Science.gov

Sample records for abstract factor analysis

  1. Factors Affecting Accuracy of Data Abstracted from Medical Records

    PubMed Central

    Zozus, Meredith N.; Pieper, Carl; Johnson, Constance M.; Johnson, Todd R.; Franklin, Amy; Smith, Jack; Zhang, Jiajie

    2015-01-01

    Objective Medical record abstraction (MRA) is often cited as a significant source of error in research data, yet MRA methodology has rarely been the subject of investigation. Lack of a common framework has hindered application of the extant literature in practice, and, until now, there were no evidence-based guidelines for ensuring data quality in MRA. We aimed to identify the factors affecting the accuracy of data abstracted from medical records and to generate a framework for data quality assurance and control in MRA. Methods Candidate factors were identified from published reports of MRA. Content validity of the top candidate factors was assessed via a four-round two-group Delphi process with expert abstractors with experience in clinical research, registries, and quality improvement. The resulting coded factors were categorized into a control theory-based framework of MRA. Coverage of the framework was evaluated using the recent published literature. Results Analysis of the identified articles yielded 292 unique factors that affect the accuracy of abstracted data. Delphi processes overall refuted three of the top factors identified from the literature based on importance and five based on reliability (six total factors refuted). Four new factors were identified by the Delphi. The generated framework demonstrated comprehensive coverage. Significant underreporting of MRA methodology in recent studies was discovered. Conclusion The framework generated from this research provides a guide for planning data quality assurance and control for studies using MRA. The large number and variability of factors indicate that while prospective quality assurance likely increases the accuracy of abstracted data, monitoring the accuracy during the abstraction process is also required. Recent studies reporting research results based on MRA rarely reported data quality assurance or control measures, and even less frequently reported data quality metrics with research results. Given

  2. Analysis of complex networks using aggressive abstraction.

    SciTech Connect

    Colbaugh, Richard; Glass, Kristin.; Willard, Gerald

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for analyzing complex networks in which the network of interest is first abstracted to a much simpler (but equivalent) representation, the required analysis is performed using the abstraction, and analytic conclusions are then mapped back to the original network and interpreted there. We begin by identifying a broad and important class of complex networks which admit abstractions that are simultaneously dramatically simplifying and property preserving - we call these aggressive abstractions -- and which can therefore be analyzed using the proposed approach. We then introduce and develop two forms of aggressive abstraction: 1.) finite state abstraction, in which dynamical networks with uncountable state spaces are modeled using finite state systems, and 2.) onedimensional abstraction, whereby high dimensional network dynamics are captured in a meaningful way using a single scalar variable. In each case, the property preserving nature of the abstraction process is rigorously established and efficient algorithms are presented for computing the abstraction. The considerable potential of the proposed approach to complex networks analysis is illustrated through case studies involving vulnerability analysis of technological networks and predictive analysis for social processes.

  3. Information Leakage Analysis by Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanioli, Matteo; Cortesi, Agostino

    Protecting the confidentiality of information stored in a computer system or transmitted over a public network is a relevant problem in computer security. The approach of information flow analysis involves performing a static analysis of the program with the aim of proving that there will not be leaks of sensitive information. In this paper we propose a new domain that combines variable dependency analysis, based on propositional formulas, and variables' value analysis, based on polyhedra. The resulting analysis is strictly more accurate than the state of the art abstract interpretation based analyses for information leakage detection. Its modular construction allows to deal with the tradeoff between efficiency and accuracy by tuning the granularity of the abstraction and the complexity of the abstract operators.

  4. Wear-Out Sensitivity Analysis Project Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Adam

    2015-01-01

    During the course of the Summer 2015 internship session, I worked in the Reliability and Maintainability group of the ISS Safety and Mission Assurance department. My project was a statistical analysis of how sensitive ORU's (Orbital Replacement Units) are to a reliability parameter called the wear-out characteristic. The intended goal of this was to determine a worst case scenario of how many spares would be needed if multiple systems started exhibiting wear-out characteristics simultaneously. The goal was also to determine which parts would be most likely to do so. In order to do this, my duties were to take historical data of operational times and failure times of these ORU's and use them to build predictive models of failure using probability distribution functions, mainly the Weibull distribution. Then, I ran Monte Carlo Simulations to see how an entire population of these components would perform. From here, my final duty was to vary the wear-out characteristic from the intrinsic value, to extremely high wear-out values and determine how much the probability of sufficiency of the population would shift. This was done for around 30 different ORU populations on board the ISS.

  5. Requirements-Driven Log Analysis Extended Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Imagine that you are tasked to help a project improve their testing effort. In a realistic scenario it will quickly become clear, that having an impact is diffcult. First of all, it will likely be a challenge to suggest an alternative approach which is significantly more automated and/or more effective than current practice. The reality is that an average software system has a complex input/output behavior. An automated testing approach will have to auto-generate test cases, each being a pair (i; o) consisting of a test input i and an oracle o. The test input i has to be somewhat meaningful, and the oracle o can be very complicated to compute. Second, even in case where some testing technology has been developed that might improve current practice, it is then likely difficult to completely change the current behavior of the testing team unless the technique is obviously superior and does everything already done by existing technology. So is there an easier way to incorporate formal methods-based approaches than the full edged test revolution? Fortunately the answer is affirmative. A relatively simple approach is to benefit from possibly already existing logging infrastructure, which after all is part of most systems put in production. A log is a sequence of events, generated by special log recording statements, most often manually inserted in the code by the programmers. An event can be considered as a data record: a mapping from field names to values. We can analyze such a log using formal methods, for example checking it against a formal specification. This separates running the system for analyzing its behavior. It is not meant as an alternative to testing since it does not address the important in- put generation problem. However, it offers a solution which testing teams might accept since it has low impact on the existing process. A single person might be assigned to perform such log analysis, compared to the entire testing team changing behavior.

  6. Vulnerability analysis for complex networks using aggressive abstraction.

    SciTech Connect

    Colbaugh, Richard; Glass, Kristin L.

    2010-06-01

    Large, complex networks are ubiquitous in nature and society, and there is great interest in developing rigorous, scalable methods for identifying and characterizing their vulnerabilities. This paper presents an approach for analyzing the dynamics of complex networks in which the network of interest is first abstracted to a much simpler, but mathematically equivalent, representation, the required analysis is performed on the abstraction, and analytic conclusions are then mapped back to the original network and interpreted there. We begin by identifying a broad and important class of complex networks which admit vulnerability-preserving, finite state abstractions, and develop efficient algorithms for computing these abstractions. We then propose a vulnerability analysis methodology which combines these finite state abstractions with formal analytics from theoretical computer science to yield a comprehensive vulnerability analysis process for networks of realworld scale and complexity. The potential of the proposed approach is illustrated with a case study involving a realistic electric power grid model and also with brief discussions of biological and social network examples.

  7. Access Analysis-Based Tight Localization of Abstract Memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hakjoo; Brutschy, Lucas; Yi, Kwangkeun

    On-the-fly localization of abstract memory states is vital for economical abstract interpretation of imperative programs. Such localization is sometimes called "abstract garbage collection" or "framing". In this article we present a new memory localization technique that is more effective than the conventional reachability-based approach. Our technique is based on a key observation that collecting the reachable memory parts is too conservative and the accessed parts are usually tiny subsets of the reachable. Our technique first estimates, by an efficient pre-analysis, the set of locations that will be accessed during the analysis of each code block. Then the main analysis uses the access-set results to trim the memory entries before analyzing code blocks. In experiments with an industrial-strength global C static analyzer, the technique is applied right before analyzing each procedure's body and reduces the average analysis time and memory by 92.1% and 71.2%, respectively, without sacrificing the analysis precision. Localizing more frequently such as at loop bodies and basic blocks as well as procedure bodies, the generalized localization additionally reduces analysis time by an average of 31.8%.

  8. A Genre Analysis Study of 80 Medical Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kenneth; Maclean, Joan

    1997-01-01

    A study investigated the usefulness of instructional materials on the writing of scientific articles by comparing the descriptions of abstracts offered in the textbook with a sample of abstracts drawn from four fields of medicine (clinical medicine, surgery, epidemiology, basic sciences). The comparison was confined to abstracts of results-focused…

  9. A Quantitative Empirical Analysis of the Abstract/Concrete Distinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Felix; Korhonen, Anna; Bentz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This study presents original evidence that abstract and concrete concepts are organized and represented differently in the mind, based on analyses of thousands of concepts in publicly available data sets and computational resources. First, we show that abstract and concrete concepts have differing patterns of association with other concepts.…

  10. Tense Use and Move Analysis in Journal Article Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shih-ping; Tu, Pin-ning

    2014-01-01

    There has long been a growing interest in journal article (JA) abstract writing, and this pervading interest has boosted the exigency for further research. This current study therefore aims to investigate both the various applications of verb tense and the rhetorical structure within JA abstracts. A corpus of 1,000 JAs was collected from four…

  11. A quantitative empirical analysis of the abstract/concrete distinction.

    PubMed

    Hill, Felix; Korhonen, Anna; Bentz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This study presents original evidence that abstract and concrete concepts are organized and represented differently in the mind, based on analyses of thousands of concepts in publicly available data sets and computational resources. First, we show that abstract and concrete concepts have differing patterns of association with other concepts. Second, we test recent hypotheses that abstract concepts are organized according to association, whereas concrete concepts are organized according to (semantic) similarity. Third, we present evidence suggesting that concrete representations are more strongly feature-based than abstract concepts. We argue that degree of feature-based structure may fundamentally determine concreteness, and we discuss implications for cognitive and computational models of meaning. PMID:23941240

  12. Analysis-based arguments for abstract data type calculus.

    SciTech Connect

    Rouson, Damian W. I.

    2008-10-01

    Increasing demands on the complexity of scientific models coupled with increasing demands for their scalability are placing programming models on equal footing with the numerical methods they implement in terms of significance. A recurring theme across several major scientific software development projects involves defining abstract data types (ADTs) that closely mimic mathematical abstractions such as scalar, vector, and tensor fields. In languages that support user-defined operators and/or overloading of intrinsic operators, coupling ADTs with a set of algebraic and/or integro-differential operators results in an ADT calculus. This talk will analyze ADT calculus using three tool sets: object-oriented design metrics, computational complexity theory, and information theory. It will be demonstrated that ADT calculus leads to highly cohesive, loosely coupled abstractions with code-size-invariant data dependencies and minimal information entropy. The talk will also discuss how these results relate to software flexibility and robustness.

  13. Thesis Abstract Morphological and phylogeographic analysis of Brazilian tortoises (Testudinidae).

    PubMed

    Silva, T L; Venancio, L P R; Bonini-Domingos, C R

    2015-01-01

    distribution of C. carbonarius can partially be explained by the fact that all the morphotypes are considered as a single taxonomic unit. Behavioral aspects such as intraspecific communication may be as reliable as morphological or molecular data for inferring evolutionary relationships. Analysis of the physical characteristics of vocalization [fundamental frequency (Hz), interval between notes (s), duration of each note (s), and number of notes from each vocalization] between C. carbonarius and morphotype 1 revealed statistically significant differences in the interval between notes (s) (P = 0.0000); duration of each note (s) (P = 0.0000); frequency of notes (Hz) (P = 0.0009); and number of notes (P = 0.0002). The results of preference experiments using sound stimulus were inconclusive with respect to species-specific vocalization preference; only females of C. carbonarius showed intraspecific vocalization preference, indicating possible reproductive isolation mechanisms. To explore the presence of sexual dimorphism and morphological differences between C. denticulatus, C. carbonarius, and morphotype 1, descriptive statistics to analyze the data obtained for the investigated measures were used. Two sets of analysis were conducted - the first for each group, to compare the sexes; and the second for each sex, to compare the groups. To examine the interspecific variation in size and shape, a correlation matrix inprincipal component analysis was used. Next, I used factor analysis to rank the features showing >0.75 correlation in the differentiation between the sexes. The results were consistent with the hypothesis that morphotype 1 corresponds to a new species, because it differs from the species pattern in terms of morphology, coloring, and sexual dimorphism. The results of classical cytogenetic analysis - to differentiate C. denticulatus, C. carbonarius, and morphotype 1 - revealed no consistent data that would enable its use as a taxonomic parameter. Conventional Giemsa

  14. Factor Analysis via Components Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentler, Peter M.; de Leeuw, Jan

    2011-01-01

    When the factor analysis model holds, component loadings are linear combinations of factor loadings, and vice versa. This interrelation permits us to define new optimization criteria and estimation methods for exploratory factor analysis. Although this article is primarily conceptual in nature, an illustrative example and a small simulation show…

  15. Ambiguity and the abstract tact: A signal detection analysis

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Joanne K.; Layng, T. V. Joe; Karp, Hilary Jo

    1995-01-01

    Four observers who had completed a formal course in projective test techniques were asked to discriminate House-Tree-Person (H-T-P) drawings made by psychiatric patients from those made by nonpatients. A 4.5 kHz tone presentation was made contingent upon one of two classes of errors, failure-to-tact errors or false-tact errors, depending on the experimental condition in effect. The observers were instructed that a 2 second tone presentation would occur each time the experimenters disagreed with the observer. The duration of tone presentation was variable depending upon the number of disagreements that occurred after blocks of either 5 or 10 responses. All observers showed some degree of abstractional control by the set of patient drawings. The likelihood of a correct tact was shown to vary as a function of the consequences contingent upon each type of error for 3 of the 4 observers. However, the discriminability index d'e remained unchanged for all observers throughout all experimental conditions.

  16. Internal Versus External DSLs for Trace Analysis: Extended Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barringer, Howard; Havelund, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    This tutorial explores the design and implementation issues arising in the development of domain-specific languages for trace analysis. It introduces the audience to the general concepts underlying such special-purpose languages building upon the authors' own experiences in developing both external domain specific languages and systems, such as EAGLE, HAWK, RULER and LOGSCOPE, and the more recent internal domain-specific language and system TRACECONTRACT within the SCALA language.

  17. Abstract Interfaces for Data Analysis - Component Architecture for Data Analysis Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Barrand, Guy

    2002-08-20

    The fast turnover of software technologies, in particular in the domain of interactivity (covering user interface and visualization), makes it difficult for a small group of people to produce complete and polished software-tools before the underlying technologies make them obsolete. At the HepVis '99 workshop, a working group has been formed to improve the production of software tools for data analysis in HENP. Beside promoting a distributed development organization, one goal of the group is to systematically design a set of abstract interfaces based on using modern OO analysis and OO design techniques. An initial domain analysis has come up with several categories (components) found in typical data analysis tools: Histograms, Ntuples, Functions, Vectors, Fitter, Plotter, Analyzer and Controller. Special emphasis was put on reducing the couplings between the categories to a minimum, thus optimizing re-use and maintainability of any component individually. The interfaces have been defined in Java and C++ and implementations exist in the form of libraries and tools using C++ (Anaphe/Lizard, OpenScientist) and Java (Java Analysis Studio). A special implementation aims at accessing the Java libraries (through their Abstract Interfaces) from C++. This paper gives an overview of the architecture and design of the various components for data analysis as discussed in AIDA.

  18. Bayesian Exploratory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Gabriella; Frühwirth-Schnatter, Sylvia; Heckman, James J.; Piatek, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops and applies a Bayesian approach to Exploratory Factor Analysis that improves on ad hoc classical approaches. Our framework relies on dedicated factor models and simultaneously determines the number of factors, the allocation of each measurement to a unique factor, and the corresponding factor loadings. Classical identification criteria are applied and integrated into our Bayesian procedure to generate models that are stable and clearly interpretable. A Monte Carlo study confirms the validity of the approach. The method is used to produce interpretable low dimensional aggregates from a high dimensional set of psychological measurements. PMID:25431517

  19. Exploratory Bi-Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennrich, Robert I.; Bentler, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Bi-factor analysis is a form of confirmatory factor analysis originally introduced by Holzinger. The bi-factor model has a general factor and a number of group factors. The purpose of this article is to introduce an exploratory form of bi-factor analysis. An advantage of using exploratory bi-factor analysis is that one need not provide a specific…

  20. IKOS: A Framework for Static Analysis based on Abstract Interpretation (Tool Paper)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brat, Guillaume P.; Laserna, Jorge A.; Shi, Nija; Venet, Arnaud Jean

    2014-01-01

    The RTCA standard (DO-178C) for developing avionic software and getting certification credits includes an extension (DO-333) that describes how developers can use static analysis in certification. In this paper, we give an overview of the IKOS static analysis framework that helps developing static analyses that are both precise and scalable. IKOS harnesses the power of Abstract Interpretation and makes it accessible to a larger class of static analysis developers by separating concerns such as code parsing, model development, abstract domain management, results management, and analysis strategy. The benefits of the approach is demonstrated by a buffer overflow analysis applied to flight control systems.

  1. Factor Analysis and Counseling Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David J.

    1970-01-01

    Topics discussed include factor analysis versus cluster analysis, analysis of Q correlation matrices, ipsativity and factor analysis, and tests for the significance of a correlation matrix prior to application of factor analytic techniques. Techniques for factor extraction discussed include principal components, canonical factor analysis, alpha…

  2. Trace Elements in Hair from Tanzanian Children: Effect of Dietary Factor (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Najat K.; Spyrou, Nicholas M.

    2009-04-01

    Trace elements in certain amounts are essential for childrens' health, because they are present in tissues participating in metabolic reactions of organisms. Deficiency of the essential elements may result in malnutrition, impaired body immunity, and poor resistance to disease. These conditions might be enhanced against a background of additional adverse environmental factors such as toxic elements. The analysis of elements in childrens' hair will give information on the deficiency of essential elements and excess of toxic elements in relation to their diet. In this study, 141 hair samples from children (girls and boys) living in two regions of Tanzanian mainland (Dar es Salaam and Moshi) and the island of Zanzibar have been analysed for trace elements in relation to food consumption habits. The analysis was carried out using long and short irradiation instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) of the Nuclear Physics Institute at Rez, Czech Republic. Arithmetic and geometric means with their respective standard deviations are presented for 19 elements. Subgroups were formed according to age, gender, and geographic regions from which the samples were collected. Differences in concentrations for the groups and with other childhood populations were explored and discussed.

  3. Abstract: Using System Dynamics Analysis for Evaluating the Sustainability of “Complete Streets” Practices

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Using System Dynamics Analysis for Evaluating the Sustainability of “Complete Streets” Practices Primary Author: Nicholas R. Flanders 109 T.W. Alexander Drive Mail Code: E343-02 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 919-541-3660 Flanders.nick@Epa.gov Topic categ...

  4. Survey of 2000 State School Finance Legislation: Overview, Abstracts, and Trend Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crampton, Faith E.

    2005-01-01

    This monograph presents the results of the seventh annual survey of state school finance legislation with an overview of legislation passed in 2000, abstracts of all bills passed, and a trend analysis dating back to 1994, including both established and emergent trends. Established trends in the funding areas of educational technology, school…

  5. Enhanced target factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Akram; Abdollahi, Hamid; Maeder, Marcel

    2016-03-10

    Target testing or target factor analysis, TFA, is a well-established soft analysis method. TFA answers the question whether an independent target test vector measured at the same wavelengths as the collection of spectra in a data matrix can be excluded as the spectrum of one of the components in the system under investigation. Essentially, TFA cannot positively prove that a particular test spectrum is the true spectrum of one of the components, it can, only reject a spectrum. However, TFA will not reject, or in other words TFA will accept, many spectra which cannot be component spectra. Enhanced Target Factor Analysis, ETFA addresses the above problem. Compared with traditional TFA, ETFA results in a significantly narrower range of positive results, i.e. the chance of a false positive test result is dramatically reduced. ETFA is based on feasibility testing as described in Refs. [16-19]. The method has been tested and validated with computer generated and real data sets. PMID:26893084

  6. Students' Perceptions of Sense of Community in Abstract Algebra: Contributing Factors and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto-Johnson, Hortensia; Yestness, Nissa; Dalton, Casey

    2008-01-01

    In this phenomenological study, we explore how multiple assessments contribute to creating a sense of community (SOC) in an undergraduate abstract algebra course. Strike (2004) describes community as a process rather than a feeling and outlines four characteristics of community: coherence, cohesion, care, and contact. In this report, we describe…

  7. Abstracts: US-International Biological Program ecosystems analysis studies. Volume 5. No. 3-4

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, J.A.; Myers, V.G.

    1980-12-01

    This issue documents 1149 entries to the US/IBP Abstracts computerized data base and completes the Abstracts journal series. Contributions from all five US/IBP biomes (Coniferous Forest, Desert, Eastern Deciduous Forest, Grassland, and Tundra) are included. Citations only for theses are included as abstracts were not available to the Ecosystem Analysis Data Center staff. Presentations and literature publications from the Desert Biome (Desert Biome 1975) have also been included in order to document the results of the US/IBP studies as completely as possible. Publication lists submitted by each biome (Brown 1977, Desert Biome 1975, Grassland Biome 1976, Coniferous Forest 1976, Eastern Deciduous Forest 1979) were used in compiling this volume.

  8. Abstract Interpreters for Free

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Might, Matthew

    In small-step abstract interpretations, the concrete and abstract semantics bear an uncanny resemblance. In this work, we present an analysis-design methodology that both explains and exploits that resemblance. Specifically, we present a two-step method to convert a small-step concrete semantics into a family of sound, computable abstract interpretations. The first step re-factors the concrete state-space to eliminate recursive structure; this refactoring of the state-space simultaneously determines a store-passing-style transformation on the underlying concrete semantics. The second step uses inference rules to generate an abstract state-space and a Galois connection simultaneously. The Galois connection allows the calculation of the "optimal" abstract interpretation. The two-step process is unambiguous, but nondeterministic: at each step, analysis designers face choices. Some of these choices ultimately influence properties such as flow-, field- and context-sensitivity. Thus, under the method, we can give the emergence of these properties a graph-theoretic characterization. To illustrate the method, we systematically abstract the continuation-passing style lambda calculus to arrive at two distinct families of analyses. The first is the well-known k-CFA family of analyses. The second consists of novel "environment-centric" abstract interpretations, none of which appear in the literature on static analysis of higher-order programs.

  9. Mining biomedical time series by combining structural analysis and temporal abstractions.

    PubMed Central

    Bellazzi, R.; Magni, P.; Larizza, C.; De Nicolao, G.; Riva, A.; Stefanelli, M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the combination of Structural Time Series analysis and Temporal Abstractions for the interpretation of data coming from home monitoring of diabetic patients. Blood Glucose data are analyzed by a novel Bayesian technique for time series analysis. The results obtained are post-processed using Temporal Abstractions in order to extract knowledge that can be exploited "at the point of use" from physicians. The proposed data analysis procedure can be viewed as a Knowledge Discovery in Data Base process that is applied to time-varying data. The work here described is part of a Web-based telemedicine system for the management of Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus patients, called T-IDDM. PMID:9929202

  10. Character analysis in cladistics: abstraction, reification, and the search for objectivity.

    PubMed

    Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt

    2009-06-01

    The dangers of character reification for cladistic inference are explored. The identification and analysis of characters always involves theory-laden abstraction--there is no theory-free "view from nowhere." Given theory-ladenness, and given a real world with actual objects and processes, how can we separate robustly real biological characters from uncritically reified characters? One way to avoid reification is through the employment of objectivity criteria that give us good methods for identifying robust primary homology statements. I identify six such criteria and explore each with examples. Ultimately, it is important to minimize character reification, because poor character analysis leads to dismal cladograms, even when proper phylogenetic analysis is employed. Given the deep and systemic problems associated with character reification, it is ironic that philosophers have focused almost entirely on phylogenetic analysis and neglected character analysis. PMID:19130250

  11. Coal: Second half 1992 surface and underground fatalities. Abstracts with illustrations. Analysis and suggested uses

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The 1992 Fatal Illustration Program is divided into two categories or subject areas. These categories are coal mining and metal/nonmetal mining. The materials in this unit include illustrated abstracts (summaries) of all chargeable surface and underground coal mining fatalities for the second six months of 1992 accompanied by 35mm slides. A statistical analysis is also included for fatilities that occurred during July through December 1992. The analysis examines the following areas: the victim`s ages, mining experiences and occupations, accident classifications, and the size of the mines where the fatalities occurred. Tables are included in this package.

  12. Core networks for visual-concrete and abstract thought content: a brain electric microstate analysis.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Dietrich; Pascual-Marqui, Roberto D; Strik, Werner K; Koenig, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Commonality of activation of spontaneously forming and stimulus-induced mental representations is an often made but rarely tested assumption in neuroscience. In a conjunction analysis of two earlier studies, brain electric activity during visual-concrete and abstract thoughts was studied. The conditions were: in study 1, spontaneous stimulus-independent thinking (post-hoc, visual imagery or abstract thought were identified); in study 2, reading of single nouns ranking high or low on a visual imagery scale. In both studies, subjects' tasks were similar: when prompted, they had to recall the last thought (study 1) or the last word (study 2). In both studies, subjects had no instruction to classify or to visually imagine their thoughts, and accordingly were not aware of the studies' aim. Brain electric data were analyzed into functional topographic brain images (using LORETA) of the last microstate before the prompt (study 1) and of the word-type discriminating event-related microstate after word onset (study 2). Conjunction analysis across the two studies yielded commonality of activation of core networks for abstract thought content in left anterior superior regions, and for visual-concrete thought content in right temporal-posterior inferior regions. The results suggest that two different core networks are automatedly activated when abstract or visual-concrete information, respectively, enters working memory, without a subject task or instruction about the two classes of information, and regardless of internal or external origin, and of input modality. These core machineries of working memory thus are invariant to source or modality of input when treating the two types of information. PMID:19646538

  13. An implementation and analysis of the Abstract Syntax Notation One and the basic encoding rules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, James D.; Weaver, Alfred C.

    1990-01-01

    The details of abstract syntax notation one standard (ASN.1) and the basic encoding rules standard (BER) that collectively solve the problem of data transfer across incompatible host environments are presented, and a compiler that was built to automate their use is described. Experiences with this compiler are also discussed which provide a quantitative analysis of the performance costs associated with the application of these standards. An evaluation is offered as to how well suited ASN.1 and BER are in solving the common data representation problem.

  14. Air quality analysis of Phase I of the proposed oil backout legislation. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Streets, D.G.

    1980-10-01

    This report presents an air quality analysis of Phase I of the President's proposed legislation to reduce the use of oil and natural gas in electric utility power plants by approximately 1 x 10/sup 6/ barrels of oil per day. The report analyzes changes in sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions that would accompany the conversions. Local and regional impacts on ambient sulfur dioxide and sulfate concentrations are examined. Finally, the cost-effectiveness of certain control options and the effectiveness of converting the specified plants in reducing oil consumption without excessive environmental or cost impacts are discussed. Separate abstracts are prepared for the 6 chapters.

  15. Use of positive and negative words in scientific PubMed abstracts between 1974 and 2014: retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tijdink, Joeri K; Otte, Willem M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether language used in science abstracts can skew towards the use of strikingly positive and negative words over time. Design Retrospective analysis of all scientific abstracts in PubMed between 1974 and 2014. Methods The yearly frequencies of positive, negative, and neutral words (25 preselected words in each category), plus 100 randomly selected words were normalised for the total number of abstracts. Subanalyses included pattern quantification of individual words, specificity for selected high impact journals, and comparison between author affiliations within or outside countries with English as the official majority language. Frequency patterns were compared with 4% of all books ever printed and digitised by use of Google Books Ngram Viewer. Main outcome measures Frequencies of positive and negative words in abstracts compared with frequencies of words with a neutral and random connotation, expressed as relative change since 1980. Results The absolute frequency of positive words increased from 2.0% (1974-80) to 17.5% (2014), a relative increase of 880% over four decades. All 25 individual positive words contributed to the increase, particularly the words “robust,” “novel,” “innovative,” and “unprecedented,” which increased in relative frequency up to 15 000%. Comparable but less pronounced results were obtained when restricting the analysis to selected journals with high impact factors. Authors affiliated to an institute in a non-English speaking country used significantly more positive words. Negative word frequencies increased from 1.3% (1974-80) to 3.2% (2014), a relative increase of 257%. Over the same time period, no apparent increase was found in neutral or random word use, or in the frequency of positive word use in published books. Conclusions Our lexicographic analysis indicates that scientific abstracts are currently written with more positive and negative words, and provides an insight into the

  16. Analysis and synthesis of abstract data types through generalization from examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wild, Christian

    1987-01-01

    The discovery of general patterns of behavior from a set of input/output examples can be a useful technique in the automated analysis and synthesis of software systems. These generalized descriptions of the behavior form a set of assertions which can be used for validation, program synthesis, program testing, and run-time monitoring. Describing the behavior is characterized as a learning process in which the set of inputs is mapped into an appropriate transform space such that general patterns can be easily characterized. The learning algorithm must chose a transform function and define a subset of the transform space which is related to equivalence classes of behavior in the original domain. An algorithm for analyzing the behavior of abstract data types is presented and several examples are given. The use of the analysis for purposes of program synthesis is also discussed.

  17. Analysis and synthesis of abstract data types through generalization from examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wild, Christian

    1987-01-01

    The discovery of general patterns of behavior from a set of input/output examples can be a useful technique in the automated analysis and synthesis of software systems. These generalized descriptions of the behavior form a set of assertions which can be used for validation, program synthesis, program testing and run-time monitoring. Describing the behavior is characterized as a learning process in which general patterns can be easily characterized. The learning algorithm must choose a transform function and define a subset of the transform space which is related to equivalence classes of behavior in the original domain. An algorithm for analyzing the behavior of abstract data types is presented and several examples are given. The use of the analysis for purposes of program synthesis is also discussed.

  18. Factor Analysis of Intern Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Womack, Sid T.; Hannah, Shellie Louise; Bell, Columbus David

    2012-01-01

    Four factors in teaching intern effectiveness, as measured by a Praxis III-similar instrument, were found among observational data of teaching interns during the 2010 spring semester. Those factors were lesson planning, teacher/student reflection, fairness & safe environment, and professionalism/efficacy. This factor analysis was as much of a…

  19. INVENTORY ABSTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ragan

    2001-12-19

    The purpose of the inventory abstraction, which has been prepared in accordance with a technical work plan (CRWMS M&O 2000e for ICN 02 of the present analysis, and BSC 2001e for ICN 03 of the present analysis), is to: (1) Interpret the results of a series of relative dose calculations (CRWMS M&O 2000c, 2000f). (2) Recommend, including a basis thereof, a set of radionuclides that should be modeled in the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (TSPA-FEIS). (3) Provide initial radionuclide inventories for the TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS models. (4) Answer the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)'s Issue Resolution Status Report ''Key Technical Issue: Container Life and Source Term'' (CLST IRSR) key technical issue (KTI): ''The rate at which radionuclides in SNF [spent nuclear fuel] are released from the EBS [engineered barrier system] through the oxidation and dissolution of spent fuel'' (NRC 1999, Subissue 3). The scope of the radionuclide screening analysis encompasses the period from 100 years to 10,000 years after the potential repository at Yucca Mountain is sealed for scenarios involving the breach of a waste package and subsequent degradation of the waste form as required for the TSPA-SR calculations. By extending the time period considered to one million years after repository closure, recommendations are made for the TSPA-FEIS. The waste forms included in the inventory abstraction are Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (CSNF), DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel (DSNF), High-Level Waste (HLW), naval Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium waste. The intended use of this analysis is in TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS. Based on the recommendations made here, models for release, transport, and possibly exposure will be developed for the isotopes that would be the highest contributors to the dose given a release to the

  20. A Genre-based Analysis of English Research Article Abstracts and the Linguistic Feature of Personal Pronouns for Financial Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ning, Zhen-ye

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study of move structures and personal pronouns of fifty English RA (research article) abstracts based on the model of Bhatia (1990). It revealed that three other move patterns were ascertained besides ten out of the analyzed abstracts following his move order. The analysis of personal pronouns showed that…

  1. Abstracts: US-International Biological Program ecosystems analysis studies. Volume 5. No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, J.A.; Myers, V.G.

    1980-12-01

    This issue documents 162 entries to the US/IBP Abstracts computerized data base. Only contributions from the Eastern Deciduous Forest Biome (EDFB) and the Tundra Biome (TNB) are included. Literature contributions and numeric data are abstracted in this volume.

  2. Major Strands in Scientific Inquiry through Cluster Analysis of Research Abstracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Yi-Fen; Jen, Tsung-Hau; Hsu, Ying-Shao

    2012-12-01

    Scientific inquiry involves a variety of abilities scientists use to investigate the natural world. In order to develop students' scientific inquiry, researchers and educators have developed different curricula and a variety of instructional resources, which make features and descriptors of scientific inquiry in teaching and learning even more diverse and complex. For revealing how the multi-facets of scientific inquiry are inherently correlated, this study identified descriptors representing features of scientific inquiry and automatically reviewed the research abstracts where these descriptors were used. A cluster analysis was used to analyze 171 relevant article abstracts published in Web of Science from 1986 to 2010, by using the data mining software WordStat v6.1. Networks of descriptors and of research strands showed the inter-relationships among descriptors and the research strands. Through triangulating the categorization results from automatic data-mining and expert researchers' qualitative reviewing, this study identified seven clusters of high-frequency descriptors and nine major strands of current research studies. The nine strands can further be grouped into five research themes: NOS, Knowledge Construction, Inquiry Ability, Explanatory-driven Inquiry, and Professional Development. With different levels of cohesiveness in network, these themes demonstrated that scientific inquiry was composed of different levels of abilities students need to achieve as well as the endeavors of teachers. Through exploring the network shared among most researchers, this study is expected to provide novice researchers information about elements that expert researchers usually consider and further, it is expected to give expert researchers some new directions to explore in research designs.

  3. Coal-underground fatalities. Second half-1989. Abstracts with illustrations. Analysis and suggested uses

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 Fatal Illustration Program is divided into four categories or subject areas. These categories are underground coal mining; surface coal mining; underground metal/nonmetal mining; and surface metal/nonmetal mining. Fatalities in each category are grouped by accident type. The material in this unit includes illustrated abstracts (summaries) of all chargeable underground coal mining fatalities for the second six months of 1989 accompanied by 35mm slides. A statistical analysis is included for fatalities that occurred during July through December 1989. The analysis examines the following areas: the victim's experience, the accident classification, the victim's occupation, and the size of the mine where the fatality occurred. Tables are included in this package. They are divided into first half and second half data for 1989. The tables tabulate age and experience of the victim, accident classification and occupation of the victim, and mine size and location of the accident. A slide index is also included which helps locate fatalities for a particular occupation, accident classification, location, and mine size.

  4. Coal-surface fatalities: Second half, 1990. Abstracts with illustrations. Analysis and suggested uses

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The 1990 Fatal Illustration Program is divided into four categories or subject areas. These categories are underground coal mining; surface coal mining; underground metal/nonmetal mining; and surface metal/nonmetal mining. Fatalities in each category are grouped by accident type. The materials in the unit include illustrated abstracts (summaries) of all chargeable surface coal mining fatalities for the second six months of 1990 accompanied by 35mm slides. A statistical analysis is included for fatalities that occurred during July through December 1990. The analysis examines the following areas: the victim's experience, the accident classification, the victim's occupation, and the size of the mine where the fatality occurred. Tables are included in the package. They are divided into first half and second half data for 1990. The tables tabulate age and experience of the victim, accident classification and occupation of the victim, and mine size and location of the accident. A slide index is also included which helps locate fatalities for a particular occupation, accident classification, location, and mine size. Eight fatal accidents occurred at surface coal mines during July through December 1990.

  5. Coal-surface fatalities. Second half-1989. Abstracts with illustrations. Analysis and suggested uses

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 Fatal Illustration Program is divided into four categories or subject areas. These categories are underground coal mining; surface coal mining; underground metal/nonmetal mining; and surface metal/nonmetal mining. Fatalities in each category are grouped by accident type. The material in this unit includes illustrated abstracts (summaries) of all chargeable surface coal mining fatalities for the second six months of 1989 accompanied by 35mm slides. A statistical analysis is included for fatalities that occurred during July through December 1989. The analysis examines the following areas: the victim's experience, the accident classification, the victim's occupation, and the size of the mine where the fatality occurred. Tables are included in this package. They are divided into first half and second half data for 1989. The tables tabulate age and experience of the victim, accident classification and occupation of the victim, and mine size and location of the accident. A slide index is also included which helps locate fatalities for a particular occupation, accident classification, location, and mine size.

  6. Coal-underground fatalities: Second half, 1990. Abstracts with illustrations. Analysis and suggested uses

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The 1990 Fatal Illustration Program is divided into four categories or subject areas. These categories are underground coal mining; surface coal mining; underground metal/nonmetal mining; and surface metal/nonmetal mining. Fatalities in each category are grouped by accident type. The materials in the unit include illustrated abstracts (summaries) of all chargeable underground coal mining fatalities for the second six months of 1990 accompanied by 35mm slides. A statistical analysis is included for fatalities that occurred during July through December 1990. The analysis examines the following areas: the victim's experience, the accident classification, the victim's occupation, and the size of the mine where the fatality occurred. Tables are included in the package. They are divided into first half and second half data for 1990. The tables tabulate age and experience of the victim, accident classification and occupation of the victim, and mine size and location of the accident. A slide index is also included which helps locate fatalities for a particular occupation, accident classification, location, and mine size. Twenty-six fatal accidents occurred at underground coal mines during July through December 1990.

  7. Abstract Painting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkes, Robert

    1978-01-01

    Abstract art provokes numerous interpretations, and as many misunderstandings. The adolescent reaction is no exception. The procedure described here can help the student to understand the abstract from at least one direction. (Author/RK)

  8. Reporting quality of randomised controlled trial abstracts among high-impact general medical journals: a review and analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hays, Meredith; Andrews, Mary; Wilson, Ramey; Callender, David; O'Malley, Patrick G; Douglas, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess adherence to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) for Abstracts by five high-impact general medical journals and to assess whether the quality of reporting was homogeneous across these journals. Design This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Setting Randomised controlled trial (RCT) abstracts in five high-impact general medical journals. Participants We used up to 100 RCT abstracts published between 2011 and 2014 from each of the following journals: The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), the Annals of Internal Medicine (Annals IM), The Lancet, the British Medical Journal (The BMJ) and the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). Main outcome The primary outcome was per cent overall adherence to the 19-item CONSORT for Abstracts checklist. Secondary outcomes included per cent adherence in checklist subcategories and assessing homogeneity of reporting quality across the individual journals. Results Search results yielded 466 abstracts, 3 of which were later excluded as they were not RCTs. Analysis was performed on 463 abstracts (97 from NEJM, 66 from Annals IM, 100 from The Lancet, 100 from The BMJ, 100 from JAMA). Analysis of all scored items showed an overall adherence of 67% (95% CI 66% to 68%) to the CONSORT for Abstracts checklist. The Lancet had the highest overall adherence rate (78%; 95% CI 76% to 80%), whereas NEJM had the lowest (55%; 95% CI 53% to 57%). Adherence rates to 8 of the checklist items differed by >25% between journals. Conclusions Among the five highest impact general medical journals, there is variable and incomplete adherence to the CONSORT for Abstracts reporting checklist of randomised trials, with substantial differences between individual journals. Lack of adherence to the CONSORT for Abstracts reporting checklist by high-impact medical journals impedes critical appraisal of important studies. We recommend diligent assessment of adherence to reporting

  9. An Analysis of World-Wide Contributions to "Nuclear Science Abstracts," Volume 22 (1968).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaden, William M.

    Beginning with volume 20, "Nuclear Science Abstracts" (NSA) citations, exclusive of abstracts, have been recorded on magnetic tape. The articles have been categorized by 34 elements of the citations such as title, author, source, journal, report number, etc. At the time of this report more than 130,000 citations had been stored for purposes of…

  10. The body and the fading away of abstract concepts and words: a sign language analysis

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Anna M.; Capirci, Olga; Gianfreda, Gabriele; Volterra, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important challenges for embodied and grounded theories of cognition concerns the representation of abstract concepts, such as “freedom.” Many embodied theories of abstract concepts have been proposed. Some proposals stress the similarities between concrete and abstract concepts showing that they are both grounded in perception and action system while other emphasize their difference favoring a multiple representation view. An influential view proposes that abstract concepts are mapped to concrete ones through metaphors. Furthermore, some theories underline the fact that abstract concepts are grounded in specific contents, as situations, introspective states, emotions. These approaches are not necessarily mutually exclusive, since it is possible that they can account for different subsets of abstract concepts and words. One novel and fruitful way to understand the way in which abstract concepts are represented is to analyze how sign languages encode concepts into signs. In the present paper we will discuss these theoretical issues mostly relying on examples taken from Italian Sign Language (LIS, Lingua dei Segni Italiana), the visual-gestural language used within the Italian Deaf community. We will verify whether and to what extent LIS signs provide evidence favoring the different theories of abstract concepts. In analyzing signs we will distinguish between direct forms of involvement of the body and forms in which concepts are grounded differently, for example relying on linguistic experience. In dealing with the LIS evidence, we will consider the possibility that different abstract concepts are represented using different levels of embodiment. The collected evidence will help us to discuss whether a unitary embodied theory of abstract concepts is possible or whether the different theoretical proposals can account for different aspects of their representation. PMID:25120515

  11. The body and the fading away of abstract concepts and words: a sign language analysis.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Anna M; Capirci, Olga; Gianfreda, Gabriele; Volterra, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important challenges for embodied and grounded theories of cognition concerns the representation of abstract concepts, such as "freedom." Many embodied theories of abstract concepts have been proposed. Some proposals stress the similarities between concrete and abstract concepts showing that they are both grounded in perception and action system while other emphasize their difference favoring a multiple representation view. An influential view proposes that abstract concepts are mapped to concrete ones through metaphors. Furthermore, some theories underline the fact that abstract concepts are grounded in specific contents, as situations, introspective states, emotions. These approaches are not necessarily mutually exclusive, since it is possible that they can account for different subsets of abstract concepts and words. One novel and fruitful way to understand the way in which abstract concepts are represented is to analyze how sign languages encode concepts into signs. In the present paper we will discuss these theoretical issues mostly relying on examples taken from Italian Sign Language (LIS, Lingua dei Segni Italiana), the visual-gestural language used within the Italian Deaf community. We will verify whether and to what extent LIS signs provide evidence favoring the different theories of abstract concepts. In analyzing signs we will distinguish between direct forms of involvement of the body and forms in which concepts are grounded differently, for example relying on linguistic experience. In dealing with the LIS evidence, we will consider the possibility that different abstract concepts are represented using different levels of embodiment. The collected evidence will help us to discuss whether a unitary embodied theory of abstract concepts is possible or whether the different theoretical proposals can account for different aspects of their representation. PMID:25120515

  12. Temperature Control of Fimbriation Circuit Switch in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli: Quantitative Analysis via Automated Model Abstraction

    PubMed Central

    Kuwahara, Hiroyuki; Myers, Chris J.; Samoilov, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) represent the predominant cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs). A key UPEC molecular virulence mechanism is type 1 fimbriae, whose expression is controlled by the orientation of an invertible chromosomal DNA element—the fim switch. Temperature has been shown to act as a major regulator of fim switching behavior and is overall an important indicator as well as functional feature of many urologic diseases, including UPEC host-pathogen interaction dynamics. Given this panoptic physiological role of temperature during UTI progression and notable empirical challenges to its direct in vivo studies, in silico modeling of corresponding biochemical and biophysical mechanisms essential to UPEC pathogenicity may significantly aid our understanding of the underlying disease processes. However, rigorous computational analysis of biological systems, such as fim switch temperature control circuit, has hereto presented a notoriously demanding problem due to both the substantial complexity of the gene regulatory networks involved as well as their often characteristically discrete and stochastic dynamics. To address these issues, we have developed an approach that enables automated multiscale abstraction of biological system descriptions based on reaction kinetics. Implemented as a computational tool, this method has allowed us to efficiently analyze the modular organization and behavior of the E. coli fimbriation switch circuit at different temperature settings, thus facilitating new insights into this mode of UPEC molecular virulence regulation. In particular, our results suggest that, with respect to its role in shutting down fimbriae expression, the primary function of FimB recombinase may be to effect a controlled down-regulation (rather than increase) of the ON-to-OFF fim switching rate via temperature-dependent suppression of competing dynamics mediated by recombinase FimE. Our computational analysis further implies that this down

  13. Second Annual Conference on Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems. Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Abstracts from the conference are presented. The topics covered include the following: next generation software systems and languages; databases, catalogs, and archives; user interfaces/visualization; real-time data acquisition/scheduling; and IRAF/STSDAS/PROS status reports.

  14. Transforming Rubrics Using Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baryla, Ed; Shelley, Gary; Trainor, William

    2012-01-01

    Student learning and program effectiveness is often assessed using rubrics. While much time and effort may go into their creation, it is equally important to assess how effective and efficient the rubrics actually are in terms of measuring competencies over a number of criteria. This study demonstrates the use of common factor analysis to identify…

  15. Abstract:Location Contributions Determined via GGE Biplot Analysis of Multienvironment Sugarcane Genotype-Performance Trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: Selection for productive sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) cultivars in Florida has been more successful for organic than sand soils. The objectives of this study were to assess the contribution of the location with a sand soil in the final stage of multi-environment testing of sugarca...

