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Sample records for abstract background high

  1. Reappraising Abstract Paintings after Exposure to Background Information

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seongmin A.; Yun, Kyongsik; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2015-01-01

    Can knowledge help viewers when they appreciate an artwork? Experts’ judgments of the aesthetic value of a painting often differ from the estimates of naïve viewers, and this phenomenon is especially pronounced in the aesthetic judgment of abstract paintings. We compared the changes in aesthetic judgments of naïve viewers while they were progressively exposed to five pieces of background information. The participants were asked to report their aesthetic judgments of a given painting after each piece of information was presented. We found that commentaries by the artist and a critic significantly increased the subjective aesthetic ratings. Does knowledge enable experts to attend to the visual features in a painting and to link it to the evaluative conventions, thus potentially causing different aesthetic judgments? To investigate whether a specific pattern of attention is essential for the knowledge-based appreciation, we tracked the eye movements of subjects while viewing a painting with a commentary by the artist and with a commentary by a critic. We observed that critics’ commentaries directed the viewers’ attention to the visual components that were highly relevant to the presented commentary. However, attention to specific features of a painting was not necessary for increasing the subjective aesthetic judgment when the artists’ commentary was presented. Our results suggest that at least two different cognitive mechanisms may be involved in knowledge- guided aesthetic judgments while viewers reappraise a painting. PMID:25945789

  2. High-Level Data-Abstraction System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishwick, P. A.

    1986-01-01

    Communication with data-base processor flexible and efficient. High Level Data Abstraction (HILDA) system is three-layer system supporting data-abstraction features of Intel data-base processor (DBP). Purpose of HILDA establishment of flexible method of efficiently communicating with DBP. Power of HILDA lies in its extensibility with regard to syntax and semantic changes. HILDA's high-level query language readily modified. Offers powerful potential to computer sites where DBP attached to DEC VAX-series computer. HILDA system written in Pascal and FORTRAN 77 for interactive execution.

  3. Modelling difficulties in abstract thinking in psychosis: the importance of socio-developmental background.

    PubMed

    Berg, A O; Melle, I; Zuber, V; Simonsen, C; Nerhus, M; Ueland, T; Andreassen, O A; Sundet, K; Vaskinn, A

    2017-01-01

    Abstract thinking is important in modern understanding of neurocognitive abilities, and a symptom of thought disorder in psychosis. In patients with psychosis, we assessed if socio-developmental background influences abstract thinking, and the association with executive functioning and clinical psychosis symptoms. Participants (n = 174) had a diagnosis of psychotic or bipolar disorder, were 17-65 years, intelligence quotient (IQ) > 70, fluent in a Scandinavian language, and their full primary education in Norway. Immigrants (N = 58) were matched (1:2) with participants without a history of migration (N = 116). All participants completed a neurocognitive and clinical assessment. Socio-developmental background was operationalised as human developmental index (HDI) of country of birth, at year of birth. Structural equation modelling was used to assess the model with best fit. The model with best fit, χ 2  = 96.591, df = 33, p < .001, confirmed a significant indirect effect of HDI scores on abstract thinking through executive functioning, but not through clinical psychosis symptoms. This study found that socio-developmental background influences abstract thinking in psychosis by indirect effect through executive functioning. We should take into account socio-developmental background in the interpretation of neurocognitive performance in patients with psychosis, and prioritise cognitive remediation in treatment of immigrant patients.

  4. Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Biology Teacher, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 63 papers to be presented at the 1976 Convention of the National Association of Biology Teachers, October 14-17, 1976, Denver, Colorado. Papers cover a wide range of biology and science education topics with the majority concentrating upon the convention's main program, "Ecosystems: 1776-1976-?". (SL)

  5. High performance channel injection sealant invention abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosser, R. W.; Basiulis, D. I.; Salisbury, D. P. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    High performance channel sealant is based on NASA patented cyano and diamidoximine-terminated perfluoroalkylene ether prepolymers that are thermally condensed and cross linked. The sealant contains asbestos and, in its preferred embodiments, Lithofrax, to lower its thermal expansion coefficient and a phenolic metal deactivator. Extensive evaluation shows the sealant is extremely resistant to thermal degradation with an onset point of 280 C. The materials have a volatile content of 0.18%, excellent flexibility, and adherence properties, and fuel resistance. No corrosibility to aluminum or titanium was observed.

  6. Construction of High School Students' Abstraction Levels in Understanding the Concept of Quadrilaterals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budiarto, Mega Teguh; Khabibah, Siti; Setianingsih, Rini

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the abstraction thinking or the vertical reorganization activity of mathematical concepts of high school students while taking account of the abstraction that was constructed earlier, and the socio-cultural background. This study was qualitative in nature with task-based interviews as the method of…

  7. High sensitivity background absorption measurements in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannini, Nathan; Silva, Junior R.; Wang, Chengao; Albrecht, Alexander R.; Melgaard, Seth D.; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2015-03-01

    Laser cooling in InGaP|GaAs double heterostructures (DHS) has been a sought after goal. Even though very high external quantum efficiency (EQE) has been achieved, background absorption has remained a bottleneck in achieving net cooling. The purpose of this study is to gain more insight into the source of the background absorption for InGaP|GaAs DHS as well as GaAs|AlGaAs DBRs by employing an excite-probe thermal Z-scan measurement.

  8. Abstracting event-based control models for high autonomy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luh, Cheng-Jye; Zeigler, Bernard P.

    1993-01-01

    A high autonomy system needs many models on which to base control, management, design, and other interventions. These models differ in level of abstraction and in formalism. Concepts and tools are needed to organize the models into a coherent whole. The paper deals with the abstraction processes for systematic derivation of related models for use in event-based control. The multifaceted modeling methodology is briefly reviewed. The morphism concepts needed for application to model abstraction are described. A theory for supporting the construction of DEVS models needed for event-based control is then presented. An implemented morphism on the basis of this theory is also described.

  9. 5. View showing Crooked River High Bridge in background and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View showing Crooked River High Bridge in background and Ralph Modjeski railroad bridge in foreground - Crooked River High Bridge, Spanning Crooked River Gorge at Dalles-California Highway, Terrebonne, Deschutes County, OR

  10. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashenfelter, J.; Balantekin, B.; Baldenegro, C. X.; Band, H. R.; Barclay, G.; Bass, C. D.; Berish, D.; Bowden, N. S.; Bryan, C. D.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, R.; Classen, T.; Davee, D.; Dean, D.; Deichert, G.; Dolinski, M. J.; Dolph, J.; Dwyer, D. A.; Fan, S.; Gaison, J. K.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gilje, K.; Glenn, A.; Green, M.; Han, K.; Hans, S.; Heeger, K. M.; Heffron, B.; Jaffe, D. E.; Kettell, S.; Langford, T. J.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Martinez, D.; McKeown, R. D.; Morrell, S.; Mueller, P. E.; Mumm, H. P.; Napolitano, J.; Norcini, D.; Pushin, D.; Romero, E.; Rosero, R.; Saldana, L.; Seilhan, B. S.; Sharma, R.; Stemen, N. T.; Surukuchi, P. T.; Thompson, S. J.; Varner, R. L.; Wang, W.; Watson, S. M.; White, B.; White, C.; Wilhelmi, J.; Williams, C.; Wise, T.; Yao, H.; Yeh, M.; Yen, Y.-R.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, X.; Prospect Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including γ-ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the background fields encountered. The general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.

  11. International Conference on Aerosols and Background Pollution Abstracts Held in Galway, Ireland on 13-15 June 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-15

    Andes near Santiago de Chile extinction coefficients have been determined at elevations above 3000 meters. Values betwee 0.018 km and 0.15 km have been...McGovern 1515 North Atlantic Aerosol Background concentrations measured at a Hebridean coastal site N.H. Smith, P.M. Park and I.E. Consterdine 1530...ocean V. Dreiling, R. Maser and L. Schutz 1615 Measurements of aerosol concentration and distribution at Helgoland Island P. Brand, J. Gebhart, M. Below

  12. Position sensitive detection of neutrons in high radiation background field.

    PubMed

    Vavrik, D; Jakubek, J; Pospisil, S; Vacik, J

    2014-01-01

    We present the development of a high-resolution position sensitive device for detection of slow neutrons in the environment of extremely high γ and e(-) radiation background. We make use of a planar silicon pixelated (pixel size: 55 × 55 μm(2)) spectroscopic Timepix detector adapted for neutron detection utilizing very thin (10)B converter placed onto detector surface. We demonstrate that electromagnetic radiation background can be discriminated from the neutron signal utilizing the fact that each particle type produces characteristic ionization tracks in the pixelated detector. Particular tracks can be distinguished by their 2D shape (in the detector plane) and spectroscopic response using single event analysis. A Cd sheet served as thermal neutron stopper as well as intensive source of gamma rays and energetic electrons. Highly efficient discrimination was successful even at very low neutron to electromagnetic background ratio about 10(-4).

  13. Position sensitive detection of neutrons in high radiation background field

    SciTech Connect

    Vavrik, D., E-mail: vavrik@itam.cas.cz; Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prosecka 76, 190 00 Prague 9; Jakubek, J.

    We present the development of a high-resolution position sensitive device for detection of slow neutrons in the environment of extremely high γ and e{sup −} radiation background. We make use of a planar silicon pixelated (pixel size: 55 × 55 μm{sup 2}) spectroscopic Timepix detector adapted for neutron detection utilizing very thin {sup 10}B converter placed onto detector surface. We demonstrate that electromagnetic radiation background can be discriminated from the neutron signal utilizing the fact that each particle type produces characteristic ionization tracks in the pixelated detector. Particular tracks can be distinguished by their 2D shape (in the detector plane)more » and spectroscopic response using single event analysis. A Cd sheet served as thermal neutron stopper as well as intensive source of gamma rays and energetic electrons. Highly efficient discrimination was successful even at very low neutron to electromagnetic background ratio about 10{sup −4}.« less

  14. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors

    DOE PAGES

    Ashenfelter, J.; Yeh, M.; Balantekin, B.; ...

    2015-10-23

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including γ-ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the backgroundmore » fields encountered. Furthermore, the general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.« less

  15. High-throughput screening, predictive modeling and computational embryology - Abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-throughput screening (HTS) studies are providing a rich source of data that can be applied to chemical profiling to address sensitivity and specificity of molecular targets, biological pathways, cellular and developmental processes. EPA’s ToxCast project is testing 960 uniq...

  16. (abstract) A High Throughput 3-D Inner Product Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daud, Tuan

    1996-01-01

    A particularily challenging image processing application is the real time scene acquisition and object discrimination. It requires spatio-temporal recognition of point and resolved objects at high speeds with parallel processing algorithms. Neural network paradigms provide fine grain parallism and, when implemented in hardware, offer orders of magnitude speed up. However, neural networks implemented on a VLSI chip are planer architectures capable of efficient processing of linear vector signals rather than 2-D images. Therefore, for processing of images, a 3-D stack of neural-net ICs receiving planar inputs and consuming minimal power are required. Details of the circuits with chip architectures will be described with need to develop ultralow-power electronics. Further, use of the architecture in a system for high-speed processing will be illustrated.

  17. Background concentrations for high resolution satellite observing systems of methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benmergui, J. S.; Propp, A. M.; Turner, A. J.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    Emerging satellite technologies promise to measure total column dry-air mole fractions of methane (XCH4) at resolutions on the order of a kilometer. XCH4 is linearly related to regional methane emissions through enhancements in the mixed layer, giving these satellites the ability to constrain emissions at unprecedented resolution. However, XCH4 is also sensitive to variability in transport of upwind concentrations (the "background concentration"). Variations in the background concentration are caused by synoptic scale transport in both the free troposphere and the stratosphere, as well as the rate of methane oxidation. Misspecification of the background concentration is aliased onto retrieved emissions as bias. This work explores several methods of specifying the background concentration for high resolution satellite observations of XCH4. We conduct observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) that simulate the retrieval of emissions in the Barnett Shale using observations from a 1.33 km resolution XCH4 imaging satellite. We test background concentrations defined (1) from an external continental-scale model, (2) using pixels along the edge of the image as a boundary value, (3) using differences between adjacent pixels, and (4) using differences between the same pixel separated by one hour in time. We measure success using the accuracy of the retrieval, the potential for bias induced by misspecification of the background, and the computational expedience of the method. Pathological scenarios are given to each method.

  18. (abstract) A Miniature, High-Sensitivity, Electron-Tunneling Accelerometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabrielson, Thomas B.; Rockstad, Howard K.; Tang, Tony K.

    1994-01-01

    A prototype low-noise accelerometer has been fabricated with an electron-tunneling transducer. By measuring the tunneling current between an electrode on the proof mass and a feedback-controlled monitor electrode, very small accelerations can be detected with high responsivity. This particular prototype (10x10x1.5 mm) was designed for underwater acoustic measurement from a few hertz to 1 kHz. The measured responsivity below the fundamental device resonance at 100 Hz is roughly 1500 volts per m/s(sup 2) with a measured noise spectral density of 10(sup -6) m/s(sup 2) per root hertz or less between 30 and 300 Hz. The noise floor is controlled primarily by 1/f noise in the tunneling current although the noise floor reaches the theoretical molecular-agitation limit at 100 hertz. The responsivity and directivity of the device were measured in a standard gradient-hydrophone calibrator; the noise floor was determined in a vacuum-ionization chamber assembled from commercial off-the-shelf components; and the detailed dynamics of the proof-mass motion were examined using a heterodyne laser interferometer that was scanned across the surface and synchronously detected with respect to the excitation.

  19. Optically modulated fluorescence bioimaging: visualizing obscured fluorophores in high background.

    PubMed

    Hsiang, Jung-Cheng; Jablonski, Amy E; Dickson, Robert M

    2014-05-20

    Fluorescence microscopy and detection have become indispensible for understanding organization and dynamics in biological systems. Novel fluorophores with improved brightness, photostability, and biocompatibility continue to fuel further advances but often rely on having minimal background. The visualization of interactions in very high biological background, especially for proteins or bound complexes at very low copy numbers, remains a primary challenge. Instead of focusing on molecular brightness of fluorophores, we have adapted the principles of high-sensitivity absorption spectroscopy to improve the sensitivity and signal discrimination in fluorescence bioimaging. Utilizing very long wavelength transient absorptions of kinetically trapped dark states, we employ molecular modulation schemes that do not simultaneously modulate the background fluorescence. This improves the sensitivity and ease of implementation over high-energy photoswitch-based recovery schemes, as no internal dye reference or nanoparticle-based fluorophores are needed to separate the desired signals from background. In this Account, we describe the selection process for and identification of fluorophores that enable optically modulated fluorescence to decrease obscuring background. Differing from thermally stable photoswitches using higher-energy secondary lasers, coillumination at very low energies depopulates transient dark states, dynamically altering the fluorescence and giving characteristic modulation time scales for each modulatable emitter. This process is termed synchronously amplified fluorescence image recovery (SAFIRe) microscopy. By understanding and optically controlling the dye photophysics, we selectively modulate desired fluorophore signals independent of all autofluorescent background. This shifts the fluorescence of interest to unique detection frequencies with nearly shot-noise-limited detection, as no background signals are collected. Although the fluorescence brightness is

  20. Neutron depolarization effects in a high-Tc superconductor (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, A. C.; Pickart, S. J.; Crow, L.; Goyette, R.; McGuire, T. R.; Shinde, S.; Shaw, T. M.

    1988-11-01

    Using the polarized beam small-angle neutron scattering spectrometer at the Rhode Island Nuclear Science Center Reactor, we have observed significant depolarization of a neutron beam by passage through polycrystalline high-Tc superconductors, specifically 123 Y-Ba-Cu-O prepared and characterized at the IBM Watson Research Center. We believe that this technique will prove useful in studying aspects of these materials, such as the penetration depth of shielding currents, the presence and structure of trapped flux vortices, and grain size effects on the supercurrent distribution in polycrystalline samples. The two samples showed sharp transitions at 87 and 89 K, and have been studied at temperatures of 77 K; the second sample has also been studied at 4 K. The transition to the superconducting state was monitored by the shift in resonant frequency of a coil surrounding the sample. No measurable depolarization was observed in either sample at 77 K in both the field-cooled and zero-field-cooled states, using applied fields of 0 (nominal), 54, and 1400 Oe. This negative result may be connected with the fact that the material is still in the reversible region as indicated by susceptibility measurements, but it allows an estimate of the upper bound of possible inhomogeneous internal fields, assuming a distance scale for the superconducting regions. For the 10-μm grain size suggested by photomicrographs, this upper bound for the field turns out to be 1.2 kOe, which seems reasonable. At 4 K a significant depolarization was observed when the sample was cooled in low fields and a field of 1400 Oe was subsequently applied. This result suggests that flux lines are penetrating the sample. Further investigations are being carried out to determine the field and temperature dependence of the depolarization, and attempts will be made to model it quantitatively in terms of possible internal field distributions. We are also searching for possible diffraction effects from ordered vortex

  1. Reducing Abstraction in High School Computer Science Education: The Case of Definition, Implementation, and Use of Abstract Data Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakhnini, Victoria; Hazzan, Orit

    2008-01-01

    The research presented in this article deals with the difficulties and mental processes involved in the definition, implementation, and use of abstract data types encountered by 12th grade advanced-level computer science students. Research findings are interpreted within the theoretical framework of "reducing abstraction" [Hazzan 1999]. The…

  2. Astronomy: social background of students of the integrated high school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.; Barbosa, J. I. L.

    2017-07-01

    Astronomy-related contents exist in almost all levels of basic education in Brazil and are also frequently disseminated through mass media. Thus, students form their own explanations about the phenomena studied by this science. Therefore, this work has the objective of identifying the possible social background of the Integrated High School students on the term Astronomy. It is a research of a basic nature, descriptive, and for that reason a quali-quantitative approach was adopted; the procedures to obtain the data were effected in the form of a survey. The results show that the tested students have a social background about the object Astronomy, which is on the one hand fortified by elements they have made or which is part of the experience lived by the respondents within the formal space of education, and on the other hand based on elements possibly disseminated through the mass media.

  3. Developing radiopure copper alloys for high strength low background applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suriano, A. M.; Howard, S. M.; Christofferson, C. D.; Arnquist, I. J.; Hoppe, E. W.

    2018-01-01

    High purity copper continues to play an important role for ultra-low-background detectors. Measurements of rare nuclear decays, e.g. neutrinoless double-beta decay, and searches for dark matter can require construction materials that have high thermal and electrical conductivity with bulk radiopurity less than one micro-Becquerel per kilogram. However, experiments currently using components constructed of radiopure electroformed copper struggle with design of structural and mechanical parts due to the physical properties of pure copper. A higher strength material which possesses many of the favorable attributes of copper yet remains radiopure is desired. A number of copper alloying candidates which may provide improved mechanical performance and adequate radiopurity were considered. Development of an electrodeposited copper-chrome alloy from additive-free electrolyte systems is discussed. The resulting material is shown to possess high strength and meets the aforementioned radiopurity goals.

  4. High blood pressure and insulin resistance: influence of ethnic background.

    PubMed

    Ferrannini, E; Haffner, S M; Stern, M P; Mitchell, B D; Natali, A; Hazuda, H P; Patterson, J K

    1991-06-01

    Hyperinsulinaemia links non-insulin dependent diabetes (NIDDM), obesity, and hypertension, each an insulin-resistant state in its own right. Insulin resistance predicts the occurrence of NIDDM, and plays a major role in its pathogenesis. We tested the hypothesis that hyperinsulinaemia may also predict hypertension in a sample (n = 2905) of the mixed population of San Antonio, in which hyperinsulinaemia and NIDDM are more prevalent among Mexican-Americans than non-Hispanic whites. Whilst in the whole sample the hypertensives had significantly (P less than 0.001) higher plasma insulin concentrations than the normotensives, high blood pressure was significantly (P less than 0.01) more frequent among non-Hispanic whites than Mexican-Americans regardless of diabetes status. After adjusting for factors (age, sex, body mass, and body fat distribution) known to affect insulin levels, a direct relationship between post-glucose plasma insulin concentrations and prevalence of hypertension was still present in both ethnic groups. In Mexican-Americans, however, the standardized prevalence of hypertension was significantly (P less than 0.001) lower at any given insulin concentration. Post-glucose plasma glucose levels also were directly related to hypertension prevalence in both groups; again, the regression line was shifted downward and, furthermore, less steep (P less than 0.02) in Mexican-Americans, suggesting relative protection against the negative effect of hyperglycaemia on blood pressure. Dyslipidaemia (higher total cholesterol and triglyceride, and lower HDL-cholesterol concentrations) was strongly associated with hyperinsulinaemia and blood pressure in both ethnic groups. After adjusting for plasma insulin, only hypertriglyceridaemia was associated with high blood pressure, with no inter-ethnic difference.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Large fluctuations in the high-redshift metagalactic ionizing background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Aloisio, Anson; McQuinn, Matthew; Davies, Frederick B.; Furlanetto, Steven R.

    2018-01-01

    Recent observations have shown that the scatter in opacities amongst coeval segments of the Ly α forest increases rapidly at z > 5. In this paper, we assess whether the large scatter can be explained by fluctuations in the ionizing background in the post-reionization intergalactic medium. We find that matching the observed scatter at z ≈ 5.5 requires a short spatially averaged mean free path of 〈λmfp912〉 ≲ 15 h- 1 comoving Mpc, a factor of ≳3 shorter than direct measurements at z = 5.2. We argue that such rapid evolution in the mean free path is difficult to reconcile with our measurements of the global H I photoionization rate, which stay approximately constant over the interval z ≈ 4.8-5.5. However, we also show that measurements of the mean free path at z > 5 are likely biased towards higher values by the quasar proximity effect. This bias can reconcile the short values of 〈λmfp912〉 that are required to explain the large scatter in opacities. We discuss the implications of this scenario for cosmological reionization. Finally, we investigate whether other statistics applied to the z > 5 Ly α forest can shed light on the origin of the scatter. Compared to a model with a uniform ionizing background, models that successfully account for the scatter lead to enhanced power in the line-of-sight flux power spectrum on scales k ≲0.1 h Mpc-1. We find tentative evidence for this enhancement in observations of the high-redshift Ly α forest.

  6. Abstract analogical reasoning in high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Green, Adam E; Kenworthy, Lauren; Mosner, Maya G; Gallagher, Natalie M; Fearon, Edward W; Balhana, Carlos D; Yerys, Benjamin E

    2014-12-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) exhibit a deficit in spontaneously recognizing abstract similarities that are crucial for generalizing learning to new situations. This may contribute to deficits in the development of appropriate schemas for navigating novel situations, including social interactions. Analogical reasoning is the central cognitive mechanism that enables typically developing children to understand abstract similarities between different situations. Intriguingly, studies of high-functioning children with ASD point to a relative cognitive strength in basic, nonabstract forms of analogical reasoning. If this analogical reasoning ability extends to abstract analogical reasoning (i.e., between superficially dissimilar situations), it may provide a bridge between a cognitive capability and core ASD deficits in areas such as generalization and categorization. This study tested whether preserved analogical reasoning abilities in ASD can be extended to abstract analogical reasoning, using photographs of real-world items and situations. Abstractness of the analogies was determined via a quantitative measure of semantic distance derived from latent semantic analysis. Children with ASD performed as well as typically developing children at identifying abstract analogical similarities when explicitly instructed to apply analogical reasoning. Individual differences in abstract analogical reasoning ability predicted individual differences in a measure of social function in the ASD group. Preliminary analyses indicated that children with ASD, but not typically developing children, showed an effect of age on abstract analogical reasoning. These results provide new evidence that children with ASD are capable of identifying abstract similarities through analogical reasoning, pointing to abstract analogical reasoning as a potential lever for improving generalization skills and social function in ASD. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley

  7. Extending Automatic Parallelization to Optimize High-Level Abstractions for Multicore

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C; Quinlan, D J; Willcock, J J

    2008-12-12

    Automatic introduction of OpenMP for sequential applications has attracted significant attention recently because of the proliferation of multicore processors and the simplicity of using OpenMP to express parallelism for shared-memory systems. However, most previous research has only focused on C and Fortran applications operating on primitive data types. C++ applications using high-level abstractions, such as STL containers and complex user-defined types, are largely ignored due to the lack of research compilers that are readily able to recognize high-level object-oriented abstractions and leverage their associated semantics. In this paper, we automatically parallelize C++ applications using ROSE, a multiple-language source-to-source compiler infrastructuremore » which preserves the high-level abstractions and gives us access to their semantics. Several representative parallelization candidate kernels are used to explore semantic-aware parallelization strategies for high-level abstractions, combined with extended compiler analyses. Those kernels include an array-base computation loop, a loop with task-level parallelism, and a domain-specific tree traversal. Our work extends the applicability of automatic parallelization to modern applications using high-level abstractions and exposes more opportunities to take advantage of multicore processors.« less

  8. Radioactivity in the groundwater of a high background radiation area.

    PubMed

    Shabana, E I; Kinsara, A A

    2014-11-01

    Natural radioactivity was measured in groundwater samples collected from 37 wells scattered in an inhabited area of high natural background radiation, in a purpose of radiation protection. The study area is adjacent to Aja heights of granitic composition in Hail province, Saudi Arabia. Initial screening for gross α and gross β activities showed levels exceeded the national regulation limits set out for gross α and gross β activities in drinking water. The gross α activity ranged from 0.17 to 5.41 Bq L(-)(1) with an average value of 2.15 Bq L(-)(1), whereas gross β activity ranged from 0.48 to 5.16 Bq L(-)(1), with an average value of 2.60 Bq L(-)(1). The detail analyses indicated that the groundwater of this province is contaminated with uranium and radium ((226)Ra and (228)Ra). The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (234)U, (226)Ra and (228)Ra were 0.40, 0.77, 0.29 and 0.46 Bq L(-)(1), respectively. The higher uranium content was found in the samples of granitic aquifers, whereas the higher radium content was found in the samples of sandstone aquifers. Based on the obtained results, mechanism of leaching of the predominant radionuclides has been discussed in detail. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. High redshift QSOs and the x ray background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Impey, Chris

    1993-01-01

    ROSAT pointed observations were made of 9 QSO's from the Large Bright Quasar Survey (LBQS). The LBQS is based on machine measurement of objective prism plates taken with the UK Schmidt Telescope. Software has been used to select QSO's by both color and by the presence of spectral features and continuum breaks. The probability of detection can be calculated as a function of magnitude, redshift and spectral features, and the completeness of the survey can be accurately estimated. Nine out of 1040 QSO's in the LBQS have z greater than 3. The observations will provide an important data point in the X-ray luminosity function of QSO's at high redshift. The QSO's with z greater than 3 span less than a magnitude in M(sub B), so can be combined as a homogeneous sample. This analysis is only possible with a sample drawn from a large and complete catalog such as the LBQS. Four of the 9 QSO's that were observed with the ROSAT PSPC for this proposal were detected, including one of the most luminous X-ray sources ever observed. The April 1992 version of the PROS DETECT package was used to reduce the data. The results have been used to search for evolution of the X-ray properties of QSO's in redshift. The 9 QSO's lie in the range -28.7 less than M(sub B) less than -27.8. When combined with data for 16 QSO's in a similar luminosity range at lower redshift correlations with luminosity and redshift can be separated out. The LBQS sample also yields a new constraint on the contribution of high redshift QSO's to the X-ray background. An initial requirement is knowledge of the X-ray properties (alpha(sub OX)) as a function of redshift. Integration over the evolving luminosity function of the LBQS then gives the QSO contribution to the source counts.

  10. The Effect of Teaching the Entire Academic Year of High School Chemistry Utilizing Abstract Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Michael F. Z.; Escott, Patrick; Silva, Maritza; Barding, Gregory A., Jr.

    2018-01-01

    This case study demonstrates the ability of high school chemistry students, with varying levels of math preparation, to experience learning-gains on state and district assessments as it relates to chemical reactions, thermodynamics, and kinetics. These advances were predicated on the use of a teaching style rooted in abstract reasoning. The…

  11. High Performance Computing and Networking for Science--Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    The Office of Technology Assessment is conducting an assessment of the effects of new information technologies--including high performance computing, data networking, and mass data archiving--on research and development. This paper offers a view of the issues and their implications for current discussions about Federal supercomputer initiatives…

  12. Family Background and Access to "High Status" Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrim, John

    2013-01-01

    Economic inequality is high and rising in a number of developed countries, including in the United Kingdom and the United States. There are growing concerns that this may have negative implications for equality of opportunity, and the extent to which social disadvantage is transmitted across generations. It is widely believed that providing…

  13. Mechanical reinforcement for RACC cables in high magnetic background fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, C. M.; Gade, P. V.; Barth, C.; Preuß, A.; Jung, A.; Weiß, K. P.

    2016-02-01

    Operable in liquid helium, liquid hydrogen or liquid nitrogen, high temperature superconductor (HTS) cables are investigated as future alternatives to low temperature superconductor (LTS) cables in magnet applications. Different high current HTS cable concepts have been developed and optimized in the last years—each coming with its own benefits and challenges. As the Roebel assembled coated conductor (RACC) is the only fully transposed HTS cable investigated so far, it is attractive for large scale magnet and accelerator magnet applications when field quality and alternating current (AC) losses are of highest importance. However, due to its filamentary character, the RACC is very sensitive to Lorentz forces. In order to increase the mechanical strength of the RACC, each of the HTS strands was covered by an additional copper tape. After investigating the maximum applicable transverse pressure on the strand composition, the cable was clamped into a stainless steel structure to reinforce it against Lorentz forces. A comprehensive test has been carried out in the FBI facility at 4.2 K in a magnetic field of up to 12 T. This publication discusses the maximum applicable pressure as well as the behaviour of the RACC cable as a function of an external magnetic field.

  14. Method of synthesis of abstract images with high self-similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, Nikolay V.; Shcheglov, Sergey A.; Romanova, Galina E.; Koneva, Ð.¢atiana A.

    2017-06-01

    Abstract images with high self-similarity could be used for drug-free stress therapy. This based on the fact that a complex visual environment has a high affective appraisal. To create such an image we can use the setup based on the three laser sources of small power and different colors (Red, Green, Blue), the image is the pattern resulting from the reflecting and refracting by the complicated form object placed into the laser ray paths. The images were obtained experimentally which showed the good therapy effect. However, to find and to choose the object which gives needed image structure is very difficult and requires many trials. The goal of the work is to develop a method and a procedure of finding the object form which if placed into the ray paths can provide the necessary structure of the image In fact the task means obtaining the necessary irradiance distribution on the given surface. Traditionally such problems are solved using the non-imaging optics methods. In the given case this task is very complicated because of the complicated structure of the illuminance distribution and its high non-linearity. Alternative way is to use the projected image of a mask with a given structure. We consider both ways and discuss how they can help to speed up the synthesis procedure for the given abstract image of the high self-similarity for the setups of drug-free therapy.

  15. High-resolution subgrid models: background, grid generation, and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sehili, Aissa; Lang, Günther; Lippert, Christoph

    2014-04-01

    The basic idea of subgrid models is the use of available high-resolution bathymetric data at subgrid level in computations that are performed on relatively coarse grids allowing large time steps. For that purpose, an algorithm that correctly represents the precise mass balance in regions where wetting and drying occur was derived by Casulli (Int J Numer Method Fluids 60:391-408, 2009) and Casulli and Stelling (Int J Numer Method Fluids 67:441-449, 2010). Computational grid cells are permitted to be wet, partially wet, or dry, and no drying threshold is needed. Based on the subgrid technique, practical applications involving various scenarios were implemented including an operational forecast model for water level, salinity, and temperature of the Elbe Estuary in Germany. The grid generation procedure allows a detailed boundary fitting at subgrid level. The computational grid is made of flow-aligned quadrilaterals including few triangles where necessary. User-defined grid subdivision at subgrid level allows a correct representation of the volume up to measurement accuracy. Bottom friction requires a particular treatment. Based on the conveyance approach, an appropriate empirical correction was worked out. The aforementioned features make the subgrid technique very efficient, robust, and accurate. Comparison of predicted water levels with the comparatively highly resolved classical unstructured grid model shows very good agreement. The speedup in computational performance due to the use of the subgrid technique is about a factor of 20. A typical daily forecast can be carried out in less than 10 min on a standard PC-like hardware. The subgrid technique is therefore a promising framework to perform accurate temporal and spatial large-scale simulations of coastal and estuarine flow and transport processes at low computational cost.

  16. High stimulus variability in nonnative speech learning supports formation of abstract categories: evidence from Japanese geminates.

    PubMed

    Sadakata, Makiko; McQueen, James M

    2013-08-01

    This study reports effects of a high-variability training procedure on nonnative learning of a Japanese geminate-singleton fricative contrast. Thirty native speakers of Dutch took part in a 5-day training procedure in which they identified geminate and singleton variants of the Japanese fricative /s/. Participants were trained with either many repetitions of a limited set of words recorded by a single speaker (low-variability training) or with fewer repetitions of a more variable set of words recorded by multiple speakers (high-variability training). Both types of training enhanced identification of speech but not of nonspeech materials, indicating that learning was domain specific. High-variability training led to superior performance in identification but not in discrimination tests, and supported better generalization of learning as shown by transfer from the trained fricatives to the identification of untrained stops and affricates. Variability thus helps nonnative listeners to form abstract categories rather than to enhance early acoustic analysis.

  17. "Gaining Power through Education": Experiences of Honduran Students from High Poverty Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Peter C.; Zempter, Christy; Ngumbi, Elizabeth; Nakama, Yuki; Manley, David; Cox, Haley

    2017-01-01

    This is a study of students from high-poverty backgrounds attending universities in Honduras. Based on a series of individual and focus group interviews, the researchers found students from high-poverty backgrounds face numerous practical challenges in persisting in higher education. Despite these challenges, participants succeeded due to a…

  18. Reporting quality of randomised controlled trial abstracts among high-impact general medical journals: a review and analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hays, Meredith; Andrews, Mary; Wilson, Ramey; Callender, David; O'Malley, Patrick G; Douglas, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess adherence to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) for Abstracts by five high-impact general medical journals and to assess whether the quality of reporting was homogeneous across these journals. Design This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Setting Randomised controlled trial (RCT) abstracts in five high-impact general medical journals. Participants We used up to 100 RCT abstracts published between 2011 and 2014 from each of the following journals: The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), the Annals of Internal Medicine (Annals IM), The Lancet, the British Medical Journal (The BMJ) and the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). Main outcome The primary outcome was per cent overall adherence to the 19-item CONSORT for Abstracts checklist. Secondary outcomes included per cent adherence in checklist subcategories and assessing homogeneity of reporting quality across the individual journals. Results Search results yielded 466 abstracts, 3 of which were later excluded as they were not RCTs. Analysis was performed on 463 abstracts (97 from NEJM, 66 from Annals IM, 100 from The Lancet, 100 from The BMJ, 100 from JAMA). Analysis of all scored items showed an overall adherence of 67% (95% CI 66% to 68%) to the CONSORT for Abstracts checklist. The Lancet had the highest overall adherence rate (78%; 95% CI 76% to 80%), whereas NEJM had the lowest (55%; 95% CI 53% to 57%). Adherence rates to 8 of the checklist items differed by >25% between journals. Conclusions Among the five highest impact general medical journals, there is variable and incomplete adherence to the CONSORT for Abstracts reporting checklist of randomised trials, with substantial differences between individual journals. Lack of adherence to the CONSORT for Abstracts reporting checklist by high-impact medical journals impedes critical appraisal of important studies. We recommend diligent assessment of adherence to reporting

  19. A Comparison between High-Energy Radiation Background Models and SPENVIS Trapped-Particle Radiation Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krizmanic, John F.

    2013-01-01

    We have been assessing the effects of background radiation in low-Earth orbit for the next generation of X-ray and Cosmic-ray experiments, in particular for International Space Station orbit. Outside the areas of high fluxes of trapped radiation, we have been using parameterizations developed by the Fermi team to quantify the high-energy induced background. For the low-energy background, we have been using the AE8 and AP8 SPENVIS models to determine the orbit fractions where the fluxes of trapped particles are too high to allow for useful operation of the experiment. One area we are investigating is how the fluxes of SPENVIS predictions at higher energies match the fluxes at the low-energy end of our parameterizations. I will summarize our methodology for background determination from the various sources of cosmogenic and terrestrial radiation and how these compare to SPENVIS predictions in overlapping energy ranges.

  20. Use of abstraction regime and knowledge of hydrogeological conditions to control high-fluoride concentration in abstracted groundwater: San Luis Potosí basin, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo-Rivera, J. J.; Cardona, A.; Edmunds, W. M.

    2002-04-01

    Significant amounts of fluoride are found in the abstracted groundwater of San Luis Potosí. This groundwater withdrawal induces a cold, low-fluoride flow as well as deeper thermal fluoride-rich flow in various proportions. Flow mixing takes place depending on the abstraction regime, local hydrogeology, and borehole construction design and operation. Fluoride concentrations (≈3.7 mg l -1) could become higher still, in time and space, if the input of regional fluoride-rich water to the abstraction boreholes is enhanced. It is suggested that by controlling the abstraction well-head water temperature at 28-30 °C, a pumped water mixture with a fluoride content close to the maximum drinking water standard of 1.5 mg l -1 will be produced. Further, new boreholes and those already operating could take advantage of fluoride solubility controls to reduce the F concentration in the abstracted water by considering lithology and borehole construction design in order to regulate groundwater flow conditions.

  1. Reporting quality of randomised controlled trial abstracts among high-impact general medical journals: a review and analysis.

    PubMed

    Hays, Meredith; Andrews, Mary; Wilson, Ramey; Callender, David; O'Malley, Patrick G; Douglas, Kevin

    2016-07-28

    The aim of this study was to assess adherence to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) for Abstracts by five high-impact general medical journals and to assess whether the quality of reporting was homogeneous across these journals. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Randomised controlled trial (RCT) abstracts in five high-impact general medical journals. We used up to 100 RCT abstracts published between 2011 and 2014 from each of the following journals: The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), the Annals of Internal Medicine (Annals IM), The Lancet, the British Medical Journal (The BMJ) and the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). The primary outcome was per cent overall adherence to the 19-item CONSORT for Abstracts checklist. Secondary outcomes included per cent adherence in checklist subcategories and assessing homogeneity of reporting quality across the individual journals. Search results yielded 466 abstracts, 3 of which were later excluded as they were not RCTs. Analysis was performed on 463 abstracts (97 from NEJM, 66 from Annals IM, 100 from The Lancet, 100 from The BMJ, 100 from JAMA). Analysis of all scored items showed an overall adherence of 67% (95% CI 66% to 68%) to the CONSORT for Abstracts checklist. The Lancet had the highest overall adherence rate (78%; 95% CI 76% to 80%), whereas NEJM had the lowest (55%; 95% CI 53% to 57%). Adherence rates to 8 of the checklist items differed by >25% between journals. Among the five highest impact general medical journals, there is variable and incomplete adherence to the CONSORT for Abstracts reporting checklist of randomised trials, with substantial differences between individual journals. Lack of adherence to the CONSORT for Abstracts reporting checklist by high-impact medical journals impedes critical appraisal of important studies. We recommend diligent assessment of adherence to reporting guidelines by authors, reviewers and editors to promote transparency

  2. An Examination of High-Achieving First-Generation College Students from Low-Income Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hébert, Thomas P.

    2018-01-01

    Experiences of 10 high-achieving first-generation college students from low-income backgrounds were the focus of this qualitative research study. Family adversity and difficult personal experiences during adolescence were major themes; however, students benefitted from emotionally supportive K-12 educators and academic rigor in high school.…

  3. Human response to high-background radiation environments on Earth and in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, M.; Manti, L.

    The main long-term goal of the space exploration program is the colonization of the planets of the Solar System The high cosmic radiation equivalent dose rate represents a major problem for a stable and safe colonization of the planets The dose rate on Mars ranges between 60 and 150 mSv year depending on the Solar cycle and altitude and can reach values as high as 360 mSv year on the Moon The average dose rate on the Earth is about 3 mSv year reduced to about 1 mSv year excluding the internal exposure to Rn daughters However some areas of the Earth have anomalously high levels of background radiation Values 200-400 times higher than the world average are found in regions where monazite sand deposits are abundant Population in Tibet experience a high cosmic radiation background Epidemiological studies did not detect any adverse health effects in the populations living in those high-background radiation areas on Earth Chromosomal aberrations in the peripheral blood lymphocytes from the population living in the high-background radiation areas have been measured in several studies because the chromosomal damage represents an early biomarker of cancer risk Similar cytogenetic studies have been recently performed in cohort of astronauts involved in single or repeated space flights over many years A comparison of the cytogenetic findings in populations exposed at high dose rate on Earth or in space will be described

  4. Application of abstract harmonic analysis to the high-speed recognition of images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usikov, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    Methods are constructed for rapidly computing correlation functions using the theory of abstract harmonic analysis. The theory developed includes as a particular case the familiar Fourier transform method for a correlation function which makes it possible to find images which are independent of their translation in the plane. Two examples of the application of the general theory described are the search for images, independent of their rotation and scale, and the search for images which are independent of their translations and rotations in the plane.

  5. The Abstraction Ability in Constructing Relation Within Triangles by The Seventh Grade Students of Junior High School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annas, Suwardi; Djadir; Mutmainna Hasma, Sitti

    2018-01-01

    on is an activity to organize a mathematical concept that has been previously owned into a new mathematical structure. Activites in abstraction are recognizing, organizing and constructing. Recognizing is a process of identifying a mathematical structure that had existed before. Organizing is a process of using structural knowledge to be assembled into a solution of a problem and constructing is a process of organizing the characteristics of the object into a new structure that does not exist. In abstraction process, the students use attributes to address the object, including routine attribute, nonroutine attributes, and meaningless attributes. This research applied descriptive qualitative research which aimed to describe the abstraction ability of students from high, moderate, and low groups to construct a relation within triangle. In collecting the data, this research used students’ pre-ability math test, abstraction test, and guided interview. The sampling technique in this research was based on the students’ scores in pre-ability math test, which were divided into three groups. Two students from each group were opted as the subjects of this research. Questions of the test are based on the indicators of steps in abstraction activity. Thus, based on the data gained in this research, researcher determined the tendency of attributes used in each abstraction activity. The result of this research revealed that students from high, moderate and low groups were prone to use routine attributes in recognizing triangles. In organizing the characteristics within triangles, high group tended to organize the triangle correctly, while the moderate and low groups tended to organize the triangle incorrectly. In constructing relation within triangles, students in high, moderate and low groups construct it incompletely.

  6. Hydrogen abstraction from n-butanol by the methyl radical: high level ab initio study of abstraction pathways and the importance of low energy rotational conformers.

    PubMed

    Katsikadakos, D; Hardalupas, Y; Taylor, A M K P; Hunt, P A

    2012-07-21

    Hydrogen abstraction reactions by the methyl radical from n-butanol have been investigated at the ROCBS-QB3 level of theory. Reaction energies and product geometries for the most stable conformer of n-butanol (ROH) have been computed, the reaction energies order α < γ < β < δ < OH. The preference for n-butane to favour H-abstraction at C(β) and C(γ) while, in contrast, n-butanol favours radical reactions at the C(α) carbon is rationalised. Transition state (TS) barriers and geometries for the most stable conformer of n-butanol are presented, and discussed with respect to the Hammond postulate. The reaction barriers order as α < OH < γ < β < δ. This relative ordering is not consistent with product radical stability, C-H bond dissociation energies or previous studies using O[combining dot above]H and HO[combining dot above](2) radicals. We provide a molecular orbital based rationalisation for this ordering and answer two related questions: Why is the γ-channel more stable than the β-channel? Why do the two C(γ)-H H-abstraction TS differ in energy? The method and basis set dependence of the TS barriers is investigated. The Boltzmann probability distribution for the n-butanol conformers suggests that low energy conformers are present in approximately equal proportions to the most stable conformer at combustion temperatures where ĊH(3) radicals are present. Thus, the relative significance of the various H-abstraction channels has been assessed for a selection of higher energy conformers (ROH'). Key results include finding that higher energy n-butanol conformers (E(ROH') > E(ROH)) can generate lower energy product radicals, E(ROH') < E(ROH). Moreover, higher energy conformers can also have a globally competitive TS energy for H-abstraction.

  7. The estimation of background production by cosmic rays in high-energy gamma ray telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, H. L.; Nolan, P. L.; Lin, Y. C.; Koch, D. G.; Bertsch, D. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kniffen, D. A.; Hughes, E. B.

    1991-01-01

    A calculational method of estimating instrumental background in high-energy gamma-ray telescopes, using the hadronic Monte Carlo code FLUKA87, is presented. The method is applied to the SAS-2 and EGRET telescope designs and is also used to explore the level of background to be expected for alternative configurations of the proposed GRITS telescope, which adapts the external fuel tank of a Space Shuttle as a gamma-ray telescope with a very large collecting area. The background produced in proton-beam tests of EGRET is much less than the predicted level. This discrepancy appears to be due to the FLUKA87 inability to transport evaporation nucleons. It is predicted that the background in EGRET will be no more than 4-10 percent of the extragalactic diffuse gamma radiation.

  8. Detection of admittivity anomaly on high-contrast heterogeneous backgrounds using frequency difference EIT.

    PubMed

    Jang, J; Seo, J K

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a multiple background subtraction method in frequency difference electrical impedance tomography (fdEIT) to detect an admittivity anomaly from a high-contrast background conductivity distribution. The proposed method expands the use of the conventional weighted frequency difference EIT method, which has been used limitedly to detect admittivity anomalies in a roughly homogeneous background. The proposed method can be viewed as multiple weighted difference imaging in fdEIT. Although the spatial resolutions of the output images by fdEIT are very low due to the inherent ill-posedness, numerical simulations and phantom experiments of the proposed method demonstrate its feasibility to detect anomalies. It has potential application in stroke detection in a head model, which is highly heterogeneous due to the skull.

  9. Objectively assessed recess physical activity in girls and boys from high and low socioeconomic backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Baquet, Georges; Ridgers, Nicola D; Blaes, Aurélie; Aucouturier, Julien; Van Praagh, Emmanuel; Berthoin, Serge

    2014-02-21

    The school environment influences children's opportunities for physical activity participation. The aim of the present study was to assess objectively measured school recess physical activity in children from high and low socioeconomic backgrounds. Four hundred and seven children (6-11 years old) from 4 primary schools located in high socioeconomic status (high-SES) and low socioeconomic status (low-SES) areas participated in the study. Children's physical activity was measured using accelerometry during morning and afternoon recess during a 4-day school week. The percentage of time spent in light, moderate, vigorous, very high and in moderate- to very high-intensity physical activity were calculated using age-dependent cut-points. Sedentary time was defined as 100 counts per minute. Boys were significantly (p < 0.001) more active than girls. No difference in sedentary time between socioeconomic backgrounds was observed. The low-SES group spent significantly more time in light (p < 0.001) and very high (p < 0.05) intensity physical activity compared to the high-SES group. High-SES boys and girls spent significantly more time in moderate (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively) and vigorous (p < 0.001) physical activity than low-SES boys. Differences were observed in recess physical activity levels according to socioeconomic background and sex. These results indicate that recess interventions should target children in low-SES schools.

  10. PCA-based approach for subtracting thermal background emission in high-contrast imaging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunziker, S.; Quanz, S. P.; Amara, A.; Meyer, M. R.

    2018-03-01

    Aims.Ground-based observations at thermal infrared wavelengths suffer from large background radiation due to the sky, telescope and warm surfaces in the instrument. This significantly limits the sensitivity of ground-based observations at wavelengths longer than 3 μm. The main purpose of this work is to analyse this background emission in infrared high-contrast imaging data as illustrative of the problem, show how it can be modelled and subtracted and demonstrate that it can improve the detection of faint sources, such as exoplanets. Methods: We used principal component analysis (PCA) to model and subtract the thermal background emission in three archival high-contrast angular differential imaging datasets in the M' and L' filter. We used an M' dataset of β Pic to describe in detail how the algorithm works and explain how it can be applied. The results of the background subtraction are compared to the results from a conventional mean background subtraction scheme applied to the same dataset. Finally, both methods for background subtraction are compared by performing complete data reductions. We analysed the results from the M' dataset of HD 100546 only qualitatively. For the M' band dataset of β Pic and the L' band dataset of HD 169142, which was obtained with an angular groove phase mask vortex vector coronagraph, we also calculated and analysed the achieved signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). Results: We show that applying PCA is an effective way to remove spatially and temporarily varying thermal background emission down to close to the background limit. The procedure also proves to be very successful at reconstructing the background that is hidden behind the point spread function. In the complete data reductions, we find at least qualitative improvements for HD 100546 and HD 169142, however, we fail to find a significant increase in S/N of β Pic b. We discuss these findings and argue that in particular datasets with strongly varying observing conditions or

  11. Discrimination against Students with Foreign Backgrounds: Evidence from Grading in Swedish Public High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinnerich, Bjorn Tyrefors; Höglin, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    We rigorously test for discrimination against students with foreign backgrounds in high school grading in Sweden. We analyse a random sample of national tests in the Swedish language graded both non-blindly by the student's own teacher and blindly without any identifying information. The increase in the test score due to non-blind grading is…

  12. Characteristics of Highly Effective Cooperating Teachers: A Study of Their Backgrounds and Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killian, Joyce E.; Wilkins, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This study used interviews and other artifacts collected during student teaching as the basis for rating 13 elementary cooperating teachers on their supervisory effectiveness. Once highly effective cooperating teachers were differentiated from their less effective peers, researchers used ex post facto methods to identify background and…

  13. Managing Academic Tasks in Junior High School: Background, Design, and Methodology. (R & D Rep. No. 6185).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Walter; And Others

    This report describes the conceptual background, design, and methodology for a study of management of academic tasks in junior high school. Previous research suggests that tasks students accomplish in classrooms determine what they actually learn, and acquisition of higher cognitive skills related to interpretation and planning is essential for…

  14. Thyroid nodularity and chromosome aberrations among women in areas of high background radiation in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.Y.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Wei, L.X.

    1990-03-21

    Thyroid nodularity following continuous low-dose radiation exposure in China was determined in 1,001 women aged 50-65 years who resided in areas of high background radiation (330 mR/yr) their entire lives, and in 1,005 comparison subjects exposed to normal levels of radiation (114 mR/yr). Cumulative doses to the thyroid were estimated to be of the order of 14 cGy and 5 cGy, respectively. Personal interviews and physical examinations were conducted, and measurements were made of serum thyroid hormone levels, urinary iodine concentrations, and chromosome aberrations in circulating lymphocytes. For all nodular disease, the prevalences in the high background and control areasmore » were 9.5% and 9.3%, respectively. For single nodules, the prevalences were 7.4% in the high background area and 6.6% in the control area (prevalence ratio = 1.13; 95% confidence interval = 0.82-1.55). There were no differences found in serum levels of thyroid hormones. Women in the high background region, however, had significantly lower concentrations of urinary iodine and significantly higher frequencies of stable and unstable chromosome aberrations. Increased intake of allium vegetables such as garlic and onions was associated with a decreased risk of nodular disease, which seems consistent with experimental studies suggesting that allium compounds can inhibit tumor growth and proliferation. The prevalence of mild diffuse goiter was higher in the high background radiation region, perhaps related to a low dietary intake of iodine. These data suggest that continuous exposure to low-level radiation throughout life is unlikely to appreciably increase the risk of thyroid cancer. However, such exposure may cause chromosomal damage.« less

  15. Types and status of high reliability practices in the federal fire community (Abstract)

    Treesearch

    Anne Black; Brooke McBride

    2012-01-01

    Since emerging in the late 1980s, the paradigm of High Reliability Organizing (HRO) has sought to describe how and why certain organizations consistently function safely under hazardous conditions. Researchers have explored a variety of industrial situations, from the early observations of nuclear aircraft carrier operations to nursing units and even high-tech IPOs....

  16. (abstract) The Distant Tail Behavior During High Speed Solar Wind Streams and Magnetic Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, C. M.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1996-01-01

    We have examined the ISEE-3 distant tail data during three intense magnetic storms and have identified the tail response to high speed solar wind streams, interplanetary magnetic clouds, and near-Earth storms.

  17. Abstract analysis method facilitates filtering low-methodological quality and high-bias risk systematic reviews on psoriasis interventions.

