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Sample records for abstract background diabetic

  1. Reappraising Abstract Paintings after Exposure to Background Information

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seongmin A.; Yun, Kyongsik; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2015-01-01

    Can knowledge help viewers when they appreciate an artwork? Experts’ judgments of the aesthetic value of a painting often differ from the estimates of naïve viewers, and this phenomenon is especially pronounced in the aesthetic judgment of abstract paintings. We compared the changes in aesthetic judgments of naïve viewers while they were progressively exposed to five pieces of background information. The participants were asked to report their aesthetic judgments of a given painting after each piece of information was presented. We found that commentaries by the artist and a critic significantly increased the subjective aesthetic ratings. Does knowledge enable experts to attend to the visual features in a painting and to link it to the evaluative conventions, thus potentially causing different aesthetic judgments? To investigate whether a specific pattern of attention is essential for the knowledge-based appreciation, we tracked the eye movements of subjects while viewing a painting with a commentary by the artist and with a commentary by a critic. We observed that critics’ commentaries directed the viewers’ attention to the visual components that were highly relevant to the presented commentary. However, attention to specific features of a painting was not necessary for increasing the subjective aesthetic judgment when the artists’ commentary was presented. Our results suggest that at least two different cognitive mechanisms may be involved in knowledge- guided aesthetic judgments while viewers reappraise a painting. PMID:25945789

  2. [Driving capacity of diabetics against the background of legal principles].

    PubMed

    Becker, S

    2002-04-01

    Within the conversion of the 2nd Council Directive on Driving Licences of the Council of the European Communities (91/439/EEC) into national law, changes became necessary to the Road Traffic Act (StVG) and a new Driving Licence Ordinance (FeV) was created which has been in force since 01.01.1999 (Federal Law Gazette, 1998, Part I No. 55, 26. August 1998). Both in Annex III of the EC Directive and in Annex 4 of the Driving Licence Ordinance, statements are made with regard to the driving capability of diabetics. Besides this legal basis for evaluating capacity to drive a motor vehicle, the appraisal guidelines (Begutachtungs-Leitlinien zur Kraftfahrereignung) established in commission of the German Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Housing are to be understood as a set of rules which are outside the framework of actual legal statute as such and which are intended to support assessors in making decisions in individual cases. When considering whether an appraisal of driving capacity has to take place, in particular a difference is made between the different classes of vehicle. For motor cycles and passenger cars (Classes A and B), it will also be the case in future that a medical examination will only be ordered if there is a specific reason. Apart from this, only a sight test is necessary, as has been the practice up to now. In the case of lorries and buses (Classes C and D) and the licence for transportation of passengers (on a commercial basis) there will be an initial appraisal, as has also been the case up to now, and there will also be repeat appraisals. This is new for Class C, where up to the present there has only been an initial appraisal. The basic principle which applies is that the driving licence authority has the duty to instigate appraisal of the driving capacity of an applicant for a driving licence or of the holder of a driving licence if there is justified doubt about the driving capacity of the person concerned. PMID:11930290

  3. The Adiponectin Variants Contribute to the Genetic Background of Type 2 Diabetes in Turkish Population.

    PubMed

    Arikoglu, Hilal; Ozdemir, Hulya; Kaya, Dudu Erkoc; Ipekci, Suleyman Hilmi; Arslan, Ahmet; Kayis, Seyit Ali; Gonen, Mustafa Sait

    2013-10-26

    Adiponectin, an adipose tissue specific protein encoded by the Adiponectin gene, modulates insulin sensitivity and plays an important role in regulating energy homeostasis. Many studies have shown that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Adiponectin gene are associated with low plasma adiponectin levels, insulin resistance and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of the Adiponectin gene polymorphisms in genetic background of type 2 diabetes in a Turkish population. In total, 169 unrelated and non-obese diabetic patients and 119 age- and BMI-matched non-diabetic individuals with no family history of diabetes were enrolled in this study. We detected a significant association between type 2 diabetes and two SNPs: SNP -11391G>A, which is located in the promoter region of the Adiponectin gene, and SNP +276G>T, which is found in intron 2 of the gene (P<0.05). The silence SNP G15G (+45T>G) in exon 1 and SNP +349A>G in intron 2 also showed a weak association with type 2 diabetes (P=0.06 and P=0.07, respectively), while SNPs -3971A>G in intron 1 and Y111H, R112C and H241P in exon 3 showed no association (P>0.05). In conclusion, these findings suggest that Adiponectin gene polymorphisms might be effective on susceptibility for type 2 diabetes development which emerged from the interactions between multiple genes, variants and environmental factors. PMID:24513330

  4. Clinical characteristics, modalities and complications of diabetic patients with migration background at a Central European University Clinic.

    PubMed

    Handisurya, Ammon; Bancher-Todesca, Dagmar; Kamyar, Majid Reza; Lemmens-Gruber, Rosa; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess (i) the effects of immigration on the outcome of 200 consecutive singleton pregnancies in women with overt diabetes as well as (ii) gender-specific differences in cardiovascular risk factor profile and the achievement of therapeutic targets in type 2 diabetic subjects with migration background (n = 50). In pregnant subjects, baseline characteristics at admission, pregnancy outcome and the rate of obstetrical complications were similar in immigrant and non-immigrant women. Type 2 diabetes and also preconceptionally undiagnosed diabetes were significantly more frequent in women with migration background. Following delivery, immigrants presented with a worse metabolic profile, including higher triglyceride and nonHDL levels, than the indigenous population. Furthermore, within diabetic subjects with a migration background, non-pregnant women feature a more adverse cardiovascular risk factor profile than men. However, no gender-specific differences in the total adherence to clinical recommendations according to clinical recommendations have been found. PMID:21360290

  5. Red lesion detection using background estimation and lesions characteristics in diabetic retinal image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dongbo; Peng, Yinghui; Yi, Yao; Shang, Xingyu

    2013-10-01

    Detection of red lesions [hemorrhages (HRs) and microaneurysms (MAs)] is crucial for the diagnosis of early diabetic retinopathy. A method based on background estimation and adapted to specific characteristics of HRs and MAs is proposed. Candidate red lesions are located by background estimation and Mahalanobis distance measure and then some adaptive postprocessing techniques, which include vessel detection, nonvessel exclusion based on shape analysis, and noise points exclusion by double-ring filter (only used for MAs detection), are conducted to remove nonlesion pixels. The method is evaluated on our collected image dataset, and experimental results show that it is better than or approximate to other previous approaches. It is effective to reduce the false-positive and false-negative results that arise from incomplete and inaccurate vessel structure.

  6. Dietary education must fit into everyday life: a qualitative study of people with a Pakistani background and type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hempler, Nana F; Nicic, Sara; Ewers, Bettina; Willaing, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Background The high prevalence of diabetes among South Asian populations in European countries partially derives from unhealthy changes in dietary patterns. Limited studies address perspectives of South Asian populations with respect to utility of diabetes education in everyday life. This study explores perspectives on dietary diabetes education and healthy food choices of people living in Denmark who have a Pakistani background and type 2 diabetes. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted between October 2012 and December 2013 with 12 participants with type 2 diabetes who had received dietary diabetes education. Data analysis was systematic and was based on grounded theory principles. Results Participants described the process of integrating and utilizing dietary education in everyday life as challenging. Perceived barriers of the integration and utilization included a lack of a connection between the content of the education and life conditions, a lack of support from their social networks for dietary change, difficulty integrating the education into everyday life, and failure to include the participants’ taste preferences in the educational setting. Conclusion Dietary education that is sensitive to the attitudes, wishes, and preferences of the participants and that aims at establishing a connection to the everyday life of the participants might facilitate successful changes in dietary practices among people with a Pakistani background and type 2 diabetes. The findings suggest that more focus should be placed on collaborative processes in the dietary educational setting in order to achieve appropriate education and to improve communication between this population and health care professionals. PMID:25750523

  7. Background factors in patients with schizoaffective disorder as compared with patients with diabetes and healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Nettelbladt, P; Svensson, C; Serin, U

    1996-01-01

    Family history and psychosocial background factors were studied in married patients with a DSM-III diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder (n = 17, partners n = 16), married patients with diabetes (n = 10, partners n = 10) and married healthy individuals (n = 8, partners n = 8). The two latter groups were comparison control groups matched for gender and age to the patients with schizoaffective disorder. Affective disorder, not particularly schizoaffective disorder, was more common in first- and tended to be more common in second-degree relatives of patients with schizoaffective disorder as compared with controls. Poor parental relations, especially to the father, during the formative years were prominent in patients with schizoaffective disorder as compared with the controls. The same patients also more often than others gave a report of sexual encroachment, inside or outside the family, and corporal punishment during the growing-up years. PMID:8832200

  8. Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Diabetes What is Diabetes? Too Much Glucose in the Blood Diabetes means ... high, causing pre-diabetes or diabetes. Types of Diabetes There are three main kinds of diabetes: type ...

  9. Preconception care for diabetic women: background, barriers, and strategies for effective implementation.

    PubMed

    Sacks, David A

    2006-05-01

    Major congenital anomalies (MCAs) are defined as those which are lethal and/or which cause major handicaps and/or which require surgery. While the general population risk for having a baby with an MCA is one to three percent, that for a woman who has pregestational diabetes mellitus is three to six times as great. Fetal organogenesis takes place from the fifth to the eighth post-menstrual weeks. A body of evidence suggests that maternal hyperglycemia early in gestation is either contributory to fetal teratogenesis or is a surrogate marker for the causative agent of MCAs in infants of diabetic mothers. Given that organogenesis begins at the time of a woman's first recognition of pregnancy, and given the one or more weeks thereafter needed to establish prenatal care, it is essential that the woman who has diabetes attempt to lower her glucose concentrations and treat any intercurrent complications (e.g. hypertension, retinopathy) prior to the initiation of efforts to conceive. The elements of a preconception care program for pregestational diabetic women include health care provider education, patient recruitment and retention, education about family planning and distribution of contraception, the diagnosis and treatment of complications of diabetes, the establishment of control of maternal glucose, and the transition to intensive prenatal care. The support and encouragement of health care personnel, family, and friends is essential for patient retention and compliance with the often rigorous demands of good preconception care. PMID:18220623

  10. Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus: Essential Insights into the Molecular Background and Potential Therapies for Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rittig, Søren

    2013-01-01

    The water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2), expressed in the kidney collecting ducts, plays a pivotal role in maintaining body water balance. The channel is regulated by the peptide hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP), which exerts its effects through the type 2 vasopressin receptor (AVPR2). Disrupted function or regulation of AQP2 or the AVPR2 results in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), a common clinical condition of renal origin characterized by polydipsia and polyuria. Over several years, major research efforts have advanced our understanding of NDI at the genetic, cellular, molecular, and biological levels. NDI is commonly characterized as hereditary (congenital) NDI, arising from genetic mutations in the AVPR2 or AQP2; or acquired NDI, due to for exmple medical treatment or electrolyte disturbances. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of the genetic, cell biological, and pathophysiological causes of NDI, with emphasis on the congenital forms and the acquired forms arising from lithium and other drug therapies, acute and chronic renal failure, and disturbed levels of calcium and potassium. Additionally, we provide an overview of the exciting new treatment strategies that have been recently proposed for alleviating the symptoms of some forms of the disease and for bypassing G protein-coupled receptor signaling. PMID:23360744

  11. Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diabetic retinopathy Islets of Langerhans Pancreas Insulin pump Type I diabetes Diabetic blood circulation in foot Food and insulin release ... Saunders; 2015:chap 39. Dungan KM. Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In: Jameson JL, De Groot LJ, de ... hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome Gestational diabetes Hardening of the ...

  12. Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... glucose or pre-diabetes. These levels are risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Hemoglobin A1c (A1C) test: Normal is less than 5.7%; prediabetes is 5.7 to 6.4%; and diabetes is 6.5% or higher. Oral ...

  13. [PATOGENETIC VALUE OF VIOLATIONS FROM GLUTATHIONE SYSTEM AT THE PATIENTS WITH NONALCOHOLIC STEATOHEPATITIS ON A BACKGROUND OF DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE II].

    PubMed

    Sotskaya, Ya A; Homutyanskaya, N I; Dolgopolova, E V; Salamekh, K A

    2015-01-01

    At the patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis on a background of diabetes mellitus type II, after completion of the generally accepted medical treatment there was no normalization of indexes of the glutation system (the level of recovered glutation and activity of enzymes the glutation redox-system was saved decreased), that in a clinical plan was represented in.a presence unstable clinical and biochemical remission of disease. PMID:27491150

  14. Abstract Painting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkes, Robert

    1978-01-01

    Abstract art provokes numerous interpretations, and as many misunderstandings. The adolescent reaction is no exception. The procedure described here can help the student to understand the abstract from at least one direction. (Author/RK)

  15. Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... to develop type 2 diabetes later in life. Polycystic ovary syndrome Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition that occurs when an imbalance ... to form on the ovaries. Women who have PCOS are at an increased risk of developing type ...

  16. Fulminant Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Presenting 11 Days after Delivery in a Patient of Mixed Genetic Background.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Shoko; Fujihara, Kazuya; Kumagai, Ryo; Isono, Momoko; Yagyu, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    The patient was a 25-year-old woman whose paternal family was Japanese, maternal grandfather was Filipino, and maternal grandmother was Chinese. Eleven days after delivery, she presented with excessive thirst and disturbed consciousness due to diabetic ketoacidosis. She was diagnosed as having fulminant type 1 diabetes associated with pregnancy (PF). The antibody concentration against glutamic acid decarboxylase was 1.2 (<1.5) U/mL, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II haplotypes were DRB1*04:10-DQB1*03:02 and DRB1*15:02-DQB1*05:01. The present case had unique HLA class II haplotypes that have not been previously reported in association with PF. PMID:27432097

  17. Albert Renold Memorial Lecture: Molecular Background of Nutritionally Induced Insulin Resistance Leading to Type 2 Diabetes – From Animal Models to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Shafrir, Eleazar

    2001-01-01

    Albert Renold strived to gain insight into the abnormalities of human diabetes by defining the pathophysiology of the disease peculiar to a given animal. He investigated the Israeli desert-derived spiny mice (Acomys cahirinus), which became obese on fat-rich seed diet. After a few months hyperplasia and hypertrophy of β-cells occurred leading to a sudden rupture, insulin loss and ketosis. Spiny mice were low insulin responders, which is probably a characteristic of certain desert animals, protecting against insulin oversecretion when placed on an abundant diet. We have compared the response to overstimulation of several mutant diabetic species and nutritionally induced nonmutant animals when placed on affluent diet. Some endowed with resilient β-cells sustain long-lasting oversecretion, compensating for the insulin resistance, without lapsing into overt diabetes. Some with labile beta cells exhibit apoptosis and lose their capacity of coping with insulin resistance after a relatively short period. The wide spectrum of response to insulin resistance among different diabetes prone species seems to represent the varying response of human beta cells among the populations. In search for the molecular background of insulin resistance resulting from overnutrition we have studied the Israeli desert gerbil Psammomys obesus (sand rat), which progresses through hyperinsulinemia, followed by hyperglycemia and irreversible beta cell loss. Insulin resistance was found to be the outcome of reduced activation of muscle insulin receptor tyrosine kinase by insulin, in association with diminished GLUT4 protein and DNA content and overexpression of PKC isoenzymes, notably of PKCε. This overexpression and translocation to the membrane was discernible even prior to hyperinsulinemia and may reflect the propensity to diabetes in nondiabetic species and represent a marker for preventive action. By promoting the phosphorylation of serine/threonine residues on certain proteins of the

  18. The trends and the risk of type 1 diabetes over the past 40 years: an analysis by birth cohorts and by parental migration background in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Hussen, Hozan Ismael; Persson, Martina; Moradi, Tahereh

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the trends and the risk of developing type 1 diabetes in the offspring of Swedes and immigrants by specific parental migration background, age, sex and birth cohort. Design Registry-based cohort study. Setting Using Swedish nationwide data we analysed the risk of developing type 1 diabetes in 3 457 486 female and 3 641 304 male offspring between 0 and 30 years of age, born to native Swedes or immigrants and born and living in Sweden between 1969 and 2009. We estimated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% CIs using Poisson regression models. We further calculated age-standardised rates (ASRs) of type 1 diabetes, using the world population as standard. Results We observed a trend of increasing ASRs among offspring below 15 years of age born to native Swedes and a less evident increase among offspring of immigrants. We further observed a shift towards a younger age at diagnosis in younger birth cohorts in both groups of offspring.Compared with offspring of Swedes, children (0–14 years) and young adults (15–30 years) with one parent born abroad had an overall 30% and 15–20% lower IRR, respectively, after multivariable adjustment. The reduction in IRR was even greater among offspring of immigrants if both parents were born abroad. Analysis by specific parental region of birth revealed a 45–60% higher IRR among male and female offspring aged 0–30 years of Eastern Africa. Conclusions Parental country of birth and early exposures to environmental factors play an important role in the aetiology of type 1 diabetes. PMID:24176793

  19. DIABETES

    PubMed Central

    Urano, Fumihiko

    2014-01-01

    Limited options for clinical management of patients with juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus call for a novel therapeutic paradigm. Two innovative studies support endoplasmic reticulum as an emerging target for combating both autoimmune and heritable forms of this disease. PMID:24393784

  20. Abstract Constructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietropola, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Describes a lesson designed to culminate a year of eighth-grade art classes in which students explore elements of design and space by creating 3-D abstract constructions. Outlines the process of using foam board and markers to create various shapes and optical effects. (DSK)

  1. INVENTORY ABSTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ragan

    2001-12-19

    The purpose of the inventory abstraction, which has been prepared in accordance with a technical work plan (CRWMS M&O 2000e for ICN 02 of the present analysis, and BSC 2001e for ICN 03 of the present analysis), is to: (1) Interpret the results of a series of relative dose calculations (CRWMS M&O 2000c, 2000f). (2) Recommend, including a basis thereof, a set of radionuclides that should be modeled in the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (TSPA-FEIS). (3) Provide initial radionuclide inventories for the TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS models. (4) Answer the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)'s Issue Resolution Status Report ''Key Technical Issue: Container Life and Source Term'' (CLST IRSR) key technical issue (KTI): ''The rate at which radionuclides in SNF [spent nuclear fuel] are released from the EBS [engineered barrier system] through the oxidation and dissolution of spent fuel'' (NRC 1999, Subissue 3). The scope of the radionuclide screening analysis encompasses the period from 100 years to 10,000 years after the potential repository at Yucca Mountain is sealed for scenarios involving the breach of a waste package and subsequent degradation of the waste form as required for the TSPA-SR calculations. By extending the time period considered to one million years after repository closure, recommendations are made for the TSPA-FEIS. The waste forms included in the inventory abstraction are Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (CSNF), DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel (DSNF), High-Level Waste (HLW), naval Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium waste. The intended use of this analysis is in TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS. Based on the recommendations made here, models for release, transport, and possibly exposure will be developed for the isotopes that would be the highest contributors to the dose given a release to the

  2. Water reuse. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Middlebrooks, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 31 chapters of this book which deals with all aspects of wastewater reuse. Design data, case histories, performance data, monitoring information, health information, social implications, legal and organizational structures, and background information needed to analyze the desirability of water reuse are presented. (KRM)

  3. Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effectiveness of Genetic Counseling and a Distance, Computer-Based, Lifestyle Intervention Program for Adult Offspring of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Background, Study Protocol, and Baseline Patient Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Nishigaki, M.; Tokunaga-Nakawatase, Y.; Nishida, J.; Taru, C.; Miyawaki, I.; Sanada, H.; Kazuma, K.

    2012-01-01

    Relatives of type 2 diabetic patients are at a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes and should be regarded as target of intervention for diabetes prevention. However, it is usually hard to motivate them to implement preventive lifestyle changes, because of lack of opportunity to take advises from medical professionals, inadequate risk perception, and low priority for preventive behavior. Prevention strategy for them therefore should be highly acceptable and suited for them. The parallel, three-group trial is now being conducted to investigate the effects of genetic counseling and/or a computerized behavioral program on the prevention of type 2 diabetes in that population. The preventive strategies used in this study could provide a novel solution to the numbers of genetically high-risk individuals, if found to be effective. The objective of this paper is to describe the background, protocol, and baseline patient characteristics of the trial. PMID:22619705

  4. Use of a High-Density Protein Microarray to Identify Autoantibodies in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and an HLA Background Associated with Reduced Insulin Secretion.

    PubMed

    Chang, Douglas C; Piaggi, Paolo; Hanson, Robert L; Knowler, William C; Bucci, John; Thio, Guene; Hohenadel, Maximilian G; Bogardus, Clifton; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    New biomarkers for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may aid diagnosis, drug development or clinical treatment. Evidence is increasing for the adaptive immune system's role in T2DM and suggests the presence of unidentified autoantibodies. While high-density protein microarrays have emerged as a useful technology to identify possible novel autoantigens in autoimmune diseases, its application in T2DM has lagged. In Pima Indians, the HLA haplotype (HLA-DRB1*02) is protective against T2DM and, when studied when they have normal glucose tolerance, subjects with this HLA haplotype have higher insulin secretion compared to those without the protective haplotype. Possible autoantibody biomarkers were identified using microarrays containing 9480 proteins in plasma from Pima Indians with T2DM without the protective haplotype (n = 7) compared with those with normal glucose regulation (NGR) with the protective haplotype (n = 11). A subsequent validation phase involving 45 cases and 45 controls, matched by age, sex and specimen storage time, evaluated 77 proteins. Eleven autoantigens had higher antibody signals among T2DM subjects with the lower insulin-secretion HLA background compared with NGR subjects with the higher insulin-secretion HLA background (p<0.05, adjusted for multiple comparisons). PPARG2 and UBE2M had lowest p-values (adjusted p = 0.023) while PPARG2 and RGS17 had highest case-to-control antibody signal ratios (1.7). A multi-protein classifier involving the 11 autoantigens had sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of 0.73, 0.80, and 0.83 (95% CI 0.74-0.91, p = 3.4x10-8), respectively. This study identified 11 novel autoantigens which were associated with T2DM and an HLA background associated with reduced insulin secretion. While further studies are needed to distinguish whether these antibodies are associated with insulin secretion via the HLA background, T2DM more broadly, or a combination of the two, this study may

  5. Diabetic Retinopathy: Nature and Extent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, W. Ronald; Patz, Arnall

    1978-01-01

    The authors discuss the incidence and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in juvenile and maturity onset diabetics, background and proliferative retinopathy, and current modalities of treatment. (Author)

  6. Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Vision Simulator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diabetic Retinopathy Vision Simulator Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Vision Simulator Mar. 03, 2014 How does non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy affect your vision? Nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, also known as background retinopathy, ...

  7. Abstraction in perceptual symbol systems.

    PubMed Central

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2003-01-01

    After reviewing six senses of abstraction, this article focuses on abstractions that take the form of summary representations. Three central properties of these abstractions are established: ( i ) type-token interpretation; (ii) structured representation; and (iii) dynamic realization. Traditional theories of representation handle interpretation and structure well but are not sufficiently dynamical. Conversely, connectionist theories are exquisitely dynamic but have problems with structure. Perceptual symbol systems offer an approach that implements all three properties naturally. Within this framework, a loose collection of property and relation simulators develops to represent abstractions. Type-token interpretation results from binding a property simulator to a region of a perceived or simulated category member. Structured representation results from binding a configuration of property and relation simulators to multiple regions in an integrated manner. Dynamic realization results from applying different subsets of property and relation simulators to category members on different occasions. From this standpoint, there are no permanent or complete abstractions of a category in memory. Instead, abstraction is the skill to construct temporary online interpretations of a category's members. Although an infinite number of abstractions are possible, attractors develop for habitual approaches to interpretation. This approach provides new ways of thinking about abstraction phenomena in categorization, inference, background knowledge and learning. PMID:12903648

  8. Piaget on Abstraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moessinger, Pierre; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    1981-01-01

    Reviews and discusses Piaget's recent work on abstract reasoning. Piaget's distinction between empirical and reflective abstraction is presented; his hypotheses are considered to be metaphorical. (Author/DB)

  9. Abstract Expressionism. Clip and Save.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on the art movement, Abstract Expressionism, and includes learning activities. Focuses on the artist Jackson Pollock, offering a reproduction of his artwork, "Convergence: Number 10." Includes background information on the life and career of Pollock and a description of the included artwork. (CMK)

  10. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineering Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Papers abstracted represent those submitted to the distribution center at the 83rd American Society for Engineering Education Convention. Abstracts are grouped under headings corresponding to the main topic of the paper. (Editor/CP)

  11. Abstraction and Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John; Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih

    2006-01-01

    The framework for this paper is a recently developed theory of abstraction in context. The paper reports on data collected from one student working on tasks concerned with absolute value functions. It examines the relationship between mathematical constructions and abstractions. It argues that an abstraction is a consolidated construction that can…

  12. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  13. Abstraction and Problem Reformulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giunchiglia, Fausto

    1992-01-01

    In work done jointly with Toby Walsh, the author has provided a sound theoretical foundation to the process of reasoning with abstraction (GW90c, GWS9, GW9Ob, GW90a). The notion of abstraction formalized in this work can be informally described as: (property 1), the process of mapping a representation of a problem, called (following historical convention (Sac74)) the 'ground' representation, onto a new representation, called the 'abstract' representation, which, (property 2) helps deal with the problem in the original search space by preserving certain desirable properties and (property 3) is simpler to handle as it is constructed from the ground representation by "throwing away details". One desirable property preserved by an abstraction is provability; often there is a relationship between provability in the ground representation and provability in the abstract representation. Another can be deduction or, possibly inconsistency. By 'throwing away details' we usually mean that the problem is described in a language with a smaller search space (for instance a propositional language or a language without variables) in which formulae of the abstract representation are obtained from the formulae of the ground representation by the use of some terminating rewriting technique. Often we require that the use of abstraction results in more efficient .reasoning. However, it might simply increase the number of facts asserted (eg. by allowing, in practice, the exploration of deeper search spaces or by implementing some form of learning). Among all abstractions, three very important classes have been identified. They relate the set of facts provable in the ground space to those provable in the abstract space. We call: TI abstractions all those abstractions where the abstractions of all the provable facts of the ground space are provable in the abstract space; TD abstractions all those abstractions wllere the 'unabstractions' of all the provable facts of the abstract space are

  14. Abstraction in mathematics.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Pier Luigi

    2003-07-29

    Some current interpretations of abstraction in mathematical settings are examined from different perspectives, including history and learning. It is argued that abstraction is a complex concept and that it cannot be reduced to generalization or decontextualization only. In particular, the links between abstraction processes and the emergence of new objects are shown. The role that representations have in abstraction is discussed, taking into account both the historical and the educational perspectives. As languages play a major role in mathematics, some ideas from functional linguistics are applied to explain to what extent mathematical notations are to be considered abstract. Finally, abstraction is examined from the perspective of mathematics education, to show that the teaching ideas resulting from one-dimensional interpretations of abstraction have proved utterly unsuccessful. PMID:12903658

  15. Diabetes Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Financial Help for Diabetes Care Diabetes Statistics Diabetes Medicines What do diabetes medicines do? Over time, high levels of blood glucose, ... your diabetes medicines, food choices, and physical activity. Medicines for My Diabetes Ask your doctor what type ...

  16. Association Between Diabetic Macular Edema and Cardiovascular Events in Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    PubMed Central

    Leveziel, Nicolas; Ragot, Stéphanie; Gand, Elise; Lichtwitz, Olivier; Halimi, Jean Michel; Gozlan, Julien; Gourdy, Pierre; Robert, Marie-Françoise; Dardari, Dured; Boissonnot, Michèle; Roussel, Ronan; Piguel, Xavier; Dupuy, Olivier; Torremocha, Florence; Saulnier, Pierre-Jean; Maréchaud, Richard; Hadjadj, Samy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Diabetic macular edema (DME) is the main cause of visual loss associated with diabetes but any association between DME and cardiovascular events is unclear. This study aims to describe the possible association between DME and cardiovascular events in a multicenter cross-sectional study of patients with type 2 diabetes. Two thousand eight hundred seven patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited from diabetes and nephrology clinical institutional centers participating in the DIAB 2 NEPHROGENE study focusing on diabetic complications. DME (presence/absence) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) classification were based on ophthalmological report and/or on 30° color retinal photographs. DR was defined as absent, nonproliferative (background, moderate, or severe) or proliferative. Cardiovascular events were stroke, myocardial infarction, and lower limb amputation. Details regarding associations between DME and cardiovascular events were evaluated. The study included 2807 patients with type 2 diabetes, of whom 355 (12.6%) had DME. DME was significantly and independently associated with patient age, known duration of diabetes, HbA1c, systolic blood pressure, and DR stage. Only the prior history of lower limb amputation was strongly associated with DME in univariate and multivariate analyses, whereas no association was found with regard to myocardial infarction or stroke. Moreover, both major (n = 32) and minor lower limb (n = 96) amputations were similarly associated with DME, with respective odds ratio of 3.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.77–7.74; P = 0.0012) and of 4.29 (95% CI, 2.79–6.61; P < 0.001). DME is strongly and independently associated with lower limb amputation in type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:26287408

  17. Loving Those Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Lori

    2004-01-01

    The author describes a lesson she did on abstract art with her high school art classes. She passed out a required step-by-step outline of the project process. She asked each of them to look at abstract art. They were to list five or six abstract artists they thought were interesting, narrow their list down to the one most personally intriguing,…

  18. Community Development Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    This volume of 1,108 abstracts summarizes the majority of important works on community development during the last ten years. Part I contains abstracts of periodical literature and is classified into 19 sections, including general history, communications, community and area studies, decision-making, leadership, migration and settlement, social…

  19. Leadership Abstracts, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Mark D., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide brief discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 10 for 1997 contains the following 12 abstracts: (1) "On Community College Renewal" (Nathan L. Hodges and Mark D. Milliron); (2) "The Community College Niche in a…

  20. Has Abstractness Been Resolved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Omoush, Ahmad

    1989-01-01

    A discussion focusing on the abstractness of analysis in phonology, debated since the 1960s, describes the issue, reviews the literature on the subject, cites specific natural language examples, and examines the extent to which the issue has been resolved. An underlying representation is said to be abstract if it is different from the derived one,…

  1. Designing for Mathematical Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Dave; Noss, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Our focus is on the design of systems (pedagogical, technical, social) that encourage mathematical abstraction, a process we refer to as "designing for abstraction." In this paper, we draw on detailed design experiments from our research on children's understanding about chance and distribution to re-present this work as a case study in designing…

  2. Knowledge-Based Abstracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of automatic abstracting of technical papers focuses on a knowledge-based method that uses two sets of rules. Topics discussed include anaphora; text structure and discourse; abstracting techniques, including the keyword method and the indicator phrase method; and tools for text skimming. (27 references) (LRW)

  3. Leadership Abstracts, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Larry, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide two-page discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, and teaching in community colleges. The 12 abstracts for Volume 8, 1995, are: (1) "Redesigning the System To Meet the Workforce Training Needs of the Nation," by Larry Warford; (2) "The College President, the Board, and the Board Chair: A…

  4. Paper Abstract Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Abstraction is, in effect, a simplification and reduction of shapes with an absence of detail designed to comprise the essence of the more naturalistic images being depicted. Without even intending to, young children consistently create interesting, and sometimes beautiful, abstract compositions. A child's creations, moreover, will always seem to…

  5. Is It Really Abstract?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2011-01-01

    For this author, one of the most enjoyable aspects of teaching elementary art is the willingness of students to embrace the different styles of art introduced to them. In this article, she describes a project that allows upper-elementary students to learn about abstract art and the lives of some of the master abstract artists, implement the idea…

  6. Journalism Abstracts. Vol. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popovich, Mark N., Ed.

    This book, the fifteenth volume of an annual publication, contains 373 abstracts of 52 doctoral and 321 master's theses from 50 colleges and universities. The abstracts are arranged alphabetically by author, with the doctoral dissertations appearing first. These cover such topics as advertising, audience analysis, content analysis of news issues…

  7. Leadership Abstracts, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Larry, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide two-page discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 9 for 1996 includes the following 12 abstracts: (1) "Tech-Prep + School-To-Work: Working Together To Foster Educational Reform," (Roderick F. Beaumont); (2)…

  8. Mathematical Abstraction through Scaffolding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih; Roper, Tom

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the role of scaffolding in the process of abstraction. An activity-theoretic approach to abstraction in context is taken. This examination is carried out with reference to verbal protocols of two 17 year-old students working together on a task connected to sketching the graph of |f|x|)|. Examination of the data suggests that…

  9. Abstract coherent categories.

    PubMed

    Rehder, B; Ross, B H

    2001-09-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the importance of the knowledge that interrelates features in people's mental representation of categories and that makes our conception of categories coherent. This article focuses on abstract coherent categories, coherent categories that are also abstract because they are defined by relations independently of any features. Four experiments demonstrate that abstract coherent categories are learned more easily than control categories with identical features and statistical structure, and also that participants induced an abstract representation of the category by granting category membership to exemplars with completely novel features. The authors argue that the human conceptual system is heavily populated with abstract coherent concepts, including conceptions of social groups, societal institutions, legal, political, and military scenarios, and many superordinate categories, such as classes of natural kinds. PMID:11550753

  10. Abstract Datatypes in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan

    1997-01-01

    PVS (Prototype Verification System) is a general-purpose environment for developing specifications and proofs. This document deals primarily with the abstract datatype mechanism in PVS which generates theories containing axioms and definitions for a class of recursive datatypes. The concepts underlying the abstract datatype mechanism are illustrated using ordered binary trees as an example. Binary trees are described by a PVS abstract datatype that is parametric in its value type. The type of ordered binary trees is then presented as a subtype of binary trees where the ordering relation is also taken as a parameter. We define the operations of inserting an element into, and searching for an element in an ordered binary tree; the bulk of the report is devoted to PVS proofs of some useful properties of these operations. These proofs illustrate various approaches to proving properties of abstract datatype operations. They also describe the built-in capabilities of the PVS proof checker for simplifying abstract datatype expressions.

  11. Abstract Interpreters for Free

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Might, Matthew

    In small-step abstract interpretations, the concrete and abstract semantics bear an uncanny resemblance. In this work, we present an analysis-design methodology that both explains and exploits that resemblance. Specifically, we present a two-step method to convert a small-step concrete semantics into a family of sound, computable abstract interpretations. The first step re-factors the concrete state-space to eliminate recursive structure; this refactoring of the state-space simultaneously determines a store-passing-style transformation on the underlying concrete semantics. The second step uses inference rules to generate an abstract state-space and a Galois connection simultaneously. The Galois connection allows the calculation of the "optimal" abstract interpretation. The two-step process is unambiguous, but nondeterministic: at each step, analysis designers face choices. Some of these choices ultimately influence properties such as flow-, field- and context-sensitivity. Thus, under the method, we can give the emergence of these properties a graph-theoretic characterization. To illustrate the method, we systematically abstract the continuation-passing style lambda calculus to arrive at two distinct families of analyses. The first is the well-known k-CFA family of analyses. The second consists of novel "environment-centric" abstract interpretations, none of which appear in the literature on static analysis of higher-order programs.

  12. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents abstracts of SIG Sessions. Highlights include digital collections; information retrieval methods; public interest/fair use; classification and indexing; electronic publication; funding; globalization; information technology projects; interface design; networking in developing countries; metadata; multilingual databases; networked…

  13. Automatic Abstraction in Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, abstraction in planning has been accomplished by either state abstraction or operator abstraction, neither of which has been fully automatic. We present a new method, predicate relaxation, for automatically performing state abstraction. PABLO, a nonlinear hierarchical planner, implements predicate relaxation. Theoretical, as well as empirical results are presented which demonstrate the potential advantages of using predicate relaxation in planning. We also present a new definition of hierarchical operators that allows us to guarantee a limited form of completeness. This new definition is shown to be, in some ways, more flexible than previous definitions of hierarchical operators. Finally, a Classical Truth Criterion is presented that is proven to be sound and complete for a planning formalism that is general enough to include most classical planning formalisms that are based on the STRIPS assumption.

  14. 1971 Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Included are 112 abstracts listed under headings such as: acoustics, continuing engineering studies, educational research and methods, engineering design, libraries, liberal studies, and materials. Other areas include agricultural, electrical, mechanical, mineral, and ocean engineering. (TS)

  15. 2016 ACPA MEETING ABSTRACTS.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    The peer-reviewed abstracts presented at the 73rd Annual Meeting of the ACPA are published as submitted by the authors. For financial conflict of interest disclosure, please visit http://meeting.acpa-cpf.org/disclosures.html. PMID:27447885

  16. Abstracts of contributed papers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  17. Diabetes - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - diabetes ... The following sites provide further information on diabetes : American Diabetes Association -- www.diabetes.org Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International -- www.jdrf.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion -- ...