  16. Advanced simulation for analysis of critical infrastructure : abstract cascades, the electric power grid, and Fedwire.

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Stamber, Kevin Louis; Beyeler, Walter Eugene

    2004-08-01

    Critical Infrastructures are formed by a large number of components that interact within complex networks. As a rule, infrastructures contain strong feedbacks either explicitly through the action of hardware/software control, or implicitly through the action/reaction of people. Individual infrastructures influence others and grow, adapt, and thus evolve in response to their multifaceted physical, economic, cultural, and political environments. Simply put, critical infrastructures are complex adaptive systems. In the Advanced Modeling and Techniques Investigations (AMTI) subgroup of the National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC), we are studying infrastructures as complex adaptive systems. In one of AMTI's efforts, we are focusing on cascading failure as can occur with devastating results within and between infrastructures. Over the past year we have synthesized and extended the large variety of abstract cascade models developed in the field of complexity science and have started to apply them to specific infrastructures that might experience cascading failure. In this report we introduce our comprehensive model, Polynet, which simulates cascading failure over a wide range of network topologies, interaction rules, and adaptive responses as well as multiple interacting and growing networks. We first demonstrate Polynet for the classical Bac, Tang, and Wiesenfeld or BTW sand-pile in several network topologies. We then apply Polynet to two very different critical infrastructures: the high voltage electric power transmission system which relays electricity from generators to groups of distribution-level consumers, and Fedwire which is a Federal Reserve service for sending large-value payments between banks and other large financial institutions. For these two applications, we tailor interaction rules to represent appropriate unit behavior and consider the influence of random transactions within two stylized networks: a regular homogeneous array and a

  17. Scientist-Centered Workflow Abstractions via Generic Actors, Workflow Templates, and Context-Awareness for Groundwater Modeling and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, George; Sivaramakrishnan, Chandrika; Critchlow, Terence J.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Ngu, Anne Hee Hiong

    2011-07-04

    A drawback of existing scientific workflow systems is the lack of support to domain scientists in designing and executing their own scientific workflows. Many domain scientists avoid developing and using workflows because the basic objects of workflows are too low-level and high-level tools and mechanisms to aid in workflow construction and use are largely unavailable. In our research, we are prototyping higher-level abstractions and tools to better support scientists in their workflow activities. Specifically, we are developing generic actors that provide abstract interfaces to specific functionality, workflow templates that encapsulate workflow and data patterns that can be reused and adapted by scientists, and context-awareness mechanisms to gather contextual information from the workflow environment on behalf of the scientist. To evaluate these scientist-centered abstractions on real problems, we apply them to construct and execute scientific workflows in the specific domain area of groundwater modeling and analysis.

  18. Journalism Abstracts. Vol. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popovich, Mark N., Ed.

    This book, the fifteenth volume of an annual publication, contains 373 abstracts of 52 doctoral and 321 master's theses from 50 colleges and universities. The abstracts are arranged alphabetically by author, with the doctoral dissertations appearing first. These cover such topics as advertising, audience analysis, content analysis of news issues…

  19. Abstract Constructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietropola, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Describes a lesson designed to culminate a year of eighth-grade art classes in which students explore elements of design and space by creating 3-D abstract constructions. Outlines the process of using foam board and markers to create various shapes and optical effects. (DSK)

  20. OSI Network-layer Abstraction: Analysis of Simulation Dynamics and Performance Indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawniczak, Anna T.; Gerisch, Alf; Di Stefano, Bruno

    2005-06-01

    The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model provides a conceptual framework for communication among computers in a data communication network. The Network Layer of this model is responsible for the routing and forwarding of packets of data. We investigate the OSI Network Layer and develop an abstraction suitable for the study of various network performance indicators, e.g. throughput, average packet delay, average packet speed, average packet path-length, etc. We investigate how the network dynamics and the network performance indicators are affected by various routing algorithms and by the addition of randomly generated links into a regular network connection topology of fixed size. We observe that the network dynamics is not simply the sum of effects resulting from adding individual links to the connection topology but rather is governed nonlinearly by the complex interactions caused by the existence of all randomly added and already existing links in the network. Data for our study was gathered using Netzwerk-1, a C++ simulation tool that we developed for our abstraction.

  1. Research on Drill String Vibration based on the Cepstrum Analysis and Abstracting of SWD Bit Source Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H.; Lan, X.; Liu, Z.

    2014-12-01

    From the vibration drilling information of the surface, we can not only provide the drill bit source signal for the SWD(Seismic While Drilling)data interpretation, estimate the condition under the well, but also get such information as the stratum character, the attrited status of the aiguille and the rotating status of the drill string. In SWD pilot data preprocessing, it is very important that effective signals are abstracted from bit. Also, noises are abstracted from rigs and machines on ground. Source signal from bit, because of the broad range of frequencies and short time duration, can be easily affected by noises from rigs and machines. In order to avoid the affection and recover the bit source signals, the source function associated with the surface record is the key approach for processing the SWD signals. Cepstrum analysis is a nonlinear filtering technology, can change the convoluted signals in time domain to added signals in frequency domain. This method can remove the structural reverberation to abstract the source signals by selecting a window function. We discussed the cepstral filtering and abstracted the transient source signals according to the data of drill string simulated experiment. Indoor simulation experiment verifies reliability of cepstrum analysis technology, stifles reverberation of pipe string, and obtains source signal and transfer function. On the basis of noise elimination, analyze vibration signals received by the top of drilling string using cepstrum, stifles long time cycle reverberation, highlights periodic characteristics of signals, which supplies convenience for analysis of drill bit feeble vibration and spreading characteristics. Correlate extracted drill bit source signal with ground records, which improves signal-to-noise ratio of SWD data processing. Although cepstrum can not recover exact source signals, preliminary estimates can still be given for transient source signal in accordance with amplitude and width of the

  2. Has Abstractness Been Resolved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Omoush, Ahmad

    1989-01-01

    A discussion focusing on the abstractness of analysis in phonology, debated since the 1960s, describes the issue, reviews the literature on the subject, cites specific natural language examples, and examines the extent to which the issue has been resolved. An underlying representation is said to be abstract if it is different from the derived one,…

  3. Sister chromatid exchange analysis to monitor genotoxic chemicals. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) analysis for toxicological studies. SCE analysis are very sensitive measures of genotoxic damage to chromosomes. SCE toxicological studies analyzing ionizing radiation, chromium compounds, styrene, paint thinner, mercury, cigarette smoke, coal dust, fuel oil, insecticides, ethylene oxide, diesel exhaust, and polychlorinated biphenyls are discussed. SCE studies using both human and animal tissue cultures are described. (Contains a minimum of 191 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Sister chromatid exchange analysis to monitor genotoxic chemicals. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) analysis for toxicological studies. SCE analysis are very sensitive measures of genotoxic damage to chromosomes. SCE toxicological studies analyzing ionizing radiation, chromium compounds, styrene, paint thinner, mercury, cigarette smoke, coal dust, fuel oil, insecticides, ethylene oxide, diesel exhaust, and polychlorinated biphenyls are discussed. SCE studies using both human and animal tissue cultures are described. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. Using Toulmin Analysis to Analyse an Instructor's Proof Presentation in Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukawa-Connelly, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a method for analysing undergraduate teaching of proof-based courses using Toulmin's model (1969) of argumentation. It presents a case study of one instructor's presentation of proofs. The analysis shows that the instructor presents different levels of detail in different proofs; thus, the students have an…

  6. Abstracts versus Full Texts and Patents: A Quantitative Analysis of Biomedical Entities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Bernd; Klinger, Roman; Gurulingappa, Harsha; Mevissen, Heinz-Theodor; Hofmann-Apitius, Martin; Fluck, Juliane; Friedrich, Christoph M.

    In information retrieval, named entity recognition gives the opportunity to apply semantic search in domain specific corpora. Recently, more full text patents and journal articles became freely available. As the information distribution amongst the different sections is unknown, an analysis of the diversity is of interest.

  7. Final Report for 'An Abstract Job Handling Grid Service for Dataset Analysis'

    SciTech Connect

    David A Alexander

    2005-07-11

    For Phase I of the Job Handling project, Tech-X has built a Grid service for processing analysis requests, as well as a Graphical User Interface (GUI) client that uses the service. The service is designed to generically support High-Energy Physics (HEP) experimental analysis tasks. It has an extensible, flexible, open architecture and language. The service uses the Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC (STAR) experiment as a working example. STAR is an experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). STAR and other experiments at BNL generate multiple Petabytes of HEP data. The raw data is captured as millions of input files stored in a distributed data catalog. Potentially using thousands of files as input, analysis requests are submitted to a processing environment containing thousands of nodes. The Grid service provides a standard interface to the processing farm. It enables researchers to run large-scale, massively parallel analysis tasks, regardless of the computational resources available in their location.

  8. An Analysis of the Abstracts Presented at the Annual Meetings of the Society for Neuroscience from 2001 to 2006

    PubMed Central

    Lin, John M.; Bohland, Jason W.; Andrews, Peter; Burns, Gully A. P. C.; Allen, Cara B.; Mitra, Partha P.

    2008-01-01

    Annual meeting abstracts published by scientific societies often contain rich arrays of information that can be computationally mined and distilled to elucidate the state and dynamics of the subject field. We extracted and processed abstract data from the Society for Neuroscience (SFN) annual meeting abstracts during the period 2001–2006 in order to gain an objective view of contemporary neuroscience. An important first step in the process was the application of data cleaning and disambiguation methods to construct a unified database, since the data were too noisy to be of full utility in the raw form initially available. Using natural language processing, text mining, and other data analysis techniques, we then examined the demographics and structure of the scientific collaboration network, the dynamics of the field over time, major research trends, and the structure of the sources of research funding. Some interesting findings include a high geographical concentration of neuroscience research in the north eastern United States, a surprisingly large transient population (66% of the authors appear in only one out of the six studied years), the central role played by the study of neurodegenerative disorders in the neuroscience community, and an apparent growth of behavioral/systems neuroscience with a corresponding shrinkage of cellular/molecular neuroscience over the six year period. The results from this work will prove useful for scientists, policy makers, and funding agencies seeking to gain a complete and unbiased picture of the community structure and body of knowledge encapsulated by a specific scientific domain. PMID:18446237

  9. Video and film analysis with correlation tracking and active result presentation (Abstract Only)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowa, Per

    1990-08-01

    Experience with a turnkey analysis system featuring high resolution video input and display, a modular video disc system and a 16 mm cine film scanner with 2600-point resolution, is presented. Tracking is performed with a high-speed correlation process, requiring no special markers. Software packages for evaluating two and three-dimensional results are interactively accessible. Combining the original image sequence with real-time graphic overlays and active drawing of graphic diagrams, provides for an excellent understanding and documentation of the motion sequences.

  10. System Level Analysis of a Water PCM HX Integrated Into Orion's Thermal Control System Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Moses; Hansen, Scott; Ungar, Eugene; Sheth, Rubik

    2015-01-01

    In a cyclical heat load environment such as low Lunar orbit, a spacecraft's radiators are not sized to reject the full heat load requirement. Traditionally, a supplemental heat rejection device (SHReD) such as an evaporator or sublimator is used to act as a "topper" to meet the additional heat rejection demands. Utilizing a Phase Change Material (PCM) heat exchanger (HX) as a SHReD provides an attractive alternative to evaporators and sublimators as PCM HXs do not use a consumable, thereby leading to reduced launch mass and volume requirements. In continued pursuit of water PCM HX development an Orion system level analysis was performed using Thermal Desktop for a water PCM HX integrated into Orion's thermal control system and in a 100km Lunar orbit. The study analyzed 1) placing the PCM on the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) versus the External Thermal Control System (ETCS) 2) use of 30/70 PGW verses 50/50 PGW and 3) increasing the radiator area in order to reduce PCM freeze times. The analysis showed that for the assumed operating and boundary conditions utilizing a water PCM HX on Orion is not a viable option. Additionally, it was found that the radiator area would have to be increased over 20% in order to have a viable water-based PCM HX.

  11. Measurement Bias Detection through Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barendse, M. T.; Oort, F. J.; Werner, C. S.; Ligtvoet, R.; Schermelleh-Engel, K.

    2012-01-01

    Measurement bias is defined as a violation of measurement invariance, which can be investigated through multigroup factor analysis (MGFA), by testing across-group differences in intercepts (uniform bias) and factor loadings (nonuniform bias). Restricted factor analysis (RFA) can also be used to detect measurement bias. To also enable nonuniform…

  12. The Infinitesimal Jackknife with Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Guangjian; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Jennrich, Robert I.

    2012-01-01

    The infinitesimal jackknife, a nonparametric method for estimating standard errors, has been used to obtain standard error estimates in covariance structure analysis. In this article, we adapt it for obtaining standard errors for rotated factor loadings and factor correlations in exploratory factor analysis with sample correlation matrices. Both…

  13. Pieces of the Puzzle: Factors in the Improvement of Urban School Districts on the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Abstract

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casserly, Michael; Price-Baugh, Ricki; Corcoran, Amanda; Lewis, Sharon; Uzzell, Renata; Simon, Candace; Heppen, Jessica; Leinwand, Steve; Salinger, Terry; de Mello, Victor Bandeira; Dogan, Enis; Novotny, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This is an abridged, summary report of selected findings from "Pieces of the Puzzle: Factors in the Improvement of Urban School Districts on the National Assessment of Educational Progress"--a comprehensive study prepared by the Council of the Great City Schools in collaboration with the American Institutes for Research (AIR) and with funding from…

  14. Factor Analysis of Law School Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boldt, Robert F.

    Grades of 116 law school students were obtained from transcripts, along with LSAT, Writing Ability and Background scores. The grades were factored, and an analysis of the goodness of fit of one- through four-factor systems indicated that the system of grades was essentially one factor in nature. A plot of factor loadings for the various courses…

  15. Computer-Based Information Search and Analysis of References to the Initial Teaching Alphabet in the ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) Data Base, Exceptional Child Education Abstracts, Psychological Abstracts and the Language and Language Behavior Abstracts Data Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortensen, Erik

    In order to provide comprehensive information about all known applications of and viewpoints on the Initial Teaching Alphabet, the Initial Teaching Alphabet Foundation has compiled a series of annotated bibliographies that were prepared by means of computer-based information searches and subsequent analysis of the data obtained. The data banks…

  16. Facet Theory, Smallest Space Analysis, and Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttman, Louis

    1982-01-01

    Mathematical and statistical relationships between factor analysis and smallest space analysis are discussed. As spatial analysis of correlation matrices, factor analysis is a special case of smallest space analysis. The two differ in six ways: Shepard diagram, dimensionality, correction for communality, similarity coefficients, regions versus…

  17. Open-shell pair interaction energy decomposition analysis (PIEDA): Formulation and application to the hydrogen abstraction in tripeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Mandy C.; Fedorov, Dmitri G.; Kitaura, Kazuo; Francisco, Joseph S.; Slipchenko, Lyudmila V.

    2013-02-01

    An open-shell extension of the pair interaction energy decomposition analysis (PIEDA) within the framework of the fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method is developed. The open-shell PIEDA method allows the analysis of inter- and intramolecular interactions in terms of electrostatic, exchange-repulsion, charge-transfer, dispersion, and optional polarization energies for molecular systems with a radical or high-spin fragment. Taking into account the low computational cost and scalability of the FMO and PIEDA methods, the new scheme provides a means to characterize the stabilization of radical and open-shell sites in biologically relevant species. The open-shell PIEDA is applied to the characterization of intramolecular interactions in capped trialanine upon hydrogen abstraction (HA) at various sites on the peptide. Hydrogen abstraction reaction is the first step in the oxidative pathway initiated by reactive oxygen or nitrogen species, associated with oxidative stress. It is found that HA results in significant geometrical reorganization of the trialanine peptide. Depending on the HA site, terminal interactions in the radical fold conformers may become weaker or stronger compared to the parent molecule, and often change the character of the non-covalent bonding from amide stacking to hydrogen bonding.

  18. ERBS human factors analysis: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, K. L.; Weger, C.

    1983-01-01

    The incorporation of human factors into the system development process and the benefits derived are discussed. The human factors analysis task for the Earth radiation budget satellite (ERBS) payload operations control center (POCC) is a pathfinder in the new applications approach to this discipline within the mission and data operations directorate. The topics covered include: discussions of the motivation for human factors analysis; the involvement of the human factors research group (HFRG) with project and system developers, and some examples of human factors issues addressed in the ERBS analysis task.

  19. Industrial Power Factor Analysis Guidebook.

    SciTech Connect

    Electrotek Concepts.

    1995-03-01

    Power factor is a way of measuring the percentage of reactive power in an electrical system. Reactive power represents wasted energy--electricity that does no useful work because the electrical current is out of phase with the voltage. Reactive power is used by inductive loads (such as, motors, transformers, fluorescent lights, arc welders and induction furnaces) to sustain their magnetic fields. Electric systems with many motors exhibit low power factors, increased conductor and transformer losses, and lower voltages. Utilities must supply both active and reactive power and compensate for these losses. Power factor can be improved by the addition of shunt capacitors. Capacitors act in opposition to inductive loads, thereby minimizing the reactive power required to serve them. In raising the power factor, shunt capacitors release energy to the system, reduce system losses, and ultimately decrease power costs. Improving system power factor can reduce reactive and active power losses for both industry and utilities through the addition of shunt capacitors. This Guide Book gives electric utility technical staff, industrial end-users, consultants and BPA employees a step-by-step method for evaluating the cost effectiveness of installing power factor correction capacitors in an industrial plant.

  20. A Primer on Confirmatory Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillaspy, James Arthur, Jr.

    This introduction to confirmatory factor analysis presents an overview of its basic concepts and processes. Conventional factor analysis can be described as set of analytic techniques designed to examine the covariance structure of a set of variables and to provide an explanation of the relationships among those variables in terms of a smaller…

  1. Factor Analysis of the Image Correlation Matrix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Henry F.; Cerny, Barbara A.

    1979-01-01

    Whether to factor the image correlation matrix or to use a new model with an alpha factor analysis of it is mentioned, with particular reference to the determinacy problem. It is pointed out that the distribution of the images is sensibly multivariate normal, making for "better" factor analyses. (Author/CTM)

  2. Functional Analysis of Transcription Factors in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) regulate the expression of genes at the transcriptional level. Modification of TF activity dynamically alters the transcriptome, which leads to metabolic and phenotypic changes. Thus, functional analysis of TFs using ‘omics-based’ methodologies is one of the most important areas of the post-genome era. In this mini-review, we present an overview of Arabidopsis TFs and introduce strategies for the functional analysis of plant TFs, which include both traditional and recently developed technologies. These strategies can be assigned to five categories: bioinformatic analysis; analysis of molecular function; expression analysis; phenotype analysis; and network analysis for the description of entire transcriptional regulatory networks. PMID:19478073

  3. PROJECTED PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS IN FACTOR MODELS

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianqing; Liao, Yuan; Wang, Weichen

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a Projected Principal Component Analysis (Projected-PCA), which employees principal component analysis to the projected (smoothed) data matrix onto a given linear space spanned by covariates. When it applies to high-dimensional factor analysis, the projection removes noise components. We show that the unobserved latent factors can be more accurately estimated than the conventional PCA if the projection is genuine, or more precisely, when the factor loading matrices are related to the projected linear space. When the dimensionality is large, the factors can be estimated accurately even when the sample size is finite. We propose a flexible semi-parametric factor model, which decomposes the factor loading matrix into the component that can be explained by subject-specific covariates and the orthogonal residual component. The covariates’ effects on the factor loadings are further modeled by the additive model via sieve approximations. By using the newly proposed Projected-PCA, the rates of convergence of the smooth factor loading matrices are obtained, which are much faster than those of the conventional factor analysis. The convergence is achieved even when the sample size is finite and is particularly appealing in the high-dimension-low-sample-size situation. This leads us to developing nonparametric tests on whether observed covariates have explaining powers on the loadings and whether they fully explain the loadings. The proposed method is illustrated by both simulated data and the returns of the components of the S&P 500 index. PMID:26783374

  4. A Comparison of Monotonicity Analysis with Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentler, P. M.

    1970-01-01

    Factor analysis of artificial data is shown to yield an incorrect number of dimensions, seven, while monotonicity analysis recovered completely and accurately the fact that the data was generated from two latent dimensions. (RF)

  5. Using Factor Analysis To Organize Student Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majors, Mark S.; Sedlacek, William E.

    2001-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to provide an organizational framework for data collected from an entering class of students (N=1,912). Results from the EFA indicated that items on surveys could be grouped into dimensions that can be used to plan student services. Factors that emerged included: Religion/Spirituality, Help Seeking,…

  6. Analysis of factors affecting angle ANB.

    PubMed

    Hussels, W; Nanda, R S

    1984-05-01

    Cephalometric analyses based on angular and linear measurements have obvious fallacies, which have been discussed in detail by Moyers and Bookstein. However, the clinical application of such an analysis by the orthodontic profession in treatment planning is widely accepted. Variations of angle ANB are commonly used to determine relative jaw relationships in most of the cephalometric evaluations. Several authors, including points A and B influences angle ANB, as does rotational growth of the upper and lower jaws. In addition, the authors point out that growth in a vertical direction (distance N to B) and an increase of the dental height (distance A to B) may contribute to changes in angle ANB. For a Class I relation (Wits = 0 mm), a mathematical formula has been developed which enables the authors to study the geometric influence of angle ANB caused by the following four effects: (1) rotation of the jaws and/or occlusal plane relative to the anterior cranial base; (2) anteroposterior position of N relative to point B, (3) vertical growth (distance N to B); (4) increase in dental height (distance A to B). It was observed that, contrary to the common belief that an ANB angle of 2 +/- 3.0 degrees is considered normal for a skeletal Class I relation, the calculated values of angle ANB will vary widely with changes in these four controlling factors under the same skeletal Class I conditions (Wits = 0 mm). Therefore, in a case under consideration, angle ANB must be corrected for these geometric effects in order to get a proper perspective of the skeletal discrepancy. This is facilitated by comparing the measured ANB angle with the corresponding ANB angle calculated by a formula for a Class I relationship. The corresponding calculated angle ANB can be taken from the tables which are based upon the formula using the same values for SNB, omega (angle between occlusal plane and anterior cranial base), b (which is distance N to B) and a (dental height measured as perpendicular

  7. Trends of psychology-related research on euthanasia: a qualitative software-based thematic analysis of journal abstracts.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Euthanasia has received increasing attention in both academic and public debates as one of the most controversial issues. However, the contribution of psychology-related themes to the topic has had little role on these ongoing debates. The aim of the present study is twofold: (1) to explore the main themes relating to euthanasia as provided by psychology-related research; (2) to analyze the temporal trends of psychology-related research on euthanasia over the last decades. A comprehensive search of academic literature was conducted on PsychINFO database. A qualitative software-based thematic analysis was carried out on 602 journal abstracts published from 1935 to 2014. This study highlighted four different thematic areas which characterized the scientific discourse on euthanasia: (1) moral values, in terms of religious, philosophical, and social implications concerning the individual's decision to die; (2) professional ethics, in terms of health and social workers' legal responsibility in death assistance; (3) end-of-life care, with regard to medical options provided to support individuals nearing death; and (4) patient's right to healthcare, in terms of access to palliative care and better quality of dying. Euthanasia discourse over the last decades seems to be overall characterized by two main dimensions: (1) the increasing trend of social legitimacy and acceptability of euthanasia over time, which moved from ethical to healthcare issues; and (2) the curvilinear temporal trend about the request/provision process in euthanasia, which moved from patient's decision for ending life (mainly characterizing the most past and recent research) to the role of health professionals (with a peak in the 1990s). The results suggest palliative care as a potential future research area which can provide healthcare providers with skills to 'connect' with patients, understand patients' hidden agendas, and grant a good quality of life and dying process. PMID:25530297

  8. Separability of Abstract-Category and Specific-Exemplar Visual Object Subsystems: Evidence from fMRI Pattern Analysis

    PubMed Central

    McMenamin, Brenton W.; Deason, Rebecca G.; Steele, Vaughn R.; Koutstaal, Wilma; Marsolek, Chad J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research indicates that dissociable neural subsystems underlie abstract-category (AC) recognition and priming of objects (e.g., cat, piano) and specific-exemplar (SE) recognition and priming of objects (e.g., a calico cat, a different calico cat, a grand piano, etc.). However, the degree of separability between these subsystems is not known, despite the importance of this issue for assessing relevant theories. Visual object representations are widely distributed in visual cortex, thus a multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) approach to analyzing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data may be critical for assessing the separability of different kinds of visual object processing. Here we examined the neural representations of visual object categories and visual object exemplars using multi-voxel pattern analyses of brain activity elicited in visual object processing areas during a repetition-priming task. In the encoding phase, participants viewed visual objects and the printed names of other objects. In the subsequent test phase, participants identified objects that were either same-exemplar primed, different-exemplar primed, word-primed, or unprimed. In visual object processing areas, classifiers were trained to distinguish same-exemplar primed objects from word-primed objects. Then, the abilities of these classifiers to discriminate different-exemplar primed objects and word-primed objects (reflecting AC priming) and to discriminate same-exemplar primed objects and different-exemplar primed objects (reflecting SE priming) was assessed. Results indicated that (a) repetition priming in occipital-temporal regions is organized asymmetrically, such that AC priming is more prevalent in the left hemisphere and SE priming is more prevalent in the right hemisphere, and (b) AC and SE subsystems are weakly modular, not strongly modular or unified. PMID:25528436

  9. Separability of abstract-category and specific-exemplar visual object subsystems: evidence from fMRI pattern analysis.

    PubMed

    McMenamin, Brenton W; Deason, Rebecca G; Steele, Vaughn R; Koutstaal, Wilma; Marsolek, Chad J

    2015-02-01

    Previous research indicates that dissociable neural subsystems underlie abstract-category (AC) recognition and priming of objects (e.g., cat, piano) and specific-exemplar (SE) recognition and priming of objects (e.g., a calico cat, a different calico cat, a grand piano, etc.). However, the degree of separability between these subsystems is not known, despite the importance of this issue for assessing relevant theories. Visual object representations are widely distributed in visual cortex, thus a multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) approach to analyzing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data may be critical for assessing the separability of different kinds of visual object processing. Here we examined the neural representations of visual object categories and visual object exemplars using multi-voxel pattern analyses of brain activity elicited in visual object processing areas during a repetition-priming task. In the encoding phase, participants viewed visual objects and the printed names of other objects. In the subsequent test phase, participants identified objects that were either same-exemplar primed, different-exemplar primed, word-primed, or unprimed. In visual object processing areas, classifiers were trained to distinguish same-exemplar primed objects from word-primed objects. Then, the abilities of these classifiers to discriminate different-exemplar primed objects and word-primed objects (reflecting AC priming) and to discriminate same-exemplar primed objects and different-exemplar primed objects (reflecting SE priming) was assessed. Results indicated that (a) repetition priming in occipital-temporal regions is organized asymmetrically, such that AC priming is more prevalent in the left hemisphere and SE priming is more prevalent in the right hemisphere, and (b) AC and SE subsystems are weakly modular, not strongly modular or unified. PMID:25528436

  10. Factor analysis for isolation of the Raman spectra of aqueous sulfuric acid components

    SciTech Connect

    Malinowski, E.R.; Cox, R.A.; Haldna, U.L.

    1984-04-01

    The Raman spectra of 16 sulfuric acid/water mixtures over the entire mole fraction range were studied by various factor analysis techniques. Abstract factor analysis showed that three factors account for 98.69% of the variation in the data with a real error of 13%. Key-set factor analysis, was used to identify three spectral wavenumbers unique to each component. Spectral-isolation factor analysis, based on the key wavenumbers, revealed the spectra of each unknown component. Target factor analysis, based on the isolated spectra, yielded the relative amounts of the three spectral components. The concentration profiles obtained from the factor loadings, as well as the isolated spectra, were used to identify the chemical species.

  11. Abstraction of Drift Seepage

    SciTech Connect

    J.T. Birkholzer

    2004-11-01

    This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 6.3.3.1)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package corrosion or radionuclide transport.

  12. A note on variational Bayesian factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian-hua; Yu, Philip L H

    2009-09-01

    Existing works on variational bayesian (VB) treatment for factor analysis (FA) model such as [Ghahramani, Z., & Beal, M. (2000). Variational inference for Bayesian mixture of factor analysers. In Advances in neural information proceeding systems. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press; Nielsen, F. B. (2004). Variational approach to factor analysis and related models. Master's thesis, The Institute of Informatics and Mathematical Modelling, Technical University of Denmark.] are found theoretically and empirically to suffer two problems: (1) penalize the model more heavily than BIC and (2) perform unsatisfactorily in low noise cases as redundant factors can not be effectively suppressed. A novel VB treatment is proposed in this paper to resolve the two problems and a simulation study is conducted to testify its improved performance over existing treatments. PMID:19135337

  13. Scene kinetics mitigation using factor analysis with derivative factors.

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, Kurt W.; Melgaard, David Kennett; Scholand, Andrew Joseph

    2010-07-01

    Line of sight jitter in staring sensor data combined with scene information can obscure critical information for change analysis or target detection. Consequently before the data analysis, the jitter effects must be significantly reduced. Conventional principal component analysis (PCA) has been used to obtain basis vectors for background estimation; however PCA requires image frames that contain the jitter variation that is to be modeled. Since jitter is usually chaotic and asymmetric, a data set containing all the variation without the changes to be detected is typically not available. An alternative approach, Scene Kinetics Mitigation, first obtains an image of the scene. Then it computes derivatives of that image in the horizontal and vertical directions. The basis set for estimation of the background and the jitter consists of the image and its derivative factors. This approach has several advantages including: (1) only a small number of images are required to develop the model, (2) the model can estimate backgrounds with jitter different from the input training images, (3) the method is particularly effective for sub-pixel jitter, and (4) the model can be developed from images before the change detection process. In addition the scores from projecting the factors on the background provide estimates of the jitter magnitude and direction for registration of the images. In this paper we will present a discussion of the theoretical basis for this technique, provide examples of its application, and discuss its limitations.

  14. Humor, abstraction, and disbelief.

    PubMed

    Hoicka, Elena; Jutsum, Sarah; Gattis, Merideth

    2008-09-01

    We investigated humor as a context for learning about abstraction and disbelief. More specifically, we investigated how parents support humor understanding during book sharing with their toddlers. In Study 1, a corpus analysis revealed that in books aimed at 1-to 2-year-olds, humor is found more often than other forms of doing the wrong thing including mistakes, pretense, lying, false beliefs, and metaphors. In Study 2, 20 parents read a book containing humorous and non-humorous pages to their 19-to 26-month-olds. Parents used a significantly higher percentage of high abstraction extra-textual utterances (ETUs) when reading the humorous pages. In Study 3, 41 parents read either a humorous or non-humorous book to their 18-to 24-month-olds. Parents reading the humorous book made significantly more ETUs coded for a specific form of high abstraction: those encouraging disbelief of prior utterances. Sharing humorous books thus increases toddlers' exposure to high abstraction and belief-based language. PMID:21585438

  15. A Generic Analysis of English Research Article Abstracts and the Use of Modal Verbs for Financial Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jie

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a generic study of schematic structures and the use of modal verbs of 50 English Research Article (RA) abstracts. With Bhatia's (1990) model as the framework, three other move patterns were obtained besides the normal move order. The density of modal verbs varies greatly from move to move with significant differences in the frequency…

  16. Factor Analysis by Generalized Least Squares.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joreskog, Karl G.; Goldberger, Arthur S.

    Aitkin's generalized least squares (GLS) principle, with the inverse of the observed variance-covariance matrix as a weight matrix, is applied to estimate the factor analysis model in the exploratory (unrestricted) case. It is shown that the GLS estimates are scale free and asymptotically efficient. The estimates are computed by a rapidly…

  17. Heterogeneous Factor Analysis Models: A Bayesian Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansari, Asim; Jedidi, Kamel; Dube, Laurette

    2002-01-01

    Developed Markov Chain Monte Carlo procedures to perform Bayesian inference, model checking, and model comparison in heterogeneous factor analysis. Tested the approach with synthetic data and data from a consumption emotion study involving 54 consumers. Results show that traditional psychometric methods cannot fully capture the heterogeneity in…

  18. Exploratory Factor Analysis with Small Sample Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Winter, J. C. F.; Dodou, D.; Wieringa, P. A.

    2009-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is generally regarded as a technique for large sample sizes ("N"), with N = 50 as a reasonable absolute minimum. This study offers a comprehensive overview of the conditions in which EFA can yield good quality results for "N" below 50. Simulations were carried out to estimate the minimum required "N" for different…

  19. What Is Rotating in Exploratory Factor Analysis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Jason W.

    2015-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is one of the most commonly-reported quantitative methodology in the social sciences, yet much of the detail regarding what happens during an EFA remains unclear. The goal of this brief technical note is to explore what "rotation" is, what exactly is rotating, and why we use rotation when performing…

  20. A Factor Analysis of Psychotic Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaves, Ronald C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The Psychotic Behavior Rating Scale uses a factor analysis approach to aid in differential diagnosis of autism, schizophrenia, mental retardation, aphasia, and other severe handicaps. The scale is compared with five existing qualitatively developed instruments, noting similarities and dissimilarities among the various scales. (Author/JDD)

  1. Comparing Package Programs for Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimberley, Ronald C.

    1978-01-01

    Earlier comparisons of packaged programs for factor analysis are updated because of recent revision in some programs. The top status of SPSS is no longer so apparent as formerly. BMD and SAS now have expanded options. SAS has flexibility and convenience. (Author)

  2. Factor Analysis Applied the VFY-218 RCS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Alex; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Present statistical factor analysis of computer simulations and measurement data for the VFY-218 configuration. Factor analysis try to quantify the statistical grouping of measurements and simulations.

  3. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    M. Wasiolek

    2004-09-08

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater exposure scenario, and the development of conversion factors for assessing compliance with the groundwater protection standard. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop biosphere BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA-LA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' in Figure 1-1, contain detailed description of the model input parameters, their development, and the relationship between the parameters and specific features events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the groundwater exposure scenario. The objectives of this analysis are to develop BDCFs for the groundwater exposure scenario for the three climate states considered in the TSPA-LA as well as conversion factors for evaluating compliance with the groundwater protection standard. The BDCFs will be used in performance assessment for calculating all-pathway annual doses for a given concentration of radionuclides in groundwater. The conversion factors will be used for calculating gross alpha particle activity in groundwater and the annual dose

  4. Correction factor for hair analysis by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montenegro, E. C.; Baptista, G. B.; De Castro Faria, L. V.; Paschoa, A. S.

    1980-01-01

    The application of the Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique to analyse quantitatively the elemental composition of hair specimens brings about some difficulties in the interpretation of the data. The present paper proposes a correction factor to account for the effects of the energy loss of the incident particle with penetration depth, and X-ray self-absorption when a particular geometrical distribution of elements in hair is assumed for calculational purposes. The correction factor has been applied to the analysis of hair contents Zn, Cu and Ca as a function of the energy of the incident particle.

  5. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Wasiolek

    2003-07-25

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater exposure scenario, and the development of conversion factors for assessing compliance with the groundwater protection standard. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop biosphere BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 164186]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports (BSC 2003 [DIRS 160964]; BSC 2003 [DIRS 160965]; BSC 2003 [DIRS 160976]; BSC 2003 [DIRS 161239]; BSC 2003 [DIRS 161241]) contain detailed description of the model input parameters. This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the groundwater exposure scenario. The objectives of this analysis are to develop BDCFs and conversion factors for the TSPA. The BDCFs will be used in performance assessment for calculating annual doses for a given concentration of radionuclides in groundwater. The conversion factors will be used for calculating gross alpha particle activity in groundwater and the annual dose from beta- and photon-emitting radionuclides.

  6. Piaget on Abstraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moessinger, Pierre; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    1981-01-01

    Reviews and discusses Piaget's recent work on abstract reasoning. Piaget's distinction between empirical and reflective abstraction is presented; his hypotheses are considered to be metaphorical. (Author/DB)

  7. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Wasiolek

    2005-04-28

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater exposure scenario, and the development of conversion factors for assessing compliance with the groundwater protection standards. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA-LA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' in Figure 1-1, contain detailed description of the model input parameters, their development, and the relationship between the parameters and specific features events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the groundwater exposure scenario. This analysis receives direct input from the outputs of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) and the five analyses that develop parameter values for the biosphere model (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172827]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169672]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169673]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169458]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169459]). The results of this report are further analyzed in the ''Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis'' (Figure 1-1). The objectives of this analysis are to develop BDCFs for the

  8. Deep Learning with Hierarchical Convolutional Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Polatkan, Gungor; Sapiro, Guillermo; Blei, David; Dunson, David; Carin, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Unsupervised multi-layered (“deep”) models are considered for general data, with a particular focus on imagery. The model is represented using a hierarchical convolutional factor-analysis construction, with sparse factor loadings and scores. The computation of layer-dependent model parameters is implemented within a Bayesian setting, employing a Gibbs sampler and variational Bayesian (VB) analysis, that explicitly exploit the convolutional nature of the expansion. In order to address large-scale and streaming data, an online version of VB is also developed. The number of basis functions or dictionary elements at each layer is inferred from the data, based on a beta-Bernoulli implementation of the Indian buffet process. Example results are presented for several image-processing applications, with comparisons to related models in the literature. PMID:23787342

  9. Exploratory Bi-Factor Analysis: The Oblique Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennrich, Robert I.; Bentler, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Bi-factor analysis is a form of confirmatory factor analysis originally introduced by Holzinger and Swineford ("Psychometrika" 47:41-54, 1937). The bi-factor model has a general factor, a number of group factors, and an explicit bi-factor structure. Jennrich and Bentler ("Psychometrika" 76:537-549, 2011) introduced an exploratory form of bi-factor…

  10. Revising the Competitiveness Index using factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Houston, John; Harris, Paul; McIntire, Sandra; Francis, Dientje

    2002-02-01

    The Competitiveness Index is a 20-item true-false measure designed to assess the desire to win in interpersonal situations. To develop a more psychometrically sound form of the scale, 213 undergraduates were administered the original form and a modified version containing a 5-point Likert-type scale. An initial principal component analysis using a varimax rotation of the modified version yielded a four-factor solution accounting for 54.5% of the explained variance. Based on a subsequent reliability analysis. six items were dropped from the modified scale. A second analysis produced a two-factor solution accounting for 54.1% of the explained variance. Both factors (Enjoyment of Competition and Contentiousness) formed reliable subscales. The 14-item Revised Competitiveness Index had high internal consistency and was positively correlated with the original Competitiveness Index, the competitiveness subscales of the Work and Family Orientation Questionnaire, the Sports Orientation Questionnaire, and the Nach Naff measure of Need for Achievement. PMID:11899003

  11. Enumerating Pathways of Proton Abstraction Based on a Spatial and Electrostatic Analysis of Residues in the Catalytic Site

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Sandeep

    2012-01-01

    The pathways of proton abstraction (PA), a key aspect of most catalytic reactions, is often controversial and highly debated. Ultrahigh-resolution diffraction studies, molecular dynamics, quantum mechanics and molecular mechanic simulations are often adopted to gain insights in the PA mechanisms in enzymes. These methods require expertise and effort to setup and can be computationally intensive. We present a push button methodology – Proton abstraction Simulation (PRISM) – to enumerate the possible pathways of PA in a protein with known 3D structure based on the spatial and electrostatic properties of residues in the proximity of a given nucleophilic residue. Proton movements are evaluated in the vicinity of this nucleophilic residue based on distances, potential differences, spatial channels and characteristics of the individual residues (polarity, acidic, basic, etc). Modulating these parameters eliminates their empirical nature and also might reveal pathways that originate from conformational changes. We have validated our method using serine proteases and concurred with the dichotomy in PA in Class A β-lactamases, both of which are hydrolases. The PA mechanism in a transferase has also been corroborated. The source code is made available at www.sanchak.com/prism. PMID:22745790

  12. Disruptive Event Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    M. A. Wasiolek

    2003-07-21

    This analysis report, ''Disruptive Event Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis'', is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the ERMYN (Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada) biosphere model for the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, its input parameters, and the application of the model to perform the dose assessment for the repository. The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of the two reports that develop biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs), which are input parameters for the TSPA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 164186]) describes in detail the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and lists its input parameters. Model input parameters are developed and described in detail in five analysis report (BSC 2003 [DIRS 160964], BSC 2003 [DIRS 160965], BSC 2003 [DIRS 160976], BSC 2003 [DIRS 161239], and BSC 2003 [DIRS 161241]). The objective of this analysis was to develop the BDCFs for the volcanic ash exposure scenario and the dose factors (DFs) for calculating inhalation doses during volcanic eruption (eruption phase of the volcanic event). The volcanic ash exposure scenario is hereafter referred to as the volcanic ash scenario. For the volcanic ash scenario, the mode of radionuclide release into the biosphere is a volcanic eruption through the repository with the resulting entrainment of contaminated waste in the tephra and the subsequent atmospheric transport and dispersion of contaminated material in the biosphere. The biosphere process

  13. Solving the AI Planning Plus Scheduling Problem Using Model Checking via Automatic Translation from the Abstract Plan Preparation Language (APPL) to the Symbolic Analysis Laboratory (SAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Siminiceanu, Radu I.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a translator from a new planning language named the Abstract Plan Preparation Language (APPL) to the Symbolic Analysis Laboratory (SAL) model checker. This translator has been developed in support of the Spacecraft Autonomy for Vehicles and Habitats (SAVH) project sponsored by the Exploration Technology Development Program, which is seeking to mature autonomy technology for the vehicles and operations centers of Project Constellation.

  14. Factor Rotation and Standard Errors in Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Guangjian; Preacher, Kristopher J.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we report a surprising phenomenon: Oblique CF-varimax and oblique CF-quartimax rotation produced similar point estimates for rotated factor loadings and factor correlations but different standard error estimates in an empirical example. Influences of factor rotation on asymptotic standard errors are investigated using a numerical…

  15. Factored interval particle filtering for gait analysis.

    PubMed

    Saboune, Jamal; Rose, Cédric; Charpillet, François

    2007-01-01

    Commercial gait analysis systems rely on wearable sensors. The goal of this study is to develop a low cost marker less human motion capture tool. Our method is based on the estimation of 3d movements using video streams and the projection of a 3d human body model. Dynamic parameters only depend on human body movement constraints. No trained gait model is used which makes this approach generic. The 3d model is characterized by the angular positions of its articulations. The kinematic chain structure allows to factor the state vector representing the configuration of the model. We use a dynamic bayesian network and a modified particle filtering algorithm to estimate the most likely state configuration given an observation sequence. The modified algorithm takes advantage of the factorization of the state vector for efficiently weighting and resampling the particles. PMID:18002684

  16. Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Korean Version of Hypomania Checklist-32

    PubMed Central

    An, Doyoun; Hong, Kyung Sue

    2011-01-01

    Objective The Hypomania Checklist - 32 (HCL-32) is a self-assessment instrument developed by Angst et al. (2005) to identify bipolarity in the general population, as well as patients with unipolar depression. The principal objective of this study was to assess the factor structure of the Korean version of the HCL-32 for mood disorder patients, via exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Methods The Korean version of HCL-32 were evaluated in a sample of 608 mood disorder patients, including 210 bipolar disorder patients and 398 unipolar disorder patients, all of whom were diagnosed in accordance with either the Structured Clinical Interview of DSM-IV or Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview They were divided randomly into two groups, and then the EFA was administered to group 1 and the CFA was administered to group 2. Results A 3-factor structure for the HCL-32 was generated, which explained 44% of the total variance from EFA. Factor 1, comprising 18 items, was designated as 'elated mood/increased energy'; factor 2, comprising 8 items, was designated as 'risk-taking behavior/irritability'; and factor 3, comprising 2 items, was designated as 'increased sexual activity'. Researchers confirmed the 3-factor solution derived from group 1 by the CFA. Conclusion The primary findings of this study were the replication and confirmation of the 3-factor structure in Korean mood disorder patients; our results were consistent with previous EFAs. PMID:22216043

  17. Influence analysis for the factor analysis model with ranking data.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Poon, Wai-Yin; Lee, Sik-Yum

    2008-05-01

    Influence analysis is an important component of data analysis, and the local influence approach has been widely applied to many statistical models to identify influential observations and assess minor model perturbations since the pioneering work of Cook (1986). The approach is often adopted to develop influence analysis procedures for factor analysis models with ranking data. However, as this well-known approach is based on the observed data likelihood, which involves multidimensional integrals, directly applying it to develop influence analysis procedures for the factor analysis models with ranking data is difficult. To address this difficulty, a Monte Carlo expectation and maximization algorithm (MCEM) is used to obtain the maximum-likelihood estimate of the model parameters, and measures for influence analysis on the basis of the conditional expectation of the complete data log likelihood at the E-step of the MCEM algorithm are then obtained. Very little additional computation is needed to compute the influence measures, because it is possible to make use of the by-products of the estimation procedure. Influence measures that are based on several typical perturbation schemes are discussed in detail, and the proposed method is illustrated with two real examples and an artificial example. PMID:18482479

  18. A Review of CEFA Software: Comprehensive Exploratory Factor Analysis Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soon-Mook

    2010-01-01

    CEFA 3.02(Browne, Cudeck, Tateneni, & Mels, 2008) is a factor analysis computer program designed to perform exploratory factor analysis. It provides the main properties that are needed for exploratory factor analysis, namely a variety of factoring methods employing eight different discrepancy functions to be minimized to yield initial solutions, a…

  19. Uses of Factor Analysis in Counseling Psychology Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinsley, Howard E. A.; Tinsley, Diane J.