    PubMed

    Gómez-García, Francisco; Ruano, Juan; Aguilar-Luque, Macarena; Alcalde-Mellado, Patricia; Gay-Mimbrera, Jesús; Hernández-Romero, José Luis; Sanz-Cabanillas, Juan Luis; Maestre-López, Beatriz; González-Padilla, Marcelino; Carmona-Fernández, Pedro J; García-Nieto, Antonio Vélez; Isla-Tejera, Beatriz

    2017-12-29

    Article summaries' information and structure may influence researchers/clinicians' decisions to conduct deeper full-text analyses. Specifically, abstracts of systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses (MA) should provide structured summaries for quick assessment. This study explored a method for determining the methodological quality and bias risk of full-text reviews using abstract information alone. Systematic literature searches for SRs and/or MA about psoriasis were undertaken on MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane database. For each review, quality, abstract-reporting completeness, full-text methodological quality, and bias risk were evaluated using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses for abstracts (PRISMA-A), Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR), and ROBIS tools, respectively. Article-, author-, and journal-derived metadata were systematically extracted from eligible studies using a piloted template, and explanatory variables concerning abstract-reporting quality were assessed using univariate and multivariate-regression models. Two classification models concerning SRs' methodological quality and bias risk were developed based on per-item and total PRISMA-A scores and decision-tree algorithms. This work was supported, in part, by project ICI1400136 (JR). No funding was received from any pharmaceutical company. This study analysed 139 SRs on psoriasis interventions. On average, they featured 56.7% of PRISMA-A items. The mean total PRISMA-A score was significantly higher for high-methodological-quality SRs than for moderate- and low-methodological-quality reviews. SRs with low-bias risk showed higher total PRISMA-A values than reviews with high-bias risk. In the final model, only 'authors per review > 6' (OR: 1.098; 95%CI: 1.012-1.194), 'academic source of funding' (OR: 3.630; 95%CI: 1.788-7.542), and 'PRISMA-endorsed journal' (OR: 4.370; 95%CI: 1.785-10.98) predicted PRISMA-A variability. Reviews with a

  18. SORPTION OF LEAD ON A HIGH AFFINITY OXIDE: MACROSCOPIC AND MICROSCOPIC STUDIES (ABSTRACT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption of lead (Pb) was investigated on an innovative metal oxide compound using macroscopic and microscopic techniques. The objective of this study was to elucidate the sorption mechanism of Pb on the high-affinity engineered oxide with time at pH 6 employing batch methods an...

  19. Large Aperture "Photon Bucket" Optical Receiver Performance in High Background Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Victor A.; Hoppe, D.

    2011-01-01

    The potential development of large aperture groundbased "photon bucket" optical receivers for deep space communications, with acceptable performance even when pointing close to the sun, is receiving considerable attention. Sunlight scattered by the atmosphere becomes significant at micron wavelengths when pointing to a few degrees from the sun, even with the narrowest bandwidth optical filters. In addition, high quality optical apertures in the 10-30 meter range are costly and difficult to build with accurate surfaces to ensure narrow fields-of-view (FOV). One approach currently under consideration is to polish the aluminum reflector panels of large 34-meter microwave antennas to high reflectance, and accept the relatively large FOV generated by state-of-the-art polished aluminum panels with rms surface accuracies on the order of a few microns, corresponding to several-hundred micro-radian FOV, hence generating centimeter-diameter focused spots at the Cassegrain focus of 34-meter antennas. Assuming pulse-position modulation (PPM) and Poisson-distributed photon-counting detection, a "polished panel" photon-bucket receiver with large FOV will collect hundreds of background photons per PPM slot, along with comparable signal photons due to its large aperture. It is demonstrated that communications performance in terms of PPM symbol-error probability in high-background high-signal environments depends more strongly on signal than on background photons, implying that large increases in background energy can be compensated by a disproportionally small increase in signal energy. This surprising result suggests that large optical apertures with relatively poor surface quality may nevertheless provide acceptable performance for deep-space optical communications, potentially enabling the construction of cost-effective hybrid RF/optical receivers in the future.

  20. Pulse excitation method for measurement of high frequency magnetic properties of large cores (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hikosaka, Tomoyuki; Miyamoto, Masahiro; Yamada, Mamoru; Morita, Tadashi

    1993-05-01

    It is very important to obtain saturated magnetic properties from reverse saturation (full B-H curve) of ferromagnetic cores to design magnetic switches which are used in high power pulse generators. The magnetic switch is excited in the high frequency range (˜MHz). But, it is extremely difficult to measure full B-H curve of large toroidal cores of which diameter is some hundreds of mm, using the conventional ac excitation method at high frequency. The main reason is poor output ability of power source for core excitation. Therefore we have developed pulse excitation method to get high frequency magnetic properties. The measurement circuit has two sections. One is excitation part composed by charge transfer circuit. The others is reset part for adjustment initial point on direct B-H curve. The sample core is excited by sinusoidal voltage pulse expressed as 1-cos(2π ft). Excitation frequency f is decided by the constants of the elements of the charge transfer circuit. The change of magnetic flux density ΔB and magnetic field H are calculated, respectively, by measuring the induced voltage of search coil and magnetizing current. ΔB-H characteristics from reverse saturation of four different kinds of large cores were measured in frequency range from 50 kHz to 1 MHz. Core loss increases in proportion to Nth powers of the frequency, where the index N depends on each of cores. N is about 0.5 in case of winding ribbon cores, such as Fe-based amorphous, Co-based amorphous, and Finemet, but N is about 0.2 in case of the Ni-Zn ferrite.

  1. Aubrite basalt vitrophyres: High sulfur silicate melts and a snapshot of aubrite formation. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogel, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Two aubrite basalt vitrophyre clasts have been found within AMNH thin sections from the Parsa EH3 chondrite and the Khor Temiki aubrite. Polished sections of the Parsa Aubrite Inclusion (PAI) and the Khor Temiki Inclusion (KTI) were studied by optical, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques with broad-beam and low absorbed EPMA currents used to minimize glass volatile loss. Some data have previously been reported for PAI and KTI may possibly correlate to a previously reported inclusion in Khor Tiimiki. In polished sections, PAI and KTI are approximately equal 4 mm in diameter and contain a large volume of glass. The clasts have similar textural characteristics and are akin to lunar vitrophyre textures. The glasses have high alkali rhyodacitic compositions Al-though PAI is peraluminous, KTI is significantly peralkaline. Additionally, the glasses have elevated sulfur concentrations that are extremely high by geochemical standards. SEM examination for beam overlap of microscopic CaS, FeS, and (Mg, Mn, Fe) S inclusions showed no such contamination. Furthermore, homogeneity of glass S content and low FeO contents help rule out contamination. Materials research data show that under reducing conditions alumino-silicate melts can dissolve up to several weight percent sulfur in the absence of Fe. The high S and alkali contents, the lack of associated high shock features, and the rationalized phase equilibria suggest that PAI and KTI are igneous melting products of an E-chondrite-like source material. Although large-scale impact melting cannot totally be ruled out, the above observations eliminate the possibility of in-situ shock melting.

  2. Radiation dose in the high background radiation area in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Christa, E P; Jojo, P J; Vaidyan, V K; Anilkumar, S; Eappen, K P

    2012-03-01

    A systematic radiological survey has been carried out in the region of high-background radiation area in Kollam district of Kerala to define the natural gamma-radiation levels. One hundred and forty seven soil samples from high-background radiation areas and five samples from normal background region were collected as per standard sampling procedures and were analysed for (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K by gamma-ray spectroscopy. External gamma dose rates at all sampling locations were also measured using a survey meter. The activities of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K was found to vary from 17 to 3081 Bq kg(-1), 54 to 11976 Bq kg(-1) and BDL (67.4 Bq kg(-1)) to 216 Bq kg(-1), respectively, in the study area. Such heterogeneous distribution of radionuclides in the region may be attributed to the deposition phenomenon of beach sand soil in the region. Radium equivalent activities were found high in several locations. External gamma dose rates estimated from the levels of radionuclides in soil had a range from 49 to 9244 nGy h(-1). The result of gamma dose rate measured at the sampling sites using survey meter showed an excellent correlation with dose rates computed from the natural radionuclides estimated from the soil samples.

  3. Measurement of low radioactivity background in a high voltage cable by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Vacri, M. L. di; Nisi, S.; Balata, M.

    2013-08-08

    The measurement of naturally occurring low level radioactivity background in a high voltage (HV) cable by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR ICP MS) is presented in this work. The measurements were performed at the Chemistry Service of the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. The contributions to the radioactive background coming from the different components of the heterogeneous material were separated. Based on the mass fraction of the cable, the whole contamination was calculated. The HR ICP MS results were cross-checked by gamma ray spectroscopy analysis that was performed at the low background facility STELLA (Sub Terranean Low Levelmore » Assay) of the LNGS underground lab using HPGe detectors.« less

  4. Background studies of high energy γ rays from (n,γ) reactions in the CANDLES experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, K.; Iida, T.; Akutagawa, K.; Batpurev, T.; Chan, W. M.; Dokaku, F.; Fushimi, K.; Kakubata, H.; Kanagawa, K.; Katagiri, S.; Kawasaki, K.; Khai, B. T.; Kino, H.; Kinoshita, E.; Kishimoto, T.; Hazama, R.; Hiraoka, H.; Hiyama, T.; Ishikawa, M.; Li, X.; Maeda, T.; Matsuoka, K.; Moser, M.; Nomachi, M.; Ogawa, I.; Ohata, T.; Sato, H.; Shamoto, K.; Shimada, M.; Shokati, M.; Takahashi, N.; Takemoto, Y.; Takihira, Y.; Tamagawa, Y.; Tozawa, M.; Teranishi, K.; Tetsuno, K.; Trang, V. T. T.; Tsuzuki, M.; Umehara, S.; Wang, W.; Yoshida, S.; Yotsunaga, N.

    2018-07-01

    High energy γ rays with several MeV produced by (n,γ) reactions can be a trouble for low background measurements in the underground laboratories such as double beta decay experiments. In the CANDLES project, which aimed to observe the neutrino-less double beta decay from 48Ca, γ rays caused by (n,γ) reactions were found to be the most significant background. The profile of the background was studied by measurements with a neutron source and a simulation with a validity check of neutron processes in Geant4. The observed spectrum of γ rays from (n,γ) reactions was well reproduced by the simulated spectra, which were originated from the surrounding rock and a detector tank made of stainless steel. The environmental neutron flux was derived by the observed event rate of γ rays from (n,γ) reactions using the simulation. The thermal and non-thermal neutron flux were found to be (1.3 ± 0.6) ×10-6 cm-2s-1 and (1.1 ± 0.5) ×10-5 cm-2s-1 , respectively. It is necessary to install an additional shield to reduce the background from (n,γ) reaction to the required level.

  5. SR high-speed K-edge subtraction angiography in the small animal (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, T.; Akisada, M.; Nakajima, T.; Anno, I.; Ueda, K.; Umetani, K.; Yamaguchi, C.

    1989-07-01

    To assess the ability of the high-speed K-edge energy subtraction system which was made at beamline 8C of Photon Factory, Tsukuba, we performed an animal experiment. Rabbits were used for the intravenous K-edge subtraction angiography. In this paper, the actual images of the artery obtained by this system, are demonstrated. The high-speed K-edge subtraction system consisted of movable silicon (111) monocrystals, II-ITV, and digital memory system. Image processing was performed by 68000-IP computer. The monochromatic x-ray beam size was 50×60 mm. Photon energy above and below iodine K edge was changed within 16 ms and 32 frames of images were obtained sequentially. The rabbits were anaesthetized by phenobarbital and a 5F catheter was inserted into inferior vena cava via the femoral vein. 1.5 ml/kg of contrast material (Conlaxin H) was injected at the rate of 0.5 ml/kg/s. TV images were obtained 3 s after the starting point of injection. By using this system, the clear K-edge subtracted images were obtained sequentially as a conventional DSA system. The quality of the images were better than that obtained by DSA. The dynamical blood flow was analyzed, and the best arterial image could be selected from the sequential images. The structures of aortic arch, common carotid arteries, right subclavian artery, and internal thoracic artery were obtained at the chest. Both common carotid arteries and vertebral arteries were recorded at the neck. The diameter of about 0.3-0.4 mm artery could be clearly revealed. The high-speed K-edge subtraction system demonstrates the very sharp arterial images clearly and dynamically.

  6. Novel DNA probes with low background and high hybridization-triggered fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Lukhtanov, Eugeny A; Lokhov, Sergey G; Gorn, Vladimir V; Podyminogin, Mikhail A; Mahoney, Walt

    2007-01-01

    Novel fluorogenic DNA probes are described. The probes (called Pleiades) have a minor groove binder (MGB) and a fluorophore at the 5'-end and a non-fluorescent quencher at the 3'-end of the DNA sequence. This configuration provides surprisingly low background and high hybridization-triggered fluorescence. Here, we comparatively study the performance of such probes, MGB-Eclipse probes, and molecular beacons. Unlike the other two probe formats, the Pleiades probes have low, temperature-independent background fluorescence and excellent signal-to-background ratios. The probes possess good mismatch discrimination ability and high rates of hybridization. Based on the analysis of fluorescence and absorption spectra we propose a mechanism of action for the Pleiades probes. First, hydrophobic interactions between the quencher and the MGB bring the ends of the probe and, therefore, the fluorophore and the quencher in close proximity. Second, the MGB interacts with the fluorophore and independent of the quencher is able to provide a modest (2-4-fold) quenching effect. Joint action of the MGB and the quencher is the basis for the unique quenching mechanism. The fluorescence is efficiently restored upon binding of the probe to target sequence due to a disruption in the MGB-quencher interaction and concealment of the MGB moiety inside the minor groove.

  7. Novel DNA probes with low background and high hybridization-triggered fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Lukhtanov, Eugeny A.; Lokhov, Sergey G.; Gorn, Vladimir V.; Podyminogin, Mikhail A.; Mahoney, Walt

    2007-01-01

    Novel fluorogenic DNA probes are described. The probes (called Pleiades) have a minor groove binder (MGB) and a fluorophore at the 5′-end and a non-fluorescent quencher at the 3′-end of the DNA sequence. This configuration provides surprisingly low background and high hybridization-triggered fluorescence. Here, we comparatively study the performance of such probes, MGB-Eclipse probes, and molecular beacons. Unlike the other two probe formats, the Pleiades probes have low, temperature-independent background fluorescence and excellent signal-to-background ratios. The probes possess good mismatch discrimination ability and high rates of hybridization. Based on the analysis of fluorescence and absorption spectra we propose a mechanism of action for the Pleiades probes. First, hydrophobic interactions between the quencher and the MGB bring the ends of the probe and, therefore, the fluorophore and the quencher in close proximity. Second, the MGB interacts with the fluorophore and independent of the quencher is able to provide a modest (2–4-fold) quenching effect. Joint action of the MGB and the quencher is the basis for the unique quenching mechanism. The fluorescence is efficiently restored upon binding of the probe to target sequence due to a disruption in the MGB–quencher interaction and concealment of the MGB moiety inside the minor groove. PMID:17259212

  8. High Background Ozone Events in the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria Area: Effects from Central American Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, R.; Wang, S. C.; Yang, S.; Wang, Y.; Talbot, R. W.

    2016-12-01

    The policy-relevant background (PRB) ozone is defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as the surface ozone mixing ratio that would occur over the U.S. without North American anthropogenic emission influences. PRB ozone over the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria (HGB) area may be affected by foreign sources due to its unique geographical location and meteorology. Our monitoring data revealed several high ozone events over HGB area which might be caused by Central American fire during the years of 2013-2015. To qualify the effects from Central American fire, we estimated the US, Central American and worldwide background over HGB area during those events using the GEOS-Chem global 3-D model. Anomalies in fire emissions leading to high PRB ozone were mapped through spatiotemporal sampling of the Fire INventory from NCAR (FINN) along background trajectories of air masses affecting the HGB area prior to and during the selected high PRB ozone days. Daily HGB PRB ozone estimated by researchers at the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) was used as the data source to validate model results. Results showed that contribution of emission from Central American to HGB PRB ozone could be tripled during fire events compared to non-impacted fire days. Besides fire emissions from Central American, different types of meteorological events (e.g., cold fronts and thunderstorms) and high local photochemical production (e.g., heat waves and stagnation) are also found associated with high PRB ozone in HGB area during these events. Thus we imply that synthetic contribution from foreign sources and local meteorology to HGB PRB ozone warrants further investigated.

  9. Low cost booster and high performance orbit injection propulsion extended abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sackheim, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    Space transportation is currently a major element of cost for communications satellite systems. For every dollar spent in manufacturing the satellite, somewhere between 1 and 3 dollars must be spent to launch the satellite into its initial operational orbit. This also makes the weight of the satellite a very critical cost factor because it is important to maximize the useful payload that is placed into orbit to maximize the return on the original investment. It seems apparent then, that tremendous economic advantage for satellite communications systems can be gained from improvements in two key highly leveraged propulsion areas. The first and most important economic improvement can be achieved by significantly lowering the cost of today's launch vehicles. The second gain that would greatly benefit the communications satellite business position is to increase both the useful (payload) weight placed into the orbit and the revenue generating lifetime of the satellite on-orbit. The point of this paper is to first explain that these two goals can best be achieved by cost reduction and performance increasing advancements in rocket propulsion for both the launch vehicle and for the satellite on-board apogee insertion and on-orbit velocity control systems.

  10. THE HIGH BACKGROUND RADIATION AREA IN RAMSAR IRAN: GEOLOGY, NORM, BIOLOGY, LNT, AND POSSIBLE REGULATORY FUN

    SciTech Connect

    Karam, P. A.

    2002-02-25

    The city of Ramsar Iran hosts some of the highest natural radiation levels on earth, and over 2000 people are exposed to radiation doses ranging from 1 to 26 rem per year. Curiously, inhabitants of this region seem to have no greater incidence of cancer than those in neighboring areas of normal background radiation levels, and preliminary studies suggest their blood cells experience fewer induced chromosomal abnormalities when exposed to 150 rem ''challenge'' doses of radiation than do the blood cells of their neighbors. This paper will briefly describe the unique geology that gives Ramsar its extraordinarily high background radiationmore » levels. It will then summarize the studies performed to date and will conclude by suggesting ways to incorporate these findings (if they are borne out by further testing) into future radiation protection standards.« less

  11. Publication Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD. Center for the Study of Social Organization of Schools.

    This booklet contains abstracts of 62 documents published by the Johns Hopkins University Center for the Study of Social Organization of Schools from September 1967 to May 1970. The majority of the documents are research studies in the areas of desegregation, language development, educational opportunity, and educational games--most of them…

  12. Abstract Constructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietropola, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Describes a lesson designed to culminate a year of eighth-grade art classes in which students explore elements of design and space by creating 3-D abstract constructions. Outlines the process of using foam board and markers to create various shapes and optical effects. (DSK)

  13. On the contribution of active galactic nuclei to the high-redshift metagalactic ionizing background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Aloisio, Anson; Upton Sanderbeck, Phoebe R.; McQuinn, Matthew; Trac, Hy; Shapiro, Paul R.

    2017-07-01

    Motivated by the claimed detection of a large population of faint active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at high redshift, recent studies have proposed models in which AGNs contribute significantly to the z > 4 H I ionizing background. In some models, AGNs are even the chief sources of reionization. If proved true, these models would make necessary a complete revision to the standard view that galaxies dominated the high-redshift ionizing background. It has been suggested that AGN-dominated models can better account for two recent observations that appear to be in conflict with the standard view: (1) large opacity variations in the z ˜ 5.5 H I Ly α forest, and (2) slow evolution in the mean opacity of the He II Ly α forest. Large spatial fluctuations in the ionizing background from the brightness and rarity of AGNs may account for the former, while the earlier onset of He II reionization in these models may account for the latter. Here we show that models in which AGN emissions source ≳50 per cent of the ionizing background generally provide a better fit to the observed H I Ly α forest opacity variations compared to standard galaxy-dominated models. However, we argue that these AGN-dominated models are in tension with constraints on the thermal history of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Under standard assumptions about the spectra of AGNs, we show that the earlier onset of He II reionization heats up the IGM well above recent temperature measurements. We further argue that the slower evolution of the mean opacity of the He II Ly α forest relative to simulations may reflect deficiencies in current simulations rather than favour AGN-dominated models as has been suggested.

  14. Effects of oxytocin on background anxiety in rats with high or low baseline startle

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, Luke; Agostini, Andrew; Schulkin, Jay; Rosen, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Oxytocin has antianxiety properties in humans and rodents. However, the antianxiety effects have been variable. Objectives To reduce variability and strengthen to the antianxiety effect of oxytocin in fear-potentiated startle, two experiments were performed. First, different amounts of light-shock pairings were given to determine the optimal levels of cue-specific fear conditioning and non-predictable startle (background anxiety). Second, the antianxiety effects of oxytocin were examined in rats with high and low pre-fear conditioning baseline startle to determine if oxytocin differentially affects high and low trait anxiety rats. Methods Baseline pre-fear conditioning startle responses were first measured. Rats then received 1, 5 or 10 light-shock pairings. Fear-potentiated startle was then tested with two trial types: light-cued startle and non-cued startle trials. In the second experiment, rats fear conditioned with 10 light-shock pairings were administered either saline or oxytocin before a fear-potentiated startle test. Rats were categorized as low or high startlers by their pre-fear conditioning startle amplitude. Results Ten shock-pairings produced the largest non-cued startle responses (background anxiety), without increasing cue-specific fear-potentiated startle compared to 1 and 5 light-shock pairings. Cue-specific fear-potentiated startle was unaffected by oxytocin. Oxytocin reduced background anxiety only in rats with low pre-fear startle responses. Conclusions Oxytocin has population selective antianxiety effects on non-cued unpredictable threat, but only in rats with low pre-fear baseline startle responses. The low startle responses are reminiscent of humans with low startle responses and high trait anxiety. PMID:27004789

  15. Human response to high-background radiation environments on Earth and in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, M.; Manti, L.

    2008-09-01

    The main long-term objective of the space exploration program is the colonization of the planets of the Solar System. The high cosmic radiation equivalent dose rate represents an inescapable problem for the safe establishment of permanent human settlements on these planets. The unshielded equivalent dose rate on Mars ranges between 100 and 200 mSv/year, depending on the Solar cycle and altitude, and can reach values as high as 360 mSv/year on the Moon. The average annual effective dose on Earth is about 3 mSv, nearly 85% of which comes from natural background radiation, reduced to less than 1 mSv if man-made sources and the internal exposure to Rn daughters are excluded. However, some areas on Earth display anomalously high levels of background radiation, as is the case with thorium-rich monazite bearing sand deposits where values 200 400 times higher than the world average can be found. About 2% of the world’s population live above 3 km and receive a disproportionate 10% of the annual effective collective dose due to cosmic radiation, with a net contribution to effective dose by the neutron component which is 3 4 fold that at sea level. Thus far, epidemiological studies have failed to show any adverse health effects in the populations living in these terrestrial high-background radiation areas (HBRA), which provide an unique opportunity to study the health implications of an environment that, as closely as possibly achievable on Earth, resembles the chronic exposure of future space colonists to higher-than-normal levels of ionizing radiation. Chromosomal aberrations in the peripheral blood lymphocytes from the HBRA residents have been measured in several studies because chromosomal damage represents an early biomarker of cancer risk. Similar cytogenetic studies have been recently performed in a cohort of astronauts involved in single or repeated space flights over many years. The cytogenetic findings in populations exposed to high dose-rate background radiation

  16. Highly sensitive low-background fluorescent probes for imaging of nitric oxide in cells and tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui-Xian; Chen, Jian-Bo; Guo, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Hua-Shan

    2014-03-18

    Small-molecule fluorescent probes in combination with fluorescent microscopy can be a powerful tool to provide real-time detection and high spatiotemporal resolution of transient molecules in cells and bodies. For the design of fluorescent probes for transient molecule imaging, high detection sensitivity is crucial. In this report, two new fluorescent probes, 8-(3,4-diaminophenyl)-4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-di(1,2-dihydro)naphtho[b,g]-s-indacene (DANPBO-H) and 8-(3,4-diaminophenyl)-1,7-dimethyl-4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-di(1,2-dihydro)naphtho[b,g]-s-indacene (DANPBO-M), have been developed for nitric oxide (NO) imaging. The detection sensitivity has been efficiently improved by use of these probes through increasing NO detection signals and decreasing background fluorescence. Fluorescence in the far-red region is enhanced by 400- and 550-fold after reaction with NO is achieved and remains stable for at least 24 h under the irradiation of xenon lamp. Excitation and emission wavelengths longer than 600 nm and excellent intracellular retention of these probes and their NO products create dark background inside and outside cells and tissues. What is more, the excellent intracellular retention of these compounds is obtained by their strong lipophilicity, which is a novel design concept diametrically opposite to the traditional approaches. The high sensitivity and dark background make DANPBO-H and DANPBO-M competitive for NO imaging in cells and tissues. The lipophilicity-based intracellular retention mechanism as a design strategy has great potential in the development of fluorescent probes for bioimaging.

  17. State Recognition of High Voltage Isolation Switch Based on Background Difference and Iterative Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiayuan; Yu, Chengtao; Bo, Bin; Xue, Yu; Xu, Changfu; Chaminda, P. R. Dushantha; Hu, Chengbo; Peng, Kai

    2018-03-01

    The automatic recognition of the high voltage isolation switch by remote video monitoring is an effective means to ensure the safety of the personnel and the equipment. The existing methods mainly include two ways: improving monitoring accuracy and adopting target detection technology through equipment transformation. Such a method is often applied to specific scenarios, with limited application scope and high cost. To solve this problem, a high voltage isolation switch state recognition method based on background difference and iterative search is proposed in this paper. The initial position of the switch is detected in real time through the background difference method. When the switch starts to open and close, the target tracking algorithm is used to track the motion trajectory of the switch. The opening and closing state of the switch is determined according to the angle variation of the switch tracking point and the center line. The effectiveness of the method is verified by experiments on different switched video frames of switching states. Compared with the traditional methods, this method is more robust and effective.

  18. Developing geogebra-assisted reciprocal teaching strategy to improve junior high school students’ abstraction ability, lateral thinking and mathematical persistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priatna, N.; Martadiputra, B. A. P.; Wibisono, Y.

    2018-05-01

    The development of science and technology requires reform in the utilization of various resources for mathematics teaching and learning process. One of the efforts that can be made is the implementation of GeoGebra-assisted Reciprocal Teaching strategy in mathematics instruction as an effective strategy in improving students’ cognitive, affective, and psychomotor abilities. This research is intended to implement GeoGebra-assisted Reciprocal Teaching strategy in improving abstraction ability, lateral thinking, and mathematical persistence of junior high school students. It employed quasi-experimental method with non-random pre-test and post-test control design. More specifically, it used the 2x3 factorial design, namely the learning factors that included GeoGebra-assisted Reciprocal Teaching and conventional teaching learning, and levels of early mathematical ability (high, middle, and low). The subjects in this research were the eighth grade students of junior high school, taken with purposive sampling. The results of this research show: Abstraction and lateral abilities of students who were taught with GeoGebra-assisted Reciprocal Teaching strategy were significantly higher than those of students who received conventional learning. Mathematical persistence of students taught with GeoGebra-assisted Reciprocal Teaching strategy was also significantly higher than of those taught with conventional learning.

  19. Fabrication and characterization of a phosphosilicate YDF with high Yb absorbance and low background loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong-Jin; Hujimaki, Yosuke; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Kinoshita, Hiroaki; Sato, Kenji

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we report fabrication and investigation of ytterbium-doped phosphorsilicate fiber (P co-doped YDF) with high Yb content, low numerical aperture, and low background loss. The P co-doped YDF is fabricated by MCVD using the vapor sources of Yb, SiCl4, AlCl3, and POCl3, and by the gas-phase doping method. The optical properties of this P co-doped YDF are compared with Al co-doped and Al:P co-doped YDFs with low background losses. The minimum background loss of the P co-doped YDF in the spectral range from 1100 to 1380 nm is as low as ~3 dB/km. This is nearly independent of the Yb and P contents because soot deposition and collapsing conditions are properly optimized (i.e., the P co-doped YDF from a non-optimized process shows a few hundred dB/km). The excess loss induced by PD, for the P co-doped YDF, was dramatically reduced compared to both Al co-doped and Al:P co-doped YDFs. The optical slope efficiency of the P co-doped YDF is about 80%, depending on the pumping wavelength and fiber length. The fiber colors during pumping are blue for both the P co-doped and Al:P co-doped YDFs. Based on the results from a prolonged test, the output power of the P co-doped YDF is highly stable, with an initial degradation of 2-3%; which demonstrate improvement in PD resistivity with P incorporation into the glass, compared to the Al:P co-doped YDF with degradation above 6%.

  20. Enhanced trigger for the NIFFTE fissionTPC in presence of high-rate alpha backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundgaard, Jeremy; Niffte Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Nuclear physics and nuclear energy communities call for new, high precision measurements to improve existing fission models and design next generation reactors. The Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking experiment (NIFFTE) has developed the fission Time Projection Chamber (fissionTPC) to measure neutron induced fission with unrivaled precision. The fissionTPC is annually deployed to the Weapons Neutron Research facility at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center where it operates with a neutron beam passing axially through the drift volume, irradiating heavy actinide targets to induce fission. The fissionTPC was developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's TPC lab, where it measures spontaneous fission from radioactive sources to characterize detector response, improve performance, and evolve the design. To measure 244Cm, we've developed a fission trigger to reduce the data rate from alpha tracks while maintaining a high fission detection efficiency. In beam, alphas from 239Pu are a large background when detecting fission fragments; implementing the fission trigger will greatly reduce this background. The implementation of the cathode fission trigger in the fissionTPC will be presented along with a detailed study of its efficiency.

  1. High repetition rate laser-driven MeV ion acceleration at variable background pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Joseph; Ngirmang, Gregory; Orban, Chris; Feister, Scott; Morrison, John; Frische, Kyle; Chowdhury, Enam; Roquemore, W. M.

    2017-10-01

    Ultra-intense laser-plasma interactions (LPI) can produce highly energetic photons, electrons, and ions with numerous potential real-world applications. Many of these applications will require repeatable, high repetition targets that are suitable for LPI experiments. Liquid targets can meet many of these needs, but they typically require higher chamber pressure than is used for many low repetition rate experiments. The effect of background pressure on the LPI has not been thoroughly studied. With this in mind, the Extreme Light group at the Air Force Research Lab has carried out MeV ion and electron acceleration experiments at kHz repetition rate with background pressures ranging from 30 mTorr to >1 Torr using a submicron ethylene glycol liquid sheet target. We present these results and provide two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation results that offer insight on the thresholds for the efficient acceleration of electrons and ions. This research is supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under LRIR Project 17RQCOR504 under the management of Dr. Riq Parra and Dr. Jean-Luc Cambier. Support was also provided by the DOD HPCMP Internship Program.

  2. High Neuromagnetic Activation in the Left Prefrontal and Frontal Cortices Correlates with Better Memory Performance for Abstract Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Tzu-Ching; Lin, Yung-Yang

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the spatiotemporal characteristics of memory processing for abstract and concrete words. Neuromagnetic responses to memory encoding and recognition tasks of abstract and concrete nouns were obtained in 18 healthy adults using a whole-head neuromagnetometer. During memory encoding, abstract words elicited larger…

  3. Ingestion of polonium ((210)Po) via dietary sources in high background radiation areas of south India.

    PubMed

    Arunachalam, Kantha Deivi; Baskaran, Kamesh Viswanathan; Rao, D D; Sathyapriya, R; Annamalai, Sathesh Kumar; Kuruva, Jaya Krishna; Hari, Shanmugamsundaram

    2014-10-01

    To study the distribution of Polonium ((210)Po) activity in dietary sources in the high background radiation zone of Puttetti in southern Tamil Nadu. (210)Po was analyzed in the food materials consumed by the male and female individual representatives living in the high background areas by 24-h Duplicate Diet Study (DDS) and Market Basket Study (MBS). The MBS was performed by collecting the food samples such as, cereals, fruits, leafy vegetables, roots and tubers, other vegetables, fish, meat and milk grown in the high background radiation zone of southern Tamil Nadu as a part of baseline study in this region. The DDS was done by collecting the food materials consumed including the beverages in 24 h from different age groups of male and female individuals living in the village of Puttetti. The intake and ingestion dose of the radionuclide (210)Po was estimated. The average concentration of (210)Po in DDS (n = 33) was found to be 74 mBq.kg(- 1) of fresh weight. The MBS was collected based on food consumption representing more than 85-95% of annual supply, and were divided into eight food groups. The average concentration of (210)Po in the eight food groups namely leafy vegetables was 2176 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 3), vegetables 55 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 10), roots and tubers 251 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 4), fruits 65 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 5), fish 345 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 2), meat food 117 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 3), milk 20 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 1) and cereal 290 (n = 1) mBq.kg(- 1) of fresh weight, respectively. The annual intake and ingestion dose due to (210)Po was estimated by DDS and MBS in adults, adolescents and children. The overall results showed that the MBS was moderately higher than the DDS in all age groups. Moreover, a DDS approach may even be more realistic, as cooked foodstuffs are used for dietary exposure assessment. The study confirms that the current levels of (210)Po do not pose a significant radiological risk to the local inhabitants.

  4. Radio galaxies dominate the high-energy diffuse gamma-ray background

    DOE PAGES

    Hooper, Dan; Linden, Tim; Lopez, Alejandro

    2016-08-09

    It has been suggested that unresolved radio galaxies and radio quasars (sometimes referred to as misaligned active galactic nuclei) could be responsible for a significant fraction of the observed diffuse gamma-ray background. In this study, we use the latest data from the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope to characterize the gamma-ray emission from a sample of 51 radio galaxies. In addition to those sources that had previously been detected using Fermi data, we report here the first statistically significant detection of gamma-ray emission from the radio galaxies 3C 212, 3C 411, and B3 0309+411B. Combining this information with the radio fluxes,more » radio luminosity function, and redshift distribution of this source class, we find that radio galaxies dominate the diffuse gamma-ray background, generating 77.2(+25.4)(-9.4)% of this emission at energies above ~1 GeV . We discuss the implications of this result and point out that it provides support for scenarios in which IceCube's high-energy astrophysical neutrinos also originate from the same population of radio galaxies.« less

  5. Algerian Abstract

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Algerian Abstract - April 8th, 1985 Description: What look like pale yellow paint streaks slashing through a mosaic of mottled colors are ridges of wind-blown sand that make up Erg Iguidi, an area of ever-shifting sand dunes extending from Algeria into Mauritania in northwestern Africa. Erg Iguidi is one of several Saharan ergs, or sand seas, where individual dunes often surpass 500 meters-nearly a third of a mile-in both width and height. Credit: USGS/NASA/Landsat 5 To learn more about the Landsat satellite go to: landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/ NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  6. Relationship between Background Parenchymal Enhancement on High-risk Screening MRI and Future Breast Cancer Risk.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Lars J; Saha, Ashirbani; Ghate, Sujata V; Kim, Connie; Soo, Mary Scott; Yoon, Sora C; Mazurowski, Maciej A

    2018-03-27

    To determine if background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) on screening breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in high-risk women correlates with future cancer. All screening breast MRIs (n = 1039) in high-risk women at our institution from August 1, 2004, to July 30, 2013, were identified. Sixty-one patients who subsequently developed breast cancer were matched 1:2 by age and high-risk indication with patients who did not develop breast cancer (n = 122). Five fellowship-trained breast radiologists independently recorded the BPE. The median reader BPE for each case was calculated and compared between the cancer and control cohorts. Cancer cohort patients were high-risk because of a history of radiation therapy (10%, 6 of 61), high-risk lesion (18%, 11 of 61), or breast cancer (30%, 18 of 61); BRCA mutation (18%, 11 of 61); or family history (25%, 15 of 61). Subsequent malignancies were invasive ductal carcinoma (64%, 39 of 61), ductal carcinoma in situ (30%, 18 of 61) and invasive lobular carcinoma (7%, 4of 61). BPE was significantly higher in the cancer cohort than in the control cohort (P = 0.01). Women with mild, moderate, or marked BPE were 2.5 times more likely to develop breast cancer than women with minimal BPE (odds ratio = 2.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-4.8, P = .005). There was fair interreader agreement (κ = 0.39). High-risk women with greater than minimal BPE at screening MRI have increased risk of future breast cancer. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Variation of radiation level and radionuclide enrichment in high background area.

    PubMed

    Shetty, P K; Narayana, Y

    2010-12-01

    Significantly high radiation level and radionuclide concentration along Quilon beach area of coastal Kerala have been reported by several investigators. Detailed gamma radiation level survey was carried out using a portable scintillometer. Detailed studies on radionuclides concentration in different environmental matrices of high background areas were undertaken in the coastal areas of Karunagapalli, Kayankulam, Chavara, Neendakara and Kollam to study the distribution and enrichment of the radionuclides in the region. The absorbed gamma dose rates in air in high background area are in the range 43-17,400nGyh⁻¹. Gamma radiation level is found to be maximum at a distance of 20m from the sea waterline in all beaches. The soil samples collected from different locations were analysed for primordial radionuclides by gamma spectrometry. The activity of primordial radionuclides was determined for the different size fractions of soil to study the enrichment pattern. The highest activity of (232)Th and (226)Ra was found to be enriched in 125-63μ size fraction. The preferential accumulation of (40)K was found in <63μ fraction. The minimum (232)Th activity was 30.2Bqkg⁻¹, found in 1000-500μ particle size fraction at Kollam and maximum activity of 3250.4Bqkg⁻¹ was observed in grains of size 125-63μ at Neendakara. The lowest (226)Ra activity observed was 33.9Bqkg⁻¹ at Neendakara in grains of size 1000-500μ and the highest activity observed was 482.6Bqkg⁻¹ in grains of size 125-63μ in Neendakara. The highest (40)K activity found was 1923Bqkg⁻¹ in grains of size <63μ for a sample collected from Neendakara. A good correlation was observed between computed dose and measured dose in air. The correlation between (232)Th and (226)Ra was also moderately high. The results of these investigations are presented and discussed in this paper. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Data Abstraction in GLISP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Gordon S., Jr.

    GLISP is a high-level computer language (based on Lisp and including Lisp as a sublanguage) which is compiled into Lisp. GLISP programs are compiled relative to a knowledge base of object descriptions, a form of abstract datatypes. A primary goal of the use of abstract datatypes in GLISP is to allow program code to be written in terms of objects,…

  9. Towards a High Temporal Frequency Grass Canopy Thermal IR Model for Background Signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Jerrell R., Jr.; Smith, James A.; Koenig, George G.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present our first results towards understanding high temporal frequency thermal infrared response from a dense plant canopy and compare the application of our model, driven both by slowly varying, time-averaged meteorological conditions and by high frequency measurements of local and within canopy profiles of relative humidity and wind speed, to high frequency thermal infrared observations. Previously, we have employed three-dimensional ray tracing to compute the intercepted and scattered radiation fluxes and for final scene rendering. For the turbulent fluxes, we employed simple resistance models for latent and sensible heat with one-dimensional profiles of relative humidity and wind speed. Our modeling approach has proven successful in capturing the directional and diurnal variation in background thermal infrared signatures. We hypothesize that at these scales, where the model is typically driven by time-averaged, local meteorological conditions, the primary source of thermal variance arises from the spatial distribution of sunlit and shaded foliage elements within the canopy and the associated radiative interactions. In recent experiments, we have begun to focus on the high temporal frequency response of plant canopies in the thermal infrared at 1 second to 5 minute intervals. At these scales, we hypothesize turbulent mixing plays a more dominant role. Our results indicate that in the high frequency domain, the vertical profile of temperature change is tightly coupled to the within canopy wind speed In the results reported here, the canopy cools from the top down with increased wind velocities and heats from the bottom up at low wind velocities. .

  10. A high resolution spectrum of the diffuse soft X-ray background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowder, S. Gwynne

    Galactic contributions to the diffuse X-ray background were believed to largely come from thermal emission of hot gas and models of the Galactic neighborhood within ˜ 100 pc reflected this belief. However, recent observations led to the realization that emission from charge exchange within the Solar System might produce comparable intensities to that of thermal emission. A high resolution spectrum of the diffuse X-ray background from 0.1 to 1 keV was obtained for a ˜ 1 sr region of the sky centered at l = 90°, b = +60° in May 2008 using a 36 pixel array of microcalorimeters flown on a sounding rocket. With an energy resolution of 11 eV FWHM below 1 keV, the spectrum can be used to separate charge exchange contributions originating within the heliosphere from thermal emission of hot gas in the interstellar medium. The X-ray sensitivity below 1 keV was reduced about a factor of four by contamination that occurred early in the flight, limiting the significance of the results. The observed ratio of helium-like O VII forbidden plus intercombination to resonance lines is 1.2 +/- 1.2 at 90% confidence. This indicates that at least 67% of the emission is thermal. On the other hand, the observed ratio of C VI Lygamma to Lyalpha is 0.3+0.3-0.2 , requiring at least a 33% contribution from charge exchange. In addition to these astrophysical results, I present experimental improvements from the addition of a gold coating to the detector array substrate which greatly reduces extraneous signals and from the use of silicon support meshes which improves blocking filter robustness. I also detail a new optimal filtering analysis technique that preserves spectral resolution and live time in the presence of pulse overlap.

  11. High background in Luminex® assay for HLA antibody screening: Interest of Adsorb Out™.

    PubMed

    Zerrouki, Asmae; Ouadghiri, Sanae; Benseffaj, Nadia; Razine, Rachid; Essakalli, Malika

    2016-05-01

    The Luminex® technology has become an integral component of clinical decision-making and diagnosis of transplanted organ rejection. Despite the superior sensibility of this technology, it is not completely problem free. We have observed in these bead-based assays that sera of some patients give a high negative control bead (NC) value which makes assessing HLA antibodies difficult. Treatment of sera by the Adsorb Out™ reagent may reduce the high background. In this study, we want to evaluate the effect of the Adsorb Out™ on the NC's MFI value by comparing treated and untreated patients' sera. HLA antibody screening was performed on 3011 sera. These sera came from patients awaiting and undergoing renal transplant from different Moroccan hospitals. The sera were analyzed using the standard protocol for Luminex® antibody screening. Sera with high NC's value has been pre-incubated by the Adsorb Out™, and analyzed on Luminex®. 3% of studied samples have high NC's value. The Adsorb Out™ decreases the NC's value and brings it back to a normal range in 62.2% treated sera. It has no effect in 12.3%. The Adsorb Out™ effect depends only of NC's value, independently to age, storage date, sex and immunization. The Adsorb Out™ reagent has an important effect in decreasing NC value of sera. However, it has no effect in some patient's sera. In these cases we could try another treatment, as EDTA, DTT. The non-specific binding may be caused by multiple patient-specific factors, it would be important to search correlation between them and NC's values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Fermi-LAT high-z active galactic nuclei and the extragalactic background light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Thomas; Brown, Anthony M.; Chadwick, Paula M.

    2017-10-01

    Observations of distant gamma-ray sources are hindered by the presence of the extragalactic background light (EBL). In order to understand the physical processes that result in the observed spectrum of sources, it is imperative that a good understanding of the EBL is included. In this work, an investigation into the imprint of the EBL on the observed spectra of high-redshift Fermi-LAT active galactic nuclei is presented. By fitting the spectrum below ˜10 GeV, an estimation of the unabsorbed intrinsic source spectrum is obtained; by applying this spectrum to data up to 300 GeV, it is then possible to derive a scaling factor for different EBL models. A second approach uses five sources (PKS 0426-380, 4C +55.17, Ton 116, PG 1246+586 and RBS 1432) that were found to exhibit very high energy (VHE) emission (Eγ > 100 GeV). Through Monte Carlo simulations, it is shown that the observation of VHE photons, despite the large distances of these objects, is consistent with current EBL models. Many of these sources would be observable with the upcoming ground-based observatory, the Cherenkov Telescope Array, leading to a better understanding of the EBL.

  13. A Fluorogenic TMP-tag for High Signal-to-Background Intracellular Live Cell Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Chaoran

    2013-01-01

    Developed to compliment the use of fluorescent proteins in live cell imaging, chemical tags enjoy the benefit of modular incorporation of organic fluorophores, opening the possibility of high photon output and special photophysical properties. However, the theoretical challenge in using chemical tags as opposed to fluorescent proteins for high-resolution imaging is background noise from unbound and/or non-specifically bound ligand-fluorophore. We envisioned we could overcome this limit by engineering fluorogenic trimethoprim-based chemical tags (TMP-tags) in which the fluorophore is quenched until binding with E. coli dihydrofolate reductase (eDHFR) tagged protein displaces the quencher. Thus, we began by building a non-fluorogenic, covalent TMP-tag based on a proximity-induced reaction known to achieve rapid and specific labeling both in vitro and inside of living cells. Here we take the final step and render the covalent TMP-tag fluorogenic. In brief, we designed a trimeric TMP-fluorophore-quencher molecule (TMP-Q-Atto520) with the quencher attached to a leaving group that, upon TMP binding to eDHFR, would be cleaved by a cysteine residue (Cys) installed just outside the binding pocket of eDHFR. We present the in vitro experiments showing that the eDHFR:L28C nucleophile cleaves the TMP-Q-Atto520 rapidly and efficiently, resulting in covalent labeling and remarkable fluorescence enhancement. Most significantly, while only our initial design, TMP-Q-Atto520 achieved the demanding goal of not only labeling highly abundant, localized intracellular proteins, but also less abundant, more dynamic cytoplasmic proteins. These results suggest that fluorogenic TMP-tag can significantly impact highresolution live cell imaging and further establish the potential of proximity-induced reactivity and organic chemistry more broadly as part of the growing toolbox for synthetic biology and cell engineering. PMID:23745575

  14. The Impact of Background Radio and Television on High School Students' Homework Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pool, Marina M.; Koolstra, Cees M.; van der Voort, Tom H. A.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the impact of background media on Dutch students' performance and time spent on paper-and-pencil and memorization homework assignments. Notes that doing homework combined with watching a soap opera interfered with students' performance on both types of assignments. Indicates that music in the background left homework performance…

  15. A flat Universe from high-resolution maps of the cosmic microwave background radiation

    PubMed

    de Bernardis P; Ade; Bock; Bond; Borrill; Boscaleri; Coble; Crill; De Gasperis G; Farese; Ferreira; Ganga; Giacometti; Hivon; Hristov; Iacoangeli; Jaffe; Lange; Martinis; Masi; Mason; Mauskopf; Melchiorri; Miglio; Montroy; Netterfield

    2000-04-27

    The blackbody radiation left over from the Big Bang has been transformed by the expansion of the Universe into the nearly isotropic 2.73 K cosmic microwave background. Tiny inhomogeneities in the early Universe left their imprint on the microwave background in the form of small anisotropies in its temperature. These anisotropies contain information about basic cosmological parameters, particularly the total energy density and curvature of the Universe. Here we report the first images of resolved structure in the microwave background anisotropies over a significant part of the sky. Maps at four frequencies clearly distinguish the microwave background from foreground emission. We compute the angular power spectrum of the microwave background, and find a peak at Legendre multipole Ipeak = (197 +/- 6), with an amplitude delta T200 = (69 +/- 8) microK. This is consistent with that expected for cold dark matter models in a flat (euclidean) Universe, as favoured by standard inflationary models.

  16. Fluctuations in radiation backgrounds at high redshift and the first stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzbauer, Lauren Nicole

    The first stars to light up our universe are as yet unseen, but there have been many attempts to elucidate their properties. The characteristics of these stars (`Population/Pop III' stars) that we do know lie mostly within theory; they formed out of metal-free hydrogen and helium gas contained in dark matter minihalos at redshifts z 20-30. The extent to which Pop III star formation reached into later times is unknown. Current and near future instruments are incapable of resolving individual Pop III stars. Consequently, astronomers must devise creative means with which to indirectly predict and measure and their properties. In this thesis, we will investigate a few of those means. We use a new method to model fluctuations of the Lyman-Werner (LW) and Lyman-alpha radiation backgrounds at high redshift. At these early epochs the backgrounds are symptoms of a universe newly lit with its first stars. LW photons (11.5-13.6 eV) are of particular interest because they dissociate molecular hydrogen, the primary coolant in the first minihalos that is necessary for star formation. By using a variation of the `halo model', which describes the spatial distribution and clustering of halos, we can efficiently generate power spectra for these backgrounds. Spatial fluctuations in the LW and (indirectly) the Lyman-alpha BG can tell us about the transition from primordial star formation to a more metal-enriched mode that marks the beginning of the second generation of stars in our Universe. The Near Infrared Background (NIRB) has for some time been considered a potential tool with which to indirectly observe the first stars. Ultraviolet (UV) emission from these stars is redshifted into the NIR band, making the NIRB amenable for hunting Pop III stellar signatures. There have been several measurements of the NIRB and subsequent theoretical studies attempting to explain them in recent years. Though controversial, residual levels of the mean NIRB intensity and anisotropies have been

  17. High pulse number thermal shock tests on tungsten with steady state particle background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirtz, M.; Kreter, A.; Linke, J.; Loewenhoff, Th; Pintsuk, G.; Sergienko, G.; Steudel, I.; Unterberg, B.; Wessel, E.

    2017-12-01

    Thermal fatigue of metallic materials, which will be exposed to severe environmental conditions e.g. plasma facing materials in future fusion reactors, is an important issue in order to predict the life time of complete wall components. Therefore experiments in the linear plasma device PSI-2 were performed to investigate the synergistic effects of high pulse number thermal shock events (L = 0.38 GW m-2, Δt = 0.5 ms) and stationary D/He (6%) plasma particle background on the thermal fatigue behavior of tungsten. Similar to experiments with pure thermal loads, the induced microstructural and surface modifications such as recrystallization and roughening as well as crack formation become more pronounced with increasing number of thermal shock events. However, the amount of damage significantly increases for synergistic loads showing severe surface roughening, plastic deformation and erosion resulting from the degradation of the mechanical properties caused by bombardment and diffusion of D/He to the surface and the bulk of the material. Additionally, D/He induced blistering and bubble formation were observed for all tested samples, which could change the thermal and mechanical properties of near surface regions.

  18. Efficient estimation of ideal-observer performance in classification tasks involving high-dimensional complex backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Park, Subok; Clarkson, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The Bayesian ideal observer is optimal among all observers and sets an absolute upper bound for the performance of any observer in classification tasks [Van Trees, Detection, Estimation, and Modulation Theory, Part I (Academic, 1968).]. Therefore, the ideal observer should be used for objective image quality assessment whenever possible. However, computation of ideal-observer performance is difficult in practice because this observer requires the full description of unknown, statistical properties of high-dimensional, complex data arising in real life problems. Previously, Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods were developed by Kupinski et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 430(2003) ] and by Park et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, B136 (2007) and IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28, 657 (2009) ] to estimate the performance of the ideal observer and the channelized ideal observer (CIO), respectively, in classification tasks involving non-Gaussian random backgrounds. However, both algorithms had the disadvantage of long computation times. We propose a fast MCMC for real-time estimation of the likelihood ratio for the CIO. Our simulation results show that our method has the potential to speed up ideal-observer performance in tasks involving complex data when efficient channels are used for the CIO. PMID:19884916

  19. Human exposure to high natural background radiation: what can it teach us about radiation risks?

    PubMed Central

    Hendry, Jolyon H; Simon, Steven L; Wojcik, Andrzej; Sohrabi, Mehdi; Burkart, Werner; Cardis, Elisabeth; Laurier, Dominique; Tirmarche, Margot; Hayata, Isamu

    2014-01-01

    Natural radiation is the major source of human exposure to ionising radiation, and its largest contributing component to effective dose arises from inhalation of 222Rn and its radioactive progeny. However, despite extensive knowledge of radiation risks gained through epidemiologic investigations and mechanistic considerations, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure are still poorly understood. The present paper reviews the possible contribution of studies of populations living in high natural background radiation (HNBR) areas (Guarapari, Brazil; Kerala, India; Ramsar, Iran; Yangjiang, China), including radon-prone areas, to low dose risk estimation. Much of the direct information about risk related to HNBR comes from case–control studies of radon and lung cancer, which provide convincing evidence of an association between long-term protracted radiation exposures in the general population and disease incidence. The success of these studies is mainly due to the careful organ dose reconstruction (with relatively high doses to the lung), and to the fact that large-scale collaborative studies have been conducted to maximise the statistical power and to ensure the systematic collection of information on potential confounding factors. In contrast, studies in other (non-radon) HNBR areas have provided little information, relying mainly on ecological designs and very rough effective dose categorisations. Recent steps taken in China and India to establish cohorts for follow-up and to conduct nested case–control studies may provide useful information about risks in the future, provided that careful organ dose reconstruction is possible and information is collected on potential confounding factors. PMID:19454802

  20. Haplotypic Background of a Private Allele at High Frequency in the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Kari B.; Jakobsson, Mattias; Crawford, Michael H.; Schurr, Theodore G.; Boca, Simina M.; Conrad, Donald F.; Tito, Raul Y.; Osipova, Ludmilla P.; Tarskaia, Larissa A.; Zhadanov, Sergey I.; Wall, Jeffrey D.; Pritchard, Jonathan K.; Malhi, Ripan S.; Smith, David G.; Rosenberg, Noah A.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, the observation of a high-frequency private allele, the 9-repeat allele at microsatellite D9S1120, in all sampled Native American and Western Beringian populations has been interpreted as evidence that all modern Native Americans descend primarily from a single founding population. However, this inference assumed that all copies of the 9-repeat allele were identical by descent and that the geographic distribution of this allele had not been influenced by natural selection. To investigate whether these assumptions are satisfied, we genotyped 34 single nucleotide polymorphisms across ∼500 kilobases (kb) around D9S1120 in 21 Native American and Western Beringian populations and 54 other worldwide populations. All chromosomes with the 9-repeat allele share the same haplotypic background in the vicinity of D9S1120, suggesting that all sampled copies of the 9-repeat allele are identical by descent. Ninety-one percent of these chromosomes share the same 76.26 kb haplotype, which we call the “American Modal Haplotype” (AMH). Three observations lead us to conclude that the high frequency and widespread distribution of the 9-repeat allele are unlikely to be the result of positive selection: 1) aside from its association with the 9-repeat allele, the AMH does not have a high frequency in the Americas, 2) the AMH is not unusually long for its frequency compared with other haplotypes in the Americas, and 3) in Latin American mestizo populations, the proportion of Native American ancestry at D9S1120 is not unusual compared with that observed at other genomewide microsatellites. Using a new method for estimating the time to the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of all sampled copies of an allele on the basis of an estimate of the length of the genealogy descended from the MRCA, we calculate the mean time to the MRCA of the 9-repeat allele to be between 7,325 and 39,900 years, depending on the demographic model used. The results support the hypothesis that all

  1. Background observations on the SMM high energy monitor at energies greater than 10 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forrest, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    The background rate in any gamma ray detector on a spacecraft in near-earth orbit is strongly influenced by the primary cosmic ray flux at the spacecraft's position. Although the direct counting of the primary cosmic rays can be rejected by anticoincident shields, secondary production cannot be. Secondary production of gamma rays and neutrons in the instrument, the spacecraft, and the earth's atmospheric are recorded as background. A 30 day data base of 65.5 second records has been used to show that some of the background rates observed on the Gamma Ray Spectrometer can be ordered to a precision on the order of 1 percent This ordering is done with only two parameters, namely the cosmic ray vertical cutoff rigidity and the instrument's pointing angle with respect to the earth's center. This result sets limits on any instrumental instability and also on any temporal or spatial changes in the background radiation field.