  18. Metacognition and abstract reasoning.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Thompson, Valerie A; Brisson, Janie

    2015-05-01

    The nature of people's meta-representations of deductive reasoning is critical to understanding how people control their own reasoning processes. We conducted two studies to examine whether people have a metacognitive representation of abstract validity and whether familiarity alone acts as a separate metacognitive cue. In Study 1, participants were asked to make a series of (1) abstract conditional inferences, (2) concrete conditional inferences with premises having many potential alternative antecedents and thus specifically conducive to the production of responses consistent with conditional logic, or (3) concrete problems with premises having relatively few potential alternative antecedents. Participants gave confidence ratings after each inference. Results show that confidence ratings were positively correlated with logical performance on abstract problems and concrete problems with many potential alternatives, but not with concrete problems with content less conducive to normative responses. Confidence ratings were higher with few alternatives than for abstract content. Study 2 used a generation of contrary-to-fact alternatives task to improve levels of abstract logical performance. The resulting increase in logical performance was mirrored by increases in mean confidence ratings. Results provide evidence for a metacognitive representation based on logical validity, and show that familiarity acts as a separate metacognitive cue. PMID:25416026

  19. Thyra Abstract Interface Package

    2005-09-01

    Thrya primarily defines a set of abstract C++ class interfaces needed for the development of abstract numerical atgorithms (ANAs) such as iterative linear solvers, transient solvers all the way up to optimization. At the foundation of these interfaces are abstract C++ classes for vectors, vector spaces, linear operators and multi-vectors. Also included in the Thyra package is C++ code for creating concrete vector, vector space, linear operator, and multi-vector subclasses as well as other utilitiesmore » to aid in the development of ANAs. Currently, very general and efficient concrete subclass implementations exist for serial and SPMD in-core vectors and multi-vectors. Code also currently exists for testing objects and providing composite objects such as product vectors.« less

  20. Abstracting and indexing guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Department of the Interior; Office of Water Resources Research

    1974-01-01

    These instructions have been prepared for those who abstract and index scientific and technical documents for the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC). With the recent publication growth in all fields, information centers have undertaken the task of keeping the various scientific communities aware of current and past developments. An abstract with carefully selected index terms offers the user of WRSIC services a more rapid means for deciding whether a document is pertinent to his needs and professional interests, thus saving him the time necessary to scan the complete work. These means also provide WRSIC with a document representation or surrogate which is more easily stored and manipulated to produce various services. Authors are asked to accept the responsibility for preparing abstracts of their own papers to facilitate quick evaluation, announcement, and dissemination to the scientific community.

  1. Diabetes mellitus in Greenland.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Michael Lynge

    2012-02-01

    Fifty years ago type 2 diabetes mellitus was very rare in Greenland. Recent epidemiological studies have found a high prevalence of diabetes among Greenlanders comparable to levels among Inuit populations in Canada and Alaska. In 2008 a national diabetes programme was implemented aiming to improve the care for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Greenland based on a donation from Novo Nordisk A/S to the national health care service. A diabetes concept based on national guidelines, systematized recording in an electronically medical record and feedback to the clinics were used to improve the diabetes care. The overall aim of this thesis was to evaluate if implementation of a diabetes programme in Greenland would have a measurable effect on the quality in diabetes care including diagnostic activity and screening for diabetic complications. Two observational and cross sectional studies were performed in Greenland 2008 and 2010 before and after implementation of the diabetes programme. The medical records of patients with diabetes were reviewed. The prevalence was estimated using the whole adult population in Greenland as background population. The quality of the diabetes care was monitored by 12 health care indicators. The prevalence of diagnosed cases with type 2 diabetes mellitus among Greenlanders has increased over a period of two years. In the same period a significant increase in the quality of care in diabetes in Greenland has been documented concerning all process-of-care indicators. Significantly regional variation in the diabetes care was demonstrated in 2008. The quality in the diabetes care was best in clinics with a database. In 2010 a more homogenate quality among the clinics in the diabetes care was demonstrated. These effects could be a result of the diabetes programme implanted in between the two observations. In conclusion, improved quality in the diabetes care along with an increasing prevalence of diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus has been

  2. Abstraction and art.

    PubMed Central

    Gortais, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    In a given social context, artistic creation comprises a set of processes, which relate to the activity of the artist and the activity of the spectator. Through these processes we see and understand that the world is vaster than it is said to be. Artistic processes are mediated experiences that open up the world. A successful work of art expresses a reality beyond actual reality: it suggests an unknown world using the means and the signs of the known world. Artistic practices incorporate the means of creation developed by science and technology and change forms as they change. Artists and the public follow different processes of abstraction at different levels, in the definition of the means of creation, of representation and of perception of a work of art. This paper examines how the processes of abstraction are used within the framework of the visual arts and abstract painting, which appeared during a period of growing importance for the processes of abstraction in science and technology, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The development of digital platforms and new man-machine interfaces allow multimedia creations. This is performed under the constraint of phases of multidisciplinary conceptualization using generic representation languages, which tend to abolish traditional frontiers between the arts: visual arts, drama, dance and music. PMID:12903659

  3. The SIDdatagrabber (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvis, G.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The Stanford/SARA SuperSid project offers an opportunity for adding data to the AAVSO SID Monitoring project. You can now build a SID antenna and monitoring setup for about $150. And with the SIDdatagrabber application you can easily re-purpose the data collected for the AAVSO.

  4. Making the Abstract Concrete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2005-01-01

    President Ronald Reagan nominated a woman to serve on the United States Supreme Court. He did so through a single-page form letter, completed in part by hand and in part by typewriter, announcing Sandra Day O'Connor as his nominee. While the document serves as evidence of a historic event, it is also a tangible illustration of abstract concepts…

  5. Learning Abstracts, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Volume 4 of the League for Innovation in the Community College's Learning Abstracts include the following: (1) "Touching Students in the Digital Age: The Move Toward Learner Relationship Management (LRM)," by Mark David Milliron, which offers an overview of an organizing concept to help community colleges navigate the intersection between digital…

  6. Leadership Abstracts, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.; Milliron, Mark David, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 volume of Leadership Abstracts contains issue numbers 1-12. Articles include: (1) "Skills Certification and Workforce Development: Partnering with Industry and Ourselves," by Jeffrey A. Cantor; (2) "Starting Again: The Brookhaven Success College," by Alice W. Villadsen; (3) "From Digital Divide to Digital Democracy," by Gerardo E. de los…

  7. Leadership Abstracts, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This document includes 10 issues of Leadership Abstracts (volume 6, 1993), a newsletter published by the League for Innovation in the Community College (California). The featured articles are: (1) "Reinventing Government" by David T. Osborne; (2) "Community College Workforce Training Programs: Expanding the Mission to Meet Critical Needs" by…

  8. Abstraction through Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avraamidou, Antri; Monaghan, John; Walker, Aisha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the computer game play of an 11-year-old boy. In the course of building a virtual house he developed and used, without assistance, an artefact and an accompanying strategy to ensure that his house was symmetric. We argue that the creation and use of this artefact-strategy is a mathematical abstraction. The discussion…

  9. CIRF Abstracts, Volume 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    The aim of the CIRF abstracts is to convey information about vocational training ideas, programs, experience, and experiments described in periodicals, books, and other publications and relating to operative personnel, supervisors, and technical and training staff in all sectors of economic activity. Information is also given on major trends in…

  10. Leadership Abstracts, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadership Abstracts, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This document contains five Leadership Abstracts publications published February-December 1999. The article, "Teaching the Teachers: Meeting the National Teacher Preparation Challenge," authored by George R. Boggs and Sadie Bragg, examines the community college role and makes recommendations and a call to action for teacher education. "Chaos…

  11. Double Trouble (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, M.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) Variable stars with close companions can be difficult to accurately measure and characterize. The companions can create misidentifications, which in turn can affect the perceived magnitudes, amplitudes, periods, and colors of the variable stars. We will show examples of these Double Trouble stars and the impact their close companions have had on our understanding of some of these variable stars.

  12. Send Me No Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Steven

    1985-01-01

    Discusses Magazine Index's practice of assigning letter grades (sometimes inaccurate) to book, restaurant, and movie reviews, thus allowing patrons to get the point of the review from the index rather than the article itself, and argues that this situation is indicative of the larger problem of reliability of abstracts. (MBR)

  13. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineering Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presents the abstracts of 158 papers presented at the American Society for Engineering Education's annual conference at Knoxville, Tennessee, June 14-17, 1976. Included are engineering topics covering education, aerospace, agriculture, biomedicine, chemistry, computers, electricity, acoustics, environment, mechanics, and women. (SL)

  14. Reasoning abstractly about resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, B.; Barrett, A.

    2001-01-01

    r describes a way to schedule high level activities before distributing them across multiple rovers in order to coordinate the resultant use of shared resources regardless of how each rover decides how to perform its activities. We present an algorithm for summarizing the metric resource requirements of an abstract activity based n the resource usages of its potential refinements.

  15. Humor, abstraction, and disbelief.

    PubMed

    Hoicka, Elena; Jutsum, Sarah; Gattis, Merideth

    2008-09-01

    We investigated humor as a context for learning about abstraction and disbelief. More specifically, we investigated how parents support humor understanding during book sharing with their toddlers. In Study 1, a corpus analysis revealed that in books aimed at 1-to 2-year-olds, humor is found more often than other forms of doing the wrong thing including mistakes, pretense, lying, false beliefs, and metaphors. In Study 2, 20 parents read a book containing humorous and non-humorous pages to their 19-to 26-month-olds. Parents used a significantly higher percentage of high abstraction extra-textual utterances (ETUs) when reading the humorous pages. In Study 3, 41 parents read either a humorous or non-humorous book to their 18-to 24-month-olds. Parents reading the humorous book made significantly more ETUs coded for a specific form of high abstraction: those encouraging disbelief of prior utterances. Sharing humorous books thus increases toddlers' exposure to high abstraction and belief-based language. PMID:21585438

  16. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 15 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Topics include navigation and information utilization in the Internet, natural language processing, automatic indexing, image indexing, classification, users' models of database searching, online public access catalogs, education for information professions, information services,…

  17. 2002 NASPSA Conference Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Contains abstracts from the 2002 conference of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity. The publication is divided into three sections: the preconference workshop, "Effective Teaching Methods in the Classroom;" symposia (motor development, motor learning and control, and sport psychology); and free…

  18. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…

  19. Learning Abstracts, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    League for Innovation in the Community Coll.

    This document contains volume two of Learning Abstracts, a bimonthly newsletter from the League for Innovation in the Community College. Articles in these seven issues include: (1) "Get on the Fast Track to Learning: An Accelerated Associate Degree Option" (Gerardo E. de los Santos and Deborah J. Cruise); (2) "The Learning College: Both Learner…

  20. Computers in Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwabueze, Kenneth K.

    2004-01-01

    The current emphasis on flexible modes of mathematics delivery involving new information and communication technology (ICT) at the university level is perhaps a reaction to the recent change in the objectives of education. Abstract algebra seems to be one area of mathematics virtually crying out for computer instructional support because of the…

  1. Abstract Film and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grice, Malcolm

    A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…

  2. Evaluation of Urinary Biomarkers for Coronary Artery Disease, Diabetes, and Diabetic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Maahs, David M.; Ogden, Lorraine G.; Kinney, Gregory L.; Hokanson, John E.; Schiffer, Eric; Rewers, Marian; Mischak, Harald

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In this study we sought to validate urinary biomarkers for diabetes and two common complications, coronary artery disease (CAD) and diabetic nephropathy (DN). Methods A CAD score calculated by summing the product of a classification coefficient and signal amplitude of 15 urinary polypeptides was previously developed. Five sequences of biomarkers in the panel were identified as fragments of collagen Α-1(I) and Α-1(III). Prospectively collected urine samples available for analysis from 19 out of 20 individuals with CAD (15 with type 1 diabetes [T1D] and four without diabetes) and age-, sex-, and diabetes-matched controls enrolled in the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes study were analyzed for the CAD score using capillary electrophoresis and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Two panels of biomarkers that were previously defined to distinguish diabetes status were analyzed to determine their relationship to T1D. Three biomarker panels developed to distinguish DN (DNS) and two biomarker panels developed to distinguish renal disease (RDS) were examined to determine their relationship with renal function. Results The CAD score was associated with CAD (odds ratio with 95% confidence interval, 2.2 [1.3–5.2]; P = 0.0016) and remained significant when adjusted individually for age, albumin excretion rate (AER), blood pressure, waist circumference, intraabdominal fat, glycosylated hemoglobin, and lipids. DNS and RDS were significantly correlated with AER, cystatin C, and serum creatinine. The biomarker panels for diabetes were both significantly associated with T1D status (P < 0.05 for both). Conclusions We validated a urinary proteome pattern associated with CAD and urinary proteome patterns associated with T1D and DN. PMID:19132849

  3. Influences of Diabetes on Hearing Recovery in Noise-Exposed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chan Joo; Lee, Ji-Won

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Many studies have reported an association between diabetes and hearing loss. However, these reports were mainly abstractive correlations between common hearing loss and the incidence of diabetes. Therefore, we evaluated the impact of diabetes on the occurrence of and recovery from noise-induced hearing loss. Materials and Methods We used 5-week-old C57BLKS/J-m wild type (+/+) and C57BLKS/J-db/db male mice as the control and diabetic groups, respectively. In one set of experiments, the hearing levels of control and diabetic mice were measured weekly for 7 weeks. In a second set of experiments, control and diabetic mice were exposed to broadband white noise of 110 dB SPL for 3 hours; hearing levels were analyzed before and immediately after exposure, 1, 3, and 5 days, and 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after the noise exposure. Results The hearing levels of the control group were better than those of the diabetic group at each weekly revision for 7 weeks at all auditory brainstem response frequencies (4, 8, 16, and 32 kHz). After noise exposure, both groups of mice showed an immediate increase in the hearing level threshold at all frequencies. Subsequent threshold recovery was seen in both groups with no difference in the hearing level recovery rates between the two groups. Conclusions Hearing level with aging becomes significantly impaired earlier in diabetic mice but hearing recovery after noise exposure is similar between diabetic and control mice. PMID:26771012

  4. Historical development of abstracting.

    PubMed

    Skolnik, H

    1979-11-01

    The abstract, under a multitude of names, such as hypothesis, marginalia, abridgement, extract, digest, précis, resumé, and summary, has a long history, one which is concomitant with advancing scholarship. The progression of this history from the Sumerian civilization ca. 3600 B.C., through the Egyptian and Greek civilizations, the Hellenistic period, the Dark Ages, Middle Ages, Renaissance, and into the modern period is reviewed. PMID:399482

  5. Generalized Abstract Symbolic Summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Person, Suzette; Dwyer, Matthew B.

    2009-01-01

    Current techniques for validating and verifying program changes often consider the entire program, even for small changes, leading to enormous V&V costs over a program s lifetime. This is due, in large part, to the use of syntactic program techniques which are necessarily imprecise. Building on recent advances in symbolic execution of heap manipulating programs, in this paper, we develop techniques for performing abstract semantic differencing of program behaviors that offer the potential for improved precision.

  6. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  7. Diabetic Retinopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Diabetic Retinopathy What Is Diabetic Retinopathy? Click for more information Can Cause Vision Loss, Blindness Diabetic retinopathy is a complication of diabetes and a leading ...

  8. Diabetic Retinopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cases of Diabetic Retinopathy (in thousands) by Age, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity Diabetic retinopathy affects men and ... Cases of Diabetic Retinopathy (in thousands) by Age, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity Projections for Diabetic Retinopathy (2010- ...

  9. Diabetes Insipidus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Foundation MedlinePlus Alternate Language URL Diabetes Insipidus Page Content On this page: What is ... Nutrition Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is diabetes insipidus? Diabetes insipidus is a rare disorder that ...

  10. Women and Diabetes -- Diabetes Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes - Diabetes Medicines Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... 800-332-1088 to request a form. Diabetes Medicines The different kinds of diabetes medicines are listed ...

  11. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  12. A LARI Experience (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, M.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) In 2012, Lowell Observatory launched The Lowell Amateur Research Initiative (LARI) to formally involve amateur astronomers in scientific research by bringing them to the attention of and helping professional astronomers with their astronomical research. One of the LARI projects is the BVRI photometric monitoring of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs), wherein amateurs obtain observations to search for new outburst events and characterize the colour evolution of previously identified outbursters. A summary of the scientific and organizational aspects of this LARI project, including its goals and science motivation, the process for getting involved with the project, a description of the team members, their equipment and methods of collaboration, and an overview of the programme stars, preliminary findings, and lessons learned is presented.

  13. IEEE conference record -- Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This conference covers the following areas: computational plasma physics; vacuum electronic; basic phenomena in fully ionized plasmas; plasma, electron, and ion sources; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; space plasmas; plasma processing; ball lightning/spherical plasma configurations; plasma processing; fast wave devices; magnetic fusion; basic phenomena in partially ionized plasma; dense plasma focus; plasma diagnostics; basic phenomena in weakly ionized gases; fast opening switches; MHD; fast z-pinches and x-ray lasers; intense ion and electron beams; laser-produced plasmas; microwave plasma interactions; EM and ETH launchers; solid state plasmas and switches; intense beam microwaves; and plasmas for lighting. Separate abstracts were prepared for 416 papers in this conference.

  14. Teaching for Abstraction: A Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Paul; Mitchelmore, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines a theoretical model for teaching elementary mathematical concepts that we have developed over the past 10 years. We begin with general ideas about the abstraction process and differentiate between "abstract-general" and "abstract-apart" concepts. A 4-phase model of teaching, called Teaching for Abstraction, is then proposed…

  15. Stellar Presentations (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The AAVSO is in the process of expanding its education, outreach and speakers bureau program. powerpoint presentations prepared for specific target audiences such as AAVSO members, educators, students, the general public, and Science Olympiad teams, coaches, event supervisors, and state directors will be available online for members to use. The presentations range from specific and general content relating to stellar evolution and variable stars to specific activities for a workshop environment. A presentation—even with a general topic—that works for high school students will not work for educators, Science Olympiad teams, or the general public. Each audience is unique and requires a different approach. The current environment necessitates presentations that are captivating for a younger generation that is embedded in a highly visual and sound-bite world of social media, twitter and U-Tube, and mobile devices. For educators, presentations and workshops for themselves and their students must support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the Common Core Content Standards, and the Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) initiative. Current best practices for developing relevant and engaging powerpoint presentations to deliver information to a variety of targeted audiences will be presented along with several examples.

  16. Diabetic Nephropathy without Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    López-Revuelta, Katia; Méndez Abreu, Angel A.; Gerrero-Márquez, Carmen; Stanescu, Ramona-Ionela; Martínez Marín, Maria Isabel; Pérez Fernández, Elia

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy without diabetes (DNND), previously known as idiopathic nodular glomerulosclerosis, is an uncommon entity and thus rarely suspected; diagnosis is histological once diabetes is discarded. In this study we describe two new cases of DNND and review the literature. We analyzed all the individualized data of previous publications except one series of attached data. DNND appears to be favored by recognized cardiovascular risk factors. However, in contrast with diabetes, apparently no factor alone has been demonstrated to be sufficient to develop DNND. Other factors not considered as genetic and environmental factors could play a role or interact. The most plausible hypothesis for the occurrence of DNND would be a special form of atherosclerotic or metabolic glomerulopathy than can occur with or without diabetes. The clinical spectrum of cardiovascular risk factors and histological findings support this theory, with hypertension as one of the characteristic clinical features. PMID:26239683

  17. Abstraction of Drift Seepage

    SciTech Connect

    J.T. Birkholzer

    2004-11-01

    This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 6.3.3.1)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package corrosion or radionuclide transport.

  18. [Diabetes education in adult diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Weitgasser, Raimund; Clodi, Martin; Cvach, Sarah; Grafinger, Peter; Lechleitner, Monika; Howorka, Kinga; Ludvik, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes education and self management has gained a critical role in diabetes care. Patient empowerment aims to actively influence the course of the disease by self-monitoring and treatment modification, as well as integration of diabetes in patients' daily life to achieve changes in lifestyle accordingly.Diabetes education has to be made accessible for all patients with the disease. To be able to provide a structured and validated education program adequate personal as well as space, organizational and financial background are required. Besides an increase in knowledge about the disease it has been shown that structured diabetes education is able to improve diabetes outcome measured by parameters like blood glucose, HbA1c, blood pressure and body weight in follow-up evaluations. Modern education programs emphasize the ability of patients to integrate diabetes in everyday life and stress physical activity besides healthy eating as a main component of lifestyle therapy and use interactive methods in order to increase the acceptance of personal responsibility. PMID:27052242

  19. Astronomy posters. Abstracts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Woerden, H.

    Contents: IAU Symposia Nos. 164: Stellar populations. 165: Compact stars in binaries. 166: Astronomical and astrophysical objectives of sub-milliarcsecond optical astrometry. 167: New developments in array technology and applications. 168: Examining the Big Bang and diffuse background radiations. 169: Unsolved problems of the Milky Way. Joint Discussions Nos. 1: Gas disks in galaxies. 2: Origin and detection of planetary systems. 3: Helio- and asteroseismology. 4: Current developments in astronomy education. 5: Activity in the central parts of galaxies. 6: Sun and heliosphere - challenges for solar-terrestrial physics, magneto- and hydrodynamics. 7: History of astronomy. 8: Time scales - state of the art. 9: Women in astronomy. 10: Extragalactic planetary nebulae. 11: Stellar and interstellar lithium and primordial nucleosynthesis. 12: Accuracy of the HR diagram and related parameters. 13: Recent advances in convection theory and modelling. 14: Towards the establishment of the astronomical standards. 15: Statistical evaluation of astronomical time series. 16: Astrophysical applications of powerful new atomic databases. 17: Dust around young stars: How related to solar system dust? 18: Solar system radar observations. 19: Nutation. 20: The status of archiving astronomical data. Working Groups Nos. 1: Problems of astronomy in Africa. 2: Near-Earth objects detection. 3: International catalog projects. 4: Asteroids and comets.

  20. Diabetes Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends on your type of diabetes, ... pills. Combination pills contain two kinds of diabetes medicine in one tablet. Some people take pills and ...

  1. Gestational diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar ( diabetes ) that starts or is first diagnosed during pregnancy. ... woman's blood. You are at greater risk for gestational diabetes if you: Are older than 25 when you ...

  2. Monogenic Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... some children with monogenic diabetes are misdiagnosed with type 1 diabetes and are given insulin. When correctly diagnosed, some of these children can take diabetes pills instead, with even better ...

  3. Diabetes Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. If you can't control your diabetes with wise food choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends ...

  4. Diabetic Dermopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Diabetic Dermopathy Information for adults A A A Brown, ... on the legs are typical in long-standing diabetics. Overview Diabetic dermopathy, also known as shin spots ...

  5. Diabetic Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Diabetic Neuropathy Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump ... Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Diabetic Neuropathy? Diabetic neuropathy is a peripheral nerve disorder caused ...

  6. Advance Organizers: Concret Versus Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkill, Alice J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Two experiments examined the relative effects of concrete and abstract advance organizers on students' memory for subsequent prose. Results of the experiments are discussed in terms of the memorability, familiarity, and visualizability of concrete and abstract verbal materials. (JD)

  7. Accepted scientific research works (abstracts).

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    These are the 39 accepted abstracts for IAYT's Symposium on Yoga Research (SYR) September 24-24, 2014 at the Kripalu Center for Yoga & Health and published in the Final Program Guide and Abstracts. PMID:25645134

  8. Attracting Girls into Physics (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadalla, Afaf

    2009-04-01

    A recent international study of women in physics showed that enrollment in physics and science is declining for both males and females and that women are severely underrepresented in careers requiring a strong physics background. The gender gap begins early in the pipeline, from the first grade. Girls are treated differently than boys at home and in society in ways that often hinder their chances for success. They have fewer freedoms, are discouraged from accessing resources or being adventurous, have far less exposure to problem solving, and are not encouraged to choose their lives. In order to motivate more girl students to study physics in the Assiut governorate of Egypt, the Assiut Alliance for the Women and Assiut Education District collaborated in renovating the education of physics in middle and secondary school classrooms. A program that helps in increasing the number of girls in science and physics has been designed in which informal groupings are organized at middle and secondary schools to involve girls in the training and experiences needed to attract and encourage girls to learn physics. During implementation of the program at some schools, girls, because they had not been trained in problem-solving as boys, appeared not to be as facile in abstracting the ideas of physics, and that was the primary reason for girls dropping out of science and physics. This could be overcome by holding a topical physics and technology summer school under the supervision of the Assiut Alliance for the Women.

  9. Diabetes and kidney disease

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetic nephropathy; Nephropathy - diabetic; Diabetic glomerulosclerosis; Kimmelstiel-Wilson disease ... Diabetic kidney disease is a major cause of sickness and death in people with diabetes. It can ...

  10. Type 2 diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... the disease. Alternative Names Noninsulin-dependent diabetes; Diabetes - type 2; Adult-onset diabetes Images Diabetes and exercise Diabetic emergency supplies Starchy foods Low blood sugar symptoms ...

  11. [Secondary diabetes].

    PubMed

    Nomiyama, Takashi; Yanase, Toshihiko

    2015-12-01

    Secondary diabetes is diabetes that results as a consequence of another medication, endocrine disease or hereditary disease. Secondary diabetes is very broad and diverted category among diabetes. Clinically, pancreatic diabetes is one of the most popular secondary diabetes, which provides insulin deficiency following pancreatic diseases, such as pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Among endocrine diseases, Cushing's syndrome and acromegaly are typical endocrine disorders causing secondary diabetes. They mainly induce insulin resistance in early stage, however, insulin deficiency is also observed in advanced stage. Steroid is the most popular drug-induced secondary diabetes. Importantly, not only oral administered steroid but also cutaneous and inhalation steroid could induce hyperglycemia. Major hereditary diabetes are MODY and mitochondrial diabetes. Concerning secondary diabetes, careful medical examination is required. PMID:26666145

  12. Diabetes Training for Community Health Workers

    PubMed Central

    Aponte, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Background A 2.5-month diabetes education training for community health workers (CHWs) was developed, implemented, and evaluated. Methods Training methods used included case studies, role-playing, and lectures. Exams were used throughout the training for its evaluation. Teaching was delivered by different ways: a one day American Diabetes Association (ADA) course; a five day Diabetes Self-Management Program (DSMP); Conversation Maps; and a series of seven National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) diabetes education booklets. Results Qualitative and quantitative evaluative methods were used during and after the training. The CHWs’ diabetes knowledge was evaluated by a pre- and post-test Diabetes Knowledge Questionnaire (DKQ). The post-test was conducted one week after completing the training. The findings showed that the diabetes knowledge of the CHWs increased. Conclusions Diabetes competencies and evaluative tools need to be developed specific for CHWs as a way to standardize all CHW diabetes trainings. PMID:27110434

  13. Types of Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help for Diabetes Care Diabetes Statistics Types of Diabetes Learn about Diabetes You can learn how to take care of ... to take care of your diabetes. What is diabetes? Diabetes is when your blood glucose, also called ...

  14. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Denney, R.M.

    1982-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes listings of technical abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). Overall information about current activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts.

  15. Recursive Abstractions for Parameterized Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffar, Joxan; Santosa, Andrew E.

    We consider a language of recursively defined formulas about arrays of variables, suitable for specifying safety properties of parameterized systems. We then present an abstract interpretation framework which translates a paramerized system as a symbolic transition system which propagates such formulas as abstractions of underlying concrete states. The main contribution is a proof method for implications between the formulas, which then provides for an implementation of this abstract interpreter.

  16. Diabetes Worsens Ischemia-Reperfusion Brain Injury in Rats Through GSK-3β

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hua; Ou, Shanshan; Xiao, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Yingxian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Diabetes aggravates brain injury after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Objective: To investigate whether limb I/R causes cerebral injury in a rat diabetes model and whether glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is involved. Methods: Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into streptozotocin-induced diabetes (n = 30; blood glucose ≥16.7 mmol/L) or control (n = 20) groups, further subdivided into diabetes I/R (3-hour femoral artery/vein clamping), diabetes-I/R + TDZD-8 (I/R plus GSK-3β inhibitor), diabetes-sham, control-sham and control-I/R groups (n = 10 each). Cortical and hippocampal morphology (hematoxylin/eosin); hippocampal CA1 apoptosis (TUNEL assay); cleaved caspase-3 (apoptosis), and Iba1 (microglial activation) protein expression (immunohistochemistry); phosphorylated/total GSK-3β and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) protein levels (Western blotting); and serum and brain tissue tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were analyzed. Results: The diabetes-I/R group showed greater cortical and hippocampal injury, apoptosis, cleaved caspase-3 expression and Iba1 expression than the control-I/R group; TDZD-8 reduced injury/apoptosis and cleaved caspase-3/Iba1 expressions. The diabetes-I/R group had lower p-GSK-3β and p-NF-κBp65 expression than the control-I/R group (P < 0.05); TDZD-8 increased p-GSK-3β expression but decreased p-NF-κBp65 expression (P < 0.05). The diabetes-I/R group showed higher elevation of serum and brain tissue TNF-α than the control-I/R group (P < 0.05); TDZD-8 reduced TNF-α production. Conclusions: Diabetes exacerbates limb I/R-induced cerebral damage and activates NF-κB and GSK-3β. PMID:26226547

  17. Strong diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Young, James; Anwar, Aresh

    2009-01-01

    The case of a 36-year-old male professional bodybuilder is reported. He presented to the accident and emergency department with right upper quadrant pain. This was on the background of a 15-year history of anabolic steroid and growth hormone misuse. Examination revealed mild hepatomegaly and a random blood sugar of 30.2 mmol/l. There was no evidence of ketonuria or acidosis. Biochemical evidence of hepatitis was found, and the patient was in acute renal failure. He was given a sliding scale of insulin and an intravenous infusion of crystalloid. The hepatitis and hyperglycaemia settled with conservative treatment. It is believed that this is the first reported case of frank diabetes precipitated by supraphysiological recreational growth hormone misuse. PMID:21686671

  18. Strong diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Young, James; Anwar, Aresh

    2007-01-01

    The case of a 36‐year‐old male professional bodybuilder is reported. He presented to the accident and emergency department with right upper quadrant pain. This was on the background of a 15‐year history of anabolic steroid and growth hormone misuse. Examination revealed mild hepatomegaly and a random blood sugar of 30.2 mmol/l. There was no evidence of ketonuria or acidosis. Biochemical evidence of hepatitis was found, and the patient was in acute renal failure. He was given a sliding scale of insulin and an intravenous infusion of crystalloid. The hepatitis and hyperglycaemia settled with conservative treatment. It is believed that this is the first reported case of frank diabetes precipitated by supraphysiological recreational growth hormone misuse. PMID:17324962

  19. Concrete and Abstract Visualizations in History Learning Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prangsma, Maaike E.; van Boxtel, Carla A. M.; Kanselaar, Gellof; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: History learning requires that students understand historical phenomena, abstract concepts and the relations between them. Students have problems grasping, using and relating complex historical developments and structures. Aims: A study was conducted to determine the effects of tasks with abstract and/or concrete visualizations on the…

  20. Abstracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-09-01

    Measuring cosmological parameters with GRBs: status and perspectives New interpretation of the Amati relation The SED Machine - a dedicated transient spectrograph PTF10iue - evidence for an internal engine in a unique Type Ic SN Direct evidence for the collapsar model of long gamma-ray bursts On pair instability supernovae and gamma-ray bursts Pan-STARRS1 observations of ultraluminous SNe The influence of rotation on the critical neutrino luminosity in core-collapse supernovae General relativistic magnetospheres of slowly rotating and oscillating neutron stars Host galaxies of short GRBs GRB 100418A: a bridge between GRB-associated hypernovae and SNe Two super-luminous SNe at z ~ 1.5 from the SNLS Prospects for very-high-energy gamma-ray bursts with the Cherenkov Telescope Array The dynamics and radiation of relativistic flows from massive stars The search for light echoes from the supernova explosion of 1181 AD The proto-magnetar model for gamma-ray bursts Stellar black holes at the dawn of the universe MAXI J0158-744: the discovery of a supersoft X-ray transient Wide-band spectra of magnetar burst emission Dust formation and evolution in envelope-stripped core-collapse supernovae The host galaxies of dark gamma-ray bursts Keck observations of 150 GRB host galaxies Search for properties of GRBs at large redshift The early emission from SNe Spectral properties of SN shock breakout MAXI observation of GRBs and short X-ray transients A three-dimensional view of SN 1987A using light echo spectroscopy X-ray study of the southern extension of the SNR Puppis A All-sky survey of short X-ray transients by MAXI GSC Development of the CALET gamma-ray burst monitor (CGBM)

  1. Vague Language in Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutting, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined abstracts for a British Association for Applied Linguistics conference and a Sociolinguistics Symposium, to define the genre of conference abstracts in terms of vague language, specifically universal general nouns (e.g. people) and research general nouns (e.g. results), and to discover if the language used reflected the level…

  2. Leadership Abstracts; Volume 4, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    "Leadership Abstracts" is published bimonthly and distributed to the chief executive officer of every two-year college in the United States and Canada. This document consists of the 15 one-page abstracts published in 1991. Addressing a variety of topics of interest to the community college administrators, this volume includes: (1) "Delivering the…

  3. Food Science and Technology Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elinor; Federman, Joan

    1979-01-01

    Introduces the reader to the Food Science and Technology Abstracts, a data file that covers worldwide literature on human food commodities and aspects of food processing. Topics include scope, subject index, thesaurus, searching online, and abstracts; tables provide a comparison of ORBIT and DIALOG versions of the file. (JD)

  4. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XV, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This volume of 30 one- to two-page abstracts from 1993 highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) role-playing to encourage critical thinking; (2) team learning techniques to cultivate business skills; (3) librarian-instructor partnerships to create…

  5. Student Success with Abstract Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamidou, Kristine

    2009-01-01

    An abstract art project can be challenging or not, depending on the objectives the teacher sets up. In this article, the author describes an abstract papier-mache project that is a success for all students, and is a versatile project easily manipulated to suit the classroom of any art teacher.

  6. Technical abstracts: Mechanical engineering, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Broesius, J.Y.

    1991-03-01

    This document is a compilation of the published, unclassified abstracts produced by mechanical engineers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during the calendar year 1990. Many abstracts summarize work completed and published in report form. These are UCRL-JC series documents, which include the full text of articles to be published in journals and of papers to be presented at meetings, and UCID reports, which are informal documents. Not all UCIDs contain abstracts: short summaries were generated when abstracts were not included. Technical Abstracts also provides descriptions of those documents assigned to the UCRL-MI (miscellaneous) category. These are generally viewgraphs or photographs presented at meetings. An author index is provided at the back of this volume for cross referencing.

  7. Metaphor: Bridging embodiment to abstraction.

    PubMed

    Jamrozik, Anja; McQuire, Marguerite; Cardillo, Eileen R; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2016-08-01

    Embodied cognition accounts posit that concepts are grounded in our sensory and motor systems. An important challenge for these accounts is explaining how abstract concepts, which do not directly call upon sensory or motor information, can be informed by experience. We propose that metaphor is one important vehicle guiding the development and use of abstract concepts. Metaphors allow us to draw on concrete, familiar domains to acquire and reason about abstract concepts. Additionally, repeated metaphoric use drawing on particular aspects of concrete experience can result in the development of new abstract representations. These abstractions, which are derived from embodied experience but lack much of the sensorimotor information associated with it, can then be flexibly applied to understand new situations. PMID:27294425

  8. Generative electronic background music system

    SciTech Connect

    Mazurowski, Lukasz

    2015-03-10

    In this short paper-extended abstract the new approach to generation of electronic background music has been presented. The Generative Electronic Background Music System (GEBMS) has been located between other related approaches within the musical algorithm positioning framework proposed by Woller et al. The music composition process is performed by a number of mini-models parameterized by further described properties. The mini-models generate fragments of musical patterns used in output composition. Musical pattern and output generation are controlled by container for the mini-models - a host-model. General mechanism has been presented including the example of the synthesized output compositions.

  9. NASA Patent Abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 21) Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 87 patents and applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1982 through June 1982. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in mose cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  10. Body temperature regulation in diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, Glen P.; Sigal, Ronald J.; McGinn, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The effects of type 1 and type 2 diabetes on the body's physiological response to thermal stress is a relatively new topic in research. Diabetes tends to place individuals at greater risk for heat-related illness during heat waves and physical activity due to an impaired capacity to dissipate heat. Specifically, individuals with diabetes have been reported to have lower skin blood flow and sweating responses during heat exposure and this can have important consequences on cardiovascular regulation and glycemic control. Those who are particularly vulnerable include individuals with poor glycemic control and who are affected by diabetes-related complications. On the other hand, good glycemic control and maintenance of aerobic fitness can often delay the diabetes-related complications and possibly the impairments in heat loss. Despite this, it is alarming to note the lack of information regarding diabetes and heat stress given the vulnerability of this population. In contrast, few studies have examined the effects of cold exposure on individuals with diabetes with the exception of its therapeutic potential, particularly for type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding the impact of diabetes on heat and cold exposure with respect to the core temperature regulation, cardiovascular adjustments and glycemic control while also considering the beneficial effects of maintaining aerobic fitness. PMID:27227101

  11. Perspectives on the role of viruses in insulin-dependent diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yoon, J W; Ray, U R

    1985-01-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) results from the destruction of pancreatic beta cells. Viruses have been suggested as one of the possible causes. The evidence for viruses comes largely from experiments in animals, but several studies in humans also point to viruses as a trigger of this disease in some cases. Encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus, Mengovirus (2T), and Coxsackie B4 virus infect and destroy pancreatic beta cells when inoculated into mice. This results in hypoinsulinemia and hyperglycemia. The development of EMC virus-induced diabetes is dependent on the genetic background of the host and genetic makeup of the virus. Animals with diabetes for several months show some long-term complications, including glomerulosclerosis, ocular changes, and decreased bone formation and mineralization in addition to acute metabolic changes. EMC virus-induced diabetes can be prevented by a live-attenuated vaccine. The capacity of Coxsackie B4 virus to induce diabetes is also influenced by the genetic background of the host. However, Mengovirus-induced diabetes is not dependent on the genetic background of the host. In contrast to the EMC, Mengo, and Coxsackie B4 viruses, reovirus type 1 seems to be somehow associated with an autoimmune response producing a diabetes-like syndrome in suckling mice. This virus produces an autoimmune polyendocrinopathy that results in very mild and transient glucose intolerance. Several common human viruses including mumps, Coxsackie B3 and B4 viruses, and reovirus type 3 can infect human beta cells in culture and destroy them. A variant of Coxsackie B4 virus has been isolated from the pancreas of a child who died of acute-onset IDDM.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2996865

  12. Diabetes - tests and checkups

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Instructions ACE inhibitors Diabetes and exercise Diabetes - eye care Diabetes - foot ulcers Diabetes - keeping active Diabetes - low blood sugar - self-care Diabetes - preventing heart attack and stroke ...