    1987-01-01

    Explains factor analysis, discussing its relation to other multivariate techniques and describing characteristics of the data to consider in determining the appropriateness of factor analysis. Reviews considerations in making decisions about communality estimates, factor extraction, the number of factors to rotate, methods of factor rotation,…

  20. Disruptive Event Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    M. Wasiolek

    2004-09-08

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the volcanic ash exposure scenario, and the development of dose factors for calculating inhalation dose during volcanic eruption. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop biosphere BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the Biosphere Model Report in Figure 1-1, contain detailed descriptions of the model input parameters, their development and the relationship between the parameters and specific features, events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the volcanic ash exposure scenario. This analysis receives direct input from the outputs of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) and from the five analyses that develop parameter values for the biosphere model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169671]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169672]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169673]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169458]; and BSC 2004 [DIRS 169459]). The results of this report are further analyzed in the ''Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis''. The objective of this analysis was to develop the BDCFs for the volcanic ash

  1. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineering Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Papers abstracted represent those submitted to the distribution center at the 83rd American Society for Engineering Education Convention. Abstracts are grouped under headings corresponding to the main topic of the paper. (Editor/CP)

  2. Vocal quality factors: analysis, synthesis, and perception.

    PubMed

    Childers, D G; Lee, C K

    1991-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine several factors of vocal quality that might be affected by changes in vocal fold vibratory patterns. Four voice types were examined: modal, vocal fry, falsetto, and breathy. Three categories of analysis techniques were developed to extract source-related features from speech and electroglottographic (EGG) signals. Four factors were found to be important for characterizing the glottal excitations for the four voice types: the glottal pulse width, the glottal pulse skewness, the abruptness of glottal closure, and the turbulent noise component. The significance of these factors for voice synthesis was studied and a new voice source model that accounted for certain physiological aspects of vocal fold motion was developed and tested using speech synthesis. Perceptual listening tests were conducted to evaluate the auditory effects of the source model parameters upon synthesized speech. The effects of the spectral slope of the source excitation, the shape of the glottal excitation pulse, and the characteristics of the turbulent noise source were considered. Applications for these research results include synthesis of natural sounding speech, synthesis and modeling of vocal disorders, and the development of speaker independent (or adaptive) speech recognition systems. PMID:1837797

  3. Abstraction and Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John; Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih

    2006-01-01

    The framework for this paper is a recently developed theory of abstraction in context. The paper reports on data collected from one student working on tasks concerned with absolute value functions. It examines the relationship between mathematical constructions and abstractions. It argues that an abstraction is a consolidated construction that can…

  4. Factorized molecular wave functions: Analysis of the nuclear factor

    SciTech Connect

    Lefebvre, R.

    2015-06-07

    The exact factorization of molecular wave functions leads to nuclear factors which should be nodeless functions. We reconsider the case of vibrational perturbations in a diatomic species, a situation usually treated by combining Born-Oppenheimer products. It was shown [R. Lefebvre, J. Chem. Phys. 142, 074106 (2015)] that it is possible to derive, from the solutions of coupled equations, the form of the factorized function. By increasing artificially the interstate coupling in the usual approach, the adiabatic regime can be reached, whereby the wave function can be reduced to a single product. The nuclear factor of this product is determined by the lowest of the two potentials obtained by diagonalization of the potential matrix. By comparison with the nuclear wave function of the factorized scheme, it is shown that by a simple rectification, an agreement is obtained between the modified nodeless function and that of the adiabatic scheme.

  5. Nonrhabdomyosarcomatous abdominopelvic sarcomas: Analysis of prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Nida; Shukla, Nootan K.; Deo, S. V. S.; Agarwala, Sandeep; Sharma, D. N.; Sharma, Meher C.; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2016-01-01

    Background: Data concerning treatment outcome and prognostic factors in sarcomas of abdomen and pelvis are sparse in literature. Methods and Results: Of 696 patients with nonrhabdomyosarcomatous soft tissue sarcoma registered at our center between June 2003 and December 2012, 112 (16%) patients of sarcomas arising from abdomen and pelvis were identified, of which 88 patients were analyzed for treatment outcome and prognostic factors. The median age was 40 years (range: 1–78 years) with a male: female ratio of 0.7:1. Twenty-one (24%) patients were metastatic at baseline. The most common tumor sites were retroperitoneum in 70% patients and abdominal wall in 18% patients. Leiomyosarcoma was the most common histological subtype in 36% patients followed by liposarcoma in 17% patients. Thirty-five (40%) patients had Grade III tumors. Forty-six (52%) patients underwent surgical resection. At a median follow-up of 43 months (range: 2–94 months), the 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 35% and 42%, with a median of 22 months and 43 months, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified male gender (P - 0.03, hazard ratio [HR] - 0.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] - 0.23–0.92), baseline metastatic disease (P - 0.01, HR - 2.98, 95% CI - 1.27–6.98) and Grade III tumors (P - 0.02, HR - 1.84, 95% CI - 1.08–3.13) as factors associated with poor EFS, whereas baseline metastatic disease (P < 0.001, HR - 5.45, 95% CI - 2.31–12.87) and unresectability (P - 0.01, HR - 2.72, 95% CI - 1.27–5.83) were associated with poor OS. Conclusion: This is a single-institutional study of patients with abdominopelvic sarcomas where gender was identified as a new factor affecting survival apart from baseline presentation, histologic grade, and surgical resection. PMID:27168708

  6. Clinicopathological Analysis of Factors Related to Colorectal Tumor Perforation

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Arana, Vicente; Martínez-Riera, Antonio; Delgado-Plasencia, Luciano; Rodríguez-González, Diana; Bravo-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Álvarez-Argüelles, Hugo; Alarcó-Hernández, Antonio; Salido-Ruiz, Eduardo; Fernández-Peralta, Antonia M.; González-Aguilera, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Colorectal tumor perforation is a life-threatening complication of this disease. However, little is known about the anatomopathological factors or pathophysiologic mechanisms involved. Pathological and immunohistochemical analysis of factors related with tumoral neo-angiogenesis, which could influence tumor perforation are assessed in this study. A retrospective study of patients with perforated colon tumors (Group P) and T4a nonperforated (controls) was conducted between 2001 and 2010. Histological variables (differentiation, vascular invasion, and location) and immunohistochemical (CD31, Growth Endothelial Vascular Factor (VEGF) and p53) related with tumor angiogenesis were analyzed. Of 2189 patients, 100 (4.56%) met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 49 patients had nonperforated (2.23%) and 51 had perforated tumors (2.32%). The P group had lower number of right-sided tumors (7/51, 13.7%) compared with controls (13/49, 36.7%) (P = .01). The high-grade tumors (undifferentiated) represented only 3.9% of the perforated tumors; the remaining 96.1% were well differentiated (P = .01). No differences between groups in the frequency of TP53 mutation or VEGF and CD31 expression were found. In the P group, only 2 (3.9%) had vascular invasion (P = .01). Of the 12 tumors with vascular invasion, only 2 were perforated (16.6%). The median number of metastatic lymph-nodes in P Group was 0 versus 3 in controls (Z = −4.2; P < .01). Pathological analysis of variables that indirectly measure the presence of tumor angiogenesis (differentiation, vascular invasion, and the number of metastatic lymph nodes) shows a relationship between this and the perforation, location, and tumor differentiation. We could not directly validate our hypothesis, by immunohistochemistry of TP53, VEGF, and CD31, that perforated tumors exhibit less angiogenesis. PMID:25881846

  7. The Themes, Institutions, and People of Medical Education Research 1988-2010: Content Analysis of Abstracts from Six Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotgans, Jerome I.

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed at providing an overview of the most common themes of research into medical education. Changes in frequency of occurrence of these themes over time and differences between US and European journals were studied. The most productive institutions and researchers in the field were examined. A content analysis was carried out on…

  8. Abstraction and Problem Reformulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giunchiglia, Fausto

    1992-01-01

    In work done jointly with Toby Walsh, the author has provided a sound theoretical foundation to the process of reasoning with abstraction (GW90c, GWS9, GW9Ob, GW90a). The notion of abstraction formalized in this work can be informally described as: (property 1), the process of mapping a representation of a problem, called (following historical convention (Sac74)) the 'ground' representation, onto a new representation, called the 'abstract' representation, which, (property 2) helps deal with the problem in the original search space by preserving certain desirable properties and (property 3) is simpler to handle as it is constructed from the ground representation by "throwing away details". One desirable property preserved by an abstraction is provability; often there is a relationship between provability in the ground representation and provability in the abstract representation. Another can be deduction or, possibly inconsistency. By 'throwing away details' we usually mean that the problem is described in a language with a smaller search space (for instance a propositional language or a language without variables) in which formulae of the abstract representation are obtained from the formulae of the ground representation by the use of some terminating rewriting technique. Often we require that the use of abstraction results in more efficient .reasoning. However, it might simply increase the number of facts asserted (eg. by allowing, in practice, the exploration of deeper search spaces or by implementing some form of learning). Among all abstractions, three very important classes have been identified. They relate the set of facts provable in the ground space to those provable in the abstract space. We call: TI abstractions all those abstractions where the abstractions of all the provable facts of the ground space are provable in the abstract space; TD abstractions all those abstractions wllere the 'unabstractions' of all the provable facts of the abstract space are

  9. Abstraction in mathematics.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Pier Luigi

    2003-07-29

    Some current interpretations of abstraction in mathematical settings are examined from different perspectives, including history and learning. It is argued that abstraction is a complex concept and that it cannot be reduced to generalization or decontextualization only. In particular, the links between abstraction processes and the emergence of new objects are shown. The role that representations have in abstraction is discussed, taking into account both the historical and the educational perspectives. As languages play a major role in mathematics, some ideas from functional linguistics are applied to explain to what extent mathematical notations are to be considered abstract. Finally, abstraction is examined from the perspective of mathematics education, to show that the teaching ideas resulting from one-dimensional interpretations of abstraction have proved utterly unsuccessful. PMID:12903658

  10. A Monte Carlo Study of Recovery of Weak Factor Loadings in Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ximenez, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    The recovery of weak factors has been extensively studied in the context of exploratory factor analysis. This article presents the results of a Monte Carlo simulation study of recovery of weak factor loadings in confirmatory factor analysis under conditions of estimation method (maximum likelihood vs. unweighted least squares), sample size,…

  11. Practical Considerations for Using Exploratory Factor Analysis in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavers, Amy S.; Lounsbury, John W.; Richards, Jennifer K.; Huck, Schuyler W.; Skolits, Gary J.; Esquivel, Shelley L.

    2013-01-01

    The uses and methodology of factor analysis are widely debated and discussed, especially the issues of rotational use, methods of confirmatory factor analysis, and adequate sample size. The variety of perspectives and often conflicting opinions can lead to confusion among researchers about best practices for using factor analysis. The focus of the…

  12. Likelihood-Based Confidence Intervals in Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oort, Frans J.

    2011-01-01

    In exploratory or unrestricted factor analysis, all factor loadings are free to be estimated. In oblique solutions, the correlations between common factors are free to be estimated as well. The purpose of this article is to show how likelihood-based confidence intervals can be obtained for rotated factor loadings and factor correlations, by…

  13. Loving Those Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Lori

    2004-01-01

    The author describes a lesson she did on abstract art with her high school art classes. She passed out a required step-by-step outline of the project process. She asked each of them to look at abstract art. They were to list five or six abstract artists they thought were interesting, narrow their list down to the one most personally intriguing,…

  14. Using Group Explorer in teaching abstract algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Claus; Gfeller, Mary; Donohue, Christopher

    2013-04-01

    This study explores the use of Group Explorer in an undergraduate mathematics course in abstract algebra. The visual nature of Group Explorer in representing concepts in group theory is an attractive incentive to use this software in the classroom. However, little is known about students' perceptions on this technology in learning concepts in abstract algebra. A total of 26 participants in an undergraduate course studying group theory were surveyed regarding their experiences using Group Explorer. Findings indicate that all participants believed that the software was beneficial to their learning and described their attitudes regarding the software in terms of using the technology and its helpfulness in learning concepts. A multiple regression analysis reveals that representational fluency of concepts with the software correlated significantly with participants' understanding of group concepts yet, participants' attitudes about Group Explorer and technology in general were not significant factors.

  15. Multiple factor analysis with continuous and dichotomous variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanoon, Thanoon Y.; Adnan, Robiah; Saffari, Seyed Ehsan

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, continuous and dichotomous variables are used in multiple factor analysis method. When all variables within the same group are continuous, we use principal component analysis method in factor analysis, if all variables within the same group are dichotomous we use multiple correspondence analysis method in factor analysis. Statistical analyses, which involve Eigen roots, Eigen vectors, multiple factor loadings, correlation coefficient RV, contribution table, are discussed. The proposed procedure is illustrated by a lung cancer data consists of four groups "group of personal variables", "group of therapeutic variables", "group of nutritional variables", "group of genetic variables". Analysis are done by using XLSTAT program.

  16. Alternative Factor Models and Factorial Invariance of the GHQ-12: A Large Sample Analysis Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shevlin, Mark; Adamson, Gary

    2005-01-01

    This study tested alternative factor models of the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), based on previous research findings, with a large sample using confirmatory factor analysis. An alternative models framework was used to test 6 factor analytic models. A 3-factor model was the best explanation of the sample data. The 3 factors were labeled…

  17. Community Development Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    This volume of 1,108 abstracts summarizes the majority of important works on community development during the last ten years. Part I contains abstracts of periodical literature and is classified into 19 sections, including general history, communications, community and area studies, decision-making, leadership, migration and settlement, social…

  18. Leadership Abstracts, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Mark D., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide brief discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 10 for 1997 contains the following 12 abstracts: (1) "On Community College Renewal" (Nathan L. Hodges and Mark D. Milliron); (2) "The Community College Niche in a…

  19. Designing for Mathematical Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Dave; Noss, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Our focus is on the design of systems (pedagogical, technical, social) that encourage mathematical abstraction, a process we refer to as "designing for abstraction." In this paper, we draw on detailed design experiments from our research on children's understanding about chance and distribution to re-present this work as a case study in designing…

  20. Knowledge-Based Abstracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of automatic abstracting of technical papers focuses on a knowledge-based method that uses two sets of rules. Topics discussed include anaphora; text structure and discourse; abstracting techniques, including the keyword method and the indicator phrase method; and tools for text skimming. (27 references) (LRW)

  1. Leadership Abstracts, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Larry, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide two-page discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, and teaching in community colleges. The 12 abstracts for Volume 8, 1995, are: (1) "Redesigning the System To Meet the Workforce Training Needs of the Nation," by Larry Warford; (2) "The College President, the Board, and the Board Chair: A…

  2. Paper Abstract Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Abstraction is, in effect, a simplification and reduction of shapes with an absence of detail designed to comprise the essence of the more naturalistic images being depicted. Without even intending to, young children consistently create interesting, and sometimes beautiful, abstract compositions. A child's creations, moreover, will always seem to…

  3. Is It Really Abstract?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2011-01-01

    For this author, one of the most enjoyable aspects of teaching elementary art is the willingness of students to embrace the different styles of art introduced to them. In this article, she describes a project that allows upper-elementary students to learn about abstract art and the lives of some of the master abstract artists, implement the idea…

  4. Leadership Abstracts, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Larry, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide two-page discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 9 for 1996 includes the following 12 abstracts: (1) "Tech-Prep + School-To-Work: Working Together To Foster Educational Reform," (Roderick F. Beaumont); (2)…

  5. Mathematical Abstraction through Scaffolding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih; Roper, Tom

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the role of scaffolding in the process of abstraction. An activity-theoretic approach to abstraction in context is taken. This examination is carried out with reference to verbal protocols of two 17 year-old students working together on a task connected to sketching the graph of |f|x|)|. Examination of the data suggests that…

  6. Abstract coherent categories.

    PubMed

    Rehder, B; Ross, B H

    2001-09-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the importance of the knowledge that interrelates features in people's mental representation of categories and that makes our conception of categories coherent. This article focuses on abstract coherent categories, coherent categories that are also abstract because they are defined by relations independently of any features. Four experiments demonstrate that abstract coherent categories are learned more easily than control categories with identical features and statistical structure, and also that participants induced an abstract representation of the category by granting category membership to exemplars with completely novel features. The authors argue that the human conceptual system is heavily populated with abstract coherent concepts, including conceptions of social groups, societal institutions, legal, political, and military scenarios, and many superordinate categories, such as classes of natural kinds. PMID:11550753

  7. Abstract Datatypes in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan

    1997-01-01

    PVS (Prototype Verification System) is a general-purpose environment for developing specifications and proofs. This document deals primarily with the abstract datatype mechanism in PVS which generates theories containing axioms and definitions for a class of recursive datatypes. The concepts underlying the abstract datatype mechanism are illustrated using ordered binary trees as an example. Binary trees are described by a PVS abstract datatype that is parametric in its value type. The type of ordered binary trees is then presented as a subtype of binary trees where the ordering relation is also taken as a parameter. We define the operations of inserting an element into, and searching for an element in an ordered binary tree; the bulk of the report is devoted to PVS proofs of some useful properties of these operations. These proofs illustrate various approaches to proving properties of abstract datatype operations. They also describe the built-in capabilities of the PVS proof checker for simplifying abstract datatype expressions.

  8. FABIA: factor analysis for bicluster acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Hochreiter, Sepp; Bodenhofer, Ulrich; Heusel, Martin; Mayr, Andreas; Mitterecker, Andreas; Kasim, Adetayo; Khamiakova, Tatsiana; Van Sanden, Suzy; Lin, Dan; Talloen, Willem; Bijnens, Luc; Göhlmann, Hinrich W. H.; Shkedy, Ziv; Clevert, Djork-Arné

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Biclustering of transcriptomic data groups genes and samples simultaneously. It is emerging as a standard tool for extracting knowledge from gene expression measurements. We propose a novel generative approach for biclustering called ‘FABIA: Factor Analysis for Bicluster Acquisition’. FABIA is based on a multiplicative model, which accounts for linear dependencies between gene expression and conditions, and also captures heavy-tailed distributions as observed in real-world transcriptomic data. The generative framework allows to utilize well-founded model selection methods and to apply Bayesian techniques. Results: On 100 simulated datasets with known true, artificially implanted biclusters, FABIA clearly outperformed all 11 competitors. On these datasets, FABIA was able to separate spurious biclusters from true biclusters by ranking biclusters according to their information content. FABIA was tested on three microarray datasets with known subclusters, where it was two times the best and once the second best method among the compared biclustering approaches. Availability: FABIA is available as an R package on Bioconductor (http://www.bioconductor.org). All datasets, results and software are available at http://www.bioinf.jku.at/software/fabia/fabia.html Contact: hochreit@bioinf.jku.at Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:20418340

  9. Deficiencies in structured medical abstracts.

    PubMed

    Froom, P; Froom, J

    1993-07-01

    This study was carried out to determine if the content of structured abstracts conforms with recommendations of the Ad Hoc Working Group for the critical appraisal of the medical literature as adopted by the Annals of Internal Medicine. The study design was a survey. All articles published in Annals of Internal Medicine in 1991, excluding editorials, case-reports, literature reviews, decision analysis, studies in medical education, descriptive studies of clinical and basic phenomena, and papers lacking a structured abstract, were studied. Of a total of 150 articles, 20 were excluded. The abstract and text of each article were assessed for the presence of the following items; patient selection criteria, statements concerning extrapolation of findings, need for further study, and whether or not the information should be used now. Number of refusers, drop outs and reason(s) for drop outs were assessed for intervention and prospective cohort studies only. Deficiencies of assessed items were noted in both abstracts and texts. For abstracts, patient selection criteria, numbers of refusers, number of drop outs and reason(s) for drop outs were reported in 44.6% (58/130), 3.1% (4/130), 16.9% (14/83) and 2.4% (2/83) respectively. These items were reported more frequently in the texts 87.7% (114/130), 9.2% (12/130), 60.2% (50/83) and 37.3% (31/83) respectively (p < 0.05). Statements concerning extrapolation of findings, need for further study and use of information now were also more frequent in texts than abstracts (p < 0.0001). A large number of structured abstracts published in the Annals of Internal Medicine in 1991, lack information recommended by the Ad Hoc Working Group. Our findings should not be extrapolated to other journals requiring structured abstracts. PMID:8326342

  10. Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory: A Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Mary McPhail; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The 72-item Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory (EPSI) was factor analyzed for a group of 534 university freshmen and sophomore students. Seven factors emerged, which were labeled Initiative, Industry, Identity, Friendship, Dating, Goal Clarity, and Self-Confidence. Item's representing Erikson's factors, Trust and Autonomy, were dispersed across…

  11. Bootstrap Standard Error Estimates in Dynamic Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Guangjian; Browne, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic factor analysis summarizes changes in scores on a battery of manifest variables over repeated measurements in terms of a time series in a substantially smaller number of latent factors. Algebraic formulae for standard errors of parameter estimates are more difficult to obtain than in the usual intersubject factor analysis because of the…

  12. How Factor Analysis Can Be Used in Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Harry H.

    This is a methodological study that suggests a taxometric technique for objective classification of yeasts. It makes use of the minres method of factor analysis and groups strains of yeast according to their factor profiles. The similarities are judged in the higher-dimensional space determined by the factor analysis, but otherwise rely on the…

  13. More insight into the fate of biomedical meeting abstracts: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    von Elm, Erik; Costanza, Michael C; Walder, Bernhard; Tramèr, Martin R

    2003-01-01

    Background It has been estimated that about 45% of abstracts that are accepted for presentation at biomedical meetings will subsequently be published in full. The acceptance of abstracts at meetings and their fate after initial rejection are less well understood. We set out to estimate the proportion of abstracts submitted to meetings that are eventually published as full reports, and to explore factors that are associated with meeting acceptance and successful publication. Methods Studies analysing acceptance of abstracts at biomedical meetings or their subsequent full publication were searched in MEDLINE, OLDMEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, BIOSIS, Science Citation Index Expanded, and by hand searching of bibliographies and proceedings. We estimated rates of abstract acceptance and of subsequent full publication, and identified abstract and meeting characteristics associated with acceptance and publication, using logistic regression analysis, survival-type analysis, and meta-analysis. Results Analysed meetings were held between 1957 and 1999. Of 14945 abstracts that were submitted to 43 meetings, 46% were accepted. The rate of full publication was studied with 19123 abstracts that were presented at 234 meetings. Using survival-type analysis, we estimated that 27% were published after two, 41% after four, and 44% after six years. Of 2412 abstracts that were rejected at 24 meetings, 27% were published despite rejection. Factors associated with both abstract acceptance and subsequent publication were basic science and positive study outcome. Large meetings and those held outside the US were more likely to accept abstracts. Abstracts were more likely to be published subsequently if presented either orally, at small meetings, or at a US meeting. Abstract acceptance itself was strongly associated with full publication. Conclusions About one third of abstracts submitted to biomedical meetings were published as full reports. Acceptance at meetings and

  14. Disruptive Event Biosphere Doser Conversion Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    M. Wasiolek

    2000-12-28

    The purpose of this report was to document the process leading to, and the results of, development of radionuclide-, exposure scenario-, and ash thickness-specific Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) for the postulated postclosure extrusive igneous event (volcanic eruption) at Yucca Mountain. BDCF calculations were done for seventeen radionuclides. The selection of radionuclides included those that may be significant dose contributors during the compliance period of up to 10,000 years, as well as radionuclides of importance for up to 1 million years postclosure. The approach documented in this report takes into account human exposure during three different phases at the time of, and after, volcanic eruption. Calculations of disruptive event BDCFs used the GENII-S computer code in a series of probabilistic realizations to propagate the uncertainties of input parameters into the output. The pathway analysis included consideration of different exposure pathway's contribution to the BDCFs. BDCFs for volcanic eruption, when combined with the concentration of radioactivity deposited by eruption on the soil surface, allow calculation of potential radiation doses to the receptor of interest. Calculation of radioactivity deposition is outside the scope of this report and so is the transport of contaminated ash from the volcano to the location of the receptor. The integration of the biosphere modeling results (BDCFs) with the outcomes of the other component models is accomplished in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA), in which doses are calculated to the receptor of interest from radionuclides postulated to be released to the environment from the potential repository at Yucca Mountain.

  15. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, Maryla A.

    2000-12-21

    The purpose of this report was to document the process leading to development of the Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) for the postclosure nominal performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. BDCF calculations concerned twenty-four radionuclides. This selection included sixteen radionuclides that may be significant nominal performance dose contributors during the compliance period of up to 10,000 years, five additional radionuclides of importance for up to 1 million years postclosure, and three relatively short-lived radionuclides important for the human intrusion scenario. Consideration of radionuclide buildup in soil caused by previous irrigation with contaminated groundwater was taken into account in the BDCF development. The effect of climate evolution, from the current arid conditions to a wetter and cooler climate, on the BDCF values was evaluated. The analysis included consideration of different exposure pathway's contribution to the BDCFs. Calculations of nominal performance BDCFs used the GENII-S computer code in a series of probabilistic realizations to propagate the uncertainties of input parameters into the output. BDCFs for the nominal performance, when combined with the concentrations of radionuclides in groundwater allow calculation of potential radiation doses to the receptor of interest. Calculated estimates of radionuclide concentration in groundwater result from the saturated zone modeling. The integration of the biosphere modeling results (BDCFs) with the outcomes of the other component models is accomplished in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) to calculate doses to the receptor of interest from radionuclides postulated to be released to the environment from the potential repository at Yucca Mountain.

  16. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Youth With Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: Implications of a Factor Analysis of Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Ma, Bo; Lawson, Andrew; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Liese, Angela D.; Dabelea, Dana; Dolan, Lawrence; Pettitt, David J.; Rodriguez, Beatriz L.; Williams, Desmond

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The extent to which cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors cluster in youth with a diagnosis of type 1 (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate potential clustering of traditional CVD risk factors that may reflect an unmeasured but unifying single pathology that may explain the phenomenon of the metabolic syndrome in these youths. Methods Youths who participated in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study with diabetes diagnosed <20 years, with current age >10 years (maximum current age, 22 years) were included. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed to determine statistical associations among CVD risk factors, including obesity, blood pressure, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Diabetes type was defined by diabetes autoantibodies (DAA) and fasting C-peptide (FCP); type 1 (T1DM, DAA positive, and FCP <0.8 ng/mL, n = 1198) and type 2 (T2DM, DAA negative, and FCP >2.9 ng/mL, n = 95). For T1DM, the sample was split randomly and analyses were conducted separately in each split sample. Results Among five prespecified data structures ranging from a single underlying factor to a hierarchical structure of factors, the worst-fitting model for both of the T1DM split samples was the single-factor structure and the best-fitting model was a three-correlated-factor structure. The three correlated factors identified were obesity, lipids, and blood pressure. Results were very similar for youths with T2DM. Conclusion There is little evidence that a single factor underlies the CVD risk factor pattern in youths with diabetes. The concept of the metabolic syndrome provides a useful description of clinical characteristics but does not efficiently capture a single target for etiologic research among youths with diabetes. PMID:18847385

  17. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents abstracts of SIG Sessions. Highlights include digital collections; information retrieval methods; public interest/fair use; classification and indexing; electronic publication; funding; globalization; information technology projects; interface design; networking in developing countries; metadata; multilingual databases; networked…

  18. Automatic Abstraction in Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, abstraction in planning has been accomplished by either state abstraction or operator abstraction, neither of which has been fully automatic. We present a new method, predicate relaxation, for automatically performing state abstraction. PABLO, a nonlinear hierarchical planner, implements predicate relaxation. Theoretical, as well as empirical results are presented which demonstrate the potential advantages of using predicate relaxation in planning. We also present a new definition of hierarchical operators that allows us to guarantee a limited form of completeness. This new definition is shown to be, in some ways, more flexible than previous definitions of hierarchical operators. Finally, a Classical Truth Criterion is presented that is proven to be sound and complete for a planning formalism that is general enough to include most classical planning formalisms that are based on the STRIPS assumption.

  19. 1971 Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Included are 112 abstracts listed under headings such as: acoustics, continuing engineering studies, educational research and methods, engineering design, libraries, liberal studies, and materials. Other areas include agricultural, electrical, mechanical, mineral, and ocean engineering. (TS)

  20. 2016 ACPA MEETING ABSTRACTS.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    The peer-reviewed abstracts presented at the 73rd Annual Meeting of the ACPA are published as submitted by the authors. For financial conflict of interest disclosure, please visit http://meeting.acpa-cpf.org/disclosures.html. PMID:27447885

  1. A Bayesian Approach for Multigroup Nonlinear Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Xin-Yuan; Lee, Sik-Yum

    2002-01-01

    Developed a Bayesian approach for a general multigroup nonlinear factor analysis model that simultaneously obtains joint Bayesian estimates of the factor scores and the structural parameters subjected to some constraints across different groups. (SLD)

  2. Abstracts of contributed papers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  3. Full Information Item Factor Analysis of the FCI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagedorn, Eric

    2010-02-01

    Traditional factor analytical methods, principal factors or principal components analysis, are inappropriate techniques for analyzing dichotomously scored responses to standardized tests or concept inventories because they lead to artifactual factors often referred to as ``difficulty factors.'' Full information item factor analysis (Bock, Gibbons and Muraki, 1988) based on Thurstone's multiple factor model and calculated using marginal maximum likelihood estimation, is an appropriate technique for such analyses. Force Concept Inventory (Hestenes, Wells and Swackhamer, 1992) data from 1582 university students completing an introductory physics course, was analyzed using the full information item factor analysis software TESTFACT v. 4. Analyzing the statistical significance of successive factors added to the model, using chi-squared statistics, led to a six factor model interpretable in terms of the conceptual dimensions of the FCI. )

  4. Analysis of abstract and concrete word processing in persons with aphasia and age-matched neurologically healthy adults using fMRI.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Chaleece; Kiran, Swathi

    2014-08-01

    The concreteness effect occurs in both normal and language-disordered populations. Research suggests that abstract and concrete concepts elicit differing neural activation patterns in healthy young adults, but this is undocumented in persons with aphasia (PWA). Three PWA and three age-matched controls were scanned using fMRI while processing abstract and concrete words. Consistent with current theories of abstract and concrete word processing, abstract words elicited activation in verbal areas, whereas concrete words additionally activated multimodal association areas. PWA show greater differences in neural activation than age-matched controls between abstract and concrete words, possibly due to an exaggerated concreteness effect. PMID:23548150

  5. Chemical factor analysis of skin cancer FTIR-FEW spectroscopic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruch, Reinhard F.; Sukuta, Sydney

    2002-03-01

    Chemical Factor Analysis (CFA) algorithms were applied to transform complex Fourier transform infrared fiberoptical evanescent wave (FTIR-FEW) normal and malignant skin tissue spectra into factor spaces for analysis and classification. The factor space approach classified melanoma beyond prior pathological classifications related to specific biochemical alterations to health states in cluster diagrams allowing diagnosis with more biochemical specificity, resolving biochemical component spectra and employing health state eigenvector angular configurations as disease state sensors. This study demonstrated a wealth of new information from in vivo FTIR-FEW spectral tissue data, without extensive a priori information or clinically invasive procedures. In particular, we employed a variety of methods used in CFA to select the rank of spectroscopic data sets of normal benign and cancerous skin tissue. We used the Malinowski indicator function (IND), significance level and F-Tests to rank our data matrices. Normal skin tissue, melanoma and benign tumors were modeled by four, two and seven principal abstract factors, respectively. We also showed that the spectrum of the first eigenvalue was equivalent to the mean spectrum. The graphical depiction of angular disparities between the first abstract factors can be adopted as a new way to characterize and diagnose melanoma cancer.

  6. SVD + factor rotation : a powerful alternative to PCA in spectral image analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Keenan, Michael Robert

    2008-10-01

    Factor analysis has proven an effective approach for distilling high dimensional spectral-image data into a limited number of components that describe the spatial and spectral characteristics of the imaged sample. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is the most commonly used factor analysis tool; however, PCA constrains both the spectral and abundance factors to be orthogonal, and forces the components to serially maximize the variance that each accounts for. Neither constraint has any basis in physical reality; thus, principal components are abstract and not easily interpreted. The mathematical properties of PCA scores and loadings also differ subtly, which has implications for how they can be used in abstract factor 'rotation' procedures such as Varimax. The Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) is a mathematical technique that is frequently used to compute PCA. In this talk, we will argue that SVD itself provides a more flexible framework for spectral image analysis since spatial-domain and spectral-domain singular vectors are treated in a symmetrical fashion. We will also show that applying an abstract rotation in our choice of either the spatial or spectral domain relaxes the orthogonality requirement in the complementary domain. For instance, samples are often approximately orthogonal in a spatial sense, that is, they consist of relatively discrete chemical phases. In such cases, rotating the singular vectors in a way designed to maximize the simplicity of the spatial representation yields physically acceptable and readily interpretable estimates of the pure-component spectra. This talk will demonstrate that this approach can achieve excellent results for difficult-to-analyze data sets obtained by a variety of spectroscopic imaging techniques.

  7. Metacognition and abstract reasoning.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Thompson, Valerie A; Brisson, Janie

    2015-05-01

    The nature of people's meta-representations of deductive reasoning is critical to understanding how people control their own reasoning processes. We conducted two studies to examine whether people have a metacognitive representation of abstract validity and whether familiarity alone acts as a separate metacognitive cue. In Study 1, participants were asked to make a series of (1) abstract conditional inferences, (2) concrete conditional inferences with premises having many potential alternative antecedents and thus specifically conducive to the production of responses consistent with conditional logic, or (3) concrete problems with premises having relatively few potential alternative antecedents. Participants gave confidence ratings after each inference. Results show that confidence ratings were positively correlated with logical performance on abstract problems and concrete problems with many potential alternatives, but not with concrete problems with content less conducive to normative responses. Confidence ratings were higher with few alternatives than for abstract content. Study 2 used a generation of contrary-to-fact alternatives task to improve levels of abstract logical performance. The resulting increase in logical performance was mirrored by increases in mean confidence ratings. Results provide evidence for a metacognitive representation based on logical validity, and show that familiarity acts as a separate metacognitive cue. PMID:25416026

  8. Thyra Abstract Interface Package

    2005-09-01

    Thrya primarily defines a set of abstract C++ class interfaces needed for the development of abstract numerical atgorithms (ANAs) such as iterative linear solvers, transient solvers all the way up to optimization. At the foundation of these interfaces are abstract C++ classes for vectors, vector spaces, linear operators and multi-vectors. Also included in the Thyra package is C++ code for creating concrete vector, vector space, linear operator, and multi-vector subclasses as well as other utilitiesmore » to aid in the development of ANAs. Currently, very general and efficient concrete subclass implementations exist for serial and SPMD in-core vectors and multi-vectors. Code also currently exists for testing objects and providing composite objects such as product vectors.« less

  9. Abstracting and indexing guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Department of the Interior; Office of Water Resources Research

    1974-01-01

    These instructions have been prepared for those who abstract and index scientific and technical documents for the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC). With the recent publication growth in all fields, information centers have undertaken the task of keeping the various scientific communities aware of current and past developments. An abstract with carefully selected index terms offers the user of WRSIC services a more rapid means for deciding whether a document is pertinent to his needs and professional interests, thus saving him the time necessary to scan the complete work. These means also provide WRSIC with a document representation or surrogate which is more easily stored and manipulated to produce various services. Authors are asked to accept the responsibility for preparing abstracts of their own papers to facilitate quick evaluation, announcement, and dissemination to the scientific community.

  10. FACTOR ANALYSIS OF THE ELKINS HYPNOTIZABILITY SCALE

    PubMed Central

    Elkins, Gary; Johnson, Aimee K.; Johnson, Alisa J.; Sliwinski, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of hypnotizability can provide important information for hypnosis research and practice. The Elkins Hypnotizability Scale (EHS) consists of 12 items and was developed to provide a time-efficient measure for use in both clinical and laboratory settings. The EHS has been shown to be a reliable measure with support for convergent validity with the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (r = .821, p < .001). The current study examined the factor structure of the EHS, which was administered to 252 adults (51.3% male; 48.7% female). Average time of administration was 25.8 minutes. Four factors selected on the basis of the best theoretical fit accounted for 63.37% of the variance. The results of this study provide an initial factor structure for the EHS. PMID:25978085

  11. Human factors analysis of plans and procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmi, L.

    1991-04-01

    The study of comprehension and retention of print material is a part of what writers call human factors. Some human factors are common knowledge to writers of plans and procedures, but many are not. Federal orders provide some guidance, but that guidance is usually limited to content or order of presentation and does not include style. Style is important in influencing understanding and remembering the content. A writing style that helps produce clear, easily understood plans and procedures is always valuable but it is particularly important for radiological emergency response documents. The procedures are often referred to during emergencies when the emergency staff is under stress and sometimes fatigued by extended work days. The purpose of this paper is to explore some of the human factors (format, sequence of topics, and writing style) that should be considered to make plans and procedures more easily used, understood, and remembered.

  12. Bootstrap Confidence Intervals for Ordinary Least Squares Factor Loadings and Correlations in Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Guangjian; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Luo, Shanhong

    2010-01-01

    This article is concerned with using the bootstrap to assign confidence intervals for rotated factor loadings and factor correlations in ordinary least squares exploratory factor analysis. Coverage performances of "SE"-based intervals, percentile intervals, bias-corrected percentile intervals, bias-corrected accelerated percentile intervals, and…

  13. Exploratory Factor Analysis of a Force Concept Inventory Data Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Terry F.; Schumayer, Daniel; Gray, Andrew R.

    2012-01-01

    We perform a factor analysis on a "Force Concept Inventory" (FCI) data set collected from 2109 respondents. We address two questions: the appearance of conceptual coherence in student responses to the FCI and some consequences of this factor analysis on the teaching of Newtonian mechanics. We will highlight the apparent conflation of Newton's…

  14. Item Factor Analysis: Current Approaches and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirth, R. J.; Edwards, Michael C.

    2007-01-01

    The rationale underlying factor analysis applies to continuous and categorical variables alike; however, the models and estimation methods for continuous (i.e., interval or ratio scale) data are not appropriate for item-level data that are categorical in nature. The authors provide a targeted review and synthesis of the item factor analysis (IFA)…

  15. Q-Type Factor Analysis of Healthy Aged Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleban, Morton H.

    Q-type factor analysis was used to re-analyze baseline data collected in 1957, on 47 men aged 65-91. Q-type analysis is the use of factor methods to study persons rather than tests. Although 550 variables were originally studied involving psychiatry, medicine, cerebral metabolism and chemistry, personality, audiometry, dichotic and diotic memory,…

  16. 48 CFR 2115.404-71 - Profit analysis factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Profit analysis factors... TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 2115.404-71 Profit analysis factors. (a) The OPM... inattention or indifference to effective operations, a zero weight. (2) Contract cost risk. OPM will...

  17. 48 CFR 1615.404-70 - Profit analysis factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Profit analysis factors... CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1615.404-70 Profit analysis factors. (a) OPM contracting officers... indifference to cost control will generally result in a negative weight. (2) Contract cost risk. In...

  18. 48 CFR 2115.404-71 - Profit analysis factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Profit analysis factors... TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 2115.404-71 Profit analysis factors. (a) The OPM... inattention or indifference to effective operations, a zero weight. (2) Contract cost risk. OPM will...

  19. 48 CFR 2115.404-71 - Profit analysis factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Profit analysis factors... TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 2115.404-71 Profit analysis factors. (a) The OPM... inattention or indifference to effective operations, a zero weight. (2) Contract cost risk. OPM will...

  20. 48 CFR 2115.404-71 - Profit analysis factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Profit analysis factors... TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 2115.404-71 Profit analysis factors. (a) The OPM... inattention or indifference to effective operations, a zero weight. (2) Contract cost risk. OPM will...

  1. A Factor Analysis of the BSRI and the PAQ.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Teresa A.; And Others

    Factor analysis of the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) and the Personality Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) was undertaken to study the independence of the masculine and feminine scales within each instrument. Both instruments were administered to undergraduate education majors. Analysis of primary first and second order factors of the BSRI indicated…

  2. The Mixer: Introducing the Concept of Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segrist, Dan J.; Pawlow, Laura A.

    2007-01-01

    This study entailed the development and implementation of a classroom activity designed to introduce students to the concept of factor analysis. We implemented the activity in both a personality theories course and a tests and measurements course. Data suggest that students learned about factor analysis from this activity, while enjoying it.…

  3. Exploratory Factor Analysis of African Self-Consciousness Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhagwat, Ranjit; Kelly, Shalonda; Lambert, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    This study replicates and extends prior studies of the dimensionality, convergent, and external validity of African Self-Consciousness Scale scores with appropriate exploratory factor analysis methods and a large gender balanced sample (N = 348). Viable one- and two-factor solutions were cross-validated. Both first factors overlapped significantly…

  4. Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis: Locating the Invariant Referent Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Brian F.; Finch, W. Holmes

    2008-01-01

    Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) is a popular method for the examination of measurement invariance and specifically, factor invariance. Recent research has begun to focus on using MCFA to detect invariance for test items. MCFA requires certain parameters (e.g., factor loadings) to be constrained for model identification, which are…

  5. Evolutionary factor analysis of replicated time series.

    PubMed

    Motta, Giovanni; Ombao, Hernando

    2012-09-01

    In this article, we develop a novel method that explains the dynamic structure of multi-channel electroencephalograms (EEGs) recorded from several trials in a motor-visual task experiment. Preliminary analyses of our data suggest two statistical challenges. First, the variance at each channel and cross-covariance between each pair of channels evolve over time. Moreover, the cross-covariance profiles display a common structure across all pairs, and these features consistently appear across all trials. In the light of these features, we develop a novel evolutionary factor model (EFM) for multi-channel EEG data that systematically integrates information across replicated trials and allows for smoothly time-varying factor loadings. The individual EEGs series share common features across trials, thus, suggesting the need to pool information across trials, which motivates the use of the EFM for replicated time series. We explain the common co-movements of EEG signals through the existence of a small number of common factors. These latent factors are primarily responsible for processing the visual-motor task which, through the loadings, drive the behavior of the signals observed at different channels. The estimation of the time-varying loadings is based on the spectral decomposition of the estimated time-varying covariance matrix. PMID:22364516

  6. Abstraction and art.

    PubMed Central

    Gortais, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    In a given social context, artistic creation comprises a set of processes, which relate to the activity of the artist and the activity of the spectator. Through these processes we see and understand that the world is vaster than it is said to be. Artistic processes are mediated experiences that open up the world. A successful work of art expresses a reality beyond actual reality: it suggests an unknown world using the means and the signs of the known world. Artistic practices incorporate the means of creation developed by science and technology and change forms as they change. Artists and the public follow different processes of abstraction at different levels, in the definition of the means of creation, of representation and of perception of a work of art. This paper examines how the processes of abstraction are used within the framework of the visual arts and abstract painting, which appeared during a period of growing importance for the processes of abstraction in science and technology, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The development of digital platforms and new man-machine interfaces allow multimedia creations. This is performed under the constraint of phases of multidisciplinary conceptualization using generic representation languages, which tend to abolish traditional frontiers between the arts: visual arts, drama, dance and music. PMID:12903659

  7. The SIDdatagrabber (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvis, G.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The Stanford/SARA SuperSid project offers an opportunity for adding data to the AAVSO SID Monitoring project. You can now build a SID antenna and monitoring setup for about $150. And with the SIDdatagrabber application you can easily re-purpose the data collected for the AAVSO.