  2. Evaluation of aerosol sources at European high altitude background sites with trajectory statistical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador, P.; Artíñano, B.; Pio, C. A.; Afonso, J.; Puxbaum, H.; Legrand, M.; Hammer, S.; Kaiser, A.

    2009-04-01

    During the last years, the analysis of a great number of back-trajectories from receptor sites has turned out to be a valuable tool to identify sources and sinks areas of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) or to reconstruct their average spatial distribution. A number of works have applied different trajectory statistical methods (TSM), which allow working simultaneously with back-trajectories computed from one or several receptor points and PM concentration values registered there. In spite of these methods have many limitations, they are simple and effective methods to detect the relevant source regions and the air flow regimes which are connected with regional and large-scale air pollution transport. In this study 5-day backward air trajectories arriving over 3 monitoring sites, were utilised and analysed simultaneously with the PM levels and chemical composition values registered there. These sites are located in the centre of Europe and can be classified into natural continental background (Schauinsland-SIL in Germany (1205 m asl), Puy de Dôme-PDD in France (1450 m asl) and Sonnblick-SBO in Austria (3106 m asl)). In the framework of the CARBOSOL European project, weekly aerosol samples were collected with High Volume Samplers (DIGITEL DH77) and PM10 (SIL and PDD) or PM2.5 (SBO) inlets, on quartz fibre filters. Filter samples were treated and analyzed for determining the levels of major organic fractions (OC, EC) and inorganic ions. Additionally, analyses for specific organic compounds were also carried out whenever was possible (Pio et al., 2007). For each day of the sampling period, four trajectories ending at 00:00, 06:00, 12:00 and 18:00 h UTC have been computed by the Norwegian Institute for Air Research NILU (SIL and PDD) and the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geophysics of Austria (SBO) using the FLEXTRA model (Stohl et al., 1995). In all, more than 8000 complete trajectories were available for analysis, each with 40 endpoints. Firstly air mass

  3. High-impedance NbSi TES sensors for studying the cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nones, C.; Marnieros, S.; Benoit, A.; Bergé, L.; Bideaud, A.; Camus, P.; Dumoulin, L.; Monfardini, A.; Rigaut, O.

    2012-12-01

    Precise measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) are crucial in cosmology because any proposed model of the universe must account for the features of this radiation. The CMB has a thermal blackbody spectrum at a temperature of 2.725 K, i.e. the spectrum peaks in the microwave range frequency of 160.2 GHz, corresponding to a 1.9-mm wavelength. Of all CMB measurements that the scientific community has not yet been able to perform, the CMB B-mode polarization is probably the most challenging from the instrumental point of view. The signature of primordial gravitational waves, which give rise to a B-type polarization, is one of the goals in cosmology today and amongst the first objectives in the field. For this purpose, high-performance low-temperature bolometric cameras, made of thousands of pixels, are currently being developed by many groups, which will improve the sensitivity to B-mode CMB polarization by one or two orders of magnitude compared to the Planck satellite HFI detectors. We present here a new bolometer structure that is able to increase the pixel sensitivities and to simplify the fabrication procedure. This innovative device replaces delicate membrane-based structures and eliminates the mediation of phonons: the incoming energy is directly captured and measured in the electron bath of an appropriate sensor and the thermal decoupling is achieved via the intrinsic electron-phonon decoupling of the sensor at very low temperature. Reported results come from a 204-pixel array of NbxSi1-x transition edge sensors with a meander structure fabricated on a 2-inch silicon wafer using electron-beam co-evaporation and a cleanroom lithography process. To validate the application of this device to CMB measurements, we have performed an optical calibration of our sample in the focal plane of a dilution cryostat test bench. We have demonstrated a light absorption close to 20% and an optical noise equivalent power of about 7×10-16 W/√Hz, which is highly

  4. LITERATURE ABSTRACTS.

    PubMed

    1971-12-01

    P. P. Lamy 4. Factors Affecting Texture: 'Effects of Physical and Mechanical Treatments on the Tenderness of the Beef Longissimus', by G. C. Smith, T. C. Arango and Z. L. Carpenter 4. Factors Affecting Texture: 'Histological and Physical Changes in Carrots as Affected by Blanching, Cooking, Freezing, Freeze Drying and Compression', by A. R. Rahman, W. L. Henning and D. E. Westcott 4. Factors Affecting Texture: 'Effects of Physiological Maturity of Beef and Marbling of Rib Steaks on Eating Quality', by H. L. Norris, D. L. Harrison, L. L. Anderson, B. Van Welck and H. J. Tuma 4. Factors Affecting Texture: 'Effect of Ultimate pH Upon the Water-Holding Capacity and Tenderness of Mutton', by P. E. Bouton, P. V. Harris and W. R. Shorthose 4. Factors Affecting Texture: 'The Dilution Coefficient of Butter Serum and the Consistency of Butter', by E. Pijanowski, M. Chwiej, H. Hernik and M. Kurtowicz 4. Factors Affecting Texture: 'Moisture and pH Changes as Criteria of Freshness in Abalone and their Relationship to Texture of the Canned Product', by D. G. James and J. Olley 4. Factors Affecting Texture: 'Effect of Sucrose on Crispness of Explosion-Puffed Apple Pieces Exposed to High Humidities', by E. O. Strolle, J. Cording, Jr., P. E. McDowell, and R. K. Eskew 4. Factors Affecting Texture: 'Effect of Heat Treatment on Viscosity of Yolk', by P. K. Chang, W. D. Powrie and O. Fennema 4. Factors Affecting Texture: 'Protein Quality and Quantity: A Rheological Assessment of the Relative Importance in Breadmaking', by T. Webb, P. W. Heaps, and J. B. M. Coppock 4. Factors Affecting Texture: 'Bread Staling. 1. Experimental Study', by E. M. A. Willhoft 4. Factors Affecting Texture: 'Bread Staling. II. Theoretical Study', by E. M. A. Willhoft.

  5. Abstracts Produced Using Computer Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craven, Timothy C.

    2000-01-01

    Describes an experiment that evaluated features of TEXNET abstracting software, compared the use of keywords and phrases that were automatically extracted, tested hypotheses about relations between abstractors' backgrounds and their reactions to abstracting assistance software, and obtained ideas for further features to be developed in TEXNET.…

  6. Can High-Performing Academies Overcome Family Background and Improve Social Mobility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bernard; Hoskins, Kate

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates whether schools that match Coalition Government criteria for excellence can enable hardworking students, regardless of background, to achieve good examination results and improved chances of social mobility. Students at two case-study academies were interviewed about family influences on their development and choice of…

  7. Role of Family Background, Student Behaviors, and School-Related Beliefs in Predicting High School Dropout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parr, Alyssa K.; Bonitz, Verena S.

    2015-01-01

    The authors' purpose was to test a parsimonious model derived from social cognitive career theory (R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, & G. Hackett, 1994) and expectancy value theory (J. S. Eccles & A. Wigfield, 2002) that integrates groups of variables (demographic background, student behaviors, and school-related beliefs) with the goal of…

  8. Neutron detection in a high gamma-ray background with EJ-301 and EJ-309 liquid scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevanato, L.; Cester, D.; Nebbia, G.; Viesti, G.

    2012-10-01

    Using a fast digitizer, the neutron-gamma discrimination capability of the new liquid scintillator EJ-309 is compared with that obtained using standard EJ-301. Moreover the capability of both the scintillation detectors to identify a weak neutron source in a high gamma-ray background is demonstrated. The probability of neutron detection is PD=95% at 95% confidence level for a gamma-ray background corresponding to a dose rate of 100 μSv/h.

  9. Effect of genetic background on the stability of sunflower fatty acid composition in different high oleic mutations.

    PubMed

    Alberio, Constanza; Aguirrezábal, Luis An; Izquierdo, Natalia G; Reid, Roberto; Zuil, Sebastián; Zambelli, Andrés

    2018-02-01

    The effect of genetic background on the stability of fatty acid composition in sunflower near isogenic lines (NILs) carrying high-oleic Pervenets (P) or high-oleic NM1 mutations was studied. The materials were field-tested in different locations and at different sowing dates to evaluate a wide range of environmental conditions. Relationships were established between the fatty acids and the minimum night temperature (MNT) and the response was characterized. A genetic background effect for the fatty acid composition was found in both groups of NILs. The NM1-NILs showed an oleic level higher than 910 g kg -1 and they were more stable across environments with a zero or low dependence on the genetic background; on the other hand, high oleic materials bearing the P mutation showed lower levels of oleic acid, with a higher variation in fatty acid composition and a highly significant dependence on the genetic background. The NM1 mutation is the best option to develop ultra-high oleic sunflower oil that is stable across environments and genetic backgrounds, making its agronomical production more efficient and predictable. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Background-Oriented Schlieren for Large-Scale and High-Speed Aerodynamic Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizukaki, Toshiharu; Borg, Stephen; Danehy, Paul M.; Murman, Scott M.; Matsumura, Tomoharu; Wakabayashi, Kunihiko; Nakayama, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Visualization of the flow field around a generic re-entry capsule in subsonic flow and shock wave visualization with cylindrical explosives have been conducted to demonstrate sensitivity and applicability of background-oriented schlieren (BOS) for field experiments. The wind tunnel experiment suggests that BOS with a fine-pixel imaging device has a density change detection sensitivity on the order of 10(sup -5) in subsonic flow. In a laboratory setup, the structure of the shock waves generated by explosives have been successfully reconstructed by a computed tomography method combined with BOS.

  11. The non-stop road from concrete to abstract: high concreteness causes the activation of long-range networks

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Sabine; Müller, Horst M.

    2013-01-01

    Current grounding theories propose that sensory-motor brain systems are not only modulated by the comprehension of concrete but also partly of abstract language. In order to investigate whether concrete or abstract language elicits similar or distinct brain activity, neuronal synchronization patterns were investigated by means of long-range EEG coherence analysis. Participants performed a semantic judgment task with concrete and abstract sentences. EEG coherence between distant electrodes was analyzed in various frequencies before and during sentence processing using a bivariate AR-model with time-varying parameters. The theta frequency band (3–7 Hz) reflected common and different synchronization networks related to working memory processes and memory-related lexico-semantic retrieval during processing of both sentence types. In contrast, the beta1 band (13–18 Hz) showed prominent differences between both sentence types, whereby concrete sentences were associated with higher coherence implicating a more widespread range and intensity of mental simulation processes. The gamma band (35–40 Hz) reflected the sentences' congruency and indicated the more difficult integration of incongruent final nouns into the sentence context. Most importantly, findings support the notion that different cognitive operations during sentence processing are associated with multiple brain oscillations. PMID:24027515

  12. Characteristics of atmospheric carbon monoxide at a high-mountain background station in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Lin, Neng-Huei; Lin, Chia-Ching; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Lee, Chung-Te; Schnell, Russell C.; Lang, Patricia M.; Kawasato, Taro; Wang, Jia-Lin

    2014-06-01

    Atmospheric CO were monitored at the Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS) with an elevation of 2862 m AMSL from April 2006 to April 2011 by the in-situ non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) spectrometer and weekly flask sample collections via collaboration with NOAA/ESRL/GMD. In general very coherent results were observed between the two datasets, despite a slight difference between the two. A distinct seasonal pattern of CO was noticed at the LABS with a springtime maximum and a summertime minimum, which was predominately shaped by the long-range transport of biomass burning air masses from Southeast Asia and oceanic influences from the Pacific, respectively. Diurnal cycles were also observed at the LABS, with a maximum in late afternoon and a minimum in early morning. The daytime CO maximum was most likely caused by the up-slope transport of lower elevation air. After filtering out the possibly polluted data points from the entire dataset with a mathematic procedure, the mean background CO level at the LABS was assessed as 129.3 ± 46.6 ppb, compared to 149.0 ± 72.2 ppb prior to the filtering. The cluster analysis of the backward trajectories revealed six possible source regions, which shows that air masses originating from the Westerly Wind Zone were dominated in spring and winter resulting in higher CO concentrations. As a contrast, the oceanic influences from the Pacific were found mostly in summer, contributing a lower seasonal CO concentration throughout a year.

  13. Hawkes process model with a time-dependent background rate and its application to high-frequency financial data.

    PubMed

    Omi, Takahiro; Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2017-07-01

    A Hawkes process model with a time-varying background rate is developed for analyzing the high-frequency financial data. In our model, the logarithm of the background rate is modeled by a linear model with a relatively large number of variable-width basis functions, and the parameters are estimated by a Bayesian method. Our model can capture not only the slow time variation, such as in the intraday seasonality, but also the rapid one, which follows a macroeconomic news announcement. By analyzing the tick data of the Nikkei 225 mini, we find that (i) our model is better fitted to the data than the Hawkes models with a constant background rate or a slowly varying background rate, which have been commonly used in the field of quantitative finance; (ii) the improvement in the goodness-of-fit to the data by our model is significant especially for sessions where considerable fluctuation of the background rate is present; and (iii) our model is statistically consistent with the data. The branching ratio, which quantifies the level of the endogeneity of markets, estimated by our model is 0.41, suggesting the relative importance of exogenous factors in the market dynamics. We also demonstrate that it is critically important to appropriately model the time-dependent background rate for the branching ratio estimation.

  14. Hawkes process model with a time-dependent background rate and its application to high-frequency financial data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omi, Takahiro; Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2017-07-01

    A Hawkes process model with a time-varying background rate is developed for analyzing the high-frequency financial data. In our model, the logarithm of the background rate is modeled by a linear model with a relatively large number of variable-width basis functions, and the parameters are estimated by a Bayesian method. Our model can capture not only the slow time variation, such as in the intraday seasonality, but also the rapid one, which follows a macroeconomic news announcement. By analyzing the tick data of the Nikkei 225 mini, we find that (i) our model is better fitted to the data than the Hawkes models with a constant background rate or a slowly varying background rate, which have been commonly used in the field of quantitative finance; (ii) the improvement in the goodness-of-fit to the data by our model is significant especially for sessions where considerable fluctuation of the background rate is present; and (iii) our model is statistically consistent with the data. The branching ratio, which quantifies the level of the endogeneity of markets, estimated by our model is 0.41, suggesting the relative importance of exogenous factors in the market dynamics. We also demonstrate that it is critically important to appropriately model the time-dependent background rate for the branching ratio estimation.

  15. A measurement of the cosmic microwave background from the high Chilean Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Amber Dawn

    A measurement of the angular spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) between l = 50 and l = 400 is described. Data were obtained using HEMT radiometers at 30 and 40 GHz with angular resolutions of ≈1 deg and ≈0.7 deg respectively and with SIS based receivers at 144 GHz with angular resolution of ≈0.2 deg. Observations were made from Cerro Toco in the Chilean altiplano at an altitude of 17,000 feet in the Northern Chilean Andes. We find that the angular spectrum rises from l = 50 to a peak at l ≈ 200 and falls off at higher angular scales. A peak in the angular spectrum with amplitude, deltaTl ≈ 85muK is thus located for the first time with a single instrument at l ≈ 200. In addition, we find that the detected anisotropy has the spectrum of the CMB. Cosmological implications of this result are discussed.

  16. Reasoning abstractly about resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, B.; Barrett, A.

    2001-01-01

    r describes a way to schedule high level activities before distributing them across multiple rovers in order to coordinate the resultant use of shared resources regardless of how each rover decides how to perform its activities. We present an algorithm for summarizing the metric resource requirements of an abstract activity based n the resource usages of its potential refinements.

  17. The Influence of Religious Background and School Philosophy on Moral Reasoning in Selected Columbus High School Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bainer, Deborah Louise

    This study attempted to determine if the Judeo-Christian tradition, when part of an individual's religious background and when incorporated into school philosophy, influenced the level of decision-making of high school seniors (N=130) in sociomoral and environmental issues. Subjects, attending four public and private schools in the Columbus (Ohio)…

  18. Temperature effect on triacylglycerol species in seed oil from high stearic sunflower lines with different genetic backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Natalia G; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Garcés, Rafael; Aguirrezábal, Luis An; Zambelli, Andrés; Reid, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    This study characterized the influence of temperature during grain filling on the saturated fatty acid distribution in triacylglycerol molecules from high stearic sunflower lines with different genetic backgrounds. Two growth chamber experiments were conducted with day/night temperatures of 16/16, 26/16, 26/26 and 32/26 °C. In all genotypes, independently of the genetic background, higher temperatures increased palmitic and oleic acid and reduced linoleic acid concentrations. Increasing night temperature produced an increase in saturated-unsaturated-saturated species, indicating a more symmetrical distribution of saturated fatty acids. The solid fat index was more affected by temperature during grain filling in lines with high linoleic than high oleic background. Higher variations in symmetry among night temperatures were observed in lines with high oleic background, which are more stable in fatty acid composition. The effect of temperature on triacylglycerol composition is not completely explained by its effect on fatty acid composition. Thus night temperature affects oil properties via its effects on fatty acid synthesis and on the distribution of fatty acids in the triacylglycerol molecules. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Hispanic Students in American High Schools: Background Characteristics and Achievement. National Center for Education Statistics Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Samuel S.

    Based on data from the High School and Beyond Study, a longitudinal study of high school sophomores and seniors, this report summarizes some of the study's findings on the differences between Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks and whites in school delay, aspirations, test scores, language usage, and socioeconomic status. Tabular data indicate that:…

  20. Comparative Effects of Various High School Biology Course-Content Backgrounds on Achievement in College Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Gordon Ronald

    The purposes of this study are (1) to determine whether college students who have taken Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) High School Biology attain significantly different grades in college biology courses at the University of Missouri than do college students who have taken a non-BSCS high school biology course, and (2) to determine if…

  1. A RATIONALE FOR CHANGING EDUCATION IN AN INNER-CITY HIGH SCHOOL, AN ABSTRACT OF LITERATURE RELATED TO PURPOSE ORGANIZATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RASSCHAERT, WILLIAM M.

    REMARKS BASED ON AN ABSTRACT OF LITERATURE RELATED TO PURPOSE ORGANIZATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS STRESS THE NEED FOR EVALUATING HIGH SCHOOL CURRICULA IN TERMS OF THE GENERAL PURPOSES OF AMERICAN EDUCATION AND THE SPECIFIC PURPOSES OF A PARTICULAR SCHOOL. MAJOR NEEDS OF YOUTH IN A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY ARE LISTED, ALTHOUGH THE NEEDS THEMSELVES ARE…

  2. Improved background rejection in neutrinoless double beta decay experiments using a magnetic field in a high pressure xenon TPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, J.; Cervera, A.; Hernando, J. A.; Imzaylov, A.; Monrabal, F.; Muñoz, J.; Nygren, D.; Gomez-Cadenas, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate that the application of an external magnetic field could lead to an improved background rejection in neutrinoless double-beta (0νββ) decay experiments using a high-pressure xenon (HPXe) TPC. HPXe chambers are capable of imaging electron tracks, a feature that enhances the separation between signal events (the two electrons emitted in the 0νββ decay of 136Xe) and background events, arising chiefly from single electrons of kinetic energy compatible with the end-point of the 0νββ decay (0Qββ). Applying an external magnetic field of sufficiently high intensity (in the range of 0.5-1 Tesla for operating pressures in the range of 5-15 atmospheres) causes the electrons to produce helical tracks. Assuming the tracks can be properly reconstructed, the sign of the curvature can be determined at several points along these tracks, and such information can be used to separate signal (0νββ) events containing two electrons producing a track with two different directions of curvature from background (single-electron) events producing a track that should spiral in a single direction. Due to electron multiple scattering, this strategy is not perfectly efficient on an event-by-event basis, but a statistical estimator can be constructed which can be used to reject background events by one order of magnitude at a moderate cost (about 30%) in signal efficiency. Combining this estimator with the excellent energy resolution and topological signature identification characteristic of the HPXe TPC, it is possible to reach a background rate of less than one count per ton-year of exposure. Such a low background rate is an essential feature of the next generation of 0νββ experiments, aiming to fully explore the inverse hierarchy of neutrino masses.

  3. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure processing on the background microbial loads and quality of cantaloupe puree

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) applied to cantaloupe puree (CP) on microbial loads and product quality during storage for 10 days at 4 degrees C. Freshly prepared, double sealed and double bagged CP (ca. 5 g) was pressure tr...

  4. High Achievers from Low Socioeconomic Backgrounds: The Critical Role of Disciplinary Climate and Grit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Haigen; Zhu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether school disciplinary climate and grit predicted low socioeconomic status (SES) students being high achievers in mathematics and science with a representative sample of 15-year-old students in the United States. Our analysis, using a two-level logistic hierarchical linear model (HLM), indicated both…

  5. Measurements of Atmospheric Mercury at a High Elevation Site (Lulin Atmospheric Background Station, LABS) in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheu, G.; Lee, C.; Lin, N.

    2007-12-01

    Taiwan is located on the edge of the west Pacific Ocean and to the downwind side of East Asia, which is the largest anthropogenic mercury (Hg) emitting region globally. It has been demonstrated that the environmental quality of Taiwan can be influenced by regional Asian atmospheric pollution events, such as acid deposition, dust storm, and biomass burning. Therefore, Taiwan could also be under the influence of the East Asian Hg emissions. As a result, continuous atmospheric Hg measurements have been conducted at Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS, 2862 m a.s.l.) since April 13, 2006 to study the long-range transport and transformation of atmospheric Hg. Three types of atmospheric Hg, including gaseous elemental Hg (GEM), reactive gaseous Hg (RGM), and particulate Hg (PHg), are measured using the Tekran 2537A/1130/1135 speciation system. Here we report the atmospheric Hg data collected between April, 2006 and April, 2007. The average GEM, RGM, and PHg concentrations were 1.83(±0.65) ng m-3, 17.85(±18.70) pg m- 3, and 6.12(±7.36) pg m-3, respectively. Seasonal variability in GEM concentration was evident with higher GEM concentrations between fall and spring. The highest monthly GEM average of 2.43 ng m-3 was observed in October, 2006. GEM concentrations were usually low in summer months with the lowest monthly average of 1.10 ng m-3 in July, 2006. Backward trajectory analysis indicated change in air mass origins among seasons. In summer (May ~ July), air masses were mainly from the Pacific Ocean with minimal land influence. On the other hand, between fall and spring, air masses were more or less under the influence of East Asia continent. These results suggested that Taiwan could be impacted by East Asia Hg emissions between fall and spring. Also, spikes of RGM were frequently detected between midnight and early morning with concurrent decreases in GEM and relative humidity and increases in ozone concentrations, suggesting the oxidation of GEM and

  6. Natural radionuclide and radiological assessment of building materials in high background radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran.

    PubMed

    Bavarnegin, Elham; Moghaddam, Masoud Vahabi; Fathabadi, Nasrin

    2013-04-01

    Building materials, collected from different sites in Ramsar, a northern coastal city in Iran, were analyzed for their natural radionuclide contents. The measurements were carried out using a high resolution high purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectrometer system. The activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K content varied from below the minimum detection limit up to 86,400 Bqkg(-1), 187 Bqkg(-1), and 1350 Bqkg(-1), respectively. The radiological hazards incurred from the use of these building materials were estimated through various radiation hazard indices. The result of this survey shows that values obtained for some samples are more than the internationally accepted maximum limits and as such, the use of them as a building material pose significant radiation hazard to individuals.

  7. The structure of teenage employment: Social background and the jobs held by high school seniors

    PubMed Central

    Hirschman, Charles; Voloshin, Irina

    2009-01-01

    Although it is widely assumed that work careers begin after the completion of schooling, most enrolled high school students are also workers. Teenage workers are heavily concentrated in the low wage service sector, but they are also found as supplemental part-time workers in many occupations, including clerical, retail sales, and blue collar employment. Gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic origins are important determinants of the types of jobs that teenage students hold. Students from advantaged socioeconomic origins and students with above average grades are more likely to work in “good jobs,” defined by lower hours of work per week and higher status. PMID:20011672

  8. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure processing on the background microbial loads and quality of cantaloupe puree.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Sudarsan; Sokorai, Kimberly; Ukuku, Dike; Fan, Xuetong; Juneja, Vijay

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) applied to cantaloupe puree (CP) on microbial loads and product quality during storage for 10days at 4°C. Freshly prepared, double sealed and double bagged CP (ca. 5g) was pressure treated at 300, 400 and 500MPa at 8°C and 15°C for 5min. Microflora populations, soluble solid content, pH, color, antioxidant activity, appearance and aroma were measured at 1, 6, and 10d of storage. Results showed that high pressure treatment of 300MPa (8°C and 15°C) resulted in reduction of total aerobic plate count from 3.3 to 1.8logCFU/g. The treatment reduced the populations of native aerobic plate count to non-detectable levels (detection limit 1logCFU/g) at 400MPa and 500MPa pressures at 15°C. Pressure treatment completely inactivated mold and yeast in puree below the limits of detection at day 1 and no regrowth was observed during 10days of storage at 4°C while mold and yeast in untreated puree survived during the storage. High pressure treatment did not show any adverse impact on physical properties as soluble solid content (SSC, 11.2°Brix) and acidity (pH, 6.9). The instrumental color parameters (L*, a*, b*) were affected due to HHP treatment creating a slightly lighter product, compared to control, as indicated by higher L.* and lower a* values. However the change was not detected by the sensory panel while evaluating appearance scores. Pressure treatment did not affect the antioxidant capacity of puree product compared to control. Visual appearance and sniffing aroma test by panel revealed no adverse changes in the sensory parameters as a result of HHP treatment. HHP method described in this study appears to be a promising way to inactivate spoilage microorganisms in the cantaloupe puree and maintain quality. This study provides a viable option for preservation and marketing this product. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. State of the art of D&D Instrumentation Technology: Alpha counting in the presence of high background

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerman, C.E.

    1995-08-01

    Discrimination of alpha activity in the presence of a high radiation background has been identified as an area of concern to be studied for D&D applications. Upon evaluating the range of alpha detection needs for D&D operations, we have expanded this study to address the operational concern of greatly expediting alpha counting of rough surfaces and rubble. Note that the term, ``rough surfaces`` includes a wide range of practical cases, including contaminated equipment and work surfaces. We have developed provisional applications requirements for instrumentation of this type; and we also have generated the scope of a program of instrument evaluationmore » and testing, with emphasis on practical implementation. In order to obtain the full operational benefit of alpha discrimination in the presence of strong beta-gamma radiation background, the detection system must be capable of some form of remote or semi-remote operation in order to reduce operator exposure. We have identified a highly promising technique, the long-range alpha detector (LRAD), for alpha discrimination in the presence of high radiation background. This technique operates upon the principle of transporting alphaionized air to an ionization detector. A transport time within a few seconds is adequate. Neither the provisional requirements nor the evaluation and testing scope were expressly tailored to force the selection of a LRAD technology, and they could be used as a basis for studies of other promising technologies. However, a technology that remotely detects alpha-ionized air (e. g., LRAD) is a natural fit to the key requirements of rejection of high background at the survey location and operator protection. Also, LRAD appears to be valuable for D&D applications as a means of greatly expediting surface alpha-activity surveys that otherwise would require performing time-consuming scans over surfaces of interest with alpha detector probes, and even more labor-intensive surface wipe surveys.« less

  10. High-efficiency and low-background multi-segmented proportional gas counter for β-decay spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, M.; Hirayama, Y.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Schury, P.; Jung, H. S.; Ahmed, M.; Haba, H.; Ishiyama, H.; Jeong, S. C.; Kakiguchi, Y.; Kimura, S.; Moon, J. Y.; Oyaizu, M.; Ozawa, A.; Park, J. H.; Ueno, H.; Wada, M.; Miyatake, H.

    2018-03-01

    A multi-segmented proportional gas counter (MSPGC) with high detection efficiency and low-background event rate has been developed for β-decay spectroscopy. The MSPGC consists of two cylindrically aligned layers of 16 counters (32 counters in total). Each counter has a long active length and small trapezoidal cross-section, and the total solid angle of the 32 counters is 80% of 4 π. β-rays are distinguished from the background events including cosmic-rays by analyzing the hit patterns of independent counters. The deduced intrinsic detection efficiency of each counter was almost 100%. The measured background event rate was 0.11 counts per second using the combination of veto counters for cosmic-rays and lead block shields for background γ-rays. The MSPGC was applied to measure the β-decay half-lives of 198Ir and 199mPt. The evaluated half-lives of T1/2 = 9 . 8(7) s and 12.4(7) s for 198Ir and 199mPt, respectively, were in agreement with previously reported values. The estimated absolute detection efficiency of the MSPGC from GEANT4 simulations was consistent with the evaluated efficiency from the analysis of the β- γ spectroscopy of 199Pt, saturating at approximately 60% for Qβ > 4 MeV.

  11. Transcriptome Analyses of Mosaic (MSC) Mitochondrial Mutants of Cucumber in a Highly Inbred Nuclear Background

    PubMed Central

    Mróz, Tomasz L.; Eves-van den Akker, Sebastian; Bernat, Agata; Skarzyńska, Agnieszka; Pryszcz, Leszek; Olberg, Madeline; Havey, Michael J.; Bartoszewski, Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) has a large, paternally transmitted mitochondrial genome. Cucumber plants regenerated from cell cultures occasionally show paternally transmitted mosaic (MSC) phenotypes, characterized by slower growth, chlorotic patterns on the leaves and fruit, lower fertility, and rearrangements in their mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs). MSC lines 3, 12, and 16 originated from different cell cultures all established using the highly inbred, wild-type line B. These MSC lines possess different rearrangements and under-represented regions in their mtDNAs. We completed RNA-seq on normalized and non-normalized cDNA libraries from MSC3, MSC12, and MSC16 to study their nuclear gene-expression profiles relative to inbred B. Results from both libraries indicated that gene expression in MSC12 and MSC16 were more similar to each other than MSC3. Forty-one differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were upregulated and one downregulated in the MSC lines relative to B. Gene functional classifications revealed that more than half of these DEGs are associated with stress-response pathways. Consistent with this observation, we detected elevated levels of hydrogen peroxide throughout leaf tissue in all MSC lines compared to wild-type line B. These results demonstrate that independently produced MSC lines with different mitochondrial polymorphisms show unique and shared nuclear responses. This study revealed genes associated with stress response that could become selection targets to develop cucumber cultivars with increased stress tolerance, and further support of cucumber as a model plant to study nuclear-mitochondrial interactions. PMID:29330162

  12. Evaluation of the cosmic-ray induced background in coded aperture high energy gamma-ray telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Alan; Barbier, Loius M.; Frye, Glenn M.; Jenkins, Thomas L.

    1991-01-01

    While the application of coded-aperture techniques to high-energy gamma-ray astronomy offers potential arc-second angular resolution, concerns were raised about the level of secondary radiation produced in a thick high-z mask. A series of Monte-Carlo calculations are conducted to evaluate and quantify the cosmic-ray induced neutral particle background produced in a coded-aperture mask. It is shown that this component may be neglected, being at least a factor of 50 lower in intensity than the cosmic diffuse gamma-rays.

  13. [Eating Disorders in Female High School Students: Educational and Migration Background, School-Related Stress and Performance-Orientated Classes].

    PubMed

    Grüttner, M

    2018-02-01

    Many adolescents and young adults, especially young females, suffer from eating disorders or problematic nutrition behavior. Children and adolescents with migration background as well as from a lower social class are more likely to have eating disorders 1. Although schools are an important context in these age groups, there is a lack of scientific inquiry concerning the relationship between schooling and eating disorders. The present study investigates the relationship between performance-related stress at school and eating disorders while controlling for personnel and familial resources. Interview data on the 7 th grade high school students from the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS)* starting cohort 3 are used. The dependent variable is based on the SCOFF questionnaire. Logistic regressions are calculated using information from students and parents. Performance-related stress at school is operationalized by the negative deviation of realistic from idealistic educational aspirations (EA) and unfulfilled social expectations (SE), performance-oriented class climate is operationalized by students' perception of the performance-orientation of the teacher (PT) and the expectations of classmates (EC). The results point towards an increased risk of suffering from an eating disorder due to performance-related school stress (EA: AME: 0.18; p<0.001; SE: AME: 0.12; p<0.05) and performance-oriented class climate (PT: AME: 0.05; p<0.1; EC: AME: 0.15, p<0.01). They partly explain the relation between both migration background and educational background and eating disorders. In order to prevent eating disorders in female high school students, attention should be paid to performance-orientation experienced at school and in the social background, and improved individual support for disadvantaged students should be made available. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Abstraction in perceptual symbol systems.

    PubMed Central

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2003-01-01

    After reviewing six senses of abstraction, this article focuses on abstractions that take the form of summary representations. Three central properties of these abstractions are established: ( i ) type-token interpretation; (ii) structured representation; and (iii) dynamic realization. Traditional theories of representation handle interpretation and structure well but are not sufficiently dynamical. Conversely, connectionist theories are exquisitely dynamic but have problems with structure. Perceptual symbol systems offer an approach that implements all three properties naturally. Within this framework, a loose collection of property and relation simulators develops to represent abstractions. Type-token interpretation results from binding a property simulator to a region of a perceived or simulated category member. Structured representation results from binding a configuration of property and relation simulators to multiple regions in an integrated manner. Dynamic realization results from applying different subsets of property and relation simulators to category members on different occasions. From this standpoint, there are no permanent or complete abstractions of a category in memory. Instead, abstraction is the skill to construct temporary online interpretations of a category's members. Although an infinite number of abstractions are possible, attractors develop for habitual approaches to interpretation. This approach provides new ways of thinking about abstraction phenomena in categorization, inference, background knowledge and learning. PMID:12903648

  15. Weight gain in mice on a high caloric diet and chronically treated with omeprazole depends on sex and genetic background.

    PubMed

    Saqui-Salces, Milena; Tsao, Amy C; Gillilland, Merritt G; Merchant, Juanita L

    2017-01-01

    The impact of omeprazole (OM), a widely used over-the-counter proton pump inhibitor, on weight gain has not been extensively explored. We examined what factors, e.g., diet composition, microbiota, genetic strain, and sex, might affect weight gain in mice fed a high caloric diet while on OM. Inbred C57BL/6J strain, a 50:50 hybrid (B6SJLF1/J) strain, and mice on a highly mixed genetic background were fed four diets: standard chow (STD, 6% fat), STD with 200 ppm OM (STD + O), a high-energy chow (HiE, 11% fat), and HiE chow with OM (HiE + O) for 17 wk. Metabolic analysis, body composition, and fecal microbiota composition were analyzed in C57BL/6J mice. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed using mice on the mixed background. After 8 wk, female and male C57BL/6J mice on the HiE diets ate less, whereas males on the HiE diets compared with the STD diets gained weight. All diet treatments reduced energy expenditure in females but in males only those on the HiE + O diet. Gut microbiota composition differed in the C57BL/6J females but not the males. Hybrid B6SJLF1/J mice showed similar weight gain on all test diets. In contrast, mixed strain male mice fed a HiE + O diet gained ∼40% more weight than females on the same diet. In addition to increased weight gain, mixed genetic mice on the HiE + O diet cleared glucose normally but secreted more insulin. We concluded that sex and genetic background define weight gain and metabolic responses of mice on high caloric diets and OM. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Weight gain in mice on a high caloric diet and chronically treated with omeprazole depends on sex and genetic background

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Amy C.; Gillilland, Merritt G.; Merchant, Juanita L.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of omeprazole (OM), a widely used over-the-counter proton pump inhibitor, on weight gain has not been extensively explored. We examined what factors, e.g., diet composition, microbiota, genetic strain, and sex, might affect weight gain in mice fed a high caloric diet while on OM. Inbred C57BL/6J strain, a 50:50 hybrid (B6SJLF1/J) strain, and mice on a highly mixed genetic background were fed four diets: standard chow (STD, 6% fat), STD with 200 ppm OM (STD + O), a high-energy chow (HiE, 11% fat), and HiE chow with OM (HiE + O) for 17 wk. Metabolic analysis, body composition, and fecal microbiota composition were analyzed in C57BL/6J mice. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed using mice on the mixed background. After 8 wk, female and male C57BL/6J mice on the HiE diets ate less, whereas males on the HiE diets compared with the STD diets gained weight. All diet treatments reduced energy expenditure in females but in males only those on the HiE + O diet. Gut microbiota composition differed in the C57BL/6J females but not the males. Hybrid B6SJLF1/J mice showed similar weight gain on all test diets. In contrast, mixed strain male mice fed a HiE + O diet gained ∼40% more weight than females on the same diet. In addition to increased weight gain, mixed genetic mice on the HiE + O diet cleared glucose normally but secreted more insulin. We concluded that sex and genetic background define weight gain and metabolic responses of mice on high caloric diets and OM. PMID:27810953

  17. Adolescent gynecomastia is associated with a high incidence of obesity, dysglycemia, and family background of diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Kulshreshtha, Bindu; Arpita, Arora; Rajesh, Patnaik T.; Sameek, Bhattacharya; Dutta, Deep; Neera, Sharma; Mohd, Mohsin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Gynecomastia during adolescence is common though etiology is not clear. We studied the clinical and hormonal profile of adolescent patients with gynecomastia. Methodology: Patients who had onset of breast development between age 10 and 20 years were included in this study. Their clinical profile, biochemical, and hormonal parameters were studied. Results: Of 94 patients with gynecomastia, 4 had hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, 4 had hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, and 1 had fibroadenosis, but in majority (90.4%), no apparent cause for breast enlargement was evident. In the idiopathic group, majority were obese (63%). Fourteen (16%) patients had impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance. Another twenty patients had subtle abnormalities (high 1 h glucose or glucose peak at 2 h). Twenty-nine percent of lean and 38% of obese patients had mild abnormalities in glucose profile. Sixty percent of patients had family background of diabetes. Obese patients had lower testosterone as compared to lean patients; however, estradiol, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels were similar in the two groups. Conclusion: Gynecomastia during adolescence is associated with obesity, dysglycemia, and family background of diabetes mellitus. PMID:28217517

  18. Background contamination by coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in trace level high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) analytical procedures.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, J; Byrne, C; Dupuy, A E

    1997-06-01

    The addition of the "dioxin-like" polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners to the assessment of risk associated with the 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted dioxins and furans has dramatically increased the number of laboratories worldwide that are developing analytical procedures for their detection and quantitation. Most of these procedures are based on established sample preparation and analytical techniques employing high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS), which are used for the analyses of dioxin/furans at low parts-per-trillion (ppt) levels. A significant and widespread problem that arises when using these sample preparation procedures for the analysis of coplanar PCBs is the presence of background levels of these congeners. Industrial processes, urban incineration, leaking electrical transformers, hazardous waste accidents, and improper waste disposal practices have released appreciable quantities of PCBs into the environment. This contamination has resulted in the global distribution of these compounds via the atmosphere and their ubiquitous presence in ambient air. The background presence of these compounds in method blanks must be addressed when determining the exact concentrations of these and other congeners in environmental samples. In this study reliable procedures were developed to accurately define these background levels and assess their variability over the course of the study. The background subtraction procedures developed and employed increase the probability that the values reported accurately represent the concentrations found in the samples and were not biased due to this background contamination.

  19. Background contamination by coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in trace level high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) analytical procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrario, J.; Byrne, C.; Dupuy, A. E. Jr

    1997-01-01

    The addition of the "dioxin-like" polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners to the assessment of risk associated with the 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted dioxins and furans has dramatically increased the number of laboratories worldwide that are developing analytical procedures for their detection and quantitation. Most of these procedures are based on established sample preparation and analytical techniques employing high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS), which are used for the analyses of dioxin/furans at low parts-per-trillion (ppt) levels. A significant and widespread problem that arises when using these sample preparation procedures for the analysis of coplanar PCBs is the presence of background levels of these congeners. Industrial processes, urban incineration, leaking electrical transformers, hazardous waste accidents, and improper waste disposal practices have released appreciable quantities of PCBs into the environment. This contamination has resulted in the global distribution of these compounds via the atmosphere and their ubiquitous presence in ambient air. The background presence of these compounds in method blanks must be addressed when determining the exact concentrations of these and other congeners in environmental samples. In this study reliable procedures were developed to accurately define these background levels and assess their variability over the course of the study. The background subtraction procedures developed and employed increase the probability that the values reported accurately represent the concentrations found in the samples and were not biased due to this background contamination.

  20. Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization Detector with High Efficiency, Broad Bandwidth, and Highly Symmetric Coupling to Transition Edge Sensor Bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, E.; Cao, N.; Chuss, D.; Denis, K.; Hsieh, W.-T.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Schneider, G.; Stevenson, T.; Travers, D.; U-yen, K.

    2008-01-01

    Four probe antennas transfer signals from waveguide to microstrip lines. The probes not only provide broadband impedance matching, but also thermally isolate waveguide and detector. In addition, we developed a new photonic waveguide choke joint design, with four-fold symmetry, to suppress power leakage at the interface. We have developed facilities to test superconducting circuit elements using a cryogenic microwave probe station, and more complete systems in waveguide. We used the ring resonator shown below to measure a dielectric loss tangent < 7x10(exp -4) over 10 - 45 GHz. We have combined component simulations to predict the overall coupling from waveguide modes to bolometers. The result below shows the planar circuit and waveguide interface can utilize the high beam symmetry of HE11 circular feedhorns with > 99% coupling efficiency over 30% fractional bandwidth.

  1. Multiple factors impact the contents of heavy metals in vegetables in high natural background area of China.

    PubMed

    Gan, Yandong; Wang, Lihong; Yang, Guiqiang; Dai, Jiulan; Wang, Renqing; Wang, Wenxing

    2017-10-01

    A field survey was conducted to investigate the concentrations of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in vegetables, corresponding cultivated soils and irrigation waters from 36 open sites in high natural background area of Wuzhou, South China. Redundancy analysis, Spearman's rho correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were adopted to evaluate the contributions of impacting factors on metal contents in the edible parts of vegetables. This study concluded that leafy and root vegetables had relatively higher metal concentrations and adjusted transfer factor values compared to fruiting vegetables according to nonparametric tests. Plant species, total soil metal content and soil pH value were affirmed as three critical factors with the highest contribution rate among all the influencing factors. The bivariate curve equation models for heavy metals in the edible vegetable tissues were well fitted to predict the metal concentrations in vegetables. The results from this case study also suggested that it could be one of efficient strategies for clean agricultural production and food safety in high natural background area to breed vegetable varieties with low heavy metal accumulation and to enlarge planting scale of these varieties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Radionuclides and Radiation Indices of High Background Radiation Area in Chavara-Neendakara Placer Deposits (Kerala, India)

    PubMed Central

    Derin, Mary Thomas; Vijayagopal, Perumal; Venkatraman, Balasubramaniam; Chaubey, Ramesh Chandra; Gopinathan, Anilkumar

    2012-01-01

    The present paper describes a detailed study on the distribution of radionuclides along Chavara – Neendakara placer deposit, a high background radiation area (HBRA) along the Southwest coast of India (Kerala). Judged from our studies using HPGe gamma spectrometric detector, it becomes evident that Uranium (238U), Thorium (232Th) and Potassium (40K) are the major sources for radioactivity prevailing in the area. Our statistical analyses reveal the existence of a high positive correlation between 238U and 232Th, implicating that the levels of these elements are interdependent. Our SEM-EDAX analyses reveal that titanium (Ti) and zircon (Zr) are the major trace elements in the sand samples, followed by aluminum, copper, iron, ruthenium, magnesium, calcium, sulphur and lead. This is first of its kind report on the radiation hazard indices on this placer deposit. The average absorbed dose rates (9795 nGy h−1) computed from the present study is comparable with the top-ranking HBRAs in the world, thus offering the Chavara-Neendakara placer the second position, after Brazil; pertinently, this value is much higher than the World average. The perceptibly high absorbed gamma dose rates, entrained with the high annual external effective dose rates (AEED) and average annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) values existing in this HBRA, encourage us to suggest for a candid assessment of the impact of the background radiation, if any, on the organisms that inhabit along this placer deposit. Future research could effectively address the issue of the possible impact of natural radiation on the biota inhabiting this HBRA. PMID:23185629

  3. High Frequency Propagation modeling in a disturbed background ionosphere: Results from the Metal Oxide Space Cloud (MOSC) experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, D. R.; Groves, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) launched two sounding rockets in the Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands, in May 2013 known as the Metal Oxide Space Cloud (MOSC) experiment to study the interactions of artificial ionization and the background plasma. The rockets released samarium metal vapor in the lower F-region of the ionosphere that ionized forming a plasma cloud. A host of diagnostic instruments were used to probe and characterize the cloud including the ALTAIR incoherent scatter radar, multiple GPS and optical instruments, satellite radio beacons, and a dedicated network of high frequency (HF) radio links. Data from ALTAIR incoherent scatter radar and HF radio links have been analyzed to understand the impacts of the artificial ionization on radio wave propagation. During the first release the ionosphere was disturbed, rising rapidly and spread F formed within minutes after the release. To address the disturbed conditions present during the first release, we have developed a new method of assimilating oblique ionosonde data to generate the background ionosphere that can have numerous applications for HF systems. The link budget analysis of the received signals from the HF transmitters explains the missing low frequencies in the received signals along the great circle path. Observations and modeling confirm that the small amounts of ionized material injected in the lower-F region resulted in significant changes to the natural propagation environment.

  4. A low-background piston-cylinder-type hybrid high pressure cell for muon-spin rotation/relaxation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shermadini, Z.; Khasanov, R.; Elender, M.; Simutis, G.; Guguchia, Z.; Kamenev, K. V.; Amato, A.

    2017-10-01

    A low background double-wall piston-cylinder-type pressure cell is developed at the Paul Scherrer Institute. The cell is made from BERYLCO-25 (beryllium copper) and MP35N nonmagnetic alloys with the design and dimensions which are specifically adapted to muon-spin rotation/relaxation (μSR) measurements. The mechanical design and performance of the pressure cell are evaluated using finite-element analysis (FEA). By including the measured stress-strain characteristics of the materials into the finite-element model, the cell dimensions are optimized with the aim to reach the highest possible pressure while maintaining the sample space large (6 mm in diameter and 12 mm high). The presented unconventional design of the double-wall piston-cylinder pressure cell with a harder outer MP35N sleeve and a softer inner CuBe cylinder enables pressures of up to 2.6 GPa to be reached at ambient temperature, corresponding to 2.2 GPa at low temperatures without any irreversible damage to the pressure cell. The nature of the muon stopping distribution, mainly in the sample and in the CuBe cylinder, results in a low-background μSR signal.

  5. The Impact of Electromagnetic Cascades of Very-high Energy Gamma Rays on the Extragalactic Gamma-ray Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venters, Tonia

    2012-01-01

    As very high energy (VHE) photons propagate through the extragalactic background light (EBL), they interact with the soft photons of the EBL and initiate electromagnetic cascades of photons and electrons. The collective intensity of a cosmological population emitting at VHEs (such as blazars) will be attenuated at the highest energies through interactions with the EBL and enhanced at lower energies by the resulting cascade. As such, depending on the space density and spectra of the sources and the model of the EBL, cascade radiation can provide a significant contribution to the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB). Through deflections of the charged particles of the cascade, an intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) may leave an imprint on the anisotropy properties of the EGB. The impact of a strong IGMF is to isotropize lower energy cascade photons, inducing a modulation in the anisotropy energy spectrum of the EGB. We discuss the implications of cascade radiation for the origins of the EGB and the nature of the IGMF, as well as insight that will be provided by data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope in the upcoming years.

  6. Cosmic Infrared Background From Population III Stars and Its Effect on Spectra of High-z Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashlinsky, A.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the contribution of Population III stars to the near-IR (NIR) cosmic infrared background (CIB) and its effect on spectra of high-z, high-energy gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and other sources. It is shown that if Population III is composed of massive stars, the claimed NIR CIB excess will be reproduced if only approx. 4% plus or minus 2% of all baryons went through these stars. Regardless of the precise amount of the NIR CIB due to them, they likely left enough photons to provide a large optical depth for high-energy photons from distant GRBs. Observations of such GRBs are expected following the planned launch of NASA's GLAST mission. Detecting such damping in the spectra of high-z GRBs will then provide important information on the emissions from the Population III epoch, and the location of this cutoff may serve as an indicator of the GRBs' redshifts. We also point out the difficulty of unambiguously detecting the CIB part originating from Population III in spectra of low-z blazars.

  7. Estimation of background CO2 concentrations at the high alpine station Schneefernerhaus by atmospheric observations and inverse modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giemsa, Esther; Jacobeit, Jucundus; Ries, Ludwig; Frank, Gabriele; Hachinger, Stephan; Meyer-Arnek, Julian

    2016-04-01

    In order to estimate the influence of Central European CO2 emissions, a new method to retrieve background concentrations based on statistics of radon-222 and backward trajectories is developed and applied to the CO2 observations at the alpine high-altitude research station Schneefernerhaus (2670 m a.s.l.). The reliable identification of baseline conditions is important for perceiving changes in time as well as in the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and thereby assessing the efficiency of existing mitigation strategies. In the particular case of Central Europe, the analysis of background concentrations could add further insights on the question why background CO2 concentrations increased in the last few decades, despite a significant decrease in the reported emissions. Ongoing effort to define the baseline conditions has led to a variety of data selection techniques. In this diversity of data filtering concepts, a relatively recent data selection method effectively appropriates observations of radon-222 to reliably and unambiguously identify baseline air masses. Owing to its relatively constant emission rate from the ice-free land surface and its half-life of 3.8 days that is solely achieved through radioactive decay, the tropospheric background concentration of the inert radioactive gas is low and temporal variations caused by changes in atmospheric transport are precisely detectable. For defining the baseline air masses reaching the high alpine research station Schneefernerhaus, an objective analysis approach is applied to the two-hourly radon records. The CO2 values of days by the radon method associated with prevailing atmospheric background conditions result in the CO2 concentrations representing the least land influenced air masses. Additionally, three-dimensional back-trajectories were retrieved using the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) FLEXPART driven by analysis fields of the Global Forecast System (GFS) produced by the National Centers

  8. ABSTRACTS OF RESEARCH REPORTS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    DENTISTRY, ABSTRACTS), TEETH, DISEASES, MOUTH, TRANSPLANTATION, HYGIENE, STERILIZATION, FLUORIDES, HISTOLOGY, SURGICAL IMPLANTATION, OXYTETRACYCLINE , GELATINS, CELLULOSE, CASTING, PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION, TRAINING DEVICES

  9. Radon exhalation rate and natural radionuclide content in building materials of high background areas of Ramsar, Iran.

    PubMed

    Bavarnegin, E; Fathabadi, N; Vahabi Moghaddam, M; Vasheghani Farahani, M; Moradi, M; Babakhni, A

    2013-03-01

    Radon exhalation rates from building materials used in high background radiation areas (HBRA) of Ramsar were measured using an active radon gas analyzer with an emanation container. Radon exhalation rates from these samples varied from below the lower detection limit up to 384 Bq.m(-2) h(-1). The (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K contents were also measured using a high resolution HPGe gamma- ray spectrometer system. The activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K content varied from below the minimum detection limit up to 86,400 Bq kg(-1), 187 Bq kg(-1) and 1350 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The linear correlation coefficient between radon exhalation rate and radium concentration was 0.90. The result of this survey shows that radon exhalation rate and radium content in some local stones used as basements are extremely high and these samples are main sources of indoor radon emanation as well as external gamma radiation from uranium series. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Abstracting Concepts and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borko, Harold; Bernier, Charles L.

    This text provides a complete discussion of abstracts--their history, production, organization, publication--and of indexing. Instructions for abstracting are outlined, and standards and criteria for abstracting are stated. Management, automation, and personnel are discussed in terms of possible economies that can be derived from the introduction…

  11. Abstraction and Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John; Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih

    2006-01-01

    The framework for this paper is a recently developed theory of abstraction in context. The paper reports on data collected from one student working on tasks concerned with absolute value functions. It examines the relationship between mathematical constructions and abstractions. It argues that an abstraction is a consolidated construction that can…

  12. Chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals living in high background radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran.

