities, Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisi, Lynn; And Others

    This activity book is designed to present information and insights on Japanese culture and society. Because few teachers can devote entire units to the study of Japan, the activities focus on teaching about Japan within the context of larger social science units. Some of the lessons can be taught within the context of the humanities and fine arts,…

  13. Overview of Pre-College Science Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oki, Michinori

    The status of pre-college science education in Japan is reviewed and analyzed in this paper from four different perspectives having to do with the impact of the national syllabus and with social problems, teacher problems, and the changes occurring with students. Japan's national syllabus is explained and elements related to its implementation,…

  14. Ideas for Integrating Japan into the Curriculum. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    This ERIC Digest discusses how, by studying Japan, the larger context of the Asia-Pacific region can be explored and students can be introduced to current realities. The top 5 competitive countries for 1994 were the United States, Singapore, Japan, Hong Kong, and Germany. Because of the increasing interdependence between the United States and…

  15. Japan's Teacher Acculturation: Critical Analysis through Comparative Ethnographic Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Edward R.

    2005-01-01

    Cross-cultural teaching and research in Canada and Japan is reported. Ethnographic narrative methods were used to examine Japan's teacher acculturation. Canada's teachers are largely required to work in isolation, to learn their practice through trial and error. There is little provision for mentorship and insufficient time to reflect. In…

  16. Our Common Home: Earth. Japan (A Culture Study Unit).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Richard

    Designed to provide students and teachers with opportunities to investigate the social, cultural, and historical traits of Japan, this study unit can be adapted to the needs of any group within the social studies curriculum (grades 4-12). An overview and outline on Japan covers the areas of geography, population, history, unique features (e.g.,…

  17. 63 FR 30254 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1998-06-03

    .../89 54 FR 16010 A-484-801 04/17/89 54 FR 15243 Japan 731-TA-408 4/10/89 54 FR 16010 A-588-806 04/17/89 54 FR 15244 SUMMARY: The Commission invites comments from the public on whether changed circumstances... COMMISSION Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece and Japan AGENCY: United States International...

  18. 64 FR 23675 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-05-03

    ... orders on imports of electrolytic manganese dioxide from Greece and Japan (54 FR 15243). The Commission..., including the text of subpart F of part 207, are published at 63 FR 30599, June 5, 1998, and may be... COMMISSION Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Greece and Japan AGENCY: United States International...

  19. Japan and America: A Tale of Two Civilizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, Carol

    1991-01-01

    Discusses contact between the United States and Japan. Comments that the history of the relationship is a long one that becomes increasingly interdependent. Describes the relationship as characterized by a disparity of power and interest now shifting toward Japan. Emphasizes that changes in the relationship have always depended on the world…

  20. Intercultural Communication: Between Japan and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitao, Kenji; Kitao, S. Kathleen

    This collection of papers on the intercultural communication between the United States and Japan is divided into three sections. The first section, "Introduction to Intercultural Communication," describes the background of the relationship between Japan and the United States, the history of the study of intercultural communication, and some of the…