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  1. Reappraising Abstract Paintings after Exposure to Background Information

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seongmin A.; Yun, Kyongsik; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2015-01-01

    Can knowledge help viewers when they appreciate an artwork? Experts’ judgments of the aesthetic value of a painting often differ from the estimates of naïve viewers, and this phenomenon is especially pronounced in the aesthetic judgment of abstract paintings. We compared the changes in aesthetic judgments of naïve viewers while they were progressively exposed to five pieces of background information. The participants were asked to report their aesthetic judgments of a given painting after each piece of information was presented. We found that commentaries by the artist and a critic significantly increased the subjective aesthetic ratings. Does knowledge enable experts to attend to the visual features in a painting and to link it to the evaluative conventions, thus potentially causing different aesthetic judgments? To investigate whether a specific pattern of attention is essential for the knowledge-based appreciation, we tracked the eye movements of subjects while viewing a painting with a commentary by the artist and with a commentary by a critic. We observed that critics’ commentaries directed the viewers’ attention to the visual components that were highly relevant to the presented commentary. However, attention to specific features of a painting was not necessary for increasing the subjective aesthetic judgment when the artists’ commentary was presented. Our results suggest that at least two different cognitive mechanisms may be involved in knowledge- guided aesthetic judgments while viewers reappraise a painting. PMID:25945789

  2. Abstract Word Definition in Patients with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Ryon; Kim, SangYun; Baek, Min Jae; Kim, HyangHee

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate concrete and abstract word definition ability (1) between patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and normal adults and (2) between the aMCI subtypes (i.e., amnestic single-domain MCI and amnestic multidomain MCI; asMCI and amMCI) and normal controls. The 68 patients with aMCI (29 asMCI and 39 amMCI) and 93 age- and education-matched normal adults performed word definition tasks composed of five concrete (e.g., train) and five abstract nouns (e.g., jealousy). Task performances were analyzed on total score, number of core meanings, and number of supplementary meanings. The results were as follows. First, the aMCI patients scored significantly poorer than the normal controls in only abstract word definition. Second, both subtypes of aMCI performed worse than the controls in only abstract word definition. In conclusion, a definition task of abstract rather than concrete concepts may provide richer information to show semantic impairment of aMCI. PMID:26347214

  3. Attitudes and Perceptions of Patients, Caregivers, and Health Care Providers toward Background Music in Patient Care Areas: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Cruz, Pedro; Nguyen, Linh; Rhondali, Wadih; Hui, David; Palmer, J. Lynn; Sevy, Ingrid; Richardson, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Background music can be used to distract from ordinary sounds and improve wellbeing in patient care areas. Little is known about individuals' attitudes and beliefs about music versus ordinary sound in this setting. Objectives To assess the preferences of patients, caregivers and healthcare providers regarding background music or ordinary sound in outpatient and inpatient care areas, and to explore their attitudes and perceptions towards music in general. Methods All participants were exposed to background music in outpatient or inpatient clinical settings. 99 consecutive patients, 101 caregivers and 65 out of 70 eligible healthcare providers (93%) completed a survey about music attitudes and preferences. The primary outcome was a preference for background music over ordinary sound in patient care areas. Results Preference for background music was high and similar across groups (70 patients (71%), 71 caregivers (71%) and 46 providers (71%), p=0.58). The three groups had very low disapproval for background music in patient care areas (10%, 9% and 12%, respectively; p=0.91). Black ethnicity independently predicted lower preference for background music (OR: 0.47, 95%CI: 0.23, 0.98). Patients, caregivers and providers reported recent use of music for themselves for the purpose of enjoyment (69%, 80% and 86% respectively p=0.02). Age, gender, religion and education level significantly predicted preferences for specific music styles. Conclusion Background music in patient care areas was preferred to ordinary sound by patients, caregivers and providers. Demographics of the population are strong determinants of music style preferences. PMID:22957677

  4. The neural basis of a deficit in abstract thinking in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jooyoung; Chun, Ji-Won; Joon Jo, Hang; Kim, Eunseong; Park, Hae-Jeong; Lee, Boreom; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2015-10-30

    Abnormal abstract thinking is a major cause of social dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia, but little is known about its neural basis. In this study, we aimed to determine the characteristic abstract thinking-related brain responses in patients using a task reflecting social situations. We conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging while 16 patients with schizophrenia and 16 healthy controls performed a theme-identification task, in which various emotional pictures depicting social situations were presented. Compared with healthy controls, the patients showed significantly decreased activity in the left frontopolar and right orbitofrontal cortices during theme identification. Activity in these two regions correlated well in the controls, but not in patients. Instead, the patients exhibited a close correlation between activity in both sides of the frontopolar cortex, and a positive correlation between the right orbitofrontal cortex activity and degrees of theme identification. Reduced activity in the left frontopolar and right orbitofrontal cortices and the underlying aberrant connectivity may be implicated in the patients' deficits in abstract thinking. These newly identified features of the neural basis of abnormal abstract thinking are important as they have implications for the impaired social behavior of patients with schizophrenia during real-life situations. PMID:26329118

  5. Patient's rights in Poland against the background of new regulations.

    PubMed

    Rabiega-Przylecka, Agnieszka

    2012-03-01

    Patient rights are the specification of general human rights. The rights define the patient position in relation to health institutions or medical professions providing, broadly understood, health services. The protection system of patient rights outlined by international legal and ethical regulations is detailed to specific social, political and economic realities by internal legal systems of individual states. Imperfections of the Polish health care system in relation to achieving adequate protection of patient rights, resulting, inter alia, from the lack of comprehensive regulation of the matter of patient rights, led the legislature to introduce new regulations concerning this aspect to the Polish legal order. The new Act of 6 November 2008 on Patient Rights and the Patient Rights Ombudsman (binding from 5 March 2009) is the first universally binding legal act in the Polish legal system entirely dealing with the matter of patient rights. It regulates the rights of the patient and correlated with them obligations of health care providers (public and non-public) irrespectively of both the legal form providers, as well as the sources of funding of the benefits provided. In particular, the Act states: the patient right to health services, right to obtain information, right to confidentiality of patient-linked information, right to consent to obtain health services, right to respect privacy and dignity of the patients, right to medical records and objecting to the doctor's opinion or decision, right to respect private and family life, right to pastoral care. The new regulations--besides the specification of the catalogue of patient rights--reinforced the institutional protection of patient rights by establishing a new central public administrative body having jurisdiction to protect patient rights--the Patient Rights Ombudsman. Poland, like other European countries, makes an attempt to improve the protection of patient rights. The introduction of the Act entirely

  6. Background factors in patients with schizoaffective disorder as compared with patients with diabetes and healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Nettelbladt, P; Svensson, C; Serin, U

    1996-01-01

    Family history and psychosocial background factors were studied in married patients with a DSM-III diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder (n = 17, partners n = 16), married patients with diabetes (n = 10, partners n = 10) and married healthy individuals (n = 8, partners n = 8). The two latter groups were comparison control groups matched for gender and age to the patients with schizoaffective disorder. Affective disorder, not particularly schizoaffective disorder, was more common in first- and tended to be more common in second-degree relatives of patients with schizoaffective disorder as compared with controls. Poor parental relations, especially to the father, during the formative years were prominent in patients with schizoaffective disorder as compared with the controls. The same patients also more often than others gave a report of sexual encroachment, inside or outside the family, and corporal punishment during the growing-up years. PMID:8832200

  7. Clinical Background of Patients with Sperm in Their Urinary Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Eiji; Kabeya, Yusuke; Katsuki, Takeshi; Oikawa, Yoichi; Kato, Kiyoe; Ohashi, Masakazu; Nakamura, So; Oya, Mototsugu; Shimada, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The detection rate and associated factors of at least one sperm in urinary sediment is not well-known in real clinical practice. Aims The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical features associated with the presence of sperm in urinary sediment in a large number of samples. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study at Tokyo Saiseikai Central Hospital. We identified 5,005 males who were aged ≥20 years in whom urinary sedimentation had been performed at least twice between May 2011 and June 2012. The sperm group included patients in whom at least one urinary sediment test performed under a microscope had detected at least one sperm. We evaluated the associations between the presence of at least one sperm in urinary sediment and clinical parameters such as various diseases and the use of particular oral medicines. Main Outcomes In total, 1.6% (339/20,937) of urinary sediment samples contained at least one sperm. The sperm group consisted of 282 subjects (5.6%), and the no-sperm group included 4,723 subjects (94.3%). Results Multivariate analysis demonstrated that younger age (<65) (odds ratio [OR]: 1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.32–2.21), the total number of examinations (≥4) (OR: 1.46, 95%CI: 1.11–1.92), diabetes (OR: 1.72, 95%CI: 1.31–2.25), a history of pelvic surgery for colon cancer (OR: 4.89, 95%CI: 2.38–10.02), alpha-1 blocker use (OR: 1.55, 95%CI: 1.16–2.08), a history of trans-urethral resection of the prostate (OR: 2.77, 95%CI: 1.46–5.13), and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use (OR: 2.12, 95%CI: 1.07–4.19) were independent predictors of the presence of at least one sperm in urinary sediment. Conclusion There is considerable overlap between the factors associated with the presence of at least one sperm in urinary sediment and those that are strongly associated with ejaculatory disorders. PMID:26359862

  8. Smooth pursuit eye tracking over a structured background in first-episode schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Hutton, S B; Crawford, T J; Kennard, C; Barnes, T R; Joyce, E M

    2000-01-01

    Whilst most laboratory smooth pursuit tasks are performed in the dark, in everyday life pursuit commonly occurs over a structured background. This background provides a powerful stimulus to the optokinetic reflex (OKR), inducing a background "drag" on pursuit eye movements. An inability to inhibit the influence of the OKR may be a contributing factor to the dysfunctional pursuit performance observed in many schizophrenic patients. Smooth pursuit performance was measured in 23 first-episode schizophrenic patients and 23 healthy controls matched for age and estimated IQ, both in the dark and over a structured background (a random checkerboard of black and white squares). Velocity gain was measured, as well as the number and size of corrective saccades (catch-up saccades) and intrusive saccades (anticipatory saccades and square wave jerks). Overall, schizophrenic patients had lower velocity gain and made more catch-up saccades than controls. The effect of the background was to lower velocity gain and increase the number of catch-up saccades to the same extent in schizophrenic patients and controls. There were no significant interactions between group and background effect. These results suggest that, although their overall level of performance was worse, the schizophrenic patients were as able as controls to inhibit the effect of the OKR. Since lesion studies show that inhibition of the OKR requires intact inferior parietal regions in man (Lawden et al., 1995), one hypothesis is that the parietal component of smooth pursuit may be intact in schizophrenia. PMID:11097164

  9. A qualitative study on the role of cultural background in patients' perspectives on rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Low back pain (LBP) is one of the major concerns in health care. In Switzerland, musculoskeletal problems represent the third largest illness group with 9.4 million consultations per year. The return to work rate is increased by an active treatment program and saves societal costs. However, results after rehabilitation are generally poorer in patients with a Southeast European cultural background than in other patients. This qualitative research about the rehabilitation of patients with LBP and a Southeast European cultural background, therefore, explores possible barriers to successful rehabilitation. Methods We used a triangulation of methods combining three qualitative methods of data collection: 13 semi-structured in-depth interviews with patients who have a Southeast European cultural background and live in Switzerland, five semi-structured in-depth interviews and two focus groups with health professionals, and a literature review. Between June and December 2008, we recruited participants at a Rehabilitation Centre in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Results To cope with pain, patients prefer passive strategies, which are not in line with recommended coping strategies. Moreover, the families of patients tend to support passive behaviour and reduce the autonomy of patients. Health professionals and researchers propagate active strategies including activity in the presence of pain, yet patients do not consider psychological factors contributing to LBP. The views of physicians and health professionals are in line with research evidence demonstrating the importance of psychosocial factors for LBP. Treatment goals focusing on increasing daily activities and return to work are not well understood by patients partly due to communication problems, which is something that patients and health professionals are aware of. Additional barriers to returning to work are caused by poor job satisfaction and other work-related factors. Conclusions LBP

  10. Automated analysis of background EEG and reactivity during therapeutic hypothermia in comatose patients after cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Noirhomme, Quentin; Lehembre, Rémy; Lugo, Zulay Del Rosario; Lesenfants, Damien; Luxen, André; Laureys, Steven; Oddo, Mauro; Rossetti, Andrea O

    2014-01-01

    Visual analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) background and reactivity during therapeutic hypothermia provides important outcome information, but is time-consuming and not always consistent between reviewers. Automated EEG analysis may help quantify the brain damage. Forty-six comatose patients in therapeutic hypothermia, after cardiac arrest, were included in the study. EEG background was quantified with burst-suppression ratio (BSR) and approximate entropy, both used to monitor anesthesia. Reactivity was detected through change in the power spectrum of signal before and after stimulation. Automatic results obtained almost perfect agreement (discontinuity) to substantial agreement (background reactivity) with a visual score from EEG-certified neurologists. Burst-suppression ratio was more suited to distinguish continuous EEG background from burst-suppression than approximate entropy in this specific population. Automatic EEG background and reactivity measures were significantly related to good and poor outcome. We conclude that quantitative EEG measurements can provide promising information regarding current state of the patient and clinical outcome, but further work is needed before routine application in a clinical setting. PMID:24452769

  11. Increased Background Activity in DMSA Scintigraphy of a Nonazotemic Patient With β-Thalassemia Major.

    PubMed

    Paschali, Anna; Tsiouris, Spyridon

    2016-09-01

    Renal DMSA uptake provides an index for evaluation of the functional tubular mass, which depends on the renal blood flow, proximal tubular cell membrane function, and urinary acid-base balance. We present a case of a nonazotemic 48-year-old adult with β-thalassemia major under regular blood transfusions and iron chelation therapy that underwent DMSA scan showing minor cortical abnormalities and high background activity, featuring prominent cardiac blood pool and liver uptake. This case highlights the pitfall of high background activity during DMSA study in patients with β-thalassemia major due to tubular disorders. PMID:27280908

  12. Abstract Painting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkes, Robert

    1978-01-01

    Abstract art provokes numerous interpretations, and as many misunderstandings. The adolescent reaction is no exception. The procedure described here can help the student to understand the abstract from at least one direction. (Author/RK)

  13. Patients' Attitudes Towards Disclosure of Genetic Test Results to Family Members: The Impact of Patients' Sociodemographic Background and Counseling Experience.

    PubMed

    Gilbar, Roy; Shalev, Stavit; Spiegel, Ronen; Pras, Elon; Berkenstadt, Michal; Sagi, Michal; Ben-Yehuda, Adi; Mor, Pnina; Perry, Shlomit; Zaccai, Tzipora Falik; Borochowitz, Zvi; Barnoy, Sivia

    2016-04-01

    Many factors predict the intention to disclose genetic information to relatives. The article examines the impact of patients' socio-demographic factors on their intention to disclose genetic testing results to their relatives. Data were collected in eight genetic clinics in Israel. Patients were requested to fill in a questionnaire after counseling. A convenience sample of 564 participants who visited these clinics was collected for a response rate of 85 %. Of them, 282 participants came for susceptibility testing for hereditary cancers (cancer group), and 282 for genetic screening tests (prenatal group). In the cancer group, being secular and having more years of education correlated positively with the intention to disclose test results to relatives. In the prenatal group, being married and female correlated positively with the intention to disclose. In the cancer group, being religious and with less years of education correlated positively with the view that the clinician should deliver the results to the family. In the prenatal group, being male and unmarried correlated positively with this belief. In both groups, being of young age correlated with the perception that genetic information is private. Varied sociodemographic factors affect the intention to inform family members. Thus, knowing the social background of patients will shed light on people's attitudes to genetic information and will help clinicians provide effective counseling in discussions with patients about the implications of test results for relatives. PMID:26371363

  14. Impairments in Background and Event-Related Alpha-Band Oscillatory Activity in Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Abeles, Ilana Y.; Gomez-Ramirez, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Studies show that patients with schizophrenia exhibit impaired responses to sensory stimuli, especially at the early stages of neural processing. In particular, patients’ alpha-band (8–14 Hz) event-related desynchronization (ERD) and visual P1 event-related potential (ERP) component tend to be significantly reduced, with P1 ERP deficits greater for visual stimuli biased towards the magnocellular system. In healthy controls, studies show that pre-stimulus alpha (background alpha) plays a pivotal role in sensory processing and behavior, largely by shaping the neural responses to incoming stimuli. Here, we address whether patients’ ERD and P1 deficits stem from impairments in pre-stimulus alpha mechanisms. To address this question we recorded electrophysiological activity in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls while they engaged in a visual discrimination task with low, medium, and high contrast stimuli. The results revealed a significant decrease in patients’ ERDs, which was largely driven by reductions in pre-stimulus alpha. These reductions were most prominent in right-hemispheric areas. We also observed a systematic relationship between pre-stimulus alpha and the P1 component across different contrast levels. However, this relationship was only observed in healthy controls. Taken together, these findings highlight a substantial anomaly in patients’ amplitude-based alpha background activity over visual areas. The results provide further support that pre-stimulus alpha activity plays an active role in perception by modulating the neural responses to incoming sensory inputs, a mechanism that seems to be compromised in schizophrenia. PMID:24646909

  15. Perceived Discrimination in Patients With Psychiatric Disorder and Turkish Migration Background in Germany.

    PubMed

    Müller, Matthias J; Koch, Eckhardt

    2016-07-01

    Perceived discrimination (PD) has a negative impact on the course of psychiatric disorders. We have investigated PD in inpatients with affective or anxiety disorder and Turkish migration background (TP) or native Germans (GP). Migration-related, clinical, and sociodemographic data of n = 62 TP and n = 62 GP, matched for age, sex, and psychiatric diagnoses, were retrospectively analyzed. PD was assessed as one of 10 questions related to migration and acculturation (yes/no, severity 0-10). PD prevalence rates were compared between TP and GP; relationships of PD with other variables were analyzed using bivariate correlations and multiple regression analyses. A PD prevalence of 26% in TP and 1% in GP was found (odds ratio, 21.2 [2.7-165.8]). Migration background was the strongest predictor of PD in the total group. Within the TP sample, asylum-seeking status and migration-related distress were significantly predictive of PD. In patients with psychiatric disorder in Germany, PD seems to be strongly related to migration-related distress. PMID:27218220

  16. Abstract Constructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietropola, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Describes a lesson designed to culminate a year of eighth-grade art classes in which students explore elements of design and space by creating 3-D abstract constructions. Outlines the process of using foam board and markers to create various shapes and optical effects. (DSK)

  17. INVENTORY ABSTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ragan

    2001-12-19

    The purpose of the inventory abstraction, which has been prepared in accordance with a technical work plan (CRWMS M&O 2000e for ICN 02 of the present analysis, and BSC 2001e for ICN 03 of the present analysis), is to: (1) Interpret the results of a series of relative dose calculations (CRWMS M&O 2000c, 2000f). (2) Recommend, including a basis thereof, a set of radionuclides that should be modeled in the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (TSPA-FEIS). (3) Provide initial radionuclide inventories for the TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS models. (4) Answer the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)'s Issue Resolution Status Report ''Key Technical Issue: Container Life and Source Term'' (CLST IRSR) key technical issue (KTI): ''The rate at which radionuclides in SNF [spent nuclear fuel] are released from the EBS [engineered barrier system] through the oxidation and dissolution of spent fuel'' (NRC 1999, Subissue 3). The scope of the radionuclide screening analysis encompasses the period from 100 years to 10,000 years after the potential repository at Yucca Mountain is sealed for scenarios involving the breach of a waste package and subsequent degradation of the waste form as required for the TSPA-SR calculations. By extending the time period considered to one million years after repository closure, recommendations are made for the TSPA-FEIS. The waste forms included in the inventory abstraction are Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (CSNF), DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel (DSNF), High-Level Waste (HLW), naval Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium waste. The intended use of this analysis is in TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS. Based on the recommendations made here, models for release, transport, and possibly exposure will be developed for the isotopes that would be the highest contributors to the dose given a release to the

  18. How do patients with a Turkish background evaluate their medical care in Germany? An observational study in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, Katja; Bungartz, Jessica; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Steinhaeuser, Jost

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients’ evaluation of medical care is an essential dimension of quality of care and an important aspect of the feedback cycle for health care providers. The aim of this study was to document how patients with a Turkish background evaluate primary care in Germany and determine which aspects of care are associated with language abilities. Methods The study was based on an observational design. Patients with a Turkish background from German primary care practices completed the EUROPEP (European Project on Patient Evaluation of General Practice Care) questionnaire consisting of 23 items. Seventeen primary care practices were involved with either German (n=8) or Turkish (n=9) general practitioners (GPs). Results A convenience sample of 472 patients with a Turkish background from 17 practices participated in the study (response rate 39.9%). Practices with a German GP had a lower response rate (19.6%) than those with a Turkish GP (57.5%). Items evaluated the highest were “keeping data confidential” (73.4%) and “quick services for urgent health problems” (69.9%). Subgroup analysis showed lower evaluation scores from patients with good or excellent German language abilities. Patients who consulted a Turkish GP had higher evaluation scores. Conclusion The evaluation from patients with a Turkish background living in Germany with either Turkish or German GPs showed lower scores than patients in other studies in Europe using EUROPEP. However, our results had higher evaluation scores than those of Turkish patients evaluating GPs in Turkey. Therefore, different explanation models for these findings should be explored in future studies. PMID:26604710

  19. Water reuse. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Middlebrooks, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 31 chapters of this book which deals with all aspects of wastewater reuse. Design data, case histories, performance data, monitoring information, health information, social implications, legal and organizational structures, and background information needed to analyze the desirability of water reuse are presented. (KRM)

  20. Making background work visible: opportunities to address patient information needs in the hospital

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Logan; Mishra, Sonali R.; Pollack, Ari; Aaronson, Barry; Pratt, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing use of patient-facing technologies such as patient portals to address information needs for outpatients, we understand little about how patients manage information and use information technologies in an inpatient context. Based on hospital observations and responses to an online questionnaire from previously hospitalized patients and caregivers, we describe information workspace that patients have available to them in the hospital and the information items that patients and caregivers rate as important and difficult to access or manage while hospitalized. We found that patients and caregivers desired information—such as the plan of care and the schedule of activities—that is difficult to access as needed in a hospital setting. Within this study, we describe the various tools and approaches that patients and caregivers use to help monitor their care as well as illuminate gaps in information needs not typically captured by traditional patient portals. PMID:26958295

  1. [Status of blood coagulation and various background endocrine indices in patients with basal meningiomas during pre- and postoperative periods].

    PubMed

    Burgman, G P; Snigireva, R Ia; Vial'tseva, I N; Shvorneva, V Z; Snigirev, V S

    1980-01-01

    The condition of blood coagulation activity and the indices of the endocrine background were studied in patients with tumors of prevalently basal localization which caused a direct effect on the central regulating centers. Thirty patients with basal and medially located meningiomas were examined in the pre- and postoperative periods. Before the operation most patients had clinical signs of endocrine-metabolic disorders, often in the presence of an increased content of ACTH and cortisol in the blood. Blood coagulation was disturbed in the majority of patients, mainly due to increased activity of the blood coagulation system. In the postoperative period, blood coagulation activity in 24 of 30 patients was increased or showed a tendency to increase in the presence of elevated blood ACTH content while processes of fibrinolysis were inhibited, which substantiates the necessity for anticoagulant therapy when large doses of glucocorticoids are used. PMID:6254292

  2. Masticatory Muscle Sleep Background EMG Activity is Elevated in Myofascial TMD Patients

    PubMed Central

    Raphael, Karen G.; Janal, Malvin N.; Sirois, David A.; Dubrovsky, Boris; Wigren, Pia E.; Klausner, Jack J.; Krieger, Ana C.; Lavigne, Gilles J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite theoretical speculation and strong clinical belief, recent research using laboratory polysomnographic (PSG) recording has provided new evidence that frequency of sleep bruxism (SB) masseter muscle events, including grinding or clenching of the teeth during sleep, is not increased for women with chronic myofascial temporomandibular disorder (TMD). The current case-control study compares a large sample of women suffering from chronic myofascial TMD (n=124) with a demographically matched control group without TMD (n=46) on sleep background electromyography (EMG) during a laboratory PSG study. Background EMG activity was measured as EMG root mean square (RMS) from the right masseter muscle after lights out. Sleep background EMG activity was defined as EMG RMS remaining after activity attributable to SB, other orofacial activity, other oromotor activity and movement artifacts were removed. Results indicated that median background EMG during these non SB-event periods was significantly higher (p<.01) for women with myofascial TMD (median=3.31 μV and mean=4.98 μV) than for control women (median=2.83 μV and mean=3.88 μV) with median activity in 72% of cases exceeding control activity. Moreover, for TMD cases, background EMG was positively associated and SB event-related EMG was negatively associated with pain intensity ratings (0–10 numerical scale) on post sleep waking. These data provide the foundation for a new focus on small, but persistent, elevations in sleep EMG activity over the course of the night as a mechanism of pain induction or maintenance. PMID:24237356

  3. Background Intestinal 18F-FDG Uptake Is Related to Serum Lipid Profile and Obesity in Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hai-Jeon; Kim, Han-Na; Yun, Yeojun; Kim, Yemi; Ha, Ae-Na

    2015-01-01

    Background This study investigated the relationships between background intestinal uptake on 18F–FDG PET and cardio-metabolic risk (CMR) factors. Methods A total of 326 female patients that underwent 18F–FDG PET to determine the initial stage of breast cancer were enrolled. None of the patients had history of diabetes or hypertension. The background intestinal uptake on PET was visually graded (low vs. high uptake group) and quantitatively measured using the maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax). SUVmax of 7 bowel segments (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, hepatic flexure, splenic flexure, and descending colon-sigmoid junction) were averaged for the total bowel (TB SUVmax). Age, body mass index (BMI), fasting blood glucose level (BST), triglyceride (TG), cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were the considered CMR factors. The relationships between background intestinal 18F–FDG uptake on PET and diverse CMR factors were analyzed. Results The visual grades based on background intestinal 18F–FDG uptake classified 100 (30.7%) patients into the low uptake group, while 226 (69.3%) were classified into the high uptake group. Among CMR factors, age (p = 0.004), BMI (p<0.001), and TG (p<0.001) were significantly different according to visual grade of background intestinal 18F–FDG uptake. Quantitative TB SUVmax showed significant positive correlation with age (r = 0.203, p<0.001), BMI (r = 0.373, p<0.001), TG (r = 0.338, p<0.001), cholesterol (r = 0.148, p = 0.008), and LDL (r = 0.143, p = 0.024) and significant negative correlation with HDL (r = -0.147, p = 0.022). Multivariate analysis indicated that BMI and TG were independent factors in both visually graded background intestinal 18F–FDG uptake (p = 0.027 and p = 0.023, respectively) and quantitatively measured TB SUVmax (p = 0.006 and p = 0.004, respectively). Conclusion Increased background intestinal 18F–FDG uptake on PET may suggest alteration of lipid

  4. Transcultural pediatrics: compliance and outcome of phenylketonuria patients from families with an immigration background.

    PubMed

    Ipsiroglu, Osman S; Herle, Marion; Spoula, Elisabeth; Möslinger, Dorothea; Wimmer, Banu; Burgard, Peter; Bode, Harald; Stöckler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia

    2005-08-01

    Living in a foreign country with a different lifestyle and a different orientation is a many-faceted challenge for immigrants. A considerable percentage (30-50%) of patients with metabolic disease come from immigrant families from Turkey and the Middle East. Phenylketonuria is one example of metabolic disease in which severe mental retardation can be entirely prevented by early detection via newborn screening and consistent dietary treatment. We report 7 phenylketonuria patients from 3 Turkish families who had considerable difficulty in coping with the diagnosis and adherence to the diet. Blood phenylalanine levels beyond recommended limits and IQ values below average, clearly demonstrate the risks arising from language as well as psychological and cultural communication barriers, despite standardized follow-up care structures and the observance of continuity by medical caregivers. To propose a basis for systematic improvement in the care of patients from immigrant families we suggest that a) the services of professional interpreters be used in case of language barriers; b) social workers with appropriate sociocultural and language competence should accompany the family in a professional manner; c) it would be meaningful to introduce treatment contracts that clearly establish the limits of the client's rights and duties as well as those of the care-givers. From the viewpoint of legislation, providing medical information is duty of the hospital and the use of translator is mandatory with patients from foreign countries and with foreign languages. PMID:16158204

  5. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system for classification of background EEG signals from ESES patients and controls.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhixian; Wang, Yinghua; Ouyang, Gaoxiang

    2014-01-01

    Background electroencephalography (EEG), recorded with scalp electrodes, in children with electrical status epilepticus during slow-wave sleep (ESES) syndrome and control subjects has been analyzed. We considered 10 ESES patients, all right-handed and aged 3-9 years. The 10 control individuals had the same characteristics of the ESES ones but presented a normal EEG. Recordings were undertaken in the awake and relaxed states with their eyes open. The complexity of background EEG was evaluated using the permutation entropy (PE) and sample entropy (SampEn) in combination with the ANOVA test. It can be seen that the entropy measures of EEG are significantly different between the ESES patients and normal control subjects. Then, a classification framework based on entropy measures and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) classifier is proposed to distinguish ESES and normal EEG signals. The results are promising and a classification accuracy of about 89% is achieved. PMID:24790547

  6. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System for Classification of Background EEG Signals from ESES Patients and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhixian; Wang, Yinghua; Ouyang, Gaoxiang

    2014-01-01

    Background electroencephalography (EEG), recorded with scalp electrodes, in children with electrical status epilepticus during slow-wave sleep (ESES) syndrome and control subjects has been analyzed. We considered 10 ESES patients, all right-handed and aged 3–9 years. The 10 control individuals had the same characteristics of the ESES ones but presented a normal EEG. Recordings were undertaken in the awake and relaxed states with their eyes open. The complexity of background EEG was evaluated using the permutation entropy (PE) and sample entropy (SampEn) in combination with the ANOVA test. It can be seen that the entropy measures of EEG are significantly different between the ESES patients and normal control subjects. Then, a classification framework based on entropy measures and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) classifier is proposed to distinguish ESES and normal EEG signals. The results are promising and a classification accuracy of about 89% is achieved. PMID:24790547

  7. The Effects of Music Intervention on Background Pain and Anxiety in Burn Patients: Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Najafi Ghezeljeh, Tahereh; Mohades Ardebili, Fatimah; Rafii, Forough; Haghani, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of music on the background pain, anxiety, and relaxation levels in burn patients. In this pretest-posttest randomized controlled clinical trial, 100 hospitalized burn patients were selected through convenience sampling. Subjects randomly assigned to music and control groups. Data related to demographic and clinical characteristics, analgesics, and physiologic measures were collected by researcher-made tools. Visual analog scale was used to determine pain, anxiety, and relaxation levels before and after the intervention in 3 consecutive days. Patients' preferred music was offered once a day for 3 days. The control group only received routine care. Data were analyzed using SPSS-PC (V. 20.0). According to paired t-test, there were significant differences between mean scores of pain (P < .001), anxiety (P < .001), and relaxation (P < .001) levels before and after intervention in music group. Independent t-test indicated a significant difference between the mean scores of changes in pain, anxiety, and relaxation levels before and after intervention in music and control groups (P < .001). No differences were detected in the mean scores of physiologic measures between groups before and after music intervention. Music is an inexpensive, appropriate, and safe intervention for applying to burn patients with background pain and anxiety at rest. To produce more effective comfort for patients, it is necessary to compare different types and time lengths of music intervention to find the best approach. PMID:26132048

  8. Evaluation of Patient Knowledge, Desire, and Psychosocial Background regarding Postmastectomy Breast Reconstruction in Hungary: A Questionnaire Study of 500 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Mátrai, Zoltán; Kenessey, István; Sávolt, Ákos; Újhelyi, Mihály; Bartal, Alexandra; Kásler, Miklós

    2014-01-01

    Background According to European guidelines, breast cancer patients requiring mastectomy should be informed about available options regarding breast reconstruction. There are clear differences in the quality standards of oncoplastic care throughout Europe, with slight improvements in Central European countries like Hungary. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate patients’ knowledge and demand for postmastectomy breast reconstruction, as well as their psychosocial background regarding decision-making. Material/Methods A questionnaire containing 15 structured questions was given to 500 breast cancer patients on the day before undergoing mastectomy. The questions focused on the emotional impact of the malignant disease and the loss of a breast; the importance of environmental conditions; the desire for breast reconstruction; and patients’ knowledge and sources of information about the procedure. All answers were statistically analyzed in the context of patient age, marital status, educational level, and place of residence. Results Descriptive statistical results of the answers to all questions, as well as associations of the different aspects of the decision-making process, are presented. Conclusions Hungarian breast cancer patients have very limited knowledge regarding breast reconstruction. We confirmed that patients scheduled for mastectomy have a great degree of anxiety due to their disease and breast loss. Almost 50% of the responders declared their desire for postmastectomy breast reconstruction. Patient’s age, residence, educational level, marital status, and profession were confirmed as predictive factors in the decision-making process for breast reconstruction. PMID:25502935

  9. Financial Incentive Increases CPAP Acceptance in Patients from Low Socioeconomic Background

    PubMed Central

    Tarasiuk, Ariel; Reznor, Gally; Greenberg-Dotan, Sari; Reuveni, Haim

    2012-01-01

    Objective We explored whether financial incentives have a role in patients′ decisions to accept (purchase) a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device in a healthcare system that requires cost sharing. Design Longitudinal interventional study. Patients The group receiving financial incentive (n = 137, 50.8±10.6 years, apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) 38.7±19.9 events/hr) and the control group (n = 121, 50.9±10.3 years, AHI 39.9±22) underwent attendant titration and a two-week adaptation to CPAP. Patients in the control group had a co-payment of $330–660; the financial incentive group paid a subsidized price of $55. Results CPAP acceptance was 43% greater (p = 0.02) in the financial incentive group. CPAP acceptance among the low socioeconomic strata (n = 113) (adjusting for age, gender, BMI, tobacco smoking) was enhanced by financial incentive (OR, 95% CI) (3.43, 1.09–10.85), age (1.1, 1.03–1.17), AHI (>30 vs. <30) (4.87, 1.56–15.2), and by family/friends who had positive experience with CPAP (4.29, 1.05–17.51). Among average/high-income patients (n = 145) CPAP acceptance was affected by AHI (>30 vs. <30) (3.16, 1.14–8.75), living with a partner (8.82, 1.03–75.8) but not by the financial incentive. At one-year follow-up CPAP adherence was similar in the financial incentive and control groups, 35% and 39%, respectively (p = 0.82). Adherence rate was sensitive to education (+yr) (1.28, 1.06–1.55) and AHI (>30 vs. <30) (5.25, 1.34–18.5). Conclusions Minimizing cost sharing reduces a barrier for CPAP acceptance among low socioeconomic status patients. Thus, financial incentive should be applied as a policy to encourage CPAP treatment, especially among low socioeconomic strata patients. PMID:22479368

  10. Genetic background of uric acid metabolism in a patient with severe chronic tophaceous gout.

    PubMed

    Petru, Lenka; Pavelcova, Katerina; Sebesta, Ivan; Stiburkova, Blanka

    2016-09-01

    Hyperuricemia depends on the balance of endogenous production and renal excretion of uric acid. Transporters for urate are located in the proximal tubule where uric acid is secreted and extensively reabsorbed: secretion is principally ensured by the highly variable ABCG2 gene. Enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) plays a central role in purine metabolism and its deficiency is an X-linked inherited metabolic disorder associated with clinical manifestations of purine overproduction. Here we report the case of a middle-aged man with severe chronic tophaceous gout with a poor response to allopurinol and requiring repeated surgical intervention. We identified the causal mutations in the HPRT1 gene, variant c.481G>T (p.A161S), and in the crucial urate transporter ABCG2, a heterozygous variant c.421C>A (p.Q141K). This case shows the value of an analysis of the genetic background of serum uric acid. PMID:27288985

  11. Patrilineal Background of Esophageal Cancer and Gastric Cardia Cancer Patients in a Chaoshan High-Risk Area in China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Haihua; Li, Xiaoyun; Chen, Guangcan; Zhang, Guohong; Lin, Wengting; Guo, Dan; Wang, Jie; Yu, Zefeng; Liu, Xi; Su, Min

    2013-01-01

    The Taihang Mountain range of north-central China, the Southern region area of Fujian province, and the Chaoshan plain of Guangdong province are 3 major regions in China well known for their high incidence of esophageal cancer (EC). These areas also exhibit high incidences of gastric cardia cancer (GCC). The ancestors of the Chaoshanese, now the major inhabitants in the Chaoshan plain, were from north-central China. We hypothesized that EC and GCC patients in Chaoshan areas share a common ancestry with Taihang Mountain patients. We analyzed 16 East Asian-specific Y-chromosome biallelic markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms; Y-SNPs) and 6 Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci in 72 EC and 48 GCC patients from Chaoshan and 49 EC and 63 GCC patients from the Taihang Mountain range. We also compared data for 32 Chaoshan Hakka people and 24 members of the aboriginal She minority who live near the Chaoshan area. Analysis was by frequency distribution and principal component, correlation and hierarchical cluster analysis of Y-SNP. Chaoshan patients were closely related to Taihang Mountain patients, even though they are geographically distant. Y-STR analysis revealed that the 4 patient groups were more closely related with each other than with other groups. Network analysis of the haplogroup O3a3c1-M117 showed a high degree of patient-specific substructure. We suggest that EC and GCC patients from these 2 areas share a similar patrilineal genetic background, which may play an important role in the genetic factor of EC and GCC in these populations. PMID:24339953

  12. Spectral subtraction-based speech enhancement for cochlear implant patients in background noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li-Ping; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2005-03-01

    A single-channel speech enhancement algorithm utilizing speech pause detection and nonlinear spectral subtraction is proposed for cochlear implant patients in the present study. The spectral subtraction algorithm estimates the short-time spectral magnitude of speech by subtracting the estimated noise spectral magnitude from the noisy speech spectral magnitude. The artifacts produced by spectral subtraction (such as ``musical noise'') were significantly reduced by combining variance-reduced gain function and spectral flooring. Sentence recognition by seven cochlear implant subjects was tested under different noisy listening conditions (speech-shaped noise and 6-talker speech babble at +9, +6, +3, and 0 dB SNR) with and without the speech enhancement algorithm. For speech-shaped noise, performance for all subjects at all SNRs was significantly improved by the speech enhancement algorithm; for speech babble, performance was only modestly improved. The results suggest that the proposed speech enhancement algorithm may be beneficial for implant users in noisy listening. .