    PubMed

    Zakeri, F; Rajabpour, M R; Haeri, S A; Kanda, R; Hayata, I; Nakamura, S; Sugahara, T; Ahmadpour, M J

    2011-11-01

    In order to investigate the biological effects of exposure to low-dose radiation and to assess the dose-effect relationship in residents of high background radiation areas (HBRAs) of Ramsar, cytogenetic investigation of unstable-type aberrations was performed in 15 healthy elderly women in a HBRA of Ramsar, Talesh mahalle, and in 10 elderly women living in a nearby control area with normal background radiation. In total, 77,714 cells were analyzed; 48,819 cells in HBRA residents and 28,895 cells in controls. On average, 3,108 cells per subject were analyzed (range 1,475-5,007 cells). Significant differences were found in the frequency of dicentric plus centric rings in 100 cells (0.207 ± 0.103 vs. 0.047 ± 0.027, p < 0.0005), total chromosome-type aberrations per 100 cells (0.86 ± 0.44 vs. 0.23 ± 0.17, p < 0.0005), and chromatid-type aberrations per 100 cells (3.31 ± 2.01 vs. 1.66 ± 0.63, p = 0.01) by the Mann-Whitney U test between HBRA and the control, respectively. Using chromosomal aberrations as the main endpoint to assess the dose-effect relationship in residents of HBRAs in Ramsar, no positive correlation was found between the frequency of dicentric plus centric ring aberrations and the cumulative dose of the inhabitants estimated by direct individual dosimetry; however, obvious trends of increase with age appeared in the control group. Based on these results, individuals residing in HBRAs of Ramsar have an increased frequency of detectable abnormalities in unstable aberrations.

  13. Background sources at PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, H.; Schwitters, R.F.; Toner, W.T.

    Important sources of background for PEP experiments are studied. Background particles originate from high-energy electrons and positrons which have been lost from stable orbits, ..gamma..-rays emitted by the primary beams through bremsstrahlung in the residual gas, and synchrotron radiation x-rays. The effect of these processes on the beam lifetime are calculated and estimates of background rates at the interaction region are given. Recommendations for the PEP design, aimed at minimizing background are presented. 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Motivation of Dutch high school students from various backgrounds for applying to study medicine: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Wouters, Anouk; Croiset, Gerda; Isik, Ulviye; Kusurkar, Rashmi A

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore high school students’ motivation for applying to study medicine and the factors that influence this. To find explanations for under-representation of minority students in medical education, descriptions of motivation of students with different background characteristics were compared. Design Qualitative phenomenological study using semistructured one-on-one interviews. Setting One predominantly white and one mixed high school in a large multicultural city in the Netherlands. The study was conducted in March–December 2015. Participants Twenty-four high school students, purposively sampled for demographic characteristics. Methods The analysis consisted of the coding of data using a template based on the motivation types (autonomous and controlled motivation) described by self-determination theory and open coding for factors that influence motivation. Results The main reasons for pursuing a medical career pertained to autonomous motivation (interest in science and helping people), but controlled motivation (eg, parental pressure, prestige) was also mentioned. Experiences with healthcare and patients positively influenced students’ autonomous motivation and served as a reality check for students’ expectations. Having to go through a selection process was an important demotivating factor, but did not prevent most students from applying. Having medical professionals in their network also sparked students’ interest, while facilitating easier access to healthcare experiences. Conclusions The findings showed a complex interplay between healthcare experiences, growing up in a medical family, selection processes and motivation. Healthcare experiences, often one of the selection criteria, help students to form autonomous motivation for studying medicine. However, such experiences as well as support in the selection process seem unequally accessible to students. As a result, under-represented students’ motivation decreases. Medical schools

  15. Development of High Frequency Transition-Edge-Sensor Polarimeters for Next Generation Cosmic Microwave Background Experiments and Galactic Foreground Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Samantha; Sierra, Carlos E.; Austermann, Jason Edward; Beall, James; Becker, Dan; Dober, Bradley; Duff, Shannon; Hilton, Gene; Hubmayr, Johannes; Van Lanen, Jeffrey L.; McMahon, Jeff; Simon, Sara M.; Ullom, Joel; Vissers, Michael R.; NIST Quantum Sensors Group

    2018-06-01

    Observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) provide a powerful tool for probing the earliest moments of the universe and therefore have the potential to transform our understanding of cosmology. In particular, precision measurements of its polarization can reveal the existence of gravitational waves produced during cosmic inflation. However, these observations are complicated by the presence of astrophysical foregrounds, which may be separated by using broad frequency coverage, as the spectral energy distribution between foregrounds and the CMB is distinct. For this purpose, we are developing large-bandwidth, feedhorn-coupled transition-edge-sensor (TES) arrays that couple polarized light from waveguide to superconducting microstrip by use of a symmetric, planar orthomode transducer (OMT). In this work, we describe two types of pixels, an ultra-high frequency (UHF) design, which operates from 195 GHz-315 GHz, and an extended ultra-high frequency (UHF++) design, which operates from 195 GHz-420 GHz, being developed for next generation CMB experiments that will come online in the next decade, such as CCAT-prime and the Simons Observatory. We present the designs, simulation results, fabrication, and preliminary measurements of these prototype pixels.

  16. The interpretation of proverbs by elderly with high, medium and low educational level: Abstract reasoning as an aspect of executive functions

    PubMed Central

    Wachholz, Thalita Bianchi de Oliveira; Yassuda, Mônica Sanches

    2011-01-01

    It is now known that cognitive functions tend to decline with age. Executive functions (EF) are among the first abilities to decline with aging. A subcomponent of the EF is abstract reasoning. The Test of Proverbs is an instrument that can be used to evaluate the capacity of abstract reasoning. Objective To examine the association of performance in interpretation of proverbs, with education and with episodic memory and EF tasks. Methods A total of 67 individuals aged between 60 and 75 years were evaluated, and divided into three categories of education: 1-4 years, 5-8 years, and 9 or more years of schooling. The instruments used were a sociodemographic questionnaire (gender, age, marital status, education, income, previous occupation, current occupation and health perception), the Mini Mental State Examination, Brief Cognitive Screening Battery; Geriatric Depression Scale; Forward and Backward Digit Span (WAIS-III), and the Test of Proverbs. Results A high impact of education was seen on the interpretation of proverbs, with lower performance among the elderly with less education. A significant association between performance on the Test of Proverbs and scores on the MMSE, GDS, and verbal fluency tests was found. There was a modest association with incidental memory. Conclusions The capacity to interpret proverbs is strongly associated with education and with performance on other EF tasks. PMID:29213717

  17. 2018 Congress Poster Abstracts

    PubMed

    2018-02-21

    Each abstract has been indexed according to the first author. Abstracts appear as they were submitted and have not undergone editing or the Oncology Nursing Forum’s review process. Only abstracts that will be presented appear here. Poster numbers are subject to change. For updated poster numbers, visit congress.ons.org or check the Congress guide. Data published in abstracts presented at the ONS 43rd Annual Congress are embargoed until the conclusion of the presentation. Coverage and/or distribution of an abstract, poster, or any of its supplemental material to or by the news media, any commercial entity, or individuals, including the authors of said abstract, is strictly prohibited until the embargo is lifted. Promotion of general topics and speakers is encouraged within these guidelines.

  18. HDice, Highly-Polarized Low-Background Frozen-Spin HD Targets for CLAS experiments at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Xiangdong; Bass, Christopher; D'Angelo, Annalisa

    2012-12-01

    Large, portable frozen-spin HD (Deuterium-Hydride) targets have been developed for studying nucleon spin properties with low backgrounds. Protons and Deuterons in HD are polarized at low temperatures (~10mK) inside a vertical dilution refrigerator (Oxford Kelvinox-1000) containing a high magnetic field (up to 17T). The targets reach a frozen-spin state within a few months, after which they can be cold transferred to an In-Beam Cryostat (IBC). The IBC, a thin-walled dilution refrigerator operating either horizontally or vertically, is use with quasi-4{pi} detector systems in open geometries with minimal energy loss for exiting reaction products in nucleon structure experiments. The first applicationmore » of this advanced target system has been used for Spin Sum Rule experiments at the LEGS facility in Brookhaven National Laboratory. An improved target production and handling system has been developed at Jefferson Lab for experiments with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer, CLAS.« less

  19. High performance large infrared and visible astronomy arrays for low background applications: instruments performance data and future developments at Raytheon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuville, Eric; Acton, David; Corrales, Elizabeth; Drab, John; Levy, Alan; Merrill, Michael; Peralta, Richard; Ritchie, William

    2007-09-01

    Raytheon Vision Systems (RVS) has developed a family of high performance large format infrared detector arrays for astronomy and civil space applications. RVS offers unique off-the-shelf solutions to the astronomy community. This paper describes mega-pixel arrays, based on multiple detector materials, developed for astronomy and low-background applications. New focal plane arrays under development at RVS for the astronomy community will also be presented. Large Sensor Chip Assemblies (SCAs) using various detector materials like Si:PIN, HgCdTe, InSb, and Si:As IBC, covering a detection range from visible to large wavelength infrared (LWIR) have been demonstrated with an excellent quantum efficiency and very good uniformity. These focal plane arrays have been assembled using state-of-the-art low noise, low power, readout integrated circuits (ROIC) designed at RVS. Raytheon packaging capabilities address reliability, precision alignment and flatness requirements for both ground-based and space applications. Multiple SCAs can be packaged into even larger focal planes. The VISTA telescope, for example, contains sixteen 2k × 2k infrared focal plane arrays. RVS astronomical arrays are being deployed world-wide in ground-based and space-based applications. A summary of performance data for each of these array types from instruments in operation will be presented (VIRGO Array for large format SWIR, the ORION and VISTA Arrays, NEWFIRM and other solutions for MWIR spectral ranges).

  20. Research Abstracts of 1982.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    Third Molars in Naval Personnel,- (Abstract #1430) 7. A. SEROWSKI* and F. AKER --"The Effect of Marine and Fresh-Water Atmospheric Environments on...Packaged Dental Instrument4’, (Abstract #1133) 8. I. L. SHKLAIR*, R. W. GAUGLER, R. G. WALTER -.The Effect of Three Surfactants on Controlling Caries...Insoluble Streptococcal Glucan"’. e (Abstract #102) - _/_ / 10. R. G. WALTER* and I. L. SHKLAIR - The Effect of T-10 Dextran on Caries and Plaque in

  1. Analysis of the clinical backgrounds of patients who developed respiratory acidosis under high-flow oxygen therapy during emergency transport.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Hirokazu; Nishimura, Naoki; Yamano, Yasuhiko; Ishikawa, Genta; Tomishima, Yutaka; Jinta, Torahiko; Takahashi, Osamu; Chohnabayashi, Naohiko

    2016-01-01

    High-flow oxygen is often administered to patients during emergency transport and can sometimes cause respiratory acidosis with disturbed consciousness, thereby necessitating mechanical ventilation. Although oxygen titration in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients during emergency transport reduces mortality rates, the clinical risk factors for respiratory acidosis in emergency settings are not fully understood. Therefore, we analyzed the clinical backgrounds of patients who developed respiratory acidosis during pre-hospital transport. This was a retrospective study of patients who arrived at our hospital by emergency transport in 2010 who received high-flow oxygen while in transit. Respiratory acidosis was defined by the following arterial blood gas readings: pH, ≤7.35; PaCO 2 , ≥45 mmHg; and HCO 3 - , ≥24 mmol/L. The risk factors were identified using multivariable logistic regression analysis. In 765 study patients, 66 patients showed respiratory acidosis. The following risk factors for respiratory acidosis were identified: age, ≥65 years (odds ratio [OR] 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7-2.8); transportation time, ≥10 min (OR 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.7); three digits on the Japan Coma Scale (OR 3.1; 95% CI, 1.7-5.8); percutaneous oxygen saturation, ≤90% (OR 1.6; 95% CI, 0.8-3.0); tuberculosis (OR 4.5; 95% CI, 1.4-15.1); asthma (OR 1.8; 95% CI, 0.6-5.3); pneumonia (OR 1.5; 95% CI, 0.7-3.1); and lung cancer (OR 3.9; 95% CI, 1.5-10.1). These underlying diseases as risk factors included both comorbid diseases and past medical conditions. The factors identified may contribute to the development of respiratory acidosis. Further studies on preventing respiratory acidosis will improve the quality of emergency medical care.

  2. Motivation of Dutch high school students from various backgrounds for applying to study medicine: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Anouk; Croiset, Gerda; Isik, Ulviye; Kusurkar, Rashmi A

    2017-06-02

    To explore high school students' motivation for applying to study medicine and the factors that influence this. To find explanations for under-representation of minority students in medical education, descriptions of motivation of students with different background characteristics were compared. Qualitative phenomenological study using semistructured one-on-one interviews. One predominantly white and one mixed high school in a large multicultural city in the Netherlands. The study was conducted in March-December 2015. Twenty-four high school students, purposively sampled for demographic characteristics. The analysis consisted of the coding of data using a template based on the motivation types (autonomous and controlled motivation) described by self-determination theory and open coding for factors that influence motivation. The main reasons for pursuing a medical career pertained to autonomous motivation (interest in science and helping people), but controlled motivation (eg, parental pressure, prestige) was also mentioned. Experiences with healthcare and patients positively influenced students' autonomous motivation and served as a reality check for students' expectations. Having to go through a selection process was an important demotivating factor, but did not prevent most students from applying. Having medical professionals in their network also sparked students' interest, while facilitating easier access to healthcare experiences. The findings showed a complex interplay between healthcare experiences, growing up in a medical family, selection processes and motivation. Healthcare experiences, often one of the selection criteria, help students to form autonomous motivation for studying medicine. However, such experiences as well as support in the selection process seem unequally accessible to students. As a result, under-represented students' motivation decreases. Medical schools should be aware of this and could create opportunities to acquire healthcare

  3. Stellar Presentations (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The AAVSO is in the process of expanding its education, outreach and speakers bureau program. powerpoint presentations prepared for specific target audiences such as AAVSO members, educators, students, the general public, and Science Olympiad teams, coaches, event supervisors, and state directors will be available online for members to use. The presentations range from specific and general content relating to stellar evolution and variable stars to specific activities for a workshop environment. A presentation—even with a general topic—that works for high school students will not work for educators, Science Olympiad teams, or the general public. Each audience is unique and requires a different approach. The current environment necessitates presentations that are captivating for a younger generation that is embedded in a highly visual and sound-bite world of social media, twitter and U-Tube, and mobile devices. For educators, presentations and workshops for themselves and their students must support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the Common Core Content Standards, and the Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) initiative. Current best practices for developing relevant and engaging powerpoint presentations to deliver information to a variety of targeted audiences will be presented along with several examples.

  4. Metal-as-insulation variant of no-insulation HTS winding technique: pancake tests under high background magnetic field and high current at 4.2 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lécrevisse, T.; Badel, A.; Benkel, T.; Chaud, X.; Fazilleau, P.; Tixador, P.

    2018-05-01

    In the framework of a project aiming at fabricating a 10 T high temperature superconducting (HTS) insert to operate in a 20 T background field, we are investigating the behavior of pancakes consisting of a REBCO HTS tape co-wound with a stainless steel tape (metal-as-insulation (MI) coil). The MI winding is inducing a significant turn-to-turn electrical resistance which helps to reduce the charging time delay. Despite this resistance, the self-protection feature of no-insulation coils is still enabled, thanks to the voltage limit of the power supply. We have built a single pancake coil representative of the pancake that will be used in the insert and performed tests under very high background magnetic field. Our coil experienced over 100 heater induced quenches without a measureable increase of its internal resistance. We have gathered stability and quench behavior data for magnetic fields and engineering current densities (je ) in the range of 0–17 T and 0–635 A mm‑2 respectively. We also present our very first experiments on the insert/outsert interaction in the case of a resistive magnet fault. We show that if self-protection of the MI winding is really effective in the case of a MI coil quench, a major issue comes from the outsert fault which induces a huge current inside the MI coil.

  5. Paper Abstract Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Abstraction is, in effect, a simplification and reduction of shapes with an absence of detail designed to comprise the essence of the more naturalistic images being depicted. Without even intending to, young children consistently create interesting, and sometimes beautiful, abstract compositions. A child's creations, moreover, will always seem to…

  6. Designing for Mathematical Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Dave; Noss, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Our focus is on the design of systems (pedagogical, technical, social) that encourage mathematical abstraction, a process we refer to as "designing for abstraction." In this paper, we draw on detailed design experiments from our research on children's understanding about chance and distribution to re-present this work as a case study in designing…

  7. Concept Formation and Abstraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunzer, Eric A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of concepts and conceptual processes and the manner of their formation. It argues that a process of successive abstraction and systematization is central to the evolution of conceptual structures. Classificatory processes are discussed and three levels of abstraction outlined. (Author/SJL)

  8. Is It Really Abstract?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2011-01-01

    For this author, one of the most enjoyable aspects of teaching elementary art is the willingness of students to embrace the different styles of art introduced to them. In this article, she describes a project that allows upper-elementary students to learn about abstract art and the lives of some of the master abstract artists, implement the idea…

  9. Check Sample Abstracts.

    PubMed

    Alter, David; Grenache, David G; Bosler, David S; Karcher, Raymond E; Nichols, James; Rajadhyaksha, Aparna; Camelo-Piragua, Sandra; Rauch, Carol; Huddleston, Brent J; Frank, Elizabeth L; Sluss, Patrick M; Lewandrowski, Kent; Eichhorn, John H; Hall, Janet E; Rahman, Saud S; McPherson, Richard A; Kiechle, Frederick L; Hammett-Stabler, Catherine; Pierce, Kristin A; Kloehn, Erica A; Thomas, Patricia A; Walts, Ann E; Madan, Rashna; Schlesinger, Kathie; Nawgiri, Ranjana; Bhutani, Manoop; Kanber, Yonca; Abati, Andrea; Atkins, Kristen A; Farrar, Robert; Gopez, Evelyn Valencerina; Jhala, Darshana; Griffin, Sonya; Jhala, Khushboo; Jhala, Nirag; Bentz, Joel S; Emerson, Lyska; Chadwick, Barbara E; Barroeta, Julieta E; Baloch, Zubair W; Collins, Brian T; Middleton, Owen L; Davis, Gregory G; Haden-Pinneri, Kathryn; Chu, Albert Y; Keylock, Joren B; Ramoso, Robert; Thoene, Cynthia A; Stewart, Donna; Pierce, Arand; Barry, Michelle; Aljinovic, Nika; Gardner, David L; Barry, Michelle; Shields, Lisa B E; Arnold, Jack; Stewart, Donna; Martin, Erica L; Rakow, Rex J; Paddock, Christopher; Zaki, Sherif R; Prahlow, Joseph A; Stewart, Donna; Shields, Lisa B E; Rolf, Cristin M; Falzon, Andrew L; Hudacki, Rachel; Mazzella, Fermina M; Bethel, Melissa; Zarrin-Khameh, Neda; Gresik, M Vicky; Gill, Ryan; Karlon, William; Etzell, Joan; Deftos, Michael; Karlon, William J; Etzell, Joan E; Wang, Endi; Lu, Chuanyi M; Manion, Elizabeth; Rosenthal, Nancy; Wang, Endi; Lu, Chuanyi M; Tang, Patrick; Petric, Martin; Schade, Andrew E; Hall, Geraldine S; Oethinger, Margret; Hall, Geraldine; Picton, Avis R; Hoang, Linda; Imperial, Miguel Ranoa; Kibsey, Pamela; Waites, Ken; Duffy, Lynn; Hall, Geraldine S; Salangsang, Jo-Anne M; Bravo, Lulette Tricia C; Oethinger, Margaret D; Veras, Emanuela; Silva, Elvia; Vicens, Jimena; Silva, Elvio; Keylock, Joren; Hempel, James; Rushing, Elizabeth; Posligua, Lorena E; Deavers, Michael T; Nash, Jason W; Basturk, Olca; Perle, Mary Ann; Greco, Alba; Lee, Peng; Maru, Dipen; Weydert, Jamie Allen; Stevens, Todd M; Brownlee, Noel A; Kemper, April E; Williams, H James; Oliverio, Brock J; Al-Agha, Osama M; Eskue, Kyle L; Newlands, Shawn D; Eltorky, Mahmoud A; Puri, Puja K; Royer, Michael C; Rush, Walter L; Tavora, Fabio; Galvin, Jeffrey R; Franks, Teri J; Carter, James Elliot; Kahn, Andrea Graciela; Lozada Muñoz, Luis R; Houghton, Dan; Land, Kevin J; Nester, Theresa; Gildea, Jacob; Lefkowitz, Jerry; Lacount, Rachel A; Thompson, Hannis W; Refaai, Majed A; Quillen, Karen; Lopez, Ana Ortega; Goldfinger, Dennis; Muram, Talia; Thompson, Hannis

    2009-02-01

    The following abstracts are compiled from Check Sample exercises published in 2008. These peer-reviewed case studies assist laboratory professionals with continuing medical education and are developed in the areas of clinical chemistry, cytopathology, forensic pathology, hematology, microbiology, surgical pathology, and transfusion medicine. Abstracts for all exercises published in the program will appear annually in AJCP.

  10. Energy Research Abstracts. [DOE abstract journal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) provides abstracting and indexing coverage of all scientific and technical reports, journal articles, conference papers and proceedings, books, patents, theses, and monographs originated by the US Department of Energy, its laboratories, energy centers, and contractors. ERA also covers other energy information prepared in report form by federal and state government organizations, foreign governments, and domestic and foreign universities and research organizations. ERA coverage of non-report literature is limited to that generated by Department of Energy activity. ERA is comprehensive in its subject scope, encompassing the DOE's research, development, demonstration, and technological programs resulting from its broadmore » charter for energy sources, conservation, safety, environmental impacts, and regulation. Corporate, author, subject, report number, and contract number indexes are included. ERA is available on an exchange basis to universities, research intitutions, industrial firms, and publishers of scientific information. Federal, state, and municipal agencies concerned with energy development, conservation, and usage may obtain ERA free of charge. Inquiries should be directed to the Technical Information Center, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830. ERA is available to the public on a subscription basis for 24 semimonthly issues including a semiannual index and an annual index. All citations announced in ERA exist as separate records in the DOE Energy Data Base.« less

  11. Abstract Datatypes in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan

    1997-01-01

    PVS (Prototype Verification System) is a general-purpose environment for developing specifications and proofs. This document deals primarily with the abstract datatype mechanism in PVS which generates theories containing axioms and definitions for a class of recursive datatypes. The concepts underlying the abstract datatype mechanism are illustrated using ordered binary trees as an example. Binary trees are described by a PVS abstract datatype that is parametric in its value type. The type of ordered binary trees is then presented as a subtype of binary trees where the ordering relation is also taken as a parameter. We define the operations of inserting an element into, and searching for an element in an ordered binary tree; the bulk of the report is devoted to PVS proofs of some useful properties of these operations. These proofs illustrate various approaches to proving properties of abstract datatype operations. They also describe the built-in capabilities of the PVS proof checker for simplifying abstract datatype expressions.

  12. Rainwater chemistry at a high-altitude station, Mt. Lulin, Taiwan: Comparison with a background station, Mt. Fuji

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wai, Ka Ming; Lin, Neng-Huei; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Dokiya, Yukiko

    2008-03-01

    Samples of rainwater were collected at a high-altitude site in east Asia between April 2003 and May 2005. The volume weighted mean pH value for the whole sampling period was 5.12, approaching that of typical natural water. Non-sea-salt (nss) SO42- and NH4+ were the most abundant anion and cation, respectively, both existing mostly in the form of (NH4)2SO4. Chloride was excessive in most of the samples. The signature of biomass burning in south and Southeast Asia was evident in the Mt. Lulin samples. Concentrations of chemical species were found to be elevated in the spring months, owing to the emissions from south/Southeast Asia and peak biomass burning activities and frequent dust storms (in the Indian Thar Desert). In the summer and fall seasons our samples are mainly influenced by marine air masses. The episodic species concentrations measured at the summit of Mt. Fuji during the spring were due to the influence of volcanic emissions from Miyake-Jima. Tropical cyclones (TC) over the western Pacific region and deep convections play important roles in the transport of boundary layer pollutants to the free troposphere, although their influence is not frequently detected at Mt. Lulin and Mt. Fuji. The rainwater chemistry at Mt. Lulin and Mt. Fuji were examined together with the aerosol chemistry obtained from the TRACE-P and ACE-Asia campaigns. The analysis of the Mt. Lulin data set demonstrates its background characteristics of the rainwater chemistry in east Asia.

  13. Long open-path TDL based system for monitoring background concentration for deployment at Jungfraujoch High Altitude Research Station- Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonov, Valentin; van den Bergh, Hubert; Parlange, Marc

    2010-05-01

    A new, long open-path instrument for monitoring of path-averaged methane and water vapor concentrations will be presented. The instrument is built on the monostatic scheme (transceiver - distant retroreflector). A VCSEL tunable diode laser (TDL) with a central wavelength of 1654 nm is used as a light source. A specially designed, single-cell, hollow-cube retroreflector with 150 mm aperture will be installed at 1200 m from the transceiver in the final deployment at Jungfraujjoch and 100 mm retroreflectors will be used in the other applications. The receiver is built around a 20 cm Newtonian telescope. To avoid distortions in the shape of a methane line, caused by atmospheric turbulences, the line is scanned within 1 µs. Fast InGaAs photodiodes and 200 MHz are used to achieve this scanning rate. The expected concentration resolution for the above mentioned path lengths is of the order of 2 ppb. The instrument is developed at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology - Lausanne (EPFL) Switzerland and will be used within the GAW+ CH program for long-term monitoring of background methane concentration in the Swiss Alps. After completing the initial tests at EPFL the instrument will be installed in 2012 at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch (HARSJ) located at 3580 m ASL. The HARSJ is one of the 24 global GAW stations and carries on continuous observations of a number of trace gasses, including methane. One of the goals of the project is to compare path-averaged to ongoing point measurements of methane in order to identify possible influence of the station. Future deployments of a copy of the instrument include the Colombian part of Amazonia and Siberian wetlands.

  14. Clarifying the abstracts of systematic literature reviews*

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, James

    2000-01-01

    Background: There is a small body of research on improving the clarity of abstracts in general that is relevant to improving the clarity of abstracts of systematic reviews. Objectives: To summarize this earlier research and indicate its implications for writing the abstracts of systematic reviews. Method: Literature review with commentary on three main features affecting the clarity of abstracts: their language, structure, and typographical presentation. Conclusions: The abstracts of systematic reviews should be easier to read than the abstracts of medical research articles, as they are targeted at a wider audience. The aims, methods, results, and conclusions of systematic reviews need to be presented in a consistent way to help search and retrieval. The typographic detailing of the abstracts (type-sizes, spacing, and weights) should be planned to help, rather than confuse, the reader. PMID:11055300

  15. Dual-tracer background subtraction approach for fluorescent molecular tomography

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Robert W.; El-Ghussein, Fadi; Davis, Scott C.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Gunn, Jason R.; Leblond, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Diffuse fluorescence tomography requires high contrast-to-background ratios to accurately reconstruct inclusions of interest. This is a problem when imaging the uptake of fluorescently labeled molecularly targeted tracers in tissue, which can result in high levels of heterogeneously distributed background uptake. We present a dual-tracer background subtraction approach, wherein signal from the uptake of an untargeted tracer is subtracted from targeted tracer signal prior to image reconstruction, resulting in maps of targeted tracer binding. The approach is demonstrated in simulations, a phantom study, and in a mouse glioma imaging study, demonstrating substantial improvement over conventional and homogenous background subtraction image reconstruction approaches. PMID:23292612

  16. Abstract Interpreters for Free

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Might, Matthew

    In small-step abstract interpretations, the concrete and abstract semantics bear an uncanny resemblance. In this work, we present an analysis-design methodology that both explains and exploits that resemblance. Specifically, we present a two-step method to convert a small-step concrete semantics into a family of sound, computable abstract interpretations. The first step re-factors the concrete state-space to eliminate recursive structure; this refactoring of the state-space simultaneously determines a store-passing-style transformation on the underlying concrete semantics. The second step uses inference rules to generate an abstract state-space and a Galois connection simultaneously. The Galois connection allows the calculation of the "optimal" abstract interpretation. The two-step process is unambiguous, but nondeterministic: at each step, analysis designers face choices. Some of these choices ultimately influence properties such as flow-, field- and context-sensitivity. Thus, under the method, we can give the emergence of these properties a graph-theoretic characterization. To illustrate the method, we systematically abstract the continuation-passing style lambda calculus to arrive at two distinct families of analyses. The first is the well-known k-CFA family of analyses. The second consists of novel "environment-centric" abstract interpretations, none of which appear in the literature on static analysis of higher-order programs.

  17. Four years of highly time resolved measurements of elemental and organic carbon at a rural background site in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbengue, Saliou; Fusek, Michal; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Vodička, Petr; Šmejkalová, Adéla Holubová; Holoubek, Ivan

    2018-06-01

    Elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) in fine atmospheric aerosols (PM2.5: aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm) have been measured with a semi-automatic instrument during a 4-year survey at the National Atmospheric Observatory Košetice (NAOK), Czech Republic. Ground based measurements were performed from March 2013 to December 2016 with a field Semi-Continuous OCEC Aerosol Analyzer (Sunset Laboratory Inc., USA). The variation of EC and OC concentrations and the OC/EC ratio was characterized for different seasons and days of the week. During our survey, higher concentrations of EC and OC were observed in winter (0.83 ± 0.67 and 3.33 ± 2.28 μg m-3, respectively), and lower concentrations were recorded in summer (0.34 ± 0.18 and 2.30 ± 1.15 μg m-3, respectively). Inversely, the OC/EC ratio with mean value (5.1 ± 2.6) characteristic to rural background area was higher in summer (7.33 ± 3.23) in comparison to the other seasons. Since the data contain values below detection and quantification limits of the measuring device (i.e., censored values), statistical methods for censored data have been used in order to compare mean EC and OC concentrations between various seasons. It was found out that there is a significant difference between summer and the other seasons with the exception of mean OC concentrations at noon. In most cases, there was also a significant difference between winter and the other seasons. Moreover, it was found out that when dealing with OC concentrations, it is possible to replace censored values by a constant and still obtain reasonable results. In case of EC concentrations, the method based on censored distributions should be preferred when the sample size is small and the proportion of censored values is high. The diurnal variation of EC and OC is less pronounced in summer. During working days, the EC diurnal pattern displays a morning (between 6:00 and 10:00) and an afternoon/evening (between 18:00 and 22:00) peaks, while

  18. Investigation of the Effects of Facility Background Pressure on the Performance and Voltage-Current Characteristics of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Haag, Thomas; Spektor, Rostislav

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Science Mission Directorate In-Space Propulsion Technology office is sponsoring NASA Glenn Research Center to develop a 4 kW-class Hall thruster propulsion system for implementation in NASA science missions. A study was conducted to assess the impact of varying the facility background pressure on the High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAc) thruster performance and voltage-current characteristics. This present study evaluated the HiVHAc thruster performance in the lowest attainable background pressure condition at NASA GRC Vacuum Facility 5 to best simulate space-like conditions. Additional tests were performed at selected thruster operating conditions to investigate and elucidate the underlying physics that change during thruster operation at elevated facility background pressure. Tests were performed at background pressure conditions that are three and ten times higher than the lowest realized background pressure. Results indicated that the thruster discharge specific impulse and efficiency increased with elevated facility background pressure. The voltage-current profiles indicated a narrower stable operating region with increased background pressure. Experimental observations of the thruster operation indicated that increasing the facility background pressure shifted the ionization and acceleration zones upstream towards the thruster's anode. Future tests of the HiVHAc thruster are planned at background pressure conditions that are expected to be two to three times lower than what was achieved during this test campaign. These tests will not only assess the impact of reduced facility background pressure on thruster performance, voltage-current characteristics, and plume properties; but will also attempt to quantify the magnitude of the ionization and acceleration zones upstream shifting as a function of increased background pressure.

  19. Automatic Abstraction in Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, abstraction in planning has been accomplished by either state abstraction or operator abstraction, neither of which has been fully automatic. We present a new method, predicate relaxation, for automatically performing state abstraction. PABLO, a nonlinear hierarchical planner, implements predicate relaxation. Theoretical, as well as empirical results are presented which demonstrate the potential advantages of using predicate relaxation in planning. We also present a new definition of hierarchical operators that allows us to guarantee a limited form of completeness. This new definition is shown to be, in some ways, more flexible than previous definitions of hierarchical operators. Finally, a Classical Truth Criterion is presented that is proven to be sound and complete for a planning formalism that is general enough to include most classical planning formalisms that are based on the STRIPS assumption.

  20. Conference Abstracts: AEDS '82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts from nine selected papers presented at the 1982 Association for Educational Data Systems (AEDS) conference are provided. Copies of conference proceedings may be obtained for fifteen dollars from the Association. (MP)

  1. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Includes abstracts of special interest group (SIG) sessions. Highlights include digital imagery; text summarization; browsing; digital libraries; icons and the Web; information management; curricula planning; interfaces; information systems; theories; scholarly and scientific communication; global development; archives; document delivery;…

  2. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents abstracts of SIG Sessions. Highlights include digital collections; information retrieval methods; public interest/fair use; classification and indexing; electronic publication; funding; globalization; information technology projects; interface design; networking in developing countries; metadata; multilingual databases; networked…

  3. Abstracts of contributed papers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  4. Teaching Evolution in New Jersey Public High Schools: Examining the Influence of Personal Belief and Religious Background on Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carlen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine relationships between New Jersey biology teachers' personal characteristics and religious backgrounds and the time spent and approach to teaching evolution. The research instrument chosen was a cross-sectional survey. Survey questions were presented in various forms: fill in, single response, Likert…

  5. Investigation of the Effects of Facility Background Pressure on the Performance and Voltage-Current Characteristics of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Haag, Thomas; Spektor, Rostislav

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Science Mission Directorate In-Space Propulsion Technology office is sponsoring NASA Glenn Research Center to develop a 4 kW-class Hall thruster propulsion system for implementation in NASA science missions. A study was conducted to assess the impact of varying the facility background pressure on the High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAc) thruster performance and voltage-current characteristics. This present study evaluated the HiVHAc thruster performance in the lowest attainable background pressure condition at NASA GRC Vacuum Facility 5 to best simulate space-like conditions. Additional tests were performed at selected thruster operating conditions to investigate and elucidate the underlying physics that change during thruster operation at elevated facility background pressure. Tests were performed at background pressure conditions that are three and ten times higher than the lowest realized background pressure. Results indicated that the thruster discharge specific impulse and efficiency increased with elevated facility background pressure. The voltage-current profiles indicated a narrower stable operating region with increased background pressure. Experimental observations of the thruster operation indicated that increasing the facility background pressure shifted the ionization and acceleration zones upstream towards the thrusters anode. Future tests of the HiVHAc thruster are planned at background pressure conditions that are expected to be two to three times lower than what was achieved during this test campaign. These tests will not only assess the impact of reduced facility background pressure on thruster performance, voltage-current characteristics, and plume properties; but will also attempt to quantify the magnitude of the ionization.

  6. Metacognition and abstract reasoning.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Thompson, Valerie A; Brisson, Janie

    2015-05-01

    The nature of people's meta-representations of deductive reasoning is critical to understanding how people control their own reasoning processes. We conducted two studies to examine whether people have a metacognitive representation of abstract validity and whether familiarity alone acts as a separate metacognitive cue. In Study 1, participants were asked to make a series of (1) abstract conditional inferences, (2) concrete conditional inferences with premises having many potential alternative antecedents and thus specifically conducive to the production of responses consistent with conditional logic, or (3) concrete problems with premises having relatively few potential alternative antecedents. Participants gave confidence ratings after each inference. Results show that confidence ratings were positively correlated with logical performance on abstract problems and concrete problems with many potential alternatives, but not with concrete problems with content less conducive to normative responses. Confidence ratings were higher with few alternatives than for abstract content. Study 2 used a generation of contrary-to-fact alternatives task to improve levels of abstract logical performance. The resulting increase in logical performance was mirrored by increases in mean confidence ratings. Results provide evidence for a metacognitive representation based on logical validity, and show that familiarity acts as a separate metacognitive cue.

  7. Thyra Abstract Interface Package

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, Roscoe A.

    2005-09-01

    Thrya primarily defines a set of abstract C++ class interfaces needed for the development of abstract numerical atgorithms (ANAs) such as iterative linear solvers, transient solvers all the way up to optimization. At the foundation of these interfaces are abstract C++ classes for vectors, vector spaces, linear operators and multi-vectors. Also included in the Thyra package is C++ code for creating concrete vector, vector space, linear operator, and multi-vector subclasses as well as other utilities to aid in the development of ANAs. Currently, very general and efficient concrete subclass implementations exist for serial and SPMD in-core vectors and multi-vectors. Codemore » also currently exists for testing objects and providing composite objects such as product vectors.« less

  8. Abstracting and indexing guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; ,

    1974-01-01

    These instructions have been prepared for those who abstract and index scientific and technical documents for the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC). With the recent publication growth in all fields, information centers have undertaken the task of keeping the various scientific communities aware of current and past developments. An abstract with carefully selected index terms offers the user of WRSIC services a more rapid means for deciding whether a document is pertinent to his needs and professional interests, thus saving him the time necessary to scan the complete work. These means also provide WRSIC with a document representation or surrogate which is more easily stored and manipulated to produce various services. Authors are asked to accept the responsibility for preparing abstracts of their own papers to facilitate quick evaluation, announcement, and dissemination to the scientific community.

  9. Parent Education: Abstract Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremer, Barbara, Comp.

    This bibliography has been compiled to alert educators to parent education documents found in the ERIC microfiche collection and in journal literature. Abstracts of selected documents have been taken from "Research in Education (RIE)", and journal article citations from the "Current Index to Journals in Education (CIJE)". Included are published…

  10. Making the Abstract Concrete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2005-01-01

    President Ronald Reagan nominated a woman to serve on the United States Supreme Court. He did so through a single-page form letter, completed in part by hand and in part by typewriter, announcing Sandra Day O'Connor as his nominee. While the document serves as evidence of a historic event, it is also a tangible illustration of abstract concepts…

  11. Send Me No Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Steven

    1985-01-01

    Discusses Magazine Index's practice of assigning letter grades (sometimes inaccurate) to book, restaurant, and movie reviews, thus allowing patrons to get the point of the review from the index rather than the article itself, and argues that this situation is indicative of the larger problem of reliability of abstracts. (MBR)

  12. Children and Computers Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenberg, Dianne, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Abstracts of reports of eight research studies on computer uses in children's education are presented. Topics covered include (1) LOGO computer language; (2) computer graphics for art instruction; (3) animation; (4) problem solving; (5) children's use of symbols; (6) an evaluation of a Chapter 1 program involving children's computer use; (7) peer…

  13. Abstract Film and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grice, Malcolm

    A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…

  14. Abstraction through Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avraamidou, Antri; Monaghan, John; Walker, Aisha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the computer game play of an 11-year-old boy. In the course of building a virtual house he developed and used, without assistance, an artefact and an accompanying strategy to ensure that his house was symmetric. We argue that the creation and use of this artefact-strategy is a mathematical abstraction. The discussion…

  15. Composing Interfering Abstract Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    Tecnologia , Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica, Portugal. This document is a companion technical report of the paper, “Composing Interfering Abstract...a Ciência e Tecnologia (Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) through the Carnegie Mellon Portugal Program under grant SFRH / BD / 33765

  16. Abstraction and art.

    PubMed Central

    Gortais, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    In a given social context, artistic creation comprises a set of processes, which relate to the activity of the artist and the activity of the spectator. Through these processes we see and understand that the world is vaster than it is said to be. Artistic processes are mediated experiences that open up the world. A successful work of art expresses a reality beyond actual reality: it suggests an unknown world using the means and the signs of the known world. Artistic practices incorporate the means of creation developed by science and technology and change forms as they change. Artists and the public follow different processes of abstraction at different levels, in the definition of the means of creation, of representation and of perception of a work of art. This paper examines how the processes of abstraction are used within the framework of the visual arts and abstract painting, which appeared during a period of growing importance for the processes of abstraction in science and technology, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The development of digital platforms and new man-machine interfaces allow multimedia creations. This is performed under the constraint of phases of multidisciplinary conceptualization using generic representation languages, which tend to abolish traditional frontiers between the arts: visual arts, drama, dance and music. PMID:12903659

  17. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineering Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presents the abstracts of 158 papers presented at the American Society for Engineering Education's annual conference at Knoxville, Tennessee, June 14-17, 1976. Included are engineering topics covering education, aerospace, agriculture, biomedicine, chemistry, computers, electricity, acoustics, environment, mechanics, and women. (SL)

  18. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…

  19. Conference Abstracts: AEDS '84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, William E.

    1985-01-01

    The Association of Educational Data Systems (AEDS) conference included 102 presentations. Abstracts of seven of these presentations are provided. Topic areas considered include LOGO, teaching probability through a computer game, writing effective computer assisted instructional materials, computer literacy, research on instructional…

  20. Leadership Abstracts, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This document includes 10 issues of Leadership Abstracts (volume 6, 1993), a newsletter published by the League for Innovation in the Community College (California). The featured articles are: (1) "Reinventing Government" by David T. Osborne; (2) "Community College Workforce Training Programs: Expanding the Mission to Meet Critical Needs" by…

  1. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Includes abstracts of 18 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Highlights include natural language processing, information science and terminology science, classification, knowledge-intensive information systems, information value and ownership issues, economics and theories of information science, information retrieval interfaces, fuzzy thinking…

  2. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 34 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Highlights include humanities scholars and electronic texts; information retrieval and indexing systems design; automated indexing; domain analysis; query expansion in document retrieval systems; thesauri; business intelligence; Americans with Disabilities Act; management;…

  3. Poster Session- Extended Abstracts

    Treesearch

    Jack D. Alexander III; Jean Findley; Brenda K. Kury; Jan L. Beyers; Douglas S. Cram; Terrell T. Baker; Jon C. Boren; Carl Edminster; Sue A. Ferguson; Steven McKay; David Nagel; Trent Piepho; Miriam Rorig; Casey Anderson; Jeanne Hoadley; Paulette L. Ford; Mark C. Andersen; Ed L. Fredrickson; Joe Truett; Gary W. Roemer; Brenda K. Kury; Jennifer Vollmer; Christine L. May; Danny C. Lee; James P. Menakis; Robert E. Keane; Zhi-Liang Zhu; Carol Miller; Brett Davis; Katharine Gray; Ken Mix; William P. Kuvlesky Jr.; D. Lynn Drawe; Marcia G. Narog; Roger D. Ottmar; Robert E. Vihnanek; Clinton S. Wright; Timothy E. Paysen; Burton K. Pendleton; Rosemary L. Pendleton; Carleton S. White; John Rogan; Doug Stow; Janet Franklin; Jennifer Miller; Lisa Levien; Chris Fischer; Emma Underwood; Robert Klinger; Peggy Moore; Clinton S. Wright

    2008-01-01

    Titles found within Poster Session-Extended Abstracts include:Assessment of emergency fire rehabilitation of four fires from the 2000 fire season on the Vale, Oregon, BLM district: review of the density sampling materials and methods: p. 329 Growth of regreen, seeded for erosion control, in the...

  4. Abstraction and art.

    PubMed

    Gortais, Bernard

    2003-07-29

    In a given social context, artistic creation comprises a set of processes, which relate to the activity of the artist and the activity of the spectator. Through these processes we see and understand that the world is vaster than it is said to be. Artistic processes are mediated experiences that open up the world. A successful work of art expresses a reality beyond actual reality: it suggests an unknown world using the means and the signs of the known world. Artistic practices incorporate the means of creation developed by science and technology and change forms as they change. Artists and the public follow different processes of abstraction at different levels, in the definition of the means of creation, of representation and of perception of a work of art. This paper examines how the processes of abstraction are used within the framework of the visual arts and abstract painting, which appeared during a period of growing importance for the processes of abstraction in science and technology, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The development of digital platforms and new man-machine interfaces allow multimedia creations. This is performed under the constraint of phases of multidisciplinary conceptualization using generic representation languages, which tend to abolish traditional frontiers between the arts: visual arts, drama, dance and music.

  5. Leadership Abstracts, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This is volume 14 of Leadership Abstracts, a newsletter published by the League for Innovation (California). Issue 1 of February 2001, "Developmental Education: A Policy Primer," discusses developmental programs in the community college. According to the article, community college trustees and presidents would serve their constituents well by…

  6. The flip-over effect in pulsed laser deposition: Is it relevant at high background gas pressures?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojeda-G-P, Alejandro; Schneider, Christof W.; Döbeli, Max; Lippert, Thomas; Wokaun, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    In pulsed laser deposition the use of a rectangular or elliptical beam spot with a non 1:1 aspect ratio leads to the so called flip-over effect. Here, the longest dimension of the laser spot results in the shortest direction of plasma plume expansion. This effect has been mainly reported for vacuum depositions of single element targets and is particularly noticeable when the aspect ratio of the beam spot is large. We investigate the flip-over effect in vacuum and at three relevant background-gas pressures for pulsed laser deposition using a La0.4Ca0.6MnO3 target by measuring the thickness dependence of the deposited material as a function of angle. The film thicknesses and compositions are determined by Rutherford backscattering and argon is used to reduce the influence of additional chemical reactions in the plasma. The results show the prevalence of the flip-over effect for all pressures except for the highest, i.e. 1 × 10-1 mbar, where the film thickness is constant for all angles. The composition profiles show noticeable compositional variations of up to 30% with respect to the target material depending on the background gas pressure, the angular location, and the laser spot dimensions.

  7. Generalized Abstract Symbolic Summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Person, Suzette; Dwyer, Matthew B.

    2009-01-01

    Current techniques for validating and verifying program changes often consider the entire program, even for small changes, leading to enormous V&V costs over a program s lifetime. This is due, in large part, to the use of syntactic program techniques which are necessarily imprecise. Building on recent advances in symbolic execution of heap manipulating programs, in this paper, we develop techniques for performing abstract semantic differencing of program behaviors that offer the potential for improved precision.

  8. Research Abstracts of 1981.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    Development in Initally Caries-Free Naval Recruits" (Abstract #898) , 13. M. R. WIRTHLIN* and E. B. HANCOCK - " Regeneration After Biologic Treat- ment of...These variables can be grouped into four categories: oral condition (N-7), clinical attendance (N=4), personal characteristics (N=4), and record...Histologic examination of the pulp tissue in these teeth were related to the clinical criteria prior to extraction. Clinical criteria associated

  9. Abstract shapes of RNA.

    PubMed

    Giegerich, Robert; Voss, Björn; Rehmsmeier, Marc

    2004-01-01

    The function of a non-protein-coding RNA is often determined by its structure. Since experimental determination of RNA structure is time-consuming and expensive, its computational prediction is of great interest, and efficient solutions based on thermodynamic parameters are known. Frequently, however, the predicted minimum free energy structures are not the native ones, leading to the necessity of generating suboptimal solutions. While this can be accomplished by a number of programs, the user is often confronted with large outputs of similar structures, although he or she is interested in structures with more fundamental differences, or, in other words, with different abstract shapes. Here, we formalize the concept of abstract shapes and introduce their efficient computation. Each shape of an RNA molecule comprises a class of similar structures and has a representative structure of minimal free energy within the class. Shape analysis is implemented in the program RNAshapes. We applied RNAshapes to the prediction of optimal and suboptimal abstract shapes of several RNAs. For a given energy range, the number of shapes is considerably smaller than the number of structures, and in all cases, the native structures were among the top shape representatives. This demonstrates that the researcher can quickly focus on the structures of interest, without processing up to thousands of near-optimal solutions. We complement this study with a large-scale analysis of the growth behaviour of structure and shape spaces. RNAshapes is available for download and as an online version on the Bielefeld Bioinformatics Server.

  10. Active Detection of Shielded Special Nuclear Material in the Presence of Variable High Backgrounds Using a Mixed Photon-Neutron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Philip N.; Clemett, Ceri D.; Hill, Cassie; O'Malley, John; Campbell, Ben

    This paper describes and compares two approaches to the analysis of active interrogation data containing high photon backgrounds associated with mixed photon-neutron source flash active interrogation. Results from liquid scintillation detectors (EJ301/EJ309) fielded at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), in collaboration with the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), using the NRL Mercury Inductive Voltage Adder (IVA) operating in both a photon and mixed photon-neutron mode at a Depleted Uranium (DU) target are presented. The standard approach applying a Figure of Merit (FOM) consisting of background sigma above background is compared with an approach looking to fit only the time-decaying photon signal with standard delayed photon emission from ∼10-MeV end-point-energy Bremsstrahlung photofission of DU. Examples where each approach does well and less well are presented together with a discussion of the relative limitations of both approaches to the type of mixed photon-neutron flash active interrogation being considered.

  11. Temporal distribution and potential sources of atmospheric mercury measured at a high-elevation background station in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheu, Guey-Rong; Lin, Neng-Huei; Wang, Jia-Lin; Lee, Chung-Te; Ou Yang, Chang-Feng; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang

    2010-07-01

    Measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM), and particulate mercury (PHg) have been conducted at Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS) in Taiwan since April 2006. This was the first long-term free tropospheric atmospheric Hg monitoring program in the downwind region of East Asia, which is a major Hg emission source region. Between April 13, 2006 and December 31, 2007, the mean concentrations of GEM, RGM, and PHg were 1.73 ng m -3, 12.1 pg m -3, and 2.3 pg m -3, respectively. A diurnal pattern was observed for GEM with afternoon peaks and nighttime lows, whereas the diurnal pattern of RGM was opposite to that of GEM. Spikes of RGM were frequently observed between midnight and early morning with concurrent decreases in GEM and relative humidity and increases in O 3, suggesting the oxidation of GEM and formation of RGM in free troposphere (FT). Upslope movement of boundary layer (BL) air in daytime and subsidence of FT air at night resulted in these diurnal patterns. Considering only the nighttime data, which were more representative of FT air, the composite monthly mean GEM concentrations ranged between 1.06 and 2.06 ng m -3. Seasonal variation in nighttime GEM was evident, with lower concentrations usually occurring in summer when clean marine air masses prevailed. Between fall and spring, air masses passed the East Asian continent prior to reaching LABS, contributing to the elevated GEM concentrations. Analysis of GEM/CO correlation tends to support the argument. Good GEM/CO correlations were observed in fall, winter, and spring, suggesting influence of anthropogenic emission sources. Our results demonstrate the significance of East Asian Hg emissions, including both anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions, and their long-range transport in the FT. Because of the pronounced seasonal monsoon activity and the seasonal variation in regional wind field, export of the Asian Hg emissions to Taiwan occurs mainly during fall

  12. Research Abstracts of 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    ABSTRACTS OF 1980. 9 - DTIC ELECTEf ii S AN3O 1981j _NAVAL DISTRIBUTION SMT:MIT DENTAL RESEARCH Approved for PUbDiC T INSTITE iii~2 YA3 It81 Naval...Medical Research apd Development Command 30 £ Bethesda, Maryland ( *- i - NTIS - GRA&I DTIC TAB - Urrannouneed NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE...r1 w American Assoctat/ion for Dental Research, 58th Annual Session, Los Angeles, California, March 20-23, 1980. 1. AV6ERSON*, D. N., LANGELAND, K

  13. Research Abstracts of 1979.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    7 AD-AO82 309 NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INST GREAT LAKES IL F/6 6/9 RESCH ABTAT79 991 UNCLASSIFIED NORI-PR-79-11 NL ’NDRI-PR 79-11 December 1979...RESEARCH ABSTRACTS OF 1979 OTICSELZCreD MAR 2?718 S A NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE Naval Medical Research and Development Command Bethesda, Maryland...8G 3 23 O4ൌ p.,. ... ....-- - I -- - ’.... .I l l ---,, .. . = ., , ." .;’.- I 1 IV NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE NAVAL BASE, BLDG. I-H GREAT LAKES

  14. American High School Students from Different Ethnic Backgrounds: The Role of Parents and the Classroom in Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jung-In

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between ethnically diverse US high school students' (N = 331) perceptions of their parents' or classroom's motivating factors and their achievement motivation in their math class, connecting achievement goal orientation and self-determination theories. Two hypothesized path models were…

  15. Family Background, School-Age Trajectories of Activity Participation, and Academic Achievement at the Start of High School.

    PubMed

    Crosnoe, Robert; Smith, Chelsea; Leventhal, Tama

    2015-07-01

    Applying latent class and regression techniques to data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development ( n = 997), this study explored the potential academic advantages of time spent in out-of-school activities. Of particular interest was how these potential advantages played out in relation to the timing and duration of activity participation and the family contexts in which it occurred. Participation closer to the start of high school-including consistent participants and latecomers-was associated with higher grades at the transition into high school, especially for youth from low-income families. Sensitivity analyses indicated that this link between school-age activity participation and adolescent academic progress was unlikely to be solely a function of selection. It also tended to be more pronounced among youth from lower-income families, although without varying by other aspects of family status or process.