  13. Type 1 diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection - adults Patient Instructions Diabetes and exercise Diabetes - eye care Diabetes - foot ulcers Diabetes - keeping active Diabetes - low blood sugar - self-care Diabetes - preventing heart attack and stroke ...

  14. Genetical background of intelligence.

    PubMed

    Junkiert-Czarnecka, Anna; Haus, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Intelligence as an ability to reason, think abstractly and adapt effectively to the environment is a subject of research in the field of psychology, neurobiology, and in the last twenty years genetics as well. Genetical testing of twins carried out from XX century indicated heritebility of intelligence, therefore confirmed an influence of genetic factor on cognitive processes. Studies on genetic background of intelligence focus on dopaminergic (DRD2, DRD4, COMT, SLC6A3, DAT1, CCKAR) and adrenergic system (ADRB2, CHRM2) genes as well as, neutrofins (BDNF) and oxidative stress genes (LTF, PRNP). Positive effect of investigated gene polymorphism was indicated by variation c.957C>T DRD2 gene (if in polymorphic site is thymine), polymorphism c.472G>A COMT gene (presence of adenine) and also gene ADRB2 c.46A->G (guanine), CHRM2 (thymine in place c.1890A>T) and BDNF (guanine in place c.472G>A) Obtained results indicate that intelligence is a feature dependent not only on genetic but also an environmental factor. PMID:27333929

  15. Teaching Abstract Concepts by Metaphor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Judith A.

    2001-01-01

    Defines metaphor and its uses; explains the construction and application of metaphors in nursing education. Describes the transformation of the abstract psychiatric concept of therapeutic milieu into a visual metaphor. (SK)

  16. Enhanced glucose control for preventing and treating diabetic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Callaghan, Brian C; Little, Ann A; Feldman, Eva L; Hughes, Richard AC

    2014-01-01

    Background There are two types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes affects younger people and needs treatment with insulin injections. Type 2 diabetes affects older people and can usually be treated by diet and oral drugs. Diabetic neuropathy affects 10% of patients with diabetes mellitus at diagnosis and 40% to 50% after 10 years. Enhanced glucose control is the best studied intervention for the prevention of this disabling condition but there have been no systematic reviews of the evidence. Objectives To examine the evidence for enhanced glucose control in the prevention of distal symmetric polyneuropathy in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register (30 January 2012), CENTRAL (2012, Issue 1), MED-LINE (1966 to January 2012) and EMBASE (1980 to January 2012) for randomized controlled trials of enhanced glucose control in diabetes mellitus. Selection criteria We included all randomized, controlled studies investigating enhanced glycemic control that reported neuropathy outcomes after at least one year of intervention. Our primary outcome measure was annual development of clinical neuropathy defined by a clinical scale. Secondary outcomes included motor nerve conduction velocity and quantitative vibration testing. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently reviewed all titles and abstracts identified by the database searches for inclusion. Two authors abstracted data from all included studies with a standardized form. A third author mediated conflicts. We analyzed the presence of clinical neuropathy with annualized risk differences (RDs), and conduction velocity and quantitative velocity measurements with mean differences per year. Main results This review identified 17 randomized studies that addressed whether enhanced glucose control prevents the development of neuropathy. Seven of these studies were conducted in people with type 1 diabetes, eight in type 2 diabetes, and

  17. Gestational diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar ( diabetes ) that starts or is first diagnosed during pregnancy. ... 9 pounds or had a birth defect Have high blood pressure Have too much amniotic fluid Have ...

  18. Diabetes Insipidus

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) causes frequent urination. You become extremely thirsty, so you drink. Then you urinate. This ... is almost all water. DI is different from diabetes mellitus (DM), which involves insulin problems and high ...

  19. Diabetes Complications

    MedlinePlus

    If you have diabetes, your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. Over time, this can cause problems with other body ... as your kidneys, nerves, feet, and eyes. Having diabetes can also put you at a higher risk ...

  20. Deficiencies in structured medical abstracts.

    PubMed

    Froom, P; Froom, J

    1993-07-01

    This study was carried out to determine if the content of structured abstracts conforms with recommendations of the Ad Hoc Working Group for the critical appraisal of the medical literature as adopted by the Annals of Internal Medicine. The study design was a survey. All articles published in Annals of Internal Medicine in 1991, excluding editorials, case-reports, literature reviews, decision analysis, studies in medical education, descriptive studies of clinical and basic phenomena, and papers lacking a structured abstract, were studied. Of a total of 150 articles, 20 were excluded. The abstract and text of each article were assessed for the presence of the following items; patient selection criteria, statements concerning extrapolation of findings, need for further study, and whether or not the information should be used now. Number of refusers, drop outs and reason(s) for drop outs were assessed for intervention and prospective cohort studies only. Deficiencies of assessed items were noted in both abstracts and texts. For abstracts, patient selection criteria, numbers of refusers, number of drop outs and reason(s) for drop outs were reported in 44.6% (58/130), 3.1% (4/130), 16.9% (14/83) and 2.4% (2/83) respectively. These items were reported more frequently in the texts 87.7% (114/130), 9.2% (12/130), 60.2% (50/83) and 37.3% (31/83) respectively (p < 0.05). Statements concerning extrapolation of findings, need for further study and use of information now were also more frequent in texts than abstracts (p < 0.0001). A large number of structured abstracts published in the Annals of Internal Medicine in 1991, lack information recommended by the Ad Hoc Working Group. Our findings should not be extrapolated to other journals requiring structured abstracts. PMID:8326342

  1. [Diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Bosi, E

    2003-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases characterized by high levels of blood glucose resulting from defects in insulin production, insulin action, or both. Diabetes is a serious health concern. The number of cases of diabetes mellitus is estimated to grow at a rate of 50% between 2000 and 2010. There are several types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes, and other specific types of diabetes. Beta cell dysfunction plays a key role in the physiopathology of diabetes, even when insulin resistance, which is often present in several diabetes-related diseases, is considered among the causes of hyperglycemic type 2 diabetes. The prolonged hyperglycemia that is peculiar to all kind of diabetes has long term complications on several organs and systems. The diagnosis of diabetes is based on the evaluation of glucose plasma levels performed under fasting conditions or two hours after the oral ingestion of 75 grams of glucose. Currently, achieving and maintaining normal plasma levels of glucose are the aims of therapy for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Particularly, the therapy for type 1 diabetes is based on the administration of insulin, whereas that of type 2 diabetes changes over the time: diet and physical activity are the first treatments; oral hypoglycemic drugs are used as a second therapeutic step; and the administration of insulin is the last therapeutic option. The principal therapeutic innovation of the past ten years is represented by the tight and flexible control of glucose plasma level obtained by using the insulin analogues produced by recombinant DNA technology. PMID:14523905

  2. Hypoglycemia, Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wadwa, R. Paul

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death in people with diabetes, and the risk of CVD for adults with diabetes is at least two to four times the risk in adults without diabetes. Complications of diabetes, including not only CVD but also microvascular diseases such as retinopathy and nephropathy, are a major health and financial burden. Diabetes is a disease of glucose intolerance, and so much of the research on complications has focused on the role of hyperglycemia. Clinical trials have clearly demonstrated the role of hyperglycemia in microvascular complications of diabetes, but there appears to be less evidence for as strong of a relationship between hyperglycemia and CVD in people with diabetes. Hypoglycemia has become a more pressing health concern as intensive glycemic control has become the standard of care in diabetes. Clinical trials of intensive glucose lowering in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes populations has resulted in significantly increased hypoglycemia, with no decrease in CVD during the trial period, although several studies have shown a reduction in CVD with extended follow-up. There is evidence that hypoglycemia may adversely affect cardiovascular risk in patients with diabetes, and this is one potential explanation for the lack of CVD prevention in trials of intensive glycemic control. Hypoglycemia causes a cascade of physiologic effects and may induce oxidative stress and cardiac arrhythmias, contribute to sudden cardiac death, and cause ischemic cerebral damage, presenting several potential mechanisms through which acute and chronic episodes of hypoglycemia may increase CVD risk. In this review, we examine the risk factors and prevalence of hypoglycemia in diabetes, review the evidence for an association of both acute and chronic hypoglycemia with CVD in adults with diabetes, and discuss potential mechanisms through which hypoglycemia may adversely affect cardiovascular risk. PMID:22650225

  3. Improving Diabetes Care in the Latino Population: The Emory Latino Diabetes Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotberg, Britt; Greene, Rachel; Ferez-Pinzon, Anyul M.; Mejia, Robert; Umpierrez, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Background: The incidence of diabetes in Latinos is 12.8% compared to 9.3% of the general population. Latinos suffer from a higher prevalence of diabetic complications and mortality than whites yet receive less monitoring tests and education. Purpose: (1) Identify changes in clinical indicators among subjects with type 2 diabetes participating in…

  4. Diabetes insipidus - nephrogenic

    MedlinePlus

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; Acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; Congenital diabetes insipidus; NDI ... of very dilute urine. NDI is rare. Congenital diabetes insipidus is present at birth. It is a ...

  5. Diabetes insipidus - nephrogenic

    MedlinePlus

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; Acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; Congenital diabetes insipidus ... be removed and returned to the blood. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) occurs when the kidney tubules do ...

  6. Postpartum Healthcare After Gestational Diabetes and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Maiden, Kristin; Rogers, Stephanie; Ball, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Gestational diabetes and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy identify women with an elevated lifetime risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Methods: Prospective cohort of women recruited from the postpartum service of a large community-based academic obstetrical hospital after delivery of a pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes (GDM) or a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP). Interviews were conducted, and validated surveys completed, before hospital discharge and again 3 months postpartum. Results: The study sample included 249 women: 111 with GDM, 127 with HDP, and 11 with both. Most, 230 (92.4%) had a PCP prior to pregnancy and 97 (39.0%) reported an office visit with their PCP during the prenatal period. Of the 176 (70.7%) participants who attended the 3-month study visit, 169 (96.0%) women with either diagnosis reported they had attended their 6-week postpartum visit. By the 3-month study visit, 51 (57.9%) women with GDM had completed follow-up glucose testing; 93 (97.9%) with HDP had follow-up blood pressure testing; and 101 (57.4%) with either diagnosis recalled ever having completed lipid screening. Women least likely to complete screening tests were those who had no college education, less than a high school level of health literacy, and who were not privately insured. Conclusion: There are important opportunities to improve postpartum testing for diabetes and CVD risk factor assessment. Most women were connected to primary care suggesting a “hand-off” to a primary care physician after pregnancy is feasible. More robust strategies may be needed to improve follow-up care for women with less education, lower health literacy, and those without private health insurance. PMID:25089915

  7. Latinos with Diabetes and Food Insecurity in an Agricultural Community

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Gerardo; Morales, Leo S.; Isiordia, Marilu; de Jaimes, Fatima Nunez; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Noguera, Christine; Mangione, Carol M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Latinos from agricultural communities have a high prevalence of food insecurity and are at increased risk of obesity and diabetes, yet little is known about the associations between food insecurity and diabetes outcomes. Objective To examine the associations between food insecurity and diabetes outcomes among rural Latinos. Methods Cross-sectional survey with medical chart abstraction of 250 Latinos with diabetes. Primary outcomes are the control of three intermediate diabetes outcomes (hemoglobin A1C ≤ 8.0%, LDL-cholesterol ≤ 100 mg/dl, and blood pressure ≤ 140/90 mmHg), a composite of control of the three, and receipt of 6 processes of care. Secondary outcomes are cost-related medication underuse and participation in self-care activities. Results Fifty-two percent of patients reported food insecurity and one-in-four reported cost-related medication underuse. Patients with food insecurity were more likely to report cost-related medication underuse (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.49; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.30, 4.98; p = 0.003); less likely to meet the composite measure for control of the 3 intermediate outcomes (AOR 0.24; 95% CI 0.07, 0.84; p < 0.05), and less likely to receive a dilated eye exam (AOR 0.37; 95% CI 0.18, 0.77; p < 0.05) and annual foot exams (AOR 0.42; 95% CI 0.20, 0.84; p < 0.05) compared to those who were food secure. Conclusion Among this rural Latino population, food insecurity was independently associated with not having control of the intermediate diabetes outcomes captured in the composite measure, not receiving dilated eye and foot exams, and with self-reporting cost-related medication underuse. PMID:25811632

  8. Brittle diabetes: psychopathological aspects.

    PubMed

    Pelizza, Lorenzo; Bonazzi, Federica; Scaltriti, Sara; Milli, Bruna; Giuseppina, Chierici

    2014-01-01

    Background. The term "brittle" is used to described an uncommon subgroup of type I diabetics whose lives are disrupted by severe glycaemic instability with repeated and prolonged hospitalization. Psychosocial problems are the major perceived underlying causes of brittle behaviour. Aim of this study is a systematic psychopathological assessement of brittleness using specific parameters of general psychopathology and personality traits following the multiaxial format (axis I and II) of the current DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for mental disorders. Methods. Patients comprised 21 brittle type I diabetics and a case-control group of 21 stable diabetics, matched for age, gender, years of education, and diabetes duration. General psychopathology and the DSM-IV-TR personality traits/disorders were assessed using the Syptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Results. The comparison for SCL-90-R parameters exclusively revealed higher scores in "Phobic Anxiety" subscale in brittle diabetics. No differences in all the other SCL-90-R primary symptom dimensions and in the three SCL-90-R global distress indices were observed between the two diabetic groups, as well as in the all MCMI-III clinical syndrome categories corresponding to DSM-IV-TR specific psychiatric disorders. However, brittle patients presented lower scores in MCMI-III compulsive personality traits and higher scores in paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, antisocial, borderline, narcissistic, avoidant, dependent, depressive, and passive-aggressive personality traits. Conclusions. In this study, brittle diabetics show no differencies in terms of global severity of psychopathological distress and axis I specific DSM-IV-TR diagnoses in comparison with non-brittle subjects (except for phobic anxiety). Differently, brittle diabetics are characterized from less functional and maladaptive personality features and suffer more frequently and intensively from specific

  9. Modelling Metamorphism by Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Preda, Mila; Giacobazzi, Roberto; Debray, Saumya; Coogan, Kevin; Townsend, Gregg M.

    Metamorphic malware apply semantics-preserving transformations to their own code in order to foil detection systems based on signature matching. In this paper we consider the problem of automatically extract metamorphic signatures from these malware. We introduce a semantics for self-modifying code, later called phase semantics, and prove its correctness by showing that it is an abstract interpretation of the standard trace semantics. Phase semantics precisely models the metamorphic code behavior by providing a set of traces of programs which correspond to the possible evolutions of the metamorphic code during execution. We show that metamorphic signatures can be automatically extracted by abstract interpretation of the phase semantics, and that regular metamorphism can be modelled as finite state automata abstraction of the phase semantics.

  10. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). General information about the current role and activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts. Further information about a division's work may be obtained from the division leader, whose name is given at the end of each divisional summary. The Department's seven divisions are as follows: Nuclear Test Engineering Division, Nuclear Explosives Engineering Division, Weapons Engineering Division, Energy Systems Engineering Division, Engineering Sciences Division, Magnetic Fusion Engineering Division and Materials Fabrication Division.

  11. Meeting Abstracts - Annual Meeting 2016.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    The AMCP Abstracts program provides a forum through which authors can share their insights and outcomes of advanced managed care practice through publication in AMCP's Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy (JMCP). Most of the reviewed and unreviewed abstracts are presented as posters so that interested AMCP meeting attendees can review findings and query authors. The Student/Resident/ Fellow poster presentation (unreviewed) is Wednesday, April 20, 2016, and the Professional poster presentation (reviewed) is Thursday, April 21. The Professional posters will also be displayed on Friday, April 22. The reviewed abstracts are published in the JMCP Meeting Abstracts supplement. The AMCP Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy Annual Meeting 2016 in San Francisco, California, is expected to attract more than 3,500 managed care pharmacists and other health care professionals who manage and evaluate drug therapies, develop and manage networks, and work with medical managers and information specialists to improve the care of all individuals enrolled in managed care programs. Abstracts were submitted in the following categories: Research Report: describe completed original research on managed care pharmacy services or health care interventions. Examples include (but are not limited to) observational studies using administrative claims, reports of the impact of unique benefit design strategies, and analyses of the effects of innovative administrative or clinical programs. Economic Model: describe models that predict the effect of various benefit design or clinical decisions on a population. For example, an economic model could be used to predict the budget impact of a new pharmaceutical product on a health care system. Solving Problems in Managed Care: describe the specific steps taken to introduce a needed change, develop and implement a new system or program, plan and organize an administrative function, or solve other types of problems in managed care settings. These

  12. Abstract communication for coordinated planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Durfee, Edmund H.

    2003-01-01

    work offers evidence that distributed planning agents can greatly reduce communication costs by reasoning at abstract levels. While it is intuitive that improved search can reduce communication in such cases, there are other decisions about how to communicate plan information that greatly affect communication costs. This paper identifies cases independent of search where communicating at multiple levels of abstraction can exponentially decrease costs and where it can exponentially add costs. We conclude with a process for determining appropriate levels of communication based on characteristics of the domain.

  13. [Migration and diabetes].

    PubMed

    Aydinkoc-Tuzcu, Kadriye; Schindler, Karin; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Ludvik, Bernhard; Fasching, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The article deals with the demographic data of migration in Austria and with therapeutic advice concerning drug therapy and diabetes education for patients with migration background. In this context socio-cultural specifics are discussed. These suggestions are seen complementary to the general treatment guidelines of the Austrian Diabetes Association.Especially for the fast months Ramadan there are a lot of informations. The most important point is that the patient care must be highly individualized and the management plan may differ for each patient. PMID:27052237

  14. “Es como uno bomba de tiempo [It’s like a time bomb]”: A Qualitative Analysis of Perceptions of Diabetes Among First-Degree Relatives of Latino Patients With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Boutin-Foster, Carla; Milan, Maria; Kanna, Balavenkatesh

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background. The South Bronx, a largely Latino community, has become an epicenter of the diabetes epidemic in New York City. In this community, nondiabetic first-degree relatives of people with diabetes are prime targets for intervention. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore the knowledge of diabetes and attitudes toward health behavior modification of Latino adults who are first-degree relatives of people with diabetes. Methods. Participants were recruited from three settings in the South Bronx (a community-based organization, a faith-based organization, and a taxi station). The Common Sense Model was used to develop focus-group items. This model provides a framework for exploring illness representations along five domains: identity, cause, consequences, timeline, and perceptions of curability. Responses were transcribed verbatim, and data analysis proceeded in the following order: data immersion, assignment of codes, grouping of key concepts to form categories, and construction of higher-order themes. Results. Of the 115 potential participants identified, 53 were found to be eligible, and 23 of these participated in the focus group. Of these, 20 were Dominicans, 2 were Puerto Ricans, and 1 was Salvadorian. The mean age was 46.39 years, 35% were women, 61% were married, and 26% had less than a high school education. Qualitative analyses resulted in 547 codes that were grouped into 52 concepts, from which 9 categories and 4 overarching themes emerged. The dominant themes were 1) family, genetics, and culture play a major role in the etiology of diabetes; 2) being Latino and having a first-degree relative with diabetes makes getting diabetes inevitable, and, like a time bomb exploding, it is destined to happen; 3) once one develops diabetes, the physical and emotional consequences are devastating and destructive; and 4) diabetes can be “cured” through healthy eating and with insulin. Conclusions.In this study, first-degree relatives of

  15. SATURATED ZONE FLOW AND TRANSPORT MODEL ABSTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    B.W. ARNOLD

    2004-10-27

    The purpose of the saturated zone (SZ) flow and transport model abstraction task is to provide radionuclide-transport simulation results for use in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) calculations. This task includes assessment of uncertainty in parameters that pertain to both groundwater flow and radionuclide transport in the models used for this purpose. This model report documents the following: (1) The SZ transport abstraction model, which consists of a set of radionuclide breakthrough curves at the accessible environment for use in the TSPA-LA simulations of radionuclide releases into the biosphere. These radionuclide breakthrough curves contain information on radionuclide-transport times through the SZ. (2) The SZ one-dimensional (I-D) transport model, which is incorporated in the TSPA-LA model to simulate the transport, decay, and ingrowth of radionuclide decay chains in the SZ. (3) The analysis of uncertainty in groundwater-flow and radionuclide-transport input parameters for the SZ transport abstraction model and the SZ 1-D transport model. (4) The analysis of the background concentration of alpha-emitting species in the groundwater of the SZ.

  16. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XIX, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The 52 abstracts in these 29 serial issues describe innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Sample topics include a checklist for conference presenters, plan to retain students, faculty home page, improvements in writing instruction, cooperative learning, support for high risk students, competitive colleges and the…

  17. Handedness Shapes Children's Abstract Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like "kindness" and "intelligence"? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on…

  18. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XX, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The 52 abstracts in these 29 serial issues describe innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Sample topics include reading motivation, barriers to academic success, the learning environment, writing skills, leadership in the criminal justice profession, role-playing strategies, cooperative education, distance…

  19. Abstract Journal Concept Being Examined

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Brendan F.

    1972-01-01

    In order to control the information explosion, some European chemical groups are studying the idea of abandoning full publication in printed form of all primary journals and, in their place, substituting a new form of abstract journal combined with a microfilm record of full scientific papers. (Author/CP)

  20. Metaphoric Images from Abstract Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vizmuller-Zocco, Jana

    1992-01-01

    Discusses children's use of metaphors to create meaning, using as an example the pragmatic and "scientific" ways in which preschool children explain thunder and lightning to themselves. Argues that children are being shortchanged by modern scientific notions of abstractness and that they should be encouraged to create their own explanations of…

  1. ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS 48347-48982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Technology, London (England). Warren Spring Lab.

    IN THIS COLLECTION OF ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS AND ANNOTATIONS THE FOLLOWING AREAS OF CONCERN ARE REPRESENTED--GENERAL REFERENCES, METHODS, FACILITIES, AND EQUIPMENT RELATING TO ERGONOMICS, SYSTEMS OF MAN AND MACHINES, VISUAL, AUDITORY, AND OTHER SENSORY INPUTS AND PROCESSES (INCLUDING SPEECH AND INTELLIGIBILITY), INPUT CHANNELS, BODY MEASUREMENTS,…

  2. Does "Social Work Abstracts" Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Gary; Barker, Kathleen; Covert-Vail, Lucinda; Rosenberg, Gary; Cohen, Stephanie A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The current study seeks to provide estimates of the adequacy of journal coverage in the Social Work Abstracts (SWA) database. Method: A total of 23 journals listed in the Journal Citation Reports social work category during the 1997 to 2005 period were selected for study. Issue-level coverage estimates were obtained for SWA and…

  3. Manpower Management Studies: Selected Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryerson, William R., Comp.

    This bibliography contains 58 selected abstracts of research reports dating back to 1964 on the general subject of manpower management. It was prepared from a search of the National Technical Information Service data base of more than 300,000 documents submitted by agencies of the Federal Government and also by private organizations or individuals…

  4. The Theatre Audience: An Abstraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Paul Newell

    1981-01-01

    Argues that theater is aimed at and presented to an ideal or abstract audience. Discusses the implications of performing for an actual audience, adaptation to various audiences, and the concept of the audience as an evaluative device. (See CS 705 536.) (JMF)

  5. Chemical Abstracts' Document Delivery Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Stephen

    1984-01-01

    The Document Delivery Service offered by Chemical Abstracts is described in terms of the DIALORDER option on the Dialog information retrieval system, mail requests, and requests transmitted through OCLC's Interlibrary Loan system. Transmission costs, success rates, delivery rates, and other considerations in utilizing the service are included.…

  6. The Emerging Diabetes Online Community

    PubMed Central

    Hilliard, Marisa E.; Sparling, Kerri M.; Hitchcock, Jeff; Oser, Tamara K.; Hood, Korey K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes self-management is complex and demanding, and isolation and burnout are common experiences. The Internet provides opportunities for people with diabetes to connect with one another to address these challenges. The aims of this paper are to introduce readers to the platforms on which Diabetes Online Community (DOC) participants interact, to discuss reasons for and risks associated with diabetes-related online activity, and to review research related to the potential impact of DOC participation on diabetes outcomes. Methods Research and online content related to diabetes online activity is reviewed, and DOC writing excerpts are used to illustrate key themes. Guidelines for meaningful participation in DOC activities for people with diabetes, families, health care providers, and industry are provided. Results Common themes around DOC participation include peer support, advocacy, self-expression, seeking and sharing diabetes information, improving approaches to diabetes data management, and humor. Potential risks include access to misinformation and threats to individuals’ privacy, though there are limited data on negative outcomes resulting from such activities. Likewise, few data are available regarding the impact of DOC involvement on glycemic outcomes, but initial research suggests a positive impact on emotional experiences, attitudes toward diabetes, and engagement in diabetes management behaviors. Conclusion The range of DOC participants, activities, and platforms is growing rapidly. The Internet provides opportunities to strengthen communication and support among individuals with diabetes, their families, health care providers, the health care industry, policy makers, and the general public. Research is needed to investigate the impact of DOC participation on self-management, quality of life, and glycemic control, and to design and evaluate strategies to maximize its positive impact. PMID:25901500

  7. Abstracts from the First Annual Scholarly Day.

    PubMed

    2015-07-01

    The Department of Medical Education at Baylor University Medical Center at Dallas hosted its first annual Scholarly Day to showcase the research efforts of medical students, residents, and fellows. Hania Wehbe-Janek, PhD, vice president for academic research integration for Baylor Scott and White Health Central Texas, shared the plenary session, "Building a Culture of Research at Academic Medical Centers: Impact on Medical Education and Recommended Practices." Stuart Black, MD, John Fordtran, MD, Ronald C. Jones, MD, Michael A. Ramsay, MD, William C. Roberts, MD, and Hania Wehbe-Janek, PhD, served as judges of the posters and the oral presentations. Winners in each category were as follows: best fellow poster, "Diet pattern and cardiovascular disease among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus," by Hyun Joon Shin, MD; best resident poster, "Oral squamous cell carcinoma: current concepts in imaging, staging, and fibular osteocutaneous free-flap reconstruction," by R. Evans Heithaus, MD; best medical student poster, "Neuromyelitis optica," by Elizabeth Coffee; and best oral presentation, "Transarterial chemoembolization with smaller beads: midterm clinical outcomes," by R. Evans Heithaus, MD. Overall, participants in the inaugural event presented more than 40 posters and six oral presentations. This article reprints a selection of the abstracts. PMID:26130877

  8. Abstracts from the First Annual Scholarly Day

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Medical Education at Baylor University Medical Center at Dallas hosted its first annual Scholarly Day to showcase the research efforts of medical students, residents, and fellows. Hania Wehbe-Janek, PhD, vice president for academic research integration for Baylor Scott and White Health Central Texas, shared the plenary session, “Building a Culture of Research at Academic Medical Centers: Impact on Medical Education and Recommended Practices.” Stuart Black, MD, John Fordtran, MD, Ronald C. Jones, MD, Michael A. Ramsay, MD, William C. Roberts, MD, and Hania Wehbe-Janek, PhD, served as judges of the posters and the oral presentations. Winners in each category were as follows: best fellow poster, “Diet pattern and cardiovascular disease among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” by Hyun Joon Shin, MD; best resident poster, “Oral squamous cell carcinoma: current concepts in imaging, staging, and fibular osteocutaneous free-flap reconstruction,” by R. Evans Heithaus, MD; best medical student poster, “Neuromyelitis optica,” by Elizabeth Coffee; and best oral presentation, “Transarterial chemoembolization with smaller beads: midterm clinical outcomes,” by R. Evans Heithaus, MD. Overall, participants in the inaugural event presented more than 40 posters and six oral presentations. This article reprints a selection of the abstracts. PMID:26130877

  9. Diabetic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Asghar, Omar; Al-Sunni, Ahmed; Khavandi, Kaivan; Khavandi, Ali; Withers, Sarah; Greenstein, Adam; Heagerty, Anthony M.; Malik, Rayaz A.

    2009-01-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a distinct primary disease process, independent of coronary artery disease, which leads to heart failure in diabetic patients. Epidemiological and clinical trial data have confirmed the greater incidence and prevalence of heart failure in diabetes. Novel echocardiographic and MR (magnetic resonance) techniques have enabled a more accurate means of phenotyping diabetic cardiomyopathy. Experimental models of diabetes have provided a range of novel molecular targets for this condition, but none have been substantiated in humans. Similarly, although ultrastructural pathology of the microvessels and cardiomyocytes is well described in animal models, studies in humans are small and limited to light microscopy. With regard to treatment, recent data with thiazoledinediones has generated much controversy in terms of the cardiac safety of both these and other drugs currently in use and under development. Clinical trials are urgently required to establish the efficacy of currently available agents for heart failure, as well as novel therapies in patients specifically with diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:19364331

  10. MedlinePlus: Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevent Diabetes (National Diabetes Education Program) - PDF My Game Plan: Food and Activity Tracker (National Diabetes Education Program) - PDF Small Steps, Big Rewards: Your Game Plan to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes (National Diabetes ...

  11. Types of Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Type 1 Diabetes Type 1 diabetes, formerly called juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, ... in children, teenagers or young adults. Treatment for type 1 diabetes includes taking insulin shots or using an insulin ...

  12. Genetics of Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A A Listen En Español Genetics of Diabetes You've probably wondered how you developed diabetes. ... to develop diabetes than others. What Leads to Diabetes? Type 1 and type 2 diabetes have different ...

  13. Object Classification via Planar Abstraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oesau, Sven; Lafarge, Florent; Alliez, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    We present a supervised machine learning approach for classification of objects from sampled point data. The main idea consists in first abstracting the input object into planar parts at several scales, then discriminate between the different classes of objects solely through features derived from these planar shapes. Abstracting into planar shapes provides a means to both reduce the computational complexity and improve robustness to defects inherent to the acquisition process. Measuring statistical properties and relationships between planar shapes offers invariance to scale and orientation. A random forest is then used for solving the multiclass classification problem. We demonstrate the potential of our approach on a set of indoor objects from the Princeton shape benchmark and on objects acquired from indoor scenes and compare the performance of our method with other point-based shape descriptors.

  14. An Abstract Plan Preparation Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new planning language that is more abstract than most existing planning languages such as the Planning Domain Definition Language (PDDL) or the New Domain Description Language (NDDL). The goal of this language is to simplify the formal analysis and specification of planning problems that are intended for safety-critical applications such as power management or automated rendezvous in future manned spacecraft. The new language has been named the Abstract Plan Preparation Language (APPL). A translator from APPL to NDDL has been developed in support of the Spacecraft Autonomy for Vehicles and Habitats Project (SAVH) sponsored by the Explorations Technology Development Program, which is seeking to mature autonomy technology for application to the new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) that will replace the Space Shuttle.

  15. Cryogenic foam insulation: Abstracted publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. R.

    1977-01-01

    A group of documents were chosen and abstracted which contain information on the properties of foam materials and on the use of foams as thermal insulation at cryogenic temperatures. The properties include thermal properties, mechanical properties, and compatibility properties with oxygen and other cryogenic fluids. Uses of foams include applications as thermal insulation for spacecraft propellant tanks, and for liquefied natural gas storage tanks and pipelines.

  16. Paediatric diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay

    2013-09-01

    Diabetes does not spare any section of society, and its prevalence in the paediatric and adolescent age group is rising. This review highlights the etiological and clinical features of childhood diabetes, including secular changes in epidemiology. It discusses the aspects of non pharmacological and pharmacological therapy which are unique to the paediatric age group, and explores current use of novel therapeutic modalities. The article calls for modulation of the psychological environment of the child with diabetes, to help improve his or her quality of life, and sensitizes physicians to take proactive, affirmative action to address the special needs of children with type1 diabetes. PMID:24601207

  17. Concrete and abstract Voronoi diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, R. )

    1989-01-01

    The Voronoi diagram of a set of sites is a partition of the plane into regions, one to each site, such that the region of each site contains all points of the plane that are closer to this site than to the other ones. Such partitions are of great importance to computer science and many other fields. The challenge is to compute Voronoi diagrams quickly. The problem is that their structure depends on the notion of distance and the sort of site. In this book the author proposes a unifying approach by introducing abstract Voronoi diagrams. These are based on the concept of bisecting curves which are required to have some simple properties that are actually possessed by most bisectors of concrete Voronoi diagrams. Abstract Voronoi diagrams can be computed efficiently and there exists a worst-case efficient algorithm of divide-and-conquer type that applies to all abstract Voronoi diagrams satisfying a certain constraint. The author shows that this constraint is fulfilled by the concrete diagrams based no large classes of metrics in the plane.

  18. The Diabetes Pearl: Diabetes biobanking in The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes is associated with considerable comorbidity and severe complications, which reduce quality of life of the patients and require high levels of healthcare. The Diabetes Pearl is a large cohort of patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, covering different geographical areas in the Netherlands. The aim of the study is to create a research infrastructure that will allow the study of risk factors, including biomarkers and genetic determinants for severe diabetes complications. Methods/design Baseline examinations began November 2009 and will continue through 2012. By the end of 2012, it is expected that 7000 patients with type 2 diabetes will be included in the Diabetes Pearl cohort. To ensure quality of the data collected, standard operation procedures were developed and used in all 8 recruitment centers. From all patients who provide informed consent, the following information is collected: personal information, medication use, physical examination (antropometry, blood pressure, electrocardiography (ECG), retina photographs, ankle-brachial index, peripheral vibration perception), self-report questionnaire (socio-economic status, lifestyle, (family) history of disease, and psychosocial well-being), laboratory measurements (glucose, A1c, lipid profile, kidney function), biobank material (storage of urine and blood samples and isolated DNA). All gathered clinical data and biobank information is uploaded to a database for storage on a national level. Biobanks are maintained locally at all recruitment centers. Discussion The Diabetes Pearl is large-scale cohort of type 2 diabetes patients in the Netherlands aiming to study risk factors, including biomarkers and genetic markers, for disease deterioration and the development of severe diabetes complications. As a result of the well-designed research design and the national coverage, the Diabetes Pearl data can be of great value to national and international researchers with an interest in diabetes

  19. Youth Studies Abstracts. Vol. 4 No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youth Studies Abstracts, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains 169 abstracts of documents dealing with youth and educational programs for youth. Included in the volume are 97 abstracts of documents dealing with social and educational developments; 56 abstracts of program reports, reviews, and evaluations; and 16 abstracts of program materials. Abstracts are grouped according to the…

  20. Background sources at PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, H.; Schwitters, R.F.; Toner, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Important sources of background for PEP experiments are studied. Background particles originate from high-energy electrons and positrons which have been lost from stable orbits, ..gamma..-rays emitted by the primary beams through bremsstrahlung in the residual gas, and synchrotron radiation x-rays. The effect of these processes on the beam lifetime are calculated and estimates of background rates at the interaction region are given. Recommendations for the PEP design, aimed at minimizing background are presented. 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Type 1 Diabetes and Risk for Fracture: Meta-analysis and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Viral N; Shah, Chirag S.; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K

    2016-01-01

    Background Fracture risk in men and women with type 1 diabetes (type 1 DM) has not been studied in a large prospective well designed cohort. Objective A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies were conducted to assess the association between type 1 DM and fractures. Data source Data were selected from Medline and Embase and abstract from annual scientific meeting of various diabetes and bone and mineral societies. Study selection Published studies reporting fracture risk in subjects with type 1 DM in comparison with subjects without diabetes between 1990 and July, 2014 and abstracts from various annual meeting (2005 onwards) were included for this meta-analysis. Data extraction Data were extracted from text of included publication or abstract of conferences. Data synthesis Fourteen studies that met inclusion criteria reported 2,066 fracture events among 27,300 subjects with type 1 DM (7.6%) and 136,579 fracture events among 4,364,125 subjects without diabetes (3.1%). The pooled relative risk (RR) of any fracture in subjects with type 1 DM was 3.16 (95% CI 1.51–6.63, p=0.002). Women and men with type 1 DM had four and two times higher risk for any fractures, respectively, compared to subjects without diabetes. The pooled RR of hip fractures and spinal fractures were 3.78 (95%CI; 2.05–6.98, p<0.001) and 2.88 (1.71–4.82, p<0.001), respectively, among subjects with type 1 DM. Conclusion Our meta-analysis suggests that both men and women with type 1 DM might have an increased risk for any fractures. A large prospective epidemiological study is needed to confirm our findings. PMID:26096918

  2. Building Background Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.

  3. Exploring diabetes type 1-related stigma

    PubMed Central

    Abdoli, Samereh; Abazari, Parvaneh; Mardanian, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Background: Empowerment of people with diabetes means integrating diabetes with identity. However, others’ stigmatization can influence it. Although diabetes is so prevalent among Iranians, there is little knowledge about diabetes-related stigma in Iran. The present study explored diabetes-related stigma in people living with type 1 diabetes in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: A conventional content analysis was used with in-depth interview with 26 people with and without diabetes from November 2011 to July 2012. Results: A person with type 1 diabetes was stigmatized as a miserable human (always sick and unable, death reminder, and intolerable burden), rejected marriage candidate (busy spouse, high-risk pregnant), and deprived of a normal life [prisoner of (to must), deprived of pleasure]. Although, young adults with diabetes undergo all aspects of the social diabetes-related stigma; in their opinion they were just deprived of a normal life Conclusion: It seems that in Isfahan, diabetes-related stigma is of great importance. In this way, conducting an appropriate intervention is necessary to improve the empowerment process in people with type 1 diabetes in order to reduce the stigma in the context. PMID:23983731

  4. Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanchik, Nicholas J.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the concept of the Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL) and its benefits. The OSAL is A small layer of software that allows programs to run on many different operating systems and hardware platforms It runs independent of the underlying OS & hardware and it is self-contained. The benefits of OSAL are that it removes dependencies from any one operating system, promotes portable, reusable flight software. It allows for Core Flight software (FSW) to be built for multiple processors and operating systems. The presentation discusses the functionality, the various OSAL releases, and describes the specifications.