  8. Making the Abstract Concrete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2005-01-01

    President Ronald Reagan nominated a woman to serve on the United States Supreme Court. He did so through a single-page form letter, completed in part by hand and in part by typewriter, announcing Sandra Day O'Connor as his nominee. While the document serves as evidence of a historic event, it is also a tangible illustration of abstract concepts…

  9. Learning Abstracts, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Volume 4 of the League for Innovation in the Community College's Learning Abstracts include the following: (1) "Touching Students in the Digital Age: The Move Toward Learner Relationship Management (LRM)," by Mark David Milliron, which offers an overview of an organizing concept to help community colleges navigate the intersection between digital…

  10. Leadership Abstracts, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.; Milliron, Mark David, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 volume of Leadership Abstracts contains issue numbers 1-12. Articles include: (1) "Skills Certification and Workforce Development: Partnering with Industry and Ourselves," by Jeffrey A. Cantor; (2) "Starting Again: The Brookhaven Success College," by Alice W. Villadsen; (3) "From Digital Divide to Digital Democracy," by Gerardo E. de los…

  11. Leadership Abstracts, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This document includes 10 issues of Leadership Abstracts (volume 6, 1993), a newsletter published by the League for Innovation in the Community College (California). The featured articles are: (1) "Reinventing Government" by David T. Osborne; (2) "Community College Workforce Training Programs: Expanding the Mission to Meet Critical Needs" by…

  12. Abstraction through Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avraamidou, Antri; Monaghan, John; Walker, Aisha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the computer game play of an 11-year-old boy. In the course of building a virtual house he developed and used, without assistance, an artefact and an accompanying strategy to ensure that his house was symmetric. We argue that the creation and use of this artefact-strategy is a mathematical abstraction. The discussion…

  13. CIRF Abstracts, Volume 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    The aim of the CIRF abstracts is to convey information about vocational training ideas, programs, experience, and experiments described in periodicals, books, and other publications and relating to operative personnel, supervisors, and technical and training staff in all sectors of economic activity. Information is also given on major trends in…

  14. Leadership Abstracts, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadership Abstracts, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This document contains five Leadership Abstracts publications published February-December 1999. The article, "Teaching the Teachers: Meeting the National Teacher Preparation Challenge," authored by George R. Boggs and Sadie Bragg, examines the community college role and makes recommendations and a call to action for teacher education. "Chaos…

  15. Double Trouble (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, M.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) Variable stars with close companions can be difficult to accurately measure and characterize. The companions can create misidentifications, which in turn can affect the perceived magnitudes, amplitudes, periods, and colors of the variable stars. We will show examples of these Double Trouble stars and the impact their close companions have had on our understanding of some of these variable stars.

  16. Send Me No Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Steven

    1985-01-01

    Discusses Magazine Index's practice of assigning letter grades (sometimes inaccurate) to book, restaurant, and movie reviews, thus allowing patrons to get the point of the review from the index rather than the article itself, and argues that this situation is indicative of the larger problem of reliability of abstracts. (MBR)

  17. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineering Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presents the abstracts of 158 papers presented at the American Society for Engineering Education's annual conference at Knoxville, Tennessee, June 14-17, 1976. Included are engineering topics covering education, aerospace, agriculture, biomedicine, chemistry, computers, electricity, acoustics, environment, mechanics, and women. (SL)

  18. Water reuse. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Middlebrooks, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 31 chapters of this book which deals with all aspects of wastewater reuse. Design data, case histories, performance data, monitoring information, health information, social implications, legal and organizational structures, and background information needed to analyze the desirability of water reuse are presented. (KRM)

  19. Reasoning abstractly about resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, B.; Barrett, A.

    2001-01-01

    r describes a way to schedule high level activities before distributing them across multiple rovers in order to coordinate the resultant use of shared resources regardless of how each rover decides how to perform its activities. We present an algorithm for summarizing the metric resource requirements of an abstract activity based n the resource usages of its potential refinements.

  20. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 15 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Topics include navigation and information utilization in the Internet, natural language processing, automatic indexing, image indexing, classification, users' models of database searching, online public access catalogs, education for information professions, information services,…

  1. 2002 NASPSA Conference Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Contains abstracts from the 2002 conference of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity. The publication is divided into three sections: the preconference workshop, "Effective Teaching Methods in the Classroom;" symposia (motor development, motor learning and control, and sport psychology); and free…

  2. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…

  3. Learning Abstracts, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    League for Innovation in the Community Coll.

    This document contains volume two of Learning Abstracts, a bimonthly newsletter from the League for Innovation in the Community College. Articles in these seven issues include: (1) "Get on the Fast Track to Learning: An Accelerated Associate Degree Option" (Gerardo E. de los Santos and Deborah J. Cruise); (2) "The Learning College: Both Learner…

  4. Computers in Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwabueze, Kenneth K.

    2004-01-01

    The current emphasis on flexible modes of mathematics delivery involving new information and communication technology (ICT) at the university level is perhaps a reaction to the recent change in the objectives of education. Abstract algebra seems to be one area of mathematics virtually crying out for computer instructional support because of the…

  5. Abstract Film and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grice, Malcolm

    A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…

  6. Writing Abstracts for Free-Text Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidel, Raya

    1986-01-01

    This study surveyed abstracting policies and guidelines used by producers of bibliographic databases that aim to enhance free-text retrieval. Results indicate editors consider content of abstracts and their language as primary factors in retrieval enhancement. Most recommend that concepts and form be coordinated with controlled vocabulary…

  7. Historical development of abstracting.

    PubMed

    Skolnik, H

    1979-11-01

    The abstract, under a multitude of names, such as hypothesis, marginalia, abridgement, extract, digest, précis, resumé, and summary, has a long history, one which is concomitant with advancing scholarship. The progression of this history from the Sumerian civilization ca. 3600 B.C., through the Egyptian and Greek civilizations, the Hellenistic period, the Dark Ages, Middle Ages, Renaissance, and into the modern period is reviewed. PMID:399482

  8. Generalized Abstract Symbolic Summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Person, Suzette; Dwyer, Matthew B.

    2009-01-01

    Current techniques for validating and verifying program changes often consider the entire program, even for small changes, leading to enormous V&V costs over a program s lifetime. This is due, in large part, to the use of syntactic program techniques which are necessarily imprecise. Building on recent advances in symbolic execution of heap manipulating programs, in this paper, we develop techniques for performing abstract semantic differencing of program behaviors that offer the potential for improved precision.

  9. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  10. Analysis of Tissue Factor Positive Microparticles

    PubMed Central

    Key, Nigel S.

    2010-01-01

    There has recently been intense interest in the clinical measurement of tissue factor (TF)-positive microparticles (MPs) in clinical disease states. This interest has been driven by the demonstration of an putative role for circulating TF-positive MPs in animal models of thrombus propagation. Both immunological and functional assays for MP-TF have been described. While each approach has its own advantages and drawbacks, neither has yet been truly established as the ‘gold standard’. Heterogeneity of TF-bearing MPs, such as the variable co-expression of surface phosphatidylserine, may determine not only their procoagulant potential, but also additional properties including rate of clearance from the circulation. PMID:20189224

  11. An Abstract Plan Preparation Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new planning language that is more abstract than most existing planning languages such as the Planning Domain Definition Language (PDDL) or the New Domain Description Language (NDDL). The goal of this language is to simplify the formal analysis and specification of planning problems that are intended for safety-critical applications such as power management or automated rendezvous in future manned spacecraft. The new language has been named the Abstract Plan Preparation Language (APPL). A translator from APPL to NDDL has been developed in support of the Spacecraft Autonomy for Vehicles and Habitats Project (SAVH) sponsored by the Explorations Technology Development Program, which is seeking to mature autonomy technology for application to the new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) that will replace the Space Shuttle.

  12. [Factor Analysis: Principles to Evaluate Measurement Tools for Mental Health].

    PubMed

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Herazo, Edwin; Oviedo, Heidi Celina

    2012-09-01

    The validation of a measurement tool in mental health is a complex process that usually starts by estimating reliability, to later approach its validity. Factor analysis is a way to know the number of dimensions, domains or factors of a measuring tool, generally related to the construct validity of the scale. The analysis could be exploratory or confirmatory, and helps in the selection of the items with better performance. For an acceptable factor analysis, it is necessary to follow some steps and recommendations, conduct some statistical tests, and rely on a proper sample of participants. PMID:26572119

  13. [An epidemiological analysis on the geographic factors of esophageal cancer].

    PubMed

    Song, J

    1992-12-01

    The author collects the data of esophageal cancer mortality (1971-1973) of 78 counties in Hubei Province and the data of topography, climate, soil, rock formation and geochemical elements, including 40 suspected factors. The method of linear correlation and multiple stepwise regression are used for the comprehensive analysis of relation between the geographical factors and esophageal cancer. The result is that four factors metamorphic rock, zinc, copper, chromium are suspected factors. It suggests that the four factors will need future study. PMID:1303310

  14. Third LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Arlene S. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This volume is a compilation of abstracts submitted to the Third Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Post-Retrieval Symposium. The abstracts represent the data analysis of the 57 experiments flown on the LDEF. The experiments include materials, coatings, thermal systems, power and propulsion, science (cosmic ray, interstellar gas, heavy ions, micrometeoroid, etc.), electronics, optics, and life science.

  15. Youth Studies Abstracts. Vol. 4 No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youth Studies Abstracts, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts of 76 projects (most of which were conducted in Australia and New Zealand) concerned with programs for youth and with social and educational developments affecting youth. The abstracts are arranged in the following two categories: (1) Social and Educational Developments: Policy, Analysis, Research; and (2) Programs:…

  16. Key Factors of Circulation System Analysis and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Rob

    1972-01-01

    Explained are basic concepts and components that are common to manual, machine-aided, and computer-based systems, and their significance as key factors in the analysis and design of academic library circulation systems is documented. (2 references) (Author)

  17. Choosing the Optimal Number of Factors in Exploratory Factor Analysis: A Model Selection Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preacher, Kristopher J.; Zhang, Guangjian; Kim, Cheongtag; Mels, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    A central problem in the application of exploratory factor analysis is deciding how many factors to retain ("m"). Although this is inherently a model selection problem, a model selection perspective is rarely adopted for this task. We suggest that Cudeck and Henly's (1991) framework can be applied to guide the selection process. Researchers must…

  18. An analysis of abstracts presented to the College on Problems of Drug Dependence meeting and subsequent publication in peer review journals

    PubMed Central

    Valderrama-Zurián, Juan Carlos; Bolaños-Pizarro, Máxima; Bueno-Cañigral, Francisco Jesús; Álvarez, F Javier; Ontalba-Ruipérez, José Antonio; Aleixandre-Benavent, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Background Subsequent publication rate of abstracts presented at meetings is seen as an indicator of the interest and quality of the meeting. We have analyzed characteristics and rate publication in peer-reviewed journals derived from oral communications and posters presented at the 1999 College on Problems of Drug Dependence (CPDD) meeting. Methods All 689 abstracts presented at the 1999 CPDD meeting were reviewed. In order to find the existence of publications derived from abstracts presented at that meeting, a set of bibliographical searches in the database Medline was developed in July 2006. Information was gathered concerning the abstracts, articles and journals in which they were published. Results 254 out of 689 abstracts (36.9%) gave rise to at least one publication. The oral communications had a greater likelihood of being published than did the posters (OR = 2.53, 95% CI 1.80-3.55). The average time lapse to publication of an article was 672.97 days. The number of authors per work in the subsequent publications was 4.55. The articles were published in a total of 84 journals, of which eight were indexed with the subject term Substance-Related Disorders. Psychopharmacology (37 articles, 14.5%) was the journal that published the greatest number of articles subsequent to the abstracts presented at the 1999 CPDD meeting. Conclusion One out of every three abstracts presented to the 1999 CPDD meeting were later published in peer-reviewed journals indexed in Medline. The subsequent publication of the abstracts presented in the CPDD meetings should be actively encouraged, as this maximizes the dissemination of the scientific research and therefore the investment. PMID:19889211

  19. Use of Q-Type Factor Analysis with the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleban, Morton H.; And Others

    This paper explores Q-Factor Analysis as a method of organizing data on a large array of variables to describe a group of aged Ss. Forty-seven males, specially selected for their good health (Mean Age: 71.5; SD: 4.8) were measured on 550 biological and behavioral variables. A Q-Factor Analysis was calculated, using a S by variable matrix, which is…

  20. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  1. Professional Suitability for Social Work Practice: A Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Dora M. Y.; Coleman, Heather; Boey, Kam-Wing

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the underlying dimensions of professional suitability. Method: Data were collected from a province-wide mail-out questionnaire surveying 341 participants from a random sample of registered social workers. Results: The use of an exploratory factor analysis identified a 5-factor solution on…

  2. Exploratory versus Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Collegiate Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Tim P.; Legg, David L.

    Twenty-one variables believed to be important indicators of health related physical fitness were measured on male and female college students between 1991 and 1993 (n=433). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic techniques were used in an attempt to derive important components of physical fitness. The exploratory factor analysis identified…

  3. Determinants of Standard Errors of MLEs in Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Ke-Hai; Cheng, Ying; Zhang, Wei

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies changes of standard errors (SE) of the normal-distribution-based maximum likelihood estimates (MLE) for confirmatory factor models as model parameters vary. Using logical analysis, simplified formulas and numerical verification, monotonic relationships between SEs and factor loadings as well as unique variances are found.…

  4. An Empirical Analysis of Factors Affecting Honors Program Completion Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Hallie; Raehsler, Rod D.; Fiedor, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important issues in any educational environment is identifying factors that promote academic success. A plethora of research on such factors exists across most academic fields, involving a wide range of student demographics, and the definition of student success varies across the range of studies published. The analysis in this…

  5. The Constraining of Parameters in Restricted Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattie, John; Fraser, Colin

    1988-01-01

    In restricted factor analysis, each element of the matrices of factor loadings and correlations and unique variances and covariances can be constrained. It is argued that the practice of constraining some parameters at zero is not psychologically meaningful. Alternative procedures are presented and illustrated. (TJH)

  6. A Comparative Investigation of Rotation Criteria within Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sass, Daniel A.; Schmitt, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is a commonly used statistical technique for examining the relationships between variables (e.g., items) and the factors (e.g., latent traits) they depict. There are several decisions that must be made when using EFA, with one of the more important being choice of the rotation criterion. This selection can be…

  7. Connectivism in Postsecondary Online Courses: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogg, Nanette; Lomicky, Carol S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores 465 postsecondary students' experiences in online classes through the lens of connectivism. Downes' 4 properties of connectivism (diversity, autonomy, interactivity, and openness) were used as the study design. An exploratory factor analysis was performed. This study found a 4-factor solution. Subjects indicated that autonomy…

  8. Using factor analysis to identify neuromuscular synergies during treadmill walking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkle, L. A.; Layne, C. S.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Zhang, J. J.

    1998-01-01

    Neuroscientists are often interested in grouping variables to facilitate understanding of a particular phenomenon. Factor analysis is a powerful statistical technique that groups variables into conceptually meaningful clusters, but remains underutilized by neuroscience researchers presumably due to its complicated concepts and procedures. This paper illustrates an application of factor analysis to identify coordinated patterns of whole-body muscle activation during treadmill walking. Ten male subjects walked on a treadmill (6.4 km/h) for 20 s during which surface electromyographic (EMG) activity was obtained from the left side sternocleidomastoid, neck extensors, erector spinae, and right side biceps femoris, rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, and medial gastrocnemius. Factor analysis revealed 65% of the variance of seven muscles sampled aligned with two orthogonal factors, labeled 'transition control' and 'loading'. These two factors describe coordinated patterns of muscular activity across body segments that would not be evident by evaluating individual muscle patterns. The results show that factor analysis can be effectively used to explore relationships among muscle patterns across all body segments to increase understanding of the complex coordination necessary for smooth and efficient locomotion. We encourage neuroscientists to consider using factor analysis to identify coordinated patterns of neuromuscular activation that would be obscured using more traditional EMG analyses.

  9. Testing for Heterogeneous Factor Loadings Using Mixtures of Confirmatory Factor Analysis Models

    PubMed Central

    Buzick, Heather M.

    2010-01-01

    The current study assessed the viability of mixture confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for measurement invariance testing by evaluating the ability of mixture CFA models to identify differences in factor loadings across populations with identical mean structures. Using simulated data from a model with known parameters, convergence rates, parameter recovery, and the power of the likelihood-ratio test were investigated as impacted by sample size, latent class proportions, magnitude of factor loading differences, percentage of non-invariant factor loadings, and pattern of non-invariant factor loadings. Results suggest that mixture CFA models may be a viable option for testing the invariance of factor loadings; however, without differences in latent means and measurement intercepts, results suggest that larger sample sizes, more non-invariant factor loadings, and larger amounts of heterogeneity are needed to successfully estimate parameters and detect differences across latent classes. PMID:21833229

  10. Conditioning analysis of incomplete Cholesky factorizations with orthogonal dropping

    SciTech Connect

    Napov, Artem

    2012-03-16

    The analysis of preconditioners based on incomplete Cholesky factorization in which the neglected (dropped) components are orthogonal to the approximations being kept is presented. General estimate for the condition number of the preconditioned system is given which only depends on the accuracy of individual approximations. The estimate is further improved if, for instance, only the newly computed rows of the factor are modified during each approximation step. In this latter case it is further shown to be sharp. The analysis is illustrated with some existing factorizations in the context of discretized elliptic partial differential equations.

  11. A LARI Experience (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, M.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) In 2012, Lowell Observatory launched The Lowell Amateur Research Initiative (LARI) to formally involve amateur astronomers in scientific research by bringing them to the attention of and helping professional astronomers with their astronomical research. One of the LARI projects is the BVRI photometric monitoring of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs), wherein amateurs obtain observations to search for new outburst events and characterize the colour evolution of previously identified outbursters. A summary of the scientific and organizational aspects of this LARI project, including its goals and science motivation, the process for getting involved with the project, a description of the team members, their equipment and methods of collaboration, and an overview of the programme stars, preliminary findings, and lessons learned is presented.

  12. IEEE conference record -- Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This conference covers the following areas: computational plasma physics; vacuum electronic; basic phenomena in fully ionized plasmas; plasma, electron, and ion sources; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; space plasmas; plasma processing; ball lightning/spherical plasma configurations; plasma processing; fast wave devices; magnetic fusion; basic phenomena in partially ionized plasma; dense plasma focus; plasma diagnostics; basic phenomena in weakly ionized gases; fast opening switches; MHD; fast z-pinches and x-ray lasers; intense ion and electron beams; laser-produced plasmas; microwave plasma interactions; EM and ETH launchers; solid state plasmas and switches; intense beam microwaves; and plasmas for lighting. Separate abstracts were prepared for 416 papers in this conference.

  13. Detecting Outliers in Factor Analysis Using the Forward Search Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavridis, Dimitris; Moustaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    In this article we extend and implement the forward search algorithm for identifying atypical subjects/observations in factor analysis models. The forward search has been mainly developed for detecting aberrant observations in regression models (Atkinson, 1994) and in multivariate methods such as cluster and discriminant analysis (Atkinson, Riani,…

  14. Hydraulic conductivity explored by factor analysis of borehole geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, Norbert Péter

    2015-08-01

    A multivariate statistical method is presented for providing hydrogeological information on groundwater formations. Factor analysis is applied to borehole logs in Hungary and the USA to estimate the vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity of rocks intersected by the borehole. Earlier studies showed a strong correlation between a statistical variable extracted by factor analysis and shale volume in primary porosity rocks. Hydraulic conductivity as a related quantity can be derived directly by factor analysis. In the first step, electric and nuclear logs are transformed into factor logs, which are then correlated to hydraulic properties of aquifers. It is shown that a factor explaining the major part of variance of the measured variables is inversely proportional to hydraulic conductivity. By revealing the regression relation between the above quantities, an estimate for hydraulic conductivity can be given along the entire length of the borehole. Synthetic modeling experiments and field cases demonstrate the feasibility of the method, which can be applied both in primary and secondary porosity aquifers. The results of factor analysis show consistence with those of the Kozeny-Carman method and hydraulic aquifer tests. The application of the statistical analysis of well logs together with independent ground geophysical and hydrogeological methods serves a more efficient exploration of groundwater resources.

  15. Exploratory factor analysis of a Force Concept Inventory data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Terry F.; Schumayer, Daniel; Gray, Andrew R.

    2012-12-01

    We perform a factor analysis on a “Force Concept Inventory” (FCI) data set collected from 2109 respondents. We address two questions: the appearance of conceptual coherence in student responses to the FCI and some consequences of this factor analysis on the teaching of Newtonian mechanics. We will highlight the apparent conflation of Newton’s third law with Newton’s first law in one of the FCI questions and suggest an approach to teaching that may avoid this issue. We also note the absence of a distinct factor interpretable as relating specifically to kinematics. Furthermore, we identify and discuss some of the technical difficulties which may be encountered when performing factor analysis on categorical data sets, such as is the case with FCI data sets.

  16. Determining Dimensionality of Exercise Readiness Using Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    PubMed

    Strohacker, Kelley; Zakrajsek, Rebecca A

    2016-06-01

    Assessment of "exercise readiness" is a central component to the flexible non-linear periodization (FNLP) method of organizing training workloads, but the underlying factor structure of this construct has not been empirically determined. The purpose of this study was to assess construct dimensionality of exercise readiness using exploratory factor analysis. The result of which serve as initial steps of developing a brief measure of exercise readiness. Participants consisted of students recruited from undergraduate Kinesiology courses at a racially diverse, southern University. Independent, anonymous online survey data were collected across three stages: 1) generation of item pool (n = 290), 2) assessment of face validity and refinement of item pool (n = 168), and 3) exploratory factor analysis (n = 684). A principal axis factor analysis was conducted with 41 items using oblique rotation (promax). Four statistically significant factors, as determined through parallel analysis, explained 61.5% of the variance in exercise readiness. Factor 1 contained items that represented vitality (e.g., lively, revived). Factor 2 items related to physical fatigue (e.g. tired, drained). Factors 3 and 4 were descriptive of, discomfort (e.g. pain, sick) and health (i.e. healthy, fit), respectively. This inductive approach indicates that exercise readiness is comprised of four dimensions: vitality, physical fatigue, discomfort, and health. This finding supports readiness assessment techniques currently recommended for practitioners according to the FNLP model. These results serve as a theoretical foundation upon which to further develop and refine a brief survey instrument to measure exercise readiness. Key pointsAssessment of exercise readiness is a key component in implementing an exercise program based on flexible nonlinear periodization, but the dimensionality of this concept has not been empirically determined.Based on a series of surveys and a robust exploratory factor analysis

  17. Determining Dimensionality of Exercise Readiness Using Exploratory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Strohacker, Kelley; Zakrajsek, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of “exercise readiness” is a central component to the flexible non-linear periodization (FNLP) method of organizing training workloads, but the underlying factor structure of this construct has not been empirically determined. The purpose of this study was to assess construct dimensionality of exercise readiness using exploratory factor analysis. The result of which serve as initial steps of developing a brief measure of exercise readiness. Participants consisted of students recruited from undergraduate Kinesiology courses at a racially diverse, southern University. Independent, anonymous online survey data were collected across three stages: 1) generation of item pool (n = 290), 2) assessment of face validity and refinement of item pool (n = 168), and 3) exploratory factor analysis (n = 684). A principal axis factor analysis was conducted with 41 items using oblique rotation (promax). Four statistically significant factors, as determined through parallel analysis, explained 61.5% of the variance in exercise readiness. Factor 1 contained items that represented vitality (e.g., lively, revived). Factor 2 items related to physical fatigue (e.g. tired, drained). Factors 3 and 4 were descriptive of, discomfort (e.g. pain, sick) and health (i.e. healthy, fit), respectively. This inductive approach indicates that exercise readiness is comprised of four dimensions: vitality, physical fatigue, discomfort, and health. This finding supports readiness assessment techniques currently recommended for practitioners according to the FNLP model. These results serve as a theoretical foundation upon which to further develop and refine a brief survey instrument to measure exercise readiness. Key points Assessment of exercise readiness is a key component in implementing an exercise program based on flexible nonlinear periodization, but the dimensionality of this concept has not been empirically determined. Based on a series of surveys and a robust exploratory factor

  18. The underlying factor structure of National Institutes of Health Stroke scale: an exploratory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Zandieh, Ali; Kahaki, Zahra Zeynali; Sadeghian, Homa; Pourashraf, Maryam; Parviz, Sara; Ghaffarpour, Majid; Ghabaee, Mojdeh

    2012-03-01

    The underlying structure of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) as the most widely used scale in clinical trials has been the focus of little attention. The aim of the current study was to elucidate the clustering pattern of NIHSS items in ischemic stroke patients. A series of 152 consecutive patients with first-ever ischemic strokes admitted to a university affiliated hospital were enrolled. NIHSS score was estimated on admission and correlation coefficients between its items were calculated. Further, exploratory factor analysis was used to study the clustering pattern of NIHSS items. Extinction neglect, visual field, and facial palsy were weakly associated with other NIHSS items. Factor analysis led to a four-factor structure. Factors 1 and 3 were determined by left brain function as items of right arm and leg motor, language and dysarthria loaded on both of them. By contrast, factor 2 reflected right brain involvement. Since visual field and ataxia loaded on factor 4, this factor was primarily associated with posterior strokes. Our study shows that a four-factor structure model is plausible for NIHSS. Further, for the first time, a single distinct factor is identified for posterior strokes. PMID:22023373

  19. Replication Analysis in Exploratory Factor Analysis: What It Is and Why It Makes Your Analysis Better

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Jason W.; Fitzpatrick, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) is a powerful and commonly-used tool for investigating the underlying variable structure of a psychometric instrument. However, there is much controversy in the social sciences with regard to the techniques used in EFA (Ford, MacCallum, & Tait, 1986; Henson & Roberts, 2006) and the reliability of the outcome.…

  20. Teaching for Abstraction: A Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Paul; Mitchelmore, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines a theoretical model for teaching elementary mathematical concepts that we have developed over the past 10 years. We begin with general ideas about the abstraction process and differentiate between "abstract-general" and "abstract-apart" concepts. A 4-phase model of teaching, called Teaching for Abstraction, is then proposed…

  1. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  2. Stellar Presentations (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The AAVSO is in the process of expanding its education, outreach and speakers bureau program. powerpoint presentations prepared for specific target audiences such as AAVSO members, educators, students, the general public, and Science Olympiad teams, coaches, event supervisors, and state directors will be available online for members to use. The presentations range from specific and general content relating to stellar evolution and variable stars to specific activities for a workshop environment. A presentation—even with a general topic—that works for high school students will not work for educators, Science Olympiad teams, or the general public. Each audience is unique and requires a different approach. The current environment necessitates presentations that are captivating for a younger generation that is embedded in a highly visual and sound-bite world of social media, twitter and U-Tube, and mobile devices. For educators, presentations and workshops for themselves and their students must support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the Common Core Content Standards, and the Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) initiative. Current best practices for developing relevant and engaging powerpoint presentations to deliver information to a variety of targeted audiences will be presented along with several examples.

  3. Biological risk factors for suicidal behaviors: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, B P; Franklin, J C; Ribeiro, J D; Fox, K R; Bentley, K H; Kleiman, E M; Nock, M K

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies have proposed a wide range of potential biological risk factors for future suicidal behaviors. Although strong evidence exists for biological correlates of suicidal behaviors, it remains unclear if these correlates are also risk factors for suicidal behaviors. We performed a meta-analysis to integrate the existing literature on biological risk factors for suicidal behaviors and to determine their statistical significance. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, PsycInfo and Google Scholar for studies that used a biological factor to predict either suicide attempt or death by suicide. Inclusion criteria included studies with at least one longitudinal analysis using a biological factor to predict either of these outcomes in any population through 2015. From an initial screen of 2541 studies we identified 94 cases. Random effects models were used for both meta-analyses and meta-regression. The combined effect of biological factors produced statistically significant but relatively weak prediction of suicide attempts (weighted mean odds ratio (wOR)=1.41; CI: 1.09-1.81) and suicide death (wOR=1.28; CI: 1.13-1.45). After accounting for publication bias, prediction was nonsignificant for both suicide attempts and suicide death. Only two factors remained significant after accounting for publication bias-cytokines (wOR=2.87; CI: 1.40-5.93) and low levels of fish oil nutrients (wOR=1.09; CI: 1.01-1.19). Our meta-analysis revealed that currently known biological factors are weak predictors of future suicidal behaviors. This conclusion should be interpreted within the context of the limitations of the existing literature, including long follow-up intervals and a lack of tests of interactions with other risk factors. Future studies addressing these limitations may more effectively test for potential biological risk factors. PMID:27622931

  4. Advanced view factor analysis method for radiation exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sookuk; Tuller, Stanton E.

    2014-03-01

    A raster-based method for determining complex view factor patterns is presented (HURES model). The model uses Johnson and Watson's view factor analysis method for fisheye lens photographs. The entire sphere is divided into 13 different view factors: open sky; sunny and shaded building walls, vegetation (trees) and ground surfaces above and below 1.2 m from the ground surface. The HURES model gave reasonable view factor results in tests at two urban study sites on summer days: downtown Nanaimo, B.C., Canada and Changwon, Republic of Korea. HURES gave better estimates of open sky view factors determined from fisheye lens photographs than did ENVI-met 3.1 and RayMan Pro. However, all three models underestimated sky view factor. For view factor analysis in outdoor urban areas, the 10° interval of rotation angle at 100 m distance of annuli will be suitable settings for three-dimensional computer simulations. The HURES model can be used for the rapid determination of complex view factor patterns which facilitates the analysis of their effects. Examples of how differing view factor patterns can affect human thermal sensation indices are given. The greater proportion of sunny view factors increased the computed predicted mean vote (PMV) by 1.3 on the sunny side of the street compared with the shady side during mid-morning in downtown Nanaimo. In another example, effects of differing amounts of open sky, sunny ground, sunny buildings and vegetation combined to produce only slight differences in PMV and two other human thermal sensation indices, PET and UTCI.

  5. Personality and coping traits: A joint factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Eamonn

    2001-11-01

    OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this paper is to explore the structural similarities between Eysenck's model of personality and the dimensions of the dispositional COPE. Costa et al. {Costa P., Somerfield, M., & McCrae, R. (1996). Personality and coping: A reconceptualisation. In (pp. 44-61) Handbook of coping: Theory, research and applications. New York: Wiley} suggest that personality and coping behaviour are part of a continuum based on adaptation. If this is the case, there should be structural similarities between measures of personality and coping behaviour. This is tested using a joint factor analysis of personality and coping measures. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. METHODS: The EPQ-R and the dispositional COPE were administered to 154 participants, and the data were analysed using joint factor analysis and bivariate associations. RESULTS: The joint factor analysis indicated that these data were best explained by a four-factor model. One factor was primarily unrelated to personality. There was a COPE-neurotic-introvert factor (NI-COPE) containing coping behaviours such as denial, a COPE-extroversion (E-COPE) factor containing behaviours such as seeking social support and a COPE-psychoticism factor (P-COPE) containing behaviours such as alcohol use. This factor pattern, especially for NI- and E-COPE, was interpreted in terms of Gray's model of personality {Gray, J. A. (1987) The psychology of fear and stress. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press}. NI-, E-, and P-COPE were shown to be related, in a theoretically consistent manner, to perceived coping success and perceived coping functions. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that there are indeed conceptual links between models of personality and coping. It is argued that future research should focus on identifying coping 'trait complexes'. Implications for practice are discussed. PMID:12614507

  6. Analysis of IFR driver fuel hot channel factors

    SciTech Connect

    Ku, J.Y.; Chang, L.K.; Mohr, D.

    1994-03-01

    Thermal-hydraulic uncertainty factors for Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) driver fuels have been determined based primarily on the database obtained from the predecessor fuels used in the IFR prototype, Experimental Breeder Reactor II. The uncertainty factors were applied to the channel factors (HCFs) analyses to obtain separate overall HCFs for fuel and cladding for steady-state analyses. A ``semistatistical horizontal method`` was used in the HCFs analyses. The uncertainty factor of the fuel thermal conductivity dominates the effects considered in the HCFs analysis; the uncertainty in fuel thermal conductivity will be reduced as more data are obtained to expand the currently limited database for the IFR ternary metal fuel (U-20Pu-10Zr). A set of uncertainty factors to be used for transient analyses has also been derived.

  7. Q-mode factor analysis of compositional data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miesch, A.T.

    1976-01-01

    An extended form of the method of Q-mode factor analysis may be used if the rows of the data matrix sum to a constant. The constant row-sum provides a means for scaling the factor model to conform to the units of the original data in such forms as proportions, percentages, or parts per million. The scale factors for an m-factor model are used to derive composition scores and loadings, which lead to the same reproduced data regardless of the choice of reference axes (end-members). Factor-variance diagrams may be constructed to show the proportion of the variance that will be accounted for in each compositional variable by models containing various numbers of end-members. The method may be used to develop a petrologic mixing model by searching for end-members that are geologically plausible. ?? 1976.

  8. Human Factors Vehicle Displacement Analysis: Engineering In Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atencio, Laura Ashley; Reynolds, David; Robertson, Clay

    2010-01-01

    While positioned on the launch pad at the Kennedy Space Center, tall stacked launch vehicles are exposed to the natural environment. Varying directional winds and vortex shedding causes the vehicle to sway in an oscillating motion. The Human Factors team recognizes that vehicle sway may hinder ground crew operation, impact the ground system designs, and ultimately affect launch availability . The objective of this study is to physically simulate predicted oscillation envelopes identified by analysis. and conduct a Human Factors Analysis to assess the ability to carry out essential Upper Stage (US) ground operator tasks based on predicted vehicle motion.

  9. Application of Factor Restructuring Analysis in Enterprise Safety Culture Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yihong; Xia, Liming; Pan, Jinshuang; Zong, Hengheng

    The enterprise safety culture index system, which mainly consists of enterprise decision-making level, management level, implementation level, and external environmental factor, is constructed based on human errors theory. Then, a corresponding enterprise safety culture evaluation model adapting to the characteristics of this index system is presented with consideration of the constraint condition of data and by taking full use of the advantages of factor system restructuring analysis and principal component analysis in data processing; The model provides an operable way for evaluating the enterprise safety culture. Further, the model is to make up for the gaps of enterprise safety culture evaluation.

  10. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Ann; Kinch, Lisa N.; de Souza Santos, Marcela; Grishin, Nick V.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells. PMID:27460800

  11. Abstract of Capstone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pack, Della F.

    2013-01-01

    At the end of the Fall 2011 semester at Big Sandy Community and Technical College (BSCTC) a comparison of grade patterns in multiple CIS 100-Introduction to Computers courses was analyzed. This analysis found online courses returned a higher failure rate than those taught in a classroom setting. Why was there a difference? Is the platform of…

  12. Analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle utility factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Thomas H.; Quinn, Casey W.

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are hybrid electric vehicles that can be fueled from both conventional liquid fuels and grid electricity. To represent the total contribution of both of these fuels to the operation, energy use, and environmental impacts of PHEVs, researchers have developed the concept of the utility factor. As standardized in documents such as SAE J1711 and SAE J2841, the utility factor represents the proportion of vehicle distance travelled that can be allocated to a vehicle test condition so as to represent the real-world driving habits of a vehicle fleet. These standards must be used with care so that the results are understood within the context of the assumptions implicit in the standardized utility factors. This study analyzes and derives alternatives to the standard utility factors from the 2001 National Highway Transportation Survey, so as to understand the sensitivity of PHEV performance to assumptions regarding charging frequency, vehicle characteristics, driver characteristics, and means of defining the utility factor. Through analysis of these alternative utility factors, this study identifies areas where analysis, design, and policy development for PHEVs can be improved by alternative utility factor calculations.

  13. Mixture Factor Analysis for Approximating a Nonnormally Distributed Continuous Latent Factor with Continuous and Dichotomous Observed Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Melanie M.; Guo, Jia; Amemiya, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    Mixture factor analysis is examined as a means of flexibly estimating nonnormally distributed continuous latent factors in the presence of both continuous and dichotomous observed variables. A simulation study compares mixture factor analysis with normal maximum likelihood (ML) latent factor modeling. Different results emerge for continuous versus…

  14. A Brief History of the Philosophical Foundations of Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulaik, Stanley A.

    1987-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis derives its key ideas from many sources, including Aristotle, Francis Bacon, Descartes, Pearson and Yule, and Kant. The conclusions of exploratory factor analysis are never complete without subsequent confirmatory factor analysis. (Author/GDC)

  15. Advance Organizers: Concret Versus Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkill, Alice J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Two experiments examined the relative effects of concrete and abstract advance organizers on students' memory for subsequent prose. Results of the experiments are discussed in terms of the memorability, familiarity, and visualizability of concrete and abstract verbal materials. (JD)

  16. Accepted scientific research works (abstracts).

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    These are the 39 accepted abstracts for IAYT's Symposium on Yoga Research (SYR) September 24-24, 2014 at the Kripalu Center for Yoga & Health and published in the Final Program Guide and Abstracts. PMID:25645134

  17. Geoinformatics 2006--Abstracts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, Shailaja R.; Sinha, A. Krishna; Gundersen, Linda C.

    2006-01-01

    In order to facilitate the discovery, integration, and analysis of distributed data, geoscientists-in partnership with information technologists and computer scientists-have established the emerging science of geoinformatics. Geoinformatics 2006, an international conference that was attended by over 300 participants between May 10 and 12, 2006, represents the first nationally organized meeting whose primary goal was to provide a forum for the exchange of the most current research in geoinformatics.

  18. From abstract to acclaim.

    PubMed

    Bucknall, T K

    1996-06-01

    Increasing specialisation in the health-care sector requires nurses to be proficient communicators both within their own profession and among other health-care disciplines. Although the work environment provides numerous opportunities for oral communication, traditionally we have been taught written communication. Like scientific writing, an oral presentation demands a sense of planning, audience awareness and attention to detail. Yet, because of the different medium, other important factors must also be considered. While a reader may select passages or reread a report, the audience must listen in a linear way. Your voice and body, aided by visual displays, will have a different effect on the listener than the printed pages have on the reader. Therefore, it is important to concentrate on both the content and the method of presentation if the audience is to be left feeling inspired. This article outlines the planning of a presentation, development of visual aids and delivery of a polished performance. PMID:8868815

  19. Improving Your Exploratory Factor Analysis for Ordinal Data: A Demonstration Using FACTOR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baglin, James

    2014-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) methods are used extensively in the field of assessment and evaluation. Due to EFA's widespread use, common methods and practices have come under close scrutiny. A substantial body of literature has been compiled highlighting problems with many of the methods and practices used in EFA, and, in response, many…

  20. Academic Expectations Stress Inventory: Development, Factor Analysis, Reliability, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ang, Rebecca P.; Huan, Vivien S.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the development and initial validation of obtained scores from the Academic Expectations Stress Inventory (AESI), which measures expectations as a source of academic stress in middle and high school Asian students. In the first study, exploratory factor analysis results from 721 adolescents suggested a nine-item scale with…

  1. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Professional Opinion Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeno, Elizabeth J.; Hughes, Anne K.; Hayward, R. Anna; Parker, Karen L.

    2007-01-01

    The Professional Opinion Scale (POS) was developed to measure social work values orientation. Objective: A confirmatory factor analysis was performed on the POS. Method: This cross-sectional study used a mailed survey design with a national random (simple) sample of members of the National Association of Social Workers. Results: The study…

  2. 48 CFR 1615.404-70 - Profit analysis factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Profit analysis factors. 1615.404-70 Section 1615.404-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing...

  3. 48 CFR 2115.404-71 - Profit analysis factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Profit analysis factors. 2115.404-71 Section 2115.404-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION...

  4. Examining Domains of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Using Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinas, Valerie Harlow; Yilmaz-Ozden, Sule; Mouza, Chrystalla; Karchmer-Klein, Rachel; Glutting, Joseph J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the construct validity of the Survey of Preservice Teachers' Knowledge of Teaching and Technology through an exploratory factor analysis using responses from 365 preservice teachers enrolled in an educational technology course in the United States. The participants were completing methods courses and field experience concurrent…

  5. The Hong Psychological Reactance Scale: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Adrian; Donnell, Alison J.; Buboltz, Walter C., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Study uses confirmatory factor analysis to assess four models of the Hong Psychological Reactance Scale (HPRS) and attempts to provide psychometric information about the subscales. Results found inadequate fit for Hong's four orthogonal models but sufficient fit for two nonorthogonal models. (Contains 29 references and 3 tables.) (GCP)

  6. A Comparison of Imputation Methods for Bayesian Factor Analysis Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merkle, Edgar C.

    2011-01-01

    Imputation methods are popular for the handling of missing data in psychology. The methods generally consist of predicting missing data based on observed data, yielding a complete data set that is amiable to standard statistical analyses. In the context of Bayesian factor analysis, this article compares imputation under an unrestricted…

  7. Factor Analysis Studies of the Citizenship Knowledge Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, John D.

    1982-01-01

    The Citizenship Knowledge Test contains subtests designed to measure subareas of the overall construct of citizenship knowledge. Two factor analysis studies indicated that the test is construct valid. It can, therefore, be used as a general measure of the construct citizenship knowledge. (Author/RM)

  8. Modular Open-Source Software for Item Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritikin, Joshua N.; Hunter, Micheal D.; Boker, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces an item factor analysis (IFA) module for "OpenMx," a free, open-source, and modular statistical modeling package that runs within the R programming environment on GNU/Linux, Mac OS X, and Microsoft Windows. The IFA module offers a novel model specification language that is well suited to programmatic generation…

  9. A Factor Analysis of Kolb's Revised Learning Style Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Marshall A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A factor analysis was conducted of scores on the revised Learning Style Inventory of D. A. Kolb from 718 accounting students from 2 large state universities. Results support two bipolar learning dimensions different from those theorized and only one separate learning ability. Caution in interpreting scores is advised. (SLD)

  10. Exploratory factor analysis of the Oral Health Impact Profile.

    PubMed

    John, M T; Reissmann, D R; Feuerstahler, L; Waller, N; Baba, K; Larsson, P; Celebić, A; Szabo, G; Rener-Sitar, K

    2014-09-01

    Although oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) as measured by the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) is thought to be multidimensional, the nature of these dimensions is not known. The aim of this report was to explore the dimensionality of the OHIP using the Dimensions of OHRQoL (DOQ) Project, an international study of general population subjects and prosthodontic patients. Using the project's Learning Sample (n = 5173), we conducted an exploratory factor analysis on the 46 OHIP items not specifically referring to dentures for 5146 subjects with sufficiently complete data. The first eigenvalue (27·0) of the polychoric correlation matrix was more than ten times larger than the second eigenvalue (2·6), suggesting the presence of a dominant, higher-order general factor. Follow-up analyses with Horn's parallel analysis revealed a viable second-order, four-factor solution. An oblique rotation of this solution revealed four highly correlated factors that we named Oral Function, Oro-facial Pain, Oro-facial Appearance and Psychosocial Impact. These four dimensions and the strong general factor are two viable hypotheses for the factor structure of the OHIP. PMID:24909881

  11. Identifying influential factors of business process performance using dependency analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetzstein, Branimir; Leitner, Philipp; Rosenberg, Florian; Dustdar, Schahram; Leymann, Frank

    2011-02-01

    We present a comprehensive framework for identifying influential factors of business process performance. In particular, our approach combines monitoring of process events and Quality of Service (QoS) measurements with dependency analysis to effectively identify influential factors. The framework uses data mining techniques to construct tree structures to represent dependencies of a key performance indicator (KPI) on process and QoS metrics. These dependency trees allow business analysts to determine how process KPIs depend on lower-level process metrics and QoS characteristics of the IT infrastructure. The structure of the dependencies enables a drill-down analysis of single factors of influence to gain a deeper knowledge why certain KPI targets are not met.

  12. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the ADNI Neuropsychological Battery

    PubMed Central

    Park, Lovingly Quitania; Gross, Alden L.; McLaren, Donald; Pa, Judy; Johnson, Julene K.; Mitchell, Meghan; Manly, Jennifer J.

    2012-01-01

    The Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is a large multi-center study designed to develop optimized methods for acquiring longitudinal neuroimaging, cognitive, and biomarker measures of AD progression in a large cohort of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), patients with mild cognitive impairment, and healthy controls. Detailed neuropsychological testing was conducted on all participants. We examined the factor structure of the ADNI Neuropsychological Battery across older adults with differing levels of clinical AD severity based on the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of 23 variables from 10 neuropsychological tests resulted in five factors (memory, language, visuospatial functioning, attention, and executive function/processing speed) that were invariant across levels of cognitive impairment. Thus, these five factors can be used as valid indicators of cognitive function in older adults who are participants in ADNI. PMID:22777078

  13. Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors in early stage Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tubiana, M.; Henry-Amar, M.; van der Werf-Messing, B.; Henry, J.; Abbatucci, J.; Burgers, M.; Hayat, M.; Somers, R.; Laugier, A.; Carde, P.