  16. Measurements of incoherent light and background structure at exo-Earth detection levels in the High Contrast Imaging Testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cady, Eric; Shaklan, Stuart

    2014-08-01

    A major component of the estimation and correction of starlight at very high contrasts is the creation of a dark hole: a region in the vicinity of the core of the stellar point spread function (PSF) where speckles in the PSF wings have been greatly attenuated, up to a factor of 1010 for the imaging of terrestrial exoplanets. At these very high contrasts, removing these speckles requires distinguishing between light from the stellar PSF scattered by instrument imperfections, which may be partially corrected across a broad band using deformable mirrors in the system, from light from other sources which generally may not. These other sources may be external or internal to the instrument (e.g. planets, exozodiacal light), but in either case, their distinguishing characteristic is their inability to interfere coherently with the PSF. In the following we discuss the estimation, structure, and expected origin of this incoherent" signal, primarily in the context of a series of experiments made with a linear band-limited mask in Jan-Mar 2013. We find that the incoherent" signal at moderate contrasts is largely estimation error of the coherent signal, while at very high contrasts it represents a true floor which is stable over week-timescales.

  17. An electron impact emission spectroscopy flux sensor for monitoring deposition rate at high background gas pressure with improved accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, C.; Blissett, C. D.; Diehl, G.

    2008-07-15

    Electron impact emission spectroscopy (EIES) has been proven to be a critical tool for film composition control during codeposition processes for the fabrication of multicomponent thin film materials including the high-efficiency copper-indium-gallium-diselenide photovoltaic cells. This technique is highly specific to atomic species because the emission spectrum of each element is unique, and the typical width of atomic emission lines is very narrow. Noninterfering emission lines can generally be allocated to different atomic species. However, the electron impact emission spectra of many molecular species are often broadband in nature. When the optical emission from an EIES sensor is measured by usingmore » a wavelength selection device with a modest resolution, such as an optical filter or monochromator, the emissions from common residual gases may interfere with that from the vapor flux and cause erroneous flux measurement. The interference is most pronounced when measuring low flux density with the presence of gases such as in reactive deposition processes. This problem is solved by using a novel EIES sensor that has two electron impact excitation sources in separate compartments but with one common port for optical output. The vapor flux is allowed to pass through one compartment only. Using a tristate excitation scheme and appropriate signal processing technique, the interfering signals from residual gases can be completely eliminated from the output signal of the EIES monitor for process control. Data obtained from Cu and Ga evaporations with the presence of common residual gases such as CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O are shown to demonstrate the improvement in sensor performance. The new EIES sensor is capable of eliminating the effect of interfering residual gases with pressure as high as in the upper 10{sup -5} Torr range.« less

  18. Top soil radioactivity assessment in a high natural radiation background area: the case of Vinaninkarena, Antsirabe-Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Rabesiranana, Naivo; Rasolonirina, Martin; Terina, Franck; Solonjara, Asivelo F; Andriambololona, Raoelina

    2008-11-01

    The village of Vinaninkarena, Antsirabe, Madagascar (47 degrees 02'40''E, 19 degrees 57'17''S) is located in a high natural radioactivity area. In order to evaluate the natural radionuclide content in soil, sampling was done on-site by the transect method (85 soil samples) and off-site through transects across and beyond the region (up to a range of 100 km), to determine the natural radioactivity variation within vs. outside the region, and to detect significant differences, taking into account spatial variability.

  19. Toward the Development of a Fundamentally Based Chemical Model for Cyclopentanone: High-Pressure-Limit Rate Constants for H Atom Abstraction and Fuel Radical Decomposition

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Chong-Wen; Simmie, John M.; Pitz, William J.; ...

    2016-08-25

    Theoretical aspects of the development of a chemical kinetic model for the pyrolysis and combustion of a cyclic ketone, cyclopentanone, are considered. We present calculated thermodynamic and kinetic data for the first time for the principal species including 2- and 3-oxo-cyclopentyl radicals, which are in reasonable agreement with the literature. Furthermore, these radicals can be formed via H atom abstraction reactions by H and Ö atoms and OH, HO 2, and CH 3 radicals, the rate constants of which have been calculated. Abstraction from the β-hydrogen atom is the dominant process when OH is involved, but the reverse holds truemore » for HO 2 radicals. We also determined the subsequent β-scission of the radicals formed, and it is shown that recent tunable VUV photoionization mass spectrometry experiments can be interpreted in this light. The bulk of the calculations used the composite model chemistry G4, which was benchmarked in the simplest case with a coupled cluster treatment, CCSD(T), in the complete basis set limit.« less

  20. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on background microflora and furan formation in fruit purée based baby foods.

    PubMed

    Kultur, Gulcin; Misra, N N; Barba, Francisco J; Koubaa, Mohamed; Gökmen, Vural; Alpas, Hami

    2018-03-01

    The baby foods industry is currently seeking technologies to pasteurize products without formation of processing contaminants such as furan. This work demonstrates the applicability of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) as a non-thermal decontamination intervention for fruit purée based baby foods. HHP processing was evaluated at 200, 300, and 400 MPa pressures, for 5, 10 and 15 min of treatment times at 25, 35 and 45 °C. HHP application at 400 MPa, 45 °C for 15 min ensured complete inactivation (about 6 log 10 ) of total mesophilic aerophiles, as well as yeasts and molds. No furan was detected in HHP processed products. Thus, the key advantage of HHP over thermal processing is the ability to achieve commercially acceptable microbiological inactivation while avoiding the formation of processing contaminants such as furan.

  1. Electromagnetic analysis of a superconducting transformer for high current characterization of cable in conduit conductors in background magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiangyang; Tan, Yunfei; Fang, Zhen; Jiang, Donghui; Chen, Zhiyou; Chen, Wenge; Kuang, Guangli

    2017-10-01

    A large cable-in-conduit-conductor (CICC) test facility has been designed and fabricated at the High Magnetic Field Laboratory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CHMFL) in order to meet the test requirement of the conductors which are applied to the future fusion reactor. The critical component of the test facility is an 80 kA superconducting transformer which consists of a multi-turn primary coil and a minor-turn secondary coil. As the current source of the conductor samples, the electromagnetic performance of the superconducting transformer determines the stability and safety of the test facility. In this paper, the key factors and parameters, which have much impact on the performance of the transformer, are analyzed in detail. The conceptual design and optimizing principles of the transformer are discussed. An Electromagnetic-Circuit coupled model built in ANSYS Multiphysics is successfully used to investigate the electromagnetic characterization of the transformer under the dynamic operation condition.

  2. Carbon-Based Oxamate Cobalt(III) Complexes as Bioenzyme Mimics for Contaminant Elimination in High Backgrounds of Complicated Constituents.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Zheng, Yun; Jiang, Xuemei; Zhang, Ran; Pei, Kemei; Chen, Wenxing

    2017-10-12

    Complex wastewater with massive components is now a serious environmental issue facing humanity. Selective removal of low-concentration contaminants in mixed constituents holds great promise for increasing water supplies. Bioenzymes like horseradish peroxidase exhibit oxidizing power and selectivity. Here, we manufactured its mimic through immobilizing non-heme oxamate anionic cobalt(III) complex ([Co III (opba)] - , opba = o-phenylenebis(oxamate)) onto pyridine (Py) modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes ([Co III (opba)] - -Py-MWCNTs, MWCNTs = multiwalled carbon nanotubes), where MWCNTs captured substrates and Py functioned as the fifth ligand. We chose typical azo dye (C.I. Acid Red 1) and antibiotic (ciprofloxacin) as model substrates. Without •OH, this catalyst could detoxify target micropollutants efficiently at pH from 8 to 11. It also remained efficient in repetitive tests, and the final products were non-poisonous OH-containing acids. Combined with radical scavenger tests and electron paramagnetic resonance result, we speculated that high-valent cobalt-oxo active species and oxygen atom transfer reaction dominated in the reaction pathway. According to density functional theory calculations, the electron spin density distribution order showed that electron-withdrawing ligand was beneficial for inward pulling the excess electron and lowering the corresponding energy levels, achieving an electrophilic-attack enhancement of the catalyst. With target removal property and recyclability, this catalyst is prospective in water detoxication.

  3. Serratia sp. ZF03: an efficient radium biosorbent isolated from hot-spring waters in high background radiation areas.

    PubMed

    Zakeri, Farideh; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari; Sadeghizadeh, Majid; Kardan, Mohammad Reza; Masoomi, Fatemeh; Farshidpour, Mohammad Reza; Atarilar, Ali

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study is to isolate and characterize (226)Ra biosorbing indigenous bacterial strains from soils and hot-springs containing high concentrations of (226)Ra by using biochemical and molecular approaches. Fifteen bacteria were isolated and their phylogenetic affiliations were determined based on their 16S rRNA gene and the two most relevant hypervariable regions of this gene; V3 and V6 analysis. A pigmented Serratia sp. ZF03 strain isolated from the water with (226)Ra content of 50471 mBq l(-1), caused 70% removal of (226)Ra at a radioactivity level of 50 Bq ml(-1), after 5 min and 75-80% in equilibrium time of 1 h, depending on the particular biosorption system and experimental conditions studied. The biosorption equilibrium was described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Kinetic studies indicated that the biosorption follows pseudo-second-order kinetics. Effect of different physico-chemical parameters on (226)Ra sorption, FTIR, SEM and TEM analysis were also investigated. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Exploring the MIS M2 glaciation occurring during a warm and high atmospheric CO2 Pliocene background climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Ning; Ramstein, Gilles; Dumas, Christophe; Contoux, Camille; Ladant, Jean-Baptiste; Sepulchre, Pierre; Zhang, Zhongshi; De Schepper, Stijn

    2017-08-01

    Prior to the Northern Hemisphere glaciation around ∼2.7 Ma, a large global glaciation corresponding to a 20 to 60 m sea-level drop occurred during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) M2 (3.312-3.264 Ma), interrupted the period of global warmth and high CO2 concentration (350-450 ppmv) of the mid Piacenzian. Unlike the late Quaternary glaciations, the M2 glaciation only lasted 50 kyrs and occurred under uncertain CO2 concentration (220-390 ppmv). The mechanisms causing the onset and termination of the M2 glaciation remain enigmatic, but a recent geological hypothesis suggests that the re-opening and closing of the shallow Central American Seaway (CAS) might have played a key role. In this article, thanks to a series of climate simulations carried out using a fully coupled Atmosphere Ocean General Circulation Model (GCM) and a dynamic ice sheet model, we show that re-opening of the shallow CAS helps precondition the low-latitude oceanic circulation and affects the related northward energy transport, but cannot alone explain the onset of the M2 glaciation. The presence of a shallow open CAS, together with favourable orbital parameters, 220 ppmv of CO2 concentration, and the related vegetation and ice sheet feedback, led to a global ice sheet build-up producing a global sea-level drop in the lowest range of proxy-derived estimates. More importantly, our results show that the simulated closure of the CAS has a negligible impact on the NH ice sheet melt and cannot explain the MIS M2 termination.

  5. Role of light and heavy minerals on natural radioactivity level of high background radiation area, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, V; Sundarrajan, M; Suresh, G; Paramasivam, K; Meenakshisundaram, V

    2014-02-01

    Natural radionuclides ((238)U, (232)Th and (40)K) concentrations and eight different radiological parameters have been analyzed for the beach sediments of Kerala with an aim of evaluating the radiation hazards. Activity concentrations ((238)U and (232)Th) and all the radiological parameters in most of the sites have higher values than recommended values. The Kerala beach sediments pose significant radiological threat to the people living in the area and tourists going to the beaches for recreation or to the sailors and fishermen involved in their activities in the study area. In order to know the light mineral characterization of the present sediments, mineralogical analysis has been carried out using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic technique. The eight different minerals are identified and they are characterized. Among the various observed minerals, the minerals such as quartz, microcline feldspar, kaolinite and calcite are major minerals. The relative distribution of major minerals is determined by calculating extinction co-efficient and the values show that the amount of quartz is higher than calcite and much higher than microcline feldspar. Crystallinity index is calculated to know the crystalline nature of quartz present in the sediments. Heavy mineral separation analysis has been carried out to know the total heavy mineral (THM) percentage. This analysis revealed the presence of nine heavy minerals. The minerals such as monazite, zircon, magnetite and illmenite are predominant. Due to the rapid and extreme changes occur in highly dynamic environments of sandy beaches, quantities of major light and heavy minerals are widely varied from site to site. Granulometric analysis shows that the sand is major content. Multivariate statistical (Pearson correlation, cluster and factor) analysis has been carried out to know the effect of mineralogy on radionuclide concentrations. The present study concluded that heavy minerals induce the (238)U and (232)Th

  6. Memory performance on the Auditory Inference Span Test is independent of background noise type for young adults with normal hearing at high speech intelligibility

    PubMed Central

    Rönnberg, Niklas; Rudner, Mary; Lunner, Thomas; Stenfelt, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Listening in noise is often perceived to be effortful. This is partly because cognitive resources are engaged in separating the target signal from background noise, leaving fewer resources for storage and processing of the content of the message in working memory. The Auditory Inference Span Test (AIST) is designed to assess listening effort by measuring the ability to maintain and process heard information. The aim of this study was to use AIST to investigate the effect of background noise types and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on listening effort, as a function of working memory capacity (WMC) and updating ability (UA). The AIST was administered in three types of background noise: steady-state speech-shaped noise, amplitude modulated speech-shaped noise, and unintelligible speech. Three SNRs targeting 90% speech intelligibility or better were used in each of the three noise types, giving nine different conditions. The reading span test assessed WMC, while UA was assessed with the letter memory test. Twenty young adults with normal hearing participated in the study. Results showed that AIST performance was not influenced by noise type at the same intelligibility level, but became worse with worse SNR when background noise was speech-like. Performance on AIST also decreased with increasing memory load level. Correlations between AIST performance and the cognitive measurements suggested that WMC is of more importance for listening when SNRs are worse, while UA is of more importance for listening in easier SNRs. The results indicated that in young adults with normal hearing, the effort involved in listening in noise at high intelligibility levels is independent of the noise type. However, when noise is speech-like and intelligibility decreases, listening effort increases, probably due to extra demands on cognitive resources added by the informational masking created by the speech fragments and vocal sounds in the background noise. PMID:25566159

  7. Memory performance on the Auditory Inference Span Test is independent of background noise type for young adults with normal hearing at high speech intelligibility.

    PubMed

    Rönnberg, Niklas; Rudner, Mary; Lunner, Thomas; Stenfelt, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Listening in noise is often perceived to be effortful. This is partly because cognitive resources are engaged in separating the target signal from background noise, leaving fewer resources for storage and processing of the content of the message in working memory. The Auditory Inference Span Test (AIST) is designed to assess listening effort by measuring the ability to maintain and process heard information. The aim of this study was to use AIST to investigate the effect of background noise types and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on listening effort, as a function of working memory capacity (WMC) and updating ability (UA). The AIST was administered in three types of background noise: steady-state speech-shaped noise, amplitude modulated speech-shaped noise, and unintelligible speech. Three SNRs targeting 90% speech intelligibility or better were used in each of the three noise types, giving nine different conditions. The reading span test assessed WMC, while UA was assessed with the letter memory test. Twenty young adults with normal hearing participated in the study. Results showed that AIST performance was not influenced by noise type at the same intelligibility level, but became worse with worse SNR when background noise was speech-like. Performance on AIST also decreased with increasing memory load level. Correlations between AIST performance and the cognitive measurements suggested that WMC is of more importance for listening when SNRs are worse, while UA is of more importance for listening in easier SNRs. The results indicated that in young adults with normal hearing, the effort involved in listening in noise at high intelligibility levels is independent of the noise type. However, when noise is speech-like and intelligibility decreases, listening effort increases, probably due to extra demands on cognitive resources added by the informational masking created by the speech fragments and vocal sounds in the background noise.

  8. Exoplanets and Multiverses (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, V.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) To the ancients, the Earth was the Universe, of a size to be crossed by a god in a day, by boat or chariot, and by humans in a lifetime. Thus an exoplanet would have been a multiverse. The ideas gradually separated over centuries, with gradual acceptance of a sun-centered solar system, the stars as suns likely to have their own planets, other galaxies beyond the Milky Way, and so forth. And whenever the community divided between "just one' of anything versus "many," the "manies" have won. Discoveries beginning in 1991 and 1995 have gradually led to a battalion or two of planets orbiting other stars, very few like our own little family, and to moderately serious consideration of even larger numbers of other universes, again very few like our own. I'm betting, however, on habitable (though not necessarily inhabited) exoplanets to be found, and habitable (though again not necessarily inhabited) universes. Only the former will yield pretty pictures.

  9. Background and stimulus-induced patterns of high metabolic activity in the visual cortex (area 17) of the squirrel and macaque monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, A.L.; Hendrickson, A.E.

    1983-02-01

    The authors have used 2-deoxy-D-(/sup 14/C)glucose (2-DG) autoradiography and cytochrome oxidase histochemistry to examine background and stimulus-induced patterns of metabolic activity in monkey striate cortex. In squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) that binocularly or monocularly viewed diffuse white light or binocularly viewed bars of many orientations and spatial frequencies, 2-DG consumption was not uniform across the cortex but consisted of regularly spaced radial zones of high uptake. The cytochrome oxidase stain in these animals also revealed patches of high metabolism which coincided with the 2-DG patches. Squirrel monkeys binocularly viewing vertical stripes showed parallel bands of increased 2-DG uptake in themore » cortex, while the cytochrome label in these animals remained patchy. In macaque (Macaca nemestrina) monkeys, binocular stimulation with many orientations and spatial frequencies produced radial zones of high 2-DG uptake. When viewed tangentially, these zones formed a dots-in-rows pattern with a spacing of 350 X 500 microns; cytochrome oxidase staining produced an identical pattern. Macaca differed from Saimiri in that monocular stimulation labeled alternate rows. These results indicate that there are radial zones of high background metabolism across squirrel and macaque monkey striate cortex. In Saimiri these zones do not appear to be related to an eye dominance system, while in Macaca they do. The presence of these zones of high metabolism may complicate the interpretation of 2-DG autoradiographs that result from specific visual stimuli.« less

  10. Scientific program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Gerich, C.

    1983-01-01

    The Fifth International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams is organized jointly by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Physics International Company. As in the previous conferences in this series, the program includes the following topics: high-power, electron- and ion-beam acceleration and transport; diode physics; high-power particle beam interaction with plasmas and dense targets; particle beam fusion (inertial confinement); collective ion acceleration; particle beam heating of magnetically confined plasmas; and generation of microwave/free-electron lasers.

  11. Background Checks for all Gun Buyers and Gun Violence Restraining Orders: State Efforts to Keep Guns from High-Risk Persons.

    PubMed

    Vernick, Jon S; Alcorn, Ted; Horwitz, Joshua

    2017-03-01

    There were more than 36,000 firearm-related deaths in the U.S. in 2015. Under federal law, a background check is required only for gun purchases from licensed dealers. Research suggests that some persons prohibited from owning a gun turn to private sellers, including those identified online, to attempt to obtain a firearm. State-level approaches to make it more difficult for high-risk persons to purchase or possess firearms include universal background check (UBC) and gun violence restraining order (GVRO) laws. UBC laws, on the books in 18 states as of the end of 2016, can reduce both homicide and suicide rates. After Colorado adopted a UBC law in 2013, the number of background checks conducted by private sellers for sales occurring at places other than gun shows steadily increased. GVRO laws give law enforcement and families the authority to petition a court to temporarily remove firearms from an individual who presents a danger to himself or others during times of crisis, regardless of whether that person has been diagnosed with a mental illness. California enacted a GVRO law in 2014. Data are emerging to suggest the effectiveness of GVRO-type laws at averting suicides and providing an entryway to services.

  12. Sex differences in aggression among children of low and high gender inequality backgrounds: a comparison of gender role and sexual selection theories.

    PubMed

    Nivette, Amy E; Eisner, Manuel; Malti, Tina; Ribeaud, Denis

    2014-01-01

    It is well understood in aggression research that males tend to exhibit higher levels of physical aggression than females. Yet there are still a number of gaps in our understanding of variation in sex differences in children's aggression, particularly in contexts outside North America. A key assumption of social role theory is that sex differences vary according to gender polarization, whereas sexual selection theory accords variation to the ecological environment that consequently affects male competition [Archer, J. (2009). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32, 249-311; Kenrick, D., & Griskevicious, V. (2009). More holes in social roles [Comment]. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32, 283-285]. In the present paper, we explore these contradicting theoretical frameworks by examining data from a longitudinal study of a culturally diverse sample of 863 children at ages 7-13 in Zurich, Switzerland. Making use of the large proportion of children from highly diverse immigrant background we compare the size of the sex difference in aggression between children whose parents were born in countries with low and with high levels of gender inequality. The results show that sex differences in aggression are generally larger among children with parents from high gender inequality backgrounds. However, this effect is small in comparison to the direct effect of a child's biological sex. We discuss implications for future research on sex differences in children's aggression. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Background-free beta-decay half-life measurements by in-trap decay and high-resolution MR-ToF mass analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, R. N.; Atanasov, D.; Blaum, K.; Kreim, S.; Lunney, D.; Manea, V.; Rosenbusch, M.; Schweikhard, L.; Welker, A.; Wienholtz, F.; Zuber, K.

    2016-06-01

    In-trap decay in ISOLTRAP's radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) ion beam cooler and buncher was used to determine the lifetime of short-lived nuclides. After various storage times, the remaining mother nuclides were mass separated from accompanying isobaric contaminations by the multi-reflection time-of-flight mass separator (MR-ToF MS), allowing for a background-free ion counting. A feasibility study with several online measurements shows that the applications of the ISOLTRAP setup can be further extended by exploiting the high resolving power of the MR-ToF MS in combination with in-trap decay and single-ion counting.

  14. Long open-path TDL based system for monitoring the background concentration for deployment at Jungfraujoch High Altitude Research Station- Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonov, V.; van den Bergh, H.; Parlange, M. B.

    2009-12-01

    A new long-open-path instrument developed at EPFL for methane and water vapor observation will be presented. The instrument is developed and will be used within the GAW+ CH program and aims at long-term monitoring of background methane concentration at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch (3580 mASL). The instrument is built on the monostatic scheme (transceiver -distant retroreflector) using a 1.65 nm tunable diode laser (TDL) and a retroreflector at 1200 m from the transceiver. The data will be compared with in-situ measurements to evaluate the effect of the station on the in-situ data.

  15. Attracting Girls into Physics (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadalla, Afaf

    2009-04-01

    A recent international study of women in physics showed that enrollment in physics and science is declining for both males and females and that women are severely underrepresented in careers requiring a strong physics background. The gender gap begins early in the pipeline, from the first grade. Girls are treated differently than boys at home and in society in ways that often hinder their chances for success. They have fewer freedoms, are discouraged from accessing resources or being adventurous, have far less exposure to problem solving, and are not encouraged to choose their lives. In order to motivate more girl students to study physics in the Assiut governorate of Egypt, the Assiut Alliance for the Women and Assiut Education District collaborated in renovating the education of physics in middle and secondary school classrooms. A program that helps in increasing the number of girls in science and physics has been designed in which informal groupings are organized at middle and secondary schools to involve girls in the training and experiences needed to attract and encourage girls to learn physics. During implementation of the program at some schools, girls, because they had not been trained in problem-solving as boys, appeared not to be as facile in abstracting the ideas of physics, and that was the primary reason for girls dropping out of science and physics. This could be overcome by holding a topical physics and technology summer school under the supervision of the Assiut Alliance for the Women.

  16. Advance Organizers: Concret Versus Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkill, Alice J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Two experiments examined the relative effects of concrete and abstract advance organizers on students' memory for subsequent prose. Results of the experiments are discussed in terms of the memorability, familiarity, and visualizability of concrete and abstract verbal materials. (JD)

  17. Generative electronic background music system

    SciTech Connect

    Mazurowski, Lukasz

    In this short paper-extended abstract the new approach to generation of electronic background music has been presented. The Generative Electronic Background Music System (GEBMS) has been located between other related approaches within the musical algorithm positioning framework proposed by Woller et al. The music composition process is performed by a number of mini-models parameterized by further described properties. The mini-models generate fragments of musical patterns used in output composition. Musical pattern and output generation are controlled by container for the mini-models - a host-model. General mechanism has been presented including the example of the synthesized output compositions.

  18. Abstraction Techniques for Parameterized Verification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    approach for applying model checking to unbounded systems is to extract finite state models from them using conservative abstraction techniques. Prop...36 2.5.1 Multiple Reference Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 2.5.2 Adding Monitor Processes...model checking to complex pieces of code like device drivers depends on the use of abstraction methods. An abstraction method extracts a small finite

  19. Background and stimulus-induced patterns of high metabolic activity in the visual cortex (area 17) of the squirrel and macaque monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, A.L.; Hendrickson, A.E.

    1983-02-01

    We have used 2-deoxy-D-(/sup 14/C)glucose (2-DG) autoradiography and cytochrome oxidase histochemistry to examine background and stimulus-induced patterns of metabolic activity in monkey striate cortex. In squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) that binocularly or monocularly viewed diffuse white light or binocularly viewed bars of many orientations and spatial frequencies, 2-DG consumption was not uniform across the cortex but consisted of regularly spaced radial zones of high uptake. The zones extended through all laminae except IVc beta and, when viewed tangentially, formed separate patches 500 microns apart. The cytochrome oxidase stain in these animals also revealed patches of high metabolism which coincided withmore » the 2-DG patches. Squirrel monkeys binocularly viewing vertical stripes showed parallel bands of increased 2-DG uptake in the cortex, while the cytochrome label in these animals remained patchy. When monkeys were kept in the dark during 2-DG exposure, 2-DG-labeled patches were not seen but cytochrome oxidase-positive patches remained. In macaque (Macaca nemestrina) monkeys, binocular stimulation with many orientations and spatial frequencies produced radial zones of high 2-DG uptake in layers I to IVa and VI. When viewed tangentially, these zones formed a dots-in-rows pattern with a spacing of 350 X 500 microns; cytochrome oxidase staining produced an identical pattern. Macaca differed from Saimiri in that monocular stimulation labeled alternate rows. These results indicate that there are radial zones of high background metabolism across squirrel and macaque monkey striate cortex. In Saimiri these zones do not appear to be related to an eye dominance system, while in Macaca they do. The presence of these zones of high metabolism may complicate the interpretation of 2-DG autoradiographs that result from specific visual stimuli.« less

  20. ABSTRACTS OF RESEARCH REPORTS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Determination of the effect of cavity liner on retention of dental castings cemented in place with oxyphosphate cement; Determination of optimum pouring...on silver plating rubber base impression material in a high-speed commercial bath; Evaluation of the deterioration of carbon steel dental instruments...repairs; Evaluation of the sterilization of air-driven handpieces ; Incidence of accessory root canals in molars; Microscopic comparison of the ability of

  1. Volume II: Compendium Abstracts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    project developed a fast and simple method of characterization for ceramic , polymer composite, and ceramic -composite materials systems. Current methods...incrementally at 1-inch intervals and displayed as a false-color image map of the sample. This experimental setup can be easily scaled from single ceramic ...low-power, high-force characteristics of lead zirconate titanate ( PZT ) and an offset-beam design to achieve rotational or near-linear translational

  2. Time-gated flow cytometry: an ultra-high selectivity method to recover ultra-rare-event μ-targets in high-background biosamples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Dayong; Piper, James A.; Leif, Robert C.; Yang, Sean; Ferrari, Belinda C.; Yuan, Jingli; Wang, Guilan; Vallarino, Lidia M.; Williams, John W.

    2009-03-01

    A fundamental problem for rare-event cell analysis is auto-fluorescence from nontarget particles and cells. Time-gated flow cytometry is based on the temporal-domain discrimination of long-lifetime (>1 μs) luminescence-stained cells and can render invisible all nontarget cell and particles. We aim to further evaluate the technique, focusing on detection of ultra-rare-event 5-μm calibration beads in environmental water dirt samples. Europium-labeled 5-μm calibration beads with improved luminescence homogeneity and reduced aggregation were evaluated using the prototype UV LED excited time-gated luminescence (TGL) flow cytometer (FCM). A BD FACSAria flow cytometer was used to sort accurately a very low number of beads (<100 events), which were then spiked into concentrated samples of environmental water. The use of europium-labeled beads permitted the demonstration of specific detection rates of 100%+/-30% and 91%+/-3% with 10 and 100 target beads, respectively, that were mixed with over one million nontarget autofluorescent background particles. Under the same conditions, a conventional FCM was unable to recover rare-event fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) calibration beads. Preliminary results on Giardia detection are also reported. We have demonstrated the scientific value of lanthanide-complex biolabels in flow cytometry. This approach may augment the current method that uses multifluorescence-channel flow cytometry gating.

  3. Sensitivity to Antibiotics of Bacteria Exposed to Gamma Radiation Emitted from Hot Soils of the High Background Radiation Areas of Ramsar, Northern Iran.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Zarei, Samira; Taheri, Mohammad; Tajbakhsh, Saeed; Mortazavi, Seyed Alireza; Ranjbar, Sahar; Momeni, Fatemeh; Masoomi, Samaneh; Ansari, Leila; Movahedi, Mohammad Mehdi; Taeb, Shahram; Zarei, Sina; Haghani, Masood

    2017-04-01

    Over the past several years our laboratories have investigated different aspects of the challenging issue of the alterations in bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics induced by physical stresses. To explore the bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics in samples of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium ( S. typhimurium ), Staphylococcus aureus , and Klebsiella pneumoniae after exposure to gamma radiation emitted from the soil samples taken from the high background radiation areas of Ramsar, northern Iran. Standard Kirby-Bauer test, which evaluates the size of the zone of inhibition as an indicator of the susceptibility of different bacteria to antibiotics, was used in this study. The maximum alteration of the diameter of inhibition zone was found for K. pneumoniae when tested for ciprofloxacin. In this case, the mean diameter of no growth zone in non-irradiated control samples of K. pneumoniae was 20.3 (SD 0.6) mm; it was 14.7 (SD 0.6) mm in irradiated samples. On the other hand, the minimum changes in the diameter of inhibition zone were found for S. typhimurium and S. aureus when these bacteria were tested for nitrofurantoin and cephalexin, respectively. Gamma rays were capable of making significant alterations in bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics. It can be hypothesized that high levels of natural background radiation can induce adaptive phenomena that help microorganisms better cope with lethal effects of antibiotics.

  4. High Spectral Resolution Observation of the Soft Diffuse X-ray Background in the Direction of the Galactic Anti-Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulf, Dallas; Eckart, Mega E.; Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Jaeckel, Felix; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; McCammon, Dan; Morgan, Kelsey M.; Porter, Frederick S.; Szymkowiak, Andrew E.

    2018-01-01

    High spectral resolution observations in the soft x-rays are necessary for understanding and modelling the hot component of the interstellar medium and its contribution to the Soft X-ray Background (SXRB). This extended source emission cannot be resolved with most wavelength dispersive spectrometers, making energy dispersive microcalorimeters the ideal choice for these observations. We present here the analysis of the most recent sounding rocket flight of the University of Wisconsin-Madison/Goddard Space Flight Center X-ray Quantum Calorimeter (XQC), a large area silicon thermistor microcalorimeter. This 111 second observation integrates a nearly 1 steradian field of view in the direction of the galactic anti-center (l, b = 165°, -5°) and features ~5 eV spectral resolution below 1 keV. Direct comparison will also be made to the previous, high-latitude observations.

  5. Differences in the influence of family background and social activities on smoking of minority and white high school seniors, 1976-2004.

    PubMed

    Pampel, Fred C

    2008-12-01

    This population-based study of high school seniors examines differences in the influence of several important determinants of smoking among white, African-American, Hispanic, and other teens. With national survey data for each year from 1976 to 2004, logistic regression is used to test for differences across race and ethnic groups (averaged over all years) in the effects on daily smoking of background factors such as living arrangements and parents' education and social activities such as academic performance and religiosity. The results show similarity in effects across racial categories, but some determinants have weaker or reversed effects for African-American and Hispanic youth than for white youth. For example, high parents' education increases smoking among Hispanic youth, has little influence among African Americans, and decreases smoking among whites. These results suggest that smoking patterns of minority teens differ in some ways from those of white teens.

  6. Effects of the Bermuda High and the Great Plains low-level jet upon background and peak ozone concentrations in Texas urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estes, M. J.; Wang, Y.; Lei, R.; Wang, S. C.; Jia, B.

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies have established that the westward extent of the Bermuda High is strongly linked to the ozone concentrations in Houston. This study examines the linkages between the Bermuda High, the Great Plains low-level jet, background ozone in the eastern half of Texas, and local contributions to peak ozone in Texas urban areas. Analysis of North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) wind and pressure fields will be used to establish the presence and strength of synoptic-scale weather features, and this information will be used with ozone data from air quality networks to determine the effects upon the seasonal and interannual variations of ozone. Quantification of the effects of large-scale meteorological factors will improve understanding of the causes of ozone variations, including decadal trends in Texas cities.

  7. Change Abstract Title

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudich, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Investigating possible health effects of transported and resuspended dusts People in regions such as the Eastern Mediterranean are often exposed to high levels of both transported desert dust and to resuspended urban dust. Due to warming and drying trends, the frequency and intensity of dust storms have increased in the Eastern Mediterranean over the last decades. High exposure to particulate matter is a known risk factor to the exposed population, but the detailed understanding of how these dusts affect health remain elusive. In this talk I will describe aspects of how dust may impact health. First, transport of bacteria by desert dust, its effects on the local microbiome and dependence on the source region will be described. Then, we will describe the biological effects due to presence of biological components on dust. Finally, we will discuss how metals from brake and tire wear in resuspended urban dust affect oxidative stress and inflammation, and lead to oxidative damage in lung tissues. The significance of these findings in light of recent measurements from the global SPARATN network will be presented.

  8. (abstract) Venus Gravity Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konopliv, A. S.; Sjogren, W. L.

    1995-01-01

    A global gravity field model of Venus to degree and order 75 (5772 spherical harmonic coefficients) has been estimated from Doppler radio tracking of the orbiting spacecraft Pioneer Venus Orbiter (1979-1992) and Magellan (1990-1994). After the successful aerobraking of Magellan, a near circular polar orbit was attained and relatively uniform gravity field resolution (approximately 200 km) was obtained with formal uncertainties of a few milligals. Detailed gravity for several highland features are displayed as gravity contours overlaying colored topography. The positive correlation of typography with gravity is very high being unlike that of the Earth, Moon, and Mars. The amplitudes are Earth-like, but have significantly different gravity-topography ratios for different features. Global gravity, geoid, and isostatic anomaly maps as well as the admittance function are displayed.

  9. Toward Millimagnitude Photometric Calibration (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dose, E.

    2014-12-01

    (Abstract only) Asteroid roation, exoplanet transits, and similar measurements will increasingly call for photometric precisions better than about 10 millimagnitudes, often between nights and ideally between distant observers. The present work applies detailed spectral simulations to test popular photometric calibration practices, and to test new extensions of these practices. Using 107 synthetic spectra of stars of diverse colors, detailed atmospheric transmission spectra computed by solar-energy software, realistic spectra of popular astronomy gear, and the option of three sources of noise added at realistic millimagnitude levels, we find that certain adjustments to current calibration practices can help remove small systematic errors, especially for imperfect filters, high airmasses, and possibly passing thin cirrus clouds.

  10. Summer 2015 Internship Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) visually shows the expression of proteins by fluorescing when exposed to certain wavelengths of light. The GFP in this experiment was used to identify cells actively releasing viruses. The experiment focused on the effect of microgravity on the GFP expression of Akata B-cells infected with Epstein Barr Virus (EBV). Two flasks were prepared with 30 million cells each and two bioreactors were prepared with 50 million cells each. All four cultures were incubated for 16 days and fed every four days. Cellometer readings were taken on the feeding days to find cell size, viability, and GFP expression. In addition, the cells were treated with Propodium monoazide (PMA) and run through real time PCR to determine viral load on the feeding days. On the International Space Station air samples are taken to analyze the bacterial and fungal organisms in the air. The Sartorius Portable Airport is being investigated for potential use on the ISS to analyze for viral content in the air. Multiple samples were taken around Johnson Space Center building 37 and in Clear Lake Pediatric Clinic. The filter used was the gelatin membrane filter and the DNA was extracted directly from the filter. The DNA was then run through real time PCR for Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) and EBV as well as GAPDH to test for the presence of DNA. The results so far have shown low DNA yield and no positive results for VZV or EBV. Further inquiry involves accurately replicating an atmosphere with high viral load from saliva as would be found on the ISS to run the air sampler in. Another line of research is stress hormones that may be correlated to the reactivation of latent viruses. The stress hormones from saliva samples are analyzed rather than blood samples. The quantity found in saliva shows the quantity of the hormones actually attached to cells and causing a reaction, whereas in the blood the quantity of hormones is the total amount released to cause a reaction. The particular

  11. European Symposium on X-Ray Topography and High Resolution Diffraction (2nd) Held in Berlin, Germany on 5-7 September 1994. Programme and Abstracts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-07

    RELAXATION OF NANOSTRUCTURED SIGE/SI PILLARS BY HIGH-RESOLUTION X-RAY DIFFRACTION P. van der Sluis and C.W.T. Bull.-Lieuwma PLillps Research Laboratories...whereas the lattice is fully strained in large (10xlO mm2) pillars. (1] P.B. Fischer and S.Y. Chou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1414 (1993) (2) P. van der ...tIn, hi&ttttV (Thl)ttLtl Of epitaxial layers of 111I-V compoutnds, J1. Cl’ybll GIVILth, Vol. 44:1)1.5113 :-517, 1978. (2) P. van der Sluls Determination

  12. Modeling strong‐motion recordings of the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule, Chile, earthquake with high stress‐drop subevents and background slip

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Strong‐motion recordings of the Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake were modeled using a compound rupture model consisting of (1) a background slip distribution with large correlation lengths, relatively low slip velocity, and long peak rise time of slip of about 10 s and (2) high stress‐drop subevents (asperities) on the deeper portion of the rupture with moment magnitudes 7.9–8.2, high slip velocity, and rise times of slip of about 2 s. In this model, the high‐frequency energy is not produced in the same location as the peak coseismic slip, but is generated in the deeper part of the rupture zone. Using synthetic seismograms generated for a plane‐layered velocity model, I find that the high stress‐drop subevents explain the observed Fourier spectral amplitude from about 0.1 to 1.0 Hz. Broadband synthetics (0–10 Hz) were calculated by combining deterministic synthetics derived from the background slip and asperities (≤1  Hz) with stochastic synthetics generated only at the asperities (≥1  Hz). The broadband synthetics produced response spectral accelerations with low bias compared to the data, for periods of 0.1–10 s. A subevent stress drop of 200–350 bars for the high‐frequency stochastic synthetics was found to bracket the observed spectral accelerations at frequencies greater than 1 Hz. For most of the stations, the synthetics had durations of the Arias intensity similar to the observed records.

  13. Alterations in lipids & lipid peroxidation in rats fed with flavonoid rich fraction of banana (Musa paradisiaca) from high background radiation area.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Kripa; Vijayalakshmi, N R

    2005-12-01

    A group of villages in Kollam district of Kerala, southern part of India are exposed to a higher dose of natural radiation than global average. Yet no adverse health effects have been found in humans, animals and plants in these areas. The present study was carried out to understand whether radiation affects the quantity and quality of flavonoids in plants grown in this area of high radiation, and to assess the effect of feeding flavonoid rich fraction (FRF) of the two varieties of banana to rats on their biochemical parameters like lipids, lipid peroxides and antioxidant enzyme levels. A total of 42 albino rats were equally divided into 7 groups. Rats fed laboratory diet alone were grouped under group I (normal control). Groups II and V received flavonoid rich fraction (FRF) from the fruits of two varieties of Musa paradisiaca, Palayamkodan and Rasakadali respectively from normal background radiation area (Veli) and treated as controls. Rats of groups III and IV received FRF of Palayamkodan from high background radiation areas (HBRAs) - Neendakara and Karunagappally respectively while groups VI and VII received FRF of Rasakadali from HBRAs. At the end of the experimental period of 45 days, lipids, lipid peroxides and antioxidant enzymes from liver, heart and kidney were analyzed. FRF of Palayamkodan and Rasakadali varieties showed significant hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities. But these activities were found to be lowered in plants grown in HBRAs, particularly in Karunagappally area. Of the two, Palayamkodan variety was more effective in reducing lipids and lipid peroxides. MDA and hydroperoxides were significantly diminished in rats given FRF of banana from Veli (control area) only. FRF from plants grown in HBRAs exerted inhibition in the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the liver of rats and this inhibitory effect was maximum in rats fed FRF from Karunagappally. Banana grown in HBRAs is of lower quality with less efficient antioxidant system

  14. Background correction in separation techniques hyphenated to high-resolution mass spectrometry - Thorough correction with mass spectrometry scans recorded as profile spectra.

    PubMed

    Erny, Guillaume L; Acunha, Tanize; Simó, Carolina; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Alves, Arminda

    2017-04-07

    Separation techniques hyphenated with high-resolution mass spectrometry have been a true revolution in analytical separation techniques. Such instruments not only provide unmatched resolution, but they also allow measuring the peaks accurate masses that permit identifying monoisotopic formulae. However, data files can be large, with a major contribution from background noise and background ions. Such unnecessary contribution to the overall signal can hide important features as well as decrease the accuracy of the centroid determination, especially with minor features. Thus, noise and baseline correction can be a valuable pre-processing step. The methodology that is described here, unlike any other approach, is used to correct the original dataset with the MS scans recorded as profiles spectrum. Using urine metabolic studies as examples, we demonstrate that this thorough correction reduces the data complexity by more than 90%. Such correction not only permits an improved visualisation of secondary peaks in the chromatographic domain, but it also facilitates the complete assignment of each MS scan which is invaluable to detect possible comigration/coeluting species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Grounding Abstractness: Abstract Concepts and the Activation of the Mouth

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Anna M.; Zarcone, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools) proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth). While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk) are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts. PMID:27777563

  16. Thomas Leps Internship Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leps, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    An optical navigation system is being flown as the backup system to the primary Deep Space Network telemetry for navigation and guidance purposes on Orion. This is required to ensure Orion can recover from a loss of communication, which would simultaneously cause a loss of DSN telemetry. Images taken of the Moon and Earth are used to give range and position information to the navigation computer for trajectory calculations and maneuver execution. To get telemetry data from these images, the size and location of the moon need to be calculated with high accuracy and precision. The reentry envelope for the Orion EM-1 mission requires the centroid and radius of the moon images to be determined within 1/3 of a pixel 3 sigma. In order to ensure this accuracy and precision can be attained, I was tasked with building precise dot grid images for camera calibration as well as building a hardware in the loop test stand for flight software and hardware proofing. To calibrate the Op-Nav camera a dot grid is imaged with the camera, the error between the image dot location and the actual dot location can be used to build a distortion map of the camera and lens system so that images can be fixed to display truth locations. To build the dot grid images I used the Electro Optics Lab optical bench Bright Object Simulator System, and gimbal. The gimbal was slewed to a series of elevations and azimuths. An image of the collimated single point light source was then taken at each position. After a series of 99 images were taken at different locations the single light spots were extracted from each image and added to a composite image containing all 99 points. During the development of these grids it was noticed that an intermittent error in the artificial "star" locations occurred. Prior to the summer this error was attributed to the gimbal having glitches in it's pointing direction and was going to be replaced, however after further examining the issue I determined it to be a software

  17. Obtaining phase velocity of turbulent boundary layer pressure fluctuations at high subsonic Mach number from wind tunnel data affected by strong background noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haxter, Stefan; Brouwer, Jens; Sesterhenn, Jörn; Spehr, Carsten

    2017-08-01

    Boundary layer measurements at high subsonic Mach number are evaluated in order to obtain the dominant phase velocities of boundary layer pressure fluctuations. The measurements were performed in a transonic wind tunnel which had a very strong background noise. The phase velocity was taken from phase inclination and from the convective peak in one- and two-dimensional wavenumber spectra. An approach was introduced to remove the acoustic noise from the data by applying a method based on CLEAN-SC on the two-dimensional spectra, thereby increasing the frequency range where information about the boundary layer was retrievable. A comparison with prediction models showed some discrepancies in the low-frequency range. Therefore, pressure data from a DNS calculation was used to substantiate the results of the analysis in this frequency range. Using the measured data, the DNS results and a review of the models used for comparison it was found that the phase velocity decreases at low frequencies.

  18. [Changes in the chromatin structure of lymphoid cells under the influence of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation against the background of inflammatory process].

    PubMed

    Gapeev, A B; Romanova, N A; Chemeris, N K

    2011-01-01

    Using the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis technique (comet assay), changes in chromatin structure of peripheral blood leukocytes and peritoneal neutrophils have been studied in mice exposed to low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (42.2 GHz, 0.1 mW/cm2, 20 min at 1 h after induction of inflammation) against the background of the systemic inflammatory process. It was revealed that the exposure of mice with the developing inflammation leads to a pronounced decrease in the level of DNA damage to peripheral blood leukocytes and peritoneal neutrophils. It is supposed that the changes in the chromatin structure of lymphoid cells have a genoprotective character in the inflammatory process and can underlie the mechanisms of realization of antiinflammatory effects of the electromagnetic radiation.

  19. Alteration of strain background and a high omega-6 fat diet induces earlier onset of pancreatic neoplasia in EL-Kras transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Eric C; Strouch, Matthew J; Barron, Morgan R; Ding, Yongzeng; Melstrom, Laleh G; Krantz, Seth B; Mullapudi, Bhargava; Adrian, Kevin; Rao, Sambasiva; Adrian, Thomas E; Bentrem, David J; Grippo, Paul J

    2011-06-15

    Diets containing omega-6 (ω-6) fat have been associated with increased tumor development in carcinogen-induced pancreatic cancer models. However, the effects of ω-6 fatty acids and background strain on the development of genetically-induced pancreatic neoplasia is unknown. We assessed the effects of a diet rich in ω-6 fat on the development of pancreatic neoplasia in elastase (EL)-Kras(G12D) (EL-Kras) mice in two different backgrounds. EL-Kras FVB mice were crossed to C57BL/6 (B6) mice to produce EL-Kras FVB6 F1 (or EL-Kras F1) and EL-Kras B6 congenic mice. Age-matched EL-Kras mice from each strain were compared to one another on a standard chow. Two cohorts of EL-Kras FVB and EL-Kras F1 mice were fed a 23% corn oil diet and compared to age-matched mice fed a standard chow. Pancreata were scored for incidence, frequency, and size of neoplastic lesions, and stained for the presence of mast cells to evaluate changes in the inflammatory milieu secondary to a high fat diet. EL-Kras F1 mice had increased incidence, frequency, and size of pancreatic neoplasia compared to EL-Kras FVB mice. The frequency and size of neoplastic lesions and the weight and pancreatic mast cell densities in EL-Kras F1 mice were increased in mice fed a high ω-6 fatty acid diet compared to mice fed a standard chow. We herein introduce the EL-Kras B6 mouse model which presents with increased frequency of pancreatic neoplasia compared to EL-Kras F1 mice. The phenotype in EL-Kras F1 and FVB mice is promoted by a diet rich in ω-6 fatty acid. Copyright © 2010 UICC.

  20. Microchip electrophoresis with background electrolyte containing polyacrylic acid and high content organic solvent in cyclic olefin copolymer microchips for easily adsorbed dyes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xuan; Sun, Ping; Yang, Shenghong; Zhao, Lei; Wu, Jing; Li, Fengyun; Pu, Qiaosheng

    2016-07-29

    Plastic microchips can significantly reduce the fabrication cost but the adsorption of some analytes limits their application. In this work, background electrolyte containing ionic polymer and high content of organic solvent was adopted to eliminate the analyte adsorption and achieve highly efficient separation in microchip electrophoresis. Two dyes, rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) and rhodamine B (RhB) were used as the model analytes. By using methanol as the organic solvent and polyacrylic acid (PAA) as a multifunctional additive, successful separation of the two dyes within 75μm id. microchannels was realized. The role of PAA is multiple, including viscosity regulator, selectivity modifier and active additive for counteracting analyte adsorption on the microchannel surface. The number of theoretical plate of 7.0×10(5)/m was attained within an effective separation distance of 2cm using background electrolyte consisting 80% methanol, 0.36% PAA and 30mmol/L phosphate at pH 5.0. Under optimized conditions, relative standard deviations of Rh6G and RhB detection (n=5) were no more than 1.5% for migration time and 2.0% for peak area, respectively. The limit of detection (S/N=3) was 0.1nmol/L for Rh6G. The proposed technique was applied in the determination of both Rh6G and RhB in chilli powder and lipstick samples with satisfactory recoveries of 81.3-103.7%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Students' Abstraction in Recognizing, Building with and Constructing a Quadrilateral

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budiarto, Mega Teguh; Rahaju, Endah Budi; Hartono, Sugi

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to implement empirically students' abstraction with socio-cultural background of Indonesia. Abstraction is an activity that involves a vertical reorganization of previously constructed mathematics into a new mathematical structure. The principal components of the model are three dynamic nested epistemic actions: recognizing,…

  2. Functionalized vertical GaN micro pillar arrays with high signal-to-background ratio for detection and analysis of proteins secreted from breast tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mun-Ki; Kim, Gil-Sung; Jeong, Jin-Tak; Lim, Jung-Taek; Lee, Won-Yong; Umar, Ahmad; Lee, Sang-Kwon

    2017-11-02

    The detection of cancer biomarkers has recently attracted significant attention as a means of determining the correct course of treatment with targeted therapeutics. However, because the concentration of these biomarkers in blood is usually relatively low, highly sensitive biosensors for fluorescence imaging and precise detection are needed. In this study, we have successfully developed vertical GaN micropillar (MP) based biosensors for fluorescence sensing and quantitative measurement of CA15-3 antigens. The highly ordered vertical GaN MP arrays result in the successful immobilization of CA15-3 antigens on each feature of the arrays, thereby allowing the detection of an individual fluorescence signal from the top surface of the arrays owing to the high regularity of fluorophore-tagged MP spots and relatively low background signal. Therefore, our fluorescence-labeled and CA15-3 functionalized vertical GaN-MP-based biosensor is suitable for the selective quantitative analysis of secreted CA15-3 antigens from MCF-7 cell lines, and helps in the early diagnosis and prognosis of serious diseases as well as the monitoring of the therapeutic response of breast cancer patients.

  3. (abstract)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dastoor, M. N.; Evans, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    The paper will review the application of NASA developed remote sensing technology towards the monitoring and mitigation of natural hazards. The overview will be followed by recent data on three specific natural hazard applications.

  4. Worksite interventions for preventing physical deterioration among employees in job-groups with high physical work demands: Background, design and conceptual model of FINALE

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A mismatch between individual physical capacities and physical work demands enhance the risk for musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence, termed physical deterioration. However, effective intervention strategies for preventing physical deterioration in job groups with high physical demands remains to be established. This paper describes the background, design and conceptual model of the FINALE programme, a framework for health promoting interventions at 4 Danish job groups (i.e. cleaners, health-care workers, construction workers and industrial workers) characterized by high physical work demands, musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence. Methods/Design A novel approach of the FINALE programme is that the interventions, i.e. 3 randomized controlled trials (RCT) and 1 exploratory case-control study are tailored to the physical work demands, physical capacities and health profile of workers in each job-group. The RCT among cleaners, characterized by repetitive work tasks and musculoskeletal disorders, aims at making the cleaners less susceptible to musculoskeletal disorders by physical coordination training or cognitive behavioral theory based training (CBTr). Because health-care workers are reported to have high prevalence of overweight and heavy lifts, the aim of the RCT is long-term weight-loss by combined physical exercise training, CBTr and diet. Construction work, characterized by heavy lifting, pushing and pulling, the RCT aims at improving physical capacity and promoting musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health. At the industrial work-place characterized by repetitive work tasks, the intervention aims at reducing physical exertion and musculoskeletal disorders by combined physical exercise training, CBTr and participatory ergonomics. The overall aim of the FINALE programme is to improve the safety margin between individual resources (i.e. physical capacities, and cognitive and behavioral skills

  5. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XV, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This volume of 30 one- to two-page abstracts from 1993 highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) role-playing to encourage critical thinking; (2) team learning techniques to cultivate business skills; (3) librarian-instructor partnerships to create…

  6. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XVI, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This volume of 30 one- to two-page abstracts highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) music in the biology classroom; (2) pairing English as a second language and freshman composition students in writing activities; (3) moot court exercises in…

  7. Food Science and Technology Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elinor; Federman, Joan

    1979-01-01

    Introduces the reader to the Food Science and Technology Abstracts, a data file that covers worldwide literature on human food commodities and aspects of food processing. Topics include scope, subject index, thesaurus, searching online, and abstracts; tables provide a comparison of ORBIT and DIALOG versions of the file. (JD)

  8. Innovation Abstracts; Volume XIV, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This series of 30 one- to two-page abstracts covering 1992 highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) faculty recognition and orientation; (2) the Amado M. Pena, Jr., Scholarship Program; (3) innovative teaching techniques, with individual abstracts…

  9. Abstracts of Research Papers 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drowatzky, John N., Ed.

    This publication includes the abstracts of 199 research papers presented at the 1970 American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation convention in Seattle, Washington. Abstracts from symposia on environmental quality education, obesity, motor development, research methods, and laboratory equipment are also included. Each…

  10. Vague Language in Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutting, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined abstracts for a British Association for Applied Linguistics conference and a Sociolinguistics Symposium, to define the genre of conference abstracts in terms of vague language, specifically universal general nouns (e.g. people) and research general nouns (e.g. results), and to discover if the language used reflected the level…

  11. Inhalation exposures due to radon and thoron ((222)Rn and (220)Rn): Do they differ in high and normal background radiation areas in India?

