Science.gov

Sample records for abstract background epidemiological

  1. Background and Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Don B.; Fink, Aliza

    2016-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common autosomal recessive disease in Caucasians. Significant advances in therapies and outcomes have occurred for people with CF over the past 30 years. Many of these improvements have come about through the concerted efforts of the US CF Foundation and international CF societies, networks of CF care centers, and the worldwide community of care providers, researchers, and patients and families. Despite these gains, there are still hurdles to overcome to continue to improve the quality of life, reduce CF complications, prolong survival, and ultimately cure CF. This article reviews the epidemiology of CF, including trends in incidence and prevalence, clinical characteristics, common complications, and survival. PMID:27469176

  2. Reappraising Abstract Paintings after Exposure to Background Information

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seongmin A.; Yun, Kyongsik; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2015-01-01

    Can knowledge help viewers when they appreciate an artwork? Experts’ judgments of the aesthetic value of a painting often differ from the estimates of naïve viewers, and this phenomenon is especially pronounced in the aesthetic judgment of abstract paintings. We compared the changes in aesthetic judgments of naïve viewers while they were progressively exposed to five pieces of background information. The participants were asked to report their aesthetic judgments of a given painting after each piece of information was presented. We found that commentaries by the artist and a critic significantly increased the subjective aesthetic ratings. Does knowledge enable experts to attend to the visual features in a painting and to link it to the evaluative conventions, thus potentially causing different aesthetic judgments? To investigate whether a specific pattern of attention is essential for the knowledge-based appreciation, we tracked the eye movements of subjects while viewing a painting with a commentary by the artist and with a commentary by a critic. We observed that critics’ commentaries directed the viewers’ attention to the visual components that were highly relevant to the presented commentary. However, attention to specific features of a painting was not necessary for increasing the subjective aesthetic judgment when the artists’ commentary was presented. Our results suggest that at least two different cognitive mechanisms may be involved in knowledge- guided aesthetic judgments while viewers reappraise a painting. PMID:25945789

  3. Modelling difficulties in abstract thinking in psychosis: the importance of socio-developmental background.

    PubMed

    Berg, A O; Melle, I; Zuber, V; Simonsen, C; Nerhus, M; Ueland, T; Andreassen, O A; Sundet, K; Vaskinn, A

    2017-01-01

    Abstract thinking is important in modern understanding of neurocognitive abilities, and a symptom of thought disorder in psychosis. In patients with psychosis, we assessed if socio-developmental background influences abstract thinking, and the association with executive functioning and clinical psychosis symptoms. Participants (n = 174) had a diagnosis of psychotic or bipolar disorder, were 17-65 years, intelligence quotient (IQ) > 70, fluent in a Scandinavian language, and their full primary education in Norway. Immigrants (N = 58) were matched (1:2) with participants without a history of migration (N = 116). All participants completed a neurocognitive and clinical assessment. Socio-developmental background was operationalised as human developmental index (HDI) of country of birth, at year of birth. Structural equation modelling was used to assess the model with best fit. The model with best fit, χ 2  = 96.591, df = 33, p < .001, confirmed a significant indirect effect of HDI scores on abstract thinking through executive functioning, but not through clinical psychosis symptoms. This study found that socio-developmental background influences abstract thinking in psychosis by indirect effect through executive functioning. We should take into account socio-developmental background in the interpretation of neurocognitive performance in patients with psychosis, and prioritise cognitive remediation in treatment of immigrant patients.

  4. The ZInEP Epidemiology Survey: background, design and methods.

    PubMed

    Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Müller, Mario; Rodgers, Stephanie; Warnke, Inge; Hengartner, Michael P; Landolt, Karin; Hagenmuller, Florence; Meier, Magali; Tse, Lee-Ting; Aleksandrowicz, Aleksandra; Passardi, Marco; Knöpfli, Daniel; Schönfelder, Herdis; Eisele, Jochen; Rüsch, Nicolas; Haker, Helene; Kawohl, Wolfram; Rössler, Wulf

    2014-12-01

    This article introduces the design, sampling, field procedures and instruments used in the ZInEP Epidemiology Survey. This survey is one of six ZInEP projects (Zürcher Impulsprogramm zur nachhaltigen Entwicklung der Psychiatrie, i.e. the "Zurich Program for Sustainable Development of Mental Health Services"). It parallels the longitudinal Zurich Study with a sample comparable in age and gender, and with similar methodology, including identical instruments. Thus, it is aimed at assessing the change of prevalence rates of common mental disorders and the use of professional help and psychiatric sevices. Moreover, the current survey widens the spectrum of topics by including sociopsychiatric questionnaires on stigma, stress related biological measures such as load and cortisol levels, electroencephalographic (EEG) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) examinations with various paradigms, and sociophysiological tests. The structure of the ZInEP Epidemiology Survey entails four subprojects: a short telephone screening using the SCL-27 (n of nearly 10,000), a comprehensive face-to-face interview based on the SPIKE (Structured Psychopathological Interview and Rating of the Social Consequences for Epidemiology: the main instrument of the Zurich Study) with a stratified sample (n = 1500), tests in the Center for Neurophysiology and Sociophysiology (n = 227), and a prospective study with up to three follow-up interviews and further measures (n = 157). In sum, the four subprojects of the ZInEP Epidemiology Survey deliver a large interdisciplinary database. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Biomarkers: background, classification and guidelines for applications in nutritional epidemiology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One of the main problems in nutritional epidemiology is to assess food intake as well as nutrient/food component intake to a high level of validity and reliability. To help in this process, the need to have good biomarkers that more objectively allow us to evaluate the diet consumed in a more standa...

  6. Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Biology Teacher, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 63 papers to be presented at the 1976 Convention of the National Association of Biology Teachers, October 14-17, 1976, Denver, Colorado. Papers cover a wide range of biology and science education topics with the majority concentrating upon the convention's main program, "Ecosystems: 1776-1976-?". (SL)

  7. [Identification and sampling of people with migration background for epidemiological studies in Germany].

    PubMed

    Reiss, K; Makarova, N; Spallek, J; Zeeb, H; Razum, O

    2013-06-01

    In 2009, 19.6% of the population of Germany either had migrated themselves or were the offspring of people with migration experience. Migrants differ from the autochthonous German population in terms of health status, health awareness and health behaviour. To further investigate the health situation of migrants in Germany, epidemiological studies are needed. Such studies can employ existing databases which provide detailed information on migration status. Otherwise, onomastic or toponomastic procedures can be applied to identify people with migration background. If migrants have to be recruited into an epidemiological study, this can be done register-based (e. g., data from registration offices or telephone lists), based on residential location (random-route or random-walk procedure), via snowball sampling (e. g., through key persons) or via settings (e. g., school entry examination). An oversampling of people with migration background is not sufficient to avoid systematic bias in the sample due to non-participation. Additional measures have to be taken to increase access and raise participation rates. Personal contacting, multilingual instruments, multilingual interviewers and extensive public relations increase access and willingness to participate. Empirical evidence on 'successful' recruitment strategies for studies with migrants is still lacking in epidemiology and health sciences in Germany. The choice of the recruitment strategy as well as the measures to raise accessibility and willingness to participate depend on the available resources, the research question and the specific migrant target group. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. International Conference on Aerosols and Background Pollution Abstracts Held in Galway, Ireland on 13-15 June 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-15

    Andes near Santiago de Chile extinction coefficients have been determined at elevations above 3000 meters. Values betwee 0.018 km and 0.15 km have been...McGovern 1515 North Atlantic Aerosol Background concentrations measured at a Hebridean coastal site N.H. Smith, P.M. Park and I.E. Consterdine 1530...ocean V. Dreiling, R. Maser and L. Schutz 1615 Measurements of aerosol concentration and distribution at Helgoland Island P. Brand, J. Gebhart, M. Below

  9. Publication Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD. Center for the Study of Social Organization of Schools.

    This booklet contains abstracts of 62 documents published by the Johns Hopkins University Center for the Study of Social Organization of Schools from September 1967 to May 1970. The majority of the documents are research studies in the areas of desegregation, language development, educational opportunity, and educational games--most of them…

  10. Abstract Constructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietropola, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Describes a lesson designed to culminate a year of eighth-grade art classes in which students explore elements of design and space by creating 3-D abstract constructions. Outlines the process of using foam board and markers to create various shapes and optical effects. (DSK)

  11. Air Force Health Study. An Epidemiologic Investigation of Health Effects in Air Force Personnel Following Exposure to Herbicides. Introduction, Background and Conclusions (Chapters 1-5, 18, 19)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    SAIC Editors: Cynthia A. Marut Ellsabeth M. Smoda SCIENCE APPLICATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY RESEARCH DIVISION INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION ARMSTRONG LABORATORY...8400 Westpark Drive HUMAN SYSTEMS DIVISION (AFSC) McLean, VA 22102 Brooks Air Force Base, TX 78235 in con/unction WithS~DTIC SCRIPPS CLINIC & RESEARCH ...FOUNDATION, LET LA JOLLA. CA ELECTEJ•UL 011991, NATIONAL OPINION RESEARCH CENTER. CHICAGO. IL Marchl 1tO1 Introduction. Backgroend and Conclusions

  12. Feasibility of Epidemiologic Research on Nonauditory Health Effects of Residential Aircraft Noise Exposure. Volume 2. Background, General Process Model and Potential Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-27

    Epidemiologic Study in 120 Oklahoma City 5.4 Chronic Exposure to Sonic Booms 122 5.4.1 White Sands Missile Range 122 5.4.2 Areas Overflown by SR-71 123...5.5 Chronic Exposure to Subsonic Civil Aircraft Noise 123 5.5.1 Design of an Ecologic Study in Airport Environs 124 Iv 5.5.2 Preliminary Evaluation of...dosage-effect relationships for different groups of individuals, one must be able to argue convincingly that a noise measure reflects some aspect of

  13. Making medical decisions in dependence of genetic background: estimation of the utility of DNA testing in clinical, pharmaco-epidemiological or genetic studies.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thuy Trang; Schäfer, Helmut; Timmesfeld, Nina

    2013-05-01

    An index measuring the utility of testing a DNA marker before deciding between two alternative treatments is proposed which can be estimated from pharmaco-epidemiological case-control or cohort studies. In the case-control design, external estimates of the prevalence of the disease and of the frequency of the genetic risk variant are required for estimating the utility index. Formulas for point and interval estimates are derived. Empirical coverage probabilities of the confidence intervals were estimated under different scenarios of disease prevalence, prevalence of drug use, and population frequency of the genetic variant. To illustrate our method, we re-analyse pharmaco-epidemiological case-control data on oral contraceptive intake and venous thrombosis in carriers and non-carriers of the factor V Leiden mutation. We also re-analyse cross-sectional data from the Framingham study on a gene-diet interaction between an APOA2 polymorphism and high saturated fat intake on obesity. We conclude that the utility index may be helpful to evaluate and appraise the potential clinical and public health relevance of gene-environment interaction effects detected in genomic and candidate gene association studies and may be a valuable decision support for designing prospective studies on the clinical utility. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Algerian Abstract

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Algerian Abstract - April 8th, 1985 Description: What look like pale yellow paint streaks slashing through a mosaic of mottled colors are ridges of wind-blown sand that make up Erg Iguidi, an area of ever-shifting sand dunes extending from Algeria into Mauritania in northwestern Africa. Erg Iguidi is one of several Saharan ergs, or sand seas, where individual dunes often surpass 500 meters-nearly a third of a mile-in both width and height. Credit: USGS/NASA/Landsat 5 To learn more about the Landsat satellite go to: landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/ NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  15. Abstracts Produced Using Computer Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craven, Timothy C.

    2000-01-01

    Describes an experiment that evaluated features of TEXNET abstracting software, compared the use of keywords and phrases that were automatically extracted, tested hypotheses about relations between abstractors' backgrounds and their reactions to abstracting assistance software, and obtained ideas for further features to be developed in TEXNET.…

  16. Case Study of the Minimum Provable Risk Considering the Variation in Background Risk: Effect of Residual Risk on Epidemiological Studies and a Comparative Assessment of Fatal Disease Risk Due to Radiation Exposure.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Michiya; Ogino, Haruyuki; Hattori, Takatoshi

    2018-06-08

    In order to prove a small increment in a risk of concern in an epidemiological study, a large sample of a population is generally required. Since the background risk of an end point of interest, such as cancer mortality, is affected by various factors, such as lifestyle (diet, smoking, etc.), adjustment for such factors is necessary. However, it is impossible to inclusively and completely adjust for such factors; therefore, uncertainty in the background risk remains for control and exposed populations, indicating that there is a minimum limit to the lower bound for the provable risk regardless of the sample size. In this case study, we developed and discussed the minimum provable risk considering the uncertainty in background risk for hypothetical populations by referring to recent Japanese statistical information to grasp the extent of the minimum provable risk. Risk of fatal diseases due to radiation exposure, which has recently been the focus of radiological protection, was also examined by comparative assessment of the minimum provable risk for cancer and circulatory diseases. It was estimated that the minimum provable risk for circulatory disease mortality was much greater than that for cancer mortality, approximately five to seven times larger; circulatory disease mortality is more difficult to prove as a radiation risk than cancer mortality under the conditions used in this case study.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  17. Abstraction in perceptual symbol systems.

    PubMed Central

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2003-01-01

    After reviewing six senses of abstraction, this article focuses on abstractions that take the form of summary representations. Three central properties of these abstractions are established: ( i ) type-token interpretation; (ii) structured representation; and (iii) dynamic realization. Traditional theories of representation handle interpretation and structure well but are not sufficiently dynamical. Conversely, connectionist theories are exquisitely dynamic but have problems with structure. Perceptual symbol systems offer an approach that implements all three properties naturally. Within this framework, a loose collection of property and relation simulators develops to represent abstractions. Type-token interpretation results from binding a property simulator to a region of a perceived or simulated category member. Structured representation results from binding a configuration of property and relation simulators to multiple regions in an integrated manner. Dynamic realization results from applying different subsets of property and relation simulators to category members on different occasions. From this standpoint, there are no permanent or complete abstractions of a category in memory. Instead, abstraction is the skill to construct temporary online interpretations of a category's members. Although an infinite number of abstractions are possible, attractors develop for habitual approaches to interpretation. This approach provides new ways of thinking about abstraction phenomena in categorization, inference, background knowledge and learning. PMID:12903648

  18. Circular epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Kuller, L H

    1999-11-01

    Circular epidemiology can be defined as the continuation of specific types of epidemiologic studies beyond the point of reasonable doubt of the true existence of an important association or the absence of such an association. Circular epidemiology is an extreme example of studies of the consistency of associations. A basic problem for epidemiology is the lack of a systematic approach to acquiring new knowledge to reach a goal of improving public health and preventive medicine. For epidemiologists, research support unfortunately is biased toward the continued study of already proven hypotheses. Circular epidemiology, however, freezes at one point in the evolution of epidemiologic studies, failing to move from descriptive to analytical case-control and longitudinal studies, for example, to experimental, clinical trials. Good epidemiology journals are filled with very well-conducted epidemiologic studies that primarily repeat the obvious or are variations on the theme.

  19. ABSTRACTS OF RESEARCH REPORTS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    DENTISTRY, ABSTRACTS), TEETH, DISEASES, MOUTH, TRANSPLANTATION, HYGIENE, STERILIZATION, FLUORIDES, HISTOLOGY, SURGICAL IMPLANTATION, OXYTETRACYCLINE , GELATINS, CELLULOSE, CASTING, PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION, TRAINING DEVICES

  20. Abstracting Concepts and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borko, Harold; Bernier, Charles L.

    This text provides a complete discussion of abstracts--their history, production, organization, publication--and of indexing. Instructions for abstracting are outlined, and standards and criteria for abstracting are stated. Management, automation, and personnel are discussed in terms of possible economies that can be derived from the introduction…

  1. Abstraction and Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John; Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih

    2006-01-01

    The framework for this paper is a recently developed theory of abstraction in context. The paper reports on data collected from one student working on tasks concerned with absolute value functions. It examines the relationship between mathematical constructions and abstractions. It argues that an abstraction is a consolidated construction that can…

  2. 2018 Congress Poster Abstracts

    PubMed

    2018-02-21

    Each abstract has been indexed according to the first author. Abstracts appear as they were submitted and have not undergone editing or the Oncology Nursing Forum’s review process. Only abstracts that will be presented appear here. Poster numbers are subject to change. For updated poster numbers, visit congress.ons.org or check the Congress guide. Data published in abstracts presented at the ONS 43rd Annual Congress are embargoed until the conclusion of the presentation. Coverage and/or distribution of an abstract, poster, or any of its supplemental material to or by the news media, any commercial entity, or individuals, including the authors of said abstract, is strictly prohibited until the embargo is lifted. Promotion of general topics and speakers is encouraged within these guidelines.

  3. Research Abstracts of 1982.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    Third Molars in Naval Personnel,- (Abstract #1430) 7. A. SEROWSKI* and F. AKER --"The Effect of Marine and Fresh-Water Atmospheric Environments on...Packaged Dental Instrument4’, (Abstract #1133) 8. I. L. SHKLAIR*, R. W. GAUGLER, R. G. WALTER -.The Effect of Three Surfactants on Controlling Caries...Insoluble Streptococcal Glucan"’. e (Abstract #102) - _/_ / 10. R. G. WALTER* and I. L. SHKLAIR - The Effect of T-10 Dextran on Caries and Plaque in

  4. Paper Abstract Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Abstraction is, in effect, a simplification and reduction of shapes with an absence of detail designed to comprise the essence of the more naturalistic images being depicted. Without even intending to, young children consistently create interesting, and sometimes beautiful, abstract compositions. A child's creations, moreover, will always seem to…

  5. Designing for Mathematical Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Dave; Noss, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Our focus is on the design of systems (pedagogical, technical, social) that encourage mathematical abstraction, a process we refer to as "designing for abstraction." In this paper, we draw on detailed design experiments from our research on children's understanding about chance and distribution to re-present this work as a case study in designing…

  6. Concept Formation and Abstraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunzer, Eric A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of concepts and conceptual processes and the manner of their formation. It argues that a process of successive abstraction and systematization is central to the evolution of conceptual structures. Classificatory processes are discussed and three levels of abstraction outlined. (Author/SJL)

  7. Is It Really Abstract?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2011-01-01

    For this author, one of the most enjoyable aspects of teaching elementary art is the willingness of students to embrace the different styles of art introduced to them. In this article, she describes a project that allows upper-elementary students to learn about abstract art and the lives of some of the master abstract artists, implement the idea…

  8. Data Abstraction in GLISP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Gordon S., Jr.

    GLISP is a high-level computer language (based on Lisp and including Lisp as a sublanguage) which is compiled into Lisp. GLISP programs are compiled relative to a knowledge base of object descriptions, a form of abstract datatypes. A primary goal of the use of abstract datatypes in GLISP is to allow program code to be written in terms of objects,…

  9. Check Sample Abstracts.

    PubMed

    Alter, David; Grenache, David G; Bosler, David S; Karcher, Raymond E; Nichols, James; Rajadhyaksha, Aparna; Camelo-Piragua, Sandra; Rauch, Carol; Huddleston, Brent J; Frank, Elizabeth L; Sluss, Patrick M; Lewandrowski, Kent; Eichhorn, John H; Hall, Janet E; Rahman, Saud S; McPherson, Richard A; Kiechle, Frederick L; Hammett-Stabler, Catherine; Pierce, Kristin A; Kloehn, Erica A; Thomas, Patricia A; Walts, Ann E; Madan, Rashna; Schlesinger, Kathie; Nawgiri, Ranjana; Bhutani, Manoop; Kanber, Yonca; Abati, Andrea; Atkins, Kristen A; Farrar, Robert; Gopez, Evelyn Valencerina; Jhala, Darshana; Griffin, Sonya; Jhala, Khushboo; Jhala, Nirag; Bentz, Joel S; Emerson, Lyska; Chadwick, Barbara E; Barroeta, Julieta E; Baloch, Zubair W; Collins, Brian T; Middleton, Owen L; Davis, Gregory G; Haden-Pinneri, Kathryn; Chu, Albert Y; Keylock, Joren B; Ramoso, Robert; Thoene, Cynthia A; Stewart, Donna; Pierce, Arand; Barry, Michelle; Aljinovic, Nika; Gardner, David L; Barry, Michelle; Shields, Lisa B E; Arnold, Jack; Stewart, Donna; Martin, Erica L; Rakow, Rex J; Paddock, Christopher; Zaki, Sherif R; Prahlow, Joseph A; Stewart, Donna; Shields, Lisa B E; Rolf, Cristin M; Falzon, Andrew L; Hudacki, Rachel; Mazzella, Fermina M; Bethel, Melissa; Zarrin-Khameh, Neda; Gresik, M Vicky; Gill, Ryan; Karlon, William; Etzell, Joan; Deftos, Michael; Karlon, William J; Etzell, Joan E; Wang, Endi; Lu, Chuanyi M; Manion, Elizabeth; Rosenthal, Nancy; Wang, Endi; Lu, Chuanyi M; Tang, Patrick; Petric, Martin; Schade, Andrew E; Hall, Geraldine S; Oethinger, Margret; Hall, Geraldine; Picton, Avis R; Hoang, Linda; Imperial, Miguel Ranoa; Kibsey, Pamela; Waites, Ken; Duffy, Lynn; Hall, Geraldine S; Salangsang, Jo-Anne M; Bravo, Lulette Tricia C; Oethinger, Margaret D; Veras, Emanuela; Silva, Elvia; Vicens, Jimena; Silva, Elvio; Keylock, Joren; Hempel, James; Rushing, Elizabeth; Posligua, Lorena E; Deavers, Michael T; Nash, Jason W; Basturk, Olca; Perle, Mary Ann; Greco, Alba; Lee, Peng; Maru, Dipen; Weydert, Jamie Allen; Stevens, Todd M; Brownlee, Noel A; Kemper, April E; Williams, H James; Oliverio, Brock J; Al-Agha, Osama M; Eskue, Kyle L; Newlands, Shawn D; Eltorky, Mahmoud A; Puri, Puja K; Royer, Michael C; Rush, Walter L; Tavora, Fabio; Galvin, Jeffrey R; Franks, Teri J; Carter, James Elliot; Kahn, Andrea Graciela; Lozada Muñoz, Luis R; Houghton, Dan; Land, Kevin J; Nester, Theresa; Gildea, Jacob; Lefkowitz, Jerry; Lacount, Rachel A; Thompson, Hannis W; Refaai, Majed A; Quillen, Karen; Lopez, Ana Ortega; Goldfinger, Dennis; Muram, Talia; Thompson, Hannis

    2009-02-01

    The following abstracts are compiled from Check Sample exercises published in 2008. These peer-reviewed case studies assist laboratory professionals with continuing medical education and are developed in the areas of clinical chemistry, cytopathology, forensic pathology, hematology, microbiology, surgical pathology, and transfusion medicine. Abstracts for all exercises published in the program will appear annually in AJCP.

  10. Energy Research Abstracts. [DOE abstract journal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) provides abstracting and indexing coverage of all scientific and technical reports, journal articles, conference papers and proceedings, books, patents, theses, and monographs originated by the US Department of Energy, its laboratories, energy centers, and contractors. ERA also covers other energy information prepared in report form by federal and state government organizations, foreign governments, and domestic and foreign universities and research organizations. ERA coverage of non-report literature is limited to that generated by Department of Energy activity. ERA is comprehensive in its subject scope, encompassing the DOE's research, development, demonstration, and technological programs resulting from its broadmore » charter for energy sources, conservation, safety, environmental impacts, and regulation. Corporate, author, subject, report number, and contract number indexes are included. ERA is available on an exchange basis to universities, research intitutions, industrial firms, and publishers of scientific information. Federal, state, and municipal agencies concerned with energy development, conservation, and usage may obtain ERA free of charge. Inquiries should be directed to the Technical Information Center, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830. ERA is available to the public on a subscription basis for 24 semimonthly issues including a semiannual index and an annual index. All citations announced in ERA exist as separate records in the DOE Energy Data Base.« less

  11. [Systems epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Huang, T; Li, L M

    2018-05-10

    The era of medical big data, translational medicine and precision medicine brings new opportunities for the study of etiology of chronic complex diseases. How to implement evidence-based medicine, translational medicine and precision medicine are the challenges we are facing. Systems epidemiology, a new field of epidemiology, combines medical big data with system biology and examines the statistical model of disease risk, the future risk simulation and prediction using the data at molecular, cellular, population, social and ecological levels. Due to the diversity and complexity of big data sources, the development of study design and analytic methods of systems epidemiology face new challenges and opportunities. This paper summarizes the theoretical basis, concept, objectives, significances, research design and analytic methods of systems epidemiology and its application in the field of public health.

  12. Abstract Datatypes in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan

    1997-01-01

    PVS (Prototype Verification System) is a general-purpose environment for developing specifications and proofs. This document deals primarily with the abstract datatype mechanism in PVS which generates theories containing axioms and definitions for a class of recursive datatypes. The concepts underlying the abstract datatype mechanism are illustrated using ordered binary trees as an example. Binary trees are described by a PVS abstract datatype that is parametric in its value type. The type of ordered binary trees is then presented as a subtype of binary trees where the ordering relation is also taken as a parameter. We define the operations of inserting an element into, and searching for an element in an ordered binary tree; the bulk of the report is devoted to PVS proofs of some useful properties of these operations. These proofs illustrate various approaches to proving properties of abstract datatype operations. They also describe the built-in capabilities of the PVS proof checker for simplifying abstract datatype expressions.

  13. Clarifying the abstracts of systematic literature reviews*

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, James

    2000-01-01

    Background: There is a small body of research on improving the clarity of abstracts in general that is relevant to improving the clarity of abstracts of systematic reviews. Objectives: To summarize this earlier research and indicate its implications for writing the abstracts of systematic reviews. Method: Literature review with commentary on three main features affecting the clarity of abstracts: their language, structure, and typographical presentation. Conclusions: The abstracts of systematic reviews should be easier to read than the abstracts of medical research articles, as they are targeted at a wider audience. The aims, methods, results, and conclusions of systematic reviews need to be presented in a consistent way to help search and retrieval. The typographic detailing of the abstracts (type-sizes, spacing, and weights) should be planned to help, rather than confuse, the reader. PMID:11055300

  14. Abstract Interpreters for Free

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Might, Matthew

    In small-step abstract interpretations, the concrete and abstract semantics bear an uncanny resemblance. In this work, we present an analysis-design methodology that both explains and exploits that resemblance. Specifically, we present a two-step method to convert a small-step concrete semantics into a family of sound, computable abstract interpretations. The first step re-factors the concrete state-space to eliminate recursive structure; this refactoring of the state-space simultaneously determines a store-passing-style transformation on the underlying concrete semantics. The second step uses inference rules to generate an abstract state-space and a Galois connection simultaneously. The Galois connection allows the calculation of the "optimal" abstract interpretation. The two-step process is unambiguous, but nondeterministic: at each step, analysis designers face choices. Some of these choices ultimately influence properties such as flow-, field- and context-sensitivity. Thus, under the method, we can give the emergence of these properties a graph-theoretic characterization. To illustrate the method, we systematically abstract the continuation-passing style lambda calculus to arrive at two distinct families of analyses. The first is the well-known k-CFA family of analyses. The second consists of novel "environment-centric" abstract interpretations, none of which appear in the literature on static analysis of higher-order programs.

  15. Automatic Abstraction in Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, abstraction in planning has been accomplished by either state abstraction or operator abstraction, neither of which has been fully automatic. We present a new method, predicate relaxation, for automatically performing state abstraction. PABLO, a nonlinear hierarchical planner, implements predicate relaxation. Theoretical, as well as empirical results are presented which demonstrate the potential advantages of using predicate relaxation in planning. We also present a new definition of hierarchical operators that allows us to guarantee a limited form of completeness. This new definition is shown to be, in some ways, more flexible than previous definitions of hierarchical operators. Finally, a Classical Truth Criterion is presented that is proven to be sound and complete for a planning formalism that is general enough to include most classical planning formalisms that are based on the STRIPS assumption.

  16. Conference Abstracts: AEDS '82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts from nine selected papers presented at the 1982 Association for Educational Data Systems (AEDS) conference are provided. Copies of conference proceedings may be obtained for fifteen dollars from the Association. (MP)

  17. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Includes abstracts of special interest group (SIG) sessions. Highlights include digital imagery; text summarization; browsing; digital libraries; icons and the Web; information management; curricula planning; interfaces; information systems; theories; scholarly and scientific communication; global development; archives; document delivery;…

  18. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents abstracts of SIG Sessions. Highlights include digital collections; information retrieval methods; public interest/fair use; classification and indexing; electronic publication; funding; globalization; information technology projects; interface design; networking in developing countries; metadata; multilingual databases; networked…

  19. Abstracts of contributed papers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  20. Metacognition and abstract reasoning.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Thompson, Valerie A; Brisson, Janie

    2015-05-01

    The nature of people's meta-representations of deductive reasoning is critical to understanding how people control their own reasoning processes. We conducted two studies to examine whether people have a metacognitive representation of abstract validity and whether familiarity alone acts as a separate metacognitive cue. In Study 1, participants were asked to make a series of (1) abstract conditional inferences, (2) concrete conditional inferences with premises having many potential alternative antecedents and thus specifically conducive to the production of responses consistent with conditional logic, or (3) concrete problems with premises having relatively few potential alternative antecedents. Participants gave confidence ratings after each inference. Results show that confidence ratings were positively correlated with logical performance on abstract problems and concrete problems with many potential alternatives, but not with concrete problems with content less conducive to normative responses. Confidence ratings were higher with few alternatives than for abstract content. Study 2 used a generation of contrary-to-fact alternatives task to improve levels of abstract logical performance. The resulting increase in logical performance was mirrored by increases in mean confidence ratings. Results provide evidence for a metacognitive representation based on logical validity, and show that familiarity acts as a separate metacognitive cue.

  1. Thyra Abstract Interface Package

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, Roscoe A.

    2005-09-01

    Thrya primarily defines a set of abstract C++ class interfaces needed for the development of abstract numerical atgorithms (ANAs) such as iterative linear solvers, transient solvers all the way up to optimization. At the foundation of these interfaces are abstract C++ classes for vectors, vector spaces, linear operators and multi-vectors. Also included in the Thyra package is C++ code for creating concrete vector, vector space, linear operator, and multi-vector subclasses as well as other utilities to aid in the development of ANAs. Currently, very general and efficient concrete subclass implementations exist for serial and SPMD in-core vectors and multi-vectors. Codemore » also currently exists for testing objects and providing composite objects such as product vectors.« less

  2. Abstracting and indexing guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; ,

    1974-01-01

    These instructions have been prepared for those who abstract and index scientific and technical documents for the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC). With the recent publication growth in all fields, information centers have undertaken the task of keeping the various scientific communities aware of current and past developments. An abstract with carefully selected index terms offers the user of WRSIC services a more rapid means for deciding whether a document is pertinent to his needs and professional interests, thus saving him the time necessary to scan the complete work. These means also provide WRSIC with a document representation or surrogate which is more easily stored and manipulated to produce various services. Authors are asked to accept the responsibility for preparing abstracts of their own papers to facilitate quick evaluation, announcement, and dissemination to the scientific community.

  3. Epidemiological causality.

    PubMed

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological methods, which combine population thinking and group comparisons, can primarily identify causes of disease in populations. There is therefore a tension between our intuitive notion of a cause, which we want to be deterministic and invariant at the individual level, and the epidemiological notion of causes, which are invariant only at the population level. Epidemiologists have given heretofore a pragmatic solution to this tension. Causal inference in epidemiology consists in checking the logical coherence of a causality statement and determining whether what has been found grossly contradicts what we think we already know: how strong is the association? Is there a dose-response relationship? Does the cause precede the effect? Is the effect biologically plausible? Etc. This approach to causal inference can be traced back to the English philosophers David Hume and John Stuart Mill. On the other hand, the mode of establishing causality, devised by Jakob Henle and Robert Koch, which has been fruitful in bacteriology, requires that in every instance the effect invariably follows the cause (e.g., inoculation of Koch bacillus and tuberculosis). This is incompatible with epidemiological causality which has to deal with probabilistic effects (e.g., smoking and lung cancer), and is therefore invariant only for the population.

  4. Parent Education: Abstract Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremer, Barbara, Comp.

    This bibliography has been compiled to alert educators to parent education documents found in the ERIC microfiche collection and in journal literature. Abstracts of selected documents have been taken from "Research in Education (RIE)", and journal article citations from the "Current Index to Journals in Education (CIJE)". Included are published…

  5. Making the Abstract Concrete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2005-01-01

    President Ronald Reagan nominated a woman to serve on the United States Supreme Court. He did so through a single-page form letter, completed in part by hand and in part by typewriter, announcing Sandra Day O'Connor as his nominee. While the document serves as evidence of a historic event, it is also a tangible illustration of abstract concepts…

  6. Send Me No Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Steven

    1985-01-01

    Discusses Magazine Index's practice of assigning letter grades (sometimes inaccurate) to book, restaurant, and movie reviews, thus allowing patrons to get the point of the review from the index rather than the article itself, and argues that this situation is indicative of the larger problem of reliability of abstracts. (MBR)

  7. Children and Computers Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenberg, Dianne, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Abstracts of reports of eight research studies on computer uses in children's education are presented. Topics covered include (1) LOGO computer language; (2) computer graphics for art instruction; (3) animation; (4) problem solving; (5) children's use of symbols; (6) an evaluation of a Chapter 1 program involving children's computer use; (7) peer…

  8. Abstract Film and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grice, Malcolm

    A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…

  9. Abstraction through Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avraamidou, Antri; Monaghan, John; Walker, Aisha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the computer game play of an 11-year-old boy. In the course of building a virtual house he developed and used, without assistance, an artefact and an accompanying strategy to ensure that his house was symmetric. We argue that the creation and use of this artefact-strategy is a mathematical abstraction. The discussion…

  10. Composing Interfering Abstract Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    Tecnologia , Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica, Portugal. This document is a companion technical report of the paper, “Composing Interfering Abstract...a Ciência e Tecnologia (Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) through the Carnegie Mellon Portugal Program under grant SFRH / BD / 33765

  11. Abstraction and art.

    PubMed Central

    Gortais, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    In a given social context, artistic creation comprises a set of processes, which relate to the activity of the artist and the activity of the spectator. Through these processes we see and understand that the world is vaster than it is said to be. Artistic processes are mediated experiences that open up the world. A successful work of art expresses a reality beyond actual reality: it suggests an unknown world using the means and the signs of the known world. Artistic practices incorporate the means of creation developed by science and technology and change forms as they change. Artists and the public follow different processes of abstraction at different levels, in the definition of the means of creation, of representation and of perception of a work of art. This paper examines how the processes of abstraction are used within the framework of the visual arts and abstract painting, which appeared during a period of growing importance for the processes of abstraction in science and technology, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The development of digital platforms and new man-machine interfaces allow multimedia creations. This is performed under the constraint of phases of multidisciplinary conceptualization using generic representation languages, which tend to abolish traditional frontiers between the arts: visual arts, drama, dance and music. PMID:12903659

  12. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineering Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presents the abstracts of 158 papers presented at the American Society for Engineering Education's annual conference at Knoxville, Tennessee, June 14-17, 1976. Included are engineering topics covering education, aerospace, agriculture, biomedicine, chemistry, computers, electricity, acoustics, environment, mechanics, and women. (SL)

  13. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…

  14. Conference Abstracts: AEDS '84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, William E.

    1985-01-01

    The Association of Educational Data Systems (AEDS) conference included 102 presentations. Abstracts of seven of these presentations are provided. Topic areas considered include LOGO, teaching probability through a computer game, writing effective computer assisted instructional materials, computer literacy, research on instructional…

  15. Leadership Abstracts, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This document includes 10 issues of Leadership Abstracts (volume 6, 1993), a newsletter published by the League for Innovation in the Community College (California). The featured articles are: (1) "Reinventing Government" by David T. Osborne; (2) "Community College Workforce Training Programs: Expanding the Mission to Meet Critical Needs" by…

  16. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Includes abstracts of 18 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Highlights include natural language processing, information science and terminology science, classification, knowledge-intensive information systems, information value and ownership issues, economics and theories of information science, information retrieval interfaces, fuzzy thinking…

  17. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 34 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Highlights include humanities scholars and electronic texts; information retrieval and indexing systems design; automated indexing; domain analysis; query expansion in document retrieval systems; thesauri; business intelligence; Americans with Disabilities Act; management;…

  18. Poster Session- Extended Abstracts

    Treesearch

    Jack D. Alexander III; Jean Findley; Brenda K. Kury; Jan L. Beyers; Douglas S. Cram; Terrell T. Baker; Jon C. Boren; Carl Edminster; Sue A. Ferguson; Steven McKay; David Nagel; Trent Piepho; Miriam Rorig; Casey Anderson; Jeanne Hoadley; Paulette L. Ford; Mark C. Andersen; Ed L. Fredrickson; Joe Truett; Gary W. Roemer; Brenda K. Kury; Jennifer Vollmer; Christine L. May; Danny C. Lee; James P. Menakis; Robert E. Keane; Zhi-Liang Zhu; Carol Miller; Brett Davis; Katharine Gray; Ken Mix; William P. Kuvlesky Jr.; D. Lynn Drawe; Marcia G. Narog; Roger D. Ottmar; Robert E. Vihnanek; Clinton S. Wright; Timothy E. Paysen; Burton K. Pendleton; Rosemary L. Pendleton; Carleton S. White; John Rogan; Doug Stow; Janet Franklin; Jennifer Miller; Lisa Levien; Chris Fischer; Emma Underwood; Robert Klinger; Peggy Moore; Clinton S. Wright

    2008-01-01

    Titles found within Poster Session-Extended Abstracts include:Assessment of emergency fire rehabilitation of four fires from the 2000 fire season on the Vale, Oregon, BLM district: review of the density sampling materials and methods: p. 329 Growth of regreen, seeded for erosion control, in the...

  19. Reasoning abstractly about resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, B.; Barrett, A.

    2001-01-01

    r describes a way to schedule high level activities before distributing them across multiple rovers in order to coordinate the resultant use of shared resources regardless of how each rover decides how to perform its activities. We present an algorithm for summarizing the metric resource requirements of an abstract activity based n the resource usages of its potential refinements.

  20. Abstraction and art.

    PubMed

    Gortais, Bernard

    2003-07-29

    In a given social context, artistic creation comprises a set of processes, which relate to the activity of the artist and the activity of the spectator. Through these processes we see and understand that the world is vaster than it is said to be. Artistic processes are mediated experiences that open up the world. A successful work of art expresses a reality beyond actual reality: it suggests an unknown world using the means and the signs of the known world. Artistic practices incorporate the means of creation developed by science and technology and change forms as they change. Artists and the public follow different processes of abstraction at different levels, in the definition of the means of creation, of representation and of perception of a work of art. This paper examines how the processes of abstraction are used within the framework of the visual arts and abstract painting, which appeared during a period of growing importance for the processes of abstraction in science and technology, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The development of digital platforms and new man-machine interfaces allow multimedia creations. This is performed under the constraint of phases of multidisciplinary conceptualization using generic representation languages, which tend to abolish traditional frontiers between the arts: visual arts, drama, dance and music.

  1. Leadership Abstracts, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This is volume 14 of Leadership Abstracts, a newsletter published by the League for Innovation (California). Issue 1 of February 2001, "Developmental Education: A Policy Primer," discusses developmental programs in the community college. According to the article, community college trustees and presidents would serve their constituents well by…

  2. Generalized Abstract Symbolic Summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Person, Suzette; Dwyer, Matthew B.

    2009-01-01

    Current techniques for validating and verifying program changes often consider the entire program, even for small changes, leading to enormous V&V costs over a program s lifetime. This is due, in large part, to the use of syntactic program techniques which are necessarily imprecise. Building on recent advances in symbolic execution of heap manipulating programs, in this paper, we develop techniques for performing abstract semantic differencing of program behaviors that offer the potential for improved precision.

  3. Research Abstracts of 1981.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    Development in Initally Caries-Free Naval Recruits" (Abstract #898) , 13. M. R. WIRTHLIN* and E. B. HANCOCK - " Regeneration After Biologic Treat- ment of...These variables can be grouped into four categories: oral condition (N-7), clinical attendance (N=4), personal characteristics (N=4), and record...Histologic examination of the pulp tissue in these teeth were related to the clinical criteria prior to extraction. Clinical criteria associated

  4. Abstract shapes of RNA.

    PubMed

    Giegerich, Robert; Voss, Björn; Rehmsmeier, Marc

    2004-01-01

    The function of a non-protein-coding RNA is often determined by its structure. Since experimental determination of RNA structure is time-consuming and expensive, its computational prediction is of great interest, and efficient solutions based on thermodynamic parameters are known. Frequently, however, the predicted minimum free energy structures are not the native ones, leading to the necessity of generating suboptimal solutions. While this can be accomplished by a number of programs, the user is often confronted with large outputs of similar structures, although he or she is interested in structures with more fundamental differences, or, in other words, with different abstract shapes. Here, we formalize the concept of abstract shapes and introduce their efficient computation. Each shape of an RNA molecule comprises a class of similar structures and has a representative structure of minimal free energy within the class. Shape analysis is implemented in the program RNAshapes. We applied RNAshapes to the prediction of optimal and suboptimal abstract shapes of several RNAs. For a given energy range, the number of shapes is considerably smaller than the number of structures, and in all cases, the native structures were among the top shape representatives. This demonstrates that the researcher can quickly focus on the structures of interest, without processing up to thousands of near-optimal solutions. We complement this study with a large-scale analysis of the growth behaviour of structure and shape spaces. RNAshapes is available for download and as an online version on the Bielefeld Bioinformatics Server.