  5. IEEE conference record--Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The following topics were covered in this meeting: basic plasma phenomena and plasma waves; plasma diagnostics; space plasma diagnostics; magnetic fusion; electron, ion and plasma sources; intense electron and ion beams; intense beam microwaves; fast wave M/W devices; microwave plasma interactions; plasma focus; ultrafast Z-pinches; plasma processing; electrical gas discharges; fast opening switches; magnetohydrodynamics; electromagnetic and electrothermal launchers; x-ray lasers; computational plasma science; solid state plasmas and switches; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; vacuum electronics; plasmas for lighting; gaseous electronics; and ball lightning and other spherical plasmas. Separate abstracts were prepared for 278 papers of this conference.

  6. Cardiovascular Autonomic Dysfunction Predicts Diabetic Foot Ulcers in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Without Diabetic Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jae-Seung; Cha, Seon-Ah; Lim, Tae-Seok; Lee, Eun-Young; Song, Ki-Ho; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Yoo, Ki-Dong; Kim, Joon-Sung; Park, Yong-Moon; Ko, Seung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the factors that might influence the development of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) in type 2 diabetes patients without diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN). From January 2000 to December 2005, a total of 595 patients who had type 2 diabetes without DPN between the ages of 25 and 75 years, and had no prior history of DFUs were consecutively enrolled in the study. A cardiovascular autonomic function test was performed to diagnose cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) using heart rate variability parameters. The median follow-up time was 13.3 years. Among the 449 (75.4%) patients who completed the follow-up evaluation, 22 (4.9%) patients developed new ulcers, and 6 (1.3%) patients underwent the procedure for lower extremity amputations. The patients in the DFUs group had a longer duration of diabetes, higher baseline HbA1c levels, higher rates of nephropathy, and CAN. A Cox hazard regression analysis results revealed that the development of DFUs was significantly associated with the presence of CAN (normal vs definite CAN; HR, 4.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.29–15.33) after adjusting for possible confounding factors. The development of DFUs was independently associated with CAN in patients with type 2 diabetes without DPN. We suggested the importance of CAN as a predictor of DFUs even in the patients without DPN, and the need to pay attention to patients with definite CAN and type 2 diabetes. PMID:27015188

  7. Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus: Adherence challenges in environments of low socio-economic status

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The efficacy of treatment for clients with diabetes is highly dependent on the individual's ability to manage the disease. Several constraints, such as poverty, illiteracy and insufficient resources (finances and specialised healthcare professionals), especially communities of low socio-economic status, could influence clients’ ability to manage their disease. Aim The main aim of this study was to outline the obstacles encountered by individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus from an urban community with regard to management of their disease. Setting The study was conducted at a primary health care facility in the Western Cape, South Africa. Methods Ethical clearance was obtained from all relevant authorities. Eight (8) conveniently selected clients with type 2 diabetes mellitus per participating community healthcare centre (six approved centres in total) were invited to take part in focus group discussions. Twenty six clients, 15 females and 11 males, with a mean age of 58.92 years (SD = 7.33), agreed to participate. Audiotaped data were transcribed verbatim followed by content analysis and identification of themes. Results Themes that emerged were challenges with: a healthy eating plan, physical activity, financial constraints, other people's understanding of the disease, and service received at the community healthcare centre. Verbatim quotes were used to exemplify the themes. Conclusion Clients with type 2 diabetes mellitus experienced several challenges in the management of their disease. These challenges should be addressed to assist with better glycaemic control and to curb the emergence of diabetic complications and their attendant cost implications. PMID:26245413

  8. The Long-Term Impact of Education on Diabetes for Older People: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Thongsai, Soontareeporn; Youjaiyen, Malinee

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although enthusiasm is growing for diabetic education programs for older people, data regarding their effectiveness and their long-term impact on self-management were neglected. Purpose: To systematically review diabetes mellitus education that has long-term effects on the self-management of older diabetic people. Data Sources: The authors searched multiple sources dated through September 2012, including the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Nursing and Allied Health databases, and the bibliographies of 50 previous reviews. Methods and Data Extraction: Electronic databases were searched for controlled studies in English, published from 1987 to 2012, assessing the effects of long-term education for older people. Reviewers extracted study data using a structured abstraction form. Aggregated information about the effects of long-term education programs on older people with diabetes was used for making adjustments in the review. Results: The pooled estimate of the long-term effects of education was a 0.5 percentage point reduction (95% confidence interval), modest but significant improvement. The evidence also supports that long-term education is beneficial for improving diabetic patient self-care management in terms of glycemic control. PMID:24171871

  9. Diabetes Dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Jonathan D; Liu, Yifen; Rao-Balakrishna, Prasanna; Malik, Rayaz A; Soran, Handrean

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with a considerably increased risk of premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Intensive glycemic control has essentially failed to significantly improve cardiovascular outcomes in clinical trials. Dyslipidemia is common in diabetes and there is strong evidence that cholesterol lowering improves cardiovascular outcomes, even in patients with apparently unremarkable lipid profiles. Here, the authors review the pathophysiology and implications of the alterations in lipoproteins observed in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, the effect of medications commonly used in the management of diabetes on the lipid profile, the evidence for lifestyle and pharmaceutical interventions, and national and international recommendations for the management of dyslipidemia in patients with diabetes. PMID:27056202

  10. Are diabetes camps effective?

    PubMed

    Barone, Mark Thomaz Ugliara; Vivolo, Marco Antonio; Madden, Paul B

    2016-04-01

    In the present article data about Diabetes Camps (DC) from all continents were reviewed in order to answer the title question "are diabetes camps effective?". Articles from peer reviewed journals and abstracts published in international conferences proceedings were raised. The effectiveness was considered in terms of knowledge acquisition, and psychosocial and physiological changes. Even though expected improvements were not found in all studies, in a deeper and wider analysis the aspects that influence the most toward gains are identified. Among them are: number of participations in a DC, post-camp educational opportunities, staff training, and program oriented toward campers' autonomy. To conclude, practical recommendations are addressed intending to amplify DC's potential. PMID:27103364

  11. Types of Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... without insulin injections). Type 2 Diabetes Type 2 diabetes, formerly called adult-onset or non-insulin-dependent diabetes, is the ... Diabetes / Types of Diabetes / Preventing Diabetes / Type 2 Diabetes Widespread in Adults Fall 2006 Issue: Volume 1 Number 1 Page ...

  12. Diabetic Neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Russell, James W.; Zilliox, Lindsay A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of Review: This article provides an overview for understanding the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and management of diabetic neuropathy. Recent Findings: New information about the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy continues to emerge, which will lead to identifying new drug targets. It is clear that the natural history of diabetic neuropathy is changing and the rate of progression is slowing. This is likely because of a combination of earlier diagnosis, improved glycemic management, and improved control of related complications such as hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Early diagnosis is critical, and small fiber neuropathy or subclinical diabetic neuropathy may be reversed or significantly improved with appropriate intervention. The American Academy of Neurology recently published guidelines for the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy. Summary: Diabetic neuropathy is common and can present with varied clinical presentations discussed in this article. Although treatment currently focuses on pain management, attention should be paid to potential risk factors for neuropathy. For example, glycemic control, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension should be managed with diet, exercise, and medications. Class I or II clinical studies indicate that pregabalin, duloxetine, amitriptyline, gabapentin, and opioids are effective in the management of diabetic neuropathic pain. PMID:25299279

  13. Diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Wong, Tien Y; Cheung, Chui Ming Gemmy; Larsen, Michael; Sharma, Sanjay; Simó, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common complication of diabetes mellitus and is a major cause of vision loss in middle-aged and elderly people. One-third of people with diabetes have DR. Severe stages of DR include proliferative DR, caused by the abnormal growth of new retinal blood vessels, and diabetic macular oedema, in which there is exudation and oedema in the central part of the retina. DR is strongly associated with a prolonged duration of diabetes, hyperglycaemia and hypertension. It is traditionally regarded as a microvascular disease, but retinal neurodegeneration is also involved. Complex interrelated pathophysiological mechanisms triggered by hyperglycaemia underlie the development of DR. These mechanisms include genetic and epigenetic factors, increased production of free radicals, advanced glycosylation end products, inflammatory factors and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Optimal control of blood glucose and blood pressure in individuals with diabetes remains the cornerstone for preventing the development and arresting the progression of DR. Anti-VEGF therapy is currently indicated for diabetic macular oedema associated with vision loss, whereas laser photocoagulation prevents severe vision loss in eyes with proliferative DR. These measures, together with increasing public awareness and access to regular screening for DR with retinal photography, and the development of new treatments to address early disease stages, will lead to better outcomes and prevent blindness for patients with DR. PMID:27159554

  14. Abstract Expression Grammar Symbolic Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korns, Michael F.

    This chapter examines the use of Abstract Expression Grammars to perform the entire Symbolic Regression process without the use of Genetic Programming per se. The techniques explored produce a symbolic regression engine which has absolutely no bloat, which allows total user control of the search space and output formulas, which is faster, and more accurate than the engines produced in our previous papers using Genetic Programming. The genome is an all vector structure with four chromosomes plus additional epigenetic and constraint vectors, allowing total user control of the search space and the final output formulas. A combination of specialized compiler techniques, genetic algorithms, particle swarm, aged layered populations, plus discrete and continuous differential evolution are used to produce an improved symbolic regression sytem. Nine base test cases, from the literature, are used to test the improvement in speed and accuracy. The improved results indicate that these techniques move us a big step closer toward future industrial strength symbolic regression systems.

  15. Toward Millimagnitude Photometric Calibration (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dose, E.

    2014-12-01

    (Abstract only) Asteroid roation, exoplanet transits, and similar measurements will increasingly call for photometric precisions better than about 10 millimagnitudes, often between nights and ideally between distant observers. The present work applies detailed spectral simulations to test popular photometric calibration practices, and to test new extensions of these practices. Using 107 synthetic spectra of stars of diverse colors, detailed atmospheric transmission spectra computed by solar-energy software, realistic spectra of popular astronomy gear, and the option of three sources of noise added at realistic millimagnitude levels, we find that certain adjustments to current calibration practices can help remove small systematic errors, especially for imperfect filters, high airmasses, and possibly passing thin cirrus clouds.

  16. Experience with abstract notation one

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, James D.; Weaver, Alfred C.

    1990-01-01

    The development of computer science has produced a vast number of machine architectures, programming languages, and compiler technologies. The cross product of these three characteristics defines the spectrum of previous and present data representation methodologies. With regard to computer networks, the uniqueness of these methodologies presents an obstacle when disparate host environments are to be interconnected. Interoperability within a heterogeneous network relies upon the establishment of data representation commonality. The International Standards Organization (ISO) is currently developing the abstract syntax notation one standard (ASN.1) and the basic encoding rules standard (BER) that collectively address this problem. When used within the presentation layer of the open systems interconnection reference model, these two standards provide the data representation commonality required to facilitate interoperability. The details of a compiler that was built to automate the use of ASN.1 and BER are described. From this experience, insights into both standards are given and potential problems relating to this development effort are discussed.

  17. Abstraction Planning in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washington, Richard

    1994-01-01

    When a planning agent works in a complex, real-world domain, it is unable to plan for and store all possible contingencies and problem situations ahead of time. The agent needs to be able to fall back on an ability to construct plans at run time under time constraints. This thesis presents a method for planning at run time that incrementally builds up plans at multiple levels of abstraction. The plans are continually updated by information from the world, allowing the planner to adjust its plan to a changing world during the planning process. All the information is represented over intervals of time, allowing the planner to reason about durations, deadlines, and delays within its plan. In addition to the method, the thesis presents a formal model of the planning process and uses the model to investigate planning strategies. The method has been implemented, and experiments have been run to validate the overall approach and the theoretical model.

  18. Abstraction Planning in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washington, R.

    1994-01-01

    When a planning agent works in a complex, real-world domain, it is unable to plan for and store all possible contingencies and problem situations ahead of time. This thesis presents a method for planning a run time that incrementally builds up plans at multiple levels of abstraction. The plans are continually updated by information from the world, allowing the planner to adjust its plan to a changing world during the planning process. All the information is represented over intervals of time, allowing the planner to reason about durations, deadlines, and delays within its plan. In addition to the method, the thesis presents a formal model of the planning process and uses the model to investigate planning strategies.

  19. The Cosmic Background Explorer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulkis, Samuel; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Outlines the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission to measure celestial radiation. Describes the instruments used and experiments involving differential microwave radiometers, and a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer. (YP)

  20. Impairment of shooting performance by background complexity and motion.

    PubMed

    Caroux, Loïc; Le Bigot, Ludovic; Vibert, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    In many visual displays such as virtual environments, human tasks involve objects superimposed on both complex and moving backgrounds. However, most studies investigated the influence of background complexity or background motion in isolation. Two experiments were designed to investigate the joint influences of background complexity and lateral motion on a simple shooting task typical of video games. Participants had to perform the task on the moving and static versions of backgrounds of three levels of complexity, while their eye movements were recorded. The backgrounds displayed either an abstract (Experiment 1) or a naturalistic (Experiment 2) virtual environment. The results showed that performance was impaired by background motion in both experiments. The effects of motion and complexity were additive for the abstract background and multiplicative for the naturalistic background. Eye movement recordings showed that performance impairments reflected at least in part the impact of the background visual features on gaze control. PMID:25384639

  1. Educational Technology in Micro-Teaching Preparation. Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Charles D.

    This paper is an abstract of a longer paper which was read at the American Educational Research Association (AERA) Annual Meeting in 1974. It begins with a brief background discussion on microteaching and goes on to list the teaching skills which microteaching develops. A brief summary of the research on microteaching is then given. The abstract…

  2. Bilingual/Bicultural Education: Titles and Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Los Angeles. National Dissemination and Assessment Center.

    Dissertation abstracts describing research on a wide variety of topics in bilingual education are presented. This publication is designed to provide background material for bilingual educators as well as practical procedures for bilingual teachers, administrators, counselors, and evaluators. The titles were acquired by using the two broad…

  3. Backgrounds in Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, John C.; Long, Barbara K.

    "Backgrounds in Language," a field-tested inservice course designed for use by groups of 15 or 25 language arts teachers, provides the subject matter background teachers need to make informed decisions about what curriculum materials to use in what way, at what time, and with which students. The course is comprised of eight 2-hour sessions,…

  4. Correlators in nontrivial backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Mello Koch, Robert de; Ives, Norman; Stephanou, Michael

    2009-01-15

    Operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with an R-charge of O(N{sup 2}) are dual to backgrounds which are asymtotically AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}. In this article we develop efficient techniques that allow the computation of correlation functions in these backgrounds. We find that (i) contractions between fields in the string words and fields in the operator creating the background are the field theory accounting of the new geometry, (ii) correlation functions of probes in these backgrounds are given by the free field theory contractions but with rescaled propagators and (iii) in these backgrounds there are no open string excitations with their special end point interactions; we have only closed string excitations.

  5. Diabetic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Ketone testing may be used in type 1 diabetes to screen for early ketoacidosis. The ketones test is usually done using a urine sample or a blood sample . Ketone testing is usually done when DKA is ...

  6. Diabetic Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... sugar level (hypoglycemia), which can lead to insulin shock. Not enough insulin can cause a high level ... can cause a diabetic coma. Symptoms of insulin shock include: Weakness, drowsiness Rapid pulse Fast breathing Pale, ...

  7. Diabetic Pets

    MedlinePlus

    ... made by a veterinarian. Because older dogs and cats are more likely to develop age-related diseases ... cataracts, which commonly develop in diabetic dogs and cats. Other problems that can occur include hind leg ...

  8. Diabetes Insipidus

    MedlinePlus

    ... thirsty, so you drink. Then you urinate. This cycle can keep you from sleeping or even make you wet the bed. Your body produces lots of urine that is almost all water. DI is different from diabetes mellitus (DM), which ...

  9. Immunizations - diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000331.htm Immunizations - diabetes To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Immunizations (vaccines or vaccinations) help protect you from some ...

  10. Preventing Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... a reasonable body weight —Losing even a few pounds can help reduce your risk of developing type ... 2 diabetes. For example, if you weigh 200 pounds, losing only 10 pounds could make a difference. ...

  11. Diabetic Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... to high blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels. Healthy eating helps keep your blood sugar in your target ... medicines, lifestyle, and other health problems you have. Healthy diabetic eating includes Limiting foods that are high in sugar ...

  12. Diabetes Insipidus

    MedlinePlus

    ... when this precise system for regulating the kidneys’ handling of fluids is disrupted. What are the types of diabetes insipidus? Central DI The most common form of serious DI, central DI, results from damage to the pitu itary gland, which ...

  13. Diabetic Retinopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye, including the retina, macula, lens and the optic nerve. Diabetic eye disease is a group of ... a group of diseases that damage the eye’s optic nerve—the bundle of nerve fibers that connects ...

  14. An abstract approach to music.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

    1999-04-19

    In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The motivation for this approach uses traditional terms and concepts of music theory, but the approach itself is formal and uses the language of mathematics. The universal object is an audio wave; partials, sounds, and compositions are special objects, which are placed in a hierarchical order based on time scales. The objects have both static and dynamic attributes. When we realize a composition, we assign values to each of its attributes: a (scalar) value to a static attribute, an envelope and a size to a dynamic attribute. A composition is then a trajectory in the space of aural events, and the complex audio wave is its formal representation. Sounds are fibers in the space of aural events, from which the composer weaves the trajectory of a composition. Each sound object in turn is made up of partials, which are the elementary building blocks of any music composition. The partials evolve on the fastest time scale in the hierarchy of partials, sounds, and compositions. The ideas outlined in this article are being implemented in a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis and in software for music composition. A demonstration of some preliminary results has been submitted by the authors for presentation at the conference.

  15. Ozone Conference II: Abstract Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    Ozone Conference II: Pre- and Post-Harvest Applications Two Years After Gras, was held September 27-28, 1999 in Tulare, California. This conference, sponsored by EPRI's Agricultural Technology Alliance and Southern California Edison's AgTAC facility, was coordinated and organized by the on-site ATA-AgTAC Regional Center. Approximately 175 people attended the day-and-a-half conference at AgTAC. During the Conference twenty-two presentations were given on ozone food processing and agricultural applications. Included in the presentations were topics on: (1) Ozone fumigation; (2) Ozone generation techniques; (3) System and design applications; (4) Prewater treatment requirements; (5) Poultry water reuse; (6) Soil treatments with ozone gas; and (7) Post-harvest aqueous and gaseous ozone research results. A live videoconference between Tulare and Washington, D.C. was held to discuss the regulators' view from inside the beltway. Attendees participated in two Roundtable Question and Answer sessions and visited fifteen exhibits and demonstrations. The attendees included university and governmental researchers, regulators, consultants and industry experts, technology developers and providers, and corporate and individual end-users. This report is comprised of the Abstracts of each presentation, biographical sketches for each speaker and a registration/attendees list.

  16. 1986 annual information meeting. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts are presented for the following papers: Geohydrological Research at the Y-12 Plant (C.S. Haase); Ecological Impacts of Waste Disposal Operations in Bear Creek Valley Near the Y-12 Plant (J.M. Loar); Finite Element Simulation of Subsurface Contaminant Transport: Logistic Difficulties in Handling Large Field Problems (G.T. Yeh); Dynamic Compaction of a Radioactive Waste Burial Trench (B.P. Spalding); Comparative Evaluation of Potential Sites for a High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository (E.D. Smith); Changing Priorities in Environmental Assessment and Environmental Compliance (R.M. Reed); Ecology, Ecotoxicology, and Ecological Risk Assessment (L.W. Barnthouse); Theory and Practice in Uncertainty Analysis from Ten Years of Practice (R.H. Gardner); Modeling Landscape Effects of Forest Decline (V.H. Dale); Soil Nitrogen and the Global Carbon Cycle (W.M. Post); Maximizing Wood Energy Production in Short-Rotation Plantations: Effect of Initial Spacing and Rotation Length (L.L. Wright); and Ecological Communities and Processes in Woodland Streams Exhibit Both Direct and Indirect Effects of Acidification (J.W. Elwood).

  17. Glycemic Control in a Clinic-Based Sample of Diabetics in M'Bour Senegal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BeLue, Rhonda; Ndiaye, Khadidiatou; NDao, Fatou; Ba, Fatou Niass Niang; Diaw, Mor

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) including Senegal is faced with a significant and increasing burden of type 2 diabetes. However, little information is available about diabetes management among Senegalese diabetics. Purpose: The current study aims to describe the level of glycemic control among a convenience sample of diabetics who receive…

  18. Diabetes Treatment as "Homework": Consequences for Household Knowledge and Health Practices in Rural Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Jannie; Bahendeka, Silver K.; Bygbjerg, Ib C.; Meyrowitsch, Dan W.; Whyte, Susan R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health professionals assign diabetes patients "homework" in that they give them instructions on how to manage diabetes, recognizing that most diabetes care takes place in the home setting. We studied how homework is practiced and whether knowledge and behavioral practices related to diabetes self-management diffuse from…

  19. Diabetes and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. When ... pregnant women in the United States get gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes is diabetes that happens for the ...

  20. Kidney Disease and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Kidney Disease & Diabetes Updated:Jan 26,2016 One of the more ... thereafter.) This content was last reviewed January 2016. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...

  1. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recruiting Patients & Families Consortia, Networks & Centers Reports & Planning Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) Page Content On this page: ... increased risk of developing diabetes. [ Top ] Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes Type 2 diabetes is a disorder ...

  2. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Mar 23,2016 The following statistics speak ... disease. This content was last reviewed August 2015. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...

  3. Diabetes and Foot Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease, and Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Diabetes and Foot Problems How can diabetes affect my feet? Too much glucose, also called ... you have any of these signs. How can diabetes change the shape of my feet? Nerve damage ...

  4. Diabetes and nerve damage

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetic neuropathy; Diabetes - neuropathy ... provider if you develop any symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. ... al. Evidence-based guideline: Treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy: report of the American Academy of Neurology, the ...

  5. Background Underground at WIPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esch, Ernst-Ingo; Hime, A.; Bowles, T. J.

    2001-04-01

    Recent interest to establish a dedicated underground laboratory in the United States prompted an experimental program at to quantify the enviromental backgrounds underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. An outline of this program is provided along with recent experimental data on the cosmic ray muon flux at the 650 meter level of WIPP. The implications of the cosmic ray muon and fast neutron background at WIPP will be discussed in the context of new generation, low background experiments envisioned in the future.

  6. The cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dar, Arnon

    1991-01-01

    The cosmic neutrino background is expected to consist of relic neutrinos from the big bang, of neutrinos produced during nuclear burning in stars, of neutrinos released by gravitational stellar collapse, and of neutrinos produced by cosmic ray interactions with matter and radiation in the interstellar and intergalactic medium. Formation of baryonic dark matter in the early universe, matter-antimatter annihilation in a baryonic symmetric universe, and dark matter annihilation could have also contributed significantly to the cosmic neutrino background. The purpose of this paper is to review the properties of these cosmic neutrino backgrounds, the indirect evidence for their existence, and the prospects for their detection.

  7. Adaptive background model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaochun; Xiao, Yijun; Chai, Zhi; Wang, Bangping

    2007-11-01

    An adaptive background model aiming at outdoor vehicle detection is presented in this paper. This model is an improved model of PICA (pixel intensity classification algorithm), it classifies pixels into K-distributions by color similarity, and then a hypothesis that the background pixel color appears in image sequence with a high frequency is used to evaluate all the distributions to determine which presents the current background color. As experiments show, the model presented in this paper is a robust, adaptive and flexible model, which can deal with situations like camera motions, lighting changes and so on.

  8. Blood pressure control for diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Do, Diana V; Wang, Xue; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; Marrone, Michael; Sleilati, Gina; Hawkins, Barbara S; Frank, Robert N

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes and a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness. Research has established the importance of blood glucose control to prevent development and progression of the ocular complications of diabetes. Simultaneous blood pressure control has been advocated for the same purpose, but findings reported from individual studies have supported varying conclusions regarding the ocular benefit of interventions on blood pressure. Objectives The primary aim of this review was to summarize the existing evidence regarding the effect of interventions to control or reduce blood pressure levels among diabetics on incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy, preservation of visual acuity, adverse events, quality of life, and costs. A secondary aim was to compare classes of anti-hypertensive medications with respect to the same outcomes. Search methods We searched a number of electronic databases including CENTRAL as well as ongoing trial registries. We last searched the electronic databases on 25 April 2014. We also reviewed reference lists of review articles and trial reports selected for inclusion. In addition, we contacted investigators of trials with potentially pertinent data. Selection criteria We included in this review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which either type 1 or type 2 diabetic participants, with or without hypertension, were assigned randomly to intense versus less intense blood pressure control, to blood pressure control versus usual care or no intervention on blood pressure, or to different classes of anti-hypertensive agents versus placebo. Data collection and analysis Pairs of review authors independently reviewed titles and abstracts from electronic and manual searches and the full text of any document that appeared to be relevant. We assessed included trials independently for risk of bias with respect to outcomes reported in this review. We extracted data regarding trial

  9. Difference in 24-Hour Urine Composition between Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Adults without Nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jing; Duan, Xiaolu; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Zhijian; Yuan, Jian; Wan, Shaw P.; Zeng, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetic patients are more likely to develop kidney stones than the general population. The underlying mechanisms for this disparity remain to be elucidated. Little is known about the relationship between urine composition and diabetes mellitus in non-stone-forming individuals. We sought to examine the differences in the 24-hour (24-h) urine composition between diabetic and non-diabetic adults who were not stone formers. Methods A convenience sample of 538 individuals without a history of nephrolithiasis, gout, hyperparathyroidism, or gastroenteric diseases participated in this study. The 24-h urine profiles of 115 diabetic adults were compared with those of 423 non-diabetic adults. Diabetes was defined by self-reported physician diagnosis or medication use. All participants were non-stone formers confirmed by urinary tract ultrasonography. Participants provided a fasting blood sample and a single 24-h urine collection for stone risk analysis. Student’s t-test was used to compare mean urinary values. Linear regression models were adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, hypertension, fasting serum glucose, serum total cholesterol, estimated creatinine clearance rate and urinary factors. Results Univariable analysis showed that the diabetic participants had significantly higher 24-h urine volumes and lower urine calcium and magnesium excretions than non-diabetic participants (all P < 0.05). After multivariate adjustment, no significant differences in 24-h urine composition were observed between diabetic and non-diabetic participants except for a slightly increased 24-h urine volume in diabetic participants (all P > 0.05). The main limitation of this study is that the convenience samples and self-reported data may have been sources of bias. Conclusion Our data showed that there were no differences in 24-h urine composition between diabetic and non-diabetic adults who are not stone formers. The reason for it might be the improved glycemic control in

  10. The GLAST Background Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ormes, J.F.; Atwood, W.; Burnett, T.; Grove, E.; Longo, F.; McEnery, J.; Mizuno, T.; Ritz, S.; /NASA, Goddard

    2007-10-17

    In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles that would affect the LAT. In addition to the well-known components of the cosmic radiation, we included splash and reentrant components of protons, electrons (e+ and e-) from 10 MeV and beyond as well as the albedo gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. We made estimates of the irreducible background components produced by positrons and hadrons interacting in the multilayered micrometeorite shield and spacecraft surrounding the LAT and note that because the orbital debris has increased, the shielding required and hence the background are larger than were present in EGRET. Improvements to the model are currently being made to include the east-west effect.

  11. The GLAST Background Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ormes, J. F.; Atwood, W.; Burnett, T.; Grove, E.; Longo, F.; McEnery, J.; Ritz, S.; Mizuno, T.

    2007-07-12

    In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles that would affect the LAT. In addition to the well-known components of the cosmic radiation, we included splash and reentrant components of protons, electrons (e+ and e-) from 10 MeV and beyond as well as the albedo gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. We made estimates of the irreducible background components produced by positrons and hadrons interacting in the multilayered micrometeorite shield and spacecraft surrounding the LAT and note that because the orbital debris has increased, the shielding required and hence the background are larger than were present in EGRET. Improvements to the model are currently being made to include the east-west effect.

  12. Rapid Pharmacokinetics of Intradermal Insulin Administered Using Microneedles in Type 1 Diabetes Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Jyoti

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background This study compared the pharmacokinetics, postprandial glycemic response, and pain associated with intradermal lispro insulin delivery using a microneedle with that of a conventional catheter. Subjects and Methods Five subjects with type 1 diabetes were administered a bolus infusion of lispro insulin using a 9-mm-long subcutaneous catheter (control treatment) and a 0.9-mm-long microneedle (study treatment), followed by consumption of a standardized meal. Blood samples were periodically assayed for plasma glucose and free insulin levels. Results Intradermal insulin infusion using microneedles reached peak insulin concentrations in approximately half the time and led to greater reduction in plasma glucose levels than subcutaneous catheters. Microneedles were also significantly less painful than the catheters. Conclusion The rapid pharmacokinetics and minimally invasive nature of intradermal insulin infusion using microneedles provide significant potential for improved diabetes management. PMID:21355717

  13. Diabetes - foot ulcers

    MedlinePlus

    ... 33. Kim PJ, Steinberg JS. Complications of the diabetic foot. Endocrinol Metab Clin N Am. 2013;42:833-847. PMID: 24286952 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24286952 . Read More Diabetes Diabetes and nerve damage Leg or foot amputation Type 1 diabetes Type 2 diabetes Patient Instructions Diabetes and ...

  14. Abstraction and reformulation in artificial intelligence.

    PubMed Central

    Holte, Robert C.; Choueiry, Berthe Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper contributes in two ways to the aims of this special issue on abstraction. The first is to show that there are compelling reasons motivating the use of abstraction in the purely computational realm of artificial intelligence. The second is to contribute to the overall discussion of the nature of abstraction by providing examples of the abstraction processes currently used in artificial intelligence. Although each type of abstraction is specific to a somewhat narrow context, it is hoped that collectively they illustrate the richness and variety of abstraction in its fullest sense. PMID:12903653

  15. Annotating user-defined abstractions for optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, D; Schordan, M; Vuduc, R; Yi, Q

    2005-12-05

    This paper discusses the features of an annotation language that we believe to be essential for optimizing user-defined abstractions. These features should capture semantics of function, data, and object-oriented abstractions, express abstraction equivalence (e.g., a class represents an array abstraction), and permit extension of traditional compiler optimizations to user-defined abstractions. Our future work will include developing a comprehensive annotation language for describing the semantics of general object-oriented abstractions, as well as automatically verifying and inferring the annotated semantics.

  16. Tips for Teens with Diabetes: What Is Diabetes?

    MedlinePlus

    Tips for Teens with Diabetes What is Diabetes? National Diabetes Education Program Learn about diabetes and how to manage it. styaoyfuyodarooiatumdrbaTecebadhhtlkeoieoecsoaii… cncdlteehams, gyr, ealauwbkncoeeedofishgayceeohch. attue, ...

  17. OIL POLLUTION ABSTRACTS. VOLUME 6, NUMBER 1

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oil Pollution Abstracts (formerly entitled Oil Pollution Reports) is a quarterly compilation of abstracts of current oil pollution related literature and research projects. Comprehensive coverage of oil pollution and its prevention and control is provided, with emphasis on the aq...

  18. An algorithm for generating abstract syntax trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noonan, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The notion of an abstract syntax is discussed. An algorithm is presented for automatically deriving an abstract syntax directly from a BNF grammar. The implementation of this algorithm and its application to the grammar for Modula are discussed.

  19. A genome‐wide association study suggests an association of Chr8p21.3 (GFRA2) with diabetic neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, H.A.; van Zuydam, N.R.; Liu, Y.; Donnelly, L.A.; Zhou, K.; Morris, A.D.; Colhoun, H.M.; Palmer, C.N.A.; Smith, B.H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Neuropathic pain, caused by a lesion or a disease affecting the somatosensory system, is one of the most common complications in diabetic patients. The purpose of this study is to identify genetic factors contributing to this type of pain in a general diabetic population. Method We accessed the Genetics of Diabetes Audit and Research Tayside (GoDARTS) datasets that contain prescription information and monofilament test results for 9439 diabetic patients, among which 6927 diabetic individuals were genotyped by Affymetrix SNP6.0 or Illumina OmniExpress chips. Cases of neuropathic pain were defined as diabetic patients with a prescription history of at least one of five drugs specifically indicated for the treatment of neuropathic pain and in whom monofilament test result was positive for sensory neuropathy in at least one foot. Controls were individuals who did not have a record of receiving any opioid analgesics. Imputation of non‐genotyped SNPs was performed by IMPUTE2, with reference files from 1000 Genomes Phase I datasets. Results After data cleaning and relevant exclusions, imputed genotypes of 572 diabetic neuropathic pain cases and 2491 diabetic controls were used in the Fisher's exact test. We identified a cluster in the Chr8p21.3, next to GFRA2 with a lowest p‐value of 1.77 × 10−7 at rs17428041. The narrow‐sense heritability of this phenotype was 11.00%. Conclusion This genome‐wide association study on diabetic neuropathic pain suggests new evidence for the involvement of variants near GFRA2 with the disorder, which needs to be verified in an independent cohort and at the molecular level. PMID:24974787

  20. Urban and rural prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes and risk factors associated with diabetes in Tanzania and Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Chiwanga, Faraja S.; Njelekela, Marina A.; Diamond, Megan B.; Bajunirwe, Francis; Guwatudde, David; Nankya-Mutyoba, Joan; Kalyesubula, Robert; Adebamowo, Clement; Ajayi, IkeOluwapo; Reid, Todd G.; Volmink, Jimmy; Laurence, Carien; Adami, Hans-Olov; Holmes, Michelle D.; Dalal, Shona

    2016-01-01

    Background The increase in prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa underlines the importance of understanding its magnitude and causes in different population groups. We analyzed data from the Africa/Harvard Partnership for Cohort Research and Training (PaCT) studies to determine the prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes and risk factors associated with diabetes. Methodology Participants were randomly selected from peri-urban (n=297) and rural (n=200) communities in Uganda, and teachers were recruited from schools (n=229) in urban Tanzania. We used a standardized questionnaire to collect socio-demographic and self-reported disease status including diabetes status. Blood glucose was also measured after participants fasted for 8 h. We used standard protocols for anthropometric and blood pressure measurement. Results The overall prevalence of diabetes was 10.1% and was highest in rural Ugandan residents (16.1%) compared to teachers in Tanzania (8.3%) and peri-urban Ugandan residents (7.6%). The prevalence of pre-diabetes was 13.8%. The prevalence of self-reported diabetes was low across all sites, where 68% of participants with diabetes were not captured by self-report. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, family history (OR 2.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 5.6) and hypertension (OR 2.3, 95% CI: 1.1, 5.2) were significantly associated with diabetes. Conclusions The prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes in Uganda and Tanzania is high, differs markedly between population groups, and remains undiagnosed in an alarmingly high proportion of individuals. These findings highlight the need for large-scale, prospective studies to accurately quantify the burden and identify effective intervention and treatment strategies across diverse African populations. PMID:27221531

  1. 2013 SYR Accepted Poster Abstracts.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    SYR 2013 Accepted Poster abstracts: 1. Benefits of Yoga as a Wellness Practice in a Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care Setting: If You Build It, Will They Come? 2. Yoga-based Psychotherapy Group With Urban Youth Exposed to Trauma. 3. Embodied Health: The Effects of a Mind�Body Course for Medical Students. 4. Interoceptive Awareness and Vegetable Intake After a Yoga and Stress Management Intervention. 5. Yoga Reduces Performance Anxiety in Adolescent Musicians. 6. Designing and Implementing a Therapeutic Yoga Program for Older Women With Knee Osteoarthritis. 7. Yoga and Life Skills Eating Disorder Prevention Among 5th Grade Females: A Controlled Trial. 8. A Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing the Impact of Yoga and Physical Education on the Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Middle School Children. 9. Feasibility of a Multisite, Community based Randomized Study of Yoga and Wellness Education for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy. 10. A Delphi Study for the Development of Protocol Guidelines for Yoga Interventions in Mental Health. 11. Impact Investigation of Breathwalk Daily Practice: Canada�India Collaborative Study. 12. Yoga Improves Distress, Fatigue, and Insomnia in Older Veteran Cancer Survivors: Results of a Pilot Study. 13. Assessment of Kundalini Mantra and Meditation as an Adjunctive Treatment With Mental Health Consumers. 14. Kundalini Yoga Therapy Versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Co-Occurring Mood Disorder. 15. Baseline Differences in Women Versus Men Initiating Yoga Programs to Aid Smoking Cessation: Quitting in Balance Versus QuitStrong. 16. Pranayam Practice: Impact on Focus and Everyday Life of Work and Relationships. 17. Participation in a Tailored Yoga Program is Associated With Improved Physical Health in Persons With Arthritis. 18. Effects of Yoga on Blood Pressure: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 19. A Quasi-experimental Trial of a Yoga based Intervention to Reduce Stress and

  2. At the HeART of Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdit, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Abstraction has long been a concept difficult to define for students. Students often feel the pressure of making their artwork "look real" and frustration can often lead to burnout in the classroom. In this article, the author describes how her lesson on abstraction has alleviated much of that pressure as students created an abstract acrylic…

  3. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  4. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  5. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  6. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  7. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  8. Writing a Structured Abstract for the Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's suggestions on how to improve thesis abstracts. The author describes two books on writing abstracts: (1) "Creating Effective Conference Abstracts and Posters in Biomedicine: 500 tips for Success" (Fraser, Fuller & Hutber, 2009), a compendium of clear advice--a must book to have in one's hand as one prepares a…

  9. The Cosmic Background Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

  10. Mouse Models of Diabetic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Kelli A.; Hayes, John M.; Wiggin, Timothy D.; Backus, Carey; Oh, Sang Su; Lentz, Stephen I.; Brosius, Frank; Feldman, Eva L.