    PubMed

    Mishra, Rosaline; Sapra, B K; Prajith, R; Rout, R P; Jalaluddin, S; Mayya, Y S

    2015-09-01

    In India, High Background Radiation Areas (HBRAs) due to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil (thorium and, to a lesser extent, uranium), are located along some parts of the coastal tracts viz. the coastal belt of Kerala, Tamilnadu and Odisha. It is conjectured that these deposits will result in higher emissions of radon isotopes ((222)Rn and (220)Rn) and their daughter products as compared to Normal Background Radiation Areas (NBRAs). While the annual external dose rates contributed by gamma radiations in these areas are about 5-10 times higher, the extent of increase in the inhalation dose rates attributable to (222)Rn and (220)Rn and their decay products is not well quantified. Towards this, systematic indoor surveys were conducted wherein simultaneous measurements of time integrated (222)Rn and (220)Rn gas and their decay product concentrations was carried out in around 800 houses in the HBRAs of Kerala and Odisha to estimate the inhalation doses. All gas measurements were carried out using pin-hole cup dosimeters while the progeny measurements were with samplers and systems based on the Direct radon/thoron Progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS). To corroborate these passive measurements of decay products concentrations, active sampling was also carried out in a few houses. The results of the surveys provide a strong evidence to conclude that the inhalation doses due to (222)Rn and (220)Rn gas and their decay products in these HBRAs are in the same range as observed in the NBRAs in India. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Radioprotective Effects of Sulfur-containing Mineral Water of Ramsar Hot Spring with High Natural Background Radiation on Mouse Bone Marrow Cells.

    PubMed

    Heidari, A H; Shabestani Monfared, A; Mozdarani, H; Mahmoudzadeh, A; Razzaghdoust, A

    2017-12-01

    We intend to study the inhibitory effect of sulfur compound in Ramsar hot spring mineral on tumor-genesis ability of high natural background radiation. The radioprotective effect of sulfur compounds was previously shown on radiation-induced chromosomal aberration, micronuclei in mouse bone marrow cells and human peripheral lymphocyte. Ramsar is known for having the highest level of natural background radiation on Earth. This study was performed to show the radioprotective effect of sulfur-containing Ramsar mineral water on mouse bone marrow cells. Mice were fed three types of water (drinking water, Ramsar radioactive water containing sulfur and Ramsar radioactive water whose sulfur was removed). Ten days after feeding, mice were irradiated by gamma rays (0, 2 and 4 Gy). 48 and 72 hours after irradiating, mice were killed and femurs were removed. Frequency of micronuclei was determined in bone marrow erythrocytes. A significant reduction was shown in the rate of micronuclei polychromatic erythrocyte in sulfur-containing hot spring water compared to sulfur-free water in hot spring mineral water. Gamma irradiation induced significant increases in micronuclei polychromatic erythrocyte (MNPCE) and decreases in polychromatic erythrocyte/polychromatic erythrocyte + normochromatic erythrocyte ratio (PCEs/PCEs+NCEs) (P < 0.001) in sulfur-containing hot spring water compared to sulfur-free hot spring mineral water. Also, apparently there was a significant difference between drinking water and sulfur-containing hot spring water in micronuclei polychromatic erythrocyte and polychromatic erythrocyte/polychromatic erythrocyte+ normochromatic erythrocyte ratio. The results indicate that sulfur-containing mineral water could result in a significant reduction in radiation-induced micronuclei representing the radioprotective effect of sulfur compounds.

  13. NASA Patent Abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 21) Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 87 patents and applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1982 through June 1982. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in mose cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  14. Mass Spectrometric Determination of Uranium and Thorium in High Radiopurity Polymers Using Ultra Low Background Electroformed Copper Crucibles for Dry Ashing.

    PubMed

    Arnquist, Isaac J; Hoppe, Eric J; Bliss, Mary; Grate, Jay W

    2017-03-07

    A rapid new method for determining the U and Th mass concentrations in high radiopurity plastics is described, consisting of (1) dry ashing the plastic sample and tracers in low mass crucibles made of ultra low background electroformed copper (ULB EF-Cu) foil cut and folded into boats, (2) dissolving both the ash and the boat in acid, (3) performing a column separation to remove copper, and (4) determining the elements of interest by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. This method was demonstrated on both unfluorinated and fluorinated plastics, demonstrating high tracer recoveries and detection limits to pg/g (i.e., parts per trillion) levels or below, corresponding to μBq/kg of material. Samples of biomedical polyester (Max-Prene 955) and a fluoropolymer (polyvinylidene fluoride, PVDF) were analyzed in powder raw material forms as well as solids in the form of pellets or injection molded parts. The polyester powder contained 6 pg/g and 2 pg/g for 232 Th and 238 U, respectively. These levels correspond to 25 and 25 μBq/kg radioactivity, respectively. Determinations on samples of PVDF powder were typically below 1 pg/g for 232 Th and 2 pg/g for 238 U, corresponding to 4 and 25 μBq/kg radioactivity, respectively. The use of low mass ULB EF-Cu boats for dry ashing successfully overcame the problem of crucible-generated contaminants in the analysis; absolute detection limits, calculated as 3 × standard deviation of the process blanks, were typically 20-100 fg within a sample set. Complete dissolution of the ash and low mass boat provided high tracer recoveries and provides a convincing method to recover both the tracer and sample isotopes when full equilibration of tracer isotopes with sample isotopes is not possible prior to beginning chemical sample processing on solids.

  15. Mass Spectrometric Determination of Uranium and Thorium in High Radiopurity Polymers Using Ultra Low Background Electroformed Copper Crucibles for Dry Ashing

    SciTech Connect

    Arnquist, Isaac J.; Hoppe, Eric J.; Bliss, Mary

    A rapid new method for determining the U and Th mass concentrations in high radiopurity plastics is described, consisting of 1) dry ashing the plastic sample and tracers in low mass crucibles made of ultra low background electroformed copper (ULB EF-Cu) foil cut and folded into boats, 2) dissolving both the ash and the boat in acid, 3) performing a column separation to remove copper, and 4) determining the elements of interest by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. This method was demonstrated on both unfluorinated and fluorinated plastics, demonstrating high tracer recoveries and detection limits to pg/g (i.e., parts per trillion)more » levels or below, corresponding to μBq/kg of material. Samples of biomedical polyester (Max-Prene® 955) and a fluoropolymer (polyvinylidene fluoride, PVDF) were analyzed in powder raw material forms as well as solids in the form of pellets or injection molded parts. The polyester powder contained 6 pg/g and 2 pg/g for Th and U respectively. These levels correspond to 25 and 25 μBq/kg radioactivity, respectively. Determinations on samples of PVDF powder were typically below 1 pg/g for Th and 2 pg/g for U, corresponding to 4 and 25 μBq/kg radioactivity, respectively. The use of low mass ULB EF-Cu boats for dry ashing successfully overcame the problem of crucible-generated contaminants in the analysis; absolute detection limits, calculated as 3 × standard deviation of the process blanks, were typically 20-100 fg within a sample set. Complete dissolution of the ash and low mass boat provided high tracer recoveries, and provides a convincing method to recover both the tracer and sample isotopes when full equilibration of tracer isotopes with sample isotopes is not possible prior to beginning chemical sample processing on solids.« less

  16. Newborn infants perceive abstract numbers

    PubMed Central

    Izard, Véronique; Sann, Coralie; Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Streri, Arlette

    2009-01-01

    Although infants and animals respond to the approximate number of elements in visual, auditory, and tactile arrays, only human children and adults have been shown to possess abstract numerical representations that apply to entities of all kinds (e.g., 7 samurai, seas, or sins). Do abstract numerical concepts depend on language or culture, or do they form a part of humans' innate, core knowledge? Here we show that newborn infants spontaneously associate stationary, visual-spatial arrays of 4–18 objects with auditory sequences of events on the basis of number. Their performance provides evidence for abstract numerical representations at the start of postnatal experience. PMID:19520833

  17. Finding Feasible Abstract Counter-Examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Visser, Willem; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A strength of model checking is its ability to automate the detection of subtle system errors and produce traces that exhibit those errors. Given the high computational cost of model checking most researchers advocate the use of aggressive property-preserving abstractions. Unfortunately, the more aggressively a system is abstracted the more infeasible behavior it will have. Thus, while abstraction enables efficient model checking it also threatens the usefulness of model checking as a defect detection tool, since it may be difficult to determine whether a counter-example is feasible and hence worth developer time to analyze. We have explored several strategies for addressing this problem by extending an explicit-state model checker, Java PathFinder (JPF), to search for and analyze counter-examples in the presence of abstractions. We demonstrate that these techniques effectively preserve the defect detection ability of model checking in the presence of aggressive abstraction by applying them to check properties of several abstracted multi-threaded Java programs. These new capabilities are not specific to JPF and can be easily adapted to other model checking frameworks; we describe how this was done for the Bandera toolset.

  18. Working with Practicing Teachers in a High-Stakes Teaching Context to Rethink Their Pedagogical Practices with Children of Diverse Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christopher P.; Weber, Natalie Babiak

    2016-01-01

    The public education system in the United States continues to struggle in educating children of diverse backgrounds. Many have addressed this issue by documenting how certain practices teach children particular types of knowledge and skills. This developmental focus on what should be happening to children of diverse backgrounds tends to ignore the…

  19. Knowledge acquisition for temporal abstraction.

    PubMed

    Stein, A; Musen, M A; Shahar, Y

    1996-01-01

    Temporal abstraction is the task of detecting relevant patterns in data over time. The knowledge-based temporal-abstraction method uses knowledge about a clinical domain's contexts, external events, and parameters to create meaningful interval-based abstractions from raw time-stamped clinical data. In this paper, we describe the acquisition and maintenance of domain-specific temporal-abstraction knowledge. Using the PROTEGE-II framework, we have designed a graphical tool for acquiring temporal knowledge directly from expert physicians, maintaining the knowledge in a sharable form, and converting the knowledge into a suitable format for use by an appropriate problem-solving method. In initial tests, the tool offered significant gains in our ability to rapidly acquire temporal knowledge and to use that knowledge to perform automated temporal reasoning.

  20. Long-term measurements of residential radon, thoron, and thoron progeny concentrations around the Chhatrapur placer deposit, a high background radiation area in Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Omori, Yasutaka; Prasad, Ganesh; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Vidya Sagar, Devulapalli; Ramola, Rakesh Chand; Tokonami, Shinji

    2016-10-01

    The Chhatrapur placer deposit is found in a high background radiation area which has been recently identified on the southeastern coast of India. Previously, some geochemical studies of this area were carried out to assess external dose from radionuclides-bearing heavy mineral sands. In this study, radon, thoron and thoron progeny concentrations were measured in about 100 dwellings during three seasons (autumn-winter, summer, and rainy) in a 10- to 12-month period and annual doses due to inhalation of them were evaluated. The measurements were made by passive-type radon-thoron discriminative detectors and thoron progeny detectors in which solid state nuclear track detectors were deployed. The results show that radon and thoron concentrations differ by one order of magnitude depending on exposure periods, while thoron progeny concentration is nearly constant throughout the year. Since thorium-rich sand is distributed in the studied area, exposure to thoron is equal to, or exceeds, exposure to radon and is not negligible for dose evaluation. Based on the measurements, doses due to inhalation of radon and thoron are evaluated as 0.1-1.6 mSv y -1 and 0.2-3.8 mSv y -1 , respectively. The total dose is 0.8-4.6 mSv y -1 , which is the same order of magnitude as the worldwide value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY LEVEL AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF SOIL SAMPLES FROM A HIGH BACKGROUND RADIATION AREA ON EASTERN COAST OF INDIA (ODISHA).

    PubMed

    Sahoo, S K; Kierepko, R; Sorimachi, A; Omori, Y; Ishikawa, T; Tokonami, S; Prasad, G; Gusain, G S; Ramola, R C

    2016-10-01

    A comprehensive study was carried out to determine the radioactivity concentration of soil samples from different sites of a high background radiation area in the eastern coast of India, Odisha state. The dose rate measured in situ varied from 0.25 to 1.2 µSv h -1 The gamma spectrometry measurements indicated Th series elements as the main contributors to the enhanced level of radiation and allowed the authors to find the mean level of the activity concentration (±SD) for 226 Ra, 228 Th and 40 K as 130±97, 1110±890 and 360±140 Bq kg -1 , respectively. Human exposure from radionuclides occurring outdoor was estimated based on the effective dose rate, which ranged from 0.14±0.02 to 2.15±0.26 mSv and was higher than the UNSCEAR annual worldwide average value 0.07 mSv. Additionally, X-ray fluorescence analysis provided information about the content of major elements in samples and indicated the significant amount of Ti (7.4±4.9 %) in soils. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. High level expression and characterization of tannase tan7 using Aspergillus niger SH-2 with low-background endogenous secretory proteins as the host.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fengling; Wang, Bin; Ye, Yanrui; Pan, Li

    2018-04-01

    Tannin acyl hydrolase (tannase, EC3.1.1.20) catalyzes the hydrolysis of hydrolyzable tannins. It is used in the manufacture of instant tea and in the production of gallic acid. In this study, we reported that the overexpression, purification and characterization of an Aspergillus niger tannase. The tannase gene was cloned from A. niger SH-2 and expressed in the A. niger strain Bdel4 which is low-background of secreted proteins. The recombinant tannase was purified by desalting, followed by gel filtration for characterization. The tannase activity achieved 111.5 U/mL at 168 h, and the purity of the enzyme in the broth supernatant was estimated to be over 70%. The optimum temperature and pH of the recombinant tannase was ∼40 °C and 7.0, respectively. The tannase activity was inhibited by Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , Cu 2+ , Ba 2+ , Ni 2+ and EDTA, and was enhanced by Mn 2+ and Co 2+ . Since A. niger is a GRAS microorganism, the recombinant tannase could be purification-free due to its high purity. The results of this study suggested that this recombinant strain could be subjected to large-scale production of A. niger tannase. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Environmental 238U and 232Th concentration measurements in an area of high level natural background radiation at Palong, Johor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ramli, A Termizi; Hussein, A Wahab M A; Wood, A Khalik

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of uranium-238 and thorium-232 in soil, water, grass, moss and oil-palm fruit samples collected from an area of high background radiation were determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA). U-238 concentration in soil ranged from 4.9 mg kg(-1) (58.8 Bq kg(-1)) to 40.4 mg kg(-1) (484.8 Bq kg(-1)), Th-232 concentration ranged from 14.9 mg kg(-1) (59.6 Bq kg(-1)) to 301.0 mg kg(-1) (1204 Bq kg(-1)). The concentration of U-238 in grass samples ranged from below the detection limit to 0.076 mg kg(-1) (912 mBq kg(-1)), and Th-232 ranged from 0.008 mg kg(-1) (32 mBq kg(-1)) to 0.343 mg kg(-1) (1.372 Bq kg(-1)). U-238 content in water samples ranged from 0.33 mg kg(-1) (4.0 Bq L(-1)) to 1.40 mg kg(-1) (16.8 Bq L(-1)), and Th-232 ranged from 0.19 mg kg(-1) (0.76 Bq L(-1)) to 0.66 mg kg(-1) (2.64 Bq L(-1)). It can be said that the concentrations of environmental U-238 and Th-232 in grass and water samples in the study area are insignificant. Mosses were found to be possible bio-radiological indicators due to their high absorption of the heavy radioelements from the environment.

  4. Chemical composition and source apportionment of PM10 at an urban background site in a high-altitude Latin American megacity (Bogota, Colombia).

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Omar; Sánchez de la Campa, A M; Amato, Fulvio; Catacolí, Ruth A; Rojas, Néstor Y; de la Rosa, Jesús

    2018-02-01

    Bogota registers frequent episodes of poor air quality from high PM 10 concentrations. It is one of the main Latin American megacities, located at 2600 m in the tropical Andes, but there is insufficient data on PM 10 source contribution. A characterization of the chemical composition and the source apportionment of PM 10 at an urban background site in Bogota was carried out in this study. Daily samples were collected from June 2015 to May 2016 (a total of 311 samples). Organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water soluble compounds (SO 4 2- , Cl - , NO 3 - , NH 4 + ), major elements (Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, Na, K, P) and trace metals (V, Cd, Pb, Sr, Ba, among others) were analyzed. The results were interpreted in terms of their variability during the rainy season (RS) and the dry season (DS). The data obtained revealed that the carbonaceous fraction (∼51%) and mineral dust (23%) were the main PM 10 components, followed by others (15%), Secondary Inorganic Compounds (SIC) (11%) and sea salt (0.4%). The average concentrations of soil, SIC and OC were higher during RS than DS. However, peak values were observed during the DS due to photochemical activity and forest fires. Although trace metals represented <1% of PM 10 , high concentrations of toxic elements such as Pb and Sb on RS, and Cu on DS, were obtained. By using a PMF model, six factors were identified (∼96% PM 10 ) including fugitive dust, road dust, metal processing, secondary PM, vehicles exhaust and industrial emissions. Traffic (exhaust emissions + road dust) was the major PM 10 source, accounting for ∼50% of the PM 10 . The results provided novel data about PM 10 chemical composition, its sources and its seasonal variability during the year, which can help the local government to define control strategies for the main emission sources during the most critical periods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Worksite interventions for preventing physical deterioration among employees in job-groups with high physical work demands: background, design and conceptual model of FINALE.

    PubMed

    Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie B; Gram, Bibi; Christensen, Jeanette R; Faber, Anne; Overgaard, Kristian; Ektor-Andersen, John; Mortensen, Ole S; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Søgaard, Karen

    2010-03-09

    A mismatch between individual physical capacities and physical work demands enhance the risk for musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence, termed physical deterioration. However, effective intervention strategies for preventing physical deterioration in job groups with high physical demands remains to be established. This paper describes the background, design and conceptual model of the FINALE programme, a framework for health promoting interventions at 4 Danish job groups (i.e. cleaners, health-care workers, construction workers and industrial workers) characterized by high physical work demands, musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence. A novel approach of the FINALE programme is that the interventions, i.e. 3 randomized controlled trials (RCT) and 1 exploratory case-control study are tailored to the physical work demands, physical capacities and health profile of workers in each job-group. The RCT among cleaners, characterized by repetitive work tasks and musculoskeletal disorders, aims at making the cleaners less susceptible to musculoskeletal disorders by physical coordination training or cognitive behavioral theory based training (CBTr). Because health-care workers are reported to have high prevalence of overweight and heavy lifts, the aim of the RCT is long-term weight-loss by combined physical exercise training, CBTr and diet. Construction work, characterized by heavy lifting, pushing and pulling, the RCT aims at improving physical capacity and promoting musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health. At the industrial work-place characterized by repetitive work tasks, the intervention aims at reducing physical exertion and musculoskeletal disorders by combined physical exercise training, CBTr and participatory ergonomics. The overall aim of the FINALE programme is to improve the safety margin between individual resources (i.e. physical capacities, and cognitive and behavioral skills) and physical work demands

  6. An investigation of the relationships between junior high school students' (8th and 9th grades) background variables and structure of knowledge recall of biological content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demetrius, Olive Joyce

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between Junior High School students' (8th and 9th grades) background variables (e.g. cognitive factors, prior knowledge, preference for science versus non-science activities, formal and informal activities) and structure of information recall of biological content. In addition, this study will illustrate how flow maps, a graphic display, designed to represent the sequential flow and cross linkage of ideas in information recalled by the learner can be used as a tool for analyzing science learning data. The participants (46 junior high school students) were taught a lesson on the human digestive system during which they were shown a model of the human torso. Their pattern of information recall was determined by using an interview technique to elicit their understanding of the functional anatomy of the human digestive system. The taped responses were later transcribed for construction of the flow map. The interview was also used to assess knowledge recall of biological content. The flow map, science interest questionnaire and the cognitive operations (based on content analysis of student's narrative) were used to analyze data from each respondent. This is a case study using individual subjects and interview techniques. The findings of this study are: (1) Based on flow map data higher academic ability students have more networking of ideas than low ability students. (2) A large percentage of 9th grade low ability students intend to pursue science/applied science course work after leaving school but they lack well organized ways of representing science knowledge in memory. (3) Content analysis of the narratives shows that students with more complex ideational networks use higher order cognitive thought processes compared to those with less networking of ideas. If students are to make a successful transition from low academic performance to high academic performance it seems that more emphasis should be placed on

  7. Hilson Adolescent Profile (HAP): Hilson Research Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilson Research Inc., Kew Gardens, NY.

    Abstracts and bibliographic citations are given for the following documents concerned with the use and characteristics of the Hilson Adolescent Profile (HAP): (1) "Use of the Hilson Adolescent Profile To Compare Juvenile Offenders with Junior and Senior High School Students" (R. E. Inwald and K. E. Brobst); (2) "The Effectiveness of…

  8. Diffusion weighted whole body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS): technical improvement using free breathing, STIR and high resolution 3D display.

    PubMed

    Takahara, Taro; Imai, Yutaka; Yamashita, Tomohiro; Yasuda, Seiei; Nasu, Seiji; Van Cauteren, Marc

    2004-01-01

    To examine a new way of body diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) using the short TI inversion recovery-echo planar imaging (STIR-EPI) sequence and free breathing scanning (diffusion weighted whole body imaging with background body signal suppression; DWIBS) to obtain three-dimensional displays. 1) Apparent contrast-to-noise ratios (AppCNR) between lymph nodes and surrounding fat tissue were compared in three types of DWI with and without breath-holding, with variable lengths of scan time and slice thickness. 2) The STIR-EPI sequence and spin echo-echo planar imaging (SE-EPI) sequence with chemical shift selective (CHESS) pulse were compared in terms of their degree of fat suppression. 3) Eleven patients with neck, chest, and abdominal malignancy were scanned with DWIBS for evaluation of feasibility. Whole body imaging was done in a later stage of the study using the peripheral vascular coil. The AppCNR of 8 mm slice thickness images reconstructed from 4 mm slice thickness source images obtained in a free breathing scan of 430 sec were much better than 9 mm slice thickness breath-hold scans obtained in 25 sec. High resolution multi-planar reformat (MPR) and maximum intensity projection (MIP) images could be made from the data set of 4 mm slice thickness images. Fat suppression was much better in the STIR-EPI sequence than SE-EPI with CHESS pulse. The feasibility of DWIBS was showed in clinical scans of 11 patients. Whole body images were successfully obtained with adequate fat suppression. Three-dimensional DWIBS can be obtained with this technique, which may allow us to screen for malignancies in the whole body.

  9. Construct Abstraction for Automatic Information Abstraction from Digital Images

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-30

    objects and features and the names of objects of objects and features. For example, in Figure 15 the parts of the fish could be named the ‘mouth... fish -1 fish -2 fish -3 tennis shoe tennis racquet...of abstraction and generality. For example, an algorithm might usefully find a polygon ( blob ) in an image and calculate numbers such as the

  10. Modelling Metamorphism by Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Preda, Mila; Giacobazzi, Roberto; Debray, Saumya; Coogan, Kevin; Townsend, Gregg M.

    Metamorphic malware apply semantics-preserving transformations to their own code in order to foil detection systems based on signature matching. In this paper we consider the problem of automatically extract metamorphic signatures from these malware. We introduce a semantics for self-modifying code, later called phase semantics, and prove its correctness by showing that it is an abstract interpretation of the standard trace semantics. Phase semantics precisely models the metamorphic code behavior by providing a set of traces of programs which correspond to the possible evolutions of the metamorphic code during execution. We show that metamorphic signatures can be automatically extracted by abstract interpretation of the phase semantics, and that regular metamorphism can be modelled as finite state automata abstraction of the phase semantics.

  11. Inverse Compton X-Ray Halos Around High-z Radio Galaxies: A Feedback Mechanism Powered by Far-Infrared Starbursts or the Cosmic Microwave Background?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Small, Ian; Blundell, Katherine M.; Lehmer, B. D.; Alexander, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    We report the detection of extended X-ray emission around two powerful radio galaxies at z approx. 3.6 (4C 03.24 and 4C 19.71) and use these to investigate the origin of extended, inverse Compton (IC) powered X-ray halos at high redshifts. The halos have X-ray luminosities of L(sub X) approx. 3 x 10(exp 44) erg/s and sizes of approx.60 kpc. Their morphologies are broadly similar to the approx.60 kpc long radio lobes around these galaxies suggesting they are formed from IC scattering by relativistic electrons in the radio lobes, of either cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons or far-infrared photons from the dust-obscured starbursts in these galaxies. These observations double the number of z > 3 radio galaxies with X-ray-detected IC halos. We compare the IC X-ray-to-radio luminosity ratios for the two new detections to the two previously detected z approx. 3.8 radio galaxies. Given the similar redshifts, we would expect comparable X-ray IC luminosities if millimeter photons from the CMB are the dominant seed field for the IC emission (assuming all four galaxies have similar ages and jet powers). Instead we see that the two z approx. 3.6 radio galaxies, which are 4 fainter in the far-infrared than those at z 3.8, also have approx.4x fainter X-ray IC emission. Including data for a further six z > or approx. 2 radio sources with detected IC X-ray halos from the literature, we suggest that in the more compact, majority of radio sources, those with lobe sizes < or approx.100-200 kpc, the bulk of the IC emission may be driven by scattering of locally produced far-infrared photons from luminous, dust-obscured starbursts within these galaxies, rather than millimeter photons from the CMB. The resulting X-ray emission appears sufficient to ionize the gas on approx.100-200 kpc scales around these systems and thus helps form the extended, kinematically quiescent Ly(alpha) emission line halos found around some of these systems. The starburst and active galactic nucleus

  12. Static Analysis Using Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthaud, Maxime

    2017-01-01

    Short presentation about static analysis and most particularly abstract interpretation. It starts with a brief explanation on why static analysis is used at NASA. Then, it describes the IKOS (Inference Kernel for Open Static Analyzers) tool chain. Results on NASA projects are shown. Several well known algorithms from the static analysis literature are then explained (such as pointer analyses, memory analyses, weak relational abstract domains, function summarization, etc.). It ends with interesting problems we encountered (such as C++ analysis with exception handling, or the detection of integer overflow).

  13. The Cosmic Background Explorer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulkis, Samuel; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Outlines the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission to measure celestial radiation. Describes the instruments used and experiments involving differential microwave radiometers, and a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer. (YP)

  14. Typographic Settings for Structured Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2000-01-01

    Lists some of the major typographic variables involved in structured abstracts (containing sub-headings). Illustrates how typography can affect clarity by presenting seven examples that illustrate the effects of these typographic variables in practice. Concludes with a final example of an effective approach. (SR)

  15. Handedness Shapes Children's Abstract Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like "kindness" and "intelligence"? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on…

  16. What Is It? Elementary Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Sossan, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Abstraction can be hard for older students to understand, and it usually involves simplifying or rearranging natural objects to meet the needs of the artist, whether it be for organization or expression. But, in reality, that is what young artists do when they draw from life. They do not have enough experience--and sometimes the patience--to see…

  17. ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS 48347-48982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Technology, London (England). Warren Spring Lab.

    IN THIS COLLECTION OF ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS AND ANNOTATIONS THE FOLLOWING AREAS OF CONCERN ARE REPRESENTED--GENERAL REFERENCES, METHODS, FACILITIES, AND EQUIPMENT RELATING TO ERGONOMICS, SYSTEMS OF MAN AND MACHINES, VISUAL, AUDITORY, AND OTHER SENSORY INPUTS AND PROCESSES (INCLUDING SPEECH AND INTELLIGIBILITY), INPUT CHANNELS, BODY MEASUREMENTS,…

  18. Journalism Abstracts. Volume 25, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhoit, Frances Goins, Ed.

    Collected from 55 universities in the United States and Canada, and published by the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, this volume contains 339 abstracts of research dissertations and theses accepted for graduate degrees in journalism and mass communications from July 1, 1986 through June 30, 1987. Only research…

  19. Metaphoric Images from Abstract Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vizmuller-Zocco, Jana

    1992-01-01

    Discusses children's use of metaphors to create meaning, using as an example the pragmatic and "scientific" ways in which preschool children explain thunder and lightning to themselves. Argues that children are being shortchanged by modern scientific notions of abstractness and that they should be encouraged to create their own explanations of…

  20. Behavior of a high-temperature superconducting conductor on a round core cable at current ramp rates as high as 67.8 kA s-1 in background fields of up to 19 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, P. C.; Bromberg, L.; van der Laan, D. C.; Noyes, P.; Weijers, H. W.

    2016-04-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) conductor-on-round-core (CORC®) cables have been developed for use in power transmission systems and large high-field magnets. The use of high-current conductors for large-scale magnets reduces system inductance and limits the peak voltage needed for ramped field operation. A CORC® cable contains a large number of RE-Ba2Cu3O7-δ (RE = rare earth) (REBCO) coated conductors, helically wound in multiple layers on a thin, round former. Large-scale applications, such as fusion and accelerator magnets, require current ramp rates of several kilo-Amperes per second during pulsed operation. This paper presents results that demonstrate the electromagnetic stability of a CORC® cable during transient conditions. Measurements were performed at 4.2 K using a 1.55 m long CORC® cable in background fields of up to 19 T. Repeated current pulses in a background field of 19 T at current ramp rates of up to 67.8 kA s-1 to approximately 90% of the cable’s quench current at that field, did not show any sign of degradation in cable performance due to excessive ac loss or electromagnetic instability. The very high current ramp rates applied during these tests were used to compensate, to the extent possible, the limited cable length accommodated by the test facility, assuming that the measured results could be extrapolated to longer length cables operated at proportionally lower current ramp rates. No shift of the superconducting transition to lower current was measured when the current ramp rate was increased from 25 A s-1 to 67.8 kA s-1. These results demonstrate the viability of CORC® cables for use in low-inductance magnets that operate at moderate to high current ramp rates.

  1. Backgrounds in Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, John C.; Long, Barbara K.

    "Backgrounds in Language," a field-tested inservice course designed for use by groups of 15 or 25 language arts teachers, provides the subject matter background teachers need to make informed decisions about what curriculum materials to use in what way, at what time, and with which students. The course is comprised of eight 2-hour sessions,…

  2. Optimal background matching camouflage.

    PubMed

    Michalis, Constantine; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E; Gibson, David P; Cuthill, Innes C

    2017-07-12

    Background matching is the most familiar and widespread camouflage strategy: avoiding detection by having a similar colour and pattern to the background. Optimizing background matching is straightforward in a homogeneous environment, or when the habitat has very distinct sub-types and there is divergent selection leading to polymorphism. However, most backgrounds have continuous variation in colour and texture, so what is the best solution? Not all samples of the background are likely to be equally inconspicuous, and laboratory experiments on birds and humans support this view. Theory suggests that the most probable background sample (in the statistical sense), at the size of the prey, would, on average, be the most cryptic. We present an analysis, based on realistic assumptions about low-level vision, that estimates the distribution of background colours and visual textures, and predicts the best camouflage. We present data from a field experiment that tests and supports our predictions, using artificial moth-like targets under bird predation. Additionally, we present analogous data for humans, under tightly controlled viewing conditions, searching for targets on a computer screen. These data show that, in the absence of predator learning, the best single camouflage pattern for heterogeneous backgrounds is the most probable sample. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. The NuSTAR Extragalactic Survey: A First Sensitive Look at the High-Energy Cosmic X-Ray Background Population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, D. M.; Stern, D.; DelMoro, A.; Lansbury, G. B.; Assef, R. J.; Aird, J.; Ajello, M.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We report on the first 10 identifications of sources serendipitously detected by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) to provide the first sensitive census of the cosmic X-ray background source population at approximately greater than 10 keV. We find that these NuSTAR-detected sources are approximately 100 times fainter than those previously detected at approximately greater than 10 keV and have a broad range in redshift and luminosity (z = 0.020-2.923 and L(sub 10-40 keV) approximately equals 4 × 10(exp 41) - 5 × 10(exp 45) erg per second; the median redshift and luminosity are z approximately equal to 0.7 and L(sub 10-40 keV) approximately equal to 3 × 10(exp 44) erg per second, respectively. We characterize these sources on the basis of broad-band approximately equal to 0.5 - 32 keV spectroscopy, optical spectroscopy, and broad-band ultraviolet-to-mid-infrared spectral energy distribution analyses. We find that the dominant source population is quasars with L(sub 10-40 keV) greater than 10(exp 44) erg per second, of which approximately 50% are obscured with N(sub H) approximately greater than 10(exp 22) per square centimeters. However, none of the 10 NuSTAR sources are Compton thick (N(sub H) approximately greater than 10(exp 24) per square centimeters) and we place a 90% confidence upper limit on the fraction of Compton-thick quasars (L(sub 10-40 keV) greater than 10(exp 44) erg per second) selected at approximately greater than 10 keV of approximately less than 33% over the redshift range z = 0.5 - 1.1. We jointly fitted the rest-frame approximately equal to 10-40 keV data for all of the non-beamed sources with L(sub 10-40 keV) greater than 10(exp 43) erg per second to constrain the average strength of reflection; we find R less than 1.4 for gamma = 1.8, broadly consistent with that found for local active galactic nuclei (AGNs) observed at approximately greater than 10 keV. We also constrain the host-galaxy masses and find a median stellar

  4. An Abstract Plan Preparation Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new planning language that is more abstract than most existing planning languages such as the Planning Domain Definition Language (PDDL) or the New Domain Description Language (NDDL). The goal of this language is to simplify the formal analysis and specification of planning problems that are intended for safety-critical applications such as power management or automated rendezvous in future manned spacecraft. The new language has been named the Abstract Plan Preparation Language (APPL). A translator from APPL to NDDL has been developed in support of the Spacecraft Autonomy for Vehicles and Habitats Project (SAVH) sponsored by the Explorations Technology Development Program, which is seeking to mature autonomy technology for application to the new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) that will replace the Space Shuttle.

  5. High-level direct-dynamics variational transition state theory calculations including multidimensional tunneling of the thermal rate constants, branching ratios, and kinetic isotope effects of the hydrogen abstraction reactions from methanol by atomic hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Meana-Pañeda, Rubén; Truhlar, Donald G; Fernández-Ramos, Antonio

    2011-03-07

    We report a detailed theoretical study of the hydrogen abstraction reaction from methanol by atomic hydrogen. The study includes the analysis of thermal rate constants, branching ratios, and kinetic isotope effects. Specifically, we have performed high-level computations at the MC3BB level together with direct dynamics calculations by canonical variational transition state theory (CVT) with the microcanonically optimized multidimensional tunneling (μOMT) transmission coefficient (CVT/μOMT) to study both the CH(3)OH+H→CH(2)OH+H(2) (R1) reaction and the CH(3)OH+H→CH(3)O+H(2) (R2) reaction. The CVT/μOMT calculations show that reaction R1 dominates in the whole range 298≤T (K)≤2500 and that anharmonic effects on the torsional mode about the C-O bond are important, mainly at high temperatures. The activation energy for the total reaction sum of R1 and R2 reactions changes substantially with temperature and, therefore, the use of straight-line Arrhenius plots is not valid. We recommend the use of new expressions for the total R1 + R2 reaction and for the R1 and R2 individual reactions. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  6. Abstract Jupiter Atmosphere (Artist Concept)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-03-28

    Citizen scientist Rick Lundh created this abstract Jovian artwork using data from the JunoCam imager onboard NASA's Juno spacecraft. The original image captures a close-up view of numerous storms in the northern hemisphere of Jupiter. To produce this artwork, Lundh selected a more contrasting part of one of Jupiter's storms, then cropped the image and applied an oil-painting filter. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21983

  7. Cryogenic foam insulation: Abstracted publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. R.

    1977-01-01

    A group of documents were chosen and abstracted which contain information on the properties of foam materials and on the use of foams as thermal insulation at cryogenic temperatures. The properties include thermal properties, mechanical properties, and compatibility properties with oxygen and other cryogenic fluids. Uses of foams include applications as thermal insulation for spacecraft propellant tanks, and for liquefied natural gas storage tanks and pipelines.

  8. Background Underground at WIPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esch, Ernst-Ingo; Hime, A.; Bowles, T. J.

    2001-04-01

    Recent interest to establish a dedicated underground laboratory in the United States prompted an experimental program at to quantify the enviromental backgrounds underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. An outline of this program is provided along with recent experimental data on the cosmic ray muon flux at the 650 meter level of WIPP. The implications of the cosmic ray muon and fast neutron background at WIPP will be discussed in the context of new generation, low background experiments envisioned in the future.

  9. High resolution time-course mapping of early transcriptomic, molecular and cellular phenotypes in Huntington's disease CAG knock-in mice across multiple genetic backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Ament, Seth A; Pearl, Jocelynn R; Grindeland, Andrea; St Claire, Jason; Earls, John C; Kovalenko, Marina; Gillis, Tammy; Mysore, Jayalakshmi; Gusella, James F; Lee, Jong-Min; Kwak, Seung; Howland, David; Lee, Min Young; Baxter, David; Scherler, Kelsey; Wang, Kai; Geman, Donald; Carroll, Jeffrey B; MacDonald, Marcy E; Carlson, George; Wheeler, Vanessa C; Price, Nathan D; Hood, Leroy E

    2017-03-01

    Huntington's disease is a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by the expansion of a CAG repeat in the HTT gene. In addition to the length of the CAG expansion, factors such as genetic background have been shown to contribute to the age at onset of neurological symptoms. A central challenge in understanding the disease progression that leads from the HD mutation to massive cell death in the striatum is the ability to characterize the subtle and early functional consequences of the CAG expansion longitudinally. We used dense time course sampling between 4 and 20 postnatal weeks to characterize early transcriptomic, molecular and cellular phenotypes in the striatum of six distinct knock-in mouse models of the HD mutation. We studied the effects of the HttQ111 allele on the C57BL/6J, CD-1, FVB/NCr1, and 129S2/SvPasCrl genetic backgrounds, and of two additional alleles, HttQ92 and HttQ50, on the C57BL/6J background. We describe the emergence of a transcriptomic signature in HttQ111/+  mice involving hundreds of differentially expressed genes and changes in diverse molecular pathways. We also show that this time course spanned the onset of mutant huntingtin nuclear localization phenotypes and somatic CAG-length instability in the striatum. Genetic background strongly influenced the magnitude and age at onset of these effects. This work provides a foundation for understanding the earliest transcriptional and molecular changes contributing to HD pathogenesis. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The background model in the energy range from 0.1 MeV up to several MeV for low altitude and high inclination satellites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.

    2016-02-01

    The gamma-ray background physical origin for low altitude orbits defined by: diffuse cosmic gamma-emission, atmospheric gamma-rays, gamma-emission formed in interactions of charged particles (both prompt and activation) and transient events such as electrons precipitations and solar flares. The background conditions in the energy range from 0.1 MeV up to several MeV for low altitude orbits differ due to frequency of Earth Radiation Belts - ERBs (included South Atlantic Anomaly - SAA) passes and cosmic rays rigidity. The detectors and satellite constructive elements are activated by trapped in ERBs and moving along magnetic lines charged particles. In this case we propose simplified polynomial model separately for polar and equatorial orbits parts: background count rate temporal profile approximation by 4-5 order polynomials in equatorial regions, and linear approximations, parabolas or constants in polar caps. The polynomials’ coefficients supposed to be similar for identical spectral channels for each analyzed equatorial part taken into account normalization coefficients defined due to Kp-indexes study within period corresponding to calibration coefficients being approximately constants. The described model was successfully applied for the solar flares hard X-ray and gamma-ray emission characteristic studies by AVS-F apparatus data onboard CORONAS-F satellite.

  11. Exoplanet Observing: from Art to Science (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, D. M.; Gleeson, J.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) This paper will review the now well-established best practices for conducting high precision exoplanet observing with small telescopes. The paper will also review the AAVSO's activities in promoting these best practices among the amateur astronomer community through training material and online courses, as well as through the establishment of an AAVSO Exoplanet Database. This latter development will be an essential element in supporting followup exoplanet observations for upcoming space telescope missions such as TESS and JWST.

  12. Notification: Background Investigation Services

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OA-FY15-0029, February 26, 2015. The Office of Inspector General (OIG) for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) plans to begin field work for our audit of background investigation services.

  13. Urban Background Study Webinar

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This webinar presented the methodology developed for collecting a city-wide or urban area background data set, general results of southeastern cities data collected to date, and a case study that used this sampling method.

  14. Youth Studies Abstracts. Vol. 4 No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youth Studies Abstracts, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains 169 abstracts of documents dealing with youth and educational programs for youth. Included in the volume are 97 abstracts of documents dealing with social and educational developments; 56 abstracts of program reports, reviews, and evaluations; and 16 abstracts of program materials. Abstracts are grouped according to the…

  15. Patent Abstract Digest. Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-30

    compact. self -contained transducer unit for 151) Field of Stucek............... 73/71 5 US, 67.5 R. electromagnetic generation and detection of...BSTRACT SPONSORED PROGRAMS FROM THE AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND United States Patent 1191 (111 4,115,616 Heitz et &1. (45 Sep. 19, 1978 154) SELF -SEALING...ioseph E. Rutz; Wiliam J.O’Brien (221 Filed: F . (57 ABSTRACT A self -sealing multi-laminated fuel line composite mate. rial composed of (a) a plastic

  16. Shoestring Budget Radio Astronomy (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoot, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) The commercial exploitation of microwave frequencies for cellular, WiFi, Bluetooth, HDTV, and satellite digital media transmission has brought down the cost of the components required to build an effective radio telescope to the point where, for the cost of a good eyepiece, you can construct and operate a radio telescope. This paper sets forth a family of designs for 1421 MHz telescopes. It also proposes a method by which operators of such instruments can aggregate and archive data via the Internet. With 90 or so instruments it will be possible to survey the entire radio sky for transients with a 24 hour cadence.

  17. Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanchik, Nicholas J.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the concept of the Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL) and its benefits. The OSAL is A small layer of software that allows programs to run on many different operating systems and hardware platforms It runs independent of the underlying OS & hardware and it is self-contained. The benefits of OSAL are that it removes dependencies from any one operating system, promotes portable, reusable flight software. It allows for Core Flight software (FSW) to be built for multiple processors and operating systems. The presentation discusses the functionality, the various OSAL releases, and describes the specifications.

  18. Exploring late Miocene climate stability: constraining background variability using high-resolution benthic δ18O and δ13C records from Site U1338

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drury, A.; John, C. M.; Lee, G.; Shevenell, A.

    2012-12-01

    The late Miocene (11.61 - 5.33 Ma) was one of the more stable climatic periods of the Cenozoic. Superimposed on this stable background climate, a number of threshold events occurred, including the late Miocene Carbon Isotope Shift (CIS, 7.6-6.6 Ma) and the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC, 5.96-5.33 Ma). The goal of our study is to constrain the background climate cyclicity during the late Miocene. A better knowledge of the background cyclicity in the Earth's climate system is required to advance understanding of, and to successfully model, climate variability. Improving understanding of how changes in background climate variability affect important parameters and fluxes, such as ice volume and the carbon pump, is crucial for explaining the occurrence of threshold events such as the CIS and MSC during an otherwise climatically stable period. The study site is located in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (IODP Site U1338, Expedition 321). U1338 was chosen, as the equatorial Pacific is an important component of the global climate system, representing half of the total tropical ocean and a quarter of the global ocean. We present δ18O and δ13C records from 3.5 to 8.5 Ma using the benthic foraminiferal species Cibicidoides mundulus, with a resolution of 3-4 kyr, which resolves all Milankovitch scale cycles. We present a revised shipboard age model, generated from new biostratigraphic age constraints based on planktic foraminiferal datums. Benthic δ18O records at IODP Site U1338 reflect the stable nature of the late Miocene climate accurately, with long-term trends showing low-amplitude (0.2‰) variations. Superimposed on this are higher-amplitude short-term fluctuations (0.3-0.4‰). Deep-sea benthic foraminferal δ18O records both temperature and the δ18O composition of global deep seawater (δ18Odsw). δ18Odsw largely reflects glacio-eustatic change. Our benthic δ18O implies that long-term trends in ice volume were minimal during the late Miocene. However, the short

  19. High-pressure xenon time projection Titanium chamber: a methodology for detecting background radiation in neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachri, A.; Elmhamdi, A.; Hawron, M.; Grant, P.; Zazoum, B.; Martin, C.

    2017-10-01

    The xenon time projection chamber (TPC) promises a novel detection method for neutrinoless double-beta decay (0ν β β ) experiments. The TPC is capable of discovering the rare 0ν β β ionization signal of a distinct topological signature, with a decay energy Qββ = 2.458 MeV . However, more frequent internal (within TPC) and external events are also capable of depositing energy in the range of the Qβ β -value inside the chamber, thus mimicking 0ν β β or interfering with its direct observation. In the following paper, we illustrate a methodology for background radiation evaluation, assuming a basic cylindrical design for a toy titanium TPC that is capable of containing 100 kg of xenon gas at 20 atm pressure; we estimate the background budget and analyze the most prominent problematic events via theoretical calculation. Gamma rays emitted from nuclei of 214Bi and 208Tl present in the outer-shell titanium housing of the TPC are an example of such events for which we calculate probabilities of occurrences. We also study the effect of alpha-neutron (α-n)-induced neutrons and calculate their rate. Alpha particles which are created by the decay of naturally occurring uranium and thorium present in most materials, can react with the nucleus of low Z elements, prompting the release of neutrons and leading to thermal neutron capture. Our calculations suggest that the typical polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) inner coating of the chamber would constitute the primary material for neutron production, specifically; we find that the fluorine component of Teflon is much more likely to undergo an (α-n) reaction. From known contamination, we calculate an alpha production rate to be 5.5 × 107 alpha/year for the highest-purity titanium vessel with a Teflon lining. Lastly, using measurements of neutron flux from alpha bombardment, we estimate the expected neutron flux from the materials of the proposed toy TPC and identify all gamma rays (prompt or delayed, of energies

  20. The Cosmic Background Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

  1. The cosmic microwave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Recent limits on spectral distortions and angular anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background are reviewed. The various backgrounds are described, and the theoretical implications are assessed. Constraints on inflationary cosmology dominated by cold dark matter (CDM) and on open cosmological models dominated by baryonic dark matter (BDM), with, respectively, primordial random phase scale-invariant curvature fluctuations or non-gaussian isocurvature fluctuations are described. More exotic theories are addressed, and I conclude with the 'bottom line': what theorists expect experimentalists to be measuring within the next two to three years without having to abandon their most cherished theories.

  2. Bilingual/Bicultural Education: Titles and Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Los Angeles. National Dissemination and Assessment Center.

    Dissertation abstracts describing research on a wide variety of topics in bilingual education are presented. This publication is designed to provide background material for bilingual educators as well as practical procedures for bilingual teachers, administrators, counselors, and evaluators. The titles were acquired by using the two broad…

  3. Spectrophotometry of Symbiotic Stars (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, D.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) Symbiotic stars are fascinating objects - complex binary systems comprising a cool red giant star and a small hot object, often a white dwarf, both embedded in a nebula formed by a wind from the giant star. UV radiation from the hot star ionizes the nebula, producing a range of emission lines. These objects have composite spectra with contributions from both stars plus the nebula and these spectra can change on many timescales. Being moderately bright, they lend themselves well to amateur spectroscopy. This paper describes the symbiotic star phenomenon, shows how spectrophotometry can be used to extract astrophysically useful information about the nature of these systems, and gives results for three symbiotic stars based on the author's observations.

  4. Experience with abstract notation one

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, James D.; Weaver, Alfred C.

    1990-01-01

    The development of computer science has produced a vast number of machine architectures, programming languages, and compiler technologies. The cross product of these three characteristics defines the spectrum of previous and present data representation methodologies. With regard to computer networks, the uniqueness of these methodologies presents an obstacle when disparate host environments are to be interconnected. Interoperability within a heterogeneous network relies upon the establishment of data representation commonality. The International Standards Organization (ISO) is currently developing the abstract syntax notation one standard (ASN.1) and the basic encoding rules standard (BER) that collectively address this problem. When used within the presentation layer of the open systems interconnection reference model, these two standards provide the data representation commonality required to facilitate interoperability. The details of a compiler that was built to automate the use of ASN.1 and BER are described. From this experience, insights into both standards are given and potential problems relating to this development effort are discussed.

  5. Cosmic Microwave Background Timeline

    Science.gov Websites

    about 2.3 K 1948: George Gamow, Ralph Alpher, and Robert Herman predict that a Big Bang universe perfect blackbody spectrum and thereby strongly supporting the hot big bang model, the thermal history of anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background, this strongly supports the big bang model with gravitational

  6. COBE - Cosmic Background Explorer

    Science.gov Websites

    with that from a precise blackbody. Data from the full four years of COBE observations continue to be stages in the COBE project. DIRBE (Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment) DIRBE has mapped the absolute sky brightness in 10 wavelength bands ranging from 1.25 microns to 240 microns. These data contain the

  7. Thermal background noise limitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulkis, S.

    1982-01-01

    Modern detection systems are increasingly limited in sensitivity by the background thermal photons which enter the receiving system. Expressions for the fluctuations of detected thermal radiation are derived. Incoherent and heterodyne detection processes are considered. References to the subject of photon detection statistics are given.

  8. Taiwan: Background Notes Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reams, Joanne Reppert

    Concise background information on Taiwan is provided. The publication begins with a profile of Taiwan, discussing the people, geography, political establishment, and economy. A map of the country is provided. The bulk of the publication then provides more detailed information on Taiwan's people, geography, history, administration, political…

  9. Foregrounding the Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    Argues that when introductory activities to the classics begin with background information, it can upstage or confine the life of the story, and shows little faith in the students as readers or in the literature itself. Suggests sometimes letting the literature begin, and then helping students make sense of it. Discusses examples from "To Kill a…

  10. Staffing Preschools: Background Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G.; Weir, Mary K.

    This report explores background variables related to preschool teaching, and emphasizes that statistics fluctuate in early childhood education. The increase for preprimary enrollment of 3- and 4-year-olds was 26 percent from 1966 to 1967. Accurate figures on preschool teaching personnel are not available, but a large proportion of Head Start…

  11. China: Background Notes Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reams, Joanne Reppert

    Concise background information on the People's Republic of China is provided. The publication begins with a profile of the country, outlining the people, geography, economy, and membership in international organizations. The bulk of the document then discusses in more detail China's people, geography, history, government, education, economy, and…

  12. Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis. [DOE abstract journal

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA), while embracing all phases of energy analysis and development, is limited primarily to nontechnological or quasitechnological articles or reports having significant reference value. This selectivity in scope and coverage of EAPA is effected to emphasize the following: programmatic efforts; policy, legislative, and regulatory aspects; social, economic, and environmental impacts; regional and sectoral analyses, institutional factors, etc. Selection for EAPA is based strictly on content (substantive articles) and is made from Congressional committee prints; federal agency and department reports; regional commission and state and local government reports; periodicals, including trade journals and newsweeklies; conference proceedingsmore » and/or conference papers; books, including manuals, directories, encyclopedias, etc.; and documents from industrial firms, private institutes and foundations, educational institutions, societies, associations, etc. EAPA is available on an exchange basis to universities, research institutions, industrial firms, and publishers of energy information. Federal, state, and municipal agencies concerned with energy development, conservation, and usage may obtain EAPA free of charge. Inquiries should be directed to the Technical Information Center, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830. EAPA is available to the public on a subscription basis, which includes 12 monthly issues plus the annual index. All items announced in EAPA exist as separate records on the DOE Energy Data Base.« less

  13. Effect of Delta 9–Stearoyl-ACP-Desaturase-C mutants in a high oleic background on soybean seed oil composition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] oil typically contains 2-4% stearic acid. Oil with at least 20% stearic acid is desirable because of its baking properties and health profile. This study identifies two new sources of high stearic acid and evaluates the interaction of high stearic and oleic acid al...

  14. Creating High-Quality Health Care Workplaces. A Background Paper for Canadian Policy Research Networks' National Roundtable (Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, October 29, 2001). CPRN Work Network Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehoorn, Mieke; Lowe, Graham S.; Rondeau, Kent V.; Schellenberg, Grant; Wagar, Terry H.