  5. Triangulation in aetiological epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Lawlor, Debbie A; Tilling, Kate; Davey Smith, George

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Triangulation is the practice of obtaining more reliable answers to research questions through integrating results from several different approaches, where each approach has different key sources of potential bias that are unrelated to each other. With respect to causal questions in aetiological epidemiology, if the results of different approaches all point to the same conclusion, this strengthens confidence in the finding. This is particularly the case when the key sources of bias of some of the approaches would predict that findings would point in opposite directions if they were due to such biases. Where there are inconsistencies, understanding the key sources of bias of each approach can help to identify what further research is required to address the causal question. The aim of this paper is to illustrate how triangulation might be used to improve causal inference in aetiological epidemiology. We propose a minimum set of criteria for use in triangulation in aetiological epidemiology, summarize the key sources of bias of several approaches and describe how these might be integrated within a triangulation framework. We emphasize the importance of being explicit about the expected direction of bias within each approach, whenever this is possible, and seeking to identify approaches that would be expected to bias the true causal effect in different directions. We also note the importance, when comparing results, of taking account of differences in the duration and timing of exposures. We provide three examples to illustrate these points. PMID:28108528

  6. Research Abstracts of 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    ABSTRACTS OF 1980. 9 - DTIC ELECTEf ii S AN3O 1981j _NAVAL DISTRIBUTION SMT:MIT DENTAL RESEARCH Approved for PUbDiC T INSTITE iii~2 YA3 It81 Naval...Medical Research apd Development Command 30 £ Bethesda, Maryland ( *- i - NTIS - GRA&I DTIC TAB - Urrannouneed NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE...r1 w American Assoctat/ion for Dental Research, 58th Annual Session, Los Angeles, California, March 20-23, 1980. 1. AV6ERSON*, D. N., LANGELAND, K

  7. Research Abstracts of 1979.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    7 AD-AO82 309 NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INST GREAT LAKES IL F/6 6/9 RESCH ABTAT79 991 UNCLASSIFIED NORI-PR-79-11 NL ’NDRI-PR 79-11 December 1979...RESEARCH ABSTRACTS OF 1979 OTICSELZCreD MAR 2?718 S A NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE Naval Medical Research and Development Command Bethesda, Maryland...8G 3 23 O4ൌ p.,. ... ....-- - I -- - ’.... .I l l ---,, .. . = ., , ." .;’.- I 1 IV NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE NAVAL BASE, BLDG. I-H GREAT LAKES

  8. Global epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Elliott, P

    1993-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health and disease in human populations. Epidemiology on a global scale is severely constrained by the lack of data. In many countries, there are no comprehensive data on mortality or basic demographic data. Where data are available, findings on the relationship of environment to health across countries need to be interpreted with caution. For example, there is well-known variation in standards of medical practice and diagnosis, and in certification and coding, but there are also large differences in diet, the social environment and lifestyle--all of which strongly predict disease incidence. Inappropriate inference concerning aetiology made from such broad-scale studies may result in what has been termed the 'ecological fallacy'. A complementary approach is to collect and analyse data in standardized fashion as part of international collaborative studies. These can offer some important advantages over the more conventional single-centre design. Recent advances have meant that studies of environment and health can now--in some countries--be carried out using routine data at the small area level. Although problems of interpretation remain, they are generally less severe than in broad-scale studies. Examples of this approach are given.

  9. Exoplanets and Multiverses (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, V.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) To the ancients, the Earth was the Universe, of a size to be crossed by a god in a day, by boat or chariot, and by humans in a lifetime. Thus an exoplanet would have been a multiverse. The ideas gradually separated over centuries, with gradual acceptance of a sun-centered solar system, the stars as suns likely to have their own planets, other galaxies beyond the Milky Way, and so forth. And whenever the community divided between "just one' of anything versus "many," the "manies" have won. Discoveries beginning in 1991 and 1995 have gradually led to a battalion or two of planets orbiting other stars, very few like our own little family, and to moderately serious consideration of even larger numbers of other universes, again very few like our own. I'm betting, however, on habitable (though not necessarily inhabited) exoplanets to be found, and habitable (though again not necessarily inhabited) universes. Only the former will yield pretty pictures.

  10. Stellar Presentations (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The AAVSO is in the process of expanding its education, outreach and speakers bureau program. powerpoint presentations prepared for specific target audiences such as AAVSO members, educators, students, the general public, and Science Olympiad teams, coaches, event supervisors, and state directors will be available online for members to use. The presentations range from specific and general content relating to stellar evolution and variable stars to specific activities for a workshop environment. A presentation—even with a general topic—that works for high school students will not work for educators, Science Olympiad teams, or the general public. Each audience is unique and requires a different approach. The current environment necessitates presentations that are captivating for a younger generation that is embedded in a highly visual and sound-bite world of social media, twitter and U-Tube, and mobile devices. For educators, presentations and workshops for themselves and their students must support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the Common Core Content Standards, and the Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) initiative. Current best practices for developing relevant and engaging powerpoint presentations to deliver information to a variety of targeted audiences will be presented along with several examples.

  11. Attracting Girls into Physics (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadalla, Afaf

    2009-04-01

    A recent international study of women in physics showed that enrollment in physics and science is declining for both males and females and that women are severely underrepresented in careers requiring a strong physics background. The gender gap begins early in the pipeline, from the first grade. Girls are treated differently than boys at home and in society in ways that often hinder their chances for success. They have fewer freedoms, are discouraged from accessing resources or being adventurous, have far less exposure to problem solving, and are not encouraged to choose their lives. In order to motivate more girl students to study physics in the Assiut governorate of Egypt, the Assiut Alliance for the Women and Assiut Education District collaborated in renovating the education of physics in middle and secondary school classrooms. A program that helps in increasing the number of girls in science and physics has been designed in which informal groupings are organized at middle and secondary schools to involve girls in the training and experiences needed to attract and encourage girls to learn physics. During implementation of the program at some schools, girls, because they had not been trained in problem-solving as boys, appeared not to be as facile in abstracting the ideas of physics, and that was the primary reason for girls dropping out of science and physics. This could be overcome by holding a topical physics and technology summer school under the supervision of the Assiut Alliance for the Women.

  12. Advance Organizers: Concret Versus Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkill, Alice J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Two experiments examined the relative effects of concrete and abstract advance organizers on students' memory for subsequent prose. Results of the experiments are discussed in terms of the memorability, familiarity, and visualizability of concrete and abstract verbal materials. (JD)

  13. Generative electronic background music system

    SciTech Connect

    Mazurowski, Lukasz

    In this short paper-extended abstract the new approach to generation of electronic background music has been presented. The Generative Electronic Background Music System (GEBMS) has been located between other related approaches within the musical algorithm positioning framework proposed by Woller et al. The music composition process is performed by a number of mini-models parameterized by further described properties. The mini-models generate fragments of musical patterns used in output composition. Musical pattern and output generation are controlled by container for the mini-models - a host-model. General mechanism has been presented including the example of the synthesized output compositions.

  14. [Eco-epidemiology: towards epidemiology of complexity].

    PubMed

    Bizouarn, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    In order to solve public health problems posed by the epidemiology of risk factors centered on the individual and neglecting the causal processes linking the risk factors with the health outcomes, Mervyn Susser proposed a multilevel epidemiology called eco-epidemiology, addressing the interdependence of individuals and their connection with molecular, individual, societal, environmental levels of organization participating in the causal disease processes. The aim of this epidemiology is to integrate more than a level of organization in design, analysis and interpretation of health problems. After presenting the main criticisms of risk-factor epidemiology focused on the individual, we will try to show how eco-epidemiology and its development could help to understand the need for a broader and integrative epidemiology, in which studies designed to identify risk factors would be balanced by studies designed to answer other questions equally vital to public health. © 2016 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  15. Abstraction Techniques for Parameterized Verification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    approach for applying model checking to unbounded systems is to extract finite state models from them using conservative abstraction techniques. Prop...36 2.5.1 Multiple Reference Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 2.5.2 Adding Monitor Processes...model checking to complex pieces of code like device drivers depends on the use of abstraction methods. An abstraction method extracts a small finite

  16. Background, Epidemiology, and Impact of HIV Infection in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, Arye

    1989-01-01

    The article reviews issues of diagnosis and treatment of children with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection. A spectrum of clinical signs is correlated with serological results. The intense central nervous system involvement typically present in childhood cases is examined. (DB)

  17. Clinical epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Martin, S W; Bonnett, B

    1987-06-01

    Rational clinical practice requires deductive particularization of diagnostic findings, prognoses, and therapeutic responses from groups of animals (herds) to the individual animal (herd) under consideration This process utilizes concepts, skills, and methods of epidemiology, as they relate to the study of the distribution and determinants of health and disease in populations, and casts them in a clinical perspective.We briefly outline diagnostic strategies and introduce a measure of agreement, called kappa, between clinical diagnoses. This statistic is useful not only as a measure of diagnostic accuracy, but also as a means of quantifying and understanding disagreement between diagnosticians. It is disconcerting to many, clinicians included, that given a general deficit of data on sensitivity and specificity, the level of agreement between many clinical diagnoses is only moderate at best with kappa values of 0.3 to 0.6.Sensitivity, specificity, pretest odds, and posttest probability of disease are defined and related to the interpretation of clinical findings and ancillary diagnostic test results. An understanding of these features and how they relate to ruling-in or ruling-out a diagnosis, or minimizzing diagnostic errors will greatly enhance the diagnostic accuracy of the practitioner, and reduce the frequency of clinical disagreement. The approach of running multiple tests on every patient is not only wasteful and expensive, it is unlikely to improve the ability of the clinician to establish the correct diagnosis.We conclude with a discussion of how to decide on the best therapy, a discussion which centers on, and outlines the key features of, the well designed clinical trial. Like a diagnosis, the results from a clinical trial may not always be definitive, nonetheless it is the best available method of gleaning information about treatment efficacy.

  18. Grounding Abstractness: Abstract Concepts and the Activation of the Mouth

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Anna M.; Zarcone, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools) proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth). While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk) are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts. PMID:27777563

  19. Modeling the hepatitis A epidemiological transition in Brazil and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Van Effelterre, Thierry; Guignard, Adrienne; Marano, Cinzia; Rojas, Rosalba; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Many low- to middle-income countries have completed or are in the process of transitioning from high or intermediate to low endemicity for hepatitis A virus (HAV). Because the risk of severe hepatitis A disease increases with age at infection, decreased incidence that leaves older children and adults susceptible to HAV infection may actually increase the population-level burden of disease from HAV. Mathematical models can be helpful for projecting future epidemiological profiles for HAV. Methods: An age-specific deterministic, dynamic compartmental transmission model with stratification by setting (rural versus urban) was calibrated with country-specific data on demography, urbanization, and seroprevalence of anti-HAV antibodies. HAV transmission was modeled as a function of setting-specific access to safe water. The model was then used to project various HAV-related epidemiological outcomes in Brazil and in Mexico from 1950 to 2050. Results: The projected epidemiological outcomes were qualitatively similar in the 2 countries. The age at the midpoint of population immunity (AMPI) increased considerably and the mean age of symptomatic HAV cases shifted from childhood to early adulthood. The projected overall incidence rate of HAV infections decreased by about two thirds as safe water access improved. However, the incidence rate of symptomatic HAV infections remained roughly the same over the projection period. The incidence rates of HAV infections (all and symptomatic alone) were projected to become similar in rural and urban settings in the next decades. Conclusion: This model featuring population age structure, urbanization and access to safe water as key contributors to the epidemiological transition for HAV was previously validated with data from Thailand and fits equally well with data from Latin American countries. Assuming no introduction of a vaccination program over the projection period, both Brazil and Mexico were projected to

  20. Students' Abstraction in Recognizing, Building with and Constructing a Quadrilateral

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budiarto, Mega Teguh; Rahaju, Endah Budi; Hartono, Sugi

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to implement empirically students' abstraction with socio-cultural background of Indonesia. Abstraction is an activity that involves a vertical reorganization of previously constructed mathematics into a new mathematical structure. The principal components of the model are three dynamic nested epistemic actions: recognizing,…

  1. (abstract)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dastoor, M. N.; Evans, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    The paper will review the application of NASA developed remote sensing technology towards the monitoring and mitigation of natural hazards. The overview will be followed by recent data on three specific natural hazard applications.

  2. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XV, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This volume of 30 one- to two-page abstracts from 1993 highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) role-playing to encourage critical thinking; (2) team learning techniques to cultivate business skills; (3) librarian-instructor partnerships to create…

  3. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XVI, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This volume of 30 one- to two-page abstracts highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) music in the biology classroom; (2) pairing English as a second language and freshman composition students in writing activities; (3) moot court exercises in…

  4. Food Science and Technology Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elinor; Federman, Joan

    1979-01-01

    Introduces the reader to the Food Science and Technology Abstracts, a data file that covers worldwide literature on human food commodities and aspects of food processing. Topics include scope, subject index, thesaurus, searching online, and abstracts; tables provide a comparison of ORBIT and DIALOG versions of the file. (JD)

  5. Innovation Abstracts; Volume XIV, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This series of 30 one- to two-page abstracts covering 1992 highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) faculty recognition and orientation; (2) the Amado M. Pena, Jr., Scholarship Program; (3) innovative teaching techniques, with individual abstracts…

  6. Abstracts of Research Papers 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drowatzky, John N., Ed.

    This publication includes the abstracts of 199 research papers presented at the 1970 American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation convention in Seattle, Washington. Abstracts from symposia on environmental quality education, obesity, motor development, research methods, and laboratory equipment are also included. Each…

  7. Vague Language in Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutting, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined abstracts for a British Association for Applied Linguistics conference and a Sociolinguistics Symposium, to define the genre of conference abstracts in terms of vague language, specifically universal general nouns (e.g. people) and research general nouns (e.g. results), and to discover if the language used reflected the level…

  8. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  9. Evaluating uncertainty to strengthen epidemiologic data for use in human health risk assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: There is a recognized need to improve the application of epidemiologic data in human health risk assessment especially for understanding and characterizing risks from environmental and occupational exposures. While most epidemiologic studies result in uncertainty, tec...

  10. NASA Patent Abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 21) Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 87 patents and applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1982 through June 1982. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in mose cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  11. Newborn infants perceive abstract numbers

    PubMed Central

    Izard, Véronique; Sann, Coralie; Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Streri, Arlette

    2009-01-01

    Although infants and animals respond to the approximate number of elements in visual, auditory, and tactile arrays, only human children and adults have been shown to possess abstract numerical representations that apply to entities of all kinds (e.g., 7 samurai, seas, or sins). Do abstract numerical concepts depend on language or culture, or do they form a part of humans' innate, core knowledge? Here we show that newborn infants spontaneously associate stationary, visual-spatial arrays of 4–18 objects with auditory sequences of events on the basis of number. Their performance provides evidence for abstract numerical representations at the start of postnatal experience. PMID:19520833

  12. Environmental Epidemiology Program

    Science.gov Websites

    accessible with JavaScript activated. Utah Department of Health Bureau of Epidemiology Environmental Epidemiology Program (EEP) The Environmental Epidemiology Program strives to improve the health of Utah residents through science-based environmental health policy and by empowering citizens with knowledge about

  13. Knowledge acquisition for temporal abstraction.

    PubMed

    Stein, A; Musen, M A; Shahar, Y

    1996-01-01

    Temporal abstraction is the task of detecting relevant patterns in data over time. The knowledge-based temporal-abstraction method uses knowledge about a clinical domain's contexts, external events, and parameters to create meaningful interval-based abstractions from raw time-stamped clinical data. In this paper, we describe the acquisition and maintenance of domain-specific temporal-abstraction knowledge. Using the PROTEGE-II framework, we have designed a graphical tool for acquiring temporal knowledge directly from expert physicians, maintaining the knowledge in a sharable form, and converting the knowledge into a suitable format for use by an appropriate problem-solving method. In initial tests, the tool offered significant gains in our ability to rapidly acquire temporal knowledge and to use that knowledge to perform automated temporal reasoning.

  14. Background sources at PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, H.; Schwitters, R.F.; Toner, W.T.

    Important sources of background for PEP experiments are studied. Background particles originate from high-energy electrons and positrons which have been lost from stable orbits, ..gamma..-rays emitted by the primary beams through bremsstrahlung in the residual gas, and synchrotron radiation x-rays. The effect of these processes on the beam lifetime are calculated and estimates of background rates at the interaction region are given. Recommendations for the PEP design, aimed at minimizing background are presented. 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. The limitations of opportunistic epidemiology, pseudopod epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Kuller, Lewis H

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiology has been remarkably successful in the past in identifying the important agents of disease, the impact of the environment, both physical and social, and interrelationship with host susceptibility (genomics). Many of the advances in improving the health of individuals and populations have been the result of epidemiology studies that have identified the specific "agents" of disease and application of public health and preventive medicine. In recent years, large longitudinal studies have dominated epidemiology research, especially long incubation period chronic diseases. The initial hypotheses in these studies have been expanded by vertical extension studies using newer technologies to measure independent variables, vertical pseudopods, and additional studies of other diseases, horizontal pseudopods, of the original longitudinal study. Host susceptibility, i.e. genomics, has also become a prominent component of these longitudinal studies. The critical question addressed in this paper is whether these "pseudopod" epidemiology approaches have enhanced public health or generated a large number of studies of little impact.

  16. Construct Abstraction for Automatic Information Abstraction from Digital Images

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-30

    objects and features and the names of objects of objects and features. For example, in Figure 15 the parts of the fish could be named the ‘mouth... fish -1 fish -2 fish -3 tennis shoe tennis racquet...of abstraction and generality. For example, an algorithm might usefully find a polygon ( blob ) in an image and calculate numbers such as the

  17. Modelling Metamorphism by Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Preda, Mila; Giacobazzi, Roberto; Debray, Saumya; Coogan, Kevin; Townsend, Gregg M.

    Metamorphic malware apply semantics-preserving transformations to their own code in order to foil detection systems based on signature matching. In this paper we consider the problem of automatically extract metamorphic signatures from these malware. We introduce a semantics for self-modifying code, later called phase semantics, and prove its correctness by showing that it is an abstract interpretation of the standard trace semantics. Phase semantics precisely models the metamorphic code behavior by providing a set of traces of programs which correspond to the possible evolutions of the metamorphic code during execution. We show that metamorphic signatures can be automatically extracted by abstract interpretation of the phase semantics, and that regular metamorphism can be modelled as finite state automata abstraction of the phase semantics.

  18. Static Analysis Using Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthaud, Maxime

    2017-01-01

    Short presentation about static analysis and most particularly abstract interpretation. It starts with a brief explanation on why static analysis is used at NASA. Then, it describes the IKOS (Inference Kernel for Open Static Analyzers) tool chain. Results on NASA projects are shown. Several well known algorithms from the static analysis literature are then explained (such as pointer analyses, memory analyses, weak relational abstract domains, function summarization, etc.). It ends with interesting problems we encountered (such as C++ analysis with exception handling, or the detection of integer overflow).

  19. Epidemiology of prostatitis

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, John N.; Lee, Shaun Wen Huey; Jeon, Jeonseong; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Liong, Men Long; Riley, Donald E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Prostatitis describes a combination of infectious diseases (acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis), chronic pelvic pain syndrome, and asymptomatic inflammation. Materials and methods We employed evidence-based methods to review the epidemiology of prostatitis syndromes. Results The prevalence of prostatitis symptoms could be compared in five studies surveying 10 617 men. Overall, 873 participants met various criteria for prostatitis, representing an overall rate of 8.2%, with prevalence ranging from 2.2 to 9.7%. A history of sexually transmitted diseases was associated with an increased risk for prostatitis symptoms. Men reporting a history of prostatitis symptoms had a substantially increased rate of benign prostatic hyperplasia, lower urinary tract symptoms and prostate cancer. In one study, the incidence of physician-diagnosed prostatitis was 4.9 cases per 1000 person-years. Two studies suggest that about one-third of men reporting prostatitis symptoms had resolution after 1 year. Patients with previous episodes and more severe symptoms are at higher risk for chronic pelvic pain. Discussion The prevalence of prostatitis symptoms is high, comparable to rates of ischamic heart disease and diabetes. Clinical evaluation appears necessary to verify that prostatitis is responsible for patients’ symptoms. Prostatitis symptoms may increase a man’s risk for benign prostate hypertrophy, lower urinary tract symptoms and prostate cancer. We need to define natural history and consequences of prostatitis, develop better algorithms for diagnosis and treatment, and develop strategies for prevention. PMID:18164907

  20. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Malcolm V.; Ford, Jean G.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Spivack, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ever since a lung cancer epidemic emerged in the mid-1900s, the epidemiology of lung cancer has been intensively investigated to characterize its causes and patterns of occurrence. This report summarizes the key findings of this research. Methods: A detailed literature search provided the basis for a narrative review, identifying and summarizing key reports on population patterns and factors that affect lung cancer risk. Results: Established environmental risk factors for lung cancer include smoking cigarettes and other tobacco products and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, occupational lung carcinogens, radiation, and indoor and outdoor air pollution. Cigarette smoking is the predominant cause of lung cancer and the leading worldwide cause of cancer death. Smoking prevalence in developing nations has increased, starting new lung cancer epidemics in these nations. A positive family history and acquired lung disease are examples of host factors that are clinically useful risk indicators. Risk prediction models based on lung cancer risk factors have been developed, but further refinement is needed to provide clinically useful risk stratification. Promising biomarkers of lung cancer risk and early detection have been identified, but none are ready for broad clinical application. Conclusions: Almost all lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking, underscoring the need for ongoing efforts at tobacco control throughout the world. Further research is needed into the reasons underlying lung cancer disparities, the causes of lung cancer in never smokers, the potential role of HIV in lung carcinogenesis, and the development of biomarkers. PMID:23649439

  1. The Cosmic Background Explorer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulkis, Samuel; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Outlines the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission to measure celestial radiation. Describes the instruments used and experiments involving differential microwave radiometers, and a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer. (YP)

  2. Typographic Settings for Structured Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2000-01-01

    Lists some of the major typographic variables involved in structured abstracts (containing sub-headings). Illustrates how typography can affect clarity by presenting seven examples that illustrate the effects of these typographic variables in practice. Concludes with a final example of an effective approach. (SR)

  3. Handedness Shapes Children's Abstract Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like "kindness" and "intelligence"? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on…

  4. What Is It? Elementary Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Sossan, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Abstraction can be hard for older students to understand, and it usually involves simplifying or rearranging natural objects to meet the needs of the artist, whether it be for organization or expression. But, in reality, that is what young artists do when they draw from life. They do not have enough experience--and sometimes the patience--to see…

  5. ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS 48347-48982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Technology, London (England). Warren Spring Lab.

    IN THIS COLLECTION OF ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS AND ANNOTATIONS THE FOLLOWING AREAS OF CONCERN ARE REPRESENTED--GENERAL REFERENCES, METHODS, FACILITIES, AND EQUIPMENT RELATING TO ERGONOMICS, SYSTEMS OF MAN AND MACHINES, VISUAL, AUDITORY, AND OTHER SENSORY INPUTS AND PROCESSES (INCLUDING SPEECH AND INTELLIGIBILITY), INPUT CHANNELS, BODY MEASUREMENTS,…

  6. Journalism Abstracts. Volume 25, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhoit, Frances Goins, Ed.

    Collected from 55 universities in the United States and Canada, and published by the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, this volume contains 339 abstracts of research dissertations and theses accepted for graduate degrees in journalism and mass communications from July 1, 1986 through June 30, 1987. Only research…

  7. Metaphoric Images from Abstract Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vizmuller-Zocco, Jana

    1992-01-01

    Discusses children's use of metaphors to create meaning, using as an example the pragmatic and "scientific" ways in which preschool children explain thunder and lightning to themselves. Argues that children are being shortchanged by modern scientific notions of abstractness and that they should be encouraged to create their own explanations of…

  8. [Molecular epidemiology in the epidemiological transition].

    PubMed

    Tapia-Conyer, R

    1997-01-01

    The epidemiological transition describes the changes in the health profile of populations where infectious diseases are substituted by chronic or non-communicable diseases. Even in industrialized countries, infectious diseases emerge as important public health problems and with a very important association with several type of neoplasm. Molecular epidemiology brings in new tools for the study of the epidemiological transition by discovering infectious agents as etiology of diseases, neither of both new. Much has been advanced in the understanding of the virulence and resistance mechanism of different strains, or improving the knowledge on transmission dynamics and dissemination pathways of infectious diseases. As to the non-communicable diseases, molecular epidemiology has enhanced the identification of endogenous risk factors link to alterations, molecular changes in genetic material, that will allow a more detail definition of risk and the identification of individual and groups at risk of several diseases. The potential impact of molecular epidemiology in other areas as environmental, lifestyles and nutritional areas are illustrated with several examples.

  9. Backgrounds in Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, John C.; Long, Barbara K.

    "Backgrounds in Language," a field-tested inservice course designed for use by groups of 15 or 25 language arts teachers, provides the subject matter background teachers need to make informed decisions about what curriculum materials to use in what way, at what time, and with which students. The course is comprised of eight 2-hour sessions,…

  10. Optimal background matching camouflage.

    PubMed

    Michalis, Constantine; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E; Gibson, David P; Cuthill, Innes C

    2017-07-12

    Background matching is the most familiar and widespread camouflage strategy: avoiding detection by having a similar colour and pattern to the background. Optimizing background matching is straightforward in a homogeneous environment, or when the habitat has very distinct sub-types and there is divergent selection leading to polymorphism. However, most backgrounds have continuous variation in colour and texture, so what is the best solution? Not all samples of the background are likely to be equally inconspicuous, and laboratory experiments on birds and humans support this view. Theory suggests that the most probable background sample (in the statistical sense), at the size of the prey, would, on average, be the most cryptic. We present an analysis, based on realistic assumptions about low-level vision, that estimates the distribution of background colours and visual textures, and predicts the best camouflage. We present data from a field experiment that tests and supports our predictions, using artificial moth-like targets under bird predation. Additionally, we present analogous data for humans, under tightly controlled viewing conditions, searching for targets on a computer screen. These data show that, in the absence of predator learning, the best single camouflage pattern for heterogeneous backgrounds is the most probable sample. © 2017 The Authors.

  11. Epidemiology of mucopolysaccharidoses.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shaukat A; Peracha, Hira; Ballhausen, Diana; Wiesbauer, Alfred; Rohrbach, Marianne; Gautschi, Matthias; Mason, Robert W; Giugliani, Roberto; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Orii, Kenji E; Orii, Tadao; Tomatsu, Shunji

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain data about the epidemiology of the different types of mucopolysaccharidoses in Japan and Switzerland and to compare with similar data from other countries. Data for Japan was collected between 1982 and 2009, and 467 cases with MPS were identified. The combined birth prevalence was 1.53 per 100,000 live births. The highest birth prevalence was 0.84 for MPS II, accounting for 55% of all MPS. MPS I, III, and IV accounted for 15, 16, and 10%, respectively. MPS VI and VII were more rare and accounted for 1.7 and 1.3%, respectively. A retrospective epidemiological data collection was performed in Switzerland between 1975 and 2008 (34years), and 41 living MPS patients were identified. The combined birth prevalence was 1.56 per 100,000 live births. The highest birth prevalence was 0.46 for MPS II, accounting for 29% of all MPS. MPS I, III, and IV accounted for 12, 24, and 24%, respectively. As seen in the Japanese population, MPS VI and VII were more rare and accounted for 7.3 and 2.4%, respectively. The high birth prevalence of MPS II in Japan was comparable to that seen in other East Asian countries where this MPS accounted for approximately 50% of all forms of MPS. Birth prevalence was also similar in some European countries (Germany, Northern Ireland, Portugal and the Netherlands) although the prevalence of other forms of MPS is also reported to be higher in these countries. Birth prevalence of MPS II in Switzerland and other European countries is comparatively lower. The birth prevalence of MPS III and IV in Switzerland is higher than in Japan but comparable to that in most other European countries. Moreover, the birth prevalence of MPS VI and VII was very low in both, Switzerland and Japan. Overall, the frequency of MPS varies for each population due to differences in ethnic backgrounds and/or founder effects that affect the birth prevalence of each type of MPS, as seen for other rare genetic diseases. Methods for identification of

  12. An Abstract Plan Preparation Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new planning language that is more abstract than most existing planning languages such as the Planning Domain Definition Language (PDDL) or the New Domain Description Language (NDDL). The goal of this language is to simplify the formal analysis and specification of planning problems that are intended for safety-critical applications such as power management or automated rendezvous in future manned spacecraft. The new language has been named the Abstract Plan Preparation Language (APPL). A translator from APPL to NDDL has been developed in support of the Spacecraft Autonomy for Vehicles and Habitats Project (SAVH) sponsored by the Explorations Technology Development Program, which is seeking to mature autonomy technology for application to the new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) that will replace the Space Shuttle.

  13. Abstract Jupiter Atmosphere (Artist Concept)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-03-28

    Citizen scientist Rick Lundh created this abstract Jovian artwork using data from the JunoCam imager onboard NASA's Juno spacecraft. The original image captures a close-up view of numerous storms in the northern hemisphere of Jupiter. To produce this artwork, Lundh selected a more contrasting part of one of Jupiter's storms, then cropped the image and applied an oil-painting filter. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21983

  14. Cryogenic foam insulation: Abstracted publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. R.

    1977-01-01

    A group of documents were chosen and abstracted which contain information on the properties of foam materials and on the use of foams as thermal insulation at cryogenic temperatures. The properties include thermal properties, mechanical properties, and compatibility properties with oxygen and other cryogenic fluids. Uses of foams include applications as thermal insulation for spacecraft propellant tanks, and for liquefied natural gas storage tanks and pipelines.

  15. Background Underground at WIPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esch, Ernst-Ingo; Hime, A.; Bowles, T. J.

    2001-04-01

    Recent interest to establish a dedicated underground laboratory in the United States prompted an experimental program at to quantify the enviromental backgrounds underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. An outline of this program is provided along with recent experimental data on the cosmic ray muon flux at the 650 meter level of WIPP. The implications of the cosmic ray muon and fast neutron background at WIPP will be discussed in the context of new generation, low background experiments envisioned in the future.

  16. Analyses of infectious disease patterns and drivers largely lack insights from social epidemiology: contemporary patterns and future opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Noppert, Grace A; Kubale, John T; Wilson, Mark L

    2017-01-01

    Background Infectious disease epidemiologists have long recognised the importance of social variables as drivers of epidemics and disease risk, yet few apply analytic approaches from social epidemiology. We quantified and evaluated the extent to which recent infectious disease research is employing the perspectives and methods of social epidemiology by replicating the methodology used by Cohen et al in a 2007 study. Methods 2 search strategies were used to identify and review articles published from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2013. First, we performed a keyword search of ‘social epidemiology’ in the title/abstract/text of published studies identified in PubMed, PsychInfo and ISI Web of Science, and classified each study as pertaining to infectious, non-infectious or other outcomes. A second PubMed search identified articles that were cross-referenced under non-infectious or infectious, and search terms relating to social variables. The abstracts of all articles were read, classified and examined to identify patterns over time. Results Findings suggest that infectious disease research publications that explicitly or implicitly incorporate social epidemiological approaches have stagnated in recent years. While the number of publications that were explicitly self-classified as ‘social epidemiology’ has risen, the proportion that investigated infectious disease outcomes has declined. Furthermore, infectious diseases accounted for the smallest proportion of articles that were cross-referenced with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms related to social factors, and most of these involved sexually transmitted diseases. Conclusions The current landscape of infectious disease epidemiology could benefit from new approaches to understanding how the social and biophysical environment sustains transmission and exacerbates disparities. The framework of social epidemiology provides infectious disease researchers with such a perspective and research opportunity. PMID

  17. Notification: Background Investigation Services

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OA-FY15-0029, February 26, 2015. The Office of Inspector General (OIG) for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) plans to begin field work for our audit of background investigation services.

  18. Urban Background Study Webinar

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This webinar presented the methodology developed for collecting a city-wide or urban area background data set, general results of southeastern cities data collected to date, and a case study that used this sampling method.

  19. Youth Studies Abstracts. Vol. 4 No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youth Studies Abstracts, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains 169 abstracts of documents dealing with youth and educational programs for youth. Included in the volume are 97 abstracts of documents dealing with social and educational developments; 56 abstracts of program reports, reviews, and evaluations; and 16 abstracts of program materials. Abstracts are grouped according to the…

  20. Patent Abstract Digest. Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-30

    compact. self -contained transducer unit for 151) Field of Stucek............... 73/71 5 US, 67.5 R. electromagnetic generation and detection of...BSTRACT SPONSORED PROGRAMS FROM THE AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND United States Patent 1191 (111 4,115,616 Heitz et &1. (45 Sep. 19, 1978 154) SELF -SEALING...ioseph E. Rutz; Wiliam J.O’Brien (221 Filed: F . (57 ABSTRACT A self -sealing multi-laminated fuel line composite mate. rial composed of (a) a plastic

  1. Shoestring Budget Radio Astronomy (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoot, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) The commercial exploitation of microwave frequencies for cellular, WiFi, Bluetooth, HDTV, and satellite digital media transmission has brought down the cost of the components required to build an effective radio telescope to the point where, for the cost of a good eyepiece, you can construct and operate a radio telescope. This paper sets forth a family of designs for 1421 MHz telescopes. It also proposes a method by which operators of such instruments can aggregate and archive data via the Internet. With 90 or so instruments it will be possible to survey the entire radio sky for transients with a 24 hour cadence.

  2. Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanchik, Nicholas J.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the concept of the Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL) and its benefits. The OSAL is A small layer of software that allows programs to run on many different operating systems and hardware platforms It runs independent of the underlying OS & hardware and it is self-contained. The benefits of OSAL are that it removes dependencies from any one operating system, promotes portable, reusable flight software. It allows for Core Flight software (FSW) to be built for multiple processors and operating systems. The presentation discusses the functionality, the various OSAL releases, and describes the specifications.

  3. An automatic method to generate domain-specific investigator networks using PubMed abstracts

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wei; Yesupriya, Ajay; Wulf, Anja; Qu, Junfeng; Gwinn, Marta; Khoury, Muin J

    2007-01-01

    Background Collaboration among investigators has become critical to scientific research. This includes ad hoc collaboration established through personal contacts as well as formal consortia established by funding agencies. Continued growth in online resources for scientific research and communication has promoted the development of highly networked research communities. Extending these networks globally requires identifying additional investigators in a given domain, profiling their research interests, and collecting current contact information. We present a novel strategy for building investigator networks dynamically and producing detailed investigator profiles using data available in PubMed abstracts. Results We developed a novel strategy to obtain detailed investigator information by automatically parsing the affiliation string in PubMed records. We illustrated the results by using a published literature database in human genome epidemiology (HuGE Pub Lit) as a test case. Our parsing strategy extracted country information from 92.1% of the affiliation strings in a random sample of PubMed records and in 97.0% of HuGE records, with accuracies of 94.0% and 91.0%, respectively. Institution information was parsed from 91.3% of the general PubMed records (accuracy 86.8%) and from 94.2% of HuGE PubMed records (accuracy 87.0). We demonstrated the application of our approach to dynamic creation of investigator networks by creating a prototype information system containing a large database of PubMed abstracts relevant to human genome epidemiology (HuGE Pub Lit), indexed using PubMed medical subject headings converted to Unified Medical Language System concepts. Our method was able to identify 70–90% of the investigators/collaborators in three different human genetics fields; it also successfully identified 9 of 10 genetics investigators within the PREBIC network, an existing preterm birth research network. Conclusion We successfully created a web-based prototype

  4. Epidemiology: Then and Now.

    PubMed

    Kuller, Lewis H

    2016-03-01

    Twenty-five years ago, on the 75th anniversary of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, I noted that epidemiologic research was moving away from the traditional approaches used to investigate "epidemics" and their close relationship with preventive medicine. Twenty-five years later, the role of epidemiology as an important contribution to human population research, preventive medicine, and public health is under substantial pressure because of the emphasis on "big data," phenomenology, and personalized medical therapies. Epidemiology is the study of epidemics. The primary role of epidemiology is to identify the epidemics and parameters of interest of host, agent, and environment and to generate and test hypotheses in search of causal pathways. Almost all diseases have a specific distribution in relation to time, place, and person and specific "causes" with high effect sizes. Epidemiology then uses such information to develop interventions and test (through clinical trials and natural experiments) their efficacy and effectiveness. Epidemiology is dependent on new technologies to evaluate improved measurements of host (genomics), epigenetics, identification of agents (metabolomics, proteomics), new technology to evaluate both physical and social environment, and modern methods of data collection. Epidemiology does poorly in studying anything other than epidemics and collections of numerators and denominators without specific hypotheses even with improved statistical methodologies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Criticality in epidemiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stollenwerk, Nico; Jansen, Vincent A. A.

    For a long time criticality has been considered in epidemiological models. We review the body of theory developed over the last twenty five years for the simplest models. It is at first glance difficult to imagine that an epidemiological system operates at a very fine tuned critical state as opposed to any other parameter region. However, the advent of self-organized criticality has given hints in how to interpret large fluctuations observed in many natural systems including epidemiological systems. We show some scenarios where criticality has been observed (e.g., measles under vaccination) and where evolution towards a critical state can explain fluctuations (e.g., meningococcal disease.)

  6. Evolution and social epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Akihiro

    2015-11-01

    Evolutionary biology, which aims to explain the dynamic process of shaping the diversity of life, has not yet significantly affected thinking in social epidemiology. Current challenges in social epidemiology include understanding how social exposures can affect our biology, explaining the dynamics of society and health, and designing better interventions that are mindful of the impact of exposures during critical periods. I review how evolutionary concepts and tools, such as fitness gradient in cultural evolution, evolutionary game theory, and contemporary evolution in cancer, can provide helpful insights regarding social epidemiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Cosmic Background Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

  8. The cosmic microwave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Recent limits on spectral distortions and angular anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background are reviewed. The various backgrounds are described, and the theoretical implications are assessed. Constraints on inflationary cosmology dominated by cold dark matter (CDM) and on open cosmological models dominated by baryonic dark matter (BDM), with, respectively, primordial random phase scale-invariant curvature fluctuations or non-gaussian isocurvature fluctuations are described. More exotic theories are addressed, and I conclude with the 'bottom line': what theorists expect experimentalists to be measuring within the next two to three years without having to abandon their most cherished theories.

  9. Bilingual/Bicultural Education: Titles and Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Los Angeles. National Dissemination and Assessment Center.

    Dissertation abstracts describing research on a wide variety of topics in bilingual education are presented. This publication is designed to provide background material for bilingual educators as well as practical procedures for bilingual teachers, administrators, counselors, and evaluators. The titles were acquired by using the two broad…

  10. Epidemiology of kidney cancer.

    PubMed

    Dayal, H; Kinman, J

    1983-12-01

    Renal-cell carcinoma usually affects those over 40 years old, and, in any age group, the disease occurs about twice as frequently among men as it does among women. The incidence of the disease has been steadily increasing over the years. In the United States, the probability of surviving after diagnosis of renal cancer has been improving since 1940 regardless of race, sex, and age at diagnosis. The relationship between SES and the chance of developing the disease is sporadic with an indication of a slightly higher risk in the upper socioeconomic classes. Urbanrural comparisons consistently suggest that a higher risk is associated with urban residence. Tobacco use is probably the only environmental factor that could be considered to be etiologically related to cancer of the kidney. A variety of studies point to a moderate but consistent association with tobacco use in the form of cigarette, cigar, or pipe smoking. The excess of the disease in males compared to females and the lower incidence in Mormons may partly be due to the confounding effect of smoking. Dietary vitamin A or vitamin A supplements may have an antipromoting effect in the development of kidney cancer. Hypotheses implicating fat and/or cholesterol intake in the etiology of cancer of the kidney appear to be too tenuous. The evidence of a relationship between concentrations of certain trace metals in drinking water and incidence of renal cancer is weak. Similarly, there is no strong indication of an increased risk among individuals exposed to radiation. In general, with the exception of the observation of an unusually high risk among coke-oven workers, occupational studies have not identified any high-risk groups. Familial aggregation, though rare, occurs with peculiar disease characteristics that may predict similar cancers in the proband's relatives with a high degree of accuracy. In conclusion, the etiology of cancer of the kidney is poorly understood. The descriptive epidemiology of the disease

  11. Toward Millimagnitude Photometric Calibration (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dose, E.

    2014-12-01

    (Abstract only) Asteroid roation, exoplanet transits, and similar measurements will increasingly call for photometric precisions better than about 10 millimagnitudes, often between nights and ideally between distant observers. The present work applies detailed spectral simulations to test popular photometric calibration practices, and to test new extensions of these practices. Using 107 synthetic spectra of stars of diverse colors, detailed atmospheric transmission spectra computed by solar-energy software, realistic spectra of popular astronomy gear, and the option of three sources of noise added at realistic millimagnitude levels, we find that certain adjustments to current calibration practices can help remove small systematic errors, especially for imperfect filters, high airmasses, and possibly passing thin cirrus clouds.

  12. Spectrophotometry of Symbiotic Stars (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, D.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) Symbiotic stars are fascinating objects - complex binary systems comprising a cool red giant star and a small hot object, often a white dwarf, both embedded in a nebula formed by a wind from the giant star. UV radiation from the hot star ionizes the nebula, producing a range of emission lines. These objects have composite spectra with contributions from both stars plus the nebula and these spectra can change on many timescales. Being moderately bright, they lend themselves well to amateur spectroscopy. This paper describes the symbiotic star phenomenon, shows how spectrophotometry can be used to extract astrophysically useful information about the nature of these systems, and gives results for three symbiotic stars based on the author's observations.

  13. Experience with abstract notation one

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, James D.; Weaver, Alfred C.

    1990-01-01

    The development of computer science has produced a vast number of machine architectures, programming languages, and compiler technologies. The cross product of these three characteristics defines the spectrum of previous and present data representation methodologies. With regard to computer networks, the uniqueness of these methodologies presents an obstacle when disparate host environments are to be interconnected. Interoperability within a heterogeneous network relies upon the establishment of data representation commonality. The International Standards Organization (ISO) is currently developing the abstract syntax notation one standard (ASN.1) and the basic encoding rules standard (BER) that collectively address this problem. When used within the presentation layer of the open systems interconnection reference model, these two standards provide the data representation commonality required to facilitate interoperability. The details of a compiler that was built to automate the use of ASN.1 and BER are described. From this experience, insights into both standards are given and potential problems relating to this development effort are discussed.

  14. Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of traumatic brain injury in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Abbass, Hussein; Bahmad, Hisham; Ghandour, Hiba; Fares, Jawad; Wazzi-Mkahal, Rayyan; Yacoub, Basel; Darwish, Hala; Mondello, Stefania; Harati, Hayat; El Sayed, Mazen J.; Tamim, Hani; Kobeissy, Firas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a debilitating medical and emerging public health problem that is affecting people worldwide due to a multitude of factors including both domestic and war-related acts. The objective of this paper is to systematically review the status of TBI in Lebanon – a Middle Eastern country with a weak health system that was chartered by several wars and intermittent outbursts of violence - in order to identify the present gaps in knowledge, direct future research initiatives and to assist policy makers in planning progressive and rehabilitative policies. Methods: OVID/Medline, PubMed, Scopus databases and Google Scholar were lastly searched on April 15th, 2016 to identify all published research studies on TBI in Lebanon. Studies published in English, Arabic or French that assessed Lebanese patients afflicted by TBI in Lebanon were warranting inclusion in this review. Case reports, reviews, biographies and abstracts were excluded. Throughout the whole review process, reviewers worked independently and in duplicate during study selection, data abstraction and methodological assessment using the Downs and Black Checklist. Results: In total, 11 studies were recognized eligible as they assessed Lebanese patients afflicted by TBI on Lebanese soils. Considerable methodological variation was found among the identified studies. All studies, except for two that evaluated domestic causes such as falls, reported TBI due to war-related injuries. Age distribution of TBI victims revealed two peaks, young adults between 18 and 40 years, and older adults aged 60 years and above, where males constituted the majority. Only three studies reported rates of mild TBI. Mortality, rehabilitation and systemic injury rates were rarely reported and so were the complications involved; infections were an exception. Conclusion: Apparently, status of TBI in Lebanon suffers from several gaps which need to be bridged through implementing more basic

  15. Cosmic Microwave Background Timeline

    Science.gov Websites

    about 2.3 K 1948: George Gamow, Ralph Alpher, and Robert Herman predict that a Big Bang universe perfect blackbody spectrum and thereby strongly supporting the hot big bang model, the thermal history of anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background, this strongly supports the big bang model with gravitational

  16. COBE - Cosmic Background Explorer

    Science.gov Websites

    with that from a precise blackbody. Data from the full four years of COBE observations continue to be stages in the COBE project. DIRBE (Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment) DIRBE has mapped the absolute sky brightness in 10 wavelength bands ranging from 1.25 microns to 240 microns. These data contain the

  17. Thermal background noise limitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulkis, S.

    1982-01-01

    Modern detection systems are increasingly limited in sensitivity by the background thermal photons which enter the receiving system. Expressions for the fluctuations of detected thermal radiation are derived. Incoherent and heterodyne detection processes are considered. References to the subject of photon detection statistics are given.