  13. Presentation of self and symptoms in primary care consultations involving patients from non-English speaking backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Celia; Sarangi, Srikant; Moss, Becky

    2004-01-01

    This paper draws on the PLEDGE research project (Patients with Limited English and Doctors in General Practice) 1 The Patients with Limited English and Doctors in General Practice (PLEDGE) project was funded by Sir Siegmund Warburg's Voluntary Settlement (2001-2003). The research team was: Celia Roberts, Roger Jones, Becky Moss, Srikant Sarangi and Val Wass. which has a database of 232 video-recorded interactions from GP surgeries in South East London. We focus on the opening episodes-the first opportunity the patient has to report on why they have come to see the doctor-to explore some of the contrasts in self presentation and the interactional work that doctors do when faced with the unexpected. Patients who speak a local London or standard variety of English present three aspects: a description of symptoms, the context in which they occurred, and an affective or epistemic stance. These 'micro discourse routines' are accomplished interactionally through the design of figure/ground relationships, framing and metacommunication and presentation of the 'moral self'. Although some patients from non-English speaking backgrounds use broadly similar 'micro discourse routines', the majority configure the relationship between medically salient facts, adequate contextual information and the stance which conveys the 'moral self' in different and apparently less 'orderly' ways. So openings often become protracted and harder work interactionally for both sides. While conversation analytic studies and communication skills textbooks represent the medical consultations as orderly, we suggest that such apparent orderliness must, at least, be partly the result of ironing out linguistic and cultural diversity. Interactional sociolinguistic analysis is used to shed light on the design of these routines and to provide analytic frameworks for doctors in reflecting on their own practice in ways which challenge patient-centred models. PMID:16808698

  14. Comprehension of Concrete and Abstract Words in Patients with Selective Anterior Temporal Lobe Resection and in Patients with Selective Amygdalo-Hippocampectomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loiselle, Magalie; Rouleau, Isabelle; Nguyen, Dang Khoa; Dubeau, Francois; Macoir, Joel; Whatmough, Christine; Lepore, Franco; Joubert, Sven

    2012-01-01

    The role of the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) in semantic memory is now firmly established. There is still controversy, however, regarding the specific role of this region in processing various types of concepts. There have been reports of patients suffering from semantic dementia (SD), a neurodegenerative condition in which the ATL is damaged…

  15. Two sides of the coin: patient and provider perceptions of health care delivery to patients from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Australia is a culturally diverse nation with one in seven Australians born in a non-English speaking country. Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) populations are at a high risk of developing preventable chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, renal disease, and chronic respiratory disease, especially communities from the Pacific Islands, the Middle East, North Africa, the Indian subcontinent and China. Previous studies have shown that access to services may be a contributing factor. This study explores the experiences, attitudes and opinions of immigrants from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds and their health care providers with regard to chronic disease care. Methods Five focus groups were conducted comprising participants from an Arabic speaking background, or born in Sudan, China, Vietnam or Tonga. A total of 50 members participated. All focus groups were conducted in the participants’ language and facilitated by a trained multicultural health worker. In addition, 14 health care providers were interviewed by telephone. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed. All qualitative data were analysed with the assistance of QSR NVivo 8 software. Results Participants were generally positive about the quality and accessibility of health services, but the costs of health care and waiting times to receive treatment presented significant barriers. They expressed a need for greater access to interpreters and culturally appropriate communication and education. They mentioned experiencing racism and discriminatory practices. Health professionals recommended recruiting health workers from CALD communities to assist them to adequately elicit and address the needs of patients from CALD backgrounds. Conclusions CALD patients, carers and community members as well as health professionals all highlighted the need for establishing culturally tailored programs for chronic disease prevention and management

  16. Abstraction in perceptual symbol systems.

    PubMed Central

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2003-01-01

    After reviewing six senses of abstraction, this article focuses on abstractions that take the form of summary representations. Three central properties of these abstractions are established: ( i ) type-token interpretation; (ii) structured representation; and (iii) dynamic realization. Traditional theories of representation handle interpretation and structure well but are not sufficiently dynamical. Conversely, connectionist theories are exquisitely dynamic but have problems with structure. Perceptual symbol systems offer an approach that implements all three properties naturally. Within this framework, a loose collection of property and relation simulators develops to represent abstractions. Type-token interpretation results from binding a property simulator to a region of a perceived or simulated category member. Structured representation results from binding a configuration of property and relation simulators to multiple regions in an integrated manner. Dynamic realization results from applying different subsets of property and relation simulators to category members on different occasions. From this standpoint, there are no permanent or complete abstractions of a category in memory. Instead, abstraction is the skill to construct temporary online interpretations of a category's members. Although an infinite number of abstractions are possible, attractors develop for habitual approaches to interpretation. This approach provides new ways of thinking about abstraction phenomena in categorization, inference, background knowledge and learning. PMID:12903648

  17. Piaget on Abstraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moessinger, Pierre; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    1981-01-01

    Reviews and discusses Piaget's recent work on abstract reasoning. Piaget's distinction between empirical and reflective abstraction is presented; his hypotheses are considered to be metaphorical. (Author/DB)

  18. Abstract Expressionism. Clip and Save.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on the art movement, Abstract Expressionism, and includes learning activities. Focuses on the artist Jackson Pollock, offering a reproduction of his artwork, "Convergence: Number 10." Includes background information on the life and career of Pollock and a description of the included artwork. (CMK)

  19. Illness Perception and Clinical Treatment Experiences in Patients with M. Maroteaux-Lamy (Mucopolysaccharidosis Type VI) and a Turkish Migration Background in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Dilger, Hansjörg; Leissner, Linn; Bosanska, Lenka; Lampe, Christina; Plöckinger, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI) is an inherited lysosomal storage disease caused by a mutation of the gene for arylsulfatase B (ASB). Of the thirty-one patients registered in Germany, almost fifty percent have a Turkish migration background. MPS VI is treated by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), which is time-consuming and expensive. Methods This interdisciplinary study explored the illness perceptions and clinical treatment experiences among ten MPS VI patients with a Turkish migration background in two centers for metabolic diseases (Berlin and Mainz, Germany). The clinical treatment situation was observed and semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients and health care personnel, in addition to participatory observation in four patients' everyday environments in Berlin. The data from the interviews, patient records, and personal field notes were encoded, cross-related, and analyzed. Results Patients' acknowledgement of the disease and coping strategies are influenced predominantly by the perception of their individual health status and the handling of the disease within their family. Patients' willingness to cooperate with treatment strategies is further modified by their knowledge of the disease and the relationships with their health care providers. In this analysis, cultural factors turned out to be marginally relevant. Conclusion As with other chronic and debilitating diseases, effective treatment strategies have to reach beyond delivering medication. Health care providers need to strengthen the support for patients with a migration background. In this regard, they should respect the patients' cultural and social background and their personal perception of the disease and the therapy. Yet structural and social aspects (clinical setting, family and educational background) may be more crucial here than “cultural barriers.” PMID:23826140

  20. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineering Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Papers abstracted represent those submitted to the distribution center at the 83rd American Society for Engineering Education Convention. Abstracts are grouped under headings corresponding to the main topic of the paper. (Editor/CP)

  1. Abstraction and Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John; Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih

    2006-01-01

    The framework for this paper is a recently developed theory of abstraction in context. The paper reports on data collected from one student working on tasks concerned with absolute value functions. It examines the relationship between mathematical constructions and abstractions. It argues that an abstraction is a consolidated construction that can…

  2. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  3. Deficiencies in structured medical abstracts.

    PubMed

    Froom, P; Froom, J

    1993-07-01

    This study was carried out to determine if the content of structured abstracts conforms with recommendations of the Ad Hoc Working Group for the critical appraisal of the medical literature as adopted by the Annals of Internal Medicine. The study design was a survey. All articles published in Annals of Internal Medicine in 1991, excluding editorials, case-reports, literature reviews, decision analysis, studies in medical education, descriptive studies of clinical and basic phenomena, and papers lacking a structured abstract, were studied. Of a total of 150 articles, 20 were excluded. The abstract and text of each article were assessed for the presence of the following items; patient selection criteria, statements concerning extrapolation of findings, need for further study, and whether or not the information should be used now. Number of refusers, drop outs and reason(s) for drop outs were assessed for intervention and prospective cohort studies only. Deficiencies of assessed items were noted in both abstracts and texts. For abstracts, patient selection criteria, numbers of refusers, number of drop outs and reason(s) for drop outs were reported in 44.6% (58/130), 3.1% (4/130), 16.9% (14/83) and 2.4% (2/83) respectively. These items were reported more frequently in the texts 87.7% (114/130), 9.2% (12/130), 60.2% (50/83) and 37.3% (31/83) respectively (p < 0.05). Statements concerning extrapolation of findings, need for further study and use of information now were also more frequent in texts than abstracts (p < 0.0001). A large number of structured abstracts published in the Annals of Internal Medicine in 1991, lack information recommended by the Ad Hoc Working Group. Our findings should not be extrapolated to other journals requiring structured abstracts. PMID:8326342

  4. Abstraction and Problem Reformulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giunchiglia, Fausto

    1992-01-01

    In work done jointly with Toby Walsh, the author has provided a sound theoretical foundation to the process of reasoning with abstraction (GW90c, GWS9, GW9Ob, GW90a). The notion of abstraction formalized in this work can be informally described as: (property 1), the process of mapping a representation of a problem, called (following historical convention (Sac74)) the 'ground' representation, onto a new representation, called the 'abstract' representation, which, (property 2) helps deal with the problem in the original search space by preserving certain desirable properties and (property 3) is simpler to handle as it is constructed from the ground representation by "throwing away details". One desirable property preserved by an abstraction is provability; often there is a relationship between provability in the ground representation and provability in the abstract representation. Another can be deduction or, possibly inconsistency. By 'throwing away details' we usually mean that the problem is described in a language with a smaller search space (for instance a propositional language or a language without variables) in which formulae of the abstract representation are obtained from the formulae of the ground representation by the use of some terminating rewriting technique. Often we require that the use of abstraction results in more efficient .reasoning. However, it might simply increase the number of facts asserted (eg. by allowing, in practice, the exploration of deeper search spaces or by implementing some form of learning). Among all abstractions, three very important classes have been identified. They relate the set of facts provable in the ground space to those provable in the abstract space. We call: TI abstractions all those abstractions where the abstractions of all the provable facts of the ground space are provable in the abstract space; TD abstractions all those abstractions wllere the 'unabstractions' of all the provable facts of the abstract space are

  5. Abstraction in mathematics.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Pier Luigi

    2003-07-29

    Some current interpretations of abstraction in mathematical settings are examined from different perspectives, including history and learning. It is argued that abstraction is a complex concept and that it cannot be reduced to generalization or decontextualization only. In particular, the links between abstraction processes and the emergence of new objects are shown. The role that representations have in abstraction is discussed, taking into account both the historical and the educational perspectives. As languages play a major role in mathematics, some ideas from functional linguistics are applied to explain to what extent mathematical notations are to be considered abstract. Finally, abstraction is examined from the perspective of mathematics education, to show that the teaching ideas resulting from one-dimensional interpretations of abstraction have proved utterly unsuccessful. PMID:12903658

  6. The influence of patients' immigration background and residence permit status on treatment decisions in health care. Results of a factorial survey among general practitioners in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Drewniak, Daniel; Krones, Tanja; Sauer, Carsten; Wild, Verina

    2016-07-01

    This study examines the influence of patients' immigration background and residence permit status on physicians' willingness to treat patients in due time. A factorial survey was conducted among 352 general practitioners with a background in internal medicine in a German-speaking region in Switzerland. Participants expressed their self-rating (SR) as well as the expected colleague-rating (CR) to provide immediate treatment to 12 fictive vignette patients. The effects of the vignette variables were analysed using random-effects models. The results show that SR as well as CR was not only influenced by the medical condition or the physicians' time pressure, but also by social factors such as the ethnicity and migration history, the residence permit status, and the economic condition of the patients. Our findings can be useful for the development of adequate, practically relevant teaching and training materials with the ultimate aim to reduce unjustified discrimination or social rationing in health care. PMID:27258017

  7. Analysis of factors influencing the degree of detectability on diffusion-weighted MRI and diffusion background signals in patients with invasive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Soo Yeon; Ko, Eun Sook; Han, Boo-Kyung; Lim, Yaeji; Gu, Seonhye; Ko, Eun Young

    2016-07-01

    To determine the factors influencing the degree of detectability of lesions and diffusion background signals on magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in invasive breast cancer.Institutional review board approval was obtained and patient consent was waived. Patients with newly diagnosed invasive ductal carcinoma, who underwent preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging with DWI were included in this study (n = 167). Lesion detectability on DWI and contrast-enhanced subtracted T1-weighted images, the degree of background parenchymal enhancement (BPE), and diffusion background signal were qualitatively rated. Detectability of lesions on DWI was compared with clinicopathological findings including menopausal status, mammographic density, and molecular subtype of breast cancer. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to determine variables independently associated with detectability of lesions on DWI and diffusion background signals.Univariate analysis showed that the detectability of lesions on DWI was significantly associated with lesion size (P = 0.001), diffuse background signal (P < 0.0001), and higher detectability scores for contrast-enhanced T1-weighted subtraction images (P = 0.000). The degree of diffusion background signal was significantly affected by age (P < 0.0001), BPE (P < 0.0001), mammographic density (P = 0.002), and menopausal status (P < 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, the diffusion background signal (P < 0.0001) and histologic grade (P < 0.0001) were correlated with the detectability on DWI of invasive breast cancer. Only BPE was correlated with the amount of diffusion background signal on DWI (P < 0.0001).For invasive breast cancers, detectability on DWI was significantly affected by the diffusion background signal. BPE, menopausal status, menstrual cycle, or mammographic density did not show statistically significant correlation with the diffusion detectability of lesions on DWI. PMID

  8. Loving Those Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Lori

    2004-01-01

    The author describes a lesson she did on abstract art with her high school art classes. She passed out a required step-by-step outline of the project process. She asked each of them to look at abstract art. They were to list five or six abstract artists they thought were interesting, narrow their list down to the one most personally intriguing,…

  9. [THE PATIENTS QUALITY OF LIFE ESTlMATION IN PRESENCE OF METASTASIS OF A RENAL-CELL CANCER IN THE BONES ON BACKGROUND OF THE BISPHOSPHONATES APPLICATION].

    PubMed

    Boychuk, S I; Dedkov, A G; Volkov, I B; Kovahlichuk, P A; Kostyuk, V Yu

    2016-04-01

    Results of the patients quality of life (QL) estimation, while presence of a renal-cell cancer metastasis in the bones, using questionnaire QLQ-C30 and Karnofsky index, as well as the pain visual-analogue scale on background of treatment with bisphosphonates (BPH), were adduced. After conclusion of the combined treatment the general state improvement, a trustworthy reduction of the pain syndrome severity, as well as the patients' psychoemotional and social state, were noted. Complex treatment of patients, using BPH, have promoted a positive impact on their QL as well as a reduction of a skeleton complications rate. PMID:27434958

  10. Clinical characteristics, modalities and complications of diabetic patients with migration background at a Central European University Clinic.

    PubMed

    Handisurya, Ammon; Bancher-Todesca, Dagmar; Kamyar, Majid Reza; Lemmens-Gruber, Rosa; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess (i) the effects of immigration on the outcome of 200 consecutive singleton pregnancies in women with overt diabetes as well as (ii) gender-specific differences in cardiovascular risk factor profile and the achievement of therapeutic targets in type 2 diabetic subjects with migration background (n = 50). In pregnant subjects, baseline characteristics at admission, pregnancy outcome and the rate of obstetrical complications were similar in immigrant and non-immigrant women. Type 2 diabetes and also preconceptionally undiagnosed diabetes were significantly more frequent in women with migration background. Following delivery, immigrants presented with a worse metabolic profile, including higher triglyceride and nonHDL levels, than the indigenous population. Furthermore, within diabetic subjects with a migration background, non-pregnant women feature a more adverse cardiovascular risk factor profile than men. However, no gender-specific differences in the total adherence to clinical recommendations according to clinical recommendations have been found. PMID:21360290

  11. Community Development Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    This volume of 1,108 abstracts summarizes the majority of important works on community development during the last ten years. Part I contains abstracts of periodical literature and is classified into 19 sections, including general history, communications, community and area studies, decision-making, leadership, migration and settlement, social…

  12. Leadership Abstracts, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Mark D., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide brief discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 10 for 1997 contains the following 12 abstracts: (1) "On Community College Renewal" (Nathan L. Hodges and Mark D. Milliron); (2) "The Community College Niche in a…

  13. Has Abstractness Been Resolved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Omoush, Ahmad

    1989-01-01

    A discussion focusing on the abstractness of analysis in phonology, debated since the 1960s, describes the issue, reviews the literature on the subject, cites specific natural language examples, and examines the extent to which the issue has been resolved. An underlying representation is said to be abstract if it is different from the derived one,…

  14. Designing for Mathematical Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Dave; Noss, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Our focus is on the design of systems (pedagogical, technical, social) that encourage mathematical abstraction, a process we refer to as "designing for abstraction." In this paper, we draw on detailed design experiments from our research on children's understanding about chance and distribution to re-present this work as a case study in designing…

  15. Knowledge-Based Abstracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of automatic abstracting of technical papers focuses on a knowledge-based method that uses two sets of rules. Topics discussed include anaphora; text structure and discourse; abstracting techniques, including the keyword method and the indicator phrase method; and tools for text skimming. (27 references) (LRW)

  16. Leadership Abstracts, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Larry, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide two-page discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, and teaching in community colleges. The 12 abstracts for Volume 8, 1995, are: (1) "Redesigning the System To Meet the Workforce Training Needs of the Nation," by Larry Warford; (2) "The College President, the Board, and the Board Chair: A…

  17. Paper Abstract Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Abstraction is, in effect, a simplification and reduction of shapes with an absence of detail designed to comprise the essence of the more naturalistic images being depicted. Without even intending to, young children consistently create interesting, and sometimes beautiful, abstract compositions. A child's creations, moreover, will always seem to…

  18. Is It Really Abstract?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2011-01-01

    For this author, one of the most enjoyable aspects of teaching elementary art is the willingness of students to embrace the different styles of art introduced to them. In this article, she describes a project that allows upper-elementary students to learn about abstract art and the lives of some of the master abstract artists, implement the idea…

  19. Journalism Abstracts. Vol. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popovich, Mark N., Ed.

    This book, the fifteenth volume of an annual publication, contains 373 abstracts of 52 doctoral and 321 master's theses from 50 colleges and universities. The abstracts are arranged alphabetically by author, with the doctoral dissertations appearing first. These cover such topics as advertising, audience analysis, content analysis of news issues…

  20. Leadership Abstracts, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Larry, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide two-page discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 9 for 1996 includes the following 12 abstracts: (1) "Tech-Prep + School-To-Work: Working Together To Foster Educational Reform," (Roderick F. Beaumont); (2)…

  1. Mathematical Abstraction through Scaffolding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih; Roper, Tom

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the role of scaffolding in the process of abstraction. An activity-theoretic approach to abstraction in context is taken. This examination is carried out with reference to verbal protocols of two 17 year-old students working together on a task connected to sketching the graph of |f|x|)|. Examination of the data suggests that…

  2. Abstract coherent categories.

    PubMed

    Rehder, B; Ross, B H

    2001-09-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the importance of the knowledge that interrelates features in people's mental representation of categories and that makes our conception of categories coherent. This article focuses on abstract coherent categories, coherent categories that are also abstract because they are defined by relations independently of any features. Four experiments demonstrate that abstract coherent categories are learned more easily than control categories with identical features and statistical structure, and also that participants induced an abstract representation of the category by granting category membership to exemplars with completely novel features. The authors argue that the human conceptual system is heavily populated with abstract coherent concepts, including conceptions of social groups, societal institutions, legal, political, and military scenarios, and many superordinate categories, such as classes of natural kinds. PMID:11550753

  3. Abstract Datatypes in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan

    1997-01-01

    PVS (Prototype Verification System) is a general-purpose environment for developing specifications and proofs. This document deals primarily with the abstract datatype mechanism in PVS which generates theories containing axioms and definitions for a class of recursive datatypes. The concepts underlying the abstract datatype mechanism are illustrated using ordered binary trees as an example. Binary trees are described by a PVS abstract datatype that is parametric in its value type. The type of ordered binary trees is then presented as a subtype of binary trees where the ordering relation is also taken as a parameter. We define the operations of inserting an element into, and searching for an element in an ordered binary tree; the bulk of the report is devoted to PVS proofs of some useful properties of these operations. These proofs illustrate various approaches to proving properties of abstract datatype operations. They also describe the built-in capabilities of the PVS proof checker for simplifying abstract datatype expressions.

  4. Lack of Association between High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Angiographic Coronary Lesion Severity in Chinese Patients with Low Background Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chieh-Shou; Chen, Kuan-Ju; Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng; Yang, Ya-Ling; Liu, Tsun-Jui; Chang, Wei-Chun; Wang, Kuo-Yang; Lee, Wen-Lieng

    2015-01-01

    Background The atheroprotective role of high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) particles as measured by HDL-C level in coronary arterial disease (CAD) remains unsettled. The aim of our study was to ascertain whether HDL-C was associated with the development and severity of coronary artery disease in Chinese patients who underwent coronary angiogram with low background Low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) levels, which has not been previously investigated. Methods Between March 1995 and May 2000, 566 consecutive patients (408 males, 66.7 ± 11.3 years of age) with background LDL-C less than 100 mg/dl who underwent coronary artery angiography at our cath lab for suspected CAD were retrospectively recruited into the study. The severity of coronary lesions was measured by conventional coronary angiography and modified Gensini scores. Results In those subjects with significant coronary lesions, there were more males and conventional CAD risk factors of diabetes mellitus, smoking, and chronic renal disease. They were also older compared to those in the control group. However, total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglyceride levels and use of statins were similar in both groups. In those subjects with significant coronary lesions, there was no difference in conventional coronary lesion severity or modified Gensini score between the quartered HDL-C subgroups. Furthermore, there was no significant correlation between serum HDL-C level and modified Gensini scores. In linear regression analysis, HDL-C was not an independent predictor for modified Gensini scores. Furthermore, HDL-C was also not an independent risk factor for the presence of significant coronary lesions in low LDL-C patients in logistic regression analysis. Conclusions In Chinese patients with low background LDL-C, serum HDL-C was not associated with development of CAD or lesion severity in patients with suspected CAD. Therefore, HDL-C did not appear to be atheroprotective in these patients. PMID:27122918

  5. 'Palliative care': a contradiction in terms? A qualitative study of cancer patients with a Turkish or Moroccan background, their relatives and care providers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Palliative cancer care aims to improve quality of life and ultimately quality of dying, while prolonging life is not an objective anymore when death nears. The question is, however, whether these perspectives on palliative care are congruent with the perspectives of immigrant families with a Turkish or Moroccan background. Methods A qualitative design was used as we were looking for the personal views of 'very ill' cancer patients with a Turkish or Moroccan background, their family members and their Dutch care providers. We interviewed 83 people, involved in 33 cases to obtain information about their views, values and norms on 'good care'. Results The main concerns about 'good care' expressed by Turkish and Moroccan families were: maximum treatment and curative care until the end of their lives, never having hope taken away, devoted care by their families, avoiding shameful situations, dying with a clear mind and being buried in their own country. Their views conflict, to some extent, with the dominant principles in palliative care, for example, the emphasis on quality of life and advanced care planning, which includes discussing diagnosis and prognosis with the patient. Conclusions Patients and their families with a Turkish or Moroccan background often have different ideas about 'good care' than their Dutch care providers. As many of them are aiming at cure until the end of life, they find 'good palliative care' a contradiction in terms. PMID:20831777

  6. Background information on multiple sclerosis patients stopping ongoing immunomodulatory therapy: a multicenter study in a community-based environment.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Christian; Schreiber, H; Bergmann, A

    2012-11-01

    Adherence to an immunomodulatory therapy still needs to be improved in MS patients. We analyzed the data of 396 MS patients of 40 German MS outpatient centers who had stopped an ongoing immunomodulatory treatment. Items analyzed were among others adherence data, reasons for the interruption and willingness to start a new therapy. It became obvious that 74.6 % of the patients made the decision to withdraw from therapy on their own. The most commonly mentioned reasons for the withdrawal were proven or putative lack of efficacy (51.4 %), side effects (58.1 %), and complaints of fatigue and depression. There was no difference concerning sex, duration of the treatment and medication taken. The expectations correlated with the empathy of the treating physician and the setting with MS nurses taking care of the patient. A total of 199 patients (51.8 % of the females, 48.9 % of the males) wanted to restart another IMT. Reasons for not wanting to restart were lack of conviction that a therapy may influence the disease (29.4 %), fear of injection (18.7 %), fear of bringing the disease to mind regularly (17.9 %) and doubt about the diagnosis (11.2 %). The results suggest that adherence is most effectively promoted by cultivating an appropriate and individual therapeutic setting for each MS patient on a medical, organizational and last but not least psychological level. PMID:22527237

  7. Abstract Interpreters for Free

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Might, Matthew

    In small-step abstract interpretations, the concrete and abstract semantics bear an uncanny resemblance. In this work, we present an analysis-design methodology that both explains and exploits that resemblance. Specifically, we present a two-step method to convert a small-step concrete semantics into a family of sound, computable abstract interpretations. The first step re-factors the concrete state-space to eliminate recursive structure; this refactoring of the state-space simultaneously determines a store-passing-style transformation on the underlying concrete semantics. The second step uses inference rules to generate an abstract state-space and a Galois connection simultaneously. The Galois connection allows the calculation of the "optimal" abstract interpretation. The two-step process is unambiguous, but nondeterministic: at each step, analysis designers face choices. Some of these choices ultimately influence properties such as flow-, field- and context-sensitivity. Thus, under the method, we can give the emergence of these properties a graph-theoretic characterization. To illustrate the method, we systematically abstract the continuation-passing style lambda calculus to arrive at two distinct families of analyses. The first is the well-known k-CFA family of analyses. The second consists of novel "environment-centric" abstract interpretations, none of which appear in the literature on static analysis of higher-order programs.

  8. Heterogeneous Genetic Background of the Association of Pheochromocytoma/Paraganglioma and Pituitary Adenoma: Results From a Large Patient Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Dénes, Judit; Swords, Francesca; Rattenberry, Eleanor; Stals, Karen; Owens, Martina; Cranston, Treena; Xekouki, Paraskevi; Moran, Linda; Kumar, Ajith; Wassif, Christopher; Fersht, Naomi; Baldeweg, Stephanie E.; Morris, Damian; Lightman, Stafford; Agha, Amar; Rees, Aled; Grieve, Joan; Powell, Michael; Boguszewski, Cesar Luiz; Dutta, Pinaki; Thakker, Rajesh V.; Srirangalingam, Umasuthan; Thompson, Chris J.; Druce, Maralyn; Higham, Claire; Davis, Julian; Eeles, Rosalind; Stevenson, Mark; O'Sullivan, Brendan; Taniere, Phillipe; Skordilis, Kassiani; Gabrovska, Plamena; Barlier, Anne; Webb, Susan M.; Aulinas, Anna; Drake, William M.; Bevan, John S.; Preda, Cristina; Dalantaeva, Nadezhda; Ribeiro-Oliveira, Antônio; Garcia, Isabel Tena; Yordanova, Galina; Iotova, Violeta; Evanson, Jane; Grossman, Ashley B.; Trouillas, Jacqueline; Ellard, Sian; Stratakis, Constantine A.; Maher, Eamonn R.; Roncaroli, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Context: Pituitary adenomas and pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas (pheo/PGL) can occur in the same patient or in the same family. Coexistence of the two diseases could be due to either a common pathogenic mechanism or a coincidence. Objective: The objective of the investigation was to study the possible coexistence of pituitary adenoma and pheo/PGL. Design: Thirty-nine cases of sporadic or familial pheo/PGL and pituitary adenomas were investigated. Known pheo/PGL genes (SDHA-D, SDHAF2, RET, VHL, TMEM127, MAX, FH) and pituitary adenoma genes (MEN1, AIP, CDKN1B) were sequenced using next generation or Sanger sequencing. Loss of heterozygosity study and pathological studies were performed on the available tumor samples. Setting: The study was conducted at university hospitals. Patients: Thirty-nine patients with sporadic of familial pituitary adenoma and pheo/PGL participated in the study. Outcome: Outcomes included genetic screening and clinical characteristics. Results: Eleven germline mutations (five SDHB, one SDHC, one SDHD, two VHL, and two MEN1) and four variants of unknown significance (two SDHA, one SDHB, and one SDHAF2) were identified in the studied genes in our patient cohort. Tumor tissue analysis identified LOH at the SDHB locus in three pituitary adenomas and loss of heterozygosity at the MEN1 locus in two pheochromocytomas. All the pituitary adenomas of patients affected by SDHX alterations have a unique histological feature not previously described in this context. Conclusions: Mutations in the genes known to cause pheo/PGL can rarely be associated with pituitary adenomas, whereas mutation in a gene predisposing to pituitary adenomas (MEN1) can be associated with pheo/PGL. Our findings suggest that genetic testing should be considered in all patients or families with the constellation of pheo/PGL and a pituitary adenoma. PMID:25494863

  9. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents abstracts of SIG Sessions. Highlights include digital collections; information retrieval methods; public interest/fair use; classification and indexing; electronic publication; funding; globalization; information technology projects; interface design; networking in developing countries; metadata; multilingual databases; networked…

  10. Automatic Abstraction in Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, abstraction in planning has been accomplished by either state abstraction or operator abstraction, neither of which has been fully automatic. We present a new method, predicate relaxation, for automatically performing state abstraction. PABLO, a nonlinear hierarchical planner, implements predicate relaxation. Theoretical, as well as empirical results are presented which demonstrate the potential advantages of using predicate relaxation in planning. We also present a new definition of hierarchical operators that allows us to guarantee a limited form of completeness. This new definition is shown to be, in some ways, more flexible than previous definitions of hierarchical operators. Finally, a Classical Truth Criterion is presented that is proven to be sound and complete for a planning formalism that is general enough to include most classical planning formalisms that are based on the STRIPS assumption.

  11. 1971 Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Included are 112 abstracts listed under headings such as: acoustics, continuing engineering studies, educational research and methods, engineering design, libraries, liberal studies, and materials. Other areas include agricultural, electrical, mechanical, mineral, and ocean engineering. (TS)

  12. 2016 ACPA MEETING ABSTRACTS.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    The peer-reviewed abstracts presented at the 73rd Annual Meeting of the ACPA are published as submitted by the authors. For financial conflict of interest disclosure, please visit http://meeting.acpa-cpf.org/disclosures.html. PMID:27447885

  13. Abstracts of contributed papers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  14. Lack of rebound during intermittent transdermal treatment with glyceryl trinitrate in patients with stable angina on background beta blocker.

    PubMed Central

    Holdright, D R; Katz, R J; Wright, C A; Sparrow, J L; Sullivan, A K; Cunningham, A D; Fox, K M

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess whether intermittent transdermal treatment with glyceryl trinitrate causes clinically significant rebound in patients maintained on beta blockers for stable angina pectoris. DESIGN--Serial treadmill exercise testing in a double blind, randomised, placebo controlled cross over trial. Baseline exercise testing was performed at 0900 and 1100 at visit 1. Transdermal glyceryl trinitrate patches releasing 15 mg/24 h were applied at 2200 the evening before visits 2 and 3, and exercise testing was performed at 0900 the next morning. The patch was removed and replaced with either an identical patch or matching placebo and exercise tests were repeated two hours later. The alternative treatment was given at visit 3. SETTING--Tertiary referral centre. PATIENTS--14 patients with stable angina pectoris maintained on beta blocker treatment alone. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Time to angina, 1 mm ST segment depression, and total time, together with heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and rate-pressure product. RESULTS--Active treatment improved treadmill performance at 0900 and 1100. Time to angina, time to 1 mm ST segment depression, and total time fell significantly on placebo compared with the 0900 exercise test on active treatment, but were not significantly different to the baseline exercise test either. CONCLUSIONS--Intermittent transdermal treatment with glyceryl trinitrate is not associated with the rebound phenomenon in patients maintained on beta blockers for stable angina pectoris. PMID:8096389

  15. [PATOGENETIC VALUE OF VIOLATIONS FROM GLUTATHIONE SYSTEM AT THE PATIENTS WITH NONALCOHOLIC STEATOHEPATITIS ON A BACKGROUND OF DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE II].

    PubMed

    Sotskaya, Ya A; Homutyanskaya, N I; Dolgopolova, E V; Salamekh, K A

    2015-01-01

    At the patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis on a background of diabetes mellitus type II, after completion of the generally accepted medical treatment there was no normalization of indexes of the glutation system (the level of recovered glutation and activity of enzymes the glutation redox-system was saved decreased), that in a clinical plan was represented in.a presence unstable clinical and biochemical remission of disease. PMID:27491150

  16. Comparison of Accuracy in Calculation of Absorbed Dose to Patients Following Bone Scan with (99m)Tc-Marked Diphosphonates by Two Different Background Correction Methods.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Damoori, Mehri; Tavakoli, Mohammad Bagher; Moslehi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    To improve the accuracy of the activity quantification and the image quality in scintigraphy, scatter correction is a vital procedure. The aim of this study is to compare the accuracy in calculation of absorbed dose to patients following bone scan with (99m)Tc-marked diphosphonates ((99m)Tc-MDP) by two different methods of background correction in conjugate view method. This study involved 22 patients referring to the Nuclear Medicine Center of Shahid Chamran Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. After the injection of (99m)Tc-MDP, whole-body images from patients were acquired at 10, 60, 90, and 180 min. Organ activities were calculated using the conjugate view method by Buijs and conventional background correction. Finally, the absorbed dose was calculated using the Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry (MIRD) technique. The results of this study showed that the absorbed dose per unit of injected activity (rad/mCi) ± standard deviation for pelvis bone, bladder, and kidneys by Buijs method was 0.19 ± 0.05, 0.08 ± 0.01, and 0.03 ± 0.01 and by conventional method was 0.13 ± 0.04, 0.08 ± 0.01, and 0.024 ± 0.01, respectively. This showed that Buijs background correction method had a high accuracy compared to conventional method for the estimated absorbed dose of bone and kidneys whereas, for the bladder, its accuracy was low. PMID:27014610

  17. Comparison of Accuracy in Calculation of Absorbed Dose to Patients Following Bone Scan with 99mTc-Marked Diphosphonates by Two Different Background Correction Methods

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Damoori, Mehri; Tavakoli, Mohammad Bagher; Moslehi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    To improve the accuracy of the activity quantification and the image quality in scintigraphy, scatter correction is a vital procedure. The aim of this study is to compare the accuracy in calculation of absorbed dose to patients following bone scan with 99mTc-marked diphosphonates (99mTc-MDP) by two different methods of background correction in conjugate view method. This study involved 22 patients referring to the Nuclear Medicine Center of Shahid Chamran Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. After the injection of 99mTc-MDP, whole-body images from patients were acquired at 10, 60, 90, and 180 min. Organ activities were calculated using the conjugate view method by Buijs and conventional background correction. Finally, the absorbed dose was calculated using the Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry (MIRD) technique. The results of this study showed that the absorbed dose per unit of injected activity (rad/mCi) ± standard deviation for pelvis bone, bladder, and kidneys by Buijs method was 0.19 ± 0.05, 0.08 ± 0.01, and 0.03 ± 0.01 and by conventional method was 0.13 ± 0.04, 0.08 ± 0.01, and 0.024 ± 0.01, respectively. This showed that Buijs background correction method had a high accuracy compared to conventional method for the estimated absorbed dose of bone and kidneys whereas, for the bladder, its accuracy was low. PMID:27014610

  18. Metacognition and abstract reasoning.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Thompson, Valerie A; Brisson, Janie

    2015-05-01

    The nature of people's meta-representations of deductive reasoning is critical to understanding how people control their own reasoning processes. We conducted two studies to examine whether people have a metacognitive representation of abstract validity and whether familiarity alone acts as a separate metacognitive cue. In Study 1, participants were asked to make a series of (1) abstract conditional inferences, (2) concrete conditional inferences with premises having many potential alternative antecedents and thus specifically conducive to the production of responses consistent with conditional logic, or (3) concrete problems with premises having relatively few potential alternative antecedents. Participants gave confidence ratings after each inference. Results show that confidence ratings were positively correlated with logical performance on abstract problems and concrete problems with many potential alternatives, but not with concrete problems with content less conducive to normative responses. Confidence ratings were higher with few alternatives than for abstract content. Study 2 used a generation of contrary-to-fact alternatives task to improve levels of abstract logical performance. The resulting increase in logical performance was mirrored by increases in mean confidence ratings. Results provide evidence for a metacognitive representation based on logical validity, and show that familiarity acts as a separate metacognitive cue. PMID:25416026

  19. Thyra Abstract Interface Package

    2005-09-01

    Thrya primarily defines a set of abstract C++ class interfaces needed for the development of abstract numerical atgorithms (ANAs) such as iterative linear solvers, transient solvers all the way up to optimization. At the foundation of these interfaces are abstract C++ classes for vectors, vector spaces, linear operators and multi-vectors. Also included in the Thyra package is C++ code for creating concrete vector, vector space, linear operator, and multi-vector subclasses as well as other utilitiesmore » to aid in the development of ANAs. Currently, very general and efficient concrete subclass implementations exist for serial and SPMD in-core vectors and multi-vectors. Code also currently exists for testing objects and providing composite objects such as product vectors.« less

  20. Abstracting and indexing guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Department of the Interior; Office of Water Resources Research

    1974-01-01

    These instructions have been prepared for those who abstract and index scientific and technical documents for the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC). With the recent publication growth in all fields, information centers have undertaken the task of keeping the various scientific communities aware of current and past developments. An abstract with carefully selected index terms offers the user of WRSIC services a more rapid means for deciding whether a document is pertinent to his needs and professional interests, thus saving him the time necessary to scan the complete work. These means also provide WRSIC with a document representation or surrogate which is more easily stored and manipulated to produce various services. Authors are asked to accept the responsibility for preparing abstracts of their own papers to facilitate quick evaluation, announcement, and dissemination to the scientific community.

  1. Abstract Imagery in Art Therapy: What Does It Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanes, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    Explores some of the factors involving abstract imagery in the work of art-therapy patients and presents examples of abstract imagery produced by patients in an acute-patient psychiatric hospital. Examples illustrate that abstract imagery can serve not only a defensive purpose, but a progressive function as well. (Author/MKA)

  2. [Thrombocyte lysosomal hydrolase activity in patients with ischemic heart disease, hyperlipidemia and obesity against a background of different diets].

    PubMed

    Vasil'ev, A V; Shimanovskaia, N P; Pogozheva, A V; Samsonov, M A; Tutel'ian, V A

    1987-01-01

    Investigation of lysosomal hydrolase activity in platelets of patients has revealed drastic activation of cathepsins B, C and phospholipase A1, the degree of which rose in the following range: coronary heart disease; coronary heart disease aggravated by obesity: obesity and hyperlipidemia (type II). Administration of the adequate dietotherapy resulted in normalization of enzymologic parameters, whereas the results of the clinico-biochemical analysis of the blood were less informative in all cases. The data obtained could be used in the evaluation of the dietotherapy effectiveness, as well as for the early diagnosis of the corresponding diseases. PMID:3439081

  3. Fulminant Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Presenting 11 Days after Delivery in a Patient of Mixed Genetic Background.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Shoko; Fujihara, Kazuya; Kumagai, Ryo; Isono, Momoko; Yagyu, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    The patient was a 25-year-old woman whose paternal family was Japanese, maternal grandfather was Filipino, and maternal grandmother was Chinese. Eleven days after delivery, she presented with excessive thirst and disturbed consciousness due to diabetic ketoacidosis. She was diagnosed as having fulminant type 1 diabetes associated with pregnancy (PF). The antibody concentration against glutamic acid decarboxylase was 1.2 (<1.5) U/mL, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II haplotypes were DRB1*04:10-DQB1*03:02 and DRB1*15:02-DQB1*05:01. The present case had unique HLA class II haplotypes that have not been previously reported in association with PF. PMID:27432097

  4. Shortened telomere length in hepatocellular carcinomas and corresponding background liver tissues of patients infected with hepatitis virus.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, K; Tsutsumi, M; Kobitsu, K; Fukuda, T; Tsujiuchi, T; Okajima, E; Ko, S; Nakajima, Y; Nakano, H; Konishi, Y

    1996-05-01

    The telomere length in 20 surgically resected human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and adjacent non-cancerous livers with hepatitis virus infection were investigated. All the HCC samples examined demonstrated shorter telomere length than the corresponding non-cancerous liver tissues, the respective average values being 5.4 kbp and 8.8 kbp (P < 0.001). The shortening of telomere length was most prominent in HCCs larger than 30 mm in diameter, and in both tumors and non-cancerous livers it was more marked with hepatitis B virus as compared with hepatitis C virus infection. These results indicate that telomere shortening is associated with not only progression, but also development of HCC, and there is a possible difference in the nature of the association in patients with hepatitis viruses of B and C types. PMID:8641975

  5. Abstraction and art.

    PubMed Central

    Gortais, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    In a given social context, artistic creation comprises a set of processes, which relate to the activity of the artist and the activity of the spectator. Through these processes we see and understand that the world is vaster than it is said to be. Artistic processes are mediated experiences that open up the world. A successful work of art expresses a reality beyond actual reality: it suggests an unknown world using the means and the signs of the known world. Artistic practices incorporate the means of creation developed by science and technology and change forms as they change. Artists and the public follow different processes of abstraction at different levels, in the definition of the means of creation, of representation and of perception of a work of art. This paper examines how the processes of abstraction are used within the framework of the visual arts and abstract painting, which appeared during a period of growing importance for the processes of abstraction in science and technology, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The development of digital platforms and new man-machine interfaces allow multimedia creations. This is performed under the constraint of phases of multidisciplinary conceptualization using generic representation languages, which tend to abolish traditional frontiers between the arts: visual arts, drama, dance and music. PMID:12903659

  6. The SIDdatagrabber (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvis, G.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The Stanford/SARA SuperSid project offers an opportunity for adding data to the AAVSO SID Monitoring project. You can now build a SID antenna and monitoring setup for about $150. And with the SIDdatagrabber application you can easily re-purpose the data collected for the AAVSO.

