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Sample records for abstract global landslide

  1. A Quasi-Global Landslide Model Using Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahmand, A.; AghaKouchak, A.

    2012-12-01

    Each year, landslides cause thousands of casualties and billions of dollars in damages across the world. Landslides are triggered by heavy precipitation and/or earthquakes. Typically, Hurricanes and Typhoons lead to extensive rainfall over several days and thus, may trigger landslides. Thus far, various statistical, analytical and numerical approaches have been introduced to model landslides. The aim of this study is to develop a global landslide prediction model. In the first step, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) landslide inventory along with satellite-based precipitation data, 250 m slope, land cover information are used to develop the model. This landslide model utilizes the power of Support Vector Machines (SVM), which is a learning algorithm that can classify landslide events. 70% of the NASA/GSFC landslide inventory data were used for model training and 30% for validation and verification. The results of 200 random sub-samples of available landslide observations (70% training and 30% validation) revealed that the suggested model predicted historical landslides reliably. The average error of 200 iterations of landslide prediction was estimated approximately 2%, with approximately 1% false landslide events. Efforts are underway to further develop this model into a global landslide prediction model.

  2. Global Landslides on Rapidly Spinning Spheroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheeres, Daniel J.; Sanchez, P.

    2013-10-01

    The angle of repose and conditions for global landslides on the surfaces of small, rapidly spinning, spheroidal asteroids are studied. Applying techniques of soil mechanics, we develop a theory for, and examples of, how regolith will fail and flow in this microgravity environment. Our motivation is to develop an understanding of the "top-shaped" class of asteroids based on analytical soil mechanics. Our analysis transforms the entire asteroid surface into a local frame where we can model it as a conventional granular pile with a surface slope, acceleration and height variations as a function of the body's spin rate, shape and density. A general finding is that the lowest point on a rapidly spinning spheroid is at the equator with the effective height of surface material monotonically increasing towards the polar regions, where the height can be larger than the physical radius of the body. We study the failure conditions of both cohesionless and cohesive regolith, and develop specific predictions of the surface profile as a function of the regolith angle of friction and the maximum spin rate experienced by the body. The theory also provides simple guidelines on what the shape may look like, although we do not analyze gravitationally self-consistent evolution of the body shape. The theory is tested with soft-sphere discrete element method granular mechanics simulations to better understand the dynamical aspects of global asteroid landslides. We find significant differences between failure conditions for cohesive and cohesionless regolith. In the case of cohesive regolith, we show that extremely small values of strength (much less than that found in lunar regolith) can stabilize a surface even at very rapid spin rates. Cohesionless surfaces, as expected, fail whenever their surface slopes exceed the angle of friction. Based on our analysis we propose that global landslides and the flow of material towards the equator on spheroidal bodies are precipitated by exogenous

  3. Landslide!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-486, 17 September 2003

    This August 2003 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows part of a deposit created by a landslide off the wall of a crater near 12.3oN, 21.3oW. The crater wall is not shown; it is several kilometers to the left of this picture. The debris that slid from the crater wall came from the left/upper left (northwest) and moved toward the lower right (southeast). The crater floor onto which the debris was deposited has more small meteor craters on it than does the landslide material; this indicates that there was a considerable interval between the time when the crater floor formed, and when the landslide occurred. This picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  4. Landslide risk reduction strategies: an inventory for the Global South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, Jan; Kervyn, Matthieu; Vranken, Liesbet; Dewitte, Olivier; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Mertens, Kewan; Jacobs, Liesbet; Poesen, Jean

    2015-04-01

    Landslides constitute a serious problem globally. Moreover, landslide impact remains underestimated especially in the Global South. It is precisely there where the largest impact is experienced. An overview of measures taken to reduce risk of landslides in the Global South is however still lacking. Because in many countries of the Global South disaster risk reduction (DRR) is at an emerging stage, it is crucial to monitor the ongoing efforts (e.g. discussions on the Post-2015 Framework for DRR). The first objective of this study is to make an inventory of techniques and strategies that are applied to reduce risk from landslides in tropical countries. The second objective is to investigate what are the main bottlenecks for implementation of DRR strategies. In order to achieve these objectives, a review of both scientific and grey literature was conducted, supplemented with expert knowledge. The compilation of recommended and implemented DRR measures from landslide-prone tropical countries is based on an adapted classification proposed by the SafeLand project. According to Vaciago (2013), landslide risk can be reduced by either reducing the hazard, the vulnerability, the number or value of elements at risk or by sharing the residual risk. In addition, these measures can be combined with education and/or awareness raising and are influenced by governance structures and cultural beliefs. Global landslide datasets have been used to identify landslide-prone countries, augmented with region-specific datasets. Countries located in the tropics were selected in order to include landslide-prone countries with a different Human Development Index (HDI) but with a similar climate. Preliminary results support the statement made by Anderson (2013) that although the importance of shifting from post-disaster emergency actions to pre-disaster mitigation is acknowledged, in practice this paradigm shift seems rather limited. It is expected that this is especially the case in countries

  5. Landslide!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall-Wallace, Michelle; Mitchell, Carl

    1996-01-01

    Presents a unit that focuses on landslides and integrates earth science, physics, chemistry, and math. Includes activities to investigate porosity, permeability, cohesion, saturation, and gravity. (JRH)

  6. Global Distribution of Extreme Precipitation and High-Impact Landslides in 2010 Relative to Previous Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia; Adler, Robert; Adler, David; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Huffman, George

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that extreme or prolonged rainfall is the dominant trigger of landslides worldwide. While research has evaluated the spatiotemporal distribution of extreme rainfall and landslides at local or regional scales using in situ data, few studies have mapped rainfall-triggered landslide distribution globally due to the dearth of landslide data and consistent precipitation information. This study uses a newly developed Global Landslide Catalog (GLC) and a 13-year satellite-based precipitation record from TRMM data. For the first time, these two unique products provide the foundation to quantitatively evaluate the co-occurrence of precipitation and landslides globally. Evaluation of the GLC indicates that 2010 had a large number of high-impact landslide events relative to previous years. This study considers how variations in extreme and prolonged satellite-based rainfall are related to the distribution of landslides over the same time scales for three active landslide areas: Central America, the Himalayan Arc, and central-eastern China. Several test statistics confirm that TRMM rainfall generally scales with the observed increase in landslide reports and fatal events for 2010 and previous years over each region. These findings suggest that the co-occurrence of satellite precipitation and landslide reports may serve as a valuable indicator for characterizing the spatiotemporal distribution of landslide-prone areas in order to establish a global rainfall-triggered landslide climatology. This study characterizes the variability of satellite precipitation data and reported landslide activity at the globally scale in order to improve landslide cataloging, forecasting and quantify potential triggering sources at daily, monthly and yearly time scales.

  7. Use of Satellite Remote Sensing Data in the Mapping of Global Landslide Susceptibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Yang; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.

    2007-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing data has significant potential use in analysis of natural hazards such as landslides. Relying on the recent advances in satellite remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques, this paper aims to map landslide susceptibility over most of the globe using a GIs-based weighted linear combination method. First , six relevant landslide-controlling factors are derived from geospatial remote sensing data and coded into a GIS system. Next, continuous susceptibility values from low to high are assigned to each of the six factors. Second, a continuous scale of a global landslide susceptibility index is derived using GIS weighted linear combination based on each factor's relative significance to the process of landslide occurrence (e.g., slope is the most important factor, soil types and soil texture are also primary-level parameters, while elevation, land cover types, and drainage density are secondary in importance). Finally, the continuous index map is further classified into six susceptibility categories. Results show the hot spots of landslide-prone regions include the Pacific Rim, the Himalayas and South Asia, Rocky Mountains, Appalachian Mountains, Alps, and parts of the Middle East and Africa. India, China, Nepal, Japan, the USA, and Peru are shown to have landslide-prone areas. This first-cut global landslide susceptibility map forms a starting point to provide a global view of landslide risks and may be used in conjunction with satellite-based precipitation information to potentially detect areas with significant landslide potential due to heavy rainfall. 1

  8. Global Flood and Landslide Catalog: Compilation and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, P.; Hong, Y.; Kirschbaum, D. B.; Adler, R. F.

    2009-12-01

    A global digitized inventory of floods is needed for assessing the spatial distribution and temporal trends of flood hazards and for evaluating flood prediction models. This study describes the development of a global flood catalog compiled from news reports, scholarly articles, remote sensing images, and other natural hazard databases. The events cataloged in the inventory include information on the geographic location, date, duration, affected population, information source, and a qualitative measure of the event’s magnitude and location accuracy. To minimize biases we cross-checked the catalog with different sources and eliminated any redundancies. This research presents the compilation methodology used to develop a digitized Global Flood Inventory (GFI) for the period 1998-2008. This global flood inventory differs from other flood catalogs by providing a publicly available spreadsheet that details all events with both descriptive and digitized information. This inventory has been proven useful for mapping natural hazards over the globe and for evaluating flood prediction model. This global flood inventory research compliments our companion catalog: global landslide hazards.

  9. A New Approach to Characterizing Landslide Hazards with Global Crowd Sourcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach Kirschbaum, D.; Cappelaere, P. G.; Stanley, T.; Hall, B.; Franchek, M.

    2014-12-01

    Landslide disasters cause thousands of fatalities each year and cumulatively produce more economic damage than most other natural disasters. However, the number and distribution of landslides remain poorly quantified due to their small size and the absence of local, regional or global observing or reporting mechanisms. As a result, there are very few global databases that describe landslide hazards. Characterizing the socioeconomic impacts of landslide hazards worldwide presents an even more challenging task due to the various reporting biases or information gaps in existing regional and global sources. An online system has been developed to improve reporting of landslide hazards at the global scale that leverages crowd sourcing capabilities. Through this portal, users are able to input landslide information in a series of specified fields, including the date, location, impacts, trigger, and setting of the event. They are also able to link to photos so that other users can improve the characterization of the landslide event based on additional information or expert opinion. This hazard portal and editor provides a foundation to involve citizens in reporting, visualizing and sharing landslide events while improving a global landslide database and introducing them to other geospatial data in the process. A global landslide catalog of over 6,000 events developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center currently anchors this system. This research presents this new crowd-based system and outlines the technology used in developing this system. Preliminary findings of societal metrics, limitations on this type of interactive crowd sourcing portal, and lessons learned from the initial launch of this system will also be presented.

  10. An Experimental Global Monitoring System for Rainfall-triggered Landslides using Satellite Remote Sensing Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Yang; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.

    2006-01-01

    Landslides triggered by rainfall can possibly be foreseen in real time by jointly using rainfall intensity-duration thresholds and information related to land surface susceptibility. However, no system exists at either a national or a global scale to monitor or detect rainfall conditions that may trigger landslides due to the lack of extensive ground-based observing network in many parts of the world. Recent advances in satellite remote sensing technology and increasing availability of high-resolution geospatial products around the globe have provided an unprecedented opportunity for such a study. In this paper, a framework for developing an experimental real-time monitoring system to detect rainfall-triggered landslides is proposed by combining two necessary components: surface landslide susceptibility and a real-time space-based rainfall analysis system (http://trmm.gsfc.nasa.aov). First, a global landslide susceptibility map is derived from a combination of semi-static global surface characteristics (digital elevation topography, slope, soil types, soil texture, and land cover classification etc.) using a GIs weighted linear combination approach. Second, an adjusted empirical relationship between rainfall intensity-duration and landslide occurrence is used to assess landslide risks at areas with high susceptibility. A major outcome of this work is the availability of a first-time global assessment of landslide risk, which is only possible because of the utilization of global satellite remote sensing products. This experimental system can be updated continuously due to the availability of new satellite remote sensing products. This proposed system, if pursued through wide interdisciplinary efforts as recommended herein, bears the promise to grow many local landslide hazard analyses into a global decision-making support system for landslide disaster preparedness and risk mitigation activities across the world.

  11. Toward a Global Model for Predicting Earthquake-Induced Landslides in Near-Real Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowicki, M. A.; Wald, D. J.; Hamburger, M. W.; Hearne, M.; Thompson, E.

    2013-12-01

    We present a newly developed statistical model for estimating the distribution of earthquake-triggered landslides in near-real time, which is designed for use in the USGS Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) and ShakeCast systems. We use standardized estimates of ground shaking from the USGS ShakeMap Atlas 2.0 to develop an empirical landslide probability model by combining shaking estimates with broadly available landslide susceptibility proxies, including topographic slope, surface geology, and climatic parameters. While the initial model was based on four earthquakes for which digitally mapped landslide inventories and well constrained ShakeMaps are available--the Guatemala (1976), Northridge, California (1994), Chi-Chi, Taiwan (1999), and Wenchuan, China (2008) earthquakes, our improved model includes observations from approximately ten other events from a variety of tectonic and geomorphic settings for which we have obtained landslide inventories. Using logistic regression, this database is used to build a predictive model of the probability of landslide occurrence. We assess the performance of the regression model using statistical goodness-of-fit metrics to determine which combination of the tested landslide proxies provides the optimum prediction of observed landslides while minimizing ';false alarms' in non-landslide zones. Our initial results indicate strong correlations with peak ground acceleration and maximum slope, and weaker correlations with surface geological and soil wetness proxies. In terms of the original four events included, the global model predicts landslides most accurately when applied to the Wenchuan and Chi-Chi events, and less accurately when applied to the Northridge and Guatemala datasets. Combined with near-real time ShakeMaps, the model can be used to make generalized predictions of whether or not landslides are likely to occur (and if so, where) for future earthquakes around the globe, and these estimates

  12. Landslide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03582 Landslide

    This landslide occurred in Coprates Chasma.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 12.6S, Longitude 296.9E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  13. Landslide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02160 Landslide

    This large landslide is located within Ganges Chasma.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -7.6N, Longitude 315.8E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  14. Evaluation of the Potential of NASA Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis in Global Landslide Hazard Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Yang; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.

    2007-01-01

    Landslides are one of the most widespread natural hazards on Earth, responsible for thousands of deaths and billions of dollars in property damage every year. In the U.S. alone landslides occur in every state, causing an estimated $2 billion in damage and 25- 50 deaths each year. Annual average loss of life from landslide hazards in Japan is 170. The situation is much worse in developing countries and remote mountainous regions due to lack of financial resources and inadequate disaster management ability. Recently, a landslide buried an entire village on the Philippines Island of Leyte on Feb 17,2006, with at least 1800 reported deaths and only 3 houses left standing of the original 300. Intense storms with high-intensity , long-duration rainfall have great potential to trigger rapidly moving landslides, resulting in casualties and property damage across the world. In recent years, through the availability of remotely sensed datasets, it has become possible to conduct global-scale landslide hazard assessment. This paper evaluates the potential of the real-time NASA TRMM-based Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) system to advance our understanding of and predictive ability for rainfall-triggered landslides. Early results show that the landslide occurrences are closely associated with the spatial patterns and temporal distribution of rainfall characteristics. Particularly, the number of landslide occurrences and the relative importance of rainfall in triggering landslides rely on the influence of rainfall attributes [e.g. rainfall climatology, antecedent rainfall accumulation, and intensity-duration of rainstorms). TMPA precipitation data are available in both real-time and post-real-time versions, which are useful to assess the location and timing of rainfall-triggered landslide hazards by monitoring landslide-prone areas while receiving heavy rainfall. For the purpose of identifying rainfall-triggered landslides, an empirical global rainfall intensity

  15. Advances in Landslide Nowcasting: Evaluation of a Global and Regional Modeling Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia Bach; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Adler, Robert; Hong, Yang; Kumar, Sujay; Lerner-Lam, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    The increasing availability of remotely sensed data offers a new opportunity to address landslide hazard assessment at larger spatial scales. A prototype global satellite-based landslide hazard algorithm has been developed to identify areas that may experience landslide activity. This system combines a calculation of static landslide susceptibility with satellite-derived rainfall estimates and uses a threshold approach to generate a set of nowcasts that classify potentially hazardous areas. A recent evaluation of this algorithm framework found that while this tool represents an important first step in larger-scale near real-time landslide hazard assessment efforts, it requires several modifications before it can be fully realized as an operational tool. This study draws upon a prior work s recommendations to develop a new approach for considering landslide susceptibility and hazard at the regional scale. This case study calculates a regional susceptibility map using remotely sensed and in situ information and a database of landslides triggered by Hurricane Mitch in 1998 over four countries in Central America. The susceptibility map is evaluated with a regional rainfall intensity duration triggering threshold and results are compared with the global algorithm framework for the same event. Evaluation of this regional system suggests that this empirically based approach provides one plausible way to approach some of the data and resolution issues identified in the global assessment. The presented methodology is straightforward to implement, improves upon the global approach, and allows for results to be transferable between regions. The results also highlight several remaining challenges, including the empirical nature of the algorithm framework and adequate information for algorithm validation. Conclusions suggest that integrating additional triggering factors such as soil moisture may help to improve algorithm performance accuracy. The regional algorithm scenario

  16. Development of a globally applicable model for near real-time prediction of seismically induced landslides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowicki, M. Anna; Wald, David J.; Hamburger, Michael W.; Hearne, Mike; Thompson, Eric M.

    2014-01-01

    Substantial effort has been invested to understand where seismically induced landslides may occur in the future, as they are a costly and frequently fatal threat in mountainous regions. The goal of this work is to develop a statistical model for estimating the spatial distribution of landslides in near real-time around the globe for use in conjunction with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system. This model uses standardized outputs of ground shaking from the USGS ShakeMap Atlas 2.0 to develop an empirical landslide probability model, combining shaking estimates with broadly available landslide susceptibility proxies, i.e., topographic slope, surface geology, and climate parameters. We focus on four earthquakes for which digitally mapped landslide inventories and well-constrainedShakeMaps are available. The resulting database is used to build a predictive model of the probability of landslide occurrence. The landslide database includes the Guatemala (1976), Northridge (1994), Chi-Chi (1999), and Wenchuan (2008) earthquakes. Performance of the regression model is assessed using statistical goodness-of-fit metrics and a qualitative review to determine which combination of the proxies provides both the optimum prediction of landslide-affected areas and minimizes the false alarms in non-landslide zones. Combined with near real-time ShakeMaps, these models can be used to make generalized predictions of whether or not landslides are likely to occur (and if so, where) for earthquakes around the globe, and eventually to inform loss estimates within the framework of the PAGER system.

  17. Landslides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The slumping of materials in the walls of this impact crater illustrate the continued erosion of the martian surface. Small fans of debris as well as larger landslides are observed throughout the THEMIS image.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 40.9, Longitude 120.5 East (239.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  18. Advances in Landslide Hazard Forecasting: Evaluation of Global and Regional Modeling Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia B.; Adler, Robert; Hone, Yang; Kumar, Sujay; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Lerner-Lam, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    A prototype global satellite-based landslide hazard algorithm has been developed to identify areas that exhibit a high potential for landslide activity by combining a calculation of landslide susceptibility with satellite-derived rainfall estimates. A recent evaluation of this algorithm framework found that while this tool represents an important first step in larger-scale landslide forecasting efforts, it requires several modifications before it can be fully realized as an operational tool. The evaluation finds that the landslide forecasting may be more feasible at a regional scale. This study draws upon a prior work's recommendations to develop a new approach for considering landslide susceptibility and forecasting at the regional scale. This case study uses a database of landslides triggered by Hurricane Mitch in 1998 over four countries in Central America: Guatemala, Honduras, EI Salvador and Nicaragua. A regional susceptibility map is calculated from satellite and surface datasets using a statistical methodology. The susceptibility map is tested with a regional rainfall intensity-duration triggering relationship and results are compared to global algorithm framework for the Hurricane Mitch event. The statistical results suggest that this regional investigation provides one plausible way to approach some of the data and resolution issues identified in the global assessment, providing more realistic landslide forecasts for this case study. Evaluation of landslide hazards for this extreme event helps to identify several potential improvements of the algorithm framework, but also highlights several remaining challenges for the algorithm assessment, transferability and performance accuracy. Evaluation challenges include representation errors from comparing susceptibility maps of different spatial resolutions, biases in event-based landslide inventory data, and limited nonlandslide event data for more comprehensive evaluation. Additional factors that may improve

  19. Seasonal movement of the Slumgullion landslide determined from global positioning system surveys and field instrumentation, July 1998-March 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coe, J.A.; Ellis, W.L.; Godt, J.W.; Savage, W.Z.; Savage, J.E.; Michael, J.A.; Kibler, J.D.; Powers, P.S.; Lidke, D.J.; Debray, S.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of landslide movement made by global positioning system surveys and extensometers over a 3.5-year period show that the Slumgullion landslide in the San Juan Mountains of southwest Colorado moved throughout the monitoring period, but that daily velocities varied on a seasonal basis. Landslide velocities peaked in the early spring and summer in response to snowmelt and summer thunderstorms, respectively. Velocities were slowest in mid-winter when air and soil temperatures were coldest and precipitation was generally low and/or in the form of snow with a low water content. We hypothesize that the seasonal variability in velocities is due to ground-water levels and corresponding pore pressures that decrease when surface water is unavailable or cannot infiltrate frozen landslide material, and increase when surface water from melting snow or rainfall infiltrates unfrozen landslide material. We also suggest that patches of bouldery debris and fractures (created by continuous movement of the landslide) are conduits through which surface water can infiltrate, regardless of the frozen or unfrozen state of the landslide matrix material. Therefore, the availability of surface water is more important than landslide temperature in controlling the rate of landslide movement. This hypothesis is supported by field instrumentation data that show (1) landslide velocities coinciding with precipitation amounts regardless of the depth of freezing of landslide material, (2) spring and annual landslide velocities that were greatest when the depth of freezing was also the greatest, and (3) a rapid (several weeks or less) velocity and pore pressure response to rainfall. The persistent, but seasonally variable movement of the landslide, fits the bathtub model for landslide movement described by Baum and Reid [Baum, R.L., Reid, M.E., 2000. Ground water isolation by low-permeability clays in landslide shear zones. In: Bromhead, E.N., Dixon, N., Ibsen, M.-L. (Eds.), Landslides in

  20. Using the Global Positioning System to monitor dynamic ground deformation networks on potentially active landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Jane L.

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) has many advantages over conventional surveying for landslide disaster prevention and mitigation. Once an initial baseline network of ground markers has been positioned, the re-occupation of survey stations determines ground deformation. This verifies both the boundary of the landslide block and ground surface changes. These changes may take the form of either slow to moderate creep, or massive structural failure. Creep may occur as a precursor to slope failure, either within (i) fresh slopes that do not show any evidence of past collapse, (ii) the existing active landslides and (iii) areas adjacent to existing collapses. Networks are measured using rapid static GPS. The method, which enables many survey stations to be measured in a short time, provides a quick means for determining the three-dimensional map of the ground surface (of the landslide). A study in Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, established an initial baseline network within the Barranco de Tirajana, a basin on Gran Canaria that contains evidence of both ancient and recent landslides. Reoccupation of the network using rapid static GPS revealed a field accuracy of approximately 10 mm; the data indicated that the most recent landslide is currently stable.

  1. Development of a Global Slope Dataset for Estimation of Landslide Occurrence Resulting from Earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verdin, Kristine L.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Funk, Christopher C.; Pedreros, Diego; Worstell, Bruce; Verdin, James

    2007-01-01

    Landslides resulting from earthquakes can cause widespread loss of life and damage to critical infrastructure. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed an alarm system, PAGER (Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response), that aims to provide timely information to emergency relief organizations on the impact of earthquakes. Landslides are responsible for many of the damaging effects following large earthquakes in mountainous regions, and thus data defining the topographic relief and slope are critical to the PAGER system. A new global topographic dataset was developed to aid in rapidly estimating landslide potential following large earthquakes. We used the remotely-sensed elevation data collected as part of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) to generate a slope dataset with nearly global coverage. Slopes from the SRTM data, computed at 3-arc-second resolution, were summarized at 30-arc-second resolution, along with statistics developed to describe the distribution of slope within each 30-arc-second pixel. Because there are many small areas lacking SRTM data and the northern limit of the SRTM mission was lat 60?N., statistical methods referencing other elevation data were used to fill the voids within the dataset and to extrapolate the data north of 60?. The dataset will be used in the PAGER system to rapidly assess the susceptibility of areas to landsliding following large earthquakes.

  2. Rapid, Global Assessment of the Societal Impacts of Earthquake Induced Landsliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godt, J. W.; Verdin, K. L.; Jibson, R. W.; Wald, D. J.; Earle, P. S.; Harp, E. L.

    2006-05-01

    We evaluate the feasibility of rapidly estimating landslide potential after large earthquakes by combining near- real-time estimates of ground shaking with a simple slope stability model that uses a new global topographic database derived from elevation data collected as part of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Landslides triggered by ground shaking during earthquakes have caused widespread loss of life and damage to critical infrastructure. For example, the magnitude-7.6 earthquake of 8 October 2005 in Pakistan-administered Kashmir generated thousands of landslides that blocked many roads and damned rivers in the mountainous region. Overland access to many remote villages has yet to be restored 5 months after the quake. To provide timely information to emergency relief organizations on the possible societal effects of earthquakes, the USGS has developed an alarm system, PAGER (Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response) that combines an estimate of ground shaking with a global population database. Maps of peak ground acceleration are generated in near real time using the methodology and software developed for ShakeMap (http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/shakemap/). To evaluate the seismic landslide susceptibility worldwide, we rely on the SRTM data to generate statistics (at 1-km spacing) on the distribution of topographic slope calculated from 3-arcsecond (90m) data. Because many small areas of no more than a few square kilometers lack SRTM data, statistical methods referencing other elevation data were used to create a globally complete dataset. These topographic data are then used in a simplified Newmark analysis that uses spatially uniform material strengths and neglects the effects of groundwater to estimate the relative susceptibility to both shallow and deep landslides from a given earthquake. We present an initial application from the Muzaffarabad region of Pakistan and discuss results in the context of field and aerial observations

  3. Application of Global Real-Time Landslide Forecasting System for International use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschbaum, D. B.; Lerner-Lam, A.; Hong, Y.; Adler, R.

    2008-12-01

    The variability of natural hazard events by category significantly vary in their spatial and temporal extents and onsets, requiring a catered, and focused approach to appropriately address the risk and vulnerability of the specific hazard event. The advent of satellite data products has helped to monitor tropical cyclones, droughts, and flooding conditions and consequent impacts. Geophysical events such as earthquake are continually monitored on a global seismic network. However, a warning or monitoring system has not been established at larger scales for landslides, a hazard with the smallest spatial extent but highest frequency and arguably largest impacts globally. One of the major challenges in landslide hazard research is the field's focus on site specific investigations, drawing on high resolution surface data as well as detailed landslide inventories and rainfall information to provide an estimate of static landslide hazard susceptibility. Few studies have approached the issue of landslide risk and susceptibility from a dynamic standpoint to estimate the potential for landslide susceptibility conditions in a time frame that allows for a better understanding of the physical processes both scientifically and as it relates to societal response. To present a more dynamic representation of landslide hazard risk at larger spatial scales new research has developed an algorithm which couples a landslide hazard susceptibility map with real-time satellite derived rainfall to forecast areas with high landslide potential at the global scale. The algorithm draws on near-real time Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data as well as other satellite products to obtain a 3-hourly picture of locations across the world where the surface susceptibility conditions are high and the rainfall accumulation exceeds a defined threshold. The resulting forecasts are updated every 3 hours on a website, highlighting pixels satisfying these conditions on a 0.25º grid. The spatial

  4. Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Biology Teacher, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Included are over 50 abstracts of papers being presented at the 1977 National Association of Biology Teachers Convention. Included in each abstract are the title, author, and summary of the paper. Topics include photographic techniques environmental studies, and biological instruction. (MA)

  5. What are the implications of rapid global warming for landslide-triggered turbidity current activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clare, Michael; Peter, Talling; James, Hunt

    2014-05-01

    A geologically short-lived (~170kyr) episode of global warming occurred at ~55Ma, termed the Initial Eocene Thermal Maximum (IETM). Global temperatures rose by up to 8oC over only ~10kyr and a massive perturbation of the global carbon cycle occurred; creating a negative carbon isotopic (~-4% δ13C) excursion in sedimentary records. This interval has relevance to study of future climate change and its influence on geohazards including submarine landslides and turbidity currents. We analyse the recurrence frequency of turbidity currents, potentially initiated from large-volume slope failures. The study focuses on two sedimentary intervals that straddle the IETM and we discuss implications for turbidity current triggering. We present the results of statistical analyses (regression, generalised linear model, and proportional hazards model) for extensive turbidite records from an outcrop at Zumaia in NE Spain (N=285; 54.0 to 56.5 Ma) and based on ODP site 1068 on the Iberian Margin (N=1571; 48.2 to 67.6 Ma). The sedimentary sequences provide clear differentiation between hemipelagic and turbiditic mud with only negligible evidence of erosion. We infer dates for turbidites by converting hemipelagic bed thicknesses to time using interval-averaged accumulation rates. Multi-proxy dating techniques provide good age constraint. The background trend for the Zumaia record shows a near-exponential distribution of turbidite recurrence intervals, while the Iberian Margin shows a log-normal response. This is interpreted to be related to regional time-independence (exponential) and the effects of additive processes (log-normal). We discuss how a log-normal response may actually be generated over geological timescales from multiple shorter periods of random turbidite recurrence. The IETM interval shows a dramatic departure from both these background trends, however. This is marked by prolonged hiatuses (0.1 and 0.6 Myr duration) in turbidity current activity in contrast to the

  6. Meltwater Origin of the 2005 Mount Steller Landslide Confirmed by Analysis of Global Fiducials Program Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnia, B. F.; Angeli, K.

    2012-12-01

    Alaska's Mt. Steller, a 3,236 m Chugach Mountains peak, is one of the target areas of the Bering Glacier Global Fiducials Program (GFP) site. On September 14, 2005, a large mass of rock, glacier ice, and snow, with a volume of ~50 million cubic meters, fell from just below Mt. Steller's south-facing summit and landed on the surface of a tributary to Bering Glacier, nearly 2,500 m below. The slide, which extended ~8 km down-glacier, was actually an ice-rock avalanche. The impact generated a seismic signal recorded with a magnitude of up to 5.2. Oblique aerial photography of the mountain, the head scarp, and the slide mass was collected for the U.S. Geological Survey's Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) on September 15, 2005. The photography delineated the morphology of the failed south-facing slope of the mountain and showed details of the sheared, near-summit hanging glacier and snow mass. Based on the photography, the AVO calculated the slide volume and length. Several weeks later, the AVO provided the first author with digital copies of the September 15 photography. These images were enhanced and examined in order to determine properties of the slide and to evaluate if the cause of the event could be determined. A number of features observed led to the conclusion that meltwater was probably responsible for destabilizing the glacier ice-bedrock contact and triggering the landslide. Specifically, a 10-15 m diameter englacial stream channel was seen in the truncated glacier ice that comprised the east wall of the landslide scarp and a water-polished channel opening was noted on the west wall scarp. Additionally, several depressions were noted that might have temporarily stored water. To confirm these observations, new cloud-free GFP imagery was obtained on October 24 and 28, 2005. Analysis of both sets of imagery documented that: (1) more than a month after the event, meltwater was exiting the east wall scarp channel and flowing down the face of the mountain; (2) the

  7. Landslide in Sirenum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    27 August 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a landslide deposit in a deep trough in Terra Sirenum near 26.1oS, 140.0oW. After the landslide occurred, subsequent erosion of the slope produced talus that covers part of the landslide deposit. This area is about 3 km (1.9 mi) across; sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  8. Large-scale landslide simulations: Global deformation, velocities and basal friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Charles S.; Cleary, Paul W.; Hopkins, Mark

    1995-01-01

    The cause of the apparent small friction exhibited by long runout landslides has long been speculated upon. In an attempt to provide some insight into the matter, this paper describes results obtained from a discrete particle computer simulation of landslides composed of up to 1,000,000 two-dimensional discs. While simplified, the results show many of the characteristics of field data (the volumetric effect on runout, preserved strata, etc.) and with allowances made for the two-dimensional nature of the simulation, the runouts compare well with those of actual landslides. The results challenge the current view that landslides travel as a nearly solid block riding atop a low friction basal layer. Instead, they show that the mass is completely shearing and indicate that the apparent friction coefficient is an increasing function of shear rate. The volumetric effect can then be understood. With all other conditions being equal, different size slides appear to travel with nearly the same average velocity; however, as the larger landslides are thicker, they experience smaller shear rates and correspondingly smaller frictional resistance.

  9. Tithonium Landslide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    12 February 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a portion of a large landslide deposit on the floor of western Tithonium Chasma.

    Location near: 4.3oS, 87.9oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  10. Ophir Landslide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    4 November 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a small landslide off a steep slope in southwestern Ophir Chasma.

    Location near: 4.6oS, 72.8oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Spring

  11. Landslide seismic magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. H.; Jan, J. C.; Pu, H. C.; Tu, Y.; Chen, C. C.; Wu, Y. M.

    2015-11-01

    Landslides have become one of the most deadly natural disasters on earth, not only due to a significant increase in extreme climate change caused by global warming, but also rapid economic development in topographic relief areas. How to detect landslides using a real-time system has become an important question for reducing possible landslide impacts on human society. However, traditional detection of landslides, either through direct surveys in the field or remote sensing images obtained via aircraft or satellites, is highly time consuming. Here we analyze very long period seismic signals (20-50 s) generated by large landslides such as Typhoon Morakot, which passed though Taiwan in August 2009. In addition to successfully locating 109 large landslides, we define landslide seismic magnitude based on an empirical formula: Lm = log ⁡ (A) + 0.55 log ⁡ (Δ) + 2.44, where A is the maximum displacement (μm) recorded at one seismic station and Δ is its distance (km) from the landslide. We conclude that both the location and seismic magnitude of large landslides can be rapidly estimated from broadband seismic networks for both academic and applied purposes, similar to earthquake monitoring. We suggest a real-time algorithm be set up for routine monitoring of landslides in places where they pose a frequent threat.

  12. Ganges Landslides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a high resolution view of portions of the lobes of several landslide deposits in Ganges Chasma. Dark material near the bottom (south) end of the image is windblown sand.

    Location near: 8.2oS, 44.3oW Image width: 3.0 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  13. Landslide in Coprates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows part of a large landslide complex off the north wall of Coprates Chasma in the Valles Marineris trough complex. The wall of Coprates Chasma occupies much of the upper and middle portions of the image; the landslide lobes are on the trough floor in the bottom half of the image. Large boulders the size of houses can be seen on these landslide surfaces. This image is located near 13.9 S, 56.7 W. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  14. A Global View Programming Abstraction for Transitioning MPI Codes to PGAS Languages

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, Tiffany M; Hernandez, Oscar R; Bernholdt, David E

    2014-01-01

    The multicore generation of scientific high performance computing has provided a platform for the realization of Exascale computing, and has also underscored the need for new paradigms in coding parallel applications. The current standard for writing parallel applications requires programmers to use languages designed for sequential execution. These languages have abstractions that only allow programmers to operate on the process centric local view of data. To provide suitable languages for parallel execution, many research efforts have designed languages based on the Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) programming model. Chapel is one of the more recent languages to be developed using this model. Chapel supports multithreaded execution with high-level abstractions for parallelism. With Chapel in mind, we have developed a set of directives that serve as intermediate expressions for transitioning scientific applications from languages designed for sequential execution to PGAS languages like Chapel that are being developed with parallelism in mind.

  15. Landslide in Kasei Valles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) continues in 2003 to return excellent, high resolution images of the red planet's surface. This nearly 1.5 meters (5 ft.) per pixel view of a landslide on a 200 meter-high (219 yards-high) slope in Kasei Valles was specifically targeted for scientific investigation by rotating the MGS spacecraft about 7.8o off-nadir in January 2003. The scar left by the landslide reveals layers in the bedrock at the top the slope and shows a plethora of dark-toned, house-sized boulders that rolled down the slope and collected at the base of the landslide scar. A few meteor impact craters have formed on the landslide deposit and within the scar, indicating that this landslide occurred a very long time ago. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the left/lower left; the landslide is located near 28.3oN, 71.9oW.

  16. Landslide risk mapping and modeling in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.; Hong, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Under circumstances of global climate change, tectonic stress and human effect, landslides are among the most frequent and severely widespread natural hazards on Earth, as demonstrated in the World Atlas of Natural Hazards (McGuire et al., 2004). Every year, landslide activities cause serious economic loss as well as casualties (Róbert et al., 2005). How landslides can be monitored and predicted is an urgent research topic of the international landslide research community. Particularly, there is a lack of high quality and updated landslide risk maps and guidelines that can be employed to better mitigate and prevent landslide disasters in many emerging regions, including China (Hong, 2007). Since the 1950s, landslide events have been recorded in the statistical yearbooks, newspapers, and monographs in China. As disasters have been increasingly concerned by the government and the public, information about landslide events is becoming available from online news reports (Liu et al., 2012).This study presents multi-scale landslide risk mapping and modeling in China. At the national scale, based on historical data and practical experiences, we carry out landslide susceptibility and risk mapping by adopting a statistical approach and pattern recognition methods to construct empirical models. Over the identified landslide hot-spot areas, we further evaluate the slope-stability for each individual site (Sidle and Hirotaka, 2006), with the ultimate goal to set up a space-time multi-scale coupling system of Landslide risk mapping and modeling for landslide hazard monitoring and early warning.

  17. Landslide in Aureum Chaos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    15 May 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the results of a small landslide off of a hillslope in the Aureum Chaos region of Mars. Mass movement occurred from right (the slope) to left (the lobate feature pointed left). Small dark dots in the landslide area are large boulders. This feature is located near 2.6oS, 24.5oW. This picture covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated by sunlight from the left/upper left.

  18. Landslide in Coprates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    15 November 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the distal (far) end of a landslide deposit in Coprates Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. Large boulders, the size of buildings, occur on the landslide surface. This October 2004 picture is located near 15.3oS, 54.6oW, and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  19. Small Landslide in Kasei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    21 February 2004 The finger-shaped lobe just right of center in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image is the deposit of a small landslide that came down a dark, layered slope. Landslides are common on Mars in areas of steep topography; this one is located in the Kasei Valles region near 23.9oN, 67.1oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left; the picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  20. Landslide in Mutch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    18 November 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the east margin of a landslide off the southern rim of Mutch Crater in the Xanthe Terra region of Mars. This particular landslide was likely triggered by a meteor impact that occurred nearby.

    Location near: 0.7oS, 55.9oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Spring

  1. Precipitation and soil accumulation history modifies future landslide hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, R.; Hales, T. C.; Mudd, S. M.; Grieve, S. W. D.

    2015-12-01

    Landslides are a major global geohazard that are predicted to increase as anthropogenic climate change drives an increase in landslide-triggering storms. Humid mountains may be particularly important, as rainfall-induced shallow landsliding causes a significant proportion of global landslide fatalities. While precipitation is a significant driving force, future landslide susceptibility also depends on millennial-scale landslide history that limits the distribution of potential landslide material. However, the influence of landslide history on current and future landslide hazard is poorly understood. We address this problem by first quantifying the distribution of shallow landslide potential across 1347 km2 of the southern Appalachian Mountains using an unprecedented empirical dataset of hillslope soil depths and strength parameters. By accounting for landslide history, estimates of future landslide potential are lowered significantly. Slope stability modelling demonstrates that under current conditions, only 38% of potential landslide sites across the landscape could fail, regardless of the size of the storm. Of susceptible slopes, most can only fail during the largest possible precipitation events. This is because once a landslide occurs it takes thousands of years to accumulate enough soil to make a site unstable during precipitation. In contrast, the return period of large storms is tens to hundreds of years. This result challenges whether increases in precipitation predicted by climate models will lead to measureable increases in landslide frequency. Next, we examine how the distribution of potential landslide material changes through time as storm-induced landslides periodically remove material, using a coupled hillslope stability and soil accumulation model applied to the Appalachian landscape. Our results reveal the spatial pattern of temporal variability in landslide potential, which represents a neglected source of uncertainty when assessing regional

  2. Extreme Precipitation and High-Impact Landslides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia; Adler, Robert; Huffman, George; Peters-Lidard, Christa

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that extreme or prolonged rainfall is the dominant trigger of landslides; however, there remain large uncertainties in characterizing the distribution of these hazards and meteorological triggers at the global scale. Researchers have evaluated the spatiotemporal distribution of extreme rainfall and landslides at local and regional scale primarily using in situ data, yet few studies have mapped rainfall-triggered landslide distribution globally due to the dearth of landslide data and consistent precipitation information. This research uses a newly developed Global Landslide Catalog (GLC) and a 13-year satellite-based precipitation record from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data. For the first time, these two unique products provide the foundation to quantitatively evaluate the co-occurence of precipitation and rainfall-triggered landslides globally. The GLC, available from 2007 to the present, contains information on reported rainfall-triggered landslide events around the world using online media reports, disaster databases, etc. When evaluating this database, we observed that 2010 had a large number of high-impact landslide events relative to previous years. This study considers how variations in extreme and prolonged satellite-based rainfall are related to the distribution of landslides over the same time scales for three active landslide areas: Central America, the Himalayan Arc, and central-eastern China. Several test statistics confirm that TRMM rainfall generally scales with the observed increase in landslide reports and fatal events for 2010 and previous years over each region. These findings suggest that the co-occurrence of satellite precipitation and landslide reports may serve as a valuable indicator for characterizing the spatiotemporal distribution of landslide-prone areas in order to establish a global rainfall-triggered landslide climatology. This research also considers the sources for this extreme rainfall, citing

  3. Landslide Hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Landslide hazards occur in many places around What Can You Do If You Live Near Steep Hills? the world and include fast-moving debris flows, slow-moving landslides, and a variety of flows and slides initiating from volcanoes. Each year, these hazards cost billions of dollars and cause numerous fatalities and injuries. Awareness and education about these hazards is a first step toward reducing damaging effects. The U.S. Geological Survey conducts research and distributes information about geologic hazards. This Fact Sheet is published in English and Spanish and can be reproduced in any form for further distribution. 

  4. Submarine landslides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hampton, M.A.; Lee, H.J.; Locat, J.

    1996-01-01

    Landslides are common on inclined areas of the seafloor, particularly in environments where weak geologic materials such as rapidly deposited, finegrained sediment or fractured rock are subjected to strong environmental stresses such as earthquakes, large storm waves, and high internal pore pressures. Submarine landslides can involve huge amounts of material and can move great distances: slide volumes as large as 20,000 km3 and runout distances in excess of 140 km have been reported. They occur at locations where the downslope component of stress exceeds the resisting stress, causing movement along one or several concave to planar rupture surfaces. Some recent slides that originated nearshore and retrogressed back across the shoreline were conspicuous by their direct impact on human life and activities. Most known slides, however, occurred far from land in prehistoric time and were discovered by noting distinct to subtle characteristics, such as headwall scarps and displaced sediment or rock masses, on acoustic-reflection profiles and side-scan sonar images. Submarine landslides can be analyzed using the same mechanics principles as are used for occurrences on land. However, some loading mechanisms are unique, for example, storm waves, and some, such as earthquakes, can have greater impact. The potential for limited-deformation landslides to transform into sediment flows that can travel exceedingly long distances is related to the density of the slope-forming material and the amount of shear strength that is lost when the slope fails.

  5. Ganges Landslide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03681 Ganges Landslide

    Two large landslides dominate this image of part of Ganges Chasma. The eroded surface of an old landslide covers the north half of the image, while a more recent landslide occurs to the south.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6.7N, Longitude 310.4E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  6. Rainfall-Triggered Landslides Bury Sri Lankan Villages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia; Stanley, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    On the afternoon of May 17th, 2016, a major landslide event caused at least 92 deaths, with 109 still missing*. The site was rated highly susceptible to landslides in a new global landslide susceptibility map. GPM precipitation data suggest that both antecedent and current rainfall as well as complex topography played a role in the slope failures.

  7. (abstract) Using GPS Measurements to Identify Global Ionospheric Storms in Near Real-Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, C. M.; Mannucci, A. J.; Lindqwister, U. J.; Rao, A. M.; Pi, X.; Wilson, B. D.; Yuan, D. N.; Reyes, M.

    1996-01-01

    The solar wind interacts with the Earth's magnetosphere, eventually dissipating energy into the ionosphere and atmosphere. As a terminator, the ionosphere responds to magnetic storms, which is very important in understanding the energy coupling process between the Sun and the Earth and in forecasting space weather changes.The worldwide GPS network, for the first time, makes near real-time global ionospheric TEC measurements a possibility. Based on these measurements, global ionospheric TEC maps are generated with time resolution of from 5 minutes to hours. Using these maps, we can analyze the global evolution of ionospheric storms on temporal and spatial scales, which have been dificult to study before. We find that for certain types of storms (such as TID-driven), it is possible to identify them near onset and issue warning signals during the early stages. Main attention has been paid on northern hemispheric winter storms. Their common features and physical mechanisms are being investigated.

  8. Abstracts: International conference on the role of the polar regions in global change

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this conference was to summarize the state of knowledge on the role of the polar regions in global change, and to identify gaps in our knowledge. Polar experts in a wide variety of disciplines shared their knowledge and their experiences on global change. Topics included: detection and monitoring of change; climate variability and climate forcing; ocean-sea ice-atmosphere interactions and processes; effects on biota and biological feedbacks; ice sheet, glacier and permafrost responses and feedbacks; paleoenvironmental studies; and aerosols/trace gases. Individual papers have been processed for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  9. Coeval giant landslides in the Canary Islands: Implications for global, regional and local triggers of giant flank collapses on oceanic volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulesteix, Thomas; Hildenbrand, Anthony; Soler, Vicente; Quidelleur, Xavier; Gillot, Pierre-Yves

    2013-05-01

    Giant landslides are an important part of the evolution of most intra-plate volcanic islands. They often proceed in catastrophic events, likely to generate voluminous debris avalanches and eventually trigger destructive tsunamis. Although knowledge of the timing of their recurrence is a key factor regarding the hazard assessment in coastal environments, only a few of them have been well dated. In this contribution, we focus on the La Orotava event on Tenerife, which we date with the unspiked K-Ar technique, between 534 and 523 ka. Such narrow temporal interval is compatible, within uncertainties, with the age of the Cumbre Nueva collapse on the neighboring island of La Palma. We thus examine here the possible common triggering mechanisms at the global, regional and local scales. Both events occurred shortly after the climax of the oxygen isotopic stage 14, during the rapid transition towards the interglacial stage 13, reinforcing the hypothesis of a control from global paleoclimatic changes on the destabilization of oceanic islands. Intense volcanic pulses at the regional scale also lead to the synchronous overgrowth of several volcanic islands in the archipelago, but coeval destabilization on Tenerife and La Palma appears significantly controlled by the intrinsic morphology of the edifices, with contrasted instability thresholds for shield volcanoes and volcanic ridges respectively. Finally, we propose that the two events may be genetically linked. Dynamic transfer of voluminous debris avalanches during a giant landslide episode can induce isostatic readjustments, generate significant ground acceleration and finally produce a large tsunami, three processes which can concur to trigger large scale flank collapse on a neighboring mature unstable volcanic island.

  10. MaizeGDB: Global support for maize research through open access information [abstract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MaizeGDB is the open-access global repository for maize genetic and genomic information – from single genes that determine nutritional quality to whole genome-scale data for complex traits including yield and drought tolerance. The data and tools at MaizeGDB enable researchers from Ethiopia to Ghan...

  11. Tharsis Landslide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The landslide in the VIS image occurs in the Tharsis region of Mars, just north of Hebes Chasma. The volcanic flows forming the lower surface in the image have a platy texture. The landslide is younger than the volcanic flow, as the landslide sits on top of the flow surface.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 5, Longitude 282.4 East (77.6 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  12. Modelling the landslide area and sediment discharge in landslide-dominated region, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Tse-Yang; Huang, -Chuan, Jr.; Lee, Tsung-Yu; Chen, Yi-Chin; Jan, Ming-Young; Liu, Cheng-Chien

    2016-04-01

    Many studies have indicated the magnified increase of rainfall intensification, landsliding and subsequent sediment discharge due to the global warming effect. However, a few works synthesized the "chain reaction" from rainfall, landsliding to sediment discharge at the same time because of the limited observations of landslide area and sediment discharge during episodes. Besides, the sediment transport strongly depends on the sediment supply and stream power which interact conditionally. In this study, our goal is to build a model that can simulate time-series landslide area and subsequent sediment discharge. The synthesized model would be applied onto Tsengwen Reservoir watershed in southern Taiwan, where lots of landslides occur every year. Unlike other studies, our landslide model considers not only rainfall effect but also previous landslide status, which may be applied to landslide-dominated regions and explains the irrelevant relationship between typhoon rainfall and landslide area. Furthermore, our sediment transport model considers the sediment budget which couples transport- and supply-limited of sediment. The result shows that the simulated time-series landslide area and the sediment transport agree with the observation and the R2 are 0.88 and 0.56, respectively. Reactivated ratio of previous landslide area is 72.7% which indicates the high reoccurrence of historical landslide in landslide-dominated regions. We divided nine historical typhoons into three periods to demonstrate the effect of sediment supply/supply-limited condition upon sediment transport. For instance, the rainfall is smaller in period 3 than in period 1 but the sediment transport is higher in period 3 due to the catastrophic landslide (typhoon Morakot) during period 2. We argue that quantifying sediment transport should couple not only with water discharge but sediment budget, which is rarely considered in calculating sediment transport. Moreover, the parameterization of the controlling

  13. Rainfall-induced landslide cataloging for hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Y.; Kirschbaum, D. B.; Adler, R. F.

    2009-12-01

    Rainfall-triggered landslide hazards only represent a portion of the total fatalities associated with hydrometerological disasters; however, the economic losses and casualties caused by these hazards are greater than generally acknowledged and result in higher annual property losses than any other natural disaster. Most of the victims of landslide disasters occur in the developing world, where increased building on unstable hillslopes and poor or nonexistent mitigation activities escalate disaster risk. This research explores two landslide inventories at the global and regional scales and examines their potential applicability and validation capabilities for landslide hazard and risk assessment. The global analysis develops a methodology for compiling rainfall-triggered landslide events, drawing upon news reports, scholarly articles and other hazard databases to develop catalog at the global scale. The events cataloged in the inventory include information on the nominal and geographic location, date, affected population, information source, and a qualitative measure of the landslide event’s size and location accuracy. This global inventory differs from other landslide catalogs by providing a publicly available database of information on rainfall-triggered landslide events globally, which can be compared to other sources. The global catalog is used to evaluate preliminary landslide forecasting work as well as to assess landslide distribution and frequency worldwide. This research presents a discussion on the scientific and socio-economic implications of such a database and its utility in evaluating natural and anthropogenic triggers to hydrometeorological hazards in a changing world.

  14. Assessing Landslide Characteristics and Developing a Landslide Potential Hazard Map in Rwanda and Uganda Using NASA Earth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, L.; Conner, P.; le Roux, J.; Finley, T.

    2015-12-01

    The International Emergency Disasters Database indicates that a total of 482 people have been killed and another 27,530 have been affected by landslides in Rwanda and Uganda, although the actual numbers are thought to be much higher. Data for individual countries are poorly tracked, but hotspots for devastating landslides occur throughout Rwanda and Uganda due to the local topography and soil type, intense rainfall events, and deforestation. In spite of this, there has been little research in this region that utilizes satellite imagery to estimate areas susceptible to landslides. This project utilized Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data and Google Earth to identify landslides that occurred within the study area. These landslides were then added to SERVIR's Global Landslide Catalog (GLC). Next, Landsat 8 OLI, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM), and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Version 2 (SRTM V2) data were used to create a Landslide Susceptibility Map. This was combined with population data from the Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) to create a Landslide Hazard map. A preliminary assessment of the relative performance of GPM and TRMM in identifying landslide conditions was also performed. The additions to the GLC, the Landslide Susceptibility Map, the Landslide Hazard Map, and the preliminary assessment of satellite rainfall performance will be used by SERVIR and the Regional Centre for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD) for disaster risk management, land use planning, and determining landslide conditions and moisture thresholds.

  15. Crater Landslide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA06088 Crater Landslide

    This landslide occurs in an unnamed crater southeast of Millochau Crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -24.4N, Longitude 87.5E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  16. Landslide Susceptibility Statistical Methods: A Critical and Systematic Literature Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihir, Monika; Malamud, Bruce; Rossi, Mauro; Reichenbach, Paola; Ardizzone, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Landslide susceptibility assessment, the subject of this systematic review, is aimed at understanding the spatial probability of slope failures under a set of geomorphological and environmental conditions. It is estimated that about 375 landslides that occur globally each year are fatal, with around 4600 people killed per year. Past studies have brought out the increasing cost of landslide damages which primarily can be attributed to human occupation and increased human activities in the vulnerable environments. Many scientists, to evaluate and reduce landslide risk, have made an effort to efficiently map landslide susceptibility using different statistical methods. In this paper, we do a critical and systematic landslide susceptibility literature review, in terms of the different statistical methods used. For each of a broad set of studies reviewed we note: (i) study geography region and areal extent, (ii) landslide types, (iii) inventory type and temporal period covered, (iv) mapping technique (v) thematic variables used (vi) statistical models, (vii) assessment of model skill, (viii) uncertainty assessment methods, (ix) validation methods. We then pulled out broad trends within our review of landslide susceptibility, particularly regarding the statistical methods. We found that the most common statistical methods used in the study of landslide susceptibility include logistic regression, artificial neural network, discriminant analysis and weight of evidence. Although most of the studies we reviewed assessed the model skill, very few assessed model uncertainty. In terms of geographic extent, the largest number of landslide susceptibility zonations were in Turkey, Korea, Spain, Italy and Malaysia. However, there are also many landslides and fatalities in other localities, particularly India, China, Philippines, Nepal and Indonesia, Guatemala, and Pakistan, where there are much fewer landslide susceptibility studies available in the peer-review literature. This

  17. Decline in renal functioning is associated with longitudinal decline in global cognitive functioning, abstract reasoning and verbal memory

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Adam; Elias, Merrill F.; Robbins, Michael A.; Seliger, Stephen L.; Dore, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and higher serum creatinine (sCR) levels have been associated with longitudinal decline in global mental status measures. Longitudinal data describing change in multiple domains of cognitive functioning are needed in order to determine which specific abilities are most affected in individuals with impaired renal function. Methods We conducted a 5-year longitudinal study with 590 community-living individuals (mean age 62.1 years, 60.2% female, 93.2% white, 11.4% with diabetes mellitus, mean eGFR 78.4 mL/min/1.73 m²) free from dementia, acute stroke and end-stage renal disease. To measure longitudinal change-over-time, cognitive performance measures were regressed on eGFR adjusting for baseline eGFR and cognitive performance, comorbidity and vascular risk factors. Outcome measures were scores from 17 separate tests of cognitive abilities that were used to index 5 theoretically relevant domains: verbal episodic memory, visual-spatial organization and memory, scanning and tracking, working memory and similarities (abstract reasoning). Results Declines in eGFR values were associated with cognitive declines, when adjusted for eGFR and cognitive function scores at baseline. Change in renal functioning over time was related to change observed in global cognitive ability [b = 0.21SD decline per unit ln(eGFR), 95% CI: 0.04–0.38, P = .018], verbal episodic memory [b = 0.28 SD decline per unit ln(eGFR), 95% CI: 0.02–0.54, P = 0.038] and abstract reasoning [b = 0.36 SD decline per unit ln(eGFR), 95% CI: 0.04–0.67, P = 0.025]. Decline in cognitive functioning in association with declining renal functioning was observed despite statistical adjustment for demographic variables and CVD risk factors and the exclusion of persons with dementia or a history of acute stroke. Conclusions Early detection of mild to moderate kidney disease is an important public health concern with regard to cognitive decline. PMID

  18. Mount Meager landslide flow history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, L.; Allstadt, K.; Mangeney, A.; Capdeville, Y.; Stutzmann, E.; Bouchut, F.

    2013-12-01

    Gravitational instabilities, such as landslides, avalanches, or debris flows, play a key role in erosional processes and represent one of the major natural hazards in mountainous, coastal, and volcanic regions. Despite the great amount of field, experimental and numerical work devoted to this problem, the understanding of the physical processes at work in gravitational flows is still an open issue, in particular due to the lack of observations relevant to their dynamics. In this context, the seismic signal generated by gravitational flows is a unique opportunity to obtain information on their dynamics. Indeed, as shown recently by Favreau et al., (2010), simulation of the seismic signal generated by landslides makes it possible to discriminate different flow scenarios and estimate rheological parameters. Global and regional seismic networks continuously record gravitational instabilities, so this new method will help gather new data on landslide behavior, particularly when combined with a landslide numerical modeling. Using this approach, we focus on the 6 August 2010 Mount Meager landslide: a 48.5 Mm3 rockslide-debris flow occurring in the Mount Meager Volcanic complex in the Southwest British Columbia. This landslide traveled over 12.7 km in just a few minutes time and was recorded by 25 broadband seismic stations. The time history of the forces exerted by the landslide on the ground surface was inverted from the seismic waveforms. The forcing history revealed the occurrence of a complicated initiation and showed features attributable to flow over a complicated path that included two sharp turns and runup at a valley wall barrier. To reliably interpret this signal and thus obtain detailed information about the dynamics of the landslide, we ran simulations for a range of scenarios by varying the coefficient of friction and the number, mass, and timings of subevents and compute the forces generated in each case. By comparing the results of these simulations to the

  19. Mount Meager landslide flow history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, Laurent; Allstadt, Kate; Mangeney, Anne; Yann, capdeville; Eleonore, Stutzmann; François, Bouchut

    2014-05-01

    Gravitational instabilities, such as landslides, avalanches, or debris flows, play a key role in erosional processes and represent one of the major natural hazards in mountainous, coastal, and volcanic regions. Despite the great amount of field, experimental and numerical work devoted to this problem, the understanding of the physical processes at work in gravitational flows is still an open issue, in particular due to the lack of observations relevant to their dynamics. In this context, the seismic signal generated by gravitational flows is a unique opportunity to obtain information on their dynamics. Indeed, as shown recently by Favreau et al., (2010), simulation of the seismic signal generated by landslides makes it possible to discriminate different flow scenarios and estimate rheological parameters. Global and regional seismic networks continuously record gravitational instabilities, so this new method will help gather new data on landslide behavior, particularly when combined with a landslide numerical modeling. Using this approach, we focus on the 6 August 2010 Mount Meager landslide: a 48.5 Mm3 rockslide-debris flow occurring in the Mount Meager Volcanic complex in the Southwest British Columbia. This landslide traveled over 12.7 km in just a few minutes time and was recorded by 25 broadband seismic stations. The time history of the forces exerted by the landslide on the ground surface was inverted from the seismic waveforms. The forcing history revealed the occurrence of a complicated initiation and showed features attributable to flow over a complicated path that included two sharp turns and runup at a valley wall barrier. To reliably interpret this signal and thus obtain detailed information about the dynamics of the landslide, we ran simulations for a range of scenarios by varying the coefficient of friction and the number, mass, and timings of subevents and compute the forces generated in each case. By comparing the results of these simulations to the

  20. Comparing landslide inventory maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, Mirco; Ardizzone, Francesca; Cardinali, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto; Reichenbach, Paola

    Landslide inventory maps are effective and easily understandable products for both experts, such as geomorphologists, and for non experts, including decision-makers, planners, and civil defense managers. Landslide inventories are essential to understand the evolution of landscapes, and to ascertain landslide susceptibility and hazard. Despite landslide maps being compiled every year in the word at different scales, limited efforts are made to critically compare landslide maps prepared using different techniques or by different investigators. Based on the experience gained in 20 years of landslide mapping in Italy, and on the limited literature on landslide inventory assessment, we propose a general framework for the quantitative comparison of landslide inventory maps. To test the proposed framework we exploit three inventory maps. The first map is a reconnaissance landslide inventory prepared for the Umbria region, in central Italy. The second map is a detailed geomorphological landslide map, also prepared for the Umbria region. The third map is a multi-temporal landslide inventory compiled for the Collazzone area, in central Umbria. Results of the experiment allow for establishing how well the individual inventories describe the location, type and abundance of landslides, to what extent the landslide maps can be used to determine the frequency-area statistics of the slope failures, and the significance of the inventory maps as predictors of landslide susceptibility. We further use the results obtained in the Collazzone area to estimate the quality and completeness of the two regional landslide inventory maps, and to outline general advantages and limitations of the techniques used to complete the inventories.

  1. Oxidation of sulfides and rapid weathering in recent landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emberson, Robert; Hovius, Niels; Galy, Albert; Marc, Odin

    2016-09-01

    dissolution can strongly alter the overall output of solutes from catchments and their contribution to global chemical cycles if landslide-derived material is retained in catchments for extended periods after mass wasting.

  2. Landslides in the western Columbia Gorge, Skamania County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierson, Thomas C.; Evarts, Russell C.; Bard, Joseph A.

    2016-11-04

    SummaryRecent light detection and ranging (lidar) imagery has allowed us to identify and map a large number of previously unrecognized landslides, or slides, in heavily forested terrain in the western Columbia Gorge, Skamania County, Washington, and it has revealed that the few previously recognized areas of instability are actually composites of multiple smaller landslides. The high resolution of the imagery further reveals that landslides in the map area have complex movement histories and span a wide range of relative ages. Movement histories are inferred from relative landslide locations and crosscutting relations of surface features. Estimated age ranges are based on (1) limited absolute dating; (2) relative fineness of landscape surface textures, calibrated by comparison with surfaces of currently active and dated landslides as interpreted from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), global positioning system (GPS), and historical records; (3) sharpness and steepness of larger-scale surface morphologic features, calibrated by comparison with similar dated features in other regions; (4) degree of surface erosion; and (5) evidence of erosion or deposition by late Pleistocene (15–22 ka) Missoula floods at or below 200 m altitude. The relative age categories are recent (0 to ~1,000 years old), intermediate-age (~1,000 to ~15,000 years old), and old (>~15,000 years old). Within the 221.5 km2 map area, we identified 215 discrete landslides, covering 140.9 km2 (64 percent of the map area). At least 12 of the recent landslides are currently moving or have moved within the last two decades. Mapping for this study expanded the area of previously recognized unstable terrain by 56 percent. Landslide geometries suggest that more than half (62 percent) of these slope failures are translational landslides or composite landslides with translational elements, with failure occurring along gently sloping bedding planes in zones of deeply weathered, locally clay rich

  3. Geologic characteristics and movement of the Meadow Creek landslide, part of the Coal Hill landslide complex, western Kane County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ashland, Francis X.; McDonald, Greg N.; Carney, Stephanie M.; Tabet, David E.; Johnson, Cari L.