    1985-01-01

    A multivariate analysis of the prognostic factors was carried out with a Cox model on 1,139 patients with clinical Stage I + II Hodgkin's disease included in three controlled clinical trials. The following indicators had been prospectively registered: aged, sex, systemic symptoms, erythrocyte sedimentation, results of staging laparotomy when performed, as well as the date and type of treatment. A linear logistic analysis showed that most of the indicators are interrelated. This emphasizes the necessity of a multivariate analysis in order to assess the independent influence of each of them. The two main prognostic indicators for relapse-free survival are systemic symptoms and/or ESR and number of involved areas. The only significant factor for survival after relapse is age. Sex has a small but significant influence on relapse-free survival. The relative influence of each indicator varies with the type of treatment and these variations may help in understanding the biologic significance of the indicators.

  14. Abstracts of Research. July 1974-June 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Computer and Information Science Research Center.

    Abstracts of research papers in computer and information science are given for 68 papers in the areas of information storage and retrieval; human information processing; information analysis; linguistic analysis; artificial intelligence; information processes in physical, biological, and social systems; mathematical techniques; systems…

  15. An Exploratory Analysis of Personality Factors Contributed to Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P. N. Suresh; Rajmohan, V.; Sushil, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: People who attempt suicide have certain individual predispositions, part of which is contributed by personality traits. Aims: The present study was conducted to identify the psycho-sociodemographic and personality related factors contributing to suicide attempts. Materials and Methods: 104 suicide attempters admitted in various departments and referred to the department of psychiatry of IQRAA Hospital formed the study sample. They were evaluated with a self designed socio-demographic proforma, Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire Revised, Albert Einstein College of Medicine-Impulsivity Coping Scale, and Past Feelings and Acts of Violence Scale. Statistics Analysis: The data was initially analyzed by percentage of frequencies. Association between socio-demographic and selected psychological factors was analyzed using t-test and Chi-square test. Intercorrelation among psychological factors was calculated by Pearson's correlation coefficient “r”. Results and Conclusion: Factors such as young age, being married, nuclear family, feeling lonely and burden to family, inability to solve the problems of day to day life, and presence of psychiatric diagnosis and personality traits such as neuroticism, impulsivity, and violence were contributed to suicide attempt. A significant positive relationship between these factors was also identified. Findings of the present study call the attention of mental health professionals to identify these high risk factors in susceptible individuals and to modify these factors to prevent them from attempting suicide. PMID:24379499

  16. Abstract Imagery in Art Therapy: What Does It Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanes, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    Explores some of the factors involving abstract imagery in the work of art-therapy patients and presents examples of abstract imagery produced by patients in an acute-patient psychiatric hospital. Examples illustrate that abstract imagery can serve not only a defensive purpose, but a progressive function as well. (Author/MKA)

  17. Safer approaches and landings: A multivariate analysis of critical factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Durwood J.

    The approach-and-landing phases of flight represent 27% of mission time while resulting in 61 of the accidents and 39% of the fatalities. The landing phase itself represents only 1% of flight time but claims 45% of the accidents. Inadequate crew situation awareness (SA), crew resource management (CRM), and crew decision-making (DM) have been implicated in 51%, 63%, and 73% respectively of these accidents. The human factors constructs of SA, CRM, and DM were explored; a comprehensive definition of SA was proposed; and a "proactive defense" safety strategy was recommended. Data from a 1997 analysis of worldwide fatal accidents by the Flight Safety Foundation (FSF) Approach-and-Landing Accident Reduction (ALAR) Task Force was used to isolate crew- and weather-related causal factors that lead to approach-and-landing accidents (ALAs). Logistic regression and decision tree analysis were used on samplings of NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident records ("near misses") and the National Transportation Safety Board's (NTSB) accident reports to examine hypotheses regarding factors and factor combinations that can dramatically increase the opportunity for accidents. An effective scale of risk factors was introduced for use by crews to proactively counter safety-related error-chain situations.

  18. Component Analysis versus Common Factor Analysis: Some issues in Selecting an Appropriate Procedure.

    PubMed

    Velicer, W F; Jackson, D N

    1990-01-01

    Should one do a component analysis or a factor analysis? The choice is not obvious, because the two broad classes of procedures serve a similar purpose, and share many important mathematical characteristics. Despite many textbooks describing common factor analysis as the preferred procedure, principal component analysis has been the most widely applied. Here we summarize relevant information for the prospective factor/component analyst. First, we discuss the key algebraic similarities and differences. Next, we analyze a number of theoretical and practical issues. The more practical aspects include: the degree of numeric similarity between solutions from the two methods, some common rules for the number of factors to be retained, effects resulting from overextraction, problems with improper solutions, and comparisons in computational efficiency. Finally, we review some broader theoretical issues: the factor indeterminacy issue, the differences between exploratory and confirmatory procedures, and the issue of latent versus manifest variables. PMID:26741964

  19. The future of dynamic factor analysis in psychology and biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Molenaar, P C M

    2006-01-01

    The currently dominant approach to statistical analysis in psychology and biomedicine is based on analysis of inter-individual variation. Differences between subjects drawn from a population of subjects provide the information to make inferences about states of affairs at the population level (e.g., mean and/or covariance structure). Recently it has been shown that in general the inferred states of affairs at the population level do not apply at the level of intra-individual variation characterizing the life trajectories of individual subjects making up the population. This is a direct consequence of the so-called classical ergodic theorems of Birkhoff and Wiener which has important implications for the way in which psychological and biomedical processes have to be analyzed. The classical ergodic theorems are introduced below in order to show the necessity of using an alternative approach which is valid for the analysis of intra-individual variation. This approach has to be based on single-subject time series analysis. Next an overview is presented of dynamic factor models for the analysis of multivariate time series and the various ways to fit these models to the data. We then turn to an empirical application of factor analysis of personality data obtained in a replicated time series design, showing substantial heterogeneity in intra-individual factorial personality structure. The next topic is entirely innovative--for the first time I present my new dynamic factor model for the analysis of nonstationary time series. In the conclusion I will sketch some biomedical research initiatives in which this new model will be used. PMID:17124797

  20. Multivariate Analysis of Risk Factors of Cerebral Infarction in 439 Patients Undergoing Thoracic Endovascular Aneurysm Repair

    PubMed Central

    Kanaoka, Yuji; Ohki, Takao; Maeda, Koji; Baba, Takeshi; Fujita, Tetsuji

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study is to identify the potential risk factors of cerebral infarction associated with thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR). TEVAR was developed as a less invasive surgical alternative to conventional open repair for thoracic aortic aneurysm treatment. However, outcomes following TEVAR of aortic and distal arch aneurysms remain suboptimal. Cerebral infarction is a major concern during the perioperative period. We included 439 patients who underwent TEVAR of aortic aneurysms at a high-volume teaching hospital between July 2006 and June 2013. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify perioperative cerebral infarction risk factors. Four patients (0.9%) died within 30 days of TEVAR; 17 (3.9%) developed cerebral infarction. In univariate analysis, history of ischemic heart disease and cerebral infarction and concomitant cerebrovascular disease were significantly associated with cerebral infarction. “Shaggy aorta” presence, left subclavian artery coverage, carotid artery debranching, and pull-through wire use were identified as independent risk factors of cerebral infarction. In multivariate analysis, history of ischemic heart disease (odds ratio [OR] 6.49, P = 0.046) and cerebral infarction (OR 43.74, P = 0.031), “shaggy aorta” (OR 30.32, P < 0.001), pull-through wire use during surgery (OR 7.196, P = 0.014), and intraoperative blood loss ≥800 mL (OR 24.31, P = 0.017) were found to be independent risk factors of cerebral infarction. This study identified patient- and procedure-related risk factors of cerebral infarction following TEVAR. These results indicate that patient outcomes could be improved through the identification and management of procedure-related risk factors. PMID:27082585

  1. Performance analysis of parallel supernodal sparse LU factorization

    SciTech Connect

    Grigori, Laura; Li, Xiaoye S.

    2004-02-05

    We investigate performance characteristics for the LU factorization of large matrices with various sparsity patterns. We consider supernodal right-looking parallel factorization on a bi-dimensional grid of processors, making use of static pivoting. We develop a performance model and we validate it using the implementation in SuperLU-DIST, the real matrices and the IBM Power3 machine at NERSC. We use this model to obtain performance bounds on parallel computers, to perform scalability analysis and to identify performance bottlenecks. We also discuss the role of load balance and data distribution in this approach.

  2. A human factors analysis of EVA time requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pate, D. W.

    1996-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering (HFE), also known as Ergonomics, is a discipline whose goal is to engineer a safer, more efficient interface between humans and machines. HFE makes use of a wide range of tools and techniques to fulfill this goal. One of these tools is known as motion and time study, a technique used to develop time standards for given tasks. A human factors motion and time study was initiated with the goal of developing a database of EVA task times and a method of utilizing the database to predict how long an ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA) should take. Initial development relied on the EVA activities performed during the STS-61 mission (Hubble repair). The first step of the analysis was to become familiar with EVAs and with the previous studies and documents produced on EVAs. After reviewing these documents, an initial set of task primitives and task time modifiers was developed. Videotaped footage of STS-61 EVAs were analyzed using these primitives and task time modifiers. Data for two entire EVA missions and portions of several others, each with two EVA astronauts, was collected for analysis. Feedback from the analysis of the data will be used to further refine the primitives and task time modifiers used. Analysis of variance techniques for categorical data will be used to determine which factors may, individually or by interactions, effect the primitive times and how much of an effect they have.

  3. Factor analysis and predictive validity of microcomputer-based tests.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, R S; Baltzley, D R; Turnage, J J; Jones, M B

    1989-12-01

    11 tests were selected from two microcomputer-based performance test batteries because previously these tests exhibited rapid stability (less than 10 min, of practice) and high retest reliability efficiencies (r greater than 0.707 for each 3 min. of testing). The battery was administered three times to each of 108 college students (48 men and 60 women) and a factor analysis was performed. Two of the three identified factors appear to be related to information processing ("encoding" and "throughput/decoding"), and the third named an "output/speed" factor. The spatial, memory, and verbal tests loaded on the "encoding" factor and included Grammatical Reasoning, Pattern Comparison, Continuous Recall, and Matrix Rotation. The "throughput/decoding" tests included perceptual/numerical tests like Math Processing, Code Substitution, and Pattern Comparison. The output speed factor was identified by Tapping and Reaction Time tests. The Wonderlic Personnel Test was group administered before the first and after the last administration of the performance tests. The multiple Rs in the total sample between combined Wonderlic as a criterion and less than 5 min. of microcomputer testing on Grammatical Reasoning and Math Processing as predictors ranged between 0.41 and 0.52 on the three test administrations. Based on these results, the authors recommend a core battery which, if time permits, would consist of two tests from each factor. Such a battery is now known to permit stable, reliable, and efficient assessment. PMID:2622715

  4. Factor analysis and predictive validity of microcomputer-based tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, R. S.; Baltzley, D. R.; Turnage, J. J.; Jones, M. B.

    1989-01-01

    11 tests were selected from two microcomputer-based performance test batteries because previously these tests exhibited rapid stability (less than 10 min, of practice) and high retest reliability efficiencies (r greater than 0.707 for each 3 min. of testing). The battery was administered three times to each of 108 college students (48 men and 60 women) and a factor analysis was performed. Two of the three identified factors appear to be related to information processing ("encoding" and "throughput/decoding"), and the third named an "output/speed" factor. The spatial, memory, and verbal tests loaded on the "encoding" factor and included Grammatical Reasoning, Pattern Comparison, Continuous Recall, and Matrix Rotation. The "throughput/decoding" tests included perceptual/numerical tests like Math Processing, Code Substitution, and Pattern Comparison. The output speed factor was identified by Tapping and Reaction Time tests. The Wonderlic Personnel Test was group administered before the first and after the last administration of the performance tests. The multiple Rs in the total sample between combined Wonderlic as a criterion and less than 5 min. of microcomputer testing on Grammatical Reasoning and Math Processing as predictors ranged between 0.41 and 0.52 on the three test administrations. Based on these results, the authors recommend a core battery which, if time permits, would consist of two tests from each factor. Such a battery is now known to permit stable, reliable, and efficient assessment.

  5. On the Relations among Regular, Equal Unique Variances, and Image Factor Analysis Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Kentaro; Bentler, Peter M.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the conditions under which the matrix of factor loadings from the factor analysis model with equal unique variances will give a good approximation to the matrix of factor loadings from the regular factor analysis model. Extends the results to the image factor analysis model. Discusses implications for practice. (SLD)

  6. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Denney, R.M.

    1982-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes listings of technical abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). Overall information about current activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts.

  7. Recursive Abstractions for Parameterized Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffar, Joxan; Santosa, Andrew E.

    We consider a language of recursively defined formulas about arrays of variables, suitable for specifying safety properties of parameterized systems. We then present an abstract interpretation framework which translates a paramerized system as a symbolic transition system which propagates such formulas as abstractions of underlying concrete states. The main contribution is a proof method for implications between the formulas, which then provides for an implementation of this abstract interpreter.

  8. Memory systems, processes, and tasks: taxonomic clarification via factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Bruss, Peter J; Mitchell, David B

    2009-01-01

    The nature of various memory systems was examined using factor analysis. We reanalyzed data from 11 memory tasks previously reported in Mitchell and Bruss (2003). Four well-defined factors emerged, closely resembling episodic and semantic memory and conceptual and perceptual implicit memory, in line with both memory systems and transfer-appropriate processing accounts. To explore taxonomic issues, we ran separate analyses on the implicit tasks. Using a cross-format manipulation (pictures vs. words), we identified 3 prototypical tasks. Word fragment completion and picture fragment identification tasks were "factor pure," tapping perceptual processes uniquely. Category exemplar generation revealed its conceptual nature, yielding both cross-format priming and a picture superiority effect. In contrast, word stem completion and picture naming were more complex, revealing attributes of both processes. PMID:19507425

  9. SEPARABLE FACTOR ANALYSIS WITH APPLICATIONS TO MORTALITY DATA

    PubMed Central

    Fosdick, Bailey K.; Hoff, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Human mortality data sets can be expressed as multiway data arrays, the dimensions of which correspond to categories by which mortality rates are reported, such as age, sex, country and year. Regression models for such data typically assume an independent error distribution or an error model that allows for dependence along at most one or two dimensions of the data array. However, failing to account for other dependencies can lead to inefficient estimates of regression parameters, inaccurate standard errors and poor predictions. An alternative to assuming independent errors is to allow for dependence along each dimension of the array using a separable covariance model. However, the number of parameters in this model increases rapidly with the dimensions of the array and, for many arrays, maximum likelihood estimates of the covariance parameters do not exist. In this paper, we propose a submodel of the separable covariance model that estimates the covariance matrix for each dimension as having factor analytic structure. This model can be viewed as an extension of factor analysis to array-valued data, as it uses a factor model to estimate the covariance along each dimension of the array. We discuss properties of this model as they relate to ordinary factor analysis, describe maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimation methods, and provide a likelihood ratio testing procedure for selecting the factor model ranks. We apply this methodology to the analysis of data from the Human Mortality Database, and show in a cross-validation experiment how it outperforms simpler methods. Additionally, we use this model to impute mortality rates for countries that have no mortality data for several years. Unlike other approaches, our methodology is able to estimate similarities between the mortality rates of countries, time periods and sexes, and use this information to assist with the imputations. PMID:25489353

  10. Human Modeling for Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Lawrence, Brad A.; Stelges, Katrine S.; Steady, Marie-Jeanne O.; Ridgwell, Lora C.; Mills, Robert E.; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over the last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the human modeling currently used at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs

  11. Method for factor analysis of GC/MS data

    DOEpatents

    Van Benthem, Mark H; Kotula, Paul G; Keenan, Michael R

    2012-09-11

    The method of the present invention provides a fast, robust, and automated multivariate statistical analysis of gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) data sets. The method can involve systematic elimination of undesired, saturated peak masses to yield data that follow a linear, additive model. The cleaned data can then be subjected to a combination of PCA and orthogonal factor rotation followed by refinement with MCR-ALS to yield highly interpretable results.

  12. Human Modeling For Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Donald; Stambolian, Damon; Henderson, Gena; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over that last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft and launch vehicles. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the different types of human modeling used currently and in the past at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) currently, and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs.

  13. Space Human Factors Engineering Gap Analysis Project Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudy, Cynthia; Woolford, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Humans perform critical functions throughout each phase of every space mission, beginning with the mission concept and continuing to post-mission analysis (Life Sciences Division, 1996). Space missions present humans with many challenges - the microgravity environment, relative isolation, and inherent dangers of the mission all present unique issues. As mission duration and distance from Earth increases, in-flight crew autonomy will increase along with increased complexity. As efforts for exploring the moon and Mars advance, there is a need for space human factors research and technology development to play a significant role in both on-orbit human-system interaction, as well as the development of mission requirements and needs before and after the mission. As part of the Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Project within the Human Research Program (HRP), a six-month Gap Analysis Project (GAP) was funded to identify any human factors research gaps or knowledge needs. The overall aim of the project was to review the current state of human factors topic areas and requirements to determine what data, processes, or tools are needed to aid in the planning and development of future exploration missions, and also to prioritize proposals for future research and technology development.

  14. Multivariate analysis of pathophysiological factors in reflux oesophagitis.

    PubMed Central

    Cadiot, G; Bruhat, A; Rigaud, D; Coste, T; Vuagnat, A; Benyedder, Y; Vallot, T; Le Guludec, D; Mignon, M

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reflux oesophagitis is considered a multifactorial disease, but the respective roles of the main factors involved in its pathophysiology have not been clearly established. AIMS: To attempt to assign these roles by means of a multivariate logistic regression analysis of the main parameters associated with reflux oesophagitis. PATIENTS: Eighty seven patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease were studied: 41 without oesophagitis and 46 with reflux oesophagitis grade 1 to 3. METHODS: (1) Monovariate comparison of patients' characteristics and of parameters derived from in hospital 24 hour oesophageal pH monitoring, oesophageal manometry, double isotope gastric emptying studies, and basal and pentagastrin stimulated gastric acid and pepsin output determinations, between patients with and without oesophagitis. (2) Multivariate logistic regression analysis including the parameters significant in the monovariate analysis. RESULTS: Among the 16 significant parameters from monovariate analysis, three significant independent parameters were identified by multivariate logistic regression analysis: number of refluxes lasting more than five minutes, reflecting oesophageal acid clearance (p = 0.002); basal lower oesophageal sphincter pressure (p = 0.008); and peak acid output (p = 0.012). These three parameters were not correlated with each other. The multivariate model was highly discriminant (correct classification of 81.3% of the cases (95% confidence intervals 0.723, 0.903). Risk for oesophagitis increased as a function of the tercile threshold values of the three parameters. Odds ratios of the three parameters for oesophagitis risk were similar, regardless of whether they were calculated when the patients were compared as a function of oesophagitis grade or the presence or absence of oesophagitis. CONCLUSIONS: This multivariate approach adds evidence that impaired oesophageal acid clearance and hypotonic lower oesophageal sphincter are the two major

  15. A Bayes factor meta-analysis of Bem's ESP claim.

    PubMed

    Rouder, Jeffrey N; Morey, Richard D

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, statisticians and psychologists have provided the critique that p-values do not capture the evidence afforded by data and are, consequently, ill suited for analysis in scientific endeavors. The issue is particular salient in the assessment of the recent evidence provided for ESP by Bem (2011) in the mainstream Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Wagenmakers, Wetzels, Borsboom, and van der Maas (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100, 426-432, 2011) have provided an alternative Bayes factor assessment of Bem's data, but their assessment was limited to examining each experiment in isolation. We show here that the variant of the Bayes factor employed by Wagenmakers et al. is inappropriate for making assessments across multiple experiments, and cannot be used to gain an accurate assessment of the total evidence in Bem's data. We develop a meta-analytic Bayes factor that describes how researchers should update their prior beliefs about the odds of hypotheses in light of data across several experiments. We find that the evidence that people can feel the future with neutral and erotic stimuli to be slight, with Bayes factors of 3.23 and 1.57, respectively. There is some evidence, however, for the hypothesis that people can feel the future with emotionally valenced nonerotic stimuli, with a Bayes factor of about 40. Although this value is certainly noteworthy, we believe it is orders of magnitude lower than what is required to overcome appropriate skepticism of ESP. PMID:21573926

  16. Generalized five-dimensional dynamic and spectral factor analysis

    SciTech Connect

    El Fakhri, Georges; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Zimmerman, Robert E.; Ouyang Jinsong

    2006-04-15

    We have generalized the spectral factor analysis and the factor analysis of dynamic sequences (FADS) in SPECT imaging to a five-dimensional general factor analysis model (5D-GFA), where the five dimensions are the three spatial dimensions, photon energy, and time. The generalized model yields a significant advantage in terms of the ratio of the number of equations to that of unknowns in the factor analysis problem in dynamic SPECT studies. We solved the 5D model using a least-squares approach. In addition to the traditional non-negativity constraints, we constrained the solution using a priori knowledge of both time and energy, assuming that primary factors (spectra) are Gaussian-shaped with full-width at half-maximum equal to gamma camera energy resolution. 5D-GFA was validated in a simultaneous pre-/post-synaptic dual isotope dynamic phantom study where {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 123}I activities were used to model early Parkinson disease studies. 5D-GFA was also applied to simultaneous perfusion/dopamine transporter (DAT) dynamic SPECT in rhesus monkeys. In the striatal phantom, 5D-GFA yielded significantly more accurate and precise estimates of both primary {sup 99m}Tc (bias=6.4%{+-}4.3%) and {sup 123}I (-1.7%{+-}6.9%) time activity curves (TAC) compared to conventional FADS (biases=15.5%{+-}10.6% in {sup 99m}Tc and 8.3%{+-}12.7% in {sup 123}I, p<0.05). Our technique was also validated in two primate dynamic dual isotope perfusion/DAT transporter studies. Biases of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO and {sup 123}I-DAT activity estimates with respect to estimates obtained in the presence of only one radionuclide (sequential imaging) were significantly lower with 5D-GFA (9.4%{+-}4.3% for {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO and 8.7%{+-}4.1% for {sup 123}I-DAT) compared to biases greater than 15% for volumes of interest (VOI) over the reconstructed volumes (p<0.05). 5D-GFA is a novel and promising approach in dynamic SPECT imaging that can also be used in other modalities. It allows accurate and precise

  17. Abstracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-09-01

    Measuring cosmological parameters with GRBs: status and perspectives New interpretation of the Amati relation The SED Machine - a dedicated transient spectrograph PTF10iue - evidence for an internal engine in a unique Type Ic SN Direct evidence for the collapsar model of long gamma-ray bursts On pair instability supernovae and gamma-ray bursts Pan-STARRS1 observations of ultraluminous SNe The influence of rotation on the critical neutrino luminosity in core-collapse supernovae General relativistic magnetospheres of slowly rotating and oscillating neutron stars Host galaxies of short GRBs GRB 100418A: a bridge between GRB-associated hypernovae and SNe Two super-luminous SNe at z ~ 1.5 from the SNLS Prospects for very-high-energy gamma-ray bursts with the Cherenkov Telescope Array The dynamics and radiation of relativistic flows from massive stars The search for light echoes from the supernova explosion of 1181 AD The proto-magnetar model for gamma-ray bursts Stellar black holes at the dawn of the universe MAXI J0158-744: the discovery of a supersoft X-ray transient Wide-band spectra of magnetar burst emission Dust formation and evolution in envelope-stripped core-collapse supernovae The host galaxies of dark gamma-ray bursts Keck observations of 150 GRB host galaxies Search for properties of GRBs at large redshift The early emission from SNe Spectral properties of SN shock breakout MAXI observation of GRBs and short X-ray transients A three-dimensional view of SN 1987A using light echo spectroscopy X-ray study of the southern extension of the SNR Puppis A All-sky survey of short X-ray transients by MAXI GSC Development of the CALET gamma-ray burst monitor (CGBM)

  18. Vague Language in Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutting, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined abstracts for a British Association for Applied Linguistics conference and a Sociolinguistics Symposium, to define the genre of conference abstracts in terms of vague language, specifically universal general nouns (e.g. people) and research general nouns (e.g. results), and to discover if the language used reflected the level…

  19. Leadership Abstracts; Volume 4, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    "Leadership Abstracts" is published bimonthly and distributed to the chief executive officer of every two-year college in the United States and Canada. This document consists of the 15 one-page abstracts published in 1991. Addressing a variety of topics of interest to the community college administrators, this volume includes: (1) "Delivering the…

  20. Food Science and Technology Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elinor; Federman, Joan

    1979-01-01

    Introduces the reader to the Food Science and Technology Abstracts, a data file that covers worldwide literature on human food commodities and aspects of food processing. Topics include scope, subject index, thesaurus, searching online, and abstracts; tables provide a comparison of ORBIT and DIALOG versions of the file. (JD)

  1. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XV, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This volume of 30 one- to two-page abstracts from 1993 highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) role-playing to encourage critical thinking; (2) team learning techniques to cultivate business skills; (3) librarian-instructor partnerships to create…

  2. Student Success with Abstract Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamidou, Kristine

    2009-01-01

    An abstract art project can be challenging or not, depending on the objectives the teacher sets up. In this article, the author describes an abstract papier-mache project that is a success for all students, and is a versatile project easily manipulated to suit the classroom of any art teacher.

  3. Abstraction in perceptual symbol systems.

    PubMed Central

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2003-01-01

    After reviewing six senses of abstraction, this article focuses on abstractions that take the form of summary representations. Three central properties of these abstractions are established: ( i ) type-token interpretation; (ii) structured representation; and (iii) dynamic realization. Traditional theories of representation handle interpretation and structure well but are not sufficiently dynamical. Conversely, connectionist theories are exquisitely dynamic but have problems with structure. Perceptual symbol systems offer an approach that implements all three properties naturally. Within this framework, a loose collection of property and relation simulators develops to represent abstractions. Type-token interpretation results from binding a property simulator to a region of a perceived or simulated category member. Structured representation results from binding a configuration of property and relation simulators to multiple regions in an integrated manner. Dynamic realization results from applying different subsets of property and relation simulators to category members on different occasions. From this standpoint, there are no permanent or complete abstractions of a category in memory. Instead, abstraction is the skill to construct temporary online interpretations of a category's members. Although an infinite number of abstractions are possible, attractors develop for habitual approaches to interpretation. This approach provides new ways of thinking about abstraction phenomena in categorization, inference, background knowledge and learning. PMID:12903648

  4. Biosphere dose conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    M. Wasiolek

    2004-10-15

    This report presents importance and sensitivity analysis for the environmental radiation model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN). ERMYN is a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis concerns the output of the model, biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater, and the volcanic ash exposure scenarios. It identifies important processes and parameters that influence the BDCF values and distributions, enhances understanding of the relative importance of the physical and environmental processes on the outcome of the biosphere model, includes a detailed pathway analysis for key radionuclides, and evaluates the appropriateness of selected parameter values that are not site-specific or have large uncertainty.

  5. Human factors review for Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA)

    SciTech Connect

    Krois, P.A.; Haas, P.M.; Manning, J.J.; Bovell, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    The paper will discuss work being conducted during this human factors review including: (1) support of the Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) Program based on an assessment of operator actions, and (2) development of a descriptive model of operator severe accident management. Research by SASA analysts on the Browns Ferry Unit One (BF1) anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) was supported through a concurrent assessment of operator performance to demonstrate contributions to SASA analyses from human factors data and methods. A descriptive model was developed called the Function Oriented Accident Management (FOAM) model, which serves as a structure for bridging human factors, operations, and engineering expertise and which is useful for identifying needs/deficiencies in the area of accident management. The assessment of human factors issues related to ATWS required extensive coordination with SASA analysts. The analysis was consolidated primarily to six operator actions identified in the Emergency Procedure Guidelines (EPGs) as being the most critical to the accident sequence. These actions were assessed through simulator exercises, qualitative reviews, and quantitative human reliability analyses. The FOAM descriptive model assumes as a starting point that multiple operator/system failures exceed the scope of procedures and necessitates a knowledge-based emergency response by the operators. The FOAM model provides a functionally-oriented structure for assembling human factors, operations, and engineering data and expertise into operator guidance for unconventional emergency responses to mitigate severe accident progression and avoid/minimize core degradation. Operators must also respond to potential radiological release beyond plant protective barriers. Research needs in accident management and potential uses of the FOAM model are described. 11 references, 1 figure.

  6. Characterization and Risk Factor Analysis for Reoperation After Microendoscopic Diskectomy.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xin; Liu, Lei; Bao, Junping; Shi, Rui; Fan, Yudong; Wu, Xiaotao

    2015-06-01

    A population-based database of 1263 consecutive patients who underwent microendoscopic diskectomy for single-level lumbar disk herniation between 2005 and 2010 was retrospectively analyzed to identify causes and characteristics of reoperation and associated risk factors. A total of 952 patients were eligible. Of these, 58 had revision spinal surgery. Causes and clinical parameters were retrospectively assessed, and possible risk factors were evaluated by multivariate logistic regression analysis. In total, 76 disk herniations were excised with revision diskectomy, with or without interbody fusion. The overall mean interval between primary surgery and revision surgery was 39.05 months (range, 2-95 months). Cumulative overall reoperation rates gradually increased from 1.56% at 1 year to 8.17% after nearly 10 years. Reoperated patients were older and had a higher level of lumbar degeneration, with severe Modic changes (type 1, 17.2%; type 2, 34.5%), vs patients without reoperation (type 1, 1.5%; type 2, 30.6%). In addition, patients with reoperation had a higher rate of obvious adjacent disk degeneration (81.1%). Logistic regression analysis showed that adjacent segment degeneration and Pfirrmann grading for disk degeneration were significant risk factors for reoperation after primary microendoscopic diskectomy (odds ratios, 2.448 and 1.510, respectively). The current study reported a relatively low incidence of reoperation after primary microendoscopic diskectomy. Adjacent segment degeneration and Pfirrmann grading for disk degeneration were identified as risk factors for reoperation after microendoscopic diskectomy to treat lumbar disk herniation. Treatment options for patients with these factors at the first visit should be carefully evaluated. PMID:26091222

  7. Technical abstracts: Mechanical engineering, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Broesius, J.Y.

    1991-03-01

    This document is a compilation of the published, unclassified abstracts produced by mechanical engineers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during the calendar year 1990. Many abstracts summarize work completed and published in report form. These are UCRL-JC series documents, which include the full text of articles to be published in journals and of papers to be presented at meetings, and UCID reports, which are informal documents. Not all UCIDs contain abstracts: short summaries were generated when abstracts were not included. Technical Abstracts also provides descriptions of those documents assigned to the UCRL-MI (miscellaneous) category. These are generally viewgraphs or photographs presented at meetings. An author index is provided at the back of this volume for cross referencing.

  8. Metaphor: Bridging embodiment to abstraction.

    PubMed

    Jamrozik, Anja; McQuire, Marguerite; Cardillo, Eileen R; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2016-08-01

    Embodied cognition accounts posit that concepts are grounded in our sensory and motor systems. An important challenge for these accounts is explaining how abstract concepts, which do not directly call upon sensory or motor information, can be informed by experience. We propose that metaphor is one important vehicle guiding the development and use of abstract concepts. Metaphors allow us to draw on concrete, familiar domains to acquire and reason about abstract concepts. Additionally, repeated metaphoric use drawing on particular aspects of concrete experience can result in the development of new abstract representations. These abstractions, which are derived from embodied experience but lack much of the sensorimotor information associated with it, can then be flexibly applied to understand new situations. PMID:27294425

  9. 1986 annual information meeting. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts are presented for the following papers: Geohydrological Research at the Y-12 Plant (C.S. Haase); Ecological Impacts of Waste Disposal Operations in Bear Creek Valley Near the Y-12 Plant (J.M. Loar); Finite Element Simulation of Subsurface Contaminant Transport: Logistic Difficulties in Handling Large Field Problems (G.T. Yeh); Dynamic Compaction of a Radioactive Waste Burial Trench (B.P. Spalding); Comparative Evaluation of Potential Sites for a High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository (E.D. Smith); Changing Priorities in Environmental Assessment and Environmental Compliance (R.M. Reed); Ecology, Ecotoxicology, and Ecological Risk Assessment (L.W. Barnthouse); Theory and Practice in Uncertainty Analysis from Ten Years of Practice (R.H. Gardner); Modeling Landscape Effects of Forest Decline (V.H. Dale); Soil Nitrogen and the Global Carbon Cycle (W.M. Post); Maximizing Wood Energy Production in Short-Rotation Plantations: Effect of Initial Spacing and Rotation Length (L.L. Wright); and Ecological Communities and Processes in Woodland Streams Exhibit Both Direct and Indirect Effects of Acidification (J.W. Elwood).

  10. Sister chromatid exchange analysis to monitor genotoxic chemicals. March 1978-July 1989 (A Bibliography from Pollution Abstracts). Report for March 1978-July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the use of the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) analysis for toxicological studies. SCE analysis are very sensitive measures of genotoxic damage to chromosomes. SCE toxicological studies analyzing ionizing radiation, chromium compounds, styrene, paint thinner, mercury, cigarette smoke, coal dust, fuel oil, insecticides, ethylene oxide, diesel exhaust, and polychlorinated biphenyls are discussed. SCE studies using both human and animal tissue cultures are described. (Contains 150 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  11. Abstractions for Fault-Tolerant Distributed System Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, Lee S.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Miner, Paul S.; Geser, Alfons

    2004-01-01

    Four kinds of abstraction for the design and analysis of fault tolerant distributed systems are discussed. These abstractions concern system messages, faults, fault masking voting, and communication. The abstractions are formalized in higher order logic, and are intended to facilitate specifying and verifying such systems in higher order theorem provers.

  12. Factor Analysis of the Modified Sexual Adjustment Questionnaire-Male

    PubMed Central

    Wilmoth, Margaret C.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Ng, Lit Soo; Bruner, Debra W.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The Sexual Adjustment Questionnaire (SAQ) is used in National Cancer Institute–sponsored clinical trials as an outcome measure for sexual functioning. The tool was revised to meet the needs for a clinically useful, theory-based outcome measure for use in both research and clinical settings. This report describes the modifications and validity testing of the modified Sexual Adjustment Questionnaire-Male (mSAQ-Male). Methods This secondary analysis of data from a large Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trial employed principal axis factor analytic techniques in estimating validity of the revised tool. The sample size was 686; most subjects were White, older than the age 60 years, and with a high school education and a Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) score of greater than 90. Results A 16-item, 3-factor solution resulted from the factor analysis. The mSAQ-Male was also found to be sensitive to changes in physical sexual functioning as measured by the KPS. Conclusion The mSAQ-Male is a valid self-report measure of sexuality that can be used clinically to detect changes in male sexual functioning. PMID:25255676

  13. Inference algorithms and learning theory for Bayesian sparse factor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rattray, Magnus; Stegle, Oliver; Sharp, Kevin; Winn, John

    2009-12-01

    Bayesian sparse factor analysis has many applications; for example, it has been applied to the problem of inferring a sparse regulatory network from gene expression data. We describe a number of inference algorithms for Bayesian sparse factor analysis using a slab and spike mixture prior. These include well-established Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) and variational Bayes (VB) algorithms as well as a novel hybrid of VB and Expectation Propagation (EP). For the case of a single latent factor we derive a theory for learning performance using the replica method. We compare the MCMC and VB/EP algorithm results with simulated data to the theoretical prediction. The results for MCMC agree closely with the theory as expected. Results for VB/EP are slightly sub-optimal but show that the new algorithm is effective for sparse inference. In large-scale problems MCMC is infeasible due to computational limitations and the VB/EP algorithm then provides a very useful computationally efficient alternative.

  14. Contextual Risk Factors for Low Birth Weight: A Multilevel Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kayode, Gbenga A.; Amoakoh-Coleman, Mary; Agyepong, Irene Akua; Ansah, Evelyn; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    Background Low birth weight (LBW) remains to be a leading cause of neonatal death and a major contributor to infant and under-five mortality. Its prevalence has not declined in the last decade in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and Asia. Some individual level factors have been identified as risk factors for LBW but knowledge is limited on contextual risk factors for LBW especially in SSA. Methods Contextual risk factors for LBW in Ghana were identified by performing multivariable multilevel logistic regression analysis of 6,900 mothers dwelling in 412 communities that participated in the 2003 and 2008 Demographic and Health Surveys in Ghana. Results Contextual-level factors were significantly associated with LBW: Being a rural dweller increased the likelihood of having a LBW infant by 43% (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.01–2.01; P-value <0.05) while living in poverty-concentrated communities increased the risk of having a LBW infant twofold (OR 2.16; 95% CI 1.29–3.61; P-value <0.01). In neighbourhoods with a high coverage of safe water supply the odds of having a LBW infant reduced by 28% (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.57–0.96; P-value <0.05). Conclusion This study showed contextual risk factors to have independent effects on the prevalence of LBW infants. Being a rural dweller, living in a community with a high concentration of poverty and a low coverage of safe water supply were found to increase the prevalence of LBW infants. Implementing appropriate community-based intervention programmes will likely reduce the occurrence of LBW infants. PMID:25360709

  15. Carbon Monoxide, A Bibliography With Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Anna Grossman

    Included is a review of the carbon monoxide related literature published from 1880 to 1966. The 983 references with abstracts are grouped into these broad categories: Analysis, Biological Effects, Blood Chemistry, Control, Criteria and Standards, Instruments and Techniques, Sampling and Network Operations, and Sources. The Biological Effects group…

  16. Annual Report: Automatic Informative Abstracting and Extracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earl, L. L.; And Others

    The development of automatic indexing, abstracting, and extracting systems is investigated. Part I describes the development of tools for making syntactic and semantic distinctions of potential use in automatic indexing and extracting. One of these tools is a program for syntactic analysis (i.e., parsing) of English, the other is a dictionary of…

  17. The Use of Exploratory Factor Analysis and Principal Components Analysis in Communication Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hee Sun; Dailey, Rene; Lemus, Daisy

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the distinct purposes of principal components analysis (PCA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA), using two data sets as examples. Reviews the use of each technique in three major communication journals: "Communication Monographs,""Human Communication Research," and "Communication Research." Finds that the use of EFA and PCA indicates…

  18. Analysis of Social Cohesion in Health Data by Factor Analysis Method: The Ghanaian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saeed, Bashiru I. I.; Xicang, Zhao; Musah, A. A. I.; Abdul-Aziz, A. R.; Yawson, Alfred; Karim, Azumah

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the study of the overall social cohesion of Ghanaians. In this study, we considered the paramount interest of the involvement of Ghanaians in their communities, their views of other people and institutions, and their level of interest in both local and national politics. The factor analysis method was employed for analysis using R…

  19. NASA Patent Abstracts bibliography: A continuing bibliography. Section 1: Abstracts (supplement 21) Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts are cited for 87 patents and applications introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system during the period of January 1982 through June 1982. Each entry consists of a citation, an abstract, and in mose cases, a key illustration selected from the patent or patent application.

  20. [Risk Factor Analysis of Pneumonia after Cardiovascular Surgery].

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Yoshiyuki; Abe, Shuichi; Nakamura, Ken; Uchida, Tetsuro; Sadahiro, Mitsuaki; Morikane, Keita

    2016-08-01

    Pneumonia is a major and life-threatening complication after cardiovascular surgery. The objective of our study was to describe epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and risk factors of pneumonia after cardiovascular surgery. From January 2007 to December 2011, 511 consecutive patients (age 67.3±11.9;336 men, 175 women) were enrolled in this study. Pneumonia was diagnosed according to Centers of Disease Control and Prevention surveillance criteria for healthcare associated infection. Data collection included preoperative, intraoperative, and post-operative variables. The overall incidence of pneumonia was 72 cases(14.0%). The mortality in pneumonia group was significantly higher than that in non-pneumonia group (16.6% vs 4.3%, Odds ratio 4.4 p<0.001). Multi-logistic analysis revealed that elderly patient, preoperative congestive heart failure, preoperative hemodialysis, and operation of the thoracic aorta were independent risk factors for pneumonia after cardiovascular surgery. PMID:27476560

  1. Risk factors for rape re-victimisation: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Lurie, S; Boaz, M; Golan, A

    2013-11-01

    Sexual re-victimisation refers to a pattern in which the sexual assault victim has an increased risk of subsequent victimisation relative to an individual who was never victimised. The purpose of our study was to identify risks factors for a second rape, the severest form of sexual re-victimisation. All rape victims treated at the First Regional Israeli Center for Sexual Assault Victims between October 2000 and July 2010 were included in this retrospective analysis. We compared characteristics of 53 rape victims who were victimised twice to those of 1,939 rape victims who were victimised once. We identified several risk factors for a second rape, which can be used in prevention programmes. These are: psychiatric background, history of social services involvement, adulthood, non-virginity and minority ethnicity. PMID:24219731

  2. Confirmatory factor analysis of the revised Personal Style Inventory.

    PubMed

    Bagby, R M; Parker, J D; Joffe, R T; Schuller, D; Gilchrist, E

    1998-03-01

    The revised Personal Style Inventory (PSI) was developed to measure the sociotropy and autonomy personality dimensions; both of these dimensions are thought to confer specific vulnerabilities to the onset, maintenance, and reoccurrence of depression. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the theoretical structure that informed the construction of the PSI. Using a large sample of nonclinical participants (n = 869) and a sample of outpatients with major depression (n = 101), both the items and the subscales of the PSI decomposed into factor structures that were, overall, fair to good representations of the theoretical model. Modifications were needed at the subscale level to achieve an adequate fit for the nonclinical and clinical samples, which provide implications for both the measurement and theory of the PSI and the sociotropy and autonomy domains. PMID:9458340

  3. How protective are respirator assigned protection factors: an uncertainty analysis.

    PubMed

    Nelson, T J; Jayjock, M A; Colton, C E

    2000-01-01

    This investigation evaluated the risk of overexposure for a selected assigned protection factor by performing Monte Carlo simulations. A model was constructed to assess respirator performance by calculating the concentration inside the respirator. Estimates of the factors that affect respirator performance were described as distributions. The distributions used a worst case estimate for concentration in the workplace, the worst case for respirator performance (the fifth percentile person), and the worst case for exhalation valve leakage. A Monte Carlo analysis then provided estimates of the percentage of time that concentration inside the respirator exceeded the occupational exposure limit (OEL). For a half-facepiece respirator with an APF of 10, the calculations indicated a low risk of being exposed above an OEL, with mean exposures being controlled well below an OEL. PMID:10885889

  4. Hierarchical analysis of spatial pattern and processes of Douglas-fir forests. Ph.D. Thesis, 10 Sep. 1991 Abstract Only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradshaw, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    There has been an increased interest in the quantification of pattern in ecological systems over the past years. This interest is motivated by the desire to construct valid models which extend across many scales. Spatial methods must quantify pattern, discriminate types of pattern, and relate hierarchical phenomena across scales. Wavelet analysis is introduced as a method to identify spatial structure in ecological transect data. The main advantage of the wavelet transform over other methods is its ability to preserve and display hierarchical information while allowing for pattern decomposition. Two applications of wavelet analysis are illustrated, as a means to: (1) quantify known spatial patterns in Douglas-fir forests at several scales, and (2) construct spatially-explicit hypotheses regarding pattern generating mechanisms. Application of the wavelet variance, derived from the wavelet transform, is developed for forest ecosystem analysis to obtain additional insight into spatially-explicit data. Specifically, the resolution capabilities of the wavelet variance are compared to the semi-variogram and Fourier power spectra for the description of spatial data using a set of one-dimensional stationary and non-stationary processes. The wavelet cross-covariance function is derived from the wavelet transform and introduced as a alternative method for the analysis of multivariate spatial data of understory vegetation and canopy in Douglas-fir forests of the western Cascades of Oregon.

  5. Physics Metacognition Inventory Part II: Confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Bailey, MarLynn; Farley, John

    2015-11-01

    The Physics Metacognition Inventory was developed to measure physics students' metacognition for problem solving. In one of our earlier studies, an exploratory factor analysis provided evidence of preliminary construct validity, revealing six components of students' metacognition when solving physics problems including knowledge of cognition, planning, monitoring, evaluation, debugging, and information management. The college students' scores on the inventory were found to be reliable and related to students' physics motivation and physics grade. However, the results of the exploratory factor analysis indicated that the questionnaire could be revised to improve its construct validity. The goal of this study was to revise the questionnaire and establish its construct validity through a confirmatory factor analysis. In addition, a Rasch analysis was applied to the data to better understand the psychometric properties of the inventory and to further evaluate the construct validity. Results indicated that the final, revised inventory is a valid, reliable, and efficient tool for assessing student metacognition for physics problem solving.

  6. A Human Factors Analysis of EVA Time Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pate, Dennis W.

    1997-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering (HFE) is a discipline whose goal is to engineer a safer, more efficient interface between humans and machines. HFE makes use of a wide range of tools and techniques to fulfill this goal. One of these tools is known as motion and time study, a technique used to develop time standards for given tasks. During the summer of 1995, a human factors motion and time study was initiated with the goals of developing a database of EVA task times and developing a method of utilizing the database to predict how long an EVA should take. Initial development relied on the EVA activities performed during the STS-61 (Hubble) mission. The first step of the study was to become familiar with EVA's, the previous task-time studies, and documents produced on EVA's. After reviewing these documents, an initial set of task primitives and task-time modifiers was developed. Data was collected from videotaped footage of two entire STS-61 EVA missions and portions of several others, each with two EVA astronauts. Feedback from the analysis of the data was used to further refine the primitives and modifiers used. The project was continued during the summer of 1996, during which data on human errors was also collected and analyzed. Additional data from the STS-71 mission was also collected. Analysis of variance techniques for categorical data was used to determine which factors may affect the primitive times and how much of an effect they have. Probability distributions for the various task were also generated. Further analysis of the modifiers and interactions is planned.