    2007-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is a debilitating complication of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Rodent models of DN do not fully replicate the pathology observed in human patients. We examined DN in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced [B6] and spontaneous type 1 diabetes [B6Ins2Akita] and spontaneous type 2 diabetes [B6-db/db, BKS-db/db]. DN was defined using the criteria of the Animal Models of Diabetic Complications Consortium (http://www.amdcc.org). Despite persistent hyperglycemia, the STZ-treated B6 and B6Ins2Akita mice were resistant to the development of DN. In contrast, DN developed in both type 2 diabetes models: the B6-db/db and BKS-db/db mice. The persistence of hyperglycemia and development of DN in the B6-db/db mice required an increased fat diet while the BKS-db/db mice developed severe DN and remained hyperglycemic on standard mouse chow. Our data support the hypothesis that genetic background and diet influence the development of DN and should be considered when developing new models of DN. PMID:17804249

  11. Combination Therapy Accelerates Diabetic Wound Closure

    PubMed Central

    Allen Jr., Robert J.; Soares, Marc A.; Haberman, Ilyse D.; Szpalski, Caroline; Schachar, Jeffrey; Lin, Clarence D.; Nguyen, Phuong D.; Saadeh, Pierre B.; Warren, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-healing foot ulcers are the most common cause of non-traumatic amputation and hospitalization amongst diabetics in the developed world. Impaired wound neovascularization perpetuates a cycle of dysfunctional tissue repair and regeneration. Evidence implicates defective mobilization of marrow-derived progenitor cells (PCs) as a fundamental cause of impaired diabetic neovascularization. Currently, there are no FDA-approved therapies to address this defect. Here we report an endogenous PC strategy to improve diabetic wound neovascularization and closure through a combination therapy of AMD3100, which mobilizes marrow-derived PCs by competitively binding to the cell surface CXCR4 receptor, and PDGF-BB, which is a protein known to enhance cell growth, progenitor cell migration and angiogenesis. Methods and Results Wounded mice were assigned to 1 of 5 experimental arms (n = 8/arm): saline treated wild-type, saline treated diabetic, AMD3100 treated diabetic, PDGF-BB treated diabetic, and AMD3100/PDGF-BB treated diabetic. Circulating PC number and wound vascularity were analyzed for each group (n = 8/group). Cellular function was assessed in the presence of AMD3100. Using a validated preclinical model of type II diabetic wound healing, we show that AMD3100 therapy (10 mg/kg; i.p. daily) alone can rescue diabetes-specific defects in PC mobilization, but cannot restore normal wound neovascularization. Through further investigation, we demonstrate an acquired trafficking-defect within AMD3100-treated diabetic PCs that can be rescued by PDGF-BB (2 μg; topical) supplementation within the wound environment. Finally, we determine that combination therapy restores diabetic wound neovascularization and accelerates time to wound closure by 40%. Conclusions Combination AMD3100 and PDGF-BB therapy synergistically improves BM PC mobilization and trafficking, resulting in significantly improved diabetic wound closure and neovascularization. The success of this

  12. The Influence of Smoking on Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Kuan-Jen; Lee, Jen-Jyh; Chien, Shun-Tien; Suk, Chi-Won; Chiang, Chen-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Background Both smoking and diabetes can increase the risk and influence the manifestations and outcomes of tuberculosis (TB). It is not clear whether the influence of smoking on pulmonary TB differs between non-diabetic and diabetic patients. Herein, we assessed the manifestations and outcomes of TB in relation to smoking in both diabetic and non-diabetic TB patients. Methodology/Principal Findings All diabetic culture-positive pulmonary TB patients notified from 2005–2010 at three teaching hospitals in Taiwan were enrolled. A culture-positive pulmonary TB patient without DM who was notified to the health authority immediately prior to each diabetic TB patient was selected for comparison. The 972 patients in this study cohort included 365 (37.6%) non-diabetic non-smokers, 149 (15.3%) non-diabetic smokers, 284 (29.2%) diabetic non-smokers, and 174 (17.9%) diabetic smokers. The adjusted relative risk of a pretreatment positive smear for a smoker compared with a non-smoker was 2.19 (95% CI 1.38–3.47) in non-diabetic patients and 2.23 (95% CI 1.29–3.87) in diabetic culture-positive pulmonary TB patients. The adjusted relative risk for a positive smear among diabetic smokers was 5.61 (95% CI 3.35–9.41) compared with non-diabetic non-smokers. Smoking was significantly associated with an increased frequency of bilateral lung parenchyma involvement (AdjOR 1.84, 95% CI 1.16–2.93), far-advanced pulmonary TB (AdjOR 1.91, 95% CI 1.04–3.50), cavitary lesions (AdjOR 2.03, 95% CI 1.29–3.20), and unfavorable outcomes of TB (AdjOR 2.35, 95% CI 1.02–5.41) in non-diabetic patients. However, smoking was not associated with cavitary lung parenchyma lesions regarding the location, number or size of the cavity in diabetic TB patients. Conclusions/Significance Smoking and diabetes have joint effects on a pretreatment positive smear. Diabetic smokers had more than a 5-fold increased risk of a pretreatment positive smear than did non-diabetic non-smokers, indicating

  13. Evaluation of the Impact of a Diabetes Education Curriculum for School Personnel on Disease Knowledge and Confidence in Caring for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cory T.; Chen, Aleda M. H.; Plake, Kimberly S.; Nash, Christiane L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: School personnel may lack knowledge of diabetes and be unprepared to address the needs of students with type 1 diabetes. This project evaluated the effectiveness of a type 1 diabetes education program for school personnel on increasing knowledge of diabetes and confidence in caring for students with diabetes. Methods: Two types of…

  14. Medical Temporal-Knowledge Discovery via Temporal Abstraction

    PubMed Central

    Moskovitch, Robert; Shahar, Yuval

    2009-01-01

    Medical knowledge includes frequently occurring temporal patterns in longitudinal patient records. These patterns are not easily detectable by human clinicians. Current knowledge could be extended by automated temporal data mining. However, multivariate time-oriented data are often present at various levels of abstraction and at multiple temporal granularities, requiring a transformation into a more abstract, yet uniform dimension suitable for mining. Temporal abstraction (of both the time and value dimensions) can transform multiple types of point-based data into a meaningful, time-interval-based data representation, in which significant, interval-based temporal patterns can be discovered. We introduce a modular, fast time-interval mining method, KarmaLego, which exploits the transitivity inherent in temporal relations. We demonstrate the usefulness of KarmaLego in finding meaningful temporal patterns within a set of records of diabetic patients; several patterns seem to have a different frequency depending on gender. We also suggest additional uses of the discovered patterns for temporal clustering of the mined population and for classifying multivariate time series. PMID:20351898

  15. China: Background Notes Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reams, Joanne Reppert

    Concise background information on the People's Republic of China is provided. The publication begins with a profile of the country, outlining the people, geography, economy, and membership in international organizations. The bulk of the document then discusses in more detail China's people, geography, history, government, education, economy, and…

  16. Nonthermal cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mu-Chun; Ratz, Michael; Trautner, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    We point out that, for Dirac neutrinos, in addition to the standard thermal cosmic neutrino background (C ν B ), there could also exist a nonthermal neutrino background with comparable number density. As the right-handed components are essentially decoupled from the thermal bath of standard model particles, relic neutrinos with a nonthermal distribution may exist until today. The relic density of the nonthermal (nt) background can be constrained by the usual observational bounds on the effective number of massless degrees of freedom Neff and can be as large as nν nt≲0.5 nγ. In particular, Neff can be larger than 3.046 in the absence of any exotic states. Nonthermal relic neutrinos constitute an irreducible contribution to the detection of the C ν B and, hence, may be discovered by future experiments such as PTOLEMY. We also present a scenario of chaotic inflation in which a nonthermal background can naturally be generated by inflationary preheating. The nonthermal relic neutrinos, thus, may constitute a novel window into the very early Universe.

  17. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, K. J.; Smith, A. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Chan, Y. D.; Norman, E. B.; Lesko, K. T.

    2015-08-01

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  18. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Smith, A. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.

    2015-08-17

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  19. Foregrounding the Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    Argues that when introductory activities to the classics begin with background information, it can upstage or confine the life of the story, and shows little faith in the students as readers or in the literature itself. Suggests sometimes letting the literature begin, and then helping students make sense of it. Discusses examples from "To Kill a…

  20. Monitored background radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruel, C.; Larouche, M.; Donato, M.

    1986-01-01

    The infrared (IR) testing of the Olympus thermal model has provided a capability to perform cost effective thermal balance testing of satellites and satellite components. A high-accuracy monitored background radiometer was developed for the measurement of absorbed radiation heat flux encountered during IR thermal vacuum testing of spacecraft. The design, development, and calibration of this radiometer is described.

  1. Research & writing basics: elements of the abstract.

    PubMed

    Krasner, D; Van Rijswijk, L

    1995-04-01

    Writing an abstract is a challenging skill that requires precision and care. Criteria for well-formulated abstracts and abstract guidelines for 2 types of articles (empirical studies and reviews or theoretical articles) as well as a description of the content of a structured abstract are presented. Details were gleaned from a review of the literature including the American Medical Association Manual of Style, Eighth Edition and the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Fourth Edition. A good abstract is like a crystal: it is a clear, sharp synthesis that elucidates meaning for the reader. PMID:7546111

  2. Computerized Automated Reminder Diabetes System (CARDS): E-Mail and SMS Cell Phone Text Messaging Reminders to Support Diabetes Management

    PubMed Central

    Hanauer, David A.; Wentzell, Katherine; Laffel, Nikki

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background: Cell phone text messaging, via the Short Messaging Service (SMS), offers the promise of a highly portable, well-accepted, and inexpensive modality for engaging youth and young adults in the management of their diabetes. This pilot and feasibility study compared two-way SMS cell phone messaging with e-mail reminders that were directed at encouraging blood glucose (BG) monitoring. Methods: Forty insulin-treated adolescents and young adults with diabetes were randomized to receive electronic reminders to check their BG levels via cell phone text messaging or e-mail reminders for a 3-month pilot study. Electronic messages were automatically generated, and participant replies with BG results were processed by the locally developed Computerized Automated Reminder Diabetes System (CARDS). Participants set their schedule for reminders on the secure CARDS website where they could also enter and review BG data. Results: Of the 40 participants, 22 were randomized to receive cell phone text message reminders and 18 to receive e-mail reminders; 18 in the cell phone group and 11 in the e-mail group used the system. Compared to the e-mail group, users in the cell phone group received more reminders (180.4 vs. 106.6 per user) and responded with BG results significantly more often (30.0 vs. 6.9 per user, P=0.04). During the first month cell phone users submitted twice as many BGs as e-mail users (27.2 vs. 13.8 per user); by month 3, usage waned. Conclusions: Cell phone text messaging to promote BG monitoring is a viable and acceptable option in adolescents and young adults with diabetes. However, maintaining interest levels for prolonged intervals remains a challenge. PMID:19848576

  3. Vascular effects of ultrafine particles in persons with type 2 diabetes

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Diabetes confers an increased risk for cardiovascular effects of airborne particles. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that inhalation of elemental carbon ultrafine particles (UFP) would activate blood platelets and vascular endothelium in people with type 2 diabetes. ...

  4. Hypoglycemic Effects of Glycosaminoglycan from Urechis unicinctus in Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ping; Han, Xu; Cui, Qingman

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To further utilize glycosaminoglycan from Urechis unicinctus, the hypoglycemic effect and possible mechanism of glycosaminoglycan on diabetic mice were evaluated. Diabetes was induced in mice by intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin for 3 consecutive days and fed with high-sugar and high-lipid fodder. After diabetes was confirmed, the hypoglycemic effect of glycosaminoglycan from U. unicinctus was investigated in the diabetic mice. Results demonstrated that glycosaminoglycan could significantly decrease blood glucose concentrations, HOMA-IR, AUG, and liver MDA content in diabetic mice. In addition, it significantly enhanced liver SOD and GSH-Px activity, as well as liver GCK activity and hepatic glycogen levels. Glycosaminoglycan from U. unicinctus exhibited efficacy against diabetes, suggesting its potential use as a natural intervention against diabetes. PMID:25289478

  5. Preventing Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... diabetes. For example, if you weigh 200 pounds, losing only 10 pounds could make a difference. Avoid crash diets. Instead, eat less of the foods you usually have. Limit the amount of fat you eat. Increase your physical activity. Aim for ...

  6. [Diabetic maculopathy].

    PubMed

    Haritoglou, C; Kernt, M; Wolf, A

    2015-10-01

    Diabetic maculopathy is the result of multifactorial and complex alterations of the retinal capillaries in association with diabetes mellitus and is divided into two forms, ischemic maculopathy and diabetic macular edema. Diabetic macular edema is the leading cause of blindness among people of working age. The functional and morphological results of intravitreal pharmacotherapy in cases of fovea-involving macular edema using vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors such as ranibizumab and aflibercept obtained in large randomized clinical trials are excellent and are superior to results obtained with focal or grid laser coagulation alone. Steroids including dexamethasone and fluocinolone implants represent approved alternatives, although flucinolone is considered a second-line therapy in refractory and chronic cases. VEGF inhibitors can be used in different treatment strategies such as PRN and treat and extend strategies. Focal laser photocoagulation remains the gold standard for macular edema not involving the fovea (and therefore usually good visual acuity). Laser is also still indicated as a panretinal photocoagulation of peripheral retinal ischemic areas in order to prevent neovascular complications. It remains to be proven whether panretinal photocoagulation can have an effect on the treatment intervals of intravitreal pharmacotherapy, too. Surgical treatments such as vitrectomy are today limited to cases of macular edema with concomitant obvious tractional pathologies at the vitreoretinal interface. PMID:26420681

  7. Background illumination simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Towry, E.R.

    1992-05-12

    This patent describes a testing apparatus for testing and evaluating the performance of laser seeking warheads for missiles, under simulated weather conditions. It comprises support means for supporting a warhead seeker; laser means for generating a laser beam and for directing a laser beam towards the seeker; a diffusion screen interposed between the seeker support means and the laser means for diffusing the laser beam; a collimating lens interposed between the diffusion screen and the seeker support means for collimating the diffused laser beam and for directing the collimated laser beam onto a warhead seeker, supported in the seeker support; background illuminator means for illuminating the seeker support and a seeker disposed therein, supported for movement into and out of an operating position between the diffusion means and the collimating lens for providing background lighting in simulation of weather lighting conditions; and control means for controlling the intensity of the light provided by the illuminator means to simulate various weather conditions.

  8. Some background about satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Joseph A.

    1986-01-01

    Four tables of planetary and satellite data are presented which list satellite discoveries, planetary parameters, satellite orbits, and satellite physical properties respectively. A scheme for classifying the satellites is provided and it is noted that most known moons fall into three general classes: regular satellites, collisional shards, and irregular satellites. Satellite processes are outlined with attention given to origins, dynamical and thermal evolution, surface processes, and composition and cratering. Background material is provided for each family of satellites.

  9. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and renal stones

    PubMed Central

    Nerli, Rajendra; Jali, Mallikarjuna; Guntaka, Ajay Kumar; Patne, Pravin; Patil, Shivagouda; Hiremath, Murigendra Basayya

    2015-01-01

    Background: The incidence of urinary stone disease has shown a steep rise in recent decades along with marked modifications in dietary habits and life- style. There has been an increased prevalence of urinary stone disease in patients with diabetes. We took up this study to determine the association of diabetes mellitus with kidney stones in patients undergoing surgical treatment. Materials and Methods: Patients presenting with renal stones for surgical management formed the study group. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated by noting the weight and height of the patient. The extracted stone/stone fragments were analyzed to determine the chemical composition. Urinary pH was similarly noted in all. Results: The mean BMI among the diabetics was 26.35 ± 5.20 (range 17.75-35.60), whereas the mean BMI among the non-diabetics was 23.41 ± 2.85 (range 17.71-31.62) (P < 0.0004). The incidence of uric acid calculi in the diabetics was significantly high (P < 0.03). The mean urinary pH among the diabetics was 5.61 ± 0.36 and among the non-diabetics was 6.87 ± 0.32, which was significantly lower (P < 0.000044). Conclusions: There is a strong association between type 2 diabetes and uric acid stone formation. There is also a strong association between diabetes mellitus, BMI, and also with lower urinary pH. PMID:26605219

  10. The Effect of Perceived Stress and Family Functioning on People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Bhandary, Bhagyashree; Rao, Satheesh; T.S., Sanal

    2013-01-01

    Background: Various studies have suggested that support from a patient’s family can facilitate his/her recovery from a physical illness and improve the ability of the patient to deal with consequences of Type 2 Diabetes. Stress is considered to play a major role in influencing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Aim: To determine the roles of Perceived Stress and Family functioning on behaviours of individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Material and Methods: The present study included 250 Diabetics as per the WHO criteria and 250 Non-Diabetics. Questionnaires were given to them to obtain data. Results: Stress was found to be high among Diabetics (22.17%) as compared to that in non-Diabetics (16.92%). Family assessment showed a significant difference among its subscales when it was compared between Diabetics and Non-Diabetics. Conclusion: Perceived stress influences Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Role played by the Family is significant in managing Diabetes. PMID:24551677

  11. Disordered Eating Behaviors in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes: Prospective Pilot Assessment Following Initiation of Insulin Pump Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, Jessica T.; Alleyn, Cielo A.; Phillips, Roxanne; Muir, Andrew; Young-Hyman, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background There is risk for disordered eating behaviors in type 1 diabetes, especially related to insulin manipulation. Implementation of insulin pump therapy may encourage either normalization of eating behaviors or a greater focus on food intake due to renewed emphasis on carbohydrate counting. There is need for prospective studies to assess disordered eating behaviors upon implementation of pump therapy using diabetes-specific measurement tools. Subjects and Methods In a multicenter pilot study, 43 youth with type 1 diabetes, 10–17 years old, were assessed prior to pump initiation and after 1 and 6 months of pump therapy. Youth completed the Diabetes-specific Eating Problems Survey-Revised (DEPS-R), a validated measure of risk for both diabetes-specific and general disordered eating behaviors. Results Youth (45% female), 13.3 years old with diabetes for 2.1 years, had a mean hemoglobin A1c of 8.3±1.3% (68±14.5 mmol/mol) at baseline. DEPS-R scores decreased over time (P=0.01). Overall rate of high risk for eating disorders was low. Overweight/obese youth endorsed more disordered eating behaviors than normal-weight participants. DEPS-R scores were correlated with z-score for body mass index at all three time points and with hemoglobin A1c after 1 and 6 months. Hemoglobin A1c did not change significantly over the 6 months and was higher in overweight/obese compared with normal-weight participants. Conclusions Initiation of insulin pump therapy was associated with diminished endorsement of disordered eating behaviors in youth with type 1 diabetes. Longer follow-up studies are needed to assess the impact of insulin pump therapy on glycemic control, weight status, and disordered eating behaviors in this vulnerable population. PMID:23550556

  12. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Youth With Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: Implications of a Factor Analysis of Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Ma, Bo; Lawson, Andrew; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Liese, Angela D.; Dabelea, Dana; Dolan, Lawrence; Pettitt, David J.; Rodriguez, Beatriz L.; Williams, Desmond

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The extent to which cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors cluster in youth with a diagnosis of type 1 (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate potential clustering of traditional CVD risk factors that may reflect an unmeasured but unifying single pathology that may explain the phenomenon of the metabolic syndrome in these youths. Methods Youths who participated in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study with diabetes diagnosed <20 years, with current age >10 years (maximum current age, 22 years) were included. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed to determine statistical associations among CVD risk factors, including obesity, blood pressure, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Diabetes type was defined by diabetes autoantibodies (DAA) and fasting C-peptide (FCP); type 1 (T1DM, DAA positive, and FCP <0.8 ng/mL, n = 1198) and type 2 (T2DM, DAA negative, and FCP >2.9 ng/mL, n = 95). For T1DM, the sample was split randomly and analyses were conducted separately in each split sample. Results Among five prespecified data structures ranging from a single underlying factor to a hierarchical structure of factors, the worst-fitting model for both of the T1DM split samples was the single-factor structure and the best-fitting model was a three-correlated-factor structure. The three correlated factors identified were obesity, lipids, and blood pressure. Results were very similar for youths with T2DM. Conclusion There is little evidence that a single factor underlies the CVD risk factor pattern in youths with diabetes. The concept of the metabolic syndrome provides a useful description of clinical characteristics but does not efficiently capture a single target for etiologic research among youths with diabetes. PMID:18847385

  13. Effects of cognitive behavioral coaching on depressive symptoms in a sample of type 2 diabetic inpatients in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Onyechi, Kay Chinonyelum Nwamaka; Eseadi, Chiedu; Okere, Anthony U.; Onuigbo, Liziana N.; Umoke, Prince C.I.; Anyaegbunam, Ngozi Joannes; Otu, Mkpoikanke Sunday; Ugorji, Ngozi Juliet

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Depression is one of the mental health problems confronting those with diabetes mellitus and may result from self-defeating thoughts and lifestyles. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cognitive behavioral coaching (CBC) program on depressive symptoms in a sample of the Type 2 diabetic inpatients in Onitsha metropolis of Anambra State, Nigeria. Methods: The design of the study was pretest–post-test randomized control group design. The participants were 80 Type 2 diabetic inpatients randomly assigned to the treatment and control groups. The primary outcome measures were Beck's Depression Inventory-II and a Diabetic Inpatient's Depressive Symptoms Observation Checklist. Mean, standard deviation, repeated measures analysis of covariance, and partial eta squared were used for data analysis. Results: The results revealed that the baseline of depressive symptoms was similar between the control and treatment groups of the Type 2 diabetic inpatients. But, exposing the Type 2 diabetic inpatients to a cognitive behavioral coaching program significantly reduced the depressive symptoms in the treatment group compared to those in the control group at the end of the intervention. The effects of cognitive behavioral coaching program on the depressive symptoms of those in the treatment group remained consistent at a 6 month follow-up meetings compared to the control group. Conclusion: Given the potential benefits of a cognitive behavioral coaching program, clinicians and mental health professionals are urged to support and implement evidence-based cognitive-behavioral coaching interventions aimed at promoting diabetic inpatients’ wellbeing in the Nigerian hospitals. PMID:27495071

  14. Characterization of lipid parameters in diabetic and non-diabetic atherosclerotic patients

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Fatima; Jamil, Hassan; Anwar, Sanam Saiqa; Wajid, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Background & Objective The relationship between lipid profile perturbation and diabetes associated complications has long been an area of interest. Dyslipidemia is a potent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. The aim of present study was to investigate relationship between aging and lipid profiles in diabetic and non-diabetic atherosclerotic patients. Methods Five hundred and seventy six individuals (45–75 year age) participated in this study. Among these, 192 were having history of diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Individuals are categorized on the base of health (normal, non-diabetic atherosclerosis, diabetic atherosclerosis) and age (45–55 years, 56–65 years, and 66–75 years). All the participants were subjected to the procedures like a detailed history, biochemical analysis for fasting blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein-(LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). All these parameters were compared between diabetic and non-diabetic atherosclerotic patients of all three age groups. TC/HDL and LDL/HDL were also calculated. Results Diabetic atherosclerotic individuals (both males and females) had high level of TC, TG, LDL, VLDL and low level of HDL in comparison to non-diabetic atherosclerotic and normal control individuals. Among all three age groups, lipoprotein abnormality was observed to be more frequent in females than males. There was a significant increase in TC/HDL and LDL/HDL ratio in diabetic atherosclerotic subjects compared to age and sex matched non-diabetic atherosclerotic and normal control. Conclusions Degree of dyslipidemia increases with increase in age in both genders. Female are more prone to diabetic dyslipidemia and hence have more risk of developing atherosclerosis with increasing age. PMID:25678903

  15. Teen Diabetes Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genes also appear to interact with things like viruses and toxins in the environment to cause type 1 diabetes. Read More "Facing Diabetes" Articles Facing Diabetes: What You Need to Know / "Control Your Diabetes. For Life." / "Stop Diabetes Now!" / "Small Steps, Big Rewards": Preventing ...

  16. Fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes in a young Ugandan patient, a rare form of secondary diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes is an infrequent type of secondary diabetes due to chronic tropical non alcoholic calcific pancreatitis. It has been widely described exclusively in developing tropical countries. A diagnosis is made basing on the presence of abdominal pain, presence of pancreatic calcifications, steatorrhoea, and diabetes mellitus. Case presentation We report a case of a 20 year old Ugandan female patient who presented with features of chronic tropical calcific pancreatitis complicated by diabetes mellitus, oedematous malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. Conclusion This case report demonstrates that fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes still exists in developing countries like Uganda. Clinicians in such settings should possess a high clinical suspicion of fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes especially in presence of malnutrition. Challenges of management of such patients in resource limited settings are comprehensively discussed in the review of literature. PMID:23126518

  17. Clinical predictors for diabetes screening in the first year postpartum after gestational diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Peticca, Patricia; Shah, Baiju R; Shea, Alison; Clark, Heather D; Malcolm, Janine C; Walker, Mark; Karovitch, Alan; Brazeau-Gravelle, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postpartum screening for diabetes in women with gestational diabetes (GDM) improves with use of reminder systems. Our primary objective was to identify predictors of diabetes screening in the first year after delivery. Methods: A retrospective study was performed of 556 women with GDM who received outpatient prenatal care between 2007 and 2009. A mailed reminder system was utilized at two sites. Rates of postpartum glucose testing at 6 and 12 months postpartum were measured. Results: Site of care and non-smoking status were identified as the only predictors of postpartum diabetes screening (p<0.001 and p = 0.02, respectively). Rates of OGTT completion at one year (38% vs. 19% p<0.001) were higher in women who attended clinics with postpartum reminders. Conclusions: The site of diabetes care in pregnancy is a major predictor of adherence to diabetes screening postpartum. Health care delivery should be considered in the development of strategies to increase screening rates.

  18. Tips for Teens with Diabetes: What Is Diabetes?

    MedlinePlus

    ... attue, ivlrtctheaky, ke Check out more about diabetes » Take Care of Your Diabetes! What is diabetes? Diabetes means ... org What do I need to do to take care of my diabetes? The key to taking care ...

  19. Analysis of complex networks using aggressive abstraction.

    SciTech Connect

    Colbaugh, Richard; Glass, Kristin.; Willard, Gerald

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for analyzing complex networks in which the network of interest is first abstracted to a much simpler (but equivalent) representation, the required analysis is performed using the abstraction, and analytic conclusions are then mapped back to the original network and interpreted there. We begin by identifying a broad and important class of complex networks which admit abstractions that are simultaneously dramatically simplifying and property preserving - we call these aggressive abstractions -- and which can therefore be analyzed using the proposed approach. We then introduce and develop two forms of aggressive abstraction: 1.) finite state abstraction, in which dynamical networks with uncountable state spaces are modeled using finite state systems, and 2.) onedimensional abstraction, whereby high dimensional network dynamics are captured in a meaningful way using a single scalar variable. In each case, the property preserving nature of the abstraction process is rigorously established and efficient algorithms are presented for computing the abstraction. The considerable potential of the proposed approach to complex networks analysis is illustrated through case studies involving vulnerability analysis of technological networks and predictive analysis for social processes.

  20. Histomorphological Evaluation of Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Plantar Soft Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yak-Nam; Lee, Kara; Ledoux, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetic foot ulceration has a complex and multi-factorial etiology and can involve changes in the pathophysiology of the plantar soft tissue. In the current study, histomorphological analyses of diabetic and non-diabetic plantar tissue were performed. It was hypothesized that the diabetic tissue would have thicker skin (epidermis and dermis), less interdigitation between the dermis and epidermis, thicker elastic septa and decreased adipose cell size. Materials and Methods Two locations of the foot (the heel and the first metatarsal) were examined, both of which have been reported to be locations with a high incidence of ulceration. Stereological methods and quantitative morphological techniques were used to evaluate the skin thickness, interdigitation index, elastic septae thickness and adipocyte cell size. Results The diabetic donors had a greater body mass index (BMI) than the non-diabetic donors. The diabetic tissue had significantly thicker elastic septae and dermis. However, no significant difference was observed in the interdigitation index or adipocyte size. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that morphological changes can be evaluated histologically to give a better understanding of the pathological changes in the plantar soft tissue with diabetes. These evaluations can then be associated with biomechanical changes that occur in diabetes to provide new insight into how microstructural changes can alter macroscopic properties. Clinical Relevance An understanding of the histomorphological changes in the soft tissue in relationship to the location on the foot could help to explain the biomechanical changes that occur in diabetes and the subsequent increase in susceptibility to breakdown. PMID:22049867

  1. Neurobiological background of negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Galderisi, Silvana; Merlotti, Eleonora; Mucci, Armida

    2015-10-01

    Studies investigating neurobiological bases of negative symptoms of schizophrenia failed to provide consistent findings, possibly due to the heterogeneity of this psychopathological construct. We tried to review the findings published to date investigating neurobiological abnormalities after reducing the heterogeneity of the negative symptoms construct. The literature in electronic databases as well as citations and major articles are reviewed with respect to the phenomenology, pathology, genetics and neurobiology of schizophrenia. We searched PubMed with the keywords "negative symptoms," "deficit schizophrenia," "persistent negative symptoms," "neurotransmissions," "neuroimaging" and "genetic." Additional articles were identified by manually checking the reference lists of the relevant publications. Publications in English were considered, and unpublished studies, conference abstracts and poster presentations were not included. Structural and functional imaging studies addressed the issue of neurobiological background of negative symptoms from several perspectives (considering them as a unitary construct, focusing on primary and/or persistent negative symptoms and, more recently, clustering them into factors), but produced discrepant findings. The examined studies provided evidence suggesting that even primary and persistent negative symptoms include different psychopathological constructs, probably reflecting the dysfunction of different neurobiological substrates. Furthermore, they suggest that complex alterations in multiple neurotransmitter systems and genetic variants might influence the expression of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. On the whole, the reviewed findings, representing the distillation of a large body of disparate data, suggest that further deconstruction of negative symptomatology into more elementary components is needed to gain insight into underlying neurobiological mechanisms. PMID:25797499

  2. Prefrontal cortex organization: dissociating effects of temporal abstraction, relational abstraction, and integration with FMRI.

    PubMed

    Nee, Derek Evan; Jahn, Andrew; Brown, Joshua W

    2014-09-01

    The functions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) underlie higher-level cognition. Varying proposals suggest that the PFC is organized along a rostral-caudal gradient of abstraction with more abstract representations/processes associated with more rostral areas. However, the operational definition of abstraction is unclear. Here, we contrasted 2 prominent theories of abstraction--temporal and relational--using fMRI. We further examined whether integrating abstract rules--a function common to each theory--recruited the PFC independently of other abstraction effects. While robust effects of relational abstraction were present in the PFC, temporal abstraction effects were absent. Instead, we found activations specific to the integration of relational rules in areas previously shown to be associated with temporal abstraction. We suggest that previous effects of temporal abstraction were due to confounds with integration demands. We propose an integration framework to understand the functions of the PFC that resolves discrepancies in prior data. PMID:23563962

  3. The Backgrounds Data Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. A.; Gursky, H.; Heckathorn, H. M.; Lucke, R. L.; Berg, S. L.; Dombrowski, E. G.; Kessel, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization has created data centers for midcourse, plumes, and backgrounds phenomenologies. The Backgrounds Data Center (BDC) has been designated as the prime archive for data collected by SDIO programs. The BDC maintains a Summary Catalog that contains 'metadata,' that is, information about data, such as when the data were obtained, what the spectral range of the data is, and what region of the Earth or sky was observed. Queries to this catalog result in a listing of all data sets (from all experiments in the Summary Catalog) that satisfy the specified criteria. Thus, the user can identify different experiments that made similar observations and order them from the BDC for analysis. On-site users can use the Science Analysis Facility (SAFE for this purpose. For some programs, the BDC maintains a Program Catalog, which can classify data in as many ways as desired (rather than just by position, time, and spectral range as in the Summary Catalog). For example, data sets could be tagged with such diverse parameters as solar illumination angle, signal level, or the value of a particular spectral ratio, as long as these quantities can be read from the digital record or calculated from it by the ingest program. All unclassified catalogs and unclassified data will be remotely accessible.

  4. Backgrounds Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, William A.; Gursky, Herbert; Heckathorn, Harry M.; Lucke, Bob L.; Dorland, Bryan N.; Kessel, R. A.; Berg, S. L.; Dombrowski, E. G.

    1994-09-01

    The Backgrounds Data Center (BDC) is the designated archive for backgrounds data collected by Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) programs, some of which include ultraviolet sensors. Currently, the BDC holds ultraviolet data from the IBSS, UVPI, UVLIM, and FUVCAM sensors. The BDC will also be the prime archive for Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) data and is prepared to negotiate with program managers to handle other datasets. The purpose of the BDC is to make data accessible to users and to assist them in analyzing it. The BDC maintains the Science Catalog Information Exchange System (SCIES) allowing remote users to log in, read or post notices about current programs, search the catalogs for datasets of interest, and submit orders for data. On-site facilities are also available for the analysis of data, and consist of VMS and UNIX workstations with access to software analysis packages such as IDL, IRAF, and Khoros. Either on-site or remotely, users can employ the BDC-developed graphical user interface called the Visual Interface for Space and Terrestrial Analysis (VISTA) to generate catalog queries and to display and analyze data. SCIES and VISTA permit nearly complete access to BDC services and capabilities without the need to be physically present at the data center.

  5. Diabetic Nerve Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... at the wrong times. This damage is called diabetic neuropathy. Over half of people with diabetes get ... you change positions quickly Your doctor will diagnose diabetic neuropathy with a physical exam and nerve tests. ...

  6. Tuberculosis and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    TUBERCULOSIS www.who.int/tb & DIABETES THE DUAL EPIDEMIC OF TB AND DIABETES DEADLY LINKAGES  People with ... higher risk of progressing from latent to active tuberculosis.  Diabetes triples a person’s risk of developing TB. ...

  7. Diabetes Movie (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Diabetes Movie KidsHealth > For Parents > Diabetes Movie Print A A A Text Size Kids who have diabetes have trouble taking energy from food and delivering ...

  8. "Stop Diabetes Now!"

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes "Stop Diabetes Now!" Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents ... Tips for Seniors at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Lifestyle changes that lead to weight loss—such ...

  9. Help Teens Manage Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Help Teens Manage Diabetes Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... diabetes management. Its aim is to improve diabetic teens' coping and communication skills, healthy behaviors, and conflict ...

  10. Diabetic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... swelling (cerebral edema) Increased blood acid level ( lactic acidosis ) When to Contact a Medical Professional This condition ... Diabetic ketoacidosis Heart attack Heart failure - overview Lactic acidosis Stroke Type 2 diabetes Patient Instructions Diabetes - what ...

  11. "Diabetes Has Instant Consequences..."

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes Stories "Diabetes has instant consequences…" Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of ... you want to chuck it all. But Diabetes has instant consequences. You learn to be responsible pretty ...

  12. Women and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... resources to help you talk with your health care provider about your diabetes treatment. Diabetes Medicines - easy- ... resources to help you talk to your health care provider about how to manage diabetes during pregnancy. ...