  7. Making the Abstract Concrete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2005-01-01

    President Ronald Reagan nominated a woman to serve on the United States Supreme Court. He did so through a single-page form letter, completed in part by hand and in part by typewriter, announcing Sandra Day O'Connor as his nominee. While the document serves as evidence of a historic event, it is also a tangible illustration of abstract concepts…

  8. Learning Abstracts, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Volume 4 of the League for Innovation in the Community College's Learning Abstracts include the following: (1) "Touching Students in the Digital Age: The Move Toward Learner Relationship Management (LRM)," by Mark David Milliron, which offers an overview of an organizing concept to help community colleges navigate the intersection between digital…

  9. Leadership Abstracts, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.; Milliron, Mark David, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 volume of Leadership Abstracts contains issue numbers 1-12. Articles include: (1) "Skills Certification and Workforce Development: Partnering with Industry and Ourselves," by Jeffrey A. Cantor; (2) "Starting Again: The Brookhaven Success College," by Alice W. Villadsen; (3) "From Digital Divide to Digital Democracy," by Gerardo E. de los…

  10. Leadership Abstracts, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This document includes 10 issues of Leadership Abstracts (volume 6, 1993), a newsletter published by the League for Innovation in the Community College (California). The featured articles are: (1) "Reinventing Government" by David T. Osborne; (2) "Community College Workforce Training Programs: Expanding the Mission to Meet Critical Needs" by…

  11. Abstraction through Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avraamidou, Antri; Monaghan, John; Walker, Aisha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the computer game play of an 11-year-old boy. In the course of building a virtual house he developed and used, without assistance, an artefact and an accompanying strategy to ensure that his house was symmetric. We argue that the creation and use of this artefact-strategy is a mathematical abstraction. The discussion…

  12. CIRF Abstracts, Volume 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    The aim of the CIRF abstracts is to convey information about vocational training ideas, programs, experience, and experiments described in periodicals, books, and other publications and relating to operative personnel, supervisors, and technical and training staff in all sectors of economic activity. Information is also given on major trends in…

  13. Leadership Abstracts, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadership Abstracts, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This document contains five Leadership Abstracts publications published February-December 1999. The article, "Teaching the Teachers: Meeting the National Teacher Preparation Challenge," authored by George R. Boggs and Sadie Bragg, examines the community college role and makes recommendations and a call to action for teacher education. "Chaos…

  14. Double Trouble (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, M.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) Variable stars with close companions can be difficult to accurately measure and characterize. The companions can create misidentifications, which in turn can affect the perceived magnitudes, amplitudes, periods, and colors of the variable stars. We will show examples of these Double Trouble stars and the impact their close companions have had on our understanding of some of these variable stars.

  15. Send Me No Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Steven

    1985-01-01

    Discusses Magazine Index's practice of assigning letter grades (sometimes inaccurate) to book, restaurant, and movie reviews, thus allowing patrons to get the point of the review from the index rather than the article itself, and argues that this situation is indicative of the larger problem of reliability of abstracts. (MBR)

  16. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineering Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presents the abstracts of 158 papers presented at the American Society for Engineering Education's annual conference at Knoxville, Tennessee, June 14-17, 1976. Included are engineering topics covering education, aerospace, agriculture, biomedicine, chemistry, computers, electricity, acoustics, environment, mechanics, and women. (SL)

  17. Reasoning abstractly about resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, B.; Barrett, A.

    2001-01-01

    r describes a way to schedule high level activities before distributing them across multiple rovers in order to coordinate the resultant use of shared resources regardless of how each rover decides how to perform its activities. We present an algorithm for summarizing the metric resource requirements of an abstract activity based n the resource usages of its potential refinements.

  18. Humor, abstraction, and disbelief.

    PubMed

    Hoicka, Elena; Jutsum, Sarah; Gattis, Merideth

    2008-09-01

    We investigated humor as a context for learning about abstraction and disbelief. More specifically, we investigated how parents support humor understanding during book sharing with their toddlers. In Study 1, a corpus analysis revealed that in books aimed at 1-to 2-year-olds, humor is found more often than other forms of doing the wrong thing including mistakes, pretense, lying, false beliefs, and metaphors. In Study 2, 20 parents read a book containing humorous and non-humorous pages to their 19-to 26-month-olds. Parents used a significantly higher percentage of high abstraction extra-textual utterances (ETUs) when reading the humorous pages. In Study 3, 41 parents read either a humorous or non-humorous book to their 18-to 24-month-olds. Parents reading the humorous book made significantly more ETUs coded for a specific form of high abstraction: those encouraging disbelief of prior utterances. Sharing humorous books thus increases toddlers' exposure to high abstraction and belief-based language. PMID:21585438

  19. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 15 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Topics include navigation and information utilization in the Internet, natural language processing, automatic indexing, image indexing, classification, users' models of database searching, online public access catalogs, education for information professions, information services,…

  20. 2002 NASPSA Conference Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Contains abstracts from the 2002 conference of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity. The publication is divided into three sections: the preconference workshop, "Effective Teaching Methods in the Classroom;" symposia (motor development, motor learning and control, and sport psychology); and free…

  1. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…

  2. Learning Abstracts, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    League for Innovation in the Community Coll.

    This document contains volume two of Learning Abstracts, a bimonthly newsletter from the League for Innovation in the Community College. Articles in these seven issues include: (1) "Get on the Fast Track to Learning: An Accelerated Associate Degree Option" (Gerardo E. de los Santos and Deborah J. Cruise); (2) "The Learning College: Both Learner…

  3. Computers in Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwabueze, Kenneth K.

    2004-01-01

    The current emphasis on flexible modes of mathematics delivery involving new information and communication technology (ICT) at the university level is perhaps a reaction to the recent change in the objectives of education. Abstract algebra seems to be one area of mathematics virtually crying out for computer instructional support because of the…

  4. Abstract Film and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grice, Malcolm

    A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…

  5. Association of family background with adolescent smoking and regular use of illicit substances among underage psychiatric in-patients.

    PubMed

    Laukkanen, Matti; Hakko, Helinä; Riala, Kaisa; Räsänen, Pirkko

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether adolescent's family type was associated with regular smoking or the use of illicit substances (cannabis or hard drugs) among underage adolescent psychiatric in-patients. The sample consisted of 471 adolescents aged 12-17 years admitted to psychiatric hospital between April 2001 and March 2006 at Oulu University Hospital, Finland. The information on family factors and substance use was based on the Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children, Present and Lifetime interview and the European modification of the Addiction Severity Index questionnaire. Compared to adolescent boys from two-parent families, those from child welfare placement were more likely to regularly use both cannabis (odds ratio [OR]=4.4; 95%confidence interval [CI]=1.4-13.7; P=.012) and hard drugs (OR=8.4; 95% CI=1.7-42.1; P=.01).Among girls, no association was found between family type and the use of illicit substances. Two-parent or foster family units may protect adolescents from involvement with illicit substances. In clinical adolescent psychiatric practice more attention should be paid to family interventions and parental support. PMID:19062350

  6. Historical development of abstracting.

    PubMed

    Skolnik, H

    1979-11-01

    The abstract, under a multitude of names, such as hypothesis, marginalia, abridgement, extract, digest, précis, resumé, and summary, has a long history, one which is concomitant with advancing scholarship. The progression of this history from the Sumerian civilization ca. 3600 B.C., through the Egyptian and Greek civilizations, the Hellenistic period, the Dark Ages, Middle Ages, Renaissance, and into the modern period is reviewed. PMID:399482

  7. Generalized Abstract Symbolic Summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Person, Suzette; Dwyer, Matthew B.

    2009-01-01

    Current techniques for validating and verifying program changes often consider the entire program, even for small changes, leading to enormous V&V costs over a program s lifetime. This is due, in large part, to the use of syntactic program techniques which are necessarily imprecise. Building on recent advances in symbolic execution of heap manipulating programs, in this paper, we develop techniques for performing abstract semantic differencing of program behaviors that offer the potential for improved precision.

  8. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  9. Developing a research agenda for patient safety in primary care. Background, aims and output of the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in primary care.

    PubMed

    Esmail, Aneez; Valderas, Jose M; Verstappen, Wim; Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Wensing, Michel

    2015-09-01

    This paper is an introduction to a supplement to The European Journal of General Practice, bringing together a body of research focusing on the issue of patient safety in relation to primary care. The supplement represents the outputs of the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in primary care, which was a four-year (2009-2013) coordination and support action funded under the Framework 7 programme by the European Union. Being a coordination and support action, its aim was not to undertake new research, but to build capacity through engaging primary care researchers and practitioners in identifying some of the key challenges in this area and developing consensus statements, which will be an essential part in developing a future research agenda. This introductory article describes the aims of the LINNEAUS collaboration, provides a brief summary of the reasons to focus on patient safety in primary care, the epidemiological and policy considerations, and an introduction to the papers included in the supplement. PMID:26339828

  10. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  11. A LARI Experience (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, M.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) In 2012, Lowell Observatory launched The Lowell Amateur Research Initiative (LARI) to formally involve amateur astronomers in scientific research by bringing them to the attention of and helping professional astronomers with their astronomical research. One of the LARI projects is the BVRI photometric monitoring of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs), wherein amateurs obtain observations to search for new outburst events and characterize the colour evolution of previously identified outbursters. A summary of the scientific and organizational aspects of this LARI project, including its goals and science motivation, the process for getting involved with the project, a description of the team members, their equipment and methods of collaboration, and an overview of the programme stars, preliminary findings, and lessons learned is presented.

  12. IEEE conference record -- Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This conference covers the following areas: computational plasma physics; vacuum electronic; basic phenomena in fully ionized plasmas; plasma, electron, and ion sources; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; space plasmas; plasma processing; ball lightning/spherical plasma configurations; plasma processing; fast wave devices; magnetic fusion; basic phenomena in partially ionized plasma; dense plasma focus; plasma diagnostics; basic phenomena in weakly ionized gases; fast opening switches; MHD; fast z-pinches and x-ray lasers; intense ion and electron beams; laser-produced plasmas; microwave plasma interactions; EM and ETH launchers; solid state plasmas and switches; intense beam microwaves; and plasmas for lighting. Separate abstracts were prepared for 416 papers in this conference.

  13. Teaching for Abstraction: A Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Paul; Mitchelmore, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines a theoretical model for teaching elementary mathematical concepts that we have developed over the past 10 years. We begin with general ideas about the abstraction process and differentiate between "abstract-general" and "abstract-apart" concepts. A 4-phase model of teaching, called Teaching for Abstraction, is then proposed…

  14. Stellar Presentations (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The AAVSO is in the process of expanding its education, outreach and speakers bureau program. powerpoint presentations prepared for specific target audiences such as AAVSO members, educators, students, the general public, and Science Olympiad teams, coaches, event supervisors, and state directors will be available online for members to use. The presentations range from specific and general content relating to stellar evolution and variable stars to specific activities for a workshop environment. A presentation—even with a general topic—that works for high school students will not work for educators, Science Olympiad teams, or the general public. Each audience is unique and requires a different approach. The current environment necessitates presentations that are captivating for a younger generation that is embedded in a highly visual and sound-bite world of social media, twitter and U-Tube, and mobile devices. For educators, presentations and workshops for themselves and their students must support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the Common Core Content Standards, and the Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) initiative. Current best practices for developing relevant and engaging powerpoint presentations to deliver information to a variety of targeted audiences will be presented along with several examples.

  15. Abstraction of Drift Seepage

    SciTech Connect

    J.T. Birkholzer

    2004-11-01

    This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 6.3.3.1)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package corrosion or radionuclide transport.

  16. Astronomy posters. Abstracts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Woerden, H.

    Contents: IAU Symposia Nos. 164: Stellar populations. 165: Compact stars in binaries. 166: Astronomical and astrophysical objectives of sub-milliarcsecond optical astrometry. 167: New developments in array technology and applications. 168: Examining the Big Bang and diffuse background radiations. 169: Unsolved problems of the Milky Way. Joint Discussions Nos. 1: Gas disks in galaxies. 2: Origin and detection of planetary systems. 3: Helio- and asteroseismology. 4: Current developments in astronomy education. 5: Activity in the central parts of galaxies. 6: Sun and heliosphere - challenges for solar-terrestrial physics, magneto- and hydrodynamics. 7: History of astronomy. 8: Time scales - state of the art. 9: Women in astronomy. 10: Extragalactic planetary nebulae. 11: Stellar and interstellar lithium and primordial nucleosynthesis. 12: Accuracy of the HR diagram and related parameters. 13: Recent advances in convection theory and modelling. 14: Towards the establishment of the astronomical standards. 15: Statistical evaluation of astronomical time series. 16: Astrophysical applications of powerful new atomic databases. 17: Dust around young stars: How related to solar system dust? 18: Solar system radar observations. 19: Nutation. 20: The status of archiving astronomical data. Working Groups Nos. 1: Problems of astronomy in Africa. 2: Near-Earth objects detection. 3: International catalog projects. 4: Asteroids and comets.

  17. Advance Organizers: Concret Versus Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkill, Alice J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Two experiments examined the relative effects of concrete and abstract advance organizers on students' memory for subsequent prose. Results of the experiments are discussed in terms of the memorability, familiarity, and visualizability of concrete and abstract verbal materials. (JD)

  18. Accepted scientific research works (abstracts).

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    These are the 39 accepted abstracts for IAYT's Symposium on Yoga Research (SYR) September 24-24, 2014 at the Kripalu Center for Yoga & Health and published in the Final Program Guide and Abstracts. PMID:25645134

  19. High-resolution HLA analysis of primary and secondary Sjögren's syndrome: a common immunogenetic background in Mexican patients.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Molina, Gabriela; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Rodríguez-Pérez, Jose M; Martínez-Rodríguez, Nancy; Lima, Guadalupe; Sánchez-Guerrero, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    To compare the distribution of HLA-A, B, DRB1 and DQB1 alleles among Mexican patients with primary Sjögren Syndrome (pSS), secondary SS (sSS), connective tissue disease (CTD) without (w/o) SS and historical ethnically healthy controls. We included 28 pSS, 30 sSS, 96 CTD w/o SS patients and 234 controls. HLA-A, B, DRB1 and DQB1 were amplified and sequenced using the Allele SEQR Sequenced Based Typing Kits and analyzed on the ABI Prism*3130 DNA Analyzer using the Assign software. Gene frequencies were obtained by direct counting. Contingence tables of 2 × 2 were generated and analyzed by the Mantel-Haenzel χ (2) or Fisher's test (EPIINFO program). We reported odds ratios (OR) and corrected p values. SS patients showed increased frequencies of A*68:01 and DRB1*14:06 alleles when compared to CTD w/o SS (OR 4.43, 95 % CI 1.35-14.14, p = 0.007 and OR 14, 95 % CI 1.68-116, p = 0.001, respectively) and a higher prevalence of DRB1*01:01 (OR 5.9, 95 % CI 2.13-16.56, p = 0.003) and HLA-B*35:01 (OR 3.70, 95 % CI 1.92-7.12, p = 0.004) when compared with controls. pSS patients had a higher frequency of DRB1*14:06 allele than sSS (OR 16, 95 % CI 1.59-390, p = 0.001). Anti-Ro/SSA positivity was associated with B*51:01 (OR 10.11, 95 % CI 1.09-245, p = 0.02) and DRB1*03:01 alleles (OR 4.26, 95 % CI 1.01-18.89, p = 0.029), whereas the A*01:01 allele was associated with anti-La/SSB positivity (OR 4.75, 95 % CI 1.32-16.92, p = 0.003). In our population, the DRB1*14:06 allele was associated with primary and secondary SS implying that both varieties bear a similar immunogenetic background. PMID:25261962

  20. Attracting Girls into Physics (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadalla, Afaf

    2009-04-01

    A recent international study of women in physics showed that enrollment in physics and science is declining for both males and females and that women are severely underrepresented in careers requiring a strong physics background. The gender gap begins early in the pipeline, from the first grade. Girls are treated differently than boys at home and in society in ways that often hinder their chances for success. They have fewer freedoms, are discouraged from accessing resources or being adventurous, have far less exposure to problem solving, and are not encouraged to choose their lives. In order to motivate more girl students to study physics in the Assiut governorate of Egypt, the Assiut Alliance for the Women and Assiut Education District collaborated in renovating the education of physics in middle and secondary school classrooms. A program that helps in increasing the number of girls in science and physics has been designed in which informal groupings are organized at middle and secondary schools to involve girls in the training and experiences needed to attract and encourage girls to learn physics. During implementation of the program at some schools, girls, because they had not been trained in problem-solving as boys, appeared not to be as facile in abstracting the ideas of physics, and that was the primary reason for girls dropping out of science and physics. This could be overcome by holding a topical physics and technology summer school under the supervision of the Assiut Alliance for the Women.

  1. Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effectiveness of Genetic Counseling and a Distance, Computer-Based, Lifestyle Intervention Program for Adult Offspring of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Background, Study Protocol, and Baseline Patient Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Nishigaki, M.; Tokunaga-Nakawatase, Y.; Nishida, J.; Taru, C.; Miyawaki, I.; Sanada, H.; Kazuma, K.

    2012-01-01

    Relatives of type 2 diabetic patients are at a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes and should be regarded as target of intervention for diabetes prevention. However, it is usually hard to motivate them to implement preventive lifestyle changes, because of lack of opportunity to take advises from medical professionals, inadequate risk perception, and low priority for preventive behavior. Prevention strategy for them therefore should be highly acceptable and suited for them. The parallel, three-group trial is now being conducted to investigate the effects of genetic counseling and/or a computerized behavioral program on the prevention of type 2 diabetes in that population. The preventive strategies used in this study could provide a novel solution to the numbers of genetically high-risk individuals, if found to be effective. The objective of this paper is to describe the background, protocol, and baseline patient characteristics of the trial. PMID:22619705

  2. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Denney, R.M.

    1982-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes listings of technical abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). Overall information about current activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts.

  3. Recursive Abstractions for Parameterized Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffar, Joxan; Santosa, Andrew E.

    We consider a language of recursively defined formulas about arrays of variables, suitable for specifying safety properties of parameterized systems. We then present an abstract interpretation framework which translates a paramerized system as a symbolic transition system which propagates such formulas as abstractions of underlying concrete states. The main contribution is a proof method for implications between the formulas, which then provides for an implementation of this abstract interpreter.

  4. Concrete and Abstract Visualizations in History Learning Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prangsma, Maaike E.; van Boxtel, Carla A. M.; Kanselaar, Gellof; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: History learning requires that students understand historical phenomena, abstract concepts and the relations between them. Students have problems grasping, using and relating complex historical developments and structures. Aims: A study was conducted to determine the effects of tasks with abstract and/or concrete visualizations on the…

  5. Abstracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-09-01

    Measuring cosmological parameters with GRBs: status and perspectives New interpretation of the Amati relation The SED Machine - a dedicated transient spectrograph PTF10iue - evidence for an internal engine in a unique Type Ic SN Direct evidence for the collapsar model of long gamma-ray bursts On pair instability supernovae and gamma-ray bursts Pan-STARRS1 observations of ultraluminous SNe The influence of rotation on the critical neutrino luminosity in core-collapse supernovae General relativistic magnetospheres of slowly rotating and oscillating neutron stars Host galaxies of short GRBs GRB 100418A: a bridge between GRB-associated hypernovae and SNe Two super-luminous SNe at z ~ 1.5 from the SNLS Prospects for very-high-energy gamma-ray bursts with the Cherenkov Telescope Array The dynamics and radiation of relativistic flows from massive stars The search for light echoes from the supernova explosion of 1181 AD The proto-magnetar model for gamma-ray bursts Stellar black holes at the dawn of the universe MAXI J0158-744: the discovery of a supersoft X-ray transient Wide-band spectra of magnetar burst emission Dust formation and evolution in envelope-stripped core-collapse supernovae The host galaxies of dark gamma-ray bursts Keck observations of 150 GRB host galaxies Search for properties of GRBs at large redshift The early emission from SNe Spectral properties of SN shock breakout MAXI observation of GRBs and short X-ray transients A three-dimensional view of SN 1987A using light echo spectroscopy X-ray study of the southern extension of the SNR Puppis A All-sky survey of short X-ray transients by MAXI GSC Development of the CALET gamma-ray burst monitor (CGBM)

  6. Vague Language in Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutting, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined abstracts for a British Association for Applied Linguistics conference and a Sociolinguistics Symposium, to define the genre of conference abstracts in terms of vague language, specifically universal general nouns (e.g. people) and research general nouns (e.g. results), and to discover if the language used reflected the level…

  7. Leadership Abstracts; Volume 4, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    "Leadership Abstracts" is published bimonthly and distributed to the chief executive officer of every two-year college in the United States and Canada. This document consists of the 15 one-page abstracts published in 1991. Addressing a variety of topics of interest to the community college administrators, this volume includes: (1) "Delivering the…

  8. Food Science and Technology Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elinor; Federman, Joan

    1979-01-01

    Introduces the reader to the Food Science and Technology Abstracts, a data file that covers worldwide literature on human food commodities and aspects of food processing. Topics include scope, subject index, thesaurus, searching online, and abstracts; tables provide a comparison of ORBIT and DIALOG versions of the file. (JD)

  9. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XV, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This volume of 30 one- to two-page abstracts from 1993 highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) role-playing to encourage critical thinking; (2) team learning techniques to cultivate business skills; (3) librarian-instructor partnerships to create…

  10. Student Success with Abstract Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamidou, Kristine

    2009-01-01

    An abstract art project can be challenging or not, depending on the objectives the teacher sets up. In this article, the author describes an abstract papier-mache project that is a success for all students, and is a versatile project easily manipulated to suit the classroom of any art teacher.

  11. Technical abstracts: Mechanical engineering, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Broesius, J.Y.

    1991-03-01

    This document is a compilation of the published, unclassified abstracts produced by mechanical engineers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during the calendar year 1990. Many abstracts summarize work completed and published in report form. These are UCRL-JC series documents, which include the full text of articles to be published in journals and of papers to be presented at meetings, and UCID reports, which are informal documents. Not all UCIDs contain abstracts: short summaries were generated when abstracts were not included. Technical Abstracts also provides descriptions of those documents assigned to the UCRL-MI (miscellaneous) category. These are generally viewgraphs or photographs presented at meetings. An author index is provided at the back of this volume for cross referencing.

  12. Metaphor: Bridging embodiment to abstraction.

    PubMed

    Jamrozik, Anja; McQuire, Marguerite; Cardillo, Eileen R; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2016-08-01

    Embodied cognition accounts posit that concepts are grounded in our sensory and motor systems. An important challenge for these accounts is explaining how abstract concepts, which do not directly call upon sensory or motor information, can be informed by experience. We propose that metaphor is one important vehicle guiding the development and use of abstract concepts. Metaphors allow us to draw on concrete, familiar domains to acquire and reason about abstract concepts. Additionally, repeated metaphoric use drawing on particular aspects of concrete experience can result in the development of new abstract representations. These abstractions, which are derived from embodied experience but lack much of the sensorimotor information associated with it, can then be flexibly applied to understand new situations. PMID:27294425

  13. Generative electronic background music system

    SciTech Connect

    Mazurowski, Lukasz

    2015-03-10

    In this short paper-extended abstract the new approach to generation of electronic background music has been presented. The Generative Electronic Background Music System (GEBMS) has been located between other related approaches within the musical algorithm positioning framework proposed by Woller et al. The music composition process is performed by a number of mini-models parameterized by further described properties. The mini-models generate fragments of musical patterns used in output composition. Musical pattern and output generation are controlled by container for the mini-models - a host-model. General mechanism has been presented including the example of the synthesized output compositions.

  14. Patient Background Factors Affecting the Therapeutic Outcomes in Response to Eszopiclone in Adult Patients with Chronic Insomnia: A Post Hoc Analysis of a Double-Blind Phase III Study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Yuichi; Kamijo, Atsushi; Nagai, Reiko

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective: To identify whether baseline demographic factors or subjective sleep variables are associated with the outcomes following treatment with eszopiclone using data from a recent randomized controlled trial of 78 Japanese subjects with insomnia who were treated with 2 mg eszopiclone per day. Methods: We performed a post hoc analysis of factors including sleep latency (SL), wake time after sleep onset (WASO) (both assessed via sleep diaries), and several demographic variables. Subjects with a SL or WASO > 30 min at baseline and with evaluable SL/WASO data at Week 4 were included in SL and WASO remitter analyses, respectively; those with a SL or WASO ≤ 30 min at Week 4 were defined as SL or WASO remitters, respectively. Threshold baseline SL and WASO values for identification of remitters were determined. Results: No relationships between subjectively assessed therapeutic outcomes and demographic factors were identified. Patients with shorter SL and lower WASO values at baseline showed better outcomes following treatment with eszopiclone in terms of SL and WASO changes, respectively. Baseline SL of 75 min and baseline WASO of 80 min were selected as arbitrary cutoff values for determination of SL and WASO remitters/non-remitters, respectively. Conclusions: These findings may help clinicians to predict their patients' outcomes in response to standard doses of eszopiclone in clinical practice. Citation: Inoue Y, Kamijo A, Nagai R. Patient background factors affecting the therapeutic outcomes in response to eszopiclone in adult patients with chronic insomnia: a post hoc analysis of a double-blind phase III study in Japan. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(10):1171–1178. PMID:26094929

  15. NASA Patent Abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 21) Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 87 patents and applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1982 through June 1982. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in mose cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  16. Genetical background of intelligence.

    PubMed

    Junkiert-Czarnecka, Anna; Haus, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Intelligence as an ability to reason, think abstractly and adapt effectively to the environment is a subject of research in the field of psychology, neurobiology, and in the last twenty years genetics as well. Genetical testing of twins carried out from XX century indicated heritebility of intelligence, therefore confirmed an influence of genetic factor on cognitive processes. Studies on genetic background of intelligence focus on dopaminergic (DRD2, DRD4, COMT, SLC6A3, DAT1, CCKAR) and adrenergic system (ADRB2, CHRM2) genes as well as, neutrofins (BDNF) and oxidative stress genes (LTF, PRNP). Positive effect of investigated gene polymorphism was indicated by variation c.957C>T DRD2 gene (if in polymorphic site is thymine), polymorphism c.472G>A COMT gene (presence of adenine) and also gene ADRB2 c.46A->G (guanine), CHRM2 (thymine in place c.1890A>T) and BDNF (guanine in place c.472G>A) Obtained results indicate that intelligence is a feature dependent not only on genetic but also an environmental factor. PMID:27333929

  17. Teaching Abstract Concepts by Metaphor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Judith A.

    2001-01-01

    Defines metaphor and its uses; explains the construction and application of metaphors in nursing education. Describes the transformation of the abstract psychiatric concept of therapeutic milieu into a visual metaphor. (SK)

  18. [Correction of erectile dysfunction in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia using daily administration of tadalafil 5 mg against the background of combined drug therapy].

    PubMed

    Volkov, A A; Petrichko, M I; Budnik, N V

    2013-01-01

    The study included 59 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and erectile dysfunction (ED), inhibited inflammation in the prostate gland and with normal or medically normalized levels of total testosterone. All the patients underwent conservative therapy using dutasteride and tamsulosin, 21 of them (group 2) additionally received tadalafil 5 mg daily. Efficacy of treatment was assessed by self-assessment questionnaire of patients before treatment and 12 weeks after therapy. In group 1 of patients, the dynamics of the erectile function, sexual satisfaction and quality of life for patients was not revealed. In the group 2, improvement in erectile function in an average of 19 points was shown (IIEF-5 questionnaire). According to the AMS questionnaire, improvement in sexual function was demonstrated; in patients with compensated androgen deficiency, however, response to the treatment with tadalafil was less pronounced. According to BSFI score after 3 months of therapy with tadalafil, indicator of overall satisfaction of sexual life improved to 2.4 points (p < 0.002). According to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, anxiety in patients was reduced to the permissible values (p < 0.0002), the level of depression was decreased by almost 2-fold (p < 0.0002). The total IPSS score decreased from 13 to 9 points in average. The inclusion of tadalafil in complex of combined conservative therapy of patients with BPH not only improves sexual function but has a positive effect on symptoms of the disease and the psychological state of the patient. PMID:24437241

  19. 2013 SYR Accepted Poster Abstracts.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    SYR 2013 Accepted Poster abstracts: 1. Benefits of Yoga as a Wellness Practice in a Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care Setting: If You Build It, Will They Come? 2. Yoga-based Psychotherapy Group With Urban Youth Exposed to Trauma. 3. Embodied Health: The Effects of a Mind�Body Course for Medical Students. 4. Interoceptive Awareness and Vegetable Intake After a Yoga and Stress Management Intervention. 5. Yoga Reduces Performance Anxiety in Adolescent Musicians. 6. Designing and Implementing a Therapeutic Yoga Program for Older Women With Knee Osteoarthritis. 7. Yoga and Life Skills Eating Disorder Prevention Among 5th Grade Females: A Controlled Trial. 8. A Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing the Impact of Yoga and Physical Education on the Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Middle School Children. 9. Feasibility of a Multisite, Community based Randomized Study of Yoga and Wellness Education for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy. 10. A Delphi Study for the Development of Protocol Guidelines for Yoga Interventions in Mental Health. 11. Impact Investigation of Breathwalk Daily Practice: Canada�India Collaborative Study. 12. Yoga Improves Distress, Fatigue, and Insomnia in Older Veteran Cancer Survivors: Results of a Pilot Study. 13. Assessment of Kundalini Mantra and Meditation as an Adjunctive Treatment With Mental Health Consumers. 14. Kundalini Yoga Therapy Versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Co-Occurring Mood Disorder. 15. Baseline Differences in Women Versus Men Initiating Yoga Programs to Aid Smoking Cessation: Quitting in Balance Versus QuitStrong. 16. Pranayam Practice: Impact on Focus and Everyday Life of Work and Relationships. 17. Participation in a Tailored Yoga Program is Associated With Improved Physical Health in Persons With Arthritis. 18. Effects of Yoga on Blood Pressure: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 19. A Quasi-experimental Trial of a Yoga based Intervention to Reduce Stress and

  20. Treatment for lexical retrieval using abstract and concrete words in persons with aphasia: Effect of complexity.

    PubMed

    Kiran, Swathi; Sandberg, Chaleece; Abbott, Karen

    2009-07-01

    BACKGROUND: The significance of imageability and concreteness as factors for lexical tasks in aphasic individuals is under debate. No previous treatment studies have looked specifically at training abstract words compared to concrete for improved lexical retrieval in patients with chronic aphasia. AIM: The goal of the present study was to determine the efficacy of a treatment for lexical retrieval that is based on models of lexical processing by utilizing abstractness as a mode of complexity. It was hypothesized that training abstract words in a category will result in improvement of those words and generalization to untrained target concrete words in the same category. Training concrete words in a category, however, will result in the retrieval of trained concrete words, but not generalization to target abstract words. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: A single subject experimental design across participants and behaviors was used to examine treatment and generalization. Generative naming for three categories (church, hospital, courthouse) was tested during baseline and treatment. Each treatment session was carried out in five steps: (1) category sorting, (2) feature selection, (3) yes/no feature questions, (4) word recall, and (5) free generative naming. RESULTS: Although participant 1 demonstrated neither significant learning nor generalization during abstract or concrete word training, participants 2, 3, and 4 showed significant learning during abstract word training and generalization to untrained concrete words. Participants 3 and 4 were also trained on concrete words which they improved on but did not show generalization to untrained abstract words. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present experiment support our hypothesis that training abstract words would result in greater learning and generalization to untrained concrete words. They also tentatively support the idea that generalization is facilitated by treatment focusing on more complex

  1. Modelling Metamorphism by Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Preda, Mila; Giacobazzi, Roberto; Debray, Saumya; Coogan, Kevin; Townsend, Gregg M.

    Metamorphic malware apply semantics-preserving transformations to their own code in order to foil detection systems based on signature matching. In this paper we consider the problem of automatically extract metamorphic signatures from these malware. We introduce a semantics for self-modifying code, later called phase semantics, and prove its correctness by showing that it is an abstract interpretation of the standard trace semantics. Phase semantics precisely models the metamorphic code behavior by providing a set of traces of programs which correspond to the possible evolutions of the metamorphic code during execution. We show that metamorphic signatures can be automatically extracted by abstract interpretation of the phase semantics, and that regular metamorphism can be modelled as finite state automata abstraction of the phase semantics.

  2. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). General information about the current role and activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts. Further information about a division's work may be obtained from the division leader, whose name is given at the end of each divisional summary. The Department's seven divisions are as follows: Nuclear Test Engineering Division, Nuclear Explosives Engineering Division, Weapons Engineering Division, Energy Systems Engineering Division, Engineering Sciences Division, Magnetic Fusion Engineering Division and Materials Fabrication Division.

  3. Meeting Abstracts - Annual Meeting 2016.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    The AMCP Abstracts program provides a forum through which authors can share their insights and outcomes of advanced managed care practice through publication in AMCP's Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy (JMCP). Most of the reviewed and unreviewed abstracts are presented as posters so that interested AMCP meeting attendees can review findings and query authors. The Student/Resident/ Fellow poster presentation (unreviewed) is Wednesday, April 20, 2016, and the Professional poster presentation (reviewed) is Thursday, April 21. The Professional posters will also be displayed on Friday, April 22. The reviewed abstracts are published in the JMCP Meeting Abstracts supplement. The AMCP Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy Annual Meeting 2016 in San Francisco, California, is expected to attract more than 3,500 managed care pharmacists and other health care professionals who manage and evaluate drug therapies, develop and manage networks, and work with medical managers and information specialists to improve the care of all individuals enrolled in managed care programs. Abstracts were submitted in the following categories: Research Report: describe completed original research on managed care pharmacy services or health care interventions. Examples include (but are not limited to) observational studies using administrative claims, reports of the impact of unique benefit design strategies, and analyses of the effects of innovative administrative or clinical programs. Economic Model: describe models that predict the effect of various benefit design or clinical decisions on a population. For example, an economic model could be used to predict the budget impact of a new pharmaceutical product on a health care system. Solving Problems in Managed Care: describe the specific steps taken to introduce a needed change, develop and implement a new system or program, plan and organize an administrative function, or solve other types of problems in managed care settings. These

  4. Abstract communication for coordinated planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Durfee, Edmund H.

    2003-01-01

    work offers evidence that distributed planning agents can greatly reduce communication costs by reasoning at abstract levels. While it is intuitive that improved search can reduce communication in such cases, there are other decisions about how to communicate plan information that greatly affect communication costs. This paper identifies cases independent of search where communicating at multiple levels of abstraction can exponentially decrease costs and where it can exponentially add costs. We conclude with a process for determining appropriate levels of communication based on characteristics of the domain.

  5. SATURATED ZONE FLOW AND TRANSPORT MODEL ABSTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    B.W. ARNOLD

    2004-10-27

    The purpose of the saturated zone (SZ) flow and transport model abstraction task is to provide radionuclide-transport simulation results for use in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) calculations. This task includes assessment of uncertainty in parameters that pertain to both groundwater flow and radionuclide transport in the models used for this purpose. This model report documents the following: (1) The SZ transport abstraction model, which consists of a set of radionuclide breakthrough curves at the accessible environment for use in the TSPA-LA simulations of radionuclide releases into the biosphere. These radionuclide breakthrough curves contain information on radionuclide-transport times through the SZ. (2) The SZ one-dimensional (I-D) transport model, which is incorporated in the TSPA-LA model to simulate the transport, decay, and ingrowth of radionuclide decay chains in the SZ. (3) The analysis of uncertainty in groundwater-flow and radionuclide-transport input parameters for the SZ transport abstraction model and the SZ 1-D transport model. (4) The analysis of the background concentration of alpha-emitting species in the groundwater of the SZ.

  6. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XIX, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The 52 abstracts in these 29 serial issues describe innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Sample topics include a checklist for conference presenters, plan to retain students, faculty home page, improvements in writing instruction, cooperative learning, support for high risk students, competitive colleges and the…

  7. Handedness Shapes Children's Abstract Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like "kindness" and "intelligence"? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on…

  8. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XX, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The 52 abstracts in these 29 serial issues describe innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Sample topics include reading motivation, barriers to academic success, the learning environment, writing skills, leadership in the criminal justice profession, role-playing strategies, cooperative education, distance…

  9. Abstract Journal Concept Being Examined

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Brendan F.

    1972-01-01

    In order to control the information explosion, some European chemical groups are studying the idea of abandoning full publication in printed form of all primary journals and, in their place, substituting a new form of abstract journal combined with a microfilm record of full scientific papers. (Author/CP)

  10. Metaphoric Images from Abstract Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vizmuller-Zocco, Jana

    1992-01-01

    Discusses children's use of metaphors to create meaning, using as an example the pragmatic and "scientific" ways in which preschool children explain thunder and lightning to themselves. Argues that children are being shortchanged by modern scientific notions of abstractness and that they should be encouraged to create their own explanations of…

  11. ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS 48347-48982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Technology, London (England). Warren Spring Lab.

    IN THIS COLLECTION OF ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS AND ANNOTATIONS THE FOLLOWING AREAS OF CONCERN ARE REPRESENTED--GENERAL REFERENCES, METHODS, FACILITIES, AND EQUIPMENT RELATING TO ERGONOMICS, SYSTEMS OF MAN AND MACHINES, VISUAL, AUDITORY, AND OTHER SENSORY INPUTS AND PROCESSES (INCLUDING SPEECH AND INTELLIGIBILITY), INPUT CHANNELS, BODY MEASUREMENTS,…

  12. Does "Social Work Abstracts" Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Gary; Barker, Kathleen; Covert-Vail, Lucinda; Rosenberg, Gary; Cohen, Stephanie A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The current study seeks to provide estimates of the adequacy of journal coverage in the Social Work Abstracts (SWA) database. Method: A total of 23 journals listed in the Journal Citation Reports social work category during the 1997 to 2005 period were selected for study. Issue-level coverage estimates were obtained for SWA and…

  13. Manpower Management Studies: Selected Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryerson, William R., Comp.

    This bibliography contains 58 selected abstracts of research reports dating back to 1964 on the general subject of manpower management. It was prepared from a search of the National Technical Information Service data base of more than 300,000 documents submitted by agencies of the Federal Government and also by private organizations or individuals…

  14. The Theatre Audience: An Abstraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Paul Newell

    1981-01-01

    Argues that theater is aimed at and presented to an ideal or abstract audience. Discusses the implications of performing for an actual audience, adaptation to various audiences, and the concept of the audience as an evaluative device. (See CS 705 536.) (JMF)

  15. Chemical Abstracts' Document Delivery Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Stephen

    1984-01-01

    The Document Delivery Service offered by Chemical Abstracts is described in terms of the DIALORDER option on the Dialog information retrieval system, mail requests, and requests transmitted through OCLC's Interlibrary Loan system. Transmission costs, success rates, delivery rates, and other considerations in utilizing the service are included.…

  16. The genetic and genomic background of multiple myeloma patients achieving complete response after induction therapy with bortezomib, thalidomide and dexamethasone (VTD).