    2010-01-01

    The Meadow Creek landslide, part of the Coal Hill landslide complex in western Kane County, Utah, is about 1.7 miles (2.7 km) wide and 1.3 miles (2.1 km) long and contains six smaller historical slides. The upper part of the Meadow Creek landslide is gently sloping and consists of displaced and back-rotated blocks of Cretaceous Dakota and Cedar Mountain Formations that form northeast- to locally east-trending ridges that are separated by sediment-filled half-grabens. The lower part of the landslide is gently to moderately sloping, locally incised, and consists of heterogeneous debris that overrides the Jurassic Carmel Formation near Meadow Creek. Monitoring using a survey-grade Global Positioning System (GPS) instrument detected movement of the southern part of the Meadow Creek landslide between October 2005 and October 2008, including movement of two of the historical slides-landslides 1 and 2. The most movement during the measurement period occurred within the limits of persistently moving landslide 1 and ranged from about 24 to 64 inches (61-163 cm). Movement of the abutting southern part of the Meadow Creek landslide ranged from approximately 6 to 10 inches (15-25 cm). State Route 9 crosses over approximately a mile (1.6 km) of the southern part of the Meadow Creek landslide, including landslide 1. The highway and its predecessor (State Route 15) have been periodically displaced and damaged by persistent movement of landslide 1. Most of the landslide characteristics, particularly its size, probable depth, and the inferred weak strength and low permeability of clay-rich gouge derived from the Dakota and Cedar Mountain Formations, are adverse to and pose significant challenges to landslide stabilization. Secondary hazards include piping-induced sinkholes along scarps and ground cracks, and debris flows and rock falls from the main-scarp escarpment.

  4. PERSPECTIVE ON LANDSLIDE DAMS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Robert L.; Costa, John E.; ,

    1986-01-01

    The most common types of mass movements that form landslide dams are rock and soil slumps and slides; mud, debris, and earth flows: and rock and debris avalanches. The most common initiation mechanisms for dam-forming landslides are excessive rainfall and snow melt, and earthquakes. Most landslide dams are remarkable short-lived. In a sample of 63 documented cases, 22 percent of the landslide dams failed in less than 1 day after formation, and half failed within 10 days. Overtopping was by far the most frequent cause of landslide-dam failure. Backwater flooding behind landslide dams can inundate communities and valuable agricultural land. Floods from the failure of landslide dams are smaller than floods from constructed dams impounding bodies of water with the same potential energy, but larger than floods from failure of ice dams. Secondary effects of landslide-dam failures include additional landslides as reservoir levels drop rapidly, aggradation of valleys upstream and downstream of the dams, and avulsive channel changes downstream.

  5. Landslides as agents of diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geertsema, Marten

    2016-04-01

    Landslides, often destructive and damaging, are also agents of change that introduce diversity to landscapes. I discuss landslide diversity at three levels: site diversity, soil diversity, and habitat diversity. There are many landslide types involving different materials and rates and styles of movement. Landscape diversity varies with different types of landslides. Landslides, at the same time depositional and erosional agents, influence sites by redistributing materials and changing microtopography. Eroded portions of landslides, with exposed parent material, revert to the initial stages of soil development and ecological succession. Landslides can also alter soil properties including, surface texture, chemistry and porosity. Landslides influence habitat diversity by creating ecosystem mosaics.

  6. Statistical Signature of Deep-seated Landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangodagamage, C.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Belmont, P.; Mackey, B. H.; Fuller, T. K.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the statistical signature of deep-seated landslides using basin wide topographic data and flowpath arrangement and explore the extent to which these globally derived signatures can be used to locally map landslides. We used directed distance from the divide, which accounts for the distance traveled along flowpaths starting from significant ridgelines, as a scale parameter and demonstrate that local slope vs. directed distance and curvature vs. local slope offer powerful means for identifying the presence of landslides in a landscape. By exploring a threshold on the probability distribution of local slopes conditional on directed distance we show that mapping of landslide features is possible. We apply the methodology to three 0.5 to 2.5 km2 watersheds in northern California and document three regions of distinct geomorphic signatures [Gangodagamage et al., 2011, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2010WR009252]. In region A, hillslope gradient increases with distance from the divide and flowpaths are divergent or parallel. Region B corresponds to the zone with highly convergent flowpaths and exhibits the strongest signal of landslide related features. Region C is a moderately convergent zone that transitions into the fluvial channel network. Next, we use specific quantiles of the probability density function of local slopes conditioned on directed distance from the divide to map individual landslide features. This analysis allows us to explore the 3D morphometry of the landslide affected basins and to develop a supervised set of ensemble templates for landslides as a function of local slope vs. directed distance (DD) relationship. Then we use this template and demonstrate that the landslide affected basins can be identified by iterative matching the landslide signature template with the basin wide signatures of the tributary basins in the South Fork Eel River, CA. Finally, we perform a multiscale analysis of the contributing area parameterized by directed

  7. Abstracts presented at the 7th World Alliance for Risk Factor Surveillance (WARFS) Global Conference. October 16-19, 2011. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    The 7th World Alliance for Risk Factor Surveillance (WARFS) Global Conference, hosted by the Public Health Agency of Canada, was held in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, from October 16 to 19, 2011. Previous WARFS conferences were held in USA (1999), Finland (2001), Australia (2003), Uruguay (2005) and Italy (2007, 2009). WARFS is a global working group on surveillance under the International Union for Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE) It supports the development of risk factor surveillance as a tool for evidence-based public health, acknowledging the importance of this source of information to inform, monitor and evaluate disease prevention and health promotion policies and programs. The theme of the 2011 Global Conference was the role of surveillance in the promotion of health. The Global Conference had 146 registered participants, making it the second most attended WARFS conference in its history. Over the three days, participants attended oral and poster presentations from 30 countries. The conference would not have been possible without the hard work of the International Scientific Committee and the Local Organizing Committee. To highlight the importance and the significance of this conference at an international level, Chronic Diseases and Injuries in Canada (CDIC) is pleased to publish this supplementary issue, which contains 70 abstracts presented at the 7th WARFS Global Conference. In the spirit the Global Conference, this collection of abstracts brings together surveillance material on risk factors, chronic diseases, infectious diseases and injuries from around the world. By making these abstracts widely available, CDIC hopes to further the conference objectives through a continued dialogue between those interested in linking risk factor surveillance to health promotion.

  8. A first landslide inventory in the Rwenzori Mountains, Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Liesbet; Dewitte, Olivier; Poesen, Jean; Sekajugo, John; Maes, Jan; Mertens, Kewan; Kervyn, Matthieu

    2015-04-01

    Landslides have significant impacts in many equatorial regions, particularly in the East-African highlands characterized by mountainous topography, intense rainfalls, deep weathering profiles, high population density and high vulnerability to geohazards. With its exceptionally steep topography, wet climate and active faulting, landslides can be expected to occur in the Rwenzori region as well. Whether or not this region is prone to landsliding is however unclear due to a lack of scientific studies and representation of this region in global landslide databases. In order to address this question, a first landslide inventory based on archive information is built. In total, 48 landslide and flashflood events, or combinations of these, are found. They caused 56 fatalities, considerable damage to road infrastructure, buildings and cropland, and rendered over 14,000 persons homeless. These numbers indicate that the Rwenzori Mountains are landslide-prone and that the impact of these events is significant. This archive inventory provided the basis for a thorough field inventory executed in three sub-regions of each 40-50 km² situated in the three districts of the Rwenzori Mountains and covering the main lithological units. Over 300 landslides were mapped in the field. Various contrasting mass wasting processes occur among which translational debris and soil slides, debris avalanches, debris flows and rotational soil slides. Landslides occur on almost all lithological groups present in the Rwenzori (Gneiss, Schists and Miocene to recent sediments), with the exception of Amphibolite, which does not appear to be susceptible to landslides. The majority of events are triggered by intense rainfall, although also earthquake-triggered landslides are identified, mostly related to the Mw 6.2 earthquake of 1994. The field inventory will be complemented and validated using very high resolution remotely sensed data and aerial photographs. This multi-temporal landslide inventory will

  9. Dynamic Attribution of Global Water Demand to Surface Water and Groundwater Resources: Effects of Abstractions and Return Flows on River Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, Inge; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshi; Bierkens, Marc

    2013-04-01

    As human water demand is increasing worldwide, groundwater is abstracted at rates that exceed groundwater recharge in many areas, resulting in depletion of existing groundwater stocks. Most studies, that focus on human water consumption and water stress indicate a gap between water demand and availability. However, between studies very different assumptions are made on how water abstraction is divided between surface water, groundwater, and other resources. Moreover, simplified assumptions are used of the interactions between groundwater and surface water. Here, we simulate at the global scale, the dynamic attribution of total water demand to surface water and groundwater resources, based on actual water availability and accounting for return flows and surface water- groundwater interactions. The global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB is used to simulate water storages, abstractions, and return flows for the model period 1960-2010, with a daily time step at 0.5° x 0.5° spatial resolution. Total water demand is defined as requirements for irrigation, industry, and domestic use. Water abstractions are variably taken from surface water and groundwater resources depending on availability of both resources. Return flows of non-consumed abstracted water contribute to a single source; those of irrigation recharging groundwater, those of industry and domestic use discharging to surface waters. Groundwater abstractions are taken from renewable groundwater, or when exceeding recharge from an alternative unlimited resource. This resource consists of non-renewable groundwater, or non-local water, the former being an estimate of groundwater depletion. Results show that worldwide the effect of water abstractions is evident, especially on the magnitude and frequency of low flows when the contribution of groundwater through baseflow is substantial. River regimes are minimally affected by abstractions in industrial regions because of the high return flows. In irrigated regions the

  10. Population exposed to landslide risk in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigila, Alessandro; Iadanza, Carla; Munafò, Michele; Baiocco, Fabio; Marinosci, Ines; Chiocchini, Raffaella; Mugnoli, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    Italy is one of the European countries most affected by landslides counting over 486,000 mass movements with a total area of 20,700 square kilometres equal to 6.9% of the national territory. Moreover Italy is a densely urbanized country: 8101 municipalities, about 200 inhabitants per sq. km, 16,000 km of rail network and 180,000 km of road network. Landslides caused more than 5000 fatalities in the last century and considerable damage to urban areas, transport infrastructure and facilities, environmental and cultural heritage. The aim of this work is to estimate the population exposed to landslide risk in Italy. The input data are: the Italian Landslide Inventory, the Italian Population Census data and the high-resolution Artificial surfaces-Imperviousness Layer (Geoland2). The Italian Landslide Inventory (Progetto IFFI) realised by ISPRA (Italian National Institute for Environmental Protection and Research) and the Regions and Self-governing Provinces, identifies landslides occurred in the national territory in accordance with standardized methods and using a detailed landslide mapping (1:10,000 scale). The 14th Population Census, made by ISTAT (Italian National Institute of Statistics) in 2001, contains data of resident population for the 382,534 census tracts in which Italy is divided. The pan-European high-resolution (HR) Artificial surfaces-Imperviousness Layer, realized using remote sensing data within the GMES initiative (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) by European Commission and European Space Agency, contains the degree of imperviousness (between 0 and 100%). GIS overlay of this information layer (20 x 20 m grid) with census tracts has allowed the spatialization of population within urban settlements of each census tract. This methodology has been particularly useful in the case of rural census tracts characterized by large surface area and low population density. The methodology could be also applied to estimate the population exposed to

  11. Ganges Chasma Landslide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 01 April 2002) This image shows a spectacular landslide along a portion of the southern wall of Ganges Chasma within Valles Marineris. Landslides have very characteristic morphologies on Earth, which they also display on Mars. These morphologies include a distinctive escarpment at the uppermost part of the landslide--called a head scarp (seen at the bottom of this image), a down-dropped block of material below that escarpment that dropped almost vertically, and a deposit of debris that moved away from the escarpment at high speed. In this example, the wall rock displayed in the upper part of the cliff is layered, with spurs and chutes created by differing amounts of erosion. Below the steep scarp is a smoother, steep slope of material with small, narrow tongues of debris that have eroded off of the escarpment since the landslide occurred (a talus slope). The actual landslide deposit, visible in the upper half of this image, shows striations that form by differences in the side-by-side motion during high velocity emplacement. This immense landslide traveled some 70 km at speeds that probably exceeded 100 kilometers per hour (60 miles per hour) before coming to rest, forming abrupt, terminal fronts (upper right corner of image). Even at these high speeds, this massive landslide was moving for nearly an hour before it came to rest.

  12. Landslides of Palestinian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alwahsh, H.

    2013-12-01

    Natural disasters are extreme sudden events caused by environmental and natural actors that take away the lives of many thousands of people each year and damage large amount of properties. They strike anywhere on earth, often without any warning. A risk maps of natural disaster are very useful to identify the places that might be adversely affected in the event of natural disaster. The earthquakes are one of natural disaster that have the greatest hazards and will cause loss of life and properties due to damaging the structures of building, dams, bridges. In addition, it will affect local geology and soil conditions. The site effects play an important role in earthquake risk because of its amplification or damping simulation. Another parameter in developing risk map is landslide, which is also one of the most important topics in site effect hazards. Palestine region has been suffering landslide hazards because of the topographical and geological conditions of this region. Most Palestine consists of mountainous area, which has great steep slopes and the type of soil is mainly grayish to yellowish silty clay (Marl Soil). Due to the above mentioned factors many landslides have been occurred from Negev south to the northern borders of Palestine. An example of huge and destruction landslide in a Palestine authority is the landslide in the White Mountain area in the city of Nablus, which occurred in 1997. The geotechnical and geophysical investigation as well as slope stability analysis should be considered in making landslide maps that are necessary to develop risk levels of the natural disaster. Landslides occurred in slopes that are created naturally or by human beings. Failure of soil mass occurs, and hence landslide of soil mass happen due to sliding of soil mass along a plane or curved surface. In general, the slopes become unstable when the shear stresses (driving force) generated in the soil mass exceed the available shearing resistance on the rupture surface

  13. Innovative Techniques for Teaching about Landslides and Triggered Landslide Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, F. E.; Malamud, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    When we think of a landslide (mass wasting), both the public and scientists often envisage an individual movement of earth material down a slope. Yet, landslides often occur not as individuals, but as parts of a triggered landslide event. This is where a trigger (e.g., an earthquake or heavy rainfall) results in up to tens of thousands of landslides in a region in the minutes to days after the trigger. In this paper, we will present ideas for innovative demonstrations, teaching practicals and projects, ranging from low-cost low-tech to more advanced digital methods, to communicate the ideas of landslides and triggered landslide events to the public and students. This paper is aimed at those in secondary school/university education and the public sector looking for examples to interest and inform their respective audiences about landslides, triggered landslide events, and the importance and implications of considering landslides not just as individuals, but as populations.

  14. Landslide Hazard Mapping in Rwanda Using Logistic Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piller, A.; Anderson, E.; Ballard, H.

    2015-12-01

    Landslides in the United States cause more than $1 billion in damages and 50 deaths per year (USGS 2014). Globally, figures are much more grave, yet monitoring, mapping and forecasting of these hazards are less than adequate. Seventy-five percent of the population of Rwanda earns a living from farming, mostly subsistence. Loss of farmland, housing, or life, to landslides is a very real hazard. Landslides in Rwanda have an impact at the economic, social, and environmental level. In a developing nation that faces challenges in tracking, cataloging, and predicting the numerous landslides that occur each year, satellite imagery and spatial analysis allow for remote study. We have focused on the development of a landslide inventory and a statistical methodology for assessing landslide hazards. Using logistic regression on approximately 30 test variables (i.e. slope, soil type, land cover, etc.) and a sample of over 200 landslides, we determine which variables are statistically most relevant to landslide occurrence in Rwanda. A preliminary predictive hazard map for Rwanda has been produced, using the variables selected from the logistic regression analysis.

  15. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents abstracts of SIG Sessions. Highlights include digital collections; information retrieval methods; public interest/fair use; classification and indexing; electronic publication; funding; globalization; information technology projects; interface design; networking in developing countries; metadata; multilingual databases; networked…

  16. Contemporary glacier retreat triggers a rapid landslide response, Great Aletsch Glacier, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kos, Andrew; Amann, Florian; Strozzi, Tazio; Delaloye, Reynald; Ruette, Jonas; Springman, Sarah

    2016-12-01

    The destabilization and catastrophic failure of landslides triggered by retreating glaciers is an expected outcome of global climate change and poses a significant threat to inhabitants of glaciated mountain valleys around the globe. Of particular importance are the formation of landslide-dammed lakes, outburst floods, and related sediment entrainment. Based on field observations and remote sensing of a deep-seated landslide, located at the present-day terminus of the Great Aletsch Glacier, we show that the spatiotemporal response of the landslide to glacier retreat is rapid, occurring within a decade. Our observations uniquely capture the critical period of increase in slope deformations, onset of failure, and show that measured displacements at the crown and toe regions of the landslide demonstrate a feedback mechanism between glacier ice reduction and response of the entire landslide body. These observations shed new light on the geomorphological processes of landslide response in paraglacial environments, which were previously understood to occur over significantly longer time periods.

  17. Handling Unquantifiable Uncertainties in Landslide Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, S.; Holcombe, E.; Pianosi, F.; Wagener, T.

    2015-12-01

    Landslides have many negative economic and societal impacts, including the potential for significant loss of life and damage to infrastructure. Slope stability assessment can be used to guide decisions about the management of landslide risk, but its usefulness can be challenged by high levels of uncertainty in predicting landslide occurrence. Prediction uncertainty may be associated with the choice of model that is used to assess slope stability, the quality of the available input data, or a lack of knowledge of how future climatic and socio-economic changes may affect future landslide risk. While some of these uncertainties can be characterised by relatively well-defined probability distributions, for other uncertainties, such as those linked to climate change, there is no agreement on what probability distribution should be used to characterise them. This latter type of uncertainty, often referred to as deep uncertainty, means that robust policies need to be developed that are expected to perform adequately under a wide range of future conditions. In our study the impact of deep uncertainty on slope stability predictions is assessed in a quantitative and structured manner using Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) and the Combined Hydrology and Stability Model (CHASM). In particular, we use and combine several GSA methods including the Method of Morris, Regional Sensitivity Analysis and CART, as well as advanced visualization tools. Our example application is a slope in the Caribbean, an area that is naturally susceptible to landslides due to a combination of high rainfall rates, steep slopes, and highly weathered residual soils. Rapid unplanned urbanisation and changing climate may further exacerbate landslide risk in the future. Our example shows how we can gain useful information in the presence of deep uncertainty by combining physically based models with GSA in a scenario discovery framework.

  18. Low H/L of initial and secondary landslides on Mars Valles Marineris floor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagi, H.; Fukuoka, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Mars Global Surveyer (MGS) has investigated the almost whole Martian topography with high resolution and its products are reflected in the Google Earth's martian option. This digital service provide huge opportunities to public to view the preserved landslide topography as well as to measure the parameters for landslide mobility such as average coefficient of friction (H/L), and apparent friction angle. Among those views, the Valles Marineris is the most landslide prone area and a lot of long runout gigantic landslides can be extracted along the tectonic cliff. Authors encouraged undergraduate students to measure this parameter as an exercise of introductory course of planetary science, especially of the gigantic initial landslides to compare with those of secondary landslides which looks like induced by subsequent triggers such as earthquake or metor impact. Preliminary results show that (1) The H/L values of the gigantic initial landslides are dependent on landslide volume as reported by previous studies; (2) secondary landslides of much less volumes generally have wide and thin spread features but much smaller friction like debris flows. Those characters imply that those landslides might have been induced in the landslide deposits of higher moisture content and/or runout on valley floor of highly saturated or shallow ground water table.

  19. Landslides - Cause and effect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radbruch-Hall, D. H.; Varnes, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Landslides can cause seismic disturbances; landslides can also result from seismic disturbances, and earthquake-induced slides have caused loss of life in many countries. Slides can cause disastrous flooding, particularly when landslide dams across streams are breached, and flooding may trigger slides. Slope movement in general is a major process of the geologic environment that places constraints on engineering development. In order to understand and foresee both the causes and effects of slope movement, studies must be made on a regional scale, at individual sites, and in the laboratory. Areal studies - some embracing entire countries - have shown that certain geologic conditions on slopes facilitate landsliding; these conditions include intensely sheared rocks; poorly consolidated, fine-grained clastic rocks; hard fractured rocks underlain by less resistant rocks; or loose accumulations of fine-grained surface debris. Field investigations as well as mathematical- and physical-model studies are increasing our understanding of the mechanism of slope movement in fractured rock, and assist in arriving at practical solutions to landslide problems related to all kinds of land development for human use. Progressive failure of slopes has been studied in both soil and rock mechanics. New procedures have been developed to evaluate earthquake response of embankments and slopes. The finite element method of analysis is being extensively used in the calculation of slope stability in rock broken by joints, faults, and other discontinuities. ?? 1976 International Association of Engineering Geology.

  20. HYDROGEOLOGY OF THE THERMAL LANDSLIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Vantine, J.

    1985-01-22

    The large Thermal Landslide overlies the initial area of geothermal development at The Geysers. The landslide is waterbearing while the underlying Franciscan formation bedrock units are essentially non-waterbearing except where affected by hydrothermal alteration. Perched ground water moving through the landslide is heated prior to discharge as spring flow.

  1. Submarine landslides hazard offshore Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Oded

    2016-04-01

    Submarine landslides pose significant natural hazards. They can damage seafloor infrastructure, such as that used to recover oil and gas or seafloor telecommunication cables, and even generate tsunamis. We recently mapped 447 submarine landslides across the east Mediterranean continental slope, offshore Israel (hereafter the studied area). The mapped landslides are found at water depths of 130 m to 1,000 m and their volume ranges 10-5 - 100 km3. Landslide scars are typically related to a critical slope angle of >4° . Landslides at the northern part of the studied area are spatially associated with fault scarps and are smaller than the ones on the southern part. In this work we evaluate the potential hazard to population and to on- and off- shore facilities posed by submarine landslides across the studied area. We integrate three independent probabilities: (1) the probability for a landslide event of a given volume, based on the size distribution of the mapped landslides; (2) the probability for a landslide event in a given time, based on the reoccurrence time of triggering earthquakes with M >7, and on a 50,000 years general time frame derived from submarine landslides identified across the Mediterranean Sea; (3) the probability for a landslide event in a given area, based on the distribution of slopes exceeding the critical angle. Overall, the fraction of potentially destructive landslides (size > 0.1 km3) is small, 0.05. Thus, considering typical planning time scales of less than 100 years, the calculated hazard is only moderate. The small fraction of landslides with tsunamogenic potential (size > 1 km3), suggests that the hazard for landslide-induced tsunamis along the open slope part of the studied area is small. Landslides in the southern part of the studied area are larger and thus present a somewhat bigger potential source of tsunami waves.

  2. Landslide Force History inversion: Measuring the dynamics of catastrophic landslides using seismology and satellite remote-sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, C. P.; Ekstrom, G.

    2010-12-01

    Empirical constraints on the dynamics of very large landslides are hard to obtain. In principle, such constraints are to be found in the long-period seismic waves radiated by a landslide mass sliding down and variably loading the substrate beneath. Here we present inversions of long-period seismograms for the time-varying forces driving catastrophic landslides at a number of locations around the world. Once calibrated using remote-sensing imagery and differential topographic data (where possible), these ``Landslide Force History'' (LFH) inversions indicate masses of 0.4-7× 1011kg accelerated at 1-3 m/s2. Integration of the LFH inversions indicates the mean landslide masses reached speeds of 25-75 m/s and traveled distances of 800m to 6000m in 50-160s along trajectories strongly controlled by relief. Analysis of the rates of change of potential and kinetic energy indicate mean effective friction coefficients of 0.2--0.3. Fundamental properties of catastrophic landsliding can therefore be estimated by remote observation, and global assessment of major landslides is feasible in near-real-time.

  3. A Novel Approach based on GPS/GNSS Surveying to Monitor Excessive Active Landslide: A Case Study of Intepe Landslide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güngördü, Deniz; Cuneyt Erenoǧlu, R.; Akcay, Özgün; Erenoǧlu, Oya

    2016-04-01

    Landslide is the down-slope of soil, rock and organic material under the influence of gravity and they leave deep scars in the topography and occur quite fast in a short time, are one of the most dangerous types of natural disasters. Geology, geotechnics and geodesy sciences had implemented many kind of technique which is many usefully and early warning systems with increasing of technologically events for monitoring. In last decades, the Global Positioning System (GPS/GNSS) technology has shown that it is capable to monitor sub-centimeter landslide deformations. In this study, it is imposed to represent the area under investigation by a number of GPS/GNSS sites in order to monitor the landslide phenomena. After the landslide occured in February 2015 in Intepe, Canakkale (NW Turkey), some sites are used to define a stable reference frame and remaining stations are the monitoring points situated in the deformation area. In this way, these sites were surveyed for 6 days using rapid-static GPS/GNSS technique. Then, a series of deformation analysis was performed between consecutive days. Finally, the determination of the significant movement of these sites was done relatively to the reference ones, e.g. the movement was 3.5 cm per a day averagely. This paper therefore highlights an investigation of landslide motions to discover the characteristics of mass movement for the excessive active landslide. Keywords: GPS/GNSS, landslide, deformation monitoring, Intepe, Turkey

  4. Near real-time landslide hazard assessment using remotely sensed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschbaum, D.; Stanley, T.; Cappelaere, P. G.; Simmons, J. M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing data offers the unique perspective to provide situational awareness of hydrometeorological hazards over large areas in a way that is impossible to achieve with in situ data. Recent work has shown that rainfall-triggered landslides, while typically local hazards that occupy small spatial areas, can be approximated over regional scales in near real-time. By leveraging data from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and other remote and in situ sources, we can represent the conditions for landslide triggering over broad regions. The landslide hazard assessment for situational awareness (LHASA) model integrates satellite precipitation data, a modeled and satellite-based soil moisture product and susceptibility information to improve the characterization of areas that may experience landslide activity at regional and global scales. The goal of LHASA is to better inform decision-making and disaster response agencies on landslide hazards at the regional and global scale. This system outputs straightforward landslide hazard assessment products available in near real-time that can be used to identify landslide-prone areas and the general timing of landslide initiation. This presentation summarizes the results of this modeling framework, discusses the utility of remote sensing products for landslide hazard characterization, and outlines the path forward for this modeling approach.

  5. Landslide risk assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lessing, P.; Messina, C.P.; Fonner, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    Landslide risk can be assessed by evaluating geological conditions associated with past events. A sample of 2,4 16 slides from urban areas in West Virginia, each with 12 associated geological factors, has been analyzed using SAS computer methods. In addition, selected data have been normalized to account for areal distribution of rock formations, soil series, and slope percents. Final calculations yield landslide risk assessments of 1.50=high risk. The simplicity of the method provides for a rapid, initial assessment prior to financial investment. However, it does not replace on-site investigations, nor excuse poor construction. ?? 1983 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  6. The Manti, Utah, landslide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, R.W.; Johnson, R.B.; Schuster, R.L.; Williams, G.P.

    1988-01-01

    PART A: The Manti landslide is in Manti Canyon on the west side of the Wasatch Plateau in central Utah. In early June 1974, coincident with the melting of a snowpack, a rock slump/debris flow occurred on the south rim of Manti Canyon. Part of the slumped material mixed with meltwater and mobilized into a series of debris flows that traveled down the slope a distance of as much as 1.2 km. Most of the flows were deposited either at the base of the steep rocks of the canyon rim or at the site of an old, silted reservoir. A small part of the debris flow deposit stopped on the head of the very large, relatively inactive Manti landslide. The upper part of the landslide began moving as cracks propagated downslope. A little more than a year later, August 1975, movement extended the full length of the old landslide, and about 19 million m 3 of debris about 3 km long and as much as 800 m wide threatened to block the canyon. The upper part of the landslide apparently had moved small amounts between 1939 and 1974. This part of the landslide, identifiable on pre-1974 aerial photographs, consisted of well-defined linears on the landslide flanks and two large internal toe bulges about 2 km downslope from the head. The abrupt reactivation in 1974 proceeded quickly after the debris flows had provided a surcharge in the head and crown area. Movement propagated downslope at 4-5 m/h for the first few days following reactivation. During 1974, the reactivation probably encompassed all the parts of the landslide that had moved small amounts between 1939 and 1974. Movement nearly or completely stopped during the winter of 1974-75, but began again in the spring of 1975. The landslide enlarged from the flanks of the internal toe bulges to Manti Creek at a rate of 2-3 m/h. Movement stopped again during the winter of 1975-76 and began again in the spring of 1976. Thereafter, the displacements have been small compared to earlier. The displacement rates for the landslide were variable depending

  7. Large landslides from oceanic volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holcomb, R.T.; Searle, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    Large landslides are ubiquitous around the submarine flanks of Hawaiian volcanoes, and GLORIA has also revealed large landslides offshore from Tristan da Cunha and El Hierro. On both of the latter islands, steep flanks formerly attributed to tilting or marine erosion have been reinterpreted as landslide headwalls mantled by younger lava flows. These landslides occur in a wide range of settings and probably represent only a small sample from a large population. They may explain the large volumes of archipelagic aprons and the stellate shapes of many oceanic volcanoes. Large landslides and associated tsunamis pose hazards to many islands. -from Authors

  8. Rainfall-triggered landslides, anthropogenic hazards, and mitigation strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Rainfall-triggered landslides are part of a natural process of hillslope erosion that can result in catastrophic loss of life and extensive property damage in mountainous, densely populated areas. As global population expansion on or near steep hillslopes continues, the human and economic costs associated with landslides will increase. Landslide hazard mitigation strategies generally involve hazard assessment mapping, warning systems, control structures, and regional landslide planning and policy development. To be sustainable, hazard mitigation requires that management of natural resources is closely connected to local economic and social interests. A successful strategy is dependent on a combination of multi-disciplinary scientific and engineering approaches, and the political will to take action at the local community to national scale.

  9. Landslide inventories: The essential part of seismic landslide hazard analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harp, E.L.; Keefer, D.K.; Sato, H.P.; Yagi, H.

    2011-01-01

    A detailed and accurate landslide inventory is an essential part of seismic landslide hazard analysis. An ideal inventory would cover the entire area affected by an earthquake and include all of the landslides that are possible to detect down to sizes of 1-5. m in length. The landslides must also be located accurately and mapped as polygons depicting their true shapes. Such mapped landslide distributions can then be used to perform seismic landslide hazard analysis and other quantitative analyses. Detailed inventory maps of landslide triggered by earthquakes began in the early 1960s with the use of aerial photography. In recent years, advances in technology have resulted in the accessibility of satellite imagery with sufficiently high resolution to identify and map all but the smallest of landslides triggered by a seismic event. With this ability to view any area of the globe, we can acquire imagery for any earthquake that triggers significant numbers of landslides. However, a common problem of incomplete coverage of the full distributions of landslides has emerged along with the advent of high resolution satellite imagery. ?? 2010.

  10. Interactive Teaching about Landslides and Triggered Landslide Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Faith E.; Malamud, Bruce D.

    2015-04-01

    When we think of a landslide (mass wasting), both the public and scientists often envisage an individual movement of earth material down a slope. Yet, landslides often occur not as individuals, but as parts of a triggered landslide event. This is where a trigger (e.g., an earthquake or heavy rainfall) results in up to tens of thousands of landslides in a region in the minutes to days after the trigger. The sum of the impacts of these landslides may be greater than individual parts. This interactive Prezi poster will present ideas for innovative demonstrations, teaching practicals and projects, ranging from low-cost low-tech to more advanced digital methods, to communicate the ideas of landslides and triggered landslide events to the public and students. We will give live hands-on demonstrations and welcome discussions with other scientists to share ideas and best practices. This paper is aimed at those in secondary school/university education and the public sector looking for examples to interest and inform their respective audiences about landslides, triggered landslide events, and the importance and implications of considering landslides not just as individuals, but as populations.

  11. Suggested nomenclature for landslides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruden, D.M.; Novograd, S.; Pilot, G.A.; Krauter, E.; Bhandari, R.K.; Cotecchia, V.; Nakamura, H.; Okagbue, C.O.; Zhuoyuan , Zhang; Hutchinson, J.N.; Varnes, D.J.; Ter-Stepanian, G.I.

    1990-01-01

    The IAEG Commission on Landslides and other Mass Movements on Slopes has proposed English and French names for 19 identifiable features of slope movements and for 7 dimensions of those features. The Commission intends to publish this list in other languages and to supplement and revise it from time to time.

  12. Coprates Chasma Landslide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Coprates Chasma comprises the central portion of the Valles Marineris canyon system complex. This image of the southern wall of Coprates Chasma contains a landslide deposit with dunes over portions of slide. Landslides have very characteristic morphologies on Earth, which they also display on Mars. These morphologies include a distinctive escarpment at the uppermost part of the landslide--called a head scarp (seen at the bottom of this image), a down-dropped block of material below that escarpment that dropped almost vertically, and a deposit of debris that moved away from the escarpment at high speed. In this example, the wall rock displayed in the upper part of the cliff contains spurs and chutes created by differing amounts of erosion. The actual landslide deposit is delineated by its fan-shape and lobate margins. The dunes subsequently marched upon the landslide deposit.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a

  13. An integrated methodology to develop a standard for landslide early warning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faisal Fathani, Teuku; Karnawati, Dwikorita; Wilopo, Wahyu

    2016-09-01

    Landslides are one of the most widespread and commonly occurring natural hazards. In regions of high vulnerability, these complex hazards can cause significant negative social and economic impacts. Considering the worldwide susceptibility to landslides, it is necessary to establish a standard for early warning systems specific to landslide disaster risk reduction. This standard would provide guidance in conducting landslide detection, prediction, interpretation, and response. This paper proposes a new standard consisting of seven sub-systems for landslide early warning. These include risk assessment and mapping, dissemination and communication, establishment of the disaster preparedness and response team, development of an evacuation map, standardized operating procedures, installation of monitoring and warning services, and the building of local commitment to the operation and maintenance of the entire program. This paper details the global standard with an example of its application from Central Java, one of 20 landslide-prone provinces in Indonesia that have used this standard since 2012.

  14. Regional analysis of distribution of pre and post 2015 Nepal Earthquake landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valagussa, Andrea; Frattini, Paolo; Crosta, Giovanni; Valbuzzi, Elena

    2016-04-01

    A magnitude 7.8 earthquake struck Nepal on April 25, 2015. Three landslide inventories have been prepared in four districts: Dhading (1885 km2), Sindhupalchok (2488 km2), Rasuwa (1522 km2) and Nuwakot (1194 km2), that are located north of Kathmandu. These inventories extend 14 to 138 km SE from the epicenter of the main shock (April 25, 2015), 4.5 to 143 km NW from the epicenter of the main aftershock (May 12, 2015), and 34 to 136 km from the Main Frontal Thrust. The first inventory is a coseismic and post-seismic landslide inventory based on multi-temporal images (Google Earth, Google Crisis maps, Bing maps), and helicopter-based video. The second one is a pre-event shallow landslide inventory. In these two inventories the most abundant landslide types are: debris flows, shallow translational slides, and rockfalls. The third is a deep seated landslide inventory, in which the most represented landslide types are rock avalanches, slumps, rockslides and deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSD). All the landslides have been mapped as individual polygons. For the analysis we focus our attention on four districts: First we studied how the landslide frequency density changes as a function of topographic parameters (i.e. slope gradient, slope aspect, and elevation). The analyses have been based on the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM). For coseismic and post-seismic landslides we observed that the mean slope gradient at which the landslide occurs is higher with respect to the two other inventories (50° and 30/40° respectively). The slope aspect of coseismic and post-seismic landslides is also different, with a larger frequency of landslides towards SW, whereas in pre-event landslides the most common slope aspect is SE. This could be related to the direction of the seismic wave. At least the coseismic and post-seismic landslides occur, in mean, at an elevation lower than the pre-event landslides. We also analyzed the relationship between the

  15. Research Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnick, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Presents research abstracts from the ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology. Topics include: classroom communication apprehension and distance education; outcomes of a distance-delivered science course; the NASA/Kennedy Space Center Virtual Science Mentor program; survey of traditional and distance learning higher education members;…

  16. Research Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnik, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Presents six research abstracts from the ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) database. Topics include: effectiveness of distance versus traditional on-campus education; improved attribution recall from diversification of environmental context during computer-based instruction; qualitative analysis of situated Web-based learning;…

  17. Abstract Constructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietropola, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Describes a lesson designed to culminate a year of eighth-grade art classes in which students explore elements of design and space by creating 3-D abstract constructions. Outlines the process of using foam board and markers to create various shapes and optical effects. (DSK)

  18. A suggested method for reporting a landslide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fell, Robin; Lacerda, W.; Cruden, D.M.; Evans, S.G.; LaRochelle, P.; Martinez, Fernando; Beltran, Lisandro; Jesenak, J.; Novograd, S.; Krauter, E.; Slunga, E.; Pilot, G.A.; Brand, E.W.; Farkas, J.; Bhandari, R.K.; Cotecchia, V.; Esu, Franco; Fujita, H.; Nakamura, H.; Sassa, K.; Ting, W.H.; Salt, Graham; Janbu, Nilmar; Nespak, A.M.; Gongxian, Wang; Zhuoyuan , Zhang; Michelena, R.; Popescu, Mihai; Viberg, Leif; Bonnard, C.; Hutchinson, J.N.; Einstein , H.H.; Schuster, R.L.; Varnes, D.J.; Ter-Martiros­ian, Z.G.; Ter-Stepanian, G.I.; Anagnosti, P.; Hashizume, M.; Watanabe, Masayuki

    1990-01-01

    The Landslide Report is a Suggested Method developed by the International Geotechnical Societies' UNESCO Working Party on World Landslide Inventory for reporting the position, date, type, geometry, volume and damage of significant landslides.

  19. Landsat applied to landslide mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauchyn, D. J.; Trench, N. R.

    1978-01-01

    A variety of features characteristic of rotational landslides may be identified on Landsat imagery. These include tonal mottling, tonal banding, major and secondary scarps, and ponds. Pseudostereoscopic viewing of 9 by 9 in. transparencies was useful for the detailed identification of landslides, whereas 1:250,000 prints enlarged from 70 mm negatives were most suitable for regional analysis. Band 7 is the most useful band for landslide recognition, due to accentuation of ponds and shadows. Examination of both bands 7 and 5, including vegetation information, was found to be most suitable. Although, given optimum terrain conditions, some landslides in Colorado may be recognized, many smaller landslides are not identifiable. Consequently, Landsat is not recommended for detailed regional mapping, or for use in areas similar to Colorado, where alternative (aircraft) imagery is available. However, Landsat may prove useful for preliminary landslide mapping in relatively unknown areas.

  20. Landsliding in partially saturated materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godt, J.W.; Baum, R.L.; Lu, N.

    2009-01-01

    [1] Rainfall-induced landslides are pervasive in hillslope environments around the world and among the most costly and deadly natural hazards. However, capturing their occurrence with scientific instrumentation in a natural setting is extremely rare. The prevailing thinking on landslide initiation, particularly for those landslides that occur under intense precipitation, is that the failure surface is saturated and has positive pore-water pressures acting on it. Most analytic methods used for landslide hazard assessment are based on the above perception and assume that the failure surface is located beneath a water table. By monitoring the pore water and soil suction response to rainfall, we observed shallow landslide occurrence under partially saturated conditions for the first time in a natural setting. We show that the partially saturated shallow landslide at this site is predictable using measured soil suction and water content and a novel unified effective stress concept for partially saturated earth materials. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Venus - Landslide Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Magellan spacecraft has observed remnant landslide deposits apparently resulting from the collapse of volcanic structures. This image, centered at 45.2 degrees south latitude, 201.4 degrees east longitude, shows a collapse deposit 70 kilometers (43 miles) across. The bright, highly textured deposit near the center of the image probably consists of huge blocks of fractured volcanic rock, many as large as several hundred meters across. A remnant of the volcano itself, about 20 kilometers (12.4 miles) across, is seen at the center of the image. The distorted radar appearance of the volcano is a result of extremely steep slopes on the 'scars' from which the landslide material originated. A field of numerous small volcanic domes can be seen in the northern half of the image. The bright irregular lineaments trending to the north-northwest are ridges caused by regional tectonic deformation of the upper layers of the Venusian crust.

  2. Landslides in Valles Marineris, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchitta, B. K.

    1979-01-01

    The morphology of the landslides in the Martian equatorial troughs, the geologic structure of the troughs, the time of emplacement, the similarity to terrestrial landslides, and the origin and mechanism of transport are analyzed. About 35 large landslides well-resolved on Viking images were examined, and it is found that the major landslides cover 31,000 sq km of the trough floors, and individual slides range in area from 40 to 7000 sq km. The morphologic variations of the landslides can be attributed mainly to their degree of confinement on trough floors. Many prominent landslides appear to be of similar age and were emplaced after a major faulting that dropped the trough floors. Most sliding occurred after the created scarps were dissected into spurs, gullies, and tributary canyons. Emplacement of the landslides approximately coincided with a late episode of major eruptive activity of the Tharsis volcanoes, and it is suggested that the slides may have originated as gigantic mudflows with slump blocks at their heads. The large size of many landslides is due to the fault scarps as high as 7 km on which they formed in the absence of vigorous fluvial erosion. The landslides suggest that Mars is earthlike in some respects, which may be important for further evaluations.

  3. Eos Chasma Landslides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This VIS image shows several landslides within Eos Chasma. Many very large landslides have occurred within different portions of Valles Marineris. Note where the northern wall has failed in a upside-down bowl shape, releasing the material that formed the landslide deposit.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8, Longitude 318.6 East (41.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  4. Risks from earthquake-induced landslides in the Himalayan Arc (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petley, D. N.

    2013-12-01

    Landslides represent an important hazard during large earthquakes in high mountain areas, causing substantial levels of loss. In particular, after the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan triggered very large numbers of coseismic landslides, there has been increasing levels of interest in the mechanisms through which earthquakes trigger mass movements and in the development of techniques to assess coseismic landslide hazard. However, the analysis of the hazards and risks associated with potential landslides in high mountain areas in less developed countries subject to earthquakes remains rare. Nepal is a country with high rates of historic seismicity, in many cases characterised by rare but very large earthquake events. There is a substantial body of scientific evidence that suggests that this is an area of very high seismic hazard. The combination of steep topography in tectonically-deformed, weak rocks; high uplift rates; and intense monsoonal rainfall mean that this is an area that is subject to high rates of landslide activity. Indeed, in terms of numbers of events and levels of loss the southern edge of the Himalayas is the most important global hotspot for landslide activity, and Nepal is a focus of activity within this zone. This research considers the likely occurrence of landslides in Nepal in the event of a large earthquake. The study is focused on the Central Gap, an important seismic gap located in western Nepal. This seismic gap is thought to have the potential to generate an earthquake in the range of M=7.8 to M=8.3. The study takes a scenario-based approach to landslide hazard, which is helpful for the planning of emergency response. It examines the likelihood of such an earthquake, demonstrating the level of hazard is very high. Data relating to existing rates of landslides in the area likely to be affected by such a seismic event is examined, which suggests that this is a highly landslide-prone region. Data and distribution patterns from inventories

  5. Landslide dynamics from seismology: new results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, C. P.; Ekstrom, G.; Hibert, C.

    2015-12-01

    We have recently shown how large landslides can be detected, located, and their dynamics measured in near-real-time through inversion of long-period surface waves. Here I will talk about our discovery, over several years, of multi-km-scale landslides in remote regions across the world, several of which remain unreported, and how we have developed insights into landslide physics using a large inventory of such observations. Slope failures accelerating masses exceeding 10 megatons at 1-3m/s^2 generate forces large enough to trigger teleseismic waves detectable at broadband stations located 100s of kms distant. Inversion of such signals using a single-force model locates the epicenter to around +/-20km, and generates an approximate time series of the forces exerted by the evolving mass motion at that fixed point. This 3D vector sequence indicates the direction and magnitude of accelerations and thus momentum vector changes of the bulk landslide mass. Assuming constancy of this unknown mass during the main phase of motion allows us to infer a mass-scaled trajectory of motion of the mass center in 3D. Calibration against an observed runout distance leads to an estimate of then bulk mass. Conversely, use of an otherwise-estimated landslide mass (e.g., from differential topo mapping) leads to a calibration of the runout path without the need to observe it directly. In either case, comparison can be made against field and remote-sensing observations to check the validity of the method. Here we present multiple such tests against landslides discovered by our group in Alaska, Tibet, the Andes, and more. I will summarize analysis of the dynamical properties of these slope failures and discuss their implications. Simple scaling is seen among a host of dynamical properties, including peak force, mass, momentum, peak kinetic energy, etc. Roughly 5-15 events of this magnitude are seen globally each year. The majority strike in the periglacial environments of Alaska and Himalaya

  6. Automated quantification of distributed landslide movement using circular tree trunks extracted from terrestrial laser scan data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conner, Jeremy C.; Olsen, Michael J.

    2014-06-01

    This manuscript presents a novel algorithm to automatically detect landslide movement in a forested area using displacements of tree trunks distributed across the landslide surveyed repeatedly using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). Common landslide monitoring techniques include: inclinometers, global position system (GPS), and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR). While these techniques provide valuable data for monitoring landslides, they can be difficult to apply with adequate spatial or temporal resolution needed to understand complex landslides, specifically in forested environments. Comparison of the center coordinates (determined via least-squares fit of the TLS data) of a cross section of the tree trunk between consecutive surveys enable quantification of landslide movement rates, which can be used to analyze patterns of landslide displacement. The capabilities of this new methodology were tested through a case-study analyzing the Johnson Creek Landslide, a complex, quick moving coastal landslide, which has proven difficult to monitor using other techniques. A parametric analysis of fitting thresholds was also conducted to determine the reliability of tree trunk displacements calculated and the number of features that were extracted. The optimal parameters in selecting trees for movement analysis were found to be less than 1.5 cm for the RMS residuals of the circle fit and less than 1.0 cm for the difference in the calculated tree radii between epochs.

  7. On the characteristics of landslide tsunamis

    PubMed Central

    Løvholt, F.; Pedersen, G.; Harbitz, C. B.; Glimsdal, S.; Kim, J.

    2015-01-01

    This review presents modelling techniques and processes that govern landslide tsunami generation, with emphasis on tsunamis induced by fully submerged landslides. The analysis focuses on a set of representative examples in simplified geometries demonstrating the main kinematic landslide parameters influencing initial tsunami amplitudes and wavelengths. Scaling relations from laboratory experiments for subaerial landslide tsunamis are also briefly reviewed. It is found that the landslide acceleration determines the initial tsunami elevation for translational landslides, while the landslide velocity is more important for impulsive events such as rapid slumps and subaerial landslides. Retrogressive effects stretch the tsunami, and in certain cases produce enlarged amplitudes due to positive interference. In an example involving a deformable landslide, it is found that the landslide deformation has only a weak influence on tsunamigenesis. However, more research is needed to determine how landslide flow processes that involve strong deformation and long run-out determine tsunami generation. PMID:26392615

  8. On the characteristics of landslide tsunamis.

    PubMed

    Løvholt, F; Pedersen, G; Harbitz, C B; Glimsdal, S; Kim, J

    2015-10-28

    This review presents modelling techniques and processes that govern landslide tsunami generation, with emphasis on tsunamis induced by fully submerged landslides. The analysis focuses on a set of representative examples in simplified geometries demonstrating the main kinematic landslide parameters influencing initial tsunami amplitudes and wavelengths. Scaling relations from laboratory experiments for subaerial landslide tsunamis are also briefly reviewed. It is found that the landslide acceleration determines the initial tsunami elevation for translational landslides, while the landslide velocity is more important for impulsive events such as rapid slumps and subaerial landslides. Retrogressive effects stretch the tsunami, and in certain cases produce enlarged amplitudes due to positive interference. In an example involving a deformable landslide, it is found that the landslide deformation has only a weak influence on tsunamigenesis. However, more research is needed to determine how landslide flow processes that involve strong deformation and long run-out determine tsunami generation.

  9. Bridging Empirical and Physical Approaches for Landslide Monitoring and Early Warning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Adler, Robert; Kumar, Sujay; Harrison, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Rainfall-triggered landslides typically occur and are evaluated at local scales, using slope-stability models to calculate coincident changes in driving and resisting forces at the hillslope level in order to anticipate slope failures. Over larger areas, detailed high resolution landslide modeling is often infeasible due to difficulties in quantifying the complex interaction between rainfall infiltration and surface materials as well as the dearth of available in situ soil and rainfall estimates and accurate landslide validation data. This presentation will discuss how satellite precipitation and surface information can be applied within a landslide hazard assessment framework to improve landslide monitoring and early warning by considering two disparate approaches to landslide hazard assessment: an empirical landslide forecasting algorithm and a physical slope-stability model. The goal of this research is to advance near real-time landslide hazard assessment and early warning at larger spatial scales. This is done by employing high resolution surface and precipitation information within a probabilistic framework to provide more physically-based grounding to empirical landslide triggering thresholds. The empirical landslide forecasting tool, running in near real-time at http://trmm.nasa.gov, considers potential landslide activity at the global scale and relies on Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation data and surface products to provide a near real-time picture of where landslides may be triggered. The physical approach considers how rainfall infiltration on a hillslope affects the in situ hydro-mechanical processes that may lead to slope failure. Evaluation of these empirical and physical approaches are performed within the Land Information System (LIS), a high performance land surface model processing and data assimilation system developed within the Hydrological Sciences Branch at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. LIS provides the

  10. The National Landslide Information Center; data to reduce landslide damage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, W. M.

    1992-01-01

    In a world of persistent and increasing construction on and occupation of hillslopes, canyons, and coastal bluffs, landslides are exacting an inexorable toll of human life and economic loss. In the 1980's, massive landslides disasters occurred throughout the world, many in regions where such disasters were historically unprecedented, or where their potential was forgotten or disregarded. by present generations. In some cases, large populations had moved onto unstable lands before renewed landslide activity. For example, the San Francisco Bay region in population between 1955 and 1982, and much of the new development occurred on hillsides and in canyons. Major rainstorms in both 1955 and 1982 produced abundant landslides throughout the region, but the landslides in 1982 proved much more devastating than those in 1955 because of the increased population density on sloping ground. Similar situations persist in many other population centers surrounded by hills and mountains, such as Rio de Janeiro, Hong Kong, and Los Angeles. 

  11. Landslide Hazard Assessment and Mapping in the Guil Catchment (Queyras, Southern French Alps): From Landslide Inventory to Susceptibility Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roulleau, Louise; Bétard, François; Carlier, Benoît; Lissak, Candide; Fort, Monique

    2016-04-01

    Landslides are common natural hazards in the Southern French Alps, where they may affect human lives and cause severe damages to infrastructures. As a part of the SAMCO research project dedicated to risk evaluation in mountain areas, this study focuses on the Guil river catchment (317 km2), Queyras, to assess landslide hazard poorly studied until now. In that area, landslides are mainly occasional, low amplitude phenomena, with limited direct impacts when compared to other hazards such as floods or snow avalanches. However, when interacting with floods during extreme rainfall events, landslides may have indirect consequences of greater importance because of strong hillslope-channel connectivity along the Guil River and its tributaries (i.e. positive feedbacks). This specific morphodynamic functioning reinforces the need to have a better understanding of landslide hazards and their spatial distribution at the catchment scale to prevent local population from disasters with multi-hazard origin. The aim of this study is to produce a landslide susceptibility mapping at 1:50 000 scale as a first step towards global estimation of landslide hazard and risk. The three main methodologies used for assessing landslide susceptibility are qualitative (i.e. expert opinion), deterministic (i.e. physics-based models) and statistical methods (i.e. probabilistic models). Due to the rapid development of geographical information systems (GIS) during the last two decades, statistical methods are today widely used because they offer a greater objectivity and reproducibility at large scales. Among them, multivariate analyses are considered as the most robust techniques, especially the logistic regression method commonly used in landslide susceptibility mapping. However, this method like others is strongly dependent on the accuracy of the input data to avoid significant errors in the final results. In particular, a complete and accurate landslide inventory is required before the modelling

  12. Landslide triggering by rain infiltration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, Richard M.

    2000-01-01

    Landsliding in response to rainfall involves physical processes that operate on disparate timescales. Relationships between these timescales guide development of a mathematical model that uses reduced forms of Richards equation to evaluate effects of rainfall infiltration on landslide occurrence, timing, depth, and acceleration in diverse situations. The longest pertinent timescale is A/D0, where D0 is the maximum hydraulic diffusivity of the soil and A is the catchment area that potentially affects groundwater pressures at a prospective landslide slip surface location with areal coordinates x, y and depth H. Times greater than A/D0 are necessary for establishment of steady background water pressures that develop at (x, y, H) in response to rainfall averaged over periods that commonly range from days to many decades. These steady groundwater pressures influence the propensity for landsliding at (x, y, H), but they do not trigger slope failure. Failure results from rainfall over a typically shorter timescale H2/D0 associated with transient pore pressure transmission during and following storms. Commonly, this timescale ranges from minutes to months. The shortest timescale affecting landslide responses to rainfall is √(H/g), where g is the magnitude of gravitational acceleration. Postfailure landslide motion occurs on this timescale, which indicates that the thinnest landslides accelerate most quickly if all other factors are constant. Effects of hydrologic processes on landslide processes across these diverse timescales are encapsulated by a response function, R(t*) = √(t*/π) exp (-1/t*) - erfc (1/√t*), which depends only on normalized time, t*. Use of R(t*) in conjunction with topographic data, rainfall intensity and duration information, an infinite-slope failure criterion, and Newton's second law predicts the timing, depth, and acceleration of rainfall-triggered landslides. Data from contrasting landslides that exhibit rapid, shallow motion and slow, deep

  13. Landslides on Callisto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Recent Galileo images of the surface of Jupiter's moon Callisto have revealed large landslide deposits within two large impact craters seen in the right side of this image. The two landslides are about 3 to 3.5 kilometers (1.8 to 2.1 miles) in length. They occurred when material from the crater wall failed under the influence of gravity, perhaps aided by seismic disturbances from nearby impacts. These deposits are interesting because they traveled several kilometers from the crater wall in the absence of an atmosphere or other fluids which might have lubricated the flow. This could indicate that the surface material on Callisto is very fine-grained, and perhaps is being 'fluffed' by electrostatic forces which allowed the landslide debris to flow extended distances in the absence of an atmosphere.

    This image was acquired on September 16th, 1997 by the Solid State Imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft, during the spacecraft's tenth orbit around Jupiter. North is to the top of the image, with the sun illuminating the scene from the right. The center of this image is located near 25.3 degrees north latitude, 141.3 degrees west longitude. The image, which is 55 kilometers (33 miles) by 44 kilometers (26 miles) across, was acquired at a resolution of 100 meters per picture element.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  14. Weathering Processes Across Extreme Erosional Gradients: Do Landslides Matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emberson, R.; Hovius, N.; Galy, A.; Marc, O.

    2015-12-01

    A process-based understanding of weathering in actively eroding mountain belts is vital to understand how linkages between erosion and weathering affect global biogeochemical cycles on a range of timescales. Here we present surface water chemistry data from Southern Taiwan that demonstrates the impact of variable erosive processes on weathering budgets on a large range of scales, from tens of metres to large catchments (>50km2). Southern Taiwan is an excellent example of a number of gradients in erosive processes, with relief and median slope increasing from the southernmost small hills to mountainous threshold-hillslopes with up to 2.5km of relief approximately 100km to the north. Furthermore, Typhoon Morakot (2009) triggered extremely extensive landsliding in some catchments within this zone, allowing distinctions to be drawn between average topographic characteristics of catchments and the erosive processes (i.e. mass wasting) at work therein. Landslides play an important role in localising weathering in deposits with high internal surface area and slow throughflow of fluids, creating sites of rapid weathering which can be a first order control on catchment solute budgets in watersheds where landslides deposits and scars exceed 2% of drained area. Variation in the detailed chemistry of landslide seepages - particularly the carbonate/silicate weathering balance - indicates that this process has a different impact on inorganic weathering-driven carbon cycling than slower erosive processes; a strong positive correlation between landslide-affected area and Ca2+:Si ratios on catchment scale suggests rapid erosion is not strongly coupled to CO2 drawdown. Rapid oxidation of sulphides - ubiquitous in many rapidly eroding mountain belts - within highly fragmented landslide deposits, and associated sulphuric-acid driven weathering, further complicates the effect landsliding has on the carbon cycle.

  15. Olympus Mons Landslide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The landslide in this VIS image originated from the steep escarpment which surrounds the Olympus Mons volcano on Mars. This landslide is located on the northern side of the volcano.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 23.2, Longitude 223.9 East (136.1 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  16. Isidis Crater Landslide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The landslide in this VIS image is located inside an impact crater located south of the Isidis Planitia region of Mars. As with the previous unnamed crater landslide, this one formed due to slope failure of the inner crater rim.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -2.9, Longitude 90.8 East (269.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. Application of Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis to Floods and Landslides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert; Hong, Yang; Huffman, George

    2007-01-01

    Satellite data acquired and processed in real time now have the potential to provide the spacetime information on rainfall needed to monitor flood and landslide events around the world. This can be achieved by integrating the satellite-derived forcing data with hydrological models and landslide algorithms. Progress in using the TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) as input to flood and landslide forecasts is outlined, with a focus on understanding limitations of the rainfall data and impacts of those limitations on flood/landslide analyses. Case studies of both successes and failures will be shown, as well as comparison with ground comparison data sets both in terms of rainfall and in terms of flood/landslide events. In addition to potential uses in real-time, the nearly ten years of TMPA data allow retrospective running of the models to examine variations in extreme events. The flood determination algorithm consists of four major components: 1) multi-satellite precipitation estimation; 2) characterization of land surface including digital elevation from NASA SRTM (Shuttle Radar Terrain Mission), topography-derived hydrologic parameters such as flow direction, flow accumulation, basin, and river network etc.; 3) a hydrological model to infiltrate rainfall and route overland runoff; and 4) an implementation interface to relay the input data to the models and display the flood inundation results to potential users and decision-makers. In terms of landslides, the satellite rainfall information is combined with a global landslide susceptibility map, derived from a combination of global surface characteristics (digital elevation topography, slope, soil types, soil texture, and land cover classification etc.) using a weighted linear combination approach. In those areas identified as "susceptible" (based on the surface characteristics), landslides are forecast where and when a rainfall intensity/duration threshold is exceeded. Results are described

  18. Assessment of Rainfall-induced Landslide Potential and Spatial Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yie-Ruey; Tsai, Kuang-Jung; Chen, Jing-Wen; Chiang, Jie-Lun; Hsieh, Shun-Chieh; Chue, Yung-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    Recently, due to the global climate change, most of the time the rainfall in Taiwan is of short duration but with high intensity. Due to Taiwan's steep terrain, rainfall-induced landslides often occur and lead to human causalities and properties loss. Taiwan's government has invested huge reconstruction funds to the affected areas. However, after rehabilitation they still face the risk of secondary sediment disasters. Therefore, this study assesses rainfall-induced (secondary) landslide potential and spatial distribution in watershed of Southern Taiwan under extreme climate change. The study areas in this research are Baolai and Jianshan villages in the watershed of the Laonongxi River Basin in the Southern Taiwan. This study focused on the 3 years after Typhoon Morakot (2009 to 2011). During this period, the study area experienced six heavy rainfall events including five typhoons and one heavy rainfall. The genetic adaptive neural network, texture analysis and GIS were implemented in the analysis techniques for the interpretation of satellite images and to obtain surface information and hazard log data and to analyze land use change. A multivariate hazards evaluation method was applied to quantitatively analyze the weights of various natural environmental and slope development hazard factors. Furthermore, this study established a slope landslide potential assessment model and depicted a slope landslide potential diagram by using the GIS platform. The interaction between (secondary) landslide mechanism, scale, and location was analyzed using association analysis of landslide historical data and regional environmental characteristics. The results of image classification before and after six heavy rainfall events show that the values of coefficient of agreement are at medium-high level. By multivariate hazards evaluation method, geology and the effective accumulative rainfall (EAR) are the most important factors. Slope, distance from fault, aspect, land disturbance

  19. Predictive landslide susceptibility analysis along the mountain highway in central Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shou, Keh-Jian; Lin, Zora

    2016-04-01

    Climate change caused by global warming affects Taiwan significantly for the past decade. The increasing frequency of extreme rainfall events, in which concentrated and intensive rainfalls generally cause geohazards including landslides and debris flows. The extraordinary Typhoon Morakot hit Southern Taiwan, on August 8, 2009, and induced serious flooding and landslides. Considering the existence of various types of large scale landslides (shallow and deep-seated) and the importance of protection targets (the landslide might affect a residential area, cut a road, isolate a village, etc.), this study aims to analyze the landslide susceptibility along the Nantou County Road # 89 of Taiwan, in the upstream of Wu River. This study employs rainfall frequency analysis together with the atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) downscaling estimation to understand the temporal rainfall trends, distributions, and intensities in the Wu River watershed. Based on the data of Li-DAR and the information from boreholes, the temporal behavior and the complex mechanism of large scale landslides were analyzed. To assess the spatial hazard of the landslides, landslide susceptibility analysis was also implemented. The results of this study can be applied for risk prevention and management in the study area.