  13. Diabetes and Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease, and Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Diabetes and Kidney Disease What are my kidneys and ... urine until releasing it through urination. How can diabetes affect my kidneys? Too much glucose , also called ...

  14. Pregnancy Complications: Preexisting Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Complications & Loss > Pregnancy complications > Preexisting diabetes Preexisting diabetes E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... and your baby are healthy. What is preexisting diabetes? About 9 out of 100 women (9 percent) ...

  15. Diabetic Nerve Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... the wrong times. This damage is called diabetic neuropathy. Over half of people with diabetes get it. ... change positions quickly Your doctor will diagnose diabetic neuropathy with a physical exam and nerve tests. Controlling ...

  16. Bronze diabetes.

    PubMed

    L N, Akshatha; Shenoy, Mamatha T; Yadav, Charu; M S, Rukmini; Kamath, Nutan

    2015-04-01

    Thalassemia is a group of disorders characterized by deficient production of the β-globin sub unit of hemoglobin. The mandatory blood transfusions in patients with thalassemia to maintain adequate erythrocyte levels, leads to iron overload. The prevalence of diabetes in patients with thalassemia varies from 6 to 14%. We here by present a known case of thalassemia major in an 18 year old boy. He was diagnosed with thalassemia before the age of one year and is on regular blood transfusion every two weeks since then. The repeated blood transfusion is one of the common causes for haemochromatosis. Iron overload initially leads to glucose abnormalities such as insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, which is followed by impaired secretion of insulin. Diagnosed as a case of bronze diabetes, this patient is on insulin therapy for the last two years. Currently the patient is on iron chelation therapy at Kasturba Medical College Hospital, Mangalore, Karnataka, India. PMID:26023548

  17. Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease, and Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke Having diabetes or prediabetes ... can help prevent future health problems. What is diabetes? Diabetes is a disorder of metabolismthe way our ...

  18. Weight and Diabetes (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Weight and Diabetes KidsHealth > For Parents > Weight and Diabetes Print A ... or type 2 diabetes. Weight and Type 1 Diabetes Undiagnosed or untreated, type 1 diabetes can make ...

  19. COGNITIVE GAINS IN "DEPRIVED" CHILDREN THROUGH INDIVIDUAL TEACHING OF LANGUAGE FOR ABSTRACT THINKING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BLANK, MARION

    THE MOST DISABLING HANDICAP OF YOUNG CHILDREN FROM DEPRIVED SOCIOECONOMIC BACKGROUNDS IS THEIR DIFFICULTY IN USING LANGUAGE ABSTRACTLY. IN THIS STUDY, THEREFORE, IT WAS HYPOTHESIZED THAT IF AN EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTION PROGRAM WAS LIMITED TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ABSTRACT LANGUAGE, THEN NOT ONLY LANGUAGE, BUT MANY OTHER ASPECTS OF THINKING WOULD BE…

  20. Diabetes Update

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Clayton; Hunt, John

    1981-01-01

    This paper summarizes the new classification of diabetes mellitus (and other categories of glucose intolerance) and presents some clinically important aspects of the new insulins. The new classification promises to bring to the field considerable uniformity, previously lacking. The five clinical classes are: Type I (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM), Type II (non-insulin-dependent, NIDDM), “other types”, gestational diabetes (GDM) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). The two statistical risk classes are: previous abnormality of glucose tolerance (Prev AGT) and potential abnormality of glucose tolerance (Pot AGT). These are mutually exclusive classes. Criteria recommended for use by clinicians and researchers are presented in detail, as well as information on the oral glucose test and normal glucose tolerance. Particular attention is drawn to the differences in glucose metabolism (tolerance) characteristics in non-pregnant adults, children and pregnant females. The new insulins are so called because of increased purity achieved by new purification methods. They are not new formulations or types of insulin. Contamination of insulin preparations by other hormones or compounds (e.g. glucagon, pro-insulin, pancreatic polypeptide) is now at a very low level. PMID:21289788

  1. Developing Creativity and Abstraction in Representing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Creating charts and graphs is all about visual abstraction: the process of representing aspects of data with imagery that can be interpreted by the reader. Children may need help making the link between the "real" and the image. This abstraction can be achieved using symbols, size, colour and position. Where the representation is close to what…

  2. Content Differences for Abstract and Concrete Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiemer-Hastings, Katja Katja; Xu, Xu

    2005-01-01

    Concept properties are an integral part of theories of conceptual representation and processing. To date, little is known about conceptual properties of abstract concepts, such as idea. This experiment systematically compared the content of 18 abstract and 18 concrete concepts, using a feature generation task. Thirty-one participants listed…

  3. Annual Abstract Series of Educational Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelesnyak, M. C., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    This is the fifth annual collection of abstracts of educational materials presented by the Educational Materials Review Board of the American Physiological Society under the direction of the Education Committee. The collection includes abstracts of articles, papers, textbooks, books, handbooks, and symposia which are valuable in teaching…

  4. Abstracting in the Context of Spontaneous Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gaye

    2007-01-01

    There is evidence that spontaneous learning leads to relational understanding and high positive affect. To study spontaneous abstracting, a model was constructed by combining the RBC model of abstraction with Krutetskii's mental activities. Using video-stimulated interviews, the model was then used to analyze the behavior of two Year 8 students…

  5. National Workplace Literacy Program. 1993 Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Vocational and Adult Education (ED), Washington, DC. National Workplace Literacy Program.

    This publication presents the abstracts of the 57 National Workplace Literacy Program 1993 projects. Each abstract provides the following information: project title; award number; project director; awardee; address; telephone and fax numbers; funds by fiscal year (federal and nonfederal); award period; federal project officer; objectives;…

  6. A Hybrid Method for Abstracting Newspaper Articles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, James; Wu, Yan; Zhou, Lina

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a hybrid method for abstracting Chinese text that integrates the statistical approach with language understandings, incorporating some linguistics heuristics and segmentation into the abstracting process. Initial responses from application to Chinese newspaper articles show that the method contributes much to the flexibility and…

  7. Abstractions of Awareness: Aware of What?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxas, Georgios; Markopoulos, Panos

    This chapter presents FN-AAR, an abstract model of awareness systems. The purpose of the model is to capture in a concise and abstract form essential aspects of awareness systems, many of which have been discussed in design essays or in the context of evaluating specific design solutions.

  8. Foundations of the Bandera Abstraction Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatcliff, John; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Robby

    2003-01-01

    Current research is demonstrating that model-checking and other forms of automated finite-state verification can be effective for checking properties of software systems. Due to the exponential costs associated with model-checking, multiple forms of abstraction are often necessary to obtain system models that are tractable for automated checking. The Bandera Tool Set provides multiple forms of automated support for compiling concurrent Java software systems to models that can be supplied to several different model-checking tools. In this paper, we describe the foundations of Bandera's data abstraction mechanism which is used to reduce the cardinality (and the program's state-space) of data domains in software to be model-checked. From a technical standpoint, the form of data abstraction used in Bandera is simple, and it is based on classical presentations of abstract interpretation. We describe the mechanisms that Bandera provides for declaring abstractions, for attaching abstractions to programs, and for generating abstracted programs and properties. The contributions of this work are the design and implementation of various forms of tool support required for effective application of data abstraction to software components written in a programming language like Java which has a rich set of linguistic features.

  9. New Features in the ADS Abstract Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichhorn, Guenther; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn S.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin A.; Thompson, Donna M.; Murray, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA-ADS Abstract Service provides a sophisticated search capability for the literature in Astronomy, Planetary Sciences, Physics/Geophysics, and Space Instrumentation. The ADS is funded by NASA and access to the ADS services is free to anybody world-wide without restrictions. It allows the user to search the literature by author, title, and abstract text.

  10. Interpreting Abstract Interpretations in Membership Equational Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Rosu, Grigore

    2001-01-01

    We present a logical framework in which abstract interpretations can be naturally specified and then verified. Our approach is based on membership equational logic which extends equational logics by membership axioms, asserting that a term has a certain sort. We represent an abstract interpretation as a membership equational logic specification, usually as an overloaded order-sorted signature with membership axioms. It turns out that, for any term, its least sort over this specification corresponds to its most concrete abstract value. Maude implements membership equational logic and provides mechanisms to calculate the least sort of a term efficiently. We first show how Maude can be used to get prototyping of abstract interpretations "for free." Building on the meta-logic facilities of Maude, we further develop a tool that automatically checks and abstract interpretation against a set of user-defined properties. This can be used to select an appropriate abstract interpretation, to characterize the specified loss of information during abstraction, and to compare different abstractions with each other.

  11. Tour the Galaxy of the Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Describes an abstract art unit in which students in an introductory art course created abstract art inspired by the work of M. C. Escher. Explains that some students are unsure of their drawing ability. States this unit helps them overcome their fears. (CMK)

  12. Some Call It Stone: Teaching Abstract Sculpture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asher, Rikki

    2004-01-01

    Abstract visual art is not for everybody. Some people find it threatening, uncomfortable, and often, inaccessible. Understandably, this can result in a lack of attention paid to nonrepresentational works of art in the visual arts curriculum. This article describes an experiential, hands-on, field trip that sought to demystify abstract sculpture,…

  13. Third LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Arlene S. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This volume is a compilation of abstracts submitted to the Third Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Post-Retrieval Symposium. The abstracts represent the data analysis of the 57 experiments flown on the LDEF. The experiments include materials, coatings, thermal systems, power and propulsion, science (cosmic ray, interstellar gas, heavy ions, micrometeoroid, etc.), electronics, optics, and life science.

  14. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 10 Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main numerical sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included throughout the year. It also indicates, in an appended table, the numerical symbol of…

  15. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 10 Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. The entries are recorded in numerical sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  16. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 10 Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. The entries are recorded in numerical sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  17. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 10 Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. The entries are recorded in numeric sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  18. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 10 Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. The entries are recorded in numeric sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  19. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 9 Number 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. The entries are recorded in numerical sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  20. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 9 Number 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. T8e entries are recorded in numerical sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  1. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 10 Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. T entries are recorded in numerical sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  2. Youth Studies Abstracts. Vol. 4 No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youth Studies Abstracts, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts of 76 projects (most of which were conducted in Australia and New Zealand) concerned with programs for youth and with social and educational developments affecting youth. The abstracts are arranged in the following two categories: (1) Social and Educational Developments: Policy, Analysis, Research; and (2) Programs:…

  3. Interactional Metadiscourse in Research Article Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillaerts, Paul; Van de Velde, Freek

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with interpersonality in research article abstracts analysed in terms of interactional metadiscourse. The evolution in the distribution of three prominent interactional markers comprised in Hyland's (2005a) model, viz. hedges, boosters and attitude markers, is investigated in three decades of abstract writing in the field of…

  4. Writing Abstracts for Free-Text Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidel, Raya

    1986-01-01

    This study surveyed abstracting policies and guidelines used by producers of bibliographic databases that aim to enhance free-text retrieval. Results indicate editors consider content of abstracts and their language as primary factors in retrieval enhancement. Most recommend that concepts and form be coordinated with controlled vocabulary…

  5. A Microfilm Index to "Chemical Abstracts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, F.

    1973-01-01

    To improve access to the recent Chemical Abstracts,'' a cumulative quarterly index, based on the keyword phrases, has been produced in microfilm form. The index is available soon after the end of each quarter. Abstract titles are included in the index, thus increasing its value as a working tool. (4 references) (Author/SJ)

  6. Depression in diabetic patients attending University of Gondar Hospital Diabetic Clinic, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Birhanu, Anteneh Messele; Alemu, Fekadu Mazengia; Ashenafie, Tesfaye Demeke; Balcha, Shitaye Alemu; Dachew, Berihun Assefa

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus, frequently associated with comorbid depression, contributes to the double burden of individual patients and community. Depression remains undiagnosed in as many as 50%–75% of diabetes cases. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of depression among diabetic patients attending the University of Gondar Hospital Diabetic Clinic, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to May 2014 among 422 sampled diabetic patients attending the University of Gondar Hospital Diabetic Clinic. The participants were selected using systematic random sampling. Data were collected by face-to-face interview using a standardized and pretested questionnaire linked with patient record review. Depression was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Data were entered to EPI INFO version 7 and analyzed by SPSS version 20 software. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with depression. Results A total of 415 diabetic patients participated in the study with a response rate of 98.3%. The prevalence of depression among diabetic patients was found to be 15.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 11.7–19.2). Only religion (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.65 and 95% CI: 1.1–6.0) and duration of diabetes (AOR =0.27 and 95% CI: 0.07–0.92) were the factors associated with depression among diabetic patients. Conclusion The prevalence of depression was low as compared to other similar studies elsewhere. Disease (diabetes) duration of 10 years and above and being a Muslim religion follower (as compared to Christian) were the factors significantly associated with depression. Early screening of depression and treating depression as a routine component of diabetes care are recommended. Further research with a large sample size, wider geographical coverage, and segregation of type of diabetes mellitus is recommended. PMID:27274296

  7. Monogenic Forms of Diabetes: Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus and Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young

    MedlinePlus

    ... For More Information American Diabetes Association JDRF MedlinePlus Diabetes Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support to patients ... 293 KB). Alternate Language URL Monogenic Forms of Diabetes: Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus and Maturity-onset Diabetes of ...

  8. Monogenic Forms of Diabetes: Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus and Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young

    MedlinePlus

    ... Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus and MODY Monogenic Forms of Diabetes: Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus and MODY The most common forms of ... is inherited from each parent. Monogenic Forms of Diabetes Some rare forms of diabetes result from mutations ...

  9. Resource use among patients with diabetes, diabetic neuropathy, or diabetes with depression

    PubMed Central

    Le, Trong K; Able, Stephen L; Lage, Maureen J

    2006-01-01

    Background Diabetes is often associated with complications and comorbidities. The purpose of this research is to compare medical resources used by patients with the following diagnoses: diabetes mellitus (DM), diabetic neuropathy (DN), and diabetes mellitus combined with comorbid depression (DD). Methods Adult patients who were diagnosed with DM, DN, or DD were included in the study. There were 55,972 patients in the DM cohort, 2,146 in the DN, and 2,379 in the DD. P values for comparisons between the three mutually exclusive cohorts were conducted using the Tukey-Kramer method. Cost comparisons among the cohorts were conducted using a stepwise multivariate regression that controlled for patient characteristics and comorbid conditions. Results Individuals in the DM or DN cohorts were generally more likely to use antidiabetic medications than patients in the DD group. Those diagnosed with DN or DD generally used more pain medications than individuals in the DM cohort. The DM cohort had significantly lower diabetes-related total medical costs ($1,297 v $5,125, p < 0.0001) and lower total medical costs ($4,819 v $24,765, p < 0.0001) than the DN cohort. The DM cohort also had significantly lower diabetes-related total medical costs ($1,297 v $3,264, p < 0.0001) as well as significantly lower total medical costs ($4,819 v $19,298, p < 0.0001) than the DD cohort. Conclusion Results from this study indicated significant differences in demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and medication use among individuals diagnosed with DM, DN, or DD. These differences translated into significant cost differences. Patients diagnosed with DN or DD had higher diabetes-related costs than patients diagnosed with DM. PMID:17059602

  10. Mining biomedical time series by combining structural analysis and temporal abstractions.

    PubMed Central

    Bellazzi, R.; Magni, P.; Larizza, C.; De Nicolao, G.; Riva, A.; Stefanelli, M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the combination of Structural Time Series analysis and Temporal Abstractions for the interpretation of data coming from home monitoring of diabetic patients. Blood Glucose data are analyzed by a novel Bayesian technique for time series analysis. The results obtained are post-processed using Temporal Abstractions in order to extract knowledge that can be exploited "at the point of use" from physicians. The proposed data analysis procedure can be viewed as a Knowledge Discovery in Data Base process that is applied to time-varying data. The work here described is part of a Web-based telemedicine system for the management of Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus patients, called T-IDDM. PMID:9929202

  11. Respiratory Burst Process in Diabetic Children

    PubMed Central

    Sanaei Dashti, Anahita; Taheri, Soodabeh; Jouybar, Reza; Hashemnia, Mohammadreza; Karimi, Abdollah; Shoja, Seyed Abdolmajid

    2016-01-01

    Background Increased rate of infections in diabetes mellitus (DM) is an accepted fact. Pathophysiologically, several tasks of the immune system could be involved including polymorphonuclear (PMN) functions. Objectives The aim of this research was to evaluate the respiratory burst process of PMNs that is an essential part of phagocytosis, in children with DM. Patients and Methods Fifty two children with insulin dependent diabetes and 29 non-diabetic children were enrolled in this cross sectional study from 2010 to 2011. Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test was done on PMNs taken from their heparinized blood. The resultant data was analyzed by SPSS version 16. P values were considered significant when it was under 0.05. Results Mean NBTs were 72.1 ± 15.84 and 94.68 ± 5.31 in diabetics and non-diabetics, respectively (P < 0.001). Using Pearson correlation, there was no significant correlation between the NBT level and age, gender, duration of diabetes, daily insulin usage and blood HbA1C level. Conclusions Compared to non-diabetics, respiratory burst process of polymorphonuclears is obviously decreased in diabetic children. This can explain one of the mechanisms involved in the increased rate of infections in DM.

  12. Tips for Teens with Diabetes: About Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes is a serious disease. It means that one's blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Having too much glucose in a person's blood is not healthy. This paper offers tips for managing diabetes.

  13. Patients’ Perspectives on Factors that Influence Diabetes Self-Care

    PubMed Central

    Shakibazadeh, E; Larijani, B; Shojaeezadeh, D; Rashidian, A; Forouzanfar, MH; Bartholomew, LK

    2011-01-01

    Background Although diabetes mellitus is of high concern in Iran, and the level of control is unacceptable, few qualitative studies have been carried out to reflect the experiences of patients on the barriers and motivators to self-care. This study aimed to explore a culturally based experience of Iranian diabetic patients regarding the personal and environmental barriers to and facilitating factors for diabetes self-care. Methods: Six focus groups were conducted among type 2 diabetic patients in the Charity Foundation for Special Diseases’ diabetes clinic. Purposeful sampling was used. Newly diagnosed patients (less than six months) and all type 1 diabetic patients were excluded. Three focus groups were held on for each sex. A total of 43 patients participated in the study. Frame-work analysis was used to extract the themes from the data. Results: Data analysis showed five main barriers: physical barriers (such as physical effects of diabetes); psychological barriers (such as health beliefs); educational barriers (such as lack of knowledge about diabetes); social barriers (such as group pressure); and care system barriers (such as service availability). Along with the barriers, there were some motivators that the participants mentioned as a stimuli to control their diabetes. They include beliefs about diabetes, perceived responsibility for family, religious beliefs, and the views of significant others. Conclusion: Culturally based interventions are needed to improve diabetes care management in Iran. In addition to personal factors, diabetes health educators should pay attention to the environmental factors when they develop programs. PMID:23113114

  14. DBA/2J Mice Are Susceptible to Diabetic Nephropathy and Diabetic Exacerbation of IOP Elevation

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Ileana; Howell, Gareth R.; John, Cai W.; Kief, Joseph L.; Libby, Richard T.; John, Simon W. M.

    2014-01-01

    Some pathological manifestations of diabetes in the eye include retinopathy, cataracts and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in non-proliferative stages of diabetic retinopathy and small increases in IOP in diabetic patients has raised the possibility that diabetes affects the development and progression of ocular hypertension and glaucoma. The Ins2Akita mutation is known to cause diabetes and retinopathy on a C57BL/6J (B6) background by as early as 3 months of age. Here, the impact of the Akita mutation on glaucoma was assessed using DBA/2J (D2) mice, a widely used mouse model of ocular hypertension induced glaucoma. In D2.Ins2Akita/+ mice, the contribution of diabetes to vascular permeability, IOP elevation, RGC loss, and glaucoma development was assessed. D2.Ins2Akita/+ mice developed a severe diabetic nephropathy and early mortality between 6–8 months of age. This agrees with previous reports showing that the D2 background is more susceptible to diabetes than the B6 background. In addition, D2.Ins2Akita/+ mice had vascular leakage, astrocyte reactivity and a significant increase in IOP. However no RGC loss and no anterograde axonal transport dysfunction were found at 8.5 months of age. Therefore, our data show that despite severe diabetes and an increased IOP compared to controls, RGCs do not lose axon transport or degenerate. This may be due to a DBA/2J-specific genetic modifier(s) that could provide novel and important avenues for developing new therapies for diabetic retinopathy and possibly glaucoma. PMID:25207540

  15. Abstract spatial reasoning as an autistic strength.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Jennifer L; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2013-01-01

    Autistic individuals typically excel on spatial tests that measure abstract reasoning, such as the Block Design subtest on intelligence test batteries and the Raven's Progressive Matrices nonverbal test of intelligence. Such well-replicated findings suggest that abstract spatial processing is a relative and perhaps absolute strength of autistic individuals. However, previous studies have not systematically varied reasoning level--concrete vs. abstract--and test domain--spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal, which the current study did. Autistic participants (N = 72) and non-autistic participants (N = 72) completed a battery of 12 tests that varied by reasoning level (concrete vs. abstract) and domain (spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal). Autistic participants outperformed non-autistic participants on abstract spatial tests. Non-autistic participants did not outperform autistic participants on any of the three domains (spatial, numerical, and verbal) or at either of the two reasoning levels (concrete and abstract), suggesting similarity in abilities between autistic and non-autistic individuals, with abstract spatial reasoning as an autistic strength. PMID:23533615

  16. The cosmic background explorer

    SciTech Connect

    Gulkis, G. ); Lubin, P.M. ); Meyer, S.S. ); Silverberg, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Late last year the National Aeronautics and Space Administration launched its first satellite dedicated to the study of phenomena related to the origins of the universe. The satellite, called the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), carries three complementary detectors that will make fundamental measurements of the celestial radiation. Part of that radiation is believed to have originated in processes that occurred at the very dawn of the universe. By measuring the remnant radiation at wavelengths from one micrometer to one centimeter across the entire sky, scientists hope to be able to solve many mysteries regarding the origin and evolution of the early universe. Unfortunately, these radiative relics of the early universe are weak and veiled by local astrophysical and terrestrial sources of radiation. The wavelengths of the various cosmic components may also overlap, thereby making the understanding of the diffuse celestial radiation a challenge. Nevertheless, the COBE instruments, with their full-sky coverage, high sensitivity to a wide range of wavelengths and freedom from interference from the earth's atmosphere, will constitute for astrophysicists an observatory of unprecedented sensitivity and scope. The interesting cosmic signals will then be separated from one another and from noncosmic radiation sources by a comprehensive analysis of the data.

  17. Maritime infrared background clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwering, Piet B. W.

    1996-06-01

    The detection of small targets in maritime infrared surveillance is hampered by the presence of clutter. Sea surface structure, reflection and emission changes related to incident angle variations and surface effects are standard features governing the clutter behavior. Also special effects as sun glint and horizon effects play an important role for clutter. In order to optimize the detection process, quantitative clutter estimates are of use for filter settings. We have recorded a large amount of infrared backgrounds in the last few years, during common NATO trials. A large amount of different meteorological conditions took place during the various experiments. A first set of these data have been analyzed to obtain statistical data that represent the infrared scene. We have derived vertical temperature profiles, vertical fluctuation profiles, horizontal correlation coefficients and temporal correlation functions. In this paper we present the first analysis of these data. We are in the process of obtaining a condensed database of information to regenerate clutter images from bulk meteo parameters, and clutter parameters. The clutter and meteo parameters have been used to simulate various infrared scenes. Examples of this simulation process are shown in the presentation. The simulated images are statistically similar to the original images that were used to derive the parameters. A description of the image- generation is presented. Future expansions of the model are discussed.

  18. Biological aerosol background characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blatny, Janet; Fountain, Augustus W., III

    2011-05-01

    To provide useful information during military operations, or as part of other security situations, a biological aerosol detector has to respond within seconds or minutes to an attack by virulent biological agents, and with low false alarms. Within this time frame, measuring virulence of a known microorganism is extremely difficult, especially if the microorganism is of unknown antigenic or nucleic acid properties. Measuring "live" characteristics of an organism directly is not generally an option, yet only viable organisms are potentially infectious. Fluorescence based instruments have been designed to optically determine if aerosol particles have viability characteristics. Still, such commercially available biological aerosol detection equipment needs to be improved for their use in military and civil applications. Air has an endogenous population of microorganisms that may interfere with alarm software technologies. To design robust algorithms, a comprehensive knowledge of the airborne biological background content is essential. For this reason, there is a need to study ambient live bacterial populations in as many locations as possible. Doing so will permit collection of data to define diverse biological characteristics that in turn can be used to fine tune alarm algorithms. To avoid false alarms, improving software technologies for biological detectors is a crucial feature requiring considerations of various parameters that can be applied to suppress alarm triggers. This NATO Task Group will aim for developing reference methods for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to improve alarm algorithms for biological detection. Additionally, they will focus on developing reference standard methodology for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to reduce false alarm rates.

  19. Perceptions and practices related to diabetes reported by persons with diabetes attending diabetic care clinics: The India 11-city 9-state study

    PubMed Central

    Gudlavalleti, Murthy V. S.; Anchala, Raghupathy; Gudlavalleti, Aashrai Sai Venkat; Ramachandra, Srikrishna S.; Shukla, Rajan; Jotheeswaran, A. T.; Babu, R. Giridhara; Singh, Vivek; Allagh, Komal; Sagar, Jayanti; Bandyopadhyay, Souvik; Gilbert, Clare E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: India has the second largest population of persons with diabetes and a significant proportion has poor glycemic control and inadequate awareness of management of diabetes. Objectives: Determine the level of awareness regarding management of diabetes and its complications and diabetic care practices in India. Methods: The cross-sectional, hospital-based survey was conducted in 11 cities where public and private providers of diabetic care were identified. At each diabetic care facility, 4–6 persons with diabetes were administered a structured questionnaire in the local language. Results: Two hundred and eighty-five persons with diabetes were interviewed. The mean duration since diagnosis of diabetes was 8.1 years (standard deviation ± 7.3). Half of the participants reported a family history of diabetes and 41.7% were hypertensive. Almost 62.1% stated that they received information on diabetes and its management through interpersonal channels. Family history (36.1%), increasing age (25.3%), and stress (22.8%) were the commonest causes of diabetes reported. Only 29.1% stated that they monitored their blood sugar levels at home using a glucometer. The commonest challenges reported in managing diabetes were dietary modifications (67.4%), compliance with medicines (20.5%), and cost of medicines (17.9%). Around 76.5% were aware of complications of diabetes. Kidney failure (79.8%), blindness/vision loss (79.3%), and heart attack (56.4%) were the commonest complications mentioned. Almost 67.7% of the respondents stated that they had had an eye examination earlier. Conclusions: The findings have significant implications for the organization of diabetes services in India for early detection and management of complications, including eye complications. PMID:27144133

  20. Writing, reviewing, and presenting an abstract.

    PubMed

    Strauss, R G

    1991-01-01

    Abstracts afford an opportunity to report data at professional meetings and, when published, in the literature. Accordingly, they should be prepared with great care. When writing an abstract, anticipate questions the reviewer will ask when judging it and provide complete answers. The presentation of an abstract should follow similar thought processes. State why a problem or question is important, how you addressed it, what you found, and how your findings can be applied to the issue at hand. Slides and text should provide coordinated visual and auditory input, respectively, to ensure complete comprehension. PMID:1816248

  1. Cross-sectional assessment reveals high diabetes prevalence among newly-diagnosed tuberculosis cases

    PubMed Central

    Camerlin, Aulasa J; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Wang, Weiwei; Restrepo, Mary A; Zarate, Izelda; Mora-Guzmán, Francisco; Crespo-Solis, Jesus G; Briggs, Jessica; McCormick, Joseph B; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the contribution of clinically-confirmed diabetes mellitus to tuberculosis (TB) rates in communities where both diseases are prevalent as a way to identify opportunities for TB prevention among diabetic patients. Methods This is a prospective study in which TB patients ≥ 20 years old at TB clinics in the Texas–Mexico border were tested for diabetes. The risk of tuberculosis attributable to diabetes was estimated from statistics for the corresponding adult population. Findings The prevalence of diabetes among TB patients was 39% in Texas and 36% in Mexico. Diabetes contributed 25% of the TB cases studied, whereas human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection contributed 5% or fewer. Among TB patients, fewer Mexicans than Texans were aware that they had diabetes before this study (4% and 19%, respectively). Men were also less frequently aware than women that they had diabetes (P = 0.03). Patients who knew that they had diabetes before the study had an 8-year history of the disease, on average, before being diagnosed with TB. Conclusion Patients with diabetes are at higher risk of contracting TB than non-diabetic patients. Integrating TB and diabetes control programmes worldwide would facilitate TB prevention among diabetes patients and increase the number of diabetics who learn of their condition, particularly among males. Such a strategy would lead to earlier case detection and improve the management of both TB and diabetes. PMID:21556303

  2. Ficolin B in Diabetic Kidney Disease in a Mouse Model of Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Charlotte Berg; Østergaard, Jakob Appel; Axelgaard, Esben; Nielsen, Gitte Krogh; Endo, Yuichi; Thiel, Steffen; Hansen, Troels Krarup

    2015-01-01

    Background. The innate immune system may have adverse effects in diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The complement system seems to play a key role through erroneous complement activation via hyperglycaemia-induced neoepitopes. Recently mannan-binding lectin (MBL) was shown to worsen diabetic kidney changes. We hypothesize that mouse ficolin B exerts detrimental effects in the diabetic kidney as seen for MBL. Methods. We induced diabetes with streptozotocin in female wild-type mice and ficolin B knockout mice and included two similar nondiabetic groups. Renal hypertrophy and excretion of urinary albumin and creatinine were quantified to assess diabetic kidney damage. Results. In the wild-type groups, the kidney weighed 24% more in the diabetic mice compared to the controls. The diabetes-induced increase in kidney weight was 29% in the ficolin B knockout mice, that is, equal to wild-type animals (two-way ANOVA, P = 0.60). In the wild-type mice the albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) was 32.5 mg/g higher in the diabetic mice compared to the controls. The difference was 62.5 mg/g in the ficolin B knockout mice, but this was not significantly different from the wild-type animals (two-way ANOVA, P = 0.21). Conclusions. In conclusion, the diabetes-induced effects on kidney weight and ACR were not modified by the presence or absence of ficolin B. PMID:26339138

  3. Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics of Different Oral Sodium Nitrite Formulations in Diabetes Patients

    PubMed Central

    Predmore, Benjamin L.; Flanagan, Douglas R.; Giordano, Tony; Qiu, Yang; Brandon, Angela; Lefer, David J.; Patel, Rakesh P.; Kevil, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Diabetic foot ulcers, although associated with macrovascular disease and neuropathy, have a microvascular disease causing ischemia not amenable to surgical intervention. Nitrite selectively releases nitric oxide in ischemic tissues, and diabetes subjects have low nitrite levels that do not increase with exercise. This study explores the safety and pharmacokinetics of a single dose of sodium nitrite in subjects with diabetic foot ulcers. Subjects and Methods Using a blinded, randomized crossover study design, 12 subjects with diabetes mellitus and active or healed foot ulcers received a single dose of sodium nitrite on two occasions 7–28 days apart, once with an immediate release (IR) formulation and once with an enteric-coated (EC) formulation for delayed release. Serum nitrite, nitrate, methemoglobin, sulfhemoglobin, blood pressure, pulse rate, complete blood count, chemistry panel, electrocardiogram, and adverse events were followed for up to 6 h after each dose. The IR and EC nitrite levels were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and by pharmacokinetic modeling. Results The IR formulation elevated nitrite levels between 0.25 and 0.75 h (P<0.05). The EC formulation did not elevate nitrite levels significantly, but both formulations gave plasma nitrite levels previously suggested to be therapeutic (approximately 2–5 μM). The IR formulation gave an asymptomatic blood pressure drop of 10/6 mm Hg (P<0.003), and two subjects experienced mild flushing. There was no elevation of methemoglobin or other safety concerns. Pharmacokinetic modeling of plama nitrite levels gave r2 values of 0.81 and 0.97 for the fits for IR and EC formulations, respectively. Conclusions Oral sodium nitrite administration is well tolerated in diabetes patients. PMID:22468627

  4. Sustained Effects of a Nurse Coaching Intervention via Telehealth to Improve Health Behavior Change in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Young, Heather; Ward, Deborah; Dharmar, Madan; Tang-Feldman, Yajarayma; Berglund, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Diabetes educators and self-management programs are scarce in rural communities, where diabetes is the third highest-ranking health concern. The goal of this study was to evaluate the benefits of nurse telehealth coaching for persons with diabetes living in rural communities through a person-centered approach using motivational interviewing (MI) techniques. Materials and Methods: A randomized experimental study design was used to assign participants to receive either nurse telehealth coaching for five sessions (intervention group) or usual care (control group). Outcomes were measured in both groups using the Diabetes Empowerment Scale (DES), SF-12, and satisfaction surveys. Mean scores for each outcome were compared at baseline and at the 9-month follow-up for both groups using a Student's t test. We also evaluated the change from baseline by estimating the difference in differences (pre- and postintervention) using regression methods. Results: Among the 101 participants included in the analysis, 51 received nurse telehealth coaching, and 50 received usual care. We found significantly higher self-efficacy scores in the intervention group compared with the control group based on the DES at 9 months (4.03 versus 3.64, respectively; p<0.05) and the difference in difference estimation (0.42; p<0.05). Conclusions: The nurse MI/telehealth coaching model used in this study shows promise as an effective intervention for diabetes self-management in rural communities. The sustained effect on outcomes observed in the intervention group suggests that this model could be a feasible intervention for long-term behavioral change among persons living with chronic disease in rural communities. PMID:25061688

  5. Pulmonary toxicology of respirable particles. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, C.L.; Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1980-09-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 44 papers presented in these proceedings. The last paper (Stannard) in the proceedings is an historical review of the field of inhalation toxicology and is not included in the analytics. (DS)

  6. OIL POLLUTION ABSTRACTS. VOLUME 6, NUMBER 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oil Pollution Abstracts (formerly entitled Oil Pollution Reports) is a quarterly compilation of current literature and research project summaries. Comprehensive coverage of oil pollution and its prevention and control is provided, with emphasis on the aquatic environment. This is...

  7. Program Aims at Improving Abstract Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Describes a program being conducted within the chemistry department of Xavier University, New Orleans, Louisiana, to improve the abstract reasoning abilities of freshmen science majors. The project is based upon the philosophy developed by Jean Piaget. (SL)

  8. Introducing Abstraction to Junior High Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Nancy

    1981-01-01

    Suggests a way to introduce abstract art to junior high school students who, more than students of any other age, emphasize realism both in their artwork and in their appreciation of works of art. (Author/SJL)

  9. Masking failures of multidimensional sensors (extended abstract)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chew, Paul; Marzullo, Keith

    1990-01-01

    When a computer monitors a physical process, the computer uses sensors to determine the values of the physical variables that represent the state of the process. A sensor can sometimes fail, however, and in the worst case report a value completely unrelated to the true physical value. The work described is motivated by a methodology for transforming a process control program that can not tolerate sensor failure into one that can. In this methodology, a reliable abstract sensor is created by combining information from several real sensors that measure the same physical value. To be useful, an abstract sensor must deliver reasonably accurate information at reasonable computational cost. Sensors are considered that deliver multidimensional values (e.g., location or velocity in three dimensions, or both temperature and pressure). Geometric techniques are used to derive upper bounds on abstract sensor accuracy and to develop efficient algorithms for implementing abstract sensors.

  10. Language barrier and its relationship to diabetes and diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Language barrier is an important determinant of health care access and health. We examined the associations of English proficiency with type-2 diabetes (T2DM) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Asian Indians living in Singapore, an urban city where English is the predominant language of communication. Methods This was a population-based, cross-sectional study. T2DM was defined as HbA1c ≥6.5%, use of diabetic medication or a physician diagnosis of diabetes. Retinal photographs were graded for the severity of DR including vision-threatening DR (VTDR). Presenting visual impairment (VI) was defined as LogMAR visual acuity > 0.30 in the better-seeing eye. English proficiency at the time of interview was assessed. Results The analyses included 2,289 (72.1%) English-speaking and 885 (27.9%) Tamil- speaking Indians. Tamil-speaking Indians had significantly higher prevalence of T2DM (46.2 vs. 34.7%, p < 0.001) and, among those with diabetes, higher prevalence of DR (36.0 vs. 30.6%, p < 0.001), VTDR (11.0 vs. 6.5%, p < 0.001), and VI (32.4 vs. 14.6%) than English speaking Indians. Oaxaca decomposition analyses showed that the language-related discrepancies (defined as the difference in prevalence between persons speaking different languages) in T2DM, DR, and VTDR could not be fully explained by socioeconomic measures. Conclusions In an English dominant society, Tamil-speaking Indians are more likely to have T2DM and diabetic retinopathy. Social policies and health interventions that address language-related health disparities may help reduce the public health impact of T2DM in societies with heterogeneous populations. PMID:22974298

  11. Use of antivascular endothelial growth factor for diabetic macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Rushmia; Tang, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Background Diabetic macular edema (DME) is one of the manifestations of diabetic retinopathy leading to loss of central vision and visual acuity. It manifests itself with swelling around the central part of the retina, the area responsible for sharp vision. Current treatment includes laser therapy and intravitreal steroids with preventative measures including diabetes control. No one treatment has guaranteed control of diabetic macular edema which leads to deteriorating visual acuity, function and quality of life in patients. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been shown to be a critical stimulus in the pathogenesis of macular edema secondary to diabetes.1 Antiangiogenic therapy encompassed treatment with anti-VEGF which inhibits VEGF-driven neovascularization hence macular edema leading to decreased visual acuity. Objective For this review, we evaluated the effectiveness of intravitreal anti-VEGF in treating DME. Data sources We identified five trials (n = 525) using electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials [Central], Medline®, and Excerpta Medica Database [EMBASE®]) in October 2008, supplemented by hand searching of reference lists, review articles, and conference abstracts. Methods We included all randomized clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating any form of intravitreal anti-VEGF for treating DME. The main outcome factor was change in best-corrected visual acuity and central macular thickness. One author assessed eligibility, methodological quality, and extracted data. Meta analysis was performed when appropriate. Results We included three trials of adequate methodological quality in our meta-analysis. Patients treated with anti-VEGF showed improvement in visual acuity of −0.17 (95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.23, −0.10) and central macular thickness −84.69 (95% CI: −117.09, −52.30). Patients treated with combined anti-VEGF and intravitreal triamcinolone showed improvement of visual acuity of −0.19 (95% CI:

  12. Earth Sciences Division collected abstracts: 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, A.L.; Hornady, B.F.