    PubMed

    Terragna, Carolina; Remondini, Daniel; Martello, Marina; Zamagni, Elena; Pantani, Lucia; Patriarca, Francesca; Pezzi, Annalisa; Levi, Giuseppe; Offidani, Massimo; Proserpio, Ilaria; De Sabbata, Giovanni; Tacchetti, Paola; Cangialosi, Clotilde; Ciambelli, Fabrizio; Viganò, Clara Virginia; Dico, Flores Angela; Santacroce, Barbara; Borsi, Enrica; Brioli, Annamaria; Marzocchi, Giulia; Castellani, Gastone; Martinelli, Giovanni; Palumbo, Antonio; Cavo, Michele

    2016-03-01

    The prime focus of the current therapeutic strategy for Multiple Myeloma (MM) is to obtain an early and deep tumour burden reduction, up to the level of complete response (CR). To date, no description of the characteristics of the plasma cells (PC) prone to achieve CR has been reported. This study aimed at the molecular characterization of PC obtained at baseline from MM patients in CR after bortezomib-thalidomide-dexamethasone (VTD) first line therapy.One hundred and eighteen MM primary tumours obtained from homogeneously treated patients were profiled both for gene expression and for single nucleotide polymorphism genotype. Genomic results were used to obtain a predictor of sensitivity to VTD induction therapy, as well as to describe both the transcription and the genomic profile of PC derived from MM with subsequent optimal response to primary induction therapy.By analysing the gene profiles of CR patients, we identified a 5-gene signature predicting CR with an overall median accuracy of 75% (range: 72%-85%). In addition, we highlighted the differential expression of a series of genes, whose deregulation might explain patients' sensitivity to VTD therapy. We also showed that a small copy number loss, covering 606Kb on chromosome 1p22.1 was the most significantly associated with CR patients. PMID:26575327

  17. The genetic and genomic background of multiple myeloma patients achieving complete response after induction therapy with bortezomib, thalidomide and dexamethasone (VTD)

    PubMed Central

    Terragna, Carolina; Remondini, Daniel; Martello, Marina; Zamagni, Elena; Pantani, Lucia; Patriarca, Francesca; Pezzi, Annalisa; Levi, Giuseppe; Offidani, Massimo; Proserpio, Ilaria; De Sabbata, Giovanni; Tacchetti, Paola; Cangialosi, Clotilde; Ciambelli, Fabrizio; Viganò, Clara Virginia; Dico, Flores Angela; Santacroce, Barbara; Borsi, Enrica; Brioli, Annamaria; Marzocchi, Giulia; Castellani, Gastone; Martinelli, Giovanni; Palumbo, Antonio; Cavo, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The prime focus of the current therapeutic strategy for Multiple Myeloma (MM) is to obtain an early and deep tumour burden reduction, up to the level of complete response (CR). To date, no description of the characteristics of the plasma cells (PC) prone to achieve CR has been reported. This study aimed at the molecular characterization of PC obtained at baseline from MM patients in CR after bortezomib-thalidomide-dexamethasone (VTD) first line therapy. One hundred and eighteen MM primary tumours obtained from homogeneously treated patients were profiled both for gene expression and for single nucleotide polymorphism genotype. Genomic results were used to obtain a predictor of sensitivity to VTD induction therapy, as well as to describe both the transcription and the genomic profile of PC derived from MM with subsequent optimal response to primary induction therapy. By analysing the gene profiles of CR patients, we identified a 5-gene signature predicting CR with an overall median accuracy of 75% (range: 72%–85%). In addition, we highlighted the differential expression of a series of genes, whose deregulation might explain patients' sensitivity to VTD therapy. We also showed that a small copy number loss, covering 606Kb on chromosome 1p22.1 was the most significantly associated with CR patients. PMID:26575327

  18. Object Classification via Planar Abstraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oesau, Sven; Lafarge, Florent; Alliez, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    We present a supervised machine learning approach for classification of objects from sampled point data. The main idea consists in first abstracting the input object into planar parts at several scales, then discriminate between the different classes of objects solely through features derived from these planar shapes. Abstracting into planar shapes provides a means to both reduce the computational complexity and improve robustness to defects inherent to the acquisition process. Measuring statistical properties and relationships between planar shapes offers invariance to scale and orientation. A random forest is then used for solving the multiclass classification problem. We demonstrate the potential of our approach on a set of indoor objects from the Princeton shape benchmark and on objects acquired from indoor scenes and compare the performance of our method with other point-based shape descriptors.

  19. An Abstract Plan Preparation Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new planning language that is more abstract than most existing planning languages such as the Planning Domain Definition Language (PDDL) or the New Domain Description Language (NDDL). The goal of this language is to simplify the formal analysis and specification of planning problems that are intended for safety-critical applications such as power management or automated rendezvous in future manned spacecraft. The new language has been named the Abstract Plan Preparation Language (APPL). A translator from APPL to NDDL has been developed in support of the Spacecraft Autonomy for Vehicles and Habitats Project (SAVH) sponsored by the Explorations Technology Development Program, which is seeking to mature autonomy technology for application to the new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) that will replace the Space Shuttle.

  20. Cryogenic foam insulation: Abstracted publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. R.

    1977-01-01

    A group of documents were chosen and abstracted which contain information on the properties of foam materials and on the use of foams as thermal insulation at cryogenic temperatures. The properties include thermal properties, mechanical properties, and compatibility properties with oxygen and other cryogenic fluids. Uses of foams include applications as thermal insulation for spacecraft propellant tanks, and for liquefied natural gas storage tanks and pipelines.

  1. Concrete and abstract Voronoi diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, R. )

    1989-01-01

    The Voronoi diagram of a set of sites is a partition of the plane into regions, one to each site, such that the region of each site contains all points of the plane that are closer to this site than to the other ones. Such partitions are of great importance to computer science and many other fields. The challenge is to compute Voronoi diagrams quickly. The problem is that their structure depends on the notion of distance and the sort of site. In this book the author proposes a unifying approach by introducing abstract Voronoi diagrams. These are based on the concept of bisecting curves which are required to have some simple properties that are actually possessed by most bisectors of concrete Voronoi diagrams. Abstract Voronoi diagrams can be computed efficiently and there exists a worst-case efficient algorithm of divide-and-conquer type that applies to all abstract Voronoi diagrams satisfying a certain constraint. The author shows that this constraint is fulfilled by the concrete diagrams based no large classes of metrics in the plane.

  2. Background parenchymal enhancement in preoperative breast MRI

    PubMed Central

    Kohara, Satoko; Ishigaki, Satoko; Satake, Hiroko; Kawamura, Akiko; Kawai, Hisashi; Kikumori, Toyone; Naganawa, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We aimed to assess the influence of background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) on surgical planning performed using preoperative MRI for breast cancer evaluation. Between January 2009 and December 2010, 91 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients (mean age, 55.5 years; range, 30−88 years) who underwent preoperative bilateral breast MRI followed by planned breast conservation therapy were retrospectively enrolled. MRI was performed to assess the tumor extent in addition to mammography and breast ultrasonography. BPE in the contralateral normal breast MRI at the early dynamic phase was visually classified as follows: minimal (n=49), mild (n=27), moderate (n=7), and marked (n=8). The correlations between the BPE grade and age, menopausal status, index tumor size, changes in surgical management based on MRI results, positive predictive value (PPV) of MRI, and surgical margins were assessed. Patients in the strong BPE groups were significantly younger (p=0.002) and generally premenopausal (p<0.001). Surgical treatment was not changed in 67 cases (73.6%), while extended excision and mastectomy were performed in 12 cases (13.2%), each based on additional lesions on MRI. Six of 79 (7.6%) patients who underwent breast conservation therapy had tumor-positive resection margins. In cases where surgical management was changed, the PPV for MRI-detected foci was high in the minimal (91.7%) and mild groups (66.7%), and 0% in the moderate and marked groups (p=0.002). Strong BPE causes false-positive MRI findings and may lead to overly extensive surgery, whereas MRI may be beneficial in select patients with weak BPE. PMID:26412883

  3. Efficacy of the long-acting nitro vasodilator pentaerithrityl tetranitrate in patients with chronic stable angina pectoris receiving anti-anginal background therapy with beta-blockers: a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Münzel, Thomas; Meinertz, Thomas; Tebbe, Ulrich; Schneider, Heinrich Theodor; Stalleicken, Dirk; Wargenau, Manfred; Gori, Tommaso; Klingmann, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Background The organic nitrate pentaerithrityl tetranitrate (PETN) has been shown to have ancillary properties that prevent the development of tolerance and endothelial dysfunction. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study (‘CLEOPATRA’ study) was designed to investigate the anti-ischaemic efficacy of PETN 80 mg b.i.d. (morning and mid-day) over placebo in patients with chronic stable angina pectoris. Methods and results A total of 655 patients were evaluated in the intention-to-treat population, randomized to PETN (80 mg b.i.d., n = 328) or placebo (n = 327) and completed the study. Patients underwent treadmill exercise tests at randomization, after 6 and 12 weeks of treatment. Treatment with PETN over 12 weeks did not modify the primary endpoint total exercise duration (TED, P = 0.423). In a pre-specified sub-analysis of patients with reduced exercise capacity (TED at baseline ≤9 min, n = 257), PETN appeared more effective than placebo treatment (P = 0.054). Superiority of PETN over placebo was evident in patients who were symptomatic at low exercise levels (n = 120; P = 0.017). Pentaerithrityl tetranitrate 80 mg b.i.d. was well tolerated, and the overall safety profile was comparable with placebo. Conclusion Although providing no additional benefit in unselected patients with known coronary artery disease, PETN therapy, administered in addition to modern anti-ischaemic therapy, could increase exercise tolerance in symptomatic patients with reduced exercise capacity. PMID:24071762

  4. Youth Studies Abstracts. Vol. 4 No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youth Studies Abstracts, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains 169 abstracts of documents dealing with youth and educational programs for youth. Included in the volume are 97 abstracts of documents dealing with social and educational developments; 56 abstracts of program reports, reviews, and evaluations; and 16 abstracts of program materials. Abstracts are grouped according to the…

  5. Background sources at PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, H.; Schwitters, R.F.; Toner, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Important sources of background for PEP experiments are studied. Background particles originate from high-energy electrons and positrons which have been lost from stable orbits, ..gamma..-rays emitted by the primary beams through bremsstrahlung in the residual gas, and synchrotron radiation x-rays. The effect of these processes on the beam lifetime are calculated and estimates of background rates at the interaction region are given. Recommendations for the PEP design, aimed at minimizing background are presented. 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Building Background Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.

  7. Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanchik, Nicholas J.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the concept of the Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL) and its benefits. The OSAL is A small layer of software that allows programs to run on many different operating systems and hardware platforms It runs independent of the underlying OS & hardware and it is self-contained. The benefits of OSAL are that it removes dependencies from any one operating system, promotes portable, reusable flight software. It allows for Core Flight software (FSW) to be built for multiple processors and operating systems. The presentation discusses the functionality, the various OSAL releases, and describes the specifications.

  8. IEEE conference record--Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The following topics were covered in this meeting: basic plasma phenomena and plasma waves; plasma diagnostics; space plasma diagnostics; magnetic fusion; electron, ion and plasma sources; intense electron and ion beams; intense beam microwaves; fast wave M/W devices; microwave plasma interactions; plasma focus; ultrafast Z-pinches; plasma processing; electrical gas discharges; fast opening switches; magnetohydrodynamics; electromagnetic and electrothermal launchers; x-ray lasers; computational plasma science; solid state plasmas and switches; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; vacuum electronics; plasmas for lighting; gaseous electronics; and ball lightning and other spherical plasmas. Separate abstracts were prepared for 278 papers of this conference.

  9. Abstract Expression Grammar Symbolic Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korns, Michael F.

    This chapter examines the use of Abstract Expression Grammars to perform the entire Symbolic Regression process without the use of Genetic Programming per se. The techniques explored produce a symbolic regression engine which has absolutely no bloat, which allows total user control of the search space and output formulas, which is faster, and more accurate than the engines produced in our previous papers using Genetic Programming. The genome is an all vector structure with four chromosomes plus additional epigenetic and constraint vectors, allowing total user control of the search space and the final output formulas. A combination of specialized compiler techniques, genetic algorithms, particle swarm, aged layered populations, plus discrete and continuous differential evolution are used to produce an improved symbolic regression sytem. Nine base test cases, from the literature, are used to test the improvement in speed and accuracy. The improved results indicate that these techniques move us a big step closer toward future industrial strength symbolic regression systems.

  10. Toward Millimagnitude Photometric Calibration (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dose, E.

    2014-12-01

    (Abstract only) Asteroid roation, exoplanet transits, and similar measurements will increasingly call for photometric precisions better than about 10 millimagnitudes, often between nights and ideally between distant observers. The present work applies detailed spectral simulations to test popular photometric calibration practices, and to test new extensions of these practices. Using 107 synthetic spectra of stars of diverse colors, detailed atmospheric transmission spectra computed by solar-energy software, realistic spectra of popular astronomy gear, and the option of three sources of noise added at realistic millimagnitude levels, we find that certain adjustments to current calibration practices can help remove small systematic errors, especially for imperfect filters, high airmasses, and possibly passing thin cirrus clouds.

  11. Experience with abstract notation one

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, James D.; Weaver, Alfred C.

    1990-01-01

    The development of computer science has produced a vast number of machine architectures, programming languages, and compiler technologies. The cross product of these three characteristics defines the spectrum of previous and present data representation methodologies. With regard to computer networks, the uniqueness of these methodologies presents an obstacle when disparate host environments are to be interconnected. Interoperability within a heterogeneous network relies upon the establishment of data representation commonality. The International Standards Organization (ISO) is currently developing the abstract syntax notation one standard (ASN.1) and the basic encoding rules standard (BER) that collectively address this problem. When used within the presentation layer of the open systems interconnection reference model, these two standards provide the data representation commonality required to facilitate interoperability. The details of a compiler that was built to automate the use of ASN.1 and BER are described. From this experience, insights into both standards are given and potential problems relating to this development effort are discussed.

  12. Abstraction Planning in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washington, Richard

    1994-01-01

    When a planning agent works in a complex, real-world domain, it is unable to plan for and store all possible contingencies and problem situations ahead of time. The agent needs to be able to fall back on an ability to construct plans at run time under time constraints. This thesis presents a method for planning at run time that incrementally builds up plans at multiple levels of abstraction. The plans are continually updated by information from the world, allowing the planner to adjust its plan to a changing world during the planning process. All the information is represented over intervals of time, allowing the planner to reason about durations, deadlines, and delays within its plan. In addition to the method, the thesis presents a formal model of the planning process and uses the model to investigate planning strategies. The method has been implemented, and experiments have been run to validate the overall approach and the theoretical model.

  13. Abstraction Planning in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washington, R.

    1994-01-01

    When a planning agent works in a complex, real-world domain, it is unable to plan for and store all possible contingencies and problem situations ahead of time. This thesis presents a method for planning a run time that incrementally builds up plans at multiple levels of abstraction. The plans are continually updated by information from the world, allowing the planner to adjust its plan to a changing world during the planning process. All the information is represented over intervals of time, allowing the planner to reason about durations, deadlines, and delays within its plan. In addition to the method, the thesis presents a formal model of the planning process and uses the model to investigate planning strategies.

  14. The Cosmic Background Explorer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulkis, Samuel; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Outlines the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission to measure celestial radiation. Describes the instruments used and experiments involving differential microwave radiometers, and a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer. (YP)

  15. Impairment of shooting performance by background complexity and motion.

    PubMed

    Caroux, Loïc; Le Bigot, Ludovic; Vibert, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    In many visual displays such as virtual environments, human tasks involve objects superimposed on both complex and moving backgrounds. However, most studies investigated the influence of background complexity or background motion in isolation. Two experiments were designed to investigate the joint influences of background complexity and lateral motion on a simple shooting task typical of video games. Participants had to perform the task on the moving and static versions of backgrounds of three levels of complexity, while their eye movements were recorded. The backgrounds displayed either an abstract (Experiment 1) or a naturalistic (Experiment 2) virtual environment. The results showed that performance was impaired by background motion in both experiments. The effects of motion and complexity were additive for the abstract background and multiplicative for the naturalistic background. Eye movement recordings showed that performance impairments reflected at least in part the impact of the background visual features on gaze control. PMID:25384639

  16. Educational Technology in Micro-Teaching Preparation. Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Charles D.

    This paper is an abstract of a longer paper which was read at the American Educational Research Association (AERA) Annual Meeting in 1974. It begins with a brief background discussion on microteaching and goes on to list the teaching skills which microteaching develops. A brief summary of the research on microteaching is then given. The abstract…

  17. Bilingual/Bicultural Education: Titles and Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Los Angeles. National Dissemination and Assessment Center.

    Dissertation abstracts describing research on a wide variety of topics in bilingual education are presented. This publication is designed to provide background material for bilingual educators as well as practical procedures for bilingual teachers, administrators, counselors, and evaluators. The titles were acquired by using the two broad…

  18. Backgrounds in Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, John C.; Long, Barbara K.

    "Backgrounds in Language," a field-tested inservice course designed for use by groups of 15 or 25 language arts teachers, provides the subject matter background teachers need to make informed decisions about what curriculum materials to use in what way, at what time, and with which students. The course is comprised of eight 2-hour sessions,…

  19. Correlators in nontrivial backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Mello Koch, Robert de; Ives, Norman; Stephanou, Michael

    2009-01-15

    Operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with an R-charge of O(N{sup 2}) are dual to backgrounds which are asymtotically AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}. In this article we develop efficient techniques that allow the computation of correlation functions in these backgrounds. We find that (i) contractions between fields in the string words and fields in the operator creating the background are the field theory accounting of the new geometry, (ii) correlation functions of probes in these backgrounds are given by the free field theory contractions but with rescaled propagators and (iii) in these backgrounds there are no open string excitations with their special end point interactions; we have only closed string excitations.

  20. An abstract approach to music.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

    1999-04-19

    In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The motivation for this approach uses traditional terms and concepts of music theory, but the approach itself is formal and uses the language of mathematics. The universal object is an audio wave; partials, sounds, and compositions are special objects, which are placed in a hierarchical order based on time scales. The objects have both static and dynamic attributes. When we realize a composition, we assign values to each of its attributes: a (scalar) value to a static attribute, an envelope and a size to a dynamic attribute. A composition is then a trajectory in the space of aural events, and the complex audio wave is its formal representation. Sounds are fibers in the space of aural events, from which the composer weaves the trajectory of a composition. Each sound object in turn is made up of partials, which are the elementary building blocks of any music composition. The partials evolve on the fastest time scale in the hierarchy of partials, sounds, and compositions. The ideas outlined in this article are being implemented in a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis and in software for music composition. A demonstration of some preliminary results has been submitted by the authors for presentation at the conference.

  1. Ozone Conference II: Abstract Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    Ozone Conference II: Pre- and Post-Harvest Applications Two Years After Gras, was held September 27-28, 1999 in Tulare, California. This conference, sponsored by EPRI's Agricultural Technology Alliance and Southern California Edison's AgTAC facility, was coordinated and organized by the on-site ATA-AgTAC Regional Center. Approximately 175 people attended the day-and-a-half conference at AgTAC. During the Conference twenty-two presentations were given on ozone food processing and agricultural applications. Included in the presentations were topics on: (1) Ozone fumigation; (2) Ozone generation techniques; (3) System and design applications; (4) Prewater treatment requirements; (5) Poultry water reuse; (6) Soil treatments with ozone gas; and (7) Post-harvest aqueous and gaseous ozone research results. A live videoconference between Tulare and Washington, D.C. was held to discuss the regulators' view from inside the beltway. Attendees participated in two Roundtable Question and Answer sessions and visited fifteen exhibits and demonstrations. The attendees included university and governmental researchers, regulators, consultants and industry experts, technology developers and providers, and corporate and individual end-users. This report is comprised of the Abstracts of each presentation, biographical sketches for each speaker and a registration/attendees list.

  2. 1986 annual information meeting. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts are presented for the following papers: Geohydrological Research at the Y-12 Plant (C.S. Haase); Ecological Impacts of Waste Disposal Operations in Bear Creek Valley Near the Y-12 Plant (J.M. Loar); Finite Element Simulation of Subsurface Contaminant Transport: Logistic Difficulties in Handling Large Field Problems (G.T. Yeh); Dynamic Compaction of a Radioactive Waste Burial Trench (B.P. Spalding); Comparative Evaluation of Potential Sites for a High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository (E.D. Smith); Changing Priorities in Environmental Assessment and Environmental Compliance (R.M. Reed); Ecology, Ecotoxicology, and Ecological Risk Assessment (L.W. Barnthouse); Theory and Practice in Uncertainty Analysis from Ten Years of Practice (R.H. Gardner); Modeling Landscape Effects of Forest Decline (V.H. Dale); Soil Nitrogen and the Global Carbon Cycle (W.M. Post); Maximizing Wood Energy Production in Short-Rotation Plantations: Effect of Initial Spacing and Rotation Length (L.L. Wright); and Ecological Communities and Processes in Woodland Streams Exhibit Both Direct and Indirect Effects of Acidification (J.W. Elwood).

  3. Background Underground at WIPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esch, Ernst-Ingo; Hime, A.; Bowles, T. J.

    2001-04-01

    Recent interest to establish a dedicated underground laboratory in the United States prompted an experimental program at to quantify the enviromental backgrounds underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. An outline of this program is provided along with recent experimental data on the cosmic ray muon flux at the 650 meter level of WIPP. The implications of the cosmic ray muon and fast neutron background at WIPP will be discussed in the context of new generation, low background experiments envisioned in the future.

  4. The cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dar, Arnon

    1991-01-01

    The cosmic neutrino background is expected to consist of relic neutrinos from the big bang, of neutrinos produced during nuclear burning in stars, of neutrinos released by gravitational stellar collapse, and of neutrinos produced by cosmic ray interactions with matter and radiation in the interstellar and intergalactic medium. Formation of baryonic dark matter in the early universe, matter-antimatter annihilation in a baryonic symmetric universe, and dark matter annihilation could have also contributed significantly to the cosmic neutrino background. The purpose of this paper is to review the properties of these cosmic neutrino backgrounds, the indirect evidence for their existence, and the prospects for their detection.

  5. Adaptive background model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaochun; Xiao, Yijun; Chai, Zhi; Wang, Bangping

    2007-11-01

    An adaptive background model aiming at outdoor vehicle detection is presented in this paper. This model is an improved model of PICA (pixel intensity classification algorithm), it classifies pixels into K-distributions by color similarity, and then a hypothesis that the background pixel color appears in image sequence with a high frequency is used to evaluate all the distributions to determine which presents the current background color. As experiments show, the model presented in this paper is a robust, adaptive and flexible model, which can deal with situations like camera motions, lighting changes and so on.

  6. The GLAST Background Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ormes, J.F.; Atwood, W.; Burnett, T.; Grove, E.; Longo, F.; McEnery, J.; Mizuno, T.; Ritz, S.; /NASA, Goddard

    2007-10-17

    In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles that would affect the LAT. In addition to the well-known components of the cosmic radiation, we included splash and reentrant components of protons, electrons (e+ and e-) from 10 MeV and beyond as well as the albedo gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. We made estimates of the irreducible background components produced by positrons and hadrons interacting in the multilayered micrometeorite shield and spacecraft surrounding the LAT and note that because the orbital debris has increased, the shielding required and hence the background are larger than were present in EGRET. Improvements to the model are currently being made to include the east-west effect.

  7. The GLAST Background Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ormes, J. F.; Atwood, W.; Burnett, T.; Grove, E.; Longo, F.; McEnery, J.; Ritz, S.; Mizuno, T.

    2007-07-12

    In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles that would affect the LAT. In addition to the well-known components of the cosmic radiation, we included splash and reentrant components of protons, electrons (e+ and e-) from 10 MeV and beyond as well as the albedo gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. We made estimates of the irreducible background components produced by positrons and hadrons interacting in the multilayered micrometeorite shield and spacecraft surrounding the LAT and note that because the orbital debris has increased, the shielding required and hence the background are larger than were present in EGRET. Improvements to the model are currently being made to include the east-west effect.

  8. Abstraction and reformulation in artificial intelligence.

    PubMed Central

    Holte, Robert C.; Choueiry, Berthe Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper contributes in two ways to the aims of this special issue on abstraction. The first is to show that there are compelling reasons motivating the use of abstraction in the purely computational realm of artificial intelligence. The second is to contribute to the overall discussion of the nature of abstraction by providing examples of the abstraction processes currently used in artificial intelligence. Although each type of abstraction is specific to a somewhat narrow context, it is hoped that collectively they illustrate the richness and variety of abstraction in its fullest sense. PMID:12903653

  9. Annotating user-defined abstractions for optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, D; Schordan, M; Vuduc, R; Yi, Q

    2005-12-05

    This paper discusses the features of an annotation language that we believe to be essential for optimizing user-defined abstractions. These features should capture semantics of function, data, and object-oriented abstractions, express abstraction equivalence (e.g., a class represents an array abstraction), and permit extension of traditional compiler optimizations to user-defined abstractions. Our future work will include developing a comprehensive annotation language for describing the semantics of general object-oriented abstractions, as well as automatically verifying and inferring the annotated semantics.

  10. OIL POLLUTION ABSTRACTS. VOLUME 6, NUMBER 1

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oil Pollution Abstracts (formerly entitled Oil Pollution Reports) is a quarterly compilation of abstracts of current oil pollution related literature and research projects. Comprehensive coverage of oil pollution and its prevention and control is provided, with emphasis on the aq...

  11. An algorithm for generating abstract syntax trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noonan, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The notion of an abstract syntax is discussed. An algorithm is presented for automatically deriving an abstract syntax directly from a BNF grammar. The implementation of this algorithm and its application to the grammar for Modula are discussed.

  12. At the HeART of Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdit, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Abstraction has long been a concept difficult to define for students. Students often feel the pressure of making their artwork "look real" and frustration can often lead to burnout in the classroom. In this article, the author describes how her lesson on abstraction has alleviated much of that pressure as students created an abstract acrylic…

  13. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  14. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  15. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  16. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  17. 37 CFR 1.438 - The abstract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The abstract. 1.438 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.438 The abstract. (a) Requirements as to the content and form of the abstract are set forth...

  18. Writing a Structured Abstract for the Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's suggestions on how to improve thesis abstracts. The author describes two books on writing abstracts: (1) "Creating Effective Conference Abstracts and Posters in Biomedicine: 500 tips for Success" (Fraser, Fuller & Hutber, 2009), a compendium of clear advice--a must book to have in one's hand as one prepares a…

  19. The Cosmic Background Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

  20. China: Background Notes Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reams, Joanne Reppert

    Concise background information on the People's Republic of China is provided. The publication begins with a profile of the country, outlining the people, geography, economy, and membership in international organizations. The bulk of the document then discusses in more detail China's people, geography, history, government, education, economy, and…

  1. Nonthermal cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mu-Chun; Ratz, Michael; Trautner, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    We point out that, for Dirac neutrinos, in addition to the standard thermal cosmic neutrino background (C ν B ), there could also exist a nonthermal neutrino background with comparable number density. As the right-handed components are essentially decoupled from the thermal bath of standard model particles, relic neutrinos with a nonthermal distribution may exist until today. The relic density of the nonthermal (nt) background can be constrained by the usual observational bounds on the effective number of massless degrees of freedom Neff and can be as large as nν nt≲0.5 nγ. In particular, Neff can be larger than 3.046 in the absence of any exotic states. Nonthermal relic neutrinos constitute an irreducible contribution to the detection of the C ν B and, hence, may be discovered by future experiments such as PTOLEMY. We also present a scenario of chaotic inflation in which a nonthermal background can naturally be generated by inflationary preheating. The nonthermal relic neutrinos, thus, may constitute a novel window into the very early Universe.

  2. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, K. J.; Smith, A. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Chan, Y. D.; Norman, E. B.; Lesko, K. T.

    2015-08-01

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  3. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Smith, A. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.

    2015-08-17

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  4. Foregrounding the Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    Argues that when introductory activities to the classics begin with background information, it can upstage or confine the life of the story, and shows little faith in the students as readers or in the literature itself. Suggests sometimes letting the literature begin, and then helping students make sense of it. Discusses examples from "To Kill a…

  5. Monitored background radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruel, C.; Larouche, M.; Donato, M.

    1986-01-01

    The infrared (IR) testing of the Olympus thermal model has provided a capability to perform cost effective thermal balance testing of satellites and satellite components. A high-accuracy monitored background radiometer was developed for the measurement of absorbed radiation heat flux encountered during IR thermal vacuum testing of spacecraft. The design, development, and calibration of this radiometer is described.

  6. Research & writing basics: elements of the abstract.

    PubMed

    Krasner, D; Van Rijswijk, L

    1995-04-01

    Writing an abstract is a challenging skill that requires precision and care. Criteria for well-formulated abstracts and abstract guidelines for 2 types of articles (empirical studies and reviews or theoretical articles) as well as a description of the content of a structured abstract are presented. Details were gleaned from a review of the literature including the American Medical Association Manual of Style, Eighth Edition and the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Fourth Edition. A good abstract is like a crystal: it is a clear, sharp synthesis that elucidates meaning for the reader. PMID:7546111

  7. Background illumination simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Towry, E.R.

    1992-05-12

    This patent describes a testing apparatus for testing and evaluating the performance of laser seeking warheads for missiles, under simulated weather conditions. It comprises support means for supporting a warhead seeker; laser means for generating a laser beam and for directing a laser beam towards the seeker; a diffusion screen interposed between the seeker support means and the laser means for diffusing the laser beam; a collimating lens interposed between the diffusion screen and the seeker support means for collimating the diffused laser beam and for directing the collimated laser beam onto a warhead seeker, supported in the seeker support; background illuminator means for illuminating the seeker support and a seeker disposed therein, supported for movement into and out of an operating position between the diffusion means and the collimating lens for providing background lighting in simulation of weather lighting conditions; and control means for controlling the intensity of the light provided by the illuminator means to simulate various weather conditions.

  8. Some background about satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Joseph A.

    1986-01-01

    Four tables of planetary and satellite data are presented which list satellite discoveries, planetary parameters, satellite orbits, and satellite physical properties respectively. A scheme for classifying the satellites is provided and it is noted that most known moons fall into three general classes: regular satellites, collisional shards, and irregular satellites. Satellite processes are outlined with attention given to origins, dynamical and thermal evolution, surface processes, and composition and cratering. Background material is provided for each family of satellites.

  9. Genetic adaptation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa during chronic lung infection of patients with cystic fibrosis: strong and weak mutators with heterogeneous genetic backgrounds emerge in mucA and/or lasR mutants.

    PubMed

    Ciofu, Oana; Mandsberg, Lotte F; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Wassermann, Tina; Høiby, Niels

    2010-04-01

    During the chronic lung infection of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), Pseudomonas aeruginosa can survive for long periods due to adaptive evolution mediated by genetic variation. Hypermutability is considered to play an important role in this adaptive evolution and it has been demonstrated that mutator populations are amplified in the CF lung by hitchhiking with adaptive mutations. Two of the genes that are frequently mutated in isolates from chronic infection are mucA and lasR. Loss-of-function mutations in these genes determine the phenotypic switch to mucoidy and loss of quorum sensing, which are considered hallmarks of chronic virulence. The aims of our study were to investigate (1) the genetic background of the P. aeruginosa subpopulations with non-mutator, weak or strong mutator phenotype and their dynamics during the chronic lung infection, and (2) the time sequence in which the hypermutable, mucoid and quorum-sensing-negative phenotypes emerge during chronic lung infection. For these purposes the sequences of mutS, mutL, uvrD, mutT, mutY and mutM anti-mutator genes as well as of mucA and lasR were analysed in 70 sequential P. aeruginosa isolates obtained from the respiratory secretions of 10 CF patients (one to three isolates per time point). Analysis of the genetic background of the mutator phenotype showed that mutS was the most commonly affected gene followed by mutL in isolates with strong mutator phenotype. The mutT, mutY, mutM genes were affected in isolates with low fold-changes in the mutation frequencies compared to the reference strain PAO1. Isolates with non-mutator, weak or strong mutator phenotype were represented at all time points showing co-existence of these subpopulations, which suggests parallel evolution of the various mutators in the different focal niches of infection in the CF lung. Mutations in mucA and lasR occurred earlier than mutations in the anti-mutator genes, showing that hypermutability is not a prerequisite for the

  10. Going Over to the Dark Side (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowall, D.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) This is the tale of my continuing journey transforming from a visual to a CCD photometrist. It is my hope that sharing my experiences will help and encourage others to consider taking the same path. It has been hard, but fun; a wonderful opportunity as a newly retired physician to expand my horizons. However, my brain did have to make the switch from Biology to Physics. The major barrier that concerned me was cost, but change itself was also a challenge. Other issues included dealing with the complexity of technical systems and a myriad of details. My solution was to be patient and think small to insure success and then build upon all those little victories. The pedagogical component of this project was critical as well. It began with a good mentor and continued via networking with other members at meetings, taking CHOICE courses, and most importantly: practice, practice, practice. Each plateau suggested many new possibilities. I think “The Force” is now with me! The adventure continues.

  11. Modifying Behavioral Phenotypes in Fmr1 KO Mice: Genetic Background Differences Reveal Autistic-Like Responses

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Corinne M.; Alekseyenko, Olga; Hamilton, Shannon M.; Thomas, Alexia M.; Serysheva, Ekaterina; Yuva-Paylor, Lisa A.; Paylor, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Scientific Abstract Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited form of intellectual disability in humans. In addition to cognitive impairment, patients may exhibit hyperactivity, attention deficits, social difficulties and anxiety, and autistic-like behaviors. The degree to which patients display these behaviors varies considerably and is influenced by family history, suggesting that genetic modifiers play a role in the expression of behaviors in FXS. Several studies have examined behavior in a mouse model of FXS in which the Fmr1 gene has been ablated. Most of those studies were done in Fmr1 knockout mice on a pure C57BL/6 or FVB strain background. To gain a better understanding of the effects of genetic background on behaviors resulting from the loss of Fmr1 gene expression, we generated F1 hybrid lines from female Fmr1 heterozygous mice on a pure C57BL/6J background bred with male Fmr1 wild-type mice of various background strains (A/J, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, 129S1/SvImJ and CD-1). Male Fmr1 knockout and wild-type littermates from each line were examined in an extensive behavioral test battery. Results clearly indicate that multiple behavioral responses are dependent on genetic background, including autistic-like traits that are present on limited genetic backgrounds. This approach has allowed us to identify improved models for different behavioral symptoms present in FXS including autistic-like traits. PMID:21268289

  12. Analysis of complex networks using aggressive abstraction.

    SciTech Connect

    Colbaugh, Richard; Glass, Kristin.; Willard, Gerald

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for analyzing complex networks in which the network of interest is first abstracted to a much simpler (but equivalent) representation, the required analysis is performed using the abstraction, and analytic conclusions are then mapped back to the original network and interpreted there. We begin by identifying a broad and important class of complex networks which admit abstractions that are simultaneously dramatically simplifying and property preserving - we call these aggressive abstractions -- and which can therefore be analyzed using the proposed approach. We then introduce and develop two forms of aggressive abstraction: 1.) finite state abstraction, in which dynamical networks with uncountable state spaces are modeled using finite state systems, and 2.) onedimensional abstraction, whereby high dimensional network dynamics are captured in a meaningful way using a single scalar variable. In each case, the property preserving nature of the abstraction process is rigorously established and efficient algorithms are presented for computing the abstraction. The considerable potential of the proposed approach to complex networks analysis is illustrated through case studies involving vulnerability analysis of technological networks and predictive analysis for social processes.

  13. Neurobiological background of negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Galderisi, Silvana; Merlotti, Eleonora; Mucci, Armida

    2015-10-01

    Studies investigating neurobiological bases of negative symptoms of schizophrenia failed to provide consistent findings, possibly due to the heterogeneity of this psychopathological construct. We tried to review the findings published to date investigating neurobiological abnormalities after reducing the heterogeneity of the negative symptoms construct. The literature in electronic databases as well as citations and major articles are reviewed with respect to the phenomenology, pathology, genetics and neurobiology of schizophrenia. We searched PubMed with the keywords "negative symptoms," "deficit schizophrenia," "persistent negative symptoms," "neurotransmissions," "neuroimaging" and "genetic." Additional articles were identified by manually checking the reference lists of the relevant publications. Publications in English were considered, and unpublished studies, conference abstracts and poster presentations were not included. Structural and functional imaging studies addressed the issue of neurobiological background of negative symptoms from several perspectives (considering them as a unitary construct, focusing on primary and/or persistent negative symptoms and, more recently, clustering them into factors), but produced discrepant findings. The examined studies provided evidence suggesting that even primary and persistent negative symptoms include different psychopathological constructs, probably reflecting the dysfunction of different neurobiological substrates. Furthermore, they suggest that complex alterations in multiple neurotransmitter systems and genetic variants might influence the expression of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. On the whole, the reviewed findings, representing the distillation of a large body of disparate data, suggest that further deconstruction of negative symptomatology into more elementary components is needed to gain insight into underlying neurobiological mechanisms. PMID:25797499

  14. Prefrontal cortex organization: dissociating effects of temporal abstraction, relational abstraction, and integration with FMRI.

    PubMed

    Nee, Derek Evan; Jahn, Andrew; Brown, Joshua W

    2014-09-01

    The functions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) underlie higher-level cognition. Varying proposals suggest that the PFC is organized along a rostral-caudal gradient of abstraction with more abstract representations/processes associated with more rostral areas. However, the operational definition of abstraction is unclear. Here, we contrasted 2 prominent theories of abstraction--temporal and relational--using fMRI. We further examined whether integrating abstract rules--a function common to each theory--recruited the PFC independently of other abstraction effects. While robust effects of relational abstraction were present in the PFC, temporal abstraction effects were absent. Instead, we found activations specific to the integration of relational rules in areas previously shown to be associated with temporal abstraction. We suggest that previous effects of temporal abstraction were due to confounds with integration demands. We propose an integration framework to understand the functions of the PFC that resolves discrepancies in prior data. PMID:23563962

  15. The Backgrounds Data Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. A.; Gursky, H.; Heckathorn, H. M.; Lucke, R. L.; Berg, S. L.; Dombrowski, E. G.; Kessel, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization has created data centers for midcourse, plumes, and backgrounds phenomenologies. The Backgrounds Data Center (BDC) has been designated as the prime archive for data collected by SDIO programs. The BDC maintains a Summary Catalog that contains 'metadata,' that is, information about data, such as when the data were obtained, what the spectral range of the data is, and what region of the Earth or sky was observed. Queries to this catalog result in a listing of all data sets (from all experiments in the Summary Catalog) that satisfy the specified criteria. Thus, the user can identify different experiments that made similar observations and order them from the BDC for analysis. On-site users can use the Science Analysis Facility (SAFE for this purpose. For some programs, the BDC maintains a Program Catalog, which can classify data in as many ways as desired (rather than just by position, time, and spectral range as in the Summary Catalog). For example, data sets could be tagged with such diverse parameters as solar illumination angle, signal level, or the value of a particular spectral ratio, as long as these quantities can be read from the digital record or calculated from it by the ingest program. All unclassified catalogs and unclassified data will be remotely accessible.

  16. Backgrounds Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, William A.; Gursky, Herbert; Heckathorn, Harry M.; Lucke, Bob L.; Dorland, Bryan N.; Kessel, R. A.; Berg, S. L.; Dombrowski, E. G.

    1994-09-01

    The Backgrounds Data Center (BDC) is the designated archive for backgrounds data collected by Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) programs, some of which include ultraviolet sensors. Currently, the BDC holds ultraviolet data from the IBSS, UVPI, UVLIM, and FUVCAM sensors. The BDC will also be the prime archive for Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) data and is prepared to negotiate with program managers to handle other datasets. The purpose of the BDC is to make data accessible to users and to assist them in analyzing it. The BDC maintains the Science Catalog Information Exchange System (SCIES) allowing remote users to log in, read or post notices about current programs, search the catalogs for datasets of interest, and submit orders for data. On-site facilities are also available for the analysis of data, and consist of VMS and UNIX workstations with access to software analysis packages such as IDL, IRAF, and Khoros. Either on-site or remotely, users can employ the BDC-developed graphical user interface called the Visual Interface for Space and Terrestrial Analysis (VISTA) to generate catalog queries and to display and analyze data. SCIES and VISTA permit nearly complete access to BDC services and capabilities without the need to be physically present at the data center.