  7. 2011 statistical abstract of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krisanda, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    The Statistical Abstract of the United States, published since 1878, is the authoritative and comprehensive summary of statistics on the social, political, and economic organization of the United States.


    Use the Abstract as a convenient volume for statistical reference, and as a guide to sources of more information both in print and on the Web.


    Sources of data include the Census Bureau, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bureau of Economic Analysis, and many other Federal agencies and private organizations.

  8. Teaching Abstract Concepts by Metaphor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Judith A.

    2001-01-01

    Defines metaphor and its uses; explains the construction and application of metaphors in nursing education. Describes the transformation of the abstract psychiatric concept of therapeutic milieu into a visual metaphor. (SK)

  9. Determining the Number of Factors to Retain in an Exploratory Factor Analysis Using Comparison Data of Known Factorial Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruscio, John; Roche, Brendan

    2012-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is used routinely in the development and validation of assessment instruments. One of the most significant challenges when one is performing EFA is determining how many factors to retain. Parallel analysis (PA) is an effective stopping rule that compares the eigenvalues of randomly generated data with those for…

  10. Factor Structure of the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale for Norwegian School-Age Children Explored with Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drugli, May Britt; Hjemdal, Odin

    2013-01-01

    The validity of the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS) was examined in a national sample of 863 Norwegian schoolchildren in grades 1-7 (aged 6-13). The original factor structure of the STRS was tested by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The CFA results did not support the original three-factor structure of the STRS. Subsequent CFA of the…

  11. Comprehensive analysis of plant rapid alkalization factor (RALF) genes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Arti; Hussain, Adil; Mun, Bong-Gyu; Imran, Qari Muhammad; Falak, Noreen; Lee, Sang-Uk; Kim, Jae Young; Hong, Jeum Kyu; Loake, Gary John; Ali, Asad; Yun, Byung-Wook

    2016-09-01

    Receptor mediated signal carriers play a critical role in the regulation of plant defense and development. Rapid alkalization factor (RALF) proteins potentially comprise important signaling components which may have a key role in plant biology. The RALF gene family contains large number of genes in several plant species, however, only a few RALF genes have been characterized to date. In this study, an extensive database search identified 39, 43, 34 and 18 RALF genes in Arabidopsis, rice, maize and soybean, respectively. These RALF genes were found to be highly conserved across the 4 plant species. A comprehensive analysis including the chromosomal location, gene structure, subcellular location, conserved motifs, protein structure, protein-ligand interaction and promoter analysis was performed. RALF genes from four plant species were divided into 7 groups based on phylogenetic analysis. In silico expression analysis of these genes, using microarray and EST data, revealed that these genes exhibit a variety of expression patterns. Furthermore, RALF genes showed distinct expression patterns of transcript accumulation in vivo following nitrosative and oxidative stresses in Arabidopsis. Predicted interaction between RALF and heme ligand also showed that RALF proteins may contribute towards transporting or scavenging oxygen moieties. This suggests a possible role for RALF genes during changes in cellular redox status. Collectively, our data provides a valuable resource to prime future research in the role of RALF genes in plant growth and development. PMID:27155375

  12. Modeling PCB dechlorination in aquatic sediments by principal component based factor analysis and positive matrix factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, E. R.; Bzdusek, P. A.

    2003-04-01

    Anaerobic PCB dechlorination in aquatic sediments is a naturally occurring process that reduces the dioxin-like PCB toxicity. The PCB biphenyl structure is kept intact but the number of substituted chlorine atoms is reduced, primarily from the para and meta positions. Flanked para and meta chlorine dechlorination, as in process H/H', appears to be more common in-situ than flanked and unflanked para, and meta dechlorination as in process Q. Aroclors that are susceptible to these reactions include 1242, 1248, 1254, and 1260. These dechlorination reactions have recently been modeled by a least squares method for Ashtabula River, Ohio, and Fox River, Wisconsin sediments. Prior to modeling the dechlorination reactions for an ecosystem it is desirable to generate overall PCB source functions. One method to determine source functions is to use loading matrices of a factor analytical model. We have developed such models based both on a principal component approach including nonnegative oblique rotations, and positive matrix factorization (PMF). While the principal component method first requires an eigenvalue analysis of a covariance matrix, the PMF method is based on a direct least squares analysis considering simultaneously the loading and score matrices. Loading matrices obtained from the PMF method are somewhat sensitive to the initial guess of source functions. Preliminary work indicates that a hybrid approach considering first principal components and then PMF may offer an optimum solution. The relationship of PMF to conventional chemical mass balance modeling with or without some prior knowledge of source functions is also discussed.

  13. Risk factors for temporomandibular disorder: Binary logistic regression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Bruno G.; de-Sousa, Stéphanie T.; de Mello, Victor V C.; da-Silva-Barbosa, André C.; de-Assis-Morais, Mariana P L.; Barbosa-Vasconcelos, Márcia M V.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the influence of socioeconomic and demographic factors (gender, economic class, age and marital status) on the occurrence of temporomandibular disorder. Study Design: One hundred individuals from urban areas in the city of Recife (Brazil) registered at Family Health Units was examined using Axis I of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) which addresses myofascial pain and joint problems (disc displacement, arthralgia, osteoarthritis and oesteoarthrosis). The Brazilian Economic Classification Criteria (CCEB) was used for the collection of socioeconomic and demographic data. Then, it was categorized as Class A (high social class), Classes B/C (middle class) and Classes D/E (very poor social class). The results were analyzed using Pearson’s chi-square test for proportions, Fisher’s exact test, nonparametric Mann-Whitney test and Binary logistic regression analysis. Results: None of the participants belonged to Class A, 72% belonged to Classes B/C and 28% belonged to Classes D/E. The multivariate analysis revealed that participants from Classes D/E had a 4.35-fold greater chance of exhibiting myofascial pain and 11.3-fold greater chance of exhibiting joint problems. Conclusions: Poverty is a important condition to exhibit myofascial pain and joint problems. Key words:Temporomandibular joint disorders, risk factors, prevalence. PMID:24316706

  14. Fate of abstracts presented at the 2008 European Congress of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine.

    PubMed

    Allart, E; Beaucamp, F; Tiffreau, V; Thevenon, A

    2015-08-01

    The subsequent full-text publication of abstracts presented at a scientific congress reflects the latter's scientific quality. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the publication rate for abstracts presented at the 2008 European Congress of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ECPRM), characterize the publications and identify factors that were predictive of publication. It is a bibliography search. We used the PubMed database to search for subsequent publication of abstracts. We screened the abstracts' characteristics for features that were predictive of publication among abstracts features, such the status of the authors, the topic and the type of work. We performed univariate analyses and a logistic regression analysis. Of 779 abstracts presented at ECPRM 2008, 169 (21.2%) were subsequently published. The mean time to publication was 12±15.7 months and the mean impact factor of the publishing journals was 2.05±2.1. In a univariate analysis, university status (P<10-6), geographic origin (P=10-3), oral presentation (P<10-6), and original research (P<10-6) (and particularly multicentre trials [P<0.01] and randomized controlled trials [P=10-3]) were predictive of publication. In a logistic regression analysis, oral presentation (odds ratio [OR]=0.37) and university status (OR=0.36) were significant, independent predictors of publication. ECPRM 2008 publication rate and impact factor were relatively low, when compared with most other national and international conferences in this field. University status, the type of abstract and oral presentation were predictive of subsequent publication. PMID:26365260

  15. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hypertension in Myanmar: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Naing, Cho; Aung, Kyan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hypertension (HPT) is the most common condition seen in primary care that can lead to health consequences and death if not detected early and treated appropriately. This study aimed to synthesize the prevalence, awareness, and control of HPT, and investigate the risk factors for HPT in Myanmar. We performed a meta-analysis of observational studies. Relevant studies were searched in electronic databases. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed in 3 domains: selection bias, measurement bias, and bias related to data analysis. The overall prevalence and proportions was calculated using random-effect model of DerSimonian–Laird method. To identify the risk factors for HPT in Myanmar, we entered the ratio measures of the (adjusted) effect as a log odds ratio (OR) and the standard error of the log OR using generic inverse-variance weighting method. For stability of results, we performed leave-one-study-out sensitivity analysis by omitting individual studies one at a time from the meta-analysis. Seven studies (n = 20,901) were included in this analysis. Overall prevalence of HPT in Myanmar was 22% (95% confidence interval (CI): 14%–31.7%, I2: 99.6%), stratified as 21.5% (95% CI: 14.1%–29.9%, I2: 98.7%) in men and 22.7% (95% CI: 10.8%–34.6%, I2: 99.5%) in women. Overall, prevalence of HPT increased with an advancing age of the participants. The proportions of awareness and controlled HPT were 55% (95% CI: 43%–67%, I2: 97.7%) and 11% (95% CI: 6%–15%, I2: 93.8%), respectively. A weak but significant association was observed between HPT and alcohol drinking (summary OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.14%–1.65, I2: 0%) and smoking (summary OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.0%–1.74, I2: 50%). In sensitivity analysis, when a study that made confirmation of HPT by the former World Health Organization criteria was dropped, the prevalence increased to 26% (95% CI: 20.8%–32.1%, I2: 98.1%). HPT was considerably prevalent in Myanmar, while the levels of

  16. Exploratory factor analysis for differentiating sensory and mechanical variables related to muscle-tendon unit elongation

    PubMed Central

    Chagas, Mauro H.; Magalhães, Fabrício A.; Peixoto, Gustavo H. C.; Pereira, Beatriz M.; Andrade, André G. P.; Menzel, Hans-Joachim K.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Stretching exercises are able to promote adaptations in the muscle-tendon unit (MTU), which can be tested through physiological and biomechanical variables. Identifying the key variables in MTU adaptations is crucial to improvements in training. Objective To perform an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) involving the variables often used to evaluate the response of the MTU to stretching exercises. Method Maximum joint range of motion (ROMMAX), ROM at first sensation of stretching (FSTROM), peak torque (torqueMAX), passive stiffness, normalized stiffness, passive energy, and normalized energy were investigated in 36 participants during passive knee extension on an isokinetic dynamometer. Stiffness and energy values were normalized by the muscle cross-sectional area and their passive mode assured by monitoring the EMG activity. Results EFA revealed two major factors that explained 89.68% of the total variance: 53.13% was explained by the variables torqueMAX, passive stiffness, normalized stiffness, passive energy, and normalized energy, whereas the remaining 36.55% was explained by the variables ROMMAX and FSTROM. Conclusion This result supports the literature wherein two main hypotheses (mechanical and sensory theories) have been suggested to describe the adaptations of the MTU to stretching exercises. Contrary to some studies, in the present investigation torqueMAX was significantly correlated with the variables of the mechanical theory rather than those of the sensory theory. Therefore, a new approach was proposed to explain the behavior of the torqueMAX during stretching exercises. PMID:27437715

  17. A systematic review and meta-analysis of risk factors for postherpetic neuralgia

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Harriet J.; Thomas, Sara L.; Smeeth, Liam; Clayton, Tim; Farmer, Ruth; Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Langan, Sinéad M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Patients with herpes zoster can develop persistent pain after rash healing, a complication known as postherpetic neuralgia. By preventing zoster through vaccination, the risk of this common complication is reduced. We searched MEDLINE and Embase for studies assessing risk factors for postherpetic neuralgia, with a view to informing vaccination policy. Nineteen prospective studies were identified. Meta-analysis showed significant increases in the risk of postherpetic neuralgia with clinical features of acute zoster including prodromal pain (summary rate ratio 2.29, 95% confidence interval: 1.42-3.69), severe acute pain (2.23, 1.71-2.92), severe rash (2.63, 1.89-3.66), and ophthalmic involvement (2.51, 1.29-4.86). Older age was significantly associated with postherpetic neuralgia; for individual studies, relative risk estimates per 10-year increase ranged from 1.22 to 3.11. Evidence for differences by gender was conflicting, with considerable between-study heterogeneity. A proportion of studies reported an increased risk of postherpetic neuralgia with severe immunosuppression (studies, n = 3/5) and diabetes mellitus (n = 1/4). Systemic lupus erythematosus, recent trauma, and personality disorder symptoms were associated with postherpetic neuralgia in single studies. No evidence of higher postherpetic neuralgia risk was found with depression (n = 4) or cancer (n = 5). Our review confirms a number of clinical features of acute zoster are risk factors for postherpetic neuralgia. It has also identified a range of possible vaccine-targetable risk factors for postherpetic neuralgia; yet aside from age-associated risks, evidence regarding risk factors to inform zoster vaccination policy is currently limited. PMID:26218719

  18. Modelling Metamorphism by Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Preda, Mila; Giacobazzi, Roberto; Debray, Saumya; Coogan, Kevin; Townsend, Gregg M.

    Metamorphic malware apply semantics-preserving transformations to their own code in order to foil detection systems based on signature matching. In this paper we consider the problem of automatically extract metamorphic signatures from these malware. We introduce a semantics for self-modifying code, later called phase semantics, and prove its correctness by showing that it is an abstract interpretation of the standard trace semantics. Phase semantics precisely models the metamorphic code behavior by providing a set of traces of programs which correspond to the possible evolutions of the metamorphic code during execution. We show that metamorphic signatures can be automatically extracted by abstract interpretation of the phase semantics, and that regular metamorphism can be modelled as finite state automata abstraction of the phase semantics.

  19. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). General information about the current role and activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts. Further information about a division's work may be obtained from the division leader, whose name is given at the end of each divisional summary. The Department's seven divisions are as follows: Nuclear Test Engineering Division, Nuclear Explosives Engineering Division, Weapons Engineering Division, Energy Systems Engineering Division, Engineering Sciences Division, Magnetic Fusion Engineering Division and Materials Fabrication Division.

  20. Meeting Abstracts - Annual Meeting 2016.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    The AMCP Abstracts program provides a forum through which authors can share their insights and outcomes of advanced managed care practice through publication in AMCP's Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy (JMCP). Most of the reviewed and unreviewed abstracts are presented as posters so that interested AMCP meeting attendees can review findings and query authors. The Student/Resident/ Fellow poster presentation (unreviewed) is Wednesday, April 20, 2016, and the Professional poster presentation (reviewed) is Thursday, April 21. The Professional posters will also be displayed on Friday, April 22. The reviewed abstracts are published in the JMCP Meeting Abstracts supplement. The AMCP Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy Annual Meeting 2016 in San Francisco, California, is expected to attract more than 3,500 managed care pharmacists and other health care professionals who manage and evaluate drug therapies, develop and manage networks, and work with medical managers and information specialists to improve the care of all individuals enrolled in managed care programs. Abstracts were submitted in the following categories: Research Report: describe completed original research on managed care pharmacy services or health care interventions. Examples include (but are not limited to) observational studies using administrative claims, reports of the impact of unique benefit design strategies, and analyses of the effects of innovative administrative or clinical programs. Economic Model: describe models that predict the effect of various benefit design or clinical decisions on a population. For example, an economic model could be used to predict the budget impact of a new pharmaceutical product on a health care system. Solving Problems in Managed Care: describe the specific steps taken to introduce a needed change, develop and implement a new system or program, plan and organize an administrative function, or solve other types of problems in managed care settings. These

  1. Abstract communication for coordinated planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Durfee, Edmund H.

    2003-01-01

    work offers evidence that distributed planning agents can greatly reduce communication costs by reasoning at abstract levels. While it is intuitive that improved search can reduce communication in such cases, there are other decisions about how to communicate plan information that greatly affect communication costs. This paper identifies cases independent of search where communicating at multiple levels of abstraction can exponentially decrease costs and where it can exponentially add costs. We conclude with a process for determining appropriate levels of communication based on characteristics of the domain.

  2. Neighborhood effects on an individual's health using neighborhood measurements developed by factor analysis and cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Sheng; Chuang, Ying-Chih

    2009-01-01

    This study suggests a multivariate-structural approach combining factor analysis and cluster analysis that could be used to examine neighborhood effects on an individual's health. Data were from the Taiwan Social Change Survey conducted in 1990, 1995, and 2000. In total, 5,784 women and men aged over 20 years living in 428 neighborhoods were interviewed. Participants' addresses were geocoded with census data for measuring neighborhood-level characteristics. The factor analysis was applied to identify neighborhood dimensions, which were used as entities in the cluster analysis to generate a neighborhood typology. The factor analysis generated three neighborhood dimensions: neighborhood education, age structure, and neighborhood family structure and employment. The cluster analysis generated six types of neighborhoods with combinations of the three neighborhood dimensions. Multilevel binomial regression models were used to assess the effects of neighborhoods on an individual's health. The results showed that the biggest health differences were between two neighborhood types: (1) the highest concentration of inhabitants younger than 15 years, a moderate education level, and a moderate level of single-parent families and (2) the highest educational level, a median level of single-parent families, and a median level of elderly concentrations. Individuals living in the first type had significantly higher chances of having functional limitations and poor self-rated health than the individuals in the second neighborhood type. Our study suggests that the multivariate-structural approach improves neighborhood measurements by addressing neighborhood diversity and examining how an individual's health varies in different neighborhood contexts. PMID:18629650

  3. Accelerated Gibbs Sampling for Infinite Sparse Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Andrzejewski, D M

    2011-09-12

    The Indian Buffet Process (IBP) gives a probabilistic model of sparse binary matrices with an unbounded number of columns. This construct can be used, for example, to model a fixed numer of observed data points (rows) associated with an unknown number of latent features (columns). Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods are often used for IBP inference, and in this technical note, we provide a detailed review of the derivations of collapsed and accelerated Gibbs samplers for the linear-Gaussian infinite latent feature model. We also discuss and explain update equations for hyperparameter resampling in a 'full Bayesian' treatment and present a novel slice sampler capable of extending the accelerated Gibbs sampler to the case of infinite sparse factor analysis by allowing the use of real-valued latent features.

  4. Statistical Analysis of Factors Affecting Child Mortality in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zoya; Kamal, Asifa; Kamal, Asma

    2016-06-01

    Child mortality is a composite indicator reflecting economic, social, environmental, healthcare services, and their delivery situation in a country. Globally, Pakistan has the third highest burden of fetal, maternal, and child mortality. Factors affecting child mortality in Pakistan are investigated by using Binary Logistic Regression Analysis. Region, education of mother, birth order, preceding birth interval (the period between the previous child birth and the index child birth), size of child at birth, and breastfeeding and family size were found to be significantly important with child mortality in Pakistan. Child mortality decreased as level of mother's education, preceding birth interval, size of child at birth, and family size increased. Child mortality was found to be significantly higher in Balochistan as compared to other regions. Child mortality was low for low birth orders. Child survival was significantly higher for children who were breastfed as compared to those who were not. PMID:27354000

  5. Male sexual coercion: analysis of a few associated factors.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Juan Carlos; Gutiérrez-Quintanilla, Ricardo; Bermúdez, María Paz; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess, in a sample of 700 university students ages 18 to 40 years in El Salvador, the importance of sociodemographic variables (age, having a partner, and frequency of religious practice), personality traits (anger, hostility, and aggressiveness), sexual attitudes, and male chauvinist attitudes (erotophilia, double standard, and rape supportive attitudes) in explaining male sexual coercion. All these variables were assessed. Once the effect of social desirability had been controlled, the analysis showed the importance of trait anger along with a favorable attitude toward the use of violence against women, double standard, and negative attitudes toward sexuality in explaining male sexual coercion. Religious involvement, however, may act as a protective factor against such violence. Multidimensional models are needed to explain sexual violence against women by men in heterosexual relationships. PMID:19810434

  6. Bayesian analysis of factors associated with fibromyalgia syndrome subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayawardana, Veroni; Mondal, Sumona; Russek, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    Factors contributing to movement-related fear were assessed by Russek, et al. 2014 for subjects with Fibromyalgia (FM) based on the collected data by a national internet survey of community-based individuals. The study focused on the variables, Activities-Specific Balance Confidence scale (ABC), Primary Care Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder screen (PC-PTSD), Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK), a Joint Hypermobility Syndrome screen (JHS), Vertigo Symptom Scale (VSS-SF), Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD), Pain, work status and physical activity dependent from the "Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire" (FIQR). The study presented in this paper revisits same data with a Bayesian analysis where appropriate priors were introduced for variables selected in the Russek's paper.

  7. Transcription factor motif quality assessment requires systematic comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kibet, Caleb Kipkurui; Machanick, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factor (TF) binding site prediction remains a challenge in gene regulatory research due to degeneracy and potential variability in binding sites in the genome. Dozens of algorithms designed to learn binding models (motifs) have generated many motifs available in research papers with a subset making it to databases like JASPAR, UniPROBE and Transfac. The presence of many versions of motifs from the various databases for a single TF and the lack of a standardized assessment technique makes it difficult for biologists to make an appropriate choice of binding model and for algorithm developers to benchmark, test and improve on their models. In this study, we review and evaluate the approaches in use, highlight differences and demonstrate the difficulty of defining a standardized motif assessment approach. We review scoring functions, motif length, test data and the type of performance metrics used in prior studies as some of the factors that influence the outcome of a motif assessment. We show that the scoring functions and statistics used in motif assessment influence ranking of motifs in a TF-specific manner. We also show that TF binding specificity can vary by source of genomic binding data. We also demonstrate that information content of a motif is not in isolation a measure of motif quality but is influenced by TF binding behaviour. We conclude that there is a need for an easy-to-use tool that presents all available evidence for a comparative analysis. PMID:27092243

  8. Risk analysis of the thermal sterilization process. Analysis of factors affecting the thermal resistance of microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Akterian, S G; Fernandez, P S; Hendrickx, M E; Tobback, P P; Periago, P M; Martinez, A

    1999-03-01

    A risk analysis was applied to experimental heat resistance data. This analysis is an approach for processing experimental thermobacteriological data in order to study the variability of D and z values of target microorganisms depending on the deviations range of environmental factors, to determine the critical factors and to specify their critical tolerance. This analysis is based on sets of sensitivity functions applied to a specific case of experimental data related to the thermoresistance of Clostridium sporogenes and Bacillus stearothermophilus spores. The effect of the following factors was analyzed: the type of target microorganism; nature of the heating substrate; pH, temperature; type of acid employed and NaCl concentration. The type of target microorganism to be inactivated, the nature of the substrate (reference or real food) and the heating temperature were identified as critical factors, determining about 90% of the alteration of the microbiological risk. The effect of the type of acid used for the acidification of products and the concentration of NaCl can be assumed to be negligible factors for the purposes of engineering calculations. The critical non-uniformity in temperature during thermobacteriological studies was set as 0.5% and the critical tolerances of pH value and NaCl concentration were 5%. These results are related to a specific case study, for that reason their direct generalization is not correct. PMID:10357273

  9. Factor Analysis of Drawings: Application to College Student Models of the Greenhouse Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libarkin, Julie C.; Thomas, Stephen R.; Ording, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify models underlying drawings of the greenhouse effect made by over 200 entering university freshmen. Initial content analysis allowed deconstruction of drawings into salient features, with grouping of these features via factor analysis. A resulting 4-factor solution explains 62% of the data variance,…

  10. Physics Metacognition Inventory Part Ii: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Rasch Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Bailey, MarLynn; Farley, John

    2015-01-01

    The Physics Metacognition Inventory was developed to measure physics students' metacognition for problem solving. In one of our earlier studies, an exploratory factor analysis provided evidence of preliminary construct validity, revealing six components of students' metacognition when solving physics problems including knowledge of cognition,…

  11. Abstract Proceedings Signal and Imaging Sciences Workshop CASIS Workshop 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R

    2006-11-07

    These abstracts cover the following topics: (1) Analysis of massive datasets; (2) Nondestructive evaluation; (3) Imaging methodology; (4) NIF optics inspection; (5) Model-based signal processing and estimation; and (6) Image processing and analysis.

  12. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XIX, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The 52 abstracts in these 29 serial issues describe innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Sample topics include a checklist for conference presenters, plan to retain students, faculty home page, improvements in writing instruction, cooperative learning, support for high risk students, competitive colleges and the…

  13. Handedness Shapes Children's Abstract Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casasanto, Daniel; Henetz, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Can children's handedness influence how they represent abstract concepts like "kindness" and "intelligence"? Here we show that from an early age, right-handers associate rightward space more strongly with positive ideas and leftward space with negative ideas, but the opposite is true for left-handers. In one experiment, children indicated where on…

  14. Innovation Abstracts, Volume XX, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The 52 abstracts in these 29 serial issues describe innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Sample topics include reading motivation, barriers to academic success, the learning environment, writing skills, leadership in the criminal justice profession, role-playing strategies, cooperative education, distance…

  15. Abstract Journal Concept Being Examined

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Brendan F.

    1972-01-01

    In order to control the information explosion, some European chemical groups are studying the idea of abandoning full publication in printed form of all primary journals and, in their place, substituting a new form of abstract journal combined with a microfilm record of full scientific papers. (Author/CP)

  16. Metaphoric Images from Abstract Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vizmuller-Zocco, Jana

    1992-01-01

    Discusses children's use of metaphors to create meaning, using as an example the pragmatic and "scientific" ways in which preschool children explain thunder and lightning to themselves. Argues that children are being shortchanged by modern scientific notions of abstractness and that they should be encouraged to create their own explanations of…

  17. Abstract Expressionism. Clip and Save.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on the art movement, Abstract Expressionism, and includes learning activities. Focuses on the artist Jackson Pollock, offering a reproduction of his artwork, "Convergence: Number 10." Includes background information on the life and career of Pollock and a description of the included artwork. (CMK)

  18. ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS 48347-48982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Technology, London (England). Warren Spring Lab.

    IN THIS COLLECTION OF ERGONOMICS ABSTRACTS AND ANNOTATIONS THE FOLLOWING AREAS OF CONCERN ARE REPRESENTED--GENERAL REFERENCES, METHODS, FACILITIES, AND EQUIPMENT RELATING TO ERGONOMICS, SYSTEMS OF MAN AND MACHINES, VISUAL, AUDITORY, AND OTHER SENSORY INPUTS AND PROCESSES (INCLUDING SPEECH AND INTELLIGIBILITY), INPUT CHANNELS, BODY MEASUREMENTS,…

  19. Does "Social Work Abstracts" Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Gary; Barker, Kathleen; Covert-Vail, Lucinda; Rosenberg, Gary; Cohen, Stephanie A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The current study seeks to provide estimates of the adequacy of journal coverage in the Social Work Abstracts (SWA) database. Method: A total of 23 journals listed in the Journal Citation Reports social work category during the 1997 to 2005 period were selected for study. Issue-level coverage estimates were obtained for SWA and…

  20. Manpower Management Studies: Selected Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryerson, William R., Comp.

    This bibliography contains 58 selected abstracts of research reports dating back to 1964 on the general subject of manpower management. It was prepared from a search of the National Technical Information Service data base of more than 300,000 documents submitted by agencies of the Federal Government and also by private organizations or individuals…

  1. The Theatre Audience: An Abstraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Paul Newell

    1981-01-01

    Argues that theater is aimed at and presented to an ideal or abstract audience. Discusses the implications of performing for an actual audience, adaptation to various audiences, and the concept of the audience as an evaluative device. (See CS 705 536.) (JMF)

  2. Chemical Abstracts' Document Delivery Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Stephen

    1984-01-01

    The Document Delivery Service offered by Chemical Abstracts is described in terms of the DIALORDER option on the Dialog information retrieval system, mail requests, and requests transmitted through OCLC's Interlibrary Loan system. Transmission costs, success rates, delivery rates, and other considerations in utilizing the service are included.…

  3. Weightlifter Lumbar Physiology Health Influence Factor Analysis of Sports Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Chinese women's weightlifting project has been in the advanced world level, suggests that the Chinese coaches and athletes have many successful experience in the weight lifting training. Little weight lifting belongs to high-risk sports, however, to the lumbar spine injury, some young good athletes often due to lumbar trauma had to retire, and the national investment and athletes toil is regret things. This article from the perspective of sports medicine, weightlifting athletes training situation analysis and put forward Suggestions, aimed at avoiding lumbar injury, guarantee the health of athletes. In this paper, first of all to 50 professional women's weightlifting athletes doing investigation, found that 82% of the athletes suffer from lumbar disease symptoms, the reason is mainly composed of lumbar strain, intensity is too large, motion error caused by three factors. From the Angle of sports medicine and combined with the characteristics of the structure of human body skeleton athletes lumbar structural mechanics analysis, find out the lumbar force's two biggest technical movement, study, and regulate the action standard, so as to minimize lumbar force, for athletes to contribute to the health of the lumbar spine. PMID:26981162

  4. Application of homomorphic signal processing to stress wave factor analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karagulle, H.; Williams, J. H., Jr.; Lee, S. S.

    1985-01-01

    The stress wave factor (SWF) signal, which is the output of an ultrasonic testing system where the transmitting and receiving transducers are coupled to the same face of the test structure, is analyzed in the frequency domain. The SWF signal generated in an isotropic elastic plate is modelled as the superposition of successive reflections. The reflection which is generated by the stress waves which travel p times as a longitudinal (P) wave and s times as a shear (S) wave through the plate while reflecting back and forth between the bottom and top faces of the plate is designated as the reflection with p, s. Short-time portions of the SWF signal are considered for obtaining spectral information on individual reflections. If the significant reflections are not overlapped, the short-time Fourier analysis is used. A summary of the elevant points of homomorphic signal processing, which is also called cepstrum analysis, is given. Homomorphic signal processing is applied to short-time SWF signals to obtain estimates of the log spectra of individual reflections for cases in which the reflections are overlapped. Two typical SWF signals generated in aluminum plates (overlapping and non-overlapping reflections) are analyzed.

  5. Application of homomorphic signal processing to stress wave factor analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. H., Jr.; Lee, S. S.; Karaguelle, H.

    1985-01-01

    The stress wave factor (SWF) signal, which is the output of an ultrasonic testing system where the transmitting and receiving transducers are coupled to the same face of the test structure, is analyzed in the frequency domain. The SWF signal generated in an isotropic elastic plate is modelled as the superposition of successive reflections. The reflection which is generated by the stress waves which travel P times as a longitudinal (P) wave and s times as a shear (S) wave through the plate while reflecting back and forth between the bottom and top faces of the plate is designated as the reflection with P, s. Short-time portions of the SWF signal are considered for obtaining spectral information on individual reflections. If the significant reflections are not overlapped, the short-time Fourier analysis is used. A summary of the elevant points of homomorphic signal processing, which is also called cepstrum analysis, is given. Homomorphic signal processing is applied to short-time SWF signals to obtain estimates of the log spectra of individual reflections for cases in which the reflections are overlapped. Two typical SWF signals generated in aluminum plates (overlapping and non-overlapping reflections) are analyzed.

  6. 2013 SYR Accepted Poster Abstracts.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    SYR 2013 Accepted Poster abstracts: 1. Benefits of Yoga as a Wellness Practice in a Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care Setting: If You Build It, Will They Come? 2. Yoga-based Psychotherapy Group With Urban Youth Exposed to Trauma. 3. Embodied Health: The Effects of a Mind�Body Course for Medical Students. 4. Interoceptive Awareness and Vegetable Intake After a Yoga and Stress Management Intervention. 5. Yoga Reduces Performance Anxiety in Adolescent Musicians. 6. Designing and Implementing a Therapeutic Yoga Program for Older Women With Knee Osteoarthritis. 7. Yoga and Life Skills Eating Disorder Prevention Among 5th Grade Females: A Controlled Trial. 8. A Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing the Impact of Yoga and Physical Education on the Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Middle School Children. 9. Feasibility of a Multisite, Community based Randomized Study of Yoga and Wellness Education for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy. 10. A Delphi Study for the Development of Protocol Guidelines for Yoga Interventions in Mental Health. 11. Impact Investigation of Breathwalk Daily Practice: Canada�India Collaborative Study. 12. Yoga Improves Distress, Fatigue, and Insomnia in Older Veteran Cancer Survivors: Results of a Pilot Study. 13. Assessment of Kundalini Mantra and Meditation as an Adjunctive Treatment With Mental Health Consumers. 14. Kundalini Yoga Therapy Versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Co-Occurring Mood Disorder. 15. Baseline Differences in Women Versus Men Initiating Yoga Programs to Aid Smoking Cessation: Quitting in Balance Versus QuitStrong. 16. Pranayam Practice: Impact on Focus and Everyday Life of Work and Relationships. 17. Participation in a Tailored Yoga Program is Associated With Improved Physical Health in Persons With Arthritis. 18. Effects of Yoga on Blood Pressure: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 19. A Quasi-experimental Trial of a Yoga based Intervention to Reduce Stress and

  7. Recovery of Weak Factor Loadings When Adding the Mean Structure in Confirmatory Factor Analysis: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Ximénez, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    This article extends previous research on the recovery of weak factor loadings in confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) by exploring the effects of adding the mean structure. This issue has not been examined in previous research. This study is based on the framework of Yung and Bentler (1999) and aims to examine the conditions that affect the recovery of weak factor loadings when the model includes the mean structure, compared to analyzing the covariance structure alone. A simulation study was conducted in which several constraints were defined for one-, two-, and three-factor models. Results show that adding the mean structure improves the recovery of weak factor loadings and reduces the asymptotic variances for the factor loadings, particularly for the models with a smaller number of factors and a small sample size. Therefore, under certain circumstances, modeling the means should be seriously considered for covariance models containing weak factor loadings. PMID:26779071

  8. Validation of the Child Sex Abuse Attitude Scale through Confirmatory Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, F. Felicia

    1999-01-01

    A validation study of the Child Sex Abuse Attitude Scale (CSAAS) used confirmatory factor analysis to examine factor structure. Results from a sample of 215 school psychologists supported the hypothesized factor structure of the CSAAS, indicating the plausibility of a four-factor first-order and a single-factor higher order structure for the…

  9. Scale-Free Nonparametric Factor Analysis: A User-Friendly Introduction with Concrete Heuristic Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    Most researchers using factor analysis extract factors from a matrix of Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients. A method is presented for extracting factors in a non-parametric way, by extracting factors from a matrix of Spearman rho (rank correlation) coefficients. It is possible to factor analyze a matrix of association such that…

  10. An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Differential Ability Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Mardis D.; McIntosh, David E.

    The primary goal of this study was to investigate the underlying structure of the Differential Ability Scales (DAS) using Exploratory Principal Axis Factoring (PAF) with 62 nonclinical preschoolers. While previous factor analyses of the DAS Core subtests revealed the derivation of two distinct factors, the current results revealed only one factor,…

  11. Connections between Graphical Gaussian Models and Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salgueiro, M. Fatima; Smith, Peter W. F.; McDonald, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Connections between graphical Gaussian models and classical single-factor models are obtained by parameterizing the single-factor model as a graphical Gaussian model. Models are represented by independence graphs, and associations between each manifest variable and the latent factor are measured by factor partial correlations. Power calculations…

  12. Effects of Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor on Patients with Liver Failure: a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiao; Yang, Ying; Shi, Yu; Lv, Fangfang; He, Jiliang; Chen, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims: It remains controversial whether granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) prolongs survival in liver failure (LF) patients. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of G-CSF on patients with LF. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases were searched to identify English language randomized controlled trials comparing G-CSF with control therapy published before14 February 2015. A meta-analysis was performed to examine changes in liver function and patient survival. The association was tested using odds ratio (OR) or risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Five randomized controlled trials were eligible for the meta-analysis. Significant amelioration of prothrombin time and total bilirubin in LF patients was attributed to G-CSF therapy (OR, −0.064; 95% CI,−0.481 to 0.353; p< 0.001; and OR, −0.803; 95% CI, −1.177 to −0.430; p = 0.000, respectively). Treatment with G-CSF resulted in improved Model for End-Stage Liver Disease and Child-Turcotte-Pugh scores (OR, −1.741; 95% CI, −2.234 to −1.250; p = 0.000; and OR, −0.830, 95% CI, −1.194 to −0.465; p = 0.000, respectively). A lower incidence of sepsis was found in patients treated with G-CSF (RR, 0.367; 95% CI, 0.158 to 0.854; p = 0.020). G-CSF therapy significantly increased survival rate in LF patients (RR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.517 to 3.338; p = 0.000). Conclusions: The results of this meta-analysis indicate that G-CSF treatment in patients with LF significantly improved liver function, reduced the incidence of sepsis, and prolonged short-term survival. PMID:27350939

  13. One-Carbon Metabolic Factors and Risk of Renal Cell Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Bijing; Li, Yafei; Zhang, Zhimin; Chen, Chuan; Chen, Yuanyuan; Ding, Chenchen; Lei, Lin; Li, Jian; Jiang, Mei; Wang, Dong; Wang, Ge

    2015-01-01

    Background Nutrients related to one-carbon metabolism were previously shown to be significantly associated with the risk of cancer. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate potential relationships between one-carbon metabolic factors and renal cell cancer (RCC) risk. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched through March 2015 for observational studies of quantitative RCC risk estimates in relation to one-carbon metabolic factors. The relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) measured the relationship between one-carbon metabolic factors and RCC risk using a random-effects model. Results Of the 463 citations and abstracts identified by database search, seven cohorts from five observational studies reported data on 133,995 individuals, and included 2,441 RCC cases. Comparing the highest with the lowest category, the pooled RRs of RCC were 0.72 (95%CI: 0.52–1.00; P = 0.048) for vitamin B12. In addition, an increase in folic acid supplementation of 100 μg/day was associated with a 3% lower risk of RCC (RR, 0.97; 95%CI: 0.93–1.00; P = 0.048). Similarly, an increase of 5 nmol/L of vitamin B2 was associated with a reduced risk of RCC 0.94 (95%CI: 0.89–1.00; P = 0.045). Sensitivity analyses suggested that a higher serum vitamin B6 might contribute to a reduced risk of RCC (RR, 0.83; 95%CI: 0.77–0.89; P < 0.001). Conclusions Higher levels of serum vitamin B2, B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation lowered the risk of RCC among the study participants. PMID:26513161

  14. Abstraction of Drift-Scale Coupled Processes

    SciTech Connect

    N.D. Francis; D. Sassani

    2000-03-31

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) describes an abstraction, for the performance assessment total system model, of the near-field host rock water chemistry and gas-phase composition. It also provides an abstracted process model analysis of potentially important differences in the thermal hydrologic (TH) variables used to describe the performance of a geologic repository obtained from models that include fully coupled reactive transport with thermal hydrology and those that include thermal hydrology alone. Specifically, the motivation of the process-level model comparison between fully coupled thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC) and thermal-hydrologic-only (TH-only) is to provide the necessary justification as to why the in-drift thermodynamic environment and the near-field host rock percolation flux, the essential TH variables used to describe the performance of a geologic repository, can be obtained using a TH-only model and applied directly into a TSPA abstraction without recourse to a fully coupled reactive transport model. Abstraction as used in the context of this AMR refers to an extraction of essential data or information from the process-level model. The abstraction analysis reproduces and bounds the results of the underlying detailed process-level model. The primary purpose of this AMR is to abstract the results of the fully-coupled, THC model (CRWMS M&O 2000a) for effects on water and gas-phase composition adjacent to the drift wall (in the near-field host rock). It is assumed that drift wall fracture water and gas compositions may enter the emplacement drift before, during, and after the heating period. The heating period includes both the preclosure, in which the repository drifts are ventilated, and the postclosure periods, with backfill and drip shield emplacement at the time of repository closure. Although the preclosure period (50 years) is included in the process models, the postclosure performance assessment starts at the end of this initial period

  15. First Attempt of Applying Factor Analysis in Moving Base Gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Roman, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    For gravimetric observation systems on mobile platforms (land/sea/airborne), the Low Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) issue is the main barrier to achieving an accurate, high resolution gravity signal. Normally, low-pass filters (Childers et al 1999, Forsberg et al 2000, Kwon and Jekeli 2000, Hwang et al 2006) are applied to smooth or remove the high frequency "noise" - even though some of the high frequency component is not necessarily noise. This is especially true for aerogravity surveys such as those from the Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D) project. These gravity survey flights have a spatial resolution of 10 km between tracks but higher resolution along track. The along track resolution is improved due to the lower flight height (6.1 km), equipment sensitivity, and improved modeling of potential errors. Additionally, these surveys suffer from a loss of signal power due to the increased flight elevation. Hence, application of a low-pass filter removes possible signal sensed in the along-track direction that might otherwise prove useful for various geophysical and geodetic applications. Some cutting-edge developments in Wavelets and Artificial Neural Networks had been successfully applied for obtaining improved results (Li 2008 and 2011, Liang and Liu 2013). However, a clearer and fundamental understanding of the error characteristics will further improve the quality of the gravity estimates out of these gravimetric systems. Here, instead of using any predefined basis function or any a priori model, the idea of Factor Analysis is first employed to try to extract the underlying factors of the noises in the systems. Real data sets collected by both land vehicle and aircraft will be processed as the examples.

  16. FACTOR 9.2: A Comprehensive Program for Fitting Exploratory and Semiconfirmatory Factor Analysis and IRT Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Ferrando, Pere J.

    2013-01-01

    FACTOR 9.2 was developed for three reasons. First, exploratory factor analysis (FA) is still an active field of research although most recent developments have not been incorporated into available programs. Second, there is now renewed interest in semiconfirmatory (SC) solutions as suitable approaches to the complex structures are commonly found…

  17. Factors influencing DOC leaching from terrestrial ecosystems: a database analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camino Serrano, M.; Janssens, I.; Luyssaert, S.; Ciais, P.; Gielen, B.

    2012-04-01

    for DIC, DON and DIN. Moreover, a meta-analysis will be carried out to link spatial and temporal variation in DOC concentration and fluxes to their respective drivers. The findings from this analysis will have two main important applications: firstly, the relationships achieved from this database can shed light on the factors that influence DOC formation and transport processes in the soil, and can therefore help in future design of strategies to mitigate soil organic carbon loss; secondly, the growing dataset will be very useful for the development, improvement and validation of DOC models, allowing to account for lateral DOC fluxes in global carbon models and thus improving the predictions of responses to climate change . Specifically, this database will support the future development of the DOC production module in the global land surface model ORCHIDEE, and will be used to test and validate the selected model structures.

  18. Object Classification via Planar Abstraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oesau, Sven; Lafarge, Florent; Alliez, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    We present a supervised machine learning approach for classification of objects from sampled point data. The main idea consists in first abstracting the input object into planar parts at several scales, then discriminate between the different classes of objects solely through features derived from these planar shapes. Abstracting into planar shapes provides a means to both reduce the computational complexity and improve robustness to defects inherent to the acquisition process. Measuring statistical properties and relationships between planar shapes offers invariance to scale and orientation. A random forest is then used for solving the multiclass classification problem. We demonstrate the potential of our approach on a set of indoor objects from the Princeton shape benchmark and on objects acquired from indoor scenes and compare the performance of our method with other point-based shape descriptors.

  19. Cryogenic foam insulation: Abstracted publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. R.

    1977-01-01

    A group of documents were chosen and abstracted which contain information on the properties of foam materials and on the use of foams as thermal insulation at cryogenic temperatures. The properties include thermal properties, mechanical properties, and compatibility properties with oxygen and other cryogenic fluids. Uses of foams include applications as thermal insulation for spacecraft propellant tanks, and for liquefied natural gas storage tanks and pipelines.

  20. Concrete and abstract Voronoi diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, R. )

    1989-01-01

    The Voronoi diagram of a set of sites is a partition of the plane into regions, one to each site, such that the region of each site contains all points of the plane that are closer to this site than to the other ones. Such partitions are of great importance to computer science and many other fields. The challenge is to compute Voronoi diagrams quickly. The problem is that their structure depends on the notion of distance and the sort of site. In this book the author proposes a unifying approach by introducing abstract Voronoi diagrams. These are based on the concept of bisecting curves which are required to have some simple properties that are actually possessed by most bisectors of concrete Voronoi diagrams. Abstract Voronoi diagrams can be computed efficiently and there exists a worst-case efficient algorithm of divide-and-conquer type that applies to all abstract Voronoi diagrams satisfying a certain constraint. The author shows that this constraint is fulfilled by the concrete diagrams based no large classes of metrics in the plane.