    1981-10-15

    This report is a compilation of abstracts of papers, reports, and talks presented during 1980 at national and international meetings by members of the Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The arrangement is alphabetical (by author). For a given report, a bibliographic reference appears under the name of each coauthor, but the abstract itself is given only under the name of the first author (indicated in capital letters) or the first Earth Sciences Division author.

  13. Weight and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a person's diabetes management plan. Weight and Type 1 Diabetes If a person has type 1 diabetes but hasn't been treated yet, he or she often loses weight. In type 1 diabetes, the body can't use glucose (pronounced: GLOO- ...

  14. Diabetes and kidney disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... occurs over time in people with diabetes. This type of kidney disease is called diabetic nephropathy. Causes Each kidney is made of hundreds ... ACE inhibitors Diabetes - what to ask your doctor - type 2 Update Date ... Diabetic Kidney Problems Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A. ...

  15. Finding Feasible Abstract Counter-Examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Visser, Willem; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A strength of model checking is its ability to automate the detection of subtle system errors and produce traces that exhibit those errors. Given the high computational cost of model checking most researchers advocate the use of aggressive property-preserving abstractions. Unfortunately, the more aggressively a system is abstracted the more infeasible behavior it will have. Thus, while abstraction enables efficient model checking it also threatens the usefulness of model checking as a defect detection tool, since it may be difficult to determine whether a counter-example is feasible and hence worth developer time to analyze. We have explored several strategies for addressing this problem by extending an explicit-state model checker, Java PathFinder (JPF), to search for and analyze counter-examples in the presence of abstractions. We demonstrate that these techniques effectively preserve the defect detection ability of model checking in the presence of aggressive abstraction by applying them to check properties of several abstracted multi-threaded Java programs. These new capabilities are not specific to JPF and can be easily adapted to other model checking frameworks; we describe how this was done for the Bandera toolset.

  16. Background sources in optical communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, V. A.

    1983-01-01

    The characterization and measurement of background radiation relevant to optical communications system performance is addressed. The necessary optical receiver parameters are described, and radiometric concepts required for the calculation of collected background power are developed. The most important components of optical background power are discussed, and their contribution to the total collected background power in various communications scenarios is examined.

  17. Diabetes Research in Iran: a Scientometric Analysis of Publications Output

    PubMed Central

    Rasolabadi, Masoud; Khaledi, Shahnaz; Ardalan, Marlin; Kalhor, Marya Maryam; Penjvini, Susan; Gharib, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In the developing countries, diabetes mellitus as a chronic diseases, have replaced infectious diseases as the main causes of morbidity and mortality. International Diabetes Federation (IDF) recently estimates 382 million people have diabetes globally and more than 34.6 million people in the Middle East Region and this number will increase to 67.9 million by 2035. The aim of this study was to analyze Iran’s research performance on diabetes in national and international context. Methods: This Scientometric analysis is based on the Iranian publication data in diabetes research retrieved from the Scopus citation database till the end of 2014. The string used to retrieve the data was developed using “diabetes” keyword in title, abstract and keywords, and finally Iran in the affiliation field was our main string. Results: Iran’s cumulative publication output in diabetes research consisted of 4425 papers from 1968 to 2014, with an average number of 96.2 papers per year and an annual average growth rate of 25.5%. Iran ranked 25th place with 4425 papers among top 25 countries with a global share of 0.72 %. Average of Iran’s publication output was 6.19 citations per paper. The average citation per paper for Iranian publications in diabetes research increased from 1.63 during 1968-1999 to 10.42 for 2014. Conclusions: Although diabetic population of Iran is increasing, number of diabetes research is not remarkable. International Diabetes Federation suggested increased funding for research in diabetes in Iran for cost-effective diabetes prevention and treatment. In addition to universal and comprehensive services for diabetes care and treatment provided by Iranian health care system, Iranian policy makers should invest more on diabetes research. PMID:26236083

  18. Tactile Intervention as a Novel Technique in Improving Body Stability in Healthy Elderly and Elderly with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Alshammari, Faris S.; Daher, Noha; Alzoghbieh, Eman S.; Dehom, Salem O.; Laymon, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Body sway increases in the elderly because of normal aging and high incidence of disease such as diabetes. Prevalence of sway is greater in the elderly with diabetes because of damage to the central and peripheral nervous systems. Increase in body sway is associated with an elevated risk of falling. Falling is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. The purpose of this study was to develop a new technique to improve body stability and decrease body sway in the elderly people with or without diabetes. Subjects and Methods: Twenty-two subjects—12 elderly (mean age, 75.5±7.3 years) and 10 age-matched elderly with diabetes (mean age, 72.5±5.3 years)—were recruited for this study. Subjects received tactile feedback as a tingling sensation resulting from electrical stimulation triggered by body sway. Results: The results showed a significant reduction in body sway in the elderly while standing on foam with eyes open (1.0±0.31 vs. 1.9±0.8; P=0.006) and eyes closed (1.8±0.7 vs. 3.3±1.5; P=0.001). In the group with diabetes, there was a significant reduction in body sway while standing on foam with eyes closed (1.4±0.5 vs. 2.3±0.8; P=0.045) but not with eyes open. Conclusions: In this small study, this technique offers a new tool for training people with diabetes and elderly people to improve body stability and balance. PMID:25299792

  19. Management of Diabetic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Raymond Azman

    2003-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the commonest cause of neuropathy worldwide. Diabetic neuropathy (DN) develops in about 4–10% of diabetic patients after 5 years and in 15% after 20 years. Four main mechanisms have been postulated to underlie the pathogenesis of DN. Diabetic neuropathy can be divided into symmetrical and asymmetrical neuropathies. Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy (DAN) parallels the severity of DSN, and affects primarily the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, genitourinary and integumentary systems. The cornerstone of treatment of diabetic neuropathy is optimization of glycaemic control. Future treatments for diabetic neuropathy should address the underlying pathogenesis. PMID:23386794

  20. Serum selenium concentrations and diabetes in U.S. adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that high selenium levels are associated with diabetes and other cardiometabolic risk factors. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the association of serum selenium concentrations with fasting plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin levels, and diabetes in the most rec...

  1. People with Mild to Moderate Intellectual Disability Talking about Their Diabetes and How They Manage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardol, M.; Rijken, M.; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of diabetes is relatively high in people with intellectual disability (ID). However, little is known about how people with ID experience having diabetes and how they manage the condition. Method: Seventeen people with mild to moderate ID who have diabetes were interviewed. A framework on illness perceptions having an…

  2. Applying the Transtheoretical Model to Investigate Behavioural Change in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shu-Ping; Wang, Ming-Jye

    2013-01-01

    Background: Long-term behaviour change in type 2 diabetic patients may provide effective glycemic control. Purpose: To investigate the key factors that promote behaviour change in diabetic subjects using the transtheoretical model. Methods: Subjects were selected by purposive sampling from type 2 diabetes outpatients. Self-administered…

  3. More insight into the fate of biomedical meeting abstracts: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    von Elm, Erik; Costanza, Michael C; Walder, Bernhard; Tramèr, Martin R

    2003-01-01

    Background It has been estimated that about 45% of abstracts that are accepted for presentation at biomedical meetings will subsequently be published in full. The acceptance of abstracts at meetings and their fate after initial rejection are less well understood. We set out to estimate the proportion of abstracts submitted to meetings that are eventually published as full reports, and to explore factors that are associated with meeting acceptance and successful publication. Methods Studies analysing acceptance of abstracts at biomedical meetings or their subsequent full publication were searched in MEDLINE, OLDMEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, BIOSIS, Science Citation Index Expanded, and by hand searching of bibliographies and proceedings. We estimated rates of abstract acceptance and of subsequent full publication, and identified abstract and meeting characteristics associated with acceptance and publication, using logistic regression analysis, survival-type analysis, and meta-analysis. Results Analysed meetings were held between 1957 and 1999. Of 14945 abstracts that were submitted to 43 meetings, 46% were accepted. The rate of full publication was studied with 19123 abstracts that were presented at 234 meetings. Using survival-type analysis, we estimated that 27% were published after two, 41% after four, and 44% after six years. Of 2412 abstracts that were rejected at 24 meetings, 27% were published despite rejection. Factors associated with both abstract acceptance and subsequent publication were basic science and positive study outcome. Large meetings and those held outside the US were more likely to accept abstracts. Abstracts were more likely to be published subsequently if presented either orally, at small meetings, or at a US meeting. Abstract acceptance itself was strongly associated with full publication. Conclusions About one third of abstracts submitted to biomedical meetings were published as full reports. Acceptance at meetings and

  4. MedlinePlus: Diabetic Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Starchy Vegetables (American Diabetes Association) Also in Spanish Managing Diabetes: Looking Beyond Carbs (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Non-Starchy Vegetables (American Diabetes Association) ...

  5. Diabetic retinopathy - ocular complications of diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Nentwich, Martin M; Ulbig, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    In industrialized nations diabetic retinopathy is the most frequent microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus and the most common cause of blindness in the working-age population. In the next 15 years, the number of patients suffering from diabetes mellitus is expected to increase significantly. By the year 2030, about 440 million people in the age-group 20-79 years are estimated to be suffering from diabetes mellitus worldwide (prevalence 7.7%), while in 2010 there were 285 million people with diabetes mellitus (prevalence 6.4%). This accounts for an increase in patients with diabetes in industrialized nations by 20% and in developing countries by 69% until the year 2030. Due to the expected rise in diabetic patients, the need for ophthalmic care of patients (i.e., exams and treatments) will also increase and represents a challenge for eye-care providers. Development of optimized screening programs, which respect available resources of the ophthalmic infrastructure, will become even more important. Main reasons for loss of vision in patients with diabetes mellitus are diabetic macular edema and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Incidence or progression of these potentially blinding complications can be greatly reduced by adequate control of blood glucose and blood pressure levels. Additionally, regular ophthalmic exams are mandatory for detecting ocular complications and initiating treatments such as laser photocoagulation in case of clinical significant diabetic macular edema or early proliferative diabetic retinopathy. In this way, the risk of blindness can considerably be reduced. In advanced stages of diabetic retinopathy, pars-plana vitrectomy is performed to treat vitreous hemorrhage and tractional retinal detachment. In recent years, the advent of intravitreal medication has improved therapeutic options for patients with advanced diabetic macular edema. PMID:25897358

  6. Minimally Invasive Insulin Delivery in Subjects with Type 1 Diabetes Using Hollow Microneedles

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Jyoti

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Microneedles have previously been used to deliver insulin to animal models, but not in human subjects. This study tested the hypothesis that hollow microneedles can deliver insulin to modulate blood glucose levels in subjects with type 1 diabetes in a minimally invasive manner. Methods This study was carried out in two adults with type 1 diabetes and evaluated bolus delivery of lispro insulin using a hollow microneedle compared to a catheter infusion set (9 mm). The study first determined the minimum insulin delivery depth by administering insulin from microneedles inserted 1, 3.5, and 5 mm into the skin of fasting subjects and then assessed the efficacy of insulin delivery from microneedles inserted 1 mm into the skin to reduce postprandial glucose levels. Blood samples were periodically assayed for plasma free insulin and plasma glucose levels for up to 3.5 h. Results The first phase of the study indicated that microneedles inserted at the shallowest depth of 1 mm within the skin led to rapid insulin absorption and reduction in glucose levels. Bolus insulin delivery followed by consumption of a standardized meal in the second phase revealed that microneedles were effective in reducing postprandial glucose levels. Subjects reported no pain from microneedle treatments, and there were no adverse events. Conclusions This study provides the first proof of concept that hollow microneedles can effectively deliver bolus insulin to type 1 diabetes subjects in a minimally invasive manner. PMID:19459760

  7. Mobile Phone-Based Pattern Recognition and Data Analysis for Patients with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Årsand, Eirik; Godtliebsen, Fred; Hartvigsen, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Persons with type 1 diabetes who use electronic self-help tools, most commonly blood glucose meters, record a large amount of data about their personal condition. Mobile phones are powerful and ubiquitous computers that have a potential for data analysis, and the purpose of this study is to explore how self-gathered data can help users improve their blood glucose management. Subjects and Methods Thirty patients with insulin-regulated type 1 diabetes were equipped with a mobile phone application for 3–6 months, recording blood glucose, insulin, dietary information, physical activity, and disease symptoms. The data were analyzed in terms of usage of the different modules and which data processing and visualization tools could be constructed to support the use of these data. Results Eighteen patients (denoted “adopters”) recorded complete data for over 80 consecutive days, up to 247 days. Among those who withdrew or did not use the application extensively, the most common reasons given were outdated or difficult-to-use phone. Data analysis using period finding and scale-space trends was found to yield significant patterns for most adopters. Pattern recognition methods to predict low or high blood glucose were found to be performing poorly. Conclusions Minimally intrusive mobile applications enable users with type 1 diabetes to record data that can provide data-driven feedback to the user, potentially providing relevant insight into their disease. PMID:23035775

  8. Intensive Diabetes Therapy and Ocular Surgery in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) showed a beneficial effect of 6.5 years of intensive glycemic control on retinopathy in patients with type 1 diabetes. METHODS Between 1983 and 1989, a total of 1441 patients with type 1 diabetes in the DCCT were randomly assigned to receive either intensive diabetes therapy or conventional therapy aimed at preventing hyperglycemic symptoms. They were treated and followed until 1993. Subsequently, 1375 of these patients were followed in the observational Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study. The self-reported history of ocular surgical procedures was obtained annually. We evaluated the effect of intensive therapy as compared with conventional therapy on the incidence and cost of ocular surgery during these two studies. RESULTS Over a median follow-up of 23 years, 130 ocular operations were performed in 63 of 711 patients assigned to intensive therapy (8.9%) and 189 ocular operations in 98 of 730 patients assigned to conventional therapy (13.4%) (P<0.001). After adjustment for DCCT baseline factors, intensive therapy was associated with a reduction in the risk of any diabetes-related ocular surgery by 48% (95% confidence interval [CI], 29 to 63; P<0.001) and a reduction in the risk of all such ocular procedures by 37% (95% CI, 12 to 55; P = 0.01). Forty-two patients who received intensive therapy and 61 who received conventional therapy underwent cataract extraction (adjusted risk reduction with intensive therapy, 48%; 95% CI, 23 to 65; P = 0.002); 29 patients who received intensive therapy and 50 who received conventional therapy underwent vitrectomy, retinal-detachment surgery, or both (adjusted risk reduction, 45%; 95% CI, 12 to 66; P = 0.01). The costs of surgery were 32% lower in the intensive-therapy group. The beneficial effects of intensive therapy were fully attenuated after adjustment for mean glycated hemoglobin levels over the entire follow-up. CONCLUSIONS

  9. Combined Diet and Physical Activity Promotion Programs to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Among People at Increased Risk: A Systematic Review for the Community Preventive Services Task Force

    PubMed Central

    Balk, Ethan M.; Earley, Amy; Raman, Gowri; Avendano, Esther A.; Pittas, Anastassios G.; Remington, Patrick L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Trials have demonstrated the efficacy of rigorous diet and physical activity promotion (D&PA) programs for adults at increased risk for type 2 diabetes to reduce diabetes incidence and improve measures of glycemia. Purpose To evaluate D&PA programs for individuals at increased risk for type 2 diabetes primarily to lower diabetes risk, lower body weight, and improve glycemia. Data Sources MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CAB Abstracts, Global Health, and Ovid HealthStar from 1991 through 27 February 2015, with no language restriction. Study Selection 8 researchers screened articles for single group or comparative studies of combined D&PA programs with at least 2 sessions of at least 3 month duration in participants at increased risk for type 2 diabetes. Data Extraction 7 researchers extracted data—on study design, participant, intervention, outcome descriptions, and results—and assessed study quality. Data Synthesis 53 studies (30 D&PA vs. control, 13 more vs. less intensive, 13 in single programs) evaluated 66 programs. Compared with usual care, D&PA reduced type 2 diabetes incidence (RR = 0.59; 95% CI 0.51, 0.66; 16 studies), lowered body weight (net change = −2.2%; 95% CI −2.9, −1.4; 24 studies) and fasting blood glucose (net change = −0.12 mmol/L; 95% CI −0.20, −0.05; 17 studies), and improved other cardiometabolic risk factors. There was limited evidence for clinical events. More intensive programs were more effective. Limitations The wide variation in D&PA programs limited identification of features most relevant to effectiveness. Evidence on clinical outcomes and in children was sparse. Conclusions Combined D&PA promotion programs are effective to decrease diabetes incidence and improve cardiometabolic risk factors for patients at increased risk. More intensive programs are more effective. Primary Funding Source Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Community Preventive Services Task Force. PMID:26167912

  10. Diabetic Foot Biomechanics and Gait Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Wrobel, James S.; Najafi, Bijan

    2010-01-01

    Background Diabetic foot complications represent significant morbidity and precede most of the lower extremity amputations performed. Peripheral neuropathy is a frequent complication of diabetes shown to affect gait. Glycosylation of soft tissues can also affect gait. The purpose of this review article is to highlight the changes in gait for persons with diabetes and highlight the effects of glycosylation on soft tissues at the foot–ground interface. Methods PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and EBSCOhost® on-line databases were searched for articles pertaining to diabetes and gait. Bibliographies from relevant manuscripts were also searched. Findings Patients with diabetes frequently exhibit a conservative gait strategy where there is slower walking speed, wider base of gait, and prolonged double support time. Glycosylation affects are observed in the lower extremities. Initially, skin thickness decreases and skin hardness increases; tendons thicken; muscles atrophy and exhibit activation delays; bones become less dense; joints have limited mobility; and fat pads are less thick, demonstrate fibrotic atrophy, migrate distally, and may be stiffer. Interpretation In conclusion, there do appear to be gait changes in patients with diabetes. These changes, coupled with local soft tissue changes from advanced glycosylated end products, also alter a patient’s gait, putting them at risk of foot ulceration. Better elucidation of these changes throughout the entire spectrum of diabetes disease can help design better treatments and potentially reduce the unnecessarily high prevalence of foot ulcers and amputation. PMID:20663446

  11. Discovering Diabetes Complications: an Ontology Based Model

    PubMed Central

    Daghistani, Tahani; Shammari, Riyad Al; Razzak, Muhammad Imran

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is a serious disease that spread in the world dramatically. The diabetes patient has an average of risk to experience complications. Take advantage of recorded information to build ontology as information technology solution will help to predict patients who have average of risk level with certain complication. It is helpful to search and present patient’s history regarding different risk factors. Discovering diabetes complications could be useful to prevent or delay the complications. Method: We designed ontology based model, using adult diabetes patients’ data, to discover the rules of diabetes with its complications in disease to disease relationship. Result: Various rules between different risk factors of diabetes Patients and certain complications generated. Furthermore, new complications (diseases) might be discovered as new finding of this study, discovering diabetes complications could be useful to prevent or delay the complications. Conclusion: The system can identify the patients who are suffering from certain risk factors such as high body mass index (obesity) and starting controlling and maintaining plan. PMID:26862251

  12. Southern Orthopaedic Association Abstract Publication Rate.

    PubMed

    Tait, Mark Adam; Petrus, Cara; Barnes, C Lowry

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the publication rate of manuscripts presented at the Southern Orthopaedic Association's (SOA) annual meetings. An extensive literature search was performed using Google Scholar and PubMed search engines and all accepted abstracts (posters or podium presentations) presented at an SOA annual meeting from 2005 to 2011 were evaluated. A total of 568 abstracts were presented at SOA meetings between 2005 and 2011. Of these, 234 (41%) were published in the peer-reviewed literature. The publication rate was 66% in 2005 and 28% in 2010. The average time from presentation to peer-reviewed publication was 1.6 ± 0.24 years (range, 2 years in 2006 to 1 year in 2011). The SOA publication rate was comparable with other major orthopaedic conference publication rates, yet more than half of all abstracts remain unpublished. SOA attendees should be aware that approximately 40% of all accepted presentations will go unpublished. PMID:27518291

  13. Information Leakage Analysis by Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanioli, Matteo; Cortesi, Agostino

    Protecting the confidentiality of information stored in a computer system or transmitted over a public network is a relevant problem in computer security. The approach of information flow analysis involves performing a static analysis of the program with the aim of proving that there will not be leaks of sensitive information. In this paper we propose a new domain that combines variable dependency analysis, based on propositional formulas, and variables' value analysis, based on polyhedra. The resulting analysis is strictly more accurate than the state of the art abstract interpretation based analyses for information leakage detection. Its modular construction allows to deal with the tradeoff between efficiency and accuracy by tuning the granularity of the abstraction and the complexity of the abstract operators.

  14. Fall Meeting abstract submission inspires science poetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-08-01

    When the 4 August deadline for submitting Fall Meeting abstracts passed, AGU had received more than 20,000 abstracts, a record-breaking number. The submission process had an unexpected by-product: It inspired some scientists to write haiku on Twitter. (Haiku is a form of Japanese poetry typically having three lines, the first with five syllables, the second with seven, and the third with five.) The following are examples of the haiku tweets, with the hashtag #AGU11AbstractHaiku. (For those who want to keep updated about the Fall Meeting on Twitter, the hashtag is #AGU11.) For more information about the meeting, including registration and housing, visit http://sites.agu.org/fallmeeting/.

  15. Abstracting and indexing in the medical sciences.

    PubMed

    Welt, I D

    1962-07-01

    Abstracts and indexes constitute the most popular means of assuring adequate retrieval of the many thousands of papers published every year in the ever expanding field of medicine. Different types of abstracts and indexes are available for different purposes and to meet varying user requirements. The problem of "keeping up" with developments in one's own field of endeavour can usually be solved by qualified abstractors. Most indexes serve the purpose of assuring the retrieval of pertinent documents. However, in order to retrieve specific pieces of information which are absolutely indispensible to the medical practitioner or scientist, a new approach is needed. This technique, which is termed the "combined index-abstract" method, has been employed successfully for the handling of a large body of specific items of information in a restricted area of experimental and clinical pharmacology. PMID:21735878

  16. Computing abstraction hierarchies by numerical simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Bundy, A.; Giunchiglia, F.; Sebastiani, R.; Walsh, T.

    1996-12-31

    We present a novel method for building ABSTRIPS-style abstraction hierarchies in planning. The aim of this method is to minimize the amount of backtracking between abstraction levels. Previous approaches have determined the criticality of operator preconditions by reasoning about plans directly. Here, we adopt a simpler and faster approach where we use numerical simulation of the planning process. We demonstrate the theoretical advantages of our approach by identifying some simple properties lacking in previous approaches but possessed by our method. We demonstrate the empirical advantages of our approach by a set of four benchmark experiments using the ABTWEAK system. We compare the quality of the abstraction hierarchies generated with those built by the ALPINE and HIGHPOINT algorithms.

  17. Effects of Health Education of Diabetic Patient’s Knowledge at Diabetic Health Centers, Khartoum State, Sudan: 2007-2010

    PubMed Central

    MakkiAwouda, Fathia Osman; Elmukashfi, Taha Ahmed; Hag Al-Tom, Seed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Background: Educating and training diabetic patients is necessary for controlling and improving their health. Methods: It was Quasi-experimental study design study. The study aimed to determine the effects of health education on the achievements of diabetic patients regarding control and improvement of their health status; at Diabetic Health Centers in Khartoum State, Sudan; 2007-2010. The target populations were diabetic patients, who attended the diabetic health centers to receive their treatment. Using simple random sampling 152 patients were selected (58 males and 94 females). Before and after comparison was done. Data was processed using SPSS and pair t-test was used to determine the effect of health education. P-value equal or less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Findings: Test for before and after comparison was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05) for diabetic patients. They gained more knowledge after the implementation of the program; particularly in the areas of the nature and signs and symptoms of the disease, signs and symptoms of hypo & hyperglycemia, causes and warning signs of foot problems, foot care, and importance of exercises. Conclusion and Recommendations: Health education of diabetic patients is crucial for control of diabetes. Capacity building of diabetic health centers, strengthening diabetic patients association, and more research to study the effect of health education on diabetic patients were needed. PMID:24576384

  18. Dual-tracer background subtraction approach for fluorescent molecular tomography

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Robert W.; El-Ghussein, Fadi; Davis, Scott C.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Gunn, Jason R.; Leblond, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Diffuse fluorescence tomography requires high contrast-to-background ratios to accurately reconstruct inclusions of interest. This is a problem when imaging the uptake of fluorescently labeled molecularly targeted tracers in tissue, which can result in high levels of heterogeneously distributed background uptake. We present a dual-tracer background subtraction approach, wherein signal from the uptake of an untargeted tracer is subtracted from targeted tracer signal prior to image reconstruction, resulting in maps of targeted tracer binding. The approach is demonstrated in simulations, a phantom study, and in a mouse glioma imaging study, demonstrating substantial improvement over conventional and homogenous background subtraction image reconstruction approaches. PMID:23292612

  19. Earth Sciences Division collected abstracts: 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, A.L.; Schwartz, L.L.

    1980-04-30

    This report is a compilation of abstracts of papers, internal reports, and talks presented during 1979 at national and international meetings by members of the Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The arrangement is alphabetical (by author). For a given report, a bibliographic reference appears under the name of each coauthor, but the abstract iself is given only under the name of the first author or the first Earth Sciences Division author. A topical index at the end of the report provides useful cross references, while indicating major areas of research interest in the Earth Sciences Division.

  20. 2011 statistical abstract of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krisanda, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    The Statistical Abstract of the United States, published since 1878, is the authoritative and comprehensive summary of statistics on the social, political, and economic organization of the United States.


    Use the Abstract as a convenient volume for statistical reference, and as a guide to sources of more information both in print and on the Web.


    Sources of data include the Census Bureau, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bureau of Economic Analysis, and many other Federal agencies and private organizations.

  1. Contraception and Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Afsana, Faria

    2016-09-01

    Contraception for women with diabetes mellitus is an important issue mainly as the pregnancy outcome depends on glycaemic control before conception among women with diabetes. Type of diabetes as type 1 or type 2 Diabetes, women with history of gestational diabetes and breast feeding diabetic mothers may be a consideration in selecting a contraceptive .On the other hand presence of diabetic complications is a significant determinant. Different methods of contraception as oral, injectable, implant, intrauterine devices are available. Patient\\'s choice and health issues both should be considered while prescribing a contraceptive to a woman with diabetes. Emergency contraception is sometimes required in situations where there is chance of contraceptive failure. This review article highlights different contraceptive methods, their use and limitations and will guide to make a rational choice for a woman with diabetes. PMID:27582166

  2. [Diabetic eye disease].

    PubMed

    Henriques, José; Vaz-Pereira, Sara; Nascimento, João; Rosa, Paulo Caldeira

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by sustained hyperglycemia leading to macro and microvascular complications. The eye is one of the main organs affected by this disease, being diabetic retinopathy the most well-known microvascular complication and the leading cause of blindness in the working age population. However, diabetic ocular disease is not only characterized by diabetic retinopathy. Other important ocular manifestations of diabetes mellitus include cataract, glaucoma, ischemic optic neuropathy, cranial nerve palsies and recurrent corneal erosion syndrome. Here, we emphasize diabetic retinopathy as the most important and characteristic complication of diabetes mellitus, but also review less well-known complications with the aim to alert and sensitize non-ophthalmologist clinicians that treat diabetic individuals, in order to promote an early diagnosis and treatment of the sight-threatening complications of diabetes. PMID:25817504

  3. Flaxseed and Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Kailash; Dhar, Arti

    2016-01-01

    Flaxseed contains 32% to 45% of its mass as oil of which 51% to 55% is α-linolenic acid. Flax lignan complex and secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) have been isolated from flaxseed. Flaxseed and its components have antioxidant, hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effects. These are mostly due to the SDG content. Oxidative stress has been implicated in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Flaxseed, flaxseed oil and flax lignan complex have not been investigated as to whether they reduce the incidence of diabetes and/or delay the development of diabetes. However, their effects on serum glucose have been studied. Flaxseed and flax lignan complex improve glycemic control. Animal models of type I diabetes involving streptozotocin administration or utilizing Bio-Breed diabetic (BBdp) prone rats are associated with oxidative stress. SDG treatment reduced the incidence of diabetes using serum glucose levels by 75% in the streptozotocin model of diabetes and by 72% in the BBdp rat model of diabetes. These reductions in development of diabetes were associated with decreases in oxidative stress measured by serum and pancreatic malondialdehyde (MDA). SDG delays the development of diabetes in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat model of type 2 diabetes and this effect was associated with a reduction in serum MDA and glycated haemoglobin A1C. The data suggest that SDG may have a great potential for reducing the incidence of type 1 diabetes and delaying the development of type 2 diabetes in humans. PMID:26561065

  4. State of the science: a cultural view of Native Americans and diabetes prevention.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Karethy; Patchell, Beverly

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a review of the literature on diabetes type 2 prevention interventions for Native American populations. The interrelation of the cultural role of food in Native American diets, educational policies related to food, outcomes of federal policies, and the historical background of diabetes are addressed. In addition, published studies of diabetes prevention interventions with Native American populations are examined. Lastly, exemplars of programs that represent best practices in the prevention of diabetes are described. PMID:20640191

  5. State of the Science: A Cultural View of Native Americans and Diabetes Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Karethy (Kay); Patchell, Beverly

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a review of the literature on diabetes type 2 prevention interventions for Native American populations. The interrelation of the cultural role of food in Native American diets, educational policies related to food, outcomes of federal policies, and the historical background of diabetes are addressed. In addition, published studies of diabetes prevention interventions with Native American populations are examined. Lastly, exemplars of programs that represent best practices in the prevention of diabetes are described. PMID:20640191

  6. Diabetes and tuberculosis: the impact of the diabetes epidemic on tuberculosis incidence

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Catherine R; Forouhi, Nita G; Roglic, Gojka; Williams, Brian G; Lauer, Jeremy A; Dye, Chirstopher; Unwin, Nigel

    2007-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major cause of mortality in developing countries, and in these countries diabetes prevalence is increasing rapidly. Diabetes increases the risk of TB. Our aim was to assess the potential impact of diabetes as a risk factor for incident pulmonary tuberculosis, using India as an example. Methods We constructed an epidemiological model using data on tuberculosis incidence, diabetes prevalence, population structure, and relative risk of tuberculosis associated with diabetes. We evaluated the contribution made by diabetes to both tuberculosis incidence, and to the difference between tuberculosis incidence in urban and rural areas. Results In India in 2000 there were an estimated 20.7 million adults with diabetes, and 900,000 incident adult cases of pulmonary tuberculosis. Our calculations suggest that diabetes accounts for 14.8% (uncertainty range 7.1% to 23.8%) of pulmonary tuberculosis and 20.2% (8.3% to 41.9%) of smear-positive (i.e. infectious) tuberculosis. We estimate that the increased diabetes prevalence in urban areas is associated with a 15.2% greater smear-positive tuberculosis incidence in urban than rural areas – over a fifth of the estimated total difference. Conclusion Diabetes makes a substantial contribution to the burden of incident tuberculosis in India, and the association is particularly strong for the infectious form of tuberculosis. The current diabetes epidemic may lead to a resurgence of tuberculosis in endemic regions, especially in urban areas. This potentially carries a risk of global spread with serious implications for tuberculosis control and the achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. PMID:17822539

  7. Diabetes in Children and Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... now younger people are also getting type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes used to be called adult-onset diabetes. But ... children and teens, due to more obesity. With Type 2 diabetes, the body does not make or use insulin ...

  8. Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes ... Volunteer Center American Diabetes Month® American Diabetes Association Alert Day® Become a Member Advocacy Home Take Action ...

  9. Diabetes: What's True and False?

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Diabetes: What's True and False? KidsHealth > For Teens > Diabetes: ... which are false. Eating too much sugar causes diabetes. False: Type 1 diabetes happens when the cells ...

  10. Diabetes: What's True and False?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Diabetes: What's True and False? KidsHealth > For Kids > Diabetes: ... True or False: Eating Too Much Sugar Causes Diabetes False: When kids get type 1 diabetes , it's ...

  11. Diagnosis of Diabetes and Prediabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Diabetes Educators American Diabetes Association JDRF MedlinePlus Diabetes Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support to patients ... PDF, 293 KB). Alternate Language URL Diagnosis of Diabetes and Prediabetes Page Content On this page: What ...

  12. "Control Your Diabetes. For Life."

    MedlinePlus

    ... Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes "Control Your Diabetes. For Life." Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents For information about "Control Your Diabetes. For Life" campaign, visit www.YourDiabetesInfo.org or call toll- ...

  13. "Control Your Diabetes. For Life."

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes "Control Your Diabetes. For Life." Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents For information about "Control Your Diabetes. For Life" campaign, visit www.YourDiabetesInfo. ...

  14. Diabetes in Children and Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... teens was type 1. It was called juvenile diabetes. With Type 1 diabetes, the pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is ... TV, computer, and video Children and teens with type 1 diabetes may need to take insulin. Type 2 diabetes ...

  15. How to Treat Gestational Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Listen En Español How to Treat Gestational Diabetes Be sure to see the latest Diabetes Forecast ... and a healthy start for your baby. Gestational Diabetes – Looking Ahead Gestational diabetes usually goes away after ...

  16. A Narrative Review of Diabetes Intervention Studies to Explore Diabetes Care Opportunities for Pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Ayadurai, Shamala; Hattingh, H. Laetitia; Tee, Lisa B. G.; Md Said, Siti Norlina

    2016-01-01

    Background. We conducted a review of current diabetes intervention studies in type 2 diabetes and identified opportunities for pharmacists to deliver quality diabetes care. Methods. A search on randomised controlled trials (RCT) on diabetes management by healthcare professionals including pharmacists published between 2010 and 2015 was conducted. Results and Discussion. Diabetes management includes multifactorial intervention which includes seven factors as outlined in diabetes guidelines, namely, glycaemic, cholesterol and blood pressure control, medication, lifestyle, education, and cardiovascular risk factors. Most studies do not provide evidence that the intervention methods used included all seven factors with exception of three RCT which indicated HbA1c (glycated hemoglobin) reduction range of 0.5% to 1.8%. The varied HbA1C reduction suggests a lack of standardised and consistent approach to diabetes care. Furthermore, the duration of most studies was from one month to two years; therefore long term outcomes could not be established. Conclusion. Although pharmacists' contribution towards improving clinical outcomes of diabetes patients was well documented, the methods used to deliver structured, consistent evidence-based care were not clearly stipulated. Therefore, approaches to achieving long term continuity of care are uncertain. An intervention strategy that encompass all seven evidence-based factors will be useful. PMID:27247949

  17. Psychometric properties of the Thai version of the Diabetes Distress Scale in diabetic seniors

    PubMed Central

    Thanakwang, Kattika; Thinganjana, Wantana; Konggumnerd, Roumporn

    2014-01-01

    Background The Diabetes Distress Scale (DDS) is an important measure of diabetes-related emotional distress that has been widely used in the Western world. In Thailand, there is a lack of reliable and valid scales for assessing distress levels in diabetes patients, specifically in older adults. Objectives The main objectives of this study were to adapt the DDS for use in Thai diabetic elderly and to evaluate its psychometric properties. Methods The 17-item DDS was linguistically adapted using forward–backward translation and administered to 170 diabetic patients ≥60 years selected from diabetes outpatient clinics of four hospitals in Buriram, Thailand. Statistical analyses included exploratory factor analysis, internal consistency, convergent validity, and test–retest reliability. Results During factor analysis, a three-factor solution was found to be reasonable for the sub-dimensions of emotional and regimen-related burden (ten items), physician- and nurse-related distress (four items), and diabetes-related interpersonal distress (three items). The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the total score was 0.95 and varied between 0.85 and 0.96 in the three subscales. The results provided evidence that supports the convergent validity of the Thai version of the DDS as well as its stability. Conclusion The Thai version of the DDS has acceptable psychometric properties. It enables assessment of diabetes-specific distress in elderly patients and has the advantage of being easy to use in both clinical and research settings. PMID:25152617

  18. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 13)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 161 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1978 through June 1978. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  19. Beam induced backgrounds: CDF experience

    SciTech Connect

    Tesarek, R.J.; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    We summarize the experiences of the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment in the presence of backgrounds originating from the counter circulating beams in the Fermilab Tevatron. These backgrounds are measured and their sources identified. Finally, we outline the strategies employed to reduce the effects of these backgrounds on the experiment.