  20. Basal-topographic control of stationary ponds on a continuously moving landslide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coe, J.A.; McKenna, J.P.; Godt, J.W.; Baum, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    The Slumgullion landslide in the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado has been moving for at least the last few hundred years and has multiple ponds on its surface. We have studied eight ponds during 30 trips to the landslide between July 1998 and July 2007. During each trip, we have made observations on the variability in pond locations and water levels, taken ground-based photographs to document pond water with respect to moving landslide material and vegetation, conducted Global Positioning System surveys of the elevations of water levels and mapped pond sediments on the landslide surface. Additionally, we have used stereo aerial photographs taken in October 1939, October 1940 and July 2000 to measure topographic profiles of the eight pond locations, as well as a longitudinal profile along the approximate centerline of the landslide, to examine topographic changes over a 60- to 61-year period of time. Results from field observations, analyses of photographs, mapping and measurements indicate that all pond locations have remained spatially stationary for 60-300 years while landslide material moves through these locations. Water levels during the observation period were sensitive to changes in the local, spring-fed, stream network, and to periodic filling of pond locations by sediment from floods, hyperconcentrated flows, mud flows and debris flows. For pond locations to remain stationary, the locations must mimic depressions along the basal surface of the landslide. The existence of such depressions indicates that the topography of the basal landslide surface is irregular. These results suggest that, for translational landslides that have moved distances larger than the dimensions of the largest basal topographic irregularities (about 200 m at Slumgullion), landslide surface morphology can be used as a guide to the morphology of the basal slip surface. Because basal slip surface morphology can affect landslide stability, kinematic models and stability

  1. Near real-time detection and characterization of landslides using broadband seismic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manconi, Andrea; Coviello, Velio; De Santis, Francesca; Picozzi, Matteo

    2015-04-01

    Broadband seismic networks at regional, national, and global scale are usually deployed for a specific purpose, i.e. earthquake monitoring. However, it has been recently demonstrated that these networks are also capable to efficiently detect failure and transport processes related to landslide phenomena. Indeed, stations located several tens of kilometers away from the source areas can record the ground vibrations produced by large mass movements. In this work, we propose an integrated approach for the near real-time detection, location, and characterization of landslides, by considering data acquired from the Italian broadband seismic networks and available in the European Integrated Data Archive (EIDA). We use an automatic picking of first arrivals to identify significant seismic events recorded by the monitoring network. Secondly, waveforms relevant to landslide phenomena are selected by analyzing the spectral characteristics of seismic signals, which significantly differ from those related to earthquake events. Afterwards, in order to locate the landslide, we use a modified version of the real-time evolutionary location algorithm proposed for earthquakes, which relies on geometrical characteristics of the seismic network and on the relationships between triggered stations and not-triggered stations. Indeed, a first landslide location is roughly estimated as soon as the first station is triggered. The progressive increase over time in the number of triggered stations allows improving the accuracy on the most likely landslide location. Finally, we analyze the seismic energy released to infer an approximate value of the landslide volume in near real time. Here we present few examples relevant to recent well-known landslides where our method was successfully applied. Our results show how it is possible to extract precious information for landslide hazard assessment from seismic monitoring data, which in the field of earthquake warning would be discarded. Moreover

  2. Paleotopographic control of landslides in lacustrine deposits (Trièves plateau, French western Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bièvre, Grégory; Kniess, Ulrich; Jongmans, Denis; Pathier, Erwan; Schwartz, Stéphane; van Westen, Cees J.; Villemin, Thierry; Zumbo, Vilma

    2011-01-01

    Paleotopography in Quaternary sedimentary environments can be an important factor that controls landslide movement. This study investigates the relation between paleotopography and landslide activity in two adjacent landslides in glaciolacustrine sediments located in the Trièves area (French western Alps). Although both are in slopes underlain by the same lacustrine deposits, the Avignonet and Harmalière landslides exhibit major differences in morphology and displacement rates. Through a combination of geological mapping, airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data, aerial photographs, global positioning system (GPS), and seismic noise measurements, a three-dimensional impression was made of both landslides. The analysis reveals that the difference in kinematics between the two mass movements can be traced back to at least 50 years ago. The results show that the Harmalière slide, which failed catastrophically in 1981, is still much more active than the Avignonet landslide. The fear was that the Avignonet landslide might develop in a similar catastrophic manner, threatening a number of houses constructed on the landslide. A geophysical survey based on ambient noise measurements allowed us to map the base of the lacustrine clays, and the results indicate the presence of a N-S ridge of hard sediments (Jurassic bedrock and/or compact alluvial layers) on the eastern side of the Avignonet landslide. This ridge disappears when approaching the Harmalière landslide and makes a place to what can be interpreted as a NW-SE oriented paleovalley of the river Drac. We proposed that the ridge acts as a buttress that could mechanically prevent the Avignonet landslide from evolving as fast as the Harmalière. Furthermore, the NW-SE paleovalley located under the Harmalière landslide corresponds to the motion direction of the slide. Therefore, the different behaviour of the two landslides is partly controlled by the paleotopographic setting of Lake Trièves during the last

  3. Combining heuristic and statistical techniques in landslide hazard assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepeda, Jose; Schwendtner, Barbara; Quan, Byron; Nadim, Farrokh; Diaz, Manuel; Molina, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    As a contribution to the Global Assessment Report 2013 - GAR2013, coordinated by the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction - UNISDR, a drill-down exercise for landslide hazard assessment was carried out by entering the results of both heuristic and statistical techniques into a new but simple combination rule. The data available for this evaluation included landslide inventories, both historical and event-based. In addition to the application of a heuristic method used in the previous editions of GAR, the availability of inventories motivated the use of statistical methods. The heuristic technique is largely based on the Mora & Vahrson method, which estimates hazard as the product of susceptibility and triggering factors, where classes are weighted based on expert judgment and experience. Two statistical methods were also applied: the landslide index method, which estimates weights of the classes for the susceptibility and triggering factors based on the evidence provided by the density of landslides in each class of the factors; and the weights of evidence method, which extends the previous technique to include both positive and negative evidence of landslide occurrence in the estimation of weights for the classes. One key aspect during the hazard evaluation was the decision on the methodology to be chosen for the final assessment. Instead of opting for a single methodology, it was decided to combine the results of the three implemented techniques using a combination rule based on a normalization of the results of each method. The hazard evaluation was performed for both earthquake- and rainfall-induced landslides. The country chosen for the drill-down exercise was El Salvador. The results indicate that highest hazard levels are concentrated along the central volcanic chain and at the centre of the northern mountains.

  4. The Corfu Landslide: Analog to Giant Landslides on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, S. W.; Baker, V. R.

    1984-01-01

    In an analog to the great landslides of the Vales Marineris, Mars, a detailed study was made of the Corfu Landslide in south-central Washington. This prehistoric slide is located on the northern flank of the Saddle Mountains, southwest of Othello, Washington. The slide covers a 13 square km area centered on section 11 of T.15N., R.27E., Willamette Meridian, adjacent to the Corfu townsite. Approximately 1 cubic km of material is involved in sliding that was probably initiated by Missoula flooding through the Channeled Scabland. It is concluded that there were four primary factors involved in the initiation of the Corfu landsliding: (1) A slip surface was present at the right orientation; (2) Glacial flooding undercut the slope; (3) Wetter climatic conditions prevailed during that time period; and (4) Some seismic vibrations, known to occur locally, probably acted as a trigger. These factors show that special conditions were required in conjunction to produce landsliding. Studies in progress of the Vales Marieneris suggest that the same factors probably contributed to landsliding there.

  5. Updated size distribution of submarine landslides along the U.S. Atlantic margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ten Brink, U. S.; Chaytor, J. D.; Andrews, B. D.; Brothers, D. S.; Geist, E. L.

    2012-12-01

    dates (see companion abstract by Chaytor et al.) will be input to a probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for landslide-generated tsunamis along the U.S. Atlantic coast (see companion abstract by Geist et al.). References [1] EPSL, 287, 31-42, 2009; [2] GRL, 33, L11307, 2006; [3] Mar. Geol., 264, 4-15, 2009; [4] Mar. Geol., 264, 16-27, 2009.

  6. Real-Time Application of Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis for Floods and Landslides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert; Hong, Yang; Huffman, George

    2007-01-01

    Satellite data acquired and processed in real time now have the potential to provide the spacetime information on rainfall needed to monitor flood and landslide events around the world. This can be achieved by integrating the satellite-derived forcing data with hydrological models and landslide algorithms. Progress in using the TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) as input to flood and landslide forecasts is outlined, with a focus on understanding limitations of the rainfall data and impacts of those limitations on flood/landslide analyses. Case studies of both successes and failures will be shown, as well as comparison with ground comparison data sets-- both in terms of rainfall and in terms of flood/landslide events. In addition to potential uses in real-time, the nearly ten years of TMPA data allow retrospective running of the models to examine variations in extreme events. The flood determination algorithm consists of four major components: 1) multi-satellite precipitation estimation; 2) characterization of land surface including digital elevation from NASA SRTM (Shuttle Radar Terrain Mission), topography-derived hydrologic parameters such as flow direction, flow accumulation, basin, and river network etc.; 3) a hydrological model to infiltrate rainfall and route overland runoff; and 4) an implementation interface to relay the input data to the models and display the flood inundation results to potential users and decision-makers, In terms of landslides, the satellite rainfall information is combined with a global landslide susceptibility map, derived from a combination of global surface characteristics (digital elevation topography, slope, soil types, soil texture, and land cover classification etc.) using a weighted linear combination approach. In those areas identified as "susceptible" (based on the surface characteristics), landslides are forecast where and when a rainfall intensity/duration threshold is exceeded. Results are described

  7. The features of the landslide distribution and assessment of landslide susceptibility in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doshida, S.

    2013-12-01

    Many landslides occur in the place which the landslide generated in the past, or its surrounding area. The causes are considered to be formation of slipping surface, the moving mass which becomes vulnerable by deformation or destruction and geological structures in which a slipping surface is easily formed. Therefore, it is very important for prevention and mitigation of the landslide damages to create the landslide inventory map which is shown the place which the landslide generated in the past. National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED), Japan, have published the landslide inventory map "landslide distribution maps" for preventing and mitigating landslide disasters. The landslide distribution map have mapped the 380,000 or more landslide topographies in whole Japan by interpretation of aerial photographs. The individual landslide not less than 150 m wide is drawn in the landslide distribution map. The objects of this research are to clarify geological and geomorphological features of landslide distributions by analyzing the landslide distribution map and to make the landslide susceptibility map for the assessment of landslide in whole Japan. The landside distribution in whole Japan is not equal and there is a difference in the density. I propose the method of the wide area landslide assessment used by the features and distributions according to of geological setting. I calculate the landslide body ratio in each geological unit. The landslide body ratio is that the rate of the landslide body area in each geological unit and the whole area in each geological unit. The landslide body ratio can be considered that landslide susceptibility (occurrence probability of landslides) in each geological unit. As a result, an average of the landslide body ratio is about 5.2 % in whole Japan. The area consist of the accretionary complex based on volcanic rocks and plutonic rocks have comparatively high-risk landslide susceptibility, and the

  8. Slumgullion; Colorado’s natural landslide laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Highland, L.M.

    1993-01-01

    The mountains of Colorado, and the Rocky Mountains in general, have one of the highest levels of landslide hazard in the nation. In a typical year, landslides hazard in the nation. In a typical year, landslides cause several fatalities and millions of dollars in damage to highways, pipelines, buildings, and forests in Colorado. To reduce such losses we need to understand why landslides occur and how they behave once they form. The Slumgullion landslide, an ideal natural laboratory, offers a unique opportunity to carefully observe and monitor the movement of a large, active landslide. In 1990, soon after the State of Colorado assigned high priority to hazard evaluation of the Slumgullion landslide, the USGS began an intensive study as part of its Landslide Hazards Reduction Program. 

  9. Channel Wall Landslides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The multiple landslides in this VIS image occur along a steep channel wall. Note the large impact crater in the context image. The formation of the crater may have initially weakened that area of the surface prior to channel formation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -2.7, Longitude 324.8 East (35.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  10. Melas Chasma Landslide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03041 Dunes in Darwin Crater

    The landslide in the center of this image occurred in the Melas Chasma region of Valles Marineris.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 11S, Longitude 292.6E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. Landslide in a Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The landslide in this VIS image is located inside an impact crater in the Elysium region of Mars. The unnamed crater is located at the margin of the volcanic flows from the Elysium Mons complex.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 1.2, Longitude 134 East (226 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  12. Terra Cimmeria Crater Landslide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The landslide in this VIS image is located inside an impact crater in the Terra Cimmeria region of Mars. The unnamed crater hosting this image is just east of Molesworth Crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -27.7, Longitude 152 East (208 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  13. Landslide hazard assessment: recent trends and techniques.

    PubMed

    Pardeshi, Sudhakar D; Autade, Sumant E; Pardeshi, Suchitra S

    2013-01-01

    Landslide hazard assessment is an important step towards landslide hazard and risk management. There are several methods of Landslide Hazard Zonation (LHZ) viz. heuristic, semi quantitative, quantitative, probabilistic and multi-criteria decision making process. However, no one method is accepted universally for effective assessment of landslide hazards. In recent years, several attempts have been made to apply different methods of LHZ and to compare results in order to find the best suited model. This paper presents the review of researches on landslide hazard mapping published in recent years. The advanced multivariate techniques are proved to be effective in spatial prediction of landslides with high degree of accuracy. Physical process based models also perform well in LHZ mapping even in the areas with poor database. Multi-criteria decision making approach also play significant role in determining relative importance of landslide causative factors in slope instability process. Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) are powerful tools to assess landslide hazards and are being used extensively in landslide researches since last decade. Aerial photographs and high resolution satellite data are useful in detection, mapping and monitoring landslide processes. GIS based LHZ models helps not only to map and monitor landslides but also to predict future slope failures. The advancements in Geo-spatial technologies have opened the doors for detailed and accurate assessment of landslide hazards.

  14. The Landslide Handbook - A Guide to Understanding Landslides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Highland, Lynn M.; Bobrowsky, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This handbook is intended to be a resource for people affected by landslides to acquire further knowledge, especially about the conditions that are unique to their neighborhoods and communities. Considerable literature and research are available concerning landslides, but unfortunately little of it is synthesized and integrated to address the geographically unique geologic and climatic conditions around the globe. Landslides occur throughout the world, under all climatic conditions and terrains, cost billions in monetary losses, and are responsible for thousands of deaths and injuries each year. Often, they cause long-term economic disruption, population displacement, and negative effects on the natural environment. Outdated land-use policies may not always reflect the best planning for use of land that is vulnerable to landslides. The reasons for poor or nonexistent land-use policies that minimize the perceived or actual danger and damage potential from geologic hazards are many and encompass the political, cultural, and financial complexities and intricacies of communities. Landslides often are characterized as local problems, but their effects and costs frequently cross local jurisdictions and may become State or Provincial or national problems. Growing populations may be limited in their geographic expansion, except to occupy unstable, steep, or remote areas. Often, stabilizing landslide-scarred areas is too costly, and some inhabitants have no other places to relocate. Fortunately, simple, 'low-tech' precautions and actions can be adopted to at least ensure an individual's immediate safety, and this handbook gives a brief overview of many of these options. We strongly suggest that, where possible, the assistance of professional engineers/geologists or those experienced in the successful mitigation of unstable slopes be consulted before actions are taken. This handbook helps homeowners, community and emergency managers, and decisionmakers to take the positive

  15. Major risk from rapid, large-volume landslides in Europe (EU Project RUNOUT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilburn, Christopher R. J.; Pasuto, Alessandro

    2003-08-01

    Project RUNOUT has investigated methods for reducing the risk from large-volume landslides in Europe, especially those involving rapid rates of emplacement. Using field data from five test sites (Bad Goisern and Köfels in Austria, Tessina and Vajont in Italy, and the Barranco de Tirajana in Gran Canaria, Spain), the studies have developed (1) techniques for applying geomorphological investigations and optical remote sensing to map landslides and their evolution; (2) analytical, numerical, and cellular automata models for the emplacement of sturzstroms and debris flows; (3) a brittle-failure model for forecasting catastrophic slope failure; (4) new strategies for integrating large-area Global Positioning System (GPS) arrays with local geodetic monitoring networks; (5) methods for raising public awareness of landslide hazards; and (6) Geographic Information System (GIS)-based databases for the test areas. The results highlight the importance of multidisciplinary studies of landslide hazards, combining subjects as diverse as geology and geomorphology, remote sensing, geodesy, fluid dynamics, and social profiling. They have also identified key goals for an improved understanding of the physical processes that govern landslide collapse and runout, as well as for designing strategies for raising public awareness of landslide hazards and for implementing appropriate land management policies for reducing landslide risk.

  16. Deciphering the effect of climate change on landslide activity: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crozier, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    Increased landslide activity is commonly listed as an expected impact of human-induced climate change. This paper examines the theoretical and empirical bases for this assertion. It identifies the mechanisms by which climate can induce landsliding and examines the manner in which these mechanisms may respond to changes in a range of climatic parameters. It is argued that inherent limiting stability factors, which vary with different terrain conditions and landslide types, ultimately govern the nature of response to changing climate. Several modelling approaches are evaluated on the basis of their potential to predict landslide response to climate projections. Given reliable input data of appropriate form and resolution, the existing slope stability, hydrological, and statistical models are for the most part capable of yielding useful prognoses on occurrence, reactivation, magnitude and frequency of landsliding. While there is a strong theoretical basis for increased landslide activity as a result of predicted climate change, there remains a high level of uncertainty resulting from the margins of error inherent in scenario-driven global climate predictions, and the lack of sufficient spatial resolution of currently available downscaled projections. Examples from New Zealand are used to illustrate the extent to which changes resulting from human activity have affected slope stability. Changes resulting from human activity are seen as a factor of equal, if not greater, importance than climate change in affecting the temporal and spatial occurrence of landslides.

  17. New Products for Near Real-Time Enhanced Landslide Identification and Precipitation Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts-Pierel, J.; Ahamed, A.; Fayne, J.; Rumsey, A.

    2015-12-01

    Nepal and the Himalayan region are hotspots for landslide activity due to mountainous topography, complex terrain, and monsoon rains. Current research in landslide modeling and detection generally requires high resolution imagery with software aided classification or manual digitization by analysts. These methods are plagued by low spatial and temporal accuracy. Addressing issues in conventional measurement, this study combined optical data from Landsat 8, a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) generated from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and precipitation data from the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM) to create two products. The Sudden Landslide Identification Product (SLIP) uses Landsat 8 and the ASTER DEM to identify landslides in near real-time, and provides damage assessments by mapping landslides triggered by precipitation. Detecting Real-time Increased Precipitation (DRIP) monitors precipitation levels extracted from the GPM-IMERG 30-minute product to create alerts in near real-time when current rainfall levels exceed regional threshold values. After a landslide detection is made by SLIP, historical rainfall data from DRIP is analyzed to estimate a date for the detected landslide. Together, DRIP and SLIP will be used by local and regional organizations in Nepal such as the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), as well as the international scientific community to protect lives, preserve infrastructure, and manage local ecosystems.

  18. A methodological approach for landslide economic damage estimation in rural contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    C, Aucelli, Pietro P.; Balteanu, Dan; Pisano, Luca; Rosskopf, Carmen M.; Zumpano, Veronica

    2014-05-01

    Land degradation due to mass wasting and accelerated water erosion represents at global scale a serious threat to socio-economic development not only in urban areas but also in rural and hence less populated territories where the main economic resources are frequently directly linked to the exploitation of the agricultural, pastoral and natural resources, often threatened especially by landslide phenomena. The assessment of damage induced by landslides, thus, provides an important contribution to support decision making concerning the sustainable management of land use. In this paper a methodological approach developed in GIS environment for valuing the economic damage induced by landslides in rural areas is presented. It allows direct damage estimation related to landslide phenomena by means of a synthetic approach which considers the loss of land value associated with landslides state of activity. This approach was tested in a study area (a small-scale catchment in Molise Region, Southern Italy) which is highly representative of the Adriatic flank of the Molise Apennine, highly exploited for farming and, in the same time, very sensible to slope instability. Several environmental calculation matrices were defined at the pixel scale in relation to different states of activity of landslides. For each cell, soil uses and related Average Agricultural Values (AAVs) were determined. The economic damage value (DV) was computed by multiplying the obtained specified AAV with a specific landslide-damage index (LDI) which was calculated on the basis of the extent and state of activity of landslides within each cell. This procedure allowed the estimation of the DV and the real agricultural value for each cell. Summing up the results coming from each cell, the total loss of land value due to landslides and the residual total agricultural value for the entire study area were calculated. Furthermore, in order to assess for the entire study area the landslide exposition of rural

  19. The role of seismically-triggered landslides in landscape denudation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, A. Joshua; Li, Gen; Clark, Marin; Densmore, Alex; Hilton, Robert; Jin, Zhangdong; Zhang, Fei; Wang, Jin

    2016-04-01

    The erosive potential of large earthquakes is now increasingly well recognized on the basis of specific case studies including the 1999 Chi Chi earthquake in Taiwan and the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China. Landslide-associated erosion in the Wenchuan region coincides spatially with the highest rates of long-term denudation. When considering earthquake magnitude-frequency statistics, seismically-facilitated landslides can account for most of the total denudation in the Longmenshan. This result is similar to previous conclusions from individual case studies, such as in southern California. Looking globally at seismically active regions, we find an overall trend whereby the repeated occurrence of earthquake-triggered landslides yields a total mass flux (assuming complete removal of landslide material) that is similar to total denudation rates. We suggest that this similarly is not coincidental but rather reflects the important role of seismicity in influencing long-term landscape evolution, both in the spatial distribution and potentially also in the total rates of mass removal from tectonically active mountains. We explore the consequences using a simple model for mass addition and loss associated with earthquakes, including near and far-field post-seismic and isostatic effects.

  20. Assessing the Impact of Changes in Extreme Precipitation Events on Landslide Occurrence and Resultant Human Cost (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markuzon, N.; Slesnick, C.; Bellugi, D. G.; Leidy, E.; O'Gorman, P. A.; Perron, J.; Regan, J.; Schlosser, C. A.; West, J.

    2013-12-01

    Observations demonstrate that extreme precipitation events are a primary driver of shallow landslides. Thus, as the character of precipitation extremes shift under climate change, the occurrence of landslides is expected to shift in response. Mitigation of future damage requires an increased understanding of how evolving environmental phenomena affect landslide occurrence and severity. We are carrying out a study that integrates remotely-sensed and ground based observational data of precipitation, topography, and land cover with global and regional climate models and anthropogenic data. The approach fuses newly developed mechanistic models of local slope stability with novel weather based data-driven models with the aim of understanding factors contributing to landslide occurrence and producing temporal and spatial projections. Our methodology adopts a mechanistic landslide prediction procedure which couples a three-dimensional slope stability model with an efficient search algorithm to predict discrete shallow landslides for a prototype landscape located in the Oregon Coast Range.The procedure reproduces the distribution of sizes and locations of the landslide inventory under a suite of rainfall and moisture characteristics representative of the observation period. We are using projections of precipitation extremes under different climate change scenarios to generate landslide forecasts and explore the sensitivity of landslide characteristics to precipitation patterns. Data-driven models can help to improve the accuracy of the mechanistic landslide hindcasts by calibrating the soil parameters in the slope stability model based on remotely sensed proxies for land cover and vegetation characteristics. We further aim to fuse the mechanistic and data-driven models with the goal of forecasting landslide risk under severe weather conditions from remotely-sensed data in areas where high resolution in-situ observations are not available. Using statistical analysis and

  1. Real-time monitoring of landslides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Mark E.; LaHusen, Richard G.; Baum, Rex L.; Kean, Jason W.; Schulz, William H.; Highland, Lynn M.

    2012-01-01

    Landslides cause fatalities and property damage throughout the Nation. To reduce the impact from hazardous landslides, the U.S. Geological Survey develops and uses real-time and near-real-time landslide monitoring systems. Monitoring can detect when hillslopes are primed for sliding and can provide early indications of rapid, catastrophic movement. Continuous information from up-to-the-minute or real-time monitoring provides prompt notification of landslide activity, advances our understanding of landslide behavior, and enables more effective engineering and planning efforts.

  2. Dynamic sensitivity analysis of long running landslide models through basis set expansion and meta-modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohmer, Jeremy

    2016-04-01

    Predicting the temporal evolution of landslides is typically supported by numerical modelling. Dynamic sensitivity analysis aims at assessing the influence of the landslide properties on the time-dependent predictions (e.g., time series of landslide displacements). Yet two major difficulties arise: 1. Global sensitivity analysis require running the landslide model a high number of times (> 1000), which may become impracticable when the landslide model has a high computation time cost (> several hours); 2. Landslide model outputs are not scalar, but function of time, i.e. they are n-dimensional vectors with n usually ranging from 100 to 1000. In this article, I explore the use of a basis set expansion, such as principal component analysis, to reduce the output dimensionality to a few components, each of them being interpreted as a dominant mode of variation in the overall structure of the temporal evolution. The computationally intensive calculation of the Sobol' indices for each of these components are then achieved through meta-modelling, i.e. by replacing the landslide model by a "costless-to-evaluate" approximation (e.g., a projection pursuit regression model). The methodology combining "basis set expansion - meta-model - Sobol' indices" is then applied to the La Frasse landslide to investigate the dynamic sensitivity analysis of the surface horizontal displacements to the slip surface properties during the pore pressure changes. I show how to extract information on the sensitivity of each main modes of temporal behaviour using a limited number (a few tens) of long running simulations. In particular, I identify the parameters, which trigger the occurrence of a turning point marking a shift between a regime of low values of landslide displacements and one of high values.

  3. iCRESTRIGRS: a coupled modeling system for cascading flood-landslide disaster forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ke; Xue, Xianwu; Hong, Yang; Gourley, Jonathan J.; Lu, Ning; Wan, Zhanming; Hong, Zhen; Wooten, Rick

    2016-12-01

    Severe storm-triggered floods and landslides are two major natural hazards in the US, causing property losses of USD 6 billion and approximately 110-160 fatalities per year nationwide. Moreover, floods and landslides often occur in a cascading manner, posing significant risk and leading to losses that are significantly greater than the sum of the losses from the hazards when acting separately. It is pertinent to couple hydrological and geotechnical modeling processes to an integrated flood-landslide cascading disaster modeling system for improved disaster preparedness and hazard management. In this study, we developed the iCRESTRIGRS model, a coupled flash flood and landslide initiation modeling system, by integrating the Coupled Routing and Excess STorage (CREST) model with the physically based Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-Based Regional Slope-Stability (TRIGRS) landslide model. The iCRESTRIGRS system is evaluated in four river basins in western North Carolina that experienced a large number of floods, landslides and debris flows triggered by heavy rainfall from Hurricane Ivan during 16-18 September 2004. The modeled hourly hydrographs at four USGS gauge stations show generally good agreement with the observations during the entire storm period. In terms of landslide prediction in this case study, the coupled model has a global accuracy of 98.9 % and a true positive rate of 56.4 %. More importantly, it shows an improved predictive capability for landslides relative to the stand-alone TRIGRS model. This study highlights the important physical connection between rainfall, hydrological processes and slope stability, and provides a useful prototype model system for operational forecasting of flood and landslide.

  4. Assessing the Impact of Extreme Precipitation Changes on Shallow Landslide Location and Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellugi, D. G.; Perron, J.; O'Gorman, P. A.; Milledge, D.; Rulli, M.

    2013-12-01

    Shallow landslides, often triggered by storm-induced increases in pore water pressure, play an important role in landscape evolution and are a threatening source of hazards. The response of a particular landscape to landslide-triggering storms will depend on factors such as rainfall totals, storm intensity and duration, and antecedent moisture conditions. The intensity (or frequency) of extreme precipitation events is expected to change under most climate change predictions, but we have limited understanding of how these changes will affect the relative abundance of landslides, as well as their size and location. We analyze the intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) statistics of future extreme precipitation predicted by a variety of combinations of regional mesoscale and global circulation climate models to quantify their uncertainty and their sensitivity to factors such as mean temperature and orography. A range of plausible future IDF scenarios is then selected and used to drive a new regional-scale shallow landslide model, which can predict both landslide location and size. This model is applied to a field site in the Oregon Coast Range, where a ten-year landslide inventory has been mapped onto high-resolution topographic data. At this site we examine the relative change in abundance, location, and size of rainfall-triggered shallow landslides under the range of plausible rainfall scenarios, and compare this behavior with the historical observations. This approach allows an assessment of the impact of climate change-driven precipitation variations on the shallow landslide response of a landscape. Our analysis also highlights the need for quantitative models of the climate sensitivity of other relevant factors, such as vegetation, which could be combined with our approach to build a general predictive framework for landslide occurrence.

  5. Landslides on Charon and not on Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Ross A.; Singer, Kelsi N.; Nimmo, Francis; Moore, Jeffrey M.; McKinnon, William B.; Schenk, Paul M.; Spencer, John R.; Weaver, Harold A.; Olkin, Catherine B.; Young, Leslie; Ennico, Kimberly; Stern, S. Alan; New Horizons Science Team

    2016-10-01

    Landslide features are observed on Charon but not on Pluto. This observation is another that reinforces the different strength regime of surface materials on the two bodies. Pluto's surface, although underlain by strong water ice, is primarily mantled with a variety of geologically weak ice species. Observations of these features indicate that they flow and move, but do so in a manner similar to glacial flow, and the strength and steepening required to precipitate a landslide simply isn't present in these materials under the pressure and temperature conditions on Pluto's surface. There are certainly areas of local mass-wasting, but no substantial landslide deposits. There are some locations on Pluto, notably along the fossae walls, and perhaps on the steeper montes surfaces that could have fostered landslides, but no landslide deposits have been observed nor are there obvious landslide alcoves that would have sourced them. The resolution of observations along the fossae may prevent identification there, and the toes of the steeper montes are embayed by geologically recent plains material which could be overlaying any landslide deposits.Charon, however, has a water-ice surface which exhibits many strength-dominated geologic features, and also exhibits landslide deposits. There are not many of these features and they are confined to the informally named Serenity Chasma, which has relatively steep, tall slopes, perfect for landslide initiation. We will discuss the physical characteristics of these landslide deposits and their context amongst other landslide features in the solar system.

  6. Submarine landslides: processes, triggers and hazard prediction.

    PubMed

    Masson, D G; Harbitz, C B; Wynn, R B; Pedersen, G; Løvholt, F

    2006-08-15

    Huge landslides, mobilizing hundreds to thousands of km(3) of sediment and rock are ubiquitous in submarine settings ranging from the steepest volcanic island slopes to the gentlest muddy slopes of submarine deltas. Here, we summarize current knowledge of such landslides and the problems of assessing their hazard potential. The major hazards related to submarine landslides include destruction of seabed infrastructure, collapse of coastal areas into the sea and landslide-generated tsunamis. Most submarine slopes are inherently stable. Elevated pore pressures (leading to decreased frictional resistance to sliding) and specific weak layers within stratified sequences appear to be the key factors influencing landslide occurrence. Elevated pore pressures can result from normal depositional processes or from transient processes such as earthquake shaking; historical evidence suggests that the majority of large submarine landslides are triggered by earthquakes. Because of their tsunamigenic potential, ocean-island flank collapses and rockslides in fjords have been identified as the most dangerous of all landslide related hazards. Published models of ocean-island landslides mainly examine 'worst-case scenarios' that have a low probability of occurrence. Areas prone to submarine landsliding are relatively easy to identify, but we are still some way from being able to forecast individual events with precision. Monitoring of critical areas where landslides might be imminent and modelling landslide consequences so that appropriate mitigation strategies can be developed would appear to be areas where advances on current practice are possible.

  7. A systematic review of the health impacts of mass Earth movements (landslides).

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Iain T R; Petley, Dave N; Williams, Richard; Murray, Virginia

    2015-04-30

    Background. Mass ground movements (commonly referred to as 'landslides') are common natural hazards that can have significant economic, social and health impacts. They occur as single events, or as clusters, and are often part of 'disaster' chains, occurring secondary to, or acting as the precursor of other disaster events. Whilst there is a large body of literature on the engineering and geological aspects of landslides, the mortality and morbidity caused by landslides is less well documented. As far as we are aware, this is the first systematic review to examine the health impacts of landslides. Methods. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SCOPUS databases and the Cochrane library were systematically searched to identify articles which considered the health impacts of landslides. Case studies, case series, primary research and systematic reviews were included. News reports, editorials and non-systematic reviews were excluded. Only articles in English were considered. The references of retrieved papers were searched to identify additional articles. Findings. 913 abstracts were reviewed and 143 full text articles selected for review. A total of 27 papers reporting research studies were included in the review (25 from initial search, 1 from review of references and 1 from personal correspondence). We found a limited number of studies on the physical health consequences of landslides. Only one study provided detail of the causes of mortality and morbidity in relation a landslide event. Landslides cause significant mental health impacts, in particular the prevalence of PTSD may be higher after landslides than other types of disaster, though these studies tend to be older with only 3 papers published in the last 5 years, with 2 being published 20 years ago, and diagnostic criteria have changed since they were produced. Discussion. We were disappointed at the small number of relevant studies, and the generally poor documentation of the health impacts of landslides. Mental

  8. Improving Landslide Susceptibility Modeling Using an Empirical Threshold Scheme for Excluding Landslide Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, F.; Lai, J. S.; Chiang, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    Landslides are frequently triggered by typhoons and earthquakes in Taiwan, causing serious economic losses and human casualties. Remotely sensed images and geo-spatial data consisting of land-cover and environmental information have been widely used for producing landslide inventories and causative factors for slope stability analysis. Landslide susceptibility, on the other hand, can represent the spatial likelihood of landslide occurrence and is an important basis for landslide risk assessment. As multi-temporal satellite images become popular and affordable, they are commonly used to generate landslide inventories for subsequent analysis. However, it is usually difficult to distinguish different landslide sub-regions (scarp, debris flow, deposition etc.) directly from remote sensing imagery. Consequently, the extracted landslide extents using image-based visual interpretation and automatic detections may contain many depositions that may reduce the fidelity of the landslide susceptibility model. This study developed an empirical thresholding scheme based on terrain characteristics for eliminating depositions from detected landslide areas to improve landslide susceptibility modeling. In this study, Bayesian network classifier is utilized to build a landslide susceptibility model and to predict sequent rainfall-induced shallow landslides in the Shimen reservoir watershed located in northern Taiwan. Eleven causative factors are considered, including terrain slope, aspect, curvature, elevation, geology, land-use, NDVI, soil, distance to fault, river and road. Landslide areas detected using satellite images acquired before and after eight typhoons between 2004 to 2008 are collected as the main inventory for training and verification. In the analysis, previous landslide events are used as training data to predict the samples of the next event. The results are then compared with recorded landslide areas in the inventory to evaluate the accuracy. Experimental results

  9. Sentinel-1 Data for the Detection and Mapping of Landslides: A Case Study from Western Peloponnese, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyriou, Aggeliki S.; Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos G.

    2016-08-01

    Interferometry is one of the most modern techniques of acquisition earth surface height information and it has a wide range of applications such as surface monitoring, volcanic hazards, seismic events etc. This work focus on exploitation of Sentinel-1 data for the monitoring of an active landslide in a village of Ilia Prefecture, Greece. Sentinel-1 mission provides timely, with global coverage, operational and easily accessible data with satisfactory spatial resolution. These advantages make Sentinel-1 data the best solution for the observation of landslides. In particular, at an initial level of landslide's observation, interferometry contributed to Digital Surface Model (DSM) generation, utilizing the phase difference between the representations of the interferometric pairs. Thus two DSMs were created, one before the landslide and one after it, which were compared to each other in order to identify height differences and ground subsidence and map the landslide zone. The results are presented below.

  10. Effects of climate change on landslide hazard in Europe (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadim, F.; Solheim, A.

    2009-12-01

    Landslides represent a major threat to human life, property and constructed facilities, infrastructure and natural environment in most mountainous and hilly regions of the world. As a consequence of climatic changes and potential global warming, an increase of landslide activity is expected in some parts of the world in the future. This will be due to increased extreme rainfall events, changes of hydrological cycles, meteorological events followed by sea storms causing coastal erosion and melting of snow and of frozen soils in the high mountains. During the past century, Europe experienced many fatalities and significant economic losses due to landslides. Since in many parts of Europe landslides are the most serious natural hazard, several recent European research projects are looking into the effects of climate change on the risk associated with landslides. Examples are the recently initiated SafeLand project, which looks into this problem across the continent, and GeoExtreme, which focused on Norway. The ongoing project SafeLand (www.safeland-fp7.eu) is a large, integrating project financed by the European Commission. It involves close to 30 organizations from 13 countries in Europe, and it looks into the effects of global change (mainly changes in demography and climate change) on the pattern of landslide risk in Europe. The SafeLand objectives are to (1) provide policy-makers, public administrators, researchers, scientists, educators and other stakeholders with improved harmonized framework and methodology for the assessment and quantification of landslide risk in Europe's regions; (2) evaluate the changes in risk pattern caused by climate change, human activity and policy changes; and (3) provide guidelines for choosing the most appropriate risk management strategies, including risk mitigation and prevention measures. To assess the changes in the landslide risk pattern in Norway over the next 50 years, the four-year integrated research project GeoExtreme (www

  11. Directions of the US Geological Survey Landslide Hazards Reduction Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, G.F.

    1993-01-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) Landslide Hazards Reduction Program includes studies of landslide process and prediction, landslide susceptibility and risk mapping, landslide recurrence and slope evolution, and research application and technology transfer. Studies of landslide processes have been recently conducted in Virginia, Utah, California, Alaska, and Hawaii, Landslide susceptibility maps provide a very important tool for landslide hazard reduction. The effects of engineering-geologic characteristics of rocks, seismic activity, short and long-term climatic change on landslide recurrence are under study. Detailed measurement of movement and deformation has begun on some active landslides. -from Author

  12. A framework for nowcasting and forecasting of rainfall-triggered landslide activity using remotely sensed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia; Stanley, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing data offers the unique perspective to provide situational awareness of hydrometeorological hazards over large areas in a way that is impossible to achieve with in situ data. Recent work has shown that rainfall-triggered landslides, while typically local hazards that occupy small spatial areas, can be approximated over regional or global scales in near real-time. This work presents a regional and global approach to approximating potential landslide activity using the landslide hazard assessment for situational awareness (LHASA) model. This system couples remote sensing data, including Global Precipitation Measurement rainfall data, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and other surface variables to estimate where and when landslide activity may be likely. This system also evaluates the effectiveness of quantitative precipitation estimates from the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 to provide a 24 forecast of potential landslide activity. Preliminary results of the LHASA model and implications for are presented for a regional version of this system in Central America as well as a prototype global approach.

  13. A dynamic landslide hazard assessment system for Central America and Hispaniola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschbaum, D. B.; Stanley, T.; Simmons, J.

    2015-10-01

    Landslides pose a serious threat to life and property in Central America and the Caribbean Islands. In order to allow regionally coordinated situational awareness and disaster response, an online decision support system was created. At its core is a new flexible framework for evaluating potential landslide activity in near real time: Landslide Hazard Assessment for Situational Awareness. This framework was implemented in Central America and the Caribbean by integrating a regional susceptibility map and satellite-based rainfall estimates into a binary decision tree, considering both daily and antecedent rainfall. Using a regionally distributed, percentile-based threshold approach, the model outputs a pixel-by-pixel nowcast in near real time at a resolution of 30 arcsec to identify areas of moderate and high landslide hazard. The daily and antecedent rainfall thresholds in the model are calibrated using a subset of the Global Landslide Catalog in Central America available for 2007-2013. The model was then evaluated with data for 2014. Results suggest reasonable model skill over Central America and poorer performance over Hispaniola due primarily to the limited availability of calibration and validation data. The landslide model framework presented here demonstrates the capability to utilize globally available satellite products for regional landslide hazard assessment. It also provides a flexible framework to interchange the individual model components and adjust or calibrate thresholds based on access to new data and calibration sources. The availability of free satellite-based near real-time rainfall data allows the creation of similar models for any study area with a spatiotemporal record of landslide events. This method may also incorporate other hydrological or atmospheric variables such as numerical weather forecasts or satellite-based soil moisture estimates within this decision tree approach for improved hazard analysis.

  14. A dynamic landslide hazard assessment system for Central America and Hispaniola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschbaum, D. B.; Stanley, T.; Simmons, J.

    2015-04-01

    Landslides pose a serious threat to life and property in Central America and the Caribbean Islands. In order to allow regionally coordinated situational awareness and disaster response, an online decision support system was created. At its core is a new flexible framework for evaluating potential landslide activity in near real-time: Landslide Hazard Assessment for Situational Awareness. This framework was implemented in Central America and the Caribbean by integrating a regional susceptibility map and satellite-based rainfall estimates into a binary decision tree, considering both daily and antecedent rainfall. Using a regionally distributed, percentile-based threshold approach, the model outputs a pixel-by-pixel nowcast in near real-time at a resolution of 30 arcsec to identify areas of moderate and high landslide hazard. The daily and antecedent rainfall thresholds in the model are calibrated using a subset of the Global Landslide Catalog in Central America available for 2007-2013. The model was then evaluated with data for 2014. Results suggest reasonable model skill over Central America and poorer performance over Hispaniola, due primarily to the limited availability of calibration and validation data. The landslide model framework presented here demonstrates the capability to utilize globally available satellite products for regional landslide hazard assessment. It also provides a flexible framework to interchange the indiviual model components and adjust or calibrate thresholds based on access to new data and calibration sources. The availability of free, satellite-based near real-time rainfall data allows the creation of similar models for any study area with a spatiotemporal record of landslide events. This method may also incorporate other hydrological or atmospheric variables such as numerical weather forecasts or satellite-based soil moisture estimates within this decision tree approach for improved hazard analysis.

  15. Landslides: A Question of Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devitt, John; Loader, Pete

    2008-01-01

    The impression given in some textbooks is that a landslide can be generated by increasing the weight of an unstable block or adding water to a potential slip plane. This demonstration, which might easily be adapted as a student investigation in physics at advanced level, was an attempt to rectify such oversimplifications and explain to students…

  16. A zonation technique for landslide susceptibility in southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Jie-Lun; Tian, Yu-Qing; Chen, Yie-Ruey; Tsai, Kuang-Jung

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, global climate changes violently, extreme rainfall events occur frequently and also cause massive sediment related disasters in Taiwan. The disaster seriously hit the regional economic development and national infrastructures. For example, in August, 2009, the typhoon Morakot brought massive rainfall especially in the mountains in Chiayi County and Kaohsiung County in which the cumulative maximum rainfall was up to 2900 mm; meanwhile, the cumulative maximum rainfall was over 1500m.m. in Nantou County, Tainan County and Pingtung County. The typhoon caused severe damage in southern Taiwan. The study will search for the influence on the sediment hazards caused by the extreme rainfall and hydrological environmental changes focusing on southern Taiwan (including Chiayi, Tainan, Kaohsiung and Pingtung). The instability index and kriging theories are applied to analyze the factors of landslide to determine the susceptibility in southern Taiwan. We collected the landslide records during the period year, 2007~2013 and analyzed the instability factors including elevation, slope, aspect, soil, and geology. Among these factors, slope got the highest weight. The steeper the slope is, the more the landslides occur. As for the factor of aspect, the highest probability falls on the Southwest. However, this factor has the lowest weight among all the factors. Likewise, Darkish colluvial soil holds the highest probability of collapses among all the soils. Miocene middle Ruifang group and its equivalents have the highest probability of collapses among all the geologies. In this study, Kriging was used to establish the susceptibility map in southern Taiwan. The instability index above 4.21 can correspond to those landslide records. The potential landslide area in southern Taiwan, where collapses more likely occur, belongs to high level and medium-high level; the area is 5.12% and 17.81% respectively.

  17. Landslide databases for applied landslide impact research: the example of the landslide database for the Federal Republic of Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damm, Bodo; Klose, Martin

    2014-05-01

    This contribution presents an initiative to develop a national landslide database for the Federal Republic of Germany. It highlights structure and contents of the landslide database and outlines its major data sources and the strategy of information retrieval. Furthermore, the contribution exemplifies the database potentials in applied landslide impact research, including statistics of landslide damage, repair, and mitigation. The landslide database offers due to systematic regional data compilation a differentiated data pool of more than 5,000 data sets and over 13,000 single data files. It dates back to 1137 AD and covers landslide sites throughout Germany. In seven main data blocks, the landslide database stores besides information on landslide types, dimensions, and processes, additional data on soil and bedrock properties, geomorphometry, and climatic or other major triggering events. A peculiarity of this landslide database is its storage of data sets on land use effects, damage impacts, hazard mitigation, and landslide costs. Compilation of landslide data is based on a two-tier strategy of data collection. The first step of information retrieval includes systematic web content mining and exploration of online archives of emergency agencies, fire and police departments, and news organizations. Using web and RSS feeds and soon also a focused web crawler, this enables effective nationwide data collection for recent landslides. On the basis of this information, in-depth data mining is performed to deepen and diversify the data pool in key landslide areas. This enables to gather detailed landslide information from, amongst others, agency records, geotechnical reports, climate statistics, maps, and satellite imagery. Landslide data is extracted from these information sources using a mix of methods, including statistical techniques, imagery analysis, and qualitative text interpretation. The landslide database is currently migrated to a spatial database system

  18. Use of landslides for paleoseismic analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jibson, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    In many environments, landslides preserved in the geologic record can be analyzed to determine the likelihood of seismic triggering. If evidence indicates that a seismic origin is likely for a landslide or group of landslides, and if the landslides can be dated, then a paleo-earthquake can be inferred, and some of its characteristics can be estimated. Such paleoseismic landslide studies thus can help reconstruct the seismic history of a site or region. In regions that contain multiple seismic sources and in regions where surface faulting is absent, paleoseismic ground-failure studies are valuable tools in hazard and risk studies that are more concerned with shaking hazards than with interpretation of the movement histories of individual faults. Paleoseismic landslide analysis involves three steps: (1) identifying a feature as a landslide, (2) dating the landslide, and (3) showing that the landslide was triggered by earthquake shaking. This paper addresses each of these steps and discusses methods for interpreting the results of such studies by reviewing the current state of knowledge of paleoseismic landslide analysis.

  19. The Art of Abstracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cremmins, Edward T.

    A three-stage analytical reading method for the composition of informative and indicative abstracts by authors and abstractors is presented in this monograph, along with background information on the abstracting process and a discussion of professional considerations in abstracting. An introduction to abstracts and abstracting precedes general…

  20. Flood and Landslide Applications of High Time Resolution Satellite Rain Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert F.; Hong, Yang; Huffman, George J.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental, potentially real-time systems to detect floods and landslides related to heavy rain events are described. A key basis for these applications is high time resolution satellite rainfall analyses. Rainfall is the primary cause for devastating floods across the world. However, in many countries, satellite-based precipitation estimation may be the best source of rainfall data due to insufficient ground networks and absence of data sharing along many trans-boundary river basins. Remotely sensed precipitation from the NASA's TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) operational system (near real-time precipitation at a spatial-temporal resolution of 3 hours and 0.25deg x 0.25deg) is used to monitor extreme precipitation events. Then these data are ingested into a macro-scale hydrological model which is parameterized using spatially distributed elevation, soil and land cover datasets available globally from satellite remote sensing. Preliminary flood results appear reasonable in terms of location and frequency of events, with implementation on a quasi-global basis underway. With the availability of satellite rainfall analyses at fine time resolution, it has also become possible to assess landslide risk on a near-global basis. Early results show that landslide occurrence is closely associated with the spatial patterns and temporal distribution of TRMM rainfall characteristics. Particularly, the number of landslides triggered by rainfall is related to rainfall climatology, antecedent rainfall accumulation, and intensity-duration of rainstorms. For the purpose of prediction, an empirical TMPA-based rainfall intensity-duration threshold is developed and shown to have skill in determining potential areas of landslides. These experimental findings, in combination with landslide surface susceptibility information based on satellite-based land surface information, form a starting point towards a potential operational landslide monitoring/warning system

  1. A Systematic Review of the Health Impacts of Mass Earth Movements (Landslides)

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Iain T R; Petley, Dave N.; Williams, Richard; Murray, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Background. Mass ground movements (commonly referred to as ‘landslides’) are common natural hazards that can have significant economic, social and health impacts. They occur as single events, or as clusters, and are often part of ‘disaster’ chains, occurring secondary to, or acting as the precursor of other disaster events. Whilst there is a large body of literature on the engineering and geological aspects of landslides, the mortality and morbidity caused by landslides is less well documented. As far as we are aware, this is the first systematic review to examine the health impacts of landslides. Methods. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SCOPUS databases and the Cochrane library were systematically searched to identify articles which considered the health impacts of landslides. Case studies, case series, primary research and systematic reviews were included. News reports, editorials and non-systematic reviews were excluded. Only articles in English were considered. The references of retrieved papers were searched to identify additional articles. Findings. 913 abstracts were reviewed and 143 full text articles selected for review. A total of 27 papers reporting research studies were included in the review (25 from initial search, 1 from review of references and 1 from personal correspondence). We found a limited number of studies on the physical health consequences of landslides. Only one study provided detail of the causes of mortality and morbidity in relation a landslide event. Landslides cause significant mental health impacts, in particular the prevalence of PTSD may be higher after landslides than other types of disaster, though these studies tend to be older with only 3 papers published in the last 5 years, with 2 being published 20 years ago, and diagnostic criteria have changed since they were produced. Discussion. We were disappointed at the small number of relevant studies, and the generally poor documentation of the health impacts of landslides

  2. How geology influences the type and magnitude of postfire effects like landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Steeger, Tomás M.; Maessen, Tom; Grenzdörfer, Moritz; Schneiderwind, Sascha; Papanikolaou, Ioannis; Deligiannakis, Georgios; Migiros, Georgios; Psomiadis, Emmanouil; Kairis, Orestis; Pallikarakis, Aggelos

    2016-04-01

    see that the geology with hardrock and favourable engineering geological conditions is not at all prone to landslides. Nevertheless, it is prone to debris flow generation due to low soil cover, steep topography and high debris content on the slopes in the catchments. Even strong rainfall events after the fire did not cause any soil or debris slides. As a result, it seems to be possible to predict from landslide hazard analysis the intensity and the occurrence of post fire effects related to landslides when considering the geological environment. Moreover, this could help to predict which secondary hazards can be expected in areas which become prone to wildfire under global change conditions. This Research has been funded by IKY and DAAD within the IKYDA collaborative project "Postfire effects in Greece". Their support is very much appreciated. Shakesby, R.A. & Doerr, S.H. 2006. Wildfire as a hydrological and geomorphological agent. Earth Sci. Rev. 74. 269- 307. Swanson, F.J., 1981. Fire and geomorphic processes. in: Mooney et al. (Eds.), Fire Regime and Ecosystem Properties, USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-26, 401-421.

  3. Regional landslide-hazard evaluation using landslide slopes, Western Wasatch County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hylland, M.D.; Lowe, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Landsliding has historically been one of the most damaging geologic hazards in western Wasatch County, Utah. Accordingly, we mapped and analyzed landslides (slumps and debris slides) in the area to provide an empirical basis for regional landslide-hazard evaluation. The 336 landslides in the 250-sq-mi (650-km2) area involve 20 geologic units, including Mississippian- to Quaternary-aged rock and unconsolidated deposits. Landsliding in western Wasatch County is characterized by a strong correlation between geologic material and landslide-slope inclination. From a simple statistical analysis of overall slope inclinations of late Holocene landslides, we determined "critical" slope inclinations above which late Holocene landsliding has typically occurred and used these as the primary basis for defining relative landslide hazard. The critical slopes vary for individual geologic units and range from 15 to 50 percent (9??-27??). The critical slope values and landslide locations were used in conjunction with geologic and slope maps to construct qualitative landslide-susceptibility maps for use by county planners. The maps delineate areas of low, moderate, and high relative hazard and indicate where studies should be completed prior to development to evaluate site-specific slope-stability conditions. Critical slopes as determined in this study provide a consistent empirical reference that is useful for evaluating relative landslide hazard and guiding land-use-planning decisions in large, geologically complex areas.

  4. Landslide hazard analysis for Hong Kong using landslide inventory and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, K. T.; Sze, Y. L.; Fung, M. K.; Wong, W. Y.; Fong, E. L.; Chan, L. C. P.

    2004-05-01

    This paper presents a landslide-inventory-based and GIS-based framework for systematic landslide hazard analysis by employing historical landslide data in Hong Kong, coupling with geological, geomorphological, population, climatic, and rainfall data. Based on 1448 landslide data from 1984 to 1998, the diurnal and seasonal distributions of landslides are established and compared with the seasonal rainfall variation. The cumulative fatalities and injuries caused by landslides increase with the cumulative rainfall in Hong Kong, indicating a strong correlation between rainfall and landslide consequences. The average annual fatality and injury rates in Hong Kong caused by landslide are 11.35 and 11.63, respectively. In terms of being hit by a landslide, squatter areas and roads on Hong Kong Island are at the highest risk. A frequency-volume relation for Hong Kong Island was established, and, using this relation, it was estimated that the return period of a 26,000 m 3 landslide (the size of 1995 Shum Wan Road Landslide) is about 3.12 years. A hazard zonation map for Hong Kong Island is established by using historical data. The potential use of GIS technology to incorporate various layers of information is illustrated using Hong Kong Island as an example. Both landslide hazard and risk maps are proposed using raster calculation.

  5. Oregon earthquakes increase local landslide risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2014-11-01

    Coastal Oregon is home to a number of slow, recurrent landslides. During bouts of heavy rain, water gets into the soil, reducing friction and causing the ground to slip. Often, these landslides creep along at a barely perceptible rate—less than a centimeter per day. Yet the landslides are a lurking threat, as past events that have damaged infrastructure and cut communities off for months at a time have demonstrated.

  6. Venus - Landslide in Navka Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Magellan spacecraft has observed remnant landslide deposits apparently resulting from the collapse of volcanic structures. This Magellan radar image is centered about 25.4 degrees south latitude and 308 degrees east longitude in the southwestern Navka Region of Venus. The image shows a 17.4 kilometer (10.8 mile) diameter volcanic dome on the plains. The dome is approximately 1.86 kilometers (1.2 mile) in height and it has a slope of about 23 degrees. The northwest and northeast flanks of the dome have collapsed to form landslides that have deposited debris on the plains. The image shows an area 110 kilometers (68 miles) across and 100 kilometers (62 miles) in length.

  7. ECONOMIC LOSSES AND FATALITIES DUE TO LANDSLIDES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Robert L.; Fleming, Robert W.

    1986-01-01

    Annual losses in the United States, Japan, Italy, and India have been estimated at 1 billion or more each. During the period 1971-74, nearly 600 people per year were killed by landslides worldwide; about 90 percent of these deaths occurred in the Circum-Pacific region. From 1967-82, 150 people per year died in Japan as a result of slope failures. In the United States, the number of landslide-related fatalities per year exceeds 25. Japan leads other nations in development of comprehensive programs to reduce economic losses and fatalities due to landslides. The United States recently has proposed a national landslide hazard reduction program.

  8. The Springdale, Utah, landslide: An extraordinary event

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jibson, R.W.; Harp, E.L.

    1996-01-01

    The most dramatic geologic effect of the M-5.7 St. George, Utah earthquake of 2 September 1992 was the triggering of the 14,000,000-m3 Springdale, Utah landslide. The roughly 10 m of landslide movement destroyed three houses, threatened several condominiums, disrupted utility lines, and temporarily closed the southwest entrance to Zion National Park. The seismic triggering of this landslide is puzzling because its distance from the earthquake epicenter, 44 km, is much greater than the farthest distance (18 km) at which similar landslides have been triggered in worldwide earthquakes of the same magnitude. Other Colorado Plateau earthquakes also have produced landslides far beyond worldwide distance limits, which suggests that regional variations in ground-shaking attenuation may require different landslide-triggering distance limits for different seismotectonic regions. Slope stability analysis and historical records of landslide movement suggest that the Springdale landslide was only slightly above limit-equilibrium conditions at the time of the earthquake. Dynamic stability analysis using Newmark's permanent-displacement method indicates coseismic landslide displacement of only 1-8 cm; this rather modest displacement probably induced enough deformation in the montmorillonitic clays along the failure surface to reduce shear strength and destabilize the slide, which continued to move for several hours after the earthquake.

  9. Quick clay and landslides of clayey soils.

    PubMed

    Khaldoun, Asmae; Moller, Peder; Fall, Abdoulaye; Wegdam, Gerard; De Leeuw, Bert; Méheust, Yves; Otto Fossum, Jon; Bonn, Daniel

    2009-10-30

    We study the rheology of quick clay, an unstable soil responsible for many landslides. We show that above a critical stress the material starts flowing abruptly with a very large viscosity decrease caused by the flow. This leads to avalanche behavior that accounts for the instability of quick clay soils. Reproducing landslides on a small scale in the laboratory shows that an additional factor that determines the violence of the slides is the inhomogeneity of the flow. We propose a simple yield stress model capable of reproducing the laboratory landslide data, allowing us to relate landslides to the measured rheology.

  10. Venus - Volcano With Massive Landslides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This Magellan full-resolution mosaic which covers an area 143 by 146 kilometers (89 by 91 miles) is centered at 55 degrees north latitude, 266 degrees east longitude. The bright feature, slightly south of center is interpreted to be a volcano, 15-20 kilometers (9.3 to 12.4 miles) in diameter with a large apron of blocky debris to its right and some smaller aprons to its left. A preferred explanation is that several massive catastrophic landslides dropped down steep slopes and were carried by their momentum out into the smooth, dark lava plains. At the base of the east-facing or largest scallop on the volcano is what appears to be a large block of coherent rock, 8 to 10 kilometers (5 to 6 miles) in length. The similar margin of both the scallop and block and the shape in general is typical of terrestrial slumped blocks (masses of rock which slide and rotate down a slope instead of breaking apart and tumbling). The bright lobe to the south of the volcano may either be a lava flow or finer debris from other landslides. This volcanic feature, characterized by its scalloped flanks is part of a class of volcanoes called scalloped or collapsed domes of which there are more than 80 on Venus. Based on the chute-like shapes of the scallops and the existence of a spectrum of intermediate to well defined examples, it is hypothesized that all of the scallops are remnants of landslides even though the landslide debris is often not visible. Possible explanations for the missing debris are that it may have been covered by lava flows, the debris may have weathered or that the radar may not be recognizing it because the individual blocks are too small

  11. A Demonstration of GPS Landslide Monitoring Using Online Positioning User Service (OPUS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.

    2011-12-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) technologies have been frequently applied to landslide study, both as a complement, and as an alternative to conventional surveying methods. However, most applications of GPS for landslide monitoring have been limited to the academic community for research purposes. High-accuracy GPS has not been widely equipped in geotechnical companies and used by technicians. The main issue that limits the applications of GPS in the practice of high-accuracy landslide monitoring is the complexity of GPS data processing. This study demonstrated an approach using the Online Positioning User Service (OPUS) (http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/OPUS) provided by the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to process GPS data and conduct long-term landslide monitoring in the Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands Region. Continuous GPS data collected at a creeping landslide site during two years were used to evaluate different scenarios for landslide surveying: continuous or campaign, long duration or short duration, morning or afternoon (different weather conditions). OPUS uses Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS) managed by NGS (http://www.ngs.noaa.giv/CORS/) as references and user data as a rover to solve a position. There are 19 CORS permanent GPS stations in the Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands region. The dense GPS network provides a precise and reliable reference frame for subcentimeter-accuracy landslide monitoring in this region. Our criterion for the accuracy was the root-mean-square (RMS) of OPUS solutions over a 2-year period with respect to true landslide displacement time series overt the same period. The true landslide displacements were derived from a single-baseline (130 m) GPS processing by using 24-hour continuous data. If continuous GPS surveying is performed in the field, then OPUS static processing can provide 0.6 cm horizontal and 1.1 cm vertical precision with few outliers. If repeated

  12. Assessing the impact of climate-change scenarios on landslide occurrence in Umbria Region, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciabatta, L.; Camici, S.; Brocca, L.; Ponziani, F.; Stelluti, M.; Berni, N.; Moramarco, T.

    2016-10-01

    Landslides are frequent and widespread geomorphological phenomena causing loss of human life and damage to property. The main tool for assessing landslide risk relies on rainfall thresholds and thus, many countries established early warning systems aimed to landslide hazard assessment. The Umbria Region Civil Protection Centre developed an operational early warning system for landslide risk assessment, named PRESSCA, based on the soil saturation conditions to identify rainfall thresholds. These thresholds, currently used by the Civil Protection operators for the day-by-day landslide hazard assessment, provided satisfactory results with more than 86% of the landslides events correctly identified during the period 1990-2013. In this study, the PRESSCA system was employed for the assessment of climate change impact on landslide hazard in Central Italy. The outputs of five different Global Circulation Models (GCMs) were downscaled and weather generators were used for obtaining hourly rainfall and temperature time series from daily GCMs projection. Then, PRESSCA system was employed to estimate the number of landslide occurrence per year. By comparing results obtained for three different periods (1990-2013 (baseline), 2040-2069 and 2070-2099), for the Umbria territory a general increase in events occurrence was expected (up to more than 40%) in the future period, mainly during the winter season. The results also revealed that the effect of climate change on landslides was not straightforward to identify and the close interaction between rainfall magnitude/intensity, temperature and soil moisture should be analysed in depth. Overall, soil moisture was projected to decrease throughout the year but during the wet season the variations with respect to the present period were very small. Specifically, it was found that during the warm-dry season, due to the strong decrease of soil moisture, even for a sensible increase in rainfall intensity, the landslide occurrence was

  13. Landslide Economics: Concepts and Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, Martin; Damm, Bodo

    2015-04-01

    Landslide economics is vital for fundamental understanding of landslide risk as dealing with two important topics: (i) impact assessment, either as damage statistics or cost modeling, and (ii) vulnerability assessment, i.e., the study of exposure, sensitivity, and resilience to landslide damage, ideally from both sociotechnical and financial perspective (e.g., Crovelli and Coe, 2009; Wills et al., 2014). Many aspects addressed in landslide economics have direct influence on landslide risk, including: (i) human activity is often a major causative factor of landslides, not only by predisposing or triggering them, but also as a result of inadequate (low-cost) landslide mitigation; (ii) the level of tolerable or acceptable risk, a measure driving a large part of landslide costs in industrialized countries, is highly variable, differing between individuals, public or private organizations, and societies, with its nature being to change over time; and (iii) decision makers are faced with finding the right balance in landslide mitigation, thus need to weight diverse geological and socioeconomic factors that control its effectiveness in both technical and financial terms (e.g., Klose et al., 2014a). A large part of the complexity in assessing landslide risk as measured by economic costs is due to unique problems in understanding of (i) what types of landslide damage affect human activity and infrastructure in which way, (ii) how society contributes and responds to various kinds of damage, and (iii) how landslide damage is valued in monetary terms. Landslide economics shows the potential to take account of these sociocultural factors to the benefit of risk analysis (e.g., Klose et al., 2014b). The present contribution introduces local and regional case studies in which different economic issues of landslide risk are highlighted using the example of public infrastructures in NW Germany. A special focus is on the following topics: (i) risk culture and created risk, (ii

  14. A comprehensive database of Martian landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battista Crosta, Giovanni; Vittorio De Blasio, Fabio; Frattini, Paolo; Valbuzzi, Elena

    2016-04-01

    During a long-term project, we have identified and classified a large number (> 3000) of Martian landslides especially but not exclusively from Valles Marineris. This database provides a more complete basis for a statistical study of landslides on Mars and its relationship with geographical and environmental conditions. Landslides have been mapped according to standard geomorphological criteria, delineating both the landslide scar and accumulation limits, associating each scarp to a deposit, and using the program ArcGis for generation of a complete digital dataset. Multiple accumulations from the same source area or from different sources have been differentiated, where possible, to obtain a more complete dataset and to allow more refined analyses. Each landslide has been classified according to a set of criteria including: type, degree of confinement, possible trigger, elevation with respect to datum, geomorphological features, degree of multiplicity, and so on. The runout, fall height, and volume have been measured for each deposit. In fact, the database is revealing a series of trends that may assist at understanding landform processes on Mars and its past climatic conditions. One of the most interesting aspects of our dataset is the presence of a population of landslides whose particularly long mobility deviates from average behavior. While some landslides have travelled unimpeded on a usually flat area, others have travelled against obstacles or mounds. Therefore, landslides are also studied in relation to i) morphologies created by the landslide itself, ii) presence of mounds, barriers or elevations than have affected the movement of the landslide mass. In some extreme cases, the landslide was capable of travelling for several tens of km along the whole valley and upon reaching the opposite side it travelled upslope for several hundreds of meters, which is indication of high travelling speed. In other cases, the high speed is revealed by dynamic deformations

  15. Earthquake induced landslide hazard field observatory in the Avcilar peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigarre, Pascal; Coccia, Stella; Theoleyre, Fiona; Ergintav, Semih; Özel, Oguz; Yalçinkaya, Esref; Lenti, Luca; Martino, Salvatore; Gamba, Paolo; Zucca, Francesco; Moro, Marco

    2015-04-01

    SAR temporal series has been undertaken, providing global but accurate Identification and characterization of gravitational phenomena covering the aera. Evaluation of the resolution and identification of landslide hazard-related features using space multispectral/hyperspectral image data has been realized. Profit has been gained from a vast drilling and geological - geotechnical survey program undertaken by the Istanbul Metropolitan Area, to get important data to complete the geological model of the landslide as well as one deep borehole to set up permanent instrumentation on a quite large slow landslide, fully encircled by a dense building environment. The selected landslide was instrumented in 2014 with a real-time observational system including GPS, rainfall, piezometer and seismic monitoring. Objective of this permanent monitoring system is three folds: first to detect and quantify interaction between seismic motion, rainfall and mass movement, building a database opened to the scientific community in the future, second to help to calibrate dynamic numerical geomechanical simulations intending to study the sensitivity to seismic loading, and last but not least. Last but not least important geophysical field work has been conducted to assess seismic site effects already noticed during the 1999 earthquake .Data, metadata and main results are from now progressively compiled and formatted for appropriate integration in the cloud monitoring infrastructure for data sharing.