  1. In silico Analysis of Transcription Factor Repertoire and Prediction of Stress Responsive Transcription Factors in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Mochida, Keiichi; Yoshida, Takuhiro; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2009-01-01

    Sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs) are often termed as ‘master regulators’ which bind to DNA and either activate or repress gene transcription. We have computationally analysed the soybean genome sequence data and constructed a proper set of TFs based on the Hidden Markov Model profiles of DNA-binding domain families. Within the soybean genome, we identified 4342 loci encoding 5035 TF models which grouped into 61 families. We constructed a database named SoybeanTFDB (http://soybeantfdb.psc.riken.jp) containing the full compilation of soybean TFs and significant information such as: functional motifs, full-length cDNAs, domain alignments, promoter regions, genomic organization and putative regulatory functions based on annotations of gene ontology (GO) inferred by comparative analysis with Arabidopsis. With particular interest in abiotic stress signalling, we analysed the promoter regions for all of the TF encoding genes as a means to identify abiotic stress responsive cis-elements as well as all types of cis-motifs provided by the PLACE database. SoybeanTFDB enables scientists to easily access cis-element and GO annotations to aid in the prediction of TF function and selection of TFs with functions of interest. This study provides a basic framework and an important user-friendly public information resource which enables analyses of transcriptional regulation in soybean. PMID:19884168

  2. SATURATED ZONE FLOW AND TRANSPORT MODEL ABSTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    B.W. ARNOLD

    2004-10-27

    The purpose of the saturated zone (SZ) flow and transport model abstraction task is to provide radionuclide-transport simulation results for use in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) calculations. This task includes assessment of uncertainty in parameters that pertain to both groundwater flow and radionuclide transport in the models used for this purpose. This model report documents the following: (1) The SZ transport abstraction model, which consists of a set of radionuclide breakthrough curves at the accessible environment for use in the TSPA-LA simulations of radionuclide releases into the biosphere. These radionuclide breakthrough curves contain information on radionuclide-transport times through the SZ. (2) The SZ one-dimensional (I-D) transport model, which is incorporated in the TSPA-LA model to simulate the transport, decay, and ingrowth of radionuclide decay chains in the SZ. (3) The analysis of uncertainty in groundwater-flow and radionuclide-transport input parameters for the SZ transport abstraction model and the SZ 1-D transport model. (4) The analysis of the background concentration of alpha-emitting species in the groundwater of the SZ.

  3. Prognostic Factor Analysis of Intraocular Pressure with Neovascular Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Satoko; Nakamuro, Takako; Yokoyama, Katsuhiko; Kiyosaki, Kunihiro; Kubota, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To perform multivariate analysis for identifying independent predictors of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) with neovascular glaucoma (NVG), including antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) intravitreal injections. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed 142 NVG patients (181 eyes) with ischemic retinal diseases [proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) in 134 eyes, retinal vein occlusion (RVO) in 29, and ocular ischemic syndrome in 18]. We analyzed age, gender, initial/final LogMAR VA, initial/final IOP, extent of iris and/or angle neovascularization, treatments, preexisting complications, concurrent medications, and follow-up duration. Results. The mean follow-up duration was 23.8 ± 18.8 months. At the final follow-up, 125 (72.3%) eyes had IOP ≤ 21 mmHg. NVG patients with RVO had a higher degree of angle closure and higher IOP. NVG with PDR had better IOP and LogMAR VA. Angle closure had the greatest impact on final IOP. Greater than 90% of patients treated with trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (LEC) had persistent declines in IOP (≤21 mmHg). Stand-alone and combination anti-VEGF therapies were not associated with improved long-term prognosis of IOP. Conclusions. Angle closure was found to have the greatest effect on NVG-IOP prognosis. When target IOP values are not obtained after adequate PRP with or without anti-VEGF, early LEC may improve the prognosis of IOP. PMID:27579175

  4. Prognostic Factor Analysis of Intraocular Pressure with Neovascular Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Nakamuro, Takako; Yokoyama, Katsuhiko; Kiyosaki, Kunihiro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To perform multivariate analysis for identifying independent predictors of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) with neovascular glaucoma (NVG), including antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) intravitreal injections. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed 142 NVG patients (181 eyes) with ischemic retinal diseases [proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) in 134 eyes, retinal vein occlusion (RVO) in 29, and ocular ischemic syndrome in 18]. We analyzed age, gender, initial/final LogMAR VA, initial/final IOP, extent of iris and/or angle neovascularization, treatments, preexisting complications, concurrent medications, and follow-up duration. Results. The mean follow-up duration was 23.8 ± 18.8 months. At the final follow-up, 125 (72.3%) eyes had IOP ≤ 21 mmHg. NVG patients with RVO had a higher degree of angle closure and higher IOP. NVG with PDR had better IOP and LogMAR VA. Angle closure had the greatest impact on final IOP. Greater than 90% of patients treated with trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (LEC) had persistent declines in IOP (≤21 mmHg). Stand-alone and combination anti-VEGF therapies were not associated with improved long-term prognosis of IOP. Conclusions. Angle closure was found to have the greatest effect on NVG-IOP prognosis. When target IOP values are not obtained after adequate PRP with or without anti-VEGF, early LEC may improve the prognosis of IOP. PMID:27579175

  5. Prognostic factors of adult metastatic renal carcinoma: a multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    de Forges, A; Rey, A; Klink, M; Ghosn, M; Kramar, A; Droz, J P

    1988-01-01

    In order to define the prognostic factors for metastatic renal carcinoma, we reviewed 134 patients who were treated from 1971 through 1986. Survival rates were 72, 45, and 25% at 6, 12, and 18 months, respectively. Seventeen variables were tested using the logrank test. Improved survival was correlated with normal performance status, and an absence of fever, weight loss, hepatic metastasis, and lung metastasis (or, if lung metastasis was present, less than 2 cm in diameter and limited to one site), a disease-free interval, sedimentation rate less than 100, and renal surgery. Four variables retained significant value in the multivariate analysis: hepatic metastasis, lung metastasis, disease-free interval, and a variable combining the sedimentation rate and the weight loss (SWRL). Predictive survival rates based on these variables were calculated from the Cox model. Six subgroups of patients were identified. The estimation of survival is clinically of value for future phase II trials of chemotherapy in patients with adult metastatic renal carcinoma. PMID:3187293

  6. Rorschach assessment of traumatized refugees: an exploratory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Opaas, Marianne; Hartmann, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Fifty-one multitraumatized mental health patients with refugee backgrounds completed the Rorschach (Meyer & Viglione, 2008), Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, and Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (Mollica, McDonald, Massagli, & Silove, 2004), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF questionnaire (WHOQOL Group, 1998) before the start of treatment. The purpose was to gain more in-depth knowledge of an understudied patient group and to provide a prospective basis for later analyses of treatment outcome. Factor analysis of trauma-related Rorschach variables gave 2 components explaining 60% of the variance; the first was interpreted as trauma-related flooding versus constriction and the second as adequate versus impaired reality testing. Component 1 correlated positively with self-reported reexperiencing symptoms of posttraumatic stress (r = .32, p < .05). Component 2 correlated positively with self-reported quality of life in the physical, psychological, and social relationships domains (r = .34, .32, and .35, p < .05), and negatively with anxiety (r = -.33, p < .05). Each component also correlated significantly with resources like work experience, education, and language skills. PMID:23570250

  7. Application of Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) to electrophysiological data

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, S. Katharina; Hasselbach, Philipp P.; Ebisch, Boris; Klein, Anja; Pipa, Gordon; Galuske, Ralf A. W.

    2015-01-01

    The identification of important features in multi-electrode recordings requires the decomposition of data in order to disclose relevant features and to offer a clear graphical representation. This can be a demanding task. Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC; Hitchcock, 1927; Carrol and Chang, 1970; Harshman, 1970) is a method to decompose multi-dimensional arrays in order to focus on the features of interest, and provides a distinct illustration of the results. We applied PARAFAC to analyse spatio-temporal patterns in the functional connectivity between neurons, as revealed in their spike trains recorded in cat primary visual cortex (area 18). During these recordings we reversibly deactivated feedback connections from higher visual areas in the pMS (posterior middle suprasylvian) cortex in order to study the impact of these top-down signals. Cross correlation was computed for every possible pair of the 16 electrodes in the electrode array. PARAFAC was then used to reveal the effects of time, stimulus, and deactivation condition on the correlation patterns. Our results show that PARAFAC is able to reliably extract changes in correlation strength for different experimental conditions and display the relevant features. Thus, PARAFAC proves to be well-suited for the use in the context of electrophysiological (action potential) recordings. PMID:25688205

  8. Effects of prosodic factors on spectral dynamics. I. Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wouters, Johan; Macon, Michael W.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of prosodic factors on the spectral rate of change of vowel transitions are investigated. Thirty two-syllable English words are placed in carrier phrases and read by a single speaker. Liquid-vowel, diphthong, and vowel-liquid transitions are extracted from different prosodic contexts, corresponding to different levels of stress, pitch accent, word position, and speaking style, following a balanced experimental design. The spectral rate of change in these transitions is measured by fitting linear regression lines to the first three formants and computing the root-mean-square of the slopes. Analysis shows that the spectral rate of change increases with linguistic prominence, i.e., in stressed syllables, in accented words, in sentence-medial words, and in hyperarticulated speech. The results are consistent with a contextual view of vowel reduction, where the extent of reduction depends both on the spectral rate of change and on vowel duration. A numerical model of spectral rate of change is proposed, which can be integrated in a system for concatenative speech synthesis, as discussed in Paper II [J. Wouters and M. Macon, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 111, 428-438 (2002)].

  9. Factor analysis models via I-divergence optimization.

    PubMed

    Finesso, Lorenzo; Spreij, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Given a positive definite covariance matrix [Formula: see text] of dimension n, we approximate it with a covariance of the form [Formula: see text], where H has a prescribed number [Formula: see text] of columns and [Formula: see text] is diagonal. The quality of the approximation is gauged by the I-divergence between the zero mean normal laws with covariances [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], respectively. To determine a pair (H, D) that minimizes the I-divergence we construct, by lifting the minimization into a larger space, an iterative alternating minimization algorithm (AML) à la Csiszár-Tusnády. As it turns out, the proper choice of the enlarged space is crucial for optimization. The convergence of the algorithm is studied, with special attention given to the case where D is singular. The theoretical properties of the AML are compared to those of the popular EM algorithm for exploratory factor analysis. Inspired by the ECME (a Newton-Raphson variation on EM), we develop a similar variant of AML, called ACML, and in a few numerical experiments, we compare the performances of the four algorithms. PMID:26608962

  10. Subwog 12-D tritium technology meeting. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1991-12-31

    The first Subwog 12-D Tritium Technology Meeting was held at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site during the week of May 21, 1990. Subwog 12-D was created as a subwog of JOWOG 12 to address the need to understand tritium applications throughout the entire weapons complex. This includes weapons related concerns, but is primarily intended to cover tritium production and handling, environmental, safety and health issues, compatibility with materials in general; and facility design, commissioning and decommissioning activities. Tritium technology issues discussed included the physical and chemical properties, kinetics, storage, reservoir loading techniques, isotope exchange, radiolysis/aging, process and handling technology, compatibility, purification and filtering, analysis, monitoring methods, function testing, packaging and shipping, environmental and operational safety, facility design and safety, glovebox atmosphere clean-up systems, glovebox/facility decommissioning, tritium production target materials, and tritium recovery. This document provides a collection of most of the unclassified extended abstracts and abstracts presented at Subwog 12-D.

  11. Factor Analysis of the Aftereffects of Drinking in Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Charles G.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Performed factor analyses of 100 alcoholics' reports of the effects that they experience after alcohol consumption. Five factors emerged: Hangover, Euphoria, Flushing, Seizures, and Sleepiness. These factors may be helpful in assessing theories on the etiology of alcoholism and in studies of ethanol's effects on subsets of alcohol abusers. (BH)

  12. Youth Studies Abstracts. Vol. 4 No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youth Studies Abstracts, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains 169 abstracts of documents dealing with youth and educational programs for youth. Included in the volume are 97 abstracts of documents dealing with social and educational developments; 56 abstracts of program reports, reviews, and evaluations; and 16 abstracts of program materials. Abstracts are grouped according to the…

  13. Factor Analysis of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkley, Jason; Nations, Laura; Abramson, Ruth K.; Hall, Alicia; Wright, Harry H.; Gabriels, Robin; Gilbert, John R.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A. O.; Cuccaro, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (varimax and promax rotations) of the aberrant behavior checklist-community version (ABC) in 275 individuals with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) identified four- and five-factor solutions which accounted for greater than 70% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis (Lisrel 8.7) revealed indices of moderate fit for…

  14. Addendum: Factor Analysis of Explanatory Variables in an Achievement Production Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Combining explanatory variables into factors instead of using individual variables in an achievement production function is advocated in several of the articles in this special issue. This article provides a brief overview of factor analysis explaining and illustrating the reasoning for this technique. There is a linchpin: Factor analysis is an…

  15. Bayesian Factor Analysis When Only a Sample Covariance Matrix Is Available

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Kentaro; Arav, Marina

    2006-01-01

    In traditional factor analysis, the variance-covariance matrix or the correlation matrix has often been a form of inputting data. In contrast, in Bayesian factor analysis, the entire data set is typically required to compute the posterior estimates, such as Bayes factor loadings and Bayes unique variances. We propose a simple method for computing…

  16. A Factor Analysis of Learning Data and Selected Ability Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dorothy L.

    1976-01-01

    A verbal concept-learning task permitting the externalizing and quantifying of learning behavior and 16 ability tests were administered to female graduate students. Data were analyzed by alpha factor analysis and incomplete image analysis. Six alpha factors and 12 image factors were extracted and orthogonally rotated. Four areas of cognitive…

  17. Investigating the Construct Validity of the ISLLC 2008 Standards through Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Soundaram; Babo, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses the statistical analysis of the responses from an online survey administered to a sample of US superintendents (n=225) in an attempt to explore and authenticate the construct validity of the ISLLC 2008 Standards through exploratory factor analysis. Using a Principal Axis Factor method, 6 factors were extracted…

  18. Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanchik, Nicholas J.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the concept of the Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL) and its benefits. The OSAL is A small layer of software that allows programs to run on many different operating systems and hardware platforms It runs independent of the underlying OS & hardware and it is self-contained. The benefits of OSAL are that it removes dependencies from any one operating system, promotes portable, reusable flight software. It allows for Core Flight software (FSW) to be built for multiple processors and operating systems. The presentation discusses the functionality, the various OSAL releases, and describes the specifications.

  19. IEEE conference record--Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The following topics were covered in this meeting: basic plasma phenomena and plasma waves; plasma diagnostics; space plasma diagnostics; magnetic fusion; electron, ion and plasma sources; intense electron and ion beams; intense beam microwaves; fast wave M/W devices; microwave plasma interactions; plasma focus; ultrafast Z-pinches; plasma processing; electrical gas discharges; fast opening switches; magnetohydrodynamics; electromagnetic and electrothermal launchers; x-ray lasers; computational plasma science; solid state plasmas and switches; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; vacuum electronics; plasmas for lighting; gaseous electronics; and ball lightning and other spherical plasmas. Separate abstracts were prepared for 278 papers of this conference.

  20. Honors Dissertation Abstracts: A Bounded Qualitative Meta-Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Debra K.; Banning, James H.

    2012-01-01

    A potential source of useful information about undergraduate honors education can be found in doctoral dissertation abstracts that focus on honors. Debra Holman and James Banning of Colorado State University sought to explore this resource by undertaking a bounded qualitative meta-study of such abstracts using document analysis. Three…

  1. The School Counseling Program Implementation Survey: Initial Instrument Development and Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemens, Elysia V.; Carey, John C.; Harrington, Karen M.

    2010-01-01

    This article details the initial development of the School Counseling Program Implementation Survey and psychometric results including reliability and factor structure. An exploratory factor analysis revealed a three-factor model that accounted for 54% of the variance of the intercorrelation matrix and a two-factor model that accounted for 47% of…

  2. Human Factors Considerations in New Nuclear Power Plants: Detailed Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    OHara,J.; Higgins, J.; Brown, W.; Fink, R.

    2008-02-14

    This Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored study has identified human-performance issues in new and advanced nuclear power plants. To identify the issues, current industry developments and trends were evaluated in the areas of reactor technology, instrumentation and control technology, human-system integration technology, and human factors engineering (HFE) methods and tools. The issues were organized into seven high-level HFE topic areas: Role of Personnel and Automation, Staffing and Training, Normal Operations Management, Disturbance and Emergency Management, Maintenance and Change Management, Plant Design and Construction, and HFE Methods and Tools. The issues where then prioritized into four categories using a 'Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table' methodology based on evaluations provided by 14 independent subject matter experts. The subject matter experts were knowledgeable in a variety of disciplines. Vendors, utilities, research organizations and regulators all participated. Twenty issues were categorized into the top priority category. This Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) technical report provides the detailed methodology, issue analysis, and results. A summary of the results of this study can be found in NUREG/CR-6947. The research performed for this project has identified a large number of human-performance issues for new control stations and new nuclear power plant designs. The information gathered in this project can serve as input to the development of a long-term strategy and plan for addressing human performance in these areas through regulatory research. Addressing human-performance issues will provide the technical basis from which regulatory review guidance can be developed to meet these challenges. The availability of this review guidance will help set clear expectations for how the NRC staff will evaluate new designs, reduce regulatory uncertainty, and provide a well-defined path to new nuclear power plant licensing.

  3. Analysis of mitochondrial transcription factor A SNPs in alcoholic cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    TANG, CHUN; LIU, HONGMING; TANG, YONGLIANG; GUO, YONG; LIANG, XIANCHUN; GUO, LIPING; PI, RUXIAN; YANG, JUNTAO

    2014-01-01

    Genetic susceptibility to alcoholic cirrhosis (AC) exists. We previously demonstrated hepatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage in patients with AC compared with chronic alcoholics without cirrhosis. Mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA) is central to mtDNA expression regulation and repair; however, it is unclear whether there are specific mtTFA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in patients with AC and whether they affect mtDNA repair. In the present study, we screened mtTFA SNPs in patients with AC and analyzed their impact on the copy number of mtDNA in AC. A total of 50 patients with AC, 50 alcoholics without AC and 50 normal subjects were enrolled in the study. SNPs of full-length mtTFA were analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with gene sequencing. The hepatic mtTFA mRNA and mtDNA copy numbers were measured using quantitative PCR (qPCR), and mtTFA protein was measured using western blot analysis. A total of 18 mtTFA SNPs specific to patients with AC with frequencies >10% were identified. Two were located in the coding region and 16 were identified in non-coding regions. Conversely, there were five SNPs that were only present in patients with AC and normal subjects and had a frequency >10%. In the AC group, the hepatic mtTFA mRNA and protein levels were significantly lower than those in the other two groups. Moreover, the hepatic mtDNA copy number was significantly lower in the AC group than in the controls and alcoholics without AC. Based on these data, we conclude that AC-specific mtTFA SNPs may be responsible for the observed reductions in mtTFA mRNA, protein levels and mtDNA copy number and they may also increase the susceptibility to AC. PMID:24348767

  4. Source separation in astrophysical maps using independent factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Kuruoğlu, Ercan E; Bedini, Luigi; Paratore, Maria T; Salerno, Emanuele; Tonazzini, Anna

    2003-01-01

    A microwave sky map results from a combination of signals from various astrophysical sources, such as cosmic microwave background radiation, synchrotron radiation and galactic dust radiation. To derive information about these sources, one needs to separate them from the measured maps on different frequency channels. Our insufficient knowledge of the weights to be given to the individual signals at different frequencies makes this a difficult task. Recent work on the problem led to only limited success due to ignoring the noise and to the lack of a suitable statistical model for the sources. In this paper, we derive the statistical distribution of some source realizations, and check the appropriateness of a Gaussian mixture model for them. A source separation technique, namely, independent factor analysis, has been suggested recently in the literature for Gaussian mixture sources in the presence of noise. This technique employs a three layered neural network architecture which allows a simple, hierarchical treatment of the problem. We modify the algorithm proposed in the literature to accommodate for space-varying noise and test its performance on simulated astrophysical maps. We also compare the performances of an expectation-maximization and a simulated annealing learning algorithm in estimating the mixture matrix and the source model parameters. The problem with expectation-maximization is that it does not ensure global optimization, and thus the choice of the starting point is a critical task. Indeed, we did not succeed to reach good solutions for random initializations of the algorithm. Conversely, our experiments with simulated annealing yielded initialization-independent results. The mixing matrix and the means and coefficients in the source model were estimated with a good accuracy while some of the variances of the components in the mixture model were not estimated satisfactorily. PMID:12672442

  5. Clustering, hierarchical organization, and the topography of abstract and concrete nouns.

    PubMed

    Troche, Joshua; Crutch, Sebastian; Reilly, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    The empirical study of language has historically relied heavily upon concrete word stimuli. By definition, concrete words evoke salient perceptual associations that fit well within feature-based, sensorimotor models of word meaning. In contrast, many theorists argue that abstract words are "disembodied" in that their meaning is mediated through language. We investigated word meaning as distributed in multidimensional space using hierarchical cluster analysis. Participants (N = 365) rated target words (n = 400 English nouns) across 12 cognitive dimensions (e.g., polarity, ease of teaching, emotional valence). Factor reduction revealed three latent factors, corresponding roughly to perceptual salience, affective association, and magnitude. We plotted the original 400 words for the three latent factors. Abstract and concrete words showed overlap in their topography but also differentiated themselves in semantic space. This topographic approach to word meaning offers a unique perspective to word concreteness. PMID:24808876

  6. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 172 - Rail Risk Analysis Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rail Risk Analysis Factors D Appendix D to Part... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Pt. 172, App. D Appendix D to Part 172—Rail Risk Analysis Factors A. This... safety and security risk analyses required by § 172.820. The risk analysis to be performed may...

  7. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 172 - Rail Risk Analysis Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rail Risk Analysis Factors D Appendix D to Part... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Pt. 172, App. D Appendix D to Part 172—Rail Risk Analysis Factors A. This... safety and security risk analyses required by § 172.820. The risk analysis to be performed may...

  8. Evaluation of Parallel Analysis Methods for Determining the Number of Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Aaron V.; Green, Samuel B.; Levy, Roy; Lo, Wen-Juo; Scott, Lietta; Svetina, Dubravka; Thompson, Marilyn S.

    2010-01-01

    Population and sample simulation approaches were used to compare the performance of parallel analysis using principal component analysis (PA-PCA) and parallel analysis using principal axis factoring (PA-PAF) to identify the number of underlying factors. Additionally, the accuracies of the mean eigenvalue and the 95th percentile eigenvalue criteria…

  9. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 172 - Rail Risk Analysis Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rail Risk Analysis Factors D Appendix D to Part... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Pt. 172, App. D Appendix D to Part 172—Rail Risk Analysis Factors A. This... safety and security risk analyses required by § 172.820. The risk analysis to be performed may...

  10. An Evaluation of the Effects of Variable Sampling on Component, Image, and Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velicer, Wayne F.; Fava, Joseph L.

    1987-01-01

    Principal component analysis, image component analysis, and maximum likelihood factor analysis were compared to assess the effects of variable sampling. Results with respect to degree of saturation and average number of variables per factor were clear and dramatic. Differential effects on boundary cases and nonconvergence problems were also found.…

  11. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Oral Health Impact Profile.

    PubMed

    John, M T; Feuerstahler, L; Waller, N; Baba, K; Larsson, P; Celebić, A; Kende, D; Rener-Sitar, K; Reissmann, D R

    2014-09-01

    Previous exploratory analyses suggest that the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) consists of four correlated dimensions and that individual differences in OHIP total scores reflect an underlying higher-order factor. The aim of this report is to corroborate these findings in the Dimensions of Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (DOQ) Project, an international study of general population subjects and prosthodontic patients. Using the project's Validation Sample (n = 5022), we conducted confirmatory factor analyses in a sample of 4993 subjects with sufficiently complete data. In particular, we compared the psychometric performance of three models: a unidimensional model, a four-factor model and a bifactor model that included one general factor and four group factors. Using model-fit criteria and factor interpretability as guides, the four-factor model was deemed best in terms of strong item loadings, model fit (RMSEA = 0·05, CFI = 0·99) and interpretability. These results corroborate our previous findings that four highly correlated factors - which we have named Oral Function, Oro-facial Pain, Oro-facial Appearance and Psychosocial Impact - can be reliably extracted from the OHIP item pool. However, the good fit of the unidimensional model and the high interfactor correlations in the four-factor solution suggest that OHRQoL can also be sufficiently described with one score. PMID:24909797

  12. Brief Report: Some Possible Uses Of Factor Analysis In Multivariate Studies.

    PubMed

    Stogdill, R M

    1966-07-01

    Factor analysis is used in item selection in the hopes of producing a small number of factors each of which will represent a unidimensional sub- scale. If item analysis has been successful in producing truly independent subscales, it might be hoped that the number of factors would equal the number of subscales and that each factor would be highly defined by a single subscale. Factor analysis when used in studies of organization, is not assumed to produce factors that represent unidimensional scales. Rather, factor analysis is used to reveal various substructures that exist within an organization. If several variables are loaded on a single factor, the variables can be regarded as nodes of interaction between measured dimensions of organization. PMID:26825604

  13. Entity-Centric Abstraction and Modeling Framework for Transportation Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewe, Jung-Ho; DeLaurentis, Daniel A.; Mavris, Dimitri N.; Schrage, Daniel P.

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive framework for representing transpportation architectures is presented. After discussing a series of preceding perspectives and formulations, the intellectual underpinning of the novel framework using an entity-centric abstraction of transportation is described. The entities include endogenous and exogenous factors and functional expressions are offered that relate these and their evolution. The end result is a Transportation Architecture Field which permits analysis of future concepts under the holistic perspective. A simulation model which stems from the framework is presented and exercised producing results which quantify improvements in air transportation due to advanced aircraft technologies. Finally, a modeling hypothesis and its accompanying criteria are proposed to test further use of the framework for evaluating new transportation solutions.

  14. Identifying General Factors of Intelligence: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Ball Aptitude Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, George A.; Bolin, Aaron U.; Briggs, Thomas E.

    2000-01-01

    Tested J. Gustafsson's second-order factor model of intelligence (1984) through structural equation modeling using the Ball Aptitude Battery (BAB). Results for 1,390 adults and high school seniors indicate that the factor structure of the BAB is consistent with Gustafsson's model. (SLD)

  15. Using Multilevel Factor Analysis with Clustered Data: Investigating the Factor Structure of the Positive Values Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Francis L.; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in multilevel modeling techniques now make it possible to investigate the psychometric properties of instruments using clustered data. Factor models that overlook the clustering effect can lead to underestimated standard errors, incorrect parameter estimates, and model fit indices. In addition, factor structures may differ depending on…

  16. The Self-Report Family Inventory: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, Kristopher M.; Selig, James P.; Trahan, Don P., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers explored the factor structure of the Self-Report Family Inventory with a sample of heterosexual parents who have a son or daughter who self-identifies as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Results suggest that a two-factor solution is appropriate. Research and clinical implications are offered. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)

  17. The Factor Structure of Adolescent Drug Use: A Confirmatory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallmen, Hakan; Wennberg, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A study comparing four models of substance misuse were performed. Alcohol drinking, tobacco use, sniffing of a dissolvent and cannabis use were proposed to depend on one, two, three, or four latent factors. In confirmatory factor analyses the fit of the models were tested against empirical data from a group of adolescent school pupils. The result…

  18. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdnack, James A.; Zhou, Xiaobin; Larrabee, Glenn J.; Millis, Scott R.; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-fourth edition (WAIS-IV) and the Wechsler Memory Scale-fourth edition (WMS-IV) were co-developed to be used individually or as a combined battery of tests. The independent factor structure of each of the tests has been identified; however, the combined factor structure has yet to be determined. Confirmatory…

  19. Knowledge Abstraction in Chinese Chess Endgame Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bo-Nian; Liu, Pangfeng; Hsu, Shun-Chin; Hsu, Tsan-Sheng

    Retrograde analysis is a well known approach to construct endgame databases. However, the size of the endgame databases are too large to be loaded into the main memory of a computer during tournaments. In this paper, a novel knowledge abstraction strategy is proposed to compress endgame databases. The goal is to obtain succinct knowledge for practical endgames. A specialized goal-oriented search method is described and applied on the important endgame KRKNMM. The method of combining a search algorithm with a small size of knowledge is used to handle endgame positions up to a limited depth, but with a high degree of correctness.

  20. Factors influencing contraceptive use among women in Afghanistan: secondary analysis of Afghanistan Health Survey 2012

    PubMed Central

    Osmani, Ahmad Kamran; Reyer, Joshua A.; Osmani, Ahmad Reshad; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The increase in contraceptive use in Afghanistan has been frustratingly slow from 7.0% in 2003 to 11.3% in 2012. Data on contraceptive use and influencing factors were obtained from Afghanistan Health Survey (AHS) 2012, which had been collected through interview-led questionnaire from 13,654 current married women aged 12–49 years. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of contraceptive use were estimated by logistic regression analysis. When adjusted for age, residence, region, education, media, and wealth index, significant OR was obtained for parity (OR of 6 or more children relative to 1 child was 3.45, and the 95%CI 2.54–4.69), number of living sons (OR of 5 or more sons relative to no son was 2.48, and the 95%CI 1.86–3.29), wealth index (OR of the richest households relative to the poorest households was 2.14, and the 95%CI 1.72–2.67), antenatal care attendance (OR relative to no attendance was 2.13, and the 95%CI 1.74–2.62), education (OR of secondary education or above relative to no education was 1.62, and the 95%CI 1.26–2.08), media exposure (OR of at least some exposure to electronic media relative to no exposure was 1.15, and the 95%CI 1.01–1.30), and child mortality experience (OR was 0.88, and the 95%CI 0.77–0.99), as well as age, residence (rural/urban), and region. This secondary analysis based on AHS 2012 showed the findings similar to those from the previous studies in other developing countries. Although the unique situation in Afghanistan should be considered to promote contraceptive use, the background may be common among the areas with low contraceptive use. PMID:26663934

  1. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery of the LADIS study: a longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Moleiro, Carla; Madureira, Sofia; Verdelho, Ana; Ferro, José M; Poggesi, Anna; Chabriat, Hugues; Erkinjuntti, Timo; Fazekas, Franz; Hennerici, Michael; O'Brien, John; Pantoni, Leonardo; Salvadori, Emilia; Scheltens, Philip; Visser, Marieke C; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Waldemar, Gunhild; Wallin, Anders; Inzitari, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    Age-related white matter changes have been associated with cognitive functioning, even though their role is not fully understood. This work aimed to test a 3-factor model of the neuropsychological assessment battery and evaluate how the model fit the data longitudinally. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to investigate the dimensions of a structured set of neuropsychological tests administered to a multicenter, international sample of independent older adults (LADIS study). Six hundred and thirty-eight older adults completed baseline neuropsychological, clinical, functional and motor assessments, which were repeated each year for a 3-year follow-up. CFA provided support for a 3-factor model. These factors involve the dimensions of executive functions, memory functions, and speed and motor control abilities. Performance decreased in most neuropsychological measures. Results showed that executive functioning, memory and speed of motor abilities are valid latent variables of neuropsychological performance among older adults, and that this structure is relatively consistent longitudinally, even though performance decreases with time. PMID:23398381

  2. Abstract Expression Grammar Symbolic Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korns, Michael F.

    This chapter examines the use of Abstract Expression Grammars to perform the entire Symbolic Regression process without the use of Genetic Programming per se. The techniques explored produce a symbolic regression engine which has absolutely no bloat, which allows total user control of the search space and output formulas, which is faster, and more accurate than the engines produced in our previous papers using Genetic Programming. The genome is an all vector structure with four chromosomes plus additional epigenetic and constraint vectors, allowing total user control of the search space and the final output formulas. A combination of specialized compiler techniques, genetic algorithms, particle swarm, aged layered populations, plus discrete and continuous differential evolution are used to produce an improved symbolic regression sytem. Nine base test cases, from the literature, are used to test the improvement in speed and accuracy. The improved results indicate that these techniques move us a big step closer toward future industrial strength symbolic regression systems.

  3. Toward Millimagnitude Photometric Calibration (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dose, E.

    2014-12-01

    (Abstract only) Asteroid roation, exoplanet transits, and similar measurements will increasingly call for photometric precisions better than about 10 millimagnitudes, often between nights and ideally between distant observers. The present work applies detailed spectral simulations to test popular photometric calibration practices, and to test new extensions of these practices. Using 107 synthetic spectra of stars of diverse colors, detailed atmospheric transmission spectra computed by solar-energy software, realistic spectra of popular astronomy gear, and the option of three sources of noise added at realistic millimagnitude levels, we find that certain adjustments to current calibration practices can help remove small systematic errors, especially for imperfect filters, high airmasses, and possibly passing thin cirrus clouds.

  4. Experience with abstract notation one

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, James D.; Weaver, Alfred C.

    1990-01-01

    The development of computer science has produced a vast number of machine architectures, programming languages, and compiler technologies. The cross product of these three characteristics defines the spectrum of previous and present data representation methodologies. With regard to computer networks, the uniqueness of these methodologies presents an obstacle when disparate host environments are to be interconnected. Interoperability within a heterogeneous network relies upon the establishment of data representation commonality. The International Standards Organization (ISO) is currently developing the abstract syntax notation one standard (ASN.1) and the basic encoding rules standard (BER) that collectively address this problem. When used within the presentation layer of the open systems interconnection reference model, these two standards provide the data representation commonality required to facilitate interoperability. The details of a compiler that was built to automate the use of ASN.1 and BER are described. From this experience, insights into both standards are given and potential problems relating to this development effort are discussed.

  5. Abstraction Planning in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washington, Richard

    1994-01-01

    When a planning agent works in a complex, real-world domain, it is unable to plan for and store all possible contingencies and problem situations ahead of time. The agent needs to be able to fall back on an ability to construct plans at run time under time constraints. This thesis presents a method for planning at run time that incrementally builds up plans at multiple levels of abstraction. The plans are continually updated by information from the world, allowing the planner to adjust its plan to a changing world during the planning process. All the information is represented over intervals of time, allowing the planner to reason about durations, deadlines, and delays within its plan. In addition to the method, the thesis presents a formal model of the planning process and uses the model to investigate planning strategies. The method has been implemented, and experiments have been run to validate the overall approach and the theoretical model.

  6. Abstraction Planning in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washington, R.

    1994-01-01

    When a planning agent works in a complex, real-world domain, it is unable to plan for and store all possible contingencies and problem situations ahead of time. This thesis presents a method for planning a run time that incrementally builds up plans at multiple levels of abstraction. The plans are continually updated by information from the world, allowing the planner to adjust its plan to a changing world during the planning process. All the information is represented over intervals of time, allowing the planner to reason about durations, deadlines, and delays within its plan. In addition to the method, the thesis presents a formal model of the planning process and uses the model to investigate planning strategies.

  7. Modelling abstraction licensing strategies ahead of the UK's water abstraction licensing reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaar, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    current EFI method, as well as allowing alternative licensing scenarios (e.g. using alternative flow statistics, flow periods and ASB bands) to be tested. Initial analysis suggests that the model is a useful tool in visualising licensing options ahead of the licensing reform.Table 1: Percentage allowable abstraction from natural flows at different abstraction sensitivity bands (ASB), as allowed under the EFI method; Table 2: Current framework used to determine flows which support GES as part of the EU WFD;

  8. Nouns, verbs, objects, actions, and abstractions: Local fMRI activity indexes semantics, not lexical categories

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, Rachel L.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    Noun/verb dissociations in the literature defy interpretation due to the confound between lexical category and semantic meaning; nouns and verbs typically describe concrete objects and actions. Abstract words, pertaining to neither, are a critical test case: dissociations along lexical-grammatical lines would support models purporting lexical category as the principle governing brain organisation, whilst semantic models predict dissociation between concrete words but not abstract items. During fMRI scanning, participants read orthogonalised word categories of nouns and verbs, with or without concrete, sensorimotor meaning. Analysis of inferior frontal/insula, precentral and central areas revealed an interaction between lexical class and semantic factors with clear category differences between concrete nouns and verbs but not abstract ones. Though the brain stores the combinatorial and lexical-grammatical properties of words, our data show that topographical differences in brain activation, especially in the motor system and inferior frontal cortex, are driven by semantics and not by lexical class. PMID:24727103

  9. The factor structure of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder symptoms among bereaved individuals: a confirmatory factor analysis study.

    PubMed

    Boelen, Paul A; van den Hout, Marcel A; van den Bout, Jan

    2008-12-01

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is defined in DSM-IV as an anxiety disorder that encompasses symptom-clusters of reexperiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal. Several studies have examined the factor structure of PTSD symptoms. To our knowledge, no studies have yet examined the factor structure of loss-related PTSD symptoms in samples exclusively comprised of bereaved individuals. Such an examination is important because it can advance our understanding of the stability of the structure of PTSD symptoms across groups confronted with different aversive life-events and of processes underlying the occurrence of PTSD symptoms after loss. In this study, five alternative models of the factor structure of PTSD symptoms were examined in a sample of 347 mourners. Results showed that, in this group, PTSD symptoms are best conceptualized as forming four factors: reexperiencing, avoidance, dysphoria, and hyperarousal. Patterns of correlations with depression and complicated grief supported the validity of the model. PMID:18342486

  10. Application of Factor Analysis on the Financial Ratios of Indian Cement Industry and Validation of the Results by Cluster Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, Anupam; Bandyopadhyay, Gautam; Chakraborty, B. N.

    2010-10-01

    Financial ratio analysis is an important and commonly used tool in analyzing financial health of a firm. Quite a large number of financial ratios, which can be categorized in different groups, are used for this analysis. However, to reduce number of ratios to be used for financial analysis and regrouping them into different groups on basis of empirical evidence, Factor Analysis technique is being used successfully by different researches during the last three decades. In this study Factor Analysis has been applied over audited financial data of Indian cement companies for a period of 10 years. The sample companies are listed on the Stock Exchange India (BSE and NSE). Factor Analysis, conducted over 44 variables (financial ratios) grouped in 7 categories, resulted in 11 underlying categories (factors). Each factor is named in an appropriate manner considering the factor loads and constituent variables (ratios). Representative ratios are identified for each such factor. To validate the results of Factor Analysis and to reach final conclusion regarding the representative ratios, Cluster Analysis had been performed.

  11. Geochemistry Model Abstraction and Sensitivity Studies for the 21 PWR CSNF Waste Package

    SciTech Connect

    P. Bernot; S. LeStrange; E. Thomas; K. Zarrabi; S. Arthur

    2002-10-29

    The CSNF geochemistry model abstraction, as directed by the TWP (BSC 2002b), was developed to provide regression analysis of EQ6 cases to obtain abstracted values of pH (and in some cases HCO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration) for use in the Configuration Generator Model. The pH of the system is the controlling factor over U mineralization, CSNF degradation rate, and HCO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration in solution. The abstraction encompasses a large variety of combinations for the degradation rates of materials. The ''base case'' used EQ6 simulations looking at differing steel/alloy corrosion rates, drip rates, and percent fuel exposure. Other values such as the pH/HCO{sub 3}{sup -} dependent fuel corrosion rate and the corrosion rate of A516 were kept constant. Relationships were developed for pH as a function of these differing rates to be used in the calculation of total C and subsequently, the fuel rate. An additional refinement to the abstraction was the addition of abstracted pH values for cases where there was limited O{sub 2} for waste package corrosion and a flushing fluid other than J-13, which has been used in all EQ6 calculation up to this point. These abstractions also used EQ6 simulations with varying combinations of corrosion rates of materials to abstract the pH (and HCO{sub 3}{sup -} in the case of the limiting O{sub 2} cases) as a function of WP materials corrosion rates. The goodness of fit for most of the abstracted values was above an R{sup 2} of 0.9. Those below this value occurred during the time at the very beginning of WP corrosion when large variations in the system pH are observed. However, the significance of F-statistic for all the abstractions showed that the variable relationships are significant. For the abstraction, an analysis of the minerals that may form the ''sludge'' in the waste package was also presented. This analysis indicates that a number a different iron and aluminum minerals may form in the waste package other than those

  12. ANALYSIS OF ARACHIDONIC ACID METABOLITE AND PLATELET ACTIVATING FACTOR PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metabolites of arachidonic acid ("eicosanoids") and platelet activating factor are important bioactive lipids that may be involved in the pathobiological alterations in animals induced by pollutant exposure. nalysis of these substances in biological tissue and fluids is important...