  18. Taiwan: Background Notes Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reams, Joanne Reppert

    Concise background information on Taiwan is provided. The publication begins with a profile of Taiwan, discussing the people, geography, political establishment, and economy. A map of the country is provided. The bulk of the publication then provides more detailed information on Taiwan's people, geography, history, administration, political…

  19. Foregrounding the Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    Argues that when introductory activities to the classics begin with background information, it can upstage or confine the life of the story, and shows little faith in the students as readers or in the literature itself. Suggests sometimes letting the literature begin, and then helping students make sense of it. Discusses examples from "To Kill a…

  20. Staffing Preschools: Background Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G.; Weir, Mary K.

    This report explores background variables related to preschool teaching, and emphasizes that statistics fluctuate in early childhood education. The increase for preprimary enrollment of 3- and 4-year-olds was 26 percent from 1966 to 1967. Accurate figures on preschool teaching personnel are not available, but a large proportion of Head Start…

  1. China: Background Notes Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reams, Joanne Reppert

    Concise background information on the People's Republic of China is provided. The publication begins with a profile of the country, outlining the people, geography, economy, and membership in international organizations. The bulk of the document then discusses in more detail China's people, geography, history, government, education, economy, and…

  2. Genomic Epidemiology of Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Comas, Iñaki

    2017-01-01

    The application of next generation sequencing technologies has opened the door to a new molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis, in which we can now look at transmission at a resolution not possible before. At the same time, new technical and analytical challenges have appeared, and we are still exploring the wider potential of this new technology. Whole genome sequencing in tuberculosis still requires bacterial cultures. Thus, although whole genome sequencing has revolutionized the interpretation of transmission patterns, it is not yet ready to be applied at the point-of-care. In this chapter, I will review the promises and challenges of genomic epidemiology, as well as some of the new questions that have arisen from the use of this new technology. In addition, I will examine the role of molecular epidemiology within the general frame of global tuberculosis control and how genomic epidemiology can contribute towards the elimination of the disease.

  3. Epidemiology & Genomics Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, in the National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, funds research in human populations to understand the determinants of cancer occurrence and outcomes.

  4. Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts

    Cancer.gov

    Cohort studies are fundamental for epidemiological research by helping researchers better understand the etiology of cancer and provide insights into the key determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

  5. Epidemiology of Lice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juranek, Dennis D.

    1977-01-01

    Research into the epidemiology of lice indicates that infestation is uncommon in blacks, more common in females than males, significantly higher in low income groups, and transmission is by way of articles of clothing. (JD)

  6. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research collaborations between the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) and the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) centered on the development and application of exposure analysis tools in environmental epidemiology include the El Paso...

  7. Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis. [DOE abstract journal

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA), while embracing all phases of energy analysis and development, is limited primarily to nontechnological or quasitechnological articles or reports having significant reference value. This selectivity in scope and coverage of EAPA is effected to emphasize the following: programmatic efforts; policy, legislative, and regulatory aspects; social, economic, and environmental impacts; regional and sectoral analyses, institutional factors, etc. Selection for EAPA is based strictly on content (substantive articles) and is made from Congressional committee prints; federal agency and department reports; regional commission and state and local government reports; periodicals, including trade journals and newsweeklies; conference proceedingsmore » and/or conference papers; books, including manuals, directories, encyclopedias, etc.; and documents from industrial firms, private institutes and foundations, educational institutions, societies, associations, etc. EAPA is available on an exchange basis to universities, research institutions, industrial firms, and publishers of energy information. Federal, state, and municipal agencies concerned with energy development, conservation, and usage may obtain EAPA free of charge. Inquiries should be directed to the Technical Information Center, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830. EAPA is available to the public on a subscription basis, which includes 12 monthly issues plus the annual index. All items announced in EAPA exist as separate records on the DOE Energy Data Base.« less

  8. Mapping epidemiology's past to inform its future: metaknowledge analysis of epidemiologic topics in leading journals, 1974-2013.

    PubMed

    Trinquart, Ludovic; Galea, Sandro

    2015-07-15

    An empiric perspective on what epidemiology has studied over time might inform discussions about future directions for the discipline. We aimed to identify the main areas of epidemiologic inquiry and determine how they evolved over time in 5 high-impact epidemiologic journals. We analyzed the titles and abstracts of 20,895 articles that were published between 1974 and 2013. In 5 time periods that reflected approximately equal numbers of articles, we identified the main topics by clustering terms based on co-occurrence. Infectious disease and cardiovascular disease epidemiology were the prevailing topics over the 5 periods. Cancer epidemiology was a major topic from 1974 to 2001 but disappeared thereafter. Nutritional epidemiology gained relative importance from 1974 to 2013. Environmental epidemiology appeared during 1996-2001 and continued to be important, whereas 2 clusters related to methodology and meta-analysis in genetics appeared during 2008-2013. Several areas of epidemiology, including injury or psychiatric epidemiology, did not make an appearance as major topics at any time. In an ancillary analysis of 6 high-impact general medicine journals, we found patterns of epidemiologic articles that were overall consistent with the findings in epidemiologic journals. This metaknowledge investigation allowed identification of the dominant topics in and conversely those that were absent from 5 major epidemiologic journals. We discuss implications for the field. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. WD1145+017 (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta, M.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) WD1145 is a 17th magnitude white dwarf star 570 light years away in Virgo that was discovered to have a disintegrating planetoid in close orbit by Andrew Vanderburg, a graduate student at Harvard CfA, while data mining the elucidate the nature of its rather bizarre transit light curves. I obtained multiple observations of WD1145 over the course of a year, and found a series of complex transit light curves that could only be interpreted as a ring complex or torus in close orbit around WD1145. Combined with data from other amateur astronomers, professional observations, and satellite data, it became clear that WD1145 has a small planetoid in close orbit at the Roche limit and is breaking apart, forming a ring of debris material that is then raining down on the white dwarf. The surface of the star is "polluted" by heavy metals, determined by spectroscopic data. Given that in the intense gravitational field of a white dwarf any heavy metals could not for long last on the surface, this confirms that we are tracking in real time the destruction of a small planet by its host star.

  10. SLAS Library Telescope Program (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) In the fall of 2014, I submitted to the members of the St. Louis Astronomical Society to take the $1,000 profit we had from a convention we had hosted and use it to purchase three telescopes to modify for a Library Telescope program that was invented by Mark Stowbridge and promoted by the New Hampshire Astronomical Society. I had met Mark at NEAF in 2012 when he was walking the floor demonstrating the telescope. We held meetings with three libraries, the St. Louis County Library system, the St. Louis Public Library system and an independent library in Kirkwood, Missouri. The response was overwhelming! SLCL responded with a request for ten telescopes and SLPL asked for five. We did our first build in October, 2014 and placed a total of eighteen telescopes. Since that time, SLAS has placed a total of eighty-eight telescopes in library systems around the St. Louis Metro area, expanding into neighboring counties and across the river in Illinois. In this talk, I will discuss how to approach this project and put it in place in your libraries!

  11. Handedness shapes children's abstract concepts.

    PubMed

    Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania

    2012-03-01

    Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like kindness and intelligence? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on a diagram a preferred toy and a dispreferred toy should go. Right-handers tended to assign the preferred toy to a box on the right and the dispreferred toy to a box on the left. Left-handers showed the opposite pattern. In a second experiment, children judged which of two cartoon animals looked smarter (or dumber) or nicer (or meaner). Right-handers attributed more positive qualities to animals on the right, but left-handers to animals on the left. These contrasting associations between space and valence cannot be explained by exposure to language or cultural conventions, which consistently link right with good. Rather, right- and left-handers implicitly associated positive valence more strongly with the side of space on which they can act more fluently with their dominant hands. Results support the body-specificity hypothesis (Casasanto, 2009), showing that children with different kinds of bodies think differently in corresponding ways. Copyright © 2011 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  12. An abstract approach to music.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

    1999-04-19

    In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The motivation for this approach uses traditional terms and concepts of music theory, but the approach itself is formal and uses the language of mathematics. The universal object is an audio wave; partials, sounds, and compositions are special objects, which are placed in a hierarchical order based on time scales. The objects have both static and dynamic attributes. When we realize amore » composition, we assign values to each of its attributes: a (scalar) value to a static attribute, an envelope and a size to a dynamic attribute. A composition is then a trajectory in the space of aural events, and the complex audio wave is its formal representation. Sounds are fibers in the space of aural events, from which the composer weaves the trajectory of a composition. Each sound object in turn is made up of partials, which are the elementary building blocks of any music composition. The partials evolve on the fastest time scale in the hierarchy of partials, sounds, and compositions. The ideas outlined in this article are being implemented in a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis and in software for music composition. A demonstration of some preliminary results has been submitted by the authors for presentation at the conference.« less

  13. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences, Number 93

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-21

    BlOMEDICAL SCIENCES Agrotechnology 1 Biochemistry 7 Biophysics n Environmental and Ecological Problems 12 Epidemiology 15 Hydrobiology 20...Agrotechnology USSR UDC 631.452(571.1) RAISING THE ECONOMIC PRODUCTIVITY OF AGBICULTURAL CROPS OF WESTERN SIBERIA Novosibirsk SIBIRSKIY VESTNIK...Scientific Research Institute of the Economics of Agriculture [Abstract] The need for improvement of agricultural productivity in Western Siberia will

  14. A research on epidemiology of multiple anterior malocclusions of children.

    PubMed

    Li, S Y

    1991-01-01

    So far there are few report of large sample on epidemiology of children's multiple-anterior cross-bite malocclusions (MACBM) in China. We investigated the epidemiology of MACBM in 10075 3-11 years old children in Beijing Western District by random sampling. MACBM was confined to cross-bite malocclusions of (not including cross-bite on one side or on one individual tooth). The procedure of sampling was general survey in kindergarten and primary school, then the meeting of parents of suffering children, followed by checking their name, sex, age, cause, feed, bad habit and history of family in each teeth-age group (baby teeth group, the first stage group and later stage group of substituting teeth). All data were calculated by statistical analysis and T-Test. The statistical data showed that in the sample of 10,075 children the incidence of MACBM was 5.04% (the rate of male was 5.73%; the female 4.32%); the baby teeth stage group 7.15%; the first stage of substituting teeth group 5.74%; the later stage 2.99%. One third of suffering children were caused by genetic factor. Two third were acquired. Among those postnatal caused, which was ground insufficient was the main cause (31.1) 17.9% and 14.5% of suffering children were caused by bad habits and bad feeding posture, respectively. It is worth paying attention to the fact that only 2% of suffering children went to see dentists and no one of 119 cases of baby teeth stage was treated by a orthodontists in the place like Beijing Western District where the medical conditions and cultural background are much better than other places in China.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Psychiatric epidemiology in India.

    PubMed

    Math, Suresh Bada; Chandrashekar, C R; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2007-09-01

    Epidemiological studies report prevalence rates for psychiatric disorders from 9.5 to 370/1000 populations in India. This review critically evaluates the prevalence rate of mental disorders as reported in Indian epidemiological studies. Extensive search of PubMed, NeuroMed and MEDLARS using search terms "psychiatry" and "epidemiology" was done. Manual search of literature was also done. Retrieved articles were systematically selected using inclusion and exclusion criteria. Only sixteen prevalence studies fulfilled the study criteria. Most of the epidemiological studies done in India neglected anxiety disorders, substance dependence disorders, co-morbidity and dual diagnosis. The use of poor sensitive screening instruments, single informant and systematic underreporting has added to the discrepancy in the prevalence rate. The prevalence of mental disorders reported in epidemiological surveys can be considered lower estimates rather than accurate reflections of the true prevalence in the population. Researchers have focused on broad non-specific, non-modifiable risk factors, such as age, gender and social class. Future research focused on the general population, longitudinal (prospective), multi-centre, co-morbid studies, assessment of disability, functioning, family burden and quality of life studies involving a clinical service providing approach, is required.

  16. Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis: a monthly abstract journal. Abstracts 1-225

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.M..

    1983-01-01

    Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA), while embracing all phases of energy analysis and development, is limited primarily to nontechnological or quasitechnological articles or reports having significant reference value. This selectivity in scope and coverage of EAPA is effected to emphasize the following: programmatic efforts; policy, legislative, and regulatory aspects; social, economic, and environmental impacts; regional and sectoral analyses, institutional factors, etc. Selection for EAPA is based strictly on content (substantive articles) and is made from Congressional committee prints; federal agency and department reports; regional commission and state and local government reports; periodicals, including trade journals and newsweeklies; conference proceedingsmore » and/or conference papers; books, including manuals, directories, encyclopedias, etc.; and documents from industrial firms, private institutes and foundations, educational institutions, societies, associations, etc. EAPA is available to DOE offices and contractors on request, and on an exchange basis to universities, research institutions, industrial firms, and publishers of energy information. Inquiries should be directed to the Technical Information Center, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830. EAPA is available to the public on a subscription basis from the Superintendent of Documents, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. The subscription rate for the 12 monthly issues plus the annual index is $70.00 for domestic subscribers and $87.50 for subscribers outside the North American continent.« less

  17. Evaluation and Application of Alternative Air Pollution Exposure Metrics in Air Pollution Epidemiology Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: Periodic review, revision and subsequent implementation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for criteria air pollutants rely upon various types of scientific air quality, exposure, toxicological dose-response and epidemiological information. Exposure assessmen...

  18. Genetic background of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Obermayer-Pietsch, B; Chararas, C; Kotschan, S; Walter, D; Leb, G

    2000-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic disorder of decreased skeletal mass as measured by bone mineral density (BMD), and disturbed skeletal architecture and function which results in an increased risk for bone fractures with consecutively increased morbidity and mortality. Twin and family studies have shown an important genetic component of BMD of about 40-60%. This exceeds other well known factors influencing BMD such as environmental factors like dietary calcium, physical activity or several drugs and diseases. Therefore, interest increased in the genetic background of bone mineral density. Polymorphisms of the Vitamin D receptor gene were the first to be published in this area. Studies on other loci or candidate genes such as the estrogen receptor gene or the collagen type I alpha1 gene also showed associations with bone mineral density that could explain at least a part of the genetic background of osteoporosis. Recently published data suggest that these genetic markers of bone metabolism are important in interaction with each other or in certain bone-affecting diseases. In the future, genetic studies on osteoporosis will have to screen further relevant genes and markers for bone metabolism as well as to evaluate the complex interactions of genetic influences, so that it would be possible to calculate a patient's individual risk for osteoporosis in the context of environmental influences.

  19. Abstraction and reformulation in artificial intelligence.

    PubMed Central

    Holte, Robert C.; Choueiry, Berthe Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper contributes in two ways to the aims of this special issue on abstraction. The first is to show that there are compelling reasons motivating the use of abstraction in the purely computational realm of artificial intelligence. The second is to contribute to the overall discussion of the nature of abstraction by providing examples of the abstraction processes currently used in artificial intelligence. Although each type of abstraction is specific to a somewhat narrow context, it is hoped that collectively they illustrate the richness and variety of abstraction in its fullest sense. PMID:12903653

  20. Abstraction and reformulation in artificial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Holte, Robert C; Choueiry, Berthe Y

    2003-07-29

    This paper contributes in two ways to the aims of this special issue on abstraction. The first is to show that there are compelling reasons motivating the use of abstraction in the purely computational realm of artificial intelligence. The second is to contribute to the overall discussion of the nature of abstraction by providing examples of the abstraction processes currently used in artificial intelligence. Although each type of abstraction is specific to a somewhat narrow context, it is hoped that collectively they illustrate the richness and variety of abstraction in its fullest sense.

  1. Geophysical abstracts 167, October-December 1956

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rabbitt, Mary C.; Vitaliano, Dorothy B.; Vesselowsky, S.T.; ,

    1956-01-01

    Geophysical Abstracts includes abstracts of technical papers and books on the physics of the solid earth, the application of physical methods and techniques to geologic problems, and geophysical exploration. The table of contents, which is alphabetically arranged, shows the material covered.Abstracts are prepared only of material that is believed to be generally available. Ordinarily abstracts are not published of material with limited circulation (such as dissertations, open-file reports, or memoranda) or of other papers presented orally at meetings unless summaries of substantial length are published. Abstracts of papers in Japanese and Chinese are based on abstracts or summaries in a western language accompanying the paper.

  2. Geophysical abstracts 164, January-March 1956

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rabbitt, Mary C.; Vitaliano, Dorothy B.; Vesselowsky, S.T.; ,

    1956-01-01

    Geophysical Abstracts includes abstracts of technical papers and books on the physics of the solid earth, the application of physical methods and techniques to geologic problems, and geophysical exploration. A new table of contents, alphabetically arranged, has been adapted to show more clearly the material covered.Abstracts are prepared only of material that is believed to be generally available. Ordinarily abstracts are not published of material with limited circulation (such as dissertations, open-file reports, or memoranda) or of papers presented orally at meetings unless summaries of substantial length are published. Abstracts of papers in Japanese and Chinese are based on abstracts or summaries in a western language accompanying the paper.

  3. Geophysical abstracts 166, July-September 1956

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rabbitt, Mary C.; Vitaliano, Dorothy B.; Vesselowsky, S.T.; ,

    1956-01-01

    Geophysical Abstracts includes abstracts of technical papers and books on the physics of the solid earth, the application of physical methods and techniques to geologic problems, and geophysical exploration. The table of contents, which is alphabetically arranged, shows the material covered.Abstracts are prepared only of material that is believed to be generally available. Ordinarily abstracts are not published of material with limited circulation (such as dissertations, open-file reports, or memoranda) or of other papers presented orally at meetings unless summaries of substantial length are published. Abstracts of papers in Japanese and Chinese are based on abstracts or summaries in a western language accompanying the paper.

  4. Geophysical abstracts 165, April-June 1956

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rabbitt, Mary C.; Vitaliano, Dorothy B.; Vesselowsky, S.T.; ,

    1956-01-01

    Geophysical Abstracts includes abstracts of technical papers and books on the physics of the solid earth, the application of physical methods and techniques to geologic problems, and geophysical exploration. The table of contents, which is alphabetically arranged, shows the material covered.Abstracts are prepared only of material that is believed to be generally available. Ordinarily abstracts are not published of material with limited circulation (such as dissertations, open-file reports, or memoranda) or of other papers presented orally at meetings unless summaries of substantial length are published. Abstracts of papers in Japanese and Chinese are based on abstracts or summaries in a western language accompanying the paper.

  5. Against Popperized epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, M

    1976-03-01

    The recommendation of Popper's philosophy of science should be adopted by epidemiologists is disputed. Reference is made to other authors who have shown that the most constructive elements in Popper's ideas have been advocated by earlier philosophers and have been used in epidemiology without abandoning inductive reasoning. It is argued that Popper's denigration of inductive methods is particularly harmful to epidemiology. Inductive reasoning and statistical inference play a key role in the science; it is suggested that unfamiliarity with these ideas contributes to widespread misunderstanding of the function of epidemiology. Attention is drawn to a common fallacy involving correlations between three random variables. The prevalence of the fallacy may be related to confusion between deductive and inductive logic.

  6. Scientific meeting abstracts: significance, access, and trends.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, J A

    1998-01-01

    Abstracts of scientific papers and posters that are presented at annual scientific meetings of professional societies are part of the broader category of conference literature. They are an important avenue for the dissemination of current data. While timely and succinct, these abstracts present problems such as an abbreviated peer review and incomplete bibliographic access. METHODS: Seventy societies of health sciences professionals were surveyed about the publication of abstracts from their annual meetings. Nineteen frequently cited journals also were contacted about their policies on the citation of meeting abstracts. Ten databases were searched for the presence of meetings abstracts. RESULTS: Ninety percent of the seventy societies publish their abstracts, with nearly half appearing in the society's journal. Seventy-seven percent of the societies supply meeting attendees with a copy of each abstract, and 43% make their abstracts available in an electronic format. Most of the journals surveyed allow meeting abstracts to be cited. Bibliographic access to these abstracts does not appear to be widespread. CONCLUSIONS: Meeting abstracts play an important role in the dissemination of scientific knowledge. Bibliographic access to meeting abstracts is very limited. The trend toward making meeting abstracts available via the Internet has the potential to give a broader audience access to the information they contain. PMID:9549015

  7. Causality in cancer epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Lagiou, Pagona; Adami, Hans-Olov; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios

    2005-01-01

    In this review, issues of causality in epidemiologic research with emphasis on the aetiology of human cancer are considered. Principles of assessing causation in epidemiological studies of cancer are distinguished into those concerning an individual study, several studies and a particular person. Strengths and weaknesses of various approaches of documenting carcinogenicity in humans are examined and lists of major established causes of human cancer are presented. The review concludes with estimates of mortality from cancer around the world that can be attributed to specific factors under the light of the current scientific knowledge.

  8. Development and evaluation of a quality score for abstracts

    PubMed Central

    Timmer, Antje; Sutherland, Lloyd R; Hilsden, Robert J

    2003-01-01

    Background The evaluation of abstracts for scientific meetings has been shown to suffer from poor inter observer reliability. A measure was developed to assess the formal quality of abstract submissions in a standardized way. Methods Item selection was based on scoring systems for full reports, taking into account published guidelines for structured abstracts. Interrater agreement was examined using a random sample of submissions to the American Gastroenterological Association, stratified for research type (n = 100, 1992–1995). For construct validity, the association of formal quality with acceptance for presentation was examined. A questionnaire to expert reviewers evaluated sensibility items, such as ease of use and comprehensiveness. Results The index comprised 19 items. The summary quality scores showed good interrater agreement (intra class coefficient 0.60 – 0.81). Good abstract quality was associated with abstract acceptance for presentation at the meeting. The instrument was found to be acceptable by expert reviewers. Conclusion A quality index was developed for the evaluation of scientific meeting abstracts which was shown to be reliable, valid and useful. PMID:12581457

  9. Modelling of celestial backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, Duncan L.; Smith, Moira I.; Lim, Jae-Wan; Jeon, Yun-Ho

    2018-05-01

    For applications where a sensor's image includes the celestial background, stars and Solar System Bodies compromise the ability of the sensor system to correctly classify a target. Such false targets are particularly significant for the detection of weak target signatures which only have a small relative angular motion. The detection of celestial features is well established in the visible spectral band. However, given the increasing sensitivity and low noise afforded by emergent infrared focal plane array technology together with larger and more efficient optics, the signatures of celestial features can also impact performance at infrared wavelengths. A methodology has been developed which allows the rapid generation of celestial signatures in any required spectral band using star data from star catalogues and other open-source information. Within this paper, the radiometric calculations are presented to determine the irradiance values of stars and planets in any spectral band.

  10. The globalization of epidemiology: introductory remarks.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Neil

    2004-10-01

    We are all living in the era of globalization, and like it or not, it is going to change the way we practice epidemiology, the kinds of questions we ask, and the methods we use to answer them. Increasingly, pubic health problems are being shifted from rich countries to poor countries and from rich to poor populations within Western countries. There is increasing interest and concern about the situation in non-Western populations on the part of Western epidemiologists, with regards to collaborative research, skills transfer, and 'volunteerism' to enable the 'benefits' of Western approaches to epidemiology to be shared by the non-Western world. However, most existing collaborations benefit Western epidemiologists rather than the countries in which the research is conducted. Even when research in non-Western populations is conducted as a genuine collaboration, it can too often 'export failure' from the West. On the other hand, non-Western epidemiologists are increasingly developing new and innovative approaches to health research that are more appropriate to the global public health issues they are addressing. These include recognition of the importance of context and the importance of diversity and local knowledge, and a problem-based approach to addressing the major public health problems using appropriate technology. These debates formed the background for a plenary session on 'International Epidemiology and International Health' at the recent International Epidemiological Association (IEA) meeting in Montreal, and the papers from this session are presented here. The development of a truly global epidemiology can not only better address the public health problems in non-Western populations, but can shed light on the current limitations of epidemiology in addressing the major public health problems in the West.

  11. Selected abstracts on aviation weather hazard research

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-01-01

    This paper consists of bibliographic information and abstracts for literature on the topics of weather-related aviation hazards. These abstracts were selected from reports written for the ASR-9, ITWS, TDWR programs, sponsored by the Federal Aviation ...

  12. The Abstraction Process of Limit Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sezgin Memnun, Dilek; Aydin, Bünyamin; Özbilen, Ömer; Erdogan, Günes

    2017-01-01

    The RBC+C abstraction model is an effective model in mathematics education because it gives the opportunity to analyze research data through cognitive actions. For this reason, we aim to examine the abstraction process of the limit knowledge of two volunteer participant students using the RBC+C abstraction model. With this aim, the students'…

  13. Writing a Structured Abstract for the Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's suggestions on how to improve thesis abstracts. The author describes two books on writing abstracts: (1) "Creating Effective Conference Abstracts and Posters in Biomedicine: 500 tips for Success" (Fraser, Fuller & Hutber, 2009), a compendium of clear advice--a must book to have in one's hand as one prepares a…

  14. Tips to Understanding and Writing Manuscript Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plakhotnik, Maria S.

    2017-01-01

    An abstract represents a short summary of key elements of the manuscript. The purpose of this essay is to discuss the function, contents, and types of manuscript abstracts. The essay concludes with a few tips for authors to writing effective abstracts.

  15. [Toxoplasmosis: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment].

    PubMed

    Khryanin, A A; Reshetnikov, O V; Kuvshinova, I N

    2015-01-01

    The up-to-date literature and original data on the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis are presented. Particular attention is paid to the parasite infection during pregnancy. Spiramycin is the drug of choice for acute toxoplasmosis in pregnant women.

  16. Phylogenetically resolving epidemiologic linkage

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; Bulla, Ingo; Leitner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Although the use of phylogenetic trees in epidemiological investigations has become commonplace, their epidemiological interpretation has not been systematically evaluated. Here, we use an HIV-1 within-host coalescent model to probabilistically evaluate transmission histories of two epidemiologically linked hosts. Previous critique of phylogenetic reconstruction has claimed that direction of transmission is difficult to infer, and that the existence of unsampled intermediary links or common sources can never be excluded. The phylogenetic relationship between the HIV populations of epidemiologically linked hosts can be classified into six types of trees, based on cladistic relationships and whether the reconstruction is consistent with the true transmission history or not. We show that the direction of transmission and whether unsampled intermediary links or common sources existed make very different predictions about expected phylogenetic relationships: (i) Direction of transmission can often be established when paraphyly exists, (ii) intermediary links can be excluded when multiple lineages were transmitted, and (iii) when the sampled individuals’ HIV populations both are monophyletic a common source was likely the origin. Inconsistent results, suggesting the wrong transmission direction, were generally rare. In addition, the expected tree topology also depends on the number of transmitted lineages, the sample size, the time of the sample relative to transmission, and how fast the diversity increases after infection. Typically, 20 or more sequences per subject give robust results. We confirm our theoretical evaluations with analyses of real transmission histories and discuss how our findings should aid in interpreting phylogenetic results. PMID:26903617

  17. Translational Epidemiology in Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Weissman, Myrna M.; Brown, Alan S.; Talati, Ardesheer

    2012-01-01

    Translational research generally refers to the application of knowledge generated by advances in basic sciences research translated into new approaches for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disease. This direction is called bench-to-bedside. Psychiatry has similarly emphasized the basic sciences as the starting point of translational research. This article introduces the term translational epidemiology for psychiatry research as a bidirectional concept in which the knowledge generated from the bedside or the population can also be translated to the benches of laboratory science. Epidemiologic studies are primarily observational but can generate representative samples, novel designs, and hypotheses that can be translated into more tractable experimental approaches in the clinical and basic sciences. This bedside-to-bench concept has not been explicated in psychiatry, although there are an increasing number of examples in the research literature. This article describes selected epidemiologic designs, providing examples and opportunities for translational research from community surveys and prospective, birth cohort, and family-based designs. Rapid developments in informatics, emphases on large sample collection for genetic and biomarker studies, and interest in personalized medicine—which requires information on relative and absolute risk factors—make this topic timely. The approach described has implications for providing fresh metaphors to communicate complex issues in interdisciplinary collaborations and for training in epidemiology and other sciences in psychiatry. PMID:21646577

  18. Triangulation in aetiological epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, Debbie A; Tilling, Kate; Davey Smith, George

    2016-12-01

    Triangulation is the practice of obtaining more reliable answers to research questions through integrating results from several different approaches, where each approach has different key sources of potential bias that are unrelated to each other. With respect to causal questions in aetiological epidemiology, if the results of different approaches all point to the same conclusion, this strengthens confidence in the finding. This is particularly the case when the key sources of bias of some of the approaches would predict that findings would point in opposite directions if they were due to such biases. Where there are inconsistencies, understanding the key sources of bias of each approach can help to identify what further research is required to address the causal question. The aim of this paper is to illustrate how triangulation might be used to improve causal inference in aetiological epidemiology. We propose a minimum set of criteria for use in triangulation in aetiological epidemiology, summarize the key sources of bias of several approaches and describe how these might be integrated within a triangulation framework. We emphasize the importance of being explicit about the expected direction of bias within each approach, whenever this is possible, and seeking to identify approaches that would be expected to bias the true causal effect in different directions. We also note the importance, when comparing results, of taking account of differences in the duration and timing of exposures. We provide three examples to illustrate these points. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  19. Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, C. David

    1988-01-01

    Reviews epidemiological studies of cardiovascular diseases especially coronary heart disease (CHD), to document their major public health importance, changes in mortality during this century, and international comparisons of trends. Finds major risk factors for CHD are determined in large part by psychosocial and behavioral mechanisms. Asserts…

  20. Phylogenetically resolving epidemiologic linkage

    DOE PAGES

    Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; Bulla, Ingo; Leitner, Thomas

    2016-02-22

    The use of phylogenetic trees in epidemiological investigations has become commonplace, but their epidemiological interpretation has not been systematically evaluated. Here, we use an HIV-1 within-host coalescent model to probabilistically evaluate transmission histories of two epidemiologically linked hosts. Previous critique of phylogenetic reconstruction has claimed that direction of transmission is difficult to infer, and that the existence of unsampled intermediary links or common sources can never be excluded. The phylogenetic relationship between the HIV populations of epidemiologically linked hosts can be classified into six types of trees, based on cladistic relationships and whether the reconstruction is consistent with the truemore » transmission history or not. We show that the direction of transmission and whether unsampled intermediary links or common sources existed make very different predictions about expected phylogenetic relationships: (i) Direction of transmission can often be established when paraphyly exists, (ii) intermediary links can be excluded when multiple lineages were transmitted, and (iii) when the sampled individuals’ HIV populations both are monophyletic a common source was likely the origin. Inconsistent results, suggesting the wrong transmission direction, were generally rare. In addition, the expected tree topology also depends on the number of transmitted lineages, the sample size, the time of the sample relative to transmission, and how fast the diversity increases after infection. Typically, 20 or more sequences per subject give robust results. Moreover, we confirm our theoretical evaluations with analyses of real transmission histories and discuss how our findings should aid in interpreting phylogenetic results.« less

  1. Epidemiology of Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Stephanie L.; Allen, Emily G.; Bean, Lora H.; Freeman, Sallie B.

    2007-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most commonly identified genetic form of mental retardation and the leading cause of specific birth defects and medical conditions. Traditional epidemiological studies to determine the prevalence, cause, and clinical significance of the syndrome have been conducted over the last 100 years. DS has been estimated to occur…

  2. 2013 SYR Accepted Poster Abstracts.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    SYR 2013 Accepted Poster abstracts: 1. Benefits of Yoga as a Wellness Practice in a Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care Setting: If You Build It, Will They Come? 2. Yoga-based Psychotherapy Group With Urban Youth Exposed to Trauma. 3. Embodied Health: The Effects of a Mind�Body Course for Medical Students. 4. Interoceptive Awareness and Vegetable Intake After a Yoga and Stress Management Intervention. 5. Yoga Reduces Performance Anxiety in Adolescent Musicians. 6. Designing and Implementing a Therapeutic Yoga Program for Older Women With Knee Osteoarthritis. 7. Yoga and Life Skills Eating Disorder Prevention Among 5th Grade Females: A Controlled Trial. 8. A Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing the Impact of Yoga and Physical Education on the Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Middle School Children. 9. Feasibility of a Multisite, Community based Randomized Study of Yoga and Wellness Education for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy. 10. A Delphi Study for the Development of Protocol Guidelines for Yoga Interventions in Mental Health. 11. Impact Investigation of Breathwalk Daily Practice: Canada�India Collaborative Study. 12. Yoga Improves Distress, Fatigue, and Insomnia in Older Veteran Cancer Survivors: Results of a Pilot Study. 13. Assessment of Kundalini Mantra and Meditation as an Adjunctive Treatment With Mental Health Consumers. 14. Kundalini Yoga Therapy Versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Co-Occurring Mood Disorder. 15. Baseline Differences in Women Versus Men Initiating Yoga Programs to Aid Smoking Cessation: Quitting in Balance Versus QuitStrong. 16. Pranayam Practice: Impact on Focus and Everyday Life of Work and Relationships. 17. Participation in a Tailored Yoga Program is Associated With Improved Physical Health in Persons With Arthritis. 18. Effects of Yoga on Blood Pressure: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 19. A Quasi-experimental Trial of a Yoga based Intervention to Reduce Stress and

  3. Biological aerosol background characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blatny, Janet; Fountain, Augustus W., III

    2011-05-01

    To provide useful information during military operations, or as part of other security situations, a biological aerosol detector has to respond within seconds or minutes to an attack by virulent biological agents, and with low false alarms. Within this time frame, measuring virulence of a known microorganism is extremely difficult, especially if the microorganism is of unknown antigenic or nucleic acid properties. Measuring "live" characteristics of an organism directly is not generally an option, yet only viable organisms are potentially infectious. Fluorescence based instruments have been designed to optically determine if aerosol particles have viability characteristics. Still, such commercially available biological aerosol detection equipment needs to be improved for their use in military and civil applications. Air has an endogenous population of microorganisms that may interfere with alarm software technologies. To design robust algorithms, a comprehensive knowledge of the airborne biological background content is essential. For this reason, there is a need to study ambient live bacterial populations in as many locations as possible. Doing so will permit collection of data to define diverse biological characteristics that in turn can be used to fine tune alarm algorithms. To avoid false alarms, improving software technologies for biological detectors is a crucial feature requiring considerations of various parameters that can be applied to suppress alarm triggers. This NATO Task Group will aim for developing reference methods for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to improve alarm algorithms for biological detection. Additionally, they will focus on developing reference standard methodology for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to reduce false alarm rates.

  4. Causation in epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Parascandola, M; Weed, D

    2001-01-01

    Causation is an essential concept in epidemiology, yet there is no single, clearly articulated definition for the discipline. From a systematic review of the literature, five categories can be delineated: production, necessary and sufficient, sufficient-component, counterfactual, and probabilistic. Strengths and weaknesses of these categories are examined in terms of proposed characteristics of a useful scientific definition of causation: it must be specific enough to distinguish causation from mere correlation, but not so narrow as to eliminate apparent causal phenomena from consideration. Two categories—production and counterfactual—are present in any definition of causation but are not themselves sufficient as definitions. The necessary and sufficient cause definition assumes that all causes are deterministic. The sufficient-component cause definition attempts to explain probabilistic phenomena via unknown component causes. Thus, on both of these views, heavy smoking can be cited as a cause of lung cancer only when the existence of unknown deterministic variables is assumed. The probabilistic definition, however, avoids these assumptions and appears to best fit the characteristics of a useful definition of causation. It is also concluded that the probabilistic definition is consistent with scientific and public health goals of epidemiology. In debates in the literature over these goals, proponents of epidemiology as pure science tend to favour a narrower deterministic notion of causation models while proponents of epidemiology as public health tend to favour a probabilistic view. The authors argue that a single definition of causation for the discipline should be and is consistent with both of these aims. It is concluded that a counterfactually-based probabilistic definition is more amenable to the quantitative tools of epidemiology, is consistent with both deterministic and probabilistic phenomena, and serves equally well for the acquisition and the

  5. Note on bouncing backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Haro, Jaume; Pan, Supriya

    2018-05-01

    The theory of inflation is one of the fundamental and revolutionary developments of modern cosmology that became able to explain many issues of the early Universe in the context of the standard cosmological model (SCM). However, the initial singularity of the Universe, where physics is indefinite, is still obscure in the combined SCM +inflation scenario. An alternative to SCM +inflation without the initial singularity is thus always welcome, and bouncing cosmology is an attempt at that. The current work is thus motivated to investigate the bouncing solutions in modified gravity theories when the background universe is described by the spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) geometry. We show that the simplest way to obtain the bouncing cosmologies in such spacetime is to consider some kind of Lagrangian whose gravitational sector depends only on the square of the Hubble parameter of the FLRW universe. For these modified Lagrangians, the corresponding Friedmann equation, a constraint in the dynamics of the Universe, depicts a curve in the phase space (H ,ρ ), where H is the Hubble parameter and ρ is the energy density of the Universe. As a consequence, a bouncing cosmology is obtained when this curve is closed and crosses the axis H =0 at least twice, and whose simplest particular example is the ellipse depicting the well-known holonomy corrected Friedmann equation in loop quantum cosmology (LQC). Sometimes, a crucial point in such theories is the appearance of the Ostrogradski instability at the perturbative level; however, fortunately enough, in the present work, as long as the linear level of perturbations is concerned, this instability does not appear, although it may appear at the higher order of perturbations.