  16. Geological factors contributing to landslides: case studies of a few landslides in different regions of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, Nirmala; Ramanathan, Kaushik

    2016-02-01

    Landslides - mass movements of rock, debris or earth down a slope - are worldwide phenomena which cause significant damage and an estimated 5000 fatalities each year. They are caused by the interplay of various natural and anthropogenic factors and occur under diverse geoenvironmental conditions. In India, landslides occur primarily in the Himalayas of North India and in the Western Ghats of South India. This paper reports the results of field investigations for six landslide sites in North, Northeast and South India. We provide explanations as to why several landslides occurred at each of the sites. Our goal is to gain a deeper insight into the causes and precursors of landslides, which will facilitate more accurate identification of landslide-prone locations and enable early detection of landslide events.

  17. Analyzing Geometric Characteristics of Rainfall-induced Landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, S. H.; Chen, C. F.

    2015-12-01

    Previous landslide prediction studies have focused on the assessment of location of landslides. Besides location, landslide geometric features (i.e., size and shape) are important factors that influence the distribution and dynamics of landslides. Statistical methods have been used to determine the frequency-size or frequency-volume relationships of landslides, through examining landslide inventories. However, the question of what sets their size and shape is unanswered. In this study, a landslide geometry generating algorithm (LsGA) is developed for quantifying landslide geometric features, including area, perimeter, upper length, lower length, average length and average width, with incorporating an existing landslide inventory and digital elevation model (DEM). The Kaoping watershed in Southern Taiwan is selected as the study area, and the landslide inventory prepared after Typhoon Morakot (August 2009) were applied for LsGA analysis. Landslide geometric features generated by LsGA were then used to correlate to geo-environmental factors, such as slope, contributing area and topographic index (TI), in a logistic regression model. Preliminary findings are: (1) smaller landslides are generally longer than larger landslides, (2) the upper length of small landslides is relatively wider than large landslides, (3) small landslides are more likely to be observed over gentle slopes (<30 deg), and (4) small landslides are more likely to be observed over lower part of slopes (high TI value, near channels). Other results will be presented in the meeting.

  18. Monitoring of Landslides using Repeated Kinematics GPS Observables in Sevketiye Town, Biga Peninsula, Çanakkale, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuneyt Erenoglu, Ramazan; Akcay, Ozgun; Karaca, Zeki; Erenoglu, Oya; Sengul Uluocak, Ebru; Yucel, Mehmet Ali

    2014-05-01

    Landslide is one of the most important natural events, and is also a result of earth's crust movements. Landslides generally result in the outward and downward movement of slope-forming materials consisting soil, rock, artificial fill and etc. Moreover, possible earthquakes are one of the main reasons of triggering landslides in active areas seismically. There have been many studies based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) observables to compute the three dimensional positioning of established sites, and to model landslides precisely. We can monitor landslide with GPS using continuous data collection or the type of campaign surveying. While continuous data collection provide a millimetre-level of accuracy, the accuracy decreases with the shorter sessions, e.g. campaign surveying, due to possible sources of error. The area, located west of the Çanakkale, has been studied to identify the landslide susceptibility and geology. Çanakkale, NW Turkey, is located on the territory of the Biga Peninsula and the Gallipoli Peninsula. The section of remaining at the west of the line from the Gulf of Edremit to the Gulf of Erdek is called Biga Peninsula, and it covers an area of approximately 10 thousand km². In the Biga Peninsula, the main morphological units are at the western, northern and southern of coastal plains, and on their behind the hills, plateaus and mountainous areas of the inland. But at the middle areas, it is often possible to find the tectonic depressions sandwiched between the masses plateau and mountainous. In general, moving down the slope of a rock, soil or debris can be defined as landslides that are ranks second in terms of caused losses after earthquakes in Turkey. Landslides, harm to urbanization as well as loss of lives and economic losses. Moreover they adversely affects to agricultural, forest areas and the quality of the rivers. For example, the gas pipeline connecting Turkey and Greece, which will provide gas to the Southern Europe passes

  19. UAV for landslide mapping and deformation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Beiqi; Liu, Chun

    2015-12-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) can be a flexible, cost-effective, and accurate method to monitor landslides with high resolution aerial images. Images acquired on 05 May 2013 and 13 December 2014 of the Xishan landslide, China, have been used to produce a high-resolution ortho-mosaic of the entire landslide and digital elevation model (DEM). The UAV capability for imaging detection and displacements on the landslide surface has been evaluated, and the subsequent image processing approaches for suitably georectifying the data have been assessed. Objects derived from the segmentation of a multispectral image were used as classifying units for landslide object-oriented analysis. Spectral information together with various morphometric characteristics was applied for recognizing landslides from false positives. Digital image correlation technique was evaluated to quantify and map terrain displacements. The magnitude and direction of the displacement vectors derived from correlating two temporal UAV images corresponded to a visual interpretation of landslide change. Therefore, the UAV can demonstrate its capability for producing valuable landslide mapping data and deformation information.

  20. Landslides in the New Madrid seismic zone

    SciTech Connect

    Jibson, R.W.; Keefer, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    During the New Madrid earthquakes of 1811-12, bluffs bordering the Mississippi alluvial plain in the epicentral region underwent large-scale landsliding. Between Cairo, Illinois and Memphis, Tennessee, the authors mapped 221 large landslides of three types: (1) old, eroded, coherent block slides and slumps; (2) old earth flows; and (3) young, fresh slumps that occur only along near-river bluffs and are the only landslides present along such bluffs. Historical accounts and field evidence indicate that most or all old coherent slides and earth flows date to the 1811-12 earthquakes and that the only currently active, large-scale landsliding in the area occurs along bluffs bordering the river. Analysis of old coherent slides and earth flows indicates that landslide distribution is most strongly affected by slope height, but that proximity to the hypocenters of the 1811-12 earthquakes also has a significant effect. Slope-stability analyses of an old coherent slide and an earth flow selected as representative of the principal kinds of landslides present indicate that both were stable in aseismic conditions even when water tables were at highest possible levels. However, a dynamic Newmark displacement analysis shows that ground shaking such as that in 1811-12 would cause large displacements leading to catastrophic failure in both slides. These results indicate that in large earthquakes landsliding in much of the study are is likely. Moderate earthquakes may also trigger landslides at some locations.

  1. Precise Landslide Displacement Time Series from Continuous GPS Observations in Tectonically Active and Cold Regions: A Case Study in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuddus, Y.; Wang, G.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past 15 years, Global Positioning System (GPS) has been frequently used as a scientific tool to detect potential earth mass movements and to track creeping landslides. In this study, we investigated four-years of continuous GPS data (September 2006-July 2010) recorded at a landslide site in Alaska. This GPS station (AC55) was installed on an un-identified creeping site by the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) project, which was funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation. The landslide moves with a steady horizontal velocity of 5.5 cm/year toward NEE, and had a subsidence rate of 2.6 cm/year. There was a considerable correlation between annual snow loading and melting cycles and seasonal variations of the landslide displacements. The seasonal movements vary year to year with an average peak-to-peak amplitude of 1.5 cm and 1.0 cm in horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. This study addresses three challenging issues in applying GPS for landslide monitoring in tectonically active and cold regions. The three challenges include (1) detecting GPS-derived positions that could be contaminated by the snow and ice accumulated on GPS antennas during cold seasons, (2) establishing a precise local reference frame and assessing its accuracy, and (3) excluding local seasonal ground motions from GPS-derived landslide displacements. The methods introduced in this study will be useful for GPS landslide monitoring in other tectonically active and/or cold regions.

  2. Simple scaling of catastrophic landslide dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ekström, Göran; Stark, Colin P

    2013-03-22

    Catastrophic landslides involve the acceleration and deceleration of millions of tons of rock and debris in response to the forces of gravity and dissipation. Their unpredictability and frequent location in remote areas have made observations of their dynamics rare. Through real-time detection and inverse modeling of teleseismic data, we show that landslide dynamics are primarily determined by the length scale of the source mass. When combined with geometric constraints from satellite imagery, the seismically determined landslide force histories yield estimates of landslide duration, momenta, potential energy loss, mass, and runout trajectory. Measurements of these dynamical properties for 29 teleseismogenic landslides are consistent with a simple acceleration model in which height drop and rupture depth scale with the length of the failing slope.

  3. Landslides risk mitigation along lifelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capparelli, G.; Versace, P.; Artese, G.; Costanzo, S.; Corsonello, P.; Di Massa, G.; Mendicino, G.; Maletta, D.; Leone, S.; Muto, F.; Senatore, A.; Troncone, A.; Conte, E.; Galletta, D.

    2012-04-01

    The paper describes an integrated, innovative and efficient solution to manage risk issues associated to landslides interfering with infrastructures. The research project was submitted for financial support in the framework of the Multi -regional Operational Programme 2007-13: Research and Competitiveness funded by the Ministry of Research (MIUR) and co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund. The project is aimed to developing and demonstrating an integrated system of monitoring, early warning and mitigation of landslides risk. The final goal is to timely identify potentially dangerous landslides, and to activate all needed impact mitigation measures, including the information delivery. The essential components of the system include monitoring arrays, telecommunication networks and scenario simulation models, assisted by a data acquisition and processing centre, and a traffic control centres. Upon integration, the system will be experimentally validated and demonstrated over ca. 200 km of three highway sections, crossing the regions of Campania, Basilicata, Calabria and Sicily. Progress in the state of art is represented by the developments in the field of environmental monitoring and in the mathematical modeling of landslides and by the development of services for traffic management. The approach to the problem corresponds to a "systemic logics" where each developed component foresees different interchangeable technological solutions to maximize the operational flexibility. The final system may be configured as a simple to complex structure, including different configurations to deal with different scenarios. Specifically, six different monitoring systems will be realized: three "point" systems, made up of a network of locally measuring sensors, and three "area" systems to remotely measure the displacements of large areas. Each network will be fully integrated and connected to a unique data transmission system. Standardized and shared procedures for the

  4. National landslide susceptibility map for Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glade, T.; Dikau, R.; Bell, R.

    2003-04-01

    Landslide susceptibility is generally based on historical data and field mapping, Resulting maps usually cover regions ranging between local and regional scales. However, also national scale analysis is important to delineate regions most prone to landsliding. Herein it is crucial to define the parameters, which are most important within this scale, and indeed, which can be derived from national data sets. This study aims to demonstrate a method on how to obtain national scale landslide susceptibility maps. In this study, German landslide literature was extensively reviewed. Due to the varying nature of the different sources and publications, only the information on lithology and slope angle was compiled. To include local knowledge, returned questionnaires send to experts in landslide research were evaluated and respective information summarized. For regions with no information, generalized geotechnical properties for existing lithology were applied. Additionally, a geological map at a scale of 1:1.000.000 and a nationwide digital terrain model with a resolution of 25 m x 25 m were available. The combination of slope angle and lithology was qualitatively classified in negligible, minor, moderate and high landslide susceptibility classes and applied to the data. Due to the resolution of the geology map, the 25 m resolution has been aggregated to 150 m, which seemed appropriate considering the extend of most of the landslides. Coastal landslide susceptibility has been derived from an existing data set. The map delineates areas of different landslide susceptibilities. The regions include cuestas, steep slopes in rolling midland topography and in the Alps, as well as slopes of deeply dissected rivers. Work in progress includes an evaluation of the calculated landslide susceptibility map using regional data sets. Although it is a preliminary result, this study presents the potential of such maps for planning and management purposes.

  5. Abstraction and Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John; Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih

    2004-01-01

    What is involved in consolidating a new mathematical abstraction? This paper examines the work of one student who was working on a task designed to consolidate two recently constructed absolute function abstractions. The study adopts an activity theoretic model of abstraction in context. Selected protocol data are presented. The initial state of…

  6. Abstraction and Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John; Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih

    2006-01-01

    The framework for this paper is a recently developed theory of abstraction in context. The paper reports on data collected from one student working on tasks concerned with absolute value functions. It examines the relationship between mathematical constructions and abstractions. It argues that an abstraction is a consolidated construction that can…

  7. Landsliding in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Briggs, Reginald Peter; Pomeroy, John S.; Davies, William E.

    1975-01-01

    Man should proceed with caution if modifications such as loading, excavation, or changes of the water regime are contemplated for slopes in Allegheny County, especially those slopes described on the map as highly sensitive to disturbance by man. Features indicative of unstable slope conditions include: cracks in buildings, yard walls, and pools; doors and windows that jam; fences and other linear features bowed out of line; tilted trees and utility poles; cracks and steplike ground features; hummocky ground; and water seeps. Geologic factors related to the landsliding process include rock types, layering, fracturing, and attitude; nature of soil cover; permeability of rocks and soils; and steepness of slope.

  8. Landslide hazard and risk assessment for Ambon city using landslide inventory and geographic information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souisa, Matheus; Hendrajaya, Lilik; Handayani, Gunawan

    2016-08-01

    Ambon Island is a volcanic islands arc and included in the territory of the archipelago of small islands are associated with subduction zones that have a degree of high vulnerability to natural disasters, such as erosion and landslides on the slopes of certain conditions. Landslides that occur various in the city of Ambon, usually occurs during the rainy season so that the impacts that occur not only occurs on site but also off site with amount of large sedimentation. This paper presents the application of digital image analysis techniques and tools Geographic Information Systems to describe the degree of landslide hazard and risk areas in locations Ambon City, Moluccas. The cause of the landslide is analyzed through various thematic layers attribute data for the study area. Landslide hazard zonation assessment is done by using historical data, while the landslide risk analysis is done by using the results of landslide hazard assessment and socioeconomic factors by using geospatial models. The risk assessment of landslides can be used to estimate the risk to the population, property and infrastructure. The study results in the form of a map of landslide hazard and the risk of landslides that act to support urban spatial planning based on disaster mitigation.

  9. Abstraction and Problem Reformulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giunchiglia, Fausto

    1992-01-01

    In work done jointly with Toby Walsh, the author has provided a sound theoretical foundation to the process of reasoning with abstraction (GW90c, GWS9, GW9Ob, GW90a). The notion of abstraction formalized in this work can be informally described as: (property 1), the process of mapping a representation of a problem, called (following historical convention (Sac74)) the 'ground' representation, onto a new representation, called the 'abstract' representation, which, (property 2) helps deal with the problem in the original search space by preserving certain desirable properties and (property 3) is simpler to handle as it is constructed from the ground representation by "throwing away details". One desirable property preserved by an abstraction is provability; often there is a relationship between provability in the ground representation and provability in the abstract representation. Another can be deduction or, possibly inconsistency. By 'throwing away details' we usually mean that the problem is described in a language with a smaller search space (for instance a propositional language or a language without variables) in which formulae of the abstract representation are obtained from the formulae of the ground representation by the use of some terminating rewriting technique. Often we require that the use of abstraction results in more efficient .reasoning. However, it might simply increase the number of facts asserted (eg. by allowing, in practice, the exploration of deeper search spaces or by implementing some form of learning). Among all abstractions, three very important classes have been identified. They relate the set of facts provable in the ground space to those provable in the abstract space. We call: TI abstractions all those abstractions where the abstractions of all the provable facts of the ground space are provable in the abstract space; TD abstractions all those abstractions wllere the 'unabstractions' of all the provable facts of the abstract space are

  10. Landslides on Earth, Mars, Moon and Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunetti, Maria Teresa; Xiao, Zhiyong; Komatsu, Goro; Peruccacci, Silvia; Fiorucci, Federica; Cardinali, Mauro; Santangelo, Michele; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    Landslides play an important role in the evolution of landscapes on Earth and on other solid planets of the Solar System. On Earth, landslides have been recognized in all continents, and in subaerial and submarine environments. The spatial and temporal range of the observed slope failures is extremely large on Earth. Surface gravity is the main factor driving landslides in solid planets. Comparison of landslide characteristics, e.g. the landslide types and sizes (area, volume, fall height, length) on various planetary bodies may help in understanding the effect of surface gravity on failure initiation and propagation. In the last decades, planetary exploration missions have delivered an increasing amount of high-resolution imagery, which enables to resolve and identify morphologic structures on planetary surfaces in great detail. Here, we present three geomorphological inventories of extraterrestrial landslides on Mars, Moon and Mercury. To recognize and map the landslides on the three Solar System bodies, we adopt the same visual criteria commonly used by geomorphologists to identify terrestrial slope failures in aerial photographs or satellite images. Landslides are classified based on the morphological similarity with terrestrial ones. In particular, we focus on rock slides mapped in Valles Marineris, Mars, and along the internal walls of impact craters on the Moon and Mercury. We exploit the three inventories to study the statistical distributions of the failure sizes (e.g., area, volume, fall height, length), and we compare the results with similar distributions obtained for terrestrial landslides. We obtain indications on the effect of the different surface gravity on landslides on Earth and Mars through the relationship between the landslide area and volume on the two planets. From the analysis of the area, we hypothesize that the lack of medium size landslides on Mars is due to the absence of erosive processes, which are induced on Earth chiefly by water

  11. Structure and characteristics of landslide input data and consequences on landslide susceptibility assessment and prediction capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, S. C.; Zezere, J. L.; Garcia, R. A. C.; Piedade, A.

    2009-04-01

    For the territorial planning and management it is of crucial importance the knowledge of the landslide susceptibility, in order to minimize the physical damages and economic losses associated to a certain instability scenario. Resultant mitigation measures can only be effective if we were able to predict where future landslides will occur. In order to improve the quality of data driven landslide susceptibility assessment, recent research developed worldwide as been focused on some fundamental questions: What is the quality of landslide inventories? What is the most appropriate terrain-unit to adopt? What is the most reliable statistical model? What are the best tools to validate results? In contrast, little attention has been given in the literature to the consequences on the landslide susceptibility assessment resulting from the structure and characteristics of the landslide database. Under the assumption that the conditions that led to slope instability in the past are more likely to generate new instability in the future, the statistically-based landslide susceptibility evaluation for a specific area is based on the spatial correlation between a set of independent, predisposing landslide geo-environmental factors, and the distribution of past landslides, which are considered the dependent variable. Landslides are usually included in the susceptibility models as a single point or as a polygon representing the entire unstable area. The selection of the way landslide information enter into prediction models (point vs polygon) is frequently conditioned by software constrains, and surprisingly, the effects of this choice in landslide susceptibility results has not been made. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the quality of susceptibility results obtained for rotational slides in a 12 km2 test site located at north of Lisbon, Portugal considering: (i) the structure and characteristics of landslide input data; (ii) the capacity of different landslide inventories

  12. Object-oriented analysis of multi-temporal panchromatic images for creation of historical landslide inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martha, Tapas R.; Kerle, Norman; van Westen, Cees J.; Jetten, Victor; Vinod Kumar, K.

    2012-01-01

    Object-oriented analysis (OOA) has been demonstrated to produce more accurate results than pixel-based image processing. Studies carried out by previous researchers have shown how landslide inventories can be prepared from multispectral satellite images using OOA. However, panchromatic images are frequently the only data available after a landslide event. Furthermore, preparation of historical inventories relies on the analysis of satellite images and aerial photographs acquired over past few decades that are also mostly only available in black and white. In such cases the methodology developed using multispectral data cannot be used directly due to limited spectral information, in particular in near-infrared bands. In this paper we present a new methodology that addresses some of these issues. Using high resolution panchromatic images from Cartosat-1 (2.5 m) and IRS-1D (5.8 m), and a 10 m gridded DTM extracted from Cartosat-1, we developed a new approach which uses change detection techniques and a global contextual criteria in an object-based environment to detect and classify landslides into five different types. Continuous time series images from 1998 to 2006 were used to prepare annual landslide inventories in a highly rugged Himalayan terrain. The maximum and minimum detection percentages achieved for all landslides are 96.7% and 71.5%, respectively, with corresponding quality percentages of 88.1% and 55.3%, respectively. However, the lack of spectral information proved to be a hurdle resulting in a high branching factor that indicates that further work is required to eliminate false positives. Nevertheless, the method was able to create much needed historical landslide inventories, which are critical for landslide hazard and risk assessment studies.

  13. An Integrated Landslide-Runout Model for the Assessment of Typhoon-Induced Landslide Hazard and Early Warning Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, S. H.; Chang, K. T.; Chen, Y. C.; Chen, C. F.

    2014-12-01

    The study proposes an integrated landslide-runout model, iLIR-w (Integrated Landslide Initiation prediction and landslide Runout simulation at Watershed level), to assess landslide hazard affected by typhoon. For rainfall-induced landslides, many landslide model have focused on the prediction of landslide locations, but few have incorporated the prediction of landslide timing and landslide runouts in one single modeling framework. iLIR-w combines an integrated landslide model for predicting shallow landslides and a watershed-scale runout simulation to simulate the coupled processes related to landslide hazard. The study developed the model in a watershed in southern Taiwan, by using landslide inventories prepared after eight historical typhoon events (2001-2008). The study then tested iLIR-w by incorporating typhoon rainfall forecasts from the Taiwan Cooperative Precipitation Ensemble Forecast Experiment (TAPEX) to practice landslide hazard early warning of 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h before the arrival of Typhoon Morakot which seriously damaged Southern Taiwan in 2009. The model performs reasonably well in the prediction of landslide locations, timing and runouts. Therefore, the model is expected to be useful for landslide hazard prevention, and can be applied to other watersheds with similar environment, assuming that reliable model parameters are available.

  14. Abstraction in mathematics.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Pier Luigi

    2003-01-01

    Some current interpretations of abstraction in mathematical settings are examined from different perspectives, including history and learning. It is argued that abstraction is a complex concept and that it cannot be reduced to generalization or decontextualization only. In particular, the links between abstraction processes and the emergence of new objects are shown. The role that representations have in abstraction is discussed, taking into account both the historical and the educational perspectives. As languages play a major role in mathematics, some ideas from functional linguistics are applied to explain to what extent mathematical notations are to be considered abstract. Finally, abstraction is examined from the perspective of mathematics education, to show that the teaching ideas resulting from one-dimensional interpretations of abstraction have proved utterly unsuccessful. PMID:12903658

  15. Relationship between landslide processes and land use-land cover changes in mountain regions: footprint identification approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitta, Marcello; Pregnolato, Marco; Pedoth, Lydia; Schneiderbauer, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    The present investigation aims to better understand the relationship between landslide events and land use-land cover (LULC) changes. Starting from the approach presented last year at national level ("In search of a footprint: an investigation about the potentiality of large datasets and territorial analysis in disaster and resilience research", Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 16, EGU2014-11253, 2014) we focused our study at regional scale considering South Tyrol, a mountain region in Italy near the Austrian border. Based on the concept exploited in the previous work, in which a disaster footprint was shown using land features and changes maps, in this study we start from the hypothesis that LULC can have a role in activation of landslides events. In this study, we used LULC data from CORINE and from a regional map called REAKART and we used the Italian national database IFFI (Inventario Fenomeni Franosi in Italia, Italian inventory of landslides) from which it is possible to select the landslides present in the national inventory together with other vector layers (the urban areas - Corine Land Cover 2000, the roads and railways, the administrative boundaries, the drainage system) and raster layers (the digital terrain model, digital orthophoto TerraItaly it2000, Landsat satellite images and IGM topographic map). Moreover it's possible to obtain information on the most important parameters of landslides, view documents, photos and videos. For South Tyrol, the IFFI database is updated in real time. In our investigation we analyzed: 1) LULC from CORINE and from REAKART, 2) landslides occurred nearby a border of two different LULC classes, 3) landslides occurred in a location in which a change in LULC classification in observed in time, 4) landslides occurred nearby road and railroad. Using classification methods and statistical approaches we investigated relationship between the LULC and the landslides events. The results confirm that specific LULC classes are

  16. Xanthe Terra Landslide in IR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This is a daytime IR image of a chaos region within Xanthe Terra. As with earlier images, the landslide in this image is caused by the failure of steep slopes releasing material to form the landslide deposit.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 3.1, Longitude 309.7 East (50.3 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. Mechanical-mathematical modeling for landslide process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svalova, V.

    2009-04-01

    Landslides process is one of the most widespread and dangerous processes in the urbanized territories. In Moscow the landslips occupy about 3 % of the most valuable territory of city. There are near 20 places of deep landslides and some hundreds of shallow landslides in Moscow. In Russia many towns are located near rivers on high coastal sides. There are many churches and historical buildings on high costs of Volga River and Moscow River. The organization of monitoring is necessary for maintenance of normal functioning of city infrastructure in a coastal zone and duly realization of effective protective actions. Last years the landslide process activization took place in Moscow. The right coast of river Moscow on its significant extent within the limits of city Moscow is struck by deep block landslides with depth up to 90 - 100 m which formation occurred in preglacial time with basis of sliding in Callovian-Oxford clays of Jurassic system on 25 - 30 m below modern level of the river . One of landslide sites is on Vorob'evy mountains, on a high slope of the right coast of the river Moscow with height of 65 m. There is a historical monument - «Andreevsky monastery», based in 1648. Also there are the complex of buildings of Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences, constructed in 70 - 80th years of 20-th century, bridge with station of underground "Vorob'evy mountain", constructions of sport complexes. Landslide slope is in active condition, and there are many attributes of activization of deep block landslide. In June 2007 a rather big landslide took place there near ski-jump. Another landslide site is in a southeast part of Moscow, occupying the right coast of river Moscow near museum - reserve "Kolomenskoye". The slope in this place has height of 38 - 40 m. Motions of deep landslips have begun from 1960 in connection with construction of collectors. In 70th years of XX century there was a strong activization of a slope with formation of cracks by extent up to

  18. Assessment of Landslide Hazards using Geophysical Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyanev, S.; Iliev, I.; Stefanov, P.; Stoeva, P.

    2003-04-01

    Landslides and unstable slopes are among the major natural and man-made hazards affecting manking and yet their causes, their consequences for human life and property, and possible strategies for mitigating their effect are not very well understood. We will note, that only in Bulgaria there are over thousand active landslides on populated and health resort areas. The material and social losses have not been calculated yet. But in preliminary data they are enormous.Numerous and dangerous are the landslides and unstable slopes in opencast coal-mines too. In this paper we offer methods for combined application of high resolution electrical resistivity) tomography and seismic ray tomography for characteristic of landslide hazards and unstable ones. The major aim here is to predict where and when landsliding will occur, establishing their variability in space and time, and appraising their impact on the natural and socio-economical environment. The above methods are applied for studing of concrete landslide in Bulgarian Black Sea and on some unstable slopes in an opencast coal-mine of Maritza-Iztok area. This combined application of electrical and seismic tomography for assessment of landslide hazard is very usefull.

  19. Automatic landslides detection on Stromboli volcanic Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silengo, Maria Cristina; Delle Donne, Dario; Ulivieri, Giacomo; Cigolini, Corrado; Ripepe, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Landslides occurring in active volcanic islands play a key role in triggering tsunami and other related risks. Therefore, it becomes vital for a correct and prompt risk assessment to monitor landslides activity and to have an automatic system for a robust early-warning. We then developed a system based on a multi-frequency analysis of seismic signals for automatic landslides detection occurring at Stromboli volcano. We used a network of 4 seismic 3 components stations located along the unstable flank of the Sciara del Fuoco. Our method is able to recognize and separate the different sources of seismic signals related to volcanic and tectonic activity (e.g. tremor, explosions, earthquake) from landslides. This is done using a multi-frequency analysis combined with a waveform patter recognition. We applied the method to one year of seismic activity of Stromboli volcano centered during the last 2007 effusive eruption. This eruption was characterized by a pre-eruptive landslide activity reflecting the slow deformation of the volcano edifice. The algorithm is at the moment running off-line but has proved to be robust and efficient in picking automatically landslide. The method provides also real-time statistics on the landslide occurrence, which could be used as a proxy for the volcano deformation during the pre-eruptive phases. This method is very promising since the number of false detections is quite small (<5%) and is reducing when the size of the landslide increases. The final aim will be to apply this method on-line and for a real-time automatic detection as an improving tool for early warnings of tsunami-genic landslide activity. We suggest that a similar approach could be also applied to other unstable non-volcanic also slopes.

  20. Hazard assessment of the Tidal Inlet landslide and potential subsequent tsunami, Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, G.F.; Geist, E.L.; Motyka, R.J.; Jakob, M.

    2007-01-01

    An unstable rock slump, estimated at 5 to 10????????10 6 m3, lies perched above the northern shore of Tidal Inlet in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska. This landslide mass has the potential to rapidly move into Tidal Inlet and generate large, long-period-impulse tsunami waves. Field and photographic examination revealed that the landslide moved between 1892 and 1919 after the retreat of the Little Ice Age glaciers from Tidal Inlet in 1890. Global positioning system measurements over a 2-year period show that the perched mass is presently moving at 3-4 cm annually indicating the landslide remains unstable. Numerical simulations of landslide-generated waves suggest that in the western arm of Glacier Bay, wave amplitudes would be greatest near the mouth of Tidal Inlet and slightly decrease with water depth according to Green's law. As a function of time, wave amplitude would be greatest within approximately 40 min of the landslide entering water, with significant wave activity continuing for potentially several hours. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  1. Abstract and keywords.

    PubMed

    Peh, W C G; Ng, K H

    2008-09-01

    The abstract of a scientific paper represents a concise, accurate and factual mini-version of the paper contents. Abstract format may vary according to the individual journal. For original articles, a structured abstract usually consists of the following headings: aims (or objectives), materials and methods, results and conclusion. A few keywords that capture the main topics of the paper help indexing in the medical literature.

  2. Beyond the Abstractions!: Adult Education Research from Idealism to Critical Social Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2006-01-01

    The anniversary of the "International Journal of Lifelong Education" can participate in a conceptual landslide from lifelong education to lifelong learning. Contemporary discourses of lifelong learning etc. are abstractions behind which new functions and agendas for adult education are set. The ideological discourse of recent policies…

  3. Landslide incidence in the North of Portugal: Analysis of a historical landslide database based on press releases and technical reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Susana; Zêzere, José Luís; Quaresma, Ivânia Daniela; Bateira, Carlos

    2014-06-01

    This work presents and explores the Northern Portugal Landslide Database (NPLD) for the period 1900-2010. NPLD was compiled from press releases (regional and local newspapers) and technical reports (reports by civil protection authorities and academic works); it includes 628 landslides, corresponding to 5.7 landslides per year on average. Although 50% of landslides occurred in the last 35 years of the series, the temporal distribution of landslides does not show any regular increase with time. The relationship between annual precipitation and landslide occurrence shows that reported landslides tend to be more frequent in wetter years. Moreover, landslides occur mostly in the wettest months of the year (December, January and February), which reflects the importance of rainfall in triggering slope instability. Most landslides cause damage that affects people and/or structures; 69.4% of the landslides in Northern Portugal caused 136 fatalities, 173 injured and left 460 persons homeless. More than half of the total landslides (321 landslides) led to railway or motorway closures and 49 landslides destroyed 126 buildings. The NPLD is compared with a landslide database for the whole of Portugal constructed from a single daily national newspaper covering the same reference period. It will be demonstrated that the regional and local newspapers are more effective than the national newspaper in reporting damaging landslides in the North of Portugal. Like other documentary-based landslide inventories, the NPLD does not accurately report non-damaging landslides. Therefore, NPLD was found unsuitable to validate municipal-scale landslide susceptibility models derived from detailed geomorphology-based landslide inventories.

  4. ALISSA: Abridged Landslide Inventory of Spain for synoptic Susceptibility Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervás, Javier

    2014-05-01

    ALISSA is a concise although fairly spatially distributed, small-scale landslide inventory covering peninsular Spain and the Balearic Islands. The inventory was primarily aimed to provide point locations of undifferentiated landslides to calibrate and validate the susceptibility model used to produce the first version of the 1 km cell size (approximately 1:1 million scale), generic European Landslide Susceptibility Map (ELSUS 1000 v1) in 2013. The map is the result of collaborative work between BGR (Hanover, Germany), JRC (Ispra, Italy), CNRS-IPGS (Strasbourg, France) and CNR-IRPI (Perugia, Italy), with help from many mapping organisations throughout Europe which provided landslide locations, in support to the EU Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection regarding the identification of landslide priority areas in Europe. This limited landslide inventory was needed to complete pan-European landslide susceptibility assessment since no nationwide inventory fairly representing landslide occurrence in Spain was published. ALISSA is compiled from published documents, including mainly scientific literature, technical reports, and geological, geotechnical and geomorphological maps, complemented with media news for very recent landslides not yet published in the literature and unpublished work by the author in some areas. The spatial dataset (inventory map) consists of point features corresponding to landslide centroids, which have been crosschecked, validated and geo-referenced on Google Earth to a location accuracy generally within 100 m, which for the smaller landslides is mainly dependent on Google Earth spatial accuracy. In areas where Google Earth imagery does not provide suitable spatial resolution landslide location validation is performed using web-based 2-D satellite/aerial imagery viewers available in the country such as Iberpix or SigPac, or even through interpretation of Panoramio photos on Google Earth. Landslide type, when documented, and locations are thus

  5. What Shape is a Landslide? Statistical Patterns in Landslide Length to Width Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Faith E.; Malamud, Bruce D.; Witt, Annette

    2015-04-01

    We present a variety of methods to approximate landslide shapes by ellipses, to test the goodness of fit of an elliptical approximation to each landslide shape and to examine the probability distribution of the length-to-width ratio (L/W) of the corresponding ellipses in two substantially complete landslide inventories. The planimetric shape of an individual landslide area is controlled by factors such as terrain morphology, material involved and speed, with landslide shapes varying in total area (AL), type of shape, and their length-to-width ratios. Here, we use mapped polygons from two substantially complete inventories: (i) 11,111 landslides triggered by the 1994 (M = 6.7) Northridge Earthquake, USA (ii) 9,594 landslides triggered by heavy rain during the 1998 Hurricane Mitch in Guatemala. For each landslide polygon, various methods of approximating an elliptical shape were tested. The best method found was fitting a convex hull (CH) to each landslide polygon, approximating an ellipse with equivalent area (ACH) and Perimeter (PCH) of the convex hull and then scaling this ellipse to match the area of the original landslide (AL). The goodness-of-fit (e) of elliptical approximations was tested using a measure of the area of intersection (AI) between the original landslide polygon area (AL) and the elliptical approximation: e = 1 - (2(AL - AI)/AL) =-1+2 AI/AL. The goodness-of-fit e ranges from -1 for an imperfect fit and +1 for a perfect fit. We found that the percentage of landslides having a 'good fit' (e ≥ 0.5) of the ellipse to the inventory landslide polygons were 99% of landslides from the Northridge inventory and 84% of landslides from the Guatemala inventory. For these landslides, the non-dimensional value of the ratio of the ellipse length-to-width (L/W) was calculated. For the Guatemala landslides, 50 % of landslide ellipse L/W values are ≤ 2.17, and 90 % of values are ≤ 3.6. For the Northridge landslides, 50 % of landslide ellipse L/W values are

  6. Map showing 1983 landslides in Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabb, Earl E.; Wieczorek, Gerald F.; Harp, Edwin L.

    1989-01-01

    The State of Utah sustained direct damages from landslides and flooding in excess of $400 million during approximately three months in the spring of 1983.  These disastrous events were declared national disaster areas (Anderson and others, 1985).

  7. Great landslide events in Italian artificial reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panizzo, A.; de Girolamo, P.; di Risio, M.; Maistri, A.; Petaccia, A.

    2005-09-01

    The empirical formulations to forecast landslide generated water waves, recently defined in the framework of a research program funded by the Italian National Dam Office RID (Registro Italiano Dighe), are here used to study three real cases of subaerial landslides which fell down italian artificial reservoirs. It is well known that impulse water waves generated by landslides constitute a very dangerous menace for human communities living in the shoreline of the artificial basin or downstream the dam. In 1963, the menace became tragedy, when a 270 millions m3 landslide fell down the Vajont reservoir (Italy), generated an impulse wave which destroyed the city of Longarone, and killed 2000 people. The paper is aimed at presenting the very satisfactorily reproduction of the events at hand by using forecasting formulations.

  8. Technical Abstracts, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Kotowski, M.

    1989-05-01

    This document is a compilation of the abstracts from unclassified documents published by Mechanical Engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during the calendar year 1988. Many abstracts summarize work completed and published in report form. These are UCRL-90,000 and 100,000 series documents, which include the full text of articles to be published in journals and of papers to be presented at meetings, and UCID reports, which are informal documents. Not all UCIDs contain abstracts: short summaries were generated when abstracts were not included. Technical Abstracts also provides brief descriptions of those documents assigned to the MISC (miscellaneous) category. These are generally viewgraphs or photographs presented at meetings. The abstracts cover the broad range of technologies within Mechanical Engineering and are grouped by the principal author's division. An eighth category is devoted to abstracts presented at the CUBE symposium sponsored jointly by LLNL, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Sandia Laboratories. Within these areas, abstracts are listed numerically. An author index and title index are provided at the back of the book for cross referencing. The publications listed may be obtained by contacting LLNL's TID library or the National Technical Information Service, US Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161. Further information may be obtained by contacting the author directly or the persons listed in the introduction of each subject area.

  9. Paper Abstract Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Abstraction is, in effect, a simplification and reduction of shapes with an absence of detail designed to comprise the essence of the more naturalistic images being depicted. Without even intending to, young children consistently create interesting, and sometimes beautiful, abstract compositions. A child's creations, moreover, will always seem to…

  10. Leadership Abstracts, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Mark D., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide brief discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 10 for 1997 contains the following 12 abstracts: (1) "On Community College Renewal" (Nathan L. Hodges and Mark D. Milliron); (2) "The Community College Niche in a…

  11. Is It Really Abstract?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2011-01-01

    For this author, one of the most enjoyable aspects of teaching elementary art is the willingness of students to embrace the different styles of art introduced to them. In this article, she describes a project that allows upper-elementary students to learn about abstract art and the lives of some of the master abstract artists, implement the idea…

  12. Designing for Mathematical Abstraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Dave; Noss, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Our focus is on the design of systems (pedagogical, technical, social) that encourage mathematical abstraction, a process we refer to as "designing for abstraction." In this paper, we draw on detailed design experiments from our research on children's understanding about chance and distribution to re-present this work as a case study in designing…

  13. Leadership Abstracts, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Larry, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    The abstracts in this series provide two-page discussions of issues related to leadership, administration, professional development, technology, and education in community colleges. Volume 9 for 1996 includes the following 12 abstracts: (1) "Tech-Prep + School-To-Work: Working Together To Foster Educational Reform," (Roderick F. Beaumont); (2)…

  14. Organizational Communication Abstracts--1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falcione, Raymond L.; And Others

    This document includes nearly 700 brief abstracts of works published in 1975 that are relevant to the field of organizational communication. The introduction presents a rationale for the project, a review of research methods developed by the authors for the preparation of abstracts, a statement of limitations as to the completeness of the coverage…

  15. Landslide Education as part of the LAMPRE Research Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malamud, Bruce D.; Mihir, Monika; Taylor, Faith

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses some of the on-line landslide educational resources available via LAMPRE (www.lampre-project.eu), a Euro 2.0M ten-partner EC FP7 funded research project ending 2/2015 devoted to landslide modelling and tools for vulnerability assessment preparedness and recovery management. LAMPRE Educational is a collection of talks, activities and other resources aimed at non-experts (general public, student, teachers and decision makers) to help them better understand the general background, processes, issues and resources available for landslides and triggered landslide events. In this paper we will discuss some of the specific LAMPRE Educational activities and resources available on the LAMPRE web site including: (i) LAMPRE landslide webcast talks and workshops explaining the basics of landslides and triggered events, (ii) A LAMPRE Google Earth Practical for the identification of landslides (15 pages), (iii) A LAMPRE Interactive Presentation on landslides and triggered landslide events (available as a PREZI presentation), (iv) A set of 25 LAMPRE Landslide Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs), (v) A set of web links to general landslide information (8 links), landslide videos and photos (14 links), landslide activities and teaching (9 links). The web site for LAMPRE Educational has been the most widely of all LAMPRE web pages (e.g., the landslide FAQs averaging 300 hits per month over 16 months), one sign, in addition to physical based education activities we have done, of the success of LAMPRE Educational.

  16. Derivation of landslide-triggering thresholds by Monte Carlo simulation and ROC analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peres, David Johnny; Cancelliere, Antonino

    2015-04-01

    Rainfall thresholds of landslide-triggering are useful in early warning systems to be implemented in prone areas. Direct statistical analysis of historical records of rainfall and landslide data presents different shortcomings typically due to incompleteness of landslide historical archives, imprecise knowledge of the triggering instants, unavailability of a rain gauge located near the landslides, etc. In this work, a Monte Carlo approach to derive and evaluate landslide triggering thresholds is presented. Such an approach contributes to overcome some of the above mentioned shortcomings of direct empirical analysis of observed data. The proposed Monte Carlo framework consists in the combination of a rainfall stochastic model with hydrological and slope-stability model. Specifically, 1000-years long hourly synthetic rainfall and related slope stability factor of safety data are generated by coupling the Neyman-Scott rectangular pulses model with the TRIGRS unsaturated model (Baum et al., 2008) and a linear-reservoir water table recession model. Triggering and non-triggering rainfall events are then distinguished and analyzed to derive stochastic-input physically based thresholds that optimize the trade-off between correct and wrong predictions. For this purpose, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) indices are used. An application of the method to the highly landslide-prone area of the Peloritani mountains in north-eastern Sicily (Italy) is carried out. A threshold for the area is derived and successfully validated by comparison with thresholds proposed by other researchers. Moreover, the uncertainty in threshold derivation due to variability of rainfall intensity within events and to antecedent rainfall is investigated. Results indicate that variability of intensity during rainfall events influences significantly rainfall intensity and duration associated with landslide triggering. A representation of rainfall as constant-intensity hyetographs globally leads to

  17. Landslide susceptibility map: from research to application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorucci, Federica; Reichenbach, Paola; Ardizzone, Francesca; Rossi, Mauro; Felicioni, Giulia; Antonini, Guendalina

    2014-05-01

    Susceptibility map is an important and essential tool in environmental planning, to evaluate landslide hazard and risk and for a correct and responsible management of the territory. Landslide susceptibility is the likelihood of a landslide occurring in an area on the basis of local terrain conditions. Can be expressed as the probability that any given region will be affected by landslides, i.e. an estimate of "where" landslides are likely to occur. In this work we present two examples of landslide susceptibility map prepared for the Umbria Region and for the Perugia Municipality. These two maps were realized following official request from the Regional and Municipal government to the Research Institute for the Hydrogeological Protection (CNR-IRPI). The susceptibility map prepared for the Umbria Region represents the development of previous agreements focused to prepare: i) a landslide inventory map that was included in the Urban Territorial Planning (PUT) and ii) a series of maps for the Regional Plan for Multi-risk Prevention. The activities carried out for the Umbria Region were focused to define and apply methods and techniques for landslide susceptibility zonation. Susceptibility maps were prepared exploiting a multivariate statistical model (linear discriminant analysis) for the five Civil Protection Alert Zones defined in the regional territory. The five resulting maps were tested and validated using the spatial distribution of recent landslide events that occurred in the region. The susceptibility map for the Perugia Municipality was prepared to be integrated as one of the cartographic product in the Municipal development plan (PRG - Piano Regolatore Generale) as required by the existing legislation. At strategic level, one of the main objectives of the PRG, is to establish a framework of knowledge and legal aspects for the management of geo-hydrological risk. At national level most of the susceptibility maps prepared for the PRG, were and still are obtained

  18. An illustrated landslide handbook for developing nations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Highland, Lynn M.; Bobrowsky, Peter

    2008-01-01

    As landslides continue to be a hazard that account for large numbers of human and animal casualties, property loss, and infrastructure damage, as well as impacts on the natural environment, it is incumbent on developed nations that resources be allocated to educate affected populations in less developed nations, and provide them with tools to effectively manage this hazard. Given that the engineering, planning and zoning, and mitigation techniques for landslide hazard reduction are more accessible to developed nations, it is crucial that such landslide hazard management tools be communicated to less developed nations in a language that is not overly technical, and provides information on basic scientific explanations on where, why and how landslides occur. The experiences of the United States, Canada, and many other nations demonstrate that, landslide science education, and techniques for reducing damaging landslide impacts may be presented in a manner that can be understood by the layperson. There are various methods through which this may be accomplished–community-level education, technology transfer, and active one-on-one outreach to national and local governments, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), who disseminate information throughout the general population. The population at large can also benefit from the dissemination of landslide information directly to individual community members. The United States Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of Canada have just published and will distribute a universal landslide handbook that can be easily made available to emergency managers, local governments, and individuals. The handbook, “The Landslide Handbook: A Guide to Understanding Landslides” is initially published as U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1325, in English, available in print, and accessible on the internet. It is liberally illustrated with schematics and photographs, and provides the means for a basic understanding of landslides, with

  19. Abstract Datatypes in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan

    1997-01-01

    PVS (Prototype Verification System) is a general-purpose environment for developing specifications and proofs. This document deals primarily with the abstract datatype mechanism in PVS which generates theories containing axioms and definitions for a class of recursive datatypes. The concepts underlying the abstract datatype mechanism are illustrated using ordered binary trees as an example. Binary trees are described by a PVS abstract datatype that is parametric in its value type. The type of ordered binary trees is then presented as a subtype of binary trees where the ordering relation is also taken as a parameter. We define the operations of inserting an element into, and searching for an element in an ordered binary tree; the bulk of the report is devoted to PVS proofs of some useful properties of these operations. These proofs illustrate various approaches to proving properties of abstract datatype operations. They also describe the built-in capabilities of the PVS proof checker for simplifying abstract datatype expressions.

  20. Terrestrial multi-view photogrammetry for landslide monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stumpf, A.; Malet, J.; Allemand, P.; Skupinski, G.; Pierrot-Deseilligny, M.

    2013-12-01

    Multi-view stereo (MVS) surface reconstruction from large photo collections is being increasingly used for geoscience applications, and a number of different software solution and processing streamlines have been suggested. Open source libraries to perform feature point extraction, pose estimation, bundle adjustment and dense matching are available providing high quality results at low costs, and transparency of the implemented algorithms. Within the computer vision community benchmark datasets with toy examples and architectural scenes are frequently used to evaluate dense matching algorithms but relatively few studies have addressed the evaluation of complete processing pipelines for complex natural landscapes such as landslides developed in high mountain terrains. In order to obtain surface displacement maps of an active landslide (Super-Sauze, Southern French Alps) from multi-temporal terrestrial photographs over a period of three years, this work targeted the evaluation of three different non-commercial processing pipelines. The tested packages include VisualSfM[1], CMVS-PMVS [2], Apero and MicMac [URL]. The image acquisition focused on either subparts of the landslide (toe, main scarp) or targeted the reconstruction of a global model of the entire landslide. All images were processed with three different pipelines namely VisualSfM + CMVS-PMVS, Apero + CMVS-PMVS and Apero + MicMac and the resulting point clouds were evaluated with terrestrial and airborne LiDAR. Our results show that all multi-view stereo pipelines provide useful results to quantify surface displacement at accuracies between 1-10 cm depending on the acquisition geometry and the object distance. For pose estimation and bundle adjustment, Apero is the more accurate and versatile tool allowing the use of more sophisticated lens models and the direct integration of ground control points in the bundle adjustment. The dense matching algorithms with MicMac enables the reconstruction of denser point

  1. Mathematical modelling of submarine landslide motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burminskij, A.

    2012-04-01

    Mathematical modelling of submarine landslide motion The paper presents a mathematical model to calculate dynamic parameters of a submarine landslide. The problem of estimation possible submarine landslides dynamic parameters and run-out distances as well as their effect on submarine structures becomes more and more actual because they can have significant impacts on infrastructure such as the rupture of submarine cables and pipelines, damage to offshore drilling platforms, cause a tsunami. In this paper a landslide is considered as a viscoplastic flow and is described by continuum mechanics equations, averaged over the flow depth. The model takes into account friction at the bottom and at the landslide-water boundary, as well as the involvement of bottom material in motion. A software was created and series of test calculations were performed. Calculations permitted to estimate the contribution of various model coefficients and initial conditions. Motion down inclined bottom was studied both for constant and variable slope angle. Examples of typical distributions of the flow velocity, thickness and density along the landslide body at different stages of motion are given.

  2. Landslides nearby Boguchwała

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maj, Hubert

    2014-05-01

    The students of first class of our school have been working during this season about landslides nearby Boguchwała - where our school is located. Although landslides in Poland are most common in the Carpathian Mountains, in southern Poland, this phenomenon becomes more and more serious also in other regions. The example of them is strzyżowski powiat, nearby Boguchwała, situated about 100km on the north from the Carpathian Mountains . These landslides have occured on a large scale in the district for 2000 year. What happened in 2010 was a real cataclysm. By now, people noted about 100 active landslides in the area of the district, which caused damage to about 400 building constructions and 50 families had to leave their homes. The largest landslide is located on the western slope of the valley of Wisłok. The landslide was almost 10ha big, 326m long and 330m wide. It caused damage to houses and barns, and one of them literally fell to the ground. The ground has subsided due to the geological construction of the substrate, mountain dynamic of sculptures and frequent downfalls. It was established on the base of sandstone. To prevent the phenomenon of the proceedings should be planted different kinds of plants to stabilize the ground.

  3. Shallow landslide hazard map of Seattle, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harp, Edwin L.; Michael, John A.; Laprade, William T.

    2008-01-01

    Landslides, particularly debris flows, have long been a significant cause of damage and destruction to people and property in the Puget Sound region. Following the years of 1996 and 1997, the Federal Emergency Management Agency designated Seattle as a “Project Impact” city with the goal of encouraging the city to become more disaster resistant to landslides and other natural hazards. A major recommendation of the Project Impact council was that the city and the U.S. Geological Survey collaborate to produce a landslide hazard map. An exceptional data set archived by the city containing more than 100 yr of landslide data from severe storm events allowed comparison of actual landslide locations with those predicted by slope-stability modeling. We used an infinite-slope analysis, which models slope segments as rigid friction blocks, to estimate the susceptibility of slopes to debris flows, which are water-laden slurries that can form from shallow failures of soil and weathered bedrock and can travel at high velocities down steep slopes. Data used for the analysis consisted of a digital slope map derived from recent light detection and ranging (LiDAR) imagery of Seattle, recent digital geologic mapping of the city, and shear-strength test data for the geologic units found in the surrounding area. The combination of these data layers within a geographic information system (GIS) platform allowed us to create a shallow landslide hazard map for Seattle.

  4. Landslide process and types of groundwater- and rainfall-induced landslide in a flume experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chunhung

    2016-04-01

    Most of the landslide cases in Taiwan were induced by rainfall or earthquake events. The landslide cases which were only induced by groundwater were very rare. The groundwater-induced deep landslide with landslide depth of 15-20 m and landslide volume of around 220000 m3 occurred at 3.1K of Highway No. 3 on Apr. 25, 2010 in Taiwan. The groundwater-induced landslide is a fast-moving dip-slope landslide. The purpose of this study is to understand the landslide processes and types of groundwater- and rainfall-induced landslide in the flume landslide experiments. The landslide experiments were carried out in the flume with the length, width, and height of 1.5 m, 0.3 m, and 0.3 m, respectively. The research proceeded 18 flume landslide experiments and observed the processes and types under different setting conditions, including soil deposited height (5 cm and 10 cm), channel slope (4.4°, 8.7°, and 13.0°), groundwater discharge (51.3 and 31.7 cm3/sec), rainfall intensity (0.093 and 0.037 mm/sec), soil diameter (0.5 and 0.9 mm). The research also measured the water content and pore pressure by using ECH2O Dielectric Aquameter sensors and TML KPC-200KPB sensors, and recorded the experiment processes by two Video cameras from side and top views. Some conclusions can be made based on the results of the flume landslide experiments. The porosity of soil decides the development speed of wet wave in the soil. The pile soil deposition with a high porosity of soil or a large soil diameter is hard to from landslide because the development speed of wet wave in the soil is fast but the water content in the soil is low than the threshold of water content to induce the landslide. The height of pile soil deposition decides the wetness and landslide types of pile soil deposition. The height of pile soil deposition gets higher, the pile soil deposition is harder to be totally wet, the seriousness of landslide gets lighter and the total sediment yield gets less. The slope of channel

  5. A multi-annual landslide inventory for the assessment of shallow landslide susceptibility - Two test cases in Vorarlberg, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieher, Thomas; Perzl, Frank; Rössel, Monika; Rutzinger, Martin; Meißl, Gertraud; Markart, Gerhard; Geitner, Clemens

    2016-04-01

    Geomorphological landslide inventories provide crucial input data for any study on the assessment of landslide susceptibility, hazard or risk. Several approaches for assessing landslide susceptibility have been proposed to identify areas particularly vulnerable to this natural hazard. What they have in common is the need for data of observed landslides. Therefore the first step of any study on landslide susceptibility is usually the compilation of a geomorphological landslide inventory using a geographical information system. Recent research has proved the feasibility of orthophoto interpretation for the preparation of an inventory aimed at the delineation of landslides with the use of distinctive signs in the imagery data. In this study a multi-annual landslide inventory focusing on shallow landslides (i.e. translational soil slides of 0-2 m in depth) was compiled for two study areas in Vorarlberg (Austria) from the interpretation of nine orthophoto series. In addition, derivatives of two generations of airborne laser scanning data aided the mapping procedure. Landslide scar areas were delineated on the basis of a high-resolution differential digital terrain model. The derivation of landslide volumes, depths and depth-to-length ratios are discussed. Results show that most mapped landslides meet the definition of a shallow landslide. The inventory therefore provides the data basis for the assessment of shallow landslide susceptibility and allows for the application of various modelling techniques.

  6. Landslides and engineering geology of the Seattle, Washington, area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baum, Rex L.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Highland, Lynn M.

    2008-01-01

    This volume brings together case studies and summary papers describing the application of state-of-the-art engineering geologic methods to landslide hazard analysis for the Seattle, Washington, area. An introductory chapter provides a thorough description of the Quaternary and bedrock geology of Seattle. Nine additional chapters review the history of landslide mapping in Seattle, present case studies of individual landslides, describe the results of spatial assessments of landslide hazard, discuss hydrologic controls on landsliding, and outline an early warning system for rainfall-induced landslides.

  7. Landslide inventory in a rugged forested watershed: a comparison between air-photo and field survey data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brardinoni, Francesco; Slaymaker, Olav; Hassan, Marwan A.

    2003-09-01

    Landslide inventories are routinely compiled by means of aerial photo interpretation (API). When examining photo pairs, the forest canopy (notably in old-growth forest) hides a population of "not visible" landslides. In the present study, we attempt to estimate how important is the contribution of landslides not detectable from aerial photographs to the global mass of sediment production from mass failures on forested terrain of the Capilano basin, coastal British Columbia. API was coupled with intensive fieldwork for identification and measurement of all landslides. A 30-year framework was adopted. We show that "not visible" landslides can represent up to 85% of the total number of failures and account for 30% of the volume of debris mobilised. Such percentages display high sub-basin variability with rates of sediment production varying by one order of magnitude between two sub-basins of the study area. This is explained qualitatively by GIS-based analysis of slope frequency distributions, drainage density, and spatial distribution of surficial materials. Such observations find further support in the definitions of transport-limited and supply-limited basins. As a practical consideration to land managers, we envisage that supplementary fieldwork for landslide identification is mandatory in transport-limited systems only. Fieldwork has demonstrated that gully-related failures have a greater importance than one could expect from API.

  8. Newmark displacement model for landslides induced by the 2013 Ms 7.0 Lushan earthquake, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Renmao; Deng, Qinghai; Cunningham, Dickson; Han, Zhujun; Zhang, Dongli; Zhang, Bingliang

    2016-12-01

    Predicting approximate earthquake-induced landslide displacements is helpful for assessing earthquake hazards and designing slopes to withstand future earthquake shaking. In this work, the basic methodology outlined by Jibson (1993) is applied to derive the Newmark displacement of landslides based on strong ground-motion recordings during the 2013 Lushan Ms 7.0 earthquake. By analyzing the relationships between Arias intensity, Newmark displacement, and critical acceleration of the Lushan earthquake, formulas of the Jibson93 and its modified models are shown to be applicable to the Lushan earthquake dataset. Different empirical equations with new fitting coefficients for estimating Newmark displacement are then developed for comparative analysis. The results indicate that a modified model has a better goodness of fit and a smaller estimation error for the Jibson93 formula. It indicates that the modified model may be more reasonable for the dataset of the Lushan earthquake. The analysis of results also suggests that a global equation is not ideally suited to directly estimate the Newmark displacements of landslides induced by one specific earthquake. Rather it is empirically better to perform a new multivariate regression analysis to derive new coefficients for the global equation using the dataset of the specific earthquake. The results presented in this paper can be applied to a future co-seismic landslide hazard assessment to inform reconstruction efforts in the area affected by the 2013 Lushan Ms 7.0 earthquake, and for future disaster prevention and mitigation.

  9. Connectivity of earthquake-triggered landslides with the fluvial network: Implications for landslide sediment transport after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gen; West, A. Joshua; Densmore, Alexander L.; Hammond, Douglas E.; Jin, Zhangdong; Zhang, Fei; Wang, Jin; Hilton, Robert G.

    2016-04-01

    Evaluating the influence of earthquakes on erosion, landscape evolution, and sediment-related hazards requires understanding fluvial transport of material liberated in earthquake-triggered landslides. The location of landslides relative to river channels is expected to play an important role in postearthquake sediment dynamics. In this study, we assess the position of landslides triggered by the Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake, aiming to understand the relationship between landslides and the fluvial network of the steep Longmen Shan mountain range. Combining a landslide inventory map and geomorphic analysis, we quantify landslide-channel connectivity in terms of the number of landslides, landslide area, and landslide volume estimated from scaling relationships. We observe a strong spatial variability in landslide-channel connectivity, with volumetric connectivity (ξ) ranging from ~20% to ~90% for different catchments. This variability is linked to topographic effects that set local channel densities, seismic effects (including seismogenic faulting) that regulate landslide size, and substrate effects that may influence both channelization and landslide size. Altogether, we estimate that the volume of landslides connected to channels comprises 43 + 9/-7% of the total coseismic landslide volume. Following the Wenchuan earthquake, fine-grained (<~0.25 mm) suspended sediment yield across the Longmen Shan catchments is positively correlated to catchment-wide landslide density, but this correlation is statistically indistinguishable whether or not connectivity is considered. The weaker-than-expected influence of connectivity on suspended sediment yield may be related to mobilization of fine-grained landslide material that resides in hillslope domains, i.e., not directly connected to river channels. In contrast, transport of the coarser fraction (which makes up >90% of the total landslide volume) may be more significantly affected by landslide locations.

  10. Map showing landslides and areas of potential landsliding in the Salina quadrangle, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Paul L.

    1972-01-01

    The term “landslide” is broadly defined as any “downward and outward movement of slope-forming materials composed of natural rock, soils, artificial fills, or combinations of these materials. The moving mass may proceed by any one of three principal types of movement: falling, sliding, or flossing, or by their combinations” (Varnes, 1958). Landslides and areas of potential landslides are fairly common in the rugged terrain of the Salina quadrangle. In much of the western half of the map area, relatively high rainfall, steep slopes, and flat layers of hard rock on top of very soft incompetent rock all favor landsliding, chiefly as slides and earth flows. In arid parts of the quadrangle, principally in the east half, alternating flat layers of hard and soft rocks are eroded to bare cliffs separated by benches, and rockfalls are the dominant type of landsliding. Landslides were more active in the wetter climate of the Pleistocene Epoch, which ended several thousand years ago (Smith and others, 1963, p. 52). Although landslide deposits are abundant in the Salina quadrangle, few landslide movements have been documented during historic time, partly because landslides are generally less active now than during Pleistocene times, partly because movement is commonly very slow and thus escapes notice, and partly because of the remoteness and sparse population of the area.