    Insights from a variety of research streams were synthesized to identify the key ingredients of a high-quality work environment in Canada's health care sector and ways of achieving high-quality workplaces in the sector. The following sets of interacting factors were considered: (1) the work environment and the human resource practices that shape…

  15. Background culturable bacteria aerosol in two large public buildings using HVAC filters as long term, passive, high-volume air samplers.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Nicholas J; Kuehn, Thomas H; Kim, Seung Won; Raynor, Peter C; Anantharaman, Senthilvelan; Ramakrishnan, M A; Goyal, Sagar M

    2008-04-01

    Background culturable bacteria aerosols were collected and identified in two large public buildings located in Minneapolis, Minnesota and Seattle, Washington over a period of 5 months and 3 months, respectively. The installed particulate air filters in the ventilation systems were used as the aerosol sampling devices at each location. Both pre and final filters were collected from four air handing units at each site to determine the influence of location within the building, time of year, geographical location and difference between indoor and outdoor air. Sections of each loaded filter were eluted with 10 ml of phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The resulting solutions were cultured on blood agar plates and incubated for 24 h at 36 degrees C. Various types of growth media were then used for subculturing, followed by categorization using a BioLog MicroStation (Biolog, Hayward, CA, USA) and manual observation. Environmental parameters were gathered near each filter by the embedded on-site environmental monitoring systems to determine the effect of temperature, humidity and air flow. Thirty nine different species of bacteria were identified, 17 found only in Minneapolis and 5 only in Seattle. The hardy spore-forming genus Bacillus was the most commonly identified and showed the highest concentrations. A significant decrease in the number of species and their concentration occurred in the Minneapolis air handling unit supplying 100% outdoor air in winter, however no significant correlations between bacteria concentration and environmental parameters were found.

  16. Economic Education Projects: Abstracts from the 1980-81 Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, George E., Ed.

    Abstracts of innovative and imaginative economics units are provided in this annotated listing of economic education projects submitted to the 1980-81 National Awards Program for Teaching Economics. Over 200 abstracts are contained in separate sections covering materials for primary grades, intermediate grades, junior high schools, senior high…

  17. Innovation Abstracts: Volume XII, Numbers 1-30, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Susanne D., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This series of one- to two-page abstracts highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) academic partnerships pairing "high-risk" students with a concerned faculty member, counselor, or administrator; (2) teacher-to-teacher learning partnerships; (3)…

  18. WD1145+017 (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta, M.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) WD1145 is a 17th magnitude white dwarf star 570 light years away in Virgo that was discovered to have a disintegrating planetoid in close orbit by Andrew Vanderburg, a graduate student at Harvard CfA, while data mining the elucidate the nature of its rather bizarre transit light curves. I obtained multiple observations of WD1145 over the course of a year, and found a series of complex transit light curves that could only be interpreted as a ring complex or torus in close orbit around WD1145. Combined with data from other amateur astronomers, professional observations, and satellite data, it became clear that WD1145 has a small planetoid in close orbit at the Roche limit and is breaking apart, forming a ring of debris material that is then raining down on the white dwarf. The surface of the star is "polluted" by heavy metals, determined by spectroscopic data. Given that in the intense gravitational field of a white dwarf any heavy metals could not for long last on the surface, this confirms that we are tracking in real time the destruction of a small planet by its host star.

  19. SLAS Library Telescope Program (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) In the fall of 2014, I submitted to the members of the St. Louis Astronomical Society to take the $1,000 profit we had from a convention we had hosted and use it to purchase three telescopes to modify for a Library Telescope program that was invented by Mark Stowbridge and promoted by the New Hampshire Astronomical Society. I had met Mark at NEAF in 2012 when he was walking the floor demonstrating the telescope. We held meetings with three libraries, the St. Louis County Library system, the St. Louis Public Library system and an independent library in Kirkwood, Missouri. The response was overwhelming! SLCL responded with a request for ten telescopes and SLPL asked for five. We did our first build in October, 2014 and placed a total of eighteen telescopes. Since that time, SLAS has placed a total of eighty-eight telescopes in library systems around the St. Louis Metro area, expanding into neighboring counties and across the river in Illinois. In this talk, I will discuss how to approach this project and put it in place in your libraries!

  20. Handedness shapes children's abstract concepts.

    PubMed

    Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania

    2012-03-01

    Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like kindness and intelligence? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on a diagram a preferred toy and a dispreferred toy should go. Right-handers tended to assign the preferred toy to a box on the right and the dispreferred toy to a box on the left. Left-handers showed the opposite pattern. In a second experiment, children judged which of two cartoon animals looked smarter (or dumber) or nicer (or meaner). Right-handers attributed more positive qualities to animals on the right, but left-handers to animals on the left. These contrasting associations between space and valence cannot be explained by exposure to language or cultural conventions, which consistently link right with good. Rather, right- and left-handers implicitly associated positive valence more strongly with the side of space on which they can act more fluently with their dominant hands. Results support the body-specificity hypothesis (Casasanto, 2009), showing that children with different kinds of bodies think differently in corresponding ways. Copyright © 2011 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. An abstract approach to music.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

    1999-04-19

    In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The motivation for this approach uses traditional terms and concepts of music theory, but the approach itself is formal and uses the language of mathematics. The universal object is an audio wave; partials, sounds, and compositions are special objects, which are placed in a hierarchical order based on time scales. The objects have both static and dynamic attributes. When we realize amore » composition, we assign values to each of its attributes: a (scalar) value to a static attribute, an envelope and a size to a dynamic attribute. A composition is then a trajectory in the space of aural events, and the complex audio wave is its formal representation. Sounds are fibers in the space of aural events, from which the composer weaves the trajectory of a composition. Each sound object in turn is made up of partials, which are the elementary building blocks of any music composition. The partials evolve on the fastest time scale in the hierarchy of partials, sounds, and compositions. The ideas outlined in this article are being implemented in a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis and in software for music composition. A demonstration of some preliminary results has been submitted by the authors for presentation at the conference.« less

  2. Transportation of high-current ion and electron beams in the accelerator drift gap in the presence of an additional electron background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karas', V. I.; Kornilov, E. A.; Manuilenko, O. V.; Tarakanov, V. P.; Fedorovskaya, O. V.

    2015-12-01

    The dynamics of a high-current ion beam propagating in the drift gap of a linear induction accelerator with collective focusing is studied using 3D numerical simulations in the framework of the full system of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations (code KARAT). The ion beam is neutralized by a comoving electron beam in the current density and, partially, in space charge, since the velocities of electrons and ions differ substantially. The dynamics of the high-current ion beam is investigated for different versions of additional neutralization of its space charge. It is established that, for a given configuration of the magnetic field and in the presence of a specially programmed injection of additional electrons from the boundary opposite to the ion injection boundary, the angular divergence of the ion beam almost vanishes, whereas the current of the ion beam at the exit from the accelerator drift gap changes insignificantly and the beam remains almost monoenergetic.

  3. The DARPA High-Performance Polymer Program. Volume 1. Program Background and Highlights of the Program Review Held on 14-15 January 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    conducting polyaniline for military systems is extensive and ranges from lightning-strike protection to utilization in honeycomb structures in aircraft...Conducting polyanilines are representative of a new class of materials known as synthetic metals. This technology is still discovering new and varied...metals using polyaniline chemistry 2" High-definition liquid crystal displays 3 Polymeric piezoelectric materials 4 Drag-reducing polymers for ship

  4. Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis: a monthly abstract journal. Abstracts 1-225

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.M..

    1983-01-01

    Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA), while embracing all phases of energy analysis and development, is limited primarily to nontechnological or quasitechnological articles or reports having significant reference value. This selectivity in scope and coverage of EAPA is effected to emphasize the following: programmatic efforts; policy, legislative, and regulatory aspects; social, economic, and environmental impacts; regional and sectoral analyses, institutional factors, etc. Selection for EAPA is based strictly on content (substantive articles) and is made from Congressional committee prints; federal agency and department reports; regional commission and state and local government reports; periodicals, including trade journals and newsweeklies; conference proceedingsmore » and/or conference papers; books, including manuals, directories, encyclopedias, etc.; and documents from industrial firms, private institutes and foundations, educational institutions, societies, associations, etc. EAPA is available to DOE offices and contractors on request, and on an exchange basis to universities, research institutions, industrial firms, and publishers of energy information. Inquiries should be directed to the Technical Information Center, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830. EAPA is available to the public on a subscription basis from the Superintendent of Documents, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. The subscription rate for the 12 monthly issues plus the annual index is $70.00 for domestic subscribers and $87.50 for subscribers outside the North American continent.« less

  5. Genetic background of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Obermayer-Pietsch, B; Chararas, C; Kotschan, S; Walter, D; Leb, G

    2000-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic disorder of decreased skeletal mass as measured by bone mineral density (BMD), and disturbed skeletal architecture and function which results in an increased risk for bone fractures with consecutively increased morbidity and mortality. Twin and family studies have shown an important genetic component of BMD of about 40-60%. This exceeds other well known factors influencing BMD such as environmental factors like dietary calcium, physical activity or several drugs and diseases. Therefore, interest increased in the genetic background of bone mineral density. Polymorphisms of the Vitamin D receptor gene were the first to be published in this area. Studies on other loci or candidate genes such as the estrogen receptor gene or the collagen type I alpha1 gene also showed associations with bone mineral density that could explain at least a part of the genetic background of osteoporosis. Recently published data suggest that these genetic markers of bone metabolism are important in interaction with each other or in certain bone-affecting diseases. In the future, genetic studies on osteoporosis will have to screen further relevant genes and markers for bone metabolism as well as to evaluate the complex interactions of genetic influences, so that it would be possible to calculate a patient's individual risk for osteoporosis in the context of environmental influences.

  6. Abstraction and reformulation in artificial intelligence.

    PubMed Central

    Holte, Robert C.; Choueiry, Berthe Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper contributes in two ways to the aims of this special issue on abstraction. The first is to show that there are compelling reasons motivating the use of abstraction in the purely computational realm of artificial intelligence. The second is to contribute to the overall discussion of the nature of abstraction by providing examples of the abstraction processes currently used in artificial intelligence. Although each type of abstraction is specific to a somewhat narrow context, it is hoped that collectively they illustrate the richness and variety of abstraction in its fullest sense. PMID:12903653

  7. Abstraction and reformulation in artificial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Holte, Robert C; Choueiry, Berthe Y

    2003-07-29

    This paper contributes in two ways to the aims of this special issue on abstraction. The first is to show that there are compelling reasons motivating the use of abstraction in the purely computational realm of artificial intelligence. The second is to contribute to the overall discussion of the nature of abstraction by providing examples of the abstraction processes currently used in artificial intelligence. Although each type of abstraction is specific to a somewhat narrow context, it is hoped that collectively they illustrate the richness and variety of abstraction in its fullest sense.

  8. Geophysical abstracts 167, October-December 1956

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rabbitt, Mary C.; Vitaliano, Dorothy B.; Vesselowsky, S.T.; ,

    1956-01-01

    Geophysical Abstracts includes abstracts of technical papers and books on the physics of the solid earth, the application of physical methods and techniques to geologic problems, and geophysical exploration. The table of contents, which is alphabetically arranged, shows the material covered.Abstracts are prepared only of material that is believed to be generally available. Ordinarily abstracts are not published of material with limited circulation (such as dissertations, open-file reports, or memoranda) or of other papers presented orally at meetings unless summaries of substantial length are published. Abstracts of papers in Japanese and Chinese are based on abstracts or summaries in a western language accompanying the paper.

  9. Geophysical abstracts 164, January-March 1956

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rabbitt, Mary C.; Vitaliano, Dorothy B.; Vesselowsky, S.T.; ,

    1956-01-01

    Geophysical Abstracts includes abstracts of technical papers and books on the physics of the solid earth, the application of physical methods and techniques to geologic problems, and geophysical exploration. A new table of contents, alphabetically arranged, has been adapted to show more clearly the material covered.Abstracts are prepared only of material that is believed to be generally available. Ordinarily abstracts are not published of material with limited circulation (such as dissertations, open-file reports, or memoranda) or of papers presented orally at meetings unless summaries of substantial length are published. Abstracts of papers in Japanese and Chinese are based on abstracts or summaries in a western language accompanying the paper.

  10. Geophysical abstracts 166, July-September 1956

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rabbitt, Mary C.; Vitaliano, Dorothy B.; Vesselowsky, S.T.; ,

    1956-01-01

    Geophysical Abstracts includes abstracts of technical papers and books on the physics of the solid earth, the application of physical methods and techniques to geologic problems, and geophysical exploration. The table of contents, which is alphabetically arranged, shows the material covered.Abstracts are prepared only of material that is believed to be generally available. Ordinarily abstracts are not published of material with limited circulation (such as dissertations, open-file reports, or memoranda) or of other papers presented orally at meetings unless summaries of substantial length are published. Abstracts of papers in Japanese and Chinese are based on abstracts or summaries in a western language accompanying the paper.

  11. Geophysical abstracts 165, April-June 1956

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rabbitt, Mary C.; Vitaliano, Dorothy B.; Vesselowsky, S.T.; ,

    1956-01-01

    Geophysical Abstracts includes abstracts of technical papers and books on the physics of the solid earth, the application of physical methods and techniques to geologic problems, and geophysical exploration. The table of contents, which is alphabetically arranged, shows the material covered.Abstracts are prepared only of material that is believed to be generally available. Ordinarily abstracts are not published of material with limited circulation (such as dissertations, open-file reports, or memoranda) or of other papers presented orally at meetings unless summaries of substantial length are published. Abstracts of papers in Japanese and Chinese are based on abstracts or summaries in a western language accompanying the paper.

  12. Transportation of high-current ion and electron beams in the accelerator drift gap in the presence of an additional electron background

    SciTech Connect

    Karas’, V. I., E-mail: karas@kipt.kharkov.ua; Kornilov, E. A.; Manuilenko, O. V.

    2015-12-15

    The dynamics of a high-current ion beam propagating in the drift gap of a linear induction accelerator with collective focusing is studied using 3D numerical simulations in the framework of the full system of the Vlasov–Maxwell equations (code KARAT). The ion beam is neutralized by a comoving electron beam in the current density and, partially, in space charge, since the velocities of electrons and ions differ substantially. The dynamics of the high-current ion beam is investigated for different versions of additional neutralization of its space charge. It is established that, for a given configuration of the magnetic field and inmore » the presence of a specially programmed injection of additional electrons from the boundary opposite to the ion injection boundary, the angular divergence of the ion beam almost vanishes, whereas the current of the ion beam at the exit from the accelerator drift gap changes insignificantly and the beam remains almost monoenergetic.« less

  13. Scientific meeting abstracts: significance, access, and trends.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, J A

    1998-01-01

    Abstracts of scientific papers and posters that are presented at annual scientific meetings of professional societies are part of the broader category of conference literature. They are an important avenue for the dissemination of current data. While timely and succinct, these abstracts present problems such as an abbreviated peer review and incomplete bibliographic access. METHODS: Seventy societies of health sciences professionals were surveyed about the publication of abstracts from their annual meetings. Nineteen frequently cited journals also were contacted about their policies on the citation of meeting abstracts. Ten databases were searched for the presence of meetings abstracts. RESULTS: Ninety percent of the seventy societies publish their abstracts, with nearly half appearing in the society's journal. Seventy-seven percent of the societies supply meeting attendees with a copy of each abstract, and 43% make their abstracts available in an electronic format. Most of the journals surveyed allow meeting abstracts to be cited. Bibliographic access to these abstracts does not appear to be widespread. CONCLUSIONS: Meeting abstracts play an important role in the dissemination of scientific knowledge. Bibliographic access to meeting abstracts is very limited. The trend toward making meeting abstracts available via the Internet has the potential to give a broader audience access to the information they contain. PMID:9549015

  14. Development and evaluation of a quality score for abstracts

    PubMed Central

    Timmer, Antje; Sutherland, Lloyd R; Hilsden, Robert J

    2003-01-01

    Background The evaluation of abstracts for scientific meetings has been shown to suffer from poor inter observer reliability. A measure was developed to assess the formal quality of abstract submissions in a standardized way. Methods Item selection was based on scoring systems for full reports, taking into account published guidelines for structured abstracts. Interrater agreement was examined using a random sample of submissions to the American Gastroenterological Association, stratified for research type (n = 100, 1992–1995). For construct validity, the association of formal quality with acceptance for presentation was examined. A questionnaire to expert reviewers evaluated sensibility items, such as ease of use and comprehensiveness. Results The index comprised 19 items. The summary quality scores showed good interrater agreement (intra class coefficient 0.60 – 0.81). Good abstract quality was associated with abstract acceptance for presentation at the meeting. The instrument was found to be acceptable by expert reviewers. Conclusion A quality index was developed for the evaluation of scientific meeting abstracts which was shown to be reliable, valid and useful. PMID:12581457

  15. Superconductor lunar telescopes --Abstract only

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, P. C.; Pitts, R.; Shore, S.; Oliversen, R.; Stolarik, J.; Segal, K.; Hojaji, H.

    1994-06-01

    We propose a new type of telescope designed specifically for the lunar environment of high vacuum and low temperature. Large area UV-Visible-IR telescope arrays can be built with ultra-light-weight replica optics. High Tc superconductors provide support, steering, and positioning. Advantages of this approach are light-weight payload compatible with existing launch vehicles, configurable large area optical arrays, no excavation or heavy construction, and frictionless electronically controlled mechanisms. We have built a prototype and will be demonstarting some of its working characteristics.

  16. Superconductor lunar telescopes --Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, P. C.; Pitts, R.; Shore, S.; Oliversen, R.; Stolarik, J.; Segal, K.; Hojaji, H.

    1994-01-01

    We propose a new type of telescope designed specifically for the lunar environment of high vacuum and low temperature. Large area UV-Visible-IR telescope arrays can be built with ultra-light-weight replica optics. High T(sub c) superconductors provide support, steering, and positioning. Advantages of this approach are light-weight payload compatible with existing launch vehicles, configurable large area optical arrays, no excavation or heavy construction, and frictionless electronically controlled mechanisms. We have built a prototype and will be demonstarting some of its working characteristics.

  17. Modelling of celestial backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, Duncan L.; Smith, Moira I.; Lim, Jae-Wan; Jeon, Yun-Ho

    2018-05-01

    For applications where a sensor's image includes the celestial background, stars and Solar System Bodies compromise the ability of the sensor system to correctly classify a target. Such false targets are particularly significant for the detection of weak target signatures which only have a small relative angular motion. The detection of celestial features is well established in the visible spectral band. However, given the increasing sensitivity and low noise afforded by emergent infrared focal plane array technology together with larger and more efficient optics, the signatures of celestial features can also impact performance at infrared wavelengths. A methodology has been developed which allows the rapid generation of celestial signatures in any required spectral band using star data from star catalogues and other open-source information. Within this paper, the radiometric calculations are presented to determine the irradiance values of stars and planets in any spectral band.

  18. Selected abstracts on aviation weather hazard research

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-01-01

    This paper consists of bibliographic information and abstracts for literature on the topics of weather-related aviation hazards. These abstracts were selected from reports written for the ASR-9, ITWS, TDWR programs, sponsored by the Federal Aviation ...

  19. The Abstraction Process of Limit Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sezgin Memnun, Dilek; Aydin, Bünyamin; Özbilen, Ömer; Erdogan, Günes

    2017-01-01

    The RBC+C abstraction model is an effective model in mathematics education because it gives the opportunity to analyze research data through cognitive actions. For this reason, we aim to examine the abstraction process of the limit knowledge of two volunteer participant students using the RBC+C abstraction model. With this aim, the students'…

  20. Writing a Structured Abstract for the Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's suggestions on how to improve thesis abstracts. The author describes two books on writing abstracts: (1) "Creating Effective Conference Abstracts and Posters in Biomedicine: 500 tips for Success" (Fraser, Fuller & Hutber, 2009), a compendium of clear advice--a must book to have in one's hand as one prepares a…

  1. Tips to Understanding and Writing Manuscript Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plakhotnik, Maria S.

    2017-01-01

    An abstract represents a short summary of key elements of the manuscript. The purpose of this essay is to discuss the function, contents, and types of manuscript abstracts. The essay concludes with a few tips for authors to writing effective abstracts.

  2. Patent Abstract Digest. Volume II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    THE AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND United States Patent 191 [J 4,190,815 Albanese [45] Feb. 26, 1980 [541 HIGH POWER HYBRID SWITCH 3,659.227 4/1972...R.F. power are controlled and switched [22] Filed: Mar. 9, 1978 by means of a hybrid switching network that employs [511 nt. C. 2...broadband quadrature 3dB hybrid . Switching is accomplished by selectively inserting a [561 Referenees Cited 180 phase shift means into the lower power

  3. 2013 SYR Accepted Poster Abstracts.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    SYR 2013 Accepted Poster abstracts: 1. Benefits of Yoga as a Wellness Practice in a Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care Setting: If You Build It, Will They Come? 2. Yoga-based Psychotherapy Group With Urban Youth Exposed to Trauma. 3. Embodied Health: The Effects of a Mind�Body Course for Medical Students. 4. Interoceptive Awareness and Vegetable Intake After a Yoga and Stress Management Intervention. 5. Yoga Reduces Performance Anxiety in Adolescent Musicians. 6. Designing and Implementing a Therapeutic Yoga Program for Older Women With Knee Osteoarthritis. 7. Yoga and Life Skills Eating Disorder Prevention Among 5th Grade Females: A Controlled Trial. 8. A Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing the Impact of Yoga and Physical Education on the Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Middle School Children. 9. Feasibility of a Multisite, Community based Randomized Study of Yoga and Wellness Education for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy. 10. A Delphi Study for the Development of Protocol Guidelines for Yoga Interventions in Mental Health. 11. Impact Investigation of Breathwalk Daily Practice: Canada�India Collaborative Study. 12. Yoga Improves Distress, Fatigue, and Insomnia in Older Veteran Cancer Survivors: Results of a Pilot Study. 13. Assessment of Kundalini Mantra and Meditation as an Adjunctive Treatment With Mental Health Consumers. 14. Kundalini Yoga Therapy Versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Co-Occurring Mood Disorder. 15. Baseline Differences in Women Versus Men Initiating Yoga Programs to Aid Smoking Cessation: Quitting in Balance Versus QuitStrong. 16. Pranayam Practice: Impact on Focus and Everyday Life of Work and Relationships. 17. Participation in a Tailored Yoga Program is Associated With Improved Physical Health in Persons With Arthritis. 18. Effects of Yoga on Blood Pressure: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 19. A Quasi-experimental Trial of a Yoga based Intervention to Reduce Stress and

  4. The isotropic radio background revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornengo, Nicolao; Lineros, Roberto A.; Regis, Marco; Taoso, Marco

    2014-04-01

    We present an extensive analysis on the determination of the isotropic radio background. We consider six different radio maps, ranging from 22 MHz to 2.3 GHz and covering a large fraction of the sky. The large scale emission is modeled as a linear combination of an isotropic component plus the Galactic synchrotron radiation and thermal bremsstrahlung. Point-like and extended sources are either masked or accounted for by means of a template. We find a robust estimate of the isotropic radio background, with limited scatter among different Galactic models. The level of the isotropic background lies significantly above the contribution obtained by integrating the number counts of observed extragalactic sources. Since the isotropic component dominates at high latitudes, thus making the profile of the total emission flat, a Galactic origin for such excess appears unlikely. We conclude that, unless a systematic offset is present in the maps, and provided that our current understanding of the Galactic synchrotron emission is reasonable, extragalactic sources well below the current experimental threshold seem to account for the majority of the brightness of the extragalactic radio sky.

  5. Direct Energy Conversion Literature Abstracts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1963-12-01

    as the temperature rises through -35 C. nonalkali glass containing Fe oxide. The For all high-purity specimens this thermal e.m.f. and the contact...potentiometer at >3000. is affected very little by variations in The thermal e.m.f. of nonalkali glass the interstitial impurities nitrogen and...by changes The thermal e.m.f. depends on the com- in grain size. The results are considered position of the glass and varies from 0.55 in terms of

  6. Biological aerosol background characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blatny, Janet; Fountain, Augustus W., III

    2011-05-01

    To provide useful information during military operations, or as part of other security situations, a biological aerosol detector has to respond within seconds or minutes to an attack by virulent biological agents, and with low false alarms. Within this time frame, measuring virulence of a known microorganism is extremely difficult, especially if the microorganism is of unknown antigenic or nucleic acid properties. Measuring "live" characteristics of an organism directly is not generally an option, yet only viable organisms are potentially infectious. Fluorescence based instruments have been designed to optically determine if aerosol particles have viability characteristics. Still, such commercially available biological aerosol detection equipment needs to be improved for their use in military and civil applications. Air has an endogenous population of microorganisms that may interfere with alarm software technologies. To design robust algorithms, a comprehensive knowledge of the airborne biological background content is essential. For this reason, there is a need to study ambient live bacterial populations in as many locations as possible. Doing so will permit collection of data to define diverse biological characteristics that in turn can be used to fine tune alarm algorithms. To avoid false alarms, improving software technologies for biological detectors is a crucial feature requiring considerations of various parameters that can be applied to suppress alarm triggers. This NATO Task Group will aim for developing reference methods for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to improve alarm algorithms for biological detection. Additionally, they will focus on developing reference standard methodology for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to reduce false alarm rates.

  7. Perfluorocarbon background concentrations in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straume, Anne Grete; Dietz, Russel N.; Koffı̀, Ernest N.'dri; Nodop, Katrin

    Five studies of the background level of several perfluorocarbon compounds in Europe are here presented together with measurements from the European Tracer Experiment (ETEX). The tracers used during the two ETEX tracer releases were the perfluorocarbons (PFCs); perfluoromethylcyclohexane (C 7F 14, PMCH) and perfluoromethylcyclopentane (C 6F 12, PMCP). Their background concentrations were detected by using both passive and active sampling techniques, to define the spatial and temporal variation of the PFCs over Europe. Also the background variations of four isomers of the PFC compound perfluorodimethylcyclohexane (C 8F 16, PDCH) were studied. The results were compared to other PFC tracer studies in the U.S.A. and Europe. The mean and median values of the measured PFCs were found to vary slightly and randomly in space and time. They were found to be higher and to have a larger standard deviation than the measurements from the American studies. The background concentrations were still found to be low and stable enough for PFCs to be highly suitable for use in tracer studies. The following concentrations were found: PMCP; 4.6±0.3 fl ℓ -1, PMCH: 4.6±0.8 fl ℓ -1, ocPDCH: 0.96±0.33 fl ℓ -1, mtPDCH: 9.3±0.8 fl ℓ -1, mcPDCH: 8.8±0.8 fl ℓ -1, ptPDCH: 6.1±0.8 fl ℓ -1. A study of the correlation between the measured PFC compounds showed a significant correlation between most of the compounds, which indicate that there are no major PFC sources in Europe.

  8. Don’t forget the posters! Quality and content variables associated with accepted abstracts at a national trauma meeting

    PubMed Central

    Dossett, Lesly A.; Fox, Erin E.; del Junco, Deborah J.; Zaydfudim, Victor; Kauffmann, Rondi; Shelton, Julia; Wang, Weiwei; Cioffi, William G.; Holcomb, John B.; Cotton, Bryan A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND As a primary venue for presenting research results, abstracts selected for presentation at national meetings should be of the highest scientific merit and research quality. It is uncertain to what degree this is achieved as the methodological quality of abstracts submitted to national surgical meetings has not been previously described. The objective of this study was to evaluate abstracts presented at a leading trauma meeting for methodological quality. METHODS All abstracts accepted for the 2009 American Association for the Surgery of Trauma meeting were reviewed and scored for methodological quality based on 10 criteria (scores, 0–10; 10 being the highest). Criteria were based on nationally published methodology guidelines. Two independent reviewers who were blinded to institution, region, and author reviewed each abstract. RESULTS A total of 187 abstracts were accepted for presentation (67 oral and 120 posters). The most frequent clinical topics were shock/transfusion (23%), abdomen (12%), and nervous system (11%). Shock/transfusion abstracts were more common in the oral presentations (31% vs. 19%; p =0.06). Abstracts from the northeast and south regions were the most common in both oral (26% and 29%) and posters (25% and 24%). Basic science accounted for 12% of accepted studies, while 51% were clinical and 28% were health services/outcomes. Only 8% of abstracts presented randomized data and only 11% reported null findings. Overall abstract scores ranged from 3 to 10 (median, 7; mean, 7.4). Abstracts selected for poster presentation had an overall higher score than those selected for oral presentation (7.4 ±1.7 vs. 6.8 ±1.7; p =0.02). CONCLUSION Although oral presentations traditionally receive the most attention and interest, the methodological quality of abstracts accepted for poster presentation equals (and sometimes exceeds) that of oral abstracts. Attendees of these national meetings should reconsider their time spent in viewing and visiting

  9. Note on bouncing backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Haro, Jaume; Pan, Supriya

    2018-05-01

    The theory of inflation is one of the fundamental and revolutionary developments of modern cosmology that became able to explain many issues of the early Universe in the context of the standard cosmological model (SCM). However, the initial singularity of the Universe, where physics is indefinite, is still obscure in the combined SCM +inflation scenario. An alternative to SCM +inflation without the initial singularity is thus always welcome, and bouncing cosmology is an attempt at that. The current work is thus motivated to investigate the bouncing solutions in modified gravity theories when the background universe is described by the spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) geometry. We show that the simplest way to obtain the bouncing cosmologies in such spacetime is to consider some kind of Lagrangian whose gravitational sector depends only on the square of the Hubble parameter of the FLRW universe. For these modified Lagrangians, the corresponding Friedmann equation, a constraint in the dynamics of the Universe, depicts a curve in the phase space (H ,ρ ), where H is the Hubble parameter and ρ is the energy density of the Universe. As a consequence, a bouncing cosmology is obtained when this curve is closed and crosses the axis H =0 at least twice, and whose simplest particular example is the ellipse depicting the well-known holonomy corrected Friedmann equation in loop quantum cosmology (LQC). Sometimes, a crucial point in such theories is the appearance of the Ostrogradski instability at the perturbative level; however, fortunately enough, in the present work, as long as the linear level of perturbations is concerned, this instability does not appear, although it may appear at the higher order of perturbations.

  10. Automatic Building Abstraction from Aerial Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ley, A.; Hänsch, R.; Hellwich, O.

    2017-09-01

    Multi-view stereo has been shown to be a viable tool for the creation of realistic 3D city models. Nevertheless, it still states significant challenges since it results in dense, but noisy and incomplete point clouds when applied to aerial images. 3D city modelling usually requires a different representation of the 3D scene than these point clouds. This paper applies a fully-automatic pipeline to generate a simplified mesh from a given dense point cloud. The mesh provides a certain level of abstraction as it only consists of relatively large planar and textured surfaces. Thus, it is possible to remove noise, outlier, as well as clutter, while maintaining a high level of accuracy.

  11. VEST: Abstract vector calculus simplification in Mathematica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squire, J.; Burby, J.; Qin, H.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new package, VEST (Vector Einstein Summation Tools), that performs abstract vector calculus computations in Mathematica. Through the use of index notation, VEST is able to reduce three-dimensional scalar and vector expressions of a very general type to a well defined standard form. In addition, utilizing properties of the Levi-Civita symbol, the program can derive types of multi-term vector identities that are not recognized by reduction, subsequently applying these to simplify large expressions. In a companion paper Burby et al. (2013) [12], we employ VEST in the automation of the calculation of high-order Lagrangians for the single particle guiding center system in plasma physics, a computation which illustrates its ability to handle very large expressions. VEST has been designed to be simple and intuitive to use, both for basic checking of work and more involved computations.

  12. Model Checking Abstract PLEXIL Programs with SMART

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siminiceanu, Radu I.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a method to automatically generate discrete-state models of abstract Plan Execution Interchange Language (PLEXIL) programs that can be analyzed using model checking tools. Starting from a high-level description of a PLEXIL program or a family of programs with common characteristics, the generator lays the framework that models the principles of program execution. The concrete parts of the program are not automatically generated, but require the modeler to introduce them by hand. As a case study, we generate models to verify properties of the PLEXIL macro constructs that are introduced as shorthand notation. After an exhaustive analysis, we conclude that the macro definitions obey the intended semantics and behave as expected, but contingently on a few specific requirements on the timing semantics of micro-steps in the concrete executive implementation.

  13. Abstractions for DNA circuit design.

    PubMed

    Lakin, Matthew R; Youssef, Simon; Cardelli, Luca; Phillips, Andrew

    2012-03-07

    DNA strand displacement techniques have been used to implement a broad range of information processing devices, from logic gates, to chemical reaction networks, to architectures for universal computation. Strand displacement techniques enable computational devices to be implemented in DNA without the need for additional components, allowing computation to be programmed solely in terms of nucleotide sequences. A major challenge in the design of strand displacement devices has been to enable rapid analysis of high-level designs while also supporting detailed simulations that include known forms of interference. Another challenge has been to design devices capable of sustaining precise reaction kinetics over long periods, without relying on complex experimental equipment to continually replenish depleted species over time. In this paper, we present a programming language for designing DNA strand displacement devices, which supports progressively increasing levels of molecular detail. The language allows device designs to be programmed using a common syntax and then analysed at varying levels of detail, with or without interference, without needing to modify the program. This allows a trade-off to be made between the level of molecular detail and the computational cost of analysis. We use the language to design a buffered architecture for DNA devices, capable of maintaining precise reaction kinetics for a potentially unbounded period. We test the effectiveness of buffered gates to support long-running computation by designing a DNA strand displacement system capable of sustained oscillations.

  14. Patient-Centered Research Abstracts

    PubMed Central

    Swenson, SL; Shapiro, S; Cunningham, C; Gourevitch, M

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE AIDS continues to devastate urban communities, particularly among marginally-housed, ethnic minority, and drug-using populations. This study (1) describes access to comprehensive medical care, quality of HIV-related care, and attitudes regarding health among HIV-infected residents of single-room occupancy (SRO) hotels and (2) explores predictors of the use of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis and highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional, community-based study of 69 Bronx SRO hotel residents during May 1998. Utilizing door-to-door recruitment, we administered a 41-item, anonymous questionnaire to assess participants' demographic characteristics, level of illness and health care utilization, use of HIV-related therapies, and perceptions of their own health and medical care. RESULTS Of respondents, 65% identified as African-American or Black, 22% as Puerto Rican, and 13% as White or Other. The median age was 42; 68% were male, and 38% were high school graduates. Most individuals were marginally-housed (median stay = 9 months). Almost all participants (96%) paid for medical services via Medicaid. Of the 93% with HIV infection, 44% had been hospitalized at least once in the past year, 72% reported a history of AIDS-defining opportunistic infections, and the median CD4 count was 214. Over two-thirds were actively using drugs and/or alcohol. Among HIV-infected residents, 81% had seen a doctor in the last three months. However, only 67% felt they had a "regular" physician, and 48% felt their access to medical care was average to very poor. Among eligible HIV-infected persons, only 39% had taken HAART and 73% had taken PCP prophylaxis in the last week. Predictors for the use of HAART included absence of active cocaine and/or crack use (RR = 3.91; 95% CI 1.03–14.8; p < .03), use of PCP prophylaxis (RR = 5.69; 95% CI .85–38.1; p < .03) and the belief that HAART "can help people with AIDS" (RR = 1.75; 95

  15. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    E. Thomas

    2005-07-14

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6more » geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H{sub 2}O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package.« less

  16. Small Business Innovation Research. Abstracts of Phase I awards, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1999-12-01

    This booklet presents technical abstracts of Phase I awards made in Fiscal Year (FY) 1999 under the DOE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. SBIR research explores innovative concepts in important technological and scientific areas that can lead to valuable new technology and products. The work described in the abstracts is novel, high-risk research, but the benefits will also be potentially high if the objectives are met. Brief comments on the potential applications, as described by the awardee, are given after each abstract. Individuals and organizations, including venture capital and larger industrial firms, with an interest in the research describedmore » in any of the abstracts are encouraged to contact the appropriate small business directly.« less

  17. Abstract - Belbas, Nicholas (EC2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belbas, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Originally, I was brought into the Design and Analysis Branch in the Crew and Thermal Systems to work on administrative tasks like archiving and scheduling. However, I ended up splitting my time between secretarial tasks and a technical project. My technical project was originally meant to be a wireless sensor package for the 20ft Spacecraft Thermal Vacuum Chamber in the B7 High Bay. I would be using a miniature wifi development board and a temperature/humidity sensor along with custom 3D modeling to accomplish this. However, after some discussion with my technical mentor, the plan was changed to a mobile autonomous self-charging sensor platform. A mobile platform will allow the sensors to be moved around without depressurizing the chamber. Also, the self-charging aspect of the package allows for almost unlimited time in the chamber. If the on-board battery runs low, the robot can easily be driven to its charging dock and continue to transmit while charging. The driving base is based around a Raspberry Pi 3 board with a 12C PMW DC Motor controller and a PWM controller driving two small gear motors. The sensor transmitter itself is a RHT03 temperature and humidity sensor and Cozir CO2 sensor connected to an ESP8266 Huzzah board. The power distribution system utilizes a pair of 3.7v 3600mah lipo batteries wired to Powerboost 500 boards. Also, the self-charging mechanism utilizes two 12v-max inductive charging coils wired into the same Powerboost boards as the battery. The Raspberry pi is running Python 3.3 for the driving base and Javascript MJPEG library for transmitting live video from the onboard camera. The sensor package is running Arduino-based C++ and the program capturing the data is running PyqtGraph Python and HTML. The shell of the robot itself is a 3D printed case that will (work in progress) snap together. The photo to the left shows the two halves separated from each other. The black shell contains the power distribution boards and connectors while the

  18. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    E. Thomas

    2004-11-09

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, amore » batch reactor model that uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model that is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed waste packages that contain both high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor that diffuses into the waste package, and (2) seepage water that enters the waste package from the drift as a liquid. (1) Vapor Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Water Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package. TSPA-LA uses the vapor influx case for the nominal scenario for simulations where the waste package has been

  19. The Extragalactic Radio Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A.; Fixsen, D. J.; Levin, S. M.; Limon, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Seiffert, M.; Singal, J.; Villela, T.; Wollack, E.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    The existence of an isotropic component of the high-latitude radio sky has been recognized for nearly fifty years, but has typically been assumed to be Galactic in origin. We use recent radio observations to test whether the observed high-latitude component could originate within either an extended Galactic halo or a more local "bubble" structure. The lack of significant polarization from the isotropic component, combined with the lack of significant correlation with the Galactic far-infrared emission, rule out an origin within the Galaxy. We conclude that an extragalactic origin is the only viable alternative for the bulk of the isotropic high-latitude emission. The extragalactic component is 2-3 times brighter than local (Galactic) emission towards the Galactic poles and is consistent with a power law in frequency with amplitude T(sub r) = 24.1 plus or minus 2.1 K and spectral index beta = -2.599 plus or minus 0.036 evaluated at reference frequency 310 MHz.

  20. Converging modalities ground abstract categories: the case of politics.

    PubMed

    Farias, Ana Rita; Garrido, Margarida V; Semin, Gün R

    2013-01-01

    Three studies are reported examining the grounding of abstract concepts across two modalities (visual and auditory) and their symbolic representation. A comparison of the outcomes across these studies reveals that the symbolic representation of political concepts and their visual and auditory modalities is convergent. In other words, the spatial relationships between specific instances of the political categories are highly overlapping across the symbolic, visual and auditory modalities. These findings suggest that abstract categories display redundancy across modal and amodal representations, and are multimodal.

  1. Efficient abstract data type components for distributed and parallel systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bastani, F.; Hilal, W.; Iyengar, S.S.

    1987-10-01

    One way of improving software system's comprehensibility and maintainability is to decompose it into several components, each of which encapsulates some information concerning the system. These components can be classified into four categories, namely, abstract data type, functional, interface, and control components. Such a classfication underscores the need for different specification, implementation, and performance-improvement methods for different types of components. This article focuses on the development of high-performance abstract data type components for distributed and parallel environments.

  2. Is searching full text more effective than searching abstracts?

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jimmy

    2009-01-01

    Background With the growing availability of full-text articles online, scientists and other consumers of the life sciences literature now have the ability to go beyond searching bibliographic records (title, abstract, metadata) to directly access full-text content. Motivated by this emerging trend, I posed the following question: is searching full text more effective than searching abstracts? This question is answered by comparing text retrieval algorithms on MEDLINE® abstracts, full-text articles, and spans (paragraphs) within full-text articles using data from the TREC 2007 genomics track evaluation. Two retrieval models are examined: bm25 and the ranking algorithm implemented in the open-source Lucene search engine. Results Experiments show that treating an entire article as an indexing unit does not consistently yield higher effectiveness compared to abstract-only search. However, retrieval based on spans, or paragraphs-sized segments of full-text articles, consistently outperforms abstract-only search. Results suggest that highest overall effectiveness may be achieved by combining evidence from spans and full articles. Conclusion Users searching full text are more likely to find relevant articles than searching only abstracts. This finding affirms the value of full text collections for text retrieval and provides a starting point for future work in exploring algorithms that take advantage of rapidly-growing digital archives. Experimental results also highlight the need to develop distributed text retrieval algorithms, since full-text articles are significantly longer than abstracts and may require the computational resources of multiple machines in a cluster. The MapReduce programming model provides a convenient framework for organizing such computations. PMID:19192280

  3. Reporting of Numerical and Statistical Differences in Abstracts

    PubMed Central

    Dryver, Eric; Hux, Janet E

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The reporting of relative risk reductions (RRRs) or absolute risk reductions (ARRs) to quantify binary outcomes in trials engenders differing perceptions of therapeutic efficacy, and the merits of P values versus confidence intervals (CIs) are also controversial. We describe the manner in which numerical and statistical difference in treatment outcomes is presented in published abstracts. DESIGN A descriptive study of abstracts published in 1986 and 1996 in 8 general medical and specialty journals. Inclusion criteria: controlled, intervention trials with a binary primary or secondary outcome. Seven items were recorded: raw data (outcomes for each treatment arm), measure of relative difference (e.g., RRR), ARR, number needed to treat, P value, CI, and verbal statement of statistical significance. The prevalence of these items was compared between journals and across time. RESULTS Of 5,293 abstracts, 300 met the inclusion criteria. In 1986, 60% of abstracts did not provide both the raw data and a corresponding P value or CI, while 28% failed to do so in 1Dr. Hux is a Career Scientist of the Ontario Ministry of Health and receives salary support from the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences in Ontario.996 (P < .001; RRR of 53%; ARR of 32%; CI for ARR 21% to 43%). The variability between journals was highly significant (P < .001). In 1986, 100% of abstracts lacked a measure of absolute difference while 88% of 1996 abstracts did so (P < .001). In 1986, 98% of abstracts lacked a CI while 65% of 1996 abstracts did so (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS The provision of quantitative outcome and statistical quantitative information has significantly increased between 1986 and 1996. However, further progress can be made to make abstracts more informative. PMID:11929506

  4. Ingestion dose from 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 40K and 137Cs in cereals, pulses and drinking water to adult population in a high background radiation area, Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Lenka, Pradyumna; Sahoo, S K; Mohapatra, S; Patra, A C; Dubey, J S; Vidyasagar, D; Tripathi, R M; Puranik, V D

    2013-03-01

    A natural high background radiation area is located in Chhatrapur, Odisha in the eastern part of India. The inhabitants of this area are exposed to external radiation levels higher than the global average background values, due to the presence of uranium, thorium and its decay products in the monazite sands bearing placer deposits in its beaches. The concentrations of (232)Th, (238)U, (226)Ra, (40)K and (137)Cs were determined in cereals (rice and wheat), pulses and drinking water consumed by the population residing around this region and the corresponding annual ingestion dose was calculated. The annual ingestion doses from cereals, pulses and drinking water varied in the range of 109.4-936.8, 10.2-307.5 and 0.5-2.8 µSv y(-1), respectively. The estimated total annual average effective dose due to the ingestion of these radionuclides in cereals, pulses and drinking water was 530 µSv y(-1). The ingestion dose from cereals was the highest mainly due to a high consumption rate. The highest contribution of dose was found to be from (226)Ra for cereals and drinking water and (40)K was the major dose contributor from the intake of pulses. The contribution of man-made radionuclide (137)Cs to the total dose was found to be minimum. (226)Ra was found to be the largest contributor to ingestion dose from all sources.

  5. In defense of abstract conceptual representations.

    PubMed

    Binder, Jeffrey R

    2016-08-01

    An extensive program of research in the past 2 decades has focused on the role of modal sensory, motor, and affective brain systems in storing and retrieving concept knowledge. This focus has led in some circles to an underestimation of the need for more abstract, supramodal conceptual representations in semantic cognition. Evidence for supramodal processing comes from neuroimaging work documenting a large, well-defined cortical network that responds to meaningful stimuli regardless of modal content. The nodes in this network correspond to high-level "convergence zones" that receive broadly crossmodal input and presumably process crossmodal conjunctions. It is proposed that highly conjunctive representations are needed for several critical functions, including capturing conceptual similarity structure, enabling thematic associative relationships independent of conceptual similarity, and providing efficient "chunking" of concept representations for a range of higher order tasks that require concepts to be configured as situations. These hypothesized functions account for a wide range of neuroimaging results showing modulation of the supramodal convergence zone network by associative strength, lexicality, familiarity, imageability, frequency, and semantic compositionality. The evidence supports a hierarchical model of knowledge representation in which modal systems provide a mechanism for concept acquisition and serve to ground individual concepts in external reality, whereas broadly conjunctive, supramodal representations play an equally important role in concept association and situation knowledge.

  6. Background Light Bluer Than Expected

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-06

    This plot shows data from the Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment, or CIBER, rockets launched in 2010 and 2012. The experiment measures a diffuse glow of infrared light in the sky, known as the cosmic infrared background.

  7. Oncology trial abstracts showed suboptimal improvement in reporting: a comparative before-and-after evaluation using CONSORT for Abstract guidelines.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Saurav; Kyung, Eunjung; Lee, Heeyoung; Kim, Eunyoung

    2014-06-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the quality of randomized controlled trial (RCT) abstracts published in the field of oncology and identify characteristics associated with better reporting quality. All phase III trials published during 2005-2007 [before Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT)] and 2010-2012 (after CONSORT) were searched electronically in MEDLINE/PubMed and retrieved for review using an 18-point overall quality score (OQS) for reporting based on the CONSORT for Abstract guidelines. Descriptive statistics followed by multivariate linear regression were used to identify features associated with improved reporting quality. The mean OQS was 8.2 (range: 5-13; 95% confidence interval (CI): 8.0, 8.3) and 9.9 (range: 5-18; 95% CI: 9.7, 10.2) in the pre- and post-CONSORT periods, respectively. The method for random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding details, and funding sources were missing in pre-CONSORT abstracts and insufficiently reported (<20%) in post-CONSORT abstracts. A high impact factor (P < 0.001) and the journal of publication (P < 0.001) were independent factors that were significantly associated with higher reporting quality on multivariate analysis. The reporting quality of RCT abstracts in oncology showed suboptimal improvement over time. Thus, stricter adherence to the CONSORT for Abstract guidelines is needed to improve the reporting quality of RCT abstracts published in oncology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Abstraction in Mathematics and Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchelmore, Michael; White, Paul

    2004-01-01

    It is claimed that, since mathematics is essentially a self-contained system, mathematical objects may best be described as "abstract-apart." On the other hand, fundamental mathematical ideas are closely related to the real world and their learning involves empirical concepts. These concepts may be called "abstract-general" because they embody…

  9. Dissertation Abstracts in Mathematics Education, 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suydam, Marilyn N., Comp.

    The dissertation abstracts in this compilation all appeared in "Dissertation Abstracts International" in 1983. The 300 dissertations cited in the annual listing of research in the July 1984 issue of the "Journal for Research in Mathematics Education" are included, as well as 55 dissertations which were located but could not be…

  10. Third LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Arlene S. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This volume is a compilation of abstracts submitted to the Third Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Post-Retrieval Symposium. The abstracts represent the data analysis of the 57 experiments flown on the LDEF. The experiments include materials, coatings, thermal systems, power and propulsion, science (cosmic ray, interstellar gas, heavy ions, micrometeoroid, etc.), electronics, optics, and life science.

  11. User-Extensible Graphics Using Abstract Structure,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    Flex 6 The Algol68 model of the graphical abstract structure 5 The creation of a PictureDefinition 6 The making of a picture from a PictureDefinition 7...data together with the operations that can be performed on that data. i 7! ś I _ § 4, The Alqol68 model of the graphical abstract structure Every

  12. Feedback Form for the ADS Abstract Service

    Science.gov Websites

    ADS Feedback Form for the ADS Abstract Service Please use this form to report bugs or send comments to the ADS Abstract Project. Thank you for your feedback. ❉ Required field Your Name: ❉ Your E

  13. Title I, Higher Education Act Program Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lorna M., Ed.

    The 1979 edition of the Title I, Higher Education Act Program Abstracts is presented. Directed toward state Title I, HEA administrators, the program abstracts are made available in order to encourage nationwide program replication of those tested and evaluated programs that have been conducted with Title I support by institutions of higher…

  14. National Workplace Literacy Program. 1993 Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Vocational and Adult Education (ED), Washington, DC. National Workplace Literacy Program.

    This publication presents the abstracts of the 57 National Workplace Literacy Program 1993 projects. Each abstract provides the following information: project title; award number; project director; awardee; address; telephone and fax numbers; funds by fiscal year (federal and nonfederal); award period; federal project officer; objectives;…

  15. Interactional Metadiscourse in Research Article Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillaerts, Paul; Van de Velde, Freek

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with interpersonality in research article abstracts analysed in terms of interactional metadiscourse. The evolution in the distribution of three prominent interactional markers comprised in Hyland's (2005a) model, viz. hedges, boosters and attitude markers, is investigated in three decades of abstract writing in the field of…

  16. Developing Creativity and Abstraction in Representing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Creating charts and graphs is all about visual abstraction: the process of representing aspects of data with imagery that can be interpreted by the reader. Children may need help making the link between the "real" and the image. This abstraction can be achieved using symbols, size, colour and position. Where the representation is close to what…

  17. Foundations of the Bandera Abstraction Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatcliff, John; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Robby

    2003-01-01

    Current research is demonstrating that model-checking and other forms of automated finite-state verification can be effective for checking properties of software systems. Due to the exponential costs associated with model-checking, multiple forms of abstraction are often necessary to obtain system models that are tractable for automated checking. The Bandera Tool Set provides multiple forms of automated support for compiling concurrent Java software systems to models that can be supplied to several different model-checking tools. In this paper, we describe the foundations of Bandera's data abstraction mechanism which is used to reduce the cardinality (and the program's state-space) of data domains in software to be model-checked. From a technical standpoint, the form of data abstraction used in Bandera is simple, and it is based on classical presentations of abstract interpretation. We describe the mechanisms that Bandera provides for declaring abstractions, for attaching abstractions to programs, and for generating abstracted programs and properties. The contributions of this work are the design and implementation of various forms of tool support required for effective application of data abstraction to software components written in a programming language like Java which has a rich set of linguistic features.

  18. SEER Abstracting Tool (SEER*Abs)

    Cancer.gov

    With this customizable tool, registrars can collect and store data abstracted from medical records. Download the software and find technical support and reference manuals. SEER*Abs has features for creating records, managing abstracting work and data, accessing reference data, and integrating edits.

  19. Interpreting Abstract Interpretations in Membership Equational Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Rosu, Grigore

    2001-01-01

    We present a logical framework in which abstract interpretations can be naturally specified and then verified. Our approach is based on membership equational logic which extends equational logics by membership axioms, asserting that a term has a certain sort. We represent an abstract interpretation as a membership equational logic specification, usually as an overloaded order-sorted signature with membership axioms. It turns out that, for any term, its least sort over this specification corresponds to its most concrete abstract value. Maude implements membership equational logic and provides mechanisms to calculate the least sort of a term efficiently. We first show how Maude can be used to get prototyping of abstract interpretations "for free." Building on the meta-logic facilities of Maude, we further develop a tool that automatically checks and abstract interpretation against a set of user-defined properties. This can be used to select an appropriate abstract interpretation, to characterize the specified loss of information during abstraction, and to compare different abstractions with each other.

  20. Abstracts of BESRL Research Publications, FY 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Emma E.

    Publications abstracted include Technical Research Reports 1156 and 1157, Technical Research Notes 199 through 210, Research Studies 68-4 through 68-6 and 69-1 through 6910, and Research Memorandums 68-8 through 68-13. Included are descriptions of 19 Work Units covering activities reported in the 33 abstracted publications, a list of regular…

  1. Characterization and Prediction of the SPI Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teegarden, B. J.; Jean, P.; Knodlseder, J.; Skinner, G. K.; Weidenspointer, G.

    2003-01-01

    The INTEGRAL Spectrometer, like most gamma-ray instruments, is background dominated. Signal-to-background ratios of a few percent are typical. The background is primarily due to interactions of cosmic rays in the instrument and spacecraft. It characteristically varies by +/- 5% on time scales of days. This variation is caused mainly by fluctuations in the interplanetary magnetic field that modulates the cosmic ray intensity. To achieve the maximum performance from SPI it is essential to have a high quality model of this background that can predict its value to a fraction of a percent. In this poster we characterize the background and its variability, explore various models, and evaluate the accuracy of their predictions.

  2. An updated assessment of Symbiodinium spp. that associate with common scleractinian corals from Moorea (French Polynesia) reveals high diversity among background symbionts and a novel finding of clade B.