  6. The Training of Epidemiologists and Diversity in Epidemiology: Findings from the 2006 Congress of Epidemiology Survey

    PubMed Central

    Carter-Pokras, Olivia D.; Spirtas, Robert; Bethune, Lisa; Mays, Vickie; Freeman, Vincent L.; Cozier, Yvette C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In the past decade, we have witnessed increasing numbers of individuals entering the field of epidemiology. With the increase also has come a diversity of training and paths by which individuals entered the field. The purpose of this survey was characterization of the epidemiology workforce, its job diversity, and continuing education needs. Methods The Minority Affairs and Membership committees of the American College of Epidemiology (ACE) prepared and administered a workforce survey to identify racial/ethnic diversity, demographic background, workplace type, credentials, income, subspecialties, and continuing education needs of epidemiologists. The survey was self-administered to attendees of the Second North American Congress of Epidemiology in June 2006. Results A sample of 397 respondents of the 1348 registered for the Congress was captured (29.5% response). Epidemiologists who participated were from 36 states and 18 countries; 54.6% were trained at the doctoral level; 19.1% earned $120,001 or more a year. A wide range of epidemiology subspecialties and continuing education needs were identified. Conclusions This preliminary snapshot of epidemiologists indicates a wide range of training mechanisms, workplace sites, and subspecialties. Results indicate a need for examination of the core graduate training needs of epidemiologist as well as responding to desired professional development needs through the provision of continuing educations efforts. PMID:19344867

  7. Is searching full text more effective than searching abstracts?

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jimmy

    2009-01-01

    Background With the growing availability of full-text articles online, scientists and other consumers of the life sciences literature now have the ability to go beyond searching bibliographic records (title, abstract, metadata) to directly access full-text content. Motivated by this emerging trend, I posed the following question: is searching full text more effective than searching abstracts? This question is answered by comparing text retrieval algorithms on MEDLINE® abstracts, full-text articles, and spans (paragraphs) within full-text articles using data from the TREC 2007 genomics track evaluation. Two retrieval models are examined: bm25 and the ranking algorithm implemented in the open-source Lucene search engine. Results Experiments show that treating an entire article as an indexing unit does not consistently yield higher effectiveness compared to abstract-only search. However, retrieval based on spans, or paragraphs-sized segments of full-text articles, consistently outperforms abstract-only search. Results suggest that highest overall effectiveness may be achieved by combining evidence from spans and full articles. Conclusion Users searching full text are more likely to find relevant articles than searching only abstracts. This finding affirms the value of full text collections for text retrieval and provides a starting point for future work in exploring algorithms that take advantage of rapidly-growing digital archives. Experimental results also highlight the need to develop distributed text retrieval algorithms, since full-text articles are significantly longer than abstracts and may require the computational resources of multiple machines in a cluster. The MapReduce programming model provides a convenient framework for organizing such computations. PMID:19192280

  8. Epidemiology of Gout

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyon

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Gout is the most prevalent inflammatory arthritis in men. The findings of several epidemiological studies from a diverse range of countries suggest that the prevalence of gout has risen over the last few decades. Whilst incidence data are scarce, data from the US suggests that the incidence of gout is also rising. Evidence from prospective epidemiological studies has confirmed dietary factors (animal purines, alcohol and fructose), obesity, the metabolic syndrome, hypertension, diuretic use, and chronic kidney disease as clinically relevant risk factors for hyperuricemia and gout. Low-fat dairy products, coffee, and vitamin C appear to have a protective effect. Further prospective studies are required to examine other proposed risk factors for hyperuricaemia and gout such as the use of β-blockers and angiotension-II receptor antagonists (other than losartan), obstructive sleep apnoea, and osteoarthritis, and putative protective factors such as calcium-channel blockers and losartan. PMID:24703341

  9. Epidemiology of lyme borreliosis.

    PubMed

    Hubálek, Zdenek

    2009-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most frequent ixodid tick-borne human disease in the world, with an estimated 85,500 patients annually (underlying data presented in this review: Europe 65,500, North America 16,500, Asia 3,500, North Africa 10; approximate figures). This chapter summarizes the up-to-date knowledge about facts and factors important in the epidemiology of LB all over the world. Individual sections briefly describe geographic (latitudinal and altitudinal) distribution and incidence rates of LB in individual countries; seasonal distribution of the disease; effects of patients' age, sex, and profession; comparison of urban versus rural settings; weather-related effects on LB incidence; risk factors for LB acquisition by humans; and risk assessment. This chapter finishes by recommending a more thorough epidemiological surveillance for LB, including morbidity notification in some additional countries where it has not yet been fully implemented. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Epidemiology of Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Spoonhower, Kimberly A; Davis, Pamela B

    2016-03-01

    Improved quality of care and rapidly emerging therapeutic strategies to restore chloride transport profoundly impact the epidemiology and pathobiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) in the twenty-first century. CF now serves as a model for chronic illness management, continuous quality improvement via registry data, and a seamless link between basic science research, translational studies, clinical trials, and outcomes research to enable rapid expansion of treatment options. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Worldwide Report, Epidemiology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-09

    would be. In the prevailing climate at least one could imagine a rush for the test by individuals who for reasons that are completely unreasonable...standard model for a control program. Each program must be adapted to the local epidemiological characteristics and the needs and possibilities of the...8217best’ in medical care. The result is an urban-biased, hospital- oriented, curative-care model . The Government of Pakistan has also enhanced his urban

  12. Worldwide Report: Epidemiology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-03

    virus (HAV) infection was studied in a rural production brigade in the suburb of Beijing from June 1982 to June 1983. Four hundred and ninety-one...on Malaria More Tetanus Deaths Joonatic Disease Reported Diarrhea in Kushtia 3 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 - a - BELGIUM Working Group ...on Hepatitis in Recruits (Zhang Xitan, et al.; Beijing JIEFANGJUN YIXUE ZAZHI, No 3, 20 Jun 85) 43 An Epidemiological Study of Viral Hepatitis in

  13. JPRS Report, Epidemiology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-07

    Medical Services. All these efforts have yielded hitherto unknown facts about AIDS some of which include: —Between January and June this year, 1,235...can be adopted. The NAC has a membership drawn from the medical professions including researchers, education, nursing community and epidemiology...who is also the Director of the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), NAC works through four major sub-committees, each carrying out a specific

  14. Seasonal infectious disease epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Grassly, Nicholas C; Fraser, Christophe

    2006-01-01

    Seasonal change in the incidence of infectious diseases is a common phenomenon in both temperate and tropical climates. However, the mechanisms responsible for seasonal disease incidence, and the epidemiological consequences of seasonality, are poorly understood with rare exception. Standard epidemiological theory and concepts such as the basic reproductive number R0 no longer apply, and the implications for interventions that themselves may be periodic, such as pulse vaccination, have not been formally examined. This paper examines the causes and consequences of seasonality, and in so doing derives several new results concerning vaccination strategy and the interpretation of disease outbreak data. It begins with a brief review of published scientific studies in support of different causes of seasonality in infectious diseases of humans, identifying four principal mechanisms and their association with different routes of transmission. It then describes the consequences of seasonality for R0, disease outbreaks, endemic dynamics and persistence. Finally, a mathematical analysis of routine and pulse vaccination programmes for seasonal infections is presented. The synthesis of seasonal infectious disease epidemiology attempted by this paper highlights the need for further empirical and theoretical work. PMID:16959647

  15. Construction of High School Students' Abstraction Levels in Understanding the Concept of Quadrilaterals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budiarto, Mega Teguh; Khabibah, Siti; Setianingsih, Rini

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the abstraction thinking or the vertical reorganization activity of mathematical concepts of high school students while taking account of the abstraction that was constructed earlier, and the socio-cultural background. This study was qualitative in nature with task-based interviews as the method of…

  16. Epidemiology and Epizootiological Investigations of Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses in Kenya

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-30

    1 " EPIDEMIOLOGY AND EPIZOOTICLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF HEMORRHAGIC FEVER VIRUSES IN KENYA ANNUAL REPORT 0PETER M. TUKEI In 00 NMAY 30, 1988...Investigations of Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses in Kenya 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Peter M. Tukei 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Year...etneM’Orwy andidentifY by block jumb. FIELD GROUP j SUB-GROUP j’-1 , Hemorrhagic fever , Epidemiology, Ebola, Filovirus Ub 03 06 13 I I 19. ABSTRACT

  17. Background Light Bluer Than Expected

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-06

    This plot shows data from the Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment, or CIBER, rockets launched in 2010 and 2012. The experiment measures a diffuse glow of infrared light in the sky, known as the cosmic infrared background.

  18. Abstraction in Mathematics and Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchelmore, Michael; White, Paul

    2004-01-01

    It is claimed that, since mathematics is essentially a self-contained system, mathematical objects may best be described as "abstract-apart." On the other hand, fundamental mathematical ideas are closely related to the real world and their learning involves empirical concepts. These concepts may be called "abstract-general" because they embody…

  19. Dissertation Abstracts in Mathematics Education, 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suydam, Marilyn N., Comp.

    The dissertation abstracts in this compilation all appeared in "Dissertation Abstracts International" in 1983. The 300 dissertations cited in the annual listing of research in the July 1984 issue of the "Journal for Research in Mathematics Education" are included, as well as 55 dissertations which were located but could not be…

  20. Third LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Arlene S. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This volume is a compilation of abstracts submitted to the Third Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Post-Retrieval Symposium. The abstracts represent the data analysis of the 57 experiments flown on the LDEF. The experiments include materials, coatings, thermal systems, power and propulsion, science (cosmic ray, interstellar gas, heavy ions, micrometeoroid, etc.), electronics, optics, and life science.

  1. User-Extensible Graphics Using Abstract Structure,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    Flex 6 The Algol68 model of the graphical abstract structure 5 The creation of a PictureDefinition 6 The making of a picture from a PictureDefinition 7...data together with the operations that can be performed on that data. i 7! ś I _ § 4, The Alqol68 model of the graphical abstract structure Every

  2. Feedback Form for the ADS Abstract Service

    Science.gov Websites

    ADS Feedback Form for the ADS Abstract Service Please use this form to report bugs or send comments to the ADS Abstract Project. Thank you for your feedback. ❉ Required field Your Name: ❉ Your E

  3. Title I, Higher Education Act Program Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lorna M., Ed.

    The 1979 edition of the Title I, Higher Education Act Program Abstracts is presented. Directed toward state Title I, HEA administrators, the program abstracts are made available in order to encourage nationwide program replication of those tested and evaluated programs that have been conducted with Title I support by institutions of higher…

  4. National Workplace Literacy Program. 1993 Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Vocational and Adult Education (ED), Washington, DC. National Workplace Literacy Program.

    This publication presents the abstracts of the 57 National Workplace Literacy Program 1993 projects. Each abstract provides the following information: project title; award number; project director; awardee; address; telephone and fax numbers; funds by fiscal year (federal and nonfederal); award period; federal project officer; objectives;…

  5. Interactional Metadiscourse in Research Article Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillaerts, Paul; Van de Velde, Freek

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with interpersonality in research article abstracts analysed in terms of interactional metadiscourse. The evolution in the distribution of three prominent interactional markers comprised in Hyland's (2005a) model, viz. hedges, boosters and attitude markers, is investigated in three decades of abstract writing in the field of…

  6. Developing Creativity and Abstraction in Representing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Creating charts and graphs is all about visual abstraction: the process of representing aspects of data with imagery that can be interpreted by the reader. Children may need help making the link between the "real" and the image. This abstraction can be achieved using symbols, size, colour and position. Where the representation is close to what…

  7. Foundations of the Bandera Abstraction Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatcliff, John; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Robby

    2003-01-01

    Current research is demonstrating that model-checking and other forms of automated finite-state verification can be effective for checking properties of software systems. Due to the exponential costs associated with model-checking, multiple forms of abstraction are often necessary to obtain system models that are tractable for automated checking. The Bandera Tool Set provides multiple forms of automated support for compiling concurrent Java software systems to models that can be supplied to several different model-checking tools. In this paper, we describe the foundations of Bandera's data abstraction mechanism which is used to reduce the cardinality (and the program's state-space) of data domains in software to be model-checked. From a technical standpoint, the form of data abstraction used in Bandera is simple, and it is based on classical presentations of abstract interpretation. We describe the mechanisms that Bandera provides for declaring abstractions, for attaching abstractions to programs, and for generating abstracted programs and properties. The contributions of this work are the design and implementation of various forms of tool support required for effective application of data abstraction to software components written in a programming language like Java which has a rich set of linguistic features.

  8. SEER Abstracting Tool (SEER*Abs)

    Cancer.gov

    With this customizable tool, registrars can collect and store data abstracted from medical records. Download the software and find technical support and reference manuals. SEER*Abs has features for creating records, managing abstracting work and data, accessing reference data, and integrating edits.

  9. Interpreting Abstract Interpretations in Membership Equational Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Rosu, Grigore

    2001-01-01

    We present a logical framework in which abstract interpretations can be naturally specified and then verified. Our approach is based on membership equational logic which extends equational logics by membership axioms, asserting that a term has a certain sort. We represent an abstract interpretation as a membership equational logic specification, usually as an overloaded order-sorted signature with membership axioms. It turns out that, for any term, its least sort over this specification corresponds to its most concrete abstract value. Maude implements membership equational logic and provides mechanisms to calculate the least sort of a term efficiently. We first show how Maude can be used to get prototyping of abstract interpretations "for free." Building on the meta-logic facilities of Maude, we further develop a tool that automatically checks and abstract interpretation against a set of user-defined properties. This can be used to select an appropriate abstract interpretation, to characterize the specified loss of information during abstraction, and to compare different abstractions with each other.

  10. Abstracts of BESRL Research Publications, FY 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Emma E.

    Publications abstracted include Technical Research Reports 1156 and 1157, Technical Research Notes 199 through 210, Research Studies 68-4 through 68-6 and 69-1 through 6910, and Research Memorandums 68-8 through 68-13. Included are descriptions of 19 Work Units covering activities reported in the 33 abstracted publications, a list of regular…

  11. Epidemiology of Postherpetic Neuralgia in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Myong-Joo; Kim, Yeon-Dong; Cheong, Yong-Kwan; Park, Seon-Jeong; Choi, Seung-Won; Hong, Hyon-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a disease entity defined as persistent pain after the acute pain of herpes zoster gradually resolves. It is associated with impaired daily activities, resulting in reduced quality of life. General epidemiological data on PHN is necessary for the effective management. However, data on the epidemiology of PHN in Korea is lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological features of PHN in the general population. We used population-based medical data for 51,448,491 subscribers to the Health Insurance Service in the year of 2013 to analyze of PHN epidemiology in Korea, such as the incidence, regional distribution, seasonal variation, and healthcare resource utilization. Total number of patients and medical cost on PHN were analyzed from 2009 to 2013. Findings indicate that the incidence of PHN in Korea was 2.5 per 1000 person-years, which was strongly correlated with age and sex. There were no differences in seasonal variation or regional distribution. The medical cost increased steadily over the study period. When admitted to general hospitals, patients with PHN were mainly managed in the dermatology and anesthesiology departments. The incidence and prevalence rates of PHN in Koreans appear to be considerably higher compared to those in western populations, while the sex and age predisposition was similar. Considering that the pain associated with PHN can have a marked impact on a patient's quality of life resulting in a medicosocial economic burden, anesthesiology physicians have an important role in primary care in Korea. Future research on the cost-effectiveness of the management of PHN is needed. PMID:27057902

  12. Overview of systematic reviews in allergy epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Genuneit, J; Seibold, A M; Apfelbacher, C J; Konstantinou, G N; Koplin, J J; La Grutta, S; Logan, K; Perkin, M R; Flohr, C

    2017-06-01

    There is a substantial body of evidence on the epidemiology of allergic conditions, which has advanced the understanding of these conditions. We aimed to systematically identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses on the epidemiology of allergic diseases to assess what has been studied comprehensively and what areas might benefit from further research. We searched PubMed and EMBASE up to 12/2014 for systematic reviews on epidemiological research on allergic diseases. We indexed diseases and topics covered and extracted data on the search characteristics of each systematic review. The search resulted in 3991 entries after removing duplicates, plus 20 other items found via references and conference abstracts; 421 systematic reviews were relevant and included in this overview. The majority contained some evidence on asthma (72.9%). Allergic rhinitis, atopic eczema and food hypersensitivity were covered in 15.7%, 24.5% and 9.0%, respectively. Commonly studied risk factors for atopic eczema included dietary and microbial factors, while for asthma, pollution and genetic factors were often investigated in systematic reviews. There was some indication of differing search characteristics across topics. We present a comprehensive overview with an indexed database of published systematic reviews in allergy epidemiology. We believe that this clarifies where most research interest has focussed and which areas could benefit from further research. We propose that this effort is updated every few years to include the most recently published evidence and to extend the search to an even broader list of hypersensitivity/allergic disorders. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Conduct Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder in a National Sample: Developmental Epidemiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maughan, Barbara; Rowe, Richard; Messer, Julie; Goodman, Robert; Meltzer, Howard

    2004-01-01

    Background: Despite an expanding epidemiological evidence base, uncertainties remain over key aspects of the epidemiology of the "antisocial" disorders in childhood and adolescence. Methods: We used cross-sectional data on a nationally representative sample of 10,438 5-15-year-olds drawn from the 1999 British Child Mental Health Survey…

  14. Dual-tracer background subtraction approach for fluorescent molecular tomography

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Robert W.; El-Ghussein, Fadi; Davis, Scott C.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Gunn, Jason R.; Leblond, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Diffuse fluorescence tomography requires high contrast-to-background ratios to accurately reconstruct inclusions of interest. This is a problem when imaging the uptake of fluorescently labeled molecularly targeted tracers in tissue, which can result in high levels of heterogeneously distributed background uptake. We present a dual-tracer background subtraction approach, wherein signal from the uptake of an untargeted tracer is subtracted from targeted tracer signal prior to image reconstruction, resulting in maps of targeted tracer binding. The approach is demonstrated in simulations, a phantom study, and in a mouse glioma imaging study, demonstrating substantial improvement over conventional and homogenous background subtraction image reconstruction approaches. PMID:23292612

  15. Worldwide epidemiology of fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Luiz Paulo

    2013-08-01

    Studying the epidemiology of fibromyalgia (FM) is very important to understand the impact of this disorder on persons, families and society. The recent modified 2010 classification criteria of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), without the need of tender points palpation, allows that larger and nationwide surveys may be done, worldwide. This article reviews the prevalence and incidence studies done in the general population, in several countries/continents, the prevalence of FM in special groups/settings, the association of FM with some sociodemographic characteristics of the population, and the comorbidity of FM with others disorders, especially with headaches.

  16. Epidemiologic research in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A study of epidemiology of respiratory viruses that was begun in the early 1960's is described. Locations selected for the study included a Wisconsin University housing village, a second grade school population, individual volunteers who associated socially, married couples, and the winter-over population at McMurdo Bay and at Scott Base in the Antarctic. It was concluded that most rhinovirus transmission is through aerosolized particles. Air filtration and careful nasal sanitation with virucidal tissues are determined to be effective in blocking rhinovirus transmission and should be useful in both isolated space colonies and in ordinary earth-bound populations.

  17. Global epidemiology of HIV.

    PubMed

    Fettig, Jade; Swaminathan, Mahesh; Murrill, Christopher S; Kaplan, Jonathan E

    2014-09-01

    The number of persons living with HIV worldwide reached approximately 35.3 million in 2012. Meanwhile, AIDS-related deaths and new HIV infections have declined. Much of the increase in HIV prevalence is from rapidly increasing numbers of people on antiretroviral treatment who are now living longer. There is regional variation in epidemiologic patterns, major modes of HIV transmission, and HIV program response. It is important to focus on HIV incidence, rather than prevalence, to provide information about HIV transmission patterns and populations at risk. Expanding HIV treatment will function as a preventive measure through decreasing horizontal and vertical transmission of HIV. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Epidemiology of Posttraumatic Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Abbey C; Hubbard-Turner, Tricia; Wikstrom, Erik A; Palmieri-Smith, Riann M

    2017-06-02

    Osteoarthritis is a leading cause of disability whose prevalence and incidence continue to increase. History of joint injury represents an important risk factor for posttraumatic osteoarthritis and is a significant contributor to the rapidly growing percentage of the population with osteoarthritis. This review will present the epidemiology associated with posttraumatic osteoarthritis, with particular emphasis on the knee and ankle joints. It is important to understand the effect of posttraumatic osteoarthritis on the population so that sufficient resources can be devoted to countering the disease and promoting optimal long-term health for patients after joint injury.

  19. [Epidemiology of refractive errors].

    PubMed

    Wolfram, C

    2017-07-01

    Refractive errors are very common and can lead to severe pathological changes in the eye. This article analyzes the epidemiology of refractive errors in the general population in Germany and worldwide and describes common definitions for refractive errors and clinical characteristics for pathologicaal changes. Refractive errors differ between age groups due to refractive changes during the life time and also due to generation-specific factors. Current research about the etiology of refractive errors has strengthened the influence of environmental factors, which led to new strategies for the prevention of refractive pathologies.

  20. Epidemiology of functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arvind; Pate, Jignesh; Sawant, Prabha

    2012-03-01

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) is the most common cause of dyspeptic symptoms. It refers to a heterogeneous group of symptoms located in the upper abdomen. The prevalence of dyspepsia is variable in different populations and is related to the different definitions of dyspepsia as inclusion criterias, variation in survey population and environmental factors. Epidemiologically some risk factors have been identified and underlying psychological disturbances have been shown to be important factors in FD. Age and ethnicity do not appear to be predictive of dyspepsia. A majority of patients suffering from significant levels of abdominal pain that interrupt daily activities and treatment remains unsatisfactory in this chronic condition.

  1. Mental Subnormality in the Community: A Clinical and Epidemiologic Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Herbert G.; And Others

    The book reports a clinical and epidemiologic study of the prevalence, distribution, and antecedents of mental subnormality in 8 to 10 year old children living in Aberdeen, Scotland (population 187,000). Utilizing three types of data (differential clinical diagnoses, biological background information, and social characteristics), the study…

  2. Abstract Spatial Reasoning as an Autistic Strength

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Jennifer L.; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2013-01-01

    Autistic individuals typically excel on spatial tests that measure abstract reasoning, such as the Block Design subtest on intelligence test batteries and the Raven’s Progressive Matrices nonverbal test of intelligence. Such well-replicated findings suggest that abstract spatial processing is a relative and perhaps absolute strength of autistic individuals. However, previous studies have not systematically varied reasoning level – concrete vs. abstract – and test domain – spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal, which the current study did. Autistic participants (N = 72) and non-autistic participants (N = 72) completed a battery of 12 tests that varied by reasoning level (concrete vs. abstract) and domain (spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal). Autistic participants outperformed non-autistic participants on abstract spatial tests. Non-autistic participants did not outperform autistic participants on any of the three domains (spatial, numerical, and verbal) or at either of the two reasoning levels (concrete and abstract), suggesting similarity in abilities between autistic and non-autistic individuals, with abstract spatial reasoning as an autistic strength. PMID:23533615

  3. Abstraction and model evaluation in category learning.

    PubMed

    Vanpaemel, Wolf; Storms, Gert

    2010-05-01

    Thirty previously published data sets, from seminal category learning tasks, are reanalyzed using the varying abstraction model (VAM). Unlike a prototype-versus-exemplar analysis, which focuses on extreme levels of abstraction only, a VAM analysis also considers the possibility of partial abstraction. Whereas most data sets support no abstraction when only the extreme possibilities are considered, we show that evidence for abstraction can be provided using the broader view on abstraction provided by the VAM. The present results generalize earlier demonstrations of partial abstraction (Vanpaemel & Storms, 2008), in which only a small number of data sets was analyzed. Following the dominant modus operandi in category learning research, Vanpaemel and Storms evaluated the models on their best fit, a practice known to ignore the complexity of the models under consideration. In the present study, in contrast, model evaluation not only relies on the maximal likelihood, but also on the marginal likelihood, which is sensitive to model complexity. Finally, using a large recovery study, it is demonstrated that, across the 30 data sets, complexity differences between the models in the VAM family are small. This indicates that a (computationally challenging) complexity-sensitive model evaluation method is uncalled for, and that the use of a (computationally straightforward) complexity-insensitive model evaluation method is justified.

  4. Epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacteria isolations among central North Carolina residents, 2006-2010

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are environmental mycobacteria associated with a range of infections. Reports of NTM epidemiology have primarily focused on pulmonary infections and isolations, however extrapulmonary infections of the skin, soft tissues and sterile s...

  5. Ecogeographic Genetic Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Chantel D.; Duell, Eric J.; Shi, Xun; Irwin, Rebecca; Andrew, Angeline S.; Williams, Scott M.; Moore, Jason H.

    2009-01-01

    Complex diseases such as cancer and heart disease result from interactions between an individual's genetics and environment, i.e. their human ecology. Rates of complex diseases have consistently demonstrated geographic patterns of incidence, or spatial “clusters” of increased incidence relative to the general population. Likewise, genetic subpopulations and environmental influences are not evenly distributed across space. Merging appropriate methods from genetic epidemiology, ecology and geography will provide a more complete understanding of the spatial interactions between genetics and environment that result in spatial patterning of disease rates. Geographic Information Systems (GIS), which are tools designed specifically for dealing with geographic data and performing spatial analyses to determine their relationship, are key to this kind of data integration. Here the authors introduce a new interdisciplinary paradigm, ecogeographic genetic epidemiology, which uses GIS and spatial statistical analyses to layer genetic subpopulation and environmental data with disease rates and thereby discern the complex gene-environment interactions which result in spatial patterns of incidence. PMID:19025788

  6. Epidemiology of arboviral infections.

    PubMed

    Ansari, M Z; Shope, R E

    1994-01-01

    To review the current state of knowledge regarding the epidemiology of arboviruses. Computerized literature searches, identification of papers through review of article bibliographies, and Yale Arbovirus Research Unit, USA. Articles documenting research pertaining to the epidemiology of arboviruses with emphasis on factors that increase or decrease the spread of these infections. The review articles were extracted independently by the authors. Arboviral infections are a global health problem accounting for significant morbidity and mortality in human and animal populations. They belong to the families Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Bunyaviridae, Reoviridae, and Rhabdoviridae, and are transmitted to humans and domestic animals by the bite of infected arthropods. Rodents and birds are significant vertebrate hosts, while humans are usually not involved in the maintenance and spread of most arboviruses. Ecologic changes and human behavior are important in the spread of these infections. Clinical features range from mild fevers to fatal encephalitis. Surveillance, immunization, and vector control are important methods of prevention. It appears that the distribution and spread of arboviruses is greatly influenced by human behavior and ecologic changes in the environment. Awareness regarding these and other factors, such as travel history, history of bites of arthropods, concurrent epidemic pattern in the community, and knowledge of surveillance data are useful ways of identifying these infections. Future research may be directed toward methodical search for new arboviruses and their relation to human and animal disease.

  7. Global epidemiology of sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Mochizuki, Takashi; Li, Shanshan

    2015-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is an endemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato. It has gained importance in recent years due to its worldwide prevalence, recognition of multiple cryptic species within the originally described species, and its distinctive ecology, distribution, and epidemiology across the globe. In this review, we describe the current knowledge of the taxonomy, ecology, prevalence, molecular epidemiology, and outbreaks due to S. schenckii sensu lato. Despite its omnipresence in the environment, this fungus has remarkably diverse modes of infection and distribution patterns across the world. We have delved into the nuances of how sporotrichosis is intimately linked to different forms of human activities, habitats, lifestyles, and environmental and zoonotic interactions. The purpose of this review is to stimulate discussion about the peculiarities of this unique fungal pathogen and increase the awareness of clinicians and microbiologists, especially in regions of high endemicity, to its emergence and evolving presentations and to kindle further research into understanding the unorthodox mechanisms by which this fungus afflicts different human populations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Epidemiology of scabies.

    PubMed

    Fuller, L Claire

    2013-04-01

    Scabies is a common skin infestation globally, particularly in the developing world. With the launch of the International Alliance for the Control of Scabies (IACS) in 2012, this review aims to present the recent evidence of the current epidemiological situation for scabies across the globe. Mindful of the fact that the downstream complications of scabies infestations, pyoderma, streptococcal glomerulonephritis and subsequent chronic renal impairment and rheumatic fever, have been recognized as being more significant to global health than previously acknowledged, the review focusses also on the epidemiological evidence from developing countries. Scabies occurrence rates vary in the recent literature from 2.71 per 1000 to 46%. Although it is responsible for larger disease burdens and complications such as pyoderma and renal and heart disease in the tropics, scabies outbreaks in the developed world amongst vulnerable communities and health institutions contribute a significant cost to the health services managing them. Scabies remains common across the world, but is such a health issue in the developing world that the suggestion that it be considered a neglected tropical disease is a pertinent one. Standardized diagnostic criteria and even a point-of-care diagnostic test would be a major contribution to the understanding of this epidemic.

  9. Hill's Heuristics and Explanatory Coherentism in Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Dammann, Olaf

    2018-01-01

    In this essay, I argue that Ted Poston's theory of explanatory coherentism is well-suited as a tool for causal explanation in the health sciences, particularly in epidemiology. Coherence has not only played a role in epidemiology for more than half a century as one of Hill's viewpoints, it can also provide background theory for the development of explanatory systems by integrating epidemiologic evidence with a diversity of other error-independent data. I propose that computational formalization of Hill's viewpoints in an explanatory coherentist framework would provide an excellent starting point for a formal epistemological (knowledge-theoretical) project designed to improve causal explanation in the health sciences. As an example, I briefly introduce Paul Thagard's ECHO system and offer my responses to possible objections to my proposal. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Clinical, epidemiological, and therapeutic profile of dermatophytosis*

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Carla Andréa Avelar; da Cruz, Natasha Ferreira Santos; Lobato, Amanda Monteiro; de Sousa, Priscila Oliveira; Carneiro, Francisca Regina Oliveira; Mendes, Alena Margareth Darwich

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The cutaneous mycoses, mainly caused by dermatophyte fungi, are among the most common fungal infections worldwide. It is estimated that 10% to 15% of the population will be infected by a dermatophyte at some point in their lives, thus making this a group of diseases with great public health importance. OBJECTIVE To analyze the clinical, epidemiological, and therapeutic profile of dermatophytosis in patients enrolled at the Dermatology service of Universidade do Estado do Pará, Brazil, from July 2010 to September 2012. METHOD A total of 145 medical records of patients diagnosed with dermatophytosis were surveyed. Data were collected and subsequently recorded according to a protocol developed by the researchers. This protocol consisted of information regarding epidemiological and clinical aspects of the disease and the therapy employed. RESULTS The main clinical form of dermatophyte infection was onychomycosis, followed by tinea corporis, tinea pedis, and tinea capitis. Furthermore, the female population and the age group of 51 to 60 years were the most affected. Regarding therapy, there was a preference for treatments that combine topical and systemic drugs, and the most widely used drugs were fluconazole (systemic) and ciclopirox olamine (topical). CONCLUSION This study showed the importance of recurrent analysis of the epidemiological profile of dermatophytosis to enable correct therapeutic and preventive management of these conditions, which have significant clinical consequences, with chronic, difficult-totreat lesions that can decrease patient quality of life and cause disfigurement. PMID:24770502

  11. Epidemiologic Consequences of Microvariation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Mathema, Barun; Kurepina, Natalia; Yang, Guibin; Shashkina, Elena; Manca, Claudia; Mehaffy, Carolina; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Ahuja, Shama; Fallows, Dorothy A.; Izzo, Angelo; Bifani, Pablo; Dobos, Karen; Kaplan, Gilla

    2012-01-01

    Background. Evidence from genotype-phenotype studies suggests that genetic diversity in pathogens have clinically relevant manifestations that can impact outcome of infection and epidemiologic success. We studied 5 closely related Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains that collectively caused extensive disease (n = 862), particularly among US-born tuberculosis patients. Methods. Representative isolates were selected using population-based genotyping data from New York City and New Jersey. Growth and cytokine/chemokine response were measured in infected human monocytes. Survival was determined in aerosol-infected guinea pigs. Results. Multiple genotyping methods and phylogenetically informative synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms showed that all strains were related by descent. In axenic culture, all strains grew similarly. However, infection of monocytes revealed 2 growth phenotypes, slower (doubling ∼55 hours) and faster (∼25 hours). The faster growing strains elicited more tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 1β than the slower growing strains, even after heat killing, and caused accelerated death of infected guinea pigs (∼9 weeks vs 24 weeks) associated with increased lung inflammation/pathology. Epidemiologically, the faster growing strains were associated with human immunodeficiency virus and more limited in spread, possibly related to their inherent ability to induce a strong protective innate immune response in immune competent hosts. Conclusions. Natural variation, with detectable phenotypic changes, among closely related clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis may alter epidemiologic patterns in human populations. PMID:22315279

  12. ASTRONAUTICS INFORMATION. ABSTRACTS, VOL. V, NO. 3. Abstracts 5,201- 5,330

    SciTech Connect

    Hardgrove, B.J.; Warren, F.L. comps.

    1962-03-01

    Abstracts of astronautics information covering the period March 1962 are presented. The 129 abstracts cover the subject of spaceflight and applicable data and techniques. Author, subject, and source indexes are included. (M.C.G.)

  13. ASTRONAUTICS INFORMATION. Abstracts Vol. III, No. 1. Abstracts 3,082- 3,184

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1961-01-01

    Abstracts are presented on astronautics. The abstracts are generally restricted to spaceflight and to applicable techniques and data. The publication covers the period of January 1961. 102 references. (J.R.D.)

  14. Abstracts of Remediation Case Studies, Volume 9

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report, published by the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR), is a collection of recently published abstracts summarizing 13 cost and performance case studies on the use of remediation technologies at contaminated sites.

  15. The semantic richness of abstract concepts

    PubMed Central

    Recchia, Gabriel; Jones, Michael N.

    2012-01-01

    We contrasted the predictive power of three measures of semantic richness—number of features (NFs), contextual dispersion (CD), and a novel measure of number of semantic neighbors (NSN)—for a large set of concrete and abstract concepts on lexical decision and naming tasks. NSN (but not NF) facilitated processing for abstract concepts, while NF (but not NSN) facilitated processing for the most concrete concepts, consistent with claims that linguistic information is more relevant for abstract concepts in early processing. Additionally, converging evidence from two datasets suggests that when NSN and CD are controlled for, the features that most facilitate processing are those associated with a concept's physical characteristics and real-world contexts. These results suggest that rich linguistic contexts (many semantic neighbors) facilitate early activation of abstract concepts, whereas concrete concepts benefit more from rich physical contexts (many associated objects and locations). PMID:23205008

  16. Abstracts of ARI Research Publications, FY 1979

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    Technical Report 483 ABSTRACTS OF ARI RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS FY 1979 -- C:) U. S . ArmyL.) LAa Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social...U. S . ARMY RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES A Field Operating Agency under the Jurisdiction of the Deputy Chief of Staff...PIEIT’S ATALOG NUMBER Technical Report 483 l L~,2 y. (-P- NUZE 4. TITLE (nd Subtfti.) S . TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED ABSTRACTS OF ARI RESEARCH

  17. 2011 statistical abstract of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krisanda, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    The Statistical Abstract of the United States, published since 1878, is the authoritative and comprehensive summary of statistics on the social, political, and economic organization of the United States.Use the Abstract as a convenient volume for statistical reference, and as a guide to sources of more information both in print and on the Web.Sources of data include the Census Bureau, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bureau of Economic Analysis, and many other Federal agencies and private organizations.

  18. Finding Feasible Abstract Counter-Examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Visser, Willem; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A strength of model checking is its ability to automate the detection of subtle system errors and produce traces that exhibit those errors. Given the high computational cost of model checking most researchers advocate the use of aggressive property-preserving abstractions. Unfortunately, the more aggressively a system is abstracted the more infeasible behavior it will have. Thus, while abstraction enables efficient model checking it also threatens the usefulness of model checking as a defect detection tool, since it may be difficult to determine whether a counter-example is feasible and hence worth developer time to analyze. We have explored several strategies for addressing this problem by extending an explicit-state model checker, Java PathFinder (JPF), to search for and analyze counter-examples in the presence of abstractions. We demonstrate that these techniques effectively preserve the defect detection ability of model checking in the presence of aggressive abstraction by applying them to check properties of several abstracted multi-threaded Java programs. These new capabilities are not specific to JPF and can be easily adapted to other model checking frameworks; we describe how this was done for the Bandera toolset.

  19. Mathematical Abstraction: Constructing Concept of Parallel Coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhasanah, F.; Kusumah, Y. S.; Sabandar, J.; Suryadi, D.

    2017-09-01

    Mathematical abstraction is an important process in teaching and learning mathematics so pre-service mathematics teachers need to understand and experience this process. One of the theoretical-methodological frameworks for studying this process is Abstraction in Context (AiC). Based on this framework, abstraction process comprises of observable epistemic actions, Recognition, Building-With, Construction, and Consolidation called as RBC + C model. This study investigates and analyzes how pre-service mathematics teachers constructed and consolidated concept of Parallel Coordinates in a group discussion. It uses AiC framework for analyzing mathematical abstraction of a group of pre-service teachers consisted of four students in learning Parallel Coordinates concepts. The data were collected through video recording, students’ worksheet, test, and field notes. The result shows that the students’ prior knowledge related to concept of the Cartesian coordinate has significant role in the process of constructing Parallel Coordinates concept as a new knowledge. The consolidation process is influenced by the social interaction between group members. The abstraction process taken place in this group were dominated by empirical abstraction that emphasizes on the aspect of identifying characteristic of manipulated or imagined object during the process of recognizing and building-with.

  20. [Epidemiology of viral hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Kaić, Bernard; Vilibić-Cavlek, Tatjana; Filipović, Sanja Kurecić; Nemeth-Blazić, Tatjana; Pem-Novosel, Iva; Vucina, Vesna Visekruna; Simunović, Aleksandar; Zajec, Martina; Radić, Ivan; Pavlić, Jasmina; Glamocanin, Marica; Gjenero-Margan, Ira

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the country-specific epidemiology of disease, which may vary greatly among countries, is crucial for identifying the most appropriate preventive and control measures. An overview of the local epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Croatia is given in this paper. The overall prevalence of hepatitis B in Croatia is low (less than 2% HBsAg carriers in the general population). Hepatitis B incidence and prevalence began to decline significantly following the introduction of universal hepatitis B vaccination in 1999. Information on HBsAg seroprevalence is derived from routine testing of certain subpopulations (pregnant women, blood donors) and seroprevalence studies mostly targeted at high-risk populations. Universal childhood vaccination against hepatitis B remains the main preventive measure. We recommend testing for immunity one to two months after the third dose of hepatitis B vaccine for health-care workers. The incidence and prevalence of hepatitis C have also been declining in the general population. The main preventive measures are ensuring safety of blood products, prevention of drug abuse, and harm reduction programs for intravenous drug users. Hepatitis A incidence has declined dramatically since fifty years ago, when thousands of cases were reported annually. In the last five years, an average of twenty cases have been reported per year. The reduction of hepatitis A is a consequence of improved personal and community hygiene and sanitation. Hepatitis D has not been reported in Croatia. The risk of hepatitis D will get to be even smaller as the proportion of population vaccinated against hepatitis B builds up. Hepatitis E is reported only sporadically in Croatia, mostly in persons occupationally in contact with pigs and in travelers to endemic countries. In conclusion, Croatia is a low prevalence country for hepatitides A, B and C. Hepatitis D has not been reported to occur in Croatia and there are only sporadic cases of hepatitis E. Since hepatitis

  1. Cancer Epidemiology Data Repository (CEDR)

    Cancer.gov

    In an effort to broaden access and facilitate efficient data sharing, the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) has created the Cancer Epidemiology Data Repository (CEDR), a centralized, controlled-access database, where Investigators can deposit individual-level de-identified observational cancer datasets.

  2. Epidemiology of fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Lily; Buskila, Dan

    2003-10-01

    Chronic widespread pain, the cardinal symptom of fibromyalgia (FM), is common in the general population, with comparable prevalence rates of 7.3% to 12.9% across different countries. The prevalence of FM in the general population was reported to range from 0.5% to 5% and up to 15.7% in the clinic. The common association of FM with other rheumatic disorders, chronic viral infections, and systemic illnesses has been well documented in several studies. Up to 65% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus meet the criteria for FM. FM is considered a member of the family of functional somatic syndromes. These syndromes are very common and share a similar phenomenology, epidemiologic characteristics, high rates of occurrence, a common pathogenesis, and similar management strategies. A high prevalence of FM was demonstrated among relatives of patients with FM and it may be attributed to genetic and environmental factors.

  3. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS

    PubMed Central

    MARTINEZ, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The epidemiological characteristics of paracoccidioidomycosis were reviewed and updated. The new endemic areas in Brazil were discussed in the section regarding the geographic distribution of the mycosis. Subclinical infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis was discussed on the basis of skin test surveys with antigens of the fungus, seroepidemiological studies, and disease cases outside Latin America. Large case series permitted a comparison of the prevalence of the mycosis in different regions, its estimated incidence and risk factors for the development of the disease. Aspects modulating the expression of the clinical forms of paracoccidioidomycosis are also presented. This review also deals with diseases associated with the mycosis, opportunistic paracoccidioidomycosis, lethality, mortality and infection and disease in animals. PMID:26465364

  4. Cholera: current epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Crowcroft, N S

    1994-12-09

    Cholera remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Its epidemiology has changed in the 1990s, with the spread of the seventh pandemic to the western hemisphere and the emergence of a new serogroup, Vibrio cholerae O139. The spread of cholera may be rapid and unpredictable because of aeroplane travel, international shipping, and the migration of people due to war or political unrest. Increasing amounts of largely untreated faeces from growing human populations favour cholera's survival. Most of the world has inadequate sanitation, and future prospects are undermined by the impact of international debt on ailing economies. Furthermore, because cholera is difficult to eradicate from water it is likely to remain a serious threat to public health for some time. Progress is being made in the development of oral vaccines against V. cholerae O1 and serogroup O139.

  5. [Ethics and epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Barata, Rita Barradas

    2005-01-01

    Human actions take place at the confluence of circumstances that require us to discern the proper way to act. Ethics falls within the terrain of practical knowledge, of knowledge about what is contingent. It belongs to the domain of moral judgments or value judgments. The counterpart of disenchantment with our contemporary world lies in an effort to re-establish an interest in ethics. There are basically three orders of relations between public health and human rights: the quest for balance between the collective good and individual rights; methods and techniques for identifying human rights violations and assessing their negative impact; and the tie between protecting individual rights and promoting health. The relationship between ethics and epidemiology goes beyond the ethical aspects involving research on human beings to encompass political commitments, practices within health services, and the production of knowledge.

  6. [Epidemiology of osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Grazio, Simeon

    2006-01-01

    Osteoporosis represents a major and increasing public health problem with the aging of population. Major clinical consequences and economic burden of the disease are fractures. Many risk factors are associated with the fractures including low bone mass, hormonal disorders, personal and family history of fractures, low body weight, use of certain drugs (e.g. glucocorticoids), cigarette smoking, elevated intake of alchohol, low physical activity, insufficient level of vitamin D and low intake of calcium. This epidemiological review describes frequency, importance of risk factors and impact of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. Objective measures of bone mineral density along with clinical assessment of risk factors can help identify patients who will benefit from prevention and intervention efforts and eventually reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with osteoporosis-related fractures.

  7. Genetic Epidemiology of Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rashmi; Debbaneh, Maya G.; Liao, Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory, immune-mediated skin condition with a prevalence of 0-11.8% across the world. It is associated with a number of cardiovascular, metabolic, and autoimmune disease co-morbidities. Psoriasis is a multifactorial disorder, influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Its genetic basis has long been established through twin studies and familial clustering. The association of psoriasis with the HLA-Cw6 allele has been shown in many studies. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified a large number of other genes associated with psoriasis. Many of these genes regulate the innate and adaptive immune system. These findings indicate that a dysregulated immune system may play a major role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. In this article, we review the clinical and genetic epidemiology of psoriasis with a brief description of the pathogenesis of disease. PMID:25580373

  8. [Epidemiology of lung tumors].

    PubMed

    Ott, S; Geiser, T

    2012-07-01

    Approximately one out of 500 chest radiographs shows the incidental finding of a solitary pulmonary nodule and almost one half of these pulmonary lesions are caused by a tumor. Unfortunately, only 2% to 5% of all lung tumors are of benign origin, e. g. lipoma, fibroma, hamartoma, and chondroma, and the majority are malignant neoplasms, most commonly primary lung cancer followed by metastases of extrapulmonary primary carcinomas. Thus, a careful diagnostic work up of solitary pulmonary nodules, including histological diagnosis, is mandatory for an adequate management and treatment of patients with pulmonary lesions. Despite all recent improvements of treatment modalities, lung cancer continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality among malignant diseases worldwide. The prognosis of affected patients is still very poor and a 5-years survival rate of only 14% makes lung cancer the number one cause of death due to cancer in Switzerland. Active and passive tobacco smoking are by far the best known risk factor for the development of lung cancer, but there are severe other probably less known factors that may increase the individual risk for malignant neoplasms of the lung. These risk factors include e. g. exposure to natural ionic radiation, consisting of terrestrial radiation and indoor radiation caused by radon gas, exposure to respirable dust and Diesel engine emissions, asbestos, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In the majority of cases, the latency between exposure and development of cancer is years to decades and the person concerned was occupationally exposed. Therefore, a detailed evaluation of a patient's medical and occupational history is needed. Due to its poor prognosis, prevention and early diagnosis of lung cancer is crucial to improve our patients' outcome. Good knowledge of epidemiology and aetiology of pulmonary tumors is the key to preventive measures and identification of individuals at increased risk for lung cancer. An overview will

  9. SRD5A1 Genetic Variation and Prostate Cancer Epidemiology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    DAMD17-03-1-0136 TITLE: SRD5A1 Genetic Variation and Prostate Cancer Epidemiology PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Troy Phipps...DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 May 2003 – 30 Apr 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER SRD5A1 Genetic Variation and Prostate Cancer...Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The human steroid 5-alpha reductase type I ( SRD5A1 ) gene was sequenced in 101

  10. Epidemiological evidence in forensic pharmacovigilance.

    PubMed

    Persaud, Nav; Healy, David

    2012-01-01

    Until recently epidemiological evidence was not regarded as helpful in determining cause and effect. It generated associations that then had to be explained in terms of bio-mechanisms and applied to individual patients. A series of legal cases surrounding possible birth defects triggered by doxylamine (Bendectin) and connective tissue disorders linked to breast implants made it clear that in some instances epidemiological evidence might have a more important role, but the pendulum swung too far so that epidemiological evidence has in recent decades been given an unwarranted primacy, partly perhaps because it suits the interests of certain stakeholders. Older and more recent epidemiological studies on doxylamine and other antihistamines are reviewed to bring out the ambiguities and pitfalls of an undue reliance on epidemiological studies.