  11. Regional moisture balance control of landslide motion: implications for landslide forecasting in a changing climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coe, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    I correlated 12 years of annual movement of 18 points on a large, continuously moving, deep-seated landslide with a regional moisture balance index (moisture balance drought index, MBDI). I used MBDI values calculated from a combination of historical precipitation and air temperature data from A.D. 1895 to 2010, and downscaled climate projections using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A2 emissions scenario for 2011–2099. At the landslide, temperature is projected to increase ~0.5 °C/10 yr between 2011 and 2099, while precipitation decreases at a rate of ~2 mm/10 yr. Landslide movement correlated with the MBDI with integration periods of 12 and 48 months. The correlation between movement and MBDI suggests that the MBDI functions as a proxy for groundwater pore pressures and landslide mobility. I used the correlation to forecast decreasing landslide movement between 2011 and 2099, with the head of the landslide expected to stop moving in the mid-21st century. The MBDI, or a similar moisture balance index that accounts for evapotranspiration, has considerable potential as a tool for forecasting the magnitude of ongoing deep-seated landslide movement, and for assessing the onset or likelihood of regional, deep-seated landslide activity.

  12. Characteristics of earthquake-induced landslides and differences compared to storm-induced landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.-T.

    2012-04-01

    Landslides triggered by the Chi-Chi earthquake, as re-mapped from high resolution SPOT images just before the quake and after the quake, are studied and compared to landslides triggered by some typhoon storm events in Taiwan. Several landslide controlling factors are statistically analyzed and compared. This includes slope gradient, slope height (SH), total slope height (TSH), relative slope height (RSH), and others. RSH is defined as SH divided by TSH, and is a measure to indicate a location is close to the toe of a slope (RSH=0) or near the ridge top (RSH=1). A high resolution of DEM was used in the terrain analysis to produce slope gradient, RSH and other derived data. The DEM is of 5mx5m grid in origin and was made by aerial photogrammetry. It is checked and smoothed a little and reduced to 10mx10m grid for following analyses. The results show that slope gradient always is a very important factor controlling the occurrence of landslides, but there is difference in distribution of occurrence frequency between the two. Storm-induced shallow landslides most occurred at slope gradient from 20 degrees to 44 degrees and shows a mode about 33 degrees. Earthquake-induced landslides most occurred at slope gradient from 20 degrees to 54 degrees and shows a mode about 42 degrees for shallow landslide and rock falls. There are fewer occurrences of rock falls in a storm event than that in an earthquake event for a specific region. The results also show that RSH is a very significant factor controlling the location of landslides. Storm-induced shallow landslides most occurred at lower RSH and closer to the river, whereas earthquake-induced landslides occurred at higher RSH and closer to the ridge. In summary, the earthquake-induced landslides are mostly located at a steeper and longer slope and at a higher position of the slope as compared to the storm-induced shallow landslides, and this implies that topographic amplification play a very important role in the earthquake

  13. Automatic Abstraction in Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, abstraction in planning has been accomplished by either state abstraction or operator abstraction, neither of which has been fully automatic. We present a new method, predicate relaxation, for automatically performing state abstraction. PABLO, a nonlinear hierarchical planner, implements predicate relaxation. Theoretical, as well as empirical results are presented which demonstrate the potential advantages of using predicate relaxation in planning. We also present a new definition of hierarchical operators that allows us to guarantee a limited form of completeness. This new definition is shown to be, in some ways, more flexible than previous definitions of hierarchical operators. Finally, a Classical Truth Criterion is presented that is proven to be sound and complete for a planning formalism that is general enough to include most classical planning formalisms that are based on the STRIPS assumption.

  14. Searching Sociological Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerbel, Sandra Sandor

    1981-01-01

    Describes the scope, content, and retrieval characteristics of Sociological Abstracts, an online database of literature in the social sciences. Sample searches are displayed, and the strengths and weaknesses of the database are summarized. (FM)

  15. Conference Abstracts: AEDS '82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts from nine selected papers presented at the 1982 Association for Educational Data Systems (AEDS) conference are provided. Copies of conference proceedings may be obtained for fifteen dollars from the Association. (MP)

  16. Landslides from the February 4, 1976, Guatemala earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harp, Edwin L.; Wilson, Raymond C.; Wieczorek, Gerald F.

    1981-01-01

    The M (Richter magnitude) = 7.5 Guatemala earthquake of February 4, 1976, generated more than 10,000 landslides throughout an area of approximately 16,000 km2. These landslides caused hundreds of fatalities as well as extensive property damage. Landslides disrupted both highways and the railroad system and thus severely hindered early rescue efforts. In Guatemala City, extensive property damage and loss of life were due to ground failure beneath dwellings built too close to the edges of steeply incised canyons. We have recorded the distribution of landslides from this earthquake by mapping individual slides at a scale of 1:50,000 for most of the landslide-affected area, using high-altitude aerial photography. The highest density of landslides was in the highlands west of Guatemala City. The predominant types of earthquake-triggered landslides were rock falls and debris slides of less than 15,000 m3 volume; in addition to these smaller landslides, 11 large landslides had volumes of more than 100,000 m3. Several of these large landslides posed special hazards to people and property from lakes impounded by the landslide debris and from the ensuing floods that occurred upon breaching and rapid erosion of the debris. The regional landslide distribution was observed to depend on five major factors: (1) seismic intensity; (2) lithology: 90 percent of all landslides were within Pleistocene pumice deposits; (3) slope steepness; (4) topographic amplification of seismic ground motion; and (5) regional fractures. The presence of preearthquake landslides had no apparent effect on the landslide distribution, and landslide concentration in the Guatemala City area does not correlate with local seismic-intensity data. The landslide concentration, examined at this scale, appears to be governed mainly by lithologic differences within the pumice deposits, preexisting fractures, and amplification of ground motion by topography-all factors related to site conditions.

  17. Assessing Landslide Risk Areas Using Statistical Models and Land Cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. G.; Lee, D. K.; Park, C.; Ahn, Y.; Sung, S.; Park, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Recently, damages due to landslides have increased in Republic of Korea. Extreme weathers like typhoon, heavy rainfall related to climate change are the main factor of the damages. Especially, Inje-gun, Gangwon-do had severe landslide damages in 2006 and 2007. In Inje-gun, 91% areas are forest, therefore, many land covers related to human activities were adjacent to forest land. Thus, establishment of adaptation plans to landslides was urgently needed. Landslide risk assessment can serve as a good information to policy makers. The objective of this study was assessing landslide risk areas to support establishment of adaptation plans to reduce landslide damages. Statistical distribution models (SDMs) were used to evaluate probability of landslide occurrence. Various SDMs were used to make landslide probability maps considering uncertainty of SDMs. The types of land cover were classified into 5 grades considering vulnerable level to landslide. The landslide probability maps were overlaid with land cover map to calculate landslide risk. As a result of overlay analysis, landslide risk areas were derived. Especially agricultural areas and transportation areas showed high risk and large areas in the risk map. In conclusion, policy makers in Inje-gun must consider the landslide risk map to establish adaptation plans effectively.

  18. Abstracts of contributed papers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains 571 abstracts of contributed papers to be presented during the Twelfth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. Abstracts are arranged in the order in which they fall in the program -- the main sessions are listed chronologically in the Table of Contents. The Author Index is in alphabetical order and lists each paper number (matching the schedule in the Final Program) with its corresponding page number in the book.

  19. Dealing with unquantifiable uncertainties in landslide modelling for urban risk reduction in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Susana; Holcombe, Liz; Pianosi, Francesca; Wagener, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Landslides have many negative economic and societal impacts, including the potential for significant loss of life and damage to infrastructure. Slope stability assessment can be used to guide decisions about the management of landslide risk, but its usefulness can be challenged by high levels of uncertainty in predicting landslide occurrence. Prediction uncertainty may be associated with the choice of model that is used to assess slope stability, the quality of the available input data, or a lack of knowledge of how future climatic and socio-economic changes may affect future landslide risk. While some of these uncertainties can be characterised by relatively well-defined probability distributions, for other uncertainties, such as those linked to climate change, no probability distribution is available to characterise them. This latter type of uncertainty, often referred to as deep uncertainty, means that robust policies need to be developed that are expected to perform acceptably well over a wide range of future conditions. In our study the impact of deep uncertainty on slope stability predictions is assessed in a quantitative and structured manner using Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) and the Combined Hydrology and Stability Model (CHASM). In particular, we use several GSA methods including the Method of Morris, Regional Sensitivity Analysis and Classification and Regression Trees (CART), as well as advanced visualization tools, to assess the combination of conditions that may lead to slope failure. Our example application is a slope in the Caribbean, an area that is naturally susceptible to landslides due to a combination of high rainfall rates during the hurricane season, steep slopes, and highly weathered residual soils. Rapid unplanned urbanisation and changing climate may further exacerbate landslide risk in the future. Our example shows how we can gain useful information in the presence of deep uncertainty by combining physically based models with GSA in

  20. Identification of Natural and Logging-Related Landslides in the Capilano River Basin, Coastal British Columbia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brardinoni, F.; Slaymaker, O.

    2001-12-01

    In the Pacific Northwest landslide inventories are routinely compiled by means of aerial photo interpretation. When examining photo pairs the forest canopy, notably in old-growth forest, hides a population of "not visible" landslides. The present study attempts to estimate how important is the contribution of landslides not detectable from aerial photographs, to the global mass of sediment production from mass failures on forested terrain of the Capilano basin. To achieve this, aerial photo interpretation has been coupled with intensive fieldwork for identification and measurement of all landslides. In order to minimise bias in the comparison and integration of field-collected and air photo-collected data it was decided to define a 30-year time window. Incidentally, it has been possible to prove how landslide scars that appear on a single photo set would date further back than 30 years. Results show that "not visible" landslides can represent up to 85 percent of the total number of failures and can account for up to 30 percent the total volume of debris mobilised. Rates of sediment production differ greatly (one order of magnitude) between two sub-basins of the study area, suggesting that such figures should be generalised with care within a physiographic region. The difference in denudation rate is explained qualitatively by GIS-based analysis of slope frequency distributions, drainage density and spatial distribution of surficial materials. Fieldwork has demonstrated that gully-related failures have a greater importance than one could expect from air photo interpretation. ANOVA and nonparametric tests indicate that careful logging in East Cap Creek has produced no detectable effects on mass wasting. Similarly, Sisters Creek, where timber harvesting stopped about 20 years before the start of our 30-year time window, has apparently recovered from the signs of past extensive logging. The existence of "not visible" events affected in a minor way conclusions about the

  1. GPS and Satellite InSAR Observations of Landslide Activity at the Sinking Canyon in South Central Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aly, M. H.; Glenn, N. F.; Thackray, G. D.

    2014-12-01

    Multiple rotational, transitional, and lateral spread landslides have occurred in south central Idaho where basalt lava flows overly unconsolidated lake and fluvial sediments at the Sinking Canyon. The canyon is about 0.1 km deep and 0.25-1 km wide along a 4-km segment of the Salmon Falls Creek (SFC). Local topography and hydrological conditions are most likely the major triggering factors that have initiated landslides by increasing the gravitational stresses and weakening the canyon wall materials. Landslide activity has created natural dams of SFC, which in turn has resulted in forming large lakes with a potential flooding hazard to life and property downstream. In this study, we use campaign Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements of 2003-2004 and Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometric (InSAR) data acquired during 1992-2007 by the European radar satellites (ERS-1 and ERS-2) to identify, monitor, and analyze recent landslide activity at SFC. Results show that three main landslides have been active during the period of observation: the Salmon Falls landslide (SFL) that has been first reported in 1999, the historical 1937 landslide, and a third unnamed landslide to the north of the 1937 slide. InSAR measurements indicate that the SFL has been active during the period of our earliest interferogram (1992-1993) whereas the slide head has detached and has moved away from the eastern canyon wall about 3 cm. Over the years, the SFL body and toe have been pushed westward repetitively at rates of about 3-7 cm/yr. The toe is confined by the western canyon wall and thus is pushed upward in some years causing slight uplift (2-3 cm). Our field observations reveal many transverse and radial cracks associated with the deformation pattern caused by recurring motions. The historic 1937 slide is the largest mass wasting and is the least active landslide in the study area. The unnamed slide shows episodic activity with varying rates (0-4 cm/yr) of line-of-sight motions. This

  2. Coseismic and Post-seismic landsliding: insights from seismological modeling and landslide map time series.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marc, Odin; Hovius, Niels; Meunier, Patrick; Uchida, Taro; Gorum, Tolga

    2016-04-01

    Earthquakes impart a catastrophic forcing on hillslopes, that often lead to widespread landsliding and can contribute significantly to sedimentary and organic matter fluxes. We present a new expression for the total area and volume of populations of earthquake-induced landslides.This model builds on a set of scaling relationships between key parameters, such as landslide density, ground acceleration, fault size, earthquake source depth and seismic moment, derived from geomorphological and seismological observations. To assess the model we have assembled and normalized a catalogue of landslide inventories for 40 earthquakes. We have found that low landscape steepness systematically leads to over-prediction of the total area and volume of landslides.When this effect is accounted for, the model is able to predict within a factor of 2 the landslide areas and associated volumes for about two thirds of the cases in our databases. This is a significant improvement on a previously published empirical expression based only on earthquake moment. This model is suitable for integration into landscape evolution models, and application to the assessment of secondary hazards and risks associated with earthquakes. However, it only models landslides associated to the strong ground shaking and neglects the intrinsic permanent damage that also occurred on hillslopes and persist for longer period. With time series of landslide maps we have constrained the magnitude of the change in landslide susceptibility in the epicentral areas of 4 intermediate to large earthquakes. We propose likely causes for this transient ground strength perturbations and compare our observations to other observations of transient perturbations in epicentral areas, such as suspended sediment transport increases, seismic velocity reductions and hydrological perturbations. We conclude with some preliminary observations on the coseismic mass wasting and post-seismic landslide enhancement caused by the 2015 Mw.7

  3. Physically based prediction of earthquake induced landsliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marc, Odin; Meunier, Patrick; Hovius, Niels; Gorum, Tolga; Uchida, Taro

    2015-04-01

    Earthquakes are an important trigger of landslides and can contribute significantly to sedimentary or organic matter fluxes. We present a new physically based expression for the prediction of total area and volume of populations of earthquake-induced landslides. This model implements essential seismic processes, linking key parameters such as ground acceleration, fault size, earthquake source depth and seismic moment. To assess the model we have compiled and normalized a database of landslide inventories for 40 earthquakes. We have found that low landscape steepness systematically leads to overprediction of the total area and volume of landslides. When this effect is accounted for, the model is able to predict within a factor of 2 the landslide areas and associated volumes for about two thirds of the cases in our databases. This is a significant improvement on a previously published empirical expression based only on earthquake moment, even though the prediction of total landslide area is more difficult than that of volume because it is affected by additional parameters such as the depth and continuity of soil cover. Some outliers in terms of observed landslide intensity are likely to be associated with exceptional rock mass properties in the epicentral area. Others may be related to seismic source complexities ignored by the model. However, most cases in our catalogue seem to be relatively unaffected by these two effects despite the variety of lithologies and tectonic settings they cover. This makes the model suitable for integration into landscape evolution models, and application to the assessment of secondary hazards and risks associated with earthquakes.

  4. Costs and deaths of landslides in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, Ubydul; Blum, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    Landslides cause human and large economic losses worldwide and also in Europe. However, the quantification of associated costs and deaths is highly underestimated and still incomplete, thus the estimation of landslide costs and risk is still rather ambitious. Hence, in this study a spatio-temporal analysis of fatal landslides is presented for 27 European countries from 1995-2014. These landslides are mainly concentrated in mountainous areas. A total of 1370 fatalities are reported resulting from 476 landslides. The highest fatalities with 335 are observed in Turkey. In general, an increasing trend of fatal landslides is recognized starting in 2008. The latter is almost certainly triggered by an increase in natural extreme events such as storms (i.e. heavy rainfall) and floods. The highest annual economic loss is observed in Italy with 3.9 billion Euro per year. In contrast, in Germany the annual total loss is only about 0.3 billion Euro. The results of this study serves as an initial baseline information for further risk studies integrating landslide locations, local land use data, cost data, and will therefore certainly support the studied countries to better protect their citizens and assets. Acknowledgements We would like to acknowledge the valuable contributions by Paula F. da Silva, Peter Andersen, Jürgen Pilz, Ali Ardalan, Sergey R. Chalov, Jean-Philippe Malet, Mateja Jemec Auflič, Norina Andres, Eleftheria Poyiadji, Pedro C. Lamas, Wenyi Zhang, Igor Pesevski, Halldór G. Pétursson, Tayfun Kurt, Nikolai Dobrev, Juan Carlos García Davalillo, Matina Halkia, Stefano Ferri, George Gaprindashvili, Johanna Engström and David Keellings.

  5. Modeling landslide recurrence in Seattle, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salciarini, Diana; Godt, Jonathan W.; Savage, William Z.; Baum, Rex L.; Conversini, Pietro

    2008-01-01

    To manage the hazard associated with shallow landslides, decision makers need an understanding of where and when landslides may occur. A variety of approaches have been used to estimate the hazard from shallow, rainfall-triggered landslides, such as empirical rainfall threshold methods or probabilistic methods based on historical records. The wide availability of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and digital topographic data has led to the development of analytic methods for landslide hazard estimation that couple steady-state hydrological models with slope stability calculations. Because these methods typically neglect the transient effects of infiltration on slope stability, results cannot be linked with historical or forecasted rainfall sequences. Estimates of the frequency of conditions likely to cause landslides are critical for quantitative risk and hazard assessments. We present results to demonstrate how a transient infiltration model coupled with an infinite slope stability calculation may be used to assess shallow landslide frequency in the City of Seattle, Washington, USA. A module called CRF (Critical RainFall) for estimating deterministic rainfall thresholds has been integrated in the TRIGRS (Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-based Slope-Stability) model that combines a transient, one-dimensional analytic solution for pore-pressure response to rainfall infiltration with an infinite slope stability calculation. Input data for the extended model include topographic slope, colluvial thickness, initial water-table depth, material properties, and rainfall durations. This approach is combined with a statistical treatment of rainfall using a GEV (General Extreme Value) probabilistic distribution to produce maps showing the shallow landslide recurrence induced, on a spatially distributed basis, as a function of rainfall duration and hillslope characteristics.

  6. Metacognition and abstract reasoning.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Thompson, Valerie A; Brisson, Janie

    2015-05-01

    The nature of people's meta-representations of deductive reasoning is critical to understanding how people control their own reasoning processes. We conducted two studies to examine whether people have a metacognitive representation of abstract validity and whether familiarity alone acts as a separate metacognitive cue. In Study 1, participants were asked to make a series of (1) abstract conditional inferences, (2) concrete conditional inferences with premises having many potential alternative antecedents and thus specifically conducive to the production of responses consistent with conditional logic, or (3) concrete problems with premises having relatively few potential alternative antecedents. Participants gave confidence ratings after each inference. Results show that confidence ratings were positively correlated with logical performance on abstract problems and concrete problems with many potential alternatives, but not with concrete problems with content less conducive to normative responses. Confidence ratings were higher with few alternatives than for abstract content. Study 2 used a generation of contrary-to-fact alternatives task to improve levels of abstract logical performance. The resulting increase in logical performance was mirrored by increases in mean confidence ratings. Results provide evidence for a metacognitive representation based on logical validity, and show that familiarity acts as a separate metacognitive cue.

  7. Predictive Analysis of Landslide Activity Using Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markuzon, N.; Regan, J.; Slesnick, C.

    2012-12-01

    Landslides are historically one of the most damaging geohazard phenomena in terms of death tolls and socio-economic losses. Therefore, understanding the underlying causes of landslides and how environmental phenomena affect their frequency and severity is of critical importance. Of specific importance for mitigating future damage is increasing our understanding of how climate change will affect landslide severity, occurrence rates, and damage. We are developing data driven models aimed at predicting landslide activity. The models learn multi-dimensional weather and geophysical patterns associated with historical landslides and estimate location-dependent probabilities for landslides under current or future weather and geophysical conditions. Our approach uses machine learning algorithms capable of determining non-linear associations between dependent variables and landslide occurrence without requiring detailed knowledge of geomorphology. Our primary goal in year one of the project is to evaluate the predictive capabilities of data mining models in application to landslide activity, and to analyze if the approach will discover previously unknown variables and/or relationships important to landslide occurrence, frequency or severity. The models include remote sensing and ground-based data, including weather, landcover, slope, elevation and drainage information as well as urbanization data. The historical landslide dataset we used to build our preliminary models was compiled from City of Seattle landslide files, United States Geological Survey reports, newspaper articles, and a verified subset of the Seattle Landslide Database that consists of all reported landslides within Seattle, WA, between 1948 and 1999. Most of the landslides analyzed to-date are shallow. Using statistical analysis and unsupervised clustering methods we have thus far identified subsets of weather conditions that lead to a significantly higher landslide probability, and have developed

  8. Landslides and debris flows in Ephraim Canyon, central Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, R.L.; Fleming, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    The geology of 36 km{sup 2} in Ephraim Canyon, on the west side of the Wasatch Plateau, central Utah, was mapped at a scale of 1:12,000 following the occurrence of numerous landslides in 1983. The geologic map shows the distribution of the landslides and debris flows of 1983-86, as well as older landslide deposits, other surficial deposits, and bedrock. Several of the recent landslides are described and illustrated by means of maps or photographs.

  9. Geoelectric monitoring of the Bagnaschino landslide (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochum, Birgit; Supper, Robert; Ottowitz, David; Pfeiler, Stefan; Kim, Jung-Ho; Lovisolo, Mario

    2013-04-01

    Landslides are one of the major natural threats to human lives, settlements and infrastructure. Permanent geoelectrical monitoring using the GEOMON4D instrumentation in combination with high resolution displacement monitoring by means of the DMS system was performed at an active landslide area in Italy (Bagnaschino). These sites are part of a geoelectrical monitoring network of the Geological Survey of Austria, which currently comprises six permanently monitored landslides in Europe. The Bagnaschino site represents a landslide/earthflow reactivated within an old landslide mass. The old landslide is situated on the slopes of the Val Casotto about 4 km SE of Torre Mondovì (NW Italy). Evident indications of deep-seated gravitational deformation suggest that the current slopes are in a condition of limit-equilibrium and are predisposed to slow instability, triggered most probably by rain and/or snow melting and river erosion at the foot. The recent landslide was activated during 1994 rainfall event. It covers an estimated area of 150,000 m² and comprises a displaced material of 1.2 million m³. It endangers a regional road and potential formation of a dam. For the purpose of early warning a DMS monitoring column with 60 m length was installed in October 2008. Total displacement recorded by DMS during the events between 2008 and 2010 was 600 mm. Subsequently, the GEOMON4D geoelectric monitoring system was installed there in 2010. Resistivity measurements are performed along a 224 m long profile, which is oriented parallel to the main movement direction. Its midpoint is next to the DMS station. One set of data comprising around 4000 gradient-type measurements is taken every 4 hours. For power supply a combination of a fuel cell and a solar panel is used. Within the observation interval one distinct displacement event was monitored. This event was accompanied by a decrease of electric resistivity. In addition to our standard analysis of resistivity data (e.g. time

  10. Landslide disaster avoidance: learning from Leyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, T. R.

    2006-12-01

    On 17 February 2006 a gigantic rockslide triggered a debris avalanche that overran the barangay Guinsaugon, St. Bernard in Southern Leyte Province, Philippines, burying 154 victims, with 990 missing including 246 school children. Even with satellite imagery, GIS-based landslide susceptibility modelling and real-time meteorological and seismic data analysis, scientific prediction of every potentially fatal landslide is not possible in most parts of the world. This is particular the case in steep, unstable, densely-populated country in which heavy rain is common. So how can further events of this type be prevented from turning into disasters? A number of precursory phenomena were noted by local inhabitants at Guinsaugon: a crack around the slope that failed was noticed in May 2005; coconut trees near the northern foot of the landslide scarp began to lean increasingly in the down-slope direction in December 2005; a slope around the northern edge of the 17 February 2006 landslide scarp failed on December 17, 2005; in the 9 days prior to the rockslide, 640 mm of rain fell; 450 mm in a 3-day period. Such phenomena are commonly reported by local inhabitants before large landslides (e.g. Elm, Mayunmarca, and many others). In many cases, therefore, it is in principle possible for local people to avoid the consequences of the landslide if they know enough to act appropriately in response to the precursory phenomena. For this possibility to be realized, appropriate information must be provided to and assimilated by the local population. Useful ways of achieving this include pamphlets, video, TV and radio programs and visits from civil defence personnel. The information must be properly presented; scientific language will be ineffective. A communication pyramid, leading from government agencies to local leaders, can facilitate the rapid availability of the information to all potentially susceptible communities. If science can determine those areas not vulnerable to landslide

  11. Geomorphological mapping of shallow landslides using UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorucci, Federica; Giordan, Daniele; Dutto, Furio; Rossi, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    The mapping of event shallow landslides is a critical activity, due to the large number of phenomena, mostly with small dimension, affecting extensive areas. This is commonly done through aerial photo-interpretation or through field surveys. Nowadays, landslide maps can be realized exploiting other methods/technologies: (i) airborne LiDARs, (ii) stereoscopic satellite images, and (iii) unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). In addition to the landslide maps, these methods/technologies allow the generation of updated Digital Terrain Models (DTM). In December 2013, in the Collazzone area (Umbria, Central Italy), an intense rainfall event triggered a large number of shallow landslides. To map the landslides occurred in the area, we exploited data and images obtained through (A) an airborne LiDAR survey, (B) a remote controlled optocopter (equipped with a Canon EOS M) survey, and (C) a stereoscopic satellite WorldView II MS. To evaluate the mapping accuracy of these methods, we select two landslides and we mapped them using a GPS RTK instrumentation. We consider the GPS survey as the benchmark being the most accurate system. The results of the comparison allow to highlight pros and cons of the methods/technologies used. LiDAR can be considered the most accurate system and in addition it allows the extraction and the classification of the digital surface models from the surveyed point cloud. Conversely, LiDAR requires additional time for the flight planning, and specific data analysis user capabilities. The analysis of the satellite WorldView II MS images facilitates the landslide mapping over large areas, but at the expenses of a minor resolution to detect the smaller landslides and their boundaries. UAVs can be considered the cheapest and fastest solution for the acquisition of high resolution ortho-photographs on limited areas, and the best solution for a multi-temporal analysis of specific landslide phenomena. Limitations are due to (i) the needs of optimal climatic

  12. Coprates Chasma Landslides in IR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Today's daytime IR image is of a portion of Coprates Chasma, part of Valles Marineris. As with yesterday's image, this image shows multiple large landslides.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -8.2, Longitude 300.2 East (59.8 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  13. Changing pattern of landslide risk in Europe - The SafeLand project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadim, F.; Kalsnes, B.

    2012-04-01

    The need to protect people and property with a changing pattern of landslide hazard and risk caused by climate change and changes in demography, and the reality for societies in Europe to live with the risk associated with natural hazards, were the motives for the project SafeLand: "Living with landslide risk in Europe: Assessment, effects of global change, and risk management strategies." SafeLand is a large, integrating research project under the European Commission's 7th Framework Programme (FP7). The project started on 1 May 2009 and will end on 30 April 2012. It involves 27 partners from 12 European countries, and has international collaborators and advisers from China, India, USA, Japan and Hong Kong. SafeLand also involves 25 End-Users from 11 countries. SafeLand is coordinated by the International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) at Norwegian Geotechnical Institute in Norway. Further information on the SafeLand project can be found at its web site http://safeland-fp7.eu/. Main results achieved in SafeLand include: - Various guidelines related to landslide triggering processes and run-out modelling. - Development and testing of several empirical methods for predicting the characteristics of threshold rainfall events for triggering of precipitation-induced landslides, and development of an empirical model for assessing the changes in landslide frequency (hazard) as a function of changes in the demography and population density. - Guideline for landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk assessment and zoning. - New methodologies for physical and societal vulnerability assessment. - Identification of landslide hazard and risk hotspots for Europe. The results show clearly where areas with the largest landslide risk are located in Europe and the objective approach allows a ranking of the countries by exposed area and population. - Different regional and local climate model simulations over selected regions of Europe at spatial resolutions of 10x10 km and 2.8x2.8 km

  14. Landslide and Land Subsidence Hazards to Pipelines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baum, Rex L.; Galloway, Devin L.; Harp, Edwin L.

    2008-01-01

    Landslides and land subsidence pose serious hazards to pipelines throughout the world. Many existing pipeline corridors and more and more new pipelines cross terrain that is affected by either landslides, land subsidence, or both. Consequently the pipeline industry recognizes a need for increased awareness of methods for identifying and evaluating landslide and subsidence hazard for pipeline corridors. This report was prepared in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, and Pipeline Research Council International through a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) with DGH Consulting, Inc., to address the need for up-to-date information about current methods to identify and assess these hazards. Chapters in this report (1) describe methods for evaluating landslide hazard on a regional basis, (2) describe the various types of land subsidence hazard in the United States and available methods for identifying and quantifying subsidence, and (3) summarize current methods for investigating individual landslides. In addition to the descriptions, this report provides information about the relative costs, limitations and reliability of various methods.

  15. Submarine landslides of the Southern California Borderland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, H.J.; Greene, H. Gary; Edwards, B.D.; Fisher, M.A.; Normark, W.R.

    2009-01-01

    Conventional bathymetry, sidescan-sonar and seismic-reflection data, and recent, multibeam surveys of large parts of the Southern California Borderland disclose the presence of numerous submarine landslides. Most of these features are fairly small, with lateral dimensions less than ??2 km. In areas where multibeam surveys are available, only two large landslide complexes were identified on the mainland slope- Goleta slide in Santa Barbara Channel and Palos Verdes debris avalanche on the San Pedro Escarpment south of Palos Verdes Peninsula. Both of these complexes indicate repeated recurrences of catastrophic slope failure. Recurrence intervals are not well constrained but appear to be in the range of 7500 years for the Goleta slide. The most recent major activity of the Palos Verdes debris avalanche occurred roughly 7500 years ago. A small failure deposit in Santa Barbara Channel, the Gaviota mudflow, was perhaps caused by an 1812 earthquake. Most landslides in this region are probably triggered by earthquakes, although the larger failures were likely conditioned by other factors, such as oversteepening, development of shelf-edge deltas, and high fluid pressures. If a subsequent future landslide were to occur in the area of these large landslide complexes, a tsunami would probably result. Runup distances of 10 m over a 30-km-long stretch of the Santa Barbara coastline are predicted for a recurrence of the Goleta slide, and a runup of 3 m over a comparable stretch of the Los Angeles coastline is modeled for the Palos Verdes debris avalanche. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  16. Remote rainfall sensing for landslide hazard analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Gerald F.; McWreath, Harry; Davenport, Clay

    2001-01-01

    Methods of assessing landslide hazards and providing warnings are becoming more advanced as remote sensing of rainfall provides more detailed temporal and spatial data on rainfall distribution. Two recent landslide disasters are examined noting the potential for using remotely sensed rainfall data for landslide hazard analysis. For the June 27, 1995, storm in Madison County, Virginia, USA, National Weather Service WSR-88D Doppler radar provided rainfall estimates based on a relation between cloud reflectivity and moisture content on a 1 sq. km. resolution every 6 minutes. Ground-based measurements of rainfall intensity and precipitation total, in addition to landslide timing and distribution, were compared with the radar-derived rainfall data. For the December 14-16, 1999, storm in Vargas State, Venezuela, infrared sensing from the GOES-8 satellite of cloud top temperatures provided the basis for NOAA/NESDIS rainfall estimates on a 16 sq. km. resolution every 30 minutes. These rainfall estimates were also compared with ground-based measurements of rainfall and landslide distribution. In both examples, the remotely sensed data either overestimated or underestimated ground-based values by up to a factor of 2. The factors that influenced the accuracy of rainfall data include spatial registration and map projection, as well as prevailing wind direction, cloud orientation, and topography.

  17. Flood and Landslide Applications of Near Real-time Satellite Rainfall Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Yang; Adler, Robert F.; Negri, Andrew; Huffman, George J.

    2007-01-01

    probabilistic maps of landslide and floods for emergency management in a timely manner is possible. Early results shows that the potential exists for successful application of satellite precipitation data in improving/developing global monitoring systems for flood/landslide disaster preparedness and management. The scientific and technological prototype can be first applied in a representative test-bed and then the information deliverables for the region can be tailored to the societal and economic needs of the represented affected countries.

  18. Relations between hydrology and velocity of a continuously moving landslide-evidence of pore-pressure feedback regulating landslide motion?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulz, W.H.; McKenna, J.P.; Kibler, J.D.; Biavati, G.

    2009-01-01

    We measured displacement, pore-water pressure, and climatic conditions for 3 years at the continuously moving Slumgullion landslide in Colorado, USA. The landslide accelerated when pore-water pressure increased within the landslide body, but this occurred as pore-water pressure decreased along the landslide margin. The decrease probably occurred in response to shear-induced soil dilation at rates greater than pore-pressure diffusion and likely increased resistance to shear displacement and resulted in landslide deceleration. This dilative strengthening has been experimentally observed and explained theoretically, but not previously identified during field studies. Although landslide displacement should have exceeded that required to achieve critical-state density of shear boundaries, observed relocation of these boundaries indicates that shearing is episodic at fixed locations, so it permits renewed dilative strengthening when "fresh" soil is sheared. Thus, dilatant strengthening may be a considerable mechanism controlling landslide velocity, even for landslides that have continuously moved great distances. ?? Springer-Verlag 2009.

  19. The 22 March 2014 Oso landslide, Washington, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wartman, Joseph; Montgomery, David R.; Anderson, Scott A.; Keaton, Jeffrey R.; Benoît, Jean; dela Chapelle, John; Gilbert, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The Oso, Washington, USA, landslide occurred on the morning of Saturday, 22 March 2014 and claimed the lives of 43 people. The landslide began within an 200-m-high hillslope comprised of unconsolidated glacial and previous landslide/colluvial deposits; it continued as a debris avalanche/debris flow that rapidly inundated a neighborhood of 35 single-family residences. An intense three-week rainfall that immediately preceded the event most likely played a role in triggering the landslide; and other factors that likely contributed to destabilization of the landslide mass include alteration of the local groundwater recharge and hydrogeological regime from previous landsliding, weakening and alteration of the landslide mass caused by previous landsliding, and changes in stress distribution resulting from removal and deposition of material from earlier landsliding. Field reconnaissance following the event revealed six distinctive zones and several subzones that are characterized on the basis of geomorphic expression, styles of deformation, geologic materials, and the types, size, and orientation of vegetation. Seismic recording of the landslide indicate that the event was marked by several vibration-generating episodes of mass movement. We hypothesize that the landslide occurred in two stages, with the first being a sequential remobilization of existing slide masses from the most recent (2006) landslide and from an ancient slide that triggered a devastating debris avalanche/debris flow. The second stage involved headward extension into previously unfailed material that occurred in response to unloading and redirection of stresses.

  20. Integration of landslide susceptibility products in the environmental plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorucci, Federica; Reichenbach, Paola; Rossi, Mauro; Cardinali, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    Landslides are one of the most destructive natural hazard that causes damages to urban area worldwide. The knowledge of where a landslide could occur is essential for the strategic management of the territory and for a good urban planning . In this contest landslide susceptibility zoning (LSZ) is crucial to provide information on the degree to which an area can be affected by future slope movements. Despite landslide susceptibility maps have been prepared extensively during the last decades, there are few examples of application is in the environmental plans (EP). In this work we present a proposal for the integration of the landslide inventory map with the following landslide susceptibility products: (i) landslide susceptibility zonation , (ii) the associated error map and (iii) the susceptibility uncertainty map. Moreover we proposed to incorporate detailed morphological studies for the evaluation of landslide risk associated to local parceling plan. The integration of all this information is crucial for the management of landslide risk in urban expansions forecasts. Municipality, province and regional administration are often not able to support the costs of landslide risk evaluation for extensive areas but should concentrate their financial resources to specific hazardous and unsafe situations defined by the result of the integration of landslide susceptibility products. Zonation and detail morphological analysis should be performed taking into account the existing laws and regulations, and could become a starting point to discuss new regulations for the landslide risk management.

  1. Distribution probability of large-scale landslides in central Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timilsina, Manita; Bhandary, Netra P.; Dahal, Ranjan Kumar; Yatabe, Ryuichi

    2014-12-01

    Large-scale landslides in the Himalaya are defined as huge, deep-seated landslide masses that occurred in the geological past. They are widely distributed in the Nepal Himalaya. The steep topography and high local relief provide high potential for such failures, whereas the dynamic geology and adverse climatic conditions play a key role in the occurrence and reactivation of such landslides. The major geoscientific problems related with such large-scale landslides are 1) difficulties in their identification and delineation, 2) sources of small-scale failures, and 3) reactivation. Only a few scientific publications have been published concerning large-scale landslides in Nepal. In this context, the identification and quantification of large-scale landslides and their potential distribution are crucial. Therefore, this study explores the distribution of large-scale landslides in the Lesser Himalaya. It provides simple guidelines to identify large-scale landslides based on their typical characteristics and using a 3D schematic diagram. Based on the spatial distribution of landslides, geomorphological/geological parameters and logistic regression, an equation of large-scale landslide distribution is also derived. The equation is validated by applying it to another area. For the new area, the area under the receiver operating curve of the landslide distribution probability in the new area is 0.699, and a distribution probability value could explain > 65% of existing landslides. Therefore, the regression equation can be applied to areas of the Lesser Himalaya of central Nepal with similar geological and geomorphological conditions.

  2. Landslide inventory for the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sobieszczyk, Steven

    2010-01-01

    This geodatabase is an inventory of existing landslides in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon (2009). Each landslide feature shown has been classified according to a number of specific characteristics identified at the time recorded in the GIS database. The classification scheme was developed by the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (Burns and Madin, 2009). Several significant landslide characteristics recorded in the database are portrayed with symbology on this map. The specific characteristics shown for each landslide are the activity of landsliding, landslide features, deep or shallow failure, type of landslide movement, and confidence of landslide interpretation. These landslide characteristics are determined primarily on the basis of geomorphic features, or landforms, observed for each landslide. This work was completed as part of the Master's thesis "Turbidity Monitoring and LiDAR Imagery Indicate Landslides are Primary Source of Suspended-Sediment Load in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon, Winter 2009-2010" by Steven Sobieszczyk, Portland State University and U.S. Geological Survey. Data layers in this geodatabase include: landslide deposit boundaries (Deposits); field-verfied location imagery (Photos); head scarp or scarp flanks (Scarp_Flanks); and secondary scarp features (Scarps).The geodatabase template was developed by the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (Burns and Madin, 2009).

  3. Operational early warning of shallow landslides in Norway: Evaluation of landslide forecasts and associated challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, Mads-Peter; Colleuille, Hervé; Boje, Søren; Sund, Monica; Krøgli, Ingeborg; Devoli, Graziella

    2015-04-01

    The Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) runs a national early warning system (EWS) for shallow landslides in Norway. Slope failures included in the EWS are debris slides, debris flows, debris avalanches and slush flows. The EWS has been operational on national scale since 2013 and consists of (a) quantitative landslide thresholds and daily hydro-meteorological prognosis; (b) daily qualitative expert evaluation of prognosis / additional data in decision to determine warning levels; (c) publication of warning levels through various custom build internet platforms. The effectiveness of an EWS depends on both the quality of forecasts being issued, and the communication of forecasts to the public. In this analysis a preliminary evaluation of landslide forecasts from the Norwegian EWS within the period 2012-2014 is presented. Criteria for categorizing forecasts as correct, missed events or false alarms are discussed and concrete examples of forecasts falling into the latter two categories are presented. The evaluation show a rate of correct forecasts exceeding 90%. However correct forecast categorization is sometimes difficult, particularly due to poorly documented landslide events. Several challenges has to be met in the process of further lowering rates of missed events of false alarms in the EWS. Among others these include better implementation of susceptibility maps in landslide forecasting, more detailed regionalization of hydro-meteorological landslide thresholds, improved prognosis on precipitation, snowmelt and soil water content as well as the build-up of more experience among the people performing landslide forecasting.

  4. A web-based tool for ranking landslide mitigation measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacasse, S.; Vaciago, G.; Choi, Y. J.; Kalsnes, B.

    2012-04-01

    As part of the research done in the European project SafeLand "Living with landslide risk in Europe: Assessment, effects of global change, and risk management strategies", a compendium of structural and non-structural mitigation measures for different landslide types in Europe was prepared, and the measures were assembled into a web-based "toolbox". Emphasis was placed on providing a rational and flexible framework applicable to existing and future mitigation measures. The purpose of web-based toolbox is to assist decision-making and to guide the user in the choice of the most appropriate mitigation measures. The mitigation measures were classified into three categories, describing whether the mitigation measures addressed the landslide hazard, the vulnerability or the elements at risk themselves. The measures considered include structural measures reducing hazard and non-structural mitigation measures, reducing either the hazard or the consequences (or vulnerability and exposure of elements at risk). The structural measures include surface protection and control of surface erosion; measures modifying the slope geometry and/or mass distribution; measures modifying surface water regime - surface drainage; measures mo¬difying groundwater regime - deep drainage; measured modifying the mechanical charac¬teristics of unstable mass; transfer of loads to more competent strata; retaining structures (to modify slope geometry and/or to transfer stress to compe¬tent layer); deviating the path of landslide debris; dissipating the energy of debris flows; and arresting and containing landslide debris or rock fall. The non-structural mitigation measures, reducing either the hazard or the consequences: early warning systems; restricting or discouraging construction activities; increasing resistance or coping capacity of elements at risk; relocation of elements at risk; sharing of risk through insurance. The measures are described in the toolbox with fact sheets providing a

  5. Detecting seasonal landslide movement within the Cascade landslide complex (Washington) using time-series SAR imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hu, Xie; Wang, Teng; Pierson, Thomas C.; Lu, Zhong; Kim, Jin-Woo; Cecere, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    Detection of slow or limited landslide movement within broad areas of forested terrain has long been problematic, particularly for the Cascade landslide complex (Washington) located along the Columbia River Gorge. Although parts of the landslide complex have been found reactivated in recent years, the timing and magnitude of motion have not been systematically monitored or interpreted. Here we apply novel time-series strategies to study the spatial distribution and temporal behavior of the landslide movement between 2007 and 2011 using InSAR images from two overlapping L-band ALOS PALSAR-1 satellite tracks. Our results show that the reactivated part has moved approximately 700 mm downslope during the 4-year observation period, while other parts of the landslide complex have generally remained stable. However, we also detect about 300 mm of seasonal downslope creep in a terrain block upslope of the Cascade landslide complex—terrain previously thought to be stable. The temporal oscillation of the seasonal movement can be correlated with precipitation, implying that seasonal movement here is hydrology-driven. The seasonal movement also has a frequency similar to GPS-derived regional ground oscillations due to mass loading by stored rainfall and subsequent rebound but with much smaller magnitude, suggesting different hydrological loading effects. From the time-series amplitude information on terrain upslope of the headscarp, we also re-evaluate the incipient motion related to the 2008 Greenleaf Basin rock avalanche, not previously recognized by traditional SAR/InSAR methods. The approach used in this study can be used to identify active landslides in forested terrain, to track the seasonal movement of landslides, and to identify previously unknown landslide hazards.

  6. A logical framework for ranking landslide inventory maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santangelo, Michele; Fiorucci, Federica; Bucci, Francesco; Cardinali, Mauro; Ardizzone, Francesca; Marchesini, Ivan; Cesare Mondini, Alessandro; Reichenbach, Paola; Rossi, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2014-05-01

    Landslides inventory maps are essential for quantitative landslide hazard and risk assessments, and for geomorphological and ecological studies. Landslide maps, including geomorphological, event based, multi-temporal, and seasonal inventory maps, are most commonly prepared through the visual interpretation of (i) monoscopic and stereoscopic aerial photographs, (ii) satellite images, (iii) LiDAR derived images, aided by more or less extensive field surveys. Landslide inventory maps are the basic information for a number of different scientific, technical and civil protection purposes, such as: (i) quantitative geomorphic analyses, (ii) erosion studies, (iii) deriving landslide statistics, (iv) urban development planning (v) landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk evaluation, and (vi) landslide monitoring systems. Despite several decades of activity in landslide inventory making, still no worldwide-accepted standards, best practices and protocols exist for the ranking and the production of landslide inventory maps. Standards for the preparation (and/or ranking) of landslide inventories should indicate the minimum amount of information for a landslide inventory map, given the scale, the type of images, the instrumentation available, and the available ancillary data. We recently attempted at a systematic description and evaluation of a total of 22 geomorphological inventories, 6 multi-temporal inventories, 10 event inventories, and 3 seasonal inventories, in the scale range between 1:10,000 and 1:500,000, prepared for areas in different geological and geomorphological settings. All of the analysed inventories were carried out by using image interpretation techniques, or field surveys. Firstly, a detailed characterisation was performed for each landslide inventory, mainly collecting metadata related (i) to the amount of information used for preparing the landslide inventory (i.e. images used, instrumentation, ancillary data, digitalisation method, legend, validation

  7. Leadership Abstracts, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This is volume 14 of Leadership Abstracts, a newsletter published by the League for Innovation (California). Issue 1 of February 2001, "Developmental Education: A Policy Primer," discusses developmental programs in the community college. According to the article, community college trustees and presidents would serve their constituents well by…

  8. Abstract Film and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grice, Malcolm

    A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…

  9. Leadership Abstracts, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette, Don, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This document includes 10 issues of Leadership Abstracts (volume 6, 1993), a newsletter published by the League for Innovation in the Community College (California). The featured articles are: (1) "Reinventing Government" by David T. Osborne; (2) "Community College Workforce Training Programs: Expanding the Mission to Meet Critical Needs" by…

  10. Leadership Abstracts, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadership Abstracts, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This document contains five Leadership Abstracts publications published February-December 1999. The article, "Teaching the Teachers: Meeting the National Teacher Preparation Challenge," authored by George R. Boggs and Sadie Bragg, examines the community college role and makes recommendations and a call to action for teacher education.…

  11. Computers in Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwabueze, Kenneth K.

    2004-01-01

    The current emphasis on flexible modes of mathematics delivery involving new information and communication technology (ICT) at the university level is perhaps a reaction to the recent change in the objectives of education. Abstract algebra seems to be one area of mathematics virtually crying out for computer instructional support because of the…

  12. 2002 NASPSA Conference Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Contains abstracts from the 2002 conference of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity. The publication is divided into three sections: the preconference workshop, "Effective Teaching Methods in the Classroom;" symposia (motor development, motor learning and control, and sport psychology); and free…

  13. Reasoning abstractly about resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, B.; Barrett, A.

    2001-01-01

    r describes a way to schedule high level activities before distributing them across multiple rovers in order to coordinate the resultant use of shared resources regardless of how each rover decides how to perform its activities. We present an algorithm for summarizing the metric resource requirements of an abstract activity based n the resource usages of its potential refinements.

  14. Conference Abstracts: AEDS '84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, William E.

    1985-01-01

    The Association of Educational Data Systems (AEDS) conference included 102 presentations. Abstracts of seven of these presentations are provided. Topic areas considered include LOGO, teaching probability through a computer game, writing effective computer assisted instructional materials, computer literacy, research on instructional…

  15. Leadership Abstracts, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Cynthia, Ed.; Milliron, Mark David, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 volume of Leadership Abstracts contains issue numbers 1-12. Articles include: (1) "Skills Certification and Workforce Development: Partnering with Industry and Ourselves," by Jeffrey A. Cantor; (2) "Starting Again: The Brookhaven Success College," by Alice W. Villadsen; (3) "From Digital Divide to Digital Democracy," by Gerardo E. de los…

  16. Abstraction and art.

    PubMed Central

    Gortais, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    In a given social context, artistic creation comprises a set of processes, which relate to the activity of the artist and the activity of the spectator. Through these processes we see and understand that the world is vaster than it is said to be. Artistic processes are mediated experiences that open up the world. A successful work of art expresses a reality beyond actual reality: it suggests an unknown world using the means and the signs of the known world. Artistic practices incorporate the means of creation developed by science and technology and change forms as they change. Artists and the public follow different processes of abstraction at different levels, in the definition of the means of creation, of representation and of perception of a work of art. This paper examines how the processes of abstraction are used within the framework of the visual arts and abstract painting, which appeared during a period of growing importance for the processes of abstraction in science and technology, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The development of digital platforms and new man-machine interfaces allow multimedia creations. This is performed under the constraint of phases of multidisciplinary conceptualization using generic representation languages, which tend to abolish traditional frontiers between the arts: visual arts, drama, dance and music. PMID:12903659

  17. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…

  18. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Includes abstracts of 18 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Highlights include natural language processing, information science and terminology science, classification, knowledge-intensive information systems, information value and ownership issues, economics and theories of information science, information retrieval interfaces, fuzzy thinking…

  19. RESEARCH ABSTRACTS, VOLUME VI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COLETTE, SISTER M.

    THIS SIXTH VOLUME OF RESEARCH ABSTRACTS PRESENTS REPORTS OF 35 RESEARCH STUDIES COMPLETED BY CANDIDATES FOR THE MASTER'S DEGREE AT THE CARDINAL STRITCH COLLEGE IN 1964. TWENTY-NINE STUDIES ARE CONCERNED WITH READING, AND SIX ARE CONCERNED WITH THE EDUCATION OF THE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED. OF THE READING STUDIES, FIVE PERTAIN TO THE JUNIOR HIGH LEVEL…

  20. Learning Abstracts, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    League for Innovation in the Community Coll.

    This document contains volume two of Learning Abstracts, a bimonthly newsletter from the League for Innovation in the Community College. Articles in these seven issues include: (1) "Get on the Fast Track to Learning: An Accelerated Associate Degree Option" (Gerardo E. de los Santos and Deborah J. Cruise); (2) "The Learning College:…

  1. Annual Conference Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineering Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presents the abstracts of 158 papers presented at the American Society for Engineering Education's annual conference at Knoxville, Tennessee, June 14-17, 1976. Included are engineering topics covering education, aerospace, agriculture, biomedicine, chemistry, computers, electricity, acoustics, environment, mechanics, and women. (SL)

  2. Making the Abstract Concrete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2005-01-01

    President Ronald Reagan nominated a woman to serve on the United States Supreme Court. He did so through a single-page form letter, completed in part by hand and in part by typewriter, announcing Sandra Day O'Connor as his nominee. While the document serves as evidence of a historic event, it is also a tangible illustration of abstract concepts…

  3. Abstracts of SIG Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents abstracts of 15 special interest group (SIG) sessions. Topics include navigation and information utilization in the Internet, natural language processing, automatic indexing, image indexing, classification, users' models of database searching, online public access catalogs, education for information professions, information services,…

  4. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    M. Gross

    2004-10-25

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]).

  5. Abstraction through Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avraamidou, Antri; Monaghan, John; Walker, Aisha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the computer game play of an 11-year-old boy. In the course of building a virtual house he developed and used, without assistance, an artefact and an accompanying strategy to ensure that his house was symmetric. We argue that the creation and use of this artefact-strategy is a mathematical abstraction. The discussion…

  6. The Golden bypass landslide, Golden, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Highland, L.M.; Brown, W. M.

    1993-01-01

    Slope instability along a new highway bypass in Golden, Colorado, became a major concern in 1993. Rains and snowmelt accelerated movement of a landslide that had begun to develop before the bypass was opened to traffic in July of 1991. The downslope movement of earth materials increased significantly in 1993. During the first few months of the year, the landslide pushed onto the west shoulder of the road and crumpled the pavement beneath the south-bound lane. As we prepare this article (September, 1993), the slide continues to encroach onto the highway, posing a persistent problem despite repeated efforts to slow or stop its movement. As this article will show, permanent solutions to landslide problems of this kind are difficult to obtain. 

  7. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    R. Schreiner

    2001-06-27

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other

  8. Landslide hazard and forest fires - the relevance of geology for landslide type and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Steeger, Tomas M.; Wiatr, Thomas; Papanikolaou, Ioannis; Reicherter, Klaus

    2010-05-01

    Current research indicates an increasing number of forest fires incidents and burned areas for Europe in the future (e.g. Moriondo et al., 2006). Besides economical and environmental impacts they can cause future "secondary" hazards like landslides, debris flows and flash floods. There are many past and current studies investigating effects of erosion and landslide phenomena like debris flows in burned areas (s. Shakesby & Doerr, 2006). The influence of the geological framework is often neglected in these studies. Furthermore, deep seated landslides and slumps are only hypothetically described (Swanson, 1981). To study the relevance of geology and to observe the processes, areas in Attica and the western Peloponnese in Greece burned by the catastrophic wildfires of 2007 and 2009 were investigated. The Tertiary Flysch units and the Neogene deposits in the Pyrgos area of the western Peloponnese are generally a landslide prone area. The slopes in the area show the typical morphological features of a landslide landscape. This is not only true for the in 2007 burned areas but also for unburned areas even in some kilometre distance. Large rotational slides with 20 m and higher main scarps interact and build up complex staircase landslide cascades. Even so vegetation indicates for the unburned areas currently a low activity. In contrary in the burned areas even 2 years after the fires many recent effects from landslides can be observed, like slope failures, cliff break ups, road failures, destroyed retention walls and cracks in houses. While the shallow landslides show a very high dynamic, also older larger landslides are developing or reactivating. As the changes in landslide activity are limited to the burned areas, it is reasonable that the changes in the hydrological conditions like Swanson (1981) predicted due to the destroyed vegetation are the main trigger mechanism for the new and reactivated landslides. An increased availability of water at the sliding plane and

  9. Predictive analysis of landslide susceptibility in the Kao-Ping watershed, Taiwan under climate change conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shou, K. J.; Wu, C. C.; Lin, J. F.

    2015-01-01

    Among the most critical issues, climatic abnormalities caused by global warming also affect Taiwan significantly for the past decade. The increasing frequency of extreme rainfall events, in which concentrated and intensive rainfalls generally cause geohazards including landslides and debris flows. The extraordinary Typhoon Morakot hit Southern Taiwan on 8 August 2009 and induced serious flooding and landslides. In this study, the Kao-Ping River watershed was adopted as the study area, and the typical events 2007 Krosa Typhoon and 2009 Morakot Typhoon were adopted to train the susceptibility model. This study employs rainfall frequency analysis together with the atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) downscaling estimation to understand the temporal rainfall trends, distributions, and intensities in the Kao-Ping River watershed. The rainfall estimates were introduced in the landslide susceptibility model to produce the predictive landslide susceptibility for various rainfall scenarios, including abnormal climate conditions. These results can be used for hazard remediation, mitigation, and prevention plans for the Kao-Ping River watershed.

  10. Web Application for Coastal Area Planning through Analysis of Landslide and Soil Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panizzoni, Giulio; Debiasi, Alberto; Eccher, Matteo; De Amicis, Raffaele

    2016-04-01

    Global warming and rapid climatic changes are producing dramatic effects on coastal area of Mediterranean countries. Italian coastal areas are one of the most urbanized zones of the south western Europe and the extensive use of soil is causing a consistent impact on the hydrogeological context. Moreover, soil consumption combined with extreme meteorological events, facilitates the occurrence of hazardous landslide events. Environmental policy makers and data managers in territorial planning need to face such emergency situation with appropriate tools. We present an application service with the aim of advising user through environmental analysis of Landslide and Soil Consumption impact. This service wants also to improve the sharing of environmental harmonized datasets/metadata across different organizations and the creation of a collaborative environment where the stakeholders and environmental experts can share their data and work cooperatively. We developed a set of processing services providing functionalities to assess impact of landslide on territory and impact of land take and soil sealing. Among others, the service is able to evaluate environmental impacts of landslide events on Cultural Heritage sites. We have also designed a 3D WebGL client customized to execute the processing services and visualize their outputs. It provides high usability in terms of navigation and data visualization. In this way the service provides not only a Spatial Data Infrastructure to access and visualize data but a complete Decision Support Systems for a more effective environmental planning of coastal area.

  11. The Hurricane-Flood-Landslide Continuum: Forecasting Hurricane Effects at Landfall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negri, A.; Golden, J. H.; Updike, R.

    2004-01-01

    Hurricanes, typhoons, and cyclones strike Central American, Caribbean, Southeast Asian and Pacific Island nations even more frequently than the U.S. The global losses of life and property from the floods, landslides and debris flows caused by cyclonic storms are staggering. One of the keys to reducing these losses, both in the U.S. and internationally, is to have better forecasts of what is about to happen from several hours to days before the event. Particularly in developing nations where science, technology and communication are limited, advance-warning systems can have great impact. In developing countries, warnings of even a few hours or days can mitigate or reduce catastrophic losses of life. With the foregoing needs in mind, we propose an initial project of three years total duration that will aim to develop and transfer a warning system for a prototype region in the Central Caribbean, specifically the islands of Puerto Rico and Hispanola. The Hurricane-Flood-Landslide Continuum will include satellite observations to track and nowcast dangerous levels of precipitation, atmospheric and hydrological models to predict near-future runoff, and streamflow changes in affected regions, and landslide models to warn when and where landslides and debris flows are imminent. Since surface communications are likely to be interrupted during these crises, the project also includes the capability to communicate disaster information via satellite to vital government officials in Puerto Rico, Haiti, and Dominican Republic.

  12. Multidisciplinary study on anthropogenic landslides in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglia, Christopher; Derron, Marc-Henri; Nicolet, Pierrick; Sudmeier-Rieux, Karen; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Devkota, Sanjay

    2013-04-01

    Nepal is a country in which shallow landslide is a frequent phenomenon. Monsoon is the main triggering factor but anthropogenic influence is often significant too. Indeed, many infrastructures, such as roads or water pipes, are not built in a rigorous way because of a lack of funds and knowledge. In the present study we examine the technical, social and economic issues of landslide management for two sites in Nepal. The first site is located in Sanusiruwari VDC (Sindhupalchock district, central Nepal) and the second one in Namadi VDC (Ramecchap district, central Nepal). Both sites are affected by landslides induced by the construction of hydropower plants. These landslides may threaten the viability of the hydropower plants. At both sites the problems are quite similar, but the first site project is a private one and the second one is a public one implemented by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). For both sites, bioengineering methods using Vetiver (Vetyveria zizanioides) plantations is the main stabilization measure. To follow the progression of both landslides, fieldwork observations were conducted before and after the 2012 rainy season, including photogrammetric and distancemeter acquisitions. Main issues were discussed with communities and stakeholders of the hydropower projects through interviews and participatory risk mapping. Main issues include: lack of communication between the project managers and communities leading to conflict and the lack of maintenance of the bio-engineering sites, leading to less effective Vetiver growth and slope stabilization. Comparing the landslide management (technical, social and economic) of the two projects allows to point out some specific issues within an integrated risk perspective.

  13. Landslide oil field, San Joaquin Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, B.P.; March, K.A.; Caballero, J.S.; Stolle, J.M.

    1988-03-01

    The Landslide field, located at the southern margin of the San Joaquin basin, was discovered in 1985 by a partnership headed by Channel Exploration Company, on a farm out from Tenneco Oil Company. Initial production from the Tenneco San Emidio 63X-30 was 2064 BOPD, making landslide one of the largest onshore discoveries in California during the past decade. Current production is 7100 BOPD from a sandstone reservoir at 12,500 ft. Fifteen wells have been drilled in the field, six of which are water injectors. Production from the Landslide field occurs from a series of upper Miocene Stevens turbidite sandstones that lie obliquely across an east-plunging structural nose. These turbidite sandstones were deposited as channel-fill sequences within a narrowly bounded levied channel complex. Both the Landslide field and the larger Yowlumne field, located 3 mi to the northwest, comprise a single channel-fan depositional system that developed in the restricted deep-water portion of the San Joaquin basin. Information from the open-hole logs, three-dimensional surveys, vertical seismic profiles, repeat formation tester data, cores, and pressure buildup tests allowed continuous drilling from the initial discovery to the final waterflood injector, without a single dry hole. In addition, the successful application of three-dimensional seismic data in the Landslide development program has helped correctly image channel-fan anomalies in the southern Maricopa basin, where data quality and severe velocity problems have hampered previous efforts. New exploration targets are currently being evaluated on the acreage surrounding the Landslide discovery and should lead to an interesting new round of drilling activity in the Maricopa basin.

  14. Landslide Hazards in the Seattle, Washington, Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baum, Rex; Harp, Ed; Highland, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    The Seattle, Washington, area is known for its livability and its magnificent natural setting. The city and nearby communities are surrounded by an abundance of rivers and lakes and by the bays of Puget Sound. Two majestic mountain ranges, the Olympics and the Cascades, rim the region. These dramatic natural features are products of dynamic forces-landslides, earthquakes, tsunamis, glaciers, volcanoes, and floods. The same processes that formed this beautiful landscape pose hazards to the ever-growing population of the region. Landslides long have been a major cause of damage and destruction to people and property in the Seattle area.

  15. Layers, Landslides, and Sand Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 27 October 2003

    This image shows the northern rim of one of the Valles Marineris canyons. Careful inspection shows many interesting features here. Note that the spurs and gullies in the canyon wall disappear some distance below the top of the canyon wall, indicating the presence of some smooth material here that weathers differently from the underlying rocks. On the floor of the canyon, there are remains from a landslide that came hurtling down the canyon wall between two spurs. Riding over the topography of the canyon floor are many large sand dunes, migrating generally from the lower right to upper left.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -14.1, Longitude 306.7 East (53.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  16. Deviation from Power Law Behavior in Landslide Phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Lan, H.; Wu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Power law distribution of magnitude is widely observed in many natural hazards (e.g., earthquake, floods, tornadoes, and forest fires). Landslide is unique as the size distribution of landslide is characterized by a power law decrease with a rollover in the small size end. Yet, the emergence of the rollover, i.e., the deviation from power law behavior for small size landslides, remains a mystery. In this contribution, we grouped the forces applied on landslide bodies into two categories: 1) the forces proportional to the volume of failure mass (gravity and friction), and 2) the forces proportional to the area of failure surface (cohesion). Failure occurs when the forces proportional to volume exceed the forces proportional to surface area. As such, given a certain mechanical configuration, the failure volume to failure surface area ratio must exceed a corresponding threshold to guarantee a failure. Assuming all landslides share a uniform shape, which means the volume to surface area ratio of landslide regularly increase with the landslide volume, a cutoff of landslide volume distribution in the small size end can be defined. However, in realistic landslide phenomena, where heterogeneities of landslide shape and mechanical configuration are existent, a simple cutoff of landslide volume distribution does not exist. The stochasticity of landslide shape introduce a probability distribution of the volume to surface area ratio with regard to landslide volume, with which the probability that the volume to surface ratio exceed the threshold can be estimated regarding values of landslide volume. An experiment based on empirical data showed that this probability can induce the power law distribution of landslide volume roll down in the small size end. We therefore proposed that the constraints on the failure volume to failure surface area ratio together with the heterogeneity of landslide geometry and mechanical configuration attribute for the deviation from power law

  17. Landslide inventory development in a data sparse region: spatial and temporal characteristics of landslides in Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, J. C.; Petterson, M. G.