    PubMed

    Rouzé, Héloïse; Lecellier, Gaël J; Saulnier, Denis; Planes, Serge; Gueguen, Yannick; Wirshing, Herman H; Berteaux-Lecellier, Véronique

    2017-01-01

    The adaptative bleaching hypothesis (ABH) states that, depending on the symbiotic flexibility of coral hosts (i.e., the ability of corals to "switch" or "shuffle" their algal symbionts), coral bleaching can lead to a change in the composition of their associated Symbiodinium community and, thus, contribute to the coral's overall survival. In order to determine the flexibility of corals, molecular tools are required to provide accurate species delineations and to detect low levels of coral-associated Symbiodinium . Here, we used highly sensitive quantitative (real-time) PCR (qPCR) technology to analyse five common coral species from Moorea (French Polynesia), previously screened using only traditional molecular methods, to assess the presence of low-abundance (background) Symbiodinium spp. Similar to other studies, each coral species exhibited a strong specificity to a particular clade, irrespective of the environment. In addition, however, each of the five species harboured at least one additional Symbiodinium clade, among clades A-D, at background levels. Unexpectedly, and for the first time in French Polynesia, clade B was detected as a coral symbiont. These results increase the number of known coral- Symbiodinium associations from corals found in French Polynesia, and likely indicate an underestimation of the ability of the corals in this region to associate with and/or "shuffle" different Symbiodinium clades. Altogether our data suggest that corals from French Polynesia may favor a trade-off between optimizing symbioses with a specific Symbiodinium clade(s), maintaining associations with particular background clades that may play a role in the ability of corals to respond to environmental change.

  3. Abstract Spatial Reasoning as an Autistic Strength

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Jennifer L.; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2013-01-01

    Autistic individuals typically excel on spatial tests that measure abstract reasoning, such as the Block Design subtest on intelligence test batteries and the Raven’s Progressive Matrices nonverbal test of intelligence. Such well-replicated findings suggest that abstract spatial processing is a relative and perhaps absolute strength of autistic individuals. However, previous studies have not systematically varied reasoning level – concrete vs. abstract – and test domain – spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal, which the current study did. Autistic participants (N = 72) and non-autistic participants (N = 72) completed a battery of 12 tests that varied by reasoning level (concrete vs. abstract) and domain (spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal). Autistic participants outperformed non-autistic participants on abstract spatial tests. Non-autistic participants did not outperform autistic participants on any of the three domains (spatial, numerical, and verbal) or at either of the two reasoning levels (concrete and abstract), suggesting similarity in abilities between autistic and non-autistic individuals, with abstract spatial reasoning as an autistic strength. PMID:23533615

  4. Abstraction and model evaluation in category learning.

    PubMed

    Vanpaemel, Wolf; Storms, Gert

    2010-05-01

    Thirty previously published data sets, from seminal category learning tasks, are reanalyzed using the varying abstraction model (VAM). Unlike a prototype-versus-exemplar analysis, which focuses on extreme levels of abstraction only, a VAM analysis also considers the possibility of partial abstraction. Whereas most data sets support no abstraction when only the extreme possibilities are considered, we show that evidence for abstraction can be provided using the broader view on abstraction provided by the VAM. The present results generalize earlier demonstrations of partial abstraction (Vanpaemel & Storms, 2008), in which only a small number of data sets was analyzed. Following the dominant modus operandi in category learning research, Vanpaemel and Storms evaluated the models on their best fit, a practice known to ignore the complexity of the models under consideration. In the present study, in contrast, model evaluation not only relies on the maximal likelihood, but also on the marginal likelihood, which is sensitive to model complexity. Finally, using a large recovery study, it is demonstrated that, across the 30 data sets, complexity differences between the models in the VAM family are small. This indicates that a (computationally challenging) complexity-sensitive model evaluation method is uncalled for, and that the use of a (computationally straightforward) complexity-insensitive model evaluation method is justified.

  5. Abstract processing and observer vantage perspective in dysphoria.

    PubMed

    Hart-Smith, Ly; Moulds, Michelle L

    2018-05-07

    processing and observer vantage perspective have been associated with negative consequences in depression. We investigated the relationship between mode of processing and vantage perspective bidirectionally in high and low dysphoric individuals, using abstract and concrete descriptions of experimenter-provided everyday actions. When vantage perspective was manipulated and processing mode was measured (Study 1a), participants who adopted a field perspective did not differ from those who adopted an observer perspective in their preference for abstract descriptions, irrespective of dysphoria status. When processing mode was manipulated and vantage perspective was measured (Study 1b), participants provided with abstract descriptions had a greater tendency to adopt an observer perspective than those provided with concrete descriptions, irrespective of dysphoria status. These results were replicated in larger online samples (Studies 2a and 2b). Together, they indicate a unidirectional causal relationship, whereby processing mode causally influences vantage perspective, in contrast to the bidirectional relationship previously reported in an unselected sample (Libby, Shaeffer, & Eibach, 2009). Further, these findings demonstrate that abstract processing increases the likelihood of adopting an observer perspective, and support targeting abstract processing in the treatment of depression to address the negative consequences associated with both abstract processing and recalling/imagining events from an observer perspective. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. ASTRONAUTICS INFORMATION. ABSTRACTS, VOL. V, NO. 3. Abstracts 5,201- 5,330

    SciTech Connect

    Hardgrove, B.J.; Warren, F.L. comps.

    1962-03-01

    Abstracts of astronautics information covering the period March 1962 are presented. The 129 abstracts cover the subject of spaceflight and applicable data and techniques. Author, subject, and source indexes are included. (M.C.G.)

  7. ASTRONAUTICS INFORMATION. Abstracts Vol. III, No. 1. Abstracts 3,082- 3,184

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1961-01-01

    Abstracts are presented on astronautics. The abstracts are generally restricted to spaceflight and to applicable techniques and data. The publication covers the period of January 1961. 102 references. (J.R.D.)

  8. Standard Model Background of the Cosmological Collider.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xingang; Wang, Yi; Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi

    2017-06-30

    The inflationary universe can be viewed as a "cosmological collider" with an energy of the Hubble scale, producing very massive particles and recording their characteristic signals in primordial non-Gaussianities. To utilize this collider to explore any new physics at very high scales, it is a prerequisite to understand the background signals from the particle physics standard model. In this Letter we describe the standard model background of the cosmological collider.

  9. Abstracts of Remediation Case Studies, Volume 9

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report, published by the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR), is a collection of recently published abstracts summarizing 13 cost and performance case studies on the use of remediation technologies at contaminated sites.

  10. The semantic richness of abstract concepts

    PubMed Central

    Recchia, Gabriel; Jones, Michael N.

    2012-01-01

    We contrasted the predictive power of three measures of semantic richness—number of features (NFs), contextual dispersion (CD), and a novel measure of number of semantic neighbors (NSN)—for a large set of concrete and abstract concepts on lexical decision and naming tasks. NSN (but not NF) facilitated processing for abstract concepts, while NF (but not NSN) facilitated processing for the most concrete concepts, consistent with claims that linguistic information is more relevant for abstract concepts in early processing. Additionally, converging evidence from two datasets suggests that when NSN and CD are controlled for, the features that most facilitate processing are those associated with a concept's physical characteristics and real-world contexts. These results suggest that rich linguistic contexts (many semantic neighbors) facilitate early activation of abstract concepts, whereas concrete concepts benefit more from rich physical contexts (many associated objects and locations). PMID:23205008

  11. Abstracts of ARI Research Publications, FY 1979

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    Technical Report 483 ABSTRACTS OF ARI RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS FY 1979 -- C:) U. S . ArmyL.) LAa Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social...U. S . ARMY RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES A Field Operating Agency under the Jurisdiction of the Deputy Chief of Staff...PIEIT’S ATALOG NUMBER Technical Report 483 l L~,2 y. (-P- NUZE 4. TITLE (nd Subtfti.) S . TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED ABSTRACTS OF ARI RESEARCH

  12. 2011 statistical abstract of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krisanda, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    The Statistical Abstract of the United States, published since 1878, is the authoritative and comprehensive summary of statistics on the social, political, and economic organization of the United States.Use the Abstract as a convenient volume for statistical reference, and as a guide to sources of more information both in print and on the Web.Sources of data include the Census Bureau, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bureau of Economic Analysis, and many other Federal agencies and private organizations.

  13. Mathematical Abstraction: Constructing Concept of Parallel Coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhasanah, F.; Kusumah, Y. S.; Sabandar, J.; Suryadi, D.

    2017-09-01

    Mathematical abstraction is an important process in teaching and learning mathematics so pre-service mathematics teachers need to understand and experience this process. One of the theoretical-methodological frameworks for studying this process is Abstraction in Context (AiC). Based on this framework, abstraction process comprises of observable epistemic actions, Recognition, Building-With, Construction, and Consolidation called as RBC + C model. This study investigates and analyzes how pre-service mathematics teachers constructed and consolidated concept of Parallel Coordinates in a group discussion. It uses AiC framework for analyzing mathematical abstraction of a group of pre-service teachers consisted of four students in learning Parallel Coordinates concepts. The data were collected through video recording, students’ worksheet, test, and field notes. The result shows that the students’ prior knowledge related to concept of the Cartesian coordinate has significant role in the process of constructing Parallel Coordinates concept as a new knowledge. The consolidation process is influenced by the social interaction between group members. The abstraction process taken place in this group were dominated by empirical abstraction that emphasizes on the aspect of identifying characteristic of manipulated or imagined object during the process of recognizing and building-with.

  14. Is gastroenterology research in decline? A comparison of abstract publication rates from The British Society of Gastroenterology meetings between 1995 and 2005.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Sarah; Mattishent, Katharina; Broughton, Tom; Beales, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Background: Reports have suggested that academic medicine may be in decline within the UK. Further evidence suggests that rates of subsequent full publication of abstracts presented at major scientific meetings are low and may be declining. We have compared the publication rates of abstracts presented at meetings of the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) between 1995 and 2005 and examined factors associated with full paper publication.  Methods: Abstracts presented at BSG meetings in 1995 and 2005 were assessed by cross-referencing with multiple databases. Abstract characteristics associated with publication were analysed. Results: There were no differences in overall publication rates, impact factors or time to publication between 1995 and 2005. Overall, basic-science abstracts were twice as likely to achieve full publication than non-basic science. There was a significant fall in the publication rates for case series and audits, and significantly increased rates for fundamental/basic-science abstracts over the study period. There were non-significant increases in publication rates for controlled trials and systematic reviews. In general, publication rates for all predominantly clinically orientated abstracts reduced between the two periods with the most notable fall occurring in nutrition.  Conclusions: There was no evidence of a decline in overall abstract publication rates between 1995 and 2005. There seemed to be trend for increased publication rates of abstracts using perceived high-quality study methodologies with a corresponding decrease in those with lower quality methods. The proportion of basic-science abstracts is likely to be a determinant of overall full publication rates following scientific meetings.

  15. Can Individuals with Autism Abstract Prototypes of Natural Faces?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gastgeb, Holly Zajac; Wilkinson, Desiree A.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Strauss, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing amount of evidence suggesting that individuals with autism have difficulty with face processing. One basic cognitive ability that may underlie face processing difficulties is the ability to abstract a prototype. The current study examined prototype formation with natural faces using eye-tracking in high-functioning adults with…

  16. Abstracting application deployment on Cloud infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiftimiei, D. C.; Fattibene, E.; Gargana, R.; Panella, M.; Salomoni, D.

    2017-10-01

    Deploying a complex application on a Cloud-based infrastructure can be a challenging task. In this contribution we present an approach for Cloud-based deployment of applications and its present or future implementation in the framework of several projects, such as “!CHAOS: a cloud of controls” [1], a project funded by MIUR (Italian Ministry of Research and Education) to create a Cloud-based deployment of a control system and data acquisition framework, “INDIGO-DataCloud” [2], an EC H2020 project targeting among other things high-level deployment of applications on hybrid Clouds, and “Open City Platform”[3], an Italian project aiming to provide open Cloud solutions for Italian Public Administrations. We considered to use an orchestration service to hide the complex deployment of the application components, and to build an abstraction layer on top of the orchestration one. Through Heat [4] orchestration service, we prototyped a dynamic, on-demand, scalable platform of software components, based on OpenStack infrastructures. On top of the orchestration service we developed a prototype of a web interface exploiting the Heat APIs. The user can start an instance of the application without having knowledge about the underlying Cloud infrastructure and services. Moreover, the platform instance can be customized by choosing parameters related to the application such as the size of a File System or the number of instances of a NoSQL DB cluster. As soon as the desired platform is running, the web interface offers the possibility to scale some infrastructure components. In this contribution we describe the solution design and implementation, based on the application requirements, the details of the development of both the Heat templates and of the web interface, together with possible exploitation strategies of this work in Cloud data centers.

  17. Sensitive and background-free determination of thiols from wastewater samples by MOF-5 extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection using a novel fluorescence probe of carbazole-9-ethyl-2-maleimide.

    PubMed

    Lv, Zhengxian; Sun, Zhiwei; Song, Cuihua; Lu, Shuaimin; Chen, Guang; You, Jinmao

    2016-12-01

    A sensitive and background-free pre-column derivatization method for the determination of thiol compounds using metal-organic framework material (MOF-5) as dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE) adsorbent followed by high-performance liquid chromatography fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) has been developed. In this paper, a novel labeling reagent, carbazole-9-ethyl-2-maleimide(CAEM), was synthesized and reacted with thiols at 40°C for 10min in the presence of PBS buffer (0.02mol/L, pH 7.5). Interestingly, CAEM itself had no fluorescence, while its derivatives exhibited intense fluorescence with an excitation maximum at λ ex 274nm and an emission maximum at λ em 363nm, which greatly reduced the background interference and improved the sensitivity of the method. Furthermore, the MOF-5 was prepared and used as DSPE adsorbent for the selective adsorption of thiols from wastewater sample. Under the optimized experimental conditions, an excellent linearity for all analytes over their concentration ranges of 0.01-1.0μmol/L (R 2 >0.9986)were obtained with the limit of detection (LOD) ranging from 8 to 17.1pmol/L for nine tested thiols. The feasibility of this method for the determination of thiols in wastewater samples had been evaluated and satisfactory average recoveries (n=3) were achieved with the range of 86.6-98.5%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Converging Modalities Ground Abstract Categories: The Case of Politics

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Ana Rita; Garrido, Margarida V.; Semin, Gün R.

    2013-01-01

    Three studies are reported examining the grounding of abstract concepts across two modalities (visual and auditory) and their symbolic representation. A comparison of the outcomes across these studies reveals that the symbolic representation of political concepts and their visual and auditory modalities is convergent. In other words, the spatial relationships between specific instances of the political categories are highly overlapping across the symbolic, visual and auditory modalities. These findings suggest that abstract categories display redundancy across modal and amodal representations, and are multimodal. PMID:23593360

  19. Olfactory language and abstraction across cultures

    PubMed Central

    Burenhult, Niclas; Stensmyr, Marcus; de Valk, Josje; Hansson, Bill S.

    2018-01-01

    Olfaction presents a particularly interesting arena to explore abstraction in language. Like other abstract domains, such as time, odours can be difficult to conceptualize. An odour cannot be seen or held, it can be difficult to locate in space, and for most people odours are difficult to verbalize. On the other hand, odours give rise to primary sensory experiences. Every time we inhale we are using olfaction to make sense of our environment. We present new experimental data from 30 Jahai hunter-gatherers from the Malay Peninsula and 30 matched Dutch participants from the Netherlands in an odour naming experiment. Participants smelled monomolecular odorants and named odours while reaction times, odour descriptors and facial expressions were measured. We show that while Dutch speakers relied on concrete descriptors, i.e. they referred to odour sources (e.g. smells like lemon), the Jahai used abstract vocabulary to name the same odours (e.g. musty). Despite this differential linguistic categorization, analysis of facial expressions showed that the two groups, nevertheless, had the same initial emotional reactions to odours. Critically, these cross-cultural data present a challenge for how to think about abstraction in language. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Varieties of abstract concepts: development, use and representation in the brain’. PMID:29915007

  20. A Flexible Cosmic Ultraviolet Background Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuinn, Matthew

    2016-10-01

    HST studies of the IGM, of the CGM, and of reionization-era galaxies are all aided by ionizing background models, which are a critical input in modeling the ionization state of diffuse, 10^4 K gas. The ionization state in turn enables the determination of densities and sizes of absorbing clouds and, when applied to the Ly-a forest, the global ionizing emissivity of sources. Unfortunately, studies that use these background models have no way of gauging the amount of uncertainty in the adopted model other than to recompute their results using previous background models with outdated observational inputs. As of yet there has been no systematic study of uncertainties in the background model and there unfortunately is no publicly available ultraviolet background code. A public code would enable users to update the calculation with the latest observational constraints, and it would allow users to experiment with varying the background model's assumptions regarding emissions and absorptions. We propose to develop a publicly available ionizing background code and, as an initial application, quantify the level of uncertainty in the ionizing background spectrum across cosmic time. As the background model improves, so does our understanding of (1) the sources that dominate ionizing emissions across cosmic time and (2) the properties of diffuse gas in the circumgalactic medium, the WHIM, and the Ly-a forest. HST is the primary telescope for studying both the highest redshift galaxies and low-redshift diffuse gas. The proposed program would benefit HST studies of the Universe at z 0 all the way up to z = 10, including of high-z galaxies observed in the HST Frontier Fields.

  1. Extragalactic background light measurements and applications.

    PubMed

    Cooray, Asantha

    2016-03-01

    This review covers the measurements related to the extragalactic background light intensity from γ-rays to radio in the electromagnetic spectrum over 20 decades in wavelength. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) remains the best measured spectrum with an accuracy better than 1%. The measurements related to the cosmic optical background (COB), centred at 1 μm, are impacted by the large zodiacal light associated with interplanetary dust in the inner Solar System. The best measurements of COB come from an indirect technique involving γ-ray spectra of bright blazars with an absorption feature resulting from pair-production off of COB photons. The cosmic infrared background (CIB) peaking at around 100 μm established an energetically important background with an intensity comparable to the optical background. This discovery paved the way for large aperture far-infrared and sub-millimetre observations resulting in the discovery of dusty, starbursting galaxies. Their role in galaxy formation and evolution remains an active area of research in modern-day astrophysics. The extreme UV (EUV) background remains mostly unexplored and will be a challenge to measure due to the high Galactic background and absorption of extragalactic photons by the intergalactic medium at these EUV/soft X-ray energies. We also summarize our understanding of the spatial anisotropies and angular power spectra of intensity fluctuations. We motivate a precise direct measurement of the COB between 0.1 and 5 μm using a small aperture telescope observing either from the outer Solar System, at distances of 5 AU or more, or out of the ecliptic plane. Other future applications include improving our understanding of the background at TeV energies and spectral distortions of CMB and CIB.

  2. Extragalactic background light measurements and applications

    PubMed Central

    Cooray, Asantha

    2016-01-01

    This review covers the measurements related to the extragalactic background light intensity from γ-rays to radio in the electromagnetic spectrum over 20 decades in wavelength. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) remains the best measured spectrum with an accuracy better than 1%. The measurements related to the cosmic optical background (COB), centred at 1 μm, are impacted by the large zodiacal light associated with interplanetary dust in the inner Solar System. The best measurements of COB come from an indirect technique involving γ-ray spectra of bright blazars with an absorption feature resulting from pair-production off of COB photons. The cosmic infrared background (CIB) peaking at around 100 μm established an energetically important background with an intensity comparable to the optical background. This discovery paved the way for large aperture far-infrared and sub-millimetre observations resulting in the discovery of dusty, starbursting galaxies. Their role in galaxy formation and evolution remains an active area of research in modern-day astrophysics. The extreme UV (EUV) background remains mostly unexplored and will be a challenge to measure due to the high Galactic background and absorption of extragalactic photons by the intergalactic medium at these EUV/soft X-ray energies. We also summarize our understanding of the spatial anisotropies and angular power spectra of intensity fluctuations. We motivate a precise direct measurement of the COB between 0.1 and 5 μm using a small aperture telescope observing either from the outer Solar System, at distances of 5 AU or more, or out of the ecliptic plane. Other future applications include improving our understanding of the background at TeV energies and spectral distortions of CMB and CIB. PMID:27069645

  3. Granularity of the Diffuse Background Observed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruber, D. E.; MacDonald, D.; Rothschild, R. E.; Boldt, E.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Fabian, A. C.

    1995-01-01

    First results are reported from a program for measuring the field-to-field fluctuation level of the cosmic diffuse background by using differences between the two background positions of each deep exposure with the High Energy X-ray Timing Experiment (HEXTE) instrument on the Remote X Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). With 8 million live seconds accumulated to date a fluctuation level on the 15-25 keV band is observed which is consistent with extrapolations from the High Energy Astrophysical Observatory-1 (HEAO-1) measurements. Positive results are expected eventually at higher energies. Models of (active galactic nuclei) AGN origin will eventually be constrained by this program.

  4. Abstract knowledge versus direct experience in processing of binomial expressions

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Emily; Levy, Roger

    2016-01-01

    We ask whether word order preferences for binomial expressions of the form A and B (e.g. bread and butter) are driven by abstract linguistic knowledge of ordering constraints referencing the semantic, phonological, and lexical properties of the constituent words, or by prior direct experience with the specific items in questions. Using forced-choice and self-paced reading tasks, we demonstrate that online processing of never-before-seen binomials is influenced by abstract knowledge of ordering constraints, which we estimate with a probabilistic model. In contrast, online processing of highly frequent binomials is primarily driven by direct experience, which we estimate from corpus frequency counts. We propose a trade-off wherein processing of novel expressions relies upon abstract knowledge, while reliance upon direct experience increases with increased exposure to an expression. Our findings support theories of language processing in which both compositional generation and direct, holistic reuse of multi-word expressions play crucial roles. PMID:27776281

  5. Differential emotional processing in concrete and abstract words.

    PubMed

    Yao, Bo; Keitel, Anne; Bruce, Gillian; Scott, Graham G; O'Donnell, Patrick J; Sereno, Sara C

    2018-02-12

    Emotion (positive and negative) words are typically recognized faster than neutral words. Recent research suggests that emotional valence, while often treated as a unitary semantic property, may be differentially represented in concrete and abstract words. Studies that have explicitly examined the interaction of emotion and concreteness, however, have demonstrated inconsistent patterns of results. Moreover, these findings may be limited as certain key lexical variables (e.g., familiarity, age of acquisition) were not taken into account. We investigated the emotion-concreteness interaction in a large-scale, highly controlled lexical decision experiment. A 3 (Emotion: negative, neutral, positive) × 2 (Concreteness: abstract, concrete) design was used, with 45 items per condition and 127 participants. We found a significant interaction between emotion and concreteness. Although positive and negative valenced words were recognized faster than neutral words, this emotion advantage was significantly larger in concrete than in abstract words. We explored potential contributions of participant alexithymia level and item imageability to this interactive pattern. We found that only word imageability significantly modulated the emotion-concreteness interaction. While both concrete and abstract emotion words are advantageously processed relative to comparable neutral words, the mechanisms of this facilitation are paradoxically more dependent on imageability in abstract words. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Discrepancies between proceedings abstracts and posters at a scientific meeting.

    PubMed

    Zelle, Boris A; Zlowodzki, Michael; Bhandari, Mohit

    2005-06-01

    The proceedings handbook of abstracts from scientific meetings aims to provide meeting attendees with an accurate summary of scientific presentations. Given that posters are prepared closer to the meeting than the abstracts for the proceedings book, we hypothesized that there is a high rate of inconsistency between abstracts in the proceedings handbook and the corresponding posters. We compared the poster abstracts printed in the proceedings handbook with the actual posters at the 71st annual meeting of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons in 2004. Our comparison included all 50 trauma posters and 52 adult reconstruction knee posters. This comparison revealed discrepancies in 76% of the presented posters. These changes were detected in all parts of the posters including titles (33%), authorship (49%), methods (8%), results (30%), and conclusions (2%). The sample size changed in 15% of the studies. Discrepancies between the trauma posters versus the adult reconstruction knee posters were similar. Our findings suggest that discrepancies between the poster abstracts in the proceedings handbook and actual poster presentations are common, but changes in conclusions are rare. Meeting attendees should not assume that the proceedings handbook provides an accurate reflection of poster presentations. Visiting the poster section is recommended.

  7. Information Leakage Analysis by Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanioli, Matteo; Cortesi, Agostino

    Protecting the confidentiality of information stored in a computer system or transmitted over a public network is a relevant problem in computer security. The approach of information flow analysis involves performing a static analysis of the program with the aim of proving that there will not be leaks of sensitive information. In this paper we propose a new domain that combines variable dependency analysis, based on propositional formulas, and variables' value analysis, based on polyhedra. The resulting analysis is strictly more accurate than the state of the art abstract interpretation based analyses for information leakage detection. Its modular construction allows to deal with the tradeoff between efficiency and accuracy by tuning the granularity of the abstraction and the complexity of the abstract operators.

  8. On the Power of Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, Uday S.; Kamin, Samuel N.

    1991-01-01

    Increasingly sophisticated applications of static analysis place increased burden on the reliability of the analysis techniques. Often, the failure of the analysis technique to detect some information my mean that the time or space complexity of the generated code would be altered. Thus, it is important to precisely characterize the power of static analysis techniques. We follow the approach of Selur et. al. who studied the power of strictness analysis techniques. Their result can be summarized by saying 'strictness analysis is perfect up to variations in constants.' In other words, strictness analysis is as good as it could be, short of actually distinguishing between concrete values. We use this approach to characterize a broad class of analysis techniques based on abstract interpretation including, but not limited to, strictness analysis. For the first-order case, we consider abstract interpretations where the abstract domain for data values is totally ordered. This condition is satisfied by Mycroft's strictness analysis that of Sekar et. al. and Wadler's analysis of list-strictness. For such abstract interpretations, we show that the analysis is complete in the sense that, short of actually distinguishing between concrete values with the same abstraction, it gives the best possible information. We further generalize these results to typed lambda calculus with pairs and higher-order functions. Note that products and function spaces over totally ordered domains are not totally ordered. In fact, the notion of completeness used in the first-order case fails if product domains or function spaces are added. We formulate a weaker notion of completeness based on observability of values. Two values (including pairs and functions) are considered indistinguishable if their observable components are indistinguishable. We show that abstract interpretation of typed lambda calculus programs is complete up to this notion of indistinguishability. We use denotationally

  9. Energy partitioning in polyatomic chemical reactions: Quantum state resolved studies of highly exothermic atom abstraction reactions from molecules in the gas phase and at the gas-liquid interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolot, Alexander M.

    This thesis recounts a series of experiments that interrogate the dynamics of elementary chemical reactions using quantum state resolved measurements of gas-phase products. The gas-phase reactions F + HCl → HF + Cl and F + H2O → HF + OH are studied using crossed supersonic jets under single collision conditions. Infrared (IR) laser absorption probes HF product with near shot-noise limited sensitivity and high resolution, capable of resolving rovibrational states and Doppler lineshapes. Both reactions yield inverted vibrational populations. For the HCl reaction, strongly bimodal rotational distributions are observed, suggesting microscopic branching of the reaction mechanism. Alternatively, such structure may result from a quantum-resonance mediated reaction similar to those found in the well-characterized F + HD system. For the H2O reaction, a small, but significant, branching into v = 2 is particularly remarkable because this manifold is accessible only via the additional center of mass collision energy in the crossed jets. Rotationally hyperthermal HF is also observed. Ab initio calculations of the transition state geometry suggest mechanisms for both rotational and vibrational excitation. Exothermic chemical reaction dynamics at the gas-liquid interface have been investigated by colliding a supersonic jet of F atoms with liquid squalane (C30H62), a low vapor pressure hydrocarbon compatible with the high vacuum environment. IR spectroscopy provides absolute HF( v,J) product densities and Doppler resolved velocity component distributions perpendicular to the surface normal. Compared to analogous gas-phase F + hydrocarbon reactions, the liquid surface is a more effective "heat sink," yet vibrationally excited populations reveal incomplete thermal accommodation with the surface. Non-Boltzmann J-state populations and hot Doppler lineshapes that broaden with HF excitation indicate two competing scattering mechanisms: (i) a direct reactive scattering channel

  10. 2011 statistical abstract of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krisanda, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    The Statistical Abstract of the United States, published since 1878, is the authoritative and comprehensive summary of statistics on the social, political, and economic organization of the United States.


    Use the Abstract as a convenient volume for statistical reference, and as a guide to sources of more information both in print and on the Web.


    Sources of data include the Census Bureau, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bureau of Economic Analysis, and many other Federal agencies and private organizations.

  11. Spectral characterization of natural backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, Max

    2017-10-01

    As the distribution and use of hyperspectral sensors is constantly increasing, the exploitation of spectral features is a threat for camouflaged objects. To improve camouflage materials at first the spectral behavior of backgrounds has to be known to adjust and optimize the spectral reflectance of camouflage materials. In an international effort, the NATO CSO working group SCI-295 "Development of Methods for Measurements and Evaluation of Natural Background EO Signatures" is developing a method how this characterization of backgrounds has to be done. It is obvious that the spectral characterization of a background will be quite an effort. To compare and exchange data internationally the measurements will have to be done in a similar way. To test and further improve this method an international field trial has been performed in Storkow, Germany. In the following we present first impressions and lessons learned from this field campaign and describe the data that has been measured.

  12. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 13)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 161 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1978 through June 1978. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  13. Low background screening capability in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghag, Chamkaur

    2015-08-01

    Low background rare event searches in underground laboratories seeking observation of direct dark matter interactions or neutrino-less double beta decay have the potential to profoundly advance our understanding of the physical universe. Successful results from these experiments depend critically on construction from extremely radiologically clean materials and accurate knowledge of subsequent low levels of expected background. The experiments must conduct comprehensive screening campaigns to reduce radioactivity from detector components, and these measurements also inform detailed characterisation and quantification of background sources and their impact, necessary to assign statistical significance to any potential discovery. To provide requisite sensitivity for material screening and characterisation in the UK to support our rare event search activities, we have re-developed our infrastructure to add ultra-low background capability across a range of complementary techniques that collectively allow complete radioactivity measurements. Ultra-low background HPGe and BEGe detectors have been installed at the Boulby Underground Laboratory, itself undergoing substantial facility re-furbishment, to provide high sensitivity gamma spectroscopy in particular for measuring the uranium and thorium decay series products. Dedicated low-activity mass spectrometry instrumentation has been developed at UCL for part per trillion level contaminant identification to complement underground screening with direct U and Th measurements, and meet throughput demands. Finally, radon emanation screening at UCL measures radon background inaccessible to gamma or mass spectrometry techniques. With this new capability the UK is delivering half of the radioactivity screening for the LZ dark matter search experiment.

  14. Compressive Sensing for Background Subtraction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-20

    i) reconstructing an image using only a single optical pho- todiode (infrared, hyperspectral, etc.) along with a digital micromirror device (DMD... curves , we use the full images, run the background subtraction algorithm proposed in [19], and obtain baseline background subtracted images. We then...the images to generate the ROC curve . 5.5 Silhouettes vs. Difference Images We have used a multi camera set up for a 3D voxel reconstruction using the

  15. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 07)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 158 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1975 through June 1975. Each entry in the Abstract Section consists of a citation, an abstract, and, in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. This issue of the Index Section contains entries for 2830 patent and application for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through June 1975. The index section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  16. Water Pollution Abstracts. Volume 43, Number 4, Abstracts 645-849.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    WATER POLLUTION, *ABSTRACTS, PURIFICATION, WASTES(INDUSTRIAL), CONTROL, SEWAGE, WATER SUPPLIES, PUBLIC HEALTH, PETROLEUM PRODUCTS, DEGRADATION, DAMS...ESTUARIES, PLANKTON, PHOTOSYNTHESIS, VIRUSES, SEA WATER , MICROBIOLOGY, UNITED KINGDOM.

  17. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 08)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections; abstracts and indexes. The Abstract Section cites 180 patents and applications for patents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of July 1975 through December 1975. Each entry in the Abstract Section consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. The index Section contains entries for 2,905 patents and applications for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through December 1975. The Index Section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  18. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 09)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 200 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1976 through June 1976. Each entry in the Abstract Section consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. This issue of the Index Section contains entries for 2994 patent and application for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through June 1976. The Index Section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  19. Noble fir: a bibliography with abstracts.

    Treesearch

    Jerry F. Franklin

    1962-01-01

    This bibliography on noble fir (Abies procera Rehd.) includes both North American and European references. Its purpose is to list articles for those interested in the species; the most important references have been abstracted. An article concerning California red fir and one concerning Shasta red fir are included, as their silvical characteristics...

  20. Natural radiation environment III. [Lead Abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Gesell, T.F.; Lowder, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 52 research papers presented at this symposium in April 1978. The major topics in this volume deal with penetrating radiation measurements, radiation surveys and population exposure, radioactivity in the indoor environment, and technologically enhanced natural radioactivity. (KRM)

  1. ANNUAL REPORT-AUTOMATIC INDEXING AND ABSTRACTING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Palo Alto, CA. Electronic Sciences Lab.

    THE INVESTIGATION IS CONCERNED WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMATIC INDEXING, ABSTRACTING, AND EXTRACTING SYSTEMS. BASIC INVESTIGATIONS IN ENGLISH MORPHOLOGY, PHONETICS, AND SYNTAX ARE PURSUED AS NECESSARY MEANS TO THIS END. IN THE FIRST SECTION THE THEORY AND DESIGN OF THE "SENTENCE DICTIONARY" EXPERIMENT IN AUTOMATIC EXTRACTION IS OUTLINED. SOME OF…

  2. Detecting Moving Sources in Astronomical Images (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, A.

    2018-06-01

    (Abstract only) Source detection in images is an important part of analyzing astronomical data. This project discusses an implementation of image detection in python, as well as processes for performing photometry in python. Application of these tools to looking for moving sources is also discussed.

  3. How Faint Can You Go? (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henden, A.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) For many scientific projects, knowledge of the faint limit of your exposure can be extremely important. In addition, it can be just plain fun to know how faint your equipment can go under varying circumstances. This paper describes the concept and gives some guidance as to how to increase the scientific value of your reports.

  4. Three New Z Cam Stars (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, M.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) I will present the evidence and discovery stories of three cataclysmic variables who appear to be members of the Z Cam class of dwarf novae. One discovered by a lone visual observer and his unwavering patience and persistence, one through the directed effort of the ongoing Z CamPaign and one via survey data from the Gaia satellite.

  5. RCDPM 1992 Conference Book of Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1992

    This booklet contains 51 abstracts of papers presented at the 1992 conference for the Research Council for Diagnostic and Prescriptive Mathematics (RCDPM). Topics covered include: the use of expressive writing to enhance metacognition, adult assessment, cooperative learning assessment, visualization in problem solving, deaf students' beliefs about…

  6. Content Abstract Classification Using Naive Bayes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latif, Syukriyanto; Suwardoyo, Untung; Aldrin Wihelmus Sanadi, Edwin

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to classify abstract content based on the use of the highest number of words in an abstract content of the English language journals. This research uses a system of text mining technology that extracts text data to search information from a set of documents. Abstract content of 120 data downloaded at www.computer.org. Data grouping consists of three categories: DM (Data Mining), ITS (Intelligent Transport System) and MM (Multimedia). Systems built using naive bayes algorithms to classify abstract journals and feature selection processes using term weighting to give weight to each word. Dimensional reduction techniques to reduce the dimensions of word counts rarely appear in each document based on dimensional reduction test parameters of 10% -90% of 5.344 words. The performance of the classification system is tested by using the Confusion Matrix based on comparative test data and test data. The results showed that the best classification results were obtained during the 75% training data test and 25% test data from the total data. Accuracy rates for categories of DM, ITS and MM were 100%, 100%, 86%. respectively with dimension reduction parameters of 30% and the value of learning rate between 0.1-0.5.

  7. Abstracts of Research Papers 1977 AAHPER Convention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sage, George H., Ed.

    This volume of abstracts describes papers written on the following topics: (1) Strength Physiology; (2) Learning Disabilities (motor); (3) Physiology - General; (4) Work Capacity; (5) Measurement and Recreation; (6) Biomechanics; (7) Professional Preparation (physical education); (8) Muscle Performance; (9) Sociology of Sport; (10) History of…

  8. Paper and Symposia Abstracts, 1972 Annual Meeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Donald J., Ed.

    This compendium contains abstracts of approximately 700 papers which are classified under administration, curriculum and objectives, instruction and learning, measurement and research methodology, counseling and human development, history and historiography, social context of education, school evaluation and program development, or special…

  9. The Paradox of Abstraction: Precision Versus Concreteness.

    PubMed

    Iliev, Rumen; Axelrod, Robert

    2017-06-01

    We introduce a novel measure of abstractness based on the amount of information of a concept computed from its position in a semantic taxonomy. We refer to this measure as precision. We propose two alternative ways to measure precision, one based on the path length from a concept to the root of the taxonomic tree, and another one based on the number of direct and indirect descendants. Since more information implies greater processing load, we hypothesize that nouns higher in precision will have a processing disadvantage in a lexical decision task. We contrast precision to concreteness, a common measure of abstractness based on the proportion of sensory-based information associated with a concept. Since concreteness facilitates cognitive processing, we predict that while both concreteness and precision are measures of abstractness, they will have opposite effects on performance. In two studies we found empirical support for our hypothesis. Precision and concreteness had opposite effects on latency and accuracy in a lexical decision task, and these opposite effects were observable while controlling for word length, word frequency, affective content and semantic diversity. Our results support the view that concepts organization includes amodal semantic structures which are independent of sensory information. They also suggest that we should distinguish between sensory-based and amount-of-information-based abstractness.

  10. The Paradox of Abstraction: Precision Versus Concreteness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iliev, Rumen; Axelrod, Robert

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a novel measure of abstractness based on the amount of information of a concept computed from its position in a semantic taxonomy. We refer to this measure as "precision". We propose two alternative ways to measure precision, one based on the path length from a concept to the root of the taxonomic tree, and another one based…

  11. Spatial abstraction for autonomous robot navigation.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Susan L; Aroor, Anoop; Evanusa, Matthew; Sklar, Elizabeth I; Parsons, Simon

    2015-09-01

    Optimal navigation for a simulated robot relies on a detailed map and explicit path planning, an approach problematic for real-world robots that are subject to noise and error. This paper reports on autonomous robots that rely on local spatial perception, learning, and commonsense rationales instead. Despite realistic actuator error, learned spatial abstractions form a model that supports effective travel.

  12. Abstracts of Research, July 1975-June 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Computer and Information Science Research Center.

    Abstracts of research papers in computer and information science are given for 62 papers in the areas of information storage and retrieval; computer facilities; information analysis; linguistics analysis; artificial intelligence; information processes in physical, biological, and social systems; mathematical technigues; systems programming;…

  13. Abstracts, Third Space Processing Symposium, Skylab results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Skylab experiments results are reported in abstracts of papers presented at the Third Space Processing Symposium. Specific areas of interest include: exothermic brazing, metals melting, crystals, reinforced composites, glasses, eutectics; physics of the low-g processes; electrophoresis, heat flow, and convection demonstrations flown on Apollo missions; and apparatus for containerless processing, heating, cooling, and containing materials.

  14. CALL FOR ABSTRACTS - PIT LAKES 2004

    EPA Science Inventory

    This call for abstracts is for the 11/16-18/2004 Pit Lakes 2004 meeting held in Reno, NV. This conference will provide a forum for the exchange of scientific information on current domestic and international pit lake approaches, including pit lakes from arid and wet regions throu...

  15. Second LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Arlene S. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    These abstracts from the symposium represent the data analysis of the 57 experiments flown on the LDEF. The experiments include materials, coatings, thermal systems, power and propulsion, science, (cosmic ray, interstellar gas, heavy ions, micrometeoroids, etc.), electronics, optics, and life science.

  16. Integrating model abstraction into monitoring strategies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was designed and performed to investigate the opportunities and benefits of integrating model abstraction techniques into monitoring strategies. The study focused on future applications of modeling to contingency planning and management of potential and actual contaminant release sites wi...

  17. Simulation, Design Abstraction, and SystemC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harcourt, Ed

    2007-01-01

    SystemC is a system-level design and simulation language based on C++. We've been using SystemC for computer organization and design projects for the past several years. Because SystemC is embedded in C++ it contains the powerful abstraction mechanisms of C++ not found in traditional hardware description languages, such as support for…

  18. Heat pipe technology: A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The annual supplement on heat pipe technology for 1971 is presented. The document contains 101 references with abstracts and 47 patents. The subjects discussed are: (1) heat pipe applications, (2) heat pipe theory, (3) design, development, and fabrication of heat pipes, (4) testing and operation, (5) subject and author index, and (6) heat pipe related patents.

  19. Hubble Exoplanet Pro/Am Collaboration (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, D. M.

    2016-06-01

    (Abstract only) A collaborative effort is being organized between a world-wide network of amateur astronomers and a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) science team. The purpose of this collaboration is to supplement an HST near-infrared spectroscopy survey of some 15 exoplanets with ground-based observations in the visible range.

  20. Development of Abstract Grammatical Categorization in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyr, Marilyn; Shi, Rushen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined abstract syntactic categorization in infants, using the case of grammatical gender. Ninety-six French-learning 14-, 17-, 20-, and 30-month-olds completed the study. In a preferential looking procedure infants were tested on their generalized knowledge of grammatical gender involving pseudonouns and gender-marking determiners.…

  1. The Eggen Card Project (Poster abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvis, G.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) At the 2013 meeting we kicked off the Eggen Card project. This project was to make the huge collection of photometric observations made by Olin Eggen accessible to researchers. My poster this year is to report progress and encourage more members to participate.

  2. Coding the Eggen Cards (Poster abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvis, G.

    2014-06-01

    (Abstract only) A look at the Eggen Portal for accessing the Eggen cards. And a call for volunteers to help code the cards: 100,000 cards must be looked at and their star references identified and coded into the database for this to be a valuable resource.

  3. The Learnability of Abstract Syntactic Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perfors, Amy; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.; Regier, Terry

    2011-01-01

    Children acquiring language infer the correct form of syntactic constructions for which they appear to have little or no direct evidence, avoiding simple but incorrect generalizations that would be consistent with the data they receive. These generalizations must be guided by some inductive bias--some abstract knowledge--that leads them to prefer…

  4. Title TBA: Revising the Abstract Submission Process.

    PubMed

    Tibon, Roni; Open Science Committee, Cbu; Henson, Richard

    2018-04-01

    Academic conferences are among the most prolific scientific activities, yet the current abstract submission and review process has serious limitations. We propose a revised process that would address these limitations, achieve some of the aims of Open Science, and stimulate discussion throughout the entire lifecycle of the scientific work. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Does Abstracting Threaten a Sustainable Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Lyle K.

    2012-01-01

    In abstraction, or conceptual behavior, people discriminate features or properties of their surroundings. This permits people to respond selectively and precisely to specialized features of their environment, which has had many benefits, including steady advances in science and technology. Within psychology, J. R. Kantor and B. F. Skinner…

  6. Mountain hemlock: a bibliography with abstracts.

    Treesearch

    Jerry F. Franklin

    1962-01-01

    This bibliography lists references pertaining to mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carr.) found in North American and European literature for individuals interested in this species. The author has attempted to include all references which might conceivably provide useful information on this species; abstracts are provided for those...

  7. Reducing Abstraction When Learning Graph Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazzan, Orit; Hadar, Irit

    2005-01-01

    This article presents research on students' understanding of basic concepts in Graph Theory. Students' understanding is analyzed through the lens of the theoretical framework of reducing abstraction (Hazzan, 1999). As it turns out, in spite of the relative simplicity of the concepts that are introduced in the introductory part of a traditional…

  8. Heat pipe technology. A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography cites 55 publications on the theory, design, development, fabrication, and testing of heat pipes. Applications covered include solar, nuclear, and thermoelectric energy conversion. A book (in Russian) on low temperature heat pipes is included as well as abstracts when available. Indexes provided list authors, titles/keywords (permuted) and patents.

  9. Abstracts of Research. July 1974-June 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Computer and Information Science Research Center.

    Abstracts of research papers in computer and information science are given for 68 papers in the areas of information storage and retrieval; human information processing; information analysis; linguistic analysis; artificial intelligence; information processes in physical, biological, and social systems; mathematical techniques; systems…

  10. Using Group Explorer in Teaching Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Claus; Gfeller, Mary; Donohue, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the use of Group Explorer in an undergraduate mathematics course in abstract algebra. The visual nature of Group Explorer in representing concepts in group theory is an attractive incentive to use this software in the classroom. However, little is known about students' perceptions on this technology in learning concepts in…

  11. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    DOE PAGES

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; ...

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K)more » or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.« less

  12. Discrepancies and rates of publication in orthopaedic sports medicine abstracts.

    PubMed

    Kleweno, Conor P; Bryant, Whitney K; Jacir, Albert M; Levine, William N; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2008-10-01

    Presentations of clinically relevant data at AOSSM national meetings are presented yearly and may influence clinical decision making. The incidence of presentations that do not subsequently get published is high, and the numbers of major and minor inconsistencies, once published, are also high. Systematic review. A database was created of all abstracts presented at AOSSM meetings from 1999 to 2001 from official program books. To assess whether each abstract had been followed by publication in a peer-reviewed journal, a PubMed search was conducted to include a 5-year follow-up for each conference. Minor inconsistencies included differences in title, authors, presentation of all outcomes, and authors' interpretation of data. Major inconsistencies included discrepancies in study objective and/or hypothesis, study design, primary and secondary outcome measures, sample size, statistical analysis, results, and standard deviations/confidence intervals. Overall, 98 of the 165 abstracts presented at AOSSM national meetings from 1999 to 2001 were published in a peer-reviewed journal within 5 years, a publication rate of 59.4%. The median time to publication for all articles was 21 (range, 1-60) months. The majority of articles (61) were published in the American Journal of Sports Medicine (62.2%). The median number of major and minor inconsistencies from abstract to publication was 1 (range, 0-5) and 1 (range, 0-4), respectively. Sixty-two of the 98 published abstracts (63%) had at least 1 major inconsistency, while 79 (81%) had at least 1 minor inconsistency. In 5 manuscripts (5%), the authors' interpretation of the data had changed, and in 2 (2%), the change essentially invalidated the abstract. A large number of scientific presentations do not get published in a peer-reviewed journal. In addition, those published have a significant number of changes that, in a small percentage of cases, alter the validity of the original presentation. Orthopaedic surgeons and other

  13. Family Background, Ethnicity, and Urban Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    In a pilot study of about 400 public high school students in Chicago, four innovative approaches are employed to deal with previous research problems arising from the study of juvenile delinquency: specific, proximal measures of social background, multiple indexes of delinquency, anonymous self-reports of delinquency incidence, and parametric…

  14. Distribution of uranium, thorium and some stable trace and toxic elements in human hair and nails in Niška Banja Town, a high natural background radiation area of Serbia (Balkan Region, South-East Europe).

    PubMed

    Sahoo, S K; Žunić, Z S; Kritsananuwat, R; Zagrodzki, P; Bossew, P; Veselinovic, N; Mishra, S; Yonehara, H; Tokonami, S

    2015-07-01

    Human hair and nails can be considered as bio-indicators of the public exposure to certain natural radionuclides and other toxic metals over a long period of months or even years. The level of elements in hair and nails usually reflect their levels in other tissues of body. Niška Banja, a spa town located in southern Serbia, with locally high natural background radiation was selected for the study. To assess public exposure to the trace elements, hair and nail samples were collected and analyzed. The concentrations of uranium, thorium and some trace and toxic elements (Mn, Ni, Cu, Sr, Cd, and Cs) were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). U and Th concentrations in hair varied from 0.0002 to 0.0771 μg/g and from 0.0002 to 0.0276 μg/g, respectively. The concentrations in nails varied from 0.0025 to 0.0447 μg/g and from 0.0023 to 0.0564 μg/g for U and Th, respectively. We found significant correlations between some elements in hair and nails. Also indications of spatial clustering of high values could be found. However, this phenomenon as well as the large variations in concentrations of heavy metals in hair and nail could not be explained. As hypotheses, we propose possible exposure pathways which may explain the findings, but the current data does not allow testing them. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The background in the $$0\

    DOE PAGES

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Andreotti, E.; ...

    2014-04-04

    The GERmanium Detector Array (Gerda) experiment at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS) of INFN is searching for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of 76 Ge. The signature of the signal is a monoenergetic peak at 2039 keV, the Q ββ value of the decay. To avoid bias in the signal search, the present analysis does not consider all those events, that fall in a 40 keV wide region centered around Q ββ. The main parameters needed for the 0νββ analysis are described. A background model was developed to describe the observed energy spectrum. The model contains severalmore » contributions, that are expected on the basis of material screening or that are established by the observation of characteristic structures in the energy spectrum. The model predicts a flat energy spectrum for the blinding window around Qββ with a background index ranging from 17.6 to 23.8 × 10 -3 cts/(keV kg yr). A part of the data not considered before has been used to test if the predictions of the background model are consistent. The observed number of events in this energy region is consistent with the background model. The background at Q ββ is dominated by close sources, mainly due to 42 K, 214 Bi, 228 60 Co and α emitting isotopes from the 226 Ra decay chain. The individual fractions depend on the assumed locations of the contaminants. It is shown, that after removal of the known γ peaks, the energy spectrum can be fitted in an energy range of 200 keV around Q ββ with a constant background. This gives a background index consistent with the full model and uncertainties of the same size.« less

  16. Quality of reporting of trial abstracts needs to be improved: using the CONSORT for abstracts to assess the four leading Chinese medical journals of traditional Chinese medicine

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Due to language limitations, the abstract of journal article may be the only way for people of non-Chinese speaking countries to know about trials in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, little is known about the reporting quality of these trial abstracts. Our study is to assess the reporting quality of abstracts of randomized controlled trials (RCT) published in four leading Chinese medical journals of TCM, and to identify any differences in reporting between the Chinese and English version of the same abstract publication. Method Two reviewers hand-searched the Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine, the Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine, the China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica and the Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion for all abstracts of RCTs published between 2006 and 2007. Two reviewers independently assessed the reporting quality of the Chinese and English version of all eligible abstracts based on a modified version of the CONSORT for reporting randomised trials in journal and conference abstracts (CONSORT for abstracts). Results We identified a total of 345 RCTs of TCM with both a Chinese and English abstract. More than half of Chinese abstracts reported details of the trial participants (68%; 234/345), control group intervention (52%; 179/345), the number of participants randomized (73%; 253/345) and benefits when interpreting the trial results (55%; 190/345). Reporting of methodological quality or key features of trial design and trial results were poor; only 2% (7/345) included details of the trial design, 3% (11/345) defined the primary outcome, 5% (17/345) described the methods of random sequence generation, and only 4% (13/345) reported the number of participants analyzed. No abstracts provided details on allocation concealment and trial registration. The percentage agreement in reporting (between the Chinese and English version of the same abstract) ranged from 84% to 100% across individual

  17. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 17)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 150 patents and applications for patents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1980 through June 1980. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  18. Choosing a Database for Social Work: A Comparison of Social Work Abstracts and Social Service Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flatley, Robert K.; Lilla, Rick; Widner, Jack

    2007-01-01

    This study compared Social Work Abstracts and Social Services Abstracts databases in terms of indexing, journal coverage, and searches. The authors interviewed editors, analyzed journal coverage, and compared searches. It was determined that the databases complement one another more than compete. The authors conclude with some considerations.

  19. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 35)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 58 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period January 1989 through June 1989. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  20. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 37)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 76 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period January 1990 through June 1990. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  1. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 26)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 172 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1984 through December 1984. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  2. NASA patent abstracts bibliography. A continuing bibliography (supplement 22). Section 1: Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 234 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1982 through December 1982. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  3. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 24)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 167 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1983 through December 1983. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  4. Cooperative Educational Abstracting Service (CEAS). (Abstract Series No. 103-122, March 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Bureau of Education, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This document is a compilation of 20 English-language abstracts concerning various aspects of education in Switzerland, New Zealand, Chile, Poland, Argentina, Pakistan, Malaysia, Thailand, and France. The abstracts are informative in nature, each being approximately 1,500 words in length. They are based on documents submitted by each of the…

  5. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 45)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 137 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period Jan. 1994 through Jun. 1994. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  6. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 27)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 92 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1985 through June 1985. Each entry consist of a citation, and abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  7. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 31)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 85 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1987 through June 1987. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  8. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 19)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 130 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1981 through July 1981. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  9. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 28)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 109 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during the period July 1985 through December 1985. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  10. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 14)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 213 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of July 1978 through December 1978. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  11. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 16)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 138 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1979 through December 1979. Each entry cib consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  12. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 30)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 105 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1986 through December 1986. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  13. Co-operative Educational Abstracting Service (CEAS). [Abstract Series No. 1-4, 1969-1971].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Bureau of Education, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This document is a compilation of 163 English-language abstracts concerning various aspects of education in Australia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, France, Hungary, Iceland, India, Israel, Japan, Mexico, Nigeria, Philippines, Thailand, UAR, U.S., USSR, and Yugoslavia. The abstracts are informative in nature and are approximately 1,500 words…

  14. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 38)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 132 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1990 through December 1990. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  15. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 39)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 154 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period Jan. 1991 through Jun. 1991. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  16. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 43)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 128 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period Jan. 1993 through Jun. 1993. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  17. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 42)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 174 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1992 through December 1992. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  18. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 36)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 63 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period July 1989 through December 1989. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  19. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 40)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 181 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1991 through December 1991. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  20. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 32)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 136 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July through December 1987. Each entry consists of a citation , an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.