  11. Olfactory language and abstraction across cultures

    PubMed Central

    Burenhult, Niclas; Stensmyr, Marcus; de Valk, Josje; Hansson, Bill S.

    2018-01-01

    Olfaction presents a particularly interesting arena to explore abstraction in language. Like other abstract domains, such as time, odours can be difficult to conceptualize. An odour cannot be seen or held, it can be difficult to locate in space, and for most people odours are difficult to verbalize. On the other hand, odours give rise to primary sensory experiences. Every time we inhale we are using olfaction to make sense of our environment. We present new experimental data from 30 Jahai hunter-gatherers from the Malay Peninsula and 30 matched Dutch participants from the Netherlands in an odour naming experiment. Participants smelled monomolecular odorants and named odours while reaction times, odour descriptors and facial expressions were measured. We show that while Dutch speakers relied on concrete descriptors, i.e. they referred to odour sources (e.g. smells like lemon), the Jahai used abstract vocabulary to name the same odours (e.g. musty). Despite this differential linguistic categorization, analysis of facial expressions showed that the two groups, nevertheless, had the same initial emotional reactions to odours. Critically, these cross-cultural data present a challenge for how to think about abstraction in language. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Varieties of abstract concepts: development, use and representation in the brain’. PMID:29915007

  12. Cannabis Epidemiology: A Selective Review

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, James C.; Lopez-Quintero, Catalina; Alshaarawy, Omayma

    2017-01-01

    Background Globally, the most widely used set of compounds among the internationally regulated drugs is cannabis. Objective To review evidence from epidemiological research on cannabis, organized in relation to this field’s five main rubrics: quantity, location, causes, mechanisms, and prevention/control. Method The review covers a selection of evidence from standardized population surveys, official statistics, and governmental reports, as well as published articles and books identified via MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar as of July 2016. Results In relation to quantity, an estimated 3% to 5% of the world population is thought to have tried a cannabis product, with at least one fairly recent use, mainly extra-medical and outside boundaries of prescribed use. Among cannabis users in the United States, roughly one in 7–8 has engaged in medical marijuana use. In relation to location, prevalence proportions reveal important variations across countries and between subgroups within countries. Regarding causes and mechanisms of starting to use cannabis, there is no compelling integrative and replicable conceptual model or theoretical formulation. Most studies of mechanisms have focused upon a ‘gateway sequence’ and person-to-person diffusion, with some recent work on disability-adjusted life years. A brief review of cannabis use consequences, as well as prevention and control strategies is also provided. Conclusion At present, we know much about the frequency and occurrence of cannabis use, with too little replicable definitive evidence with respect to the other main rubrics. Given a changing regulatory environment for cannabis products, new institutions such as an independent International Cannabis Products Safety Commission may be required to produce evidence required to weigh benefits versus costs. It is not clear that government sponsored research will be sufficient to meet consumer demand for balanced points of view and truly definitive evidence

  13. The failure of academic epidemiology: witness for the prosecution.

    PubMed

    Shy, C M

    1997-03-15

    Academic epidemiology has failed to develop the scientific methods and the knowledge base to support the fundamental public health mission of preventing disease and promoting health through organized community efforts. As a basic science of public health, epidemiology should attempt to understand health and disease from a community and ecologic perspective as a consequence of how society is organized and behaves, what impact social and economic forces have on disease incidence rates, and what community actions will be effective in altering incidence rates. However, as taught in most textbooks and as widely practiced by academicians, epidemiology has become a biomedical discipline focused on the distribution and determinants of disease in groups of individuals who happen to have some common characteristics, exposures, or diseases. The ecology of human health has not been addressed, and the societal context in which disease occurs has been either disregarded or deliberately abstracted from consideration. By essentially assuming that risk factors for disease in individuals can be summed to understand the causes of disease in populations, academic epidemiology has limited itself to a narrow biomedical perspective, thereby committing the bio-medical fallacy of inferring that disease in populations can be understood by studying risk factors for disease in individuals. Epidemiology should be redefined as a study of the distribution and societal determinants of the health status of populations. This definition provides a stronger link to be the primary mission of public health and places an appropriate emphasis on the social, economic, environmental, and cultural determinants of population health. Epidemiology must cross the boundaries of other population sciences and add to its scope a macro-epidemiology, a study of causes from a truly population perspective, considering health and disease within the context of the total human environment.

  14. Information Leakage Analysis by Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanioli, Matteo; Cortesi, Agostino

    Protecting the confidentiality of information stored in a computer system or transmitted over a public network is a relevant problem in computer security. The approach of information flow analysis involves performing a static analysis of the program with the aim of proving that there will not be leaks of sensitive information. In this paper we propose a new domain that combines variable dependency analysis, based on propositional formulas, and variables' value analysis, based on polyhedra. The resulting analysis is strictly more accurate than the state of the art abstract interpretation based analyses for information leakage detection. Its modular construction allows to deal with the tradeoff between efficiency and accuracy by tuning the granularity of the abstraction and the complexity of the abstract operators.

  15. On the Power of Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, Uday S.; Kamin, Samuel N.

    1991-01-01

    Increasingly sophisticated applications of static analysis place increased burden on the reliability of the analysis techniques. Often, the failure of the analysis technique to detect some information my mean that the time or space complexity of the generated code would be altered. Thus, it is important to precisely characterize the power of static analysis techniques. We follow the approach of Selur et. al. who studied the power of strictness analysis techniques. Their result can be summarized by saying 'strictness analysis is perfect up to variations in constants.' In other words, strictness analysis is as good as it could be, short of actually distinguishing between concrete values. We use this approach to characterize a broad class of analysis techniques based on abstract interpretation including, but not limited to, strictness analysis. For the first-order case, we consider abstract interpretations where the abstract domain for data values is totally ordered. This condition is satisfied by Mycroft's strictness analysis that of Sekar et. al. and Wadler's analysis of list-strictness. For such abstract interpretations, we show that the analysis is complete in the sense that, short of actually distinguishing between concrete values with the same abstraction, it gives the best possible information. We further generalize these results to typed lambda calculus with pairs and higher-order functions. Note that products and function spaces over totally ordered domains are not totally ordered. In fact, the notion of completeness used in the first-order case fails if product domains or function spaces are added. We formulate a weaker notion of completeness based on observability of values. Two values (including pairs and functions) are considered indistinguishable if their observable components are indistinguishable. We show that abstract interpretation of typed lambda calculus programs is complete up to this notion of indistinguishability. We use denotationally

  16. 2011 statistical abstract of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krisanda, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    The Statistical Abstract of the United States, published since 1878, is the authoritative and comprehensive summary of statistics on the social, political, and economic organization of the United States.


    Use the Abstract as a convenient volume for statistical reference, and as a guide to sources of more information both in print and on the Web.


    Sources of data include the Census Bureau, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bureau of Economic Analysis, and many other Federal agencies and private organizations.

  17. High-Level Data-Abstraction System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishwick, P. A.

    1986-01-01

    Communication with data-base processor flexible and efficient. High Level Data Abstraction (HILDA) system is three-layer system supporting data-abstraction features of Intel data-base processor (DBP). Purpose of HILDA establishment of flexible method of efficiently communicating with DBP. Power of HILDA lies in its extensibility with regard to syntax and semantic changes. HILDA's high-level query language readily modified. Offers powerful potential to computer sites where DBP attached to DEC VAX-series computer. HILDA system written in Pascal and FORTRAN 77 for interactive execution.

  18. The Current Status of the Disease Caused by Enterovirus 71 Infections: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Molecular Epidemiology, and Vaccine Development.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ping-Chin; Chen, Shou-Chien; Chen, Kow-Tong

    2016-09-09

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections have a major public health impact in the Asia-Pacific region. We reviewed the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and molecular epidemiology of EV71 infection as well as EV71 vaccine development. Previous studies were found using the search terms "enterovirus 71" and "epidemiology" or "pathogenesis" or "molecular epidemiology" or "vaccine" in Medline and PubMed. Articles that were not published in the English language, manuscripts without an abstract, and opinion articles were excluded from the review. The reported epidemiology of cases caused by EV71 infection varied from country to country; seasonal variations in incidence were observed. Most cases of EV71 infection that resulted in hospitalization for complications occurred in children less than five years old. The brainstem was the most likely major target of EV71 infection. The emergence of the EV71 epidemic in the Asia-Pacific region has been associated with the circulation of different genetic lineages (genotypes B3, B4, C1, C2, and C4) that appear to be undergoing rapid evolutionary changes. The relationship between the gene structure of the EV71 virus and the factors that ensure its survival, circulation, and evasion of immunity is still unknown. EV71 infection has emerged as an important global public health problem. Vaccine development, including the development of inactivated whole-virus live attenuated, subviral particles, and DNA vaccines, has been progressing.

  19. Rotavirus epidemiology and surveillance.

    PubMed

    Desselberger, U; Iturriza-Gómara, M; Gray, J J

    2001-01-01

    There is extensive antigenic and genomic diversity among co-circulating human rotaviruses. They are differentiated into groups, subgroups and types. There are at least 7 groups (A-G) and 4 subgroups within group A. To distinguish types within group A, a dual classification system has been established with the glycoprotein VP7 defining G types, and the protease-sensitive protein VP4 defining P types. At least 14 G types and more than 20 P types have been distinguished, of which at least 10 G types and at least 11 P types have been found in humans. Using the typing system, the complex molecular epidemiology of rotaviruses was investigated. Rotaviruses of different G and P types co-circulate. The main types found are G1P1A[8], G2P1B[4], G3P1A[8], G4P1A[8]; their relative incidence rates change over time in any one location and are different at the same time between different locations. Viruses with G/P constellations such as G1P1B[4] and G2P1A[8] are mostly natural reassortants of the co-circulating main virus types emerging after double infection of hosts. Viruses carrying G and or P types not represented in the four most common types, e.g. G8P[8], G1P[6] or G9P[6], could be introduced into the population by reassortment with animal viruses, or directly from animals or exotic human sources. Naturally circulating rotaviruses constantly undergo point mutations which can be used to classify lineages and sublineages within types. The full significance of human infections with group B and C rotaviruses remains to be established. Surveillance of rotavirus types in different parts of the world is essential to monitor the emergence of new types or of new G/P constellations which may predominate over time. The efficacy and effectiveness of any future rotavirus vaccine may differ depending on the predominant natural strain types. Detailed epidemiological and molecular surveillance data should be utilized to study the transmission dynamics of rotaviruses.

  20. The epidemiology of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Daniel W; Missmer, Stacey A

    2002-03-01

    Advances in understanding the epidemiology of endometriosis have lagged behind other diseases because of methodologic problems related to disease definition and control selection. Nevertheless, a better picture of the epidemiology of endometriosis has emerged over the past few decades. Prevalence estimates of the disease in clinic populations vary from about a 4% occurrence of largely asymptomatic endometriosis found in women undergoing tubal ligation to 50% of teenagers with intractable dysmenorrhea. General population incidence during the 1970s in this country has been suggested to be 1.6 per 1000 white females aged 15-49, while a more current study based upon hospital discharges finds endometriosis as a first listed diagnosis in 1.3 per 1000 discharges in women aged 15-44. There is a clinical impression that blacks have lower rates of endometriosis and Orientals have higher rates than whites. A variety of personal risk factors for endometriosis have also been described. Women with endometriosis may be taller and thinner. Menstrual factors reported to increase risk include dysmenorrhea, early menarche, and shorter cycle lengths. There is support for the idea that lifestyle exposures that might raise or lower estrogen levels could affect risk, including a decreased risk associated with smoking and exercise and an increased risk associated with caffeine or alcohol use. These risk factors appear to be compatible with the central importance of retrograde menstruation influenced by outflow obstruction that might affect its amount, immune factors that might affect its ability to be cleared, or hormonal stimuli that might affect its growth. In this model, dysmenorrhea could be either a disease symptom or a manifestation of outflow obstruction. Nulliparity could be either a consequence of disease or a cause since nulliparous women would not have the benefit of cervical dilation associated with labor and delivery. Since there is evidence that family history is a risk

  1. Spectral characterization of natural backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, Max

    2017-10-01

    As the distribution and use of hyperspectral sensors is constantly increasing, the exploitation of spectral features is a threat for camouflaged objects. To improve camouflage materials at first the spectral behavior of backgrounds has to be known to adjust and optimize the spectral reflectance of camouflage materials. In an international effort, the NATO CSO working group SCI-295 "Development of Methods for Measurements and Evaluation of Natural Background EO Signatures" is developing a method how this characterization of backgrounds has to be done. It is obvious that the spectral characterization of a background will be quite an effort. To compare and exchange data internationally the measurements will have to be done in a similar way. To test and further improve this method an international field trial has been performed in Storkow, Germany. In the following we present first impressions and lessons learned from this field campaign and describe the data that has been measured.

  2. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 13)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 161 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1978 through June 1978. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  3. Compressive Sensing for Background Subtraction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-20

    i) reconstructing an image using only a single optical pho- todiode (infrared, hyperspectral, etc.) along with a digital micromirror device (DMD... curves , we use the full images, run the background subtraction algorithm proposed in [19], and obtain baseline background subtracted images. We then...the images to generate the ROC curve . 5.5 Silhouettes vs. Difference Images We have used a multi camera set up for a 3D voxel reconstruction using the

  4. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 07)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 158 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1975 through June 1975. Each entry in the Abstract Section consists of a citation, an abstract, and, in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. This issue of the Index Section contains entries for 2830 patent and application for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through June 1975. The index section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  5. Water Pollution Abstracts. Volume 43, Number 4, Abstracts 645-849.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    WATER POLLUTION, *ABSTRACTS, PURIFICATION, WASTES(INDUSTRIAL), CONTROL, SEWAGE, WATER SUPPLIES, PUBLIC HEALTH, PETROLEUM PRODUCTS, DEGRADATION, DAMS...ESTUARIES, PLANKTON, PHOTOSYNTHESIS, VIRUSES, SEA WATER , MICROBIOLOGY, UNITED KINGDOM.

  6. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 08)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections; abstracts and indexes. The Abstract Section cites 180 patents and applications for patents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of July 1975 through December 1975. Each entry in the Abstract Section consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. The index Section contains entries for 2,905 patents and applications for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through December 1975. The Index Section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  7. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 09)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 200 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1976 through June 1976. Each entry in the Abstract Section consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. This issue of the Index Section contains entries for 2994 patent and application for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through June 1976. The Index Section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  8. Noble fir: a bibliography with abstracts.

    Treesearch

    Jerry F. Franklin

    1962-01-01

    This bibliography on noble fir (Abies procera Rehd.) includes both North American and European references. Its purpose is to list articles for those interested in the species; the most important references have been abstracted. An article concerning California red fir and one concerning Shasta red fir are included, as their silvical characteristics...

  9. Natural radiation environment III. [Lead Abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Gesell, T.F.; Lowder, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 52 research papers presented at this symposium in April 1978. The major topics in this volume deal with penetrating radiation measurements, radiation surveys and population exposure, radioactivity in the indoor environment, and technologically enhanced natural radioactivity. (KRM)

  10. ANNUAL REPORT-AUTOMATIC INDEXING AND ABSTRACTING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Palo Alto, CA. Electronic Sciences Lab.

    THE INVESTIGATION IS CONCERNED WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMATIC INDEXING, ABSTRACTING, AND EXTRACTING SYSTEMS. BASIC INVESTIGATIONS IN ENGLISH MORPHOLOGY, PHONETICS, AND SYNTAX ARE PURSUED AS NECESSARY MEANS TO THIS END. IN THE FIRST SECTION THE THEORY AND DESIGN OF THE "SENTENCE DICTIONARY" EXPERIMENT IN AUTOMATIC EXTRACTION IS OUTLINED. SOME OF…

  11. Detecting Moving Sources in Astronomical Images (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, A.

    2018-06-01

    (Abstract only) Source detection in images is an important part of analyzing astronomical data. This project discusses an implementation of image detection in python, as well as processes for performing photometry in python. Application of these tools to looking for moving sources is also discussed.

  12. How Faint Can You Go? (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henden, A.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) For many scientific projects, knowledge of the faint limit of your exposure can be extremely important. In addition, it can be just plain fun to know how faint your equipment can go under varying circumstances. This paper describes the concept and gives some guidance as to how to increase the scientific value of your reports.

  13. Three New Z Cam Stars (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, M.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) I will present the evidence and discovery stories of three cataclysmic variables who appear to be members of the Z Cam class of dwarf novae. One discovered by a lone visual observer and his unwavering patience and persistence, one through the directed effort of the ongoing Z CamPaign and one via survey data from the Gaia satellite.

  14. RCDPM 1992 Conference Book of Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1992

    This booklet contains 51 abstracts of papers presented at the 1992 conference for the Research Council for Diagnostic and Prescriptive Mathematics (RCDPM). Topics covered include: the use of expressive writing to enhance metacognition, adult assessment, cooperative learning assessment, visualization in problem solving, deaf students' beliefs about…

  15. Content Abstract Classification Using Naive Bayes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latif, Syukriyanto; Suwardoyo, Untung; Aldrin Wihelmus Sanadi, Edwin

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to classify abstract content based on the use of the highest number of words in an abstract content of the English language journals. This research uses a system of text mining technology that extracts text data to search information from a set of documents. Abstract content of 120 data downloaded at www.computer.org. Data grouping consists of three categories: DM (Data Mining), ITS (Intelligent Transport System) and MM (Multimedia). Systems built using naive bayes algorithms to classify abstract journals and feature selection processes using term weighting to give weight to each word. Dimensional reduction techniques to reduce the dimensions of word counts rarely appear in each document based on dimensional reduction test parameters of 10% -90% of 5.344 words. The performance of the classification system is tested by using the Confusion Matrix based on comparative test data and test data. The results showed that the best classification results were obtained during the 75% training data test and 25% test data from the total data. Accuracy rates for categories of DM, ITS and MM were 100%, 100%, 86%. respectively with dimension reduction parameters of 30% and the value of learning rate between 0.1-0.5.

  16. Abstracts of Research Papers 1977 AAHPER Convention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sage, George H., Ed.

    This volume of abstracts describes papers written on the following topics: (1) Strength Physiology; (2) Learning Disabilities (motor); (3) Physiology - General; (4) Work Capacity; (5) Measurement and Recreation; (6) Biomechanics; (7) Professional Preparation (physical education); (8) Muscle Performance; (9) Sociology of Sport; (10) History of…

  17. Paper and Symposia Abstracts, 1972 Annual Meeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Donald J., Ed.

    This compendium contains abstracts of approximately 700 papers which are classified under administration, curriculum and objectives, instruction and learning, measurement and research methodology, counseling and human development, history and historiography, social context of education, school evaluation and program development, or special…

  18. The Paradox of Abstraction: Precision Versus Concreteness.

    PubMed

    Iliev, Rumen; Axelrod, Robert

    2017-06-01

    We introduce a novel measure of abstractness based on the amount of information of a concept computed from its position in a semantic taxonomy. We refer to this measure as precision. We propose two alternative ways to measure precision, one based on the path length from a concept to the root of the taxonomic tree, and another one based on the number of direct and indirect descendants. Since more information implies greater processing load, we hypothesize that nouns higher in precision will have a processing disadvantage in a lexical decision task. We contrast precision to concreteness, a common measure of abstractness based on the proportion of sensory-based information associated with a concept. Since concreteness facilitates cognitive processing, we predict that while both concreteness and precision are measures of abstractness, they will have opposite effects on performance. In two studies we found empirical support for our hypothesis. Precision and concreteness had opposite effects on latency and accuracy in a lexical decision task, and these opposite effects were observable while controlling for word length, word frequency, affective content and semantic diversity. Our results support the view that concepts organization includes amodal semantic structures which are independent of sensory information. They also suggest that we should distinguish between sensory-based and amount-of-information-based abstractness.

  19. The Paradox of Abstraction: Precision Versus Concreteness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iliev, Rumen; Axelrod, Robert

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a novel measure of abstractness based on the amount of information of a concept computed from its position in a semantic taxonomy. We refer to this measure as "precision". We propose two alternative ways to measure precision, one based on the path length from a concept to the root of the taxonomic tree, and another one based…

  20. Spatial abstraction for autonomous robot navigation.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Susan L; Aroor, Anoop; Evanusa, Matthew; Sklar, Elizabeth I; Parsons, Simon

    2015-09-01

    Optimal navigation for a simulated robot relies on a detailed map and explicit path planning, an approach problematic for real-world robots that are subject to noise and error. This paper reports on autonomous robots that rely on local spatial perception, learning, and commonsense rationales instead. Despite realistic actuator error, learned spatial abstractions form a model that supports effective travel.

  1. Abstracts of Research, July 1975-June 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Computer and Information Science Research Center.

    Abstracts of research papers in computer and information science are given for 62 papers in the areas of information storage and retrieval; computer facilities; information analysis; linguistics analysis; artificial intelligence; information processes in physical, biological, and social systems; mathematical technigues; systems programming;…

  2. Abstracts, Third Space Processing Symposium, Skylab results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Skylab experiments results are reported in abstracts of papers presented at the Third Space Processing Symposium. Specific areas of interest include: exothermic brazing, metals melting, crystals, reinforced composites, glasses, eutectics; physics of the low-g processes; electrophoresis, heat flow, and convection demonstrations flown on Apollo missions; and apparatus for containerless processing, heating, cooling, and containing materials.

  3. CALL FOR ABSTRACTS - PIT LAKES 2004

    EPA Science Inventory

    This call for abstracts is for the 11/16-18/2004 Pit Lakes 2004 meeting held in Reno, NV. This conference will provide a forum for the exchange of scientific information on current domestic and international pit lake approaches, including pit lakes from arid and wet regions throu...

  4. Second LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Arlene S. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    These abstracts from the symposium represent the data analysis of the 57 experiments flown on the LDEF. The experiments include materials, coatings, thermal systems, power and propulsion, science, (cosmic ray, interstellar gas, heavy ions, micrometeoroids, etc.), electronics, optics, and life science.

  5. Integrating model abstraction into monitoring strategies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was designed and performed to investigate the opportunities and benefits of integrating model abstraction techniques into monitoring strategies. The study focused on future applications of modeling to contingency planning and management of potential and actual contaminant release sites wi...

  6. Hilson Adolescent Profile (HAP): Hilson Research Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilson Research Inc., Kew Gardens, NY.

    Abstracts and bibliographic citations are given for the following documents concerned with the use and characteristics of the Hilson Adolescent Profile (HAP): (1) "Use of the Hilson Adolescent Profile To Compare Juvenile Offenders with Junior and Senior High School Students" (R. E. Inwald and K. E. Brobst); (2) "The Effectiveness of…

  7. Simulation, Design Abstraction, and SystemC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harcourt, Ed

    2007-01-01

    SystemC is a system-level design and simulation language based on C++. We've been using SystemC for computer organization and design projects for the past several years. Because SystemC is embedded in C++ it contains the powerful abstraction mechanisms of C++ not found in traditional hardware description languages, such as support for…

  8. Heat pipe technology: A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The annual supplement on heat pipe technology for 1971 is presented. The document contains 101 references with abstracts and 47 patents. The subjects discussed are: (1) heat pipe applications, (2) heat pipe theory, (3) design, development, and fabrication of heat pipes, (4) testing and operation, (5) subject and author index, and (6) heat pipe related patents.

  9. Hubble Exoplanet Pro/Am Collaboration (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, D. M.

    2016-06-01

    (Abstract only) A collaborative effort is being organized between a world-wide network of amateur astronomers and a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) science team. The purpose of this collaboration is to supplement an HST near-infrared spectroscopy survey of some 15 exoplanets with ground-based observations in the visible range.

  10. Development of Abstract Grammatical Categorization in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyr, Marilyn; Shi, Rushen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined abstract syntactic categorization in infants, using the case of grammatical gender. Ninety-six French-learning 14-, 17-, 20-, and 30-month-olds completed the study. In a preferential looking procedure infants were tested on their generalized knowledge of grammatical gender involving pseudonouns and gender-marking determiners.…

  11. The Eggen Card Project (Poster abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvis, G.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) At the 2013 meeting we kicked off the Eggen Card project. This project was to make the huge collection of photometric observations made by Olin Eggen accessible to researchers. My poster this year is to report progress and encourage more members to participate.

  12. Coding the Eggen Cards (Poster abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvis, G.

    2014-06-01

    (Abstract only) A look at the Eggen Portal for accessing the Eggen cards. And a call for volunteers to help code the cards: 100,000 cards must be looked at and their star references identified and coded into the database for this to be a valuable resource.

  13. The Learnability of Abstract Syntactic Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perfors, Amy; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.; Regier, Terry

    2011-01-01

    Children acquiring language infer the correct form of syntactic constructions for which they appear to have little or no direct evidence, avoiding simple but incorrect generalizations that would be consistent with the data they receive. These generalizations must be guided by some inductive bias--some abstract knowledge--that leads them to prefer…

  14. Title TBA: Revising the Abstract Submission Process.

    PubMed

    Tibon, Roni; Open Science Committee, Cbu; Henson, Richard

    2018-04-01

    Academic conferences are among the most prolific scientific activities, yet the current abstract submission and review process has serious limitations. We propose a revised process that would address these limitations, achieve some of the aims of Open Science, and stimulate discussion throughout the entire lifecycle of the scientific work. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Does Abstracting Threaten a Sustainable Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Lyle K.

    2012-01-01

    In abstraction, or conceptual behavior, people discriminate features or properties of their surroundings. This permits people to respond selectively and precisely to specialized features of their environment, which has had many benefits, including steady advances in science and technology. Within psychology, J. R. Kantor and B. F. Skinner…

  16. Mountain hemlock: a bibliography with abstracts.

    Treesearch

    Jerry F. Franklin

    1962-01-01

    This bibliography lists references pertaining to mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carr.) found in North American and European literature for individuals interested in this species. The author has attempted to include all references which might conceivably provide useful information on this species; abstracts are provided for those...

  17. Reducing Abstraction When Learning Graph Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazzan, Orit; Hadar, Irit

    2005-01-01

    This article presents research on students' understanding of basic concepts in Graph Theory. Students' understanding is analyzed through the lens of the theoretical framework of reducing abstraction (Hazzan, 1999). As it turns out, in spite of the relative simplicity of the concepts that are introduced in the introductory part of a traditional…

  18. Heat pipe technology. A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography cites 55 publications on the theory, design, development, fabrication, and testing of heat pipes. Applications covered include solar, nuclear, and thermoelectric energy conversion. A book (in Russian) on low temperature heat pipes is included as well as abstracts when available. Indexes provided list authors, titles/keywords (permuted) and patents.

  19. Abstracts of Research. July 1974-June 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Computer and Information Science Research Center.

    Abstracts of research papers in computer and information science are given for 68 papers in the areas of information storage and retrieval; human information processing; information analysis; linguistic analysis; artificial intelligence; information processes in physical, biological, and social systems; mathematical techniques; systems…

  20. Using Group Explorer in Teaching Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Claus; Gfeller, Mary; Donohue, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the use of Group Explorer in an undergraduate mathematics course in abstract algebra. The visual nature of Group Explorer in representing concepts in group theory is an attractive incentive to use this software in the classroom. However, little is known about students' perceptions on this technology in learning concepts in…

  1. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    DOE PAGES

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; ...

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K)more » or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.« less

  2. [Epidemiology of myopia].

    PubMed

    Hopf, S; Pfeiffer, N

    2017-01-01

    Myopia is the most common cause for impaired vision in children and young adults with increasing tendency. Although myopia is hereditary, genetic findings do not explain the full extent of its recent increase. Epidemiologic studies are required to investigate the prevalence and incidence of this disease. The prevalence, incidence and progression of myopia with its economic impact are emphasized to review the distribution and consequences of the development and progression of myopia. A systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE. The global prevalence of myopia is currently 28.3 % and is dramatically increasing. In 2050, half of the world population will be affected. Myopia starts earlier and exhibits a peak prevalence in young Asian adults. High myopia indicates a similar development. Interventions to slow the development and progression of myopia are strongly required due to the medical and socio-economic drawbacks for the individuals and for society. Myopia is already a ubiquitous phenomenon in some parts of the world. One out of ten persons will be at a relevant risk of becoming blind as a result of myopia in the future. Preventive measures have not shown sweeping success.

  3. Epidemiology of delayed ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Di Sante, Stefania; Mollaioli, Daniele; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Ciocca, Giacomo; Limoncin, Erika; Carosa, Eleonora; Lenzi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    A large body of literature on diminished ejaculatory disorders has been generated without the use of a clear diagnostic definition. Many studies have not distinguished between the orgasm and ejaculation disorders leading to doubtful results. Delayed ejaculation (DE) is one of the diminished ejaculatory disorders, which range from varying delays in ejaculatory latency to a complete inability to ejaculate. The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on the definition and epidemiology of diminished ejaculatory disorders. We focus on the acquired diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and specific drug regimens that may cause an iatrogenic form of ejaculatory disorder. In addition, the impact of aging is discussed since the prevalence of DE appears to be moderately but positively related to age. Finally, we also focus on the importance of the hormonal milieu on male ejaculation. To date, evidence on the endocrine control of ejaculation is derived from small clinical trials, but the evidence suggests that hormones modulate the ejaculatory process by altering its overall latency. PMID:27652226

  4. Epidemiology of delayed ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Di Sante, Stefania; Mollaioli, Daniele; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Ciocca, Giacomo; Limoncin, Erika; Carosa, Eleonora; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A

    2016-08-01

    A large body of literature on diminished ejaculatory disorders has been generated without the use of a clear diagnostic definition. Many studies have not distinguished between the orgasm and ejaculation disorders leading to doubtful results. Delayed ejaculation (DE) is one of the diminished ejaculatory disorders, which range from varying delays in ejaculatory latency to a complete inability to ejaculate. The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on the definition and epidemiology of diminished ejaculatory disorders. We focus on the acquired diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and specific drug regimens that may cause an iatrogenic form of ejaculatory disorder. In addition, the impact of aging is discussed since the prevalence of DE appears to be moderately but positively related to age. Finally, we also focus on the importance of the hormonal milieu on male ejaculation. To date, evidence on the endocrine control of ejaculation is derived from small clinical trials, but the evidence suggests that hormones modulate the ejaculatory process by altering its overall latency.

  5. Epidemiology of severe trauma.

    PubMed

    Alberdi, F; García, I; Atutxa, L; Zabarte, M

    2014-12-01

    Major injury is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. Among those under 35 years of age, it is the leading cause of death and disability. Traffic accidents alone are the main cause, fundamentally in low- and middle-income countries. Patients over 65 years of age are an increasingly affected group. For similar levels of injury, these patients have twice the mortality rate of young individuals, due to the existence of important comorbidities and associated treatments, and are more likely to die of medical complications late during hospital admission. No worldwide, standardized definitions exist for documenting, reporting and comparing data on severely injured trauma patients. The most common trauma scores are the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the Trauma and Injury severity Score (TRISS). Documenting the burden of injury also requires evaluation of the impact of post-trauma impairments, disabilities and handicaps. Trauma epidemiology helps define health service and research priorities, contributes to identify disadvantaged groups, and also facilitates the elaboration of comparable measures for outcome predictions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  6. Epidemiology of common cold.

    PubMed

    van Cauwenberge, P B

    1985-12-01

    The epidemiology of common cold and the role of some predisposing factors were studied by examining 2065 healthy children, aged 2.5-6 years. The examination included a questionnaire, completed by the parents, a general physical examination, a clinical E.N.T.-examination and various technical investigations. The mean annual incidence of common cold was 2.43 (as was reported by the parents) and 5 when taking into consideration the time span between the last episode of common cold and the date of examination. Mucoid and purulent rhinitis were less frequently found in older children. A positive history of upper respiratory tract infections in the parents showed to be the most important risk factor for the occurrence of infectious rhinitis in the children. The higher the weight of the child, the lower the incidence of common cold and the fewer pathological rhinoscopical findings. Children with a head circumference below the 2.5 percentile had the highest incidence of infectious rhinitis. Humid housing conditions showed to be connected with a higher incidence of infectious rhinitis. Children of parents with a higher profession had more rhinitis than children of labourers. Smoking habits of the parents had only little effect on the rhinological status of children.

  7. Epidemiology of myopia

    PubMed Central

    Foster, P J; Jiang, Y

    2014-01-01

    Myopia is one of the most prevalent disorders of the eye. Higher myopia is associated with comorbidities that increase risks of severe and irreversible loss of vision, such as retinal detachment, subretinal neovascularization, dense cataract, and glaucoma. In recent years, reports from population-based prevalence studies carried out in various geographical areas now give a clear picture of the current distribution of refractive error. The scarcity of data from well-designed longitudinal cohort studies is still yet to be addressed. These studies have confirmed the previous data indicating that prevalence of refractive error varies according to ethnicity and geographic regions, and also point to an increase in myopia prevalence over the past half-century. The problem is particularly pronounced in affluent, industrialised areas of East Asia. Environmental risk factors for myopia related to socioeconomic status and lifestyle have been identified. The past decade has seen a greater understanding of the molecular biological mechanisms that determine refractive error, giving further support to the belief that myopia is the result of a complex interaction between genetic predisposition and environmental exposures. This review summarizes data on the prevalence, incidence, progression, associations, risk factors, and impact from recent epidemiological studies on myopia. PMID:24406412

  8. The epidemiology of favism

    PubMed Central

    Belsey, Mark A.

    1973-01-01

    Favism is a potential obstacle to the use of the fava bean in the development of a locally produced, inexpensive weaning food for the Middle East and North Africa. The purposes of this study were to define the epidemiology of favism, to evaluate the advisability of using the fava bean in a weaning food, and to suggest ways of avoiding or eliminating the toxic factor in the bean. Field observations, locally acquired data, and a literature review suggested that the use of the fava bean in a weaning food would be hazardous, but that the hazard might be overcome by using certain strains of the bean or, more particularly, by using old dried beans. The disease is usually directly related in time to the harvesting and availability of fresh beans, but it is also associated with fresh dried beans. On the basis of the age distribution of the disease, patterns of bean consumption, and local food taboos it appears that the toxic factor is concentrated in the skin of the bean, that it is heat-stable, that in dried beans it decreases with age, and that it crosses into the breast milk of lactating mothers. It also appears that disease expression may be a result of the interaction of several host factors, such as nutritional status and the consumption of other foods. These observations are consistent with the results of laboratory studies, which incriminate vicine, divicine, and DOPA in the etiology of favism. PMID:4541143

  9. The background in the $$0\

    DOE PAGES

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Andreotti, E.; ...

    2014-04-04

    The GERmanium Detector Array (Gerda) experiment at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS) of INFN is searching for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of 76 Ge. The signature of the signal is a monoenergetic peak at 2039 keV, the Q ββ value of the decay. To avoid bias in the signal search, the present analysis does not consider all those events, that fall in a 40 keV wide region centered around Q ββ. The main parameters needed for the 0νββ analysis are described. A background model was developed to describe the observed energy spectrum. The model contains severalmore » contributions, that are expected on the basis of material screening or that are established by the observation of characteristic structures in the energy spectrum. The model predicts a flat energy spectrum for the blinding window around Qββ with a background index ranging from 17.6 to 23.8 × 10 -3 cts/(keV kg yr). A part of the data not considered before has been used to test if the predictions of the background model are consistent. The observed number of events in this energy region is consistent with the background model. The background at Q ββ is dominated by close sources, mainly due to 42 K, 214 Bi, 228 60 Co and α emitting isotopes from the 226 Ra decay chain. The individual fractions depend on the assumed locations of the contaminants. It is shown, that after removal of the known γ peaks, the energy spectrum can be fitted in an energy range of 200 keV around Q ββ with a constant background. This gives a background index consistent with the full model and uncertainties of the same size.« less

  10. Genomic Resources for Cancer Epidemiology

    Cancer.gov

    This page provides links to research resources, complied by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, that may be of interest to genetic epidemiologists conducting cancer research, but is not exhaustive.

  11. Metabolomics and Epidemiology Working Group

    Cancer.gov

    The Metabolomics and Epidemiology (MetEpi) Working Group promotes metabolomics analyses in population-based studies, as well as advancement in the field of metabolomics for broader biomedical and public health research.

  12. Basic glossary on genetic epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Malats, N; Calafell, F

    2003-07-01

    This is the second of a series of three glossaries on genetic concepts used in epidemiological research that the journal is publishing with the objective of helping the reader "walk" around the journal.

  13. Mendelian randomization in nutritional epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Lu

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional epidemiology aims to identify dietary and lifestyle causes for human diseases. Causality inference in nutritional epidemiology is largely based on evidence from studies of observational design, and may be distorted by unmeasured or residual confounding and reverse causation. Mendelian randomization is a recently developed methodology that combines genetic and classical epidemiological analysis to infer causality for environmental exposures, based on the principle of Mendel’s law of independent assortment. Mendelian randomization uses genetic variants as proxiesforenvironmentalexposuresofinterest.AssociationsderivedfromMendelian randomization analysis are less likely to be affected by confounding and reverse causation. During the past 5 years, a body of studies examined the causal effects of diet/lifestyle factors and biomarkers on a variety of diseases. The Mendelian randomization approach also holds considerable promise in the study of intrauterine influences on offspring health outcomes. However, the application of Mendelian randomization in nutritional epidemiology has some limitations. PMID:19674341

  14. Sample Cancer Epidemiology Grant Applications

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute frequently receives questions from investigators for examples of successfully funded grant applications. Several investigators agreed to let the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program post excerpts of their grant applications online.

  15. COLLABORATION ON NHEERL EPIDEMIOLOGY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This task will continue ORD's efforts to develop a biologically plausible, quantitative health risk model for particulate matter (PM) based on epidemiological, toxicological, and mechanistic studies using matched exposure assessments. The NERL, in collaboration with the NHEERL, ...

  16. Quality of reporting of trial abstracts needs to be improved: using the CONSORT for abstracts to assess the four leading Chinese medical journals of traditional Chinese medicine

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Due to language limitations, the abstract of journal article may be the only way for people of non-Chinese speaking countries to know about trials in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, little is known about the reporting quality of these trial abstracts. Our study is to assess the reporting quality of abstracts of randomized controlled trials (RCT) published in four leading Chinese medical journals of TCM, and to identify any differences in reporting between the Chinese and English version of the same abstract publication. Method Two reviewers hand-searched the Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine, the Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine, the China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica and the Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion for all abstracts of RCTs published between 2006 and 2007. Two reviewers independently assessed the reporting quality of the Chinese and English version of all eligible abstracts based on a modified version of the CONSORT for reporting randomised trials in journal and conference abstracts (CONSORT for abstracts). Results We identified a total of 345 RCTs of TCM with both a Chinese and English abstract. More than half of Chinese abstracts reported details of the trial participants (68%; 234/345), control group intervention (52%; 179/345), the number of participants randomized (73%; 253/345) and benefits when interpreting the trial results (55%; 190/345). Reporting of methodological quality or key features of trial design and trial results were poor; only 2% (7/345) included details of the trial design, 3% (11/345) defined the primary outcome, 5% (17/345) described the methods of random sequence generation, and only 4% (13/345) reported the number of participants analyzed. No abstracts provided details on allocation concealment and trial registration. The percentage agreement in reporting (between the Chinese and English version of the same abstract) ranged from 84% to 100% across individual

  17. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology—Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut): An Extension of the STROBE Statement

    PubMed Central

    Hawwash, Dana; Ocké, Marga C.; Berg, Christina; Forsum, Elisabet; Sonestedt, Emily; Wirfält, Elisabet; Åkesson, Agneta; Kolsteren, Patrick; Byrnes, Graham; De Keyzer, Willem; Van Camp, John; Slimani, Nadia; Cevallos, Myriam; Egger, Matthias; Huybrechts, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Background Concerns have been raised about the quality of reporting in nutritional epidemiology. Research reporting guidelines such as the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement can improve quality of reporting in observational studies. Herein, we propose recommendations for reporting nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research by extending the STROBE statement into Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology—Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut). Methods and Findings Recommendations for the reporting of nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research were developed following a systematic and consultative process, coordinated by a multidisciplinary group of 21 experts. Consensus on reporting guidelines was reached through a three-round Delphi consultation process with 53 external experts. In total, 24 recommendations for nutritional epidemiology were added to the STROBE checklist. Conclusion When used appropriately, reporting guidelines for nutritional epidemiology can contribute to improve reporting of observational studies with a focus on diet and health. PMID:27270749

  18. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 17)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 150 patents and applications for patents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1980 through June 1980. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  19. Choosing a Database for Social Work: A Comparison of Social Work Abstracts and Social Service Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flatley, Robert K.; Lilla, Rick; Widner, Jack

    2007-01-01

    This study compared Social Work Abstracts and Social Services Abstracts databases in terms of indexing, journal coverage, and searches. The authors interviewed editors, analyzed journal coverage, and compared searches. It was determined that the databases complement one another more than compete. The authors conclude with some considerations.

  20. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 35)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 58 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period January 1989 through June 1989. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  1. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 37)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 76 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period January 1990 through June 1990. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  2. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 26)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 172 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1984 through December 1984. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  3. NASA patent abstracts bibliography. A continuing bibliography (supplement 22). Section 1: Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 234 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1982 through December 1982. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  4. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 24)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 167 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1983 through December 1983. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  5. Cooperative Educational Abstracting Service (CEAS). (Abstract Series No. 103-122, March 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Bureau of Education, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This document is a compilation of 20 English-language abstracts concerning various aspects of education in Switzerland, New Zealand, Chile, Poland, Argentina, Pakistan, Malaysia, Thailand, and France. The abstracts are informative in nature, each being approximately 1,500 words in length. They are based on documents submitted by each of the…

  6. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 45)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 137 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period Jan. 1994 through Jun. 1994. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  7. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 27)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 92 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1985 through June 1985. Each entry consist of a citation, and abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  8. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 31)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 85 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1987 through June 1987. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  9. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 19)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 130 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1981 through July 1981. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  10. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 28)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 109 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during the period July 1985 through December 1985. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  11. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 14)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 213 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of July 1978 through December 1978. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  12. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 16)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 138 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1979 through December 1979. Each entry cib consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  13. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 30)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 105 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1986 through December 1986. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  14. Co-operative Educational Abstracting Service (CEAS). [Abstract Series No. 1-4, 1969-1971].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Bureau of Education, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This document is a compilation of 163 English-language abstracts concerning various aspects of education in Australia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, France, Hungary, Iceland, India, Israel, Japan, Mexico, Nigeria, Philippines, Thailand, UAR, U.S., USSR, and Yugoslavia. The abstracts are informative in nature and are approximately 1,500 words…

  15. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 38)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 132 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1990 through December 1990. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  16. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 39)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 154 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period Jan. 1991 through Jun. 1991. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  17. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 43)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 128 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period Jan. 1993 through Jun. 1993. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  18. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 42)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 174 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1992 through December 1992. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  19. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 36)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 63 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period July 1989 through December 1989. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  20. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 40)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 181 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1991 through December 1991. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  1. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 32)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 136 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July through December 1987. Each entry consists of a citation , an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  2. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 33)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 16 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period January 1988 through June 1988. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  3. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 25)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 102 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1984 through June 1984. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  4. NASA Patent Abstracts Bibliography: A Continuing Bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (Supplement 48)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 85 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1995 through December 1995. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  5. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 15)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 240 patents and applications for patents introduced into the NASA scientific system during the period of January 1979 through June 1979. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  6. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 18)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 120 patents and patent applications for patents introduced into the NASA scientific system during the period of July 1980 through December 1980. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  7. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 34)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 124 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period July 1988 through December 1988. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  8. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 41)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 131 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period Jan. 1992 through Jun. 1992. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  9. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 29)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 115 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1986 through June 1986. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent application.