    2015-08-01

    In Papua New Guinea (PNG) earthquakes and rainfall events form the dominant trigger mechanisms capable of generating many landslides. Large volume and high density landsliding can result in significant socio-economic impacts, which are felt particularly strongly in the largely subsistence-orientated communities which reside in the most susceptible areas of the country. As PNG has undergone rapid development and increased external investment from mining and other companies, population and settled areas have increased, hence the potential for damage from landslides has also increased. Information on the spatial and temporal distribution of landslides, at a regional-scale, is critical for developing landslide hazard maps and for planning, sustainable development and decision making. This study describes the methods used to produce the first, country-wide landslide inventory for PNG and analyses of landslide events which occurred between 1970 and 2013. The findings illustrate that there is a strong climatic control on landslide-triggering events and that the majority (~ 61 %) of landslides in the PNG landslide inventory are initiated by rainfall related triggers. There is also large year to year variability in the annual occurrence of landslide events and this is related to the phase of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and mesoscale rainfall variability. Landslide-triggering events occur during the north-westerly monsoon season during all phases of ENSO, but less landslide-triggering events are observed during drier season months (May to October) during El Niño phases, than either La Niña or ENSO neutral periods. This analysis has identified landslide hazard hotspots and relationships between landslide occurrence and rainfall climatology and this information can prove to be very valuable in the assessment of trends and future behaviour, which can be useful for policy makers and planners.

  18. Tien Shan Geohazards Database: Earthquakes and landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havenith, H. B.; Strom, A.; Torgoev, I.; Torgoev, A.; Lamair, L.; Ischuk, A.; Abdrakhmatov, K.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we present new and review already existing landslide and earthquake data for a large part of the Tien Shan, Central Asia. For the same area, only partial databases for sub-regions have been presented previously. They were compiled and new data were added to fill the gaps between the databases. Major new inputs are products of the Central Asia Seismic Risk Initiative (CASRI): a tentative digital map of active faults (even with indication of characteristic or possible maximum magnitude) and the earthquake catalogue of Central Asia until 2009 that was now updated with USGS data (to May 2014). The new compiled landslide inventory contains existing records of 1600 previously mapped mass movements and more than 1800 new landslide data. Considering presently available seismo-tectonic and landslide data, a target region of 1200 km (E-W) by 600 km (N-S) was defined for the production of more or less continuous geohazards information. This target region includes the entire Kyrgyz Tien Shan, the South-Western Tien Shan in Tajikistan, the Fergana Basin (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan) as well as the Western part in Uzbekistan, the North-Easternmost part in Kazakhstan and a small part of the Eastern Chinese Tien Shan (for the zones outside Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, only limited information was available and compiled). On the basis of the new landslide inventory and the updated earthquake catalogue, the link between landslide and earthquake activity is analysed. First, size-frequency relationships are studied for both types of geohazards, in terms of Gutenberg-Richter Law for the earthquakes and in terms of probability density function for the landslides. For several regions and major earthquake events, case histories are presented to outline further the close connection between earthquake and landslide hazards in the Tien Shan. From this study, we concluded first that a major hazard component is still now insufficiently known for both types of geohazards

  19. The relationship among probability of failure, landslide susceptibility and rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chuen Ming; Lee, Chyi-Tyi

    2016-04-01

    Landslide hazard included spatial probability, temporal probability and size probability. Many researches evaluate spatial probability in landslide susceptibility, but it is not many in temporal probability and size probability. Because of it must own enough landslide inventories that covered entire study area and large time range. In seismology, using Poisson model to calculate temporal probability is a well-known inference. However, it required a long term and complete records to analyze. In Taiwan, the remote sensing technology made us to establish multi landslide inventories easily, but it is still lack in time series. Thus the landslide susceptibility through changed different return period triggering factor was often assumed landslide hazard. Compare with landslide inventory, collected a long tern rainfall gauge records is easy. However, landslide susceptibility is a relative spatial probability. No matter using different event or analyzing in different area, the landslide susceptibility is not equal. So which model is representative that is difficult to be decided. This study adopted histogram matching to construct basic landslide susceptibility of the region. Then the relationship between landslide susceptibility, probability of failure and rainfall in multi-event can be found out.

  20. Maps Showing Seismic Landslide Hazards in Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jibson, Randall W.; Michael, John A.

    2009-01-01

    The devastating landslides that accompanied the great 1964 Alaska earthquake showed that seismically triggered landslides are one of the greatest geologic hazards in Anchorage. Maps quantifying seismic landslide hazards are therefore important for planning, zoning, and emergency-response preparation. The accompanying maps portray seismic landslide hazards for the following conditions: (1) deep, translational landslides, which occur only during great subduction-zone earthquakes that have return periods of =~300-900 yr; (2) shallow landslides for a peak ground acceleration (PGA) of 0.69 g, which has a return period of 2,475 yr, or a 2 percent probability of exceedance in 50 yr; and (3) shallow landslides for a PGA of 0.43 g, which has a return period of 475 yr, or a 10 percent probability of exceedance in 50 yr. Deep, translational landslide hazard zones were delineated based on previous studies of such landslides, with some modifications based on field observations of locations of deep landslides. Shallow-landslide hazards were delineated using a Newmark-type displacement analysis for the two probabilistic ground motions modeled.

  1. Estimating the empirical probability of submarine landslide occurrence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, Eric L.; Parsons, Thomas E.; Mosher, David C.; Shipp, Craig; Moscardelli, Lorena; Chaytor, Jason D.; Baxter, Christopher D. P.; Lee, Homa J.; Urgeles, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The empirical probability for the occurrence of submarine landslides at a given location can be estimated from age dates of past landslides. In this study, tools developed to estimate earthquake probability from paleoseismic horizons are adapted to estimate submarine landslide probability. In both types of estimates, one has to account for the uncertainty associated with age-dating individual events as well as the open time intervals before and after the observed sequence of landslides. For observed sequences of submarine landslides, we typically only have the age date of the youngest event and possibly of a seismic horizon that lies below the oldest event in a landslide sequence. We use an empirical Bayes analysis based on the Poisson-Gamma conjugate prior model specifically applied to the landslide probability problem. This model assumes that landslide events as imaged in geophysical data are independent and occur in time according to a Poisson distribution characterized by a rate parameter λ. With this method, we are able to estimate the most likely value of λ and, importantly, the range of uncertainty in this estimate. Examples considered include landslide sequences observed in the Santa Barbara Channel, California, and in Port Valdez, Alaska. We confirm that given the uncertainties of age dating that landslide complexes can be treated as single events by performing statistical test of age dates representing the main failure episode of the Holocene Storegga landslide complex.

  2. Maps showing seismic landslide hazards in Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jibson, Randall W.

    2014-01-01

    The devastating landslides that accompanied the great 1964 Alaska earthquake showed that seismically triggered landslides are one of the greatest geologic hazards in Anchorage. Maps quantifying seismic landslide hazards are therefore important for planning, zoning, and emergency-response preparation. The accompanying maps portray seismic landslide hazards for the following conditions: (1) deep, translational landslides, which occur only during great subduction-zone earthquakes that have return periods of =300-900 yr; (2) shallow landslides for a peak ground acceleration (PGA) of 0.69 g, which has a return period of 2,475 yr, or a 2 percent probability of exceedance in 50 yr; and (3) shallow landslides for a PGA of 0.43 g, which has a return period of 475 yr, or a 10 percent probability of exceedance in 50 yr. Deep, translational landslide hazards were delineated based on previous studies of such landslides, with some modifications based on field observations of locations of deep landslides. Shallow-landslide hazards were delineated using a Newmark-type displacement analysis for the two probabilistic ground motions modeled.

  3. Landslide vulnerability criteria: a case study from Umbria, central Italy.

    PubMed

    Galli, Mirco; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2007-10-01

    Little is known about the vulnerability to landslides, despite landslides causing frequent and widespread damage to the population and the built-up environment in many areas of the world. Lack of information about vulnerability to landslides limits our ability to determine landslide risk. This paper provides information on the vulnerability of buildings and roads to landslides in Umbria, central Italy. Information on 103 landslides of the slide and slide-earth flow types that have resulted in damage to buildings and roads at 90 sites in Umbria is used to establish dependencies between the area of the landslide and the vulnerability to landslides. The dependencies obtained are applied in the hills surrounding the town of Collazzone, in central Umbria, an area for which a detailed landslide inventory map is available. By exploiting the landslide inventory and the established vulnerability curves, the geographical distribution of the vulnerability to landslides is mapped and statistics of the expected damage are calculated. Reliability and limits of the vulnerability thresholds and of the obtained vulnerability assessment are discussed.

  4. Generalized Abstract Symbolic Summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Person, Suzette; Dwyer, Matthew B.

    2009-01-01

    Current techniques for validating and verifying program changes often consider the entire program, even for small changes, leading to enormous V&V costs over a program s lifetime. This is due, in large part, to the use of syntactic program techniques which are necessarily imprecise. Building on recent advances in symbolic execution of heap manipulating programs, in this paper, we develop techniques for performing abstract semantic differencing of program behaviors that offer the potential for improved precision.

  5. Analysis of national and regional landslide inventories in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervás, J.; Van Den Eeckhaut, M.

    2012-04-01

    A landslide inventory can be defined as a detailed register of the distribution and characteristics of past landslides in an area. Today most landslide inventories have the form of digital databases including landslide distribution maps and associated alphanumeric information for each landslide. While landslide inventories are of the utmost importance for land use planning and risk management through the generation of landslide zonation (susceptibility, hazard and risk) maps, landslide databases are thought to greatly differ from one country to another and often also within the same country. This hampers the generation of comparable, harmonised landslide zonation maps at national and continental scales, which is needed for policy and decision making at EU level as regarded for instance in the INSPIRE Directive and the Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection. In order to have a clear understanding of the landslide inventories available in Europe and their potential to produce landslide zonation maps as well as to draw recommendations to improve harmonisation and interoperability between landslide databases, we have surveyed 37 countries. In total, information has been collected and analysed for 24 national databases in 22 countries (Albania, Andorra, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and UK) and 22 regional databases in 10 countries. At the moment, over 633,000 landslides are recorded in national databases, representing on average less than 50% of the estimated landslides occurred in these countries. The sample of regional databases included over 103,000 landslides, with an estimated completeness substantially higher than that of national databases, as more attention can be paid for data collection over smaller regions. Yet, both for national and regional coverage, the data collection

  6. Automated Means of Identifying Landslide Deposits using LiDAR Data using the Contour Connection Method Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, M. J.; Leshchinsky, B. A.; Tanyu, B. F.

    2014-12-01

    Landslides are a global natural hazard, resulting in severe economic, environmental and social impacts every year. Often, landslides occur in areas of repeated slope instability, but despite these trends, significant residential developments and critical infrastructure are built in the shadow of past landslide deposits and marginally stable slopes. These hazards, despite their sometimes enormous scale and regional propensity, however, are difficult to detect on the ground, often due to vegetative cover. However, new developments in remote sensing technology, specifically Light Detection and Ranging mapping (LiDAR) are providing a new means of viewing our landscape. Airborne LiDAR, combined with a level of post-processing, enable the creation of spatial data representative of the earth beneath the vegetation, highlighting the scars of unstable slopes of the past. This tool presents a revolutionary technique to mapping landslide deposits and their associated regions of risk; yet, their inventorying is often done manually, an approach that can be tedious, time-consuming and subjective. However, the associated LiDAR bare earth data present the opportunity to use this remote sensing technology and typical landslide geometry to create an automated algorithm that can detect and inventory deposits on a landscape scale. This algorithm, called the Contour Connection Method (CCM), functions by first detecting steep gradients, often associated with the headscarp of a failed hillslope, and initiating a search, highlighting deposits downslope of the failure. Based on input of search gradients, CCM can assist in highlighting regions identified as landslides consistently on a landscape scale, capable of mapping more than 14,000 hectares rapidly (<30 minutes). CCM has shown preliminary agreement with manual landslide inventorying in Oregon's Coast Range, realizing almost 90% agreement with inventorying performed by a trained geologist. The global threat of landslides necessitates

  7. Abstraction Augmented Markov Models.

    PubMed

    Caragea, Cornelia; Silvescu, Adrian; Caragea, Doina; Honavar, Vasant

    2010-12-13

    High accuracy sequence classification often requires the use of higher order Markov models (MMs). However, the number of MM parameters increases exponentially with the range of direct dependencies between sequence elements, thereby increasing the risk of overfitting when the data set is limited in size. We present abstraction augmented Markov models (AAMMs) that effectively reduce the number of numeric parameters of k(th) order MMs by successively grouping strings of length k (i.e., k-grams) into abstraction hierarchies. We evaluate AAMMs on three protein subcellular localization prediction tasks. The results of our experiments show that abstraction makes it possible to construct predictive models that use significantly smaller number of features (by one to three orders of magnitude) as compared to MMs. AAMMs are competitive with and, in some cases, significantly outperform MMs. Moreover, the results show that AAMMs often perform significantly better than variable order Markov models, such as decomposed context tree weighting, prediction by partial match, and probabilistic suffix trees.

  8. Analysing post-earthquake landslide activity using multi-temporal landslide inventories near the epicentral area of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Chenxiao; Van Westen, Cees J.; Tanyas, Hakan; Jetten, Victor G.

    2016-12-01

    Large earthquakes in mountainous regions may trigger thousands of landslides, some active for years. We analysed the changes in landslide activity near the epicentre of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake by generating five landslide inventories for different years through stereoscopic digital visual image interpretation. From May 2008 to April 2015, 660 new landslides occurred outside the co-seismic landslide areas. In April 2015, the number of active landslides had gone down to 66, less than 1 % of the co-seismic landslides, but still much higher than the pre-earthquake levels. We expect that the landslide activity will continue to decay, but may be halted if extreme rainfall events occur.

  9. Deterministic Approach for Estimating Critical Rainfall Threshold of Rainfall-induced Landslide in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Ming-Chien; Tan, Chih-Hao; Chen, Mien-Min; Su, Tai-Wei

    2013-04-01

    Taiwan is an active mountain belt created by the oblique collision between the northern Luzon arc and the Asian continental margin. The inherent complexities of geological nature create numerous discontinuities through rock masses and relatively steep hillside on the island. In recent years, the increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme natural events due to global warming or climate change brought significant landslides. The causes of landslides in these slopes are attributed to a number of factors. As is well known, rainfall is one of the most significant triggering factors for landslide occurrence. In general, the rainfall infiltration results in changing the suction and the moisture of soil, raising the unit weight of soil, and reducing the shear strength of soil in the colluvium of landslide. The stability of landslide is closely related to the groundwater pressure in response to rainfall infiltration, the geological and topographical conditions, and the physical and mechanical parameters. To assess the potential susceptibility to landslide, an effective modeling of rainfall-induced landslide is essential. In this paper, a deterministic approach is adopted to estimate the critical rainfall threshold of the rainfall-induced landslide. The critical rainfall threshold is defined as the accumulated rainfall while the safety factor of the slope is equal to 1.0. First, the process of deterministic approach establishes the hydrogeological conceptual model of the slope based on a series of in-situ investigations, including geological drilling, surface geological investigation, geophysical investigation, and borehole explorations. The material strength and hydraulic properties of the model were given by the field and laboratory tests. Second, the hydraulic and mechanical parameters of the model are calibrated with the long-term monitoring data. Furthermore, a two-dimensional numerical program, GeoStudio, was employed to perform the modelling practice. Finally

  10. Evaluation of different processing strategies of Continuous GPS (CGPS) observations for landslide monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferhat, Gilbert; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Ulrich, Patrice

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate several processing strategies of satellite navigation systems observations for the near-real time characterization of landslide displacement from continuous dual-frequency and mono-frequency GPS receivers. By tracking the electromagnetic waves that the satellites are sending continuously, the navigation system can provide the antenna position (longitude, latitude, and height, or X, Y, Z coordinates). The use of the phase measurements allows determining the relative positions of points located as far as several hundred kilometres apart with an accuracy of 2-5 mm in horizontal and 5-10 mm in vertical. This accuracy allows the fast detection of small displacements and, thus the survey of the temporal evolution of crustal deformation and natural hazards (volcanoes, tectonic faults, ice glaciers, landslides). Since a few years, several CGPS (Continuous Global Positioning System) receivers have been installed on active landslides in France (e.g. La Clapière rockslide, Avignonet and Villerville rotational slides, Super-Sauze and La Valette mudslides). These landslides show very different displacement rates (ranging from a few centimetres to several meters per year) and different kinematic regimes (e.g. continuous displacement of nearly constant rate or succession of periods of acceleration/deceleration). All landslides are part of the French 'Observatory of Landslides' (OMIV), a collaborative structure aiming at collecting the same type of kinematic, hydrologic and seismic observations on landslides and at disseminating the data to the scientific community. For the monitoring of landslides where the required degree of accuracy in position is about a few mm, GPS has been mainly used for repeated measurements, as a complement to conventional geodetic methods. Permanent monitoring is still not usually performed operationally on landslides mostly because of the cost of the receivers compared to conventional deformation monitoring

  11. Modelling landslide hazard, soil redistribution and sediment yield of landslides on the Ugandan footslopes of Mount Elgon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claessens, L.; Knapen, A.; Kitutu, M. G.; Poesen, J.; Deckers, J. A.

    2007-10-01

    In this study, the LAPSUS-LS landslide model, together with a digital terrain analysis of topographic attributes, is used as a spatially explicit tool to simulate recent shallow landslides in Manjiya County on the Ugandan slopes of Mount Elgon. Manjiya County is a densely populated mountainous area where landslides have been reported since the beginning of the twentieth century. To better understand the causal factors of landsliding, 81 recent landslides have been mapped and investigated. Through statistical analysis it was shown that steep concave slopes, high rainfall, soil properties and layering as well as human interference were the main factors responsible for landslides in the study area. LAPSUS-LS is used to construct a landslide hazard map, and to confirm or reject the main factors for landsliding in the area. The model is specifically designed for the analysis of shallow landslide hazard by combining a steady state hydrologic model with a deterministic infinite slope stability model. In addition, soil redistribution algorithms can be applied, whereby erosion and sedimentation by landsliding can be visualized and quantified by applying a threshold critical rainfall scenario. The model is tested in the Manjiya study area for its ability to delineate zones that are prone to shallow landsliding in general and to group the recent landslides into a specific landslide hazard category. The digital terrain analysis confirms most of the causal topographic factors for shallow landsliding in the study area. In general, shallow landslides occur at a relatively large distance from the water divide, on the transition between steep concave and more gentle convex slope positions, which points to concentration of (sub)surface flow as the main hydrological triggering mechanism. In addition, LAPSUS-LS is capable to group the recent shallow landslides in a specific landslide hazard class (critical rainfall values of 0.03-0.05 m day - 1 ). By constructing a landslide hazard

  12. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  13. Mapping landslide susceptibility using data-driven methods.

    PubMed

    Zêzere, J L; Pereira, S; Melo, R; Oliveira, S C; Garcia, R A C

    2017-07-01

    Most epistemic uncertainty within data-driven landslide susceptibility assessment results from errors in landslide inventories, difficulty in identifying and mapping landslide causes and decisions related with the modelling procedure. In this work we evaluate and discuss differences observed on landslide susceptibility maps resulting from: (i) the selection of the statistical method; (ii) the selection of the terrain mapping unit; and (iii) the selection of the feature type to represent landslides in the model (polygon versus point). The work is performed in a single study area (Silveira Basin - 18.2km(2) - Lisbon Region, Portugal) using a unique database of geo-environmental landslide predisposing factors and an inventory of 82 shallow translational slides. The logistic regression, the discriminant analysis and two versions of the information value were used and we conclude that multivariate statistical methods perform better when computed over heterogeneous terrain units and should be selected to assess landslide susceptibility based on slope terrain units, geo-hydrological terrain units or census terrain units. However, evidence was found that the chosen terrain mapping unit can produce greater differences on final susceptibility results than those resulting from the chosen statistical method for modelling. The landslide susceptibility should be assessed over grid cell terrain units whenever the spatial accuracy of landslide inventory is good. In addition, a single point per landslide proved to be efficient to generate accurate landslide susceptibility maps, providing the landslides are of small size, thus minimizing the possible existence of heterogeneities of predisposing factors within the landslide boundary. Although during last years the ROC curves have been preferred to evaluate the susceptibility model's performance, evidence was found that the model with the highest AUC ROC is not necessarily the best landslide susceptibility model, namely when terrain

  14. Probabilistic assessment of precipitation-triggered landslides using historical records of landslide occurence, Seattle, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coe, J.A.; Michael, J.A.; Crovelli, R.A.; Savage, W.Z.; Laprade, W.T.; Nashem, W.D.

    2004-01-01

    Ninety years of historical landslide records were used as input to the Poisson and binomial probability models. Results from these models show that, for precipitation-triggered landslides, approximately 9 percent of the area of Seattle has annual exceedance probabilities of 1 percent or greater. Application of the Poisson model for estimating the future occurrence of individual landslides results in a worst-case scenario map, with a maximum annual exceedance probability of 25 percent on a hillslope near Duwamish Head in West Seattle. Application of the binomial model for estimating the future occurrence of a year with one or more landslides results in a map with a maximum annual exceedance probability of 17 percent (also near Duwamish Head). Slope and geology both play a role in localizing the occurrence of landslides in Seattle. A positive correlation exists between slope and mean exceedance probability, with probability tending to increase as slope increases. Sixty-four percent of all historical landslide locations are within 150 m (500 ft, horizontal distance) of the Esperance Sand/Lawton Clay contact, but within this zone, no positive or negative correlation exists between exceedance probability and distance to the contact.

  15. Effects of land-use changes on landslides in a landslide-prone area (Ardesen, Rize, NE Turkey).

    PubMed

    Karsli, F; Atasoy, M; Yalcin, A; Reis, S; Demir, O; Gokceoglu, C

    2009-09-01

    Various natural hazards such as landslides, avalanches, floods and debris flows can result in enormous property damages and human casualties in Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. Mountainous topographic character and high frequency of heavy rain are the main factors for landslide occurrence in Ardesen, Rize. For this reason, the main target of the present study is to evaluate the landslide hazards using a sequence of historical aerial photographs in Ardesen (Rize), Turkey, by Photogrammetry and Geographical Information System (GIS). Landslide locations in the study area were identified by interpretation of aerial photographs dated in 1973 and 2002, and by field surveys. In the study, the selected factors conditioning landslides are lithology, slope gradient, slope aspect, vegetation cover, land class, climate, rainfall and proximity to roads. These factors were considered as effective on the occurrence of landslides. The areas under landslide threat were analyzed and mapped considering the landslide conditioning factors. Some of the conditioning factors were investigated and estimated by employing visual interpretation of aerial photos and topographic data. The results showed that the slope, lithology, terrain roughness, proximity to roads, and the cover type played important roles on landslide occurrence. The results also showed that degree of landslides was affected by the number of houses constructed in the region. As a consequence, the method employed in the study provides important benefits for landslide hazard mitigation efforts, because a combination of both photogrammetric techniques and GIS is presented.

  16. An unusual landslide feature on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veverka, J.; Liang, T.

    1975-01-01

    A flow feature on a crater wall, characteristic of a landslide, has been identified in a Mariner 9 high resolution photograph. Although other evidence of mass wasting is common in Mariner 9 photography, the case presented appears unique. A tentative conclusion is that, at least in some cases, Martian soil exhibits significant internal friction in mass movements.

  17. Timing and recurrence interval of Himalayan landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachauri, A. K.

    2009-04-01

    Himalayan landsldies have been occurring since the 55 million years ever since the Hinmlayan mountains came into being. The fact is that Himalayas are rising even today at the rate of a few cm per year as supported by the Indian Plate mtion measured by GPS. The recurrence of landsldies has not beeen documented even for well known landsldies and therefore the Border Road Organisation and Public Works departments of India are unable to realise the value of the data as the records are scanty and not formalised. There is a need to establish a data bank for landslides and debris flows as well as landslide related disasters in himalayas so that moelling for recurrence can be done. Some intersting examples of the landslides after the Chamoli earthquake are good examples of landsldies that occurred after several weeks of the earthquake at Chamoli as studied by the author. The present paper proposes the need for the analyses and a program that can be chalked out to prognasticate landslide occurrence.

  18. Landslide risk models for decision making.

    PubMed

    Bonachea, Jaime; Remondo, Juan; de Terán, José Ramón Díaz; González-Díez, Alberto; Cendrero, Antonio

    2009-11-01

    This contribution presents a quantitative procedure for landslide risk analysis and zoning considering hazard, exposure (or value of elements at risk), and vulnerability. The method provides the means to obtain landslide risk models (expressing expected damage due to landslides on material elements and economic activities in monetary terms, according to different scenarios and periods) useful to identify areas where mitigation efforts will be most cost effective. It allows identifying priority areas for the implementation of actions to reduce vulnerability (elements) or hazard (processes). The procedure proposed can also be used as a preventive tool, through its application to strategic environmental impact analysis (SEIA) of land-use plans. The underlying hypothesis is that reliable predictions about hazard and risk can be made using models based on a detailed analysis of past landslide occurrences in connection with conditioning factors and data on past damage. The results show that the approach proposed and the hypothesis formulated are essentially correct, providing estimates of the order of magnitude of expected losses for a given time period. Uncertainties, strengths, and shortcomings of the procedure and results obtained are discussed and potential lines of research to improve the models are indicated. Finally, comments and suggestions are provided to generalize this type of analysis.

  19. La Conchita Landslide Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kropp, A.; Johnson, L.; Magnusen, W.; Hitchcock, C. S.

    2009-12-01

    Following the disastrous landslide in La Conchita in 2005 that resulted in ten deaths, the State of California selected our team to prepare a risk assessment for a committee of key stakeholders. The stakeholders represented the State of California, Ventura County, members of the La Conchita community, the railroad, and the upslope ranch owner (where the slide originated); a group with widely varying views and interests. Our team was charged with characterizing the major hazards, developing a series of mitigation concepts, evaluating the benefits and costs of mitigation, and gathering stakeholder input throughout the process. Two unique elements of the study were the methodologies utilized for the consequence assessment and for the decision-making framework. La Conchita is exposed to multiple slope hazards, each with differing geographical distributions, as well as depth and velocity characteristics. Three consequence matrices were developed so that the potential financial losses, structural vulnerabilities, and human safety exposure could be evaluated. The matrices utilized semi-quantitative loss evaluations (both financial and life safety) based on a generalized understanding of likely vulnerability and hazard characteristics. The model provided a quantitative estimate of cumulative losses over a 50-year period, including losses of life based on FEMA evaluation criteria. Conceptual mitigation options and loss estimates were developed to provide a range of risk management solutions that were feasible from a cost-benefit standpoint. A decision tree approach was adopted to focus on fundamental risk management questions rather than on specific outcomes since the committee did not have a consensus view on the preferred solution. These questions included: 1. Over what time period can risks be tolerated before implementation of decisions? 2. Whose responsibility is it to identify a workable risk management solution? 3. Who will own the project? The decision tree

  20. Landslides and impacts on comets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czechowski, Leszek

    2016-07-01

    The recent landing of Philae on the comet 67P/Czuriumow-Gierasimienko indicates that elastic properties of comet's nuclei could be similar to elastic properties of dry snow, namely Young modulus is assumed to be 106 - 108 Pa. We considered a simple model of two spheres (with radius 1400 m each) connected by cylinder (with radius of 200 m and length of 200 m). Density is 470 kg m-3. This shape corresponds approximately to shape of some comets. A few vibration modes are possible. In present research we consider 3 modes: bending, lengthening-shortening along axis of symmetry, and torsion. Let assume that comets are hit by small meteoroid of the mass of 1 kg and velocity 20 km s-1. The maximum values of acceleration of the surface resulting from this impact are given in Table 1. Note that these values are higher than acceleration of the gravity of the comet. Consequently, these vibrations could be an important factor of surface evolution, e.g. they could trigger landslides. It could be alternative mechanism to that presented in [4] (i.e. fluidization). Acknowledgement: The research is partly supported by Polish National Science Centre (decision 2014/15/B/ST 10/02117) References [1] T. Spohn, J. Knollenberg, A. J. Ball, M. Ba-naszkiewicz, J. Benkhoff, M. Grott, J. Gry-gorczuk, C. Hüttig, A. Hagermann, G. Kargl, E. Kaufmann, N. Kömle, E. Kührt, K. J. Kossacki, W. Marczewski, I. Pelivan, R. Schrödter, K. Seiferlin. (2015) Thermal and mechanical properties of the near-surface layers of comet 67P/Churyumov- Gera-simenko Science 31 July 2015: Vol. 349 no. 6247 DOI: 10.1126/science.aab0464 [2] Reuter B. (2013) On how to measure snow mechanical properties relevant to slab avalanche release. International Snow Science Workshop Grenoble - Chamonix Mont-Blanc - 2013 007 [3] Ball A.J. (1997) Ph. D. Thesis: Measuring Physical Properties at the Surface of a Comet Nu-cleus, Univ.of Kent U.K. [4] Belton M. J.S., Melosh J. (2009). Fluidization and multiphase transport of

  1. Landslide Caused Damages in a Gallery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poisel, R.; Mair am Tinkhof, K.; Preh, A.

    2016-06-01

    On October 5th, 2010, cracks were found in a gallery 1.8 m high and 1.4 m wide. The gallery is 100 years old, runs parallel to a valley flank and was excavated in a tectonically strongly stressed, weathered and slightly dipping sandwich of clayey shales, sandstones and marls. The cracks in the roof as well as in the invert ran parallel to the axis of the gallery. Monitoring showed that crack widths were increasing 1.5 mm per year, sidewall distances were increasing 3.5 mm per year, whereas the height of the gallery was decreasing 2.5 mm per year. After eliminating several possible causes of cracking, a landslide producing the damages had to be taken into consideration. Monitoring of the valley flank surface as well as inclinometer readings revealed that a landslide was occurring, loading the gallery lining. Most probably the landslide had been reactivated by excessive rainfall in 2009 as well as by works for the renewal of a weir in the valley bottom. As stabilization of the slope was not an option for several reasons, it was decided to replace the gallery by a new one deeper inside the slope, which will be ready for operation in 2017. Thus the old gallery has to be kept in operation till then and it was decided to reinforce the old gallery by a heavily reinforced shotcrete lining 10 cm thick. As slope displacements went on, cracks in the shotcrete lining developed with a completely different pattern: in the section where the gallery lies completely in the landslide shear zone no cracks formed until now due to heavy reinforcement, whereas in the transition sections stable ground-landslide and landslide-stable ground diagonal tension cracks in the roof due to shear by the landslide developed. Numerical models showed that cracking and spalling of the shotcrete lining would occur only after some centimetres of additional displacements of the slope, which hopefully will not occur before 2017.

  2. Shallow Landslides Hazards in a Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellugi, D. G.; Perron, J. T.; O'Gorman, P. A.; Milledge, D.

    2015-12-01

    Rainfall-triggered shallow landslides pose hazards to communities, infrastructure, and ecosystems. The magnitude and frequency of extreme precipitation are expected to change under climate warming, but their effects on landslide abundance, size, and spatial distribution are poorly understood. Fractional changes in extreme precipitation can be considerably greater than those in mean precipitation as storm intensity is not constrained by the atmospheric energy budget. Changes in orographic precipitation may also alter the spatial pattern of extreme precipitation. We assess relative changes in extreme precipitation for varying return periods and event durations predicted by regional climate models (RCM) in the USA over the periods 1971-2000 to 2041-2070. We delineate areas where orographic precipitation contributes to changes in extreme precipitation by analyzing topography and local winds associated with these extremes. To verify that RCMs reflect theoretical predictions, we quantify precipitation changes on the lee and windward slopes. We assess impacts of extreme precipitation change on landslide characteristics by applying a search algorithm that predicts landslide abundance, location, and size to a study site in the Oregon Coast Range (OCR) with a 10-year landslide observational record. We test a range of precipitation scenarios, forest management practices, and antecedent moisture conditions. To explore effects of orographic precipitation, we rescale observed precipitation for representative lee and windward locations and find that fractional changes in mean winter precipitation are ~3 times larger on leeward slopes. The fractional changes in intensity are much greater for extreme precipitation than mean precipitation, and they increase with return period. In the Pacific Northwest, leeward increases are ~10% for 2-year events and ~20% for 30-year events. At our study site, a 20% increase in precipitation or antecedent moisture corresponds to a 30-40% increase in

  3. Multiscale/multiresolution landslides susceptibility mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grozavu, Adrian; Cătălin Stanga, Iulian; Valeriu Patriche, Cristian; Toader Juravle, Doru

    2014-05-01

    Within the European strategies, landslides are considered an important threatening that requires detailed studies to identify areas where these processes could occur in the future and to design scientific and technical plans for landslide risk mitigation. In this idea, assessing and mapping the landslide susceptibility is an important preliminary step. Generally, landslide susceptibility at small scale (for large regions) can be assessed through qualitative approach (expert judgements), based on a few variables, while studies at medium and large scale requires quantitative approach (e.g. multivariate statistics), a larger set of variables and, necessarily, the landslide inventory. Obviously, the results vary more or less from a scale to another, depending on the available input data, but also on the applied methodology. Since it is almost impossible to have a complete landslide inventory on large regions (e.g. at continental level), it is very important to verify the compatibility and the validity of results obtained at different scales, identifying the differences and fixing the inherent errors. This paper aims at assessing and mapping the landslide susceptibility at regional level through a multiscale-multiresolution approach from small scale and low resolution to large scale and high resolution of data and results, comparing the compatibility of results. While the first ones could be used for studies at european and national level, the later ones allows results validation, including through fields surveys. The test area, namely the Barlad Plateau (more than 9000 sq.km) is located in Eastern Romania, covering a region where both the natural environment and the human factor create a causal context that favor these processes. The landslide predictors were initially derived from various databases available at pan-european level and progressively completed and/or enhanced together with scale and the resolution: the topography (from SRTM at 90 meters to digital

  4. Research Abstracts of 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    ABSTRACTS OF 1980. 9 - DTIC ELECTEf ii S AN3O 1981j _NAVAL DISTRIBUTION SMT:MIT DENTAL RESEARCH Approved for PUbDiC T INSTITE iii~2 YA3 It81 Naval...Medical Research apd Development Command 30 £ Bethesda, Maryland ( *- i - NTIS - GRA&I DTIC TAB - Urrannouneed NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE...r1 w American Assoctat/ion for Dental Research, 58th Annual Session, Los Angeles, California, March 20-23, 1980. 1. AV6ERSON*, D. N., LANGELAND, K

  5. Research Abstracts of 1979.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    7 AD-AO82 309 NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INST GREAT LAKES IL F/6 6/9 RESCH ABTAT79 991 UNCLASSIFIED NORI-PR-79-11 NL ’NDRI-PR 79-11 December 1979...RESEARCH ABSTRACTS OF 1979 OTICSELZCreD MAR 2?718 S A NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE Naval Medical Research and Development Command Bethesda, Maryland...8G 3 23 O4ൌ p.,. ... ....-- - I -- - ’.... .I l l ---,, .. . = ., , ." .;’.- I 1 IV NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE NAVAL BASE, BLDG. I-H GREAT LAKES

  6. Landslide barriers at A83 Rest and be Thankful in Scotland and their first event 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendeler, Corinna; Volkwein, Axel; Luis, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    the loading approach and the system itself were developed. The maintenance work at the barrier itself will now be to clean up, and to re-install the energy absorbers. Then the barrier is ready again for new events. References Winter M G, Macgregor F, Shack-man L (2008) Scottish Road Network Landslides Study Edinburgh. Gibson D (2010) Landslide Victory, the UK's first flexible debris flow barrier being installed at the landslide prone Rest and be Thankful site in Scotland, Ground Engineering April 2010. Bugnion L, McArdell B, Bartelt P, Wendeler C (2011) Measurements of Hillslope Debris Flow Impact Pressure on Obstacles. Landslides, 9, 179-187. Bugnion L, Wendeler C (2010) Shallow landslide full-scale experiments in combination with testing of flexible barrier. Debris Flow 2010 Milano, Italy. Bugnion L, Boetticher A v, Wendeler C (2012) Large scale field Testing of hill slope debris flows resulting in The Design of Flexible Protection Barriers, Abstract of 12th Interprevent Conference 2012 Grenoble, France.

  7. Landslides in Flanders (Belgium): Where science meets public policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Eeckhaut, M.; Poesen, J.; Vandekerckhove, L.

    2009-04-01

    Although scientific research on landslides in the Flemish Ardennes (710 km²; Belgium), has been conducted over the last decades, the Flemish Government only took account of slope failure as a soil degradation process after the occurrence of several damaging landslides in the beginning of the 21st century. Here we aim to present the successful collaboration between the Physical and Regional Geography Research Group (FRG; Dept. Earth and Environmental Sciences K.U.Leuven) and the Environment, Nature and Energy Department (LNE; Flemish Government) in landslide management. We will demonstrate how geomorphologists produced practical tools for landslide management which can be directly applied by LNE as well as other local and regional authorities and planners. Since 2004 three projects on landslide inventory mapping and susceptibility assessment in the Flemish Ardennes have been funded by LNE, and a fourth one on landslide susceptibility assessment in remaining hilly regions in Flanders west of Brussels recently started. Together with a steering committee composed of stakeholders, persons from LNE supervise the research carried out by geomorphologists experienced in landslide studies. For the establishment of the landslide inventory map of the Flemish Ardennes we combined the analysis of LIDAR-derived hillshade and contour line maps with detailed field controls. Additional information was collected through interviews with local authorities and inhabitants and from analysis of newspaper articles and technical reports. Then, a statistical model, logistic regression, was applied to produce a high quality classified landslide susceptibility map. The unique part of this collaboration is that all end products are online available at user-friendly websites designed by LNE. The scientific report containing (1) general information on landslides, (2) a description of the study area, (3) an explanation of the materials and methods used, (4) a presentation of the resulting

  8. (abstract) Venus Gravity Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konopliv, A. S.; Sjogren, W. L.

    1995-01-01

    A global gravity field model of Venus to degree and order 75 (5772 spherical harmonic coefficients) has been estimated from Doppler radio tracking of the orbiting spacecraft Pioneer Venus Orbiter (1979-1992) and Magellan (1990-1994). After the successful aerobraking of Magellan, a near circular polar orbit was attained and relatively uniform gravity field resolution (approximately 200 km) was obtained with formal uncertainties of a few milligals. Detailed gravity for several highland features are displayed as gravity contours overlaying colored topography. The positive correlation of typography with gravity is very high being unlike that of the Earth, Moon, and Mars. The amplitudes are Earth-like, but have significantly different gravity-topography ratios for different features. Global gravity, geoid, and isostatic anomaly maps as well as the admittance function are displayed.

  9. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  10. Close Range Digital Photogrammetry Applied to Topography and Landslide Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-Cheng; Huang, Wei-Che

    2016-06-01

    Landslide monitoring is a crucial tool for the prevention of hazards. It is often the only solution for the survey and the early-warning of large landslides cannot be stabilized. The objective of present study is to use a low-cost image system to monitor the active landslides. We adopted the direct linear transformation (DLT) method in close range digital photogrammetry to measure terrain of landslide at the Huoyen Shan, Miaoli of central Taiwan and to compare measured results with e-GPS. The results revealed that the relative error in surface area was approximately 1.7% as comparing the photogrammetry with DLT method and e-GPS measurement. It showed that the close range digital photogrammetry with DLT method had the availability and capability to measure the landslides. The same methodology was then applied to measure the terrain before landslide and after landslide in the study area. The digital terrain model (DTM) was established and then was used to calculate the volume of the terrain before landslide and after landslide. The volume difference before and after landslides was 994.16 m3.

  11. Probabilistic modelling of rainfall induced landslide hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawagoe, S.; Kazama, S.; Sarukkalige, P. R.

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate the frequency and distribution of landslides hazards over Japan, this study uses a probabilistic model based on multiple logistic regression analysis. Study particular concerns several important physical parameters such as hydraulic parameters, geographical parameters and the geological parameters which are considered to be influential in the occurrence of landslides. Sensitivity analysis confirmed that hydrological parameter (hydraulic gradient) is the most influential factor in the occurrence of landslides. Therefore, the hydraulic gradient is used as the main hydraulic parameter; dynamic factor which includes the effect of heavy rainfall and their return period. Using the constructed spatial data-sets, a multiple logistic regression model is applied and landslide hazard probability maps are produced showing the spatial-temporal distribution of landslide hazard probability over Japan. To represent the landslide hazard in different temporal scales, extreme precipitation in 5 years, 30 years, and 100 years return periods are used for the evaluation. The results show that the highest landslide hazard probability exists in the mountain ranges on the western side of Japan (Japan Sea side), including the Hida and Kiso, Iide and the Asahi mountainous range, the south side of Chugoku mountainous range, the south side of Kyusu mountainous and the Dewa mountainous range and the Hokuriku region. The developed landslide hazard probability maps in this study will assist authorities, policy makers and decision makers, who are responsible for infrastructural planning and development, as they can identify landslide-susceptible areas and thus decrease landslide damage through proper preparation.

  12. Landslide inventory maps: New tools for an old problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzetti, Fausto; Mondini, Alessandro Cesare; Cardinali, Mauro; Fiorucci, Federica; Santangelo, Michele; Chang, Kang-Tsung

    2012-04-01

    Landslides are present in all continents, and play an important role in the evolution of landscapes. They also represent a serious hazard in many areas of the world. Despite their importance, we estimate that landslide maps cover less than 1% of the slopes in the landmasses, and systematic information on the type, abundance, and distribution of landslides is lacking. Preparing landslide maps is important to document the extent of landslide phenomena in a region, to investigate the distribution, types, pattern, recurrence and statistics of slope failures, to determine landslide susceptibility, hazard, vulnerability and risk, and to study the evolution of landscapes dominated by mass-wasting processes. Conventional methods for the production of landslide maps rely chiefly on the visual interpretation of stereoscopic aerial photography, aided by field surveys. These methods are time consuming and resource intensive. New and emerging techniques based on satellite, airborne, and terrestrial remote sensing technologies, promise to facilitate the production of landslide maps, reducing the time and resources required for their compilation and systematic update. In this work, we first outline the principles for landslide mapping, and we review the conventional methods for the preparation of landslide maps, including geomorphological, event, seasonal, and multi-temporal inventories. Next, we examine recent and new technologies for landslide mapping, considering (i) the exploitation of very-high resolution digital elevation models to analyze surface morphology, (ii) the visual interpretation and semi-automatic analysis of different types of satellite images, including panchromatic, multispectral, and synthetic aperture radar images, and (iii) tools that facilitate landslide field mapping. Next, we discuss the advantages and the limitations of the new remote sensing data and technology for the production of geomorphological, event, seasonal, and multi-temporal inventory maps

  13. Landslide mobility and hazards: implications of the 2014 Oso disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverson, R. M.; George, D. L.; Allstadt, K.; Reid, M. E.; Collins, B. D.; Vallance, J. W.; Schilling, S. P.; Godt, J. W.; Cannon, C. M.; Magirl, C. S.; Baum, R. L.; Coe, J. A.; Schulz, W. H.; Bower, J. B.

    2015-02-01

    Landslides reflect landscape instability that evolves over meteorological and geological timescales, and they also pose threats to people, property, and the environment. The severity of these threats depends largely on landslide speed and travel distance, which are collectively described as landslide "mobility". To investigate causes and effects of mobility, we focus on a disastrous landslide that occurred on 22 March 2014 near Oso, Washington, USA, following a long period of abnormally wet weather. The landslide's impacts were severe because its mobility exceeded that of prior historical landslides at the site, and also exceeded that of comparable landslides elsewhere. The ˜ 8 ×106 m3 landslide originated on a gently sloping (<20°) riverside bluff only 180 m high, yet it traveled across the entire ˜1 km breadth of the adjacent floodplain and spread laterally a similar distance. Seismological evidence indicates that high-speed, flowing motion of the landslide began after about 50 s of preliminary slope movement, and observational evidence supports the hypothesis that the high mobility of the landslide resulted from liquefaction of water-saturated sediment at its base. Numerical simulation of the event using a newly developed model indicates that liquefaction and high mobility can be attributed to compression- and/or shear-induced sediment contraction that was strongly dependent on initial conditions. An alternative numerical simulation indicates that the landslide would have been far less mobile if its initial porosity and water content had been only slightly lower. Sensitive dependence of landslide mobility on initial conditions has broad implications for assessment of landslide hazards.

  14. Landslide mobility and hazards: implications of the 2014 Oso disaster

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, Richard M.; George, David L.; Allstadt, Kate E.; Reid, Mark E.; Collins, Brian D.; Vallance, James W.; Schilling, Steve P.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Cannon, Charles; Magirl, Christopher S.; Baum, Rex L.; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Schulz, William; Bower, J. Brent

    2015-01-01

    Landslides reflect landscape instability that evolves over meteorological and geological timescales, and they also pose threats to people, property, and the environment. The severity of these threats depends largely on landslide speed and travel distance, which are collectively described as landslide “mobility”. To investigate causes and effects of mobility, we focus on a disastrous landslide that occurred on 22 March 2014 near Oso, Washington, USA, following a long period of abnormally wet weather. The landslide's impacts were severe because its mobility exceeded that of prior historical landslides at the site, and also exceeded that of comparable landslides elsewhere. The ∼8×106 m3 landslide originated on a gently sloping (<20°) riverside bluff only 180 m high, yet it traveled across the entire ∼1 km breadth of the adjacent floodplain and spread laterally a similar distance. Seismological evidence indicates that high-speed, flowing motion of the landslide began after about 50 s of preliminary slope movement, and observational evidence supports the hypothesis that the high mobility of the landslide resulted from liquefaction of water-saturated sediment at its base. Numerical simulation of the event using a newly developed model indicates that liquefaction and high mobility can be attributed to compression- and/or shear-induced sediment contraction that was strongly dependent on initial conditions. An alternative numerical simulation indicates that the landslide would have been far less mobile if its initial porosity and water content had been only slightly lower. Sensitive dependence of landslide mobility on initial conditions has broad implications for assessment of landslide hazards.

  15. Landslides triggered by the October 8, 2005, Pakistan earthquake and associated landslide-dammed reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harp, Edwin L.; Crone, Anthony J.

    2006-01-01

    The October 8, 2005, Kashmir earthquake (M 7.6) triggered several thousand landslides, mainly rock falls and rock slides, in the epicentral area near the cities of Muzafarrabad and Balakot, Pakistan. Most of these were shallow, coalescing rock slides emanating from highly sheared and deformed limestone and dolomite of the Precambrian Muzafarrabad Formation. The largest landslide triggered by the earthquake is located approximately 32 kilometers southeast of Muzafarrabad in a tributary valley of the Jhelum River. This landslide is a debris avalanche of approximately 80 million cubic meters volume within the Miocene Murree Formation consisting of mixed sandstone, mudstone, shale, and limestone. The avalanche buried the village of Dandbeh and resulted in approximately 1,000 fatalities, according to local residents. The avalanche deposit traveled approximately 1.5 kilometers downslope and 300 meters or more up the opposite slope in the adjacent Karli stream drainage and also extended into the Tang stream drainage where the Tang stream joins the Karli drainage. The landslide mass has impounded two lakes within the blocked drainages. The lake in the Karli drainage was approximately 800 meters long and 20 meters deep as of December 19, 2005. The lake in the Tang drainage was approximately 400 meters long and 10 meters deep as of this same date. Downstream populations are at risk from possible flash flooding when these debris dams are overtopped by the reservoir water. The closest village, Hattian, is 2.8 kilometers downstream at the junction of the Jhelum River and the landslide-dammed Karli tributary. Other populations along the Jhelum River may also be at risk. Pakistan military engineers are preparing to construct a spillway within the landslide deposits to lessen the severity of the flood if the lake in the Karli stream drainage breaches the landslide dam catastrophically.

  16. Monitoring landslide kinematics by multi-temporal radar interferometry - the Corvara landslide case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiebes, Benni; Cuozzo, Giovanni; Callegari, Mattia; Schlögel, Romy; Mulas, Marco; Corsini, Alessandro; Mair, Volkmar

    2016-04-01

    Corvara landslide in the Italian Dolomites is slow-moving landslide on which extensive research activities have been carried out since the 1990ies, including sub-surface techniques (e.g. drillings, piezometers and inclinometers), surface methods (e.g. geomorphological mapping and GPS measurements), and remote sensing techniques (e.g. multi-temporal radar interferometry (MTI), and recently amplitude-based offset-tracking and UAV-based photogrammetry). The currently active volume of Corvara landslide has been estimated to be approximately 25 million m³ with shear surfaces at depths of 40 m. Displacement velocities greatly vary spatially and temporally, with only a few cm per year in the accumulation zone, and more than 20 m per year in the highly active source zone. Autumn rainfall and spring snow melt, as well as accumulation of snow during winter have been identified as the major displacement triggering and accelerating events. The ongoing landslide movements pose a threat to the municipality of Corvara, the national road 244, extensive ski resort infrastructure and a golf course. Over the last years, the focus for monitoring the Corvara landslide was put on MTI using 16 artificial corner reflectors and on permanent and periodic differential GPS measurements. This aimed for (1) assessing the ongoing displacements of an active and complex landslide, and (2) analysing the benefits and limitations of MTI for landslide monitoring from the perspective of geomorphologists but also for administrative end-user such as civil protection and Geological surveys. Here, we present the latest results of these analyses, and report on the potential of MTI and related investigations, as well as future fields of research.

  17. Prediction of Rainfall-Induced Landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadim, F.; Sandersen, F.

    2009-12-01

    Rainfall-induced landslides can be triggered by two main mechanisms: shear failure due to build-up of pore water pressure and erosion by surface water runoff when flow velocity exceeds a critical value. Field measurements indicate that, in the initial phase, the slip surface of a landslide often occurs along the top of a relatively impermeable layer located at some depth within the soil profile, e.g. at the contact with a shallow underlying bedrock or parent rock. The shear strength along this surface and hence the stability of the slope is governed by the pore water pressure. The pore pressure is in turn controlled by water seepage through the slope, either from infiltrated rain, or from groundwater that follows bedrock joints and soil layers with high permeability. When the infiltration rate of the underlying layer is too low for further downward penetration of water or when a wetting front is produced, pore water pressure builds up, reducing the soil shear strength. During high intensity rainfall, surface water runoff will exert shear stresses on the bed material. De-pending on the grain size distribution and specific gravity of the material, erosion might occur when the flow velocity exceeds a critical value. As erosion progresses and sediment concentration increases, the flow regime may become unstable with heavy erosion at high flow velocity locations triggering a debris flow. In many cases, previous landslides along steep gully walls have fed an abundance of loose soil material into the gullies. Landslides along gully walls that obstruct the water transport may also trigger debris flows when the landslide-dam collapses, creating a surge downstream. Both the long-duration (1 or more days) and short-duration precipitation (of the order of 1 hour) are significant in the triggering of shallow landslides, since the critical short-duration rainfall intensity reduces as the antecedent accumulated rainfall increases. Experiences in Norway indicate that the maxi

  18. A methodology to track temporal dynamics and rainfall thresholds of landslide processes in the East African Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsieurs, Elise; Jacobs, Liesbet; Kervyn, François; Kirschbaum, Dalia; d'Oreye, Nicolas; Derauw, Dominique; Kervyn, Matthieu; Nobile, Adriano; Trefois, Philippe; Dewitte, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    The East African rift valley is a major tectonic feature that shapes Central Africa and defines linear-shaped lowlands between highland ranges due to the action of geologic faults associated to earthquakes and volcanism. The region of interest, covering the Virunga Volcanic Province in eastern DRC, western Rwanda and Burundi, and southwest Uganda, is threatened by a rare combination of several types of geohazards, while it is also one of the most densely populated region of Africa. These geohazards can globally be classified as seismic, volcanic and landslide hazards. Landslides, include a wide range of ground movements, such as rock falls, deep failure of slopes and shallow debris flows. Landslides are possibly the most important geohazard in terms of recurring impact on the populations, causing fatalities every year and resulting in structural and functional damage to infrastructure and private properties, as well as serious disruptions of the organization of societies. Many landslides are observed each year in the whole region, and their occurrence is clearly linked to complex topographic, lithologic and vegetation signatures coupled with heavy rainfall events, which is the main triggering factor. The source mechanisms underlying landslide triggering and dynamics in the region of interest are still poorly understood, even though in recent years, some progress has been made towards appropriate data collection. Taking into account difficulties of field accessibility, we present a methodology to study landslide processes by multi-scale and multi-sensor remote sensing data from very high to low resolution (Pléiades, TRMM, CosmoSkyMed, Sentinel). The research will address the evolution over time of such data combined with other earth observations (seismic ground based networks, catalogues, rain gauge networks, GPS surveying, field observations) to detect and study landslide occurrence, dynamics and evolution. This research aims to get insights into the rainfall

  19. Sensitivity of the long period seismic waves generated by a landslide on its characteristics and flow history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, L.; Mangeney, A.; Capdeville, Y.; Stutzmann, E.; Bouchut, F.

    2012-12-01

    Gravitational instabilities, such as landslides, avalanches or debris flows play a key role in erosion processes and represent one of the major natural hazards in mountainous, coastal or volcanic regions. Despite the great amount of field, experimental and numerical work devoted to this problem, the understanding of the physical processes at work in gravitational flow is still an open issue, in particular due to the lack of observations relevant to the flow dynamics. In this context, the seismic signal generated by landslides is a unique tool to get information on their dynamics. Indeed, when the landslide accelerates and decelerates on the complex topography, the spatio-temporal stress field that it applies on the ground generates seismic waves. These waves carry the memory of the flow history. As shown recently by Favreau et al., (2010), simulation of the seismic signal generated by landslides makes it possible to discriminate different flow scenarios and estimate the rheological parameters during the flow. Because global and regional seismic networks continuously record gravitational instabilities, this new method will help gathering new data on landslide behavior. The purpose here is to identify scaling laws making it possible to extract landslide characteristics such as its volume, mass, geometry and location, from seismic observations (amplitude, duration, energy…). To address this issue, we performed a series of simulations of the landslide and generated seismic waves by varying the characteristics of the landslide such as the volume, topography, friction angle, or initial shape of the released mass and of the earth model such as seismic waves velocity, number of layers, etc. For 2D and 3D simple configurations and for real landslides, we systematically investigate how these parameters affect the generated long period seismic waves and the force at their origin, obtained by inversion of the recorded seismic signal. This study shows that the initial volume

  20. Writing a successful research abstract.

    PubMed

    Bliss, Donna Z

    2012-01-01

    Writing and submitting a research abstract provides timely dissemination of the findings of a study and offers peer input for the subsequent development of a quality manuscript. Acceptance of abstracts is competitive. Understanding the expected content of an abstract, the abstract review process and tips for skillful writing will improve the chance of acceptance.

  1. Root Cohesion Controls on Shallow Landslide Size, Shape and Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, M.; Bellugi, D. G.; Perron, J.; Coe, J. A.; Schmidt, K. M.

    2013-12-01

    Many environmental factors, including ground cover, local hydrology, and recent weather events interact to cause shallow landslides and determine landslide characteristics. Vegetation is of particular interest, because changes in vegetation density, age, and composition are expected consequences of human land use and climate change. These changes alter effective cohesion due to root reinforcement, which is known to impact landslide abundance, but the effects of root cohesion on landslide size, shape and location have not been quantified. The Elliott State Forest, a 376 km2 managed forest in Douglas County, Oregon, provides an ideal venue to study these effects. There, a single storm in November 1996 triggered 154 shallow landslides, which were subsequently mapped using aerial images onto laser altimetry data, in an area with a range of vegetation ages but relatively uniform soil properties, topography, and lithology. We used aerial imagery to categorize areas with different land use histories into 3 vegetation classes, ranging from clear-cuts to forest with mature trees over 100 years old. Each mapped landslide was then assigned to a class, and its size, shape and location was recorded. Our results show that, in addition to the expected decrease in landslide abundance in more-vegetated areas (which could be influenced by a bias against detecting landslides under trees), landslides in those areas were also larger and more elongated in the down-slope direction. Although landslides in all three classes generally occurred at locations with similar drainage area and slope, we observed that slides with a larger ratio of drainage area to slope were slightly more abundant in areas with lower vegetation cover. To investigate the causes of these variations, we used a new shallow landslide model calibrated for the Oregon Coast Range to predict the size, shape and location of landslides triggered by the 1996 storm under a range of root cohesion values in a subset of the study

  2. Landslide risk assessment and landslide disaster risk management: on the missing link between scientific knowledge, decision making and practice (Sergey Soloviev Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcántara-Ayala, Irasema

    2016-04-01

    Different investigations have been developed to address the uncertainty and quality evaluations leading to improve landslide hazard and risk assessment. With no doubt, and by using a wide range of scientific and technical approaches, they have contributed to a major extent to the understanding of the dynamics of landslide processes at different scales. Nonetheless, in a similar fashion than other hazards, it has been rather difficult to assess in a precise manner the multi-dimensions of their associated vulnerability and what is more, to effectively link risk assessments with disaster risk management. Owing to the double-character of landslide events, as natural and socio-natural hazards, mass movements turn out to be very complex processes, as their occurrence is also enhanced by population growth, socio-economic inequality, urbanization processes, land-degradation, unsustainable practices and mounting hazard exposure. Disaster Risk Management rope in the actions to attain Disaster Risk Reduction. The latter aims at decreasing existing hazard, vulnerability, and exposure, in addition to strengthening resilience, and very importantly, avoiding the construction of future disaster risk (UNISDR, 2015a). More specifically, and along the same line of ideas, the new-fangled Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR) 2015-2030 (UNISDR, 2015b) points towards reducing disaster risk and losses by engaging in a series of actions at local, national and global levels. Among them and of utterly significance are those initiatives related to the need of moving from risk assessment into disaster risk management. Consequently, and beyond championing scientific and technical capacity to strengthen landslide knowledge to assess vulnerability, hazard exposure and disaster risks, the challenge remains in the realm of promoting and improving permanent communication, dialogue and partnership among the science and technology communities, policymakers and other stakeholders

  3. Real time control and numerical simulation of pipeline subjected to landslide

    SciTech Connect

    Cuscuna, S.; Giusti, G.; Gramola, C.

    1984-06-01

    This paper describes SNAM research activity in the study of behaviour and real-time control of pipelines in landslide areas. The subject can be delt considering three different aspects: 1. Geotechnical characterization of unstable soils. The mechanical parameters of soil and the landslide types are defined; 2. Structural analysis of pipe-soil system. By means of a finite element program it's possible to study the pipe-soil interaction; in this numerical code the soil parameters attend by the non-linear elastic behaviour of pipe restraints. The results of this analysis are the location of the expected most stressed sections of pipe and the global behaviour of pipe inside the soil. 3. Instrumental control. The adoption of a suitable appliance of vibrating wire strain gauges allows the strain control of pipe in time. The aim is to make possible timely interventions in order to guarantee the installation safety.

  4. Landslide detectability with coarse resolution imagery: a Sentinel-2 emulation study to access spectral landslide discrimination.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mota, Bernardo; Mondini, Alessandro; Malamud, Bruce D.; Mihir, Monika; Drake, Nick

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we explore landslide detectability using a simulation of course resolution (10 m) remote sensing imagery. During the last decade the increasing availability of Very High Resolution (VHR) imagery has significantly improved accuracies obtained by change detection classification algorithms. Still, one of the disadvantages is a spatial-temporal compromise, in that the VHR imagery is generally not taken frequently over the same region. The planed optical sensor aboard the two Sentinel-2 satellites will potentially overcome this limitation, as the sensor will be able to supply coarse resolution images (10 m) with a revisiting period of 5 days at the equator. This will potentially allow for quick assessments after groups of landslides are triggered (e.g., by an earthquake or heavy rainfall) anywhere in the world, soon after the landslides occurs. The scope of this study is to analyse the potential limitations supplied by this imagery for landslide detection. For the study, pre and post Sentinel-2 images were emulated by downgrading two Quickbird satellite images, taken on 2 September 2006 and on 8 October 2009, over the Messina province in Sicily, Italy, where on 1 October 2009 a rainfall storm triggered landslides, soil erosion and inundation. Spectral information, based on change detection indexes (NDVI difference, principal component analysis and spectral angle), were extracted for the stable and unstable areas according to an independent landslide inventory. The inventory was derived by aerial photo interpretation prepared at 1:10,000 scale covering three catchments with a total area of 15 km2 and characterized by soil slips and debris flows affecting 7.9% of the area. Stable and unstable spectral discrimination was determined by analysing their separability, and imposing different areal thresholds between stable and unstable areas, for both mass source and debris flow landslide types. Preliminary results show good agreement between the original and

  5. A view on some hydrological triggering systems in landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Asch, Th. W. J.; Buma, J.; Van Beek, L. P. H.

    1999-10-01

    In this paper different types of hydrological triggering systems for debris flows, shallow and deeper landslides are described. The generation of surface run-off and high peak discharges in first order alpine catchments is an important triggering mechanism for debris flows. Failure conditions in shallow landslides can occur when at a critical depth, which is determined by the cohesion of the soil and the slope angle, the moisture content in the soil becomes close to saturation, resulting in a considerable reduction of soil strength. Deeper landslides (5-20 m depth) are in most cases triggered by positive pore pressures on the slip plane induced by a rising ground water level. The assessment of meteorological threshold conditions for shallow landslides (1-2 m) needs more detailed meteorological information than for deeper landslides. In the analyses of the hydrological triggering systems of deeper landslides the presence of a permeable top layer and fissures has to be taken into consideration.