  13. Analysis of the effect of meteorological factors on dewfall.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Huijie; Meissner, Ralph; Seeger, Juliane; Rupp, Holger; Borg, Heinz; Zhang, Yuqing

    2013-05-01

    To get an insight into when dewfall will occur and how much to expect we carried out extensive calculations with the energy balance equation for a crop surface to 1) identify the meteorological factors which determine dewfall, 2) establish the relationship between dewfall and each of them, and 3) analyse how these relationships are influenced by changes in these factors. The meteorological factors which determine dewfall were found to be air temperature (T(a)), cloud cover (N), wind speed (u), soil heat flux (G), and relative humidity (h(r)). Net radiation is also a relevant factor. We did not consider it explicitly, but indirectly through the effect of temperature on the night-time radiation balance. The temperature of the surface (T(s)) where dew forms on is also important. However, it is not a meteorological factor, but determined by the aforementioned parameters. All other conditions being equal our study revealed that dewfall increases linearly with decreasing N or G, and with increasing h(r). The effect of T(a) and u on dewfall is non-linear: dewfall initially increases with increasing T(a) or u, and then decreases. All five meteorological factors can lead to variations in dewfall between 0 and 25 W m(-2) over the range of their values we studied. The magnitude of the variation due to one factor depends on the value of the others. Dewfall is highest at N=0, G=0, and h(r)=1. Ta at which dewfall is highest depends on u and vice versa. The change in dewfall for a unit change in N, G or h(r) is not affected by the value of N, G or h(r), but increases as T(a) or u increase. The change in dewfall for a unit change in Ta or u depends on the value of the other four meteorological factors. PMID:23538108

  14. TMFA: A FORTRAN Program for Three-Mode Factor Analysis and Individual Differences Multidimensional Scaling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redfield, Joel

    1978-01-01

    TMFA, a FORTRAN program for three-mode factor analysis and individual-differences multidimensional scaling, is described. Program features include a variety of input options, extensive preprocessing of input data, and several alternative methods of analysis. (Author)

  15. Experimental Analysis of a Paternally Inherited Extrachromosomal Factor

    PubMed Central

    Werren, John H.; van den Assem, Johannes

    1986-01-01

    Virtually all known cases of extrachromosomal inheritance involve cytoplasmic inheritance through the maternal line. Recently, a paternally transmitted factor that causes the production of all-male families has been discovered in a parasitic wasp. The wasp has haplodiploid sex determination: male offspring are haploid and usually develop from unfertilized eggs, whereas females are diploid and usually develop from fertilized eggs. It has been postulated that this paternal sex-ratio factor (psr) is either (1) an infectious agent (a venereal disease) that is transmitted to the female reproductive tract during copulation with an infected male and, subsequently, causes all-male families or (2) a male cytoplasmic factor that is transmitted by sperm to eggs upon egg fertilization and, somehow, causes loss of the paternal set of chromosomes.—Experimental evidence is presented which shows that the factor requires egg fertilization for transmission to the next generation; therefore, it is likely to be a cytoplasmic factor. Significant potential intragenomic conflict results from the presence of this factor and two other sex-ratio distorters in this wasp species. PMID:17246344

  16. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    E. Thomas

    2004-11-09

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model that uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model that is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed waste packages that contain both high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor that diffuses into the waste package, and (2) seepage water that enters the waste package from the drift as a liquid. (1) Vapor Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Water Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package. TSPA-LA uses the vapor influx case for the nominal scenario for simulations where the waste package has been

  17. Old and New Ideas for Data Screening and Assumption Testing for Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Flora, David B.; LaBrish, Cathy; Chalmers, R. Philip

    2011-01-01

    We provide a basic review of the data screening and assumption testing issues relevant to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis along with practical advice for conducting analyses that are sensitive to these concerns. Historically, factor analysis was developed for explaining the relationships among many continuous test scores, which led to the expression of the common factor model as a multivariate linear regression model with observed, continuous variables serving as dependent variables, and unobserved factors as the independent, explanatory variables. Thus, we begin our paper with a review of the assumptions for the common factor model and data screening issues as they pertain to the factor analysis of continuous observed variables. In particular, we describe how principles from regression diagnostics also apply to factor analysis. Next, because modern applications of factor analysis frequently involve the analysis of the individual items from a single test or questionnaire, an important focus of this paper is the factor analysis of items. Although the traditional linear factor model is well-suited to the analysis of continuously distributed variables, commonly used item types, including Likert-type items, almost always produce dichotomous or ordered categorical variables. We describe how relationships among such items are often not well described by product-moment correlations, which has clear ramifications for the traditional linear factor analysis. An alternative, non-linear factor analysis using polychoric correlations has become more readily available to applied researchers and thus more popular. Consequently, we also review the assumptions and data-screening issues involved in this method. Throughout the paper, we demonstrate these procedures using an historic data set of nine cognitive ability variables. PMID:22403561

  18. Analysis of read length limiting factors in Pyrosequencing chemistry.

    PubMed

    Mashayekhi, Foad; Ronaghi, Mostafa

    2007-04-15

    Pyrosequencing is a bioluminometric DNA sequencing technique that measures the release of pyrophosphate during DNA synthesis. The amount of pyrophosphate is proportionally converted into visible light by a cascade of enzymatic reactions. Pyrosequencing has heretofore been used for generating short sequence reads (1-100 nucleotides) because certain factors limit the system's ability to perform longer reads accurately. In this study, we have characterized the main read length limiting factors in both three-enzyme and four-enzyme Pyrosequencing systems. A new simulation model was developed to simulate the read length of both systems based on the inhibitory factors in the chemical equations governing each enzymatic cascade. Our results indicate that nonsynchronized extension limits the obtained read length, albeit to a different extent for each system. In the four-enzyme system, nonsynchronized extension due mainly to a decrease in apyrase's efficiency in degrading excess nucleotides proves to be the main limiting factor of read length. Replacing apyrase with a washing step for removal of excess nucleotide proves to be essential in improving the read length of Pyrosequencing. The main limiting factor of the three-enzyme system is shown to be loss of DNA fragments during the washing step. If this loss is minimized to 0.1% per washing cycle, the read length of Pyrosequencing would be well beyond 300 bases. PMID:17343818

  19. Analysis of Read-Length Limiting Factors in Pyrosequencing Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Mashayekhi, Foad; Ronaghi, Mostafa

    2007-01-01

    Pyrosequencing is a bioluminometric DNA sequencing technique that measures the release of pyrophosphate during DNA synthesis. The amount of pyrophosphate is proportionally converted into visible light by a cascade of enzymatic reactions. Pyrosequencing has thus far been used for generating short sequence reads (1-100 nucleotides), as certain factors limit the system’s ability to accurately perform longer reads. In this study, we have characterized the main read-length limiting factors in both three-enzyme and four-enzyme Pyrosequencing systems. A new simulation model was developed to simulate the read-length of both systems, based on the inhibitory factors in the chemical equations governing each enzymatic cascade. Our results indicate that non-synchronized extension limits the obtained read-length; however, to a different extent for each system. In four-enzyme system, non-synchronized extension due mainly to a decrease in apyrase’s efficiency in degrading excess nucleotides proves to be the main limiting factor of read-length. Replacing apyrase with a washing step for removal of excess nucleotide proves essential in improving the read-length of Pyrosequencing. The main limiting factor of the three-enzyme system is shown to be loss of DNA fragments during the washing step. If this loss is minimized to 0.1% per washing cycle, the read-length of Pyrosequencing would be well beyond 300 bases. PMID:17343818

  20. Analysis of genetics and risk factors of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Panpalli Ates, M; Karaman, Y; Guntekin, S; Ergun, M A

    2016-06-14

    Alzheimer's Disease is the leading neurodegenerative cause of dementia. The pathogenesis is not clearly understood yet, is believed to be the complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Consequently vascular risk factors and Apolipoprotein E genotyping are increasingly gaining importance. This study aimed at assessing the relationships between Alzheimer's Disease and Apolipoprotein E phenotype and vascular risk factors. Patients diagnosed with "possible Alzheimer's Disease" in the Gazi University, Department of Neurology, were included in the study and age-matched volunteer patients who attended the polyclinic were included as a control group. In this study, the risk factors including low education level, smoking, hyperlipidemia, higher serum total cholesterol levels, and hyperhomocysteinemia were found to be statistically significantly more common in the Alzheimer's Disease group in comparison to the Control Group, while all Apolipoprotein E ε4/ε4 genotypes were found in the Alzheimer's Disease group. The presence of the Apolipoprotein E ε4 allele is believed to increase vascular risk factors as well as to affect Alzheimer's Disease directly. The biological indicators which are used in identifying the patients' genes will be probably used in the treatment plan of the patients in the future. PMID:27026590

  1. An abstract approach to music.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

    1999-04-19

    In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The motivation for this approach uses traditional terms and concepts of music theory, but the approach itself is formal and uses the language of mathematics. The universal object is an audio wave; partials, sounds, and compositions are special objects, which are placed in a hierarchical order based on time scales. The objects have both static and dynamic attributes. When we realize a composition, we assign values to each of its attributes: a (scalar) value to a static attribute, an envelope and a size to a dynamic attribute. A composition is then a trajectory in the space of aural events, and the complex audio wave is its formal representation. Sounds are fibers in the space of aural events, from which the composer weaves the trajectory of a composition. Each sound object in turn is made up of partials, which are the elementary building blocks of any music composition. The partials evolve on the fastest time scale in the hierarchy of partials, sounds, and compositions. The ideas outlined in this article are being implemented in a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis and in software for music composition. A demonstration of some preliminary results has been submitted by the authors for presentation at the conference.

  2. Ozone Conference II: Abstract Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    Ozone Conference II: Pre- and Post-Harvest Applications Two Years After Gras, was held September 27-28, 1999 in Tulare, California. This conference, sponsored by EPRI's Agricultural Technology Alliance and Southern California Edison's AgTAC facility, was coordinated and organized by the on-site ATA-AgTAC Regional Center. Approximately 175 people attended the day-and-a-half conference at AgTAC. During the Conference twenty-two presentations were given on ozone food processing and agricultural applications. Included in the presentations were topics on: (1) Ozone fumigation; (2) Ozone generation techniques; (3) System and design applications; (4) Prewater treatment requirements; (5) Poultry water reuse; (6) Soil treatments with ozone gas; and (7) Post-harvest aqueous and gaseous ozone research results. A live videoconference between Tulare and Washington, D.C. was held to discuss the regulators' view from inside the beltway. Attendees participated in two Roundtable Question and Answer sessions and visited fifteen exhibits and demonstrations. The attendees included university and governmental researchers, regulators, consultants and industry experts, technology developers and providers, and corporate and individual end-users. This report is comprised of the Abstracts of each presentation, biographical sketches for each speaker and a registration/attendees list.

  3. Attracting Girls into Physics (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadalla, Afaf

    2009-04-01

    A recent international study of women in physics showed that enrollment in physics and science is declining for both males and females and that women are severely underrepresented in careers requiring a strong physics background. The gender gap begins early in the pipeline, from the first grade. Girls are treated differently than boys at home and in society in ways that often hinder their chances for success. They have fewer freedoms, are discouraged from accessing resources or being adventurous, have far less exposure to problem solving, and are not encouraged to choose their lives. In order to motivate more girl students to study physics in the Assiut governorate of Egypt, the Assiut Alliance for the Women and Assiut Education District collaborated in renovating the education of physics in middle and secondary school classrooms. A program that helps in increasing the number of girls in science and physics has been designed in which informal groupings are organized at middle and secondary schools to involve girls in the training and experiences needed to attract and encourage girls to learn physics. During implementation of the program at some schools, girls, because they had not been trained in problem-solving as boys, appeared not to be as facile in abstracting the ideas of physics, and that was the primary reason for girls dropping out of science and physics. This could be overcome by holding a topical physics and technology summer school under the supervision of the Assiut Alliance for the Women.

  4. The neural representation of abstract words: the role of emotion.

    PubMed

    Vigliocco, Gabriella; Kousta, Stavroula-Thaleia; Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Vinson, David P; Tettamanti, Marco; Devlin, Joseph T; Cappa, Stefano F

    2014-07-01

    It is generally assumed that abstract concepts are linguistically coded, in line with imaging evidence of greater engagement of the left perisylvian language network for abstract than concrete words (Binder JR, Desai RH, Graves WW, Conant LL. 2009. Where is the semantic system? A critical review and meta-analysis of 120 functional neuroimaging studies. Cerebral Cortex. 19:2767-2796; Wang J, Conder JA, Blitzer DN, Shinkareva SV. 2010. Neural representation of abstract and concrete concepts: A meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies. Hum Brain Map. 31:1459-1468). Recent behavioral work, which used tighter matching of items than previous studies, however, suggests that abstract concepts also entail affective processing to a greater extent than concrete concepts (Kousta S-T, Vigliocco G, Vinson DP, Andrews M, Del Campo E. The representation of abstract words: Why emotion matters. J Exp Psychol Gen. 140:14-34). Here we report a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment that shows greater engagement of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex, an area associated with emotion processing (e.g., Etkin A, Egner T, Peraza DM, Kandel ER, Hirsch J. 2006. Resolving emotional conflict: A role for the rostral anterior cingulate cortex in modulating activity in the amygdala. Neuron. 52:871), in abstract processing. For abstract words, activation in this area was modulated by the hedonic valence (degree of positive or negative affective association) of our items. A correlation analysis of more than 1,400 English words further showed that abstract words, in general, receive higher ratings for affective associations (both valence and arousal) than concrete words, supporting the view that engagement of emotional processing is generally required for processing abstract words. We argue that these results support embodiment views of semantic representation, according to which, whereas concrete concepts are grounded in our sensory-motor experience, affective experience is crucial in the

  5. Phasor Analysis of Binary Diffraction Gratings with Different Fill Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Antonio; Sanchez-Lopez, Ma del Mar; Moreno, Ignacio

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we present a simple analysis of binary diffraction gratings with different slit widths relative to the grating period. The analysis is based on a simple phasor technique directly derived from the Huygens principle. By introducing a slit phasor and a grating phasor, the intensity of the diffracted orders and the grating's resolving…

  6. Factors affecting maternal healthcare utilization in Afghanistan: secondary analysis of Afghanistan Health Survey 2012

    PubMed Central

    Shahram, Muhammad Shuaib; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Reyer, Joshua A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study, a secondary analysis of data from Afghanistan Health Survey 2012, aimed to identify factors affecting maternal healthcare utilization in Afghanistan. Subjects were 5,662 women aged 15–49 years who had had one delivery in the two years preceding the survey. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated by logistic regression analysis. The study found that 54.0% of mothers used antenatal care (ANC) at least one time, and 47.4% of births were assisted by skilled birth attendants (SBA). Adjusted OR of ANC use was 2.74 (95% CI, 2.08–3.60) for urban residency, 1.69 (95% CI, 1.26–2.27) for primary education relative to no education, 3.94 (95% CI, 3.51–4.42) for knowledge on danger signs of pregnancy, and 1.78 (95% CI, 1.47–2.15) for television and radio relative to no exposure. Adjusted OR of SBA utilization was 3.71 (95% CI, 2.65–5.18) for urban residency, 0.67 (95% CI, 0.48–0.91) for age <20 years relative to age 34–49 years, 1.43 (95% CI, 1.03–1.97) for secondary and higher education relative to no education, 1.83 (95% CI, 1.47–2.27) for para 1 relative to para ≥5, 6.66 (95% CI, 5.43–8.15) for ≥4 ANC visits relative to no visit, 1.37 (95% CI, 1.21–1.57) for knowledge of danger signs of pregnancy, 1.62 (95% CI, 1.38–1.90) for radio relative to no exposure, and 2.71 (95% CI, 2.25–3.27) for rich households relative to poor ones. Since women's education and knowledge about danger signs of pregnancy were significant factors of both ANC and SBA, educating women may be an effective step in promoting safe maternal health. PMID:26663938

  7. Factors affecting uptake and adherence to breast cancer chemoprevention: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, S. G.; Sestak, I.; Forster, A.; Partridge, A.; Side, L.; Wolf, M. S.; Horne, R.; Wardle, J.; Cuzick, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Preventive therapy is a risk reduction option for women who have an increased risk of breast cancer. The effectiveness of preventive therapy to reduce breast cancer incidence depends on adequate levels of uptake and adherence to therapy. We aimed to systematically review articles reporting uptake and adherence to therapeutic agents to prevent breast cancer among women at increased risk, and identify the psychological, clinical and demographic factors affecting these outcomes. Design Searches were carried out in PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE and PsychInfo, yielding 3851 unique articles. Title, abstract and full text screening left 53 articles, and a further 4 studies were identified from reference lists, giving a total of 57. This review was prospectively registered with PROSPERO (CRD42014014957). Results Twenty-four articles reporting 26 studies of uptake in 21 423 women were included in a meta-analysis. The pooled uptake estimate was 16.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) 13.6–19.0], with high heterogeneity (I2 = 98.9%, P < 0.001). Uptake was unaffected by study location or agent, but was significantly higher in trials [25.2% (95% CI 18.3–32.2)] than in non-trial settings [8.7% (95% CI 6.8–10.9)] (P < 0.001). Factors associated with higher uptake included having an abnormal biopsy, a physician recommendation, higher objective risk, fewer side-effect or trial concerns, and older age. Adherence (day-to-day use or persistence) over the first year was adequate. However, only one study reported a persistence of ≥80% by 5 years. Factors associated with lower adherence included allocation to tamoxifen (versus placebo or raloxifene), depression, smoking and older age. Risk of breast cancer was discussed in all qualitative studies. Conclusion Uptake of therapeutic agents for the prevention of breast cancer is low, and long-term persistence is often insufficient for women to experience the full preventive effect. Uptake is higher in trials, suggesting further work

  8. Analysis of factors associated with traffic injury severity on rural roads in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli Kashani, Ali; Shariat-Mohaymany, Afshin; Ranjbari, Andishe

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Iran is a country with one of the highest rates of traffic crash fatality and injury, and seventy percent of these fatalities happen on rural roads. The objective of this study is to identify the significant factors influencing injury severity among drivers involved in crashes on two kinds of major rural roads in Iran: two-lane, two-way roads and freeways. Methods: According to the dataset, 213569 drivers were involved in rural road crashes in Iran, over the 3 years from 2006 to 2008. The Classification And Regression Tree method (CART) was applied for 13 independent variables, and one target variable of injury severity with 3 classes of no-injury, injury and fatality. Some of the independent variables were cause of crash, collision type, weather conditions, road surface conditions, driver's age and gender and seat belt usage. The CART model was trained by 70% of these data, and tested with the rest. Results: It was indicated that seat belt use is the most important safety factor for two-lane, two-way rural roads, but on freeways, the importance of this variable is less. Cause of crash, also turned out to be the next most important variable. The results showed that for two-lane, two-way rural roads, "improper overtaking" and "speeding", and for rural freeways, "inattention to traffic ahead", "vehicle defect", and "movement of pedestrians, livestock and unauthorized vehicles on freeways" are the most serious causes of increasing injury severity. Conclusions: The analysis results revealed seat belt use, cause of crash and collision type as the most important variables influencing the injury severity of traffic crashes. To deal with these problems, intensifying police enforcement by means of mobile patrol vehicles, constructing overtaking lanes where necessary, and prohibiting the crossing of pedestrians and livestock and the driving of unauthorized vehicles on freeways are necessary. Moreover, creating a rumble strip on the two edges of roads

  9. Latent Factor Structure of the Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis in a Chinese Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Ci-ping; Liu, Ming; Wei, Wei; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Das, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to measure the psychometric properties of the Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System (D-N CAS) and to determine its clinical utility in a Chinese context. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine the construct validity of the Chinese version of the D-N CAS among a group of 567, normally developed children.…

  10. Rotation Criteria and Hypothesis Testing for Exploratory Factor Analysis: Implications for Factor Pattern Loadings and Interfactor Correlations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Thomas A.; Sass, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) has long been used in the social sciences to depict the relationships between variables/items and latent traits. Researchers face many choices when using EFA, including the choice of rotation criterion, which can be difficult given that few research articles have discussed and/or demonstrated their differences.…

  11. A holistic approach combining factor analysis, positive matrix factorization, and chemical mass balance applied to receptor modeling.

    PubMed

    Selvaraju, N; Pushpavanam, S; Anu, N

    2013-12-01

    Rapid urbanization and population growth resulted in severe deterioration of air quality in most of the major cities in India. Therefore, it is essential to ascertain the contribution of various sources of air pollution to enable us to determine effective control policies. The present work focuses on the holistic approach of combining factor analysis (FA), positive matrix factorization (PMF), and chemical mass balance (CMB) for receptor modeling in order to identify the sources and their contributions in air quality studies. Insight from the emission inventory was used to remove subjectivity in source identification. Each approach has its own limitations. Factor analysis can identify qualitatively a minimal set of important factors which can account for the variations in the measured data. This step uses information from emission inventory to qualitatively match source profiles with factor loadings. This signifies the identification of dominant sources through factors. PMF gives source profiles and source contributions from the entire receptor data matrix. The data from FA is applied for rank reduction in PMF. Whenever multiple solutions exist, emission inventory identifies source profiles uniquely, so that they have a physical relevance. CMB identifies the source contributions obtained from FA and PMF. The novel approach proposed here overcomes the limitations of the individual methods in a synergistic way. The adopted methodology is found valid for a synthetic data and also the data of field study. PMID:23832184

  12. Analysis of Korean Students' International Mobility by 2-D Model: Driving Force Factor and Directional Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Elisa L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the dynamics of Korean students' international mobility to study abroad by using the 2-D Model. The first D, "the driving force factor," explains how and what components of the dissatisfaction with domestic higher education perceived by Korean students drives students' outward mobility to seek foreign…

  13. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo Approach to Confirmatory Item Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    Item factor analysis has a rich tradition in both the structural equation modeling and item response theory frameworks. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate a novel combination of various Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) estimation routines to estimate parameters of a wide variety of confirmatory item factor analysis models. Further, I show…

  14. Alcohol Involvement and the Five-Factor Model of Personality: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malouff, John M.; Thorsteinsson, Einar B.; Rooke, Sally E.; Schutte, Nicola S.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to quantify the relationship between the Five-Factor Model of personality and alcohol involvement and to identify moderators of the relationship. The meta-analysis included 20 studies, 119 effect sizes, and 7,886 participants. Possible moderators examined included: five-factor rating type (self vs. other);…

  15. A Use of Confirmatory Factor Analysis in the Evaluation of Intelligence Testing Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattie, John; Fitzgerald, Don

    Four alternative theoretical models of intellectual competence were assessed, using confirmatory factor analysis to account for the correlation patterns derived from Wechsler intelligence tests. It was argued that the difference between the chi-square goodness of fit statistics that are provided when using confirmatory factor analysis gives a…

  16. A Primer on Bootstrap Factor Analysis as Applied to Health Studies Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Wenhua; Miao, Jingang; McKyer, E. Lisako J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To demonstrate how the bootstrap method could be conducted in exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with a syntax written in SPSS. Methods: The data obtained from the Texas Childhood Obesity Prevention Policy Evaluation project (T-COPPE project) were used for illustration. A 5-step procedure to conduct bootstrap factor analysis (BFA) was…

  17. Simulating the Effects of Common and Specific Abilities on Test Performance: An Evaluation of Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Dennis J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Factor analysis is a useful technique to aid in organizing multivariate data characterizing speech, language, and auditory abilities. However, knowledge of the limitations of factor analysis is essential for proper interpretation of results. The present study used simulated test scores to illustrate some characteristics of factor…

  18. Factor Analysis and Validity Study of the Law School Admission Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Alfred B.

    A factor analysis of the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) battery was undertaken to gain a better understanding of the specific abilities which contribute to performance on the tests. To determine whether greater amounts of testing time should be allocated to groups of items defined by the factor analysis, a validity study was conducted. Existing…

  19. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Metacognition Scale for Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildiz, Eylem; Akpinar, Ercan; Tatar, Nilgun; Ergin, Omer

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the Metacognition Scale (MS) which is designed for primary school students. The sample of the study consisted of 426 primary school students in Izmir, Turkey. In order to examine the construct validity of the MS, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were performed. For the validity of…

  20. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 172 - Rail Risk Analysis Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rail Risk Analysis Factors D Appendix D to Part... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Pt. 172, App. D Appendix D to Part 172—Rail Risk Analysis Factors A. This...) and (d), a route may include the point where the carrier takes possession of the material and...

  1. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 172 - Rail Risk Analysis Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rail Risk Analysis Factors D Appendix D to Part... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Pt. 172, App. D Appendix D to Part 172—Rail Risk Analysis Factors A. This...) and (d), a route may include the point where the carrier takes possession of the material and...

  2. Spatial Dependence and Heterogeneity in Bayesian Factor Analysis: A Cross-National Investigation of Schwartz Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stakhovych, Stanislav; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Wedel, Michel

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present a Bayesian spatial factor analysis model. We extend previous work on confirmatory factor analysis by including geographically distributed latent variables and accounting for heterogeneity and spatial autocorrelation. The simulation study shows excellent recovery of the model parameters and demonstrates the consequences…

  3. LONG-TERM STABILITY OF FOOD PATTERNS IDENTIFIED BY USE OF FACTOR ANALYSIS AMONG SWEDISH WOMEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited data exist on the reproducibility of food patterns measured using factor analysis, as well as the stability of patterns over time. Our primary objective was to explore the long-term stability of food patterns derived using confirmatory factor analysis among 33,840 women participating in the...

  4. Factors Predictive of Mathematics Achievement in Kindergarten, First and Third Grades: An Opportunity-Propensity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, James P.; Wasik, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    A secondary analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Sample (N = 17,401) was conducted to determine the factors that are most strongly associated with math achievement during kindergarten, first grade, and third grade. Factors from the following three categories were considered: antecedent factors (e.g., family…

  5. CONGR: A FORTRAN IV Program to Compute Coefficients of Congruence for Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Donald E.

    1976-01-01

    A Fortran IV program which computes either of the coefficients of congruence (psi or phi) used in comparison of factors in factor analysis is presented. Output consists of a non-symmetric matrix of factor coefficients. Listings of the program, results and test data are available. (Author/JKS)

  6. Ultrasound-enhanced bioscouring of greige cotton: regression analysis of process factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Process factors of enzyme concentration, time, power and frequency were investigated for ultrasound-enhanced bioscouring of greige cotton. A fractional factorial experimental design and subsequent regression analysis of the process factors were employed to determine the significance of each factor a...

  7. A Comparison of Distribution Free and Non-Distribution Free Factor Analysis Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Nicola L.

    2012-01-01

    Many researchers recognize that factor analysis can be conducted on both correlation matrices and variance-covariance matrices. Although most researchers extract factors from non-distribution free or parametric methods, researchers can also extract factors from distribution free or non-parametric methods. The nature of the data dictates the method…

  8. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Academic Motivation Scale with Black College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokley, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The factor structure of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) was examined with a sample of 578 Black college students. A confirmatory factor analysis of the AMS was conducted. Results indicated that the hypothesized seven-factor model did not fit the data. Implications for future research with the AMS are discussed.

  9. The School Counselor Leadership Survey: Instrument Development and Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anita; Bryan, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure of the School Counselor Leadership Survey (SCLS). Survey development was a threefold process that resulted in a 39-item survey of 801 school counselors and school counselor supervisors. The exploratory factor analysis indicated a five-factor structure that revealed five key dimensions of school counselor…

  10. Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Concurrent Validity of the Perceived Social Support-Family Measure among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windle, Michael; Miller-Tutzauer, Carol

    1992-01-01

    Confirmatory, simultaneous group factor analysis supported three-factor structure of Perceived Social Support-Family measure for adolescents (n=975). Factors of Support Received, Support Provided, and Family Intimacy were significantly correlated with adolescent ratings of maternal and paternal support and inversely correlated with primary…

  11. The Columbia Impairment Scale: Factor Analysis Using a Community Mental Health Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Jonathan B.; Eack, Shaun M.; Greeno, Catherine M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to test the factor structure of the parent version of the Columbia Impairment Scale (CIS) in a sample of mothers who brought their children for community mental health (CMH) services (n = 280). Method: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test the fit of the hypothesized four-factor structure…

  12. Multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis of a Scale Measuring Interagency Collaboration of Children's Mental Health Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dedrick, Robert F.; Greenbaum, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    Multilevel confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate the factor structure underlying the 12-item, three-factor "Interagency Collaboration Activities Scale" (ICAS) at the informant level and at the agency level. Results from 378 professionals (104 administrators, 201 service providers, and 73 case managers) from 32 children's mental health…

  13. Understanding Older Adults' Perceptions of Internet Use: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Robert; Spears, Jeffrey; Luptak, Marilyn; Wilby, Frances

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined factors related to older adults' perceptions of Internet use. Three hundred ninety five older adults participated in the study. The factor analysis revealed four factors perceived by older adults as critical to their Internet use: social connection, self-efficacy, the need to seek financial information, and the need to…

  14. Measuring Teacher Attitudes toward Instructional Technology: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the TAC and TAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shattuck, Dominick; Corbell, Kristen A.; Osbourne, Jason W.; Knezek, Gerald; Christensen, Rhonda; Grable, Lisa Leonor

    2011-01-01

    In this article the authors present a confirmatory factor analysis of the Teachers' Attitudes Toward Computers (TAC) and the Teachers' Attitudes Toward Information Technology (TAT) scales by Christensen and Knezek (1996, 1998) using large samples from three states. The TAC was reduced from 98 items and nine factors to 35 items and eight factors,…

  15. Information technology and ethics: An exploratory factor analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Conger, S.; Loch, K.D.; Helft, B.L.

    1994-12-31

    Ethical dilemmas are situations in which a decision results in unpleasant consequences. The unpleasant consequences are treated as a zero-sum game in which someone always loses. Introducing information technology (IT) to a situation makes the recognition of a potential loser more abstract and difficult to identify, thus an ethical dilemma may go unrecognized. The computer mediates the human relationship which causes a lost sense of contact with a person at the other end of the computer connection. In 1986, Richard O. Mason published an essay identifying privacy, accuracy, property, and Access (PAPA) as the four main ethical issues of the information age. Anecdotes for each issue describe the injured party`s perspective to identify consequences resulting from unethical use of information and information technology. This research sought to validate Mason`s social issues empirically, but with distinct differences. Mason defined issues to raise awareness and initiate debate on the need for a social agenda; our focus is on individual computer users and the attitudes they hold about ethical behavior in computer use. This study examined the attitudes of the computer user who experiences the ethical dilemma to determine the extent to which ethical components are recognized, and whether Mason`s issues form recognizable constructs.

  16. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Geriatric Depression Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Kathryn Betts; Matto, Holly C.; Sanders, Sara

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) is widely used in clinical and research settings to screen older adults for depressive symptoms. Although several exploratory factor analytic structures have been proposed for the scale, no independent confirmation has been made available that would enable investigators to confidently identify scores…

  17. A DEFINITION OF CURIOSITY, A FACTOR ANALYSIS STUDY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MAW, WALLACE H.

    AN INVESTIGATION WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE A DEFINITION OF CURIOSITY THAT WOULD HELP IDENTIFY PERSONALITY PATTERNS OF CHILDREN WHO ARE MOST LIKELY TO BE EITHER HIGH OR LOW IN CURIOSITY. DATA COLLECTED IN EARLIER STUDIES WERE FACTOR ANALYZED TO IDENTIFY THE PERSONAL AND SOCIAL VARIABLES THAT DIFFERENTIATE CHILDREN HIGH IN CURIOSITY FROM THOSE LOW…

  18. Factor Analysis: A Tool for Studying Mathematics Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuliffe, Elizabeth A.; Trueblood, Cecil R.

    Mathematics anxiety and its relationship to other constructs was studied in 138 preservice elementary and special education teachers. The students, primarily women, were enrolled in a variety of professional courses and field experiences. Five instruments were administered, their factor structures were determined, and intercorrelations among the…

  19. Employee Concerns and Counselor Role: A Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazer, Gilbert E.

    A significant step in the direction of improving employee counselor services in an industrial setting is offered. The research combined survey and factor analytic methodology to empirically identify sources of employee concerns or stress and to measure the tendency of employees to use counseling services in connection with these problem areas. The…

  20. Job Satisfaction: Factor Analysis of Greek Primary School Principals' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiti, Anna; Fassoulis, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that affect the level of job satisfaction that school principals experience and, based on the findings, to suggest policies or techniques for improving it. Design/methodology/approach: Questionnaires were administered to 180 primary school heads in 13 prefectures--one from each of…

  1. Analysis on Influence Factors of Adaptive Filter Acting on ANC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiuqun; Zou, Liang; Ni, Guangkui; Wang, Xiaojun; Han, Tao; Zhao, Quanfu

    The noise problem has become more and more serious in recent years. The adaptive filter theory which is applied in ANC [1] (active noise control) has also attracted more and more attention. In this article, the basic principle and algorithm of adaptive theory are both researched. And then the influence factor that affects its covergence rate and noise reduction is also simulated.

  2. Factors Affecting Online Groupwork Interest: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Jianxia; Xu, Jianzhong; Fan, Xitao

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the personal and contextual factors that may affect students' online groupwork interest. Using the data obtained from graduate students in an online course, both student- and group-level predictors for online groupwork interest were analyzed within the framework of hierarchical linear modeling…

  3. Sexual Opinion Survey: An Exploratory Factor Analysis with Helping Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Zachary D.; Gutierrez, Daniel; Lambie, Glenn W.

    2015-01-01

    Counselors and marriage and family therapists work with individuals, couples, and families on issues related to sexuality. However, clinicians may be underserving their clients by "not" having adequate training and preparation to work with clients with these presenting issues. One mitigating factor in the treatment of sexual problems is…

  4. Factor Analysis of the Bem Sex-Role Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudreau, Patrice

    1977-01-01

    The Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI), which conceptualizes masculinity and femininity as two independent dimensions rather than using the traditional notion of a single bipolar dimension, was factor analyzed. BSRI scores from 253 male and female industrial workers, 36 police officers, and 36 nonworking housewives were analyzed. (Author)

  5. Factors which influence the analysis and design of ejector nozzles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. H.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the viscous interaction between the primary and secondary streams of ejector nozzles was developed. The analysis accounts for real sonic-line effects and the streamwise variation in stream mixing and boundary layer within the ejector. The aspects of the analysis are explained and illustrated by applying the theory to a variety of ejector configurations including cylindrical shroud, contoured flap and plug nozzles. Extensive comparisons are made between theory and data to show the importance of various analytical assumptions and such design variables as diameter ratio, spacing ratio, total temperature ratio, and primary nozzle geometry.

  6. Factors which influence the analysis and design of ejector nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. H.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the viscous interaction between the primary and secondary streams of ejector nozzles was developed. The analysis accounts for real sonic line effects and the streamwise variation in stream mixing and boundary layer within the ejector. The aspects of the analysis are explained and illustrated by applying the theory to a variety of ejector configurations including cylindrical shroud, contoured flap and plug nozzles. Extensive comparisons are made between theory and data to show the importance of various analytical assumptions and such design variables as diameter ratio, spacing ratio, total temperature ratio, and primary nozzle geometry.

  7. An Analysis of Critical Factors for Quantitative Immunoblotting

    PubMed Central

    Janes, Kevin A.

    2015-01-01

    Immunoblotting (also known as Western blotting) combined with digital image analysis can be a reliable method for analyzing the abundance of proteins and protein modifications, but not every immunoblot-analysis combination produces an accurate result. Here, I illustrate how sample preparation, protocol implementation, detection scheme, and normalization approach profoundly affect the quantitative performance of immunoblotting. This study implemented diagnostic experiments that assess an immunoblot-analysis workflow for accuracy and precision. The results showed that ignoring such diagnostics can lead to pseudoquantitative immunoblot data that dramatically overestimate or underestimate true differences in protein abundance. PMID:25852189

  8. Latent factor structure of the Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System: a confirmatory factor analysis in a Chinese setting.

    PubMed

    Deng, Ci-ping; Liu, Ming; Wei, Wei; Chan, Raymond C K; Das, J P

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to measure the psychometric properties of the Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System (D-N CAS) and to determine its clinical utility in a Chinese context. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine the construct validity of the Chinese version of the D-N CAS among a group of 567, normally developed children. Test-retest reliability was examined in a random subsample of 30 children at a five-week interval. The clinical discrimination of the D-N CAS was also examined by comparing children with and without ADHD (18 children in each group) and by comparing children with and without Chinese reading disabilities (18 children in each group). The current Chinese sample demonstrated a four-factor solution for cognitive performance among children with normal development: Planning, Attention, Simultaneous processing and Successive processing (χ2(48)=91.90, p=.000; χ2/df=1.92, RMSEA=.050, GFI=.966, CFI=.954). Moreover, all subtests of the battery demonstrated acceptable test-retest reliability (r=.72-.90, p<.01) at a five-week interval among the subjects of the small subsample. Children with ADHD performed significantly worse than normal children on the Attention factor (p<.001) and the Planning factor (p<.05) of the D-N CAS, and children with Chinese reading disabilities performed significantly worse than normal children on the Simultaneous processing factor (p<.01), the Successive processing factor (p<.001) and the Planning factor (p<.05) of the D-N CAS. These findings suggested that the current four-factor structure of the D-N CAS was similar to the original factor structure of the test. The latent factor of the D-N CAS was fairly stable across the cultures. Moreover, the D-N CAS can distinguish between children with ADHD or Chinese reading disabilities and normally developed children. PMID:21571501

  9. Factors Influencing Progressive Failure Analysis Predictions for Laminated Composite Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Progressive failure material modeling methods used for structural analysis including failure initiation and material degradation are presented. Different failure initiation criteria and material degradation models are described that define progressive failure formulations. These progressive failure formulations are implemented in a user-defined material model for use with a nonlinear finite element analysis tool. The failure initiation criteria include the maximum stress criteria, maximum strain criteria, the Tsai-Wu failure polynomial, and the Hashin criteria. The material degradation model is based on the ply-discounting approach where the local material constitutive coefficients are degraded. Applications and extensions of the progressive failure analysis material model address two-dimensional plate and shell finite elements and three-dimensional solid finite elements. Implementation details are described in the present paper. Parametric studies for laminated composite structures are discussed to illustrate the features of the progressive failure modeling methods that have been implemented and to demonstrate their influence on progressive failure analysis predictions.

  10. Abstraction and reformulation in artificial intelligence.

    PubMed Central

    Holte, Robert C.; Choueiry, Berthe Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper contributes in two ways to the aims of this special issue on abstraction. The first is to show that there are compelling reasons motivating the use of abstraction in the purely computational realm of artificial intelligence. The second is to contribute to the overall discussion of the nature of abstraction by providing examples of the abstraction processes currently used in artificial intelligence. Although each type of abstraction is specific to a somewhat narrow context, it is hoped that collectively they illustrate the richness and variety of abstraction in its fullest sense. PMID:12903653

  11. Annotating user-defined abstractions for optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, D; Schordan, M; Vuduc, R; Yi, Q

    2005-12-05

    This paper discusses the features of an annotation language that we believe to be essential for optimizing user-defined abstractions. These features should capture semantics of function, data, and object-oriented abstractions, express abstraction equivalence (e.g., a class represents an array abstraction), and permit extension of traditional compiler optimizations to user-defined abstractions. Our future work will include developing a comprehensive annotation language for describing the semantics of general object-oriented abstractions, as well as automatically verifying and inferring the annotated semantics.

  12. Bayesian non-negative factor analysis for reconstructing transcription factor mediated regulatory networks

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Transcriptional regulation by transcription factor (TF) controls the time and abundance of mRNA transcription. Due to the limitation of current proteomics technologies, large scale measurements of protein level activities of TFs is usually infeasible, making computational reconstruction of transcriptional regulatory network a difficult task. Results We proposed here a novel Bayesian non-negative factor model for TF mediated regulatory networks. Particularly, the non-negative TF activities and sample clustering effect are modeled as the factors from a Dirichlet process mixture of rectified Gaussian distributions, and the sparse regulatory coefficients are modeled as the loadings from a sparse distribution that constrains its sparsity using knowledge from database; meantime, a Gibbs sampling solution was developed to infer the underlying network structure and the unknown TF activities simultaneously. The developed approach has been applied to simulated system and breast cancer gene expression data. Result shows that, the proposed method was able to systematically uncover TF mediated transcriptional regulatory network structure, the regulatory coefficients, the TF protein level activities and the sample clustering effect. The regulation target prediction result is highly coordinated with the prior knowledge, and sample clustering result shows superior performance over previous molecular based clustering method. Conclusions The results demonstrated the validity and effectiveness of the proposed approach in reconstructing transcriptional networks mediated by TFs through simulated systems and real data. PMID:22166063

  13. Harmonic Resonance Analysis for PEP II Power Factor Control Upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corvin, C.

    1997-05-01

    Recent upgrades to the high voltage utility distribution network at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center have been accompanied by the installation of a large number of power supplies associated with the PEP-II B Factory project. These power supplies include a diverse assortment of single and three phase units, in two, six and twelve pulse configurations, with chopped, pulsed and continuous loading. Viewed as harmonic power sources in a range from a hundred to several kilohertz, they have the potential to be in resonance with the utility system network, a condition to be avoided. This paper analyzes and evaluates these resonance conditions with a view toward adding electric power factor correction upgrades to achieve substantial cost savings associated with power factor penalty avoidance. Similar studies and upgrades at SLAC in the past have reduced electric power costs over time by several hundred thousand dollars, thus providing the incentive to evaluate the recent upgrades to the PEP-II utility network.

  14. Factors Influencing Renewable Energy Production & Supply - A Global Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Anika; Saqlawi, Juman Al

    2016-04-01

    Renewable energy is one of the key technologies through which the energy needs of the future can be met in a sustainable and carbon-neutral manner. Increasing the share of renewable energy in the total energy mix of each country is therefore a critical need. While different countries have approached this in different ways, there are some common aspects which influence the pace and effectiveness of renewable energy incorporation. This presentation looks at data and information from 34 selected countries, analyses the patterns, compares the different parameters and identifies the common factors which positively influence renewable energy incorporation. The most successful countries are analysed for their renewable energy performance against their GDP, policy/regulatory initiatives in the field of renewables, landmass, climatic conditions and population to identify the most influencing factors to bring about positive change in renewable energy share.

  15. Relapsing fever in pregnancy: analysis of high-risk factors.

    PubMed

    Melkert, P W

    1988-10-01

    The diagnosis of tick-borne relapsing fever was established in 27 pregnant patients by demonstration of Borrelia spirochaetes in a thick blood smear and the borrelia index was estimated to calculate the density of the spirochaetaemia. Clinical findings are described and compared with those reported from Rwanda. The results suggest that the density of the spirochaetaemia and the gestational age are the main high-risk factors. PMID:3191046

  16. Risk Factors for Gambling Problems: An Analysis by Gender.

    PubMed

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex; Tolchard, Barry; Nower, Lia

    2016-06-01

    Differences in problem gambling rates between males and females suggest that associated risk factors vary by gender. Previous combined analyses of male and female gambling may have obscured these distinctions. This study aimed to develop separate risk factor models for gambling problems for males and for females, and identify gender-based similarities and differences. It analysed data from the largest prevalence study in Victoria Australia (N = 15,000). Analyses determined factors differentiating non-problem from at-risk gamblers separately for women and men, then compared genders using interaction terms. Separate multivariate analyses determined significant results when controlling for all others. Variables included demographics, gambling behaviour, gambling motivations, money management, and mental and physical health. Significant predictors of at-risk status amongst female gamblers included: 18-24 years old, not speaking English at home, living in a group household, unemployed or not in the workforce, gambling on private betting, electronic gaming machines (EGMs), scratch tickets or bingo, and gambling for reasons other than social reasons, to win money or for general entertainment. For males, risk factors included: 18-24 years old, not speaking English at home, low education, living in a group household, unemployed or not in the workforce, gambling on EGMs, table games, races, sports or lotteries, and gambling for reasons other than social reasons, to win money or for general entertainment. High risk groups requiring appropriate interventions comprise young adults, especially males; middle-aged female EGM gamblers; non-English speaking populations; frequent EGM, table games, race and sports gamblers; and gamblers motivated by escape. PMID:25948418

  17. Comparative analysis of transcription factor gene families from Papaver somniferum: identification of regulatory factors involved in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Parul; Pathak, Sumya; Lakhwani, Deepika; Gupta, Parul; Asif, Mehar Hasan; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.), known for biosynthesis of several therapeutically important benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs), has emerged as the premier organism to study plant alkaloid metabolism. The most prominent molecules produced in opium poppy include narcotic analgesic morphine, the cough suppressant codeine, the muscle relaxant papaverine and the anti-microbial agent sanguinarine and berberine. Despite several health benefits, biosynthesis of some of these molecules is very low due to tight temporal and spatial regulation of the genes committed to their biosynthesis. Transcription factors, one of the prime regulators of secondary plant product biosynthesis, might be involved in controlled biosynthesis of BIAs in P. somniferum. In this study, identification of members of different transcription factor gene families using transcriptome datasets of 10 cultivars of P. somniferum with distinct chemoprofile has been carried out. Analysis suggests that most represented transcription factor gene family in all the poppy cultivars is WRKY. Comparative transcriptome analysis revealed differential expression pattern of the members of a set of transcription factor gene families among 10 cultivars. Through analysis, two members of WRKY and one member of C3H gene family were identified as potential candidates which might regulate thebaine and papaverine biosynthesis, respectively, in poppy. PMID:26108744

  18. [Analysis of factors affecting anaerobic threshold in healthy subjects].

    PubMed

    Nitta, Y; Nagatsuka, K; Inage, T; Yokoi, H; Inaoka, Y; Kawanishi, K; Sakamoto, S; Ishikawa, K

    1992-03-01

    The anaerobic threshold (AT) is used to determine the exercise capacity in patients with heart failure and healthy subjects. To determine the factors affecting AT, we determined the AT in healthy subjects, and examined the factors that determine AT in healthy subjects. One hundred and sixteen healthy subjects (79 men and 37 women) performed on a bicycle a stepwise increasing submaximal exercise. During the work test the parameters usually used in the detection of AT (Vo2, Vco2, VE), blood pressure, heart rate and oxygen saturation were recorded by a computerized system every minute. AT was determined from changes in ventilation and gas-exchange. The fat index was calculated from height and body weight measured at the beginning of the ventilatory function test. A significant correlation was obtained between AT and age, AT and fat index, AT and %VC, AT and maximum heart rate during exercise, AT and recovery rate of heart rate after exercise, and AT and Vo2 at rest. In addition, we examined the relationship among the parameters in 4 groups according to sex and age (30-49; younger, 50-69; older), because sex and age affected most parameters. We found a significant correlation between AT and fat index (older men and women), AT and %VC (younger and older women), AT and Vo2 at rest (younger and older men). We considered that the main factors that determined AT in healthy subjects were age, sex, fat index, %VC and Vo2 at rest. PMID:1518183

  19. Energy Factor Analysis for Gas Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Gluesenkamp, Kyle R

    2016-01-01

    Gas heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) can improve water heating efficiency with zero GWP and zero ODP working fluids. The energy factor (EF) of a gas HPWH is sensitive to several factors. In this work, expressions are derived for EF of gas HPWHs, as a function of heat pump cycle COP, tank heat losses, burner efficiency, electrical draw, and effectiveness of supplemental heat exchangers. The expressions are used to investigate the sensitivity of EF to each parameter. EF is evaluated on a site energy basis (as used by the US DOE for rating water heater EF), and a primary energy-basis energy factor (PEF) is also defined and included. Typical ranges of values for the six parameters are given. For gas HPWHs, using typical ranges for component performance, EF will be 59 80% of the heat pump cycle thermal COP (for example, a COP of 1.60 may result in an EF of 0.94 1.28). Most of the reduction in COP is due to burner efficiency and tank heat losses. Gas-fired HPWHs are theoretically be capable of an EF of up to 1.7 (PEF of 1.6); while an EF of 1.1 1.3 (PEF of 1.0 1.1) is expected from an early market entry.

  20. Apheresis research-more abstracts should be published as full manuscripts to provide more evidence for clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Pham, Huy P; Jiang, Ning; Pan, Zhi; Williams, Lance A; Marques, Marisa B

    2016-08-01

    High-quality evidence to support clinical practice is lacking in apheresis medicine compared to other therapeutic modalities. A potential source of evidence comes from the abstracts submitted to the Annual Meetings of the American Society for Apheresis (ASFA). Therefore, the goal of this study is to determine the proportion of abstracts from the 2005 to 2012 ASFA Annual Meetings that subsequently became PubMed-indexed publications. Furthermore, we sought to determine the factor(s) that were associated with the likelihood of abstracts to be published as full manuscripts. During the 8-year study period, 684 abstracts were available for analysis (median: 82/year, range: 64-118). Most abstracts (74%) were from US institutions, and 67% of first authors were affiliated with academic centers. There were more abstracts (64%) on therapeutic versus donor apheresis (20%) and cellular therapy (16%). Overall, 16% of the abstracts have been published in PubMed-indexed journals, with a median time of 17 months from the ASFA Annual Meeting (range: 1-96 months). Abstracts whose first authors were affiliated with academic institutions were 3.14 times more likely to have been published than abstracts with ones affiliated with an apheresis organization and/or a community hospital. However, neither the first author's location nor the type of apheresis procedure significantly affected the publication rate after adjusting for other covariates. In conclusion, the rate of publication is low and authors should be encouraged to follow their presentations at the meeting with peer-reviewed manuscripts. This change is essential to provide more published evidence for future apheresis practice guidelines. J. Clin. Apheresis 31:353-358, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26011563