  10. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 44)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 131 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period Jun. 1993 through Dec. 1993. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  11. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 23)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 129 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1983 through June 1983. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  12. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 20)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 165 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1981 through December 1981. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  13. Epidemiological determinants of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Islam, M T; Paul, H K; Zakaria, S M; Islam, M M; Shafiquzzaman, M

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on 102 cases having clinical manifestation of psoriasis with a view to evaluate the epidemiological determinants of psoriasis. Psoriasis constituted 1.49% of the total dermatological disorder. Seventy patients (68.6%) were males and thirty two (31.4%) were females with a male to female ratio of 2.18:1. The mean age was 30.76±13.17 years in male and 26.94±14.94 years in female. Sixteen (15.7%) patients had one or more family member having psoriasis with male and female in equal frequency. Regarding precipitating factors, psoriasis was developed after trauma in 4.9%, infection 3.9%, stressful life events 6.9% and drugs 2.9%; and was exacerbated after trauma in 5.9%, infection 5.9%, stressful life events 35.3% and drugs 12.7%. The disease showed improvement in summer (27.5%) and found deteriorated in winter (47.1%). Sunlight had beneficial effect in 33.3% of cases. During pregnancy improvement was observed in 50% but flare up in 22.2% of cases. Fifty percent of patients were smokers, 41.2% were non-smokers and 13.7% were ex-smokers. Forty percent had Body Mass Index (BMI) between 22 to 26 Kg/m², 40.2% had less than 22 Kg/m² and 15.7% had above 26 Kg/m². It was concluded that the prevalence of psoriasis among dermatological patients was similar to results reported in Turkey and in Northern India. The precipitating factors, such as smoking, stressful life events, infection, trauma, sunlight, pregnancy, drugs, and seasonal variations could influence the development of psoriasis and affect its clinical expression.

  14. The High-Density Lipoprotein Puzzle: Why Classic Epidemiology, Genetic Epidemiology, and Clinical Trials Conflict?

    PubMed

    Rosenson, Robert S

    2016-05-01

    Classical epidemiology has established the incremental contribution of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol measure in the assessment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk; yet, genetic epidemiology does not support a causal relationship between HDL cholesterol and the future risk of myocardial infarction. Therapeutic interventions directed toward cholesterol loading of the HDL particle have been based on epidemiological studies that have established HDL cholesterol as a biomarker of atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk. However, therapeutic interventions such as niacin, cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors increase HDL cholesterol in patients treated with statins, but have repeatedly failed to reduce cardiovascular events. Statin therapy interferes with ATP-binding cassette transporter-mediated macrophage cholesterol efflux via miR33 and thus may diminish certain HDL functional properties. Unraveling the HDL puzzle will require continued technical advances in the characterization and quantification of multiple HDL subclasses and their functional properties. Key mechanistic criteria for clinical outcomes trials with HDL-based therapies include formation of HDL subclasses that improve the efficiency of macrophage cholesterol efflux and compositional changes in the proteome and lipidome of the HDL particle that are associated with improved antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. These measures require validation in genetic studies and clinical trials of HDL-based therapies on the background of statins. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Illuminating the Background: Topics in Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Nathan J.

    The cosmic microwave background provides a wealth of information about the origin and history of the universe. The statistics of the anisotropy and the polarization of the cosmic microwave background, among other things, can tell us about the distribution of matter, the redshift of reionization, and the nature of the primordial uctuations. From the lensing of cosmic microwave background due to intervening matter, we can extract information about neutrinos and the equation of state of dark energy. A measurement of the large angular scale B-mode polarization has been called the "smoking gun" of in ation, a theory that describes a possible early rapid expansion of the universe. The focus of current experiments is to measure this B-mode polarization, while several experiments, such as POLARBEAR, are also looking to measure the lensing of the cosmic microwave background. This dissertation will discuss several different topics in cosmic microwave background polarization research. I will make predictions for future experiments and I will also show analysis for two current experiments, POLARBEAR and BICEP. I will show how beam systematics affect the measurement of cosmological parameters and how well we must limit these systematics in order to get unbiased constraints on cosmological parameters for future experiments. I will discuss a novel way of using the temperature-polarization cross correlation to constrain the amount of inflationary gravitational waves. Through Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods, I will determine how well future experiments will be able to constrain the neutrino masses and their degeneracy parameters. I will show results from current data analysis and calibration being done on the Cedar Flat deployment for the POLARBEAR experiment which is currently being constructed in the Atacama desert in Chile. Finally, I will analyze the claim of detection of cosmological birefringence in the BICEP data and show that there is reason to believe it is due to

  16. Automatic identification of abstract online groups

    DOEpatents

    Engel, David W; Gregory, Michelle L; Bell, Eric B; Cowell, Andrew J; Piatt, Andrew W

    2014-04-15

    Online abstract groups, in which members aren't explicitly connected, can be automatically identified by computer-implemented methods. The methods involve harvesting records from social media and extracting content-based and structure-based features from each record. Each record includes a social-media posting and is associated with one or more entities. Each feature is stored on a data storage device and includes a computer-readable representation of an attribute of one or more records. The methods further involve grouping records into record groups according to the features of each record. Further still the methods involve calculating an n-dimensional surface representing each record group and defining an outlier as a record having feature-based distances measured from every n-dimensional surface that exceed a threshold value. Each of the n-dimensional surfaces is described by a footprint that characterizes the respective record group as an online abstract group.

  17. Space Electrochemical Research and Technology. Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This document contains abstracts of the proceedings of NASA's fifth Space Electrochemical Research and Technology (SERT) Conference, held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on May 1-3, 1995. The objective of the conference was to assess the present status and general thrust of research and development in those areas of electrochemical technology required to enable NASA missions into the next century. The conference provided a forum for the exchange of ideas and opinions of those actively involved in the field, in order to define new opportunities for the application of electrochemical processes in future NASA missions. Papers were presented in three technical areas: (1) the electrochemical interface, (2) the next generation in aerospace batteries and fuel cells, and (3) electrochemistry for non-energy storage applications. This document contains the abstracts of the papers presented.

  18. Using Group Explorer in teaching abstract algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Claus; Gfeller, Mary; Donohue, Christopher

    2013-04-01

    This study explores the use of Group Explorer in an undergraduate mathematics course in abstract algebra. The visual nature of Group Explorer in representing concepts in group theory is an attractive incentive to use this software in the classroom. However, little is known about students' perceptions on this technology in learning concepts in abstract algebra. A total of 26 participants in an undergraduate course studying group theory were surveyed regarding their experiences using Group Explorer. Findings indicate that all participants believed that the software was beneficial to their learning and described their attitudes regarding the software in terms of using the technology and its helpfulness in learning concepts. A multiple regression analysis reveals that representational fluency of concepts with the software correlated significantly with participants' understanding of group concepts yet, participants' attitudes about Group Explorer and technology in general were not significant factors.

  19. Heat Pipe Technology: A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    This bibliography lists 149 references with abstracts and 47 patents dealing with applications of heat pipe technology. Topics covered include: heat exchangers for heat recovery; electrical and electronic equipment cooling; temperature control of spacecraft; cryosurgery; cryogenic, cooling; nuclear reactor heat transfer; solar collectors; laser mirror cooling; laser vapor cavitites; cooling of permafrost; snow melting; thermal diodes variable conductance; artery gas venting; and venting; and gravity assisted pipes.

  20. HBCUs Research Conference Agenda and Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Sunil (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUS) Research Conference was to provide an opportunity for principal investigators and their students to present research progress reports. The abstracts included in this report indicate the range and quality of research topics such as aeropropulsion, space propulsion, space power, fluid dynamics, designs, structures and materials being funded through grants from Lewis Research Center to HBCUS. The conference generated extensive networking between students, principal investigators, Lewis technical monitors, and other Lewis researchers.

  1. Exoplanet Observing: from Art to Science (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, D. M.; Gleeson, J.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) This paper will review the now well-established best practices for conducting high precision exoplanet observing with small telescopes. The paper will also review the AAVSO's activities in promoting these best practices among the amateur astronomer community through training material and online courses, as well as through the establishment of an AAVSO Exoplanet Database. This latter development will be an essential element in supporting followup exoplanet observations for upcoming space telescope missions such as TESS and JWST.

  2. HBCUs Research Conference Agenda and Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Sunil (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) Research Conference was to provide an opportunity for principal investigators and their students to present research progress reports. The abstracts included in this report indicate the range and quality of research topics such as aeropropulsion, space propulsion, space power, fluid dynamics, designs, structures and materials being funded through grants from Lewis Research Center to HBCUs. The conference generated extensive networking between students, principal investigators, Lewis technical monitors, and other Lewis researchers.

  3. Cryogenic adhesives and sealants: Abstracted publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. R.; Olien, N. A.

    1977-01-01

    Abstracts of primary documents containing original experimental data on the properties of adhesives and sealants at cryogenic temperatures are presented. The most important references mentioned in each document are cited. In addition, a brief annotation is given for documents considered secondary in nature, such as republications or variations of original reports, progress reports leading to final reports included as primary documents, and experimental data on adhesive properties at temperatures between about 130 K and room temperature.

  4. Hydrogen energy. A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Hydrogen Energy is a continuing bibliographic summary with abstracts of research and projections on the subject of hydrogen as a secondary fuel and as an energy carrier. This update to Hydrogen Energy cites additional references identified during the fourth quarter of 1978. It is the fourth in a 1978 quarterly series intended to provide current awareness to those interested in hydrogen energy. A series of cross indexes are included which track directly with those of the cumulative volume.

  5. HBCUs Research Conference agenda and abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Sunil (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) Research conference was to provide an opportunity for principal investigators and their students to present research progress reports. The abstracts included in this report indicate the range and quality of research topics such as aeropropulsion, space propulsion, space power, fluid dynamics, designs, structures and materials being funded through grants from Lewis Research Center to HBCUs. The conference generated extensive networking between students, principal investigators, Lewis technical monitors, and other Lewis researchers.

  6. The cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    A review the implications of the spectrum and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background for cosmology. Thermalization and processes generating spectral distortions are discussed. Anisotropy predictions are described and compared with observational constraints. If the evidence for large-scale power in the galaxy distribution in excess of that predicted by the cold dark matter model is vindicated, and the observed structure originated via gravitational instabilities of primordial density fluctuations, the predicted amplitude of microwave background anisotropies on angular scales of a degree and larger must be at least several parts in 10 exp 6.

  7. Abstract number and arithmetic in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Barth, Hilary; La Mont, Kristen; Lipton, Jennifer; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2005-09-27

    Educated humans use language to express abstract number, applying the same number words to seven apples, whistles, or sins. Is language or education the source of numerical abstraction? Claims to the contrary must present evidence for numerical knowledge that applies to disparate entities, in people who have received no formal mathematics instruction and cannot express such knowledge in words. Here we show that preschool children can compare and add large sets of elements without counting, both within a single visual-spatial modality (arrays of dots) and across two modalities and formats (dot arrays and tone sequences). In two experiments, children viewed animations and either compared one visible array of dots to a second array or added two successive dot arrays and compared the sum to a third array. In further experiments, a dot array was replaced by a sequence of sounds, so that participants had to integrate quantity information presented aurally and visually. Children performed all tasks successfully, without resorting to guessing strategies or responding to continuous variables. Their accuracy varied with the ratio of the two quantities: a signature of large, approximate number representations in adult humans and animals. Addition was as accurate as comparison, even though children showed no relevant knowledge when presented with symbolic versions of the addition tasks. Abstract knowledge of number and addition therefore precedes, and may guide, language-based instruction in mathematics.

  8. Improving the Linkages between Air Pollution Epidemiology and Quantitative Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Michelle L.; Walker, Katy; Hubbell, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Air pollution epidemiology plays an integral role in both identifying the hazards of air pollution as well as supplying the risk coefficients that are used in quantitative risk assessments. Evidence from both epidemiology and risk assessments has historically supported critical environmental policy decisions. The extent to which risk assessors can properly specify a quantitative risk assessment and characterize key sources of uncertainty depends in part on the availability, and clarity, of data and assumptions in the epidemiological studies. Objectives: We discuss the interests shared by air pollution epidemiology and risk assessment communities in ensuring that the findings of epidemiological studies are appropriately characterized and applied correctly in risk assessments. We highlight the key input parameters for risk assessments and consider how modest changes in the characterization of these data might enable more accurate risk assessments that better represent the findings of epidemiological studies. Discussion: We argue that more complete information regarding the methodological choices and input data used in epidemiological studies would support more accurate risk assessments—to the benefit of both disciplines. In particular, we suggest including additional details regarding air quality, demographic, and health data, as well as certain types of data-rich graphics. Conclusions: Relatively modest changes to the data reported in epidemiological studies will improve the quality of risk assessments and help prevent the misinterpretation and mischaracterization of the results of epidemiological studies. Such changes may also benefit epidemiologists undertaking meta-analyses. We suggest workshops as a way to improve the dialogue between the two communities. PMID:21816702

  9. Regional Background Fine Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling system composed of the global model GEOS-Chem providing hourly lateral boundary conditions to the regional model CMAQ was used to calculate the policy relevant background level of fine particulate: matter. Simulations were performed for the full year of 2004 over the d...

  10. Mathematical background of Parrondo's paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrends, Ehrhard

    2004-05-01

    Parrondo's paradox states that there are losing gambling games which, when being combined stochastically or in a suitable deterministic way, give rise to winning games. Here we investigate the probabilistic background. We show how the properties of the equilibrium distributions of the Markov chains under consideration give rise to the paradoxical behavior, and we provide methods how to find the best a priori strategies.

  11. Educational Choice. A Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quality Education for Minorities Network, Washington, DC.

    This paper addresses school choice, one proposal to address parental involvement concerns, focusing on historical background, definitions, rationale for advocating choice, implementation strategies, and implications for minorities and low-income families. In the past, transfer payment programs such as tuition tax credits and vouchers were…

  12. Teaching about Natural Background Radiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.; Mustapha, Amidu O.

    2013-01-01

    Ambient gamma dose rates in air were measured at different locations (indoors and outdoors) to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of natural background radiation in the environment and to show that levels vary from one location to another, depending on the underlying geology. The effect of a lead shield on a gamma radiation field was also…

  13. Teacher Pensions: A Background Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Janet S.

    2008-01-01

    Pensions are an important but comparatively unexamined component of human resource policies in education. In an increasingly competitive world where employees are more mobile than ever, pension policies that were designed in the last century may be out of step with the needs of both individuals and schools. This background paper aims to foster…

  14. Cultural Backgrounds and Textual Appropriation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Ling

    2006-01-01

    This study examines interviews with 46 undergraduates to explore if participants with differing language and cultural backgrounds view plagiarism or textual appropriation primarily as a) a language problem because of a lack of words of one's own, or b) a cultural challenge as a result of either some first language (L1) cultural training to…

  15. A Little Background Music, Please.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Martha Mead

    1991-01-01

    Background music could be used to provide a pleasant beginning for the school day, to help keep students quiet and relaxed in the school cafeteria at lunchtime, and to provide a midafternoon lift for bored and tired children. The most effective music pleases children without overly exciting them through jarring rhythms and loud dynamics. (nine…

  16. Seven years of the field epidemiology training programme (FETP) at Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India: an internal evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During 2001–2007, the National Institute of Epidemiology (NIE), Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India admitted 80 trainees in its two-year Field Epidemiology Training Programme (FETP). We evaluated the first seven years of the programme to identify strengths and weaknesses. Methods We identified core components of the programme and broke them down into input, process, output and outcome. We developed critical indicators to reflect the logic model. We reviewed documents including fieldwork reports, abstracts listed in proceedings and papers published in Medline-indexed journals. We conducted an anonymous online survey of the graduates to collect information on self-perceived competencies, learning activities, field assignments, supervision, curriculum, relevance to career goals, strengths and weaknesses. Results Of the 80 students recruited during 2001–2007, 69 (86%) acquired seven core competencies (epidemiology, surveillance, outbreaks, research, human subjects protection, communication and management) and graduated through completion of at least six field assignments. The faculty-to-student ratio ranged between 0.4 and 0.12 (expected: 0.25). The curriculum was continuously adapted with all resources available on-line. Fieldwork led to the production of 158 scientific communications presented at international meetings and to 29 manuscripts accepted in indexed, peer-reviewed journals. The online survey showed that while most graduates acquired competencies, unmet needs persisted in laboratory sciences, data analysis tools and faculty-to-student ratio. Conclusions NIE adapted the international FETP model to India. However, further efforts are required to scale up the programme and to develop career tracks for field epidemiologists in the country. PMID:23013473

  17. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 05)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and section 2 - Indexes. The abstract section cites 217 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1974 through June 1974. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and, in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. The index section contains entries for 2653 patent and application for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through June 1974. The index section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  18. Epidemiology of and Diagnostic Strategies for Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Dardé, Marie-Laure

    2012-01-01

    Summary: The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii was discovered a little over 100 years ago, but knowledge of its biological life cycle and its medical importance has grown in the last 40 years. This obligate intracellular parasite was identified early as a pathogen responsible for congenital infection, but its clinical expression and the importance of reactivations of infections in immunocompromised patients were recognized later, in the era of organ transplantation and HIV infection. Recent knowledge of host cell-parasite interactions and of parasite virulence has brought new insights into the comprehension of the pathophysiology of infection. In this review, we focus on epidemiological and diagnostic aspects, putting them in perspective with current knowledge of parasite genotypes. In particular, we provide critical information on diagnostic methods according to the patient's background and discuss the implementation of screening tools for congenital toxoplasmosis according to health policies. PMID:22491772

  19. Epidemiologic Background of Hand Hygiene and Evaluation of the Most Important Agents for Scrubs and Rubs

    PubMed Central

    Kampf, Günter; Kramer, Axel

    2004-01-01

    The etiology of nosocomial infections, the frequency of contaminated hands with the different nosocomial pathogens, and the role of health care workers' hands during outbreaks suggest that a hand hygiene preparation should at least have activity against bacteria, yeasts, and coated viruses. The importance of efficacy in choosing the right hand hygiene product is reflected in the new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guideline on hand hygiene (J. M. Boyce and D. Pittet, Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 51:1-45, 2002). The best antimicrobial efficacy can be achieved with ethanol (60 to 85%), isopropanol (60 to 80%), and n-propanol (60 to 80%). The activity is broad and immediate. Ethanol at high concentrations (e.g., 95%) is the most effective treatment against naked viruses, whereas n-propanol seems to be more effective against the resident bacterial flora. The combination of alcohols may have a synergistic effect. The antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine (2 to 4%) and triclosan (1 to 2%) is both lower and slower. Additionally, both agents have a risk of bacterial resistance, which is higher for chlorhexidine than triclosan. Their activity is often supported by the mechanical removal of pathogens during hand washing. Taking the antimicrobial efficacy and the mechanical removal together, they are still less effective than the alcohols. Plain soap and water has the lowest efficacy of all. In the new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guideline, promotion of alcohol-based hand rubs containing various emollients instead of irritating soaps and detergents is one strategy to reduce skin damage, dryness, and irritation. Irritant contact dermatitis is highest with preparations containing 4% chlorhexidine gluconate, less frequent with nonantimicrobial soaps and preparations containing lower concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate, and lowest with well-formulated alcohol-based hand rubs containing emollients and other skin conditioners. Too few published data from comparative trials are available to reliably rank triclosan. Personnel should be reminded that it is neither necessary nor recommended to routinely wash hands after each application of an alcohol-based hand rub. Long-lasting improvement of compliance with hand hygiene protocols can be successful if an effective and accessible alcohol-based hand rub with a proven dermal tolerance and an excellent user acceptability is supplied, accompanied by education of health care workers and promotion of the use of the product. PMID:15489352

  20. [Epidemiologic background and changes in patients infected with human papilloma virus].

    PubMed

    Ohta, M; Casanova, H; Mizuno, K; Kaseki, H; Niwa, K; Ishiko, H

    1991-05-01

    Contagion with certain types of HPV was supposed to have a causal relationship with cervical neoplasia of the uterus. The rate of prevalence of HPV was investigated in pre-cancer and cancer patients with uterine cervical smear using virapap or viratype. According to the cytologic classification, among those whose cytology was diagnosed as class I or II, were found a few positive HPV, however, in cases in classes cytology IIIa, III and IIIb, the positive rate turned out to be 22.5, 41 and 72.4%, respectively. About 65% of patients whose post-operative diagnosis was cervical carcinoma, had been found positive in the pre-operative HPV.DNA check up. The statistical profiles of virally infected subjects were regarded as slightly younger females with early onset of menarche. A higher positive rate was found in such groups such as unmarried single and divorced single women, career employees with special skills, housewives and dwellers in residential and commercial sections. The follow up study of HPV infection was checked with subjects with dysplasia, and no case was recognized in which initially HPV negative dysplasia turned to positive during the observation period. But, in about 50% of those checked, initially HPV positive dysplasia turned to negative, during the follow up period. In the cases with long term (more than 8 years) dysplasia which was followed up, only one out of 10 was found to be HPV positive, while in middle term (more than 2 years but less than 8 years) followed up dysplasia, the positive rate was calculated as 47.8%.

  1. Coding OSICS sports injury diagnoses in epidemiological studies: does the background of the coder matter?

    PubMed Central

    Finch, Caroline F; Orchard, John W; Twomey, Dara M; Saad Saleem, Muhammad; Ekegren, Christina L; Lloyd, David G; Elliott, Bruce C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare Orchard Sports Injury Classification System (OSICS-10) sports medicine diagnoses assigned by a clinical and non-clinical coder. Design Assessment of intercoder agreement. Setting Community Australian football. Participants 1082 standardised injury surveillance records. Main outcome measurements Direct comparison of the four-character hierarchical OSICS-10 codes assigned by two independent coders (a sports physician and an epidemiologist). Adjudication by a third coder (biomechanist). Results The coders agreed on the first character 95% of the time and on the first two characters 86% of the time. They assigned the same four-digit OSICS-10 code for only 46% of the 1082 injuries. The majority of disagreements occurred for the third character; 85% were because one coder assigned a non-specific ‘X’ code. The sports physician code was deemed correct in 53% of cases and the epidemiologist in 44%. Reasons for disagreement included the physician not using all of the collected information and the epidemiologist lacking specific anatomical knowledge. Conclusions Sports injury research requires accurate identification and classification of specific injuries and this study found an overall high level of agreement in coding according to OSICS-10. The fact that the majority of the disagreements occurred for the third OSICS character highlights the fact that increasing complexity and diagnostic specificity in injury coding can result in a loss of reliability and demands a high level of anatomical knowledge. Injury report form details need to reflect this level of complexity and data management teams need to include a broad range of expertise. PMID:22919021

  2. Coding OSICS sports injury diagnoses in epidemiological studies: does the background of the coder matter?

    PubMed

    Finch, Caroline F; Orchard, John W; Twomey, Dara M; Saad Saleem, Muhammad; Ekegren, Christina L; Lloyd, David G; Elliott, Bruce C

    2014-04-01

    To compare Orchard Sports Injury Classification System (OSICS-10) sports medicine diagnoses assigned by a clinical and non-clinical coder. Assessment of intercoder agreement. Community Australian football. 1082 standardised injury surveillance records. Direct comparison of the four-character hierarchical OSICS-10 codes assigned by two independent coders (a sports physician and an epidemiologist). Adjudication by a third coder (biomechanist). The coders agreed on the first character 95% of the time and on the first two characters 86% of the time. They assigned the same four-digit OSICS-10 code for only 46% of the 1082 injuries. The majority of disagreements occurred for the third character; 85% were because one coder assigned a non-specific 'X' code. The sports physician code was deemed correct in 53% of cases and the epidemiologist in 44%. Reasons for disagreement included the physician not using all of the collected information and the epidemiologist lacking specific anatomical knowledge. Sports injury research requires accurate identification and classification of specific injuries and this study found an overall high level of agreement in coding according to OSICS-10. The fact that the majority of the disagreements occurred for the third OSICS character highlights the fact that increasing complexity and diagnostic specificity in injury coding can result in a loss of reliability and demands a high level of anatomical knowledge. Injury report form details need to reflect this level of complexity and data management teams need to include a broad range of expertise.

  3. Global epidemiology of podoconiosis: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Trueba, Mei L.; Newport, Melanie J.; Davey, Gail

    2018-01-01

    Background Podoconiosis is one of the few diseases that could potentially be eliminated within one generation. Nonetheless, the global distribution of the disease remains largely unknown. The global atlas of podoconiosis was conceived to define the epidemiology and distribution of podoconiosis through dedicated surveys and assembling the available epidemiological data. Methods We have synthesized the published literature on the epidemiology of podoconiosis. Through systematic searches in SCOPUS and MEDLINE from inception to February 14, 2018, we identified observational and population-based studies reporting podoconiosis. To establish existence of podoconiosis, we used case reports and presence data. For a study to be included in the prevalence synthesis, it needed to be a population-based survey that involved all residents within a specific area. Studies that did not report original data were excluded. We undertook descriptive analyses of the extracted data. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42018084959. Results We identified 3,260 records, of which 27 studies met the inclusion criteria. Podoconiosis was described to exist or be endemic in 32 countries, 18 from the African Region, 3 from Asia and 11 from Latin America. Overall, podoconiosis prevalence ranged from 0·10% to 8.08%, was highest in the African region, and was substantially higher in adults than in children and adolescents. The highest reported prevalence values were in Africa (8.08% in Cameroon, 7.45% in Ethiopia, 4.52% in Uganda, 3.87% in Kenya and 2.51% in Tanzania). In India, a single prevalence of 0.21% was recorded from Manipur, Mizoram and Rajasthan states. None of the Latin American countries reported prevalence data. Conclusion Our data suggest that podoconiosis is more widespread in the African Region than in the rest of the regions, although this could be related to the fact that most podoconiosis epidemiological research has been focused in the African continent. The

  4. New Features in the ADS Abstract Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; ReyBacaicoa, V.; Murray, S. S.

    2001-11-01

    The ADS Abstract Service contains over 2.3 million references in four databases: Astronomy/Astrophysics/Planetary Sciences, Instrumentation, Physics/Geophysics, and Preprints. We provide abstracts and articles free to the astronomical community for all major and many smaller astronomy journals, PhD theses, conference proceedings, and technical reports. These four databases can be queried either separately of jointly. The ADS also has scanned 1.3 million pages in 180,000 articles in the ADS Article Service. This literature archive contains all major Astronomy journals and many smaller journals, as well as conference proceedings, including the abstract books from all the LPSCs back to volume 2. A new feature gives our users the ability to see list of articles that were also read by the readers of a given article. This is a powerful tool to find out what current articles are relevant in a particular field of study. We have recently expanded the citation and reference query capabilities. It allows our users to select papers for which they want to see references or citations and then retrieve these citations/references. Another new capability is the ability to sort a list of articles by their citation count. As usual, users should be reminded that the citations in ADS are incomplete because we do not obtain reference lists from all publishers. In addition, we cannot match all references (e.g. in press, private communications, author errors, some conference papers, etc.). Anyone using the citations for analysis of publishing records should keep this in mind. More work on expanding the citation and reference features is planned over the next year. ADS Home Page http://ads.harvard.edu/

  5. Divvy Economies Based On (An Abstract) Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Dennis G.

    2004-04-01

    The Leontief Input-Output economic system can provide a model for a one-parameter family of economic systems based on an abstract temperature T. In particular, given a normalized input-output matrix R and taking R= R(1), a family of economic systems R(1/T)=R(α) is developed that represents heating (T>1) and cooling (T<1) of the economy relative to T=1. .The economy for a given value of T represents the solution of a constrained maximum entropy problem.

  6. On implicit abstract neutral nonlinear differential equations

    SciTech Connect

    Hernández, Eduardo, E-mail: lalohm@ffclrp.usp.br; O’Regan, Donal, E-mail: donal.oregan@nuigalway.ie

    2016-04-15

    In this paper we continue our developments in Hernández and O’Regan (J Funct Anal 261:3457–3481, 2011) on the existence of solutions for abstract neutral differential equations. In particular we extend the results in Hernández and O’Regan (J Funct Anal 261:3457–3481, 2011) for the case of implicit nonlinear neutral equations and we focus on applications to partial “nonlinear” neutral differential equations. Some applications involving partial neutral differential equations are presented.

  7. Solar thermal components. A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozman, W. R. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    This bibliographic series cites and abstracts literature and technical papers on components applied to solar thermal energy utilization. The quarterly volumes are divided into ten categories: material properties; flat plat collectors; concentrating collectors; thermal storage; heat pumps; coolers and heat exchangers; solar ponds and distillation; greenhouses; process pleat; and irrigation pumps. Each quarterly volume is compiled from a wide variety of data bases, report literature, technical briefs, journal articles and other traditional and non traditional sources. The Technology Application Center maintains a library containing many of the articles and publications referenced in the series.

  8. Perfluorocarbon background concentrations in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straume, Anne Grete; Dietz, Russel N.; Koffı̀, Ernest N.'dri; Nodop, Katrin

    Five studies of the background level of several perfluorocarbon compounds in Europe are here presented together with measurements from the European Tracer Experiment (ETEX). The tracers used during the two ETEX tracer releases were the perfluorocarbons (PFCs); perfluoromethylcyclohexane (C 7F 14, PMCH) and perfluoromethylcyclopentane (C 6F 12, PMCP). Their background concentrations were detected by using both passive and active sampling techniques, to define the spatial and temporal variation of the PFCs over Europe. Also the background variations of four isomers of the PFC compound perfluorodimethylcyclohexane (C 8F 16, PDCH) were studied. The results were compared to other PFC tracer studies in the U.S.A. and Europe. The mean and median values of the measured PFCs were found to vary slightly and randomly in space and time. They were found to be higher and to have a larger standard deviation than the measurements from the American studies. The background concentrations were still found to be low and stable enough for PFCs to be highly suitable for use in tracer studies. The following concentrations were found: PMCP; 4.6±0.3 fl ℓ -1, PMCH: 4.6±0.8 fl ℓ -1, ocPDCH: 0.96±0.33 fl ℓ -1, mtPDCH: 9.3±0.8 fl ℓ -1, mcPDCH: 8.8±0.8 fl ℓ -1, ptPDCH: 6.1±0.8 fl ℓ -1. A study of the correlation between the measured PFC compounds showed a significant correlation between most of the compounds, which indicate that there are no major PFC sources in Europe.

  9. Background stratified Poisson regression analysis of cohort data.

    PubMed

    Richardson, David B; Langholz, Bryan

    2012-03-01

    Background stratified Poisson regression is an approach that has been used in the analysis of data derived from a variety of epidemiologically important studies of radiation-exposed populations, including uranium miners, nuclear industry workers, and atomic bomb survivors. We describe a novel approach to fit Poisson regression models that adjust for a set of covariates through background stratification while directly estimating the radiation-disease association of primary interest. The approach makes use of an expression for the Poisson likelihood that treats the coefficients for stratum-specific indicator variables as 'nuisance' variables and avoids the need to explicitly estimate the coefficients for these stratum-specific parameters. Log-linear models, as well as other general relative rate models, are accommodated. This approach is illustrated using data from the Life Span Study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors and data from a study of underground uranium miners. The point estimate and confidence interval obtained from this 'conditional' regression approach are identical to the values obtained using unconditional Poisson regression with model terms for each background stratum. Moreover, it is shown that the proposed approach allows estimation of background stratified Poisson regression models of non-standard form, such as models that parameterize latency effects, as well as regression models in which the number of strata is large, thereby overcoming the limitations of previously available statistical software for fitting background stratified Poisson regression models.

  10. Backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists.

    PubMed

    Labree, Wim; Nijman, Henk; van Marle, Hjalmar; Rassin, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists. For this, the psychiatric, psychological, personal, and criminal backgrounds of all arsonists (n=25), sentenced to forced treatment in the maximum security forensic hospital "De Kijvelanden", were compared to the characteristics of a control group of patients (n=50), incarcerated at the same institution for other severe crimes. Apart from DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II disorders, family backgrounds, level of education, treatment history, intelligence (WAIS scores), and PCL-R scores were included in the comparisons. Furthermore, the apparent motives for the arson offences were explored. It was found that arsonists had more often received psychiatric treatment, prior to committing their index offence, and had a history of severe alcohol abuse more often in comparison to the controls. The arsonists turned out to be less likely to suffer from a major psychotic disorder. Both groups did not differ significantly on the other variables, among which the PCL-R total scores and factor scores. Exploratory analyses however, did suggest that arsonists may differentiate from non-arsonists on three items of the PCL-R, namely impulsivity (higher scores), superficial charm (lower scores), and juvenile delinquency (lower scores). Although the number of arsonists with a major psychotic disorder was relatively low (28%), delusional thinking of some form was judged to play a role in causing arson crimes in about half of the cases (52%).

  11. The isotropic radio background revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornengo, Nicolao; Lineros, Roberto A.; Regis, Marco; Taoso, Marco

    2014-04-01

    We present an extensive analysis on the determination of the isotropic radio background. We consider six different radio maps, ranging from 22 MHz to 2.3 GHz and covering a large fraction of the sky. The large scale emission is modeled as a linear combination of an isotropic component plus the Galactic synchrotron radiation and thermal bremsstrahlung. Point-like and extended sources are either masked or accounted for by means of a template. We find a robust estimate of the isotropic radio background, with limited scatter among different Galactic models. The level of the isotropic background lies significantly above the contribution obtained by integrating the number counts of observed extragalactic sources. Since the isotropic component dominates at high latitudes, thus making the profile of the total emission flat, a Galactic origin for such excess appears unlikely. We conclude that, unless a systematic offset is present in the maps, and provided that our current understanding of the Galactic synchrotron emission is reasonable, extragalactic sources well below the current experimental threshold seem to account for the majority of the brightness of the extragalactic radio sky.

  12. Compendium of abstracts on statistical applications in geotechnical engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynes-Griffin, M. E.; Deer, G. W.

    1983-09-01

    The results of a literature search of geotechnical and statistical abstracts are presented in tables listing specific topics, title of the abstract, main author and the file number under which the abstract can be found.

  13. Processing abstract language modulates motor system activity.

    PubMed

    Glenberg, Arthur M; Sato, Marc; Cattaneo, Luigi; Riggio, Lucia; Palumbo, Daniele; Buccino, Giovanni

    2008-06-01

    Embodiment theory proposes that neural systems for perception and action are also engaged during language comprehension. Previous neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies have only been able to demonstrate modulation of action systems during comprehension of concrete language. We provide neurophysiological evidence for modulation of motor system activity during the comprehension of both concrete and abstract language. In Experiment 1, when the described direction of object transfer or information transfer (e.g., away from the reader to another) matched the literal direction of a hand movement used to make a response, speed of responding was faster than when the two directions mismatched (an action-sentence compatibility effect). In Experiment 2, we used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to study changes in the corticospinal motor pathways to hand muscles while reading the same sentences. Relative to sentences that do not describe transfer, there is greater modulation of activity in the hand muscles when reading sentences describing transfer of both concrete objects and abstract information. These findings are discussed in relation to the human mirror neuron system.

  14. Directory of Energy Information Administration Model Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-16

    This directory partially fulfills the requirements of Section 8c, of the documentation order, which states in part that: The Office of Statistical Standards will annually publish an EIA document based on the collected abstracts and the appendices. This report contains brief statements about each model's title, acronym, purpose, and status, followed by more detailed information on characteristics, uses, and requirements. Sources for additional information are identified. All models active through March 1985 are included. The main body of this directory is an alphabetical list of all active EIA models. Appendix A identifies major EIA modeling systems and the models withinmore » these systems, and Appendix B identifies active EIA models by type (basic, auxiliary, and developing). EIA also leases models developed by proprietary software vendors. Documentation for these proprietary models is the responsibility of the companies from which they are leased. EIA has recently leased models from Chase Econometrics, Inc., Data Resources, Inc. (DRI), the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Wharton Econometric Forecasting Associates (WEFA). Leased models are not abstracted here. The directory is intended for the use of energy and energy-policy analysts in the public and private sectors.« less

  15. Current Abstracts Nuclear Reactors and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bales, J.D.; Hicks, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    This publication Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`smore » Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on the Energy Science and Technology Database and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to the Energy Science and Technology Database, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user`s needs.« less

  16. Online access to journal abstracts and articles.

    PubMed

    Giedd, J N; Smith, K G

    1997-01-01

    Advances in information technology now offer several options for child and adolescent psychopharmacologists to navigate the increasingly complex terrain of scientific literature and keep abreast of the rapidly changing advances in our field. MEDLINE, the world's largest database of medical literature, can be accessed and searched by a variety of free or fee-based services. In addition to efficient retrieval of citations and abstracts based on subject, author, or title, many of these services now provide, for a fee, the entire text and graphics of articles (displayed on computer screen, faxed, or mailed). There are also current awareness services to alert the user when new requested literature become available as well as services to send via e-mail the tables of contents of requested journals (sometimes prior to paper publication). For online citation and abstract retrieval, we found that free services, such as PubMed, performed as good or better than fee-based services. Physicians' Online, sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry, offered the lowest price for full-text manuscript delivery. In this article, we review literature search, delivery, and update services and offer some tips on how to most effectively use these resources.

  17. An Immuno-epidemiological Model of Paratuberculosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martcheva, M.

    2011-11-01

    The primary objective of this article is to introduce an immuno-epidemiological model of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease). To develop the immuno-epidemiological model, we first develop an immunological model and an epidemiological model. Then, we link the two models through time-since-infection structure and parameters of the epidemiological model. We use the nested approach to compose the immuno-epidemiological model. Our immunological model captures the switch between the T-cell immune response and the antibody response in Johne's disease. The epidemiological model is a time-since-infection model and captures the variability of transmission rate and the vertical transmission of the disease. We compute the immune-response-dependent epidemiological reproduction number. Our immuno-epidemiological model can be used for investigation of the impact of the immune response on the epidemiology of Johne's disease.

  18. [Understanding and intervention: a dimension of collaboration of anthropology and epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Song, Lei-Ming; Wang, Ning

    2012-10-01

    'Epidemiological intervention' involves many social and cultural contents and can be recognized as a social cultural practice. If we know more about the relevant social cultural background of the objects on intervention measures and intervention, the goals would more successful and effective be reached. Since anthropology is specialized in understanding relevant social and cultural contents, the understanding of anthropology should be viewed both as important prerequisite and foundation of the epidemiological intervention programs.

  19. [Epidemiologic and medical sociological aspects of hypertension].

    PubMed

    Siegrist, J

    1995-10-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are a major determinant of overall and premature mortality in advanced and in rapidly developing societies. In view of their importance it is mandatory to identify underlying risk factors and to guide preventive and therapeutic actions accordingly. Hypertension is one of the most prevalent and well-established cardiovascular risk factors. This paper briefly summarizes some major determinants of high blood pressure from an epidemiologic and sociomedical point of view. Determinants include age, overweight, physical inactivity, salt and alcohol intake, family history of hypertension, race and socio-economic status. The complexity of these influences is discussed by pointing to interactions between genetic and socio-environmental influences, e.g. in the case of age, bodyweight and salt intake. Based on experimental animal research there is now solid evidence on direct links between psychosocial stress, patterns of neuroendocrine activation and elevation of blood pressure. Four theoretical concepts are described which identify conditions of chronic psychosocial vulnerability or protection in man, and their role in explaining the prevalence of hypertension in epidemiologic studies is discussed. The four concepts are labelled "socioemotional support", "lifestyle incongruity", "job strain" and "effort-reward-imbalance at work". Special emphasis is given to the two latter concepts in view of the potential role of occupational life in triggering high blood pressure during middle adulthood. For instance, Table 1 indicates that high job strain, i.e. high demands in combination with low control at work, is associated with a relative risk of 3 of being hypertensive, after adjusting for important confounders.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Epidemiology as a liberal art.

    PubMed

    Fraser, D W

    1987-02-05

    Epidemiology has features that resemble those of the traditional liberal arts. This makes it fit both for inclusion in an undergraduate curriculum and as an example in medical school of the continuing value of a liberal education. As a "low-technology" science, epidemiology is readily accessible to nonspecialists. Because it is useful for taking a first look at a new problem, it is applicable to a broad range of interesting phenomena. Furthermore, it emphasizes method rather than arcane knowledge and illustrates the approaches to problems and the kinds of thinking that a liberal education should cultivate: the scientific method, analogic thinking, deductive reasoning, problem solving within constraints, and concern for aesthetic values.

  1. Use of Syllabic Logograms to Help Dyslexic Readers of English Visualize Abstract Words as Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saez-Rodriguez, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Background: Dyslexics read concrete words better than abstract ones. As a result, one of the major problems facing dyslexics is the fact that only part of the information that they require to communicate is concrete, i.e. can easily be pictured. Method: The experiment involved dyslexic third-grade, English-speaking children (8-year-olds) divided…

  2. The Future of Phosphorus for Food Security: Making Media to Recover the Nutrient from Water (abstract)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The abstract is only allowed to be 500 words maximum and is supposed to represent the theme of the conference so I am focusing my information more on the background of why phosphorus is important to recovery then giving a little less detail on the material I've made for this purp...

  3. The changing face of epidemiology: gender disparities in citations?

    PubMed Central

    Schisterman, Enrique F; Swanson, Chandra W; Lu, Ya-Ling; Mumford, Sunni L

    2016-01-01

    Background Female biomedical scientists tend to publish fewer articles as last author than their male colleagues and accrue fewer citations per publication. We seek to understand whether epidemiology follows this pattern. Methods We gathered aggregate information on the current gender distribution of epidemiology departments (n=29 of 71 surveyed), societies (n=4 of 8), and journal editorial boards (n=6 of 6) using two online surveys and publicly available online information. Bibliometric data from 4149 articles published between 2008–2012 in six high-impact epidemiology journals were drawn from Web of Science and PubMed. Results We observed a higher prevalence of female than male doctoral students and epidemiology faculty, particularly at lower faculty ranks. 54% of society members were female. Among editorial boards, all current and emeritus editors-in-chief were male and board membership was largely male (64%). Females were more likely to be first authors, but less likely to be last authors. There were no differences in accrued citations at the 50th percentile by first or last author gender. However, articles with male first and last authors tend to accrue more citations (5.7 citations, 95% CI 2.1, 9.4), mostly driven by the most highly cited articles. This disparity is not fully explained by potential confounders, including seniority. Conclusions We found a greater number of female epidemiologists in early career positions and further evidence of potential gender disparity in publication metrics in epidemiology. If epidemiology continues to be practiced by a majority of women, it remains to be seen if these patterns will change over time. PMID:27930394

  4. Epidemiology study at a South Carolina Beach impacted by stormwater runoff

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA conducted an epidemiological study in the summer of 2009. Among the selection criteria for the study location was that beach water quality was affected primarily by stormwater runoff. Preliminary findings from the summer's research will be presented. This abstract does not ne...