  6. Rainfall-induced landslides in Puerto Rico: An overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pando, M.A.; Ruiz, M.E.; Larsen, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Rainfall-induced landslides are common in Puerto Rico (PR). The presence of steep slopes in mountainous terrain, coupled with weathered soils and intense rainfall, leads to severe slope-stability problems throughout the island. Episodic triggering events such as hurricanes and earthquakes further exacerbate these problems. All physiographic provinces of the island have experienced landslides. The stability of natural and man-made slopes is a serious concern for government authorities and the civil engineering community in Puerto Rico. This paper presents an overview of the rainfall induced landslide problem in PR, a summary of literature published on this subject, and proposes a rainfall intensity landslide threshold based on landslide events data from 1959 to 2003. This threshold can be used as part of a potential landslide warning system.

  7. Road landslide information management and forecasting system base on GIS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei Dong; Du, Xiang Gang; Xie, Cui Ming

    2009-09-01

    Take account of the characters of road geological hazard and its supervision, it is very important to develop the Road Landslides Information Management and Forecasting System based on Geographic Information System (GIS). The paper presents the system objective, function, component modules and key techniques in the procedure of system development. The system, based on the spatial information and attribute information of road geological hazard, was developed and applied in Guizhou, a province of China where there are numerous and typical landslides. The manager of communication, using the system, can visually inquire all road landslides information based on regional road network or on the monitoring network of individual landslide. Furthermore, the system, integrated with mathematical prediction models and the GIS's strongpoint on spatial analyzing, can assess and predict landslide developing procedure according to the field monitoring data. Thus, it can efficiently assists the road construction or management units in making decision to control the landslides and to reduce human vulnerability.

  8. Tsunami Squares Approach to Landslide-Generated Waves: Application to Gongjiafang Landslide, Three Gorges Reservoir, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Lili; Ward, Steven N.; Wang, Jiajia

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a new method, named "Tsunami Squares", for modeling of landslides and landslide-generated waves. The approach has the advantages of the previous "Tsunami Ball" method, for example, separate, special treatment for dry and wet cells is not needed, but obviates the use of millions of individual particles. Simulations now can be expanded to spatial scales not previously possible. The new method accelerates and transports "squares" of material that are fractured into new squares in such a way as to conserve volume and linear momentum. The simulation first generates landslide motion as constrained by direct observation. It then computes induced water waves, given assumptions about energy and momentum transfer. We demonstrated and validated the Tsunami Squares method by modeling the 2008 Three Gorges Reservoir Gongjiafang landslide and river tsunami. The landslide's progressive failure, the wave generated, and its subsequent propagation and run-up are well reproduced. On a laptop computer Tsunami Square simulations flexibly handle a wide variety of waves and flows, and are excellent techniques for risk estimation.

  9. Submarine Landslides: What we Know and Where we are Going!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moscardelli, L. G.; Mountjoy, J. J.; Micallef, A.; Strasser, M.; Vanneste, M.; Chaytor, J. D.; Mosher, D.; Krastel, S.; Lo Iacono, C.; Yamada, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Submarine landslides and other gravity-induced movements can disrupt very large areas of continental margins resulting in long-term seafloor morphologic change and multi-scale mass transport deposits (MTDs). Potential consequences of submarine landslides include damage to seabed infrastructure, offshore facilities, as well as generation or enhancement of tsunamis. MTDs are common on the modern seafloor and within the stratigraphic record. Slides, slumps and debris flows can be constituents of MTDs and can co-occur in the same event or depositional unit. Recent research indicates that relationships exist between MTD geological setting, causal mechanisms, and geometries. Quantitative data analysis suggests that MTD morphometric parameters can be used to link these three parameters. Despite many advances in this field, it still remains unclear how to definitively identify pre-conditioning factors and triggers of submarine landslides in modern slopes, and how submarine landslides evolve after initiation. In addition, new questions regarding the interaction between submarine landslides and active marine processes, such as bottom currents and fluid flow, have emerged.One of the mandates of the S4SLIDE (IGCP-640) project, a joint endeavor of UNESCO and IGCP that represents the broad field of submarine landslide research, is to facilitate interactions at an international level among scientists, industry and government representatives to advance our knowledge on a number of outstanding science questions: (i) What is the nature of the interaction between current-controlled sedimentation and submarine landslides? (ii) What role do transient turbulent-laminar flows play in the formation of submarine landslides? (iii) Do climatic variations control the occurrence of submarine landslides? (iv) What is the economic significance of submarine landslides? (v) Do we understand the hazards that submarine landslides pose to the environment and to humans? This presentation will cover

  10. Enriching Great Britain's National Landslide Database by searching newspaper archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Faith E.; Malamud, Bruce D.; Freeborough, Katy; Demeritt, David

    2015-11-01

    Our understanding of where landslide hazard and impact will be greatest is largely based on our knowledge of past events. Here, we present a method to supplement existing records of landslides in Great Britain by searching an electronic archive of regional newspapers. In Great Britain, the British Geological Survey (BGS) is responsible for updating and maintaining records of landslide events and their impacts in the National Landslide Database (NLD). The NLD contains records of more than 16,500 landslide events in Great Britain. Data sources for the NLD include field surveys, academic articles, grey literature, news, public reports and, since 2012, social media. We aim to supplement the richness of the NLD by (i) identifying additional landslide events, (ii) acting as an additional source of confirmation of events existing in the NLD and (iii) adding more detail to existing database entries. This is done by systematically searching the Nexis UK digital archive of 568 regional newspapers published in the UK. In this paper, we construct a robust Boolean search criterion by experimenting with landslide terminology for four training periods. We then apply this search to all articles published in 2006 and 2012. This resulted in the addition of 111 records of landslide events to the NLD over the 2 years investigated (2006 and 2012). We also find that we were able to obtain information about landslide impact for 60-90% of landslide events identified from newspaper articles. Spatial and temporal patterns of additional landslides identified from newspaper articles are broadly in line with those existing in the NLD, confirming that the NLD is a representative sample of landsliding in Great Britain. This method could now be applied to more time periods and/or other hazards to add richness to databases and thus improve our ability to forecast future events based on records of past events.

  11. Landslide susceptibility mapping in three selected target zones in Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Seegers, Joe; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-04-01

    In May 2014, a large and mobile landslide destroyed the village Ab Barek, a village in Badakshan Province, Afghanistan. The landslide caused several hundred fatalities and once again demonstrated the vulnerability of Afghanistan's population to extreme natural events following more than 30 years of civil war and violent conflict. Increasing the capacity of Afghanistan's population by strengthening the disaster preparedness and management of responsible government authorities and institutions is thus a major component of international cooperation and development strategies. Afghanistan is characterized by high relief and widely varying rock types that largely determine the spatial distribution as well as emplacement modes of mass movements. The major aim of our study is to characterize this variability by conducting a landslide susceptibility analysis in three selected target zones: Greater Kabul Area, Badakhshan Province and Takhar Province. We expand on an existing landslide database by mapping landforms diagnostic for landslides (e.g. head scarps, normal faults and tension cracks), and historical landslide scars and landslide deposits by visual interpretation of high-resolution satellite imagery. We conduct magnitude frequency analysis within subregional physiogeographic classes based on geological maps, climatological and topographic data to identify regional parameters influencing landslide magnitude and frequency. In addition, we prepare a landslide susceptibility map for each area using the Weight-of-Evidence model. Preliminary results show that the three selected target zones vastly differ in modes of landsliding. Low magnitude but frequent rockfall events are a major hazard in the Greater Kabul Area threatening buildings and infrastructure encroaching steep terrain in the city's outskirts. Mass movements in loess covered areas of Badakshan are characterized by medium to large magnitudes. This spatial variability of characteristic landslide magnitudes and

  12. Rainfall thresholds for shallow landslides occurrence in Calabria, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennari, C.; Gariano, S. L.; Antronico, L.; Brunetti, M. T.; Iovine, G.; Peruccacci, S.; Terranova, O.; Guzzetti, F.

    2013-09-01

    In many areas, rainfall is the primary trigger of landslides. Determining the rainfall conditions responsible for landslide occurrence is important, and may contribute to save lives and properties. In a long-term national project for the definition of rainfall thresholds for possible landslide occurrence in Italy, and for the implementation of a national landslide warning system, we compiled a catalogue of 186 rainfall events that have resulted in 251 shallow landslides in Calabria, southern Italy, from January 1996 to September 2011. Landslides were located geographically using Google Earth®, and were given a mapping and a temporal accuracy. We used the landslide information, and sub-hourly rainfall measurements obtained from two complementary networks of rain gauges, to determine cumulated event vs. rainfall duration (ED) thresholds for Calabria. For the purpose, we adopted an existing method used to prepare rainfall thresholds and to estimate their associated uncertainties in central Italy. The regional thresholds for Calabria were found nearly identical to previous ED thresholds for Calabria obtained using a reduced set of landslide information, and slightly higher than the ED thresholds obtained for central Italy. We segmented the regional catalogue of rainfall events with landslides on lithology, soil regions, rainfall zones, and seasonal periods. The number of events in each subdivision was insufficient to determine reliable thresholds, but allowed for preliminary conclusions on the role of the environmental factors on the rainfall conditions responsible for shallow landslides in Calabria. We further segmented the regional catalogue based on administrative subdivisions used for hydro-meteorological monitoring and operational flood forecasting, and we determined separate ED thresholds for the Tyrrhenian and the Ionian coasts of Calabria. We expect the ED rainfall thresholds for Calabria to be used in regional and national landslide warning systems. The

  13. Landslides induced by the 11 March 2011 Tohoku Earthquake, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuoka, H.; Higaki, D.; Ugai, K.

    2012-04-01

    After the 11 March 2011 Tohoku Earthquake offshore SendaiThe, Japan Landslide Society (JLS) has launched research project on earthquake-induced landslides since 2009 and this team has started collecting information of landslides, immediately after the quake. This preliminary report aims to introduce various types of landslides using reports by air survey company, governmental institute, indivisual society's members and newspaper media. (1) Distribution of landslides induced by the main shock and aftershocks and identified by the member of the Japan Landslide Society. The Japan Landslide Society created portal site for collecting information of induced landslides. (2) A rapid and long runout fluidized landslide took place at a natural slope Hanoki-daira, Shirakawa City, Fukushima Prefecture. This landslide destroyed local community and claimed 13 residents lives. (3) A large-scale artificial fill landslide at Asahi-dai Danchi of Fukushima City, which was developed for constructing a residential in a valley. Slumping near the head scarp and displaced affected houses. In Sendai city of Miyagi Prefecture, hundres of artificial valley fill in dozens of newly contructed residential towns moved and affected thousands of houses. These landslides are partly recovered by municipal governments, however, still most of the residents should suffer from further payment for reonstruction of their houses. (4) The Fujinuma reservoir dam breached and large scale flood took place. This flood ran at least 3 km. It gave damage to the downstream community. What we found that this earth dam had no clay core and it could be one of the reason why it failed. Similar small-scale earth dam for agriculture purpose may be distributed anywhere in Japan where another large-scale earthquake may hit in the near future. (5) Deep seated debris slides took place in Sakae village, Nagano Prefecture, triggered by the 12 March 2011 (next day of Tohoku EQ) large-scale earthquake. One slides mixed with snow

  14. Investigating landslides caused by earthquakes - A historical review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keefer, D.K.

    2002-01-01

    Post-earthquake field investigations of landslide occurrence have provided a basis for understanding, evaluating, and mapping the hazard and risk associated with earthquake-induced landslides. This paper traces the historical development of knowledge derived from these investigations. Before 1783, historical accounts of the occurrence of landslides in earthquake are typically so incomplete and vague that conclusions based on these accounts are of limited usefulness. For example, the number of landslides triggered by a given event is almost always greatly underestimated. The first formal, scientific post-earthquake investigation that included systematic documentation of the landslides was undertaken in the Calabria region of Italy after the 1783 earthquake swarm. From then until the mid-twentieth century, the best information on earthquake-induced landslides came from a succession of post-earthquake investigations largely carried out by formal commissions that undertook extensive ground-based field studies. Beginning in the mid-twentieth century, when the use of aerial photography became widespread, comprehensive inventories of landslide occurrence have been made for several earthquakes in the United States, Peru, Guatemala, Italy, El Salvador, Japan, and Taiwan. Techniques have also been developed for performing "retrospective" analyses years or decades after an earthquake that attempt to reconstruct the distribution of landslides triggered by the event. The additional use of Geographic Information System (GIS) processing and digital mapping since about 1989 has greatly facilitated the level of analysis that can applied to mapped distributions of landslides. Beginning in 1984, synthesis of worldwide and national data on earthquake-induced landslides have defined their general characteristics and relations between their occurrence and various geologic and seismic parameters. However, the number of comprehensive post-earthquake studies of landslides is still

  15. Landslides modelling and monitoring by exploiting satellite SAR acquisitions, optical imagery, GPS and in-situ measurements in Greece. Preliminary results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Panagiotis; Sykioti, Olga; Drakatos, George; Paronis, Dimitris; Chousianitis, Konstantinos; Sabatakakis, Nikolaos; Anastasopoulos, Vassilis; Briole, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Landslides are recognized as natural hazards having a major social-economic impact and represent a significant risk for citizens as well as infrastructures. During the last years, a significant increase of landslide occurrences has been recorded globally as a result of increased urbanization and development, continued deforestation and severe meteorological events. In Greek territory this exceeds the 20% of the totally recorded cases during the last fifteen years. Preliminary results of two projects concerning the modelling and monitoring of a number of case studies will be presented. The "Landslide Vulnerability Model - LAVMO" project aims at creating a persistently updated electronic platform which will help to monitor, predicting and assessing risks related with landslides. Data from Engineering Geology, Satellite active remote sensing of C-band and X-band acquisitions, Optical Satellite Imagery and GPS Measurements will be fused in order to provide a comprehensive information representation. Within this framework three landsliding areas have been selected to be investigated as case studies in the Gulf of Corinth area. In the framework EOX-EL0071 project, two villages in the Prefecture of Peloponnesus, suffering from slow and episodic landsliding, have been selected for monitoring by exploiting active remote sensing acquisitions and GPS data. Ten corner reflectors for synthetic aperture radar interferometry and a number of GPS benchmarks have been installed inside and outside the landslide bodies of the villages. Moreover, two permanent GPS stations have been installed inside the landslide bodies. They are in operational mode and their measurements are being disseminated in near real-time. Retrospective as well as near-real time studies have been carried out for the assessment and demonstration of the potential use of such an observation system in a future operational mode.

  16. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  17. Exoplanets and Multiverses (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, V.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) To the ancients, the Earth was the Universe, of a size to be crossed by a god in a day, by boat or chariot, and by humans in a lifetime. Thus an exoplanet would have been a multiverse. The ideas gradually separated over centuries, with gradual acceptance of a sun-centered solar system, the stars as suns likely to have their own planets, other galaxies beyond the Milky Way, and so forth. And whenever the community divided between "just one' of anything versus "many," the "manies" have won. Discoveries beginning in 1991 and 1995 have gradually led to a battalion or two of planets orbiting other stars, very few like our own little family, and to moderately serious consideration of even larger numbers of other universes, again very few like our own. I'm betting, however, on habitable (though not necessarily inhabited) exoplanets to be found, and habitable (though again not necessarily inhabited) universes. Only the former will yield pretty pictures.

  18. Stellar Presentations (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The AAVSO is in the process of expanding its education, outreach and speakers bureau program. powerpoint presentations prepared for specific target audiences such as AAVSO members, educators, students, the general public, and Science Olympiad teams, coaches, event supervisors, and state directors will be available online for members to use. The presentations range from specific and general content relating to stellar evolution and variable stars to specific activities for a workshop environment. A presentation—even with a general topic—that works for high school students will not work for educators, Science Olympiad teams, or the general public. Each audience is unique and requires a different approach. The current environment necessitates presentations that are captivating for a younger generation that is embedded in a highly visual and sound-bite world of social media, twitter and U-Tube, and mobile devices. For educators, presentations and workshops for themselves and their students must support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the Common Core Content Standards, and the Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) initiative. Current best practices for developing relevant and engaging powerpoint presentations to deliver information to a variety of targeted audiences will be presented along with several examples.

  19. DEFORESTATION AND LANDSLIDES IN YUNNAN, CHINA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Gerald F.; Wu, Jishan; Li, Tianchi

    1987-01-01

    Landslides historically have caused severe erosion problems in the Xiao River drainage region of northeastern Yunnan Province, China, that hence resulted in serious economic and social consequences. Owing to monsoonal storms of high rainfall intensity, the erosion potential is high in this mountainous, seismically active region. Landslides transported large quantities of materials into the ravines. During intense storms, high runoff from the deforested areas has mobilized this material into debris flows. Where these flows emerged onto flatter slopes in the lower parts of the watersheds, the channels were too small to hold them, so farmland and villages were inundated. Debris flows in this region during June-August 1985 killed 12 people, damaged roads and the main rail line to Kunming, the capital of Yunnan Province, inundated farmland, and overflowed debris-retention structures. To mitigate these severe erosion problems, several different methods have been used.

  20. Forensic analysis of Malin landslide in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ering, P.; Kulkarni, R.; Kolekar, Y.; Dasaka, S. M.; Babu, G. L., Sr.

    2015-09-01

    A devastating landslide occurred on 30th July 2014, resulting in the burial of a village of about 40 houses called Malin, in western India and also led to about 160 deaths. The landslide was triggered by heavy rainfall in the area and mass movement of debris. The paper investigates slope failure in the Malin area using back analysis and numerical methods. Site investigation was conducted to obtain representative information of the area. Finite difference analyses using FLAC 2D is performed for the failed slope to determine the possible cause of failure. Analysis results show that slope failure occurred due to the loss of suction strength at the interface between rock and local soil.

  1. The Murang'a landslide, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, T. C.; Nyambok, I. O.

    1993-04-01

    On 15 May 1991, a landslide occurred at Gacharage Village in the Murang'a District of Kenya; it buried a house near the toe of a cliff, killing all eight residents in their sleep. The principal determining factors of the slide were a high, mechanically unstable slope of deeply weathered volcanic soil and a high sorption capacity of the surface soil layer. The slide was triggered by rapid saturation of the soil following a heavy downpour. Based on field investigations and laboratory studies, this paper discusses the physical properties and environmental factors that affected slope stability at Murang'a. It also points out the economic and social impact of landslides in the region and suggests remedial measures.

  2. Mental models of flash floods and landslides.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Klaus

    2007-06-01

    Perceptions of flash floods and landslides were analyzed in four communities of the Bavarian Alps using the mental model approach. Thirty-eight qualitative interviews, two telephone surveys with 600 respondents, and two onsite interviews (74/95 respondents) were conducted. Mental models concerning flash floods are much better developed than those for landslides because the key physical processes for flash floods are easier for the general public to recognize and understand. Mental models are influenced by the local conditions. People who have a better knowledge about the hazards are those who use many different sources to inform themselves, express fear about natural hazards, or have previous experience with hazards. Conclusions for how to improve information for the general public are discussed.

  3. The hurricane-flood-landslide continuum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Negri, A.J.; Burkardt, N.; Golden, J.H.; Halverson, J.B.; Huffman, G.J.; Larsen, M.C.; McGinley, J.A.; Updike, R.G.; Verdin, J.P.; Wieczorek, G.F.

    2005-01-01

    In August 2004, representatives from NOAA, NASA, the US Geological Survey (USGS), as well as other government agencies and academic institutions convened in San Juan, Puerto Rico, at a workshop to discuss a proposed research project called the Hurricane-Flood-Landslide Continuum (HFLC). The purpose of the HFLC is to develop and integrate the multidisciplinary tools needed to issue regional guidance products for floods and landslide associated with major tropical rain systems with sufficient lead time that local emergency managers can notify vulnerable populations and protect infrastructure. The workshop sought to initiate discussion among these agencies about their highly complementary capabilities, and to establish a framework to leverage the strengths of each agency. Once a prototype system is developed, it could be adapted for use in regions that have a high frequency of tropical disturbances.

  4. Landslides Inventory Maps in the Region of Tizi-Ouzou

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nacira, Bouaziz; Bachir, Melbouci

    2016-10-01

    Landslides are a complex natural phenomenon that constitutes a worldwide serious natural hazard. Northern Algeria, as all the Mediterranean countries, suffers by this hazard in many towns (JIJEL, Bejaia, Algiers, Constantine, Mila, Media...). Landslides constitute a significant problem for development and urban planning particularly in the city of Tizi-Ouzou, where after each pluvial season; landslides cause many damages for constructions, soils and human lives. The region of Tizi-Ouzou is situated in an area with a variable geology characterised by the presence of different loose formations, where the landslides are widespread. The inventory map of landslides was constructed by field surveys and historical phenomenon, the number of major and significant landslides considered exceeds 25, scattered all about this region. Our paper aims to present the first inventory map of the major landslides induced by different parameters as lithology, geology, slopes, precipitations, urbanization and seismic activities in this region since 1950. Each landslide will be presented and characterized with different geotechnical and geophysical parameters. The results of this study show the importance of landslides inventory in the region of Tizi-Ouzou, to preserve and reduce the hazard to build in risked region, to save human lives and provide useful tools to take decisions.

  5. Preliminary ground response of the Diezma landslide (Southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, José; García-Tortosa, Francisco J.; Garrido, Jesús; Lenti, Luca; López-Casado, Carlos; Martino, Salvatore; Peláez, José A.; Sanz de Galdeano, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    The reactivation of landslides is a major concern in regions of moderate to high seismicity, especially when it affects roads or villages. The Diezma landslide (Southern Spain), which had an estimated volume of 1.2 Mm3 and affected the main highway of Andalusia (A-92), it is located in a region of moderate seismicity and it has been active since 1998, but some local reactivations keep going after the general failure occurred in 2001, despite of the corrective measures built after the main failure. A heavy rain period was the triggering factor of the landslide, therefore future rains and mainly earthquakes may destabilize the whole slope again. An engineering-geological model of the landslide was developed from field surveys, laboratory tests, boreholes logs and geophysical investigations (MASW and seismic noise measurements). The landslide mass is constituted by silts and clays with heterometric blocks sliding on a metamorphic bedrock, and its mechanism was conditioned by structural constraints. The ground response o f the landslide was studied through experimental techniques including ambient noise and earthquake records. The ambient noise survey was designed for the use of the Nakamura's HVSR technique. While the measurements done inside the landslide exhibit a sharp peak whose peak frequency varies depending of the site within the landslide mass, those made outside landslide mass are characterized by a flat response. A temporary seismic network (0-30 s broadband seismometers), set up inside the landslide and in rocky outcrops outside the landslide, has allowed to record up to 20 earthquakes with epicentral distances from local to distant earthquakes, and magnitudes ranging from 1.7 to 7.2, showing similar spectral response to that retrieved from noise measurements. An unconventional pseudostatic analysis was applied to the landslide under limit equilibrium conditions through several sine waves, which cause accelerations which values are in the range of the

  6. Landslide disturbance: implications for chemical weathering, vegetation and carbon cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milledge, D.; Hilton, R. G.

    2011-12-01

    Landslides disturb physical and ecological systems by periodically stripping away soil and vegetation. This turnover influences the makeup and productivity of vegetation as well as the chemical weathering rate for the soil. Recent research has highlighted these links focusing on landslide magnitude and frequency and calculating turnover on a catchment wide basis. However, landslide probability and therefore turnover is not uniform in space. We investigate the influence of this spatial variability on the frequency distribution of landslide turnover and its implications for: vegetation disturbance, carbon cycling and chemical weathering. We use first synthetic landslide risk distributions then real distributions from the Western Southern Alps and Oregon Coast Range. We use these to generate turnover distributions then compare these with the turnover rate predicted assuming spatially uniform landslide probability. We use published relations to work through the implications for: vegetation disturbance, carbon cycling and chemical weathering. We find that: 1) landslide turnover rates are too slow even in the most active parts of the landscape to chronically disturb the vegetation; 2) the changes to productivity are generally subtle leading to only minor changes in the carbon flux; and 3) landslide related chemical weathering rates are reduced in areas with strongly non-uniform landslide risk distributions.

  7. Estimating return period of landslide triggering by Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peres, D. J.; Cancelliere, A.

    2016-10-01

    Assessment of landslide hazard is a crucial step for landslide mitigation planning. Estimation of the return period of slope instability represents a quantitative method to map landslide triggering hazard on a catchment. The most common approach to estimate return periods consists in coupling a triggering threshold equation, derived from an hydrological and slope stability process-based model, with a rainfall intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curve. Such a traditional approach generally neglects the effect of rainfall intensity variability within events, as well as the variability of initial conditions, which depend on antecedent rainfall. We propose a Monte Carlo approach for estimating the return period of shallow landslide triggering which enables to account for both variabilities. Synthetic hourly rainfall-landslide data generated by Monte Carlo simulations are analysed to compute return periods as the mean interarrival time of a factor of safety less than one. Applications are first conducted to map landslide triggering hazard in the Loco catchment, located in highly landslide-prone area of the Peloritani Mountains, Sicily, Italy. Then a set of additional simulations are performed in order to evaluate the traditional IDF-based method by comparison with the Monte Carlo one. Results show that return period is affected significantly by variability of both rainfall intensity within events and of initial conditions, and that the traditional IDF-based approach may lead to an overestimation of the return period of landslide triggering, or, in other words, a non-conservative assessment of landslide hazard.

  8. Probabilistic modelling of rainfall induced landslide hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawagoe, S.; Kazama, S.; Sarukkalige, P. R.

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the frequency and distribution of landslides hazards over Japan, this study uses a probabilistic model based on multiple logistic regression analysis. Study particular concerns several important physical parameters such as hydraulic parameters, geographical parameters and the geological parameters which are considered to be influential in the occurrence of landslides. Sensitivity analysis confirmed that hydrological parameter (hydraulic gradient) is the most influential factor in the occurrence of landslides. Therefore, the hydraulic gradient is used as the main hydraulic parameter; dynamic factor which includes the effect of heavy rainfall and their return period. Using the constructed spatial data-sets, a multiple logistic regression model is applied and landslide susceptibility maps are produced showing the spatial-temporal distribution of landslide hazard susceptibility over Japan. To represent the susceptibility in different temporal scales, extreme precipitation in 5 years, 30 years, and 100 years return periods are used for the evaluation. The results show that the highest landslide hazard susceptibility exists in the mountain ranges on the western side of Japan (Japan Sea side), including the Hida and Kiso, Iide and the Asahi mountainous range, the south side of Chugoku mountainous range, the south side of Kyusu mountainous and the Dewa mountainous range and the Hokuriku region. The developed landslide hazard susceptibility maps in this study will assist authorities, policy makers and decision makers, who are responsible for infrastructural planning and development, as they can identify landslide-susceptible areas and thus decrease landslide damage through proper preparation.

  9. Characteristics of tsunamis generated by 3D deformable granular landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, F.; Fritz, H. M.; McFall, B.

    2010-12-01

    Landslides can trigger tsunamis with locally high amplitudes and runup, which can cause devastating effects in the near field region. The events of 1958 Lituya Bay, 1998 Papua New Guinea and 2006 Java tsunamis are reminders of the hazards associated with impulse waves. Tsunamis generated by granular landslides were studied in the three dimensional NEES tsunami wave basin (TWB) at Oregon State University (OSU) based on the generalized Froude similarity. A novel pneumatic landslide generator was deployed to simulate landslides with varying geometry and kinematics. Granular materials were used to model deformable landslides. Measurement techniques such as particle image velocimetry (PIV), multiple above and underwater video cameras, multiple acoustic transducer arrays (MTA), as well as resistance wave and runup gauges were applied. Tsunami wave generation and propagation is studied off a hill slope, in fjords and around curved headlands. The wave generation was characterized by an extremely unsteady three phase flow consisting of the slide granulate, water and air entrained into the flow. Landslide deformation is quantified and the slide kinematics with reference to slide surface velocity distribution and slide front velocity is obtained. Empirical equations for predicting the wave amplitude, period and wavelength are obtained. The generated waves depend on determined non-dimensional landslide and water body parameters such as the slide Froude number and relative slide shape at impact, among others. Attenuation functions of the leading wave crest amplitude, the lateral wave runup on the hill slope, the wave length and the time period were obtained to describe the wave behavior in the near field and to quantify the wave amplitude decay away from the landslide source. The measured wave celerity of the leading wave corresponds well to the solitary wave speed while the trailing waves are considerably slower in propagation. The individual waves in the wave train span from

  10. Landslides triggered by the 2004 Niigata Ken Chuetsu, Japan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, D.S.; Jibson, R.; Rathje, E.M.; Kelson, K.

    2006-01-01

    The Niigata Ken Chuetsu earthquake triggered a vast number of lanslides in the epicentral region. Landslide concentrations were among the highest ever measured after an earthquake, and most of the triggered landslides were relatively shallow failures parallel to the steep slope faces. The dense concentration of landslides can be attributed to steep local topography in relatively weak geologic units, adverse hydrologic conditions caused by significant antecedent rainfall, and very strong shaking. Many of the landslides could be discerned from high-resolution satellite imagery acquired immediately after the earthquake. ?? 2006, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  11. Case Histories of Landslide Impact: A Database-driven Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, Martin; Damm, Bodo

    2015-04-01

    Fundamental understanding of landslide risk requires in-depth knowledge of how landslides have impacted society in the past (e.g., Corominas et al., 2014). A key to obtain insights into the evolution of landslide risk at single facilities of critical infrastructures are case histories of landslide impact. The purpose of such historical analyses is to inform about the site-specific interactions between landslides and land-use activity. Case histories support correlating landslide events and associated damages with multiple control variables of landslide risk, including (i) previous construction works, (ii) hazard awareness, (iii) the type of structure or its material properties, and (iv) measures of post-disaster mitigation. It is a key advantage of case histories to provide an overview of the changes in the exposure and vulnerability of infrastructures over time. Their application helps to learn more about changing patterns in risk culture and the effectiveness of repair or prevention measures (e.g., Klose et al., 2014). Case histories of landslide impact are developed on the basis of information extracted from landslide databases. The use of path diagrams and illustrated flowcharts as data modeling techniques is aimed at structuring, condensing, and visualizing complex historical data sets on landslide activity and land-use. Much of the scientific potential of case histories simply depends on the quality of available database information. Landslide databases relying on a bottom-up approach characterized by targeted local data specification are optimally suited for historical impact analyses. Combined with systematic retrieval, extraction, and integration of data from multiple sources, landslide databases constitute a valuable tool for developing case histories that enable to open a whole new window on the study of landslide impacts (e.g., Damm and Klose, 2014). The present contribution introduces such a case history for a well-known landslide site at a heavily

  12. Mechanical coupling between earthquakes, volcanos and landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigl, K. L.; Retina Team

    2003-04-01

    "The eruption began as a large earthquake that triggered a massive landslide that culminated in a violent lateral explosion" [Malone et al., USGS 1981]. The 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens taught a very powerful lesson -- that one natural hazard can trigger another. For example, earthquakes have triggered landslides in Papua New Guinea. Similarly, eruptions of Vesuvius are mechanically coupled to earthquakes in the Appenines, just as an inflating magma chamber can trigger earthquakes near Hengill volcano in SW Iceland and on the Izu Peninsula in Japan. The Luzon earthquake may have triggered the eruption of Mount Pinatubo. In many of these cases, the second triggered event caused more damage than the initial one. If we can better understand the mechanical coupling underlying the temporal and spatial correlation of such events, we will improve our assessments of the hazards they pose. The RETINA project has been funded by the European Commission's 5th Framework to study couplings between three classes of natural hazards: earthquakes, landslides, and volcanoes. These three phenomena are linked to and by the stress field in the crust. If the stress increases enough, the material will fail catastrophically. For example, magma injection beneath a volcano can trigger an earthquake by increasing stress on a fault. Increasing shear stress on unconsolidated materials on steep slopes can trigger landslides. Such stress change triggers may also be tectonic (from plate driving forces), hydrological (from heavy rain), or volcanic (magmatic injection). Any of these events can perturb the stress field enough to trigger another event. Indeed, stress changes as small as 0.1 bar (0.01 MPa) suffice to trigger an earthquake. If the medium is close to failure, this small change can increase the Coulomb stress beyond the yield threshold, breaking the material. This quantity is the primary means we will use for describing mechanical coupling. In this paper, we will review several case

  13. The Hurricane-Flood-Landslide Continuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negri, Andrew J.; Burkardt, Nina; Golden, Joseph H.; Halverson, Jeffrey B.; Huffman, George J.; Larsen, Matthew C.; McGinley, John A.; Updike, Randall G.; Verdin, James P.; Wieczorek, Gerald F.

    2005-01-01

    In August 2004, representatives from NOAA, NASA, the USGS, and other government agencies convened in San Juan, Puerto Rim for a workshop to discuss a proposed research project called the Hurricane-Flood-Landslide Continuum (HFLC). The essence of the HFLC is to develop and integrate tools across disciplines to enable the issuance of regional guidance products for floods and landslides associated with major tropical rain systems, with sufficient lead time that local emergency managers can protect vulnerable populations and infrastructure. All three lead agencies are independently developing precipitation-flood-debris flow forecasting technologies, and all have a history of work on natural hazards both domestically and overseas. NOM has the capability to provide tracking and prediction of storm rainfall, trajectory and landfall and is developing flood probability and magnTtude capabilities. The USGS has the capability to evaluate the ambient stability of natural and man-made landforms, to assess landslide susceptibilities for those landforms, and to establish probabilities for initiation of landslides and debris flows. Additionally, the USGS has well-developed operational capacity for real-time monitoring and reporting of streamflow across distributed networks of automated gaging stations (http://water.usgs.gov/waterwatch/). NASA has the capability to provide sophisticated algorithms for satellite remote sensing of precipitation, land use, and in the future, soil moisture. The Workshop sought to initiate discussion among three agencies regarding their specific and highly complimentary capabilities. The fundamental goal of the Workshop was to establish a framework that will leverage the strengths of each agency. Once a prototype system is developed for example, in relatively data-rich Puerto Rim, it could be adapted for use in data-poor, low-infrastructure regions such as the Dominican Republic or Haiti. This paper provides an overview of the Workshop s goals

  14. Landslide size distribution in seismic areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valagussa, Andrea; Frattini, Paolo; Crosta, Giovanni B.

    2015-04-01

    In seismic areas, the analysis of the landslides size distribution with the distance from the seismic source is very important for hazard zoning and land planning. From numerical modelling (Bourdeau et al., 2004), it has been observed that the area of the sliding mass tends to increase with the ground-motion amplitude up to a certain threshold input acceleration. This has been also observed empirically for the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (Keefer and Manson, 1998) and 1999 Chi Chi earthquake (Khazai and Sitar, 2003). Based on this, it possible to assume that the landslide size decreases with the increase of the distance from the seismic source. In this research, we analysed six earthquakes-induced landslides inventories (Papua New Guinea Earthquake, 1993; Northridge Earthquake, 1994; Niigata-Chuetsu Earthquake 2004; Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku Earthquake, 2008; Wenchuan Earthquake, 2008; Tohoku Earthquake, 2011) with a magnitude ranging between 6.6 and 9.0 Mw. For each earthquake, we first analysed the size of landslides as a function of different factors such as the lithology, the PGA, the relief, the distance from the seismic sources (both fault and epicentre). Then, we analysed the magnitude frequency curves for different distances from the source area and for each lithology. We found that a clear relationship between the size distribution and the distance from the seismic source is not evident, probably due to the combined effect of the different influencing factors and to the non-linear relationship between the ground-motion intensity and the distance from the seismic source.

  15. Two models for evaluating landslide hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, J.C.; Chung, C.-J.; Ohlmacher, G.C.

    2006-01-01

    Two alternative procedures for estimating landslide hazards were evaluated using data on topographic digital elevation models (DEMs) and bedrock lithologies in an area adjacent to the Missouri River in Atchison County, Kansas, USA. The two procedures are based on the likelihood ratio model but utilize different assumptions. The empirical likelihood ratio model is based on non-parametric empirical univariate frequency distribution functions under an assumption of conditional independence while the multivariate logistic discriminant model assumes that likelihood ratios can be expressed in terms of logistic functions. The relative hazards of occurrence of landslides were estimated by an empirical likelihood ratio model and by multivariate logistic discriminant analysis. Predictor variables consisted of grids containing topographic elevations, slope angles, and slope aspects calculated from a 30-m DEM. An integer grid of coded bedrock lithologies taken from digitized geologic maps was also used as a predictor variable. Both statistical models yield relative estimates in the form of the proportion of total map area predicted to already contain or to be the site of future landslides. The stabilities of estimates were checked by cross-validation of results from random subsamples, using each of the two procedures. Cell-by-cell comparisons of hazard maps made by the two models show that the two sets of estimates are virtually identical. This suggests that the empirical likelihood ratio and the logistic discriminant analysis models are robust with respect to the conditional independent assumption and the logistic function assumption, respectively, and that either model can be used successfully to evaluate landslide hazards. ?? 2006.

  16. Seismology of the Oso-Steelhead landslide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibert, C.; Stark, C. P.; Ekström, G.

    2014-12-01

    We carry out a combined analysis of the short- and long-period seismic signals generated by the devastating Oso-Steelhead landslide that occurred on 22 March 2014. The seismic records show that the Oso-Steelhead landslide was not a single slope failure, but a succession of multiple failures distinguished by two major collapses that occurred approximately three minutes apart. The first generated long-period surface waves that were recorded at several proximal stations. We invert these long-period signals for the forces acting at the source, and obtain estimates of the first failure runout and kinematics, as well as its mass after calibration against the mass-center displacement estimated from remote-sensing imagery. Short-period analysis of both events suggests that the source dynamics of the second are more complex than the first. No distinct long-period surface waves were recorded for the second failure, which prevents inversion for its source parameters. However, by comparing the seismic energy of the short-period waves generated by both events we are able to estimate the volume of the second. Our analysis suggests that the volume of the second failure is about 15-30% of the total landslide volume, which is in agreement with ground observations.

  17. Landslide forecasting and factors influencing predictability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intrieri, Emanuele; Gigli, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    Forecasting a catastrophic collapse is a key element in landslide risk reduction, but it is also a very difficult task owing to the scientific difficulties in predicting a complex natural event and also to the severe social repercussions caused by a false or missed alarm. A prediction is always affected by a certain error; however, when this error can imply evacuations or other severe consequences a high reliability in the forecast is, at least, desirable. In order to increase the confidence of predictions, a new methodology is presented here. In contrast to traditional approaches, this methodology iteratively applies several forecasting methods based on displacement data and, thanks to an innovative data representation, gives a valuation of the reliability of the prediction. This approach has been employed to back-analyse 15 landslide collapses. By introducing a predictability index, this study also contributes to the understanding of how geology and other factors influence the possibility of forecasting a slope failure. The results showed how kinematics, and all the factors influencing it, such as geomechanics, rainfall and other external agents, are key concerning landslide predictability.

  18. Combining Seismic Noise Techniques for Landslide Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilz, Marco; Parolai, Stefano; Bindi, Dino; Saponaro, Annamaria; Abdybachaev, Ulan

    2014-08-01

    A strong topographic relief and the presence of weakly consolidated sediments create favorable conditions for the development of landslides around the eastern rim of the Fergana Basin (Central Asia). In summer 2012, a field experiment employing small aperture seismic arrays was carried out on an unstable slope, using ambient vibration recordings. The aim of the study was to constrain the seismic response of a potential future landslide and to map lateral and vertical changes in the shear-wave velocity of the surficial soil layers. Strong variations of horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios in terms of amplitude and directionality indicated clear differences in local site effects, probably reflecting the stability of different sections of the slope. Results further showed resonant frequencies of both the entire unstable block, as well as for smaller, individual parts. The use of an ad hoc, passive seismic tomography approach based on noise correlograms allowed for the mapping of the shear-wave velocities of the sliding material, even in cases of significant topography relief. Based on the recording of seismic noise only, we clearly identified a low-velocity body of weakly consolidated claystone and limestone material, which can be interpreted as the landslide body, with laterally varying thickness.

  19. Abstraction of Drift Seepage

    SciTech Connect

    J.T. Birkholzer

    2004-11-01

    This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 6.3.3.1)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package corrosion or radionuclide transport.

  20. 1986 annual information meeting. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts are presented for the following papers: Geohydrological Research at the Y-12 Plant (C.S. Haase); Ecological Impacts of Waste Disposal Operations in Bear Creek Valley Near the Y-12 Plant (J.M. Loar); Finite Element Simulation of Subsurface Contaminant Transport: Logistic Difficulties in Handling Large Field Problems (G.T. Yeh); Dynamic Compaction of a Radioactive Waste Burial Trench (B.P. Spalding); Comparative Evaluation of Potential Sites for a High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository (E.D. Smith); Changing Priorities in Environmental Assessment and Environmental Compliance (R.M. Reed); Ecology, Ecotoxicology, and Ecological Risk Assessment (L.W. Barnthouse); Theory and Practice in Uncertainty Analysis from Ten Years of Practice (R.H. Gardner); Modeling Landscape Effects of Forest Decline (V.H. Dale); Soil Nitrogen and the Global Carbon Cycle (W.M. Post); Maximizing Wood Energy Production in Short-Rotation Plantations: Effect of Initial Spacing and Rotation Length (L.L. Wright); and Ecological Communities and Processes in Woodland Streams Exhibit Both Direct and Indirect Effects of Acidification (J.W. Elwood).

  1. Coupling a landslide susceptibility model and a ground water model for predicting the timing of shallow landsliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, S.; Chang, K.

    2012-12-01

    A coupled model has been developed to predict the timing of shallow landslides. The model comprises a landslide susceptibility model to estimate critical wetness responsible for landslide initiation and a ground water model to simulate changes of soil wetness affected by storm rainfall. The model determines the timing of landsliding when the simulated soil wetness exceeds the calculated critical wetness of soil. To better capture the transient dynamics of ground water over hillslopes, we simulate two important processes at the same time: (1) the vertical infiltration within a layered soil, and (2) the lateral subsurface flow driven by hilly topography. The coupled model was first tested and calibrated in two small experiment sites located at Coos Bay in western Oregon, the United States, and Hsiuluan Village in northern Taiwan. At the sites, the landslide data and timing had been investigated and recorded in past landslide events. The model was then applied to the 116.6 km-sq Huagoushan Watershed in southern Taiwan, and the simulation results were validated by comparing them with a landslide inventory prepared after Typhoon Morakot (2009), including landslide locations and their timing. Among the results, we have found that (1) fractures in bedrocks can strongly affect the development of soil wetness, and (2) the dynamics of ground water during a storm and the position of failure plane can critically influence the predictions of the landslide timing and unstable area. These and other results will be presented and discussed in the conference.

  2. Front Range Report, Abstracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, William

    The second regional conference of the Front Range Branch, AGU, was attended by more than 80 professionals and some 20 outstanding high school students. The conference included 2 days of interdisciplinary talks, and lots of discussion, that primarily were keyed to geophysical studies of Colorado, Wyoming, and New Mexico. Other talks reported on nonregional, and sometimes global, studies being done by geophypsicists of the Front Range region.Topics included tectonics of the Front Range and the Colorado Plateau, pollution of the Arkansas and Mississippi rivers, and a supreme polluting event that caused the late-Cretaceous extinctions. Other notable talks were on toxic cleanup, microburst (wind shear) detection at U.S. airports, and other meteorological studies. Several talks treated the audience to the excitement of new work and surprise discoveries. The meeting was multimedia, including the playing of two videos through a projection TV and the playing of a fascinating tape between an airport control tower and incoming pilots during a severe microburst event.

  3. Object-based Landslide Mapping: Examples, Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölbling, Daniel; Eisank, Clemens; Friedl, Barbara; Chang, Kang-Tsung; Tsai, Tsai-Tsung; Birkefeldt Møller Pedersen, Gro; Betts, Harley; Cigna, Francesca; Chiang, Shou-Hao; Aubrey Robson, Benjamin; Bianchini, Silvia; Füreder, Petra; Albrecht, Florian; Spiekermann, Raphael; Weinke, Elisabeth; Blaschke, Thomas; Phillips, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decade, object-based image analysis (OBIA) has been increasingly used for mapping landslides that occur after triggering events such as heavy rainfall. The increasing availability and quality of Earth Observation (EO) data in terms of temporal, spatial and spectral resolution allows for comprehensive mapping of landslides at multiple scales. Most often very high resolution (VHR) or high resolution (HR) optical satellite images are used in combination with a digital elevation model (DEM) and its products such as slope and curvature. Semi-automated object-based mapping makes use of various characteristics of image objects that are derived through segmentation. OBIA enables numerous spectral, spatial, contextual and textural image object properties to be applied during an analysis. This is especially useful when mapping complex natural features such as landslides and constitutes an advantage over pixel-based image analysis. However, several drawbacks in the process of object-based landslide mapping have not been overcome yet. The developed classification routines are often rather complex and limited regarding their transferability across areas and sensors. There is still more research needed to further improve present approaches and to fully exploit the capabilities of OBIA for landslide mapping. In this study several examples of object-based landslide mapping from various geographical regions with different characteristics are presented. Examples from the Austrian and Italian Alps are shown, whereby one challenge lies in the detection of small-scale landslides on steep slopes while preventing the classification of false positives with similar spectral properties (construction areas, utilized land, etc.). Further examples feature landslides mapped in Iceland, where the differentiation of landslides from other landscape-altering processes in a highly dynamic volcanic landscape poses a very distinct challenge, and in Norway, which is exposed to multiple

  4. New classification of landslide-inducing anthropogenic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michoud, C.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Derron, M.-H.; Nadim, F.; Leroi, E.

    2012-04-01

    Although landslides are usually considered typical examples of natural hazards, they can be influenced by human activities. Many examples can be found in the literature about slope instabilities induced by anthropogenic activities, ranging from small superficial landslides to rock avalanches. Research on this topic is of primary importance for understanding and mitigation of landslide risk. Indeed, slope stabilities influenced by human actions contribute significantly to the risk level because, by definition, they are located where elements at risk and people are present. Within the framework of the European project SafeLand "Living with Landslide Risk in Europe", the authors analyzed the landslides induced by anthropogenic factors in Europe and elsewhere (SafeLand deliverable D1.6). During the bibliographical research, it appeared that a complete and illustrated classification on human activities influencing slope stabilities does not yet exist. Therefore, a new classification was introduced by Michoud et al. (2011) about anthropogenic activities affecting slope stability conditions. This classification takes into account conceptual processes leading to landslides (Terzaghi, 1950; Jaboyedoff and Derron, 2005) and the distinction between destabilization factors and triggering factors (Vaunat et al., 1994; Leroueil et al., 1996). The classification was tested and improved through fifty-eight well-documented case studies, even lots of large landslides, such as Elm, Aberfan, Namsos and Rissa landslides, etc. Furthermore, the boundary between natural and "anthropogenic" landslide triggers (e.g. water run-off modified by new land-uses, creating landslides some km farther), and the time during which changes and reactions are to be considered as direct consequences of human activities were highlighted. Finally, anthropogenic influences can also be positive and examples of (non-voluntary) positive human impacts on slope stability are presented. Jaboyedoff, M. and Derron, M

  5. Changing pattern of landslide risk in Europe - The SafeLand project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadim, F.; Kalsnes, B. G.; SafeLand Research Consortium

    2011-12-01

    The changing pattern of landslide hazard and risk caused by climate change and changes in demography, the need to protect people and property, the reality for society in Europe to live with hazard and risk and the need to manage risk were the motives for the project SafeLand: "Living with landslide risk in Europe: Assessment, effects of global change, and risk management strategies." SafeLand is a large, integrating research project under the European Commission's 7th Framework Programme (FP7). It started on 1 May 2009 and will go on for 3 years, ending on 30 April 2012. There project involves 27 partners from 12 European countries, and has international collaborators and advisers from China, India, USA, Japan and Hong Kong. SafeLand also involves 25 End-Users from 11 countries. SafeLand is coordinated by the International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) at Norwegian Geotechnical Institute in Norway. Further information on the SafeLand project can be found at its web site http://www.safeland-fp7.eu/ . SafeLand is an ongoing project, which results will be finalized in 2012. This lecture summarizes the SafeLand's activities and achievements until November 2011. The main results achieved so far include: - Development and testing of several empirical methods for predicting the characteristics of threshold rainfall events for triggering of precipitation-induced landslides. - Identification of landslide hazard and risk hotspots by an objective, GIS-based analysis for Europe. The results show clearly where landslides pose the largest hazard in Europe and the objective approach allows a ranking of the countries by exposed area and population. - Different regional climate model simulations over Europe (from the EU FP6 project ENSEMBLES) at a spatial resolution of 25 x 25 km have been used to perform an extreme value analysis for trends in heavy precipitation events. In winter a general trend towards more heavy precipitation events across all analyzed regional climate model

  6. Landsliding, topographic variables and location of cultural terraces in Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komac, Blaž; Zorn, Matija

    2015-04-01

    For a large number of people living in hilly regions of Slovenia cultural terraces are important landscape elements. We know from previous studies that as many as half of vineyard terraces are built in areas which are highly susceptible to landslides, and a quarter in low landslide susceptibility areas. The contribution will present links between landslide susceptibility in terraced areas in Slovenia. Landslides are frequent element of cultural terraces-landscape. In Slovenia they are frequent in hilly and mountainous regions. The position of landslide areas is strongly influenced by the topography and thus indirectly by the construction of cultural terraces. They trigger during and after terraces construction when the drainage system is altered. Thus, agricultural activity leads to instability of slopes, and increases the production costs. Links between landsliding (Zorn and Komac 2004; 2008; 2009) and cultural terraces were determined using the geographic information systems. For the territory of Slovenia, we have already created landslide susceptibility map (Zorn and Komac 2004; 2008), while here we determined the correlation between landslides, topographic variables and location of cultural terraces. To achieve this aim, all areas of cultural terraces in Slovenia were digitized at the scale of 1:10,000. References Zorn, M., Komac B. 2004: Deterministic modeling of landslide and rockfall risk. Acta geographica Slovenica 44 (2), pp. 53-10. DOI: 10.3986/AGS44203 Zorn, M., Komac, B. 2008: Zemeljski plazovi v Sloveniji (Landslides in Slovenia). Georitem 8. Ljubljana: ZRC Publishing. Zorn, M., Komac, B. 2009: The importance of landsliding in a flysch geomorphic system: The example of the Gori\\vska brda Hills (W Slovenia). Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie N. F., Suppl. 56 (3), pp. 53-79. DOI: 10.1127/0372-8854/2012/S-00104

  7. Linking landslide susceptibility to sediment yield in the Romanian Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broeckx, Jente; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Bǎlteanu, Dan; Chendeş, Viorel; Sima, Mihaela; Enciu, Petru; Poesen, Jean

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies revealed the importance of seismic activity in explaining regional patterns of catchment sediment yield (SY). This relation is often explained by the fact that seismic activity induces landslides that contribute to SY. Nevertheless, only a few studies focused on the effects of landslides on SY and even fewer studies have explored the potential of landslide susceptibility as a predictor for SY. The objective of this study is therefore to explore the potential of landslide susceptibility maps to explain the spatial variation of SY in the Romanian Carpathians, a region with moderate to high seismicity. 133 catchments, covering 63% of Romania, for which SY was measured during a period of at least 10 years and for which SY was not significantly affected by upstream reservoirs, were compiled and selected. 78 of these catchments were 'less disturbed', being covered for at least 50% by forest and semi-natural areas and confined to the Carpathian mountains. Landslide susceptibility in each catchment was assessed, using an earlier published state of the art landslide susceptibility map of Romania. Mean landslide susceptibility for each catchment shows a highly significant correlation with SY (r² = 0.44). This indicates that landslides are an important contributor to SY in Romania and suggests that regional and national landslide susceptibility maps can indeed be a useful tool to predict SY. Nevertheless, the susceptibility map did not explain much more of the observed variance in SY than some other individual catchment characteristics such as seismicity (r² = 0.40) and lithology (r² = 0.33). Also taking into account the spatial patterns of landslide susceptibility within the catchment did not significantly improve the observed correlations. Surprisingly, topography showed a nonsignificant correlation with SY, which can be attributed to the overwhelming effect of seismicity and lithology. Overall, our results suggest that seismicity is indeed a highly

  8. Rainfall thresholds for shallow landslide occurrence in Calabria, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennari, C.; Gariano, S. L.; Antronico, L.; Brunetti, M. T.; Iovine, G.; Peruccacci, S.; Terranova, O.; Guzzetti, F.

    2014-02-01

    In many areas, rainfall is the primary trigger of landslides. Determining the rainfall conditions responsible for landslide occurrence is important, and may contribute to saving lives and properties. In a long-term national project for the definition of rainfall thresholds for possible landslide occurrence in Italy, we compiled a catalogue of 186 rainfall events that resulted in 251 shallow landslides in Calabria, southern Italy, from January 1996 to September 2011. Landslides were located geographically using Google Earth®, and were given a mapping and a temporal accuracy. We used the landslide information, and sub-hourly rainfall measurements obtained from two complementary networks of rain gauges, to determine cumulated event vs. rainfall duration (ED) thresholds for Calabria. For this purpose, we adopted an existing method used to prepare rainfall thresholds and to estimate their associated uncertainties in central Italy. The regional thresholds for Calabria were found to be nearly identical to previous ED thresholds for Calabria obtained using a reduced set of landslide information, and slightly higher than the ED thresholds obtained for central Italy. We segmented the regional catalogue of rainfall events with landslides in Calabria into lithology, soil regions, rainfall zones, and seasonal periods. The number of events in each subdivision was insufficient to determine reliable thresholds, but allowed for preliminary conclusions about the role of the environmental factors in the rainfall conditions responsible for shallow landslides in Calabria. We further segmented the regional catalogue based on administrative subdivisions used for hydro-meteorological monitoring and operational flood forecasting, and we determined separate ED thresholds for the Tyrrhenian and the Ionian coasts of Calabria. We expect the ED rainfall thresholds for Calabria to be used in regional and national landslide warning systems. The thresholds can also be used for landslide hazard

  9. Landslides triggered by the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harp, E.L.; Jibson, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    The 17 January 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake (Mw, = 6.7) triggered more than 11,000 landslides over an area of about 10,000 km2. Most of the landslides were concentrated in a 1000-km2 area that included the Santa Susana Mountains and the mountains north of the Santa Clara River valley. We mapped landslides triggered by the earthquake in the field and from 1:60,000-nominal-scale aerial photography provided by the U.S. Air Force and taken the morning of the earthquake; these mapped landslides were subsequently digitized and plotted in a GIS-based format. Most of the triggered landslides were shallow (1- to 5-m thick), highly disrupted falls and slides within weakly cemented Tertiary to Pleistocene clastic sediment. Average volumes of these types of landslides were less than 1000 m3, but many had volumes exceeding 100,000 m3. The larger disrupted slides commonly had runout paths of more than 50 m, and a few traveled as far as 200 m from the bases of steep parent slopes. Deeper (>5-m thick) rotational slumps and block slides numbered in the tens to perhaps hundreds, a few of which exceeded 100,000 m3 in volume. Most of these were reactivations of previously existing landslides. The largest single landslide triggered by the earthquake was a rotational slump/block slide having a volume of 8 ?? 106 m3. Analysis of the mapped landslide distribution with respect to variations in (1) landslide susceptibility and (2) strong shaking recorded by hundreds of instruments will form the basis of a seismic landslide hazard analysis of the Los Angeles area.

  10. Regional landslide-hazard assessment for Seattle, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baum, R.L.; Coe, J.A.; Godt, J.W.; Harp, E.L.; Reid, M.E.; Savage, W.Z.; Schulz, W.H.; Brien, D.L.; Chleborad, A.F.; McKenna, J.P.; Michael, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Landslides are a widespread, frequent, and costly hazard in Seattle and the Puget Sound area of Washington State, USA. Shallow earth slides triggered by heavy rainfall are the most common type of landslide in the area; many transform into debris flows and cause significant property damage or disrupt transportation. Large rotational and translational slides, though less common, also cause serious property damage. The hundreds of landslides that occurred during the winters of 1995-96 and 1996-97 stimulated renewed interest by Puget Sound communities in identifying landslide-prone areas and taking actions to reduce future landslide losses. Informal partnerships between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the City of Seattle, and private consultants are focusing on the problem of identifying and mapping areas of landslide hazard as well as characterizing temporal aspects of the hazard. We have developed GIS-based methods to map the probability of landslide occurrence as well as empirical rainfall thresholds and physically based methods to forecast times of landslide occurrence. Our methods for mapping landslide hazard zones began with field studies and physically based models to assess relative slope stability, including the effects of material properties, seasonal groundwater levels, and rainfall infiltration. We have analyzed the correlation between historic landslide occurrence and relative slope stability to map the degree of landslide hazard. The City of Seattle is using results of the USGS studies in storm preparedness planning for emergency access and response, planning for development or redevelopment of hillsides, and municipal facility planning and prioritization. Methods we have developed could be applied elsewhere to suit local needs and available data.

  11. Overview of landslide problems, research, and mitigation, Cincinnati, Ohio, area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baum, Rex L.; Johnson, Arvid M.

    1996-01-01

    Landslides cause much damage to property throughout the metropolitan area of Cincinnati, Ohio. Most landslides occur in unconsolidated deposits, including colluvium, till, glacial lake clays, and man-made fill derived from colluvium and glacial deposits. Landslides in thin colluvium are widespread on steeper slopes that wall the valleys of the Ohio River and its tributaries. Abundant landslides also form in thick colluvium on flatter slopes, especially where the colluvium has been disturbed by earthwork. Unusual block glides and block-extrusion glides form where till rests on lake clay. Through the years, knowledge of the distribution and causes of landslides has increased as a result of many investigations. This knowledge became part of the basis for landslide mitigation programs adopted by the City of Cincinnati and Hamilton County, Ohio. In 1974 the Cincinnati City Council passed an excavation and fill ordinance to help reduce landslide damage in areas of new construction. In 1989 following much additional study, Cincinnati created a geotechnical office within its Department of Public Works. The office, which is staffed by a geotechnical engineer, an engineering geologist, and two technicians, carries out a mitigation program. Since 1989, members of the geotechnical staff have worked in several ways to reduce landslide damage in the city; their work includes engineering-geologic mapping of selected parts of the city, inspection of retaining walls that impact public right-of-way, review of proposed construction in hillside areas, inspecting and arranging for repair of landslide areas that affect city property, and compiling geologic and geotechnical data on landslide areas within the city. In 1990, Hamilton County also adopted an excavation and fill ordinance to help reduce the damage due to landslides in areas of new construction.

  12. New Decision Support for Landslide and Other Disaster Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, U. S.; Keiser, K.; Wu, Y.; Kaulfus, A.; Srinivasan, K.; Anderson, E. R.; McEniry, M.

    2013-12-01

    nodes required depending upon the nature of terrain and land cover. The performance of a water table model, to be utilized in the end-to-end system, is being evaluated by comparing against landslides that occurred during the 6th and 7th of May, 2003 and 20th and 21st of April, 2011. The model provides a deterministic assessment of slope stability by evaluating horizontal and vertical transport of underground water and associated weight bearing capacity. In the proposed end-to-end system, the model will be coupled to the WSN, and the in situ data collected will be used to drive the model. The output from the model could be communicated back to the WSN providing the capability of generating warning of possible events to the ED3 framework to trigger additional data retrieval or the processing of additional models based on decision maker's ED3 preparedness plans. NASA's Applied Science Program has funded a feasibility study of the ED3 technology and as a result the capability is on track be integrated into existing decision support systems, with an initial reference implementation hosted at the Global Hydrology Resource Center, a NASA distributed active archive center (DAAC).

  13. Landslide susceptibility in the Tully Valley area, Finger Lakes region, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jager, Stefan; Wieczorek, Gerald E.

    1994-01-01

    As a consequence of a large landslide in the Tully Valley, Onondaga County, New York, an investigation was undertaken to determine the factors responsible for the landslide in order to develop a model for regional landslide susceptibility. The April 27, 1993 Tully Valley landslide occurred within glacial lake clays overlain by till and colluvium on gentle slopes of 9-12 degrees. The landslide was triggered by extreme climatic events of prolonged heavy rainfall combined with rapid melting of a winter snowpack. A photoinventory and field checking of landslides within a 415 km2 study area, including the Tully Valley, revealed small recently-active landslides and other large dormant prehistoric landslides, probably Pleistocene in age. Similar to the larger Tully Valley landslide, the smaller recently-active landslides occurred in red, glacial lake clays very likely triggered by seasonal rainfall. The large dormant landslides have been stable for long periods as evidenced by slope denudational processes that have modified the landslides. These old and ancient landslides correspond with proglacial lake levels during the Pleistocene, suggesting that either inundation or rapid drainage was responsible for triggering these landslides. A logistic regression analysis was performed within a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment to develop a model of landslide susceptibility for the Tully Valley study area. Presence of glacial clays, slope angle, and glacial lake levels were used as explanatory variables for landslide incidence. The spatial probability of landsliding, categorized as low, moderate and high, is portrayed within 90-m square cells on the susceptibility map.

  14. Seismically induced landslides: current research by the US Geological Survey.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harp, E.L.; Wilson, R.C.; Keefer, D.K.; Wieczorek, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    We have produced a regional seismic slope-stability map and a probabilistic prediction of landslide distribution from a postulated earthquake. For liquefaction-induced landslides, in situ measurements of seismically induced pore-water pressures have been used to establish an elastic model of pore pressure generation. -from Authors

  15. Rainfall characteristics for shallow landsliding in Seattle, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godt, J.W.; Baum, R.L.; Chleborad, A.F.