  17. Refining a taxonomy for guideline implementation: results of an exercise in abstract classification

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To better understand the efficacy of various implementation strategies, improved methods for describing and classifying the nature of these strategies are urgently required. The aim of this study was to develop and pilot the feasibility of a taxonomy to classify the nature and content of implementation strategies. Methods A draft implementation taxonomy was developed based on the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) data collection checklist. The draft taxonomy had four domains (professional, financial, organisational and regulatory) covering 49 distinct strategies. We piloted the draft taxonomy by using it to classify the implementation strategies described in the conference abstracts of the implementation stream of the 2010 Guideline International Network Conference. Five authors classified the strategies in each abstract individually. Final categorisation was then carried out in a face-to-face consensus meeting involving three authors. Results The implementation strategies described in 71 conference abstracts were classified. Approximately 15.5% of abstracts utilised strategies that could not be categorised using the draft taxonomy. Of those strategies that could be categorised, the majority were professionally focused (57%). A total of 41% of projects used only one implementation strategy, with 29% using two and 31% three or more. The three most commonly used strategies were changes in quality assurance, quality improvement and/or performance measurement systems, changes in information and communication technology, and distribution of guideline materials (via hard-copy, audio-visual and/or electronic means). Conclusions Further refinement of the draft taxonomy is required to provide hierarchical dimensions and granularity, particularly in the areas of patient-focused interventions, those concerned with audit and feedback and quality improvement, and electronic forms of implementation, including electronic decision support. PMID

  18. COGNITIVE GAINS IN "DEPRIVED" CHILDREN THROUGH INDIVIDUAL TEACHING OF LANGUAGE FOR ABSTRACT THINKING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BLANK, MARION

    THE MOST DISABLING HANDICAP OF YOUNG CHILDREN FROM DEPRIVED SOCIOECONOMIC BACKGROUNDS IS THEIR DIFFICULTY IN USING LANGUAGE ABSTRACTLY. IN THIS STUDY, THEREFORE, IT WAS HYPOTHESIZED THAT IF AN EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTION PROGRAM WAS LIMITED TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ABSTRACT LANGUAGE, THEN NOT ONLY LANGUAGE, BUT MANY OTHER ASPECTS OF THINKING WOULD BE…

  19. Temporal abstraction-based clinical phenotyping with Eureka!

    PubMed

    Post, Andrew R; Kurc, Tahsin; Willard, Richie; Rathod, Himanshu; Mansour, Michel; Pai, Akshatha Kalsanka; Torian, William M; Agravat, Sanjay; Sturm, Suzanne; Saltz, Joel H

    2013-01-01

    Temporal abstraction, a method for specifying and detecting temporal patterns in clinical databases, is very expressive and performs well, but it is difficult for clinical investigators and data analysts to understand. Such patterns are critical in phenotyping patients using their medical records in research and quality improvement. We have previously developed the Analytic Information Warehouse (AIW), which computes such phenotypes using temporal abstraction but requires software engineers to use. We have extended the AIW's web user interface, Eureka! Clinical Analytics, to support specifying phenotypes using an alternative model that we developed with clinical stakeholders. The software converts phenotypes from this model to that of temporal abstraction prior to data processing. The model can represent all phenotypes in a quality improvement project and a growing set of phenotypes in a multi-site research study. Phenotyping that is accessible to investigators and IT personnel may enable its broader adoption. PMID:24551400

  20. Temporal Abstraction-based Clinical Phenotyping with Eureka!

    PubMed Central

    Post, Andrew R.; Kurc, Tahsin; Willard, Richie; Rathod, Himanshu; Mansour, Michel; Pai, Akshatha Kalsanka; Torian, William M.; Agravat, Sanjay; Sturm, Suzanne; Saltz, Joel H.

    2013-01-01

    Temporal abstraction, a method for specifying and detecting temporal patterns in clinical databases, is very expressive and performs well, but it is difficult for clinical investigators and data analysts to understand. Such patterns are critical in phenotyping patients using their medical records in research and quality improvement. We have previously developed the Analytic Information Warehouse (AIW), which computes such phenotypes using temporal abstraction but requires software engineers to use. We have extended the AIW’s web user interface, Eureka! Clinical Analytics, to support specifying phenotypes using an alternative model that we developed with clinical stakeholders. The software converts phenotypes from this model to that of temporal abstraction prior to data processing. The model can represent all phenotypes in a quality improvement project and a growing set of phenotypes in a multi-site research study. Phenotyping that is accessible to investigators and IT personnel may enable its broader adoption. PMID:24551400

  1. Developing Creativity and Abstraction in Representing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Creating charts and graphs is all about visual abstraction: the process of representing aspects of data with imagery that can be interpreted by the reader. Children may need help making the link between the "real" and the image. This abstraction can be achieved using symbols, size, colour and position. Where the representation is close to what…

  2. Content Differences for Abstract and Concrete Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiemer-Hastings, Katja Katja; Xu, Xu

    2005-01-01

    Concept properties are an integral part of theories of conceptual representation and processing. To date, little is known about conceptual properties of abstract concepts, such as idea. This experiment systematically compared the content of 18 abstract and 18 concrete concepts, using a feature generation task. Thirty-one participants listed…

  3. Annual Abstract Series of Educational Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelesnyak, M. C., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    This is the fifth annual collection of abstracts of educational materials presented by the Educational Materials Review Board of the American Physiological Society under the direction of the Education Committee. The collection includes abstracts of articles, papers, textbooks, books, handbooks, and symposia which are valuable in teaching…

  4. Abstracting in the Context of Spontaneous Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gaye

    2007-01-01

    There is evidence that spontaneous learning leads to relational understanding and high positive affect. To study spontaneous abstracting, a model was constructed by combining the RBC model of abstraction with Krutetskii's mental activities. Using video-stimulated interviews, the model was then used to analyze the behavior of two Year 8 students…

  5. National Workplace Literacy Program. 1993 Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Vocational and Adult Education (ED), Washington, DC. National Workplace Literacy Program.

    This publication presents the abstracts of the 57 National Workplace Literacy Program 1993 projects. Each abstract provides the following information: project title; award number; project director; awardee; address; telephone and fax numbers; funds by fiscal year (federal and nonfederal); award period; federal project officer; objectives;…

  6. A Hybrid Method for Abstracting Newspaper Articles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, James; Wu, Yan; Zhou, Lina

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a hybrid method for abstracting Chinese text that integrates the statistical approach with language understandings, incorporating some linguistics heuristics and segmentation into the abstracting process. Initial responses from application to Chinese newspaper articles show that the method contributes much to the flexibility and…

  7. Abstractions of Awareness: Aware of What?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxas, Georgios; Markopoulos, Panos

    This chapter presents FN-AAR, an abstract model of awareness systems. The purpose of the model is to capture in a concise and abstract form essential aspects of awareness systems, many of which have been discussed in design essays or in the context of evaluating specific design solutions.

  8. Foundations of the Bandera Abstraction Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatcliff, John; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Robby

    2003-01-01

    Current research is demonstrating that model-checking and other forms of automated finite-state verification can be effective for checking properties of software systems. Due to the exponential costs associated with model-checking, multiple forms of abstraction are often necessary to obtain system models that are tractable for automated checking. The Bandera Tool Set provides multiple forms of automated support for compiling concurrent Java software systems to models that can be supplied to several different model-checking tools. In this paper, we describe the foundations of Bandera's data abstraction mechanism which is used to reduce the cardinality (and the program's state-space) of data domains in software to be model-checked. From a technical standpoint, the form of data abstraction used in Bandera is simple, and it is based on classical presentations of abstract interpretation. We describe the mechanisms that Bandera provides for declaring abstractions, for attaching abstractions to programs, and for generating abstracted programs and properties. The contributions of this work are the design and implementation of various forms of tool support required for effective application of data abstraction to software components written in a programming language like Java which has a rich set of linguistic features.

  9. New Features in the ADS Abstract Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichhorn, Guenther; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn S.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin A.; Thompson, Donna M.; Murray, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA-ADS Abstract Service provides a sophisticated search capability for the literature in Astronomy, Planetary Sciences, Physics/Geophysics, and Space Instrumentation. The ADS is funded by NASA and access to the ADS services is free to anybody world-wide without restrictions. It allows the user to search the literature by author, title, and abstract text.

  10. Interpreting Abstract Interpretations in Membership Equational Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Rosu, Grigore

    2001-01-01

    We present a logical framework in which abstract interpretations can be naturally specified and then verified. Our approach is based on membership equational logic which extends equational logics by membership axioms, asserting that a term has a certain sort. We represent an abstract interpretation as a membership equational logic specification, usually as an overloaded order-sorted signature with membership axioms. It turns out that, for any term, its least sort over this specification corresponds to its most concrete abstract value. Maude implements membership equational logic and provides mechanisms to calculate the least sort of a term efficiently. We first show how Maude can be used to get prototyping of abstract interpretations "for free." Building on the meta-logic facilities of Maude, we further develop a tool that automatically checks and abstract interpretation against a set of user-defined properties. This can be used to select an appropriate abstract interpretation, to characterize the specified loss of information during abstraction, and to compare different abstractions with each other.

  11. Tour the Galaxy of the Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Describes an abstract art unit in which students in an introductory art course created abstract art inspired by the work of M. C. Escher. Explains that some students are unsure of their drawing ability. States this unit helps them overcome their fears. (CMK)

  12. Some Call It Stone: Teaching Abstract Sculpture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asher, Rikki

    2004-01-01

    Abstract visual art is not for everybody. Some people find it threatening, uncomfortable, and often, inaccessible. Understandably, this can result in a lack of attention paid to nonrepresentational works of art in the visual arts curriculum. This article describes an experiential, hands-on, field trip that sought to demystify abstract sculpture,…

  13. Third LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Arlene S. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This volume is a compilation of abstracts submitted to the Third Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Post-Retrieval Symposium. The abstracts represent the data analysis of the 57 experiments flown on the LDEF. The experiments include materials, coatings, thermal systems, power and propulsion, science (cosmic ray, interstellar gas, heavy ions, micrometeoroid, etc.), electronics, optics, and life science.

  14. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 10 Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main numerical sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included throughout the year. It also indicates, in an appended table, the numerical symbol of…

  15. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 10 Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. The entries are recorded in numerical sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  16. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 10 Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. The entries are recorded in numerical sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  17. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 10 Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. The entries are recorded in numeric sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  18. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 10 Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. The entries are recorded in numeric sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  19. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 9 Number 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. The entries are recorded in numerical sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  20. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 9 Number 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. T8e entries are recorded in numerical sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  1. Romanian Scientific Abstracts, Volume 10 Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracas, Angela, Ed.

    The material included in the monthly issues of the "Romanian Scientific Abstracts" as bibliographic references or abstracts is arranged according to discipline and main problems and is provided with an index and with key-words. T entries are recorded in numerical sequence. The December issue includes a subject index for the material included…

  2. Youth Studies Abstracts. Vol. 4 No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youth Studies Abstracts, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts of 76 projects (most of which were conducted in Australia and New Zealand) concerned with programs for youth and with social and educational developments affecting youth. The abstracts are arranged in the following two categories: (1) Social and Educational Developments: Policy, Analysis, Research; and (2) Programs:…

  3. Interactional Metadiscourse in Research Article Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillaerts, Paul; Van de Velde, Freek

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with interpersonality in research article abstracts analysed in terms of interactional metadiscourse. The evolution in the distribution of three prominent interactional markers comprised in Hyland's (2005a) model, viz. hedges, boosters and attitude markers, is investigated in three decades of abstract writing in the field of…

  4. Writing Abstracts for Free-Text Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidel, Raya

    1986-01-01

    This study surveyed abstracting policies and guidelines used by producers of bibliographic databases that aim to enhance free-text retrieval. Results indicate editors consider content of abstracts and their language as primary factors in retrieval enhancement. Most recommend that concepts and form be coordinated with controlled vocabulary…

  5. A Microfilm Index to "Chemical Abstracts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, F.

    1973-01-01

    To improve access to the recent Chemical Abstracts,'' a cumulative quarterly index, based on the keyword phrases, has been produced in microfilm form. The index is available soon after the end of each quarter. Abstract titles are included in the index, thus increasing its value as a working tool. (4 references) (Author/SJ)

  6. Background and Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Don B; Fink, Aliza K

    2016-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common autosomal-recessive disease in white persons. Significant advances in therapies and outcomes have occurred for people with CF over the past 30 years. Many of these improvements have come about through the concerted efforts of the CF Foundation and international CF societies; networks of CF care centers; and the worldwide community of care providers, researchers, and patients and families. There are still hurdles to overcome to continue to improve the quality of life, reduce CF complications, prolong survival, and ultimately cure CF. This article reviews the epidemiology of CF, including trends in incidence and prevalence, clinical characteristics, common complications, and survival. PMID:27469176

  7. Immunopathogenic Background of Pars Planitis.

    PubMed

    Przeździecka-Dołyk, Joanna; Węgrzyn, Agnieszka; Turno-Kręcicka, Anna; Misiuk-Hojło, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Pars planitis is defined as an intermediate uveitis of unknown background of systemic disease with characteristic formations such as vitreous snowballs, snowbanks and changes in peripheral retina. The incidence of pars planitis varies 2.4-15.4 % of the uveitis patients. The pathogenesis of the disease is to be determined in future. Clinical and histopathological findings suggest an autoimmune etiology, most likely as a reaction to endogenous antigen of unknown source, with T cells predominant in both vitreous and pars plana infiltrations. T cells subsets play an important role as a memory-effector peripheral cell. Snowbanks are formed as an effect of post inflammatory glial proliferation of fibrous astrocytes. There is also a genetic predisposition for pars planitis by human leukocyte antigen and several other genes. A coexistence of multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis has been described in numerous studies. Epiretinal membrane, cataract, cystoid macular edema, retinal detachment, retinal vasculitis, neovascularization, vitreous peripheral traction, peripheral hole formation, vitreous hemorrhage, disc edema are common complications observed in pars planitis. There is a need to expand the knowledge of the pathogenic and immunologic background of the pars planitis to create an accurate pharmacological treatment. PMID:26438050

  8. Abstract spatial reasoning as an autistic strength.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Jennifer L; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2013-01-01

    Autistic individuals typically excel on spatial tests that measure abstract reasoning, such as the Block Design subtest on intelligence test batteries and the Raven's Progressive Matrices nonverbal test of intelligence. Such well-replicated findings suggest that abstract spatial processing is a relative and perhaps absolute strength of autistic individuals. However, previous studies have not systematically varied reasoning level--concrete vs. abstract--and test domain--spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal, which the current study did. Autistic participants (N = 72) and non-autistic participants (N = 72) completed a battery of 12 tests that varied by reasoning level (concrete vs. abstract) and domain (spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal). Autistic participants outperformed non-autistic participants on abstract spatial tests. Non-autistic participants did not outperform autistic participants on any of the three domains (spatial, numerical, and verbal) or at either of the two reasoning levels (concrete and abstract), suggesting similarity in abilities between autistic and non-autistic individuals, with abstract spatial reasoning as an autistic strength. PMID:23533615

  9. The cosmic background explorer

    SciTech Connect

    Gulkis, G. ); Lubin, P.M. ); Meyer, S.S. ); Silverberg, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Late last year the National Aeronautics and Space Administration launched its first satellite dedicated to the study of phenomena related to the origins of the universe. The satellite, called the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), carries three complementary detectors that will make fundamental measurements of the celestial radiation. Part of that radiation is believed to have originated in processes that occurred at the very dawn of the universe. By measuring the remnant radiation at wavelengths from one micrometer to one centimeter across the entire sky, scientists hope to be able to solve many mysteries regarding the origin and evolution of the early universe. Unfortunately, these radiative relics of the early universe are weak and veiled by local astrophysical and terrestrial sources of radiation. The wavelengths of the various cosmic components may also overlap, thereby making the understanding of the diffuse celestial radiation a challenge. Nevertheless, the COBE instruments, with their full-sky coverage, high sensitivity to a wide range of wavelengths and freedom from interference from the earth's atmosphere, will constitute for astrophysicists an observatory of unprecedented sensitivity and scope. The interesting cosmic signals will then be separated from one another and from noncosmic radiation sources by a comprehensive analysis of the data.

  10. Maritime infrared background clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwering, Piet B. W.

    1996-06-01

    The detection of small targets in maritime infrared surveillance is hampered by the presence of clutter. Sea surface structure, reflection and emission changes related to incident angle variations and surface effects are standard features governing the clutter behavior. Also special effects as sun glint and horizon effects play an important role for clutter. In order to optimize the detection process, quantitative clutter estimates are of use for filter settings. We have recorded a large amount of infrared backgrounds in the last few years, during common NATO trials. A large amount of different meteorological conditions took place during the various experiments. A first set of these data have been analyzed to obtain statistical data that represent the infrared scene. We have derived vertical temperature profiles, vertical fluctuation profiles, horizontal correlation coefficients and temporal correlation functions. In this paper we present the first analysis of these data. We are in the process of obtaining a condensed database of information to regenerate clutter images from bulk meteo parameters, and clutter parameters. The clutter and meteo parameters have been used to simulate various infrared scenes. Examples of this simulation process are shown in the presentation. The simulated images are statistically similar to the original images that were used to derive the parameters. A description of the image- generation is presented. Future expansions of the model are discussed.

  11. Biological aerosol background characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blatny, Janet; Fountain, Augustus W., III

    2011-05-01

    To provide useful information during military operations, or as part of other security situations, a biological aerosol detector has to respond within seconds or minutes to an attack by virulent biological agents, and with low false alarms. Within this time frame, measuring virulence of a known microorganism is extremely difficult, especially if the microorganism is of unknown antigenic or nucleic acid properties. Measuring "live" characteristics of an organism directly is not generally an option, yet only viable organisms are potentially infectious. Fluorescence based instruments have been designed to optically determine if aerosol particles have viability characteristics. Still, such commercially available biological aerosol detection equipment needs to be improved for their use in military and civil applications. Air has an endogenous population of microorganisms that may interfere with alarm software technologies. To design robust algorithms, a comprehensive knowledge of the airborne biological background content is essential. For this reason, there is a need to study ambient live bacterial populations in as many locations as possible. Doing so will permit collection of data to define diverse biological characteristics that in turn can be used to fine tune alarm algorithms. To avoid false alarms, improving software technologies for biological detectors is a crucial feature requiring considerations of various parameters that can be applied to suppress alarm triggers. This NATO Task Group will aim for developing reference methods for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to improve alarm algorithms for biological detection. Additionally, they will focus on developing reference standard methodology for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to reduce false alarm rates.

  12. Writing, reviewing, and presenting an abstract.

    PubMed

    Strauss, R G

    1991-01-01

    Abstracts afford an opportunity to report data at professional meetings and, when published, in the literature. Accordingly, they should be prepared with great care. When writing an abstract, anticipate questions the reviewer will ask when judging it and provide complete answers. The presentation of an abstract should follow similar thought processes. State why a problem or question is important, how you addressed it, what you found, and how your findings can be applied to the issue at hand. Slides and text should provide coordinated visual and auditory input, respectively, to ensure complete comprehension. PMID:1816248

  13. Pulmonary toxicology of respirable particles. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, C.L.; Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1980-09-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 44 papers presented in these proceedings. The last paper (Stannard) in the proceedings is an historical review of the field of inhalation toxicology and is not included in the analytics. (DS)

  14. OIL POLLUTION ABSTRACTS. VOLUME 6, NUMBER 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oil Pollution Abstracts (formerly entitled Oil Pollution Reports) is a quarterly compilation of current literature and research project summaries. Comprehensive coverage of oil pollution and its prevention and control is provided, with emphasis on the aquatic environment. This is...

  15. Program Aims at Improving Abstract Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Describes a program being conducted within the chemistry department of Xavier University, New Orleans, Louisiana, to improve the abstract reasoning abilities of freshmen science majors. The project is based upon the philosophy developed by Jean Piaget. (SL)

  16. Introducing Abstraction to Junior High Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Nancy

    1981-01-01

    Suggests a way to introduce abstract art to junior high school students who, more than students of any other age, emphasize realism both in their artwork and in their appreciation of works of art. (Author/SJL)

  17. Masking failures of multidimensional sensors (extended abstract)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chew, Paul; Marzullo, Keith

    1990-01-01

    When a computer monitors a physical process, the computer uses sensors to determine the values of the physical variables that represent the state of the process. A sensor can sometimes fail, however, and in the worst case report a value completely unrelated to the true physical value. The work described is motivated by a methodology for transforming a process control program that can not tolerate sensor failure into one that can. In this methodology, a reliable abstract sensor is created by combining information from several real sensors that measure the same physical value. To be useful, an abstract sensor must deliver reasonably accurate information at reasonable computational cost. Sensors are considered that deliver multidimensional values (e.g., location or velocity in three dimensions, or both temperature and pressure). Geometric techniques are used to derive upper bounds on abstract sensor accuracy and to develop efficient algorithms for implementing abstract sensors.

  18. Earth Sciences Division collected abstracts: 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, A.L.; Hornady, B.F.

    1981-10-15

    This report is a compilation of abstracts of papers, reports, and talks presented during 1980 at national and international meetings by members of the Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The arrangement is alphabetical (by author). For a given report, a bibliographic reference appears under the name of each coauthor, but the abstract itself is given only under the name of the first author (indicated in capital letters) or the first Earth Sciences Division author.

  19. Finding Feasible Abstract Counter-Examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Visser, Willem; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A strength of model checking is its ability to automate the detection of subtle system errors and produce traces that exhibit those errors. Given the high computational cost of model checking most researchers advocate the use of aggressive property-preserving abstractions. Unfortunately, the more aggressively a system is abstracted the more infeasible behavior it will have. Thus, while abstraction enables efficient model checking it also threatens the usefulness of model checking as a defect detection tool, since it may be difficult to determine whether a counter-example is feasible and hence worth developer time to analyze. We have explored several strategies for addressing this problem by extending an explicit-state model checker, Java PathFinder (JPF), to search for and analyze counter-examples in the presence of abstractions. We demonstrate that these techniques effectively preserve the defect detection ability of model checking in the presence of aggressive abstraction by applying them to check properties of several abstracted multi-threaded Java programs. These new capabilities are not specific to JPF and can be easily adapted to other model checking frameworks; we describe how this was done for the Bandera toolset.

  20. Background sources in optical communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, V. A.

    1983-01-01

    The characterization and measurement of background radiation relevant to optical communications system performance is addressed. The necessary optical receiver parameters are described, and radiometric concepts required for the calculation of collected background power are developed. The most important components of optical background power are discussed, and their contribution to the total collected background power in various communications scenarios is examined.

  1. More insight into the fate of biomedical meeting abstracts: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    von Elm, Erik; Costanza, Michael C; Walder, Bernhard; Tramèr, Martin R

    2003-01-01

    Background It has been estimated that about 45% of abstracts that are accepted for presentation at biomedical meetings will subsequently be published in full. The acceptance of abstracts at meetings and their fate after initial rejection are less well understood. We set out to estimate the proportion of abstracts submitted to meetings that are eventually published as full reports, and to explore factors that are associated with meeting acceptance and successful publication. Methods Studies analysing acceptance of abstracts at biomedical meetings or their subsequent full publication were searched in MEDLINE, OLDMEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, BIOSIS, Science Citation Index Expanded, and by hand searching of bibliographies and proceedings. We estimated rates of abstract acceptance and of subsequent full publication, and identified abstract and meeting characteristics associated with acceptance and publication, using logistic regression analysis, survival-type analysis, and meta-analysis. Results Analysed meetings were held between 1957 and 1999. Of 14945 abstracts that were submitted to 43 meetings, 46% were accepted. The rate of full publication was studied with 19123 abstracts that were presented at 234 meetings. Using survival-type analysis, we estimated that 27% were published after two, 41% after four, and 44% after six years. Of 2412 abstracts that were rejected at 24 meetings, 27% were published despite rejection. Factors associated with both abstract acceptance and subsequent publication were basic science and positive study outcome. Large meetings and those held outside the US were more likely to accept abstracts. Abstracts were more likely to be published subsequently if presented either orally, at small meetings, or at a US meeting. Abstract acceptance itself was strongly associated with full publication. Conclusions About one third of abstracts submitted to biomedical meetings were published as full reports. Acceptance at meetings and

  2. A Neuropsychological Perspective on Abstract Word Representation: From Theory to Treatment of Acquired Language Disorders.

    PubMed

    Binney, Richard J; Zuckerman, Bonnie; Reilly, Jamie

    2016-09-01

    Natural languages are rife with words that describe feelings, introspective states, and social constructs (e.g., liberty, persuasion) that cannot be directly observed through the senses. Effective communication demands linguistic competence with such abstract words. In clinical neurological settings, abstract words are especially vulnerable to the effects of stroke and neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. A parallel literature in cognitive neuroscience suggests that abstract and concrete words are at least partially neuroanatomically dissociable. Much remains to be learned about the nature of lexical-semantic deficits of abstract words and how best to promote their recovery. Here, we review contemporary theoretical approaches to abstract-concrete word representation with an aim toward contextualizing patient-based dissociations for abstract words. We then describe a burgeoning treatment approach for targeting abstract words and suggest a number of potential strategies for future interventions. We argue that a deeper understanding of is essential for informing language rehabilitation. PMID:27443646

  3. Southern Orthopaedic Association Abstract Publication Rate.

    PubMed

    Tait, Mark Adam; Petrus, Cara; Barnes, C Lowry

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the publication rate of manuscripts presented at the Southern Orthopaedic Association's (SOA) annual meetings. An extensive literature search was performed using Google Scholar and PubMed search engines and all accepted abstracts (posters or podium presentations) presented at an SOA annual meeting from 2005 to 2011 were evaluated. A total of 568 abstracts were presented at SOA meetings between 2005 and 2011. Of these, 234 (41%) were published in the peer-reviewed literature. The publication rate was 66% in 2005 and 28% in 2010. The average time from presentation to peer-reviewed publication was 1.6 ± 0.24 years (range, 2 years in 2006 to 1 year in 2011). The SOA publication rate was comparable with other major orthopaedic conference publication rates, yet more than half of all abstracts remain unpublished. SOA attendees should be aware that approximately 40% of all accepted presentations will go unpublished. PMID:27518291

  4. Information Leakage Analysis by Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanioli, Matteo; Cortesi, Agostino

    Protecting the confidentiality of information stored in a computer system or transmitted over a public network is a relevant problem in computer security. The approach of information flow analysis involves performing a static analysis of the program with the aim of proving that there will not be leaks of sensitive information. In this paper we propose a new domain that combines variable dependency analysis, based on propositional formulas, and variables' value analysis, based on polyhedra. The resulting analysis is strictly more accurate than the state of the art abstract interpretation based analyses for information leakage detection. Its modular construction allows to deal with the tradeoff between efficiency and accuracy by tuning the granularity of the abstraction and the complexity of the abstract operators.

  5. Fall Meeting abstract submission inspires science poetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-08-01

    When the 4 August deadline for submitting Fall Meeting abstracts passed, AGU had received more than 20,000 abstracts, a record-breaking number. The submission process had an unexpected by-product: It inspired some scientists to write haiku on Twitter. (Haiku is a form of Japanese poetry typically having three lines, the first with five syllables, the second with seven, and the third with five.) The following are examples of the haiku tweets, with the hashtag #AGU11AbstractHaiku. (For those who want to keep updated about the Fall Meeting on Twitter, the hashtag is #AGU11.) For more information about the meeting, including registration and housing, visit http://sites.agu.org/fallmeeting/.

  6. Abstracting and indexing in the medical sciences.

    PubMed

    Welt, I D

    1962-07-01

    Abstracts and indexes constitute the most popular means of assuring adequate retrieval of the many thousands of papers published every year in the ever expanding field of medicine. Different types of abstracts and indexes are available for different purposes and to meet varying user requirements. The problem of "keeping up" with developments in one's own field of endeavour can usually be solved by qualified abstractors. Most indexes serve the purpose of assuring the retrieval of pertinent documents. However, in order to retrieve specific pieces of information which are absolutely indispensible to the medical practitioner or scientist, a new approach is needed. This technique, which is termed the "combined index-abstract" method, has been employed successfully for the handling of a large body of specific items of information in a restricted area of experimental and clinical pharmacology. PMID:21735878

  7. Computing abstraction hierarchies by numerical simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Bundy, A.; Giunchiglia, F.; Sebastiani, R.; Walsh, T.

    1996-12-31

    We present a novel method for building ABSTRIPS-style abstraction hierarchies in planning. The aim of this method is to minimize the amount of backtracking between abstraction levels. Previous approaches have determined the criticality of operator preconditions by reasoning about plans directly. Here, we adopt a simpler and faster approach where we use numerical simulation of the planning process. We demonstrate the theoretical advantages of our approach by identifying some simple properties lacking in previous approaches but possessed by our method. We demonstrate the empirical advantages of our approach by a set of four benchmark experiments using the ABTWEAK system. We compare the quality of the abstraction hierarchies generated with those built by the ALPINE and HIGHPOINT algorithms.

  8. Medical Temporal-Knowledge Discovery via Temporal Abstraction

    PubMed Central

    Moskovitch, Robert; Shahar, Yuval

    2009-01-01

    Medical knowledge includes frequently occurring temporal patterns in longitudinal patient records. These patterns are not easily detectable by human clinicians. Current knowledge could be extended by automated temporal data mining. However, multivariate time-oriented data are often present at various levels of abstraction and at multiple temporal granularities, requiring a transformation into a more abstract, yet uniform dimension suitable for mining. Temporal abstraction (of both the time and value dimensions) can transform multiple types of point-based data into a meaningful, time-interval-based data representation, in which significant, interval-based temporal patterns can be discovered. We introduce a modular, fast time-interval mining method, KarmaLego, which exploits the transitivity inherent in temporal relations. We demonstrate the usefulness of KarmaLego in finding meaningful temporal patterns within a set of records of diabetic patients; several patterns seem to have a different frequency depending on gender. We also suggest additional uses of the discovered patterns for temporal clustering of the mined population and for classifying multivariate time series. PMID:20351898

  9. Dual-tracer background subtraction approach for fluorescent molecular tomography

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Robert W.; El-Ghussein, Fadi; Davis, Scott C.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Gunn, Jason R.; Leblond, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Diffuse fluorescence tomography requires high contrast-to-background ratios to accurately reconstruct inclusions of interest. This is a problem when imaging the uptake of fluorescently labeled molecularly targeted tracers in tissue, which can result in high levels of heterogeneously distributed background uptake. We present a dual-tracer background subtraction approach, wherein signal from the uptake of an untargeted tracer is subtracted from targeted tracer signal prior to image reconstruction, resulting in maps of targeted tracer binding. The approach is demonstrated in simulations, a phantom study, and in a mouse glioma imaging study, demonstrating substantial improvement over conventional and homogenous background subtraction image reconstruction approaches. PMID:23292612

  10. Earth Sciences Division collected abstracts: 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, A.L.; Schwartz, L.L.

    1980-04-30

    This report is a compilation of abstracts of papers, internal reports, and talks presented during 1979 at national and international meetings by members of the Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The arrangement is alphabetical (by author). For a given report, a bibliographic reference appears under the name of each coauthor, but the abstract iself is given only under the name of the first author or the first Earth Sciences Division author. A topical index at the end of the report provides useful cross references, while indicating major areas of research interest in the Earth Sciences Division.

  11. 2011 statistical abstract of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krisanda, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    The Statistical Abstract of the United States, published since 1878, is the authoritative and comprehensive summary of statistics on the social, political, and economic organization of the United States.


    Use the Abstract as a convenient volume for statistical reference, and as a guide to sources of more information both in print and on the Web.


    Sources of data include the Census Bureau, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bureau of Economic Analysis, and many other Federal agencies and private organizations.

  12. Processing emotion from abstract art in frontotemporal lobar degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Miriam H.; Carton, Amelia M.; Hardy, Christopher J.; Golden, Hannah L.; Clark, Camilla N.; Fletcher, Phillip D.; Jaisin, Kankamol; Marshall, Charles R.; Henley, Susie M.D.; Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Warren, Jason D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract art may signal emotions independently of a biological or social carrier: it might therefore constitute a test case for defining brain mechanisms of generic emotion decoding and the impact of disease states on those mechanisms. This is potentially of particular relevance to diseases in the frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) spectrum. These diseases are often led by emotional impairment despite retained or enhanced artistic interest in at least some patients. However, the processing of emotion from art has not been studied systematically in FTLD. Here we addressed this issue using a novel emotional valence matching task on abstract paintings in patients representing major syndromes of FTLD (behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, n=11; sematic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), n=7; nonfluent variant primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA), n=6) relative to healthy older individuals (n=39). Performance on art emotion valence matching was compared between groups taking account of perceptual matching performance and assessed in relation to facial emotion matching using customised control tasks. Neuroanatomical correlates of art emotion processing were assessed using voxel-based morphometry of patients' brain MR images. All patient groups had a deficit of art emotion processing relative to healthy controls; there were no significant interactions between syndromic group and emotion modality. Poorer art emotion valence matching performance was associated with reduced grey matter volume in right lateral occopitotemporal cortex in proximity to regions previously implicated in the processing of dynamic visual signals. Our findings suggest that abstract art may be a useful model system for investigating mechanisms of generic emotion decoding and aesthetic processing in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26748236

  13. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 13)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 161 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1978 through June 1978. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  14. Beam induced backgrounds: CDF experience

    SciTech Connect

    Tesarek, R.J.; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    We summarize the experiences of the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment in the presence of backgrounds originating from the counter circulating beams in the Fermilab Tevatron. These backgrounds are measured and their sources identified. Finally, we outline the strategies employed to reduce the effects of these backgrounds on the experiment.

  15. Genetic background of hyperphenylalaninemia in Nagasaki, Japan.

    PubMed

    Dateki, Sumito; Watanabe, Satoshi; Nakatomi, Akiko; Kinoshita, Eiichi; Matsumoto, Tadashi; Yoshiura, Koh-Ichiro; Moriuchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) and related hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) are caused by a deficiency in hepatic phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH). The incidence of PKU in Nagasaki prefecture is higher than that in all parts of Japan (1/15 894 vs 1/120 000). To investigate the genetic background of patients with HPA in Nagasaki prefecture, mutation analysis was done in 14 patients with PKU or mild HPA. Homozygous or compound heterozygous PAH mutations were identified in all the patients. The spectrum of PAH mutations in the cohort was broad and similar to those in all parts of Japan and East Asian countries. R53H is the most common mutation in patients with mild HPA. The present results provide further support for genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with HPA. The high incidence of PKU in Nagasaki, the westernmost part of Japan, might be due to migration of people with PAH mutations from China and Korea, and geographic factors. PMID:27173423

  16. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 07)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 158 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1975 through June 1975. Each entry in the Abstract Section consists of a citation, an abstract, and, in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. This issue of the Index Section contains entries for 2830 patent and application for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through June 1975. The index section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  17. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 09)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and Section 2 - Indexes. This issue of the Abstract Section cites 200 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1976 through June 1976. Each entry in the Abstract Section consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. This issue of the Index Section contains entries for 2994 patent and application for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through June 1976. The Index Section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  18. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 08)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections; abstracts and indexes. The Abstract Section cites 180 patents and applications for patents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of July 1975 through December 1975. Each entry in the Abstract Section consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. The index Section contains entries for 2,905 patents and applications for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through December 1975. The Index Section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  19. Adult Education Dissertation Abstracts: 1968-1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, Stanley M., Ed.; Loague, Nehume, Ed.

    This bibliography contains citations, abstracts, and ordering information for 303 dissertations pertinent to the education or training of adults. Studies are classified by broad subject headings used in the ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Education. Each section of the classification is identified by a four-digit number, with a one-, two-, or…

  20. Carbon Monoxide, A Bibliography With Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Anna Grossman

    Included is a review of the carbon monoxide related literature published from 1880 to 1966. The 983 references with abstracts are grouped into these broad categories: Analysis, Biological Effects, Blood Chemistry, Control, Criteria and Standards, Instruments and Techniques, Sampling and Network Operations, and Sources. The Biological Effects group…

  1. Development of Abstract Grammatical Categorization in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyr, Marilyn; Shi, Rushen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined abstract syntactic categorization in infants, using the case of grammatical gender. Ninety-six French-learning 14-, 17-, 20-, and 30-month-olds completed the study. In a preferential looking procedure infants were tested on their generalized knowledge of grammatical gender involving pseudonouns and gender-marking determiners.…

  2. Abstracts of Research Papers 1977 AAHPER Convention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sage, George H., Ed.

    This volume of abstracts describes papers written on the following topics: (1) Strength Physiology; (2) Learning Disabilities (motor); (3) Physiology - General; (4) Work Capacity; (5) Measurement and Recreation; (6) Biomechanics; (7) Professional Preparation (physical education); (8) Muscle Performance; (9) Sociology of Sport; (10) History of…

  3. Spatial abstraction for autonomous robot navigation.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Susan L; Aroor, Anoop; Evanusa, Matthew; Sklar, Elizabeth I; Parsons, Simon

    2015-09-01

    Optimal navigation for a simulated robot relies on a detailed map and explicit path planning, an approach problematic for real-world robots that are subject to noise and error. This paper reports on autonomous robots that rely on local spatial perception, learning, and commonsense rationales instead. Despite realistic actuator error, learned spatial abstractions form a model that supports effective travel. PMID:26227680

  4. Natural radiation environment III. [Lead Abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Gesell, T.F.; Lowder, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 52 research papers presented at this symposium in April 1978. The major topics in this volume deal with penetrating radiation measurements, radiation surveys and population exposure, radioactivity in the indoor environment, and technologically enhanced natural radioactivity. (KRM)

  5. Hubble Exoplanet Pro/Am Collaboration (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, D. M.

    2016-06-01

    (Abstract only) A collaborative effort is being organized between a world-wide network of amateur astronomers and a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) science team. The purpose of this collaboration is to supplement an HST near-infrared spectroscopy survey of some 15 exoplanets with ground-based observations in the visible range.

  6. Mr. Birmingham and His New Star (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, J.

    2016-06-01

    (Abstract only) The year 2016 sees two anniversaries connected with the Irish astronomer John Birmingham (1816-1884): the 200th anniversary of his birth and the 150th anniversary of his discovery of the nova outburst in T Coronae Borealis.

  7. Hilson Adolescent Profile (HAP): Hilson Research Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilson Research Inc., Kew Gardens, NY.

    Abstracts and bibliographic citations are given for the following documents concerned with the use and characteristics of the Hilson Adolescent Profile (HAP): (1) "Use of the Hilson Adolescent Profile To Compare Juvenile Offenders with Junior and Senior High School Students" (R. E. Inwald and K. E. Brobst); (2) "The Effectiveness of Social Work in…

  8. Searching Social Work Abstracts: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelsohn, Henry N.

    1986-01-01

    A subject profile using 39 concepts central to the practice of social work was searched in Social Work Abstracts (SWAB), PsycINFO, ERIC, and Social SciSearch. Social work practice concepts and search strategy, search term results, journal titles searched, and source coverage and date of most recently indexed article are noted. (EJS)

  9. Heat pipe technology. A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography cites 55 publications on the theory, design, development, fabrication, and testing of heat pipes. Applications covered include solar, nuclear, and thermoelectric energy conversion. A book (in Russian) on low temperature heat pipes is included as well as abstracts when available. Indexes provided list authors, titles/keywords (permuted) and patents.

  10. Integrating model abstraction into monitoring strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed and performed to investigate the opportunities and benefits of integrating model abstraction techniques into monitoring strategies. The study focused on future applications of modeling to contingency planning and management of potential and actual contaminant release sites wi...

  11. Annual Report: Automatic Informative Abstracting and Extracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earl, L. L.; And Others

    The development of automatic indexing, abstracting, and extracting systems is investigated. Part I describes the development of tools for making syntactic and semantic distinctions of potential use in automatic indexing and extracting. One of these tools is a program for syntactic analysis (i.e., parsing) of English, the other is a dictionary of…

  12. Contextualising Numeracy: Abstract Tools at the Coalface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukin, Annabelle

    1998-01-01

    A social semiotic approach to math is necessary because of the increasing significance of abstract tools in the workplace. A case study from the coal mining industry illustrates the need to recognize mathematics as a socially constructed system and to contextualize math instruction. (SK)

  13. ANNUAL REPORT-AUTOMATIC INDEXING AND ABSTRACTING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Palo Alto, CA. Electronic Sciences Lab.

    THE INVESTIGATION IS CONCERNED WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMATIC INDEXING, ABSTRACTING, AND EXTRACTING SYSTEMS. BASIC INVESTIGATIONS IN ENGLISH MORPHOLOGY, PHONETICS, AND SYNTAX ARE PURSUED AS NECESSARY MEANS TO THIS END. IN THE FIRST SECTION THE THEORY AND DESIGN OF THE "SENTENCE DICTIONARY" EXPERIMENT IN AUTOMATIC EXTRACTION IS OUTLINED. SOME OF…

  14. Does Abstracting Threaten a Sustainable Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Lyle K.

    2012-01-01

    In abstraction, or conceptual behavior, people discriminate features or properties of their surroundings. This permits people to respond selectively and precisely to specialized features of their environment, which has had many benefits, including steady advances in science and technology. Within psychology, J. R. Kantor and B. F. Skinner…

  15. Static Abstractions and the Teaching of Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Robert J.

    The element of static abstractions (SAs)--any pseudoheuristic listing of derived nominals whose purpose is to define good structure in prose writing--is one of the important historical components of the current traditional rhetoric inherited from the nineteenth century. SAs, of which unity, coherence, and emphasis are the best known examples, have…

  16. Heat pipe technology: A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The annual supplement on heat pipe technology for 1971 is presented. The document contains 101 references with abstracts and 47 patents. The subjects discussed are: (1) heat pipe applications, (2) heat pipe theory, (3) design, development, and fabrication of heat pipes, (4) testing and operation, (5) subject and author index, and (6) heat pipe related patents.