  5. The reporting quality of meta-analysis results of systematic review abstracts in periodontology and implant dentistry is suboptimal.

    PubMed

    Polychronopoulou, Argy

    2014-12-01

    Assessment of the quality of reporting in abstracts of systematic reviews with meta-analyses in periodontology and implant dentistry. Faggion CM Jr., Liu J, Huda F, Atieh M. J Periodontal Res 2014; 49(2):137-42. Argy Polychronopoulou, DDS, MS, ScM, ScD PURPOSE/QUESTION: What is the reporting quality of meta-analysis results of abstracts of systematic reviews in periodontology and implant dentistry journals? The authors received no funding for this study Meta-epidemiological study Level 3: Other evidence Not applicable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Modelling abstraction licensing strategies ahead of the UK's water abstraction licensing reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaar, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Within England and Wales, river water abstractions are licensed and regulated by the Environment Agency (EA), who uses compliance with the Environmental Flow Indicator (EFI) to ascertain where abstraction may cause undesirable effects on river habitats and species. The EFI is a percentage deviation from natural flow represented using a flow duration curve. The allowable percentage deviation changes with different flows, and also changes depending on an assessment of the sensitivity of the river to changes in flow (Table 1). Within UK abstraction licensing, resource availability is expressed as a surplus or deficit of water resources in relation to the EFI, and utilises the concept of 'hands-off-flows' (HOFs) at the specified flow statistics detailed in Table 1. Use of a HOF system enables abstraction to cease at set flows, but also enables abstraction to occur at periods of time when more water is available. Compliance at low flows (Q95) is used by the EA to determine the hydrological classification and compliance with the Water Framework Directive (WFD) for identifying waterbodies where flow may be causing or contributing to a failure in good ecological status (GES; Table 2). This compliance assessment shows where the scenario flows are below the EFI and by how much, to help target measures for further investigation and assessment. Currently, the EA is reviewing the EFI methodology in order to assess whether or not it can be used within the reformed water abstraction licensing system which is being planned by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) to ensure the licensing system is resilient to the challenges of climate change and population growth, while allowing abstractors to meet their water needs efficiently, and better protect the environment. In order to assess the robustness of the EFI, a simple model has been created which allows a number of abstraction, flow and licensing scenarios to be run to determine WFD compliance using the

  7. VEST: Abstract Vector Calculus Simplification in Mathematica

    SciTech Connect

    J. Squire, J. Burby and H. Qin

    2013-03-12

    We present a new package, VEST (Vector Einstein Summation Tools), that performs abstract vector calculus computations in Mathematica. Through the use of index notation, VEST is able to reduce scalar and vector expressions of a very general type using a systematic canonicalization procedure. In addition, utilizing properties of the Levi-Civita symbol, the program can derive types of multi-term vector identities that are not recognized by canonicalization, subsequently applying these to simplify large expressions. In a companion paper [1], we employ VEST in the automation of the calculation of Lagrangians for the single particle guiding center system in plasma physics, amore » computation which illustrates its ability to handle very large expressions. VEST has been designed to be simple and intuitive to use, both for basic checking of work and more involved computations. __________________________________________________« less

  8. Automatic Building Abstraction from Aerial Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ley, A.; Hänsch, R.; Hellwich, O.

    2017-09-01

    Multi-view stereo has been shown to be a viable tool for the creation of realistic 3D city models. Nevertheless, it still states significant challenges since it results in dense, but noisy and incomplete point clouds when applied to aerial images. 3D city modelling usually requires a different representation of the 3D scene than these point clouds. This paper applies a fully-automatic pipeline to generate a simplified mesh from a given dense point cloud. The mesh provides a certain level of abstraction as it only consists of relatively large planar and textured surfaces. Thus, it is possible to remove noise, outlier, as well as clutter, while maintaining a high level of accuracy.

  9. Abstraction in art with implications for perception.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Robert

    2003-07-29

    The relationship between people and art is complex and intriguing. Of course, artworks are our creations; but in interesting and important ways, we are also created by our artworks. Our sense of the world is informed by the art we make and by the art we inherit and value, works that, in themselves, encode others' world views. This two-way effect is deeply rooted and art encodes and affects both a culture's ways of perceiving the world and its ways of remaking the world it perceives. The purpose of this paper is to indicate ways in which a study of abstraction in art can be used to discover insights into, to quote the call for papers for this issue, 'our perception of the world, acquired through experience' and 'the way concepts are formed and manipulated to achieve goals'.

  10. A Wide Band SpectroPolarimeter (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menke, J.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) This is the third paper in a series describing experiments in developing amateur spectropolarimetry instrumentation and observational methods. Spectropolarimetry (SP) can provide insight into the extra-stellar environment, including presence of dust and alignment forces (e.g., magnetic fields). The first two papers (SAS 2014, 2016) described the SP1, a spectropolarimeter based on the medium-resolution spectrometer on our 18-inch, f3.5, Newtonian. The desire to observe fainter stars led to the development of the SP2 reported here that uses a low resolution spectrometer. The SP2 has been used with a C11 f10 telescope, and has allowed observations down to about mag. 8. This paper describes the SP2 and observational results to date.

  11. Eggen Card Project: Progress and Plans (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvis, G.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) The Eggen Card Project has been running since 2009 and has involved 30+ AAVSO staff and volunteers. Let me offer a short review of the project, our progress this year and our plans for the future. Phase 1 of the project has been to index the 108,000 card images, identifying the stars they belong too. We've passed the 75% point on this phase. The next phase is how to use this data. Jack Crast has identified the photometric schemes used by Olin and developed a spreadsheet tool to prepare this data for inclusion into the AAVSO International Database (AID). Anyone want good photometry from 1970? We got it!

  12. PYTHON for Variable Star Astronomy (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, M.

    2018-06-01

    (Abstract only) Open source PYTHON packages that are useful for data reduction, photometry, and other tasks relevant to variable star astronomy have been developed over the last three to four years as part of the Astropy project. Using this software, it is relatively straightforward to reduce images, automatically detect sources, and match them to catalogs. Over the last year browser-based tools for performing some of those tasks have been developed that minimize or eliminate the need to write any of your own code. After providing an overview of the current state of the software, an application that calculates transformation coefficients on a frame-by-frame basis by matching stars in an image to the APASS catalog will be described.

  13. Abstraction in art with implications for perception.

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Robert

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between people and art is complex and intriguing. Of course, artworks are our creations; but in interesting and important ways, we are also created by our artworks. Our sense of the world is informed by the art we make and by the art we inherit and value, works that, in themselves, encode others' world views. This two-way effect is deeply rooted and art encodes and affects both a culture's ways of perceiving the world and its ways of remaking the world it perceives. The purpose of this paper is to indicate ways in which a study of abstraction in art can be used to discover insights into, to quote the call for papers for this issue, 'our perception of the world, acquired through experience' and 'the way concepts are formed and manipulated to achieve goals'. PMID:12903671

  14. VEST: Abstract vector calculus simplification in Mathematica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squire, J.; Burby, J.; Qin, H.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new package, VEST (Vector Einstein Summation Tools), that performs abstract vector calculus computations in Mathematica. Through the use of index notation, VEST is able to reduce three-dimensional scalar and vector expressions of a very general type to a well defined standard form. In addition, utilizing properties of the Levi-Civita symbol, the program can derive types of multi-term vector identities that are not recognized by reduction, subsequently applying these to simplify large expressions. In a companion paper Burby et al. (2013) [12], we employ VEST in the automation of the calculation of high-order Lagrangians for the single particle guiding center system in plasma physics, a computation which illustrates its ability to handle very large expressions. VEST has been designed to be simple and intuitive to use, both for basic checking of work and more involved computations.

  15. Interfacing microbiology and biotechnology. Conference abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Maupin, Julia A.

    2001-05-19

    The Interfacing Microbiology and Biotechnology Conference was attended by over 100 faculty, post-docs, students, and research scientists from the US, Europe, and Latin America. The conference successfully stimulated communication and the dissemination of knowledge among scientists involved in basic and applied research. The focus of the conference was on microbial physiology and genetics and included sessions on C1 metabolism, archaeal metabolism, proteases and chaperones, gene arrays, and metabolic engineering. The meeting provided the setting for in-depth discussions between scientists who are internationally recognized for their research in these fields. The following objectives were met: (1) The promotion of interaction andmore » future collaborative projects among scientists involved in basic and applied research which incorporates microbial physiology, genetics, and biochemistry; (2) the facilitation of communication of new research findings through seminars, posters, and abstracts; (3 ) the stimulation of enthusiasm and education among participants including graduate and undergraduate students.« less

  16. Model Checking Abstract PLEXIL Programs with SMART

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siminiceanu, Radu I.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a method to automatically generate discrete-state models of abstract Plan Execution Interchange Language (PLEXIL) programs that can be analyzed using model checking tools. Starting from a high-level description of a PLEXIL program or a family of programs with common characteristics, the generator lays the framework that models the principles of program execution. The concrete parts of the program are not automatically generated, but require the modeler to introduce them by hand. As a case study, we generate models to verify properties of the PLEXIL macro constructs that are introduced as shorthand notation. After an exhaustive analysis, we conclude that the macro definitions obey the intended semantics and behave as expected, but contingently on a few specific requirements on the timing semantics of micro-steps in the concrete executive implementation.

  17. EE Cep Winks in Full Color (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, G.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) We observe the long period (5.6 years) Eclipsing Binary Variable Star EE Cep during its 2014 eclipse. It was observed on every clear night from the Maria Mitchell Observatory as well as remote sites for a total of 25 nights. Each night consisted of a detailed time series in BVRI looking for short term variations for a total of >10,000 observations. The data was transformed to the Standard System. In addition, a time series was captured during the night of the eclipse. This data provides an alternate method to determine Time of Minimum than traditionally performed. The TOM varied with color. Several strong correlations are seen between colors substantiating the detection of variations on a time scale of hours. The long term light curve shows five interesting and different Phases with different characteristics.

  18. First LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Arlene S. (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    The LDE facility was designed to better understand the environments of space and the effects of prolonged exposure in these environments on future spacecraft. The symposium abstracts presented here are organized according to the symposium agenda into five sessions. The first session provides an overview of the LDEF, the experiments, the mission, and the natural and induced environments the spacecraft and experiments encountered during the mission. The second session presents results to date from studies to better define the environments of near-Earth space. The third session addresses studies of the effects of the space environments on spacecraft materials. The fourth session addresses studies of the effects of the space environments on spacecraft systems. And the fifth session addresses other subjects such as results of the LDEF life science and crystal growth experiments.

  19. The Epidemiology and Associated Phenomenology of Formal Thought Disorder: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Eric; Creed, Lisa; MacMahon, Donagh; Brennan, Daria; Clarke, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Background: Authors of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fifth Edition (DSM-V) have recommended to “integrate dimensions into clinical practice.” The epidemiology and associated phenomenology of formal thought disorder (FTD) have been described but not reviewed. We aimed to carry out a systematic review of FTD to this end. Methods: A systematic review of FTD literature, from 1978 to 2013, using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Results: A total of 881 abstracts were reviewed and 120 articles met inclusion criteria; articles describing FTD factor structure (n = 15), prevalence and longitudinal course (n = 41), role in diagnosis (n = 22), associated clinical variables (n = 56), and influence on outcome (n = 35) were included. Prevalence estimates for FTD in psychosis range from 5% to 91%. Dividing FTD into domains, by factor analysis, can accurately identify 91% of psychotic diagnoses. FTD is associated with increased clinical severity. Poorer outcomes are predicted by negative thought disorder, more so than the typical construct of “disorganized speech.” Conclusion: FTD is a common symptom of psychosis and may be considered a marker of illness severity. Detailed dimensional assessment of FTD can clarify diagnosis and may help predict prognosis. PMID:25180313

  20. The Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, C. L.

    1994-12-01

    The properties of the cosmic microwave background radiation provide unique constraints on the history and evolution of the universe. The first detection of anisotropy of the microwave radiation was reported by the COBE Team in 1992, based on the first year of flight data. The latest analyses of the first two years of COBE data are reviewed in this talk, including the amplitude of the microwave anisotropy as a function of angular scale and the statistical nature of the fluctuations. The two-year results are generally consistent with the earlier first year results, but the additional data allow for a better determination of the key cosmological parameters. In this talk the COBE results are compared with other observational anisotropy results and directions for future cosmic microwave anisotropy observations will be discussed. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC) is responsible for the design, development, and operation of the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE). Scientific guidance is provided by the COBE Science Working Group.

  1. Optical polarization: background and camouflage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Škerlind, Christina; Hallberg, Tomas; Eriksson, Johan; Kariis, Hans; Bergström, David

    2017-10-01

    Polarimetric imaging sensors in the electro-optical region, already military and commercially available in both the visual and infrared, show enhanced capabilities for advanced target detection and recognition. The capabilities arise due to the ability to discriminate between man-made and natural background surfaces using the polarization information of light. In the development of materials for signature management in the visible and infrared wavelength regions, different criteria need to be met to fulfil the requirements for a good camouflage against modern sensors. In conventional camouflage design, the aimed design of the surface properties of an object is to spectrally match or adapt it to a background and thereby minimizing the contrast given by a specific threat sensor. Examples will be shown from measurements of some relevant materials and how they in different ways affect the polarimetric signature. Dimensioning properties relevant in an optical camouflage from a polarimetric perspective, such as degree of polarization, the viewing or incident angle, and amount of diffuse reflection, mainly in the infrared region, will be discussed.

  2. [Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Anisotropies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    One of the main areas of research is the theory of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and analysis of CMB data. Using the four year COBE data we were able to improve existing constraints on global shear and vorticity. We found that, in the flat case (which allows for greatest anisotropy), (omega/H)0 less than 10(exp -7), where omega is the vorticity and H is the Hubble constant. This is two orders of magnitude lower than the tightest, previous constraint. We have defined a new set of statistics which quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity in small field cosmic microwave background maps. By looking at the distribution of power around rings in Fourier space, and at the correlations between adjacent rings, one can identify non-Gaussian features which are masked by large scale Gaussian fluctuations. This may be particularly useful for identifying unresolved localized sources and line-like discontinuities. Levin and collaborators devised a method to determine the global geometry of the universe through observations of patterns in the hot and cold spots of the CMB. We have derived properties of the peaks (maxima) of the CMB anisotropies expected in flat and open CDM models. We represent results for angular resolutions ranging from 5 arcmin to 20 arcmin (antenna FWHM), scales that are relevant for the MAP and COBRA/SAMBA space missions and the ground-based interferometer. Results related to galaxy formation and evolution are also discussed.

  3. [Occupational epidemiology: some methodological considerations].

    PubMed

    Alvear-Galindo, María Guadalupe; del Pilar Paz-Román, María

    2006-01-01

    During the last decade, occupational epidemiology has gained a great importance, not only because of the increase of pollutants and their noxiousness, but also because it has gone from the descriptive to the analytic level. The purpose of this work is to present what has been reported on epidemiological studies, different ways of characterizing and measuring occupational exposure, by emphasizing slants of exposure and selection measurement. In the reviewed studies, an interest in improving the exposure evaluation has been shown. The mainly reported measurement slants are the ways of measuring and classifying the exposure. The main designs were transversal with the use of matrixes to improve the evaluation of exposure. Conditions of hygiene and security were considered in order to control the quality of the information. This information was analyzed with different criteria. Some of the elements that hinder the research on occupational epidemiology are a mixed exposure, small populations, lack of exposure data, low levels of exposure and long periods of illness latency. Some breakthroughs in the strategies of epidemiological analysis and some other areas of knowledge have made possible a better understanding of work and health conditions of workers.

  4. Glossary for econometrics and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Gunasekara, F Imlach; Carter, K; Blakely, T

    2008-10-01

    Epidemiologists and econometricians are often interested in similar topics-socioeconomic position and health outcomes-but the different languages that epidemiologists and economists use to interpret and discuss their results can create a barrier to mutual communication. This glossary defines key terms used in econometrics and epidemiology to assist in bridging this gap.

  5. Molecular Epidemiology of Glanders, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Hornstra, Heidie; Pearson, Talima; Georgia, Shalamar; Liguori, Andrew; Dale, Julia; Price, Erin; O’Neill, Matthew; DeShazer, David; Muhammad, Ghulam; Saqib, Muhammad; Naureen, Abeera

    2009-01-01

    We collected epidemiologic and molecular data from Burkholderia mallei isolates from equines in Punjab, Pakistan from 1999 through 2007. We show that recent outbreaks are genetically distinct from available whole genome sequences and that these genotypes are persistent and ubiquitous in Punjab, probably due to human-mediated movement of equines. PMID:19961695

  6. Regression Discontinuity Designs in Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Moscoe, Ellen; Mutevedzi, Portia; Newell, Marie-Louise; Bärnighausen, Till

    2014-01-01

    When patients receive an intervention based on whether they score below or above some threshold value on a continuously measured random variable, the intervention will be randomly assigned for patients close to the threshold. The regression discontinuity design exploits this fact to estimate causal treatment effects. In spite of its recent proliferation in economics, the regression discontinuity design has not been widely adopted in epidemiology. We describe regression discontinuity, its implementation, and the assumptions required for causal inference. We show that regression discontinuity is generalizable to the survival and nonlinear models that are mainstays of epidemiologic analysis. We then present an application of regression discontinuity to the much-debated epidemiologic question of when to start HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy. Using data from a large South African cohort (2007–2011), we estimate the causal effect of early versus deferred treatment eligibility on mortality. Patients whose first CD4 count was just below the 200 cells/μL CD4 count threshold had a 35% lower hazard of death (hazard ratio = 0.65 [95% confidence interval = 0.45–0.94]) than patients presenting with CD4 counts just above the threshold. We close by discussing the strengths and limitations of regression discontinuity designs for epidemiology. PMID:25061922

  7. Dental epidemiology of military operations.

    PubMed

    Chisick, M C; King, J E

    1993-09-01

    In this paper we review studies that have been conducted on the epidemiology of oral, dental, and maxillofacial conditions during military deployments. The limitations of our current knowledge base are discussed, as is a proposed research effort to enhance the responsiveness of dental support in theaters of operation.

  8. Radiation epidemiology: Past and present

    SciTech Connect

    Boice, J.D. Jr.

    1997-03-01

    Major advancements in radiation epidemiology have occurred during the last several years in studies of atomic bomb survivors, patients given medical radiation, and radiation workers, including underground miners. Risks associated with the Chernobyl accident, indoor radon and childhood exposure to I-131 have yet to be elucidated. Situations in the former Soviet Union around Chelyabinsk, a nuclear installation in the southern Urals, and in the Altai, which received radioactive fallout from weapons testing at Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan, have the potential to provide information on the effects of chronic radiation exposure. Since Roentgen`s discovery of x-rays just 100 years ago, a tremendous amountmore » of knowledge has been accumulated about human health effects following irradiation. The 1994 UNSCEAR report contains the latest compilation and synthesis of radiation epidemiology. This overview will cover epidemiology from a radiation perspective. The different types of study methodologies will be described, followed by a kaleidoscope coverage of past and present studies; ending with some remaining questions in radiation epidemiology. This should set the stage for future chapters, and stimulate thinking about implications of the new data on radiation cancer risks.« less

  9. [Mathematical models and epidemiological analysis].

    PubMed

    Gerasimov, A N

    2010-01-01

    The limited use of mathematical simulation in epidemiology is due not only to the difficulty of monitoring the epidemic process and identifying its parameters but also to the application of oversimplified models. It is shown that realistic reproduction of actual morbidity dynamics requires taking into account heterogeneity and finiteness of the population and seasonal character of pathogen transmission mechanism.

  10. The Changing Epidemiology of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fombonne, Eric

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews epidemiological studies of autism and related disorders. Study designs and sample characteristics are summarized. Currently, conservative prevalence estimates are: 13/10000 for autistic disorder, 21/10000 for pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified, 2.6/10000 for Asperger disorder, and 2/100000 for childhood…

  11. Community Engagement in Epidemiological Research

    PubMed Central

    Sapienza, Jessica N.; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Keim, Sarah; Fleischman, Alan R.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Engaging communities has become a critical aspect of planning and implementing health research. The role community engagement should play in epidemiological and observational research remains unclear since much of this research is not directly generated by community concerns and is not interventional in nature. The National Children's Study (NCS), an observational longitudinal study of 100,000 children and their families, provides a model to help guide the development of community engagement strategies in epidemiologic research. Methodology This manuscript describes community engagement activities of the NCS during the planning phases of the study. Results There are many challenges of community engagement in epidemiologic research particularly before the actual research sites are determined. After communities of interest are designated many further issues must be resolved, including: defining the specific community, determining which residents or institutions represent the identified community, and developing trust and rapport through respectful engagement. Conclusions Community engagement is critical to the long-term success of any longitudinal epidemiologic study. A partnership with the community should be formed to ensure mutual respect and the establishment of an enduring relationship. Genuine community engagement offers the hope of enhancing recruitment, retention, and participant satisfaction. PMID:17512886

  12. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)

    Cancer.gov

    The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium is an open scientific forum organized to foster the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors.

  13. Journal article overlap among Index Medicus, Science Citation Index, Biological Abstracts, and Chemical Abstracts.

    PubMed Central

    Poyer, R K

    1984-01-01

    Journal article overlap is defined as the same journal article being indexed by two or more services. Using journal references from seventy dissertations written in the preclinical sciences, the extent of journal article overlap among Index Medicus, Science Citation Index, Biological Abstracts, and Chemical Abstracts was examined. Of the 7,969 journal references cited, 92% were indexed by at least two of these services; 591 articles were covered by only one of the services, and 55 articles were not indexed. A discussion of the advantages and costs of journal article overlap is presented. PMID:6388693

  14. Development and application of Human Genome Epidemiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jingwen

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiology is a science that studies distribution of diseases and health in population and its influencing factors, it also studies how to prevent and cure disease and promote health strategies and measures. Epidemiology has developed rapidly in recent years and it is an intercross subject with various other disciplines to form a series of branch disciplines such as Genetic epidemiology, molecular epidemiology, drug epidemiology and tumor epidemiology. With the implementation and completion of Human Genome Project (HGP), Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) has emerged at this historic moment. In this review, the development of Human Genome Epidemiology, research content, the construction and structure of relevant network, research standards, as well as the existing results and problems are briefly outlined.

  15. About the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    Epidemiology is the scientific study of the causes and distribution of disease in populations. NCI-funded epidemiology research is conducted through research at institutions in the United States and internationally.

  16. [Epidemiology of the animal prion diseases].

    PubMed

    Domínguez Carmona, M

    2001-01-01

    The authors review the epidemiology of spongiform encephalitis, discussing the possible mechanism of appearance of the epidemic bovine spongiform encephalitis epidemic, leaving aside to another publication the epidemiology of the human spongiform encephalitis and its pathogeny.

  17. Mitochondrial DNA and Cancer Epidemiology Workshop

    Cancer.gov

    A workshop to review the state-of-the science in the mitochondrial DNA field and its use in cancer epidemiology, and to develop a concept for a research initiative on mitochondrial DNA and cancer epidemiology.

  18. Epidemiology of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A; Sperling, Michael R

    2015-05-01

    We critically review the existing literature about the epidemiology (i.e., diagnosis, occurrence, age, gender, comorbidity with epilepsy, associated factors, prognosis, mortality, and cost) of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) and provide suggestions for future research. Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures are commonly diagnosed at epilepsy centers. The diagnosis of PNES relies on a multidisciplinary evaluation and is usually based on different combinations of data. Recording a seizure, while under video-EEG monitoring, is the most reliable diagnostic test. However, not all patients present with seizures while under video-EEG monitoring. Furthermore, not all epileptic seizures produce visible changes in the scalp EEG. The incidence of PNES was estimated to be 1.4-4.9/100,000/year in three previous studies, and the prevalence was calculated to be between 2 to 33 per 100,000 in one study, making it a significant neuropsychiatric condition. However, there remains a scarcity of data about the epidemiology of PNES, and extant studies that assessed the epidemiological characteristics of PNES have significant limitations. For example, inconsistencies with regard to the age of patients studied and lack of standardization of the diagnostic criteria are some of the significant limitations among studies. In conclusion, PNES merit further epidemiological and pathophysiological investigation. A more precise definition and clear guidance on standards for the diagnosis might influence the direction of future research. Well-designed prospective population-based studies to clarify the epidemiology of PNES in various parts of the world, including an evaluation of the predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating factors in cross-cultural comparisons is required. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Publication Rates of Abstracts Presented at Five National Pharmacy Association Meetings

    PubMed Central

    Prohaska, Emily; Generali, Joyce; Zak, Kevin; Grauer, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Background: Abstract presentations at professional meetings provide a medium for disseminating the findings of scholarly activity. Rates of abstract publication from various biomedical disciplines have been evaluated, with pharmacy noted to be lower than other specialties. Previous research on pharmacy abstract publication rates was conducted for a limited number of professional meetings but has not been assessed using Google Scholar. Objective: To determine the full publication rate of abstracts presented at the 2005 American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) Spring and Annual Meetings, American Pharmacists Association (APhA) Annual Meeting, and American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) Summer and Midyear Clinical Meetings. Methods: Publication status was assessed for abstracts presented during the 2005 ACCP Spring and Annual Meetings, APhA Annual Meeting, and ASHP Summer and Midyear Clinical Meetings using PubMed and Google Scholar. Data collected included abstract category, study category, practice site, database(s) in which publication appeared, time in months to publication, publication type, and journal of publication. Results: Evaluation of 2,000 abstracts presented in 2005 revealed an overall full publication rate of 19.8% (n = 384). Nearly all pharmacy abstracts were published as manuscripts (98.4%; n=378) and indexed in PubMed and Google Scholar (91.9%; n = 353), although a significant percentage were indexed in Google Scholar only (7.8%; n = 30). The mean time to full publication was 16.8 months (SD ±11.9 months). Conclusions: Results were consistent with previously reported full publication rates of abstracts from pharmacy association meetings, indicating that abstracts presented at pharmacy meetings continue to have a lower full publication rate than other health disciplines. PMID:24421465

  20. PS2-06: Best Practices for Advancing Multi-site Chart Abstraction Research

    PubMed Central

    Blick, Noelle; Cole, Deanna; King, Colleen; Riordan, Rick; Von Worley, Ann; Yarbro, Patty

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Multi-site chart abstraction studies are becoming increasingly common within the HMORN. Differences in systems among HMORN sites can pose significant obstacles to the success of these studies. It is therefore crucial to standardize abstraction activities by following best practices for multi-site chart abstraction, as consistency of processes across sites will increase efficiencies and enhance data quality. Methods Over the past few months the authors have been meeting to identify obstacles to multi-site chart abstraction and to address ways in which multi-site chart abstraction processes can be systemized and standardized. The aim of this workgroup is to create a best practice guide for multi-site chart abstraction studies. Focus areas include: abstractor training, format for chart abstraction (database, paper, etc), data quality, redaction, mechanism for transferring data, site specific access to medical records, IRB/HIPAA concerns, and budgetary issues. Results The results of the workgroup’s efforts (the best practice guide) will be presented by a panel of experts at the 2012 HMORN conference. The presentation format will also focus on discussion among attendees to elicit further input and to identify areas that need to be further addressed. Subsequently, the best practice guide will be posted on the HMORN website. Discussion The best practice guide for multi-site chart abstraction studies will establish sound guidelines and serve as an aid to researchers embarking on multi-site chart abstraction studies. Efficiencies and data quality will be further enhanced with standardized multi-site chart abstraction practices.

  1. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

    1996-06-11

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone. 5 figs.

  2. Constraining radon backgrounds in LZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, E. H.; Busenitz, J.; Edberg, T. K.; Ghag, C.; Hall, C.; Leonard, R.; Lesko, K.; Liu, X.; Meng, Y.; Piepke, A.; Schnee, R. W.

    2018-01-01

    The LZ dark matter detector, like many other rare-event searches, will suffer from backgrounds due to the radioactive decay of radon daughters. In order to achieve its science goals, the concentration of radon within the xenon should not exceed 2 µBq/kg, or 20 mBq total within its 10 tonnes. The LZ collaboration is in the midst of a program to screen all significant components in contact with the xenon. The four institutions involved in this effort have begun sharing two cross-calibration sources to ensure consistent measurement results across multiple distinct devices. We present here five preliminary screening results, some mitigation strategies that will reduce the amount of radon produced by the most problematic components, and a summary of the current estimate of radon emanation throughout the detector. This best estimate totals < 17.3 mBq, sufficiently low to meet the detector's science goals.

  3. Light scalars on cosmological backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markkanen, Tommi

    2018-01-01

    We study the behaviour of a light quartically self-interacting scalar field ϕ on curved backgrounds that may be described with the cosmological equation state parameter w. At leading order in the non-perturbative 2PI expansion we find a general formula for the variance < {\\widehat{φ}}^2> and show for several previously unexplored cases, including matter domination and kination, that the curvature of space can induce a significant excitation of the field. We discuss how the generation of a non-zero variance for w ≠ -1 can be understood as a process of self-regulation of the infrared divergences very similarly to what is known to occur in de Sitter space. To conclude, the appearance of an effective mass due to self-interaction is generic for a light scalar in curved space and can have important implications for reheating, vacuum stability and dark matter generation.

  4. Polarization of Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzzelli, A.; Cabella, P.; de Gasperis, G.; Vittorio, N.

    2016-02-01

    In this work we present an extension of the ROMA map-making code for data analysis of Cosmic Microwave Background polarization, with particular attention given to the inflationary polarization B-modes. The new algorithm takes into account a possible cross- correlated noise component among the different detectors of a CMB experiment. We tested the code on the observational data of the BOOMERanG (2003) experiment and we show that we are provided with a better estimate of the power spectra, in particular the error bars of the BB spectrum are smaller up to 20% for low multipoles. We point out the general validity of the new method. A possible future application is the LSPE balloon experiment, devoted to the observation of polarization at large angular scales.

  5. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Allander, Krag S.; Bounds, John A.

    1996-01-01

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone.

  6. Strongyloidiasis Epidemiology and Treatment Response in Patients with HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cortes-Penfield, Nicolas; Moore, Cody; Arduino, Roberto; Serpa, Jose

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background We sought to characterize the epidemiology of HIV and S. stercoralis coinfection in an urban HIV cohort, and to investigate the effect of S. stercoralis infection on HIV virologic control and immune recovery. Methods We reviewed the medical records of all HIV-infected patients diagnosed with strongyloidiasis who received care at Thomas Street Health Center (Houston, TX) between 2000 and 2015. For each case we included up to two matched HIV-infected patients without strongyloidiasis (controls). Matching was based on age, sex, ethnicity, baseline CD4 percentage, and HIV viral load at the time of strongyloidiasis diagnosis in the case patient. We recorded patient demographics, comorbidities, CD4 count and percentage, HIV viral load, and absolute eosinophilia count (AEC) at the time of HIV diagnosis, strongyloidiasis diagnosis, and six and twelve months after ivermectin treatment. Results We identified 15 cases of HIV and S.stercoralis coinfection; 13 had at least one available matched control. The mean age of coinfected patients was 45; all were Hispanic, 84.6% were male, and the mean CD4 nadir was 146 cells/ul. At the time of strongyloidiasis diagnosis, the mean CD4 count was 460 cells/ul, HIV RNA viral load 2.07 logs/ml, and AEC was 1,360 cells/μL. At 6 and 12 months after treatment, CD4 counts were 514 and 464 cells/μL, HIV RNA viral loads 1.78 and 2.31 log/mL, and AECs 319 and 362 cells/μL, respectively. Although CD4 counts increased 6 months after treatment, they returned to baseline levels at 12 months; neither change achieved statistical significance. The reduction in AECs after ivermectin treatment was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Matched controls without S.stercoralis had lower AECs at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months; otherwise, there were no differences between cases and controls. Conclusion Strongyloidiasis treatment in HIV-infected patients led to normalization of the AEC at 6 months in most cases, but AECs

  7. A Genetic Epidemiological Mega Analysis of Smoking Initiation in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Prom-Wormley, Elizabeth; Eaves, Lindon J.; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Hewitt, John K.; Young, Susan; Corley, Robin; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.; Legrand, Lisa; Samek, Diana R.; Murrelle, E. Lenn; Silberg, Judy L.; Miles, Donna R.; Schieken, Richard M.; Beunen, Gaston P.; Thomis, Martine; Rose, Richard J.; Dick, Danielle M.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bartels, Meike; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Lichtenstein, Paul; White, Victoria; Kaprio, Jaakko; Neale, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Previous studies in adolescents were not adequately powered to accurately disentangle genetic and environmental influences on smoking initiation (SI) across adolescence. Methods: Mega-analysis of pooled genetically informative data on SI was performed, with structural equation modeling, to test equality of prevalence and correlations across cultural backgrounds, and to estimate the significance and effect size of genetic and environmental effects according to the classical twin study, in adolescent male and female twins from same-sex and opposite-sex twin pairs (N = 19 313 pairs) between ages 10 and 19, with 76 358 longitudinal assessments between 1983 and 2007, from 11 population-based twin samples from the United States, Europe, and Australia. Results: Although prevalences differed between samples, twin correlations did not, suggesting similar etiology of SI across developed countries. The estimate of additive genetic contributions to liability of SI increased from approximately 15% to 45% from ages 13 to 19. Correspondingly, shared environmental factors accounted for a substantial proportion of variance in liability to SI at age 13 (70%) and gradually less by age 19 (40%). Conclusions: Both additive genetic and shared environmental factors significantly contribute to variance in SI throughout adolescence. The present study, the largest genetic epidemiological study on SI to date, found consistent results across 11 studies for the etiology of SI. Environmental factors, especially those shared by siblings in a family, primarily influence SI variance in early adolescence, while an increasing role of genetic factors is seen at later ages, which has important implications for prevention strategies. Implications: This is the first study to find evidence of genetic factors in liability to SI at ages as young as 12. It also shows the strongest evidence to date for decay of effects of the shared environment from early adolescence to young adulthood

  8. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 06)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system are cited. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. The patent and application for patent citations are indexed according to subject, inventor, source, number, and accession number.

  9. Going Over to the Dark Side (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowall, D.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) This is the tale of my continuing journey transforming from a visual to a CCD photometrist. It is my hope that sharing my experiences will help and encourage others to consider taking the same path. It has been hard, but fun; a wonderful opportunity as a newly retired physician to expand my horizons. However, my brain did have to make the switch from Biology to Physics. The major barrier that concerned me was cost, but change itself was also a challenge. Other issues included dealing with the complexity of technical systems and a myriad of details. My solution was to be patient and think small to insure success and then build upon all those little victories. The pedagogical component of this project was critical as well. It began with a good mentor and continued via networking with other members at meetings, taking CHOICE courses, and most importantly: practice, practice, practice. Each plateau suggested many new possibilities. I think “The Force” is now with me! The adventure continues.

  10. Directory of Energy Information Administration model abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-11

    This report contains brief statements from the model managers about each model's title, acronym, purpose, and status, followed by more detailed information on characteristics, uses, and requirements. Sources for additional information are identified. All models ''active'' through March 1987 are included. The main body of this directory is an alphabetical list of all active EIA models. Appendix A identifies major EIA modeling systems and the models within these systems, and Appendix B identifies active EIA models by type (basic, auxiliary, and developing). A basic model is one designated by the EIA Administrator as being sufficiently important to require sustained supportmore » and public scrutiny. An auxiliary model is one designated by the EIA Administrator as being used only occasionally in analyses, and therefore requires minimal levels of documentation. A developing model is one designated by the EIA Administrator as being under development and yet of sufficient interest to require a basic level of documentation at a future date. EIA also leases models developed by proprietary software vendors. Documentation for these ''proprietary'' models is the responsibility of the companies from which they are leased. EIA has recently leased models from Chase Econometrics, Inc., Data Resources, Inc. (DRI), the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Wharton Econometric Forecasting Associates (WEFA). Leased models are not abstracted here. The directory is intended for the use of energy and energy-policy analysts in the public and private sectors.« less

  11. Abstract numerical discrimination learning in rats.

    PubMed

    Taniuchi, Tohru; Sugihara, Junko; Wakashima, Mariko; Kamijo, Makiko

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we examined rats' discrimination learning of the numerical ordering positions of objects. In Experiments 1 and 2, five out of seven rats successfully learned to respond to the third of six identical objects in a row and showed reliable transfer of this discrimination to novel stimuli after being trained with three different training stimuli. In Experiment 3, the three rats from Experiment 2 continued to be trained to respond to the third object in an object array, which included an odd object that needed to be excluded when identifying the target third object. All three rats acquired this selective-counting task of specific stimuli, and two rats showed reliable transfer of this selective-counting performance to test sets of novel stimuli. In Experiment 4, the three rats from Experiment 3 quickly learned to respond to the third stimulus in object rows consisting of either six identical or six different objects. These results offer strong evidence for abstract numerical discrimination learning in rats.

  12. Period Variation in BW Vulpeculae (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowall, D. E.; Odell, A. P.

    2018-06-01

    (Abstract only) BW Vulpeculae (BW Vul) has the largest amplitude of the beta Cephei stars. An observing campaign on this star using the AAVSOnetís Bright Star Monitor (BSM) telescopes was begun in December of 2015 and has yielded 66 nights of observations to date. A period analysis will be presented using the BSM data set in combination with unpublished data from the Lowell Observatory. Over almost 80 years of observations, BW Vul has closely followed a parabolic ephemeris (period increasing by 2.4 seconds/century) plus a light-travel-time effect. This parabola with excursions on either side also could be viewed as a sequence of straight lines (constant period) with abrupt period increases. The first paradigm predicted a necessary change in slope around 2004, which did not occur. Instead, the period decreased abruptly in 2009. That maximum occurred 250 minutes early compared to the first paradigm, and about 25 minutes early compared to the straight-line paradigm from 1982ñ2009.

  13. In defense of abstract conceptual representations.

    PubMed

    Binder, Jeffrey R

    2016-08-01

    An extensive program of research in the past 2 decades has focused on the role of modal sensory, motor, and affective brain systems in storing and retrieving concept knowledge. This focus has led in some circles to an underestimation of the need for more abstract, supramodal conceptual representations in semantic cognition. Evidence for supramodal processing comes from neuroimaging work documenting a large, well-defined cortical network that responds to meaningful stimuli regardless of modal content. The nodes in this network correspond to high-level "convergence zones" that receive broadly crossmodal input and presumably process crossmodal conjunctions. It is proposed that highly conjunctive representations are needed for several critical functions, including capturing conceptual similarity structure, enabling thematic associative relationships independent of conceptual similarity, and providing efficient "chunking" of concept representations for a range of higher order tasks that require concepts to be configured as situations. These hypothesized functions account for a wide range of neuroimaging results showing modulation of the supramodal convergence zone network by associative strength, lexicality, familiarity, imageability, frequency, and semantic compositionality. The evidence supports a hierarchical model of knowledge representation in which modal systems provide a mechanism for concept acquisition and serve to ground individual concepts in external reality, whereas broadly conjunctive, supramodal representations play an equally important role in concept association and situation knowledge.

  14. 77 FR 10508 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Background Checks...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Background Checks for Contractor Employees (Renewal) AGENCY... the electronic docket, go to www.regulations.gov . Title: Background Checks for Contractor Employees... consolidated in 40 CFR part 9. Abstract: The EPA uses contractors to perform services throughout the nation...