    2006-01-01

    Shallow landsliding in the Seattle, Washington, area, has caused the occasional loss of human life and millions of dollars in damage to property. The effective management of the hazzard requires an understanding of the rainfall conditions that result in landslides. We present an empirical approach to quantify the antecedent moisture conditions and rainstorm intensity and duration that have triggered shallow landsliding using 25 years of hourly rainfull data and a complementary record of landslide occurrence. Our approach combines a simple water balance to estimate the antecedent moisture conditions of hillslope materials and a rainfall intensity-duration threshold to identify periods when shallow landsliding can be expected. The water balance is calibrated with field-monitoring data and combined with the rainfall intensity-duration threshold using a decision tree. Results are cast in terms of a hypothetical landslide warning system. Two widespread landslide events are correctly identified by the warning scheme; however, it is less accurate for more isolated landsliding. Copyright ?? 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Landslide susceptibility analysis using an artificial neural network model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansor, Shattri; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Daud, Mohamed; Jamaludin, Normalina; Khuzaimah, Zailani

    2007-10-01

    This paper deals with landslide susceptibility analysis using an artificial neural network model for Cameron Highland, Malaysia. Landslide locations were identified in the study area from interpretation of aerial photographs and field surveys. Topographical/geological data and satellite images were collected and processed using GIS and image processing tools. There are ten landslide inducing parameters which are considered for the landslide hazards. These parameters are topographic slope, aspect, curvature and distance from drainage, all derived from the topographic database; geology and distance from lineament, derived from the geologic database; landuse from Landsat satellite images; soil from the soil database; precipitation amount, derived from the rainfall database; and the vegetation index value from SPOT satellite images. Landslide hazard was analyzed using landslide occurrence factors employing the logistic regression model. The results of the analysis were verified using the landslide location data and compared with logistic regression model. The accuracy of hazard map observed was 85.73%. The qualitative landslide susceptibility analysis was carried out using an artificial neural network model by doing map overlay analysis in GIS environment. This information could be used to estimate the risk to population, property and existing infrastructure like transportation network.

  17. Reactivation of landslides by surface subsidence from longwall mining

    SciTech Connect

    Iannacchione, A.T.; Ackman, T.E.

    1984-12-01

    Subsidence research by the US Bureau of Mines has identified and documented the occurrence of landslides over a longwall mining area in the Dunkard basin. Mining by longwall methods has been observed or produce a gradual surface subsidence profile of up to 60% of the thickness of the mined coal bed. The gradual subsidence of panels averaging 600 x 5000 ft (180 x 1525 m) can cause reactivation of older landslide deposits by decreasing the support to the landslide toe area. Examination of surficial features over a longwall mining area comprised of nine panels has led to the identification of several reactivated landslides. The two largest landslides occurred above a thin sandstone member with several associated springs. The largest landslides ranged from 100 to 300 ft (30 to 90 m) in length and from 100 to 200 ft (30 to 60 m) in width. Maximum scarp-slope displacements were approximately 7 ft (2 m). Less significant mass wasting was also observed over the longwall panels. Identification of landslides was accomplished through examination of premining aerial photographs and geologic field investigation. Characterization of reactivated zones was achieved through evaluation of current aerial 2-ft (0.6-m) surface contour map and field surveys. Recognition of problem areas will make civic and mining personnel aware of the landslide potential so that damage in such areas can be minimized.

  18. Using abstract language signals power.

    PubMed

    Wakslak, Cheryl J; Smith, Pamela K; Han, Albert

    2014-07-01

    Power can be gained through appearances: People who exhibit behavioral signals of power are often treated in a way that allows them to actually achieve such power (Ridgeway, Berger, & Smith, 1985; Smith & Galinsky, 2010). In the current article, we examine power signals within interpersonal communication, exploring whether use of concrete versus abstract language is seen as a signal of power. Because power activates abstraction (e.g., Smith & Trope, 2006), perceivers may expect higher power individuals to speak more abstractly and therefore will infer that speakers who use more abstract language have a higher degree of power. Across a variety of contexts and conversational subjects in 7 experiments, participants perceived respondents as more powerful when they used more abstract language (vs. more concrete language). Abstract language use appears to affect perceived power because it seems to reflect both a willingness to judge and a general style of abstract thinking.

  19. Gps monitoring of the la valette landslide (french alps) with two mono-frequency receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squarzoni, C.; Delacourt, C.; Allemand, P.

    2003-04-01

    In the last years, the Global Positioning System techniques have been more and more employed in landslide monitoring. Here we present an application of the GPS techniques on the La Valette landslide, located in the Ubaye Valley in the southern French Alps. This complex landslide is composed by an upper part affected essentially by rotational mechanism, a central part with a generally translational movement and a lower part, occasionally transforming in mud flow in coincidence with strong rainfall events. Displacement rates are in average of a few centimetres per month and can reach one centimetre per day during spring. GPS data presented in this study have been acquired with a couple of mono-frequency GPS receivers Magellan ProMARK X-CM associated with multipath-resistant antennas and processed with the Magellan post-processing software MSTAR. Nine points have been set in the whole zone, seven of them in the moving area, one in a stable area near the landslide and one on the facing slope, used as reference point. For each measure, one GPS receiver is placed on the base point and the second one is placed on each monitored point for one-hour sessions. The baseline between base and monitored point ranges from 480 and 1660 m. Nine campaigns of measure have been made between October 2000 and October 2002, to follow the evolution of the surface displacements. The GPS results have been compared with the distance-meter measurements achieved on the same site by RTM Service (Restauration des Terrains de Montagne). The velocities obtained by the two methods are similar. The advantage of the GPS technique is the obtention of the real 3D displacement vector. These measurements have been combined with SAR interferometric data in order to derive a 3D map of the deformation.

  20. Small-scale loess landslide monitoring with small baseline subsets interferometric synthetic aperture radar technique-case study of Xingyuan landslide, Shaanxi, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chaoying; Zhang, Qin; He, Yang; Peng, Jianbing; Yang, Chengsheng; Kang, Ya

    2016-04-01

    Small baseline subsets interferometric synthetic aperture radar technique is analyzed to detect and monitor the loess landslide in the southern bank of the Jinghe River, Shaanxi province, China. Aiming to achieve the accurate preslide time-series deformation results over small spatial scale and abrupt temporal deformation loess landslide, digital elevation model error, coherence threshold for phase unwrapping, and quality of unwrapping interferograms must be carefully checked in advance. In this experience, land subsidence accompanying a landslide with the distance <1 km is obtained, which gives a sound precursor for small-scale loess landslide detection. Moreover, the longer and continuous land subsidence has been monitored while deformation starting point for the landslide is successfully inverted, which is key to monitoring the similar loess landslide. In addition, the accelerated landslide deformation from one to two months before the landslide can provide a critical clue to early warning of this kind of landslide.

  1. Climate Change Effects on Shallow Landslide Location, Size, and Frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellugi, D.; McKean, J. A.; Rulli, M.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2011-12-01

    Shallow landslides which typically involve just the soil mantle are influenced by root strength, storm-induced shallow pore pressures, and soil thickness. Field mapping indicates that landslides commonly occur in steep and topographically convergent areas along the soil-bedrock boundary. The susceptibility of a landscape to shallow landslides is controlled by topography and vegetation, while landslide triggering events are mostly related to hydrologic factors such as rainfall total and storm intensity and duration. Climate change can potentially affect both landslide susceptibility and triggering through changes in the hydro-meteorological variables as well as through feedbacks among climate, hydrology and vegetation. Vegetation (and forests in particular) plays an important role through the stabilizing effect of root systems and through its dynamic role on the hydrological cycle. Vegetation type and survival is directly related to climate through temperature and precipitation, and vegetation type could change significantly as some species may not survive while others could be displaced to more favorable locations in response to climate change. In addition, changes in soil moisture can negatively affect forest health by promoting forest disease, insect infestations and fires, and causing significant changes in forest composition. The conversion of forest vegetation to weaker-rooted or sparsely distributed vegetation as well as other disturbances to the forest ecosystem can enhance landslide susceptibility. Assessing the impact of climate change on shallow landsliding is challenging because we are currently unable to predict the size and location of landslides. Under the assumption that landslide location and size are controlled by the spatial structure of pore pressure development, soil depth, and vegetation across the landscape, we adopt a novel search procedure based on graph partitioning techniques to reformulate classical "factor of safety" analysis of a

  2. History and present state of the Slano Blato landslide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logar, J.; Fifer Bizjak, K.; Kočevar, M.; Mikoš, M.; Ribičič, M.; Majes, B.

    2005-06-01

    The Slano Blato landslide is more than 1290m long, 60 to 200m wide and 3 to 11m deep with a volume of about 700000m3. It is located in the Eocene flysch region of western Slovenia with a limestone overthrust in the direct vicinity, above the landslide. The landslide moves mainly as a viscous earth flow with occurrences of rapid mud flows. In dry periods or in freezing conditions it behaves as a group of several slow to moderate landslides. The landslide follows the course of the Grajšček stream and is presently only 220m away from Lokavec village. The landslide was first mentioned about 200 years ago. In 1887 it flowed as a liquid flow and reached and destroyed the main road in the valley 2 km away. The Austro-Hungarian monarchy sent one engineer to the site and 17 years later the slide was remediated with a series of torrential check dams. The monarchy prohibited any construction works in the influence area of the landslide. During the 20th century the region changed from Austrian, Italian, Yugoslav, and finally to Slovenian government in 1991. The relevant Austrian measures and decisions were forgotten during the course of the years, and building permits were issued after the World War II to local people who populated the part of the landslide influence area. Simultaneously, regular maintenance of the excellent past engineering works was neglected. In November 2000 a large landslide of mud and debris was triggered again and it still presents a danger to the relatively new residential houses today. At present, the village is protected against mudflows by a small rockfill dam and by the regulation of the stream bed. In rainy periods removal of mud is necessary to maintain safe conditions for the village. The paper discusses the geological, hydrogeological, hydrological and geotechnical conditions for the occurrence of the Slano Blato landslide. The primary reasons for the Slano blato landslide are the geological and hydrogeological conditions just beneath the

  3. PREDICTING TSUNAMIS GENERATED BY 3D GRANULAR LANDSLIDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, F.; Fritz, H. M.

    2009-12-01

    Landslides can trigger tsunamis with locally high amplitudes and runup, which can cause devastating effects in the near field region such as at Lituya Bay (1958), Papua New Guinea (1998) and Java (2006). Tsunamis generated by granular landslides were studied in the three dimensional NEES tsunami wave basin (TWB) at Oregon State University (OSU) based on the generalized Froude similarity. A novel pneumatic landslide generator was deployed to simulate deformable granular landslides with varying geometry and kinematics. Measurement techniques such as particle image velocimetry (PIV), multiple above and underwater video cameras, multiple acoustic transducer arrays (MTA), as well as resistance wave and runup gauges were applied. The wave generation was characterized by an extremely unsteady three phase flow consisting of the slide granulate, water and air entrained into the flow. The landslide deformation during the impact and the subsequent underwater motion was studied by underwater cameras while the MTA provided the shapes of the slide deposits on the basin bottom. The generated waves depend on determined non-dimensional landslide and water body parameters such as the slide Froude number and relative slide shape at impact, among others. The experimental data was used to obtain predictive equations for the wave amplitudes and time periods based on landslide characteristics at impact. The partition between wave crests and troughs departed from equipartition with wave profiles dominated either by a trough or a crest depending on the source. Attenuation functions of the leading wave crest amplitude, the lateral wave runup on the hill slope, the wave length and the time period were obtained to describe the wave behavior in the near field and to quantify the wave amplitude decay away from the landslide source. The measured wave celerity of the leading wave corresponds well to the theoretical approximation of the solitary wave speed while the trailing waves are considerably

  4. Spatial Distribution of Landslides Triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake: Implications for Landslide Fluvial Mobilization and Earthquake Source Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G.; West, A.; Hilton, R. G.

    2013-12-01

    Assessing the spatial distribution of earthquake-induced landslides is important for quantifying the fluvial evacuation of landslide material [Hovius et al., 2011], for deriving information about earthquake sources [Meunier et al., 2013], and for understanding the role of earthquakes in shaping surface topography and in driving orogen evolution. The 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake is characterized by large magnitude, widespread coseismic landsliding, typical mountainous ridge-and-valley topography of the region, and comprehensive geophysical observation. Previous work on landslides associated with the Wenchuan earthquake has focused on the occurrences of landslide-induced hazards and spatial relations between the landslide locations and the seismic features (i.e., the surface ruptures and the epicenter) [e.g., Dai et al., 2011; Gorum et al., 2011]. Little attention has been paid to how the landslide distribution determines the fluvial mobilization of landslide material or quantitative landslide-earthquake source mechanism inversion, even though the Wenchuan event provides an ideal case study to explore these problems for a larger magnitude earthquake than has yet been considered. We obtained a landslide inventory for the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake using high-resolution remote imagery and a semi-automated mapping algorithm. Here we report the results from spatial and statistical analysis of this landslide map using a digital elevation model (DEM) framework. We present the probability distribution of primary parameters (i.e., slope, aspect, elevation, and area density of all landslides) of the landslide inventory and discuss their relations to regional topographic features (i.e., river channels and mountain ridges). The landslide-river channel connectivity and landslide mobility were estimated using different hillslope-channel transition cutoffs. The landslide density and the probability of slope failure were calculated for all lithological units within the Longmen

  5. UAV-based landslide deformation monitoring - first results from Corvara landslide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiebes, Benni; Tomelleri, Enrico; Mejia-Aguilar, Abraham; Schlögel, Romy; Darvishi, Mehdi; Remondino, Fabio; Toschi, Isabella; Rutzinger, Martin; Zieher, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been more frequently utilised to study geomorphological and natural hazard processes, including gravitational mass movements such as landslides. UAVs can be equipped with different sensors, e.g. photo cameras and laser scanners, and the data that can be achieved can substantially improve the monitoring and understanding of the involved natural processes. One of the main advantages of UAVs is their flexibility that allows for carrying out assessments of large areas in short periods of time and at much lower costs than other platforms, e.g. airplanes or helicopters. Thereby, UAVs represent an interesting technique to complement more traditional monitoring methods. Here we present some first results of the EUREGIO-funded LEMONADE project that is concerned with the combination and integration of novel and traditional landslide monitoring techniques. We carried out a series of UAV flights over a particularly active part of the Corvara landslide and acquired aerial imagery for quantitative assessments of the retrogressive enlargement of the landslide over recent years. Additional field surveys including terrestrial laser scanning, and UAV-based photogrammetry and laser scanning are scheduled for summer 2016. The Corvara landslide is a large complex earthflow in the Italian Dolomites that has been investigated by a wide range of methodologies over the past years. The landslide is characterised by movement patterns of greatly varying magnitude, ranging from annual rates of a few cm to more than 20 m. The current and past monitoring activities concentrated on GPS measurements as well as multi-temporal differential radar interferometry utilising artificial corner reflectors. Thereby, primarily punctual displacement data were achieved and spatial information on topographic and geomorphic changes were consequently sparse. For our photogrammetry study, we utilised a SoLeon octocopter equipped with a Ricoh GR 16.2 Megapixels

  6. Real-time landslide warning during heavy rainfall

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keefer, D.K.; Wilson, R.C.; Mark, R.K.; Brabb, E.E.; Brown, W. M.; Ellen, S.D.; Harp, E.L.; Wieczorek, G.F.; Alger, C.S.; Zatkin, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    A real-time system for issuing warnings of landslides during major storms is being developed for the San Francisco Bay region, California. The system is based on empirical and theoretical relations between rainfall and landslide initiation, geologic determination of areas susceptible to landslides, real-time monitoring of a regional network of telemetering rain gages, and National Weather Service precipitation forecasts. This system was used to issue warnings during the storms of 12 to 21 February 1986, which produced 800 millimeters of rainfall in the region. Although analysis after the storms suggests that modifications and additional developments are needed, the system successfully predicted the times of major landslide events. It could be used as a prototype for systems in other landslide-prone regions.

  7. Probabilistic rainfall thresholds for landslide occurrence using a Bayesian approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berti, M.; Martina, M.; Franceschini, S.; Pignone, S.; Simoni, A.; Pizziolo, M.

    2012-04-01

    Landslide rainfall thresholds are commonly defined as the critical value of two combined variables (e.g. rainfall duration and rainfall intensity) responsible for the occurrence of landslides in a given area. Various methods have been proposed in the literature to predict the rainfall conditions that are likely to trigger landslides, using for instance physically-based models or statistical analysis of historical catalogues. Most of these methods share an implicit deterministic view: the occurrence of landslides can be predicted by comparing the input value (rainfall conditions) with the threshold, and a single output (landslide or no-landslide) is only possible for a given input. In practical applications, however, a deterministic approach is not always applicable. Failure conditions are often achieved with a unique combination of many relevant factors (hydrologic response, weathering, changes in field stress, anthropic activity) and landslide triggering cannot be predicted by rainfall alone. When different outputs (landslide or no-landslide) can be obtained for the same input (rainfall conditions) a deterministic approach is no longer applicable and a probabilistic model is preferable. In this study we propose a new method to evaluate the rainfall thresholds based on Bayes probability. The method is simple, statistically rigorous, and provides a way to define thresholds in complex cases, when conventional approaches become highly subjective. The Bayes theorem is a direct application of conditional probabilities and it allows to computed the conditional probability to have a landslide (A) when a rainfall event of a given magnitude (B) is expected. The fundamental aspect of the Bayes approach is that the landslide probability P(A|B) depends not only on the observed probability of the triggering rainfall P(B|A), but also on the marginal probability of the expected rainfall event P(B). Therefore, both the rainfall that resulted in landslides and the rainfall that not

  8. Hydroacoustic detection of submarine landslides on Kilauea Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplan-Auerbach, Jacqueline; Fox, Christopher G.; Duennebier, Frederick K.

    Landslides produced at the site where lava flows into the ocean at Kilauea volcano have been detected hydroacoustically. Up to 10 landslides per day were detected by a hydrophone on the Hawaii Undersea Geo-Observatory (HUGO), located 50 km south of the entry site. The largest of these landslides, partly subaerial events known as bench collapses, were detected by a network of hydrophones in the eastern Pacific, 5000-7000 km away from the source. The landslides display a characteristic spectral signature easily recognizable among other signals such as earthquake T-phases and anthropogenic noises. The fact that signals are detected at great distances suggests that hydroacoustic detection of landslides could be a powerful tool in tsunami monitoring and modeling efforts.

  9. Deformation Detection of Potential Landslide with InSAR Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuzhou; Liao, Mingsheng; Shi, Xuguo; Zhang, Lu

    2016-08-01

    Influenced by geological and climate conditions, Guide County has been identified as a landslide prone area. Multi-temporal InSAR technique can implement continuous earth surface deformation detection with long time scale and wide geography coverage. In this research, we employ the SBAS method to survey potential landslide in Guide County. Two anomalous deformation regions have been detected by L-band PALSAR stacks. Preliminary correlation between the time series deformation and triggering factors is analyzed to explore the driving mechanism for landslide movement. As a consequence, L-band SAR has a good application potential in landslide monitoring and the results can be the basis for landslide recognizing and early warning.

  10. GIS application on spatial landslide analysis using statistical based models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Biswajeet; Lee, Saro; Buchroithner, Manfred F.

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents the assessment results of spatially based probabilistic three models using Geoinformation Techniques (GIT) for landslide susceptibility analysis at Penang Island in Malaysia. Landslide locations within the study areas were identified by interpreting aerial photographs, satellite images and supported with field surveys. Maps of the topography, soil type, lineaments and land cover were constructed from the spatial data sets. There are ten landslide related factors were extracted from the spatial database and the frequency ratio, fuzzy logic, and bivariate logistic regression coefficients of each factor was computed. Finally, landslide susceptibility maps were drawn for study area using frequency ratios, fuzzy logic and bivariate logistic regression models. For verification, the results of the analyses were compared with actual landslide locations in study area. The verification results show that bivariate logistic regression model provides slightly higher prediction accuracy than the frequency ratio and fuzzy logic models.

  11. Assessing the accuracy of the Second Military Survey for the Doren Landslide (Vorarlberg, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zámolyi, András.; Székely, Balázs; Biszak, Sándor

    2010-05-01

    region, and in the historical map sheets the individual buildings were also mapped, it is possible to match several buildings with their present-day counterparts. We used matched geomorphologic features and buildings for deriving RMSE values, which range around 26 m. Orientation of major scarps and conspicuous geomorphologic features derived from the historic map and on the LiDAR DTM show a good correlation which confirms the long-term existence of these elements. Evidence from field geologic measurements provide the possible link of these elements to structural geologic features. Furthermore there is strong indication for that the landslide had been in a somewhat other state in the 19th century and the scarp retreat rate could have increased in the second half of the 20th century. Kretschmer, I., Dörflinger, J., Wawrick, F. (2004): Österreichische Kartographie. Wiener Schiften zur Geographie und Kartographie - Band 15. Institut für Geographie und Regionalforschung der Universität Wien, Wien. Molnár, G. (2009): Making a georeferenced mosaic of historical map series using constrained polynomial fit. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 11, ISSN 10297006. Timár, G., Molnár, G., Székely, B., Biszak, S., Varga, J., Jankó, A. (2006): Digitized maps of the Habsburg Empire - The map sheets of the second military survey and their georeferenced version. Arcanum, Budapest, 59 p. ISBN 963-7374-33-7

  12. Satellite-rainfall estimation for identification of rainfall thresholds used for landslide/debris flow prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggioni, Viviana; Nikolopoulos, Efthymios I.; Marra, Francesco; Destro, Elisa; Borga, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Rainfall-induced landslides and debris flows pose a significant and widespread hazard, resulting in a large number of casualties and enormous economic damages worldwide. Rainfall thresholds are often used to identify the local or regional rainfall conditions that, when reached or exceeded, are likely to result in landslides or debris flows. Rain gauge data are the typical source of information for the definition of these rainfall thresholds. However, in-situ observations over mountainous areas, where these hazards mainly occur, are very sparse or inexistent. Therefore identification and use of gauge-based rainfall thresholds is impossible in many landslide prone areas over the globe. The vast advancements in satellite-based precipitation estimation over the last couple of decades have lead to the creation of a number of global precipitation datasets at various spatiotemporal resolutions. Although several investigations have shown that these datasets can be associated with considerable uncertainty, they provide the only source of precipitation information over many areas around the globe. Therefore it is important to assess their performance in the context of landslide/debris flow prediction and investigate how we can potentially benefit from the information they provide. In this work, we evaluate the performance of three widely used quasi-global satellite precipitation products (3B42v7, PERSIANN and CMORPH) for the identification of rainfall threshold for landslide/debris flow triggering. Products are available at 0.25deg/3h resolution. The study region is focused over the Upper Adige river basin, northern Italy where a detailed database of more than 400 identified debris flows (during period 2000-2015) and a raingauge network of 95 stations, is available. Rain-gauge based rainfall thresholds are compared against satellite-based thresholds to evaluate strengths and limitations in using satellite precipitation estimates for defining rainfall thresholds. Analysis of

  13. Landslide Buries Valley of the Geysers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Geysers are a rare natural phenomena found only in a few places, such as New Zealand, Iceland, the United States (Yellowstone National Park), and on Russia's far eastern Kamchatka Peninsula. On June 3, 2007, one of these rare geyser fields was severely damaged when a landslide rolled through Russia's Valley of the Geysers. The landslide--a mix of mud, melting snow, trees, and boulders--tore a scar on the land and buried a number of geysers, thermal pools, and waterfalls in the valley. It also blocked the Geyser River, causing a new thermal lake to pool upstream. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this infrared-enhanced image on June 11, 2007, a week after the slide. The image shows the valley, the landslide, and the new thermal lake. Even in mid-June, just days from the start of summer, the landscape is generally covered in snow, though the geologically heated valley is relatively snow free. The tree-covered hills are red (the color of vegetation in this false-color treatment), providing a strong contrast to the aquamarine water and the gray-brown slide. According to the Russian News and Information Agency (RIA) [English language], the slide left a path roughly a kilometer and a half (one mile) long and 200 meters (600 feet) wide. Within hours of the landslide, the water in the new lake inundated a number of additional geysers. The geysers directly buried under the landslide now lie under as much as 60 meters (180 feet) of material, according to RIA reports. It is unlikely that the geysers will be able to force a new opening through this thick layer, adds RIA. Among those directly buried is Pervenets (Firstborn), the first geyser found in the valley, in 1941. Other geysers, such as the Bolshoi (Greater) and Maly (Lesser) Geysers, were silenced when buried by water building up behind the new natural dam. According to Vladimir and Andrei Leonov of the Russian Federation Institute of

  14. The influence of preferential flow on pressure propagation and landslide triggering of the Rocca Pitigliana landslide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Wei; Bogaard, Thom; Bakker, Mark; Berti, Matteo

    2016-12-01

    The fast pore water pressure response to rain events is an important triggering factor for slope instability. The fast pressure response may be caused by preferential flow that bypasses the soil matrix. Currently, most of the hydro-mechanical models simulate pore water pressure using a single-permeability model, which cannot quantify the effects of preferential flow on pressure propagation and landslide triggering. Previous studies showed that a model based on the linear-diffusion equation can simulate the fast pressure propagation in near-saturated landslides such as the Rocca Pitigliana landslide. In such a model, the diffusion coefficient depends on the degree of saturation, which makes it difficult to use the model for predictions. In this study, the influence of preferential flow on pressure propagation and slope stability is investigated with a 1D dual-permeability model coupled with an infinite-slope stability approach. The dual-permeability model uses two modified Darcy-Richards equations to simultaneously simulate the matrix flow and preferential flow in hillslopes. The simulated pressure head is used in an infinite-slope stability analysis to identify the influence of preferential flow on the fast pressure response and landslide triggering. The dual-permeability model simulates the height and arrival of the pressure peak reasonably well. Performance of the dual-permeability model is as good as or better than the linear-diffusion model even though the dual-permeability model is calibrated for two single pulse rain events only, while the linear-diffusion model is calibrated for each rain event separately. In conclusion, the 1D dual-permeability model is a promising tool for landslides under similar conditions.

  15. Cyclic landsliding at Wrightwood, Southern California: a preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Douglas M.; Campbell, Russell H.

    1978-01-01

    Recurring landslide and mudflow events in the Wrightwood area of Southern California are parts of a composite cycle of landslide activity that includes three recognizable stages. The three stages are interdependent, occur in sequence, and are of different duration. Deposits of the first stage--the largest in size--are removed to positions further downstream by the activity of second- and third-stage landslides. First-stage landslides are represented by huge slumped masses derived from steep bedrock slopes in the canyon heads; the material moves down the principal stream drainage, which may be completely filled with debris. Second-stage activity develops as streams cut a network of branching channels into the massive first-stage deposit. The second-stage landslides are chiefly slumps from the older slide mass and from adjacent bedrock slopes. The movement of these slides generally is downslope toward actively eroding drainages. Third-stage activity includes mudflows that accompany the spring melting of snowpack. The debris moves down the stream channels to depositional reaches on major fans. Removal of sufficient amounts of the first-stage landslide mass to the fan by second- and third-stage events resets the bedrock slope of the main drainage for another first-stage event. The first-stage landslides in the Wrightwood area are of prehistoric origin, and their recurrence interval in any one canyon is probably several thousand years. The active duration of a first-stage landslide is one to several thousand years. Second-stage landslides last one to several years and are apparently preceded and triggered by a series of high-precipitation winters. The duration of observed third-stage (spring mudflow) sequences ranges from a few days to as much as six weeks; peak mudflow activity apparently results when a-heavy spring snowmelt occurs during a period of second-stage landslide activity.

  16. Analysis of Landslides Triggered by October 2005, Kashmir Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Irfan; Qureshi, Shahid Nadeem; Tariq, Shahina; Atique, Luqman; Iqbal, Muhammad Farooq

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The October 2005, Kashmir earthquake main event was triggered along the Balakot-Bagh Fault which runs from Bagh to Balakot, and caused more damages in and around these areas. Major landslides were activated during and after the earthquake inflicting large damages in the area, both in terms of infrastructure and casualties. These landslides were mainly attributed to the minimum threshold of the earthquake, geology of the area, climatologic and geomorphologic conditions, mudflows, widening of the roads without stability assessment, and heavy rainfall after the earthquake. These landslides were mainly rock and debris falls. Hattian Bala rock avalanche was largest landslide associated with the earthquake which completely destroyed a village and blocked the valley creating a lake. Discussion: The present study shows that the fault rupture and fault geometry have direct influence on the distribution of landslides and that along the rupture zone a high frequency band of landslides was triggered. There was an increase in number of landslides due to 2005 earthquake and its aftershocks and that most of earthquakes have occurred along faults, rivers and roads. It is observed that the stability of landslide mass is greatly influenced by amplitude, frequency and duration of earthquake induced ground motion. Most of the slope failures along the roads resulted from the alteration of these slopes during widening of the roads, and seepages during the rainy season immediately after the earthquake. Conclusion: Landslides occurred mostly along weakly cemented and indurated rocks, colluvial sand and cemented soils. It is also worth noting that fissures and ground crack which were induced by main and after shock are still present and they pose a major potential threat for future landslides in case of another earthquake activity or under extreme weather conditions. PMID:26366324

  17. Inventory of landslides triggered by the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harp, Edwin L.; Jibson, Randall W.

    1995-01-01

    The 17 January 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake (M=6.7) triggered more than 11,000 landslides over an area of about 10,000 km?. Most of the landslides were concentrated in a 1,000-km? area that includes the Santa Susana Mountains and the mountains north of the Santa Clara River valley. We mapped landslides triggered by the earthquake in the field and from 1:60,000-scale aerial photography provided by the U.S. Air Force and taken the morning of the earthquake; these were subsequently digitized and plotted in a GIS-based format, as shown on the accompanying maps (which also are accessible via Internet). Most of the triggered landslides were shallow (1-5 m), highly disrupted falls and slides in weakly cemented Tertiary to Pleistocene clastic sediment. Average volumes of these types of landslides were less than 1,000 m?, but many had volumes exceeding 100,000 m?. Many of the larger disrupted slides traveled more than 50 m, and a few moved as far as 200 m from the bases of steep parent slopes. Deeper ( >5 m) rotational slumps and block slides numbered in the hundreds, a few of which exceeded 100,000 m? in volume. The largest triggered landslide was a block slide having a volume of 8X10E06 m?. Triggered landslides damaged or destroyed dozens of homes, blocked roads, and damaged oil-field infrastructure. Analysis of landslide distribution with respect to variations in (1) landslide susceptibility and (2) strong shaking recorded by hundreds of instruments will form the basis of a seismic landslide hazard analysis of the Los Angeles area.

  18. Solid discharge and landslide activity at basin scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardizzone, F.; Guzzetti, F.; Iadanza, C.; Rossi, M.; Spizzichino, D.; Trigila, A.

    2012-04-01

    This work presents a preliminary analysis aimed at understanding the relationship between landslide sediment supply and sediment yield at basin scale in central and southern Italy. A database of solid discharge measurements regarding 116 gauging stations, located along the Apennines chain in Italy, has been compiled by investigating the catalogues, named Annali Idrologici, published by Servizio Idrografico e Mareografico Italiano in the period from 1917 to 1997. The database records several information about the 116 gauging stations, and especially reports the sediment yield monthly measurements (103 ton) and the catchments area (km2). These data have been used to calculate the average solid yield and the normalized solid yield for each station in the observation period. The Italian Landslide Inventory (Progetto IFFI) has been used to obtained the size of the landslides, in order to estimate the landslide mobilization rates. The IFFI Project funded by the Italian Government is realized by ISPRA (Italian National Institute for Environmental Protection and Research - Geological Survey of Italy) in partnership with the 21 Regions and Self Governing Provinces. 21 of the 116 gauging stations and the related catchments have been selected on the basis of the length of the solid discharge observation period and excluding the catchments with dams located upstream the stations. The landslides inside the selected catchments have been extracted from the IFFI inventory, calculating the planimetric area of each landslide. Considering both the shallow and deep landslides, the landslide volume has been estimated using an empirical power law relation (landslide area vs. volume). The total landslide volume in the study areas and the average sediment yield measured at the gauging stations have been compared, analysing the behaviour of the basins which drainage towards the Tyrrhenian sea and the basins which drainage towards the Adriatic sea.

  19. MCD for detection of event-based landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondini, A. C.; Chang, K.; Guzzetti, F.

    2011-12-01

    Landslides play an important role in the landscape evolution of mountainous terrain. They also present a socioeconomic problem in terms of risk for people and properties. Landslide inventory maps are not available for many areas affected by slope instabilities, resulting in a lack of primary information for the comprehension of the phenomenon, evaluation of relative landslide statistics, and civil protection operations on large scales. Traditional methods for the preparation of landslide inventory maps are based on the geomorphological interpretation of stereoscopic aerial photography and field surveys. These methods are expensive and time consuming. The exploitation of new remote sensing data, in particular very high resolution (VHR) satellite images, and new dedicated methods present an alternative to the traditional methods and are at the forefront of modern landslide research. Recent studies have showed the possibility to produce accurate landslide maps, reducing the time and resources required for their compilation and systematic update. This paper presents the Multiple Change Detection (MCD) technique, a new method that has shown promising results in landslide mapping. Through supervised or unsupervised classifiers, MCD combines different algorithms of change detection metrics, such as change in Normalized Differential Vegetation Index, spectral angle, principal component analysis, and independent component analysis, and applies them to a multi-temporal set of VHR satellite images to distinguish new landslides from stable areas. MCD has been applied with success in different geographical areas and with different satellite images, suggesting it is a reliable and robust technique. The technique can distinguish old from new landslides and capture runout features. Results of these case studies will be presented in the conference. Also to be presented are new developments of MCD involving the introduction of a priori information on landslide susceptibility within

  20. Land Use Adaptation Strategies Analysis in Landslide Risk Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Ching; Chang, Chin-Hsin; Chen, Ying-Tung

    2013-04-01

    In order to respond to the impact of climate and environmental change on Taiwanese mountain region, this study used GTZ (2004) Risk analysis guidelines to assess the landslide risk for 178 Taiwanese mountain towns. This study used 7 indicators to assess landslide risk, which are rainfall distribution, natural environment vulnerability (e.g., rainfall threshold criterion for debris flow, historical disaster frequency, landslide ratio, and road density), physicality vulnerability (e.g., population density) and socio-economic vulnerability (e.g., population with higher education, death rate and income). The landslide risk map can be obtained by multiplying 7 indicators together and ranking the product. The map had 5 risk ranges, and towns within the range of 4 to 5, which are high landslide risk regions, and have high priority in reducing risk. This study collected the regions with high landslide risk regions and analyzed the difference after Typhoon Morakot (2009). The spatial distribution showed that after significant environmental damage high landslide risk regions moved from central to south Taiwan. The changeable pattern of risk regions pointed out the necessity of updating the risk map periodically. Based on the landslide risk map and the land use investigation data which was provided by the National Land Surveying and Mapping Center in 2007, this study calculated the size of the land use area with landslide disaster risk. According to the above results and discussion, this study can be used to suggest appropriate land use adaptation strategies provided for reducing landslide risk under the impact of climate and environmental change.

  1. Catastrophic landslide induced by Typhoon Morakot, Shiaolin, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsou, Ching-Ying; Feng, Zheng-Yi; Chigira, Masahiro

    2011-04-01

    Typhoon Morakot induced the catastrophic and deadly Shiaolin landslide in southern Taiwan on 9 August 2009, resulting in more than 400 casualties. We undertook a geological and geomorphological investigation with the aim of reconstructing the events leading up to this landslide and to clarify factors that contributed to its development. Cumulative rainfall reached up to 1676.5 mm in about three days under the influence of the typhoon, and the Shiaolin landslide, with a volume of 25 × 10 6 m 3, occurred one day after the peak in rainfall intensity. The landslide occurred on a dip slope overlying late Miocene to early Pliocene sedimentary rocks consisting of silty shale, massive mudstone, and sandstone. It started as a rockslide in the upper third of the landslide area and transformed into a rock avalanche that crossed a series of terraces and displaced or buried the village below. It buried the riverbed of the Chishan River and ran up the opposite slope, creating a landslide dam 60 m high, which was breached about 1 h and 24 min later, flooding the village. The velocity of the landslide is estimated to have been 20.4 to 33.7 m s - 1 and its apparent friction angle was 14°, which indicates its high mobility. The detachments in the source area consist of combinations of bedding planes and joints or faults. The landslide was preceded by gravitational deformation, which appeared as hummocky landforms before the landslide and as buckle folds exposed after the event. The landslide deposits consist of fragments of mudstone, shale, and sandstone, as well as clayey material at its base. This clayey material, consisting of illite, chlorite, quartz, feldspar, and calcite, is assumed to have strongly influenced the long, rapid runout.

  2. Landslide distribution resulting from the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, B. D.; Jibson, R.

    2015-12-01

    Thousands of landslides (predominantly rock slides and rock falls) were triggered as a result of the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake sequence. Given the steep, high relief of the epicentral zones and the widely distributed population of Nepal in these regions, hundreds of fatalities occurred as a direct result of landsliding. Further, roads, hydroelectric plants, and other critical infrastructure were subjected to considerable secondary hazards including highly weakened slopes and inundation from lake impoundments that formed upslope of valley-blocking landslide dams. As part of a humanitarian and scientific mission to Nepal supported by the U.S. Agency for International Development, Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance, we conducted landslide assessments throughout earthquake-affected areas (report available at http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ofr20151142) and, in the process, developed a sense for the overall landslide distribution resulting from the earthquakes. Whereas landslides were abundant near the major earthquake epicenters, few landslides were observed in many steep areas of the country where effects would normally have been expected. For example, although avalanches and ice and rock falls occurred near Mt. Everest, located approximately 220 km from the April 25 epicenter, we noted few landslides in a similar area of steep terrain located 40 km closer to the epicenter. Similarly, although we noted entire mountainsides covered by landslides within 20 km of the mainshock epicenter, we observed many other mountainsides within this same region lacking any indication of ground disturbance. Observations of shattered ridgetops with ridge parallel fractures at several locations indicate that topographically-amplified ground shaking occurred in some areas. This, along with the complex geology and the asymmetric directionality of rupture, could help explain the landslide distribution and thus where hazards are most likely from similar future earthquakes in central Nepal.

  3. Landslides Triggered by the Great Tohoku, Japan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wartman, J.; Dunham, L.; Tiwari, B.; Pradel, D.

    2012-12-01

    Landslides were an important co-seismic feature of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake. Reports indicate that landslides were the direct cause of at least 14 fatalities in the earthquake. Landslides also damaged many buildings, temporarily obstructed transportation networks throughout the region, and blocked the natural flow of rivers. As perhaps the best documented and recorded (> 3,000 strong ground motion stations) major seismic event in history, the Tohoku Earthquake will likely become a benchmark event for landslide research community. We conducted a field reconnaissance of landslides shortly after the earthquake, and later used high resolution satellite imagery to identify slope failures over a 26,000 km2 area located along a portion of Northeastern Japan that roughly coincided with the fault zone. A majority of the landslides were disrupted failures; however, lateral spreading was also an important mode of failure, and overall, contributed more to erosion of the study area than all other landslide modes combined. Disrupted landslides were common in sedimentary units in the steeper terrain portions of the study area. In a large majority of cases, landslides of this type originated at the crest of the slope, suggesting that topographic amplification of the ground motions played a role in their triggering. Lateral spreads primarily occurred in Quaternary units, although lesser fractions were also observed in sedimentary and volcanic units. Nevertheless, when considered in the context of erosion, the effects of lateral spreads were almost entirely limited to Quaternary units. There were relatively few coherent landslides, but owing to their large sizes, those that occurred in developed regions were often highly destructive. In many cases, their initiation was directly related to anthropogenic activities, especially those undertaken for land development.

  4. Investigation of landslide potential parameters on Zonguldak-Ereğli Highway and adverse effects of landslides in the region.

    PubMed

    Can, Eray

    2014-04-01

    Landslides are natural phenomena in the same class of natural disasters as earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, erosion, and volcanic eruptions that adversely affect human lives and property. Owing to their widespread occurrence, landslides are easily visible and able to be partially understood by people witnessing them. Nevertheless, to comprehend the detail of their formation and determine their potential, it is necessary to undertake geodetic, geological, and geophysical measurements in regions prone to landslides. By analyzing these measurements, it is possible to better ascertain those regions predisposed to landslides and thus provide the means to prevent loss of life and property. The city of Zonguldak, situated in the Western Black Sea region of Turkey, has a high occurrence of landslides owing to its harsh topography with rugged and steep slopes and rainfall in almost every season. Furthermore, the diurnal temperature ranging up to 10 °C in all seasons, especially in winter, plays a crucial role in rock disintegration in this region. Other factors damage ground composition and trigger landslides, such as underground mining operations, road construction that collapses rocky hills using explosives, and excavation works in steep terrain for building construction. This study gives a detailed account of the causes and adverse effects of landslides and their parameters through examples of landslide occurrences in the region, together with the results and analyses of two periods of geodetic measurements conducted on the Zonguldak-Ereğli Highway in Ilıksu district.

  5. Grounding Abstractness: Abstract Concepts and the Activation of the Mouth.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Anna M; Zarcone, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools) proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth). While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk) are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts.

  6. Grounding Abstractness: Abstract Concepts and the Activation of the Mouth

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Anna M.; Zarcone, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools) proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth). While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk) are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts. PMID:27777563

  7. Slopeland utilizable limitation classification using landslide inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Shu Fen; Lin, Chao Yuan

    2016-04-01

    In 1976, "Slopeland Conservation and Utilization Act" was promulgated as well as the criteria for slopeland utilization limitation classification (SULC) i.e., average slope, effective soil depth, degree of soil erosion, and parent rock became standardized. Due to the development areas on slope land steadily increased and the extreme rainfall events occurred frequently, the areas affected by landslides also increased year by year. According to the act, the land which damaged by disaster must be categorized to the conservation land and required rehabilitation. Nevertheless, the large-scale disaster on slope land and the limitation of SWCB officers are the constraint of field investigation. Therefore, how to establish the ongoing inspective procedure of post-disaster SULC using remote sensing was essential. A-Li-Shan, Ai-Liao, and Tai-Ma-Li Watershed were selected to be case studies in this project. The spatial data from big data i.e., Digital Elevation Model (DEM), soil map, and satellite images integrated with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) were applied to post-disaster SULC. The collapse and deposition area which delineated by vegetation recovery rate was established landslide inventory of cadastral unit combined with watershed unit. The results were verified with field survey and the accuracy was 97%. The landslide inventory could be an effective reference for sediment disaster investigation and a practical evidence for judgement to expropriation. Finally, the results showed that the ongoing inspective procedure of post-disaster SULC was practicable. From the four criteria, the average slope was the major factor. It was found that the non-uniform slopes, especially derived from cadastral units, often produce significant slope difference and lead to errors of average slope evaluation. Therefore, the Grid-based DEM slope derivation has been recommended as the standard method to calculate the average slope. Others criteria were previously required to classify

  8. Using soil properties as a tool to differentiate landslide generations and constrain their ages - Rogowiec landslide, Sudetes (SW Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacprzak, Andrzej; Migoń, Piotr

    2013-04-01

    The Sudetes, at the border of Poland and the Czech Republic, are generally considered as a mountain range where landslides play a marginal geomorphic role. Only a few larger landslides have been recorded during historical times, mainly on steep valley sides undercut by rivers. Forested slopes, which dominate in the Sudetes, are usually inferred to be stable, except for near-surface bioturbation and localized accelerated surface erosion at sites subject to strong human impact. Large, apparently relict landslides in the Kamienne Mountains, Middle Sudetes, pose a considerable challenge to this view and two interpretations are possible. First, they may be indeed relict, pre-Holocene features that formed under different environmental conditions and have been completely stabilized since the origin. Second, they may be rare components of the contemporary (Holocene) geomorphic system but their frequency of occurrence is low and this is why none has been reported in written or oral records. If the second scenario captures the reality adequately, this would have significant implications for hazard and risk assessment. To address this issue, an extensive soil survey was carried out on the large landslide of Rogowiec, likely of complex flow nature as suggested by landform mapping. The rationale of the study involved an assumption that soil formation time in the area is limited to the Holocene, since harsh periglacial conditions typified the late Pleistocene. 15 soil pits were excavated within landslide terrain and on adjacent reference slopes which do not bear any evident traces of significant displacements. Despite the small area under investigation, the soil profiles are very diverse in terms of depth, horizonation, organic matter content, development of soil structure, as well as the content and lithology of coarse fragments. A great deal of this diversity can be explained by different duration of pedogenesis controlled by geomorphic processes. Very weakly developed soil

  9. Geographic relations of landslide distribution and assessment of landslide hazards in the Blanco, Cibuco, and Coamo basins, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, M.C.; Torres-Sanchez, A. J.

    1996-01-01

    Landslide occurrence is common in mountainous areas of Puerto Rico where mean annual rainfall and the frequency of intense storms are high and hillslopes are steep. Each year, landslides cause extensive damage to property and occasionally result in loss of life. Landslide maps developed from 1:20,000 scale aerial photographs in combination with a computerized geographic information system were used to evaluate the landslide potential in the Blanco, Cibuco, and Coamo Basins of Puerto Rico. These basins, ranging in surface area from 276 to 350 square kilometers, are described in this report. The basins represent a broad range of the climatologic, geographic, and geologic conditions that occur in Puerto Rico. In addition, a variety of landslide types were documented. Rainfall-triggered debris flows, shallow soil slips, and slumps were most abundant. The most important temporal control on landslide occurrence in Puerto Rico is storm rainfall. Forty-one storms triggered widespread landsliding about 1 to 2 times per year during the last three decades. These storms were frequently of 1 to 2 days duration in which, on average, several hundred millimeters of rainfall triggered tens to hundreds of landslides in the central mountains. Most of these storms were tropical disturbances that occurred during the hurricane season of June through November. Land use and the topographic characteristics of hillslope angle, elevation, and aspect are the most important spatial controls governing landslide frequency. Hillslopes in the study area that have been anthropogenically modified, exceed 12 degrees in gradient and about 350 meters in elevation, and face the east-northeast are most prone to landsliding. Bedrock geology and soil order seem less important in the determination of landslide frequency, at least when considered at a generalized level. A rainfall accumulation-duration relation for the triggering of numerous landslides throughout the central mountains, and a set of

  10. Landslides triggered by Hurricane Mitch in Guatemala -- inventory and discussion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bucknam, Robert C.; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Chavarria, Manuel Mota; Godt, Jonathan W.; Tarr, Arthur C.; Bradley, Lee-Ann; Rafferty, Sharon A.; Hancock, Dean; Dart, Richard L.; Johnson, Margo L.

    2001-01-01

    The torrential rains that accompanied Hurricane Mitch in October and November of 1998 triggered thousands of landslides in the moderate to steep terrain bordering the Motagua and Polochic Rivers in eastern Guatemala. Using aerial photographs taken between January and March 2000 we mapped all visible landslides larger than about 15 m in minimum dimension in a study area of 10,000 km2 encompassing twenty 1:50,000-scale topographic map quadrangles. Rainfall from Hurricane Mitch was exceptional because it was geographically widespread, prolonged over a period of about a week, moderate to heavy in intensity, and occurred at the end of the rainy season when the ground already had a high moisture content. As documented in this report, this type of rainfall, on saturated or nearly saturated ground, has the capability to trigger both shallow and deep-seated landslides over a large area. We mapped about 11,500 landslides in the study area. The mapped landslides were of two general types: relatively small, translational and rotational landslides that commonly mobilized into debris flows and covered less than several hectares in area (not including flow paths), and large, commonly translational, landslides that sometimes generated debris flows and covered between 15 ha and 25 ha (not including flow paths). The main concentrations of landslides are on moderate-to-steep hillslopes underlain by diverse geologic units. For the purpose of describing the mapped landslides, we divided the study area into five distinct regions based on differing geologic and geomorphic characteristics. These regions include the upper Polochic valley and surrounding highlands, the central Sierra de las Minas, the hills surrounding La Union and Zacapa, the eastern Sierra de las Minas, and the border region with Honduras. All of these areas received between 200 mm and 600 mm of rain over a 13-day period between October 25 and November 6. The highest rainfall amounts (400 mm to 600 mm) occurred in the

  11. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Denney, R.M.

    1982-07-01

    The Mechanical Engineering Department publishes listings of technical abstracts twice a year to inform readers of the broad range of technical activities in the Department, and to promote an exchange of ideas. Details of the work covered by an abstract may be obtained by contacting the author(s). Overall information about current activities of each of the Department's seven divisions precedes the technical abstracts.

  12. Floristic and vegetation successional processes within landslides in a Mediterranean environment.

    PubMed

    Neto, Carlos; Cardigos, Patrícia; Oliveira, Sérgio Cruz; Zêzere, José Luís

    2017-01-01

    Floristic and vegetation analysis in seven Mediterranean landslides led to the understanding of the successional processes occurring in different landslide disturbed sectors. Our study showed that in landslides that occurred between 1996 and 2010 there is a clear differentiation between the three main landslide sectors (scarp, main body and foot) concerning floristic composition, vegetation structure, floristic richness, successional processes and plant functional type. Additional differences were found between landslide areas and undisturbed agricultural areas adjacent to landslides. In this study 48 floristic relevés were made using a stratified random sampling design. The main landslide body exhibits the highest floristic richness whereas the landslide scarp has the lowest coverage rate and the highest presence of characteristic species from ruderal and strongly perturbed habitats. Finally, the landslide foot shows a late stage in the succession (maquis or pre-forest stage) with a high dominance of vines. We further discuss the importance of landslides as reservoirs of biodiversity especially for Mediterranean orchids.

  13. Are all abstracts created equal??

    PubMed

    Weinert, Clarann

    2010-05-01

    The preparation of a strong, convincing abstract is a necessary professional skill and prized art form for nurse scientists and clinical scholars. The power and the role of an abstract are often overlooked. Abstracts are used in a variety of scholarly forums including articles submitted for publication, research proposals, and responses to "calls for abstracts" for presentations at scientific conferences. The purpose of this article is to emphasize the highlights of the "art" rather than the "cookbook" details associated with preparing an abstract. Each of the critical stages of abstract development is explored-planning, drafting, reviewing, peer reviewing, editing, and packaging. Likewise, a few, hopefully helpful, hints on developing the six key elements-background, purpose, sample, methods, results, and implications-of the scientific abstract are given. Polishing, the essential skill of preparing an abstract, takes time and persistence and will pay off in the long run. The well-crafted abstract is an initial step in the process of getting research and scholarly pursuits noticed and accepted.

  14. History of landslide susceptibility and a chorology of landslide-prone areas in the Western Ghats of Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuriakose, Sekhar L.; Sankar, G.; Muraleedharan, C.

    2009-06-01

    Kerala is the third most densely populated state in India. It is a narrow strip of land, of which 47% is occupied by the most prominent orographic feature of peninsular India, The Western Ghats mountain chain. The highlands of Kerala experience several types of landslides, of which debris flows are the most common. They are called “Urul Pottal” in the local vernacular. The west-facing Western Ghats scarps that runs the entire extent of the mountain system is the most prone physiographic unit for landslides. The highlands of the region experience an annual average rainfall as high as 500 cm through the South-West, North-East and Pre-Monsoon showers. A survey of ancient documents and early news papers indicates a reduced rate of slope instability in the past. The processes leading to landslides were accelerated by anthropogenic disturbances such as deforestation since the early 18th century, terracing and obstruction of ephemeral streams and cultivation of crops lacking capability to add root cohesion in steep slopes. The events have become more destructive given the increasing vulnerability of population and property. Majority of mass movements have occurred in hill slopes >20° along the Western Ghats scarps, the only exception being the coastal cliffs. Studies conducted in the state indicates that prolonged and intense rainfall or more particularly a combination of the two and the resultant pore pressure variations are the most important trigger of landslides. The initiation zone of most of the landslides was typical hollows generally having degraded natural vegetation. A survey of post-landslide investigation and news paper reports enabled the identification of 29 major landslide events in the state. All except one of the 14 districts in the state are prone to landslides. Wayanad and Kozhikode districts are prone to deep seated landslides, while Idukki and Kottayam are prone to shallow landslides.

  15. Surveying perceptions of landslide risk management in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Jessica Ka Yi; Eidsvig, Unni

    2016-04-01

    Enhanced precipitation due to climate change leads to increase in both frequency and intensity of landslides in Norway. A proactive approach to risk management is therefore required to significantly reduce the losses associated with landslides. Opinions and perceptions from practitioners on the performance of landslide risk management can provide insights on areas for improvement in the landslide risk management strategies in Norway. The Risk Management Index (RMI), proposed by Cardona et al. (2004), is a well-established method to measure perceptions of disaster management of selected actors holistically. The RMI is measured based on opinion questionnaires to technical staff, decision-makers, and stakeholders involved in all stages of risk reduction strategies. It is a composite index that considers a wide variety of strategies to manage risks, including structural and non-structural measures, acceptance strategies, disaster management, and risk transfer. The RMI method was modified to be implemented in landslide hazards and to fit with Norwegian conditions. An opinion survey was conducted in autumn 2015 to measure perceptions of landslide risk management in Norway. Perceptions were surveyed for two time periods: 2015 and 2050, and are based on national, county, and municipality levels. Based on the survey results, performance of landslide risk management at any administrative levels in Norway is perceived to improve from `significant' in 2015 to `significant' to `outstanding' in 2050. Knowledge and technology, climate, risk perceptions, and anthropogenic activities are mostly considered by respondents for their 2050 perceptions. Several aspects of landslide risk management in Norway can be improved. For example, landslide hazard evaluation and mapping should be prioritised in Norway. Upgrading, retrofitting, and reconstruction of assets may also be included in the landslide risk reduction strategies. In addition, there should be more focus on inter

  16. Landslides Mapped from LIDAR Imagery, Kitsap County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenna, Jonathan P.; Lidke, David J.; Coe, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Landslides are a recurring problem on hillslopes throughout the Puget Lowland, Washington, but can be difficult to identify in the densely forested terrain. However, digital terrain models of the bare-earth surface derived from LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) data express topographic details sufficiently well to identify landslides. Landslides and escarpments were mapped using LIDAR imagery and field checked (when permissible and accessible) throughout Kitsap County. We relied almost entirely on derivatives of LIDAR data for our mapping, including topographic-contour, slope, and hill-shaded relief maps. Each mapped landslide was assigned a level of 'high' or 'moderate' confidence based on the LIDAR characteristics and on field observations. A total of 231 landslides were identified representing 0.8 percent of the land area of Kitsap County. Shallow debris topples along the coastal bluffs and large (>10,000 m2) landslide complexes are the most common types of landslides. The smallest deposit mapped covers an area of 252 m2, while the largest covers 0.5 km2. Previous mapping efforts that relied solely on field and photogrammetric methods identified only 57 percent of the landslides mapped by LIDAR (61 percent high confidence and 39 percent moderate confidence), although nine landslides previously identified were not mapped during this study. The remaining 43 percent identified using LIDAR have 13 percent high confidence and 87 percent moderate confidence. Coastal areas are especially susceptible to landsliding; 67 percent of the landslide area that we mapped lies within 500 meters of the present coastline. The remaining 33 percent are located along drainages farther inland. The LIDAR data we used for mapping have some limitations including (1) rounding of the interface area between low slope surfaces and vertical faces (that is, along the edges of steep escarpments) which results in scarps being mapped too far headward (one or two meters), (2) incorrect laser

  17. Causes and mechanisms of landslides triggered on foundation soil areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotaru, Ancuta

    2010-05-01

    Landslide research has a big practical meaning, since the disturbance of slopes and landslide triggering cause significant risks in the building development. A large number of inhabited areas are prone to landslide phenomena, due to the accumulation of a series of negative factors. Landslide processes cause direct and indirect damage to the cities, buildings, transport facilities, main pipelines, cause accidents and destruction often accompanied by human casualties. The determination of appropriate places for safe urban development within the community boundaries can be achieved through analysis of the parameters that affect the manifestation and evolution of such phenomena. Systematization of landslide-affected territories is made on the basis of the main criterion - geological structure - and the important characteristics, such as factors of landslide formation and the mechanism of landslide displacement. Geological structure determines types of landslides and the intensity of the landslide process. In spite of the fact that for each slope exist individual peculiarities in the structure, the general features of big groups of slopes must be considered, in order to determine the characteristics of the landslide process. Some peculiarities of geological structure of slopes are the most important for landslide development: form and size of the bodies and conditions of their location with regard to the slope; physical and mechanical characteristics of all rocks comprising the slope; form of contact between the rocks, contact orientation with regard to the slope, presence of fissures and other surfaces of weakening. When a landslide occur all geo-mechanical indexes are degraded because of the presence of groundwater that increases land instability and accelerates the landslide phenomena. Natural surface water and pore water in the soil is not an ideal, incompressible fluid. The fluid shows compressibility due to the microscopic air bubbles dispersed in the water

  18. Landslide susceptibility mapping using a neuro-fuzzy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Choi, J.; Oh, H.

    2009-12-01

    This paper develops and applied an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) based on a geographic information system (GIS) environment using landslide-related factors and location for landslide susceptibility mapping. A neuro-fuzzy system is based on a fuzzy system that is trained by a learning algorithm derived from the neural network theory. The learning procedure operates on local information, and causes only local modifications in the underlying fuzzy system. The study area, Boun, suffered much damage following heavy rain in 1998 and was selected as a suitable site for the evaluation of the frequency and distribution of landslides. Boun is located in the central part of Korea. Landslide-related factors such as slope, soil texture, wood type, lithology, and density of lineament were extracted from topographic, soil, forest, and lineament maps. Landslide locations were identified from interpretation of aerial photographs and field surveys. Landslide-susceptible areas were analyzed by the ANFIS method and mapped using occurrence factors. In particular, we applied various membership functions (MFs) and analysis results were verified using the landslide location data. The predictive maps using triangular, trapezoidal, and polynomial MFs were the best individual MFs for modeling landslide susceptibility maps (84.96% accuracy), proving that ANFIS could be very effective in modeling landslide susceptibility mapping. Various MFs were used in this study, and after verification, the difference in accuracy according to the MFs was small, between 84.81% and 84.96%. The difference was just 0.15% and therefore the choice of MFs was not important in the study. Also, compared with the likelihood ratio model, which showed 84.94%, the accuracy was similar. Thus, the ANFIS could be applied to other study areas with different data and other study methods such as cross-validation. The developed ANFIS learns the if-then rules between landslide-related factors and landslide

  19. Improving Spatial Prediction of Shallow Rainfall-induced Landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, R. L.; Godt, J. W.; Coe, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    The increasing availability of high-resolution topographic surveys has raised the prospect of improved prediction of locations and sizes of shallow, rainfall-induced landslides. However, limitations of distributed slope stability models have hindered the realization of such improvement. Mathematical modeling commonly represents shallow landslides in digital landscapes as uniform slabs using the one-dimensional (1-D) infinite-slope stability analysis. This approach neglects the effects of irregular topography, variable thickness of slope deposits, and other conditions that violate the assumption of laterally constant stress. Model accuracy also decreases as the ratio of slab depth to length increases, or as topographic resolution increases, so that many isolated, small landslides are incorrectly predicted. These effects of variable geometry and depth-to-length ratio contribute to the over-prediction of unstable areas by distributed 1-D slope stability models. Use of 2-D and 3-D methods of slope stability analysis with gridded elevation models accounts for interaction between grid cells and improves the accuracy of predictions of landslide location, size, and shape. Whereas distributed 1-D methods compute factor of safety, F, cell by cell, 2-D and 3-D methods compute composite F values for rows (2-D) or contiguous groups (3-D) of cells. Although 1-D analyses commonly identify clusters of unstable grid cells (F<1) that roughly coincide with mapped shallow landslides, these analyses also identify isolated unstable cells and scattered small groups of unstable cells away from mapped slides. Many of these isolated cells and scattered groups are incorrect because they are supported by adjacent stable cells: 2-D and 3-D methods correctly predict F>1 in most of these non-landslide areas. Further, 2-D and 3-D analyses correctly predict larger landslides in observed landslide areas where 1-D analysis predicts unstable cells interspersed with stable, low F (<1.3) cells. Shallow

  20. Dynamics of the Bingham Canyon mine landslides from long-period and short-period seismic signal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibert, C.; Ekstrom, G.; Stark, C. P.

    2013-12-01

    On April 10, 2013, one of the largest landslides observed in North America occurred at the Bingham Canyon copper mine near Salt Lake City, Utah. Seismic waves recorded by the Global Seismographic Network suggest that two major slope failures occurred: at 03:31UT and at 05:06UT with long-period surface-wave magnitudes of Msw~5.1 and Msw~4.9 respectively. The combined debris of these landslides has been estimated at 150 million tonnes. We used long-period surface wave data to invert for the Landslide Force History (LFH) of each of the two events, allowing us to infer the trajectories of landslide motion and their average dynamic properties [1]. These inferred runout paths are broadly consistent with those deduced from analysis of the landslide scar using air photographs, satellite imagery and differential topographic maps. However, the total mass obtained from the LFH analysis is less consistent: using the observed runout distances for calibration [1], our inversions suggest a total landslide mass 50% less than that reported by the mining company. A further complexity, possibly related, is revealed by analysis of the short-period seismic waves, which indicates that the 05:06UT detection is in fact the composite signal of two distinct landslide seismic sources. Usually, high-frequency (HF, >1Hz) seismic signals generated by landslides are hard to observe because of their strong scattering and attenuation with distance. However, a very dense network of broadband seismic stations exists in the vicinity of the Bingham Canyon mine. Thus, we were able to compare the LFH, long-period and HF seismic signals for both events. Joint analysis of the inverted trajectory and the HF seismic signal recorded at the closest stations shows that, for the first 03:31UT event, a backward movement of the mass center started just after a final burst in the very high-frequency (VHF, >20Hz) signal. After this final burst, a tremor-like signal is observed in the VHF. This tremor-like signal

  1. Landslide susceptibility revealed by LIDAR imagery and historical records, Seattle, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulz, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data were used to visually map landslides, headscarps, and denuded slopes in Seattle, Washington. Four times more landslides were mapped than by previous efforts that used aerial photographs. The mapped landforms (landslides, headscarps, and denuded slopes) were created by many individual landslides. The spatial distribution of mapped landforms and 1308 historical landslides show that historical landslide activity has been concentrated on the mapped landforms, and that most of the landslide activity that created the landforms was prehistoric. Thus, the spatial densities of historical landslides on the landforms provide approximations of the landforms' relative susceptibilities to future landsliding. Historical landslide characteristics appear to be closely related to landform type so relative susceptibilities were determined for landslides with various characteristics. No strong relations were identified between stratigraphy and landslide occurrence; however, landslide characteristics and slope morphology appear to be related to stratigraphic conditions. Human activity is responsible for causing about 80% of historical Seattle landslides. The distribution of mapped landforms and human-caused landslides suggests the probable characteristics of future human-caused