  17. Conference Abstracts: Computers in Physics Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, William E.

    1989-01-01

    Provides selected abstracts from the Computers in Physics Instruction conference held on August 1-5, 1988. Topics include: wave and particle motion, the CT programing language, microcomputer-based laboratories, student written simulations, concept maps, summer institutes, computer bulletin boards, interactive video, and videodisks. (MVL)

  18. The Eggen Card Project (Poster abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvis, G.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) At the 2013 meeting we kicked off the Eggen Card project. This project was to make the huge collection of photometric observations made by Olin Eggen accessible to researchers. My poster this year is to report progress and encourage more members to participate.

  19. Coding the Eggen Cards (Poster abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvis, G.

    2014-06-01

    (Abstract only) A look at the Eggen Portal for accessing the Eggen cards. And a call for volunteers to help code the cards: 100,000 cards must be looked at and their star references identified and coded into the database for this to be a valuable resource.

  20. Abstract Schemas in Children's Chess Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horgan, Dianne; And Others

    The nature and development of semantic processing in chess was investigated in a study involving younger players from 6 through 18 years of age. Efforts were directed toward establishing the assertion that skilled players' memory for chess positions depends largely upon the availability of pre-stored schema (PSS) that are both abstract and…

  1. Situated Learning in an Abstract Algebra Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ticknor, Cindy S.

    2012-01-01

    Advisory committees of mathematics consider abstract algebra as an essential component of the mathematical preparation of secondary teachers, yet preservice teachers find it challenging to connect the topics addressed in this advanced course with the high school algebra they must someday teach. This study analyzed the mathematical content…

  2. Abstracts of Research. July 1974-June 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Computer and Information Science Research Center.

    Abstracts of research papers in computer and information science are given for 68 papers in the areas of information storage and retrieval; human information processing; information analysis; linguistic analysis; artificial intelligence; information processes in physical, biological, and social systems; mathematical techniques; systems…

  3. Using Group Explorer in Teaching Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Claus; Gfeller, Mary; Donohue, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the use of Group Explorer in an undergraduate mathematics course in abstract algebra. The visual nature of Group Explorer in representing concepts in group theory is an attractive incentive to use this software in the classroom. However, little is known about students' perceptions on this technology in learning concepts in…

  4. Reducing Abstraction When Learning Graph Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazzan, Orit; Hadar, Irit

    2005-01-01

    This article presents research on students' understanding of basic concepts in Graph Theory. Students' understanding is analyzed through the lens of the theoretical framework of reducing abstraction (Hazzan, 1999). As it turns out, in spite of the relative simplicity of the concepts that are introduced in the introductory part of a traditional…

  5. Searching Chemical Abstracts Online in Undergraduate Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumpolc, Miroslav; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of conducting online computer searches of "Chemical Abstracts." Introduces the logical sequences involved in searching an online database. Explains Boolean logic, proximity operators, truncation, searchable fields, and command language, as they relate to the use of online searches in undergraduate chemistry programs. (TW)

  6. Cool Cats: Feline Fun with Abstract Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2002-01-01

    Presents a lesson that teaches students about abstract art in a fun way. Explains that students draw cats, learn about the work of Pablo Picasso, and, in the style of Picasso, combine the parts of the cats (tail, legs, head, body) together in unconventional ways. (CMK)

  7. A Photographic Assignment for Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrington, Gregory S.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a simple photographic assignment appropriate for an abstract algebra (or other) course. Students take digital pictures around campus of various examples of symmetry. They then classify these pictures according to which of the 17 plane symmetry groups they belong. (Contains 2 figures.)

  8. Abstract Journals: A Survey of Patent Coverage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, Brenda M.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a survey of 33 British, French, German, and U.S. abstract journals that examined their coverage of patent specifications. The standards for the identification of patent documents developed by the World Intellectual Property Organization are discussed, and an appendix provides a listing of the patent coverage by the country of each…

  9. Simulation, Design Abstraction, and SystemC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harcourt, Ed

    2007-01-01

    SystemC is a system-level design and simulation language based on C++. We've been using SystemC for computer organization and design projects for the past several years. Because SystemC is embedded in C++ it contains the powerful abstraction mechanisms of C++ not found in traditional hardware description languages, such as support for…

  10. Abstracts of Energy Materials for College Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messenger, Roger A.; And Others

    This guide provides citations and abstracts for 250 energy-related resources which can be used to incorporate energy education into the structure of existing college courses. In addition to citing books, articles, unpublished papers, films, and videotapes, the resource guide cites sets of class notes and course outlines that have been filed with…

  11. C. M. Louttit and "Psychological Abstracts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littman, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    R. A. Littman indicates that L. T. Benjamin and G. R. VandenBos's history of Psychological Abstracts is a fine account of how the American Psychological Association has carried out its responsibility to provide access to psychological research and writing. Littman was pleased to see Mac Louttit's work as editor brought out, and he takes this…

  12. Abstracts, Third Space Processing Symposium, Skylab results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Skylab experiments results are reported in abstracts of papers presented at the Third Space Processing Symposium. Specific areas of interest include: exothermic brazing, metals melting, crystals, reinforced composites, glasses, eutectics; physics of the low-g processes; electrophoresis, heat flow, and convection demonstrations flown on Apollo missions; and apparatus for containerless processing, heating, cooling, and containing materials.

  13. The Child and the Abstract Expressionist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkes, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Explores the similarities between paintings of the abstract expressionists and those of young children. Similarities include total surface coverage, disregard for details, direct application of pigment, disregard for visual perspective, and use of the painting surface as a frontal plane. (CB)

  14. An Introduction to Chemical Abstracts, with Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Craig A.

    This workbook is the first in a series of three that has been integrated into the chemistry curriculum for majors at the University of Vermont. The workbook consists of exercises designed to provide undergraduate students with foundation skills in the use of professional literature and a familiarity with the printed "Chemical Abstracts." Each…

  15. Background issues for defensive interceptors

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1991-03-01

    Mean nuclear backgrounds are large, but are arguably amenable to frame-to-frame subtraction. Striated backgrounds on the sensors for defensive interceptors could, however, cause clutter leak-through, which could make detection and track difficult. Nominal motions and backgrounds give signal to clutter ratios too low to be useful. Clutter leakage due to line-of-sight drift can be reduced by stabilizing the line of sight around the background clutter itself. Current interceptors have detector arrays large enough for operation independent of nuclear backgrounds in their fields of view. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  16. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 29)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 115 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1986 through June 1986. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent application.

  17. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 30)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 105 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1986 through December 1986. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  18. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 20)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 165 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1981 through December 1981. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  19. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 37)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 76 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period January 1990 through June 1990. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  20. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 38)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 132 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1990 through December 1990. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  1. Choosing a Database for Social Work: A Comparison of Social Work Abstracts and Social Service Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flatley, Robert K.; Lilla, Rick; Widner, Jack

    2007-01-01

    This study compared Social Work Abstracts and Social Services Abstracts databases in terms of indexing, journal coverage, and searches. The authors interviewed editors, analyzed journal coverage, and compared searches. It was determined that the databases complement one another more than compete. The authors conclude with some considerations.

  2. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 28)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 109 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System during the period July 1985 through December 1985. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  3. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 16)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 138 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1979 through December 1979. Each entry cib consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  4. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 14)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 213 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of July 1978 through December 1978. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  5. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 19)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 130 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1981 through July 1981. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  6. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 18)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 120 patents and patent applications for patents introduced into the NASA scientific system during the period of July 1980 through December 1980. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  7. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 17)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 150 patents and applications for patents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1980 through June 1980. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  8. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 15)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 240 patents and applications for patents introduced into the NASA scientific system during the period of January 1979 through June 1979. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent.

  9. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 33)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 16 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period January 1988 through June 1988. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  10. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 25)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 102 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1984 through June 1984. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  11. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 35)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 58 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period January 1989 through June 1989. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  12. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 24)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 167 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1983 through December 1983. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  13. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 34)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 124 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period July 1988 through December 1988. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  14. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 39)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 154 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period Jan. 1991 through Jun. 1991. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  15. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 42)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 174 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1992 through December 1992. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  16. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 36)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 63 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information systems during the period July 1989 through December 1989. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  17. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 26)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 172 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1984 through December 1984. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  18. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 45)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 137 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period Jan. 1994 through Jun. 1994. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  19. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 32)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 136 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July through December 1987. Each entry consists of a citation , an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  20. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 43)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 128 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period Jan. 1993 through Jun. 1993. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  1. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 27)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 92 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1985 through June 1985. Each entry consist of a citation, and abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  2. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 44)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 131 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period Jun. 1993 through Dec. 1993. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  3. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 31)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 85 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1987 through June 1987. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  4. NASA Patent Abstracts Bibliography: A Continuing Bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (Supplement 48)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 85 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1995 through December 1995. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  5. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 40)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 181 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1991 through December 1991. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  6. NASA patent abstracts bibliography. A continuing bibliography (supplement 22). Section 1: Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 234 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period July 1982 through December 1982. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  7. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 41)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Abstracts are provided for 131 patents and patent applications entered into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period Jan. 1992 through Jun. 1992. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  8. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 23)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 129 patents and patent applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period January 1983 through June 1983. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  9. Abstraction of Drift-Scale Coupled Processes

    SciTech Connect

    N.D. Francis; D. Sassani

    2000-03-31

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) describes an abstraction, for the performance assessment total system model, of the near-field host rock water chemistry and gas-phase composition. It also provides an abstracted process model analysis of potentially important differences in the thermal hydrologic (TH) variables used to describe the performance of a geologic repository obtained from models that include fully coupled reactive transport with thermal hydrology and those that include thermal hydrology alone. Specifically, the motivation of the process-level model comparison between fully coupled thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC) and thermal-hydrologic-only (TH-only) is to provide the necessary justification as to why the in-drift thermodynamic environment and the near-field host rock percolation flux, the essential TH variables used to describe the performance of a geologic repository, can be obtained using a TH-only model and applied directly into a TSPA abstraction without recourse to a fully coupled reactive transport model. Abstraction as used in the context of this AMR refers to an extraction of essential data or information from the process-level model. The abstraction analysis reproduces and bounds the results of the underlying detailed process-level model. The primary purpose of this AMR is to abstract the results of the fully-coupled, THC model (CRWMS M&O 2000a) for effects on water and gas-phase composition adjacent to the drift wall (in the near-field host rock). It is assumed that drift wall fracture water and gas compositions may enter the emplacement drift before, during, and after the heating period. The heating period includes both the preclosure, in which the repository drifts are ventilated, and the postclosure periods, with backfill and drip shield emplacement at the time of repository closure. Although the preclosure period (50 years) is included in the process models, the postclosure performance assessment starts at the end of this initial period

  10. Space Electrochemical Research and Technology. Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This document contains abstracts of the proceedings of NASA's fifth Space Electrochemical Research and Technology (SERT) Conference, held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on May 1-3, 1995. The objective of the conference was to assess the present status and general thrust of research and development in those areas of electrochemical technology required to enable NASA missions into the next century. The conference provided a forum for the exchange of ideas and opinions of those actively involved in the field, in order to define new opportunities for the application of electrochemical processes in future NASA missions. Papers were presented in three technical areas: (1) the electrochemical interface, (2) the next generation in aerospace batteries and fuel cells, and (3) electrochemistry for non-energy storage applications. This document contains the abstracts of the papers presented.

  11. Subwog 12-D tritium technology meeting. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1991-12-31

    The first Subwog 12-D Tritium Technology Meeting was held at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site during the week of May 21, 1990. Subwog 12-D was created as a subwog of JOWOG 12 to address the need to understand tritium applications throughout the entire weapons complex. This includes weapons related concerns, but is primarily intended to cover tritium production and handling, environmental, safety and health issues, compatibility with materials in general; and facility design, commissioning and decommissioning activities. Tritium technology issues discussed included the physical and chemical properties, kinetics, storage, reservoir loading techniques, isotope exchange, radiolysis/aging, process and handling technology, compatibility, purification and filtering, analysis, monitoring methods, function testing, packaging and shipping, environmental and operational safety, facility design and safety, glovebox atmosphere clean-up systems, glovebox/facility decommissioning, tritium production target materials, and tritium recovery. This document provides a collection of most of the unclassified extended abstracts and abstracts presented at Subwog 12-D.

  12. Automatic identification of abstract online groups

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, David W; Gregory, Michelle L; Bell, Eric B; Cowell, Andrew J; Piatt, Andrew W

    2014-04-15

    Online abstract groups, in which members aren't explicitly connected, can be automatically identified by computer-implemented methods. The methods involve harvesting records from social media and extracting content-based and structure-based features from each record. Each record includes a social-media posting and is associated with one or more entities. Each feature is stored on a data storage device and includes a computer-readable representation of an attribute of one or more records. The methods further involve grouping records into record groups according to the features of each record. Further still the methods involve calculating an n-dimensional surface representing each record group and defining an outlier as a record having feature-based distances measured from every n-dimensional surface that exceed a threshold value. Each of the n-dimensional surfaces is described by a footprint that characterizes the respective record group as an online abstract group.

  13. Using Group Explorer in teaching abstract algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Claus; Gfeller, Mary; Donohue, Christopher

    2013-04-01

    This study explores the use of Group Explorer in an undergraduate mathematics course in abstract algebra. The visual nature of Group Explorer in representing concepts in group theory is an attractive incentive to use this software in the classroom. However, little is known about students' perceptions on this technology in learning concepts in abstract algebra. A total of 26 participants in an undergraduate course studying group theory were surveyed regarding their experiences using Group Explorer. Findings indicate that all participants believed that the software was beneficial to their learning and described their attitudes regarding the software in terms of using the technology and its helpfulness in learning concepts. A multiple regression analysis reveals that representational fluency of concepts with the software correlated significantly with participants' understanding of group concepts yet, participants' attitudes about Group Explorer and technology in general were not significant factors.

  14. HBCUs Research Conference agenda and abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Sunil (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) Research conference was to provide an opportunity for principal investigators and their students to present research progress reports. The abstracts included in this report indicate the range and quality of research topics such as aeropropulsion, space propulsion, space power, fluid dynamics, designs, structures and materials being funded through grants from Lewis Research Center to HBCUs. The conference generated extensive networking between students, principal investigators, Lewis technical monitors, and other Lewis researchers.

  15. Cryogenic adhesives and sealants: Abstracted publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. R.; Olien, N. A.

    1977-01-01

    Abstracts of primary documents containing original experimental data on the properties of adhesives and sealants at cryogenic temperatures are presented. The most important references mentioned in each document are cited. In addition, a brief annotation is given for documents considered secondary in nature, such as republications or variations of original reports, progress reports leading to final reports included as primary documents, and experimental data on adhesive properties at temperatures between about 130 K and room temperature.

  16. Hydrogen energy. A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Hydrogen Energy is a continuing bibliographic summary with abstracts of research and projections on the subject of hydrogen as a secondary fuel and as an energy carrier. This update to Hydrogen Energy cites additional references identified during the fourth quarter of 1978. It is the fourth in a 1978 quarterly series intended to provide current awareness to those interested in hydrogen energy. A series of cross indexes are included which track directly with those of the cumulative volume.

  17. Heat Pipe Technology: A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    This bibliography lists 149 references with abstracts and 47 patents dealing with applications of heat pipe technology. Topics covered include: heat exchangers for heat recovery; electrical and electronic equipment cooling; temperature control of spacecraft; cryosurgery; cryogenic, cooling; nuclear reactor heat transfer; solar collectors; laser mirror cooling; laser vapor cavitites; cooling of permafrost; snow melting; thermal diodes variable conductance; artery gas venting; and venting; and gravity assisted pipes.

  18. HBCUs Research Conference Agenda and Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Sunil (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) Research Conference was to provide an opportunity for principal investigators and their students to present research progress reports. The abstracts included in this report indicate the range and quality of research topics such as aeropropulsion, space propulsion, space power, fluid dynamics, designs, structures and materials being funded through grants from Lewis Research Center to HBCUs. The conference generated extensive networking between students, principal investigators, Lewis technical monitors, and other Lewis researchers.

  19. Recombination at the DNA level. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Abstracts of papers in the following areas are presented: (1) chromosome mechanics; (2) yeast systems; (3) mammalian homologous recombination; (4) transposons; (5) Mu; (6) plant transposons/T4 recombination; (7) topoisomerase, resolvase, and gyrase; (8) Escherichia coli general recombination; (9) recA; (10) repair; (11) eucaryotic enzymes; (12) integration and excision of bacteriophage; (13) site-specific recombination; and (14) recombination in vitro. (ACR)

  20. HBCUs Research Conference Agenda and Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Sunil (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUS) Research Conference was to provide an opportunity for principal investigators and their students to present research progress reports. The abstracts included in this report indicate the range and quality of research topics such as aeropropulsion, space propulsion, space power, fluid dynamics, designs, structures and materials being funded through grants from Lewis Research Center to HBCUS. The conference generated extensive networking between students, principal investigators, Lewis technical monitors, and other Lewis researchers.

  1. Abstract concepts: data from a Grey parrot.

    PubMed

    Pepperberg, Irene M

    2013-02-01

    Do humans and nonhumans share the ability to form abstract concepts? Until the 1960s, many researchers questioned whether avian subjects could form categorical constructs, much less more abstract formulations, including concepts such as same-different or exact understanding of number. Although ethologists argued that nonhumans, including birds, had to have some understanding of divisions such as prey versus predator, mate versus nonmate, food versus nonfood, or basic relational concepts such as more versus less, simply in order to survive, no claims were made that these abilities reflected cognitive processes, and little formal data from psychology laboratories could initially support such claims. Researchers like Anthony Wright, however, succeeded in obtaining such data and inspired many others to pursue these topics, with the eventual result that several avian species are now considered "feathered primates" in terms of cognitive processes. Here I review research on numerical concepts in the Gray parrot (Psittacus erithacus), demonstrating that at least one subject, Alex, understood number symbols as abstract representations of real-world collections, in ways comparing favorably to those of apes and young human children. He not only understood such concepts, but also appeared to learn them in ways more similar to humans than to apes. PMID:23089384

  2. Implementing abstract multigrid or multilevel methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Craig C.

    1993-01-01

    Multigrid methods can be formulated as an algorithm for an abstract problem that is independent of the partial differential equation, domain, and discretization method. In such an abstract setting, problems not arising from partial differential equations can be treated. A general theory exists for linear problems. The general theory was motivated by a series of abstract solvers (Madpack). The latest version was motivated by the theory. Madpack now allows for a wide variety of iterative and direct solvers, preconditioners, and interpolation and projection schemes, including user callback ones. It allows for sparse, dense, and stencil matrices. Mildly nonlinear problems can be handled. Also, there is a fast, multigrid Poisson solver (two and three dimensions). The type of solvers and design decisions (including language, data structures, external library support, and callbacks) are discussed. Based on the author's experiences with two versions of Madpack, a better approach is proposed. This is based on a mixed language formulation (C and FORTRAN + preprocessor). Reasons for not using FORTRAN, C, or C++ (individually) are given. Implementing the proposed strategy is not difficult.

  3. On quantitative effects of RNA shape abstraction.

    PubMed

    Nebel, Markus E; Scheid, Anika

    2009-11-01

    Over the last few decades, much effort has been taken to develop approaches for identifying good predictions of RNA secondary structure. This is due to the fact that most computational prediction methods based on free energy minimization compute a number of suboptimal foldings and we have to identify the native folding among all these possible secondary structures. Using the abstract shapes approach as introduced by Giegerich et al. (Nucleic Acids Res 32(16):4843-4851, 2004), each class of similar secondary structures is represented by one shape and the native structures can be found among the top shape representatives. In this article, we derive some interesting results answering enumeration problems for abstract shapes and secondary structures of RNA. We compute precise asymptotics for the number of different shape representations of size n and for the number of different shapes showing up when abstracting from secondary structures of size n under a combinatorial point of view. A more realistic model taking primary structures into account remains an open challenge. We give some arguments why the present techniques cannot be applied in this case. PMID:19756808

  4. Language abstractions for low level optimization techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dévai, Gergely; Gera, Zoltán; Kelemen, Zoltán

    2012-09-01

    In case of performance critical applications programmers are often forced to write code at a low abstraction level. This leads to programs that are hard to develop and maintain because the program text is mixed up by low level optimization tricks and is far from the algorithm it implements. Even if compilers are smart nowadays and provide the user with many automatically applied optimizations, practice shows that in some cases it is hopeless to optimize the program automatically without the programmer's knowledge. A complementary approach is to allow the programmer to fine tune the program but provide him with language features that make the optimization easier. These are language abstractions that make optimization techniques explicit without adding too much syntactic noise to the program text. This paper presents such language abstractions for two well-known optimizations: bitvectors and SIMD (Single Instruction Multiple Data). The language features are implemented in the embedded domain specific language Feldspar which is specifically tailored for digital signal processing applications. While we present these language elements as part of Feldspar, the ideas behind them are general enough to be applied in other language definition projects as well.

  5. Diffuse Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eli

    2002-01-01

    The diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB) consists of the cumulative radiant energy released in the processes of structure formation that have occurred since the decoupling of matter and radiation following the Big Bang. In this lecture I will review the observational data that provided the first detections and limits on the CIB, and the theoretical studies explaining the origin of this background. Finally, I will also discuss the relevance of this background to the universe as seen in high energy gamma-rays.

  6. [Prognostic value of markers of inflammation in patients with stable ischemic heart disease after implantation of stents with drug covering at the background of long-term therapy with statins (inhospital period)].

    PubMed

    Karpov, Iu A; Buza, V V

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the prognostic value of C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), white blood count, phospholipase A2 in patients with stable ischemic disease on long-term statin therapy undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stent implantation. In the interim analysis in- hospital outcomes were assessed a total of 602 patients from December 2009 through December 2010 underwent successful PCI with at least one DES implanted. They were prospectively followed before discharge. MACE (death, myocardial infarction [MI], stroke, stent thrombosis [ST] which did not lead to MI) occurred in 10,6% of the patients. There was no death or stroke before discharge. MI (including 0,3% of Q-MI) occurred in 10,3% of the patients. 6 patients had verified ST. Multivariate logistic regression identified ESR level before PCI and total length of stents implanted as independent predictors of MACE. PMID:22839437

  7. A Semantic Theory of Abstractions: A Preliminary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayak, P. Pandurang; Levy, Alon Y.; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we present a semantic theory of abstractions based on viewing abstractions as interpretations between theories. This theory captures important aspects of abstractions not captured in the theory of abstractions presented by Giunchiglia and Walsh. Instead of viewing abstractions as syntactic mappings, we view abstractions as a two step process: the intended domain model is first abstracted and then a set of (abstract) formulas is constructed to capture the abstracted domain model. Viewing and justifying abstractions as model level transformations is both natural and insightful. We provide a precise characterization of the abstract theory that exactly implements the intended abstraction, and show that this theory, while being axiomatizable, is not always finitely axiomatizable. A simple corollary of the latter result disproves a conjecture made by Tenenberg that if a theory is finitely axiomatizable, then predicate abstraction of that theory leads to a finitely axiomatizable theory.

  8. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 05)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    This bibliography is issued in two sections: Section 1 - Abstracts, and section 2 - Indexes. The abstract section cites 217 patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1974 through June 1974. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and, in most cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. The index section contains entries for 2653 patent and application for patent citations covering the period May 1969 through June 1974. The index section contains five indexes -- subject, inventor, source, number and accession number.

  9. Computerized Placement Tests: Background Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, Princeton, NJ.

    This document is a compilation of background readings for the user of Computerized Placement Tests (CPTs) developed by the College Board for student placement purposes. CPTs are computerized adaptive tests that test the individual abilities and backgrounds of examinees. CPTs are part of the ACCUPLACER student information management system. The…

  10. FAMILY BACKGROUND OF RURAL YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COPP, JAMES H.

    FAMILY BACKGROUNDS OF RURAL YOUTH ARE DISCUSSED. THE BACKGROUND PROVIDED BY THE FAMILY HAS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ADJUSTMENT OF RURAL YOUTH IN AN URBANIZED, HIGHLY TECHNICAL SOCIETY. THE BASIC ECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF RURAL AREAS INFLUENCE THE RATE OF SOCIAL CHANGE, THE IMPORTANCE OF THE FAMILY AS A SOCIAL UNIT, AND THE ORIENTATION TOWARD LEGAL…

  11. Background reduction in cryogenic detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Daniel A.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    This paper discusses the background reduction and rejection strategy of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Recent measurements of background levels from CDMS II at Soudan are presented, along with estimates for future improvements in sensitivity expected for a proposed SuperCDMS experiment at SNOLAB.

  12. Lattice QCD in Background Fields

    SciTech Connect

    William Detmold, Brian Tiburzi, Andre Walker-Loud

    2009-06-01

    Electromagnetic properties of hadrons can be computed by lattice simulations of QCD in background fields. We demonstrate new techniques for the investigation of charged hadron properties in electric fields. Our current calculations employ large electric fields, motivating us to analyze chiral dynamics in strong QED backgrounds, and subsequently uncover surprising non-perturbative effects present at finite volume.

  13. Background Television and Reading Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, G. Blake; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Tests G. Armstrong's and B. Greenberg's model of the effect of background television on cognitive performance, applied to reading comprehension and memory. Finds significant deleterious effects of background television, stronger and more consistent effects when testing immediately after reading, and more consistently negative effects resulting…

  14. Background events in microchannel plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Vallerga, J.; Wargelin, B.

    1988-01-01

    Measurements have been made to assess the characteristics and origins of background events in microchannel plates (MCPs). An overall background rate of about 0.4 events/sq cm persec has been achieved consistently for MCPs that have been baked and scrubbed. The temperature and gain of the MCPs are found to have no significant effect on the background rate. Detection of 1.46-MeV gamma rays from the MCP glass confirms the presence of K-40, with a concentration of 0.0007 percent, in MCP glass. It is shown that beta decay from K-40 is sufficient to cause the background rate and spectrum observed. Anticoincidence measurements indicate the the background rate caused by cosmic ray interactions is small (less than 0.016 events/sq cm per sec).

  15. A case of seizures induced by abstract reasoning.

    PubMed

    Tatsuzawa, Yasutaka; Yoshino, Aihide; Nomura, Soichiro

    2010-04-01

    We describe a case of reflex seizures induced by abstract reasoning but not other cognitive processes. The patient, a 46-year-old man, experienced myoclonic seizures whenever he played shogi (Japanese chess). To identify the critical thought processes responsible for inducing his seizures, we monitored his clinical seizures and epileptiform discharges while he performed comprehensive neuropsychological tests, including the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), spatial working memory, mental rotation, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) tasks. A myoclonic seizure occurred only during the WCST. Generalized 3- to 5-Hz spike-and-slow-wave bursts occurred repeatedly during the Block Design subtest of the WAIS-R and the WCST, whereas no discharges occurred during other subtests of the WAIS-R including the calculation, spatial working memory, and mental rotation tasks. These results indicate that abstract reasoning, independent of other cognitive processes, could induce the patient's epileptiform discharges, suggesting that his reflex seizures might be a distinct subtype of nonverbal thinking-induced seizures. PMID:20171146

  16. Decoding actions at different levels of abstraction.

    PubMed

    Wurm, Moritz F; Lingnau, Angelika

    2015-05-20

    Brain regions that mediate action understanding must contain representations that are action specific and at the same time tolerate a wide range of perceptual variance. Whereas progress has been made in understanding such generalization mechanisms in the object domain, the neural mechanisms to conceptualize actions remain unknown. In particular, there is ongoing dissent between motor-centric and cognitive accounts whether premotor cortex or brain regions in closer relation to perceptual systems, i.e., lateral occipitotemporal cortex, contain neural populations with such mapping properties. To date, it is unclear to which degree action-specific representations in these brain regions generalize from concrete action instantiations to abstract action concepts. However, such information would be crucial to differentiate between motor and cognitive theories. Using ROI-based and searchlight-based fMRI multivoxel pattern decoding, we sought brain regions in human cortex that manage the balancing act between specificity and generality. We investigated a concrete level that distinguishes actions based on perceptual features (e.g., opening vs closing a specific bottle), an intermediate level that generalizes across movement kinematics and specific objects involved in the action (e.g., opening different bottles with cork or screw cap), and an abstract level that additionally generalizes across object category (e.g., opening bottles or boxes). We demonstrate that the inferior parietal and occipitotemporal cortex code actions at abstract levels whereas the premotor cortex codes actions at the concrete level only. Hence, occipitotemporal, but not premotor, regions fulfill the necessary criteria for action understanding. This result is compatible with cognitive theories but strongly undermines motor theories of action understanding. PMID:25995462

  17. Divvy Economies Based On (An Abstract) Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Dennis G.

    2004-04-01

    The Leontief Input-Output economic system can provide a model for a one-parameter family of economic systems based on an abstract temperature T. In particular, given a normalized input-output matrix R and taking R= R(1), a family of economic systems R(1/T)=R(α) is developed that represents heating (T>1) and cooling (T<1) of the economy relative to T=1. .The economy for a given value of T represents the solution of a constrained maximum entropy problem.

  18. Review of progress in quantitative NDE. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Abstracts of 386 papers and plenary presentations are included. The plenary sessions related to the national technology initiative. The other sessions covered the following NDE topics: corrosion, electromagnetic arrays, elastic wave scattering and backscattering/noise, civil structures, material properties, holography, shearography, UT wave propagation, eddy currents, coatings, signal processing, radiography, computed tomography, EM imaging, adhesive bonds, NMR, laser ultrasonics, composites, thermal, magnetic measurements, nonlinear acoustics, interface modeling and characterization, UT transducers, new techniques, joined materials, probes and systems, fatigue cracks and fracture, imaging and sizing, NDE in engineering and process control, acoustics of cracks, and sensors. An author index is included. (DLC)

  19. Solar thermal components. A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozman, W. R. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    This bibliographic series cites and abstracts literature and technical papers on components applied to solar thermal energy utilization. The quarterly volumes are divided into ten categories: material properties; flat plat collectors; concentrating collectors; thermal storage; heat pumps; coolers and heat exchangers; solar ponds and distillation; greenhouses; process pleat; and irrigation pumps. Each quarterly volume is compiled from a wide variety of data bases, report literature, technical briefs, journal articles and other traditional and non traditional sources. The Technology Application Center maintains a library containing many of the articles and publications referenced in the series.

  20. Software Security - The Dangers of Abstraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollmann, Dieter

    Software insecurity can be explained as a potpourri of hacking methods, ranging from the familiar, e.g. buffer overruns, to the exotic, e.g. code insertion with Chinese characters. From such an angle software security would just be a collection of specific countermeasures. We will observe a common principle that can guide a structured presentation of software security and give guidance for future research directions: There exists a discrepancy between the abstract programming concepts used by software developers and their concrete implementation on the given execution platform. In support of this thesis, five case studies will be discussed, viz characters, integers, variables, atomic transactions, and double linked lists.

  1. The Lyncis Two for One Special (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joner, M.; Hintz, E.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The pulsating delta Scuti star AN Lyn and the near contact binary UU Lyn are conveniently located at high declination in the northern constellation of Lynx. These variable stars are about 15 arc minutes apart in the sky and differ in average brightness by roughly one magnitude. This combination makes it fairly straightforward to secure photometric data on both stars at the same time using a common set of comparison stars. We present observations made at the BYU West Mountain Observatory during the spring of 2015 and outline some preliminary conclusions that can be drawn about these distinctly different variable stars.

  2. Knowledge Abstraction in Chinese Chess Endgame Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bo-Nian; Liu, Pangfeng; Hsu, Shun-Chin; Hsu, Tsan-Sheng

    Retrograde analysis is a well known approach to construct endgame databases. However, the size of the endgame databases are too large to be loaded into the main memory of a computer during tournaments. In this paper, a novel knowledge abstraction strategy is proposed to compress endgame databases. The goal is to obtain succinct knowledge for practical endgames. A specialized goal-oriented search method is described and applied on the important endgame KRKNMM. The method of combining a search algorithm with a small size of knowledge is used to handle endgame positions up to a limited depth, but with a high degree of correctness.

  3. Collaborations with Arne on Cataclysmic Variables (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkody, P.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) The start of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in 2002 marked the beginning of a 14-year-long collaboration with Arne on the photometry of cataclysmic variables. Starting with the USNO Flagstaff station, and continuing with AAVSOnet, Arne and the AAVSO members contributed ground based followup of SDSS candidate CVs to determine their orbital periods and characteristics. In addition, many scientific studies using spacecraft observations with HST, XMM, and GALEX were enabled and improved due to their contemporaneous ground-based photometry. Some of the primary results in the 39 publications resulting from this long term collaboration will be summarized.

  4. A method for automatically abstracting visual documents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rorvig, Mark E.

    1993-01-01

    Visual documents - motion sequences on film, video-tape, and digital recordings - constitute a major source of information for the Space Agency, as well as all other government and private sector entities. This article describes a method for automatically selecting key frames from visual documents. These frames may in turn be used to represent the total image sequence of visual documents in visual libraries, hypermedia systems, and training guides. The performance of the abstracting algorithm reduces 51 minutes of video sequences to 134 frames; a reduction of information in the range of 700:1.

  5. MiniCLEAN surface backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Boqian; Schnee, Richard; Deap/Clean Collaboration

    2011-04-01

    MiniCLEAN is a dark matter experiment using 150kg fiducial mass of liquid cryogen (argon or neon) to search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). MiniCLEAN seeks to detect scintillation photons from WIMP-induced argon recoils. A potentially dominant background is from alpha decays on the inner surfaces of the containment vessel. Such events can mimic the prompt signal characteristic of nuclear recoils. This talk will show the expected background rates, methods of background discrimination, and their expected effectiveness.

  6. DSNF and other waste form degradation abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Thomas A.

    2000-12-20

    The purpose of this analysis/model report (AMR) is to select and/or abstract conservative degradation models for DOE-(US. Department of Energy) owned spent nuclear fuel (DSNF) and the immobilized ceramic plutonium (Pu) disposition waste forms for application in the proposed monitored geologic repository (MGR) postclosure Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). Application of the degradation models abstracted herein for purposes other than TSPA should take into consideration the fact that they are, in general, very conservative. Using these models, the forward reaction rate for the mobilization of radionuclides, as solutes or colloids, away from the waste fondwater interface by contact with repository groundwater can then be calculated. This forward reaction rate generally consists of the dissolution reaction at the surface of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in contact with water, but the degradation models, in some cases, may also include and account for the physical disintegration of the SNF matrix. The models do not, however, account for retardation, precipitation, or inhibition of the migration of the mobilized radionuclides in the engineered barrier system (EBS). These models are based on the assumption that all components of the DSNF waste form are released congruently with the degradation of the matrix.

  7. Phonological abstraction without phonemes in speech perception.

    PubMed

    Mitterer, Holger; Scharenborg, Odette; McQueen, James M

    2013-11-01

    Recent evidence shows that listeners use abstract prelexical units in speech perception. Using the phenomenon of lexical retuning in speech processing, we ask whether those units are necessarily phonemic. Dutch listeners were exposed to a Dutch speaker producing ambiguous phones between the Dutch syllable-final allophones approximant [r] and dark [l]. These ambiguous phones replaced either final /r/ or final /l/ in words in a lexical-decision task. This differential exposure affected perception of ambiguous stimuli on the same allophone continuum in a subsequent phonetic-categorization test: Listeners exposed to ambiguous phones in /r/-final words were more likely to perceive test stimuli as /r/ than listeners with exposure in /l/-final words. This effect was not found for test stimuli on continua using other allophones of /r/ and /l/. These results confirm that listeners use phonological abstraction in speech perception. They also show that context-sensitive allophones can play a role in this process, and hence that context-insensitive phonemes are not necessary. We suggest there may be no one unit of perception. PMID:23973464

  8. Directory of Energy Information Administration Model Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-16

    This directory partially fulfills the requirements of Section 8c, of the documentation order, which states in part that: The Office of Statistical Standards will annually publish an EIA document based on the collected abstracts and the appendices. This report contains brief statements about each model's title, acronym, purpose, and status, followed by more detailed information on characteristics, uses, and requirements. Sources for additional information are identified. All models active through March 1985 are included. The main body of this directory is an alphabetical list of all active EIA models. Appendix A identifies major EIA modeling systems and the models within these systems, and Appendix B identifies active EIA models by type (basic, auxiliary, and developing). EIA also leases models developed by proprietary software vendors. Documentation for these proprietary models is the responsibility of the companies from which they are leased. EIA has recently leased models from Chase Econometrics, Inc., Data Resources, Inc. (DRI), the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Wharton Econometric Forecasting Associates (WEFA). Leased models are not abstracted here. The directory is intended for the use of energy and energy-policy analysts in the public and private sectors.

  9. Current Abstracts Nuclear Reactors and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bales, J.D.; Hicks, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    This publication Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on the Energy Science and Technology Database and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to the Energy Science and Technology Database, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user`s needs.

  10. Bringing genetic background into focus.

    PubMed

    Chow, Clement Y

    2016-02-01

    Researchers should embrace differences in genetic background to build richer disease models that more accurately reflect the level of variation in the human population, posits Clement Chow. PMID:26659016

  11. Background suppression in MAS NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Jeffery L.; Beck, Larry W.; Ferguson, David B.; Haw, James F.

    Pulse sequences for suppressing background signals from spinning modules used in magic-angle spinning NMR are described. These pulse sequences are based on spatially selective composite 90° pulses originally reported by Bax, which provide for no net excitation of spins outside the homogeneous region of the coil. We have achieved essentially complete suppression of background signals originating from our Vespel spinning module (which uses a free-standing coil) in both 1H and 13C spectra without notable loss in signal intensity. Successful modification of both Bloch decay and cross-polarization pulse sequences to include spatially selective pulses was essential to acquire background-free spectra for weak samples. Background suppression was also found to be particularly valuable for both T1 and T1 ϱ, relaxation measurements.

  12. A pharmacoepidemiological study of the multi-level determinants, predictors, and clinical outcomes of biosimilar epoetin alfa for renal anaemia in haemodialysis patients: background and methodology of the MONITOR-CKD5 study.