  15. Childhood Brain Tumor Epidemiology: A Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium Review

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kimberly J.; Cullen, Jennifer; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Ostrom, Quinn T.; Langer, Chelsea E.; Turner, Michelle C.; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Fisher, James L.; Lupo, Philip J.; Partap, Sonia; Schwartzbaum, Judith A.; Scheurer, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood brain tumors are the most common pediatric solid tumor and include several histological subtypes. Although progress has been made in improving survival rates for some subtypes, understanding of risk factors for childhood brain tumors remains limited to a few genetic syndromes and ionizing radiation to the head and neck. In this report, we review descriptive and analytical epidemiology childhood brain tumor studies from the past decade and highlight priority areas for future epidemiology investigations and methodological work that is needed to advance our understanding of childhood brain tumor causes. Specifically, we summarize the results of a review of studies published since 2004 that have analyzed incidence and survival in different international regions and that have examined potential genetic, immune system, developmental and birth characteristics, and environmental risk factors. PMID:25192704

  16. An Epidemiology Primer: Bridging the Gap between Epidemiology and Psychology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    to the methods traditionally used in the field of psychology , The intent of this report is to describe some of these methods and explain the. in a...Hypotheses are formulated and tested in much the ame manmer and chi-square, regression, correLation, and analyses of variance are commonly employed in...etudies of morb~idity and mortality. It elsa we fu that epidemiologic studies employ rat"s and measures which, although sldm see in psychology , are

  17. Spinal injury in sport: epidemiologic considerations.

    PubMed

    Tall, R L; DeVault, W

    1993-07-01

    Review of previous epidemiologic studies, involving both contact and noncontact sports at all levels of competition ranging from the high school level to the professional level, reveals that the overwhelming majority of sports injuries related to the spine are soft-tissue injuries and self-limiting. The spectrum of injury is related to the mechanism, the force involved, and the point of application of the force. The immediate consequence of a soft-tissue injury is decreased immobilization with result in deconditioning. Most athletes have a strong desire to compete both at the amateur and professional levels. The inability to compete can have both psychologic and emotional consequences. The professional athlete is potentially burdened with financial consequences as well. The mainstay of prevention and treatment is maintaining good strength and flexibility through conditioning. Injuries can occur at the level of the disc, resulting in disc herniation, disc degeneration, and ultimately developmental stenosis. The biochemistry and biomechanics of the disc are age related, and thus, the adolescent and older athlete may have different concerns with regards to the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis after injury to the spine. Remember, not only injuries cause back pain in the athlete. Athletes, too, can have tumors, infection, rheumatologic disorders, and other nontraumatic etiologies of back pain. Rarely athletic injuries to the spine do result in significant neurologic compromise. These injuries have been brought to national attention with the tragic recent injuries of well-known professional football and hockey athletes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Identifying and collecting pertinent medical records for centralized abstraction in a multi-center randomized clinical trial: The model used by the American College of Radiology arm of the National Lung Screening Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gareen, Ilana F.; Sicks, JoRean; Adams, Amanda; Moline, Denise; Coffman-Kadish, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Background In clinical trials and epidemiologic studies, information on medical care utilization and health outcomes is often obtained from medical records. For multi-center studies, this information may be gathered by personnel at individual sites or by staff at a central coordinating center. We describe the process used to develop a HIPAA-compliant centralized process to collect medical record information for a large multi-center cancer screening trial. Methods The framework used to select, request, and track medical records incorporated a participant questionnaire with unique identifiers for each medical provider. De-identified information from the questionnaires was sent to the coordinating center indexed by these identifiers. The central coordinating center selected specific medical providers for abstraction and notified sites using these identifiers. The site personnel then linked the identifiers with medical provider information. Staff at the sites collected medical records and provided them for central abstraction. Results Medical records were successfully obtained and abstracted to ascertain information on outcomes and health care utilization in a study with over 18,000 study participants. Collection of records required for outcomes related to positive screening examinations and lung cancer diagnosis exceeded 90%. Collection of records for all aims was 87.32%. Conclusions We designed a successful centralized medical record abstraction process that may be generalized to other research settings, including observational studies. The coordinating center received no identifying data. The process satisfied requirements imposed by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act and concerns of site institutional review boards with respect to protected health information. PMID:22982342

  19. Visual Spectroscopy of R Scuti (Poster abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Undreiu, L.; Chapman, A.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) We are currently conducting a visual spectral analysis of the brightest known RV Tauri variable star, R Scuti. The goal of our undergraduate research project is to investigate this variable star's erratic nature by collecting spectra at different times in its cycle. Starting in late June of 2014 and proceeding into the following four months, we have monitored the alterations in the spectral characteristics that accompany the progression of R Sct's irregular cycle. During this time, we were given the opportunity to document the star's most recent descent from maximum brightness V~5 to a relatively deep minimum of V~7.5. Analysis of the data taken during the star's period of declining magnitude has provided us with several interesting findings that concur with the observations of more technically sophisticated studies. Following their collection, we compared our observations and findings with archived material in the hopes of facilitating a better understanding of the physical state of RV Tauri stars and the perplexing nature of their evolution. Although identification of the elements in the star's bright phase proved to be challenging, documenting clear absorption features in its fainter stage was far less difficult. As previously reported in similar studies, we identified prominent TiO molecular absorption bands near R Sct's faintest state, typical of mid-M spectral type stars. In addition to these TiO absorption lines, we report the presence of many more metallic lines in the spectral profiles obtained near star's minimum. Supportive of previously published hypotheses regarding the causation of its variability, we observed significant variation in the star's spectral characteristics throughout different phases of its cycle. We are hopeful that our observations will make a meaningful contribution to existing databases and help advance our collective understanding of RV Tauri stars and their evolutionary significance.

  20. Abstracting application deployment on Cloud infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiftimiei, D. C.; Fattibene, E.; Gargana, R.; Panella, M.; Salomoni, D.

    2017-10-01

    Deploying a complex application on a Cloud-based infrastructure can be a challenging task. In this contribution we present an approach for Cloud-based deployment of applications and its present or future implementation in the framework of several projects, such as “!CHAOS: a cloud of controls” [1], a project funded by MIUR (Italian Ministry of Research and Education) to create a Cloud-based deployment of a control system and data acquisition framework, “INDIGO-DataCloud” [2], an EC H2020 project targeting among other things high-level deployment of applications on hybrid Clouds, and “Open City Platform”[3], an Italian project aiming to provide open Cloud solutions for Italian Public Administrations. We considered to use an orchestration service to hide the complex deployment of the application components, and to build an abstraction layer on top of the orchestration one. Through Heat [4] orchestration service, we prototyped a dynamic, on-demand, scalable platform of software components, based on OpenStack infrastructures. On top of the orchestration service we developed a prototype of a web interface exploiting the Heat APIs. The user can start an instance of the application without having knowledge about the underlying Cloud infrastructure and services. Moreover, the platform instance can be customized by choosing parameters related to the application such as the size of a File System or the number of instances of a NoSQL DB cluster. As soon as the desired platform is running, the web interface offers the possibility to scale some infrastructure components. In this contribution we describe the solution design and implementation, based on the application requirements, the details of the development of both the Heat templates and of the web interface, together with possible exploitation strategies of this work in Cloud data centers.

  1. Plenoptic background oriented schlieren imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemkowsky, Jenna N.; Fahringer, Timothy W.; Clifford, Christopher J.; Bathel, Brett F.; Thurow, Brian S.

    2017-09-01

    The combination of the background oriented schlieren (BOS) technique with the unique imaging capabilities of a plenoptic camera, termed plenoptic BOS, is introduced as a new addition to the family of schlieren techniques. Compared to conventional single camera BOS, plenoptic BOS is capable of sampling multiple lines-of-sight simultaneously. Displacements from each line-of-sight are collectively used to build a four-dimensional displacement field, which is a vector function structured similarly to the original light field captured in a raw plenoptic image. The displacement field is used to render focused BOS images, which qualitatively are narrow depth of field slices of the density gradient field. Unlike focused schlieren methods that require manually changing the focal plane during data collection, plenoptic BOS synthetically changes the focal plane position during post-processing, such that all focal planes are captured in a single snapshot. Through two different experiments, this work demonstrates that plenoptic BOS is capable of isolating narrow depth of field features, qualitatively inferring depth, and quantitatively estimating the location of disturbances in 3D space. Such results motivate future work to transition this single-camera technique towards quantitative reconstructions of 3D density fields.

  2. BOOK REVIEW: The Cosmic Microwave Background The Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, Peter

    2009-08-01

    With the successful launch of the European Space Agency's Planck satellite earlier this year the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is once again the centre of attention for cosmologists around the globe. Since its accidental discovery in 1964 by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson, this relic of the Big Bang has been subjected to intense scrutiny by generation after generation of experiments and has gradually yielded up answers to the deepest questions about the origin of our Universe. Most recently, the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) has made a full-sky analysis of the pattern of temperature and polarization variations that helped establish a new standard cosmological model, confirmed the existence of dark matter and dark energy, and provided strong evidence that there was an epoch of primordial inflation. Ruth Durrer's book reflects the importance of the CMB for future developments in this field. Aimed at graduate students and established researchers, it consists of a basic introduction to cosmology and the theory of primordial perturbations followed by a detailed explanation of how these manifest themselves as measurable variations in the present-day radiation field. It then focuses on the statistical methods needed to obtain accurate estimates of the parameters of the standard cosmological model, and finishes with a discussion of the effect of gravitational lensing on the CMB and on the evolution of its spectrum. The book apparently grew out of various lecture notes on CMB anisotropies for graduate courses given by the author. Its level and scope are well matched to the needs of such an audience and the presentation is clear and well-organized. I am sure that this book will be a useful reference for more senior scientists too. If I have a criticism, it is not about what is in the book but what is omitted. In my view, one of the most exciting possibilities for future CMB missions, including Planck, is the possibility that they might discover physics

  3. "Epidemiological criminology": coming full circle.

    PubMed

    Akers, Timothy A; Lanier, Mark M

    2009-03-01

    Members of the public health and criminal justice disciplines often work with marginalized populations: people at high risk of drug use, health problems, incarceration, and other difficulties. As these fields increasingly overlap, distinctions between them are blurred, as numerous research reports and funding trends document. However, explicit theoretical and methodological linkages between the 2 disciplines remain rare. A new paradigm that links methods and statistical models of public health with those of their criminal justice counterparts is needed, as are increased linkages between epidemiological analogies, theories, and models and the corresponding tools of criminology. We outline disciplinary commonalities and distinctions, present policy examples that integrate similarities, and propose "epidemiological criminology" as a bridging framework.

  4. Worldwide Report, Epidemiology, No. 321.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-06

    Africa To order, see inside front cover JPRS 83616 6 June 1983 WORLDWIDE REPORT EPIDEMIOLOGY No« 321 CONTENTS HUMAN DISEASES BELIZE Briefs...Reported (SPK, k May 83) 10 MALAYSIA Sabah. Cholera Deaths Reported (THE NATIONAL ECHO, 30 Apr 83) H Sarawak Reviews Anti- Dengue ...Outbreak (CAMEROON TRIBUNE, 27 Apr 83) ^3 ISRAEL Briefs identification, Control of Corn ■yirus- kk - d - BELIZE BRIEFS RISE IN MALARIA— Belize is

  5. Current Epidemiology of Genitourinary Trauma

    PubMed Central

    McGeady, James B.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis This article reviews recent publications evaluating the current epidemiology of urologic trauma. It begins by providing a brief explanation of databases that have been recently used to study this patient population, then proceeds to discuss each genitourinary organ individually, discussing the most relevant and up to date information published for each one. The conclusion of the article briefly discusses possible future research and development areas pertaining to the topic. PMID:23905930

  6. World Epidemiology Review, Number 90

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-12

    Bom Jesus and Aurora do Norte. This was reported to Agriculture Minister Alysson Paulinelli in Brasilia by Antonio Augusto Azeredo Coutinho, the...municipios of Dianopolis, Ponte Alta de Bom Jesus , Almas and Alvorada to observe the situation. He confirmed that the rabies outbreak has affected...department has established a system of epidemiological vigilance, which consists of receiving, every 7 days, information from all municipal hospitals

  7. [Childhood accidents: relevant epidemiologic data].

    PubMed

    Julé, Laure; Chevallier, Bertrand

    2009-02-20

    Injuries resulting from accidents are a major public heath problem. Accidents account for 700 deaths among French children up to 15 years and near 300 concern home accidents. Accidental injuries represent the first cause of children mortality, hospitalisations and sequelae. The lack of data registration supports the need of epidemiological tools to appreciate the burden of the public heath problem and the basis of a surveillance system to evaluate strategy prevention.

  8. Worldwide Report, Epidemiology, No. 309

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-31

    regional chief; Dr Jose Antonio Andino , chief of epidemiology; Dr Guillermo Octavio Flores, chief of the Dr Miguel Paz Baraona CESAMO and Mrs. Marta...parents to cooperate in bringing all children eligible for vaccination to the various centers," said Dr Andino . 9839 3 CSO: 5400/2031 HONDURAS...are among the most serious pests which devastate cereals and other crops at their early stage of germination. They are of a matching colour and

  9. World Epidemiology Review, Number 105.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-13

    human , animal, and plant diseases, insect pests and control, sanitation conditions, immunization and public health programs. 17. Key Words and...Document Analysis. 17a. Descriptors Worldwide Clinical Medicine Environmental Biology Hygiene and Sanitation Microbiology 17b. Identifiers /Open...KIV. ••71) THIS FORM MAY BE REPRODUCED USCOMM-OC UM1-*T1 JPRS 71863 13 September 19 78 WORLD EPIDEMIOLOGY REVIEW No. 105 CONTENTS PAGE HUMAN

  10. Assessing abstracts of Iranian systematic reviews and metaanalysis indexed in WOS and Scopus using PRISMA.

    PubMed

    Kazerani, Maryam; Davoudian, Atefeh; Zayeri, Farid; Soori, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Background: Systematic reviews and meta-analysis have significant advantages over conventional reviews in that all available data should be presented. This study aimed to evaluate Iranian systematic reviews and meta-analysis abstracts indexed in WOS and Scopus during 2003-2012 based on PRISMA checklist. Methods: This is an analytical study. We evaluated 46 article abstracts indexed in WOS, 89 article abstracts indexed in Scopus and 158 article abstracts indexed in WOS and Scopus both (overlapped group). The quality of the abstracts was evaluated according to the PRISMA checklist for abstracts. Some indicators including distribution per year, total citation, average citations per year, average citations per documents and average citations per year in each article were determined through searching the WOS and Scopus Databases' analytical section. Then, the correlations between the abstract's PRISMA scores, average citations per year, and publication year were calculated. Results: The abstract's quality is not desirable as far as the PRISMA criteria are concerned. In other words, none of the articles' abstracts is in line with the PRISMA items. The average of scores of the current study was 5.9 while the maximum score was 12. The PRISMA criteria showed the highest compliance with "Objectives" (98.6%), the second highest with "Synthesis of result" (85%) and "Title" (80.2%) and the lowest compliance with "Registration" (2%). There was a positive correlation between the compliance of PRISMA score and the average citations per year while there was a negative correlation between PRISMA score and the publication year. Conclusion: It seems that the suggested criteria for reporting Iranian systematic reviews and meta-analysis are not considered adequately by the writers and even scientific journal editors.

  11. Overcoming the Challenges of Unstructured Data in Multi-site, Electronic Medical Record-based Abstraction

    PubMed Central

    Polnaszek, Brock; Gilmore-Bykovskyi, Andrea; Hovanes, Melissa; Roiland, Rachel; Ferguson, Patrick; Brown, Roger; Kind, Amy JH

    2014-01-01

    Background Unstructured data encountered during retrospective electronic medical record (EMR) abstraction has routinely been identified as challenging to reliably abstract, as this data is often recorded as free text, without limitations to format or structure. There is increased interest in reliably abstracting this type of data given its prominent role in care coordination and communication, yet limited methodological guidance exists. Objective As standard abstraction approaches resulted in sub-standard data reliability for unstructured data elements collected as part of a multi-site, retrospective EMR study of hospital discharge communication quality, our goal was to develop, apply and examine the utility of a phase-based approach to reliably abstract unstructured data. This approach is examined using the specific example of discharge communication for warfarin management. Research Design We adopted a “fit-for-use” framework to guide the development and evaluation of abstraction methods using a four step, phase-based approach including (1) team building, (2) identification of challenges, (3) adaptation of abstraction methods, and (4) systematic data quality monitoring. Measures Unstructured data elements were the focus of this study, including elements communicating steps in warfarin management (e.g., warfarin initiation) and medical follow-up (e.g., timeframe for follow-up). Results After implementation of the phase-based approach, inter-rater reliability for all unstructured data elements demonstrated kappas of ≥ 0.89 -- an average increase of + 0.25 for each unstructured data element. Conclusions As compared to standard abstraction methodologies, this phase-based approach was more time intensive, but did markedly increase abstraction reliability for unstructured data elements within multi-site EMR documentation. PMID:27624585

  12. Epidemiology for the nuclear medicine technologist.

    PubMed

    Bolus, N E

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the nuclear medicine technologist to the field of epidemiology. There are many applications of epidemiology in nuclear medicine, including research studies that deal with the causes of disease or ways to prevent disease from occurring and investigating the possible effects of ionizing radiation on occupational workers and the general public. One use of an epidemiologic study is to suggest ways to reduce the occurrence of a disease. After reading this article, the nuclear medicine technologist will be familiar with: a) the history and underlying assumptions of epidemiology, b) types of epidemiologic studies, c) what is a valid statistical association for an epidemiologic study, d) proper judgment of cause and effect relationships, e) definitions of epidemiologic terms, and f) an example of a nuclear medicine research study.

  13. Epidemiology and etiology of meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Wrensch, Margaret; Claus, Elizabeth B.

    2010-01-01

    Although most meningiomas are encapsulated and benign tumors with limited numbers of genetic aberrations, their intracranial location often leads to serious and potentially lethal consequences. They are the most frequently diagnosed primary brain tumor accounting for 33.8% of all primary brain and central nervous system tumors reported in the United States between 2002 and 2006. Inherited susceptibility to meningioma is suggested both by family history and candidate gene studies in DNA repair genes. People with certain mutations in the neurofibromatosis gene (NF2) have a very substantial increased risk for meningioma. High dose ionizing radiation exposure is an established risk factor for meningioma, and lower doses may also increase risk, but which types and doses are controversial or understudied. Because women are twice as likely as men to develop meningiomas and these tumors harbor hormone receptors, an etiologic role for hormones (both endogenous and exogenous) has been hypothesized. The extent to which immunologic factors influence meningioma etiology has been largely unexplored. Growing emphasis on brain tumor research coupled with the advent of new genetic and molecular epidemiologic tools in genetic and molecular epidemiology promise hope for advancing knowledge about the causes of intra-cranial meningioma. In this review, we highlight current knowledge about meningioma epidemiology and etiology and suggest future research directions. PMID:20821343

  14. Panel 1: Epidemiology and Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Homøe, Preben; Kværner, Kari; Casey, Janet R; Damoiseaux, Roger A M J; van Dongen, Thijs M A; Gunasekera, Hasantha; Jensen, Ramon G; Kvestad, Ellen; Morris, Peter S; Weinreich, Heather M

    2017-04-01

    Objective To create a literature review between 2011 and June 1, 2015, on advances in otitis media (OM) epidemiology and diagnosis (including relevant audiology studies). Data Sources Electronic search engines (PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library) with a predefined search strategy. Review Methods Articles with appropriate epidemiologic methodology for OM, including acute mastoiditis and eustachian tube dysfunction. Items included OM worldwide and in high-risk populations, OM-related hearing loss, news in OM diagnostics, prenatal risk factors and comorbidities, postnatal risk factors, genetics, microbiological epidemiology, guidelines, and quality of life. Conclusions Diagnostic evidence and genetic studies are increasing; guidelines are introduced worldwide; and there is evidence of benefit of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. New risk factors and comordities are identified in the study period, and quality of life is affected in children and their families. Implications for Practice Chronic suppurative OM occurs worldwide and contributes to lifelong hearing loss. Uniform definitions are still lacking and should be provided. An association between HIV and chronic suppurative OM has been found. Tympanometry is recommended for diagnosis, with or without pneumatic otoscopy. Video otoscopy, algorithms, and validated questionnaires may assist clinicians. Childhood obesity is associated with OM. Heritability accounts for 20% to 50% of OM diagnoses. OM-prone children seem to produce weaker immunologic responses to pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Clinicians tend to individualize treatment without adhering to guidelines.

  15. Soviet Abstracts, Biology. Section Q - Farm Animals, Book Number 4, 1959. Abstracts 16593 thru 16774

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1960-09-28

    Deficiency and. B*g Hypo- vitaminosls in Cattle ’ and Sleep on the Peat I Grounds of the Nadnotetskaya ttolina [Valleyji ORIG. PUB. i Med...weteryn., 1957, 13» No 11, 669-674 ABSTRACT In the Hacfnotetskaya Dolina [Valley] large and small horned cattle were observed to become afflicted...the course of a 60™?? days fattening period Turkmenian oil cakes may be considered harmless for cattle . -- F* M* Kazantsev »&-/ iXi fOUKTRY

  16. Cosmic Microwave Background Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paykari, Paniez; Starck, Jean-Luc Starck

    2012-03-01

    About 400,000 years after the Big Bang the temperature of the Universe fell to about a few thousand degrees. As a result, the previously free electrons and protons combined and the Universe became neutral. This released a radiation which we now observe as the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The tiny fluctuations* in the temperature and polarization of the CMB carry a wealth of cosmological information. These so-called temperature anisotropies were predicted as the imprints of the initial density perturbations which gave rise to the present large-scale structures such as galaxies and clusters of galaxies. This relation between the present-day Universe and its initial conditions has made the CMB radiation one of the most preferred tools to understand the history of the Universe. The CMB radiation was discovered by radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson in 1965 [72] and earned them the 1978 Nobel Prize. This discovery was in support of the Big Bang theory and ruled out the only other available theory at that time - the steady-state theory. The crucial observations of the CMB radiation were made by the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite [86]- orbited in 1989-1996. COBE made the most accurate measurements of the CMB frequency spectrum and confirmed it as being a black-body to within experimental limits. This made the CMB spectrum the most precisely measured black-body spectrum in nature. The CMB has a thermal black-body spectrum at a temperature of 2.725 K: the spectrum peaks in the microwave range frequency of 160.2 GHz, corresponding to a 1.9mmwavelength. The results of COBE inspired a series of ground- and balloon-based experiments, which measured CMB anisotropies on smaller scales over the next decade. During the 1990s, the first acoustic peak of the CMB power spectrum (see Figure 5.1) was measured with increasing sensitivity and by 2000 the BOOMERanG experiment [26] reported

  17. John Snow’s legacy: epidemiology without borders

    PubMed Central

    Fine, Paul; Victora, Cesar G; Rothman, Kenneth J; Moore, Patrick S; Chang, Yuan; Curtis, Val; Heymann, David L; Slutkin, Gary; May, Robert M; Patel, Vikram; Roberts, Ian; Wortley, Richard; Torgerson, Carole; Deaton, Angus

    2013-01-01

    This Review provides abstracts from a meeting held at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, on April 11–12, 2013, to celebrate the legacy of John Snow. They describe conventional and unconventional applications of epidemiological methods to problems ranging from diarrhoeal disease, mental health, cancer, and accident care, to education, poverty, financial networks, crime, and violence. Common themes appear throughout, including recognition of the importance of Snow’s example, the philosophical and practical implications of assessment of causality, and an emphasis on the evaluation of preventive, ameliorative, and curative interventions, in a wide variety of medical and societal examples. Almost all self-described epidemiologists nowadays work within the health arena, and this is the focus of most of the societies, journals, and courses that carry the name epidemiology. The range of applications evident in these contributions might encourage some of these institutions to consider broadening their remits. In so doing, they may contribute more directly to, and learn from, non-health-related areas that use the language and methods of epidemiology to address many important problems now facing the world. PMID:23582396

  18. The changing role and legitimate boundaries of epidemiology: community-based prevention programmes.

    PubMed

    Tuomilehto, J; Puska, P

    1987-01-01

    Epidemiology is the basic science of public health. It combines medical and social sciences, both of which are developing with new inventions. Therefore, the role of epidemiology and its boundaries are also changing over time. An important role of epidemiology is to develop and implement community-based control programmes for major diseases in the community. Such programmes are essential for large scale public health policy. It is necessary that epidemiological research can as freely as possible test new methods of disease prevention and health promotion. The first community-based control programme for cardiovascular diseases, the North Karelia Project is reviewed against this background. At present, it is still possible to define the boundaries of epidemiology geographically and culturally, but in the future, however, it will become more difficult. There is no doubt that epidemiology will remain as the basic science of public health but the scope of public health problems are growing much wider. These include the prevention of the final epidemic--the destruction of our planet by nuclear bombs. In the control of the existing epidemics and in the prevention of new ones the boundaries of epidemiology cannot stay rigid but they must be changing as new facts about the emerging public health problems are identified.

  19. AAVSO and the International Year of Light (Poster abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, K.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) The United Nations General Assembly has officially designated 2015 to be the International Year of Light (IYL). Modeled in part on the earlier International Year of Astronomy (IYA), this cross-disciplinary, international educational and outreach project will celebrate the importance of light in science, technology, cultural heritage, and the arts. It ties in with several important anniversaries, such as the 1000th anniversary of the publication of Ibn Al Haythem's “Book of Optics,” the 150th anniversary of Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism, the centenary of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, and the 50th anniversary of the discovery of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. Because variable stars are defined as such due to the variability of the light we observe from them, all of the AAVSO programs, regardless of type of variable or instrumentation (eye, DSLR, PEP, or CCD) have natural tie-ins to the study of light. This poster will highlight a number of specific ways that AAVSO members and the organization as a whole can become intimately involved with this unique outreach opportunity.

  20. The Current Status of the Disease Caused by Enterovirus 71 Infections: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Molecular Epidemiology, and Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ping-Chin; Chen, Shou-Chien; Chen, Kow-Tong

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections have a major public health impact in the Asia-Pacific region. We reviewed the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and molecular epidemiology of EV71 infection as well as EV71 vaccine development. Previous studies were found using the search terms “enterovirus 71” and “epidemiology” or “pathogenesis” or “molecular epidemiology” or “vaccine” in Medline and PubMed. Articles that were not published in the English language, manuscripts without an abstract, and opinion articles were excluded from the review. The reported epidemiology of cases caused by EV71 infection varied from country to country; seasonal variations in incidence were observed. Most cases of EV71 infection that resulted in hospitalization for complications occurred in children less than five years old. The brainstem was the most likely major target of EV71 infection. The emergence of the EV71 epidemic in the Asia-Pacific region has been associated with the circulation of different genetic lineages (genotypes B3, B4, C1, C2, and C4) that appear to be undergoing rapid evolutionary changes. The relationship between the gene structure of the EV71 virus and the factors that ensure its survival, circulation, and evasion of immunity is still unknown. EV71 infection has emerged as an important global public health problem. Vaccine development, including the development of inactivated whole-virus live attenuated, subviral particles, and DNA vaccines, has been progressing. PMID:27618078

  1. Blindness to background: an inbuilt bias for visual objects.

    PubMed

    O'Hanlon, Catherine G; Read, Jenny C A

    2017-09-01

    Sixty-eight 2- to 12-year-olds and 30 adults were shown colorful displays on a touchscreen monitor and trained to point to the location of a named color. Participants located targets near-perfectly when presented with four abutting colored patches. When presented with three colored patches on a colored background, toddlers failed to locate targets in the background. Eye tracking demonstrated that the effect was partially mediated by a tendency not to fixate the background. However, the effect was abolished when the targets were named as nouns, whilst the change to nouns had little impact on eye movement patterns. Our results imply a powerful, inbuilt tendency to attend to objects, which may slow the development of color concepts and acquisition of color words. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://youtu.be/TKO1BPeAiOI. [Correction added on 27 January 2017, after first online publication: The video abstract link was added.]. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Localization Versus Abstraction: A Comparison of Two Search Reduction Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansky, Amy L.

    1992-01-01

    There has been much recent work on the use of abstraction to improve planning behavior and cost. Another technique for dealing with the inherently explosive cost of planning is localization. This paper compares the relative strengths of localization and abstraction in reducing planning search cost. In particular, localization is shown to subsume abstraction. Localization techniques can model the various methods of abstraction that have been used, but also provide a much more flexible framework, with a broader range of benefits.

  3. Asthma in Scotland: epidemiology and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Capewell, S

    1993-03-01

    Asthma in Scotland is briefly reviewed including epidemiology, management and the potential for research, education and audit. Asthma is characterised by variable wheeze and shortness of breath caused by variable narrowing of the bronchial airways secondary to inflammation. Confusion with chronic obstructive airways disease is increasingly common in the elderly and epidemiological studies tend to focus on the age range 5-44 years. Asthma prevalence is critically dependent on the definitions used and exceeds 20% based on questionnaire alone, less if objective measurements of airways obstruction is also used: perhaps 15% in children, 5% in adults in Scotland. Comparisons between studies and countries are therefore potentially hazardous. Routine information sources confirm the high levels of morbidity and use of health services by asthmatic patients. A true increase in the prevalence of asthma in children over the last two decades appears likely. This has been compounded by increased willingness to use the diagnostic label of asthma. Asthma, hayfever and eczema have increased significantly in Aberdeen school children over the last 25 years and asthma symptoms and airways obstruction have increased significantly in South Wales. Similar increases are reported in New Zealand children between 1975 and 1985, the prevalence being significantly higher than in Welsh children using standardised methodology. In Zimbabwe an intriguing strong association has been demonstrated between asthma, urban life style and higher socio economic groups. Most asthma deaths are caused by bronchial narrowing and subsequent asphyxia. Asthma mortality has apparently increased in most industrialised countries but problems of definition remain even when attention is confined to the age span 5-44 years. The epidemic of asthma deaths in mid-60s was undeniable and may have reflected good symptomatic control by bronchodilators, which made doctors and patients neglect the underlying risk of asthma death

  4. Journal Literature Covered by Physics Abstracts in 1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Stella; Brickwedde, F.G.

    A study of the publications of the Physics Journal literature has been made, utilizing the 1965 issues of Physics Abstracts. It is intended to provide a profile of the physics literature and statistical information on physics abstract coverage. It deals with abstracts from serial (journal) publications and includes some 32,000 articles from 495…

  5. Abstract Imagery in Art Therapy: What Does It Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanes, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    Explores some of the factors involving abstract imagery in the work of art-therapy patients and presents examples of abstract imagery produced by patients in an acute-patient psychiatric hospital. Examples illustrate that abstract imagery can serve not only a defensive purpose, but a progressive function as well. (Author/MKA)

  6. Abstracting/Annotating. ERIC Processing Manual, Section VI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandhorst, Ted, Ed.

    Rules and guidelines are provided for the preparation of abstracts and annotations for documents and journal articles entering the ERIC database. Various types of abstracts are defined, including the Informative, Indicative, and mixed Informative-Indicative. Advice is given on how to select the abstract type appropriate for the particular…

  7. Orthopaedic Section Poster Presentations (Abstracts OPO1-OPO300).

    PubMed

    2018-01-01

    These abstracts are presented here as prepared by the authors. The accuracy and content of each abstract remain the responsibility of the authors. In the identification number above each abstract, OPO designates an Orthopaedic Section poster presentation. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2018;48(1):A67-A202. doi:10.2519/jospt.2018.48.1.A67.

  8. Land Application of Sewage Effluents and Sludges: Selected Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Research and Development.

    This report contains 568 selected abstracts concerned with the land application of sewage effluents and sludges. The abstracts are arranged in chronological groupings of ten-year periods from the l940's to the mid-l970's. The report also includes an author index and a subject matter index to facilitate reference to specific abstracts or narrower…

  9. Abstractions for Fault-Tolerant Distributed System Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, Lee S.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Miner, Paul S.; Geser, Alfons

    2004-01-01

    Four kinds of abstraction for the design and analysis of fault tolerant distributed systems are discussed. These abstractions concern system messages, faults, fault masking voting, and communication. The abstractions are formalized in higher order logic, and are intended to facilitate specifying and verifying such systems in higher order theorem provers.

  10. International Early Childhood Resources from Educational Research Abstracts Online (ERA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Early Years Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This annotated bibliography provides abstracts for 14 resources relating to early childhood around the world. Each annotation contains: title; author name(s); Educational Research Abstract; Abstract number; Source (name of journal in which the resource was published); ISSN of the journal in which the resource was published; and Issue (journal…

  11. ClinicalTrials.gov registration can supplement information in abstracts for systematic reviews: a comparison study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The inclusion of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reported in conference abstracts in systematic reviews is controversial, partly because study design information and risk of bias is often not fully reported in the abstract. The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) requires trial registration of abstracts submitted for their annual conference as of 2007. Our goal was to assess the feasibility of obtaining study design information critical to systematic reviews, but not typically included in conference abstracts, from the trial registration record. Methods We reviewed all conference abstracts presented at the ARVO meetings from 2007 through 2009, and identified 496 RCTs; 154 had a single matching registration record in ClinicalTrials.gov. Two individuals independently extracted information from the abstract and the ClinicalTrials.gov record, including study design, sample size, inclusion criteria, masking, interventions, outcomes, funder, and investigator name and contact information. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus. We assessed the frequencies of reporting variables appearing in the abstract and the trial register and assessed agreement of information reported in both sources. Results We found a substantial amount of study design information in the ClinicalTrials.gov record that was unavailable in the corresponding conference abstract, including eligibility criteria associated with gender (83%; 128/154); masking or blinding of study participants (53%, 82/154), persons administering treatment (30%, 46/154), and persons measuring the outcomes (40%, 61/154)); and number of study centers (58%; 90/154). Only 34% (52/154) of abstracts explicitly described a primary outcome, but a primary outcome was included in the “Primary Outcome” field in the ClinicalTrials.gov record for 82% (126/154) of studies. One or more study interventions were reported in each abstract, but agreed exactly with those reported in Clinical

  12. A review of methods used for studying the molecular epidemiology of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae.

    PubMed

    Zeeh, Friederike; Nathues, Heiko; Frey, Joachim; Muellner, Petra; Fellström, Claes

    2017-08-01

    Brachyspira (B.) spp. are intestinal spirochaetes isolated from pigs, other mammals, birds and humans. In pigs, seven Brachyspira spp. have been described, i.e. B. hyodysenteriae, B. pilosicoli, B. intermedia, B. murdochii, B. innocens, B. suanatina and B. hampsonii. Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is especially relevant in pigs as it causes swine dysentery and hence considerable economic losses to the pig industry. Furthermore, reduced susceptibility of B. hyodysenteriae to antimicrobials is of increasing concern. The epidemiology of B. hyodysenteriae infections is only partially understood, but different methods for detection, identification and typing have supported recent improvements in knowledge and understanding. In the last years, molecular methods have been increasingly used. Molecular epidemiology links molecular biology with epidemiology, offering unique opportunities to advance the study of diseases. This review is based on papers published in the field of epidemiology and molecular epidemiology of B. hyodysenteriae in pigs. Electronic databases were screened for potentially relevant papers using title and abstract and finally, Barcellos et al. papers were systemically selected and assessed. The review summarises briefly the current knowledge on B. hyodysenteriae epidemiology and elaborates on molecular typing techniques available. Results of the studies are compared and gaps in the knowledge are addressed. Finally, potential areas for future research are proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Epidemiologic research topics in Germany: a keyword network analysis of 2014 DGEpi conference presentations.

    PubMed

    Peter, Raphael Simon; Brehme, Torben; Völzke, Henry; Muche, Rainer; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Büchele, Gisela

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of epidemiologic research topics as well as trends is useful for scientific societies, researchers and funding agencies. In recent years researchers recognized the usefulness of keyword network analysis for visualizing and analyzing scientific research topics. Therefore, we applied keyword network analysis to present an overview of current epidemiologic research topics in Germany. Accepted submissions to the 9th annual congress of the German Society for Epidemiology (DGEpi) in 2014 were used as data source. Submitters had to choose one of 19 subject areas, and were ask to provide a title, structured abstract, names of authors along with their affiliations, and a list of freely selectable keywords. Keywords had been provided for 262 (82 %) submissions, 1030 keywords in total. Overall the most common keywords were: "migration" (18 times), "prevention" (15 times), followed by "children", "cohort study", "physical activity", and "secondary data analysis" (11 times each). Some keywords showed a certain concentration under one specific subject area, e.g. "migration" with 8 of 18 in social epidemiology or "breast cancer" with 4 of 7 in cancer epidemiology. While others like "physical activity" were equally distributed over multiple subject areas (cardiovascular & metabolic diseases, ageing, methods, paediatrics, prevention & health service research). This keyword network analysis demonstrated the high diversity of epidemiologic research topics with a large number of distinct keywords as presented at the annual conference of the DGEpi.

  14. An Overview of Remote Sensing and Geodesy for Epidemiology and Public Health Application

    PubMed Central

    Hay, S.I.

    2011-01-01

    The techniques of remote sensing (RS) and geodesy have the potential to revolutionize the discipline of epidemiology and its application in human health. As a new departure from conventional epidemiological methods, these techniques require some detailed explanation. This review provides the theoretical background to RS including (i) its physical basis, (ii) an explanation of the orbital characteristics and specifications of common satellite sensor systems, (iii) details of image acquisition and procedures adopted to overcome inherent sources of data degradation, and (iv) a background to geophysical data preparation. This information allows RS applications in epidemiology to be readily interpreted. Some of the techniques used in geodesy, to locate features precisely on Earth so that they can be registered to satellite sensor-derived images, are also included. While the basic principles relevant to public health are presented here, inevitably many of the details must be left to specialist texts. PMID:10997203

  15. An overview of remote sensing and geodesy for epidemiology and public health application.

    PubMed

    Hay, S I

    2000-01-01

    The techniques of remote sensing (RS) and geodesy have the potential to revolutionize the discipline of epidemiology and its application in human health. As a new departure from conventional epidemiological methods, these techniques require some detailed explanation. This review provides the theoretical background to RS including (i) its physical basis, (ii) an explanation of the orbital characteristics and specifications of common satellite sensor systems, (iii) details of image acquisition and procedures adopted to overcome inherent sources of data degradation, and (iv) a background to geophysical data preparation. This information allows RS applications in epidemiology to be readily interpreted. Some of the techniques used in geodesy, to locate features precisely on Earth so that they can be registered to satellite sensor-derived images, are also included. While the basic principles relevant to public health are presented here, inevitably many of the details must be left to specialist texts.

  16. Assessing abstracts of Iranian systematic reviews and metaanalysis indexed in WOS and Scopus using PRISMA

    PubMed Central

    Kazerani, Maryam; Davoudian, Atefeh; Zayeri, Farid; Soori, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Background: Systematic reviews and meta-analysis have significant advantages over conventional reviews in that all available data should be presented. This study aimed to evaluate Iranian systematic reviews and meta-analysis abstracts indexed in WOS and Scopus during 2003-2012 based on PRISMA checklist. Methods: This is an analytical study. We evaluated 46 article abstracts indexed in WOS, 89 article abstracts indexed in Scopus and 158 article abstracts indexed in WOS and Scopus both (overlapped group). The quality of the abstracts was evaluated according to the PRISMA checklist for abstracts. Some indicators including distribution per year, total citation, average citations per year, average citations per documents and average citations per year in each article were determined through searching the WOS and Scopus Databases’ analytical section. Then, the correlations between the abstract's PRISMA scores, average citations per year, and publication year were calculated. Results: The abstract’s quality is not desirable as far as the PRISMA criteria are concerned. In other words, none of the articles’ abstracts is in line with the PRISMA items. The average of scores of the current study was 5.9 while the maximum score was 12. The PRISMA criteria showed the highest compliance with "Objectives" (98.6%), the second highest with "Synthesis of result" (85%) and "Title" (80.2%) and the lowest compliance with "Registration" (2%). There was a positive correlation between the compliance of PRISMA score and the average citations per year while there was a negative correlation between PRISMA score and the publication year. Conclusion: It seems that the suggested criteria for reporting Iranian systematic reviews and meta-analysis are not considered adequately by the writers and even scientific journal editors. PMID:28955668

  17. CONSORT for Reporting Randomized Controlled Trials in Journal and Conference Abstracts: Explanation and Elaboration

    PubMed Central

    Hopewell, Sally; Clarke, Mike; Moher, David; Wager, Elizabeth; Middleton, Philippa; Altman, Douglas G; Schulz, Kenneth F

    2008-01-01

    Background Clear, transparent, and sufficiently detailed abstracts of conferences and journal articles related to randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are important, because readers often base their assessment of a trial solely on information in the abstract. Here, we extend the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) Statement to develop a minimum list of essential items, which authors should consider when reporting the results of a RCT in any journal or conference abstract. Methods and Findings We generated a list of items from existing quality assessment tools and empirical evidence. A three-round, modified-Delphi process was used to select items. In all, 109 participants were invited to participate in an electronic survey; the response rate was 61%. Survey results were presented at a meeting of the CONSORT Group in Montebello, Canada, January 2007, involving 26 participants, including clinical trialists, statisticians, epidemiologists, and biomedical editors. Checklist items were discussed for eligibility into the final checklist. The checklist was then revised to ensure that it reflected discussions held during and subsequent to the meeting. CONSORT for Abstracts recommends that abstracts relating to RCTs have a structured format. Items should include details of trial objectives; trial design (e.g., method of allocation, blinding/masking); trial participants (i.e., description, numbers randomized, and number analyzed); interventions intended for each randomized group and their impact on primary efficacy outcomes and harms; trial conclusions; trial registration name and number; and source of funding. We recommend the checklist be used in conjunction with this explanatory document, which includes examples of good reporting, rationale, and evidence, when available, for the inclusion of each item. Conclusions CONSORT for Abstracts aims to improve reporting of abstracts of RCTs published in journal articles and conference proceedings. It will help

  18. THE DISCOUNTED REPRODUCTIVE NUMBER FOR EPIDEMIOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Reluga, Timothy C.; Medlock, Jan; Galvani, Alison

    2013-01-01

    The basic reproductive number, , and the effective reproductive number, , are commonly used in mathematical epidemiology as summary statistics for the size and controllability of epidemics. However, these commonly used reproductive numbers can be misleading when applied to predict pathogen evolution because they do not incorporate the impact of the timing of events in the life-history cycle of the pathogen. To study evolution problems where the host population size is changing, measures like the ultimate proliferation rate must be used. A third measure of reproductive success, which combines properties of both the basic reproductive number and the ultimate proliferation rate, is the discounted reproductive number . The discounted reproductive number is a measure of reproductive success that is an individual’s expected lifetime offspring production discounted by the background population growth rate. Here, we draw attention to the discounted reproductive number by providing an explicit definition and a systematic application framework. We describe how the discounted reproductive number overcomes the limitations of both the standard reproductive numbers and proliferation rates, and show that is closely connected to Fisher’s reproductive values for different life-history stages PMID:19364158

  19. Epidemiology of Gallbladder Disease: Cholelithiasis and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stinton, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    Diseases of the gallbladder are common and costly. The best epidemiological screening method to accurately determine point prevalence of gallstone disease is ultrasonography. Many risk factors for cholesterol gallstone formation are not modifiable such as ethnic background, increasing age, female gender and family history or genetics. Conversely, the modifiable risks for cholesterol gallstones are obesity, rapid weight loss and a sedentary lifestyle. The rising epidemic of obesity and the metabolic syndrome predicts an escalation of cholesterol gallstone frequency. Risk factors for biliary sludge include pregnancy, drugs like ceftiaxone, octreotide and thiazide diuretics, and total parenteral nutrition or fasting. Diseases like cirrhosis, chronic hemolysis and ileal Crohn's disease are risk factors for black pigment stones. Gallstone disease in childhood, once considered rare, has become increasingly recognized with similar risk factors as those in adults, particularly obesity. Gallbladder cancer is uncommon in developed countries. In the U.S., it accounts for only ~ 5,000 cases per year. Elsewhere, high incidence rates occur in North and South American Indians. Other than ethnicity and female gender, additional risk factors for gallbladder cancer include cholelithiasis, advancing age, chronic inflammatory conditions affecting the gallbladder, congenital biliary abnormalities, and diagnostic confusion over gallbladder polyps. PMID:22570746

  20. The Epidemiology of Cancer Among Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Michael; Vena, John E.; Smith, Emily K.; Bauer, Sarah E.; Violanti, John; Burch, James

    2013-01-01

    Background This review summarizes peer-reviewed studies examining cancer risks among police officers. It provides an overview of existing research limitations and uncertainties and the plausible etiologic risk factors associated with cancer in this understudied occupation. Methods Previous cancer studies among police officers were obtained via a systematic review of the MEDLINE, CABDirect, and Web of Science bibliographic databases. Results Quality observational studies of cancer among police officers are sparse and subject to limitations in exposure assessment and other methods. Results from three studies suggested possible increased mortality risks for all cancers, and cancers of the colon, kidney, digestive system, esophagus, male breast, and testis, as well as Hodgkin’s disease. Few incidence studies have been performed, and results have been mixed, although some associations with police work have been observed for thyroid, skin, and male breast cancer. Conclusions Police are exposed to a mix of known or suspected agents or activities that increase cancer risk. Epidemiologic evidence to date is sparse and inconsistent. There is a critical need for more research to understand the biological and social processes underlying exposures and the suggested disproportionate risks and to identify effective prevention strategies. PMID:23255299