  20. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 07)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 158 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1975 through June 1975. Each entry in the Abstract Section consists of a citation, an abstract, and, in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. This issue of the Index Section contains entries for 2830 patent and application for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through June 1975. The index section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  1. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 09)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 200 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1976 through June 1976. Each entry in the Abstract Section consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. This issue of the Index Section contains entries for 2994 patent and application for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through June 1976. The Index Section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  2. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 08)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections; abstracts and indexes. The Abstract Section cites 180 patents and applications for patents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of July 1975 through December 1975. Each entry in the Abstract Section consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. The index Section contains entries for 2,905 patents and applications for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through December 1975. The Index Section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  3. Diabetes Device Interoperability for Improved Diabetes Management

    PubMed Central

    Silk, Alain D.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific and technological advancements have led to the increasing availability and use of sophisticated devices for diabetes management, with corresponding improvements in public health. These devices are often capable of sharing data with a few other specific devices but are generally not broadly interoperable; they cannot work together with a wide variety of other devices. As a result of limited interoperability, benefits of modern diabetes devices and potential for development of innovative new diabetes technologies are not being fully realized. Here we discuss diabetes device interoperability in general, then focus on 4 examples that show how diabetes management could benefit from enhanced interoperability: remote monitoring and data sharing, integrating data from multiple devices to better inform diabetes management strategies, device consolidation, and artificial pancreas development. PMID:26178738

  4. Diabetic mastopathy in type II diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Tsung, Jeffrey S H; Wang, Teh Y; Lin, Christopher K Z

    2005-01-01

    Diabetic mastopathy can mimic cancer. We report 2 cases of diabetic mastopathy in patients with long-standing type II diabetes. One was insulin-dependent, and the other had never been treated with insulin. These 2 patients had classical acoustical shadow on ultrasonograms. Breast core biopsies showed constellations of morphological features resembling diabetic mastopathy, including sclerotic changes of the fibrous stroma with keloid-like collagen fibers, few epithelioid fibroblasts, perivascular and interlobular mononuclear cell infiltrates, and focal atrophic changes of the ductal-lobular units. Both patients were free of malignancy at 3 and 4 years of follow-up, respectively. There are limited data on diabetic mastopathy in insulin-naive type II diabetes mellitus patients. Better awareness of this entity and its sonographic features may allow more patients to be spared from excisional biopsy. PMID:15660177

  5. An overview of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Paula

    2016-07-13

    Healthcare professionals in all settings increasingly encounter people with diabetes. Suboptimal control of diabetes may have harmful effects on multiple systems in the body and can result in life-changing and life-threatening complications. Therefore, it is crucial that all healthcare professionals have an understanding of diabetes. This article considers the increase in people developing diabetes worldwide. It defines type 1 and type 2 diabetes and discusses the associated pathophysiology and predisposing factors. The article outlines the basis for the development of the typical signs and symptoms associated with high blood glucose levels. Current guidelines for diagnosing a person with diabetes are considered. PMID:27406520

  6. Adult Education Dissertation Abstracts: 1968-1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, Stanley M., Ed.; Loague, Nehume, Ed.

    This bibliography contains citations, abstracts, and ordering information for 303 dissertations pertinent to the education or training of adults. Studies are classified by broad subject headings used in the ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Education. Each section of the classification is identified by a four-digit number, with a one-, two-, or…

  7. Carbon Monoxide, A Bibliography With Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Anna Grossman

    Included is a review of the carbon monoxide related literature published from 1880 to 1966. The 983 references with abstracts are grouped into these broad categories: Analysis, Biological Effects, Blood Chemistry, Control, Criteria and Standards, Instruments and Techniques, Sampling and Network Operations, and Sources. The Biological Effects group…

  8. Development of Abstract Grammatical Categorization in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyr, Marilyn; Shi, Rushen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined abstract syntactic categorization in infants, using the case of grammatical gender. Ninety-six French-learning 14-, 17-, 20-, and 30-month-olds completed the study. In a preferential looking procedure infants were tested on their generalized knowledge of grammatical gender involving pseudonouns and gender-marking determiners.…

  9. Abstracts of Research Papers 1977 AAHPER Convention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sage, George H., Ed.

    This volume of abstracts describes papers written on the following topics: (1) Strength Physiology; (2) Learning Disabilities (motor); (3) Physiology - General; (4) Work Capacity; (5) Measurement and Recreation; (6) Biomechanics; (7) Professional Preparation (physical education); (8) Muscle Performance; (9) Sociology of Sport; (10) History of…

  10. Spatial abstraction for autonomous robot navigation.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Susan L; Aroor, Anoop; Evanusa, Matthew; Sklar, Elizabeth I; Parsons, Simon

    2015-09-01

    Optimal navigation for a simulated robot relies on a detailed map and explicit path planning, an approach problematic for real-world robots that are subject to noise and error. This paper reports on autonomous robots that rely on local spatial perception, learning, and commonsense rationales instead. Despite realistic actuator error, learned spatial abstractions form a model that supports effective travel. PMID:26227680

  11. Natural radiation environment III. [Lead Abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Gesell, T.F.; Lowder, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 52 research papers presented at this symposium in April 1978. The major topics in this volume deal with penetrating radiation measurements, radiation surveys and population exposure, radioactivity in the indoor environment, and technologically enhanced natural radioactivity. (KRM)

  12. Hubble Exoplanet Pro/Am Collaboration (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, D. M.

    2016-06-01

    (Abstract only) A collaborative effort is being organized between a world-wide network of amateur astronomers and a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) science team. The purpose of this collaboration is to supplement an HST near-infrared spectroscopy survey of some 15 exoplanets with ground-based observations in the visible range.

  13. Mr. Birmingham and His New Star (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, J.

    2016-06-01

    (Abstract only) The year 2016 sees two anniversaries connected with the Irish astronomer John Birmingham (1816-1884): the 200th anniversary of his birth and the 150th anniversary of his discovery of the nova outburst in T Coronae Borealis.

  14. Hilson Adolescent Profile (HAP): Hilson Research Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilson Research Inc., Kew Gardens, NY.

    Abstracts and bibliographic citations are given for the following documents concerned with the use and characteristics of the Hilson Adolescent Profile (HAP): (1) "Use of the Hilson Adolescent Profile To Compare Juvenile Offenders with Junior and Senior High School Students" (R. E. Inwald and K. E. Brobst); (2) "The Effectiveness of Social Work in…

  15. Searching Social Work Abstracts: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelsohn, Henry N.

    1986-01-01

    A subject profile using 39 concepts central to the practice of social work was searched in Social Work Abstracts (SWAB), PsycINFO, ERIC, and Social SciSearch. Social work practice concepts and search strategy, search term results, journal titles searched, and source coverage and date of most recently indexed article are noted. (EJS)

  16. Heat pipe technology. A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography cites 55 publications on the theory, design, development, fabrication, and testing of heat pipes. Applications covered include solar, nuclear, and thermoelectric energy conversion. A book (in Russian) on low temperature heat pipes is included as well as abstracts when available. Indexes provided list authors, titles/keywords (permuted) and patents.

  17. Integrating model abstraction into monitoring strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed and performed to investigate the opportunities and benefits of integrating model abstraction techniques into monitoring strategies. The study focused on future applications of modeling to contingency planning and management of potential and actual contaminant release sites wi...

  18. Annual Report: Automatic Informative Abstracting and Extracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earl, L. L.; And Others

    The development of automatic indexing, abstracting, and extracting systems is investigated. Part I describes the development of tools for making syntactic and semantic distinctions of potential use in automatic indexing and extracting. One of these tools is a program for syntactic analysis (i.e., parsing) of English, the other is a dictionary of…

  19. Contextualising Numeracy: Abstract Tools at the Coalface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukin, Annabelle

    1998-01-01

    A social semiotic approach to math is necessary because of the increasing significance of abstract tools in the workplace. A case study from the coal mining industry illustrates the need to recognize mathematics as a socially constructed system and to contextualize math instruction. (SK)

  20. ANNUAL REPORT-AUTOMATIC INDEXING AND ABSTRACTING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Palo Alto, CA. Electronic Sciences Lab.

    THE INVESTIGATION IS CONCERNED WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMATIC INDEXING, ABSTRACTING, AND EXTRACTING SYSTEMS. BASIC INVESTIGATIONS IN ENGLISH MORPHOLOGY, PHONETICS, AND SYNTAX ARE PURSUED AS NECESSARY MEANS TO THIS END. IN THE FIRST SECTION THE THEORY AND DESIGN OF THE "SENTENCE DICTIONARY" EXPERIMENT IN AUTOMATIC EXTRACTION IS OUTLINED. SOME OF…

  1. Does Abstracting Threaten a Sustainable Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Lyle K.

    2012-01-01

    In abstraction, or conceptual behavior, people discriminate features or properties of their surroundings. This permits people to respond selectively and precisely to specialized features of their environment, which has had many benefits, including steady advances in science and technology. Within psychology, J. R. Kantor and B. F. Skinner…

  2. Static Abstractions and the Teaching of Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Robert J.

    The element of static abstractions (SAs)--any pseudoheuristic listing of derived nominals whose purpose is to define good structure in prose writing--is one of the important historical components of the current traditional rhetoric inherited from the nineteenth century. SAs, of which unity, coherence, and emphasis are the best known examples, have…

  3. Heat pipe technology: A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The annual supplement on heat pipe technology for 1971 is presented. The document contains 101 references with abstracts and 47 patents. The subjects discussed are: (1) heat pipe applications, (2) heat pipe theory, (3) design, development, and fabrication of heat pipes, (4) testing and operation, (5) subject and author index, and (6) heat pipe related patents.

  4. Conference Abstracts: Computers in Physics Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, William E.

    1989-01-01

    Provides selected abstracts from the Computers in Physics Instruction conference held on August 1-5, 1988. Topics include: wave and particle motion, the CT programing language, microcomputer-based laboratories, student written simulations, concept maps, summer institutes, computer bulletin boards, interactive video, and videodisks. (MVL)

  5. The Eggen Card Project (Poster abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvis, G.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) At the 2013 meeting we kicked off the Eggen Card project. This project was to make the huge collection of photometric observations made by Olin Eggen accessible to researchers. My poster this year is to report progress and encourage more members to participate.

  6. Coding the Eggen Cards (Poster abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvis, G.

    2014-06-01

    (Abstract only) A look at the Eggen Portal for accessing the Eggen cards. And a call for volunteers to help code the cards: 100,000 cards must be looked at and their star references identified and coded into the database for this to be a valuable resource.

  7. Abstract Schemas in Children's Chess Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horgan, Dianne; And Others

    The nature and development of semantic processing in chess was investigated in a study involving younger players from 6 through 18 years of age. Efforts were directed toward establishing the assertion that skilled players' memory for chess positions depends largely upon the availability of pre-stored schema (PSS) that are both abstract and…

  8. Situated Learning in an Abstract Algebra Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ticknor, Cindy S.

    2012-01-01

    Advisory committees of mathematics consider abstract algebra as an essential component of the mathematical preparation of secondary teachers, yet preservice teachers find it challenging to connect the topics addressed in this advanced course with the high school algebra they must someday teach. This study analyzed the mathematical content…

  9. Abstracts of Research. July 1974-June 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Computer and Information Science Research Center.

    Abstracts of research papers in computer and information science are given for 68 papers in the areas of information storage and retrieval; human information processing; information analysis; linguistic analysis; artificial intelligence; information processes in physical, biological, and social systems; mathematical techniques; systems…

  10. Using Group Explorer in Teaching Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Claus; Gfeller, Mary; Donohue, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the use of Group Explorer in an undergraduate mathematics course in abstract algebra. The visual nature of Group Explorer in representing concepts in group theory is an attractive incentive to use this software in the classroom. However, little is known about students' perceptions on this technology in learning concepts in…

  11. Reducing Abstraction When Learning Graph Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazzan, Orit; Hadar, Irit

    2005-01-01

    This article presents research on students' understanding of basic concepts in Graph Theory. Students' understanding is analyzed through the lens of the theoretical framework of reducing abstraction (Hazzan, 1999). As it turns out, in spite of the relative simplicity of the concepts that are introduced in the introductory part of a traditional…

  12. Searching Chemical Abstracts Online in Undergraduate Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumpolc, Miroslav; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of conducting online computer searches of "Chemical Abstracts." Introduces the logical sequences involved in searching an online database. Explains Boolean logic, proximity operators, truncation, searchable fields, and command language, as they relate to the use of online searches in undergraduate chemistry programs. (TW)

  13. Cool Cats: Feline Fun with Abstract Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2002-01-01

    Presents a lesson that teaches students about abstract art in a fun way. Explains that students draw cats, learn about the work of Pablo Picasso, and, in the style of Picasso, combine the parts of the cats (tail, legs, head, body) together in unconventional ways. (CMK)

  14. A Photographic Assignment for Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrington, Gregory S.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a simple photographic assignment appropriate for an abstract algebra (or other) course. Students take digital pictures around campus of various examples of symmetry. They then classify these pictures according to which of the 17 plane symmetry groups they belong. (Contains 2 figures.)

  15. Abstract Journals: A Survey of Patent Coverage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, Brenda M.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a survey of 33 British, French, German, and U.S. abstract journals that examined their coverage of patent specifications. The standards for the identification of patent documents developed by the World Intellectual Property Organization are discussed, and an appendix provides a listing of the patent coverage by the country of each…

  16. Simulation, Design Abstraction, and SystemC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harcourt, Ed

    2007-01-01

    SystemC is a system-level design and simulation language based on C++. We've been using SystemC for computer organization and design projects for the past several years. Because SystemC is embedded in C++ it contains the powerful abstraction mechanisms of C++ not found in traditional hardware description languages, such as support for…

  17. Abstracts of Energy Materials for College Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messenger, Roger A.; And Others

    This guide provides citations and abstracts for 250 energy-related resources which can be used to incorporate energy education into the structure of existing college courses. In addition to citing books, articles, unpublished papers, films, and videotapes, the resource guide cites sets of class notes and course outlines that have been filed with…

  18. C. M. Louttit and "Psychological Abstracts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littman, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    R. A. Littman indicates that L. T. Benjamin and G. R. VandenBos's history of Psychological Abstracts is a fine account of how the American Psychological Association has carried out its responsibility to provide access to psychological research and writing. Littman was pleased to see Mac Louttit's work as editor brought out, and he takes this…

  19. Abstracts, Third Space Processing Symposium, Skylab results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Skylab experiments results are reported in abstracts of papers presented at the Third Space Processing Symposium. Specific areas of interest include: exothermic brazing, metals melting, crystals, reinforced composites, glasses, eutectics; physics of the low-g processes; electrophoresis, heat flow, and convection demonstrations flown on Apollo missions; and apparatus for containerless processing, heating, cooling, and containing materials.

  20. The Child and the Abstract Expressionist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkes, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Explores the similarities between paintings of the abstract expressionists and those of young children. Similarities include total surface coverage, disregard for details, direct application of pigment, disregard for visual perspective, and use of the painting surface as a frontal plane. (CB)

  1. An Introduction to Chemical Abstracts, with Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Craig A.

    This workbook is the first in a series of three that has been integrated into the chemistry curriculum for majors at the University of Vermont. The workbook consists of exercises designed to provide undergraduate students with foundation skills in the use of professional literature and a familiarity with the printed "Chemical Abstracts." Each…

  2. Background issues for defensive interceptors

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1991-03-01

    Mean nuclear backgrounds are large, but are arguably amenable to frame-to-frame subtraction. Striated backgrounds on the sensors for defensive interceptors could, however, cause clutter leak-through, which could make detection and track difficult. Nominal motions and backgrounds give signal to clutter ratios too low to be useful. Clutter leakage due to line-of-sight drift can be reduced by stabilizing the line of sight around the background clutter itself. Current interceptors have detector arrays large enough for operation independent of nuclear backgrounds in their fields of view. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Enhanced susceptibility to infections in a diabetic wound healing model

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Tobias; Spielmann, Malte; Zuhaili, Baraa; Koehler, Till; Fossum, Magdalena; Steinau, Hans-Ulrich; Yao, Feng; Steinstraesser, Lars; Onderdonk, Andrew B; Eriksson, Elof

    2008-01-01

    Background Wound infection is a common complication in diabetic patients. The progressive spread of infections and development of drug-resistant strains underline the need for further insights into bacterial behavior in the host in order to develop new therapeutic strategies. The aim of our study was to develop a large animal model suitable for monitoring the development and effect of bacterial infections in diabetic wounds. Methods Fourteen excisional wounds were created on the dorsum of diabetic and non-diabetic Yorkshire pigs and sealed with polyurethane chambers. Wounds were either inoculated with 2 × 108 Colony-Forming Units (CFU) of Staphylococcus aureus or injected with 0.9% sterile saline. Blood glucose was monitored daily, and wound fluid was collected for bacterial quantification and measurement of glucose concentration. Tissue biopsies for microbiological and histological analysis were performed at days 4, 8, and 12. Wounds were assessed for reepithelialization and wound contraction. Results Diabetic wounds showed a sustained significant infection (>105 CFU/g tissue) compared to non-diabetic wounds (p < 0.05) over the whole time course of the experiment. S. aureus-inoculated diabetic wounds showed tissue infection with up to 8 × 107 CFU/g wound tissue. Non-diabetic wounds showed high bacterial counts at day 4 followed by a decrease and no apparent infection at day 12. Epidermal healing in S. aureus-inoculated diabetic wounds showed a significant delay compared with non-inoculated diabetic wounds (59% versus 84%; p < 0.05) and were highly significant compared with healing in non-diabetic wounds (97%; p < 0.001). Conclusion Diabetic wounds developed significantly more sustained infection than non-diabetic wounds. S. aureus inoculation leads to invasive infection and significant wound healing delay and promotes invasive co-infection with endogenous bacteria. This novel wound healing model provides the opportunity to closely assess infections during

  4. Unbreak My Heart: Targeting Mitochondrial Autophagy in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kubli, Dieter A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Diabetes is strongly associated with increased incidence of heart disease and mortality due to development of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Even in the absence of cardiovascular disease, cardiomyopathy frequently arises in diabetic patients. Current treatment options for cardiomyopathy in diabetic patients are the same as for nondiabetic patients and do not address the causes underlying the loss of contractility. Recent Advances: Although there are numerous distinctions between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, recent evidence suggests that the two disease states converge on mitochondria as an epicenter for cardiomyocyte damage. Critical Issues: Accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria contributes to cardiac tissue injury in both acute and chronic conditions. Removal of damaged mitochondria by macroautophagy, termed “mitophagy,” is critical for maintaining cardiomyocyte health and contractility both under normal conditions and during stress. However, very little is known about the involvement of mitophagy in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. A growing interest in this topic has given rise to a wave of publications that aim at deciphering the status of autophagy and mitophagy in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Future Directions: This review summarizes these recent studies with the goal of drawing conclusions about the activation or suppression of autophagy and mitophagy in the diabetic heart. A better understanding of how autophagy and mitophagy are affected in the diabetic myocardium is still needed, as well as whether they can be targeted therapeutically. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 1527–1544. PMID:25808102

  5. Preventive effect of taurine on experimental type II diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It has been verified that taurine has some preventive effects on diabetes and its complications when used alone or together with other drugs, but there are few reports about taurine on the prevention of diabetic nephropathy, the mechanisms of which are still unknown. Methods Taurine was administered to type Ⅱ diabetic rats induced by high fat high sugar diet combined with STZ injection. The preventive effect of taurine on diabetic nephropathy was investigated by detecting blood glucose, lipid metabolism, kidney function and glomerular basement membrane metabolism. Results Taurine could lower blood glucose, TG, TC, BUN, Scr, NAG, U-PRO, the expression of laminin B1( LBN1) mRNA, and increase HDL-C of diabetic rats. Conclusions The results indicated that taurine could prevent the occurrence and development of diabetic nephropathy by decreasing blood glucose, improving lipid metabolism, glomerular basement membrane metabolism, and kidney function. PMID:20804623

  6. Body mass index and health status in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals

    PubMed Central

    Jerant, A; Bertakis, K D; Franks, P

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: There is controversy regarding the existence of a body mass index (BMI) mortality paradox in diabetes, whereby the optimal BMI category is higher than it is in non-diabetic persons. To explore possible pathways to a mortality paradox, we examined the relationship of BMI with physical and mental health status in diabetic and non-diabetic persons. Subjects/Methods: We examined adjusted SF-12 Physical and Mental Component Summary (PCS-12 and MCS-12) scores by BMI (kg m−2) category (underweight, <20; normal weight, 20 to <25; overweight, 25 to <30; obese, 30 to <35; severely obese ⩾35) in adult diabetic and non-diabetic respondents to the 2000–2011 United States national Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys (N=119 161). Adjustors were age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, health insurance, education, smoking, comorbidity, urbanicity, geographic region and survey year. Results: In non-diabetic persons the adjusted mean PCS-12 score was highest (that is, most optimal) in the normal-weight category, whereas for diabetic persons the optimal adjusted mean PCS-12 score was in the overweight category (adjusted difference between non-diabetic and diabetic persons in the difference in PCS-12 means for overweight versus normal-weight category=0.8 points, 95% confidence interval; CI 0.1, 1.6; P=0.03). This paradoxical pattern was not evident for the MCS-12, and the adjusted difference between non-diabetic and diabetic persons in the difference in MCS-12 means for overweight versus obese persons was not significant (−0.3 points, 95% CI −0.9, 0.4; P=0.43). The findings were not significantly moderated by smoking status, cancer diagnosis or time period. Conclusions: The optimal BMI category for physical health status (but not mental health status) was higher among diabetic than non-diabetic persons. The findings are consistent with a BMI physical health status paradox in diabetes and, in turn, a mortality paradox. PMID:25915741

  7. Gender Differences in Periodontal Status and Oral Hygiene of Non-Diabetic and Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Antina; Busse, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study investigated gender dependent differences by the comparison of periodontal status and oral hygiene between diabetic patients and non-diabetic subjects. Methods: 517 mostly obese subjects (171 non-diabetic, 205 type 2 diabetic with oral and 141 with insulin therapy; mean: 59 years) completed an oral hygiene questionnaire and had a clinical examination, including periodontal screening and recording (PSR), percentage of bleeding teeth (PBT), probing pocket depth (PD), gingivitis index (GI), and number of teeth (Tn). Main parameters were “periodontitis” and “oral hygiene behaviour”, each defined by 5 sub-parameters. For a comparison of all results, each sub-parameter was set 0.2. The “low performance index“ (LoP) was the sum of significantly worse sub-parameters in the compared groups (maximum of low performing = 1.0). Results: Gender comparison: In non-diabetic and diabetic patients with oral medication, males performed worse (LoP: periodontitis 0.6 - 0.8; oral hygiene 0.4 - 0.6). The male insulin group performed worse oral hygiene (LoP: 0.4) than females with insulin therapy, whereas the periodontal status showed no difference. Diabetic and non-diabetic groups: Females: Diabetic groups performed worse than non-diabetics (LoP: periodontitis 0.2 - 1.0; oral hygiene 0.4). Insulin patients had worse periodontal status and showed no difference in oral hygiene when compared to diabetic patients with oral medication (LoP: 0.2). Males: Diabetic group with oral medication had worse periodontal status than non-diabetics (LoP: 0.6). Conclusions: The periodontal status was mainly due to oral hygiene behaviour, which was worse in men. Apparently behaviour and not diabetes is the major determinant of periodontitis. Men apparently need much more advise than women. PMID:27347232

  8. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 29)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 115 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1986 through June 1986. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent application.

  9. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 30)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 105 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1986 through December 1986. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  10. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 20)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 165 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1981 through December 1981. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  11. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 37)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 76 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period January 1990 through June 1990. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  12. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 38)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 132 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1990 through December 1990. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  13. Choosing a Database for Social Work: A Comparison of Social Work Abstracts and Social Service Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flatley, Robert K.; Lilla, Rick; Widner, Jack

    2007-01-01

    This study compared Social Work Abstracts and Social Services Abstracts databases in terms of indexing, journal coverage, and searches. The authors interviewed editors, analyzed journal coverage, and compared searches. It was determined that the databases complement one another more than compete. The authors conclude with some considerations.

  14. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 28)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 109 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during the period July 1985 through December 1985. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  15. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 16)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 138 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1979 through December 1979. Each entry cib consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  16. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 14)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 213 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of July 1978 through December 1978. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  17. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 19)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 130 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1981 through July 1981. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  18. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 18)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 120 patents and patent applications for patents introduced into the NASA scientific system during the period of July 1980 through December 1980. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  19. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 17)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 150 patents and applications for patents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1980 through June 1980. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  20. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 15)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 240 patents and applications for patents introduced into the NASA scientific system during the period of January 1979 through June 1979. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  1. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 33)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 16 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period January 1988 through June 1988. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  2. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 25)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 102 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1984 through June 1984. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  3. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 35)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 58 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period January 1989 through June 1989. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  4. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 24)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 167 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1983 through December 1983. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  5. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 34)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 124 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period July 1988 through December 1988. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  6. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 39)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 154 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period Jan. 1991 through Jun. 1991. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  7. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 42)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 174 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1992 through December 1992. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  8. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 36)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 63 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period July 1989 through December 1989. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  9. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 26)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 172 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1984 through December 1984. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  10. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 45)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 137 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period Jan. 1994 through Jun. 1994. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  11. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 32)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 136 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July through December 1987. Each entry consists of a citation , an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  12. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 43)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 128 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period Jan. 1993 through Jun. 1993. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  13. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 27)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 92 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1985 through June 1985. Each entry consist of a citation, and abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  14. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 44)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 131 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period Jun. 1993 through Dec. 1993. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  15. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 31)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 85 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1987 through June 1987. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  16. NASA Patent Abstracts Bibliography: A Continuing Bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (Supplement 48)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 85 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1995 through December 1995. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  17. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 40)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 181 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1991 through December 1991. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  18. NASA patent abstracts bibliography. A continuing bibliography (supplement 22). Section 1: Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 234 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1982 through December 1982. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  19. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 41)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 131 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period Jan. 1992 through Jun. 1992. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  20. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 23)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 129 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1983 through June 1983. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  1. [Diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Díaz, Iván

    2016-09-01

    Worldwide, the cases of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2) has doubled in the last two decades. In the same period, obesity rates have triplicated, mainly because of the increase in the caloric intake and physical inactivity. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 6 billion people consume cow´s milk and dairy products. By far, this amount exceeds the number o patients suffering from DM2. The increased consumption of highly caloric beverages including whole cow´s milk has incited several countries to publish recommendations on and encourage the intake of low fat milk and non-fat or reduced fat dairy products intake. Because of the multifactorial basis of DM2 and the controversial evidence regarding the relationship between cow's milk consumption and DM2 development, it is difficult to establish an optimal amount of milk per day for a good health, with no side effects. It is necessary to inform the general population on the nutritional value and health benefits of cow's milk. PMID:27603888

  2. Abstraction of Drift-Scale Coupled Processes

    SciTech Connect

    N.D. Francis; D. Sassani

    2000-03-31

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) describes an abstraction, for the performance assessment total system model, of the near-field host rock water chemistry and gas-phase composition. It also provides an abstracted process model analysis of potentially important differences in the thermal hydrologic (TH) variables used to describe the performance of a geologic repository obtained from models that include fully coupled reactive transport with thermal hydrology and those that include thermal hydrology alone. Specifically, the motivation of the process-level model comparison between fully coupled thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC) and thermal-hydrologic-only (TH-only) is to provide the necessary justification as to why the in-drift thermodynamic environment and the near-field host rock percolation flux, the essential TH variables used to describe the performance of a geologic repository, can be obtained using a TH-only model and applied directly into a TSPA abstraction without recourse to a fully coupled reactive transport model. Abstraction as used in the context of this AMR refers to an extraction of essential data or information from the process-level model. The abstraction analysis reproduces and bounds the results of the underlying detailed process-level model. The primary purpose of this AMR is to abstract the results of the fully-coupled, THC model (CRWMS M&O 2000a) for effects on water and gas-phase composition adjacent to the drift wall (in the near-field host rock). It is assumed that drift wall fracture water and gas compositions may enter the emplacement drift before, during, and after the heating period. The heating period includes both the preclosure, in which the repository drifts are ventilated, and the postclosure periods, with backfill and drip shield emplacement at the time of repository closure. Although the preclosure period (50 years) is included in the process models, the postclosure performance assessment starts at the end of this initial period

  3. Data-Mining Technologies for Diabetes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Marinov, Miroslav; Mosa, Abu Saleh Mohammad; Yoo, Illhoi; Boren, Suzanne Austin

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of applications of data-mining techniques in the field of diabetes research. Method We searched the MEDLINE database through PubMed. We initially identified 31 articles by the search, and selected 17 articles representing various data-mining methods used for diabetes research. Our main interest was to identify research goals, diabetes types, data sets, data-mining methods, data-mining software and technologies, and outcomes. Results The applications of data-mining techniques in the selected articles were useful for extracting valuable knowledge and generating new hypothesis for further scientific research/experimentation and improving health care for diabetes patients. The results could be used for both scientific research and real-life practice to improve the quality of health care diabetes patients. Conclusions Data mining has played an important role in diabetes research. Data mining would be a valuable asset for diabetes researchers because it can unearth hidden knowledge from a huge amount of diabetes-related data. We believe that data mining can significantly help diabetes research and ultimately improve the quality of health care for diabetes patients. PMID:22226277

  4. Diabetic Kidney Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... too high. Over time, this can damage your kidneys. Your kidneys clean your blood. If they are damaged, waste ... in your blood instead of leaving your body. Kidney damage from diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy. It ...

  5. Diabetes Health Concerns

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor  What you need to know about diabetic retinopathy From Medline Plus  Interactive tutorial on eye disease, diabetes, retinopathy prevention and treatment Foot Problems From the CDC  Take ...

  6. Adrenomedullin and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Hoi Kin; Tang, Fai; Cheung, Tsang Tommy; Cheung, Bernard Man Yung

    2014-01-01

    Adrenomedullin (ADM) is a peptide hormone widely expressed in different tissues, especially in the vasculature. Apart from its vasodilatatory and hypotensive effect, it plays multiple roles in the regulation of hormonal secretion, glucose metabolism and inflammatory response. ADM regulates insulin balance and may participate in the development of diabetes. The plasma level of ADM is increased in people with diabetes, while in healthy individuals the plasma ADM concentration remains low. Plasma ADM levels are further increased in patients with diabetic complications. In type 1 diabetes, plasma ADM level is correlated with renal failure and retinopathy, while in type 2 diabetes its level is linked with a wider range of complications. The elevation of ADM level in diabetes may be due to hyperinsulinemia, oxidative stress and endothelial injury. At the same time, a rise in plasma ADM level can trigger the onset of diabetes. Strategies to reduce ADM level should be explored so as to reduce diabetic complications. PMID:24936257

  7. Diabetic Eye Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... this can damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It is a leading cause ... surgery, with follow-up care. Two other eye problems can happen to people with diabetes. A cataract ...

  8. Adrenomedullin and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wong, Hoi Kin; Tang, Fai; Cheung, Tsang Tommy; Cheung, Bernard Man Yung

    2014-06-15

    Adrenomedullin (ADM) is a peptide hormone widely expressed in different tissues, especially in the vasculature. Apart from its vasodilatatory and hypotensive effect, it plays multiple roles in the regulation of hormonal secretion, glucose metabolism and inflammatory response. ADM regulates insulin balance and may participate in the development of diabetes. The plasma level of ADM is increased in people with diabetes, while in healthy individuals the plasma ADM concentration remains low. Plasma ADM levels are further increased in patients with diabetic complications. In type 1 diabetes, plasma ADM level is correlated with renal failure and retinopathy, while in type 2 diabetes its level is linked with a wider range of complications. The elevation of ADM level in diabetes may be due to hyperinsulinemia, oxidative stress and endothelial injury. At the same time, a rise in plasma ADM level can trigger the onset of diabetes. Strategies to reduce ADM level should be explored so as to reduce diabetic complications. PMID:24936257

  9. Diabetes in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, M

    2005-01-01

    African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of type 2 diabetes. Culturally sensitive strategies, structured disease management protocols, and the assistance of nurses, diabetic educators, and other health care professionals are effective in improving the outcome of diabetes in the African American community. PMID:16344294

  10. Diabetes Type 1

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 1 diabetes, your pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin ... eyes, kidneys, nerves, and gums and teeth. Type 1 diabetes happens most often in children and young ...

  11. Know Your Diabetes ABCs

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Boykin has diabetes. She has suffered from heart disease and required bypass surgery because she was unaware of the link between diabetes and heart disease. Judith Fradkin, M.D.: What most people don' ...

  12. Diabetes and Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Diabetes and Dietary Supplements: In Depth Share: On This ... health product or practice. Are dietary supplements for diabetes safe? Some dietary supplements may have side effects, ...

  13. Causes of Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... rise, leading to prediabetes or diabetes. Abnormal Glucose Production by the Liver In some people with diabetes, an abnormal increase in glucose production by the liver also contributes to high blood ...

  14. Diabetes and bone health.

    PubMed

    Antonopoulou, Marianna; Bahtiyar, Gül; Banerji, Mary Ann; Sacerdote, Alan S

    2013-11-01

    The increasing prevalence of diabetes especially type 2 diabetes worldwide is indisputable. Diabetics suffer increased morbidity and mortality, compared to their non-diabetic counterparts, not only because of vascular complications, but also because of an increased fracture incidence. Both types 1 and 2 diabetes and some medications used to treat it are associated with osteoporotic fractures. The responsible mechanisms remain incompletely elucidated. In this review, we evaluate the role of glycemic control in bone health, and the effect of anti-diabetic medications such as thiazolidinediones, sulfonylureas, DPP-4 inhibitors, and GLP-1 agonists. In addition, we examine the possible role of insulin and metformin as anabolic agents for bone. Lastly, we identify the current and future screening tools that help evaluate bone health in diabetics and their limitations. In this way we can offer individualized treatment, to the at-risk diabetic population. PMID:23628280

  15. Teen Diabetes Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Teens with diabetes can eat sugar, sweets, and desserts. True False Carbs that have a lot of ... fruits and vegetables Sweetened fruit drinks Sweets and desserts If you have diabetes, you should: Get 60 ...

  16. Hyperglycemia and Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... your child's age. Causes of High Blood Sugar Levels A major goal in controlling diabetes is to ... be unusually tired. Checking for High Blood Sugar Levels As part of the diabetes management plan, you' ...

  17. Tight Diabetes Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Tight Diabetes Control Keeping your blood glucose levels as close ... and syringes, than before. What About Type 2 Diabetes? The DCCT studied only people with type 1 ...

  18. Space Electrochemical Research and Technology. Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This document contains abstracts of the proceedings of NASA's fifth Space Electrochemical Research and Technology (SERT) Conference, held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on May 1-3, 1995. The objective of the conference was to assess the present status and general thrust of research and development in those areas of electrochemical technology required to enable NASA missions into the next century. The conference provided a forum for the exchange of ideas and opinions of those actively involved in the field, in order to define new opportunities for the application of electrochemical processes in future NASA missions. Papers were presented in three technical areas: (1) the electrochemical interface, (2) the next generation in aerospace batteries and fuel cells, and (3) electrochemistry for non-energy storage applications. This document contains the abstracts of the papers presented.

  19. Subwog 12-D tritium technology meeting. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1991-12-31

    The first Subwog 12-D Tritium Technology Meeting was held at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site during the week of May 21, 1990. Subwog 12-D was created as a subwog of JOWOG 12 to address the need to understand tritium applications throughout the entire weapons complex. This includes weapons related concerns, but is primarily intended to cover tritium production and handling, environmental, safety and health issues, compatibility with materials in general; and facility design, commissioning and decommissioning activities. Tritium technology issues discussed included the physical and chemical properties, kinetics, storage, reservoir loading techniques, isotope exchange, radiolysis/aging, process and handling technology, compatibility, purification and filtering, analysis, monitoring methods, function testing, packaging and shipping, environmental and operational safety, facility design and safety, glovebox atmosphere clean-up systems, glovebox/facility decommissioning, tritium production target materials, and tritium recovery. This document provides a collection of most of the unclassified extended abstracts and abstracts presented at Subwog 12-D.

  20. Automatic identification of abstract online groups

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, David W; Gregory, Michelle L; Bell, Eric B; Cowell, Andrew J; Piatt, Andrew W

    2014-04-15

    Online abstract groups, in which members aren't explicitly connected, can be automatically identified by computer-implemented methods. The methods involve harvesting records from social media and extracting content-based and structure-based features from each record. Each record includes a social-media posting and is associated with one or more entities. Each feature is stored on a data storage device and includes a computer-readable representation of an attribute of one or more records. The methods further involve grouping records into record groups according to the features of each record. Further still the methods involve calculating an n-dimensional surface representing each record group and defining an outlier as a record having feature-based distances measured from every n-dimensional surface that exceed a threshold value. Each of the n-dimensional surfaces is described by a footprint that characterizes the respective record group as an online abstract group.