    PubMed

    Gesualdo, Loreto; London, Gérard; Turner, Matthew; Lee, Christopher; Macdonald, Karen; Goldsmith, David; Covic, Adrian; Zaoui, Philippe; Combe, Christian; Mann, Johannes; Dellanna, Frank; Muenzberg, Michael; Abraham, Ivo

    2013-08-01

    Prior longitudinal observational studies have examined the practice patterns and outcomes of anaemia management, including the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs). Several dimensions of effectiveness remain unaddressed; especially considering the revised ESA label (target Hb levels between 10 and 12 g/dL), the recently published TREAT study, and the European approval of the first ESA biosimilar (HX575). Anecdotal evidence suggests that patient outcomes are influenced by physician-related variables and whether anaemia management is congruent with practice guidelines, but this has not been studied systematically. MONITOR-CKD5 is an international, prospective, observational, pharmacoepidemiological study evaluating the multi-level factors and outcomes of treatment with HX575 for renal anaemia in haemodialysis patients. Driven by a novel, integrated, multi-focal framework for post-approval observational studies, it examines determinants of response at both the patient and the physician level; integrates an advocated statistical methodology here to fore used mainly in the social and behavioural sciences; assesses factors potentially predictive of a poor treatment response; and evaluates the extent to which treatment is congruent with evidence-based guidelines, good practice evidence, and the revised ESA label. This pan-European study will recruit at least 1,000 patients from a minimum of 75 centres, and follow them for up to 24 months following initiation of anaemia management with biosimilar epoetin alfa. MONITOR-CKD5 will not only study the core issues addressed by prior observational studies but also aims to take knowledge discovery a step further by assessing outcomes across varying cohorts of patients, and examining the impact of evidence-based practice on clinical outcomes, differentiating, in the process, between physician-level and patient-level determinants. PMID:21590439

  13. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K)more » or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.« less

  14. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  15. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  16. Modelling abstraction licensing strategies ahead of the UK's water abstraction licensing reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaar, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Within England and Wales, river water abstractions are licensed and regulated by the Environment Agency (EA), who uses compliance with the Environmental Flow Indicator (EFI) to ascertain where abstraction may cause undesirable effects on river habitats and species. The EFI is a percentage deviation from natural flow represented using a flow duration curve. The allowable percentage deviation changes with different flows, and also changes depending on an assessment of the sensitivity of the river to changes in flow (Table 1). Within UK abstraction licensing, resource availability is expressed as a surplus or deficit of water resources in relation to the EFI, and utilises the concept of 'hands-off-flows' (HOFs) at the specified flow statistics detailed in Table 1. Use of a HOF system enables abstraction to cease at set flows, but also enables abstraction to occur at periods of time when more water is available. Compliance at low flows (Q95) is used by the EA to determine the hydrological classification and compliance with the Water Framework Directive (WFD) for identifying waterbodies where flow may be causing or contributing to a failure in good ecological status (GES; Table 2). This compliance assessment shows where the scenario flows are below the EFI and by how much, to help target measures for further investigation and assessment. Currently, the EA is reviewing the EFI methodology in order to assess whether or not it can be used within the reformed water abstraction licensing system which is being planned by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) to ensure the licensing system is resilient to the challenges of climate change and population growth, while allowing abstractors to meet their water needs efficiently, and better protect the environment. In order to assess the robustness of the EFI, a simple model has been created which allows a number of abstraction, flow and licensing scenarios to be run to determine WFD compliance using the

  17. First LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Arlene S. (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    The LDE facility was designed to better understand the environments of space and the effects of prolonged exposure in these environments on future spacecraft. The symposium abstracts presented here are organized according to the symposium agenda into five sessions. The first session provides an overview of the LDEF, the experiments, the mission, and the natural and induced environments the spacecraft and experiments encountered during the mission. The second session presents results to date from studies to better define the environments of near-Earth space. The third session addresses studies of the effects of the space environments on spacecraft materials. The fourth session addresses studies of the effects of the space environments on spacecraft systems. And the fifth session addresses other subjects such as results of the LDEF life science and crystal growth experiments.

  18. Next generation epics interface to abstract data.

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J. O.; Lange, R.

    2001-01-01

    The set of externally visible properties associated with process variables in the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is predefined in the EPICS base distribution and is therefore not extensible by plug-compatible applications. We believe that this approach, while practical for early versions of the system with a smaller user base, is now severely limiting expansion of the high-level application tool set for EPICS. To eliminate existing barriers, we propose a new C++ based interface to abstract containerized data. This paper describes the new interface, its application to message passing in distributed systems, its application to direct communication between tightly coupled programs co-resident in an address space, and its paramount position in an emerging role for EPICS -- the integration of dissimilar systems.

  19. eta Carinae Continues to Evolve (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J. C.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) Eta Carinae affords us a unique opportunity to study the pre-supernova evolution of the most massive stars. For at least the last half century, it has maintained a 5.5-year spectroscopic cycle that culminates with abrupt decreases in the strong stellar wind emission features. Over the last 15 years, the star has brightened at an accelerated rate and altered its spectrum, in addition to the spectroscopic cycle, indicating an ongoing change in state. We present Hubble Space Telescope spectroscopy and synthetic photometry from the most recent spectroscopic event (2014.5) that shows notable differences with past events and provides clues to the on-going evolution of the star.

  20. VEST: Abstract Vector Calculus Simplification in Mathematica

    SciTech Connect

    J. Squire, J. Burby and H. Qin

    2013-03-12

    We present a new package, VEST (Vector Einstein Summation Tools), that performs abstract vector calculus computations in Mathematica. Through the use of index notation, VEST is able to reduce scalar and vector expressions of a very general type using a systematic canonicalization procedure. In addition, utilizing properties of the Levi-Civita symbol, the program can derive types of multi-term vector identities that are not recognized by canonicalization, subsequently applying these to simplify large expressions. In a companion paper [1], we employ VEST in the automation of the calculation of Lagrangians for the single particle guiding center system in plasma physics, a computation which illustrates its ability to handle very large expressions. VEST has been designed to be simple and intuitive to use, both for basic checking of work and more involved computations. __________________________________________________

  1. Model Checking Abstract PLEXIL Programs with SMART

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siminiceanu, Radu I.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a method to automatically generate discrete-state models of abstract Plan Execution Interchange Language (PLEXIL) programs that can be analyzed using model checking tools. Starting from a high-level description of a PLEXIL program or a family of programs with common characteristics, the generator lays the framework that models the principles of program execution. The concrete parts of the program are not automatically generated, but require the modeler to introduce them by hand. As a case study, we generate models to verify properties of the PLEXIL macro constructs that are introduced as shorthand notation. After an exhaustive analysis, we conclude that the macro definitions obey the intended semantics and behave as expected, but contingently on a few specific requirements on the timing semantics of micro-steps in the concrete executive implementation.

  2. VEST: Abstract vector calculus simplification in Mathematica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squire, J.; Burby, J.; Qin, H.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new package, VEST (Vector Einstein Summation Tools), that performs abstract vector calculus computations in Mathematica. Through the use of index notation, VEST is able to reduce three-dimensional scalar and vector expressions of a very general type to a well defined standard form. In addition, utilizing properties of the Levi-Civita symbol, the program can derive types of multi-term vector identities that are not recognized by reduction, subsequently applying these to simplify large expressions. In a companion paper Burby et al. (2013) [12], we employ VEST in the automation of the calculation of high-order Lagrangians for the single particle guiding center system in plasma physics, a computation which illustrates its ability to handle very large expressions. VEST has been designed to be simple and intuitive to use, both for basic checking of work and more involved computations.

  3. EE Cep Winks in Full Color (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, G.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) We observe the long period (5.6 years) Eclipsing Binary Variable Star EE Cep during its 2014 eclipse. It was observed on every clear night from the Maria Mitchell Observatory as well as remote sites for a total of 25 nights. Each night consisted of a detailed time series in BVRI looking for short term variations for a total of >10,000 observations. The data was transformed to the Standard System. In addition, a time series was captured during the night of the eclipse. This data provides an alternate method to determine Time of Minimum than traditionally performed. The TOM varied with color. Several strong correlations are seen between colors substantiating the detection of variations on a time scale of hours. The long term light curve shows five interesting and different Phases with different characteristics.

  4. Abstraction in art with implications for perception.

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Robert

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between people and art is complex and intriguing. Of course, artworks are our creations; but in interesting and important ways, we are also created by our artworks. Our sense of the world is informed by the art we make and by the art we inherit and value, works that, in themselves, encode others' world views. This two-way effect is deeply rooted and art encodes and affects both a culture's ways of perceiving the world and its ways of remaking the world it perceives. The purpose of this paper is to indicate ways in which a study of abstraction in art can be used to discover insights into, to quote the call for papers for this issue, 'our perception of the world, acquired through experience' and 'the way concepts are formed and manipulated to achieve goals'. PMID:12903671

  5. Predicting free choices for abstract intentions.

    PubMed

    Soon, Chun Siong; He, Anna Hanxi; Bode, Stefan; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2013-04-01

    Unconscious neural activity has been repeatedly shown to precede and potentially even influence subsequent free decisions. However, to date, such findings have been mostly restricted to simple motor choices, and despite considerable debate, there is no evidence that the outcome of more complex free decisions can be predicted from prior brain signals. Here, we show that the outcome of a free decision to either add or subtract numbers can already be decoded from neural activity in medial prefrontal and parietal cortex 4 s before the participant reports they are consciously making their choice. These choice-predictive signals co-occurred with the so-called default mode brain activity pattern that was still dominant at the time when the choice-predictive signals occurred. Our results suggest that unconscious preparation of free choices is not restricted to motor preparation. Instead, decisions at multiple scales of abstraction evolve from the dynamics of preceding brain activity. PMID:23509300

  6. Interfacing microbiology and biotechnology. Conference abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Maupin, Julia A.

    2001-05-19

    The Interfacing Microbiology and Biotechnology Conference was attended by over 100 faculty, post-docs, students, and research scientists from the US, Europe, and Latin America. The conference successfully stimulated communication and the dissemination of knowledge among scientists involved in basic and applied research. The focus of the conference was on microbial physiology and genetics and included sessions on C1 metabolism, archaeal metabolism, proteases and chaperones, gene arrays, and metabolic engineering. The meeting provided the setting for in-depth discussions between scientists who are internationally recognized for their research in these fields. The following objectives were met: (1) The promotion of interaction and future collaborative projects among scientists involved in basic and applied research which incorporates microbial physiology, genetics, and biochemistry; (2) the facilitation of communication of new research findings through seminars, posters, and abstracts; (3 ) the stimulation of enthusiasm and education among participants including graduate and undergraduate students.

  7. Use of Syllabic Logograms to Help Dyslexic Readers of English Visualize Abstract Words as Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saez-Rodriguez, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Background: Dyslexics read concrete words better than abstract ones. As a result, one of the major problems facing dyslexics is the fact that only part of the information that they require to communicate is concrete, i.e. can easily be pictured. Method: The experiment involved dyslexic third-grade, English-speaking children (8-year-olds) divided…

  8. Applied Communication, Argumentation, and Debate: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1980 (Vol. 40 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 25 titles deal with a variety of topics, including: (1) persuasive messages and the hearing impaired; (2) the judicial speeches of Cicero; (3) the rhetoric of employment interviews; (4) doctor/patient communication; (5) black…

  9. Interpersonal, Nonverbal, and Small Group Communication: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1979 (Vol. 40 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 24 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: a social skills training program; facial kinesic correlates of terminal cancer patients; the relationships among indices of social cognition, motivation, and…

  10. Visual signal detection in structured backgrounds. II. Effects of contrast gain control, background variations, and white noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckstein, M. P.; Ahumada, A. J. Jr; Watson, A. B.

    1997-01-01

    Studies of visual detection of a signal superimposed on one of two identical backgrounds show performance degradation when the background has high contrast and is similar in spatial frequency and/or orientation to the signal. To account for this finding, models include a contrast gain control mechanism that pools activity across spatial frequency, orientation and space to inhibit (divisively) the response of the receptor sensitive to the signal. In tasks in which the observer has to detect a known signal added to one of M different backgrounds grounds due to added visual noise, the main sources of degradation are the stochastic noise in the image and the suboptimal visual processing. We investigate how these two sources of degradation (contrast gain control and variations in the background) interact in a task in which the signal is embedded in one of M locations in a complex spatially varying background (structured background). We use backgrounds extracted from patient digital medical images. To isolate effects of the fixed deterministic background (the contrast gain control) from the effects of the background variations, we conduct detection experiments with three different background conditions: (1) uniform background, (2) a repeated sample of structured background, and (3) different samples of structured background. Results show that human visual detection degrades from the uniform background condition to the repeated background condition and degrades even further in the different backgrounds condition. These results suggest that both the contrast gain control mechanism and the background random variations degrade human performance in detection of a signal in a complex, spatially varying background. A filter model and added white noise are used to generate estimates of sampling efficiencies, an equivalent internal noise, an equivalent contrast-gain-control-induced noise, and an equivalent noise due to the variations in the structured background.

  11. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garza, J. G.; Aune, S.; Aznar, F.; Calvet, D.; Castel, J. F.; Christensen, F. E.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Decker, T.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Galán, J.; García, J. A.; Giomataris, I.; Hill, R. M.; Iguaz, F. J.; Irastorza, I. G.; Jakobsen, A. C.; Jourde, D.; Mirallas, H.; Ortega, I.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M. J.; Ruz, J.; Tomás, A.; Vafeiadis, T.; Vogel, J. K.

    2015-11-01

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led to background levels below 10-6 counts/keV/cm2/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10-7 counts/keV/cm2/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. The current background model, based on underground and surface measurements, is presented, as well as the strategies to further reduce the background level. Finally, we will describe the R&D paths to achieve sub-keV energy thresholds, which could broaden the physics case of axion helioscopes.

  12. The Notion of Reducing Abstraction in Quadratic Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eraslan, Ali

    2008-01-01

    One possible approach students can cope with abstract algebra concepts is reducing abstraction. This notion occurs when learners are unable to adopt mental strategies as they deal with abstraction level of a given task. To make these concepts mentally accessible for themselves, learners unconsciously reduce the level of the abstraction of the…

  13. Gravitino condensation in fivebrane backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazawa, Noriaki

    2002-04-01

    We calculate the tension of the D3-brane in the fivebrane background which is described by the exactly solvable SU(2)k×U(1) world-sheet conformal field theory with large Kač-Moody level k. The D3-brane tension is extracted from the amplitude of one closed string exchange between two parallel D3-branes, and the amplitude is calculated by utilizing the open-closed string duality. The tension of the D3-brane in the background does not coincide with the one in the flat space-time even in the flat space-time limit: k-->∞. The finite curvature effect should vanish in the flat space-time limit and only the topological effect can remain. Therefore, the deviation suggests the condensation of the gravitino and/or dilatino which has been expected in the fivebrane background as a gravitational instanton.

  14. [The dynamic level of beta 2-microglobulin, the basic lipid peroxidation indices and middle molecules in the blood and urine in patients with acute calculous pyelonephritis against a background of endovascular helium-neon laser therapy].

    PubMed

    Safafov, R M; Ianenko, E K; Nikitinskaia, L P; Golovanov, S A; Drozhzheva, V V; Kon'kova, T A; Danilkov, A P

    1997-01-01

    The authors present the effect of intravenous He-Ne laser therapy on the changes in beta 2-microglobulin, lipid peroxidation, middle-size molecules in the blood and urine of patients with acute calculous pyelonephritis. Endovascular He-Ne laser therapy was found an effective treatment of acute calculous pyelonephritis. The authors propose to combine hemosorption with endovascular He-Ne laser radiation. PMID:9123656

  15. Interpretation for scales of measurement linking with abstract algebra

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Stevens classification of levels of measurement involves four types of scale: “Nominal”, “Ordinal”, “Interval” and “Ratio”. This classification has been used widely in medical fields and has accomplished an important role in composition and interpretation of scale. With this classification, levels of measurements appear organized and validated. However, a group theory-like systematization beckons as an alternative because of its logical consistency and unexceptional applicability in the natural sciences but which may offer great advantages in clinical medicine. According to this viewpoint, the Stevens classification is reformulated within an abstract algebra-like scheme; ‘Abelian modulo additive group’ for “Ordinal scale” accompanied with ‘zero’, ‘Abelian additive group’ for “Interval scale”, and ‘field’ for “Ratio scale”. Furthermore, a vector-like display arranges a mixture of schemes describing the assessment of patient states. With this vector-like notation, data-mining and data-set combination is possible on a higher abstract structure level based upon a hierarchical-cluster form. Using simple examples, we show that operations acting on the corresponding mixed schemes of this display allow for a sophisticated means of classifying, updating, monitoring, and prognosis, where better data mining/data usage and efficacy is expected. PMID:24987515

  16. The cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    A review the implications of the spectrum and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background for cosmology. Thermalization and processes generating spectral distortions are discussed. Anisotropy predictions are described and compared with observational constraints. If the evidence for large-scale power in the galaxy distribution in excess of that predicted by the cold dark matter model is vindicated, and the observed structure originated via gravitational instabilities of primordial density fluctuations, the predicted amplitude of microwave background anisotropies on angular scales of a degree and larger must be at least several parts in 10 exp 6.

  17. Background music and cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Angel, Leslie A; Polzella, Donald J; Elvers, Greg C

    2010-06-01

    The present experiment employed standardized test batteries to assess the effects of fast-tempo music on cognitive performance among 56 male and female university students. A linguistic processing task and a spatial processing task were selected from the Criterion Task Set developed to assess verbal and nonverbal performance. Ten excerpts from Mozart's music matched for tempo were selected. Background music increased the speed of spatial processing and the accuracy of linguistic processing. The findings suggest that background music can have predictable effects on cognitive performance. PMID:20865993

  18. Detector Background at Muon Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Physics goals of a Muon Collider (MC) can only be reached with appropriate design of the ring, interaction region (IR), high-field superconducting magnets, machine-detector interface (MDI) and detector. Results of the most recent realistic simulation studies are presented for a 1.5-TeV MC. It is shown that appropriately designed IR and MDI with sophisticated shielding in the detector have a potential to substantially suppress the background rates in the MC detector. The main characteristics of backgrounds are studied.

  19. Exotic branes and nongeometric backgrounds.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Jan; Shigemori, Masaki

    2010-06-25

    When string or M theory is compactified to lower dimensions, the U-duality symmetry predicts so-called exotic branes whose higher-dimensional origin cannot be explained by the standard string or M-theory branes. We argue that exotic branes can be understood in higher dimensions as nongeometric backgrounds or U folds, and that they are important for the physics of systems which originally contain no exotic charges, since the supertube effect generically produces such exotic charges. We discuss the implications of exotic backgrounds for black hole microstate (non-)geometries. PMID:20867363

  20. NASA patent abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 06)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Patents and applications for patent introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system are cited. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and a key illustration selected from the patent or application for patent. The patent and application for patent citations are indexed according to subject, inventor, source, number, and accession number.

  1. Strengthening Structured Abstracts for Education Research: The Need for Claim-Based Structured Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Anthony E.; Yin, Robert K.

    2007-01-01

    Recent policy recommendations involving the putative primacy of randomized clinical trials in educational settings have reignited research paradigm debates. The authors of this article use the vehicle of strengthening structured journal abstracts to point out the argumentative character of all education research claims. They offer suggestions to…

  2. In defense of abstract conceptual representations.

    PubMed

    Binder, Jeffrey R

    2016-08-01

    An extensive program of research in the past 2 decades has focused on the role of modal sensory, motor, and affective brain systems in storing and retrieving concept knowledge. This focus has led in some circles to an underestimation of the need for more abstract, supramodal conceptual representations in semantic cognition. Evidence for supramodal processing comes from neuroimaging work documenting a large, well-defined cortical network that responds to meaningful stimuli regardless of modal content. The nodes in this network correspond to high-level "convergence zones" that receive broadly crossmodal input and presumably process crossmodal conjunctions. It is proposed that highly conjunctive representations are needed for several critical functions, including capturing conceptual similarity structure, enabling thematic associative relationships independent of conceptual similarity, and providing efficient "chunking" of concept representations for a range of higher order tasks that require concepts to be configured as situations. These hypothesized functions account for a wide range of neuroimaging results showing modulation of the supramodal convergence zone network by associative strength, lexicality, familiarity, imageability, frequency, and semantic compositionality. The evidence supports a hierarchical model of knowledge representation in which modal systems provide a mechanism for concept acquisition and serve to ground individual concepts in external reality, whereas broadly conjunctive, supramodal representations play an equally important role in concept association and situation knowledge. PMID:27294428

  3. Abstracts from the First Annual Scholarly Day.

    PubMed

    2015-07-01

    The Department of Medical Education at Baylor University Medical Center at Dallas hosted its first annual Scholarly Day to showcase the research efforts of medical students, residents, and fellows. Hania Wehbe-Janek, PhD, vice president for academic research integration for Baylor Scott and White Health Central Texas, shared the plenary session, "Building a Culture of Research at Academic Medical Centers: Impact on Medical Education and Recommended Practices." Stuart Black, MD, John Fordtran, MD, Ronald C. Jones, MD, Michael A. Ramsay, MD, William C. Roberts, MD, and Hania Wehbe-Janek, PhD, served as judges of the posters and the oral presentations. Winners in each category were as follows: best fellow poster, "Diet pattern and cardiovascular disease among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus," by Hyun Joon Shin, MD; best resident poster, "Oral squamous cell carcinoma: current concepts in imaging, staging, and fibular osteocutaneous free-flap reconstruction," by R. Evans Heithaus, MD; best medical student poster, "Neuromyelitis optica," by Elizabeth Coffee; and best oral presentation, "Transarterial chemoembolization with smaller beads: midterm clinical outcomes," by R. Evans Heithaus, MD. Overall, participants in the inaugural event presented more than 40 posters and six oral presentations. This article reprints a selection of the abstracts. PMID:26130877

  4. Abstracts from the First Annual Scholarly Day

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Medical Education at Baylor University Medical Center at Dallas hosted its first annual Scholarly Day to showcase the research efforts of medical students, residents, and fellows. Hania Wehbe-Janek, PhD, vice president for academic research integration for Baylor Scott and White Health Central Texas, shared the plenary session, “Building a Culture of Research at Academic Medical Centers: Impact on Medical Education and Recommended Practices.” Stuart Black, MD, John Fordtran, MD, Ronald C. Jones, MD, Michael A. Ramsay, MD, William C. Roberts, MD, and Hania Wehbe-Janek, PhD, served as judges of the posters and the oral presentations. Winners in each category were as follows: best fellow poster, “Diet pattern and cardiovascular disease among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” by Hyun Joon Shin, MD; best resident poster, “Oral squamous cell carcinoma: current concepts in imaging, staging, and fibular osteocutaneous free-flap reconstruction,” by R. Evans Heithaus, MD; best medical student poster, “Neuromyelitis optica,” by Elizabeth Coffee; and best oral presentation, “Transarterial chemoembolization with smaller beads: midterm clinical outcomes,” by R. Evans Heithaus, MD. Overall, participants in the inaugural event presented more than 40 posters and six oral presentations. This article reprints a selection of the abstracts. PMID:26130877

  5. Directory of Energy Information Administration model abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-11

    This report contains brief statements from the model managers about each model's title, acronym, purpose, and status, followed by more detailed information on characteristics, uses, and requirements. Sources for additional information are identified. All models ''active'' through March 1987 are included. The main body of this directory is an alphabetical list of all active EIA models. Appendix A identifies major EIA modeling systems and the models within these systems, and Appendix B identifies active EIA models by type (basic, auxiliary, and developing). A basic model is one designated by the EIA Administrator as being sufficiently important to require sustained support and public scrutiny. An auxiliary model is one designated by the EIA Administrator as being used only occasionally in analyses, and therefore requires minimal levels of documentation. A developing model is one designated by the EIA Administrator as being under development and yet of sufficient interest to require a basic level of documentation at a future date. EIA also leases models developed by proprietary software vendors. Documentation for these ''proprietary'' models is the responsibility of the companies from which they are leased. EIA has recently leased models from Chase Econometrics, Inc., Data Resources, Inc. (DRI), the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Wharton Econometric Forecasting Associates (WEFA). Leased models are not abstracted here. The directory is intended for the use of energy and energy-policy analysts in the public and private sectors.

  6. Types: A data abstraction package in FORTRAN

    SciTech Connect

    Youssef, S. )

    1990-08-01

    TYPES is a collection of Fortran programs which allow the creation and manipulation of abstract data objects'' without the need for a preprocessor. Each data object is assigned a type'' as it is created which implies participation in a set of characteristic operations. Available types include scalars, logicals, ordered sets, stacks, queues, sequences, trees, arrays, character strings, block text, histograms, virtual and allocatable memories. A data object may contain integers, reals, or other data objects in any combination. In addition to the type specific operations, a set of universal utilities allows for copying input/output to disk, naming, editing, displaying, user input, interactive creation, tests for equality of contents or structure, machine to machine translation or source code creation for and data object. TYPES is available on VAX/VMS, SUN 3, SPARC, DEC/Ultrix, Silicon Graphics 4D and Cray/Unicos machines. The capabilities of the package are discussed together with characteristic applications and experience in writing the GVerify package.

  7. DOE-NABIR PI Workshop: Abstracts 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Various

    2003-01-28

    The mission of the NABIR program is to provide the fundamental science that will serve as the basis for the development of cost-effective bioremediation and long-term stewardship of radionuclides and metals in the subsurface at DOE sites. The focus of the program is on strategies leading to long-term immobilization of contaminants in situ to reduce the risk to humans and the environment. Contaminants of special interest are uranium, technetium, plutonium, chromium, and mercury. The focus of the NABIR program is on the bioremediation of these contaminants in the subsurface below the root zone, including both vadose and saturated zones. The program consists of four interrelated Science Elements (Biotransformation, Community Dynamics/Microbial Ecology, Biomolecular Science and Engineering, and Biogeochemistry). The program also has a cross-cutting Assessment Element that supports development of innovative approaches and technologies to support the science elements. An element called Bioremediation and its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC) addresses potential societal issues of implementing NABIR scientific findings. The material presented at this year's workshop focuses on approximately 60 research projects funded in FY 2000-2003 by the Environmental Remediation Sciences Division in DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) in the Office of Science. Abstracts of NABIR research projects are provided in this book.

  8. DOE NABIR PI Workshop: Abstracts 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkes , Dan

    2002-01-09

    The mission of the NABIR program is to provide the fundamental science that will serve as the basis for the development of cost-effective bioremediation and long-term stewardship of radionuclides and metals in the subsurface at DOE sites. The focus of the program is on strategies leading to long-term immobilization of contaminants in place to reduce the risk to humans and the environment. Contaminants of special interest are uranium, technetium, plutonium, chromium, and mercury. The focus of the NABIR program is on the bioremediation of these contaminants in the subsurface below the root zone, including both vadose and saturated zones. The program is implemented through four interrelated scientific research elements (Biogeochemistry, Biomolecular Science and Engineering, Biotransformation, and Community Dynamics/Microbial Ecology); and through an element called Bioremediation and its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC), which addresses societal issues and potential concerns of stakeholders. The material presented at this year's workshop focuses on approximately 60 research projects funded in FY 2000-2002 by DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER). Abstracts of NABIR research projects are provided in this book.

  9. Plans should abstractly describe intended behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Pfleger, K.; Hayes-Roth, B.

    1996-12-31

    Planning is the process of formulating a potential course of action. How courses of action (plans) produced by a planning module are represented and how they are used by execution-oriented modules of a complex agent to influence or dictate behavior are critical architectural issues. In contrast to the traditional model of plans as executable programs that dictate precise behaviors, we claim that autonomous agents inhabiting dynamic, unpredictable environments can make better use of plans that only abstractly describe their intended behavior. Such plans only influence or constrain behavior, rather than dictating it. This idea has been discussed in a variety of contexts, but it is seldom incorporated into working complex agents. Experiments involving instantiations of our Adaptive Intelligent Systems architecture in a variety of domains have demonstrated the generality and usefulness of the approach, even with our currently simple plan representation and mechanisms for plan following. The behavioral benefits include (1) robust improvisation of goal-directed behavior in response to dynamic situations, (2) ready exploitation of dynamically acquired knowledge or behavioral capabilities, and (3) adaptation based on dynamic aspects of coordinating diverse behaviors to achieve multiple goals. In addition to these run-time advantages, the approach has useful implications for the design and configuration of agents. Indeed, the core ideas of the approach are natural extensions of fundamental ideas in software engineering.

  10. Observational Activities at Manipur University, India (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, K. Y.; Meitei, I. A.; Singh, S. A.; Singh, R. B.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) We have innovatively designed and constructed three observatories each costing a few hundred USD for housing three small Schmidt-Cassegrain type telescopes namely, Celestron CGE925, Celestron CGE1400, Meade 12-inch LX200GPS. These observatories are completely different in design and are found to be perfectly usable for doing serious work on astronomical observation and measurements. The observatory with the Celestron CGE1400 telescope has been inducted, since January 2012, as one of the observatories of the international “Orion Project” headquartered at Phoenix, Arizona, which is dedicated for photometric and spectroscopic observations of five bright variable stars of the Orion constellation namely, Betelgeuse (alpha Ori), Rigel (beta Ori), Mintaka (delta Ori), Alnilam (epsilon Ori) and Alnitak (zeta Ori). Using this observatory, we have been producing BVRI photometric data for the five stars of the Orion project. The other observatory with the Meade 12-inch LX200GPS telescope is being inducted into service for CCD photometric study of SU UMa stars in connection with implementation of a project funded by Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). In the present paper, we would like to describe our self-built observatories, our observational facilities, the BVRI photometric data that we acquired for the Orion project, and our future plan for observation of variable stars of interest.

  11. Cultural Backgrounds and Textual Appropriation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Ling

    2006-01-01

    This study examines interviews with 46 undergraduates to explore if participants with differing language and cultural backgrounds view plagiarism or textual appropriation primarily as a) a language problem because of a lack of words of one's own, or b) a cultural challenge as a result of either some first language (L1) cultural training to…

  12. Teacher Pensions: A Background Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Janet S.

    2008-01-01

    Pensions are an important but comparatively unexamined component of human resource policies in education. In an increasingly competitive world where employees are more mobile than ever, pension policies that were designed in the last century may be out of step with the needs of both individuals and schools. This background paper aims to foster…

  13. Low background techniques in CANDLES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, K.; Iida, T.; Kishimoto, T.; Matsuoka, K.; Nomachi, M.; Umehara, S.; Chan, W. M.; Kakubata, H.; Li, X.; Maeda, T.; Ohata, T.; Temuge, B.; Tetsuno, K.; Trang, V. T. T.; Uehara, T.; Yoshida, S.; Morishita, K.; Ogawa, I.; Sakamoto, K.; Tamagawa, Y.; Yoshizawa, M.; Fushimi, K.; Hazama, R.; Naktani, N.; Suzuki, K.

    2015-08-01

    CANDLES is a double beta decay experiment using 48Ca in CaF2 crystals. The measurement is being performed with prototype detector (CANDLES III) for high sensitive measurement in the future. Recent status of detector improvements and background reduction techniques are described in this paper.

  14. Mathematical background of Parrondo's paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrends, Ehrhard

    2004-05-01

    Parrondo's paradox states that there are losing gambling games which, when being combined stochastically or in a suitable deterministic way, give rise to winning games. Here we investigate the probabilistic background. We show how the properties of the equilibrium distributions of the Markov chains under consideration give rise to the paradoxical behavior, and we provide methods how to find the best a priori strategies.

  15. Low background techniques in CANDLES

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, K. E-mail: nkyohei@u-fukui.ac.jp; Iida, T.; Matsuoka, K.; Nomachi, M.; Umehara, S.; Kishimoto, T.; Chan, W. M.; Kakubata, H.; Li, X.; Maeda, T.; Ohata, T.; Temuge, B.; Tetsuno, K.; Trang, V. T. T.; Uehara, T.; Yoshida, S.; Morishita, K.; Ogawa, I.; Sakamoto, K.; Tamagawa, Y.; and others

    2015-08-17

    CANDLES is a double beta decay experiment using {sup 48}Ca in CaF{sub 2} crystals. The measurement is being performed with prototype detector (CANDLES III) for high sensitive measurement in the future. Recent status of detector improvements and background reduction techniques are described in this paper.

  16. Teaching about Natural Background Radiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.; Mustapha, Amidu O.

    2013-01-01

    Ambient gamma dose rates in air were measured at different locations (indoors and outdoors) to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of natural background radiation in the environment and to show that levels vary from one location to another, depending on the underlying geology. The effect of a lead shield on a gamma radiation field was also…

  17. Regional Background Fine Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling system composed of the global model GEOS-Chem providing hourly lateral boundary conditions to the regional model CMAQ was used to calculate the policy relevant background level of fine particulate: matter. Simulations were performed for the full year of 2004 over the d...

  18. Ambient background particulate composition, outdoor natural background: interferents/clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterno, Dorothea

    2012-06-01

    It has proven a very difficult task to discriminate an actual BW threat from the natural occurring ambient particulate aerosol, which includes a significant fraction of particles consisting of mixed mineral and biological material. The interferent particles [clutter] (bio and non bio) concentration varies widely both by location, weather and season and diurnally. Naturally occurring background particulates are composed of fungal and bacterial spores both fragments and components, plant fragments and debris, animal fragments and debris, all of which may be associated with inert dust or combustion material. Some or all of which could also be considered to be an interferent to a biological warfare detector and cause these biodector systems to cause False Alarms by non specific BW bio detectors. I will share analysis of current long term background data sets.

  19. Metaphors are physical and abstract: ERPs to metaphorically modified nouns resemble ERPs to abstract language

    PubMed Central

    Forgács, Bálint; Bardolph, Megan D.; Amsel, Ben D.; DeLong, Katherine A.; Kutas, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Metaphorical expressions very often involve words referring to physical entities and experiences. Yet, figures of speech such as metaphors are not intended to be understood literally, word-by-word. We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to determine whether metaphorical expressions are processed more like physical or more like abstract expressions. To this end, novel adjective-noun word pairs were presented visually in three conditions: (1) Physical, easy to experience with the senses (e.g., “printed schedule”); (2) Abstract, difficult to experience with the senses (e.g., “conditional schedule”); and (3) novel Metaphorical, expressions with a physical adjective, but a figurative meaning (e.g., “thin schedule”). We replicated the N400 lexical concreteness effect for concrete vs. abstract adjectives. In order to increase the sensitivity of the concreteness manipulation on the expressions, we divided each condition into high and low groups according to rated concreteness. Mirroring the adjective result, we observed a N400 concreteness effect at the noun for physical expressions with high concreteness ratings vs. abstract expressions with low concreteness ratings, even though the nouns per se did not differ in lexical concreteness. Paradoxically, the N400 to nouns in the metaphorical expressions was indistinguishable from that to nouns in the literal abstract expressions, but only for the more concrete subgroup of metaphors; the N400 to the less concrete subgroup of metaphors patterned with that to nouns in the literal concrete expressions. In sum, we not only find evidence for conceptual concreteness separable from lexical concreteness but also that the processing of metaphorical expressions is not driven strictly by either lexical or conceptual concreteness. PMID:25713520

  20. Metaphors are physical and abstract: ERPs to metaphorically modified nouns resemble ERPs to abstract language.

    PubMed

    Forgács, Bálint; Bardolph, Megan D; Amsel, Ben D; DeLong, Katherine A; Kutas, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Metaphorical expressions very often involve words referring to physical entities and experiences. Yet, figures of speech such as metaphors are not intended to be understood literally, word-by-word. We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to determine whether metaphorical expressions are processed more like physical or more like abstract expressions. To this end, novel adjective-noun word pairs were presented visually in three conditions: (1) Physical, easy to experience with the senses (e.g., "printed schedule"); (2) Abstract, difficult to experience with the senses (e.g., "conditional schedule"); and (3) novel Metaphorical, expressions with a physical adjective, but a figurative meaning (e.g., "thin schedule"). We replicated the N400 lexical concreteness effect for concrete vs. abstract adjectives. In order to increase the sensitivity of the concreteness manipulation on the expressions, we divided each condition into high and low groups according to rated concreteness. Mirroring the adjective result, we observed a N400 concreteness effect at the noun for physical expressions with high concreteness ratings vs. abstract expressions with low concreteness ratings, even though the nouns per se did not differ in lexical concreteness. Paradoxically, the N400 to nouns in the metaphorical expressions was indistinguishable from that to nouns in the literal abstract expressions, but only for the more concrete subgroup of metaphors; the N400 to the less concrete subgroup of metaphors patterned with that to nouns in the literal concrete expressions. In sum, we not only find evidence for conceptual concreteness separable from lexical concreteness but also that the processing of metaphorical expressions is not driven strictly by either lexical or conceptual concreteness. PMID:25713520

  1. Perspective for Female Medical Physicists (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naqvi, Syed Mansoor; Hasnain, Aziz Fatima

    2009-04-01

    Due to cultural and religious reasons, Pakistani women can be reluctant to seek medical attention for disorders affecting their genitals or breasts. As a result, in the case of cervical and breast cancers, oncological treatment is often not received until the diseases are in the late stages. Once a cancer is classified and the tumor marked, the role of the medical physicist begins. Medical physicists' responsibilities include treatment planning, supervising treatment through radiation, dosimetry, contouring, training, equipment selection, education, research, and supervising radiotherapy facilities. In brachytherapy, isotopes are placed at the tumor site in the form of wires or seeds. There are very few female medical physicists in Pakistan. This leads to further hesitation on the part of many women to seek treatment. To help female patients obtain needed medical care, female physics students should be encouraged to pursue the emerging field of medical physics. This would provide a new professional opportunity for female physics students and give comfort to female patients.

  2. Hot Universe Background Explorer (HUBE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, R. C.; Murthy, J.; Ford, H.; Peacock, K.; Burrows, D. N.; Smith, B. W.; Bloch, J. J.

    1998-05-01

    The study of diffuse backgrounds has played an important role in the recent history of astronomy. From the microwave discovery of the 2.7 K background to the soft X-ray detection of coronal gas to the diffuse H2 emission from warm interstellar gas in our galaxy to the infrared mapping of wisps of dust at high galactic latitudes, diffuse background astronomy has provided fundamental insights into the nature of the universe. As the various regions of the electromagnetic spectrum have been explored, their diffuse backgrounds have been found to arise from the widest possible range of sources: from the local interstellar medium to the farthest reaches of the observable universe; from the wrinkled echo of the Big Bang to the million degree plasma between the stars. Most astronomers are ``point-source" astronomers, and the history of astronomy space missions is that few have been dedicated to the elucidation of the nature of the truly diffuse radiation. And yet a large fraction of the total electromagnetic energy in the universe occurs in the form of diffuse radiation. In some spectral ranges, we do not yet know the fraction of radiation that is diffuse; we are dealing with genuinely unexplored frontiers. We will describe the extraordinary science that can be obtained through a MIDEX mission that is dedicated to the exploration of the diffuse emission in the far ultraviolet and soft X-ray regions of the spectrum, where the diffuse radiation is dominated by emission from the hottest components of the interstellar medium and, perhaps, from the intergalactic medium. HUBE currently enjoys the status of being NASA's MIDEX Alternate Astrophysics Mission. We are re-proposing HUBE in the current MIDEX competition with a much broader scientific set of goals, aiming at a definitive spectroscopic survey of the diffuse background over a greatly-expanded spectral range. Our HUBE proposal effort is being supported by Ball Aerospace Corporation.

  3. Photometry Transforms Generation with PTGP (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, G.; Menzies, K.; Silvis, G.; Harris, B.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) Historically the development of photometry transformation coefficients required extensive manual effort and the use of large spreadsheets. A new release—version 5.0—of the Photometry Transformations Generation Program (PTGP) achieves the goal of generating transformation coefficients without the use of spreadsheets—saving considerable time and ensuring data accuracy. PTGP version 5.0 works directly with VSP to retrieve the most recent standard star reference magnitudes (currently for M67 and NGC7790). It then processes instrument magnitude file(s) downloaded from vphot or exported from AIP4WIN or MAXIM. Either AUID or “Boulder” star identifications can be used for AIP4WIN and MAXIM. When using VPHOT data or “Boulder” star identifications, PTGP determines the AUID names for each of the reference standard stars. All standard transforms are calculated. Plots of each transform's data can be reviewed, and individual star observations added/deleted. Transform sets can be saved for further use. Transform sets can be compared and selected sets averaged. The averaged sets can be exported in a file format compatible with the AAVSO TA tool. The presentation will provide a brief overview and demonstration of the tool. It will also discuss the implications of using PYTHON for the development—both benefits and potential problems. The program runs on both PCs and Macs. A subsequent presentation will discuss the use of VPHOT and PTGP to generate transforms and the testing of the impacts of varying key VPHOT and PTGP parameters.

  4. IM Normae: A Second T Pyx? (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, J.; Monard, B.; Warhurst, P.; Myers, G.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) T Pyx is the Galaxy's most famous recurrent nova, erupting to magnitude 6 about every 20 years. For nova hunters and variable-star observers generally, it should be quite easy to discover stars with similar properties. There are probably half a million CVs out to the distance of T Pyx, and most have an underlying structure similar to that of T Pyx: low-mass secondary, fairly massive white dwarf, short orbital period. But of these half million stars, there is no second T Pyx. The star is unique in another way: its orbital period is increasing on a timescale of 300,000 years. Like the proverbial bat out of hell. A 2002 nova eruption nominated a second star for this elite club: IM Nor, a short-orbital-period (2.5 hours) star which previously erupted in 1920. We began a program of time-series photometry to track the shallow eclipses—to test for orbital period change, the other signature of T Pyx resemblance. By 2015 we found this effect: Porb increases on a timescale of 2 million years. Thus, the two stars appear to be blowing themselves apart on a timescale of roughly a million years. This could explain why the stars are so rare: because they are rapidly self-immolating. And that could happen because the classical-nova outburst overwhelms the low-mass secondaries that live in short-period CVs—leading to unstable mass transfer which quickly evaporates the secondary. This implies that all short-Porb classical novae should be "recurrent" (erupting on a timescale of decades). Greater attention to CP Pup (1942), RW UMi (1956), GQ Mus (1983), and V Per (1887) is definitely warranted.

  5. Extracting rate changes in transcriptional regulation from MEDLINE abstracts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Time delays are important factors that are often neglected in gene regulatory network (GRN) inference models. Validating time delays from knowledge bases is a challenge since the vast majority of biological databases do not record temporal information of gene regulations. Biological knowledge and facts on gene regulations are typically extracted from bio-literature with specialized methods that depend on the regulation task. In this paper, we mine evidences for time delays related to the transcriptional regulation of yeast from the PubMed abstracts. Results Since the vast majority of abstracts lack quantitative time information, we can only collect qualitative evidences of time delays. Specifically, the speed-up or delay in transcriptional regulation rate can provide evidences for time delays (shorter or longer) in GRN. Thus, we focus on deriving events related to rate changes in transcriptional regulation. A corpus of yeast regulation related abstracts was manually labeled with such events. In order to capture these events automatically, we create an ontology of sub-processes that are likely to result in transcription rate changes by combining textual patterns and biological knowledge. We also propose effective feature extraction methods based on the created ontology to identify the direct evidences with specific details of these events. Our ontologies outperform existing state-of-the-art gene regulation ontologies in the automatic rule learning method applied to our corpus. The proposed deterministic ontology rule-based method can achieve comparable performance to the automatic rule learning method based on decision trees. This demonstrates the effectiveness of our ontology in identifying rate-changing events. We also tested the effectiveness of the proposed feature mining methods on detecting direct evidence of events. Experimental results show that the machine learning method on these features achieves an F1-score of 71.43%. Conclusions The manually

  6. Background stratospheric aerosol reference model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.; Wang, P.

    1989-01-01

    In this analysis, a reference background stratospheric aerosol optical model is developed based on the nearly global SAGE 1 satellite observations in the non-volcanic period from March 1979 to February 1980. Zonally averaged profiles of the 1.0 micron aerosol extinction for the tropics and the mid- and high-altitudes for both hemispheres are obtained and presented in graphical and tabulated form for the different seasons. In addition, analytic expressions for these seasonal global zonal means, as well as the yearly global mean, are determined according to a third order polynomial fit to the vertical profile data set. This proposed background stratospheric aerosol model can be useful in modeling studies of stratospheric aerosols and for simulations of atmospheric radiative transfer and radiance calculations in atmospheric remote sensing.

  7. Perfluorocarbon background concentrations in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straume, Anne Grete; Dietz, Russel N.; Koffı̀, Ernest N.'dri; Nodop, Katrin

    Five studies of the background level of several perfluorocarbon compounds in Europe are here presented together with measurements from the European Tracer Experiment (ETEX). The tracers used during the two ETEX tracer releases were the perfluorocarbons (PFCs); perfluoromethylcyclohexane (C 7F 14, PMCH) and perfluoromethylcyclopentane (C 6F 12, PMCP). Their background concentrations were detected by using both passive and active sampling techniques, to define the spatial and temporal variation of the PFCs over Europe. Also the background variations of four isomers of the PFC compound perfluorodimethylcyclohexane (C 8F 16, PDCH) were studied. The results were compared to other PFC tracer studies in the U.S.A. and Europe. The mean and median values of the measured PFCs were found to vary slightly and randomly in space and time. They were found to be higher and to have a larger standard deviation than the measurements from the American studies. The background concentrations were still found to be low and stable enough for PFCs to be highly suitable for use in tracer studies. The following concentrations were found: PMCP; 4.6±0.3 fl ℓ -1, PMCH: 4.6±0.8 fl ℓ -1, ocPDCH: 0.96±0.33 fl ℓ -1, mtPDCH: 9.3±0.8 fl ℓ -1, mcPDCH: 8.8±0.8 fl ℓ -1, ptPDCH: 6.1±0.8 fl ℓ -1. A study of the correlation between the measured PFC compounds showed a significant correlation between most of the compounds, which indicate that there are no major PFC sources in Europe.

  8. Background independence in a background dependent renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labus, Peter; Morris, Tim R.; Slade, Zöe H.

    2016-07-01

    Within the derivative expansion of conformally reduced gravity, the modified split Ward identities are shown to be compatible with the flow equations if and only if either the anomalous dimension vanishes or the cutoff profile is chosen to have a power-law form. No solutions exist if the Ward identities are incompatible. In the compatible case, a clear reason is found for why Ward identities can still forbid the existence of fixed points; however, for any cutoff profile, a background independent (and parametrization independent) flow equation is uncovered. Finally, expanding in vertices, the combined equations are shown generically to become either overconstrained or highly redundant beyond the six-point level.

  9. DSNF AND OTHER WASTE FORM DEGRADATION ABSTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    J. CUNNANE

    2004-11-19

    Several hundred distinct types of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel (DSNF) may potentially be disposed in the Yucca Mountain repository. These fuel types represent many more types than can be viably individually examined for their effect on the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). Additionally, for most of these fuel types, there is no known direct experimental test data for the degradation and dissolution of the waste form in repository groundwaters. The approach used in the TSPA-LA model is, therefore, to assess available information on each of 11 groups of DSNF, and to identify a model that can be used in the TSPA-LA model without differentiating between individual codisposal waste packages containing different DSNF types. The purpose of this report is to examine the available data and information concerning the dissolution kinetics of DSNF matrices for the purpose of abstracting a degradation model suitable for use in describing degradation of the DSNF inventory in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application. The data and information and associated degradation models were examined for the following types of DSNF: Group 1--Naval spent nuclear fuel; Group 2--Plutonium/uranium alloy (Fermi 1 SNF); Group 3--Plutonium/uranium carbide (Fast Flux Test Facility-Test Fuel Assembly SNF); Group 4--Mixed oxide and plutonium oxide (Fast Flux Test Facility-Demonstration Fuel Assembly/Fast Flux Test Facility-Test Demonstration Fuel Assembly SNF); Group 5--Thorium/uranium carbide (Fort St. Vrain SNF); Group 6--Thorium/uranium oxide (Shippingport light water breeder reactor SNF); Group 7--Uranium metal (N Reactor SNF); Group 8--Uranium oxide (Three Mile Island-2 core debris); Group 9--Aluminum-based SNF (Foreign Research Reactor SNF); Group 10--Miscellaneous Fuel; and Group 11--Uranium-zirconium hydride (Training Research Isotopes-General Atomics SNF). The analyses contained in this document provide an ''upper-limit'' (i

  10. Clad Degradation- Summary and Abstraction for LA

    SciTech Connect

    D. Stahl

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this model report is to develop the summary cladding degradation abstraction that will be used in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). Most civilian commercial nuclear fuel is encased in Zircaloy cladding. The model addressed in this report is intended to describe the postulated condition of commercial Zircaloy-clad fuel as a function of postclosure time after it is placed in the repository. Earlier total system performance assessments analyzed the waste form as exposed UO{sub 2}, which was available for degradation at the intrinsic dissolution rate. Water in the waste package quickly became saturated with many of the radionuclides, limiting their release rate. In the total system performance assessments for the Viability Assessment and the Site Recommendation, cladding was analyzed as part of the waste form, limiting the amount of fuel available at any time for degradation. The current model is divided into two stages. The first considers predisposal rod failures (most of which occur during reactor operation and associated activities) and postdisposal mechanical failure (from static loading of rocks) as mechanisms for perforating the cladding. Other fuel failure mechanisms including those caused by handling or transportation have been screened out (excluded) or are treated elsewhere. All stainless-steel-clad fuel, which makes up a small percentage of the overall amount of fuel to be stored, is modeled as failed upon placement in the waste packages. The second stage of the degradation model is the splitting of the cladding from the reaction of water or moist air and UO{sub 2}. The splitting has been observed to be rapid in comparison to the total system performance assessment time steps and is modeled to be instantaneous. After the cladding splits, the rind buildup inside the cladding widens the split, increasing the diffusion area from the fuel rind to the waste package interior. This model report summarizes

  11. Ambiguity and the abstract tact: A signal detection analysis

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Joanne K.; Layng, T. V. Joe; Karp, Hilary Jo

    1995-01-01

    Four observers who had completed a formal course in projective test techniques were asked to discriminate House-Tree-Person (H-T-P) drawings made by psychiatric patients from those made by nonpatients. A 4.5 kHz tone presentation was made contingent upon one of two classes of errors, failure-to-tact errors or false-tact errors, depending on the experimental condition in effect. The observers were instructed that a 2 second tone presentation would occur each time the experimenters disagreed with the observer. The duration of tone presentation was variable depending upon the number of disagreements that occurred after blocks of either 5 or 10 responses. All observers showed some degree of abstractional control by the set of patient drawings. The likelihood of a correct tact was shown to vary as a function of the consequences contingent upon each type of error for 3 of the 4 observers. However, the discriminability index d'e remained unchanged for all observers throughout all experimental conditions.

  12. FISCAL YEAR 1976/CONTROL TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH PROGRAM ABSTRACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report includes SSIE(Smithsonian Science Information) Abstracts pertaining to the FY 1976 Interagency Energy/Environment Research, Development and Demonstration Program being coordinated and managed by EPA's Office of Energy, Minerals, and Industry. The Abstracts are organiz...

  13. FISCAL YEAR 1976/HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH PROGRAM ABSTRACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report includes SSIE (Smithsonian Science Information) Abstracts pertaining to the FY 1976 Interagency Energy/Environment Research, Development and Demonstration Program being coordinated and managed by EPA's Office of Energy, Minerals, and Industry. The Abstracts are organi...

  14. A Review of Errors in the Journal Abstract

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eunpyo; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    (percentage) of abstracts that involved with errors, the most erroneous part of the abstract, and the types and frequency of errors. Also the purpose expanded to compare the results with those of the previous…

  15. Localization Versus Abstraction: A Comparison of Two Search Reduction Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansky, Amy L.

    1992-01-01

    There has been much recent work on the use of abstraction to improve planning behavior and cost. Another technique for dealing with the inherently explosive cost of planning is localization. This paper compares the relative strengths of localization and abstraction in reducing planning search cost. In particular, localization is shown to subsume abstraction. Localization techniques can model the various methods of abstraction that have been used, but also provide a much more flexible framework, with a broader range of benefits.

  16. Background stratospheric aerosol reference model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, M. P.; Wang, Pi-Huan

    Nearly global SAGE I satellite observations in the nonvolcanic period from March 1979 to February 1980 are used to produce a reference background stratospheric aerosol optical model. Zonally average profiles of the 1.0-micron aerosol extinction for the tropics, midlatitudes, and high latitudes for both hemispheres are given in graphical and tabulated form for the different seasons. A third order polynomial fit to the vertical profile data set is used to derive analytic expressions for the seasonal global means and the yearly global mean. The results have application to the simulation of atmospheric radiative transfer and radiance calculations in atmospheric remote sensing.

  17. High background photon counting lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lentz, W. J.

    1992-01-01

    Photon counting with lidar returns is usually limited to low light levels, while wide dynamic range is achieved by counting for long times. The broad emission spectrum of inexpensive high-power semiconductor lasers makes receiver filters pass too much background light for traditional photon counting in daylight. Very high speed photon counting is possible, however, at more than 500 MHz which allows the construction of eyesafe lidar operating in the presence of bright clouds. Detector improvements are possible to count to 20 GHz producing a single shot dynamic range of ten decades.

  18. [Toothache with a neuropathic background].

    PubMed

    Khatchaturian, V; de Wijer, A; Kalaykova, S I; Steenks, M H

    2015-03-01

    A 48-year old woman in good general health was referred to the orofacial pain clinic in a centre for special dentistry with a toothache in the premolar region of the left maxillary quadrant. The complaints had existed for 15 years and various dental treatments, including endodontic treatments, apical surgery, extraction and splint therapy, had not helped to alleviate the complaints. As a result of the fact that anti-epileptic drugs were able to reduce the pain it was concluded that this 'toothache' satisfied the criteria of an atypical odontalgia: 'toothache' with a neuropathic background. PMID:26181392

  19. Teaching about natural background radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.; Mustapha, Amidu O.

    2013-07-01

    Ambient gamma dose rates in air were measured at different locations (indoors and outdoors) to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of natural background radiation in the environment and to show that levels vary from one location to another, depending on the underlying geology. The effect of a lead shield on a gamma radiation field was also demonstrated to emphasize the important role of shielding in radiation protection. The measurements were carried out with a Geiger-Muller (GM)-based dosimeter and a NaI scintillation gamma-ray spectrometer, which are normally available in physics laboratories. Radioactivity in household materials was demonstrated using a gas mantle as an example.

  20. Land Application of Sewage Effluents and Sludges: Selected Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Research and Development.

    This report contains 568 selected abstracts concerned with the land application of sewage effluents and sludges. The abstracts are arranged in chronological groupings of ten-year periods from the l940's to the mid-l970's. The report also includes an author index and a subject matter index to facilitate reference to specific abstracts or narrower…

  1. Abstractions for Fault-Tolerant Distributed System Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, Lee S.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Miner, Paul S.; Geser, Alfons

    2004-01-01

    Four kinds of abstraction for the design and analysis of fault tolerant distributed systems are discussed. These abstractions concern system messages, faults, fault masking voting, and communication. The abstractions are formalized in higher order logic, and are intended to facilitate specifying and verifying such systems in higher order theorem provers.

  2. International Early Childhood Resources from Educational Research Abstracts Online (ERA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Early Years Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This annotated bibliography provides abstracts for 14 resources relating to early childhood around the world. Each annotation contains: title; author name(s); Educational Research Abstract; Abstract number; Source (name of journal in which the resource was published); ISSN of the journal in which the resource was published; and Issue (journal…

  3. Guidelines for Abstracting Technical Literature on Instructional System Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Sanford P.; And Others

    Guidelines are presented for the preparation of abstracts of technical literature on instructional systems development (ISD). Although specifically created for abstracting information during the preparation of a technical data file on ISD, the guidelines are sufficiently general to apply to other areas in which abstracts of technical literature…

  4. A Genre Analysis Study of 80 Medical Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kenneth; Maclean, Joan

    1997-01-01

    A study investigated the usefulness of instructional materials on the writing of scientific articles by comparing the descriptions of abstracts offered in the textbook with a sample of abstracts drawn from four fields of medicine (clinical medicine, surgery, epidemiology, basic sciences). The comparison was confined to abstracts of results-focused…

  5. 49 CFR 1113.11 - Abstracts of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Abstracts of documents. 1113.11 Section 1113.11... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE ORAL HEARING § 1113.11 Abstracts of documents. When documents... in orderly fashion to abstract the relevant data from the documents, affording other...

  6. 46 CFR 67.301 - Issuance of Abstract of Title.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Issuance of Abstract of Title. 67.301 Section 67.301... DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Abstracts of Title and Certificates of Ownership § 67.301 Issuance of Abstract of Title. Any person may request the National Vessel Documentation Center to issue a General Index or...

  7. 32 CFR 644.548 - Abstract of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Abstract of bids. 644.548 Section 644.548... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Sale Procedure § 644.548 Abstract of bids. At the opening of bids, DD Form 1501 or 1501-1 (Abstract of Bids) will be prepared showing all bids received, the amount for each...

  8. 46 CFR 67.301 - Issuance of Abstract of Title.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Issuance of Abstract of Title. 67.301 Section 67.301... DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Abstracts of Title and Certificates of Ownership § 67.301 Issuance of Abstract of Title. Any person may request the National Vessel Documentation Center to issue a General Index or...

  9. 32 CFR 644.548 - Abstract of bids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Abstract of bids. 644.548 Section 644.548... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Sale Procedure § 644.548 Abstract of bids. At the opening of bids, DD Form 1501 or 1501-1 (Abstract of Bids) will be prepared showing all bids received, the amount for each...

  10. 46 CFR 67.535 - Issuance of Abstract of Title.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Issuance of Abstract of Title. 67.535 Section 67.535... DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Fees § 67.535 Issuance of Abstract of Title. An issuance fee is charged for a General Index or Abstract of Title in accordance with subpart T of this part....

  11. 49 CFR 1113.11 - Abstracts of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Abstracts of documents. 1113.11 Section 1113.11... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE ORAL HEARING § 1113.11 Abstracts of documents. When documents... in orderly fashion to abstract the relevant data from the documents, affording other...

  12. 46 CFR 67.535 - Issuance of Abstract of Title.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Issuance of Abstract of Title. 67.535 Section 67.535... DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Fees § 67.535 Issuance of Abstract of Title. An issuance fee is charged for a General Index or Abstract of Title in accordance with subpart T of this part....

  13. AAVSO and the International Year of Light (Poster abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, K.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) The United Nations General Assembly has officially designated 2015 to be the International Year of Light (IYL). Modeled in part on the earlier International Year of Astronomy (IYA), this cross-disciplinary, international educational and outreach project will celebrate the importance of light in science, technology, cultural heritage, and the arts. It ties in with several important anniversaries, such as the 1000th anniversary of the publication of Ibn Al Haythem's “Book of Optics,” the 150th anniversary of Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism, the centenary of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, and the 50th anniversary of the discovery of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. Because variable stars are defined as such due to the variability of the light we observe from them, all of the AAVSO programs, regardless of type of variable or instrumentation (eye, DSLR, PEP, or CCD) have natural tie-ins to the study of light. This poster will highlight a number of specific ways that AAVSO members and the organization as a whole can become intimately involved with this unique outreach opportunity.

  14. Painters and patients: how art informs medicine.

    PubMed

    Wear, D

    1991-01-01

    This essay describes three movements in art--impressionism, cubism, and abstract expressionism--and how artists within each movement differed in their portrayal of reality. With this background, the author proposes that inquiry into the motives and methods of artists within each movement may help in our understanding of how a person experiences, interprets, and portrays reality. This, in turn, may translate into a recognition of the multiplicity of perspectives and the uniqueness of each patient's lived experience of his or her illness and that the doctor's vantage point on reality may not mesh with that of the patient. PMID:1936735

  15. ClinicalTrials.gov registration can supplement information in abstracts for systematic reviews: a comparison study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The inclusion of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reported in conference abstracts in systematic reviews is controversial, partly because study design information and risk of bias is often not fully reported in the abstract. The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) requires trial registration of abstracts submitted for their annual conference as of 2007. Our goal was to assess the feasibility of obtaining study design information critical to systematic reviews, but not typically included in conference abstracts, from the trial registration record. Methods We reviewed all conference abstracts presented at the ARVO meetings from 2007 through 2009, and identified 496 RCTs; 154 had a single matching registration record in ClinicalTrials.gov. Two individuals independently extracted information from the abstract and the ClinicalTrials.gov record, including study design, sample size, inclusion criteria, masking, interventions, outcomes, funder, and investigator name and contact information. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus. We assessed the frequencies of reporting variables appearing in the abstract and the trial register and assessed agreement of information reported in both sources. Results We found a substantial amount of study design information in the ClinicalTrials.gov record that was unavailable in the corresponding conference abstract, including eligibility criteria associated with gender (83%; 128/154); masking or blinding of study participants (53%, 82/154), persons administering treatment (30%, 46/154), and persons measuring the outcomes (40%, 61/154)); and number of study centers (58%; 90/154). Only 34% (52/154) of abstracts explicitly described a primary outcome, but a primary outcome was included in the “Primary Outcome” field in the ClinicalTrials.gov record for 82% (126/154) of studies. One or more study interventions were reported in each abstract, but agreed exactly with those reported in Clinical

  16. Abstracts from Dietetic Research Event: June 09-11, 2016.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Winnipeg, Manitoba was the host city of the 2016 Dietitians of Canada Annual Conference. Through the support of Dietitians of Canada and CFDR, the 2016 event was both an exciting and informative exchange of research and experience-sharing efforts that inspired attendees. The submissions for this year's Canadian Foundation for Dietetic Research (CFDR) event represented the diversity of dietetic research conducted within Canada. The topics highlighted from this year's abstracts include Community Based Nutritional Care, Wellness & Public Health, Determinants of Food Choice, Dietary Intake, Nutrition Health & Education, Dietetic Practice & Education, Clinical Research & Patient Service, and Nutrition Social Media & the Web. Each presenter provided an 11-minute oral presentation (8 minutes for presenting and 3 minutes for questions). This allowed for meaningful interaction between the presenters and those attending the sessions. This year there were professional and student oral research presentations on each day of the conference. These presentations offered the newest insights into important research findings that apply to dietetic practice. This research event would not be possible without the commitment and dedication of many people. On behalf of Dietitians of Canada and CFDR, I would like to extend a special thank you to the 2016 Abstract Review Committee who represented research, clinical nutrition, community nutrition, and education: Masha Jessri (Ph.D Candidate, University of Toronto), Joyce Slater (Associate Professor, University of Manitoba) and Miyoung Suh (Associate Professor, University of Manitoba). We would also like to thank all of our moderators who assisted during the conference to keep our research presentation sessions on time: Marcia Cooper, Miyoung Suh, Andrea Buchholz, Dawna Royall, Paul Fieldhouse, Joyce Slater, Isabelle Giroux, and Bethany Hopkins. Finally, a special thank you to Michelle Naraine and Greg Sarney at CFDR for their assistance and

  17. Video coding with dynamic background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Manoranjan; Lin, Weisi; Lau, Chiew Tong; Lee, Bu-Sung

    2013-12-01

    Motion estimation (ME) and motion compensation (MC) using variable block size, sub-pixel search, and multiple reference frames (MRFs) are the major reasons for improved coding performance of the H.264 video coding standard over other contemporary coding standards. The concept of MRFs is suitable for repetitive motion, uncovered background, non-integer pixel displacement, lighting change, etc. The requirement of index codes of the reference frames, computational time in ME & MC, and memory buffer for coded frames limits the number of reference frames used in practical applications. In typical video sequences, the previous frame is used as a reference frame with 68-92% of cases. In this article, we propose a new video coding method using a reference frame [i.e., the most common frame in scene (McFIS)] generated by dynamic background modeling. McFIS is more effective in terms of rate-distortion and computational time performance compared to the MRFs techniques. It has also inherent capability of scene change detection (SCD) for adaptive group of picture (GOP) size determination. As a result, we integrate SCD (for GOP determination) with reference frame generation. The experimental results show that the proposed coding scheme outperforms the H.264 video coding with five reference frames and the two relevant state-of-the-art algorithms by 0.5-2.0 dB with less computational time.

  18. [Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Anisotropies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    One of the main areas of research is the theory of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and analysis of CMB data. Using the four year COBE data we were able to improve existing constraints on global shear and vorticity. We found that, in the flat case (which allows for greatest anisotropy), (omega/H)0 less than 10(exp -7), where omega is the vorticity and H is the Hubble constant. This is two orders of magnitude lower than the tightest, previous constraint. We have defined a new set of statistics which quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity in small field cosmic microwave background maps. By looking at the distribution of power around rings in Fourier space, and at the correlations between adjacent rings, one can identify non-Gaussian features which are masked by large scale Gaussian fluctuations. This may be particularly useful for identifying unresolved localized sources and line-like discontinuities. Levin and collaborators devised a method to determine the global geometry of the universe through observations of patterns in the hot and cold spots of the CMB. We have derived properties of the peaks (maxima) of the CMB anisotropies expected in flat and open CDM models. We represent results for angular resolutions ranging from 5 arcmin to 20 arcmin (antenna FWHM), scales that are relevant for the MAP and COBRA/SAMBA space missions and the ground-based interferometer. Results related to galaxy formation and evolution are also discussed.

  19. [Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Anisotropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    One of the main areas of research is the theory of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and analysis of CMB data. Using the four year COBE data we were able to improve existing constraints on global shear and vorticity. We found that, in the flat case (which allows for greatest anisotropy), (omega/H)0 less than 10-7, where omega is the vorticity and H is the Hubble constant. This is two orders of magnitude lower than the tightest, previous constraint. We have defined a new set of statistics which quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity in small field cosmic microwave background maps. By looking at the distribution of power around rings in Fourier space, and at the correlations between adjacent rings, one can identify non-Gaussian features which are masked by large scale Gaussian fluctuations. This may be particularly useful for identifying unresolved localized sources and line-like discontinuities. Levin and collaborators devised a method to determine the global geometry of the universe through observations of patterns in the hot and cold spots of the CMB. We have derived properties of the peaks (maxima) of the CMB anisotropies expected in flat and open CDM models. We represent results for angular resolutions ranging from 5 arcmin to 20 arcmin (antenna FWHM), scales that are relevant for the MAP and COBRA/SAMBA space missions and the ground-based interferometer. Results related to galaxy formation and evolution are also discussed.

  20. CONSORT for Reporting Randomized Controlled Trials in Journal and Conference Abstracts: Explanation and Elaboration

    PubMed Central

    Hopewell, Sally; Clarke, Mike; Moher, David; Wager, Elizabeth; Middleton, Philippa; Altman, Douglas G; Schulz, Kenneth F

    2008-01-01

    Background Clear, transparent, and sufficiently detailed abstracts of conferences and journal articles related to randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are important, because readers often base their assessment of a trial solely on information in the abstract. Here, we extend the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) Statement to develop a minimum list of essential items, which authors should consider when reporting the results of a RCT in any journal or conference abstract. Methods and Findings We generated a list of items from existing quality assessment tools and empirical evidence. A three-round, modified-Delphi process was used to select items. In all, 109 participants were invited to participate in an electronic survey; the response rate was 61%. Survey results were presented at a meeting of the CONSORT Group in Montebello, Canada, January 2007, involving 26 participants, including clinical trialists, statisticians, epidemiologists, and biomedical editors. Checklist items were discussed for eligibility into the final checklist. The checklist was then revised to ensure that it reflected discussions held during and subsequent to the meeting. CONSORT for Abstracts recommends that abstracts relating to RCTs have a structured format. Items should include details of trial objectives; trial design (e.g., method of allocation, blinding/masking); trial participants (i.e., description, numbers randomized, and number analyzed); interventions intended for each randomized group and their impact on primary efficacy outcomes and harms; trial conclusions; trial registration name and number; and source of funding. We recommend the checklist be used in conjunction with this explanatory document, which includes examples of good reporting, rationale, and evidence, when available, for the inclusion of each item. Conclusions CONSORT for Abstracts aims to improve reporting of abstracts of RCTs published in journal articles and conference proceedings. It will help

  1. Does Mathematical Learning Occur in Going from Concrete to Abstract or in Going from Abstract to Concrete?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Hwang, SungWon

    2006-01-01

    The notions of "abstract "and "concrete" are central to the conceptualization of mathematical knowing and learning. It is generally accepted that development goes from concrete toward the abstract; but dialectical theorists maintain just the opposite: development consists of an ascension from the abstract to the concrete. In this article, we…

  2. Care management: agreement between nursing prescriptions and patients' care needs

    PubMed Central

    Faeda, Marília Silveira; Perroca, Márcia Galan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: analyze agreement between nursing prescriptions recorded in medical files and patients' care needs; investigate the correlation between the nurses' professional background and agreement of prescriptions. Method: descriptive study with quantitative and documentary approach conducted in the medical clinic, surgical, and specialized units of a university hospital in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil. The new validated version of a Patient Classification Instrument was used and 380 nursing prescriptions written at the times of hospital admission and discharge were assessed. Results: 75% of the nursing prescriptions items were compatible with the patients' care needs. Only low correlation between nursing prescription agreement and professional background was found. Conclusion: the nursing prescriptions did not fully meet the care needs of patients. The care context and work process should be analyzed to enable more effective prescriptions, while strategies to assess the care needs of patients are recommended. PMID:27508902

  3. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Allander, Krag S.; Bounds, John A.

    1996-01-01

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone.

  4. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

    1996-06-11

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone. 5 figs.

  5. Low background aspects of GERDA

    SciTech Connect

    Simgen, Hardy

    2011-04-27

    The GERDA experiment operates bare Germanium diodes enriched in {sup 76}Ge in an environment of pure liquid argon to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. A very low radioactive background is essential for the success of the experiment. We present here the research done in order to remove radio-impurities coming from the liquid argon, the stainless steel cryostat and the front-end electronics. We found that liquid argon can be purified efficiently from {sup 222}Rn. The main source of {sup 222}Rn in GERDA is the cryostat which emanates about 55 mBq. A thin copper shroud in the center of the cryostat was implemented to prevent radon from approaching the diodes. Gamma ray screening of radio-pure components for front-end electronics resulted in the development of a pre-amplifier with a total activity of less than 1 mBq {sup 228}Th.

  6. Confusion background from compact binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regimbau, T.; Hughes, Scott A.

    2010-05-01

    Double neutron stars are one of the most promizing sources for terrestrial gravitational wave interferometers. For actual interferometers and their planned upgrades, the probability of having a signal present in the data is small, but as the sensitivity improves, the detection rate increases and the waveforms may start to overlap, creating a confusion background, ultimately limiting the capabilities of future detectors. The third generation Einstein Telescope, with an horizon of z > 1 and very low frequency "seismic wall" may be affected by such confusion noise. At a minimum, careful data analysis will be require to separate signals which will appear confused. This result should be borne in mind when designing highly advanced future instruments.

  7. Polarization of Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzzelli, A.; Cabella, P.; de Gasperis, G.; Vittorio, N.

    2016-02-01

    In this work we present an extension of the ROMA map-making code for data analysis of Cosmic Microwave Background polarization, with particular attention given to the inflationary polarization B-modes. The new algorithm takes into account a possible cross- correlated noise component among the different detectors of a CMB experiment. We tested the code on the observational data of the BOOMERanG (2003) experiment and we show that we are provided with a better estimate of the power spectra, in particular the error bars of the BB spectrum are smaller up to 20% for low multipoles. We point out the general validity of the new method. A possible future application is the LSPE balloon experiment, devoted to the observation of polarization at large angular scales.

  8. Recognizing foreground-background interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jeffrey; Szu, Harold

    2010-04-01

    Can the background affect a foreground target in distant, low-quality imagery? If it does, it might occur in our mind, or perhaps it may represent a snapshot of our early vision. An affirmative answer, one way or another, may affect our current understanding of this phenomena and potentially for related applications. How can we be sure about this in the psycho-physical sense? We begin with the physiology of our brain's homeostasis, of which an isothermal equilibrium is characterized by the minimum of Helmholtz isothermal Free Energy: A = U - T0S >= 0, where T0 = 37°C, the Boltzmann Entropy S = KB1n(W), and U is the unknown internal energy to be computed.

  9. Low Background Counting At SNOLAB

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce

    2011-04-27

    It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.

  10. Texture induced microwave background anisotropies

    SciTech Connect

    Borrill, Julian; Copeland, Edmund J.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Stebbins, Albert; Veeraraghavan, Shoba

    1994-03-01

    We use numerical simulations to calculate the cosmic microwave background anisotropy induced by the evolution of a global texture field, with special emphasis on individual textures. Both spherically symmetric and general configurations are analyzed, and in the latter case we consider field configurations which exhibit unwinding events and also ones which do not. We compare the results given by evolving the field numerically under both the expanded core (XCORE) and non-linear sigma model (NLSM) approximations with the analytic predictions of the NLSM exact solution for a spherically symmetric self-similar (SSSS) unwinding. We find that the random unwinding configuration spots' typical peak height is 60-75\\% and angular size typically only 10% of those of the SSSS unwinding, and that random configurations without an unwinding event nonetheless may generate indistinguishable hot and cold spots. A brief comparison is made with other work.

  11. Deleterious background selection with recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, R.R.; Kaplan, N.L.

    1995-12-01

    An analytic expression for the expected nucleotide diversity is obtained for a neutral locus in a region with deleterious mutation and recombination. Our analytic results are used to predict levels of variation for the entire third chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. The predictions are consistent with the low levels of variation that have been observed at loci near the centromeres of the third chromosome of D. melanogaster. However, the low levels of variation observed near the tips of this chromosome are not predicted using currently available estimates of the deleterious mutation rate and of selection coefficients. If considerably smaller selection coefficients are assumed, the low observed levels of variation at the tips of the third chromosome are consistent with the background selection model. 33 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. The microwave background anisotropies: observations.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, D

    1998-01-01

    Most cosmologists now believe that we live in an evolving universe that has been expanding and cooling since its origin about 15 billion years ago. Strong evidence for this standard cosmological model comes from studies of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR), the remnant heat from the initial fireball. The CMBR spectrum is blackbody, as predicted from the hot Big Bang model before the discovery of the remnant radiation in 1964. In 1992 the cosmic background explorer (COBE) satellite finally detected the anisotropy of the radiation-fingerprints left by tiny temperature fluctuations in the initial bang. Careful design of the COBE satellite, and a bit of luck, allowed the 30 microK fluctuations in the CMBR temperature (2.73 K) to be pulled out of instrument noise and spurious foreground emissions. Further advances in detector technology and experiment design are allowing current CMBR experiments to search for predicted features in the anisotropy power spectrum at angular scales of 1 degrees and smaller. If they exist, these features were formed at an important epoch in the evolution of the universe--the decoupling of matter and radiation at a temperature of about 4,000 K and a time about 300,000 years after the bang. CMBR anisotropy measurements probe directly some detailed physics of the early universe. Also, parameters of the cosmological model can be measured because the anisotropy power spectrum depends on constituent densities and the horizon scale at a known cosmological epoch. As sophisticated experiments on the ground and on balloons pursue these measurements, two CMBR anisotropy satellite missions are being prepared for launch early in the next century. PMID:9419320

  13. DarkLight radiation backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Kalantarians, Narbe

    2013-11-01

    We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-on, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW CW beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, field emission inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation.

  14. Acid rain: a background report

    SciTech Connect

    Glustrom, L.; Stolzenberg, J.

    1982-07-08

    This Staff Brief was prepared for the Wisconsin Legislative Council's Special Committee on Acid Rain to provide an introduction to the issue of acid rain. It is divided into four parts. Part I provides an overview on the controversies surrounding the measurement, formation and effects of acid rain. As described in Part I, the term acid rain is used to describe the deposition of acidic components through both wet deposition (e.g., rain or snow) and dry deposition (e.g., direct contact between atmospheric constituents and the land, water or vegetation of the earth). Part II presents background information on state agency activities relating to acid rain in Wisconsin, describes what is known about the occurrence of, susceptibility to and effects of acid rain in Wisconsin, and provides information related to man-made sources of sulfur and nitrogen oxides in Wisconsin. Part III describes major policies and regulations relating to acid rain which have been or are being developed jointly by the United States and Canadian governments, by the United States government and by the State of Wisconsin. Part IV briefly discusses possible areas for Committee action.

  15. Quantification of background enhancement in breast magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Klifa, C; Suzuki, S; Aliu, S; Singer, L; Wilmes, L; Newitt, D; Joe, B; Hylton, N

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To present a novel technique for measuring tissue enhancement in breast fibroglandular tissue regions on contrast-enhanced breast MR images aimed at quantifying the enhancement of breast parenchyma, also known as “background enhancement”. Materials and Methods Our quantitative method for measuring breast MRI background enhancement was evaluated in a population of 16 healthy volunteers. We also demonstrate the use of our new technique in the case study of one subject classified as high risk for developing breast cancer who underwent 3 months of tamoxifen therapy. Results We obtained quantitative measures of background enhancement in all cases. The high-risk patient exhibited a 37% mean reduction in background enhancement with treatment. Conclusion Our quantitative method is a robust and promising tool that may allow investigators to quantify and document the potential adverse effect of background enhancement on diagnostic accuracy in larger populations. PMID:21509883

  16. Genetic background of supernumerary teeth

    PubMed Central

    Subasioglu, Asli; Savas, Selcuk; Kucukyilmaz, Ebru; Kesim, Servet; Yagci, Ahmet; Dundar, Munis

    2015-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth (ST) are odontostomatologic anomaly characterized by as the existence excessive number of teeth in relation to the normal dental formula. This condition is commonly seen with several congenital genetic disorders such as Gardner's syndrome, cleidocranial dysostosis and cleft lip and palate. Less common syndromes that are associated with ST are; Fabry Disease, Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, Nance-Horan syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome and Trico–Rhino–Phalangeal syndrome. ST can be an important component of a distinctive disorder and an important clue for early diagnosis. Certainly early detecting the abnormalities gives us to make correct management of the patient and also it is important for making well-informed decisions about long-term medical care and treatment. In this review, the genetic syndromes that are related with ST were discussed. PMID:25713500

  17. Genetic background of supernumerary teeth.

    PubMed

    Subasioglu, Asli; Savas, Selcuk; Kucukyilmaz, Ebru; Kesim, Servet; Yagci, Ahmet; Dundar, Munis

    2015-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth (ST) are odontostomatologic anomaly characterized by as the existence excessive number of teeth in relation to the normal dental formula. This condition is commonly seen with several congenital genetic disorders such as Gardner's syndrome, cleidocranial dysostosis and cleft lip and palate. Less common syndromes that are associated with ST are; Fabry Disease, Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, Nance-Horan syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome and Trico-Rhino-Phalangeal syndrome. ST can be an important component of a distinctive disorder and an important clue for early diagnosis. Certainly early detecting the abnormalities gives us to make correct management of the patient and also it is important for making well-informed decisions about long-term medical care and treatment. In this review, the genetic syndromes that are related with ST were discussed. PMID:25713500

  18. [The abstract--why and how it should be written].

    PubMed

    Kourilová, M; Hulín, I

    1989-10-01

    The aim of the study is to provide stimuli for writing concise and coherent abstracts imaging the original article without loss of critical substance and clarity. The main functions of abstracts in providing quick information and reliable sources for indexing are emphasized. The purposes of the prospective reader have to be considered as they should determine the form and content of the abstract. The two main types, i.e. indicative and informative abstracts are assessed. The indicative abstract states what the full paper is about and is thus suitable only for review papers, essays, and nonexperimental studies. As its primary purpose is to help decide whether the full article should be read, it is practically useless when it accompanies a paper written in a different and not commonly accessible language (e.g. Slovak article, English abstract). The informative abstract has a high load of specified information. When concerning experimental work, it should state the aim, the material or subjects involved and methods used, the results obtained, and the conclusions drawn. The recently introduced structured abstract for clinical papers presents a comprehensive image of the full article in a format that makes explicit the elements of critical argument. A framework of useful steps for writing abstracts is provided by analyzing the three main phases of the abstracting process, i.e. 1. analytic reading, 2. extraction, organization and reduction of information, and 3. critical editing. The presented summary of hints for writing reader oriented abstracts and the list of actual examples of obfuscation should increase the awareness and commitment of authors in preparing good-quality abstracts. PMID:2819492

  19. Abstract models for the synthesis of optimization algorithms.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, G. G. L.; Polak, E.

    1971-01-01

    Systematic approach to the problem of synthesis of optimization algorithms. Abstract models for algorithms are developed which guide the inventive process toward ?conceptual' algorithms which may consist of operations that are inadmissible in a practical method. Once the abstract models are established a set of methods for converting ?conceptual' algorithms falling into the class defined by the abstract models into ?implementable' iterative procedures is presented.

  20. Connecting the Dots between PubMed Abstracts

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, M. Shahriar; Gresock, Joseph; Edmonds, Yvette; Helm, Richard; Potts, Malcolm; Ramakrishnan, Naren

    2012-01-01

    Background There are now a multitude of articles published in a diversity of journals providing information about genes, proteins, pathways, and diseases. Each article investigates subsets of a biological process, but to gain insight into the functioning of a system as a whole, we must integrate information from multiple publications. Particularly, unraveling relationships between extra-cellular inputs and downstream molecular response mechanisms requires integrating conclusions from diverse publications. Methodology We present an automated approach to biological knowledge discovery from PubMed abstracts, suitable for “connecting the dots” across the literature. We describe a storytelling algorithm that, given a start and end publication, typically with little or no overlap in content, identifies a chain of intermediate publications from one to the other, such that neighboring publications have significant content similarity. The quality of discovered stories is measured using local criteria such as the size of supporting neighborhoods for each link and the strength of individual links connecting publications, as well as global metrics of dispersion. To ensure that the story stays coherent as it meanders from one publication to another, we demonstrate the design of novel coherence and overlap filters for use as post-processing steps. Conclusions We demonstrate the application of our storytelling algorithm to three case studies: i) a many-one study exploring relationships between multiple cellular inputs and a molecule responsible for cell-fate decisions, ii) a many-many study exploring the relationships between multiple cytokines and multiple downstream transcription factors, and iii) a one-to-one study to showcase the ability to recover a cancer related association, viz. the Warburg effect, from past literature. The storytelling pipeline helps narrow down a scientist's focus from several hundreds of thousands of relevant documents to only around a hundred